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Sample records for post-radical prostatectomy nerve-sparing

  1. [Nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy].

    PubMed

    Okada, K; Tada, M; Nakano, A; Konno, T

    1988-04-01

    The neuroanatomy of the pelvic space was studied in order to clarify the course of cavernous nerves responsible for erectile function. The cavernous nerves travel along the dorsolateral portion at the base toward the apex of the prostate, then penetrate urogenital diaphragm at the lateral aspect of the membranous urethra. According to the anatomical findings, nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy was performed through the antegrade approach in 28 patients with prostate cancer. No significant surgical complications were encountered in the present series. Of the 28, evaluable cases were limited to 22 in terms of erection. Fifteen patients (68%) recovered their erectile function after nerve-sparing surgery. Therefore, the present surgical technique seems to be effective for the preservation of male sexual function following radical pelvic surgery.

  2. Nerve sparing radical prostatectomy: a different view.

    PubMed

    Geary, E S; Dendinger, T E; Freiha, F S; Stamey, T A

    1995-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction was evaluated in 459 men with prostate cancer before and after radical prostatectomy. Potency was defined as the ability to achieve unassisted intercourse with vaginal penetration. Of the patients 51 were potent postoperatively, including 2 of 187 (1.1%) undergoing surgery without nerve sparing, and 27 of 203 (13.3%) undergoing unilateral and 22 of 69 (31.9%) undergoing bilateral nerve sparing prostatectomy. Less than half of the patients who were sexually active postoperatively were satisfied with the erections or achieved intercourse at least once a month. Postoperative potency was statistically related to the number of neurovascular bundles spared, frequency of intercourse preoperatively, absence of seminal vesicle or lymph node involvement with cancer, absence of postoperative incontinence or strictures, patient age and cancer volume.

  3. Novel anatomical identification of nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy: fascial-sparing radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Huri, Emre

    2014-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy (RP) became a first choice of treatment for prostate cancer after the advance in nerve-sparing techniques. However, the difficult technical details still involved in nerve-sparing RP (nsRP) can invite unwanted complications. Therefore, learning to recognize key anatomical features of the prostate and its surrounding structures is crucial to further improve RP efficacy. Although the anatomical relation between the pelvic nerves and pelvic fascias is still under investigation, this paper characterizes the periprostatic fascias in order to define a novel fascial-sparing approach to RP (fsRP), which will help spare neurovascular bundles. In uroanatomic perspective, it can be stated that nsRP is a functional identification of the surgical technique while fsRP is an anatomic identification as well. The functional and oncological outcomes related to this novel fsRP are also reviewed. PMID:24693527

  4. Effect of Nerve-Sparing Radical Prostatectomy on Urinary Continence in Patients With Preoperative Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to assess whether nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (nsRP) is associated with improved recovery of urinary continence compared to non–nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (nnsRP) in patients with localized prostate cancer and preoperative erectile dysfunction. Methods: A total of 360 patients with organ-confined prostate cancer and an International Index of Erectile Function score of less than 17 were treated with nsRP or nnsRP in Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital. Patients who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy or had a history of prostate-related surgery were excluded. Recovery of urinary continence was assessed at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Postoperative recovery of continence was defined as zero pad usage. The association between nerve-sparing status and urinary continence was assessed by using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses after controlling for known predictive factors. Results: Urinary continence recovered in 279 patients (77.5%) within the mean follow-up period of 22.5 months (range, 6–123 months). Recovery of urinary continence was reported in 74.6% and 86.4% of patients after nnsRP and nsRP, respectively, at 12 months (P=0.022). All groups had comparable perioperative criteria and had no significant preoperative morbidities. Age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and nerve-sparing status were significantly associated with recovery of urinary continence on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.254; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.002–1.478; P=0.026) and nerve-sparing status (HR, 0.713; 95% CI, 0.548–0.929; P=0.012) were independently associated with recovery of urinary continence. Conclusions: nsRP, as compared to nnsRP, improves recovery rates of urinary incontinence and decreases surgical morbidity without compromising pathologic outcomes. PMID:27032560

  5. A matched-pair comparison between bilateral intrafascial and interfascial nerve-sparing techniques in extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Tao; Zhang, Xu; Ma, Xin; Li, Hong-Zhao; Gao, Jiang-Pin; Cai, Wei; Dong, Jun; Chen, Guang-Fu; Wang, Bao-Jun; Shi, Tao-Ping; Song, Er-Lin; Chen, Wei-Hao; Huang, Qing-Bo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the advantages of the intrafascial nerve-sparing technique compared with the interfascial nerve-sparing technique in extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. From March 2010 to August 2011, 65 patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa) underwent bilateral intrafascial nerve-sparing extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. These patients were matched in a 1∶2 ratio to 130 patients with localized PCa who had undergone bilateral interfascial nerve-sparing extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy between January 2008 and August 2011. Operative data and oncological and functional results of both groups were compared. There was no difference in operative data, pathological stages and overall rates of positive surgical margins between the groups. There were 9 and 13 patients lost to follow-up in the intrafascial group and interfascial group, respectively. The intrafascial technique provided earlier recovery of continence at both 3 and 6 months than the interfascial technique. Equal results in terms of continence were found in both groups at 12 months. Better rates of potency at 6 months and 12 months were found in younger patients (age ≤65 years) and overall patients who had undergone the intrafascial nerve-sparing extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Biochemical progression-free survival rates 1 year postoperatively were similar in both groups. Using strict indications, compared with the interfascial nerve-sparing technique, the intrafascial technique provided similar operative outcomes and short-term oncological results, quicker recovery of continence and better potency. The intrafascial nerve-sparing technique is recommended as a preferred approach for young PCa patients who are clinical stages cT1 to cT2a and have normal preoperative potency. PMID:23708458

  6. Preclinical Evidence for the Benefits of Penile Rehabilitation Therapy following Nerve-Sparing Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Albersen, M.; Joniau, S.; Claes, H.; Van Poppel, H.

    2008-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy remains a frequent problem despite the development of nerve-sparing techniques. This erectile dysfunction is believed to be neurogenic, enhanced by hypoxia-induced structural changes which result in additional veno-occlusive dysfunction. Recently, daily use of intracavernous vasoactive substances and oral use of PDE5-inhibitors have been clinically studied for treatment of postprostatectomy erectile dysfunction. Since these studies showed benefits of “penile rehabilitation therapy,” these effects have been studied in a preclinical setting. We reviewed experimental literature on erectile tissue preserving and neuroregenerative treatment strategies, and found that preservation of the erectile tissue by the use of intracavernous nitric oxide donors or vasoactive substances, oral PDE5-inhibitors, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy improved erectile function by antifibrotic effects and preservation of smooth muscle. Furthermore, neuroregenerative strategies using neuroimmunophilin ligands, neurotrophins, growth factors, and stem cell therapy show improved erectile function by preservation of NOS-containing nerve fibers. PMID:18604295

  7. AB023. Penile rehabilitation with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in men after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jiann, Bang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Post-radical prostatectomy (RP) erectile dysfunction (ED) remains a challenge for the urologist. Despite the improvements in surgical technique, ED occurs between 20% and 90% in patients treated with bilateral nerve-sparing RP. Patient factors, cancer selection, type of surgery, surgical techniques, and surgeon factors represent the key significant contributors to erectile function recovery. The aim of a penile rehabilitation program is to preserve the functional smooth-muscle content of the corpus cavernosum during the neuropraxia period. Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are commonly used in rehabilitation programs. In animal models, such an approach could promote erectile function recovery, improve smooth muscle-to-collagen penile ration, reduce penile apoptotic index, preserve penile endothelial function and promote neuroprotection during nerve damage. Despite the strong basic science support from animal studies, discordant results have been reached in humans. The previous randomized trials comparing chronic versus on-demand PDE-5 inhibitors use after RP may be affected by improper patients’ selection in that only men at low risk of postoperative ED were included. These patients would recover erectile function regardless of the type of PDE5 inhibitor administration because of their excellent baseline profile. Prospective, randomized trials have shown a significant benefit of daily PDE5-I administration as compared with placebo in terms of postoperative EF recovery. Patients with intermediate risk of ED after surgery are the best candidates for daily treatment with PDE5 inhibitor after bilateral nerve-sparing RP. The maximal effect of penile rehabilitation may be found in those men with a certain (but not high) degree of systemic and erectile impairment preoperatively. In conclusion, penile rehabilitation could achieve faster and better natural erectile function after RP and should be started as early as possible. Chronic use of PDE5-I may confer the

  8. Athermal early retrograde release of the neurovascular bundle during nerve-sparing robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Geoffrey; Dangle, Pankaj P; Palmer, Kenneth J; Samevedi, Srinivas; Patel, Vipul R

    2009-03-01

    While cancer control is the primary objective of radical prostatectomy, maintenance of sexual function is a priority for the majority of men presenting with prostate cancer. Preservation of the neurovascular bundles is the challenging and critical step of radical prostatectomy with regards to maintenance of potency. The objective of this study is to describe the surgical steps of our hybrid technique: athermal early retrograde release of the neurovascular bundle during nerve-sparing robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. This technique involves releasing the neurovascular bundle in a retrograde direction from the apex toward the base of the prostate, during an antegrade prostatectomy. It is a hybrid of the traditional open and the laparoscopic approaches to nerve sparing. With this approach we are able to clearly delineate the path of the bundle and avoid inadvertently injuring it when controlling the prostatic pedicle. Our hybrid nerve-sparing technique combines aspects of the traditional open anatomical approach with those of the laparoscopic antegrade approach. The benefits of robotic technology allow a retrograde neurovascular bundle dissection to be performed during an antegrade radical prostatectomy. PMID:27628447

  9. Cavernous nerve reconstruction to preserve erectile function following non-nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Chang, David W; Wood, Christopher G; Kroll, Stephen S; Youssef, Adel A; Babaian, Richard J

    2003-03-01

    Erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy for treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer remains a problem that deters many men from seeking surgical treatment. Sparing the cavernous nerves has been popularized as a method of preserving potency, but men with locally advanced disease may be at increased risk for positive margins with this technique. In this study, sural nerve grafting of the cavernous nerve bundles, to preserve postoperative potency while potentially maximizing cancer control, was examined. Thirty men were enrolled in this prospective phase I study and underwent non-nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy performed by one of two protocol surgeons. Preoperative erectile function was assessed both objectively, using a RigiScan (Timm Medical Technologies, Inc., Eden Prairie, Minn.), and subjectively. The cavernous nerves were identified and resected during the operation with the use of an intraoperative mapping device (CaverMap; Alliant Medical Technologies, Norwood, Mass.). Bilateral autologous sural nerve grafting to the cavernous nerve stumps was performed by one of two protocol plastic surgeons. Postoperative erectile dysfunction therapy, using intracorporeal injection, a vacuum pump, and/or oral sildenafil therapy, was instituted 6 weeks after the operation. Spontaneous erectile activity was subjectively and objectively measured every 3 months after the operation. Follow-up periods ranged from 13 to 33 months (mean, 23 months). Overall, 18 of 30 patients (60 percent) demonstrated both objective and subjective evidence of spontaneous erectile activity. Of those 18 men, 13 (72 percent) were able to have intercourse (seven unassisted and six with the aid of sildenafil). No disease or biochemical recurrences have been noted in this group of patients with locally advanced disease. In conclusion, autologous sural nerve grafting after non-nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy is an effective means of preserving spontaneous erectile activity

  10. Impact of penile rehabilitation with low-dose vardenafil on recovery of erectile function in Japanese men following nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Yuzo; Miyake, Hideaki; Chiba, Koji; Fujisawa, Masato

    2014-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a major complication after radical prostatectomy (RP); however, debate continues regarding the efficacy of penile rehabilitation in the recovery of the postoperative erectile function (EF). This study included a total of 103 consecutive sexually active Japanese men with localized prostate cancer undergoing nerve-sparing RP, and analyzed the postoperative EF, focusing on the significance of penile rehabilitation. In this series, 24 and 79 patients underwent bilateral and unilateral nerve-sparing RPs, respectively, and 10 or 20 mg of vardenafil was administered to 35 patients at least once weekly, who agreed to undergo penile rehabilitation. Twelve months after RP, 48 (46.6%) of the 103 patients were judged to have recovered EF sufficient for sexual intercourse without any assistance. The proportion of patients who recovered EF in those undergoing penile rehabilitation (60.0%) was significantly greater than that in those without penile rehabilitation (38.2%). Of several parameters examined, the preoperative International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) score and nerve-sparing procedure were significantly associated with the postoperative EF recovery rates in patients with and without management by penile rehabilitation, respectively. Furthermore, univariate analysis identified the preoperative IIEF-5 score, nerve-sparing procedure and penile rehabilitation as significant predictors of EF recovery, among which the preoperative IIEF-5 score and nerve-sparing procedure appeared to be independently associated with EF recovery. Considering these findings, despite the lack of independent significance, penile rehabilitation with low-dose vardenafil could exert a beneficial effect on EF recovery in Japanese men following nerve-sparing RP. PMID:24994781

  11. Inside-out autologous vein grafts fail to restore erectile function in a rat model of cavernous nerve crush injury after nerve-sparing prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Bessede, T; Moszkowicz, D; Alsaid, B; Zaitouna, M; Diallo, D; Peschaud, F; Benoit, G; Droupy, S

    2015-01-01

    Some autologous tissues can restore erectile function (EF) in rats after a resection of the cavernous nerve (CN). However, a cavernous nerve crush injury (CNCI) better reproduces ED occurring after a nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (RP). The aim was to evaluate the effect on EF of an autologous vein graft after CNCI, compared with an artificial conduit. Five groups of rats were studied: those with CN exposure, exposure+vein, crush, crush+guide and crush+vein. Four weeks after surgery, the EF of rats was assessed by electrical stimulation of the CNs. The intracavernous pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were monitored during stimulations at various frequencies. The main outcome, that is, the rigidity of the erections, was defined as the ICP/MAP ratio. At 10 Hz, the ICP/MAP ratios were 41.8%, 34.7%, 20.9%, 33.9% and 20.5%, respectively. The EF was significantly lower in rats if the CNCI was treated with a vein graft instead of an artificial guide. Contrary to cases of CN resection, autologous vein grafts did not improve EF after CNCI. In terms of clinical use, the study suggests to limit an eventual use of autologous vein grafts to non-nerve-sparing RPs.

  12. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and frozen-section analysis efficiently predict upgrading, upstaging, and extraprostatic extension in patients undergoing nerve-sparing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Roberto; Cozzi, Gabriele; Petralia, Giuseppe; Alessi, Sarah; Renne, Giuseppe; Bottero, Danilo; Brescia, Antonio; Cioffi, Antonio; Cordima, Giovanni; Ferro, Matteo; Matei, Deliu Victor; Mazzoleni, Federica; Musi, Gennaro; Mistretta, Francesco Alessandro; Serino, Alessandro; Tringali, Valeria Maria Lucia; Coman, Ioan; De Cobelli, Ottavio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in predicting upgrading, upstaging, and extraprostatic extension in patients with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). MpMRI may reduce positive surgical margins (PSM) and improve nerve-sparing during robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) for localized prostate cancer PCa. This was a retrospective, monocentric, observational study. We retrieved the records of patients undergoing RARP from January 2012 to December 2013 at our Institution. Inclusion criteria were: PSA <10 ng/mL; clinical stage nerve-sparing RARP. During surgery, the specimen was sent for FSA of the posterolateral aspects. The surgeon, according to the localization scheme provided by the mpMRI, inked the region of the posterolateral aspect of the prostate that had to be submitted to FSA. We evaluated association between clinical features and PSM, upgrading, upstaging, and presence of unfavorable disease. Two hundred fifty-four patients who underwent nerve-sparing RARP were included. PSM rate was 29.13% and 15.75% at FSA and final pathology respectively. Interestingly, the use of FSA reduced PSM rate in pT3 disease (25.81%). Higher PIRADS scores demonstrated to be related to high probability of upgrading and upstaging. This significativity remains even when considering PIRADS 2–3 versus 4 versus 5 and PIRADS 2–3 versus 4–5. Also PSM at FSA were associated with higher probability of upgrading and upstaging. PIRADS score and FSA resulted to be strictly related to grading and staging, thus being able to predict upgrading and/or upstaging at

  13. Comparisons of regular and on-demand regimen of PED5-Is in the treatment of ED after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shi; Tang, Zhuang; Deng, Linghui; Liu, Liangren; Han, Ping; Yang, Lu; Wei, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) have been recommended as first line therapy for erectile dysfunction for patients received nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. We examed the efficiency of PDE5-Is and considered the optimal application. Systematic search of PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library was performed to identify all the studies. We identified 103 studies including 3175 patients, of which 14 were recruited for systematic review. Compared with placebo, PDE5-Is significantly ameliorated the International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function domain score (IIEF) scores (MD 4.89, 95% CI 4.25-5.53, p < 0.001). By network meta-analysis, sildenafil seems to be the most efficiency with a slightly higher rate of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEATs), whereas tadalafil had the lowest TEATs. In terms of IIEF scores, regular regimen was remarkably better than on-demand (MD 3.28, 95% CI 1.67-4.89, p < 0.001). Regular use was not associated with higher proportion of patients suffering TEATs compared with on-demand (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.90-1.16, p = 0.72). Compared with placebo, PDE5-Is manifested significantly improved treatment outcomes. Overall, regular regimen demonstrated statistically pronounced better potency than on-demand. Coupled with the comparable rate of side effects, these findings support the regular delivery procedure to be a cost-effective option for patients. PMID:27611008

  14. A comparison of different oral therapies versus no treatment for erectile dysfunction in 196 radical nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy patients.

    PubMed

    Natali, A; Masieri, L; Lanciotti, M; Giancane, S; Vignolini, G; Carini, M; Serni, S

    2015-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the effects on the erectile function (EF) of no treatment (NT), and an oral therapy (OT; on-demand therapy (OD) or a regimented rehabilitation (RR) program with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is)), in a cohort of 196 consecutive patients following nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy (NSRRP). Patients undergoing bilateral NSRRP (BP; n = 147) and unilateral NSRRP (UP; n = 49), chose between OT (PDE5-Is OD or RR program) and NT. Patients who chose OD therapy received PDE5-Is (100 mg sildenafil, 20 mg tadalafil and vardenafil), whereas patients who chose the RR program received 100 mg sildenafil or 20 mg vardenafil three times a week, or 20 mg tadalafil twice a week at bedtime. The t-test for unpaired data and Fisher test were used for univariate analyses, logistic regression multivariate analysis was used to test the accuracy of available variables to predict EF recovery after radical prostatectomy. Potency rates were significantly correlated with the surgical technique and with OT when compared to NT (P < 0.02), respectively 68.7% for BP (61% with no therapy and 71% with PDE5-Is) and 44% for UP (29% with no therapy and 51% with PDE5-Is), while no statistically significative differences were found between OD and rehabilitation protocols (72% with rehabilitation and 70% with OD therapy in BP, 52% with rehabilitation and 50% with OD therapy in UP; P = NS). Early OT with PDE5-Is (OD or RR program) was superior to NT in recovery of EF in NSRRP. Furthermore, an RR program with PDE5-Is did not appear to be superior to OD therapy. PMID:25056808

  15. Efficacy and safety of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors in treating erectile dysfunction after bilateral nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Cui, Y; Liu, X; Shi, L; Gao, Z

    2016-02-01

    We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors for treating erectile dysfunction (ED) after bilateral nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (BNSRP). A literature review was performed to identify all published randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of PDE5 inhibitors for the treatment of ED after BNSRP. The search included the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. The reference lists of the retrieved studies were also investigated. Six publications involving a total of 1678 patients were used in the analysis, including six RCTs that compared PDE5 inhibitors (tadalafil, sildenafil, avanafil and vardenafil) with placebo. Co-primary efficacy end points: International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) domain score [the standardised mean difference (SMD) = 4.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.87-5.22, P < 0.00001]; successful vaginal penetration (SEP2) [the odds ratio (OR) = 14.87, 95%CI = 4.57-48.37, P < 0.00001]; and successful intercourse (SEP3) (OR = 47, 95%CI = 3-13.98, P < 0.00001) indicated that PDE5 inhibitors was more effective than the placebo. Specific adverse events with PDE5 inhibitors included headache (12.08%), dyspepsia (6.76%) and flushing (6.52%), which were significantly less likely to occur with placebo. This meta-analysis indicates that PDE5 inhibitors to be an effective and well-tolerated treatment for ED after BNSRP.

  16. Comparisons of regular and on-demand regimen of PED5-Is in the treatment of ED after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shi.; Tang, Zhuang; Deng, Linghui; Liu, Liangren; Han, Ping; Yang, Lu; Wei, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) have been recommended as first line therapy for erectile dysfunction for patients received nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. We examed the efficiency of PDE5-Is and considered the optimal application. Systematic search of PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library was performed to identify all the studies. We identified 103 studies including 3175 patients, of which 14 were recruited for systematic review. Compared with placebo, PDE5-Is significantly ameliorated the International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function domain score (IIEF) scores (MD 4.89, 95% CI 4.25–5.53, p < 0.001). By network meta-analysis, sildenafil seems to be the most efficiency with a slightly higher rate of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEATs), whereas tadalafil had the lowest TEATs. In terms of IIEF scores, regular regimen was remarkably better than on-demand (MD 3.28, 95% CI 1.67–4.89, p < 0.001). Regular use was not associated with higher proportion of patients suffering TEATs compared with on-demand (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.90–1.16, p = 0.72). Compared with placebo, PDE5-Is manifested significantly improved treatment outcomes. Overall, regular regimen demonstrated statistically pronounced better potency than on-demand. Coupled with the comparable rate of side effects, these findings support the regular delivery procedure to be a cost-effective option for patients. PMID:27611008

  17. Comparisons of regular and on-demand regimen of PED5-Is in the treatment of ED after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Shi.; Tang, Zhuang; Deng, Linghui; Liu, Liangren; Han, Ping; Yang, Lu; Wei, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) have been recommended as first line therapy for erectile dysfunction for patients received nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. We examed the efficiency of PDE5-Is and considered the optimal application. Systematic search of PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library was performed to identify all the studies. We identified 103 studies including 3175 patients, of which 14 were recruited for systematic review. Compared with placebo, PDE5-Is significantly ameliorated the International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function domain score (IIEF) scores (MD 4.89, 95% CI 4.25–5.53, p < 0.001). By network meta-analysis, sildenafil seems to be the most efficiency with a slightly higher rate of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEATs), whereas tadalafil had the lowest TEATs. In terms of IIEF scores, regular regimen was remarkably better than on-demand (MD 3.28, 95% CI 1.67–4.89, p < 0.001). Regular use was not associated with higher proportion of patients suffering TEATs compared with on-demand (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.90–1.16, p = 0.72). Compared with placebo, PDE5-Is manifested significantly improved treatment outcomes. Overall, regular regimen demonstrated statistically pronounced better potency than on-demand. Coupled with the comparable rate of side effects, these findings support the regular delivery procedure to be a cost-effective option for patients.

  18. Pelvic floor muscle training for erectile dysfunction and climacturia 1 year after nerve sparing radical prostatectomy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Geraerts, I; Van Poppel, H; Devoogdt, N; De Groef, A; Fieuws, S; Van Kampen, M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether patients with persistent erectile dysfunction (ED), minimum 12 months after radical prostatectomy (RP), experienced a better recovery of erectile function (EF) with pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) compared with patients without this intervention. Second, we aimed to investigate the effect of PFMT on climacturia. All patients, who underwent RP, with persistent ED of minimum 1 year post operation were eligible. The treatment group started PFMT immediately at 12 months post operation and the control group started at 15 months after RP. All patients received PFMT during 3 months. The sample size needed to detect with 80% power a 6 points-difference regarding the EF-domain of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), was at least 12 subjects per group. Patients were evaluated using the IIEF and questioned regarding climacturia. Differences between groups at 15 months were evaluated with Mann-Whitney U-test and Fisher's exact test. As a result, the treatment group had a significantly better EF than the control group at 15 months after surgery (P=0.025). Other subdomains of the IIEF remained constant for both groups. The effect of PFMT was maintained during follow-up. At 15 months, a significantly higher percentage of patients in the treatment group showed an improvement regarding climacturia (P=0.004).

  19. Quantifying the natural history of post-radical prostatectomy incontinence using objective pad test data

    PubMed Central

    Smither, Anna R; Guralnick, Michael L; Davis, Nancy B; See, William A

    2007-01-01

    Background Urinary incontinence (UI) following radical prostatectomy is a well-recognized risk of the surgery. In most patients post-operative UI improves over time. To date, there is limited objective, quantitative data on the natural history of the resolution of post-prostatectomy UI. The purpose of this study was to define the natural history of post radical prostatectomy incontinence using an objective quantitative tool, the 1-hour standard pad test. Methods 203 consecutive patients underwent radical prostatectomy by a single surgeon between 03/98 & 08/03. A standardized 1-hour pad test was administered at subsequent postoperative clinic visits. The gram weight of urine loss was recorded and subdivided into four groups defined according to the grams of urine loss: minimal (<1 g), mild (>1, <10 g), moderate (10–50 g) and severe (>50 g). Patients were evaluated: at 2 weeks (catheter removal), 6 weeks, 18 weeks, 30 weeks, 42 weeks and 54 weeks. The data set was analyzed for average urine loss as well as grams of urine loss at each time point, the percentage of patients and the distribution of patients in each category. Results Mean follow up was 118 weeks. The majority of patients experienced incontinence immediately after catheter removal at 2 weeks that gradually improved with time. While continued improvement was noted to 1 year, most patients who achieved continence did so by 18 weeks post-op. Conclusion While the majority of patients experience mild to severe UI immediately following catheter removal, there is a rapid decrease in leaked weight during the first 18 weeks following RRP. Patients continue to improve out to 1 year with greater than 90% having minimal leakage by International Continence Society criteria. PMID:17280607

  20. Intraoperative Frozen Section of the Prostate Reduces the Risk of Positive Margin Whilst Ensuring Nerve Sparing in Patients with Intermediate and High-Risk Prostate Cancer Undergoing Robotic Radical Prostatectomy: First Reported UK Series

    PubMed Central

    Vasdev, Nikhil; Agarwal, Samita; Rai, Bhavan P.; Soosainathan, Arany; Shaw, Gregory; Chang, Sebastian; Prasad, Venkat; Mohan-S, Gowrie; Adshead, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nerve sparing during robotic radical prostatectomy (RRP) considerably improves post-operative potency and urinary continence as long as it does not compromise oncological outcome. Excision of the neurovascular bundle (NVB) is often performed in patients with intermediate and high risk prostate cancer to reduce the risk of positive surgical margin raising the risk of urinary incontinence and impotence. We present the first UK series outcomes of such patients who underwent an intra-operative frozen section (IOFS) analysis of the prostate during RRP allowing nerve sparing. Patients and Methods We prospectively analysed the data of 40 patients who underwent an IOFS during RRP at our centre from November 2012 until November 2014. Our IOFS technique involved whole lateral circumferential analysis of the prostate during RRP with the corresponding neurovascular tissue. An intrafascial nerve spare was performed and the specimen was removed intra-operatively via an extension of the 12 mm Autosuture™ camera port without undocking robotic arms. It was then painted by the surgeon and sprayed with “Ink Aid” prior to frozen section analysis. The corresponding NVB was excised if the histopathologist found a positive surgical margin on frozen section. Results Median time to extract the specimen, wound closure and re-establishment of pneumoperitoneum increased the operative time by 8 min. Median blood loss for IOFS was 130 ± 97 ml vs. 90 ± 72 ml (p = NS). IOFS was not associated with major complications or with blood transfusion. PSM decreased significantly from non-IOFS RRP series of 28.7 to 7.8% (p < 0.05). Intra-operative PSM on the prostate specimen was seen in 8/40 margin analysis (20%) leading to an excision of the contra-lateral nerve bundle. On analysis of the nerve bundle on a paraffin embedded block, 6 nerve bundle matched tumor on the specimen whereas 2 NVB were retrospectively removed unnecessarily in our series. All 40 patients have undetectable PSA

  1. Multiparametric MRI for Recurrent Prostate Cancer Post Radical Prostatectomy and Postradiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The clinical suspicion of local recurrence of prostate cancer (PCa) after radical prostatectomy (RP) and after radiation therapy (RT) is based on the onset of biochemical failure. The aim of this paper was to review the current role of multiparametric-MRI (mp-MRI) in the detection of locoregional recurrence. A systematic literature search using the Medline and Cochrane Library databases was performed from January 1995 up to November 2013. Bibliographies of retrieved and review articles were also examined. Only those articles reporting complete data with clinical relevance for the present review were selected. This review article is divided into two major parts: the first one considers the role of mp-MRI in the detection of PCa local recurrence after RP; the second part provides an insight about the impact of mp-MRI in the depiction of locoregional recurrence after RT (interstitial or external beam). Published data indicate an emerging role for mp-MRI in the detection and localization of locally recurrent PCa both after RP and RT which represents an information of paramount importance to perform focal salvage treatments. PMID:24967355

  2. Prospective comparison of one year follow-up outcomes for the open complete intrafascial retropubic versus interfascial nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Khoder, Wael Y; Waidelich, Raphaela; Buchner, Alexander; Becker, Armin J; Stief, Christian G

    2014-01-01

    Current work provides a prospective direct comparison between Open complete intrafascial-radical-prostatectomy (OIF-RP) and interfascial-RP in all outcomes in single centre series. Both techniques were done prospectively in 430 patients. Inclusion criteria for OIF-RP (n=241 patients) were biopsy Gleason-score ≤6 and PSA ≤10 ng/ml while for interfascial-RP (n=189) were Gleason-score ≤7 and PSA ≤15. The perioperative parameters (e.g. operative time, complications etc.), pathologic results, surgical margins and revisions were reviewed. Pre- and postoperative (3 and 12 months) evaluation of continence and potency was performed. All patients have preoperative IIEF-score of ≥15. Continence was classified as complete (no pads), mild (1-2 pads/day) and incontinence (>2 pads/day). Median patients' age was 63.7 vs. 64.5 years for OIF-RP vs. Interfascial-RP, respectively. Preoperative PSA-level was significantly lower in OIF-RP (5.8 vs. 7.1), otherwise, similar perioperative data in both groups except for more frequent pT3-tumors in interfascial-RP group (18%). No statistical significance regarding continence was observed between OIF-RP vs. Interfascial-RP groups at 3 (82% vs. 85%) and 12 months (98% vs. 96%) postoperatively. Potency rates (IIEF ≥15) after OIF-RP were 96% (≤55 years), 72% (55-65), and 75% (>65 years) at 12 months. The respective rates for interfascial-group were 58%, 61% and 51%. There was an advantage for OIF-RP potency-outcomes without significance over Interfascial-RP in weak potency patients (IIEF=15-18). We conclude that OIF-RP is associated with better functional results without compromising early oncological results compared to interfascial-RP. Complete preservation of periprostatic fasciae provides significantly better postoperative recovery of sexual function even for weak potency patients. Longer follow-up is mandatory to further evaluate the outcome results of this technique.

  3. AB094. High-throughput sequencing of small RNA component of penile in a post-radical prostatectomy model of erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Yajun; Luan, Yang; Zhang, Yan; Li, Hao; Li, Rui; Cui, Kai; Jiang, Hongyang; Li, Mingchao; Wang, Tao; Liu, Jihong

    2016-01-01

    Objective The introduction of nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy represents a milestone in the treatment of prostate cancer. However, a certain percentage of cancer survivors still suffer from erectile dysfunction. Recent research has stated that using PDE 5-inhibitors after radical prostatectomy may lead to biochemical recurrence. This study was performed to identify the expression profile of small RNA in rats with neurogenic erectile dysfunction, and to investigate possible genes and signaling pathways involving in the disease. Methods Neurogenic erectile dysfunction (ED) was induced in male rats by bilateral cavernous nerve crushing injury (BCNI). After 28 days, erectile function was evaluated by cavernous nerve electrostimulation. Masson’s trichrome staining was performed to assess histologic changes. RNA was isolated from the corpus cavernosum (CC) of both control rats and neurogenic ED rats. Small RNA sequencing was conducted using an Illumina Hiseq 2,500/2,000 platform. Candidate small RNAs were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Intracavernous pressure (ICP) was significantly decreased in BCNI group compared with SHAM group. Corporal tissue in the neurogenic ED rats showed a significantly lower smooth muscle/collagen ratio compared with tissue in the SHAM controls. Real time PCR validated that miR-9a-5p, miR-203a-5p, miR-378a-3p and miR-3557-5p were upregulated, and meanwhile miR-3084a-3p was downregulated. Conclusions Small RNA, including microRNA, may play an important role in the regulation of genes in CC and some certain miRs may participate in post-prostatectomy ED. Further studies will be designed to investigate the specific mechanisms of these changes.

  4. High prostatic fascia release or standard nerve sparing? A viewpoint from Columbia University Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Badani, Ketan K

    2008-09-01

    The technique of lateral prostatic fascia nerve sparing has shown improved recovery of sexual function results after robotic prostatectomy. Using strict criteria to identify men with low-risk prostate cancer, this form of nerve preservation can be safely performed without compromising cancer control. PMID:27628258

  5. [Anatomical study of the cavernous nerve in relation to nerve sparing operation].

    PubMed

    Hanawa, K

    1994-08-01

    Recently, nerve sparing radical prostatectomy has became widely considered as the primary goal for maintaining a high standard of quality of life (QOL). However, anatomical localization of the cavernous nerve has not yet been precisely clarified in terms of the terminal end in the corpus cavernous penis distal to the urogenital membrane. Here in attempt to demonstrate the precise localization of the cavernous nerve, in six adult male cadaver. The cavernous nerves ran between the prostatic capsule and the prostatic fascia, through the capsule of the seminal vesicle. The nerves penetrated the membranous urethra at 8 mm from the margin of the urethra at the position of 5 and 7 o'clock. Therefore, the following procedures are critical to achieve successful nerve sparing: 1) meticulous division of the seminal-vesicle, 2) precise separation of the neurovascular bundle between the prostatic capsule and fascia, and 3) the careful transaction of the membranous urethra.

  6. High prostatic fascia release or standard nerve sparing? A viewpoint from the Royal Melbourne Hospital.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Declan G; Costello, Anthony J

    2008-09-01

    Radical prostatectomy with preservation of the neurovascular bundles (NVB) is a treatment option for localised prostate cancer in selected patients. An interesting debate has developed about the precise technique used to preserve these nerves. The standard technique releases the NVB from the postero-lateral groove between the prostate and rectum. A new technique, dubbed the "veil of Aphrodite" technique, proposes a higher release of the lateral prostatic fascia on the presumption that cavernosal nerves exist in this area. We have reviewed the evidence for the anatomical basis of nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy, particularly with respect to the standard versus the "veil" technique of radical prostatectomy. Microdissections of the NVB in cadaveric specimens have confirmed the course of the cavernosal nerves in the postero-lateral groove between the prostate and rectum. Though studies have also demonstrated nerves higher in the lateral prostatic fascia, these are likely to innervate the prostate rather than the cavernosal tissues. Though excellent potency results have been reported for the "veil" technique from one institution, there is not sufficient anatomical evidence to support this technique over the standard technique of nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy. PMID:27628257

  7. FUNCTIONAL AND ANATOMICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CONTINENT AND INCONTINENT MEN POST RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY ON URODYNAMICS AND 3T MRI: A PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Anne P.; Suskind, Anne M.; Neer, Charlene; Hussain, Hero; Montgomery, Jeffrey; Latini, Jerilyn M.; DeLancey, John O

    2014-01-01

    Aims There are competing hypotheses about the etiology of post prostatectomy incontinence (PPI).The purpose of this study was to determine the anatomical and functional differences between men with and without PPI. Methods Case control study of continent and incontinent men after radical prostatectomy who underwent functional and anatomic studies with urodynamics and 3.0 Tesla MRI. All men were at least 12 months post prostatectomy and none had a history of pelvic radiation or any prior surgery for incontinence. Results Baseline demographics, surgical approach and pathology were similar between incontinent (cases) (n=14) and continent (controls) (n=12) men. Among the cases, the average 24 hour pad weight was 400.0 ±176.9 grams with a mean of 2.4 ±0.7 pads per day. Urethral pressure profiles at rest did not significantly differ between groups; however with a Kegel maneuver the rise in urethral pressure was 2.6 fold higher in controls. On MRI, the urethral length was 31–35% shorter and the bladder neck was 28.9 degrees more funneled in cases. There were no differences in levator ani muscle size between groups. There was distortion of the sphincter area in 85.7% of cases and in 16.7% of controls (p=0.001). Conclusions Men with PPI were not able to increase urethral pressure with a Kegel maneuver despite similar resting urethral pressure profiles. Additionally, incontinent men had shorter urethras and were more likely to have distortion of the sphincter area. All suggesting that the sphincter in men with PPI is both diminutive and poorly functional. PMID:24752967

  8. Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Martin, K. Whittle

    1973-01-01

    This paper deals with the indications for prostatectomy; the differential diagnosis of the symptomatology of bladder neck obstruction; and the factors influencing the choice of operation. Some points in the technique of prostatectomy are mentioned. Finally, the method of prostatectomy when obstruction is complicated by stone, diverticulum, or growth is discussed. PMID:4713964

  9. The Evolution and Technique of Nerve-Sparing Retroperitoneal Lymphadenectomy.

    PubMed

    Masterson, Timothy A; Cary, Clint; Rice, Kevin R; Foster, Richard S

    2015-08-01

    The evolution of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection technique and associated template modifications for nonseminomatous germ cell tumors have resulted in significant improvement in the long-term morbidity. Through the preservation of sympathetic nerves via exclusion from or prospective identification within the boundaries of resection, maintenance and recovery of antegrade ejaculation are achieved. Nerve-sparing strategies in early-stage disease are feasible in most patients. Postchemotherapy, select patients can be considered for nerve preservation. This article describes the anatomic and physiologic basis for, indications and technical aspects of, and functional and oncologic outcomes reported after nerve-sparing retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy in testicular cancer. PMID:26216818

  10. Prospective Study Evaluating Postoperative Radiotherapy Plus 2-Year Androgen Suppression for Post-Radical Prostatectomy Patients With Pathologic T3 Disease and/or Positive Surgical Margins

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, Richard Danjoux, Cyril; Gardner, Sandra; Morton, Gerard; Szumacher, Ewa; Loblaw, D. Andrew; Cheung, Patrick; Pearse, Maria

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of a combined approach of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) plus 2-year androgen suppression (AS) for patients with pathologic T3 disease (pT3) and/or positive surgical margins (PSM) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: A total of 78 patients with pT3 and/or PSM after RP were treated with RT plus 2-year AS, as per a pilot, prospective study. Androgen suppression started within 1 month after the completion of RT and consisted of nilutamide for 4 weeks and buserelin acetate depot subcutaneously every 2 months for 2 years. Relapse-free rate, including freedom from prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse, was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate prognostic factors for relapse. Prostate-specific antigen relapse was defined as a PSA rise above 0.2 ng/mL, with two consecutive increases over a minimum of 3 months. Results: The median age was 61 years at the time of RP. The median interval between RP and postoperative RT was 4.2 months. Forty-nine patients had undetectable PSA (<0.2 ng/mL), and 29 had persistently detectable postoperative PSA at the time of the protocol treatment. Median follow-up from RT was 6.4 years. Relapse-free rates at 5 and 7 years were 94.4% and 86.3%, respectively. Survival rates were 96% at 5 years and 93.1% at 7 years. On Cox regression analysis, persistently detectable postoperative PSA and pT3b-T4 were significant predictors for relapse. Conclusion: The combined treatment of postoperative RT plus 2-year AS yielded encouraging results for patients with pT3 and/or PSM and warrants a confirmatory study.

  11. Is sildenafil failure in men after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) due to arterial disease? Penile duplex Doppler findings in 174 men after RRP.

    PubMed

    McCullough, A; Woo, K; Telegrafi, S; Lepor, H

    2002-12-01

    Sildenafil is frequently the first-line treatment for post-radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) erectile dysfunction (ED) with maximum treatment satisfaction rates of 43%-80%. The etiology of erectile dysfunction after RRP has been attributed to psychogenic, vascular, veno- occlusive or nerve injury causes. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the penile duplex Doppler arterial parameters in men with ED after RRP who failed sildenafil. The purpose was to assess whether sildenafil failure after RRP is associated with underlying corporal arterial disease. A total of 174 consecutive men presenting with sildenafil refractory ED after nerve-sparing RRP underwent color duplex penile Doppler evaluation with vasoactive injection. Mean age was 59.6 y and mean time from surgery was 11.6 months. Some 81% (141/174) of the men had no pre-operative ED (PED). Significant differences in penile duplex Doppler parameters for arterial disease were seen between men with and without PED. In men without PED, 19% (27/141) manifested arterial insufficiency. However, in men with PED, 50% (16/33) demonstrated arterial disease. Nerve sparing status did not affect the presence of arterial disease. Sildenafil refractory erectile dysfunction after RRP in men without PED is not predominantly associated with penile Doppler parameters consistent with arterial insufficiency.

  12. Simple prostatectomy

    MedlinePlus

    Prostatectomy - simple; Suprapubic prostatectomy; Retropubic simple prostatectomy; Open prostatectomy; Millen procedure ... prostate and what caused your prostate to grow. Open simple prostatectomy is often used when the prostate ...

  13. Vaginal blood flow after radical hysterectomy with and without nerve sparing. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Pieterse, Q D; Ter Kuile, M M; Deruiter, M C; Trimbos, J B M Z; Kenter, G G; Maas, C P

    2008-01-01

    Radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy (RHL) for cervical cancer causes damage to the autonomic nerves, which are responsible for increased vaginal blood flow during sexual arousal. The aim of the study of which we now report preliminary data was to determine whether a nerve-sparing technique leads to an objectively less disturbed vaginal blood flow response during sexual stimulation. Photoplethysmographic assessment of vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) during sexual stimulation by erotic films was performed. Subjective sexual arousal was assessed after each stimulus. Thirteen women after conventional RHL, 10 women after nerve-sparing RHL, and 14 healthy premenopausal women participated. Data were collected between January and August 2006. The main outcome measure was the logarithmically transformed mean VPA. To detect statistically significant differences in mean VPA levels between the three groups, a univariate analysis of variance was used. Mean VPA differed between the three groups (P= 0.014). The conventional group had a lower vaginal blood flow response than the control group (P= 0.016), which tended also to be lower than that of the nerve-sparing group (P= 0.097). These differences were critically dependent on baseline vaginal blood flow differences between the groups. The conventional group follows a vaginal blood flow pattern similar to postmenopausal women. Conventional RHL is associated with an overall disturbed vaginal blood flow response compared with healthy controls. Because it is not observed to the same extent after nerve-sparing RHL, it seems that the nerve-sparing technique leads to a better overall vaginal blood flow caused by less denervation of the vagina. PMID:17692083

  14. Vattikuti Institute Prostatectomy-Technique in 2012.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Khurshid R; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Menon, Mani

    2012-12-01

    This year marks 12 years of the world's first robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) program, the Vattikuti Institute Prostatectomy (VIP). Experience with more than 7000 cases has helped standardize the operation, minimize complications, and enhance functional outcomes. In this article, we discuss our current technique of VIP including refinements such as Veil of Aphrodite nerve sparing using Harmonic ACE curved shears, high anterior release (super Veil), extended pelvic lymph node dissection, percutaneous suprapubic tube bladder drainage, and barbed suture for the urethrovesical anastomosis. In 2012, incorporation of the GelPoint access platform has the potential to further improve the oncologic performance of VIP, especially in high-risk patients.

  15. AB020. Penile rehabilitation with PDE5 inhibitors in men following radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jiann, Bang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Post-radical prostatectomy (RP) erectile dysfunction (ED) remains a challenge for the urologist. Despite the improvements in surgical technique, ED occurs between 20% and 90% in patients treated with bilateral nerve-sparing RP. Patient factors, cancer selection, type of surgery, surgical techniques, and surgeon factors represent the key significant contributors to erectile function recovery. The aim of a penile rehabilitation program is to preserve the functional smooth-muscle content of the corpus cavernosum during the neuropraxia period. Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are commonly used in rehabilitation programs. In animal models, such an approach could promote erectile function recovery, improve smooth muscle-to-collagen penile ration, reduce penile apoptotic index, preserve penile endothelial function and promote neuroprotection during nerve damage. Despite the strong basic science support from animal studies, discordant results have been reached in humans. The previous randomized trials comparing chronic versus on-demand PDE-5 inhibitors use after RP may be affected by improper patient selection in that only men at low risk of postoperative ED were included. These patients would recover erectile function regardless of the type of PDE5 inhibitor administration because of their excellent baseline profile. Prospective, randomized trials have shown a significant benefit of daily PDE5-I administration as compared with placebo in terms of postoperative EF recovery. Patients with intermediate risk of ED after surgery are the best candidates for daily treatment with PDE5 inhibitor after bilateral nerve-sparing RP. The maximal effect of penile rehabilitation may be found in those men with a certain (but not high) degree of systemic and erectile impairment preoperatively. In conclusion, penile rehabilitation could achieve faster and better natural erectile function after RP and should be started as early as possible. Chronic use of PDE5-I may confer the

  16. Exploring the potential role of neuromodulatory drugs in radical prostatectomy patients.

    PubMed

    Mulhall, John P

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of the nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (RP), potency preservation rates of between 20% and 90% have been reported. It is irrefutable that the nerve-sparing status of an RP is predictive of recovery of erectile function. Bilateral nerve sparing is associated with superior spontaneous and oral therapy-assisted recovery of erectile function compared to unilateral nerve sparing, which in turn is more likely to lead to functional erections than non-nerve-sparing surgery. Neural regeneration is the mechanism by which erectile function improves over time following RP. Although the degree of neural trauma that occurs intraoperatively is a determinant of long-term recovery of neural function, biological factors involved in neural regeneration are likely important determinants of the completeness of neural recovery. Furthermore, these biological factors are likely a major reason for the interindividual variation in recovery of erectile function after this operation. Recently, the development of rat models of cavernous nerve injury has facilitated the study of neuroprotective and neuroregenerative agents. This paper reviews the current knowledge on pharmacological neuromodulation as it pertains to the radical pelvic surgery patient. The animal evidence is highly supportive of such agents' having a positive impact on erectile function recovery after RP. Human trial data are awaited. PMID:19201697

  17. Radical prostatectomy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... prostatectomy - discharge; Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy - discharge; LRP - discharge; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy - discharge ; RALP - discharge; Pelvic lymphadenectomy - ...

  18. Penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy: does it work?

    PubMed Central

    Gandaglia, Giorgio; Suardi, Nazareno; Cucchiara, Vito; Bianchi, Marco; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Roupret, Morgan; Salonia, Andrea; Montorsi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Context Erectile dysfunction (ED) represents one of the most common long-term side effects in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (RP). Objective To analyze the role of penile rehabilitation in the recovery of erectile function (EF) after nerve-sparing RP. Evidence synthesis Penile rehabilitation is defined as the use of any intervention or combination with the goal not only to achieve erections sufficient for satisfactory sexual intercourses, but also to return EF to preoperative levels. The concept of rehabilitation is based on the implementation of protocols aimed at improving oxygenation, preserving endothelial structure, and preventing smooth muscle structural alterations. Nowadays, the most commonly adopted approaches for penile rehabilitation after nerve-sparing RP are represented by the administration of phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is), intracorporeal injection therapy, vacuum erection devices (VED), and the combination of these therapies. Several basic science studies support the rational for the adoption of penile rehabilitation protocols. Particularly, rehabilitation, set as early as possible, seems to be better than leaving the erectile tissues unassisted. On the other hand, results from solid prospective randomized trials finally assessing the long-term beneficial effects of PDE5-Is, intracavernosal injections, or VED on EF recovery after surgery are still lacking. Conclusions Although preclinical evidences support the rationale for penile rehabilitation after nerve-sparing RP, clinical studies reported conflicting results regarding its efficacy on long-term EF recovery. Nowadays, which is the optimal rehabilitation program still represents a matter of debate. PMID:26816818

  19. AB003. Erectile dysfunction (ED) after radical prostatectomy: mile stones in development of rehabilitation strategy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Run; Crigler, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    Radical Prostatectomy is a commonly used treatment modality for localized prostate cancer. The nerve-sparing technique was one of the major break-troughs in the last century with the hope to preserve erectile function. Unfortunately, despite the perfection of nerve-sparing surgery with robot, many men still suffer from erectile dysfunction (ED) as a complication of prostatectomy. In the last two decades, the concept of penile rehabilitation was introduced and many therapeutic approaches have been studied with the aim to promote erectile function recovery. Despite the understanding of the mechanisms and well-established rationale for post-prostatectomy penile rehabilitation, there is still no consensus regarding effective rehabilitation programs. This presentation will provide an overview of the mile stones in basic, translational and clinical research aimed at preserving or promoting erectile function after radical prostatectomy. The contemporary series of trials that assess penile rehabilitation and explore treatment modalities that might play a role in the future will also be analyzed. Although recent trials have shown that most therapies are well-tolerated and aid in some degree on EF recovery, we currently do not have tangible evidence to recommend an irrefutable penile rehabilitation algorithm. However, advancements in research and technology will ultimately create and refine management options for penile rehabilitation.

  20. Efficacy and oncologic safety of nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Ju-Won; Lee, Dong Ock; Lim, Myong Cheol; Seo, Sang-Soo; Chung, Jinsoo; Lee, Sun

    2015-01-01

    Objective A prospective, randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy (NSRH) in preserving bladder function and its oncologic safety in the treatment of cervical cancer. Methods From March 2003 to November 2005, 92 patients with cervical cancer stage IA2 to IIA were randomly assigned for surgical treatment with conventional radical hysterectomy (CRH) or NSRH, and 86 patients finally included in the analysis. Adequacy of nerve sparing, radicality, bladder function, and oncologic safety were assessed by quantifying the nerve fibers in the paracervix, measuring the extent of paracervix and harvested lymph nodes (LNs), urodynamic study (UDS) with International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and 10-year disease-free survival (DFS), respectively. Results There were no differences in clinicopathologic characteristics between two groups. The median number of nerve fiber was 12 (range, 6 to 21) and 30 (range, 17 to 45) in the NSRH and CRH, respectively (p<0.001). The extent of resected paracervix and number of LNs were not different between the two groups. Volume of residual urine and bladder compliance were significantly deteriorated at 12 months after CRH. On the contrary, all parameters of UDS were recovered no later than 3 months after NSRH. Evaluation of the IPSS showed that the frequency of long-term urinary symptom was higher in CRH than in the NSRH group. The median duration before the postvoid residual urine volume became less than 50 mL was 11 days (range, 7 to 26 days) in NSRH group and was 18 days (range, 10 to 85 days) in CRH group (p<0.001). No significant difference was observed in the 10-year DFS between two groups. Conclusion NSRH appears to be effective in preserving bladder function without sacrificing oncologic safety. PMID:25872890

  1. Blunt cavernous nerve injury: A new animal model mimicking postradical prostatectomy neurogenic impotence.

    PubMed

    Karakiewicz, P I; Bazinet, M; Zvara, P; Begin, L R; Brock, G B

    1996-01-01

    Our goal was to develop an animal model of cavernous nerve injury similar to that encountered among patients having undergone a successful nerve sparing radical prostatectomy and to compare patterns of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase staining to quality of erections using the newly developed model. We studied 50 mature Sprague Dawley rats, which were divided into five equal groups. Animals were either observed (sham), underwent an exploratory laparotomy, underwent moderate or severe percussive injury to both cavernous nerves, or underwent ablation of both cavernous nerves. Between 28 and 30 days later, all animals underwent electrostimulation and simultaneous recording of intracavernosal pressure. After sacrifice, penes were harvested and penile tissue NADPH-diaphorase staining pattern was assessed. Severity of cavernous nerve percussive injury and NADPH-diaphorase staining patterns correlated with the quality of recorded erections. This model is a useful experimental tool for research in the field of erectile dysfunction such as is encountered following a successful nerve sparing radical prostatectomy. Penile biopsy assessing NADPH-diaphorase staining may potentially prove to be a useful minimally-invasive diagnostic modality quantifying neurogenic erectile function among patients following radical prostatectomy. PMID:21224162

  2. Morbidity of radical retropubic prostatectomy following previous prostate resection.

    PubMed

    Ramon, J; Rossignol, G; Leandri, P; Gautier, J R

    1994-01-01

    A total of 153 patients with prior prostate surgery underwent a radical retropubic prostatectomy for carcinoma of the prostate. Ninety-seven patients had undergone transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), and 56 patients had undergone suprapubic transvesical prostatectomy (SPP). In 115 patients, the diagnosis of malignancy was made at the time of transurethral resection or enucleation. No perioperative deaths occurred and no patient suffered rectal injury or ureteral transection. Operative time and blood loss were similar between the TURP and SPP groups and were not different in a group of patients who had not had prior prostate surgery. Early and late complications occurred in eight patients (5.2%), of whom seven had had previous TURP. Complete urinary control was achieved in 96% (147) of the patients; stress incontinence was present in 4% (6 patients); and no patient was totally incontinent. Postoperative complications and the occurrence of stress incontinence were not related to the time elapsed between the previous prostate surgery and the radical prostatectomy. Sexual function was preserved in 32 (71%) of the 45 patients in whom we performed a nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy. Residual cancer was found in the radical prostatectomy specimen in 77 (67%) of the stage A patients. Twenty-nine (25%) of the stage A and 13 (34%) of the stage B patients had pathological evidence of disease extension beyond the confined prostate. Follow-up was 6-92 months, with a mean of 32 months. Four patients died of prostatic cancer, two patients died without cancer, and five have evidence of disease progression; 142 (93%) are alive without evidence of disease. Although radical prostatectomy sometimes is more difficult after previous prostate surgery, operative complication rates, patient morbidity, and the opportunity for surgical cure are not different from those seen in patients with no history of previous prostate operations.

  3. Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy after previous cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Lorenzo, Enrique Ian S; Jeong, Wooju; Oh, Cheol Kyu; Yu, Ho Song; Rha, Koon Ho

    2010-01-01

    Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy has become a frequently used alternative treatment option in the management of prostate cancer. As more operations are performed, more challenging patient conditions are encountered, for example those with previous abdominal cancer surgery. We present our experience of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) in patients with previous cancer surgery. Seven patients with a history of previous surgery for malignancy underwent RALP. All the prostatectomies were performed using the da Vinci™ S surgical system by a single surgeon. All operations were approached transperitoneally. We reviewed perioperative data and surgical outcomes retrospectively. The mean age at surgery was 68.43 years (range 63-82). The mean operative time was 214 ± 47.32 min, and the median estimated blood loss was 500 ml (range 200-1,300). The mean hospital stay was 6.57 ± 2.15 days, and the mean duration of catheterization was 8.29 ± 3.09 days. Nerve-sparing procedure and pelvic lymph node dissection were performed in six patients. Rectal injury occurred in one patient who had undergone hemi-colectomy 15 years previously and was resolved by primary closure. Positive surgical margin was found in three patients. Although one patient had an intraoperative rectal injury, RALP in a patient with previous cancer surgery seems to be feasible and safe in experienced hands. PMID:27628634

  4. Intra-operative prostate motion tracking using surface markers for robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteghamatian, Mehdi; Sarkar, Kripasindhu; Pautler, Stephen E.; Chen, Elvis C. S.; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    Radical prostatectomy surgery (RP) is the gold standard for treatment of localized prostate cancer (PCa). Recently, emergence of minimally invasive techniques such as Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (LRP) and Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (RARP) has improved the outcomes for prostatectomy. However, it remains difficult for the surgeons to make informed decisions regarding resection margins and nerve sparing since the location of the tumor within the organ is not usually visible in a laparoscopic view. While MRI enables visualization of the salient structures and cancer foci, its efficacy in LRP is reduced unless it is fused into a stereoscopic view such that homologous structures overlap. Registration of the MRI image and peri-operative ultrasound image using a tracked probe can potentially be exploited to bring the pre-operative information into alignment with the patient coordinate system during the procedure. While doing so, prostate motion needs to be compensated in real-time to synchronize the stereoscopic view with the pre-operative MRI during the prostatectomy procedure. In this study, a point-based stereoscopic tracking technique is investigated to compensate for rigid prostate motion so that the same motion can be applied to the pre-operative images. This method benefits from stereoscopic tracking of the surface markers implanted over the surface of the prostate phantom. The average target registration error using this approach was 3.25+/-1.43mm.

  5. Transurethral prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Holtgrewe, H L

    1995-05-01

    In properly selected patients, TURP has the highest probability of symptom relief of any strategy of BPH management except open prostatectomy, the outcomes of which are but marginally better. However, open prostatectomy suffers from lack of patient acceptance, increased postoperative discomfort, and prolonged hospitalization, factors which over the past six decades relegated it to a minor role in the surgical management of BPH. Given the advanced age and compromised health status of most men undergoing TURP, the procedure's current mortality, morbidity, and long-term complication rates are remarkable. The ultimate role of the emerging alternative strategies of BPH management--hormonal, pharmacologic, thermal, and device discussed elsewhere in this issue, will be dependent upon their durability and their long-term outcomes, which remain to be fully defined. In the meantime, TURP remains the standard against which all new therapies must be measured. The resectoscope is being challenged but is not yet ready for the history books.

  6. Improvement in sexual function after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: A rehabilitation program with involvement of a clinical sexologist

    PubMed Central

    Ströberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To prospectively evaluate if the inclusion of a clinical sexologist in a penile and sexual rehabilitation program improves sexual function one year after prostate cancer surgery. Material and methods Twelve months after da Vinci Radical Prostatectomy (dVRP) for prostate cancer, 28 fully potent (IIEF-5 >21) and sexually active men (ages 47-69 years, mean 61) who, in 2008, were enrolled in a prospectively monitored penile rehabilitation program (reference group) were compared with 79 fully potent (IIEF-5 >21) and sexually active men (ages 45-74 years, mean 61) enrolled in 2009 (study group); whose program differed by the inclusion of evaluation and treatment by a clinical sexologist. Results Twelve months after dVRP, seventeen patients in the reference group (61%) were sexually active with regular penetrating sexual activity compared to sixty-six (84%) in the study group (p = 0.02). These findings were independent of whether they had undergone a nerve sparing or non-nerve sparing procedure. Almost 94% (74 patients) in the study group had at some time been able to perform penetrating sexual activity; 14 patients required additional visits to the clinical sexologist beyond the routine follow-up, 9 for short-term cognitive behavior therapy. Conclusions Inclusion of a clinical sexologist in a penile and sexual rehabilitation program appears to improve the ability to have regular sexual activity with penetrating sex one year after da Vinci Robotic Radical Prostatectomy. PMID:26251748

  7. Sphincter electromyography in patients after radical prostatectomy and cystoprostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Christmas, T J; Nagendran, K; Kirby, R S

    1992-04-01

    Urethral sphincter weakness may occur after major pelvic surgery and urinary incontinence, either temporary or permanent, may result. In order to determine whether the cavernous nerves described by Donker and Walsh carry fibres to the distal urethral sphincter as well as those supplying the corporal bodies, we have studied prospectively the sphincter electromyography in 2 groups of 10 patients: (1) those who had undergone nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy for prostatic carcinoma and (2) those who has undergone radical cystoprostatectomy for bladder carcinoma. This study group was compared with a control group of normal individuals. The results showed significant differences in duration of motor units between the control group and prostatectomy group and between the control group and cystectomy group but no significant difference between the 2 operated groups. There was no significant difference in amplitude of the motor units, the sacral reflex latencies or the pudendal somatosensory evoked potentials between all 3 groups. It was therefore concluded that division of the cavernous nerve of Walsh does not compromise distal urethral sphincter function. Furthermore, radical transabdominal lower urinary tract surgery may induce significant electromyographic changes in the external sphincter which may not be clinically evident. This may potentially affect continence later if second-stage urinary reconstructive surgery is undertaken.

  8. Nightly sildenafil use after radical prostatectomy has adverse effects on urinary convalescence: Results from a randomized trial of nightly vs on-demand dosing regimens

    PubMed Central

    Hyndman, Matthew Eric; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Feng, Zhaoyong; Mettee, Lynda Z.; Su, Li-Ming; Trock, Bruce J.; Pavlovich, Christian P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This is a report on urinary function results from a randomized trial of nightly versus on-demand sildenafil after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (RP), a secondary objective. We analyzed the effects of these sildenafil administration schemes on urinary health-related quality of life after RP. Methods: In total, 100 potent men were equally randomized to nightly and on-demand sildenafil 50 mg after minimally-invasive RP for 1 year. Health-related quality of life questionnaires were administered at various postoperative intervals. Urinary function was assessed using appropriate expanded prostate cancer index composite (EPIC) subscales. Analyses of covariance and linear mixed-effects modeling were used to compare the effects of treatment over time on urinary recovery, controlling for age, nerve-sparing score, and time from surgery. Results: The nightly (n = 50) and on-demand (n = 50) sildenafil groups were well-matched at baseline. Nightly sildenafil patients had worse EPIC urinary bother and urinary irritative/obstructive subscale scores at 3 and 6 months after RP, even after controlling for multiple variables. On mixed-model analyses, the differences between groups for these EPIC subscales (4.9 and 2.5, respectively) were greater than documented thresholds for clinical significance. Increasing nerve-sparing score was associated with improvements in EPIC urinary summary, bother, incontinence, and function scores; time from surgery was associated with improvements in all EPIC urinary health-related quality of life subscales. Conclusions: In this specific population and drug dose, we found that on-demand short-acting phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE5i) dosing may be more effective after RP to maximize early urinary health-related quality of life. In preoperatively potent men, nightly sildenafil 50 mg impaired urinary health-related quality of life more than on-demand use in the early months after nerve-sparing RP, independent of effects on urinary

  9. Penile vascular evaluation and sexual function before and after radical retropubic prostatectomy: 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Dubbelman, Yvette D; Wildhagen, Mark F; Dohle, Gert R

    2008-09-01

    Sexual dysfunction is common after surgery for prostate cancer. The aetiology of changes in sexual potency after radical prostatectomy is probably multifactorial, including neurogenic, vascular and psychosexual factors. A prospective study was designed to investigate haemodynamic and psychosexual changes before and after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) for organ-confined prostate cancer. Penile haemodynamic evaluation and an assessment of sexual excitement were performed preoperatively and 3 months after RRP by colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) with visual erotic stimulation combined with a single intracavernous injection of a mixture of papaverine/phentolamine. Questionnaires on sexual function [International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)], general health and quality of life were sent to the patients preoperative, 3 months and 5 years after operation. Forty-eight men participated in the study. Mean age was 62.6 years (range 55-69). CDU did not show any significant reduction in mean peak systolic flow velocity and mean resistance index. From the men who preoperatively had normal arterial inflow 18% developed arteriogenic insufficiency. Some form of veno-occlusive insufficiency and low resistance indices were already present in the majority of normal potent men preoperatively. Surgical technique did not influence penile arterial blood flow after the operation. Three months and 5 years postoperatively, there was a highly significant reduction in erectile function, intercourse satisfaction, overall satisfaction, orgasmic function and sexual desire. However, with respect to the outcome at 3 months there was a significant improvement of orgasmic function 5 years after operation, especially after a bilateral nerve sparing procedure. Erections sufficient for vaginal penetration (questions 3 and 4 of the IIEF, score >or=8) improved from 2% to 11% 3 months and 5 years after RRP respectively. Total IIEF score was significantly better after a bilateral nerve-sparing

  10. Peri-operative comparison between daVinci-assisted radical prostatectomy and open radical prostatectomy in obese patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Carter Q.; Ho, Khai-Linh V.; Slezak, Jeffrey M.; Blute, Michael L.; Gettman, Matthew T.

    2007-02-01

    Introduction: While the effects of increasing body mass index on prostate cancer epidemiology and surgical approach have recently been studied, its effects on surgical outcomes are less clear. We studied the perioperative outcomes of obese (BMI >= 30) men treated with daVinci-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (DLP) and compared them to those treated with open radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) in a contemporary time frame. Method: After Institutional Review Board approval, we used the Mayo Clinic Radical Prostatectomy database to identify patients who had undergone DLP by a single surgeon and those who had undergone open RRP by a single surgeon between December 2002 and March 2005. Baseline demographics, peri- and post-operative courses, and complications were collected by retrospective chart review, and variables from the two cohorts compared using chi-square method and least-squares method of linear regression where appropriate. Results: 59 patients who had DLP and 76 undergoing RRP were available for study. Baseline demographics were not statistically different between the two cohorts. Although DLP had a significantly lower clinical stage than RRP (p=0.02), pathological stage was not statistically different (p=0.10). Transfusion rates, hospital stay, overall complications, and pathological Gleason were also not significantly different, nor were PSA progression, positive margin rate, or continence at 1 year. After bilateral nerve-sparing, erections suitable for intercourse with or without therapy at 1 year was 88.5% (23/26) for DLP and 61.2% (30/49) for RRP (p=0.01). Follow-up time was similar. Conclusion: For obese patients, DLP appears to have similar perioperative, as well as short-term oncologic and functional outcomes when compared to open RRP.

  11. Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy After Previous Prostate Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tugcu, Volkan; Sahin, Selcuk; Kargi, Taner; Gokhan Seker, Kamil; IlkerComez, Yusuf; IhsanTasci, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Our objective is to clarify the effect of previous transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) or open prostatectomy (OP) on surgical, oncological, and functional outcomes after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Methods: Between August 1, 2009, and March 31, 2013, 380 patients underwent RARP. Of these, 25 patients had undergone surgery for primary bladder outlet obstruction (TURP, 20 patients; OP, 5 patents) (group 1). A match-paired analysis was performed to identify 36 patients without a history of prostate surgery with equivalent clinicopathologic characteristics to serve as a control group (group 2). Patients followed up for 12 months were assessed. Results: Both groups were similar with respect to preoperative characteristics, as mean age, body mass index, median prostate-specific antigen, prostate volume, clinical stage, the biopsy Gleason score, D'Amico risk, the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification score, the International Prostate Symptom Score, continence, and potency status. RARP resulted in longer console and anastomotic time, as well as higher blood loss compared with surgery-naive patients. We noted a greater rate of urinary leakage (pelvic drainage, >4 d) in group 1 (12% vs 2,8%). The anastomotic stricture rate was significantly higher in group 1 (16% vs 2.8%). No difference was found in the pathologic stage, positive surgical margin, and nerve-sparing procedure between the groups. Biochemical recurrence was observed in 12% (group 1) and 11.1% (group 2) of patients, respectively. No significant difference was found in the continence and potency rates. Conclusions: RARP after TURP or OP is a challenging but oncologically promising procedure with a longer console and anastomosis time, as well as higher blood loss and higher anastomotic stricture rate. PMID:26648678

  12. Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy vs. Open Retropubic Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiu-Wu; Cui, Xin-Ming; Teng, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Dong-Xu; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Qu, Fa-Jun; Gao, Yi; Cui, Xin-Gang; Xu, Dan-Feng

    2015-12-01

    Open retropubic radical prostatectomy (ORP) remains the "gold standard" for surgical treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa). Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is a robotic surgery used worldwide. The aim of this study is to collect the data available in the literature on RARP and ORP, and further evaluate the overall safety and efficacy of RARP vs. ORP for the treatment of clinically localized PCa. A literature search was performed using electronic databases between January 2009 and October 2013. Clinical data such as operation duration, transfusion rate, positive surgical margins (PSM), nerve sparing, 3- and 12-month urinary continence, and potency were pooled to carry out meta-analysis. Six studies were enrolled for this meta-analysis. The operation duration of RARP group was longer than that of ORP group (weighted mean difference = 64.84). There was no statistically significant difference in the transfusion rate, PSM rate, and between RARP and ORP (transfusion rate, OR = 0.30; PSM rate, OR = 0.94). No significant difference was seen in 3- and 12-month urinary continence recovery (3 months, OR = 1.32; 12 months, OR = 1.30). There was a statistically significant difference in potency between the 3- and 12-month groups (3 months, OR = 2.80; 12 months, OR = 1.70). RARP is a safe and feasible surgical technique for the treatment of clinically localized PCa owing to the advantages of fewer perioperative complications and quicker patency recovery.

  13. Impact of Obesity on Early Erectile Function Recovery after Robotic Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective: Studies are limited regarding the impact of obesity on early erectile functional outcomes after robotic radical prostatectomy. Our goal was to determine this impact using patient-reported validated questionnaires. Methods: International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-6) scores were prospectively collected with institutional review board approval, for patients who underwent robotic radical prostatectomy with bilateral nerve sparing from February 2007 to October 2009. The data were categorized into nonobese and obese groups and subsequently into 2 subgroups based on risk for postprostatectomy erectile dysfunction. Low risk is preoperative IIEF-6 ≥19 and high risk is IIEF-6 <19. The groups and subgroups were compared using chi-square analysis. Results: Of 190 consecutive patients, 67 were excluded for preoperative severe erectile dysfunction (IIEF-6 <7), or lack of IIEF-6 scores, or both. There were 69 nonobese patients of which 88% were potent preoperatively and 20% regained potency at 12 months postoperatively. Of 54 obese patients, 85% were potent preoperatively and 25% at 12 months. There was no difference in erectile function recovery rates between the groups (P=0.755). In both groups, patients with low risk of postoperative erectile dysfunction had statistically similar postoperative mean IIEF-6 scores at 6 and 12 months (P=0.580 and P=0.389, respectively), and no difference in erectile function recovery rates existed at 12 months (P=0.735). Conclusion: Obesity has no major contribution to the rate of early erectile function recovery after robotic radical prostatectomy. Preoperative erectile function remains the determining factor in postradical prostatectomy erectile dysfunction. PMID:21902939

  14. Prevention and management of post prostatectomy erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Salonia, Andrea; Castagna, Giulia; Capogrosso, Paolo; Castiglione, Fabio; Briganti, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is common in patients with prostate cancer (PC) following radical prostatectomy (RP). Review the available literature concerning prevention and management strategies for post-RP erectile function (EF) impairment in terms of preoperative patient characteristics, intra and postoperative factors that may influence EF recovery, and postoperative treatments for erectile dysfunction (ED). A literature search was performed using Google and PubMed database for English-language original and review articles, either published or e-published up to July 2013. The literature still demonstrates a great inconsistency in the definition of what is considered normal EF both before and after RP. Thus, using validated psychometric instruments with recognized cut-offs for normalcy and severity during the pre- and post-operative evaluation should be routinely considered. Therefore, a comprehensive discussion with the patient about the true prevalence of postoperative ED, the concept of spontaneous or pharmacologically-assisted erections, and the difference between “back to baseline” EF and “erections adequate enough to have successful intercourse” clearly emerge as key issues in the eventual understanding of post-RP ED prevention and promotion of satisfactory EF recovery. Patient factors (including age, baseline EF, comorbid conditions status), cancer selection (non- vs. uni- vs. bilateral nerve-sparing), type of surgery (i.e., intra vs. inter vs. extrafascial surgeries), surgical techniques (i.e., open, laparoscopic and robotically-assisted RP), and surgeon factors (i.e., surgical volume and surgical skill) represent the key significant contributors to EF recovery. A number of preclinical and clinical data show that rehabilitation and treatment in due time are undoubtedly better than leaving the erectile tissue to its unassisted postoperative fate. The role of postoperative ED treatment for those patients who received a non-nerve-sparing RP was also

  15. Prevention and management of post prostatectomy erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Salonia, Andrea; Castagna, Giulia; Capogrosso, Paolo; Castiglione, Fabio; Briganti, Alberto; Montorsi, Francesco

    2015-08-01

    Sexual dysfunction is common in patients with prostate cancer (PC) following radical prostatectomy (RP). Review the available literature concerning prevention and management strategies for post-RP erectile function (EF) impairment in terms of preoperative patient characteristics, intra and postoperative factors that may influence EF recovery, and postoperative treatments for erectile dysfunction (ED). A literature search was performed using Google and PubMed database for English-language original and review articles, either published or e-published up to July 2013. The literature still demonstrates a great inconsistency in the definition of what is considered normal EF both before and after RP. Thus, using validated psychometric instruments with recognized cut-offs for normalcy and severity during the pre- and post-operative evaluation should be routinely considered. Therefore, a comprehensive discussion with the patient about the true prevalence of postoperative ED, the concept of spontaneous or pharmacologically-assisted erections, and the difference between "back to baseline" EF and "erections adequate enough to have successful intercourse" clearly emerge as key issues in the eventual understanding of post-RP ED prevention and promotion of satisfactory EF recovery. Patient factors (including age, baseline EF, comorbid conditions status), cancer selection (non- vs. uni- vs. bilateral nerve-sparing), type of surgery (i.e., intra vs. inter vs. extrafascial surgeries), surgical techniques (i.e., open, laparoscopic and robotically-assisted RP), and surgeon factors (i.e., surgical volume and surgical skill) represent the key significant contributors to EF recovery. A number of preclinical and clinical data show that rehabilitation and treatment in due time are undoubtedly better than leaving the erectile tissue to its unassisted postoperative fate. The role of postoperative ED treatment for those patients who received a non-nerve-sparing RP was also extensively

  16. Predictors of early continence following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lavigueur-Blouin, Hugo; Noriega, Alina Camacho; Valdivieso, Roger; Hueber, Pierre-Alain; Bienz, Marc; Alhathal, Naif; Latour, Mathieu; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; El-Hakim, Assaad; Zorn, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Functional outcomes after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) greatly influence patient quality of life. Data regarding predictors of early continence, especially 1 month following RARP, are limited. Previous reports mainly address immediate or 3-month postoperative continence rates. We examine preoperative predictors of pad-free continence recovery at the first follow-up visit 1 month after RARP. Methods: Between January 2007 and January 2013, preoperative and follow-up data were prospectively collected for 327 RARP patients operated on by 2 fellowship-trained surgeons (AEH and KCZ). Patient and operative characteristics included age, body mass index (BMI), staging, preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate weight, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) score and type of nerve-sparing performed. Continence was defined by 0-pad usage at 1 month follow-up. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess for predictors of early continence. Results: Overall, 44% of patients were pad-free 1 month post-RARP. In multivariate regression analysis, age (odds ratio [OR] 0.946, confidence interval [CI] 95%: 0.91, 0.98) and IPSS (OR: 0.953, CI 95%: 0.92, 0.99) were independent predictors of urinary continence 1 month following RARP. Other variables (BMI, staging, preoperative PSA, SHIM score, prostate weight and type of nerve-sparing) were not statistically significant predictors of early continence. Limitations of this study include missing data for comorbidities, patient use of pelvic floor exercises and patient maximal activity. Moreover, patient-reported continence using a 0-pad usage definition represents a semiquantitative and subjective measurement. Conclusion: In a broad population of patients who underwent RARP at our institution, 44% of patients were pad-free at 1 month. Age and IPSS were independent predictors of early continence after surgery. Men of advanced

  17. Prevention and management of post prostatectomy erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Salonia, Andrea; Castagna, Giulia; Capogrosso, Paolo; Castiglione, Fabio; Briganti, Alberto; Montorsi, Francesco

    2015-08-01

    Sexual dysfunction is common in patients with prostate cancer (PC) following radical prostatectomy (RP). Review the available literature concerning prevention and management strategies for post-RP erectile function (EF) impairment in terms of preoperative patient characteristics, intra and postoperative factors that may influence EF recovery, and postoperative treatments for erectile dysfunction (ED). A literature search was performed using Google and PubMed database for English-language original and review articles, either published or e-published up to July 2013. The literature still demonstrates a great inconsistency in the definition of what is considered normal EF both before and after RP. Thus, using validated psychometric instruments with recognized cut-offs for normalcy and severity during the pre- and post-operative evaluation should be routinely considered. Therefore, a comprehensive discussion with the patient about the true prevalence of postoperative ED, the concept of spontaneous or pharmacologically-assisted erections, and the difference between "back to baseline" EF and "erections adequate enough to have successful intercourse" clearly emerge as key issues in the eventual understanding of post-RP ED prevention and promotion of satisfactory EF recovery. Patient factors (including age, baseline EF, comorbid conditions status), cancer selection (non- vs. uni- vs. bilateral nerve-sparing), type of surgery (i.e., intra vs. inter vs. extrafascial surgeries), surgical techniques (i.e., open, laparoscopic and robotically-assisted RP), and surgeon factors (i.e., surgical volume and surgical skill) represent the key significant contributors to EF recovery. A number of preclinical and clinical data show that rehabilitation and treatment in due time are undoubtedly better than leaving the erectile tissue to its unassisted postoperative fate. The role of postoperative ED treatment for those patients who received a non-nerve-sparing RP was also extensively

  18. Natural orifice transendoluminal surgery and laparoendoscopic single-site surgery: the future of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Barret, Eric; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Ercolani, Matthew C; Rozet, Francois; Galiano, Marc; Cathelineau, Xavier

    2011-03-01

    Techniques for minimally invasive radical prostatectomy (RP) have been carefully reviewed by surgical teams worldwide in order to identify possible weaknesses and facilitate further improvement in their overall performance. The initial plan of action has been to carefully study the best-practice techniques for open RP in order to reproduce and standardize performance from the laparoscopic perspective. Similar to open surgery, the learning curve of minimally invasive RP has been well documented in terms of objective evaluation of outcomes for cancer control and functional results. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) have recently gained momentum as feasible techniques for minimal access urological surgery. NOTES-LESS drastically limit the surgeon's ability to choose the site of entry for operative instruments; therefore, the advantages of NOTES-LESS are gained with the understanding that the surgical procedure is more technically challenging. There are several key elements in RP techniques (in particular, dorsal vein control, apex exposure and cavernosal nerve sparing) that can have significant implications on oncologic and functional results. These steps are hard to perform in a limited working field. LESS radical prostatectomy can clearly be facilitated by using robotic technology.

  19. Radical retropubic prostatectomy: the influence of accessory pudendal arteries on the recovery of sexual function.

    PubMed

    Polascik, T J; Walsh, P C

    1995-07-01

    Arterial insufficiency is a major factor responsible for impotence in men following nerve sparing radical prostatectomy. Previously, accessory internal pudendal arteries have been identified traveling over the anterolateral surface of the prostate. Based on this observation, during the last 7 years we have consistently looked for the presence of these arteries and have developed a surgical technique for their preservation. Between 1987 and 1994, 835 potent men underwent radical prostatectomy and accessory pudendal arteries were identified in 33 (4%). Following the development of the surgical technique, it was possible to preserve arteries in 19 of 24 patients (79%). Followup evaluation of 1 year or longer was available for 22 men who did not undergo wide excision of a neurovascular bundle. Recovery of erection sufficient for unassisted intromission and orgasm occurred in 8 of 12 patients (67%) in whom the arteries were preserved and in 5 of 10 (50%) in whom the arteries were sacrificed. We conclude that 1) the presence of accessory internal pudendal arteries is rare (4%); 2) although these arteries were preserved in 79% of the patients, dissection of these arteries from the dorsal vein complex may be associated with excessive bleeding, and 3) because potency rates are similar in men with or without preservation of accessory arteries, routine preservation may not be productive.

  20. Retzius-sparing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: Critical appraisal of the anatomic landmarks for a complete intrafascial approach.

    PubMed

    Asimakopoulos, Anastasios D; Miano, Roberto; Galfano, Antonio; Bocciardi, Aldo Massimo; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Spera, Enrico; Gaston, Richard

    2015-10-01

    To provide an overview of the anatomical landmarks needed to guide a retropubic (Retzius)-sparing robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), and a step-by-step description of the surgical technique that maximizes preservation of the periprostatic neural network. The anatomy of the pelvic fossae is presented, including the recto-vesical pouch (pouch of Douglas) created by the reflections of the peritoneum. The actual technique of the trans-Douglas, intrafascial nerve-sparing robotic radical prostatectomy is described. The technique allows the prostate gland to be shelled out from under the overlying detrusor apron and dorsal vascular complex (DVC-Santorini plexus), entirely avoiding the pubovesical ligaments. There is no need to control the DVC, since the line of dissection passes beneath the plexus. Three key points to ensure enhanced nerve preservation should be respected: (1) the tips of the seminal vesicles, enclosed in a "cage" of neuronal tissue; a seminal vesicle-sparing technique is therefore advised when oncologically safe; (2) the external prostate-vesicular angle; (3) the lateral surface of the prostate gland and the apex. The principles of tension and energy-free dissection should guide all the maneuvers in order to minimize neuropathy. Using robotic technology, a complete intrafascial dissection of the prostate gland can be achieved through the Douglas space, reducing surgical trauma and providing excellent functional and oncological outcomes.

  1. Prospective evaluation of early postoperative male and female sexual function after radical prostatectomy with erectile nerves preservation.

    PubMed

    Tran, S-N; Wirth, G J; Mayor, G; Rollini, C; Bianchi-Demicheli, F; Iselin, C E

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer screening has led to the diagnosis of localized prostate cancer in increasingly young and sexually active men. Accordingly, the impact of cancer treatment on sexual function is gaining more attention. To prospectively evaluate the impact of radical prostatectomy (RP) on male, female and conjugal sexual function. Patients were prospectively assessed by an urologist and a sexologist before and 6 months after robot-assisted laparoscopic RP (RALP). RALP was performed with uni- or bilateral neurovascular bundle preservation by a single surgeon. Postoperatively, all patients were prescribed tadalafil 20 mg, 3 times a week during 6 months. Male and female sexual functions were evaluated by using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5), the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the Lock-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test (MAT). Continuous variables were analyzed with rank-sum and t-tests, as needed, and categorical variables with chi-squared tests. All tests were two-sided, with a P-value ⩽ 0.05 considered significant. Twenty-one couples were included. Mean patient male and female age was 62.4 and 60.7 years, respectively. Bilateral nerve sparing was performed in 12/21 (57%) patients. Median preoperative IIEF-5 was 20/25, corresponding to mild erectile dysfunction (ED). Median preoperative FSFI and MAT were both within normal range (28/36 and 114/158, respectively). Six months following surgery, both IIEF-5 (11/25) and FSFI (25/36) had significantly dropped (P=0.007 and 0.003, respectively). Postoperative decreases in IIEF-5 and FSFI scores were associated within couples. MAT scores (115/158), however, remained unaffected by RALP, showing an unmodified relationship satisfaction postoperatively. Finally, bilateral nerve sparing surgery preserved not only male but also female sexual function. This study shows that the expected short-term post-RALP ED is associated with a worsening of female sexual function, whereas nerve sparing surgery has a

  2. [Radical prostatectomy - pro robotic].

    PubMed

    Gillitzer, R

    2012-05-01

    Anatomical radical prostatectomy was introduced in the early 1980s by Walsh and Donker. Elucidation of key anatomical structures led to a significant reduction in the morbidity of this procedure. The strive to achieve similar oncological and functional results to this gold standard open procedure but with further reduction of morbidity through a minimally invasive access led to the establishment of laparoscopic prostatectomy. However, this procedure is complex and difficult and is associated with a long learning curve. The technical advantages of robotically assisted surgery coupled with the intuitive handling of the device led to increased precision and shortening of the learning curve. These main advantages, together with a massive internet presence and aggressive marketing, have resulted in a rapid dissemination of robotic radical prostatectomy and an increasing patient demand. However, superiority of robotic radical prostatectomy in comparison to the other surgical therapeutic options has not yet been proven on a scientific basis. Currently robotic-assisted surgery is an established technique and future technical improvements will certainly further define its role in urological surgery. In the end this technical innovation will have to be balanced against the very high purchase and running costs, which remain the main limitation of this technology.

  3. Incidence and location of positive surgical margins following open, pure laparoscopic, and robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy and its relation with neurovascular preservation: a single-institution experience.

    PubMed

    Villamil, W; Billordo Peres, N; Martinez, P; Giudice, C; Liyo, J; García Marchiñena, P; Jurado, A; Damia, O

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate whether robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (dvRP) provides adequate local control of the disease, incidence of positive surgical margins (PSMs) obtained with dvRP was compared with that of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) and with that of open radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) performed in a single institution by the same surgeons. We also studied whether neurovascular bundle preservation modified PSM rates. The records were retrospectively reviewed from electronic medical data, and three groups of 100 patients were organized. Group 1 included 100 patients who underwent RRP prior to the incorporation of minimally invasive techniques. Group 2 included the first 100 patients who underwent LRP, and group 3 was made up of the first 100 patients who underwent dvRP. All surgical specimens were analyzed by the same pathologist. We used the technique described by Patel et al. for dvRP. LRP was performed using a five-trocar extraperitoneal approach as previously published by the authors. RRP was performed using retrograde dissection as described by Walsh et al. The final decision of preserving neurovascular bundles was made during surgery. Using D'Amico's risk classification, the dvRP group had a lower percentage of patients with low risk (dvRP versus LRP p = 0.017; dvRP versus RRP p = 0.0108). No statistically significant differences were found within high- and intermediate-risk groups. A higher percentage of patients with pT3 disease was found in the dvRP group compared with the RRP group (p = 0.0408). There were no statistically significant differences regarding PSMs among groups (RRP: 25, LRP: 14, dvRP: 18), although when we compared the total number of PSMs we found that the dvRP group had 18 PSMs versus 21 and 50 PSMs for LRP and RRP, respectively. All three groups had more PSMs located posterolaterally. There was a higher percentage of nerve-sparing procedures in the dvRP group (dvRP: 91 patients, LRP: 47 patients, RRP: 5

  4. Three-dimensional surgical navigation model with TilePro display during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Ukimura, Osamu; Aron, Monish; Nakamoto, Masahiko; Shoji, Sunao; Abreu, Andre Luis de Castro; Matsugasumi, Toru; Berger, Andre; Desai, Mihir; Gill, Inderbir S

    2014-06-01

    Abstract To facilitate robotic nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy, we developed a novel three-dimensional (3D) surgical navigation model that is displayed on the TilePro function of the da Vinci® surgeon console. Based on 3D transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies, we reconstructed a 3D model of the TRUS-visible, histologically confirmed "index" cancer lesion in 10 consecutive patients. Five key anatomic structures (prostate, image-visible biopsy-proven "index" cancer lesion, neurovascular bundles, urethra, and recorded biopsy trajectories) were image-fused and displayed onto the TilePro function of the robotic console. The 3D model facilitated careful surgical dissection in the vicinity of the biopsy-proven index lesion. Geographic location of the index lesion on the final histology report correlated with the software-created 3D model. Negative surgical margins were achieved in 90%, except for one case with extensive extra-prostate extension. At postoperative 3 months, prostate-specific antigen levels were undetectable (<0.03 ng/mL) in all cases. The initial experience of the navigation model is presented.

  5. Endoscopic simple prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Borkowski, Tomasz; Chłosta, Piotr; Dobruch, Jakub; Fiutowski, Marek; Jaskulski, Jarosław; Słojewski, Marcin; Szydełko, Tomasz; Szymański, Michał; Demkow, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many options exist for the surgical treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), including transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), laser surgery, and open adenomectomy. Recently, endoscopic techniques have been used in the treatment of BPH. Material and methods We reviewed clinical studies in PubMed describing minimally invasive endoscopic procedures for the treatment of BPH. Results Laparoscopic adenomectomy (LA) and robotic–assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) were introduced in the early 2000s. These operative techniques have been standardized and reproducible, with some individual modifications. Studies analyzing the outcomes of LA and RASP have reported significant improvements in urinary flow and decreases in patient International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). These minimally invasive approaches have resulted in a lower rate of complications, shorter hospital stays, smaller scars, faster recoveries, and an earlier return to work. Conclusions Minimally invasive techniques such as LA and RASP for the treatment BPH are safe, efficacious, and allow faster recovery. These procedures have a short learning curve and offer new options for the surgeon treating BPH. PMID:25667758

  6. Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy in high prostate volume cases: impact on oncological and functional results

    PubMed Central

    Alessandro, Sciarra; Alessandro, Gentilucci; Susanna, Cattarino; Michele, Innocenzi; Francesca, Di Quilio; Andrea, Fasulo; heland, Magnus Von; Vincenzo, Gentile; Stefano, Salciccia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background and objective: To prospectively compare the laparoscopic versus open approach to RP in cases with high prostate volume and to evaluate a possible different impact of prostate volume. Materials and Methods: From March 2007 to March 2013 a total of 120 cases with clinically localized prostate cancer (PC) and a prostate volume>70cc identified for radical prostatectomy (RP), were prospectively analyzed in our institute. Patients were offered as surgical technique either an open retropubic or an intraperitoneal laparoscopic (LP) approach. In our population, 54 cases were submitted to LP and 66 to open RP. We analyzed the association of the surgical technique with perioperative, oncological and postoperative functional parameters. Results: In those high prostate volume cases, the surgical technique (laparoscopic versus open) does not represent a significant independent factor able to influence positive surgical margins rates and characteristics (p=0.4974). No significant differences (p>0.05) in the overall rates of positive margins was found, and also no differences following stratification according to the pathological stage and nerve sparing (NS) procedure. The surgical technique was able to significantly and independently influence the hospital stay, time of operation and blood loss (p<0.001). On the contrary, in our population, the surgical technique was not a significant factor influencing all pathological and 1-year oncological or functional outcomes (p>0.05). Conclusions: In our prospective non randomized analysis on high prostate volumes, the laparoscopic approach to RP is able to guarantee the same oncological and functional results of an open approach, maintaining the advantages in terms of perioperative outcomes. PMID:27256175

  7. Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: initial experience with first 112 cases.

    PubMed

    Tasci, Ali Ihsan; Bitkin, Alper; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem; Tugcu, Volkan; Sonmezay, Erkan

    2012-12-01

    In this study we report our initial robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) experience for organ-confined prostate cancer with the first 112 cases between August 2009 and January 2011. The mean age was 61 (46-76) years. Gleason scores ranged between 4 and 9, and the mean prostate volume was 38.7 (15-115) ml. The mean follow-up time was 8.1 (1-18) months. The mean operative time was 174.7 (75-360) min, and the mean estimated blood loss was 141 (60-800) ml. A nerve-sparing procedure was performed bilaterally in 79 cases and unilaterally in 15 cases. All the complications seen (8 out of 112 patients, 7.1%) were grade 1 and 2 according to the Clavien classsification system. Postoperatively, five (4.4%) patients needed transfusion. Mean drain extraction time was 3.2 (2-15) days and mean hospital stay was 4 (2-18) days. The catheter was removed on postoperative day 8.5 (6-20). Surgical margin was positive in 13 (11.6%) patients. Forty-nine patients have 6 months and 30 patients have 12 months follow-up. The continence rate were 29.4, 64.2, 84.2, 91.1 and 96.6% immediately after catheter removal and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. No anastomotic stricture or urinary retention was seen in the follow-up period. RALRP is a safe and feasible technique in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Our initial experience with this procedure shows promising short-term outcomes. PMID:27628466

  8. Preserving continence during robotic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Ahlering, Thomas E; Gordon, Adam; Morales, Blanca; Skarecky, Douglas W

    2013-02-01

    Preservation of postoperative urinary continence remains the primary concern of all men and their surgeons following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Without doubt, continence is the most important quality of life issue following radical prostatectomy. Identification of difficulties and lessons learned over time has helped focus efforts in order to improve urinary quality of life and continence. This review will examine definitions of continence and urinary quality of life evaluation, technical aspects and the impact of patient-related factors affecting time to and overall continence.

  9. Tubular cystourethroneostomy after total prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Melchior, H

    1975-01-01

    After radical prostatectomy cystourethroneostomy is done as a tubular cystourethroplasty. In the last 13 months 14 patients have been operated on in this manner. In 12 patients continence was achieved; 2 patients had a temporary stress incontinence. The stress incontinence could be treated successfully by temporary electrostimulation of the pelvic floor by an anal plug stimulator.

  10. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor administered immediately after radical prostatectomy temporarily increases the need for incontinence pads, but improves final continence status

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Shinichi; Ito, Akihiro; Kawasaki, Yoshihide; Izumi, Hideaki; Kawamorita, Naoki; Adachi, Hisanobu; Mitsuzuka, Koji; Arai, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i) on urinary continence recovery after bilateral nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (BNSRP). Materials and Methods Between 2002 and 2012, 137 of 154 consecutive patients who underwent BNSRP in our institution retrospectively divided into 3 groups that included patients taking PDE5i immediately after surgery (immediate PDE5i group, n=41), patients starting PDE5i at an outpatient clinic after discharge (PDE5i group, n=56), and patients taking no medication (non-PDE5i group, n=40). Using self-administered questionnaires, the proportion of patients who did not require incontinence pads (pad-free patients) was calculated preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after BNSRP. Severity of incontinence was determined based on the pad numbers and then compared among the 3 groups. Results Proportions of pad-free patients and severity of incontinence initially deteriorated in all of the groups to the lowest values soon after undergoing BNSRP, with gradual improvement noted thereafter. The deterioration was most prominent in the immediate PDE5i group. As compared to the non-PDE5i group, both the PDE5i and immediate PDE5i groups exhibited a better final continence status. Conclusions PDE5i improves final continence status. However, administration of PDE5i immediately after surgery causes a distinct temporary deterioration in urinary incontinence.

  11. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor administered immediately after radical prostatectomy temporarily increases the need for incontinence pads, but improves final continence status

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Shinichi; Ito, Akihiro; Kawasaki, Yoshihide; Izumi, Hideaki; Kawamorita, Naoki; Adachi, Hisanobu; Mitsuzuka, Koji; Arai, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i) on urinary continence recovery after bilateral nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (BNSRP). Materials and Methods Between 2002 and 2012, 137 of 154 consecutive patients who underwent BNSRP in our institution retrospectively divided into 3 groups that included patients taking PDE5i immediately after surgery (immediate PDE5i group, n=41), patients starting PDE5i at an outpatient clinic after discharge (PDE5i group, n=56), and patients taking no medication (non-PDE5i group, n=40). Using self-administered questionnaires, the proportion of patients who did not require incontinence pads (pad-free patients) was calculated preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after BNSRP. Severity of incontinence was determined based on the pad numbers and then compared among the 3 groups. Results Proportions of pad-free patients and severity of incontinence initially deteriorated in all of the groups to the lowest values soon after undergoing BNSRP, with gradual improvement noted thereafter. The deterioration was most prominent in the immediate PDE5i group. As compared to the non-PDE5i group, both the PDE5i and immediate PDE5i groups exhibited a better final continence status. Conclusions PDE5i improves final continence status. However, administration of PDE5i immediately after surgery causes a distinct temporary deterioration in urinary incontinence. PMID:27617318

  12. Ultrasensitive Prostate Specific Antigen Assay Following Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy – An Outcome Measure for Defining the Learning Curve

    PubMed Central

    Viney, R; Gommersall, L; Zeif, J; Hayne, D; Shah, ZH; Doherty, A

    2009-01-01

    .01 ng/ml at 3 months but operative time and tumour volume do not (P < 0.05). Attempt at nerve sparing had no adverse effect on achieving a uPSA of ≤ 0.01 ng/ml at 3 months. CONCLUSIONS uPSA can be used as an early end-point in the analysis of oncological outcomes after radical prostatectomy. It is one of many measures that can be used in calculating a surgeon's learning curve for laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and in bench-marking performance. With experience, a surgeon can achieve in excess of an 80% chance of obtaining a uPSA nadir of ≤ 0.01 ng/ml at 3 months after laparoscopic RRP for a British population. This is equivalent to most published open series. PMID:19409146

  13. Surgeon perception is not a good predictor of peri-operative outcomes in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Stern, Joshua; Sharma, Saurabh; Mendoza, Pierre; Walicki, Mary; Hastings, Rachel; Monahan, Kelly; Sheikh, Baber; Wedmid, Alexei; Lee, David I

    2011-12-01

    Surgeons have always used their cognitive intuition for the execution of skilled tasks and real-time perception of intra-operative outcomes. We attempted to measure the overall accuracy of intra-operative surgeon perception on the functional outcome of early continence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). A single experienced surgeon (D.I.L.) used a scoring sheet to prospectively capture his subjective opinion of how well a particular portion of the RARP procedure was completed. Surgeon perception of factors affecting post-operative continence such as quality of bladder neck preservation, nerve sparing, urethral length, anastomosis, striated sphincter thickness, quality of Rocco repair and bladder neck plication suture (total 7 variables) were graded as "poor", "average" or "good". Urinary continence was graded as either total continence [0 pads per day (PPD) or social continence (security pad or one PPD)]. A total of 273 (39 patients × 7 variables) responses were recorded: 58.6% were rated as "good", 32.2% as "average" and 8.4% as "poor". A log-rank test for all perception variables showed no significant differences in subsequent achievement of continence (either 0 or 1 PPD) (P > 0.05) at both the 1- and 3-month time points. In the case of some perception variables, patients with "bad" scores gained continence a median of 3 weeks sooner than patients with "good" scores. Surgeon perception of intra-operative performance during RARP is a poor predictive indicator of subsequent functional outcome in terms of urinary continence. Inter-surgeon variability of perception may vary and needs further investigation. PMID:27628118

  14. [Incontinence after radical prostatectomy and cystectomy: are combined training with mechanical devices and whole body vibration effective?].

    PubMed

    Zellner, M

    2011-04-01

    In spite of improvements in nerve-sparing operation techniques in radical prostatectomies, a disturbance of (early) continence is subjectively perceived by a number of patients as burdensome, which can last for several months. Skilled physiotherapy is appreciated as causal therapy in the hands of the qualified therapist. In an open randomised controlled trial the efficacy of a standardised rehabilitation therapy with pelvic floor re-education instructed by a physiotherapist (n=25) as the control group in comparison to a group with additional combined electrostimulation and biofeedback device (Myo 420™; n=25) or whole body vibration therapy (FitVibe medical™; n=25). Pre- and post-therapeutic evaluation of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the enclosed question about quality of life (IPSS-QL), pad test, pelvic floor strength, maximum uroflow, micturition volume, serum testosterone and blood glucose was done. Within the treatment duration of 3-4 weeks in all treatment groups a statistically significant improvement of IPSS and IPSS-QL was seen. Due to whole body vibration the reduction of urine loss (pad test), increase of voided volume and maximum uroflow were statistically significant. Whereas for isolated physiotherapy during the short therapy duration merely a trend for the improvement of pelvic floor muscle strength was seen, the difference was significant in the Myo 420 and the whole body vibration groups, respectively. It was shown that a continuous improvement in continence depends on the consistent continuation of the training also under domestic conditions. The controlled trial conditions also confirm the efficacy, acceptance and tolerance of a standardised pelvic floor re-education under the conditions of urological inpatient rehabilitation treatment. By additional use of a combined electro- and multichannel biofeedback device or a whole body vibration device, the treatment results could be further improved. Due to the different causal

  15. [Incontinence after radical prostatectomy and cystectomy: are combined training with mechanical devices and whole body vibration effective?].

    PubMed

    Zellner, M

    2011-04-01

    In spite of improvements in nerve-sparing operation techniques in radical prostatectomies, a disturbance of (early) continence is subjectively perceived by a number of patients as burdensome, which can last for several months. Skilled physiotherapy is appreciated as causal therapy in the hands of the qualified therapist. In an open randomised controlled trial the efficacy of a standardised rehabilitation therapy with pelvic floor re-education instructed by a physiotherapist (n=25) as the control group in comparison to a group with additional combined electrostimulation and biofeedback device (Myo 420™; n=25) or whole body vibration therapy (FitVibe medical™; n=25). Pre- and post-therapeutic evaluation of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the enclosed question about quality of life (IPSS-QL), pad test, pelvic floor strength, maximum uroflow, micturition volume, serum testosterone and blood glucose was done. Within the treatment duration of 3-4 weeks in all treatment groups a statistically significant improvement of IPSS and IPSS-QL was seen. Due to whole body vibration the reduction of urine loss (pad test), increase of voided volume and maximum uroflow were statistically significant. Whereas for isolated physiotherapy during the short therapy duration merely a trend for the improvement of pelvic floor muscle strength was seen, the difference was significant in the Myo 420 and the whole body vibration groups, respectively. It was shown that a continuous improvement in continence depends on the consistent continuation of the training also under domestic conditions. The controlled trial conditions also confirm the efficacy, acceptance and tolerance of a standardised pelvic floor re-education under the conditions of urological inpatient rehabilitation treatment. By additional use of a combined electro- and multichannel biofeedback device or a whole body vibration device, the treatment results could be further improved. Due to the different causal

  16. Let's rethinking about the safety of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor in the patients with erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Ju Ho; Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2016-06-01

    As the radical prostatectomy (RP) for the patient diagnosed as localized prostate cancer has been increasing, erectile dysfunction (ED) associated with RP is increased and ED after RP is a significant risk factor to reduce the quality of life for the patient after RP. Therefore, the treatment concept called penile rehabilitation was introduced and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5I) is used widely for the prostate cancer patient after RP. Generally PDE5I is considered as safe and effective drug for the prostate cancer patient after RP. Recently, a report against the general opinion that PDE5I use is safe in the patient with prostate cancer was reported and the analysis of 5-yr biochemical recurrence-free survival after RP between the PDE5I users and non-PDE5I users after bilateral nerve sparing RP showed decreased 5-yr biochemical recurrence-free survival in the PDE5I users. In addition, a longitudinal cohort study reported that sildenafil, a kind of PDE5I, use might be associated with the development of melanoma and this result suggested the possibility of adverse effect of PDE5I on some kinds of cancers as well as prostate cancer. Moreover, the studies to evaluate the influence of nitric oxide (NO) and guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling pathway associated with PDE5 showed both cancer reduction and cancer development. Therefore, the role of NO and cGMP signaling pathway in cancer was reviewed based on the previous studies and suggested the necessity of further clinical studies concerning about the safety of PDE5I in prostate cancer. PMID:27419107

  17. “Total reconstruction” of the urethrovesical anastomosis contributes to early urinary continence in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xiaoxing; Qiao, Peng; Tan, Zhaohui; Shi, Hongbin; Xing, Nianzeng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To demonstrate the effect of total reconstruction technique on postoperative urinary continence after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP). Material and Methods: LRP was performed using a standard urethrovesical anastomosis in 79 consecutive patients (Group-A) from June 2011 to October 2012, and a total reconstruction procedure in 82 consecutive patients (Group-B) from June 2012 to June 2013. The primary outcome measurement was urinary continence assessed at 1, 2, 4, 12, 24 and 52 weeks after catheter removal. Other data recorded were patient age, body mass index, International Prostate Symptoms Score, prostate volume, preoperative PSA, Gleason score, neurovascular bundle preservation, operation time, estimated blood loss, complications and pathology results. Results: In Group-A, the continence rates at 1, 2, 4, 12, 24 and 52 weeks were 7.59%, 20.25%, 37.97%, 58.22%, 81.01% and 89.87% respectively. In Group-B, the continence rates were 13.41%, 32.92%, 65.85%, 81.71%, 90.24% and 95.12% respectively. Group––B had significantly higher continence rates at 4 and 12 weeks after surgery (P<0.001 and P=0.001). There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to patient's age, body mass index, prostate-specific antigen level, prostate volume, IPSS, estimated blood loss, number of nerve-sparing procedures and postoperative complications. Conclusions: Total reconstruction technique in the procedure of urethrovesical anastomosis during LRP improved early recovery of continence. PMID:27256174

  18. Neuroprotective strategies in radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Jonathan D; Mulhall, John P

    2005-01-01

    In this section, authors from New York give their views on the various neuroprotective strategies for patients having a radical prostatectomy, such as the use of nerve grafts and other approaches. A joint study from Korea, the USA, Canada and the UK is presented in a paper on the importance of patient perception in the clinical assessment and management of BPH. There is also a review of robotic urological surgery. Finally, authors from New York give a review on the life of Isaac Newton. This is a new historical review in the journal, but one that will be of general interest.

  19. Erectile dysfunction following retropubic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Lalong-Muh, Julienne; Colm, Treacy; Steggall, Martin

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer to affect men in the UK. Treatment options depend on the grade of tumour, the patient's co-existing diseases and choice of treatment. One potentially curative option is surgery, specifically a radical retropubic prostatectomy or variation thereof. As a consequence of the surgery, men commonly experience two side-effects: urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction (ED). This paper outlines the clinical management of ED following surgery and aims to provide an overview of how to assess a man who has developed ED and discuss the various treatment options available, along with the efficacy in terms of recovery of erections. PMID:23448953

  20. Complete Vesicourethral Anastomotic Disruption Following Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Christopher M.; Oberlin, Daniel; Han, Justin S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vesicourethral anastomotic (VUA) disruption with bladder displacement into the abdominal cavity following robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) is an exceedingly rare complication. There have been no cited case reports after robotic surgery but case reports after open radical prostatectomy have been noted. Other complications related to VUA include bleeding with or without pelvic hematoma, bladder neck contracture, or severe stress urinary incontinence. Following radical prostatectomy, studies estimate the rate of VUA leakage to be 1.4% and no exact rate of complete disruption is known given its rarity. However, the majority of these cases are managed conservatively and rarely require reoperation. To date, there are no published studies that describe complete VUA and bladder displacement secondary to a large pelvic hematoma following prostatectomy. We report a rare case of VUA disruption after RALP successfully managed with conservative treatment. PMID:27579438

  1. Complete Vesicourethral Anastomotic Disruption Following Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Singal, Ashima; Gonzalez, Christopher M; Oberlin, Daniel; Han, Justin S

    2016-01-01

    Vesicourethral anastomotic (VUA) disruption with bladder displacement into the abdominal cavity following robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) is an exceedingly rare complication. There have been no cited case reports after robotic surgery but case reports after open radical prostatectomy have been noted. Other complications related to VUA include bleeding with or without pelvic hematoma, bladder neck contracture, or severe stress urinary incontinence. Following radical prostatectomy, studies estimate the rate of VUA leakage to be 1.4% and no exact rate of complete disruption is known given its rarity. However, the majority of these cases are managed conservatively and rarely require reoperation. To date, there are no published studies that describe complete VUA and bladder displacement secondary to a large pelvic hematoma following prostatectomy. We report a rare case of VUA disruption after RALP successfully managed with conservative treatment. PMID:27579438

  2. Robotic-Assisted Simple Prostatectomy: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Holden, Marc; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2016-08-01

    Despite widespread use of medical therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia, a need remains for robust surgical therapy in select patients. Robotic-assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) is an efficacious and safe therapy for patients with bladder outlet obstruction owing to large volume prostates. Data from 13 published cohorts suggest functional outcomes equivalent to open simple prostatectomy with substantially decreased length of hospital stay and risk of transfusion. However, there are few longer term data. PMID:27476131

  3. Robotic-Assisted Simple Prostatectomy: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Holden, Marc; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2016-08-01

    Despite widespread use of medical therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia, a need remains for robust surgical therapy in select patients. Robotic-assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) is an efficacious and safe therapy for patients with bladder outlet obstruction owing to large volume prostates. Data from 13 published cohorts suggest functional outcomes equivalent to open simple prostatectomy with substantially decreased length of hospital stay and risk of transfusion. However, there are few longer term data.

  4. Sexual dysfunction following radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Benson, Cooper R; Serefoglu, Ege Can; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common solid cancer in men and the second leading cause of cancer death in men. A favored treatment option for organ-confined prostate cancer in a middle-aged healthy man is radical prostatectomy (RP). Despite advances in techniques for RP, there remain concerns among physicians and patients alike on its adverse effects on sexual function. Although post-RP erectile dysfunction has been extensively studied, little attention has been focused on the other domains of sexual function, namely loss of libido, ejaculatory dysfunction, orgasmic dysfunction, penile shortening, and Peyronie disease. The aim of this review is to discuss the most recent literature regarding post-RP sexual dysfunctions. PMID:22744864

  5. A Novel MiRNA-Based Predictive Model for Biochemical Failure Following Post-Prostatectomy Salvage Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Stegmaier, Petra; Drendel, Vanessa; Mo, Xiaokui; Ling, Stella; Fabian, Denise; Manring, Isabel; Jilg, Cordula A.; Schultze-Seemann, Wolfgang; McNulty, Maureen; Zynger, Debra L.; Martin, Douglas; White, Julia; Werner, Martin; Grosu, Anca L.; Chakravarti, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop a microRNA (miRNA)-based predictive model for prostate cancer patients of 1) time to biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy and 2) biochemical recurrence after salvage radiation therapy following documented biochemical disease progression post-radical prostatectomy. Methods Forty three patients who had undergone salvage radiation therapy following biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy with greater than 4 years of follow-up data were identified. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were collected for all patients and total RNA was isolated from 1mm cores enriched for tumor (>70%). Eight hundred miRNAs were analyzed simultaneously using the nCounter human miRNA v2 assay (NanoString Technologies; Seattle, WA). Univariate and multivariate Cox proportion hazards regression models as well as receiver operating characteristics were used to identify statistically significant miRNAs that were predictive of biochemical recurrence. Results Eighty eight miRNAs were identified to be significantly (p<0.05) associated with biochemical failure post-prostatectomy by multivariate analysis and clustered into two groups that correlated with early (≤ 36 months) versus late recurrence (>36 months). Nine miRNAs were identified to be significantly (p<0.05) associated by multivariate analysis with biochemical failure after salvage radiation therapy. A new predictive model for biochemical recurrence after salvage radiation therapy was developed; this model consisted of miR-4516 and miR-601 together with, Gleason score, and lymph node status. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was improved to 0.83 compared to that of 0.66 for Gleason score and lymph node status alone. Conclusion miRNA signatures can distinguish patients who fail soon after radical prostatectomy versus late failures, giving insight into which patients may need adjuvant therapy. Notably, two novel miRNAs (miR-4516 and miR-601) were identified that significantly improve

  6. Let’s rethinking about the safety of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor in the patients with erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Ju Ho; Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2016-01-01

    As the radical prostatectomy (RP) for the patient diagnosed as localized prostate cancer has been increasing, erectile dysfunction (ED) associated with RP is increased and ED after RP is a significant risk factor to reduce the quality of life for the patient after RP. Therefore, the treatment concept called penile rehabilitation was introduced and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5I) is used widely for the prostate cancer patient after RP. Generally PDE5I is considered as safe and effective drug for the prostate cancer patient after RP. Recently, a report against the general opinion that PDE5I use is safe in the patient with prostate cancer was reported and the analysis of 5-yr biochemical recurrence-free survival after RP between the PDE5I users and non-PDE5I users after bilateral nerve sparing RP showed decreased 5-yr biochemical recurrence-free survival in the PDE5I users. In addition, a longitudinal cohort study reported that sildenafil, a kind of PDE5I, use might be associated with the development of melanoma and this result suggested the possibility of adverse effect of PDE5I on some kinds of cancers as well as prostate cancer. Moreover, the studies to evaluate the influence of nitric oxide (NO) and guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling pathway associated with PDE5 showed both cancer reduction and cancer development. Therefore, the role of NO and cGMP signaling pathway in cancer was reviewed based on the previous studies and suggested the necessity of further clinical studies concerning about the safety of PDE5I in prostate cancer. PMID:27419107

  7. [Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: surgical techniques].

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Yuichi; Ogawa, Soichiro; Haga, Nobuhiro; Yanagida, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) for the patients with localized prostate cancer is increasingly being adopted around the world. The da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) provides the advantages of simplification and precision of exposure and suturing because of allowing movements of the robotic arm in real time with increased degree of freedom and magnified 3-dimensional view. Therefore, RARP has been expected to provide superior therapeutic benefit to patients in terms of surgical outcome to open or laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. In this review, we provide our technical aspects and tips and tricks of RARP to improve surgical outcome and postoperative quality of life. PMID:26793888

  8. Tadalafil therapy for erectile dysfunction following prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kadıoğlu, Ateş; Ortaç, Mazhar; Dinçer, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a major complication affecting the quality of life of patients and partners after radical prostatectomy. Evolving evidence suggests that early penile rehabilitation may provide better erectile function after surgery. Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors are routinely considered a first-line treatment option in most algorithms for penile rehabilitation owing to their efficacy, ease of use, wide availability and minimal morbidity. Tadalafil is a long-acting, potent PDE-5 inhibitor for erectile dysfunction, with demonstrated effect in animal studies at preserving penile smooth muscle content and prevention of fibrosis of cavernosal tissue. This article evaluates the existing literature on tadalafil and critically analyzes its impact on erectile function following radical prostatectomy. PMID:26161145

  9. Tadalafil therapy for erectile dysfunction following prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Kadıoğlu, Ateş; Ortaç, Mazhar; Dinçer, Murat; Brock, Gerald

    2015-06-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a major complication affecting the quality of life of patients and partners after radical prostatectomy. Evolving evidence suggests that early penile rehabilitation may provide better erectile function after surgery. Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors are routinely considered a first-line treatment option in most algorithms for penile rehabilitation owing to their efficacy, ease of use, wide availability and minimal morbidity. Tadalafil is a long-acting, potent PDE-5 inhibitor for erectile dysfunction, with demonstrated effect in animal studies at preserving penile smooth muscle content and prevention of fibrosis of cavernosal tissue. This article evaluates the existing literature on tadalafil and critically analyzes its impact on erectile function following radical prostatectomy. PMID:26161145

  10. Chromatin changes predict recurrence after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hveem, Tarjei S; Kleppe, Andreas; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Ersvær, Elin; Wæhre, Håkon; Nielsen, Birgitte; Kjær, Marte Avranden; Pradhan, Manohar; Syvertsen, Rolf Anders; Nesheim, John Arne; Liestøl, Knut; Albregtsen, Fritz; Danielsen, Håvard E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pathological evaluations give the best prognostic markers for prostate cancer patients after radical prostatectomy, but the observer variance is substantial. These risk assessments should be supported and supplemented by objective methods for identifying patients at increased risk of recurrence. Markers of epigenetic aberrations have shown promising results in several cancer types and can be assessed by automatic analysis of chromatin organisation in tumour cell nuclei. Methods: A consecutive series of 317 prostate cancer patients treated with radical prostatectomy at a national hospital between 1987 and 2005 were followed for a median of 10 years (interquartile range, 7–14). On average three tumour block samples from each patient were included to account for tumour heterogeneity. We developed a novel marker, termed Nucleotyping, based on automatic assessment of disordered chromatin organisation, and validated its ability to predict recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Results: Nucleotyping predicted recurrence with a hazard ratio (HR) of 3.3 (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.1–5.1). With adjustment for clinical and pathological characteristics, the HR was 2.5 (95% CI, 1.5–4.1). An updated stratification into three risk groups significantly improved the concordance with patient outcome compared with a state-of-the-art risk-stratification tool (P<0.001). The prognostic impact was most evident for the patients who were high-risk by clinical and pathological characteristics and for patients with Gleason score 7. Conclusion: A novel assessment of epigenetic aberrations was capable of improving risk stratification after radical prostatectomy. PMID:27124335

  11. An Unusual Trocar Site Hernia after Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Trocar site hernias are rare complications after laparoscopic surgery but most commonly occur at larger trocar sites placed at the umbilicus. With increased utilization of the laparoscopic approach the incidence of trocar site hernia is increasing. We report a case of a trocar site hernia following an otherwise uncomplicated robotic prostatectomy at a 12 mm right lower quadrant port. The vermiform appendix was incarcerated within the trocar site hernia. Subsequent appendectomy and primary repair of the hernia were performed without complication.

  12. Venous air embolism during radical perineal prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Jolliffe, M P; Lyew, M A; Berger, I H; Grimaldi, T

    1996-12-01

    An abrupt decrease in end-tidal carbon dioxide (CO2) occurred in an anesthetized male who was placed in the head down position during radical perineal prostatectomy. The end-tidal CO2 was restored after insertion of a wet pack into the operative site, which strongly indicated venous air embolism as the cause. Predisposing factors, detection, and treatment of venous air embolism in this setting are discussed.

  13. Hepatic subcapsular extension of pelvic lymphocele after radical retropubic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Bauer, J J; McLeod, D G

    1998-05-01

    Lymphoceles are a rare symptomatic complication after radical prostatectomy occurring in less than 5% of cases. We present a case of a symptomatic lymphocele that occurred after a radical retropubic prostatectomy and obturator lymphadenectomy. The lymphocele dissected along the retroperitoneum and extended into the hepatic subcapsular space and became secondarily infected with Candida albicans.

  14. A Novel Technique for Post-Prostatectomy Catheter Traction

    PubMed Central

    Akhavizadegan, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background Prostate traction is one way to control post-prostatectomy bleeding. The most popular method involves traction with a catheter fixed to the thigh with adhesive bands. However, this method has its own drawbacks. Objectives We aimed to simplify this traction procedure and to overcome its disadvantages. Patients and Methods From 2007 - 2015, a new method was used to control post-prostatectomy bleeding in 152 patients. This technique involved inducing pressure on the prostate neck with an indwelling catheter attached to a partially filled urine bag to control bleeding after a prostatectomy. Results The new method effectively controlled post-prostatectomy bleeding. A few patients required surgical intervention. Conclusions Post-prostatectomy catheter traction using a semi-filled urine bag was an acceptable alternative to the standard method to control post-operative bleeding. PMID:27703955

  15. Is It Worth Continuing Sexual Rehabilitation after Radical Prostatectomy with Intracavernous Injection of Alprostadil for More than 1 Year?

    PubMed Central

    Yiou, René; Bütow, Zentia; Parisot, Juliette; Binhas, Michele; Lingombet, Odile; Augustin, Deborah; de la Taille, Alexandre; Audureau, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intracavernous alprostadil injection (IAI) is a widely used treatment for sexual rehabilitation (SR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). It is unknown whether the continuation of IAI beyond 1 year continues to improve erectile function. Aims To assess evolution of sexual function in patients using IAI who are nonresponsive to phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) between 12 (M12) and 24 (M24) months after RP. Methods We retrospectively studied 75 men with a nerve-sparing laparoscopic RP, who had normal preoperative erectile function, and who regularly used IAI for SR for at least 24 months. At M12, no patients had responded to PDE5i. Main Outcome Measures At 12 and 24 months, sexual function was assessed with the UCLA Prostate Cancer Index (UCLA-PCI), International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-15, and erection hardness score (EHS) with and without IAI. We also assessed the satisfaction rate with IAI, injection-related penile pain, and satisfaction of treatment. Statistical analysis was performed by using t-tests for paired data and Spearman's rho correlation coefficients to assess the relationships between scores at M12 and M24. Results Improvement of nocturnal erection was noted (UCLA-PCI, question 25); however, no significant difference was found for IIEF-erectile function with (19.60 ± 9.80 vs. 18.07 ± 10.44) and without IAI (4.63 ± 2.93 vs. 4.92 ± 4.15), UCLA-PCI-sexual bother (37.14 ± 21.45 vs. 37.54 ± 19.67), nor the EHS score with (2.97 ± 1.30 vs. 2.57 ± 1.30) and without IAI (0.67 ± 1.11 vs. 0.76 ± 0.10). The rate of satisfaction with treatment decreased over time (66.6% vs. 46.7%, P = 0.013). Improved response to IAI at M12 was not correlated to improvement in spontaneous erections at M24. Conclusion The response to IAI remained stable after 2 years of treatment, and no significant improvement of spontaneous erections during intercourse attempts was found between M12 and M24

  16. [Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy: surgical technique].

    PubMed

    Rocco, B; Coelho, R F; Albo, G; Patel, V R

    2010-09-01

    Prostate tumours are among the most frequently diagnosed solid tumours in males (a total of 192,280 new cases in the USA in 2009); since the approval of the PSA test by the Food and Drug Administration in 1986, incidence has risen significantly, particularly in the '90s; furthermore the spread of the PSA test has led to an increased frequency of cancer diagnosis at the localised stage. The standard treatment for tumour of the prostate is retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) which however is not morbidity-free, e.g. intraoperative bleeding, urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. This is why the interest of the scientific community has turned increasingly to mini-invasive surgical procedures able to achieve the same oncological results as the open procedure, but which also reduce the impact of the treatment on these patients' quality of life. The first step in this direction was laparoscopic prostatectomy described by Schuessler in 1992 and standardised by Gaston in 1997. However, the technical difficulty inherent in this procedure has limited its more widespread use. In May 2000 Binder and Kramer published a report on the first robot-assisted prostatectomy (RARP) using the Da Vinci system (da Vinci TM, Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). From the original experience, RARP, which exploits the advantages of an enlarged, three-dimensional view and the ability of the instruments to move with 7 degrees of freedom, the technique has spread enormously all over the world. At the time of writing, in the USA, RARP is the most common therapeutic option for the treatment of prostate tumour at localised stage. In the present study we describe the RARP technique proposed by dr. Vipul Patel, head of the Global Robotic Institute (Orlando Fl). PMID:20940698

  17. [URINARY DISCOMFORTS IN PATIENTS AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY].

    PubMed

    Al'-Shukri, S Kh; Ananiĭ, I A; Amdiĭ, R E; Kuz'min, I V

    2015-01-01

    The authors showed the result of complication treatment of lower urinary tracts in 128 patients with localized prostate cancer. The patients underwent radical prostatectomy. Urinary discomforts included enuresis, urinary incontinence in postoperative period. Abnormalities of urine outflow due to urethral stricture were revealed in 6 (4,6%) patients by the 6 month after operation. These complications required surgical treatment. Urinary incontinence was noted in 20 (15,6%) patients in this period. It was stressful urinary incontinence in 16 (12,6%) and urgent - in 4 (3%). Patents with stressful urinary difficulty were advised to use the conservative treatment (pelvic floor muscle training and electrostimulation), but in case of inefficiency - surgical treatment.

  18. An Unusual Trocar Site Hernia after Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Schmocker, Ryan K; Greenberg, Jacob A

    2016-01-01

    Trocar site hernias are rare complications after laparoscopic surgery but most commonly occur at larger trocar sites placed at the umbilicus. With increased utilization of the laparoscopic approach the incidence of trocar site hernia is increasing. We report a case of a trocar site hernia following an otherwise uncomplicated robotic prostatectomy at a 12 mm right lower quadrant port. The vermiform appendix was incarcerated within the trocar site hernia. Subsequent appendectomy and primary repair of the hernia were performed without complication. PMID:27648335

  19. An Unusual Trocar Site Hernia after Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Trocar site hernias are rare complications after laparoscopic surgery but most commonly occur at larger trocar sites placed at the umbilicus. With increased utilization of the laparoscopic approach the incidence of trocar site hernia is increasing. We report a case of a trocar site hernia following an otherwise uncomplicated robotic prostatectomy at a 12 mm right lower quadrant port. The vermiform appendix was incarcerated within the trocar site hernia. Subsequent appendectomy and primary repair of the hernia were performed without complication. PMID:27648335

  20. Single port radical prostatectomy: current status.

    PubMed

    Martín, Oscar Darío; Azhar, Raed A; Clavijo, Rafael; Gidelman, Camilo; Medina, Luis; Troche, Nelson Ramirez; Brunacci, Leonardo; Sotelo, René

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the current literature on single port radical prostatectomy (LESS-RP). Single port radical prostatectomy laparoendoscopic (LESS-RP) has established itself as a challenge for urological community, starting with the proposal of different approaches: extraperitoneal, transperitoneal and transvesical, initially described for laparoscopy and then laparoscopy robot-assisted. In order to improve the LESS-RP, new instruments, optical devices, trocars and retraction mechanisms have been developed. Advantages and disadvantages of LESS-RP are controversial, while some claim that it is a non-trustable approach, regarding the low cases number and technical difficulties, others acclaim that despite this facts some advantages have been shown and that previous described difficulties are being overcome, proving this is novel proposal of robotics platform, the Da Vinci SP, integrating the system into "Y". The LESS-RP approach gives us a new horizon and opens the door for rapid standardization of this technique. The few studies and short series available can be result of a low interest in the application of LESS-RP in prostate, probably because of the technical complexity that it requires. The new robotic platform, the da Vinci SP, shows that it is clear that the long awaited evolution of robotic technologies for laparoscopy has begun, and we must not lose this momentum.

  1. Single port radical prostatectomy: current status.

    PubMed

    Martín, Oscar Darío; Azhar, Raed A; Clavijo, Rafael; Gidelman, Camilo; Medina, Luis; Troche, Nelson Ramirez; Brunacci, Leonardo; Sotelo, René

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the current literature on single port radical prostatectomy (LESS-RP). Single port radical prostatectomy laparoendoscopic (LESS-RP) has established itself as a challenge for urological community, starting with the proposal of different approaches: extraperitoneal, transperitoneal and transvesical, initially described for laparoscopy and then laparoscopy robot-assisted. In order to improve the LESS-RP, new instruments, optical devices, trocars and retraction mechanisms have been developed. Advantages and disadvantages of LESS-RP are controversial, while some claim that it is a non-trustable approach, regarding the low cases number and technical difficulties, others acclaim that despite this facts some advantages have been shown and that previous described difficulties are being overcome, proving this is novel proposal of robotics platform, the Da Vinci SP, integrating the system into "Y". The LESS-RP approach gives us a new horizon and opens the door for rapid standardization of this technique. The few studies and short series available can be result of a low interest in the application of LESS-RP in prostate, probably because of the technical complexity that it requires. The new robotic platform, the da Vinci SP, shows that it is clear that the long awaited evolution of robotic technologies for laparoscopy has begun, and we must not lose this momentum. PMID:27072150

  2. [Transcoccygeal radical prostatectomy: surgical technical notes and our current indications].

    PubMed

    Rigatti, P; Da Pozzo, L; Francesca, F; Broglia, L; Colombo, R; Pompa, P

    1995-06-01

    From October 1992 to December 1993, radical transcoccygeal prostatectomy was performed in 23 patients. The surgical technique as well as our clinical indications to the operation are described in this paper.

  3. Transurethral prostatectomy--studies with different intravesical pressures.

    PubMed

    Rabe, H B; de Kock, M L

    1982-05-22

    In an attempt to study the safety of transurethral prostatectomy in our unit, the use of a low-pressure continuous-flow water irrigation system was compared with out routine method of intermittent bladder emptying during transurethral prostatectomy in 14 patients. The products of haemolysis and parameters of haemodilution were studied, and no significant differences were noted. However, a simple suprapubic shunt provided significant surgical advantages. PMID:7079889

  4. Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Erik P.; Andrews, Paul E.; Lingeman, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to document the evolution of a new surgical procedure for the treatment of carefully selected patients with organ confined localized prostate cancer. Natural orifice surgery represents a paradigm shift in the surgical approach to disease, although its adoption into clinical practice has been limited to date. This manuscript describes the development of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgical radical prostatectomy (NOTES RP). The laboratory, animal, preclinical and early clinical experiences are described and detailed. While the early experiences with this approach are promising and encouraging, more information is required. Despite the early successes with the procedure, long-term oncological and functional outcomes are essential and more work needs to be done to facilitate the teaching and ease of the NOTES RP. PMID:22295043

  5. Best laser for prostatectomy in the year 2013.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Pankaj N; Joshi, Nitin; Maheshwari, Reeta P

    2013-07-01

    Lasers have come a long way in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Over last nearly two decades, various different lasers have been utilized for prostatectomy. Neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser that started this journey, is no longer used for prostatectomy. Holmium laser can achieve transurethral enucleation of the prostatic adenoma producing a fossa that can be compared with the fossa after Freyer's prostatectomy. Green light laser has a short learning curve, is nearly blood-less with good immediate results. Thulium laser is a faster cutting laser while diode laser is a portable laser device. Often laser prostatectomy is considered as a replacement for the standard transurethral resection of prostate (TURP). To be comparable, laser should reduce or avoid the immediate and long-term complications of TURP, especially bleeding and need for blood transfusion. It should also be safe in the ever increasing patient population on antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs. We need to take stock of the situation and identify, which among the present day lasers has stood the test of time. A review of the literature was performed to see if any of these lasers could be called the "best laser for prostatectomy in 2013." PMID:24082446

  6. Open, laparoscopic and robotic radical prostatectomy: optimizing the surgical approach.

    PubMed

    Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Pierorazio, Phillip M; Su, Li-Ming

    2009-09-01

    As advances in the understanding of prostatic anatomy led to improvements in functional and oncologic outcomes after prostatectomy of the past few decades, advances in technology and surgical technique have made minimally-invasive prostate surgery a reality. Today patients diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer have more surgical treatment options than in the past including open, laparoscopic and robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Advantages and disadvantages exist for each modality and lead to subtle differences in the technical execution of the procedure. Evidence from centers of excellence and from experienced surgeons demonstrates that both laparoscopic and robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy appear to be comparable to outcomes achieved with open radical retropubic prostatectomy series. Individual surgeon skill, experience and clinical judgment are likely the stronger predictors of outcome rather than the technique chosen. However, learning curves, oncologic outcomes and cost-efficacy remain important considerations in the dissemination of minimally-invasive prostate surgery. A greater appreciation of the periprostatic anatomy and further modification of surgical technique will result in continued improvement in functional outcomes and oncological control for patients undergoing radical prostatectomy, whether by open or minimally-invasive surgery. PMID:19286370

  7. Best laser for prostatectomy in the year 2013.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Pankaj N; Joshi, Nitin; Maheshwari, Reeta P

    2013-07-01

    Lasers have come a long way in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Over last nearly two decades, various different lasers have been utilized for prostatectomy. Neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser that started this journey, is no longer used for prostatectomy. Holmium laser can achieve transurethral enucleation of the prostatic adenoma producing a fossa that can be compared with the fossa after Freyer's prostatectomy. Green light laser has a short learning curve, is nearly blood-less with good immediate results. Thulium laser is a faster cutting laser while diode laser is a portable laser device. Often laser prostatectomy is considered as a replacement for the standard transurethral resection of prostate (TURP). To be comparable, laser should reduce or avoid the immediate and long-term complications of TURP, especially bleeding and need for blood transfusion. It should also be safe in the ever increasing patient population on antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs. We need to take stock of the situation and identify, which among the present day lasers has stood the test of time. A review of the literature was performed to see if any of these lasers could be called the "best laser for prostatectomy in 2013."

  8. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: The Ohio State University technique.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vipul R; Shah, Ketul K; Thaly, Rahul K; Lavery, Hugh

    2007-03-01

    Robotic radical prostatectomy is a new innovation in the surgical treatment of prostate cancer. The technique is continuously evolving. In this article we demonstrate The Ohio State University technique for robotic radical prostatectomy. Robotic radical prostatectomy is performed using the da Vinci surgical system. The video demonstrates each step of the surgical procedure. Preliminary results with robotic prostatectomy demonstrate the benefits of minimally invasive surgery while also showing encouraging short-term outcomes in terms of continence, potency and cancer control. Robotic radical prostatectomy is an evolving technique that provides a minimally invasive alternative for the treatment of prostate cancer. Our experience with the procedure now stands at over 1,300 cases.

  9. Novel methods for mapping the cavernous nerves during radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Fried, Nathaniel M; Burnett, Arthur L

    2015-08-01

    The cavernous nerves, which course along the surface of the prostate gland, are responsible for erectile function. During radical prostatectomy, urologists are challenged in preserving these nerves and their function. Cavernous nerves are microscopic and show variable location in different patients; therefore, postoperative sexual potency rates are widely variable following radical prostatectomy. A variety of technologies, including electrical and optical nerve stimulation, dye-based optical fluorescence and microscopy, spectroscopy, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have all been used to study cavernous nerve anatomy and physiology, and some of these methods are also potential intraoperative methods for identifying and preserving cavernous nerves. However, all of these technologies have inherent limitations, including slow or inconsistent nerve responses, poor image resolution, shallow image depth, slow image acquisition times and/or safety concerns. New and emerging technologies, as well as multimodal approaches combining existing methods, hold promise for improved postoperative sexual outcomes and patient quality of life following radical prostatectomy.

  10. Effect of continuous irrigation with normal saline after prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Attah, C A

    1993-01-01

    Normal saline solution is often used for continuous irrigation of the bladder following prostatectomy in order to prevent clot retention. There is usually a concern for possible sodium reabsorption and consequent fluid retention. Considering the harmful cardiovascular effect in elderly patients who usually come for prostatectomy, fluid retention could be detrimental. Therefore we have hitherto given daily lasix injections routinely during continuous irrigation of the bladder with normal saline solution. This study is designed to find out if the amount of sodium reabsorbed is significant enough to justify the practice. The amount reabsorbed is indeed not significant (p > 0.05). A plea is therefore made to give lasix injection following prostatectomy only if there is a clinical indication for it. PMID:8270374

  11. Pseudohyperplastic prostatic carcinoma in simple prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Arista-Nasr, Julián; Martinez-Benitez, Braulio; Fernandez-Amador, Jose Antonio; Bornstein-Quevedo, Leticia; Arceo-Olaiz, Ricardo; Albores-Saavedra, Jorge

    2011-06-01

    Pseudohyperplastic carcinoma (PHPC) is a prostatic neoplasm that can be easily mistaken for nodular hyperplasia or atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. To determine the frequency and clinicopathologic characteristics of PHPC, we reviewed 200 simple prostatectomy specimens. We found 3 cases (1.5%) of PHPC. The tumors were small and ranged in size from 4 to 6 mm. Two of them were erroneously diagnosed as benign glandular proliferations in the original interpretation. Their histologic aspect at low magnification showed nodules of well-differentiated medium-sized glands with cystic dilation in a tight arrangement that imparted a benign appearance. Corpora amylacea were found in 2 cases. However, the lining cells showed nucleomegaly and prominent nuclei in most of the neoplastic glands, and the high-molecular-weight keratin (34BE12) immunostain revealed absence of basal cells. α-Methylacyl-CoA-racemase was positive in 2 cases. In one case, a small focus of moderated acinar adenocarcinoma was found adjacent to the pseudohyperplastic glands facilitating the diagnosis. The 3 patients are disease-free 3 and 4 years after surgery probably because of the small size of the tumors; however, it must be emphasized that most PHPC are considered moderately differentiated and potentially aggressive neoplasms.

  12. [TREATMENT OF ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION FOLLOWING TRANSVESICAL PROSTATECTOMY].

    PubMed

    Motin, P I; Andrjuhin, M I; Pul'bere, S A; Alekseev, O Ju; Agaev, N K

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the efficacy and safety of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors in treating erectile dysfunction after transvesical prostatectomy. The study involved 63 men aged 55 to 68 years, divided into two groups--29 and 34 patients, respectively. Patients in group 1 received 50 mg of sildenafil citrate (Ereksezil®) on a daily basis, in group 2--100 mg of sildenafil citrate (Ereksezil®) on demand. Postoperative visits were scheduled at the stage of screening, then after a month of treatment and on day 14 after treatment completion (3 visits altogether). Changes of patients' complaints according to IIEF-15 questionnaire showed a significant improvement in erectile function and its components of sexual life satisfaction in both groups of patients, but more significantly with regular medication intake, which has a positive impact on patients' quality of life. At the same time, treatment by PDE-5 inhibitors did not affect the maximum urinary flow rate and residual urine volume. Given the high incidence of the postoperative erectile dysfunction, postoperative administration of PDE-5 inhibitors is relevant and promising.

  13. [TREATMENT OF ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION FOLLOWING TRANSVESICAL PROSTATECTOMY].

    PubMed

    Motin, P I; Andrjuhin, M I; Pul'bere, S A; Alekseev, O Ju; Agaev, N K

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the efficacy and safety of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors in treating erectile dysfunction after transvesical prostatectomy. The study involved 63 men aged 55 to 68 years, divided into two groups--29 and 34 patients, respectively. Patients in group 1 received 50 mg of sildenafil citrate (Ereksezil®) on a daily basis, in group 2--100 mg of sildenafil citrate (Ereksezil®) on demand. Postoperative visits were scheduled at the stage of screening, then after a month of treatment and on day 14 after treatment completion (3 visits altogether). Changes of patients' complaints according to IIEF-15 questionnaire showed a significant improvement in erectile function and its components of sexual life satisfaction in both groups of patients, but more significantly with regular medication intake, which has a positive impact on patients' quality of life. At the same time, treatment by PDE-5 inhibitors did not affect the maximum urinary flow rate and residual urine volume. Given the high incidence of the postoperative erectile dysfunction, postoperative administration of PDE-5 inhibitors is relevant and promising. PMID:26665774

  14. Bladder neck sparing in radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Smolski, Michal; Esler, Rachel C.; Turo, Rafal; Collins, Gerald N.; Oakley, Neil; Brough, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The role of a bladder neck sparing (BNS) technique in radical prostatectomy (RP) remains controversial. The potential advantages of improved functional recovery must be weighed against oncological outcomes. We performed a literature review to evaluate the current knowledge regarding oncological and functional outcomes of BNS and bladder neck reconstruction (BNr) in RP. A systematic literature review using on-line medical databases was performed. A total of 33 papers were identified evaluating the use of BNS in open, laparoscopic and robotic-assisted RP. The majority were retrospective case series, with only one prospective, randomised, blinded study identified. The majority of papers reported no significant difference in oncological outcomes using a BNS or BNr technique, regardless of the surgical technique employed. Quoted positive surgical margin rates ranged from 6% to 32%. Early urinary continence (UC) rates were ranged from 36% to 100% at 1 month, with long-term UC rate reported at 84-100% at 12 months if the bladder neck (BN) was spared. BNS has been shown to improve early return of UC and long-term UC without compromising oncological outcomes. Anastomotic stricture rate is also lower when using a BNS technique. PMID:24235797

  15. Comparison of Acute Kidney Injury After Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy Versus Retropubic Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Eun-Young; Moon, Yeon-Jin; Yoon, Syn-Hae; Chin, Ji-Hyun; Hwang, Jai-Hyun; Kim, Young-Kug

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with extended hospital stay, a high risk of progressive chronic kidney diseases, and increased mortality. Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy are at increased risk of AKI because of intraoperative bleeding, obstructive uropathy, older age, and preexisting chronic kidney disease. In particular, robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP), which is in increasing demand as an alternative surgical option for retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP), is associated with postoperative renal dysfunction because pneumoperitoneum during RALP can decrease cardiac output and renal perfusion. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of postoperative AKI between RRP and RALP. We included 1340 patients who underwent RRP (n = 370) or RALP (n = 970) between 2013 and 2014. Demographics, cancer-related data, and perioperative laboratory data were evaluated. Postoperative AKI was determined according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Operation and anesthesia time, estimated blood loss, amounts of administered fluids and transfused packed red blood cells, and the lengths of the postoperative intensive care unit and hospital stays were evaluated. Propensity score matching analysis was performed to reduce the influence of possible confounding variables and adjust for intergroup differences between the RRP and RALP groups. After performing 1:1 propensity score matching, the RRP and RALP groups included 307 patients, respectively. The operation time and anesthesia time in RALP were significantly longer than in the RRP group (both P < 0.001). However, the estimated blood loss and amount of administered fluids in RALP were significantly lower than in RRP (both P < 0.001). Also, RALP demonstrated a significantly lower incidence of transfusion and smaller amount of transfused packed red blood cells than RRP (both P < 0.001). Importantly, the incidence of AKI in RALP

  16. Laboratory and clinical experience with neodymium:YAG laser prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabalin, John N.

    1996-05-01

    Since 1991, we have undertaken extensive laboratory and clinical studies of the Neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) laser for surgical treatment of bladder outlet obstruction due to prostatic enlargement or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Side-firing optical fibers which emit a divergent, relatively low energy density Nd:YAG laser beam produce coagulation necrosis of obstructing periurethral prostate tissue, followed by gradual dissolution and slough in the urinary stream. Laser-tissue interactions and Nd:YAG laser dosimetry for prostatectomy have been studied in canine and human prostate model systems, enhancing clinical application. Ongoing studies examine comparative Nd:YAG laser dosimetry for various beam configurations produced by available side-firing optical fibers and continue to refine operative technique. We have documented clinical outcomes of Nd:YAG laser prostatectomy in 230 consecutive patients treated with the UrolaseTM side-firing optical fiber. Nd:YAG laser coagulation the prostate produces a remarkably low acute morbidity profile, with no significant bleeding or fluid absorption. No postoperative incontinence has been produced. Serial assessments of voiding outcomes over more than 3 years of followup show objective and symptomatic improvement following Nd:YAG laser prostatectomy which is comparable to older but more morbid electrosurgical approaches. Nd:YAG laser prostatectomy is a safe, efficacious, durable and cost-effective treatment for BPH.

  17. Physical and emotional predictors of depression after radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Weber, Bryan A; Roberts, Beverly L; Mills, Terry L; Chumbler, Neale R; Algood, Chester B

    2008-06-01

    Radical prostatectomy commonly results in urinary, sexual, and bowel dysfunction that bothers men and may lead to depressive symptomatology (hereafter depression) that occurs at a rate 4 times greater for men with prostate cancer than healthy counterparts. The purpose of this study was to assess depressive symptoms in men shortly after radical prostatectomy and to identify associated risk factors. Seventy-two men were interviewed 6 weeks after surgery. Measured were depression (Geriatric Depression Scale), self-efficacy (Stanford Inventory of Cancer Patient Adjustment), social support (Modified Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors), physical and emotional factors (UCLA Prostate Cancer Index), and social function (SF-36 subscale). Results indicate that men with high self-efficacy and less sexual bother were 45% and 55% less likely to have depressive symptoms, respectively. Findings from this study add to the limited amount of information on the complex relationship between prostate cancer treatment and depression in men. PMID:19477780

  18. Factors influencing sexual activity after prostatectomy: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Zohar, J; Meiraz, D; Maoz, B; Durst, N

    1976-09-01

    Between 16 and 30 per cent of all prostatectomy patients become impotent after an operation for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Since the surgical technique does not seem to be the factor responsible for such a serious problem, more accentuated by the fact that this operation is becoming increasingly frequent with the increase in life expectancy, an assessment of 15 patients before and after prostatectomy is presented. With a statistical analysis of a structured interview (including a mini-Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory test before and after the operation) 3 main differentiating factors emerged between the potent and the impotent group: 1) the level of anxiety exhibited by the patient, 2) whether the patients received an explanation about the surgery and its outcome prior to the operation and 3) the patient's general satisfaction with life. PMID:957502

  19. Robot-assisted laparoscopic transvesical diverticulectomy and simple prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Magera, James S; Adam Childs, M; Frank, Igor

    2008-09-01

    Acquired bladder diverticula are often associated with bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). The increased voiding pressures required to overcome the BOO attenuate the detrusor and promote formation of diverticula. These patients may develop urinary tract infections, bladder stones, and incomplete bladder emptying. Effective treatment must address both the bladder diverticula and BOO. Reports of laparoscopic bladder diverticulectomy with concurrent transurethral resection of the prostate have demonstrated the feasibility of this minimally invasive approach. However, due to longer operative times and technical difficulty of the procedure, the gold-standard treatment remains the open surgical approach of bladder diverticulectomy and transvesical prostatectomy. With the advent of robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery, application of open surgical principles is increasingly translated to the minimally invasive laparoscopic approach. We report, to our knowledge, the first case of robot-assisted laparoscopic transvesical diverticulectomy and concurrent transvesical simple prostatectomy. PMID:27628263

  20. Transperitoneal versus extraperitoneal robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy: which one?

    PubMed

    Atug, F; Thomas, R

    2007-06-01

    As robotic surgery has proliferated, both in its availability as well as in its popularity, there are certainly several unresolved matters in the burgeoning field of robotic radical prostatectomy. Matters that are commonly discussed at forums relating to robotic prostatectomy include training, proctoring, overcoming the learning curve, positive surgical margins, quality of life issues, etc. Among the approaches available for robotic radical prostatectomy are the trans-peritoneal (TP) and the extraperitoneal (EP) approaches. Although use of the TP approach vastly outnumbers the EP approach by a wide margin, one must not discount the need for learning the EP approach, especially in patients who could greatly benefit from this approach. The obese, those who have had intraperitoneal procedures in the past, those with ostomies (colostomy, ileostomy) should be considered candidates for the EP approach. For the beginner, it is recommended that familiarizing oneself with the TP approach may be the quickest way to get proficient with use of the robot and for getting over the learning curve, which varies from surgeon to surgeon. Once comfortable with the TP approach, one should consider the application of the EP access, when indicated. One distinct disadvantage of the EP approach is the limited space available for robotic movements. This is why one would prefer getting experience in the TP before forging into the EP approach. Certainly, adequate balloon dissection of the retroperitoneal space above the bladder is critical, as well as additional dissection with the camera in place. Another criticism of the EP approach is the fact that one may not have enough space or ability to perform a complete pelvic lymph node dissection. However, in experienced hands, one is able to do a very comparable job. Though the TP approach would continue to be the premium approach for robotic and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, one should familiarize oneself with the EP approach since this

  1. Robotic repair of scrotal bladder hernia during robotic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ee-Rah; Park, Sung Yul; Ham, Won Sik; Jeong, Wooju; Lee, Woo Jung; Rha, Koon Ho

    2008-09-01

    We report a case of scrotal bladder hernia in a 68-year-old man who was also diagnosed with prostate cancer. We fixed the herniated portion of the bladder using robotics after having successfully accomplished robotic prostatectomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report on simultaneous repair of scrotal bladder hernia and prostate cancer where both pathological findings have been treated with the assistance of robotics at a single operation. PMID:27628264

  2. Justice and Surgical Innovation: The Case of Robotic Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Katrina; Johnson, Jane; Carter, Drew

    2016-09-01

    Surgical innovation promises improvements in healthcare, but it also raises ethical issues including risks of harm to patients, conflicts of interest and increased injustice in access to health care. In this article, we focus on risks of injustice, and use a case study of robotic prostatectomy to identify features of surgical innovation that risk introducing or exacerbating injustices. Interpreting justice as encompassing matters of both efficiency and equity, we first examine questions relating to government decisions about whether to publicly fund access to innovative treatments. Here the case of robotic prostatectomy exemplifies the difficulty of accommodating healthcare priorities such as improving the health of marginalized groups. It also illustrates challenges with estimating the likely long-term costs and benefits of a new intervention, the difficulty of comparing outcomes of an innovative treatment to those of established treatments, and the further complexity associated with patient and surgeon preferences. Once the decision has been made to fund a new procedure, separate issues of justice arise at the level of providing care to individual patients. Here, the case of robotic prostatectomy exemplifies how features of surgical innovation, such as surgeon learning curves and the need for an adequate volume of cases at a treatment centre, can exacerbate injustices associated with treatment cost and the logistics of travelling for treatment. Drawing on our analysis, we conclude by making a number of recommendations for the just introduction of surgical innovations. PMID:26871997

  3. Justice and Surgical Innovation: The Case of Robotic Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Katrina; Johnson, Jane; Carter, Drew

    2016-09-01

    Surgical innovation promises improvements in healthcare, but it also raises ethical issues including risks of harm to patients, conflicts of interest and increased injustice in access to health care. In this article, we focus on risks of injustice, and use a case study of robotic prostatectomy to identify features of surgical innovation that risk introducing or exacerbating injustices. Interpreting justice as encompassing matters of both efficiency and equity, we first examine questions relating to government decisions about whether to publicly fund access to innovative treatments. Here the case of robotic prostatectomy exemplifies the difficulty of accommodating healthcare priorities such as improving the health of marginalized groups. It also illustrates challenges with estimating the likely long-term costs and benefits of a new intervention, the difficulty of comparing outcomes of an innovative treatment to those of established treatments, and the further complexity associated with patient and surgeon preferences. Once the decision has been made to fund a new procedure, separate issues of justice arise at the level of providing care to individual patients. Here, the case of robotic prostatectomy exemplifies how features of surgical innovation, such as surgeon learning curves and the need for an adequate volume of cases at a treatment centre, can exacerbate injustices associated with treatment cost and the logistics of travelling for treatment. Drawing on our analysis, we conclude by making a number of recommendations for the just introduction of surgical innovations.

  4. Canine transurethral laser prostatectomy using a rotational technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cromeens, Douglas M.; Johnson, Douglas E.

    1995-05-01

    Conventional radical prostatectomy in the dog has historically been attended by unacceptably high incidence of urinary incontinence (80 - 100%). Ablation of the prostate can be accomplished in the dog by transurethral irradiation of the prostate with the Nd:YAG laser and a laterally deflecting fiber. Exposure has ranged between 40 and 60 watts for 60 seconds at 4 fixed locations. Although prostatectomies performed with the above described technique offers significant advantage over conventional prostatectomies, the high power density at each location can result in small submucosal explosions (`popcorn effect') that increase the potential for bleeding and rupture of the prostatic capsule. We describe a new technique in which the energy is applied continuously by a laser fiber rotating around a central point. Delivering 40 watts of Nd:YAG energy for 4 minutes using a new angle-delivery device (UrotekTM), we produced results comparable to those of other previously reported techniques in the canine model with two added advantages: (1) a more even application of heat resulting in no `popcorn' effect and (2) a more reliably predictable area of coagulative necrosis within a given axial plane. This technique should provide additional safety for the veterinary surgeon performing visual laser ablation of the prostate in the dog.

  5. Contact laser prostatectomy in a patient on chronic anticoagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Edward J.

    1995-05-01

    The `gold standard' therapy for patients with symptomatic bladder outlet obstruction secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia has always been electrocautery TURP. However, in patients with medical problems requiring chronic anticoagulation, this procedure is contraindicated due to the extreme risk of hemorrhage, both during the procedure and the immediate post operative period. With the recent development of contact laser prostatectomy the patient on chronic anticoagulation can safely undergo the procedure. Herein, I present a case of a 60 year old with significant bladder outlet obstruction yielding an AUA symptom score of 18. The patient had a history of multiple episodes of deep venous thrombosis of the left leg with three prior pulmonary emboli. He was maintained on chronic anticoagulation with alternating days of 3.5 mg. and 5.0 mg. of warfarin sodium (coumadin). Preoperative cystoscopy showed a 4 cm prostatic fossa obstructed by tri-lobar hypertrophy, with large kissing lateral lobes and visual obstruction from the verumontanum. The patient underwent a contact laser prostatectomy with the SLT Nd:YAG laser at 50 watts. There was minimal bleeding both during the procedure and in the immediate postoperative period. At three months post-op the AUA symptom score had decreased to 2. This case demonstrated that contact laser prostatectomy can be safely and effectively performed in patients on chronic anticoagulation.

  6. Trends in Radical Prostatectomy: Centralization, Robotics, and Access to Urologic Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    Stitzenberg, Karyn B.; Wong, Yu-Ning; Nielsen, Matthew E.; Egleston, Brian L.; Uzzo, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Robotic surgery has been widely adopted for radical prostatectomy. We hypothesize that this change is rapidly shifting procedures away from hospitals that do not offer robotics and consequently increasing patient travel. Methods A population-based observational study of all prostatectomies for cancer in NY, NJ, and PA from 2000–2009 was performed using hospital discharge data. Hospital procedure volume was defined as the number of prostatectomies performed for cancer in a given year. Straight-line travel distance to treating hospital was calculated for each case. Hospitals were contacted to determine year of acquisition of first robot. Results From 2000–2009, the total number of prostatectomies performed annually increased substantially. The increase occurred almost entirely at the very high volume centers (≥106 prostatectomies/year). The number of hospitals performing prostatectomy fell 37% from 2000–2009. By 2009, the 9% (21/244) of hospitals that had very high volume performed 57% of all prostatectomies, and the 35% (86/244) of hospitals with a robot performed 85% of all prostatectomies. Median travel increased 54% from 2000–2009, p<0.001. The proportion of patients traveling ≥15 miles increased from 24% to 40%, p<0.001. Conclusions Over the past decade, the number of radical prostatectomies performed has risen substantially. These procedures have been increasingly centralized at high volume centers, leading to longer patient travel distances. Few prostatectomies are now performed at hospitals that do not offer robotic surgery. Future work should focus on the impact of these trends on cancer control, functional outcomes, access to care and cost. PMID:21717436

  7. A multi-institutional comparison of radical retropubic prostatectomy, radical perineal prostatectomy, and robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy for treatment of localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Coronato, Eric E; Harmon, Justin D; Ginsberg, Phillip C; Harkaway, Richard C; Singh, Kulwant; Braitman, Leonard; Sloane, Bruce B; Jaffe, Jamison S

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the pathological stage and margin status of patients undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP), radical perineal prostatectomy (RPP) and robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP). We performed a retrospective analysis of 196 patients who underwent RRP, RPP, and RALP as part of our multi-institution program. Fifty-seven patients underwent RRP, 41 RPP, and 98 RALP. Patient age, preoperative prostate specific antigen (PSA), preoperative Gleason score, preoperative clinical stage, pathological stage, postoperative Gleason score, and margin status were reviewed. The three groups had similar preoperative characteristics, except for PSA (8.4, 6.5, and 6.2 ng/ml) for the retropubic, robotic, and perineal approaches. Margins were positive in 12, 24, and 36% of the specimens from RALP, RRP, and RPP, respectively (P = 0.004). The positive margin rates in patients with pT2 tumors were 4, 14, and 19% in the RALP, RRP, and the RPP groups, respectively (P = 0.03). Controlling for age and pre-operative PSA and Gleason score, the rate of positive margins was statistically lower in the RALP versus both the RRP (P = 0.046) and the RPP groups (P = 0.02). In the patients with pT3 tumors, positive margins were observed in 36% of patients undergoing the RALP and 53 and 90% of those patients undergoing the RRP and RPP, respectively (P = 0.015). Controlling for the same factors, the rate of positive margins was statistically lower in the RALP versus the RPP (P = 0.01) but not compared with the RRP patients (P = 0.32). The percentage of positive margins was lower in RALP than in RPP for both pT2 and pT3 tumors. RRP had a higher percentage of positive margins than RALP in the pT2 tumors but not in the pT3 tumors.

  8. Robotic radical prostatectomy: advantages of an initial posterior dissection.

    PubMed

    Zorn, Kevin C

    2008-09-01

    During robotic radical prostatectomy (RRP), many surgeons currently employ the modified-Montsouris technique as initially described by Menon in 2002 with initial anterior prostate dissection. The anterior approach simulates the routine retropubic technique which open surgeons feel most comfortable with. Unfortunately, we observed early on in our experience that dissection of the seminal vesicles (SV) and vas deferens (VD) through a limited sized bladder neck posed limitations on working space and anatomic differentiation. As such, we have continued using a posterior-first dissection for several specific advantages. Herein, we describe our initial posterior dissection during RRP and discuss potential advantages of this approach, particularly for novice robotic surgeons. PMID:27628248

  9. Establishment of a new robotic prostatectomy program at a tertiary Veteran's Affairs medical center.

    PubMed

    Moore, Blake W; Dolat, Mary Ellen T; McPartlin, Daniel; Mayer Grob, B; Guruli, Georgi; Hampton, Lance J

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study is to report the initial results of a newly established robotic prostatectomy (DVP) program at a Veteran's Affairs (VA) medical center. All patients who underwent a radical prostatectomy during the first 18 months of our robotic surgical program were included in this study. These patients were compared to a control group that included all patients who underwent an open prostatectomy 18 months prior to starting our robotic program. Preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative data was compared between open and robotic prostatectomies. 38 men underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) between September 2007 and February 2009. With the introduction of robotic prostatectomy, the total number of prostatectomies increased by 84 % to 70 (9 RRP, 61 DVP). Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score and clinical stage were similar for both groups. Average estimated blood loss (EBL) was 1205 mL for RRP and 126 mL for DVP. Mean operative times in minutes were 259 and 254 for RRP and DVP, respectively. Complications included two rectal perforations, a cerebrovascular accident, one death after RRP and one open conversion for failure to progress. Average length of stay was 5.1 for RRP and 1.8 days for DVP. Total positive margins were 24 % for RRP and 15 % for DVP. For T2-specific disease, 16.7 % had positive margins after RRP compared to 4.3 % after DVP. The establishment of a robotic prostatectomy program at a tertiary VA medical center was achieved in a safe and efficient manner with improvement in EBL and length of stay when compared to our open prostatectomies. Oncologic outcomes were equivalent when compared to other initial DVP programs.

  10. Augmented Reality Image Guidance in Minimally Invasive Prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Daniel; Mayer, Erik; Chen, Dongbin; Anstee, Ann; Vale, Justin; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Edwards, Philip'eddie'

    This paper presents our work aimed at providing augmented reality (AR) guidance of robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery (RALP) using the da Vinci system. There is a good clinical case for guidance due to the significant rate of complications and steep learning curve for this procedure. Patients who were due to undergo robotic prostatectomy for organ-confined prostate cancer underwent preoperative 3T MRI scans of the pelvis. These were segmented and reconstructed to form 3D images of pelvic anatomy. The reconstructed image was successfully overlaid onto screenshots of the recorded surgery post-procedure. Surgeons who perform minimally-invasive prostatectomy took part in a user-needs analysis to determine the potential benefits of an image guidance system after viewing the overlaid images. All surgeons stated that the development would be useful at key stages of the surgery and could help to improve the learning curve of the procedure and improve functional and oncological outcomes. Establishing the clinical need in this way is a vital early step in development of an AR guidance system. We have also identified relevant anatomy from preoperative MRI. Further work will be aimed at automated registration to account for tissue deformation during the procedure, using a combination of transrectal ultrasound and stereoendoscopic video.

  11. Ultrasound elastography: enabling technology for image guided laparoscopic prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Ioana N.; Rivaz, Hassan; Macura, Katarzyna; Su, Li-Ming; Hamper, Ulrike; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Burnett, Arthur L., II; Lotan, Tamara; Taylor, Russell H.; Hager, Gregory D.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2009-02-01

    Radical prostatectomy using the laparoscopic and robot-assisted approach lacks tactile feedback. Without palpation, the surgeon needs an affordable imaging technology which can be easily incorporated into the laparoscopic surgical procedure, allowing for precise real time intraoperative tumor localization that will guide the extent of surgical resection. Ultrasound elastography (USE) is a novel ultrasound imaging technology that can detect differences in tissue density or stiffness based on tissue deformation. USE was evaluated here as an enabling technology for image guided laparoscopic prostatectomy. USE using a 2D Dynamic Programming (DP) algorithm was applied on data from ex vivo human prostate specimens. It proved consistent in identification of lesions; hard and soft, malignant and benign, located in the prostate's central gland or in the peripheral zone. We noticed the 2D DP method was able to generate low-noise elastograms using two frames belonging to the same compression or relaxation part of the palpation excitation, even at compression rates up to 10%. Good preliminary results were validated by pathology findings, and also by in vivo and ex vivo MR imaging. We also evaluated the use of ultrasound elastography for imaging cavernous nerves; here we present data from animal model experiments.

  12. Overcoming the challenges of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Goldstraw, M A; Challacombe, B J; Patil, K; Amoroso, P; Dasgupta, P; Kirby, R S

    2012-03-01

    Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is the most commonly performed robotic procedure worldwide and is firmly established as a standard treatment option for localised prostate cancer. Part of the explanation for the rapid uptake of RARP is the reported gentler learning curve compared with the challenges of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP). However, robotic surgery is still fraught with potential difficulties and avoiding complications while on the steepest part of the learning curve is critical. Furthermore, as surgeons progress there is a tendency to take on increasingly complex cases, including patients with difficult anatomy and prior surgery, and these cases present a unique challenge. Significant intra-abdominal adhesions may be identified following open surgery, or dense periprostatic inflammation may be encountered following TURP; large prostate gland size and median lobes may alter bladder neck anatomy, making difficult subsequent urethro-vesical anastomosis. Even experienced robotic surgeons will be challenged by salvage RARP. Approaching these problems in a structured manner allows many of the problems to be overcome. We discuss some of the specific techniques to deal with these potential difficulties and highlight ways to avoid making serious mistakes.

  13. Use of a semiconductor diode laser in laser prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakr, Ghazi; Watson, Graham M.; Lawrence, William

    1996-05-01

    The gold standard surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Over the past few years, TURP has been challenged by laser prostatectomy, a technique that offered many advantages including minimal bleeding, short hospital stay, no fluid absorption, rapid learning curve and better change to preserve antegrade ejaculation. Laser prostatectomy can be done by vaporizing or coagulating prostatic tissue and more recently by using a combination of both: The hybrid technique Nd:YAG lasers have been used, (coupled with contact tips or with side firing or even bare fibers) to either coagulate or vaporize prostatic tissue. Recently semiconductor diode lasers have become available and offer certain advantages. They are compact portable units with no need for water cooling, yet they have sufficient power for tissue vaporization. Diomed (Cambridge, U.K.), produces a 60 W gallium aluminum arsenide semiconductor diode laser emitting at 810 nm. We report the first clinical experience using a semiconductor diode laser for prostates using a combination of contact tip and sidefiring.

  14. Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy: Comparison of the Open and Robotic Approaches for Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Loeb, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy represents the standard of care for surgical treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer. First described in 1904, the operation became widely performed only after advances in diagnostic and surgical techniques occurred later in the century. Over time, open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) became the most common operation for prostate cancer, and excellent long-term survival outcomes have been reported. More recently, minimally invasive techniques such as the robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) were introduced. Despite a lack of prospectively collected, long-term data supporting its use, RALRP has overtaken RRP as the most frequently performed prostate cancer operation in the United States. This article uses currently available data to compare oncologic, functional, and quality-of-life outcomes associated with both the open and robotic approaches to radical prostatectomy. PMID:23172996

  15. Transurethral prostatectomy: practice aspects of the dominant operation in American urology.

    PubMed

    Holtgrewe, H L; Mebust, W K; Dowd, J B; Cockett, A T; Peters, P C; Proctor, C

    1989-02-01

    In a national survey of all American urologists transurethral prostatectomy accounted for 38 per cent of the major surgical procedures performed by the respondents. They regarded the operation as complex and they believe achievement of proficiency requires that more be performed during residency training than any other urological operation. Furthermore, they assigned transurethral prostatectomy a significantly higher relative value than have medical economists doing research in the field of physician reimbursement. The effect of recent legislated congressional reductions in the allowable Medicare fees for transurethral prostatectomy is discussed along with the impact of these reductions on urological patient care and the American urologist. Practice patterns and geographic variations in the costs of transurethral prostatectomy also are considered.

  16. A progress report on a prospective randomised trial of open and robotic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Robert A; Coughlin, Geoffrey D; Yaxley, John W; Dunglison, Nigel T; Occhipinti, Stefano; Younie, Sandra J; Carter, Rob C; Williams, Scott G; Medcraft, Robyn J; Samaratunga, Hema M; Perry-Keene, Joanna L; Payton, Diane J; Lavin, Martin F; Chambers, Suzanne K

    2014-03-01

    A randomised trial of robotic and open prostatectomy commenced in October 2010 and is progressing well. Clinical and quality of life outcomes together with economic costs to individuals and the health service are being examined critically to compare outcomes.

  17. A comparison of the robotic-assisted versus retropubic radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Laviana, A A; Hu, J C

    2013-09-01

    After Walsh's detailed anatomic description of pelvic anatomy in 1979, the retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) was the predominant surgical treatment for prostate cancer for more than twenty-five years. Over the past decade, however, the robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) has grown increasingly popular and now is the most used surgical modality. Willingness to adopt this approach has been confounded by the novelty of technology and widespread marketing campaigns. In this article, we performed a literature search comparing radical retropubic prostatectomy to robotic-assisted radical prostetectomy with regard to perioperative, oncologic, and quality-of-life outcomes. We performed a PubMed literature search for a review of articles published between 2000 and 2013. Relevant articles were highlighted using the following keywords: robot or robotic prostatectomy, open or retropubic prostatectomy. Perioperative outcomes including decreased blood loss, fewer blood transfusions, and decreased length of hospital stay tend to favor RARP, while perioperative mortality is near negligible in both. Short-term positive surgical margins, prostate-specific antigen recurrence free survival, and need for salvage therapy following RARP are similar to RRP, though data at greater than ten years is limited. Preservation of urinary and sexual function and quality of life favored RARP, though this is dependent on surgeon technique. Finally, cost, though evolving, favors RRP. In our current state, most prostatectomies will continue to be perfromed robotically. Though there is evidence the robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy offers shorter lengths of stay, decreased intraoperative blood loss, faster return of sexual function and continence, there is a paucity on long-term oncologic outcomes. Rigorous, prospective randomized-controlled trials need to be performed to determine the long-term success of the robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy and whether it is cost

  18. Preoperative staging and early postoperative complications in radical prostatectomy. Experiences in 35 cases.

    PubMed

    Romics, I; Bach, D; Widmann, T

    1994-01-01

    It is already a textbook item that in patients with prostatic cancer stage T1-T2 N0M0 radical prostatectomy is the only curative treatment. Radical prostatectomy is indicated also for patients in stage T3 N0M0 who underwent antiandrogenic (Fugerel) treatment for 3 months with the aim of reducing tumour volume. In the following 35 cases will be scrutinized, with special regard to preoperative staging and early postoperative complications.

  19. Nursing care program for erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Lombraña, Maria; Izquierdo, Laura; Gomez, Ascension; Alcaraz, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    The prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in 114 patients with prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy was examined to determine the efficacy of an ED care program in which nurse-provided education plays a fundamental role in the detection and follow-up of ED as well as in treatment compliance. The nursing program consists of four visits during which specific treatment-related information, education and support, active listening, and selection of the treatment best suited to each patient (in consultation with the healthcare team) are provided. One month following bladder catheter removal, 77 of the 114 patients (69%) in the study had ED, with a majority suffering from severe ED. A nursing care program could help minimize ED and enable patients to adapt to their new situation. PMID:23022944

  20. Current status of penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Heon

    2015-01-01

    Although disease-free survival remains the primary goal of prostate cancer treatment, erectile dysfunction (ED) remains a common complication that affects the quality of life. Even though several preventive and therapeutic strategies are available for ED after radical prostatectomy (RP), no specific recommendations have been made on the optimal rehabilitation or treatment strategy. Several treatment options are available, including phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, vacuum erection devices, intracavernosal or intraurethral prostaglandin injections, and penile prostheses. Urologists must consider more effective ways to establish optimal treatments for ED after RP. ED is an important issue among patients with prostate cancer, and many patients hope for early ED recovery after surgery. This review highlights the currently available treatment options for ED after RP and discusses the limitations of each. PMID:25685296

  1. Transurethral ultrasound-guided laser prostatectomy: initial Luebeck experince

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Stephen; Spitzenpfeil, Elisabeth; Knipper, Ansgar; Jocham, Dieter

    1994-02-01

    Transurethral ultrasound guided laser prostatectomy is one of the most promising alternative invasive treatment modalities for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The principle feature is an on- line 3-D controlling of Nd:YAG laser denaturation of the periurethral tissue. Necrotic tissue is not removed, but sloughs away with the urinary stream within weeks. The bleeding hazard during and after the operation is minimal. By leaving the bladder neck untouched, sexual function is not endangered. Thirty-one patients with symptomatic BPH were treated with the TULIP system and followed up for at least 12 weeks. Suprapubic bladder drainage had to be maintained for a mean time of 37 days. Conventional TURP was performed in four patients due to chronic infection, recurrent bleeding, and poor results. Our initial experience with the TULIP system shows it to be very efficient and safe. A longer follow up of a larger patient population is necessary to compare the therapeutic efficiency to conventional transurethral resection.

  2. Variations in the quality of care at radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sammon, Jesse; Jhaveri, Jay; Sun, Maxine; Ghani, Khurshid R.; Schmitges, Jan; Jeong, Wooju; Peabody, James O.; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.; Menon, Mani

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative morbidity and mortality is low following radical prostatectomy (RP), though not inconsequential. Due to the natural history of the disease process, the implications of treatment on long-term oncologic control and functional outcomes are of increased significance. Structures, processes and outcomes are the three main determinants of quality of RP care and provide the framework for this review. Structures affecting quality of care include hospital and surgeon volume, hospital teaching status and patient insurance type. Process determinants of RP care have been poorly studied, by and large, but there is a developing trend toward the performance of randomized trials to assess the merits of evolving RP techniques. Finally, the direct study of RP outcomes has been particularly controversial and includes the development of quality of life measurement tools, combined outcomes measures, and the use of utilities to measure operative success based on individual patient priority. PMID:22496709

  3. Improved Outcomes With Higher Doses for Salvage Radiotherapy After Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    King, Christopher R. Spiotto, Michael T.

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate relapse-free survival with higher doses for patients receiving salvage radiotherapy (RT) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Patients and Methods: A total of 122 patients with pathologically negative lymph nodes received salvage RT after RP from 1984 to 2004. Median prostate bed dose was 60 Gy for 38 patients and 70 Gy for 84 patients. Four months of total androgen suppression and whole-pelvic RT were given concurrently to 68 and 72 patients, respectively. The median follow-up was >5 years. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards multivariable analyses were performed for all clinical, pathologic, and treatment factors predicting for biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS). Results: There were 60 biochemical failures after salvage RT, with a median time to failure of 1.2 years. A dose response was observed, with a 5-year bRFS rate of 25% vs. 58% for prostate bed doses of 60 Gy vs. 70 Gy (p < 0.0001). For patients receiving RT alone the 5-year bRFS rate was 17% vs. 55% (p = 0.016), and for those receiving prostate-bed-only RT it was 23% vs. 66% (p = 0.037) for doses of 60 Gy vs. 70 Gy, respectively. On multivariate analysis a prostate bed dose of 70 Gy (p 0.012, hazard ratio [HR] 0.48 [95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.27-0.87]), pre-RT prostate-specific antigen value {<=}1 ng/mL (p < 0.0001, HR 0.28 [95% CI, 0.16-0.48]), and lack of seminal vesicle involvement (p = 0.009, HR 0.44 [95% CI, 0.26-0.77]) remained independently significant. Conclusions: A clinically significant dose response from 60 Gy to 70 Gy was observed in the setting of salvage RT after prostatectomy. A dose of 70 Gy to the prostate bed is recommended to achieve optimal disease-free survival.

  4. Laser prostatectomy using a right angle delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Flavio T.; Mitre, Anuar I.; Chavantes, Maria C.; Arap, Sami

    1995-05-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) represents a major health problem in old men. In the present transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the gold standard treatment for BPH. Although TURP is related to low mortality rates its mobidity is quite high. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new surgical treatment for BPH we undertook 30 patients with symptomatic BPH. All of them were submitted to a laser prostatectomy using a lateral delivery system (non contact) connected to a Nd-YAG laser font. The preoperative evaluation showed a prostate weight ranging from 30,5 to 86 grams (mean equals 42,5). The preoperative prostatic specific antigen (PSA) ranged from 0,9 to 10,2 ng/dl (mean equals 4.3). The International prostate symptom score (I-PSS) ranged from 16 to 35 points (means equals 23,58). The flow rate ranged from 0 to m 12.8 ml/sec (mean equals 4,65) and the postvoid residual urine from 20 to 400 ml (mean equals 100). We obtained follow-up in 20 patients. After three months after the procedure the parameters were: I-PSS from 4 to 20 points (mean equals 7,0) p < 0.05. Flow rate from 6,5 to m 19.4 ml/sec (mean equals 12,95) p < 0.05 and the postvoid residual urine from 17 to 70 ml (mean equals 30 ml) p < 0.05. No blood transfusion was required. The complications were persistent disuria in two patients, bladder neck contracture in one patient and urethral stenosis in one patient. We concluded that laser prostatectomy is a safe and effective treatment for BPH.

  5. A comparative study of complications and outcomes associated with radical retropubic prostatectomy and robot assisted radical prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettman, Matthew T.

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcomes among a matched cohort of prostate cancer patients treated with radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) and robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Materials and methods: Between 2002 and 2005, 294 patients underwent RARP at our institution. Comparison RRP patients were matched 2:1 for surgical year, age, PSA, clinical stage, and biopsy grade (n=588). Outcomes among groups were compared. From an oncologic standpoint, pathologic features among groups were assessed and Kaplan-Meier estimates of PSA recurrence free survival were compared. Results: Overall margin positivity was not significantly different between groups (RARP, 15.6%, RRP, 17%), yet risk of apical margin was significantly less with RARP. RARP was associated with significantly shorter hospitalization (p<0.01) and lower incidence of blood transfusion (p < 0.01). Early complications were higher in the RARP group (16% vs 10%, p<0.01). Among late complications, risk of bladder neck contracture was lower with RARP (1.2%, p=0.02). Adjuvant hormonal therapy was significantly higher in the RRP group (6.6% p<0.01). Continence at 1 year among groups was equivalent (p=0.15). Potency at 1 year was better among RARP patients (p=0.02). At a median followup of 1.3 years, PSA recurrence free estimates were not significantly different (92% vs 92%, p=0.69). Conclusions: Early complications were higher in this RARP group, but this experience includes cases performed in the learning curve. Oncologic, quality of life, and functional data in this study revealed encouraging results for RARP when compared to RRP.

  6. [Urinary incontinence in early experience with robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy-comparison with radical retropubic prostatectomy].

    PubMed

    Iseki, Ryo; Ohori, Makoto; Hatano, Tadashi; Tachibana, Masaaki

    2012-08-01

    To compare the results of urinary incontinence in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer, T1a- 3aN0M0, treated by robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) or open radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP), we studied 44 patients treated with RALP and 60 who received RRP by one surgeon between March 2004 and January 2011. The pad-free and safety-pad (1 pad a day) rates after surgery were calculated with Kaplan-Meyer method. All preoperative and postoperative factors were not significantly different between the two groups. Overall, 88% of the patients in the RRP group were pad-free with a mean follow-up of 54 months and 93% of the patients in the RALP group were pad-free with a mean follow up of 22.1 months. However, the pad-free rates at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery were 33, 58.6 and 75.8%, respectively, in the RRP group compared to 44, 72 and 89.5% in the RALP group, respectively (p = 0.0393). Similarly, 97% of the patients in the RRP group and 98% of the patients in the RALP group used a safety-pad during the observation period. The rates of safety-pad at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery were 52.7, 71.6 and 81%, respectively, in the RRP group compared to 78.9,92 and 94.7% in the RALP group, respectively (p = 0.002). In conclusion, while the follow-period is short and the number of patients is small, RALP may provide a better functional outcome after surgery in terms of early recovery of urinary incontinence than RRP. This may be one of the reasons to justify the use of robotic surgery as an alternative to the traditional RRP.

  7. Comparison of Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy and Open Radical Prostatectomy Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Na Rae; Son, Soo Kyung; Kim, Dae Keun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To systematically update evidence on the clinical efficacy and safety of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) versus retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) in patients with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Electronic databases, including ovidMEDLINE, ovidEMBASE, the Cochrane Library, KoreaMed, KMbase, and others, were searched, collecting data from January 1980 to August 2013. The quality of selected systematic reviews was assessed using the revised assessment of multiple systematic reviews and the modified Cochrane Risk of Bias tool for non-randomized studies. Results A total of 61 studies were included, including 38 from two previous systematic reviews rated as best available evidence and 23 additional studies that were more recent. There were no randomized controlled trials. Regarding safety, the risk of complications was lower for RARP than for RRP. Among functional outcomes, the risk of urinary incontinence was lower and potency rate was significantly higher for RARP than for RRP. Regarding oncologic outcomes, positive margin rates were comparable between groups, and although biochemical recurrence (BCR) rates were lower for RARP than for RRP, recurrence-free survival was similar after long-term follow up. Conclusion RARP might be favorable to RRP in regards to post-operative complications, peri-operative outcomes, and functional outcomes. Positive margin and BCR rates were comparable between the two procedures. As most of studies were of low quality, the results presented should be interpreted with caution, and further high quality studies controlling for selection, confounding, and selective reporting biases with longer-term follow-up are needed to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of RARP. PMID:27401648

  8. Avoiding and managing vascular injury during robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, René; Nunez Bragayrac, Luciano A; Machuca, Victor; Garza Cortes, Roberto; Azhar, Raed A

    2015-02-01

    There has been an increase in the number of urologic procedures performed robotically assisted; this is the case for radical prostatectomy. Currently, in the USA, 67% of prostatectomies are performed robotically assisted. With this increase in robotic urologic surgery it is clear that there are more surgeons in their learning curve, where most of the complications occur. Among the complications that can occur are vascular injuries. These can occur in the initial stages of surgery, such as in accessing the abdominal cavity, as well as in the intraoperative or postoperative setting. We present the most common vascular injuries in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, as well as their management and prevention. We believe that it is of vital importance to be able to recognize these injuries so that they can be prevented.

  9. Open radical retropubic prostatectomy 2007: the true minimally invasive surgery for localized prostate cancer?

    PubMed

    Nosnik, Israel P; Gan, Tong J; Moul, Judd W

    2007-09-01

    The introduction of robotic laparoscopic assisted prostatectomy at our institution and nationwide has been a great advancement and has caused us to focus and fine-tune our goal for improvements in prostate cancer outcomes whether the patient elects for robotic laparoscopic assisted prostatectomy or open minimally invasive radical retropubic prostatectomy. While these authors favor the open technique performed by highly skilled urologic surgical oncologists, the lessons we have learned to date suggest that it is the skill of the surgeon that determines outcome, regardless of whether or not the operation is performed by an open or robotic laparoscopic technique. The concepts we have articulated here are related to resection and avoidance of positive margins, limited intraoperative blood loss and pain control, which allow equivalence in these outcome areas, regardless of technique.

  10. Avoiding and managing vascular injury during robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, René; Nunez Bragayrac, Luciano A; Machuca, Victor; Garza Cortes, Roberto; Azhar, Raed A

    2015-02-01

    There has been an increase in the number of urologic procedures performed robotically assisted; this is the case for radical prostatectomy. Currently, in the USA, 67% of prostatectomies are performed robotically assisted. With this increase in robotic urologic surgery it is clear that there are more surgeons in their learning curve, where most of the complications occur. Among the complications that can occur are vascular injuries. These can occur in the initial stages of surgery, such as in accessing the abdominal cavity, as well as in the intraoperative or postoperative setting. We present the most common vascular injuries in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, as well as their management and prevention. We believe that it is of vital importance to be able to recognize these injuries so that they can be prevented. PMID:25642293

  11. Avoiding and managing vascular injury during robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nunez Bragayrac, Luciano A.; Machuca, Victor; Garza Cortes, Roberto; Azhar, Raed A.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increase in the number of urologic procedures performed robotically assisted; this is the case for radical prostatectomy. Currently, in the USA, 67% of prostatectomies are performed robotically assisted. With this increase in robotic urologic surgery it is clear that there are more surgeons in their learning curve, where most of the complications occur. Among the complications that can occur are vascular injuries. These can occur in the initial stages of surgery, such as in accessing the abdominal cavity, as well as in the intraoperative or postoperative setting. We present the most common vascular injuries in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, as well as their management and prevention. We believe that it is of vital importance to be able to recognize these injuries so that they can be prevented. PMID:25642293

  12. Gluteal compartment syndrome after prostatectomy caused by incorrect positioning.

    PubMed

    Heyn, Jens; Ladurner, R; Ozimek, A; Vogel, T; Hallfeldt, K K; Mussack, T

    2006-04-28

    Gluteal compartment syndrome is an uncommon and rare disease. Most reasonable causes for the development of this disease are trauma, drug induced coma, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, sickle cell associated muscle infarction, incorrect positioning during surgical procedures and prolonged pressure in patients with altered consciousness levels. The diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, especially in postoperative patient where sedation or peridural anaesthesia can confound the neurological examination. Early signs include gluteal tenderness, decrease in vibratory sensation during clinical examination and increasing CK in laboratory findings. We present a case of a 52 year-old patient, who developed gluteal compartment syndrome after radical prostatectomy in lithotomic position. After operation, diuresis decreased [<50 ml/h] and CK [93927 U/l], LDH [1528 U/l], creatinin [1.5 mg/dl] and urea [20 mg/dl] increased in laboratory findings. Despite peridural anaesthesia, the patient complained about increasing pain in the gluteal region and both thighs. His thighs and the gluteal region were swollen. Passive stretch of the thighs caused enormous pain. The compartment pressure was 92 mmHg. Therefore, emergency fasciotomy was performed successfully. The gluteal compartment syndrome was most likely caused by elevated pressure on the gluteal muscle during operation. We suggest heightened awareness of positioning the patient on the operating table is important especially in obese patients with lengthy operating procedures. PMID:16720283

  13. Transurethral canine prostatectomy with a cylindrically diffusing fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cromeens, Douglas M.; Johnson, Douglas E.; Price, Roger E.

    1994-09-01

    In this study, visual laser ablation of the prostate (VLAP) was performed on eight mongrel dogs utilizing a cylindrically diffusing fiber attached to a 1.06 neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) laser. All dogs received one continuous dose totaling 15,000 J (25 W for 10 min) applied from the vesical neck to the colliculus seminalis. There was no visible hemorrhage from the lasing intraoperatively in any dog. Postoperative recovery was uneventful with no dog experiencing urinary incontinence and only one incident of dysuria with urinary retention during their observation period. Gross and histopathologic examinations of serial sections of the prostate were performed from 2 hours to 7 weeks postoperatively and demonstrated a consistent spherical zone of destruction 2.9 cm (average) in diameter. We believe the simplified fiber placement and complete lack of postoperative complications in this small group of dogs suggest that the cylindrically diffusing fiber offers significant advantage over laterally deflecting fibers for transurethral prostatectomies in the dog.

  14. Radiation Therapy after Radical Prostatectomy: Implications for Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Fernanda G.; Berthold, Dominik R.

    2016-01-01

    Depending on the pathological findings, up to 60% of prostate cancer patients who undergo radical prostatectomy (RP) will develop biochemical relapse and require further local treatment. Radiotherapy (RT) immediately after RP may potentially eradicate any residual localized microscopic disease in the prostate bed, and it is associated with improved biochemical, clinical progression-free survival, and overall survival in patients with high-risk pathological features according to published randomized trials. Offering immediate adjuvant RT to all men with high-risk pathological factors we are over-treating around 50% of patients who would anyway be cancer-free, exposing them to unnecessary toxicity and adding costs to the health-care system. The current dilemma is, thus, whether to deliver adjuvant immediate RT solely on the basis of high-risk pathology, but in the absence of measurable prostate-specific antigen, or whether early salvage radiotherapy would yield equivalent outcomes. Randomized trials are ongoing to definitely answer this question. Retrospective analyses suggest that there is a dose–response favoring doses >70 Gy to the prostate bed. The evidence regarding the role of androgen deprivation therapy is emerging, and ongoing randomized trials are underway. PMID:27242957

  15. Port site hernias following robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Hotston, Matthew Richard; Beatty, J D; Shendi, K; Ogden, C

    2009-03-01

    Port site herniation is a rare but potentially major complication of laparoscopic surgery, but its importance within the context of robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) is less understood. We describe two cases that developed port site hernias following RALP, within a single surgeon case series of over 500 cases. Both patients re-presented with vague abdominal symptoms early following surgery, with a subsequent Computer tomography scan demonstrating small bowel herniation through the abdominal wall defect at the right lateral assistant 12 mm port site. Both required surgical exploration and successful repair. Following review of these cases and the current literature, we have since adapted our surgical approach. We recommend the routine use of a 'nonbladed' trocar for all 12 mm ports, which should also be formally closed incorporating all fascial layers. Early post-operative abdominal signs should alert the surgeon to its presence, and management should include immediate abdominal CT scanning and surgical re-exploration. PMID:27628454

  16. Extended lymph node dissection in robotic radical prostatectomy: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Sameer; Alemozaffar, Mehrdad; Gill, Inderbir; Aron, Monish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The role and extent of extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) during radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer patients remains unclear. Materials and Methods: A PubMed literature search was performed for studies reporting on treatment regimens and outcomes in patients with prostate cancer treated by RP and extended lymph node dissection between 1999 and 2013. Results: Studies have shown that RP can improve progression-free and overall survival in patients with lymph node-positive prostate cancer. While this finding requires further validation, it does allow urologists to question the former treatment paradigm of aborting surgery when lymph node invasion from prostate cancer occurred, especially in patients with limited lymph node tumor infiltration. Studies show that intermediate- and high-risk patients should undergo ePLND up to the common iliac arteries in order to improve nodal staging. Conclusions: Evidence from the literature suggests that RP with ePLND improves survival in lymph node-positive prostate cancer. While studies have shown promising results, further improvements and understanding of the surgical technique and post-operative treatment are required to improve treatment for prostate cancer patients with lymph node involvement. PMID:27127352

  17. [Giant lymphocele arising after extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy].

    PubMed

    Mikami, Hiroshi; Ito, Keiichi; Yoshii, Hidehiko; Kosaka, Takeo; Miyajima, Akira; Kaji, Tatsumi; Asano, Tomohiko; Hayakawa, Masamichi

    2008-01-01

    A 68-year-old male visited our division with an elevation of PSA level. He underwent a needle biopsy of the prostate, and the histopathological diagnosis was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (Gleason score 4+3). The cancer was clinically diagnosed as T2aN0M0, and he underwent extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy. Cystography 14 days after the operation still showed leakage at the vesico-urethral anastomosis and a dumbbell shaped bladder. A few days later, prominence of lower abdomen and a slight swelling of right leg presented with a high fever. Computed tomography revealed a giant lymphocele in the retroperitoneal space. We percutaneously punctured the lymphocele by using ultrasonography, inserted a pigtail catheter, and drained 1,000 ml of lymphatic fluid. After the puncture, sclerotherapy with minocycline was performed four times. Twenty days after the puncture, the lymphocele cavity was found to have shrunken and the pigtail catheter was removed. The lymphocele was diminished and did not recur thereafter.

  18. Lessons learned from a case of calf compartment syndrome after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Rosevear, Henry M; Lightfoot, Andrew J; Zahs, Marta; Waxman, Steve W; Winfield, Howard N

    2010-10-01

    Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy is rapidly gaining favor as a minimally invasive method to surgically address prostate cancer. The sophisticated equipment and unique positioning requirements of this technology require exceptional preparation and attention to detail to minimize the chance of surgical complications. We present the case of a 57-year-old man who developed left calf compartment syndrome after (robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy) requiring fasciotomies. We use this example to highlight specific areas of risk unique to the da Vinci Surgical System® using intraoperative photos to show danger areas as well as review basic positioning requirements common to all prolonged pelvic surgeries performed in Trendelenburg position.

  19. Comparison of antegrade and retrograde laparoscopic radical prostatectomy techniques.

    PubMed

    Tugcu, Volkan; Sahin, Selcuk; Resorlu, Berkan; Yigitbasi, Ismail; Yavuzsan, Abdullah H; Tasci, Ali I

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of antegrade and retrograde approaches on functional recovery and surgical outcomes of extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP). We analyzed 135 patients who underwent extraperitoneal LRP, with the retrograde technique performed on 42 (31%; Group 1) and the antegrade technique on 93 (69%; Group 2). Both groups were statistically similar with respect to age, clinical stage, preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores, prostate volume, and previous surgical history. Mean operative time was significantly longer in Group 1 (244±18.3 vs. 203.3±18.4 min, p<0.001), whereas mean anastomosis times for both groups were similar (35.8±7.2 vs. 34.7±5.8 min, p=0.155). Estimated blood loss and transfusion rates were significantly lower in Group 2. A significant difference was observed for both hospitalization (6.79±3.3 vs. 5.46±3.08 days, respectively; p=0.026) and catheterization times (12.24±2.1 vs. 11±1.08 days, respectively; p=0.001) for Group 2. The total complication rate was 47.6% in Group 1, and 11.8% in Group 2 (p<0.01). Rates of positive surgical margins were 14.2% and 15% for Groups 1 and 2, respectively. At the 12-month interval from operation, similar recoveries in urinary continence were obtained for both groups (81% in Group 1; 91% in Group 2). Upon comparison of the two LRP techniques, we found that both were effective; however, the latter resulted in lower minor complication rate, lower blood loss, shorter operation time, and shorter length of hospital stay. PMID:27523453

  20. New technique for prostatectomy using Ho:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daidoh, Yuichiro; Arai, Tsunenori; Murai, Masaru; Nakajima, Akio; Tsuji, Akira; Odajima, Kunio; Nakajima, Fumio; Kikuchi, Makoto; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    1994-05-01

    To develop a new transperineal laser prostatectomy through a biopsy needle, we determined the efficiency of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation for canine prostate. The Ho:YAG laser ((lambda) equals 2.1 micrometers ) may induced stress-wave to destroy the small vessels in prostate. After the exposure of the canine prostate, it was punctured by the needle. A quartz fiber of which core-diameter was 200 or 400 micrometers was inserted into the 18 G needle. The irradiation fluence was set to 150 - 600 J/cm2 and repetition rate was kept at 2 Hz. The cross-section of the irradiated portion of the prostate extracted immediately after the irradiation showed dark-colored hemorrhage layer around the ablation tract with 1 - 2 mm thickness. Some hemorrhage was histologically seen in stoma and gland in the irradiated prostate. In the case of 150 - 175 J/cm2 in the irradiation fluence, the irradiated portion of the prostate was found in the wedge-shaped area with brown color at one week after the irradiation. The lymphocytes infiltrating into the wedge-shaped zone were found. The wedge- shaped zone spread over the prostate and the change of urethral mucosa was minimum at one month after the irradiation. In the case of 500 - 600 J/cm2 irradiation, the paraurethral cavity was made at one month after the irradiation. The histological examination showed that the hemorrhage and subsequent histological changes may be caused by the laser induced stress-wave rather than thermal effect. Our results suggest that transperineal irradiation of pulsed Ho:YAG might offer an effective treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia with the minimal damage to the urethral mucosa.

  1. Salvage open radical prostatectomy after failed radiation therapy: a single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Gorin, Michael A.; Manoharan, Murugesan; Shah, Galaxy; Eldefrawy, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Currently there is no universally accepted approach for the management of radiation-recurrent prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to detail our experience performing salvage radical prostatectomy for patients who failed primary treatment of prostate cancer with radiation therapy. Material and methods We retrospectively queried our institutional database of radical prostatectomy cases for patients who underwent salvage surgery for radiation-recurrent prostate cancer. Patients were assessed for the risk of complications and oncologic outcomes following salvage surgery. Results Twenty-four patients with a mean age of 65 years (range 51-74) underwent salvage radical prostatectomy. Fourteen of these patients (58%) received androgen deprivation therapy prior to surgery. Intraoperatively, mean blood loss was estimated at 415 mL (range 100-1000) and 19 (79%) patients received autologous blood. No patient required an allogeneic transfusion or experienced a rectal injury. Postoperative bladder neck contracture and urinary incontinence developed in 17% and 39% of men, respectively. Two (29%) of seven patients remained potent after salvage surgery. No patient developed a fistula. Overall and recurrence-free survival at 5-years was 90% and 39%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, extracapsular extension was the only significant predictor of biochemical recurrence (HR 6.9, 95% CI 1.9-25.3 p = 0.003). Conclusion In carefully selected patients, salvage radical prostatectomy for radiation-recurrent prostate cancer is a treatment option with acceptable oncologic outcomes and a moderate complication rate. PMID:24578882

  2. Ceramic foam plates: a new tool for processing fresh radical prostatectomy specimens.

    PubMed

    Vlajnic, Tatjana; Oeggerli, Martin; Rentsch, Cyrill; Püschel, Heike; Zellweger, Tobias; Thalmann, George N; Ruiz, Christian; Bubendorf, Lukas

    2014-12-01

    Procurement of fresh tissue of prostate cancer is critical for biobanking and generation of xenograft models as an important preclinical step towards new therapeutic strategies in advanced prostate cancer. However, handling of fresh radical prostatectomy specimens has been notoriously challenging given the distinctive physical properties of prostate tissue and the difficulty to identify cancer foci on gross examination. Here, we have developed a novel approach using ceramic foam plates for processing freshly cut whole mount sections from radical prostatectomy specimens without compromising further diagnostic assessment. Forty-nine radical prostatectomy specimens were processed and sectioned from the apex to the base in whole mount slices. Putative carcinoma foci were morphologically verified by frozen section analysis. The fresh whole mount slices were then laid between two ceramic foam plates and fixed overnight. To test tissue preservation after this procedure, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded whole mount sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and analyzed by immunohistochemistry, fluorescence, and silver in situ hybridization (FISH and SISH, respectively). There were no morphological artifacts on H&E stained whole mount sections from slices that had been fixed between two plates of ceramic foam, and the histological architecture was fully retained. The quality of immunohistochemistry, FISH, and SISH was excellent. Fixing whole mount tissue slices between ceramic foam plates after frozen section examination is an excellent method for processing fresh radical prostatectomy specimens, allowing for a precise identification and collection of fresh tumor tissue without compromising further diagnostic analysis.

  3. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and resection of rectum performed together: first experience

    PubMed Central

    Orhalmi, Julius; Kosina, Josef; Balik, Michal; Pacovsky, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Laparoscopy is an increasingly used approach in the surgical treatment of rectal cancer and prostate cancer. The anatomical proximity of the two organs is the main reason to consider performing both procedures simultaneously. Aim To present our first experience of laparoscopic rectal resection and radical prostatectomy, performed simultaneously, in 3 patients. Material and methods The first patient was diagnosed with locally advanced rectal cancer and tumor infiltration of the prostate and seminal vesicles. The other 2 patients were diagnosed with tumor duplicity. The surgery of the first patient started with laparoscopic prostatectomy except division of the prostate from the rectal wall. The next step was resection of the rectum, extralevator amputation of the rectum and vesicourethral anastomosis. In the other patients, resection of the rectum, followed by radical prostatectomy, was performed. Results The median follow-up was 12 months. The median operation time was 4 h 40 min, with blood loss of 300 ml. The operations and postoperative course were without incident in the case of 2 patients. However, 1 patient had stercoral peritonitis and a vesicorectal fistula in the early postoperative stage. Sigmoidostomy and postponed ureteroileal conduit were carried out. All patients were in oncologic remission. Conclusions Combined laparoscopic rectal resection and radical prostatectomy is a viable option for selected patients with locally advanced rectal cancer or tumor duplication. The procedures were completed without complications in 2 out of 3 patients. PMID:26649093

  4. Overcoming the learning curve for robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Freire, Marcos P; Choi, Wesley W; Lei, Yin; Carvas, Fernando; Hu, Jim C

    2010-02-01

    Robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) has been rapidly adopted in the last few years despite having a prolonged learning curve. This article describes the RALP learning curve, reviews in detail the challenging steps of the operation, describes the authors' RALP technique, and concludes with tips to overcome the learning curve.

  5. Pre-Operative Education Classes Prior to Robotic Prostatectomy Benefit Both Patients and Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Collin, Carrie; Bellas, Nicholas; Haddock, Peter; Wagner, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    As part of a process improvement initiative, we designed, implemented, and assessed the impact of pre-surgical education classes for patients scheduled to undergo robotic prostatectomy. Our aim was to both enhance patient access to important procedural information related to their surgery, and also limit the need for the repeated dissemination of information during patient calls to the office.

  6. Pre-Operative Education Classes Prior to Robotic Prostatectomy Benefit Both Patients and Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Collin, Carrie; Bellas, Nicholas; Haddock, Peter; Wagner, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    As part of a process improvement initiative, we designed, implemented, and assessed the impact of pre-surgical education classes for patients scheduled to undergo robotic prostatectomy. Our aim was to both enhance patient access to important procedural information related to their surgery, and also limit the need for the repeated dissemination of information during patient calls to the office. PMID:26821448

  7. [Robot-asssisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (ralp). Oncological and functional findings after 90 cases].

    PubMed

    Gilberti, C; Schenone, M; Cortese, P; Gallo, F; Gastaldi, E; Ninotta, G

    2009-01-01

    The RALP is the most modern technology available for the treatment of intracapsular prostate cancer (CaP), which can produce a shorter learning curve and better results than the traditional techniques. METHODS. Between March 2005 and March 2008, 90 patients (64.3 ys, range 52-71) with intracapsular CaP underwent RALP at our institute. Before surgery the patients underwent routine examinations and filled in IIEF, IPSS and EORTC-QLQC30/PR 25 questionnaires. Patients were followed up with PSA assay, physical examination and compilation of the questionnaires. Median follow-up was 12.5 months (range 1-35 months). RESULTS. Mean operative time was 230 min. Discharge and catheter removal were at day 7.4 and 8.2, respectively, after surgery. Pathological staging reported pT2 and pT3 in 57 (63%) and 33 patients (37%), respectively. Positive surgical margins were assessed in 30 patients (33%), particularly 8.7% in pT2 tumors. The one-year biochemical disease-free survival rate was 90%. Regarding the functional results, 81 patients (90%) were perfectly continent while a mild and a moderate incontinence were reported in 7 (8%) and 2 (2%) patients, respectively. Mean IPSS score decreased from 8 to 4; among the patients who underwent bilateral nerve sparing RALP and no adjuvant therapy, 31 (70.4%) reported satisfactory sexual intercourses. Concerning postoperative quality of life, mean EORTC-QLQC30/PR 25 questionnaires scores were very similar before and after RALP. CONCLUSIONS. After 90 cases of RALP the oncological and functional results are definitely promising. However, a wider number of patients and a greater follow-up are needed to confirm these data particularly as regards the functional results.

  8. Correlation between Gleason Scores in Needle Biopsy and Corresponding Radical Prostatectomy Specimens: A Twelve-Year Review

    PubMed Central

    Khoddami, Maliheh; Khademi, Yassaman; Kazemi Aghdam, Maryam; Soltanghoraee, Haleh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Presence of discordance between the Gleason score on needle biopsy and the score of radical prostatectomy specimen is common and universal. In this study, we determined the accuracy of Gleason grading of biopsies in predicting histological grading of radical prostatectomy specimens and the degree of overgrading and undergrading of prostatic adenocarcinoma in our center, which is one of the referral centers in Tehran. Methods: In this retrospective study, we analyzed the results of prostate needle biopsies and subsequent prostatectomies diagnosed at the Pathobiology Laboratory Center, Tehran, Iran in 45 patients between 2002 and 2013. Preoperative clinical data and the information from biopsy and prostatectomy specimens were collected. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of different grades and groups were assessed. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficient were used to determine the relation of different variables. Results: The biopsy Gleason score was identical to the scores in prostatectomy specimens in 68.2% cases, while 31.8% were discrepant by 1 or 2 Gleason score. We had 9.1% downgrading and 22.7% cases upgraded after prostatectomy. The sensitivity and positive predictive value was 86% and 79% for low grade, 67% and 75% for moderate grade, and 80% and 80% for high-grade tumors, respectively. Conclusion: Overall, the reliability of Gleason grading of needle biopsies in predicting final pathology was satisfavory. Moderate grade group was the most difficult to diagnose in needle biopsy. PMID:27499772

  9. Economic Evaluation Study (Cheer Compliant) Laser Prostatectomy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Outcomes and Cost-effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yu-Chao; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Chou, Chih-Yuan; Hou, Chen-Pang; Chen, Chien-Lun; Chang, Phei-Lang; Tsui, Ke-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine which surgical treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms, which is suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is more cost-effective and yields a better patient's preference. Treatment outcome, cost, and perioperative complications to assess the treatment effectiveness of using laser prostatectomy as a treatment for BPH were investigated in this study. This retrospective study included 100 patients who underwent transurethral resection of prostate (TUR-P) and another 100 patients who received high-powered 120 W (GreenLight HPS) laser prostatectomy between 2005 and 2011. International Prostate Symptom Score and uroflow parameters were collected before the surgery and the uroflow and postvoiding residual volumes were evaluated before treatment and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment. The results of 100 treatments after HPS laser prostatectomy were compared with the results of 100 patients who received TUR-P from the same surgeon. Complication rates and admission costs were analyzed. From 2005 to 2011, 200 consecutive patients underwent endoscopic surgery. Study participants were men with BPH with mean age of 71.3 years old. The peak flow rate went from 8.47 to 15.83 mL/s for 3 months after laser prostatectomy. Laser therapy groups showed better improvement in symptom score, shortened length of stay, and quality of life score when compared with those of TUR-P procedures. The estimated cost for laser prostatectomy was high when compared with cost of any other TUR-P procedural option at Chang Gung Hospital (P = 0.001). All admission charges were similar except for the cost of the laser equipment and accessories (mainly the laser fiber) (P = 0.001). Due to this cost of equipment, it increased the total admission charges for the laser group and therefore made the cost for the laser group higher than that of the TUR-P group. Perioperative complications, such as the need for checking for bleeding, urinary retention rate or

  10. Diffusion of Surgical Innovations, Patient Safety, and Minimally Invasive Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, J. Kellogg; Messer, Karen; Palazzi, Kerrin; Stroup, Sean; Chang, David

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Surgical innovations disseminate in the absence of coordinated systems to ensure their safe integration into clinical practice, potentially exposing patients to increased risk for medical error. OBJECTIVE To investigate associations of patient safety with the diffusion of minimally invasive radical prostatectomy (MIRP) resulting from the development of the da Vinci robot. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cohort study of 401 325 patients in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample who underwent radical prostatectomy during MIRP diffusion between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2009. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We used Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs), which measure processes of care and surgical provider performance. We estimated the prevalence of MIRP among all prostatectomies and compared PSI incidence between MIRP and open radical prostatectomy in each year during the study. We also collected estimates of MIRP incidence attributed to the manufacturer of the da Vinci robot. RESULTS Patients who underwent MIRP were more likely to be white (P = .004), have fewer comorbidities (P = .02), and have undergone surgery in higher-income areas (P = .005). The incidence of MIRP was substantially lower than da Vinci manufacturer estimates. Rapid diffusion onset occurred in 2006, when MIRP accounted for 10.4% (95% CI, 10.2-10.7) of all radical prostatectomies in the United States. In 2005, MIRP was associated with an increased adjusted risk for any PSI (adjusted odds ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.7; P = .02) vs open radical prostatectomy. Stratification by hospital status demonstrated similar patterns: rapid diffusion onset among teaching hospitals occurred in 2006 (11.7%; 95% CI, 11.3-12.0), with an increased risk for PSI for MIRP in 2005 (adjusted odds ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-5.3; P = .004), and onset among nonteaching hospitals occurred in 2008 (27.1%; 95% CI, 26.6-27.7), with an increased but nonsignificant risk for PSI in 2007

  11. Economic Evaluation Study (Cheer Compliant) Laser Prostatectomy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Outcomes and Cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Chao; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Chou, Chih-Yuan; Hou, Chen-Pang; Chen, Chien-Lun; Chang, Phei-Lang; Tsui, Ke-Hung

    2016-02-01

    To determine which surgical treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms, which is suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is more cost-effective and yields a better patient's preference. Treatment outcome, cost, and perioperative complications to assess the treatment effectiveness of using laser prostatectomy as a treatment for BPH were investigated in this study.This retrospective study included 100 patients who underwent transurethral resection of prostate (TUR-P) and another 100 patients who received high-powered 120 W (GreenLight HPS) laser prostatectomy between 2005 and 2011.International Prostate Symptom Score and uroflow parameters were collected before the surgery and the uroflow and postvoiding residual volumes were evaluated before treatment and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment. The results of 100 treatments after HPS laser prostatectomy were compared with the results of 100 patients who received TUR-P from the same surgeon. Complication rates and admission costs were analyzed.From 2005 to 2011, 200 consecutive patients underwent endoscopic surgery. Study participants were men with BPH with mean age of 71.3 years old. The peak flow rate went from 8.47 to 15.83 mL/s for 3 months after laser prostatectomy. Laser therapy groups showed better improvement in symptom score, shortened length of stay, and quality of life score when compared with those of TUR-P procedures. The estimated cost for laser prostatectomy was high when compared with cost of any other TUR-P procedural option at Chang Gung Hospital (P = 0.001). All admission charges were similar except for the cost of the laser equipment and accessories (mainly the laser fiber) (P = 0.001). Due to this cost of equipment, it increased the total admission charges for the laser group and therefore made the cost for the laser group higher than that of the TUR-P group.Perioperative complications, such as the need for checking for bleeding, urinary retention rate or urosepsis rate

  12. Telephone follow-up of patients after radical prostatectomy: a systematic review1

    PubMed Central

    da Mata, Luciana Regina Ferreira; da Silva, Ana Cristina; Pereira, Maria da Graça; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos

    2014-01-01

    Objective to assess and summarize the best scientific evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials about telephone follow-up of patients after radical prostatectomy, based on information about how the phone calls are made and the clinical and psychological effects for the individuals who received this intervention. Method the search was undertaken in the electronic databases Medline, Web of Science, Embase, Cinahl, Lilacs and Cochrane. Among the 368 references found, five were selected. Results two studies tested interventions focused on psychological support and three tested interventions focused on the physical effects of treatment. The psychoeducative intervention to manage the uncertainty about the disease and the treatment revealed statistically significant evidences and reduced the level of uncertainty and anguish it causes. Conclusion the beneficial effects of telephone follow-up could be determined, as a useful tool for the monitoring of post-prostatectomy patients. PMID:26107844

  13. [Current status and future prospect of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hideaki; Fujisawa, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Although radical retropubic prostatectomy had long been the mainstay as the surgical treatment for patients with localized prostate cancer, robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) has recently been achieving increasing acceptance, resulting in the leading option for treating such patients in the United States, and it has been progressively expanding in other countries, including Japan. To date, however, there have been limited data concerning prospective studies or randomized trials showing the superiority of RARP over other surgical approaches. In this review, we attempted to summarize the current status of RARP based on available evidence as well as the experience at our institution, and to discuss the future prospect of this novel system as a major surgical technique for localized prostate cancer.

  14. Using a Checklist in Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy Procedures.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jiamei; Honey, Michelle L L

    2016-08-01

    Robotic surgical systems are relatively new in New Zealand and have been used mainly for laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Checklists are successfully used in other industries and health care facilities, so we developed a checklist for use during robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) procedures. After a two-month trial using the checklist, we calculated the completeness of each phase of the checklist as a percentage of the number of completed checklists versus total number of compliant checklists in that phase. Operating room personnel participated in an audiotaped focus group and discussed their perceptions about using the RALRP checklist. We collected, transcribed, and reviewed the focus group discussion and thematically analyzed the responses, which confirmed that the checklist served as a guideline and reminder during the setup. Additionally, staff members associated the checklist with improved OR readiness, minimized workflow interruption, improved efficiency, and positive changes in confidence and teamwork. PMID:27472974

  15. Robot assisted radical prostatectomy: how I do it. Part II: Surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Roger F; Hueber, Pierre-Alain; Zorn, Kevin C

    2013-12-01

    The introduction of the "da Vinci Robotic Surgical System" (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has been an important step towards a minimally invasive approach to radical prostatectomy. Technologic peculiarities, such as three-dimensional vision, wristed instrumentation with seven degrees of freedom of motion, lack of tremor, a 10x-magnification and a comfortable seated position for the surgeon has added value to the procedure for the surgeon and the patient. In this article, we describe the 9 step surgical technique for robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) that is currently used in our institution (University of Montreal Hospital Center (CHUM) - Hopital St-Luc). We use the four-arm da Vinci Surgical System. Our experience with RARP is now over 250 cases with the senior surgeon having performed over 1200 RARPs and we have continually refined our technique to improve patient outcomes. PMID:24331353

  16. [Remote laparoscopic radical prostatectomy carried out with a robot. Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Abbou, C C; Hoznek, A; Salomon, L; Lobontiu, A; Saint, F; Cicco, A; Antiphon, P; Chopin, D

    2000-09-01

    Robotics has been commonly employed in numerous industrial fields for several decades. However, the application of this technology to surgery is a recent innovation. It provides new possibilities for facilitating specific surgical tasks, especially in the field of laparoscopy. We report a case of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy completed with the help of a remotely controlled da Vinci robot. This system offered a user friendly surgical platform and enhanced surgical dexterity. Operating time was 420 minutes and the hospital stay was 4 days. The bladder catheter was removed after 3 days. One week later, the patient was fully continent. Pathologic examination showed a pT3a tumor, with negative margins. Robotically assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is feasible. Further developments in this field of technology may have new applications in laparoscopic telesurgery.

  17. Radical prostatectomy in the presence of ongoing refractory ESBL Escherichia coli bacterial prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    McLoughlin, Louise Catherine; McDermott, T E D; Thornhill, John Alan

    2014-01-01

    A 44-year-old Indian national with a prostate-specific antigen of 5.4 ng/mL underwent 12-core transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies. Following this, he had three hospital admissions with severe urosepsis secondary to extended spectrum β lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli. He had recurrent sepsis immediately after discontinuation of intravenous meropenem to which the ESBL was sensitive. He proceeded to radical prostatectomy for intermediate-high risk Gleason 7 prostate cancer, while still on intravenous meropenem, 2 months after his biopsy. His prostatectomy involved a difficult dissection due to inflammatory changes and fibrosis after multiple septic episodes. He had complete resolution of infection after surgery with discontinuation of antibiotics on the third postoperative day, without any recurrence of sepsis. PMID:25315803

  18. Is Radical Perineal Prostatectomy a Viable Therapeutic Option for Intermediate- and High-risk Prostate Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Won; Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Jeong, Byong Chang; Seo, Seong Il; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Hyun Moo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a single-institution experience with radical perineal prostatectomy (RPP), radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) and minimally invasive radical prostatectomy (MIRP) with respect to onco-surgical outcomes in patients with intermediate-risk (IR; PSA 10-20 ng/mL, biopsy Gleason score bGS 7 or cT2b-2c) and high-risk (HR; PSA >20 ng/mL, bGS ≥8, or ≥cT3) prostate cancer (PCa). We retrospectively reviewed data from 2,581 men who underwent radical prostatectomy for IR and HR PCa (RPP, n = 689; RRP, n = 402; MIRP, n = 1,490 [laparoscopic, n = 206; robot-assisted laparoscopic, n = 1,284]). The proportion of HR PCa was 40.3%, 46.8%, and 49.5% in RPP, RRP, and MIRP (P < 0.001), respectively. The positive surgical margin rate was 23.8%, 26.1%, and 18.7% (P = 0.002) overall, 17.5%, 17.8%, and 8.8% (P < 0.001) for pT2 disease and 41.9%, 44.4%, and 40.0% (P = 0.55) for pT3 disease in men undergoing RPP, RRP, and MIRP, respectively. Biochemical recurrence-free survival rates among RPP, RRP, and MIRP were 73.0%, 70.1%, and 76.8%, respectively, at 5 yr (RPP vs. RPP, P = 0.02; RPP vs. MIRP, P = 0.23). Furthermore, comparable 5-yr metastases-free survival rates were demonstrated for specific surgical approaches (RPP vs. RPP, P = 0.26; RPP vs. MIRP, P = 0.06). RPP achieved acceptable oncological control for IR and HR PCa. PMID:26539008

  19. [Follow up of patients with prostatic cancer after radical prostatectomy: results, late complication, survival rate].

    PubMed

    Romics, I; Bach, D; Würtz, U

    1995-02-19

    The authors performed radical prostatectomy on 35 prostate cancer patients between 1986 and 1991. At the end of 1993 the authors were informed about 25 patients. The mean follow-up was 4.4. years. Two patients have died in tumour related diseases, one in intercurrent diseases. In six patients progression was observed. Five patients had to operated because of anastomosis stricture. One patient was operated because of total incontinence another one uses penis clamp.

  20. [Oncological and functional results of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy after 100 procedures: our experience].

    PubMed

    Parma, P; Dall'oglio, B; Samuelli, A; Guatelli, S; Bondavalli, C

    2009-01-01

    Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy plays an emerging role in the surgical management of prostatic tumors. We present our experience of the first 100 cases of extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Our results about continence, erectile function and surgical margins are reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Between January 2005 and December 2007, 100 laparoscopic radical prostatectomies were performed by one surgeon. We retrospectively reviewed margins status, operative time, blood transfusion rates, time of catheterization, length of hospital stay, continence and potency rates. RESULTS. The operative time decreased during the learning curve. The mean duration of surgery was 240 minutes (in the first 25 procedures the median time was 320 minutes, while in the last 25 cases the mean duration was 200 minutes). Five conversions to open surgery were required owing to failure to progress. The overall rate of positive surgical margins was 15% in pT2 and 35% in pT3a tumors. We had 3 minor complications (two anastomotic leakage and one hemorrhage from the anastomosis) and 2 major complications (recto-urethral fistula). The mean intraoperative blood loss was 450 ml (range 200-1500). With regard to transfusion, 25 patients (25%) received their autologous units, while 2% of the patients required homologous units. The mean duration of catheterization was 7.8 days. The continence rate at 12 months was 85%; the potency rate was 55% at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS. The results of the present study show that by using a rational approach to training, a general urologist with low experience in laparoscopy is able to safely perform laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, and with oncological and functional results comparable to those of other published series. PMID:21086314

  1. Integrity of Prostate Tissue for Molecular Analysis After Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic and Open Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Best, Sara; Sawers, Youssef; Fu, Vivian X.; Almassi, Nima; Huang, Wei; Jarrard, David F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Tissue warm-ischemia time prior to fixation for pathological analysis has been linked to changes in cell morphology, as well as nucleic acid and protein integrity. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy(RALP) results in longer warm-ischemia times compared to open radical retropubic prostatectomy(RRP). To assess the effect of longer ischemia times on biomolecular integrity we analyzed DNA, RNA and protein collected from robotic and open prostatectomies. Methods Specimens obtained from 22 consecutive RALP (11) or RRP (11) operations were examined after H&E staining by light microscopy. To assess protein integrity, immunohistochemical staining for p63, E-cadherin, and AE1/AE3 was performed. DNA was assessed by gel analysis. An RNA integrity score was determined by microfluidic capillary electrophoresis and calculated based on the electropherogram and simulated gel view. Finally, epithelial cells were cultured on collagen-coated plates. Results No differences in clinicopathologic characteristics existed between groups with the exception of a significantly longer warm-ischemia time during RALP (82+/−23min) versus RRP (23+/−2min) (<0.001). Tissue integrity was suitable for the assessment of pathologic grade and stage for all samples. Protein and DNA analyses demonstrated no evidence of degradation in any samples. No significant differences in the RI scores were demonstrated between surgical approaches. Prostate epithelial cells were cultured successfully in 66% of RALP specimens. Conclusion Robotic prostatectomy, though it involves additional exposure to warm-ischemia, does not significantly affect histopathological characteristics or the biomolecular integrity of the specimen. Provided a rapid response occurs for tissue banking after specimen removal, molecular research studies utilizing prostate tissue harvested via RALP appear feasible. PMID:17826499

  2. Transperitoneal Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Should Be Considered in Prostate Cancer Patients with Pelvic Kidneys.

    PubMed

    Plagakis, Sophie; Foreman, Darren; Sutherland, Peter; Fuller, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We highlight two cases of transperitoneal robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in patients with pelvic kidneys because of congenital development and renal transplant. These uncommon cases present a challenge to the surgeon contemplating surgery because of access and anomalous vascular and ureteral anatomy. We describe the technical considerations that are paramount in effectively completing transperitoneal RARP, and believe it should be considered as a treatment option in men with pelvic kidneys. PMID:27579412

  3. Undetectable ultrasensitive PSA after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer predicts relapse-free survival.

    PubMed

    Doherty, A P; Bower, M; Smith, G L; Miano, R; Mannion, E M; Mitchell, H; Christmas, T J

    2000-12-01

    Radical retropubic prostatectomy is considered by many centres to be the treatment of choice for men aged less than 70 years with localized prostate cancer. A rise in serum prostate-specific antigen after radical prostatectomy occurs in 10-40% of cases. This study evaluates the usefulness of novel ultrasensitive PSA assays in the early detection of biochemical relapse. 200 patients of mean age 61. 2 years underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy. Levels < or = 0.01 ng ml-1 were considered undetectable. Mean pre-operative prostate-specific antigen was 13.3 ng ml-1. Biochemical relapse was defined as 3 consecutive rises. The 2-year biochemical disease-free survival for the 134 patients with evaluable prostate-specific antigen nadir data was 61.1% (95% CI: 51.6-70.6%). Only 2 patients with an undetectable prostate-specific antigen after radical retropubic prostatectomy biochemically relapsed (3%), compared to 47 relapses out of 61 patients (75%) who did not reach this level. Cox multivariate analysis confirms prostate-specific antigen nadir < or = 0.01 ng ml-1 to be a superb independent variable predicting a favourable biochemical disease-free survival (P < 0.0001). Early diagnosis of biochemical relapse is feasible with sensitive prostate-specific antigen assays. These assays more accurately measure the prostate-specific antigen nadir, which is an excellent predictor of biochemical disease-free survival. Thus, sensitive prostate-specific antigen assays offer accurate prognostic information and expedite decision-making regarding the use of salvage prostate-bed radiotherapy or hormone therapy.

  4. Partial sampling of radical prostatectomy specimens: detection of positive margins and extraprostatic extension.

    PubMed

    Iremashvili, Viacheslav; Lokeshwar, Soum D; Soloway, Mark S; Pelaez, Lisét; Umar, Saleem A; Manoharan, Murugesan; Jordá, Mercé

    2013-02-01

    Currently there is no global agreement as to how extensively a radical prostatectomy specimen should be sectioned and histologically examined. We analyzed the ability of different methods of partial sampling in detecting positive margin (PM) and extraprostatic extension (EPE)-2 pathologic features of prostate cancer that are most easily missed by partial sampling of the prostate. Radical prostatectomy specimens from 617 patients treated with open radical prostatectomy between 1992 and 2011 were analyzed. Examination of the entirely submitted prostate detected only PM in 370 (60%), only EPE in 100 (16%), and both in 147 (24%) specimens. We determined whether these pathologic features would have been diagnosed had the examination of the specimen been limited only to alternate sections (method 1), alternate sections representing the posterior aspect of the gland in addition to one of the mid-anterior aspects (method 2), and every section representing the posterior aspect of the gland in addition to one of the mid-anterior aspects, supplemented by the remaining ipsilateral anterior sections if a sizeable tumor is seen (method 3). Methods 1 and 2 missed 13% and 21% of PMs and 28% and 47% of EPEs, respectively. Method 3 demonstrated better results missing only 5% of PMs and 7% of EPEs. Partial sampling techniques missed slightly more PMs and EPEs in patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer, although even in high-risk cases none of the methods detected all of the studied aggressive pathologic features.

  5. Australian men's long term experiences following prostatectomy: a qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Peter 'kevin'; Laws, Tom A

    The experiences of men in the immediate postoperative period following surgery for primary prostate cancer are well reported in the literature. Recognition of the unresolved morbidity encountered by men in the medium term suggests that a more complete understanding of how men cope in the long term is needed. Health professionals are deserving of a more complete literature for the purpose of providing holistic care for this group of men, providing informed advocacy and better support for men living with the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Emerging literature reveals that men's knowledge of the long term problems associated with prostatectomy was inadequate at the time they consented to treatment; the likely outcomes at all phases of recovery should be taken into account when deciding on choice of treatment or no treatment. This qualitative study aims to describe men's long term recovery following prostatectomy for the purpose identifying the effects of unresolved post surgical morbidity. The content analysis of focus group interviews revealed that incontinence and impotence were a major source of emotional tension affecting the men's social interactions and sense of self-worth. The men expressed great regret over the lack of information accessible to them for evaluating the risk and nature of long term problems. The thick description provided in this study identifies the need for empathetic assessment of men with ongoing post surgical issues and alerts the reader to the inadequacies of information provided prior to consent to prostatectomy. PMID:20230176

  6. Investigating Urinary Conditions Prior to Robot-assisted Radical Prostatectomy in Search of a Desirable Method for Evaluating Post-prostatectomy Incontinence.

    PubMed

    Kadono, Yoshifumi; Nohara, Takahiro; Kadomoto, Suguru; Nakashima, Kazufumi; Iijima, Masashi; Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Narimoto, Kazutaka; Izumi, Kouji; Mizokami, Atsushi

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the study were to investigate desirable evaluation methods for post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI) by analyzing the urinary status before robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP).Questionnaires were evaluated from 155 patients prior to operation. The 24-h pad test before RARP revealed a weight of 1.1 g. The mean scores were as follows: total International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) score, 1.2; total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), 10.0; IPSS quality of life, 2.7; Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), 2.9; and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite urinary summary, 92.8. The abdominal leak point pressure test in 111 patients before RARP was negative in all cases. Desirable evaluation methods for PPI should be based on a combination of subjective and objective evaluations and comparisons between pre- and post-RP. ICIQ-SF is considerably convenient for evaluating incontinence, and the 24-h pad test enables evaluation of the incontinence volume in a highly objective manner. PMID:27466547

  7. Outcome of radical retropubic prostatectomy at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ikuerowo, Stephen Odunayo; Doherty, Alaba Fredrick; Bioku, Muftau Jimoh; Abolarinwa, Abimbola Ayodeji; Adebayo, Adekunle Azeez; Oyeleke, Steves Olaide; Omisanjo, Olufunmilade Akinfolarin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men in Nigeria and most cases present when the disease is already in an advanced stage. Radical prostatectomy for early prostate cancer is therefore not a commonly performed operation by urologists in Nigeria. We have had training and significant experience in radical retropubic prostatectomy. We, therefore, report the outcome of our initial experience. Materials and Methods: We review the record of men with early prostate cancer who had radical retropubic prostatectomy in our institution from 2007 to 2015. Results: There were 34 men who had radical retropubic prostatectomy in the 8-year period of review. The youngest and oldest patients were aged 50 and 71 years, respectively. The mean age was 64.2 years. All the patients were diagnosed following 12-core ultrasound-guided transrectal prostate biopsy for elevated serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). The mean serum PSA was 15.3 (range 8.5-100.3) ng/ml. The disease was pT1, pT2, and pT3 in 6, 20, and 8 patients respectively. General anesthesia was employed in 28 (82.4%) patients and combined epidural and subarachnoid block anesthesia for 6 (17.6%) patients. The total duration of operation was 128-252 min (mean = 160 min). No blood transfusion was given in 5 (14.7%) patients while each of the remaining 29 (85.3%) patients had 2-5 units of blood intra- or post-operatively. There was no perioperative mortality. Complications include operation-induced erectile dysfunction in 12 (35.3%), major urinary incontinence in 1 (2.9%), lymphocele in 2 (5.9%), and reoperation due to anastomotic leak and right ureteric injury in 1 (2.9%). After a median follow-up of 42 months, disease recurrence has occurred in 3 (8.8%) patients 1 (2.9%) of whom has died of diabetic renal failure. Conclusion: Radical prostatectomy can be safely performed in men with early prostate cancer in Nigeria and should be offered to suitable patients. PMID:27630388

  8. The "halo effect" in Korea: change in practice patterns since the introduction of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ee-Rah; Jeong, Wooju; Park, Sung Yul; Ham, Won Sik; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon; Rha, Koon Ho

    2009-03-01

    Acquisition of the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Mountain View, USA) has enabled robot-assisted surgery to become an acceptable alternative to open radical prostatectomy (ORP). Implementation of robotics at a single institution in Korea induced a gradual increase in the number of performances of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) to surgically treat localized prostate cancer. We analyzed the impact of robotic instrumentation on practice patterns among urologists and explain the change in value in ORP and RALP-the standard treatment and the new approach or innovation of robotic technology. The overall number of prostatectomies has increased over time because the number of RALPs has grown drastically whereas the number of OPRs did not decrease during the period of evaluation. Our experience emphasizes the potential of RALP to become the gold standard in the treatment of localized prostate cancer in various parts of the world.

  9. The "halo effect" in Korea: change in practice patterns since the introduction of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ee-Rah; Jeong, Wooju; Park, Sung Yul; Ham, Won Sik; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon; Rha, Koon Ho

    2009-03-01

    Acquisition of the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Mountain View, USA) has enabled robot-assisted surgery to become an acceptable alternative to open radical prostatectomy (ORP). Implementation of robotics at a single institution in Korea induced a gradual increase in the number of performances of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) to surgically treat localized prostate cancer. We analyzed the impact of robotic instrumentation on practice patterns among urologists and explain the change in value in ORP and RALP-the standard treatment and the new approach or innovation of robotic technology. The overall number of prostatectomies has increased over time because the number of RALPs has grown drastically whereas the number of OPRs did not decrease during the period of evaluation. Our experience emphasizes the potential of RALP to become the gold standard in the treatment of localized prostate cancer in various parts of the world. PMID:27628456

  10. Comparison of Acute Kidney Injury After Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy Versus Retropubic Radical Prostatectomy: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

    PubMed

    Joo, Eun-Young; Moon, Yeon-Jin; Yoon, Syn-Hae; Chin, Ji-Hyun; Hwang, Jai-Hyun; Kim, Young-Kug

    2016-02-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with extended hospital stay, a high risk of progressive chronic kidney diseases, and increased mortality. Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy are at increased risk of AKI because of intraoperative bleeding, obstructive uropathy, older age, and preexisting chronic kidney disease. In particular, robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP), which is in increasing demand as an alternative surgical option for retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP), is associated with postoperative renal dysfunction because pneumoperitoneum during RALP can decrease cardiac output and renal perfusion. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of postoperative AKI between RRP and RALP.We included 1340 patients who underwent RRP (n = 370) or RALP (n = 970) between 2013 and 2014. Demographics, cancer-related data, and perioperative laboratory data were evaluated. Postoperative AKI was determined according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Operation and anesthesia time, estimated blood loss, amounts of administered fluids and transfused packed red blood cells, and the lengths of the postoperative intensive care unit and hospital stays were evaluated. Propensity score matching analysis was performed to reduce the influence of possible confounding variables and adjust for intergroup differences between the RRP and RALP groups.After performing 1:1 propensity score matching, the RRP and RALP groups included 307 patients, respectively. The operation time and anesthesia time in RALP were significantly longer than in the RRP group (both P < 0.001). However, the estimated blood loss and amount of administered fluids in RALP were significantly lower than in RRP (both P < 0.001). Also, RALP demonstrated a significantly lower incidence of transfusion and smaller amount of transfused packed red blood cells than RRP (both P < 0.001). Importantly, the incidence of AKI in RALP was

  11. The prognostic value of prostate specific antigen in the follow-up of patients after radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Romics, I; Würz, U; Bach, D

    1995-01-01

    The authors compared the PSA levels in 19 patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy between 1986 and 1991. Measurements were done preoperatively, 3-4 weeks postoperatively and at the end of 1993. The increase of the average preoperative level corresponds to the stage of the disease (local, local advanced, metastatic lymph nodes). Patients with high preoperative PSA levels have a higher risk for progression, even if their postoperative PSA values are normal. While the predictive value of low PSA levels measured immediately after prostatectomy is small, high postoperative PSA levels are unfavourable prognostic signs.

  12. Initial Canadian experience with robotic simple prostatectomy: Case series and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, Nathan Y.; Van Zyl, Stephan; St. Martin, Blair A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Robotic-assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) has been touted as an alternative to open simple prostatectomy (OSP) to treat large gland benign prostatic hyperplasia. Our study assesses our institution’s experience with RASP and reviews the literature. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review from January 2011 to November 2013 of all patients undergoing RASP and OSP. Operative and 90-day outcomes, including operation time, intraoperative blood loss, length of hospital stay (LOS), transfusion requirements, and complication rates, were assessed. Results: Thirty-two patients were identified: 4 undergoing RASP and 28 undergoing OSP. There was no difference in mean age at surgery (69.3 vs. 75.2 years; p = 0.17), mean Charlson Comorbidity Index (2.5 vs. 3.5; p = 0.19), and mean prostate volume on TRUS (239 vs. 180 mL; p = 0.09) in the robotic and open groups, respectively. There was a significant difference in the mean length of operation, with RASP exceeding OSP (161 vs. 79 min; p = 0.008). The mean intraoperative blood loss was significantly higher in the open group (835.7 vs. 218.8 mL; p = 0.0001). Mean LOS was shorter in the RASP group (2.3 vs. 5.5 days; p = 0.0001). No significant differences were noted in the 90-day transfusion rate (p = 0.13), or overall complication rate at 0% with RASP vs. 57.1% with OSP (p = 0.10). Conclusions: Our data suggest RASP has a shorter LOS and lower intraoperative volume of blood loss, with the disadvantage of a longer operating time, compared to OSP. It is a feasible technique and deserves further investigation and consideration at Canadian centres performing robotic prostatectomies. PMID:26425225

  13. Relationship Between Perineural Invasion in Prostate Needle Biopsy Specimens and Pathologic Staging After Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Niroomand, Hassan; Nowroozi, Mohammadreza; Ayati, Mohsen; Jamshidian, Hassan; Arbab, Amir; Momeni, Seyed Ali; Ghadian, Alireza; Ghorbani, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the second most common malignancy among men worldwide and the sixth cause of cancer-related death. Some authors have reported a relationship between perineural invasion (PNI), Gleason score, and the invasion of peripheral organs during prostatectomy. However, it is not yet clear whether pathological evidence of PNI is necessary for risk stratification in selecting treatment type. Objectives The clinical and pathological stages of prostate cancer are compared in patients under radical prostatectomy and in patients without perineural invasion. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted using a sample of 109 patients who attended a tertiary health care center from 2008 to 2013. The selection criteria were PNI in prostate biopsy with Gleason scores less than six, seven, and eight to ten. The participants were enrolled in a census manner, and they underwent clinical staging. After radical prostatectomy, the rates of pathological staging were compared. The under-staging and over-staging rates among those with and without perineural invasion in biopsy samples were compared. Results The concordance between Gleason scores according to biopsy and pathology was 36.7% (40 subjects). The concordance rate was 46.4% and 33.3% among those with and without PNI, respectively. The concordance rates were significantly varied in different subclasses of Gleason scores in patients without PNI (P = 0.003); the highest concordance rate was a Gleason score of 7 (63.6%) and the lowest was a Gleason score of eight to ten (25%). However, there were no significant differences in patients with PNI (P > 0.05). Conclusions Although the presence of PNI in prostate biopsy is accompanied by higher surgical stages, PNI is not an appropriate independent factor in risk stratification. PMID:27635390

  14. A motorized ultrasound system for MRI-ultrasound fusion guided prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifabadi, Reza; Xu, Sheng; Pinto, Peter; Wood, Bradford J.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: This study presents MoTRUS, a motorized transrectal ultrasound system, to enable remote navigation of a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe during da Vinci assisted prostatectomy. MoTRUS not only provides a stable platform to the ultrasound probe, but also allows the physician to navigate it remotely while sitting on the da Vinci console. This study also presents phantom feasibility study with the goal being intraoperative MRI-US image fusion capability to bring preoperative MR images to the operating room for the best visualization of the gland, boundaries, nerves, etc. Method: A two degree-of-freedom probe holder is developed to insert and rotate a bi-plane transrectal ultrasound transducer. A custom joystick is made to enable remote navigation of MoTRUS. Safety features have been considered to avoid inadvertent risks (if any) to the patient. Custom design software has been developed to fuse pre-operative MR images to intraoperative ultrasound images acquired by MoTRUS. Results: Remote TRUS probe navigation was evaluated on a patient after taking required consents during prostatectomy using MoTRUS. It took 10 min to setup the system in OR. MoTRUS provided similar capability in addition to remote navigation and stable imaging. No complications were observed. Image fusion was evaluated on a commercial prostate phantom. Electromagnetic tracking was used for the fusion. Conclusions: Motorized navigation of the TRUS probe during prostatectomy is safe and feasible. Remote navigation provides physician with a more precise and easier control of the ultrasound image while removing the burden of manual manipulation of the probe. Image fusion improved visualization of the prostate and boundaries in a phantom study.

  15. Intraoperative Radiotherapy During Radical Prostatectomy for Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: Technical and Dosimetric Aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Krengli, Marco; Terrone, Carlo; Ballare, Andrea; Loi, Gianfranco; Tarabuzzi, Roberto; Marchioro, Giansilvio; Beldi, Debora; Mones, Eleonora; Bolchini, Cesare R.T.; Volpe, Alessandro; Frea, Bruno

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To analyze the feasibility of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) in patients with high-risk prostate cancer and candidates for radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: A total of 38 patients with locally advanced prostate cancer were enrolled. No patients had evidence of lymph node or distant metastases, probability of organ-confined disease >25%, or risk of lymph node involvement >15% according to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Nomogram. The IORT was delivered after exposure of the prostate by a dedicated linear accelerator with beveled collimators using electrons of 9 to 12 MeV to a total dose of 10-12 Gy. Rectal dose was measured in vivo by radiochromic films placed on a rectal probe. Administration of IORT was followed by completion of radical prostatectomy and regional lymph node dissection. All cases with extracapsular extension and/or positive margins were scheduled for postoperative radiotherapy. Patients with pT3 to pT4 disease or positive nodes received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Results: Mean dose detected by radiochromic films was 3.9 Gy (range, 0.4-8.9 Gy) to the anterior rectal wall. The IORT procedure lasted 31 min on average (range, 15-45 min). No major intra- or postoperative complications occurred. Minor complications were observed in 10/33 (30%) of cases. Of the 27/31 patients who completed the postoperative external beam radiotherapy, 3/27 experienced Grade 2 rectal toxicity and 1/27 experienced Grade 2 urinary toxicity. Conclusions: Use of IORT during radical prostatectomy is feasible and allows safe delivery of postoperative external beam radiotherapy to the tumor bed without relevant acute rectal toxicity.

  16. Feasibility study of a clinically-integrated randomized trial of modifications to radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous technical modifications to radical prostatectomy have been proposed. Such modifications are likely to lead to only slight improvements in outcomes. Although small differences would be worthwhile, an appropriately powered randomized trial would need to be very large, and thus of doubtful feasibility given the expense, complexity and regulatory burden of contemporary clinical trials. We have proposed a novel methodology, the clinically-integrated randomized trial, which dramatically streamlines trial procedures in order to reduce the marginal cost of an additional patient towards zero. We aimed to determine the feasibility of implementing such a trial for radical prostatectomy. Methods Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy as initial treatment for prostate cancer were randomized in a factorial design to involvement of the fascia during placement of the anastomotic sutures, urethral irrigation, both or neither. Endpoint data were obtained from routine clinical documentation. Accrual and compliance rates were monitored to determine the feasibility of the trial. Results From a total of 260 eligible patients, 154 (59%) consented; 56 patients declined to participate, 20 were not approached on recommendation of the treating surgeon, and 30 were not approached for logistical reasons. Although recording by surgeons of the procedure used was incomplete (~80%), compliance with randomization was excellent when it was recorded, with only 6% of procedures inconsistent with allocation. Outcomes data was received from 71% of patients at one year. This improved to 83% as the trial progressed. Conclusions A clinically-integrated randomized trial was conducted at low cost, with excellent accrual, and acceptable compliance with treatment allocation and outcomes reporting. This demonstrates the feasibility of the methodology. Improved methods to ensure documentation of surgical procedures would be required before wider implementation. Trial registration

  17. Validity Testing of the Stopwatch Urine Stream Interruption Test in Radical Prostatectomy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Joanne P.; Burrell, Sherry A.; Avi-Itzhak, Tamara; McCorkle, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess convergent validity of the stopwatch urine stream interruption test (UST). Specific aims were to describe relationships among stopwatch UST scores and four common clinical indices of pelvic floor muscle strength: 24-hour urine leakage, confidence in performing pelvic muscle exercise, 24-hour pad count, and daily pelvic muscle exercise count. Design Secondary analysis; instrumentation study. Methods The final sample consisted of baseline stopwatch UST scores and measurements of comparison variables from 47 participants in a randomized clinical trial of three approaches to pelvic floor training for patients with urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy. The sample size provided 80% power to detect correlations of moderate strength or higher. The stopwatch UST was conducted in an examination room at the study site by trained study personnel. Measurements of comparison variables were obtained from three instruments: 24-hour pad test, Broome Pelvic Muscle Self-Efficacy Scale, and 3-day bladder diary. Relationships among study variables were evaluated with Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Results Stopwatch UST scores were moderately correlated with 24-hour urine leakage on the 24-hour pad test (r = .35, p < .05), the most robust comparison measure. Correlations between stopwatch UST scores and all other comparison measures were in the appropriate direction, although weak and did not reach statistical significance Conclusion Findings suggest the stopwatch UST may be a valid index of pelvic floor muscle strength in men following radical prostatectomy. With further testing, the stopwatch UST could become a valuable clinical tool for assessing pelvic floor muscle strength in radical prostatectomy patients with urinary incontinence. PMID:22825573

  18. Intraoperative finding of gross lymph node metastasis during robot-assisted prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Wooju; Sukumar, Shyam; Petros, Firas; Menon, Mani; Peabody, James O; Rogers, Craig G

    2012-12-01

    Discovery of macroscopically positive lymph nodes (LN) during radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa) is a rare event. We describe our experience of intraoperative finding of grossly positive LN during radical prostatectomy and evaluate outcomes and predictors. A total of 4,480 patients underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) for clinically localized PCa from 2001 to 2010, and pelvic LN dissection was performed in 4,090 of these patients (91.3%). Patients with macroscopically positive LN discovered and confirmed intraoperatively were assessed, as was surgical decision (abort versus continue RARP). Patients with macroscopic LN-positive disease were also evaluated and oncologic outcomes were compared with patients with microscopic LN-positive disease on final pathology. LN-positive disease was found at final pathology in 87 patients (2.1%), of whom 13 (14.9%) had grossly abnormal LN confirmed intraoperatively by frozen section. RARP was aborted in nine cases and completed in four patients. All patients received adjuvant therapy with hormonal deprivation and/or radiation. Two patients in the aborted RARP subset died of PCa. All patients who underwent completion RARP are still alive at a mean follow-up of 57.2 months with one patient still alive at 95 months. Patients with macroscopically positive LN had a higher median preoperative prostate serum antigen (PSA) (17.2 vs. 6.7 μg/L, P = 0.002) and were more likely have biopsy perineural invasion (77.8 vs. 32.4%, P = 0.012). Intraoperative findings of macroscopically positive LN during RARP is a rare event that may occur in high-risk patients, particularly in those with a high PSA and biopsy perineural invasion. Long-term survival is possible after completion RARP. PMID:27628473

  19. Outcomes after concurrent inguinal hernia repair and robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Christopher C; Hong, Matthew K H; Challacombe, Benjamin J; Costello, Anthony J

    2010-12-01

    Inguinal hernias occur more frequently following radical prostatectomy. Simultaneous inguinal hernia repair during open and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer has been described previously. The emergence of robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RALP) has necessitated the evaluation of concomitant herniorrhaphy in this new setting. We report the outcomes of this operation in our series of patients. Retrospective review was performed on 700 patients with localised prostate cancer who underwent RALP performed by a single surgeon from 2004 to 2009. Details of cases where concurrent inguinal hernia repair was performed were recorded and compared with the remainder of the cohort. Hernia repair was performed using a monofilament knitted polypropylene cone mesh plug and fascial defect closure with Hem-o-Lok clips. A total of 38 inguinal herniorraphies were performed in 37 patients as a simultaneous procedure during transperitoneal RALP. The hernia repair on average added 5-10 min to the total procedure time. One patient underwent a bilateral repair. Across this group, mean age was 62.9 years, average body mass index was 27.1, and median follow-up was 29 months. There were no complications at the time of mesh placement. There were no cases complicated by wound infection, fluid collection, or chronic pain. Recurrence of an inguinal hernia occurred in one patient due to migration of the mesh. We conclude that concomitant inguinal hernia repair during RALP is safe, feasible, and effective. The herniorrhaphy can be performed quickly, adds little to the overall procedure time and avoids a further operative procedure for the patient. PMID:27627948

  20. Delaying Renal Transplant after Radical Prostatectomy for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Özçelik, Ümit; Bircan, Hüseyin Yüce; Karakayalı, Feza; Moray, Gökhan; Demirağ, Alp

    2015-11-01

    To minimize the recurrence of a previously treated neoplasm in organ recipients, a period of 2 to 5 years without recurrence is advocated for most malignancies. However, prostate cancer is different because of its biological properties, diagnosis, and treatment. Most prostate cancers are detected at a low stage and demonstrate slow growth after detection. Definitive treatment with radical prostatectomy affords excellent results. Renal transplant candidates with early-stage prostate cancer have a higher risk of dying on dialysis than dying from prostate cancer; therefore, renal transplant candidates with organ-confined prostate cancer should be immediately considered for transplant.

  1. Obturator Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Pelvic Hematoma After Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jun H.; Abbott, Daniel; Gewirtz, Eric; Hauck, Ellen; Eun, Daniel D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Obturator nerve injury is a known injury after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) and patients often present with motor and sensory deficits in the immediate postoperative period. We describe a 65-year-old male who presented with motor deficits, indicative of obturator neurapraxia after RALP upon waking from anesthesia. Work-up revealed an expansile hematoma possibly compressing the obturator nerve. After evacuation of the hematoma, the patient had immediate improvement of his neurologic deficits. Our patient's clinical vignette illustrates the importance of considering postsurgical hematoma in the differential diagnosis when patients present with signs and symptoms of obturator neurapraxia after RALP. PMID:27579444

  2. Outcome of radical prostatectomy in primary circulating prostate cell negative prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Nigel P; Aedo, Sócrates; Reyes, Eduardo; Fuentealba, Cynthia; Jacob, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Around 90% of prostate cancers detected using the serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a screening test are considered to be localised. However, 20–30% of men treated by radical prostatectomy experience biochemical failure within two years of treatment. The presence of primary circulating prostate cells (CPCs) in the blood of these men implies a dissemination of the tumour and could indicate a greater risk of treatment failure. Objective To evaluate the use of the number of primary CPCs detected before surgery in the prediction of biochemical failure at ten years. Hypothesis The dissemination of cancer cells to distant sites will determine the patient’s prognosis. The absence of primary CPCs in men undergoing radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer may imply a less aggressive disease and therefore could be utilised as a prognostic factor to predict biochemical failure after surgery. Methods and patients A single-centre observational study of a cohort of 285 men who underwent radical prostatectomy as monotherapy for prostate cancer, in whom the number of CPCs prior to treatment was determined, and who were followed up for ten years to determine biochemical failure. A Cox proportional risks with polynomial fractions analysis was used to predict biochemical failure based on the number of primary CPCs detected. A decision curve analysis was performed for the model obtained. Results Kaplan–Meier curves for biochemical free survival at ten years was 47.34% (95% CI 38.71–55.48%). It is important to note that in CPC negative men, the ten years Kaplan–Meier biochemical-free survival was 90.35% (95% CI 75.0–96.27) whereas in men who were primary CPC positive, the biochemical free survival rate was 30.00% (95% CI 20.34–40.60%). The Coxs´model to predict biochemical failure using transformed data with a power of minus one for the number of primary CPCs detected, showed a Harrell´s C concordance index of 0.74 and a decision analysis curve

  3. Outcome of radical prostatectomy in primary circulating prostate cell negative prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Nigel P; Aedo, Sócrates; Reyes, Eduardo; Fuentealba, Cynthia; Jacob, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Around 90% of prostate cancers detected using the serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a screening test are considered to be localised. However, 20–30% of men treated by radical prostatectomy experience biochemical failure within two years of treatment. The presence of primary circulating prostate cells (CPCs) in the blood of these men implies a dissemination of the tumour and could indicate a greater risk of treatment failure. Objective To evaluate the use of the number of primary CPCs detected before surgery in the prediction of biochemical failure at ten years. Hypothesis The dissemination of cancer cells to distant sites will determine the patient’s prognosis. The absence of primary CPCs in men undergoing radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer may imply a less aggressive disease and therefore could be utilised as a prognostic factor to predict biochemical failure after surgery. Methods and patients A single-centre observational study of a cohort of 285 men who underwent radical prostatectomy as monotherapy for prostate cancer, in whom the number of CPCs prior to treatment was determined, and who were followed up for ten years to determine biochemical failure. A Cox proportional risks with polynomial fractions analysis was used to predict biochemical failure based on the number of primary CPCs detected. A decision curve analysis was performed for the model obtained. Results Kaplan–Meier curves for biochemical free survival at ten years was 47.34% (95% CI 38.71–55.48%). It is important to note that in CPC negative men, the ten years Kaplan–Meier biochemical-free survival was 90.35% (95% CI 75.0–96.27) whereas in men who were primary CPC positive, the biochemical free survival rate was 30.00% (95% CI 20.34–40.60%). The Coxs´model to predict biochemical failure using transformed data with a power of minus one for the number of primary CPCs detected, showed a Harrell´s C concordance index of 0.74 and a decision analysis curve

  4. Obturator Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Pelvic Hematoma After Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Song, Jun H; Kaplan, Joshua R; Abbott, Daniel; Gewirtz, Eric; Hauck, Ellen; Eun, Daniel D

    2016-01-01

    Obturator nerve injury is a known injury after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) and patients often present with motor and sensory deficits in the immediate postoperative period. We describe a 65-year-old male who presented with motor deficits, indicative of obturator neurapraxia after RALP upon waking from anesthesia. Work-up revealed an expansile hematoma possibly compressing the obturator nerve. After evacuation of the hematoma, the patient had immediate improvement of his neurologic deficits. Our patient's clinical vignette illustrates the importance of considering postsurgical hematoma in the differential diagnosis when patients present with signs and symptoms of obturator neurapraxia after RALP. PMID:27579444

  5. Open suprapubic versus retropubic prostatectomy in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia during resident's learning curve: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Arie; Sakuramoto, Paulo; Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; Forseto, Pedro Herminio; Julio, Alexandre Den; Bautzer, Carlos Ricardo Doi; Lins, Leonardo Monte Marques; Kataguiri, Andre; Yamada, Fernanda Batistini; Teixeira, Gabriel Kushiyama; Tobias-Machado, Marcos; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This study compared the suprapubic (SP) versus retropubic (RP) prostatectomy for the treatment of large prostates and evaluated perioperative surgical morbidity and improvement of urinary symptoms. Materials and Methods: In this single centre, prospective, randomised study, 65 consecutive patients with LUTS and surgical indication with prostate volume greater than 75g underwent open prostatectomy to compare the RP (32 patients) versus SP (33 patients) technique. Results: The SP group exhibited a higher incidence of complications (p=0.002). Regarding voiding pattern analysis (IPSS and flowmetry), both were significantly effective compared to pre-treatment baseline. The RP group parameters were significantly better, with higher peak urinary flow (SP: 16.77 versus RP: 23.03mL/s, p=0.008) and a trend of lower IPSS score (SP: 6.67 versus RP 4.14, p=0.06). In a subgroup evaluation of patients with prostate volumes larger than 100g, blood loss was lower in those undergoing SP prostatectomy (p=0.003). Patients with prostates smaller than 100g in the SP group exhibited a higher incidence of low grade late complications (p=0.004). Conclusions: The SP technique was related to a higher incidence of minor complications in the late postoperative period. High volume prostates were associated with increased bleeding when the RP technique was utilized. The RP prostatectomy was associated with higher peak urinary flow and a trend of a lower IPSS Score. PMID:27256183

  6. Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy: American Society for Radiation Oncology/American Urological Association Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Valicenti, Richard K.; Thompson, Ian; Albertsen, Peter; Davis, Brian J.; Goldenberg, S. Larry; Wolf, J. Stuart; Sartor, Oliver; Klein, Eric; Hahn, Carol; Michalski, Jeff; Roach, Mack; Faraday, Martha M.

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this guideline was to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods and Materials: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiation therapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Results: Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, use of radiation therapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a restaging evaluation. Conclusions: Physicians should offer adjuvant radiation therapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (ie, seminal vesicle invastion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and salvage radiation therapy to patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiation therapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiation therapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiation therapy should be made by the patient and the multidisciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. The American Society for Radiation Oncology and American Urological Association websites show this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review.

  7. A Family History of Lethal Prostate Cancer and Risk of Aggressive Prostate Cancer in Patients Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Raheem, Omer A; Cohen, Seth A; Parsons, J Kellogg; Palazzi, Kerrin L; Kane, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether a family history of lethal prostate cancer (PCa) was associated with high-risk disease or biochemical recurrence in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. A cohort of radical prostatectomy patients was stratified into men with no family history of PCa (NFH); a first-degree relative with PCa (FH); and those with a first-degree relative who had died of PCa (FHD). Demographic, operative and pathologic outcomes were analyzed. Freedom from biochemical recurrence was examined using Kaplan-Meier log rank. A multivariate Cox logistic regression analysis was also performed. We analyzed 471 men who underwent radical prostatectomy at our institution with known family history. The three groups had: 355 patients (75%) in NFH; 97 patients (21%) in FH; and 19 patients (4%) in FHD. The prevalence of a Gleason score ≥8, higher pathologic T stage, and biochemical recurrence (BCR) rates did not significantly differ between groups. On Kaplan-Meier analysis there were no differences in short-term BCR rates (p = 0.212). In this cohort of patients undergoing radical prostatectomy, those with first-degree relatives who died of PCa did not have an increased likelihood of high-risk or aggressive PCa or shorter-term risk of BCR than those who did not.

  8. A Family History of Lethal Prostate Cancer and Risk of Aggressive Prostate Cancer in Patients Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Raheem, Omer A.; Cohen, Seth A.; Parsons, J. Kellogg; Palazzi, Kerrin L.; Kane, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether a family history of lethal prostate cancer (PCa) was associated with high-risk disease or biochemical recurrence in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. A cohort of radical prostatectomy patients was stratified into men with no family history of PCa (NFH); a first-degree relative with PCa (FH); and those with a first-degree relative who had died of PCa (FHD). Demographic, operative and pathologic outcomes were analyzed. Freedom from biochemical recurrence was examined using Kaplan-Meier log rank. A multivariate Cox logistic regression analysis was also performed. We analyzed 471 men who underwent radical prostatectomy at our institution with known family history. The three groups had: 355 patients (75%) in NFH; 97 patients (21%) in FH; and 19 patients (4%) in FHD. The prevalence of a Gleason score ≥8, higher pathologic T stage, and biochemical recurrence (BCR) rates did not significantly differ between groups. On Kaplan-Meier analysis there were no differences in short-term BCR rates (p = 0.212). In this cohort of patients undergoing radical prostatectomy, those with first-degree relatives who died of PCa did not have an increased likelihood of high-risk or aggressive PCa or shorter-term risk of BCR than those who did not. PMID:26112134

  9. Urinary incontinence following transurethral, transvesical and radical prostatectomy. Retrospective study of 489 patients.

    PubMed

    Van Kampen, M; De Weerdt, W; Van Poppel, H; Baert, L

    1997-12-01

    Urinary incontinence following prostate surgery was evaluated in 489 consecutive patients: 216 patients underwent a transurethral resection, 98 patients a transvesical prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia and 175 patients a radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer. In the first group incontinence was present in 19% of the patients immediately after catheter withdrawal, 16% after 1 month, 8% after 3 months, 3% and 2% after 6 and 9 months, 1.5% after 1 year and 0.5% after 15 months. In the second group incontinence was present in 15% immediately after catheter withdrawal, 12% after 1 month, 5% after 3 months, 2% after 6 months and 1% after 9, 12 and 15 months. In the last group the incontinence rate was higher, 66% were incontinent immediately after catheter withdrawal, 53% after 1 month, 33% after 3 months, 12% after 6 months, 8% after 9 months. After 12 and 15 months still 2% had problems with persistent incontinence. These results compare favourably with the results from the literature. The fact that a rehabilitation program was introduced for the patients with post-operative incontinence, may have been a contributing factor.

  10. Preoperative Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predicts Biochemical Recurrence in Prostate Cancer after Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    George, Arvin K.; Frye, Thomas; Kilchevsky, Amichai; Fascelli, Michele; Shakir, Nabeel A.; Chelluri, Raju; Abboud, Steven F.; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Sankineni, Sandeep; Merino, Maria J.; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter L.; Wood, Bradford J.; Pinto, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the utility of preoperative multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) in predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR) following radical prostatectomy (RP). Materials/Methods From March 2007 to January 2015, 421 consecutive patients with prostate cancer (PCa) underwent preoperative MP-MRI and RP. BCR-free survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify clinical and imaging variables predictive of BCR. Logistic regression was performed to generate a nomogram to predict three-year BCR probability. Results Of the total cohort, 370 patients met inclusion criteria with 39 (10.5%) patients experiencing BCR. On multivariate analysis, preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (p = 0.01), biopsy Gleason score (p = 0.0008), MP-MRI suspicion score (p = 0.03), and extracapsular extension on MP-MRI (p = 0.03) were significantly associated with time to BCR. A nomogram integrating these factors to predict BCR at three years after RP demonstrated a c-index of 0.84, outperforming the predictive value of Gleason score and PSA alone (c-index 0.74, p = 0.02). Conclusion The addition of MP-MRI to standard clinical factors significantly improves prediction of BCR in a post-prostatectomy PCa cohort. This could serve as a valuable tool to support clinical decision-making in patients with moderate and high-risk cancers. PMID:27336392

  11. Exploring gay couples' experience with sexual dysfunction after radical prostatectomy: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Mary-Ellen; Irvine, Jane; Currie, Kristen L; Ritvo, Paul; Trachtenberg, Lianne; Louis, Alyssa; Trachtenberg, John; Jamnicky, Leah; Matthew, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the experience of three gay couples managing sexual dysfunction as a result of undergoing a radical prostatectomy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted as part of a larger study at an urban hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Interview transcripts were transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The authors clustered 18 subordinate themes under 3 superordinate themes: (a) acknowledging change in sexual experience (libido, erectile function, sexual activity, orgasmic function); (b) accommodating change in sexual experience (strategies: emphasizing intimacy, embracing plan B, focus on the other; barriers: side-effect concerns, loss of naturalness, communication breakdown, failure to initiate, trial and failure, partner confounds); and (c) accepting change in sexual experience (indicators: emphasizing health, age attributions, finding a new normal; barriers: uncertain outcomes, treatment regrets). Although gay couples and heterosexual couples share many similar challenges, we discovered that gay men have particular sexual roles and can engage in novel accommodation practices, such as open relationships, that have not been noted in heterosexual couples. All couples, regardless of their level of sexual functioning, highlighted the need for more extensive programming related to sexual rehabilitation. Equitable rehabilitative support is critical to assist homosexual couples manage distress associated with prostatectomy-related sexual dysfunction. PMID:23899045

  12. The science of vacuum erectile device in penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Haocheng

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Radical prostatectomy (RP) is a standard surgical treatment for clinically localized prostate cancer. Erectile dysfunction (ED) and penile shrinkage are common complications. Vacuum Erectile Device (VED) therapy uses negative pressure to distend the corporal sinusoids and to increase blood inflow into the penis. It is the second most commonly used method for penile rehabilitation after RP. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. This paper is designed to review the scientific evidences of VED therapy after RP and discuss the possible mechanisms. Methods We reviewed published papers of post-prostatectomy penile rehabilitation using VED. We analyzed the scientific evidences of VED therapy and discussed the possible underlying mechanisms. Results There are existing clinical evidences for VED therapy to improve ED and preserve penile size. Emerging basic scientific evidence is available and further study is still needed to understand the mechanisms at the molecular level. Conclusions Current clinical evidences support the safety, tolerability, effectiveness and benefits of early VED therapy after RP. The available basic scientific evidences demonstrate that VED therapy for penile rehabilitation is achieved by increasing arterial inflow, anti-apoptotic, anti-fibrotic and anti-hypoxia mechanisms. PMID:26816725

  13. Lower incidence of inguinal hernia after radical prostatectomy using open gasless endoscopic single-site surgery.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, H; Nishimatsu, H; Suzuki, M; Fujimura, T; Enomoto, Y; Ishikawa, A; Kume, H; Homma, Y

    2011-06-01

    Inguinal hernia is one of the long-term complications requiring surgical interventions after retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP), and its incidence has been reported to range from 12 to 21%. The number of open gasless laparoendoscopic single-site surgery, especially minimum incision endoscopic radical prostatectomy (MIES-RRP) is increasing in Japan. The incidence of post-operative inguinal hernia was compared between conventional RRP and MIES-RRP. The medical records of 333 patients who underwent conventional RRP (n=214) or MIES-RRP (n=119) with pelvic lymphadenectomy at our hospital were retrospectively evaluated. There were no significant differences between the two groups in age, pre-operative PSA levels, or previous major abdominal surgery (cholecystectomy, gastrectomy and colectomy), appendectomy or inguinal hernia repair. MIES-RRP was carried out with a 5-8-cm lower abdominal midline incision. Inguinal hernia developed postoperatively in 41 (19%) of the 214 men undergoing conventional RRP during mean follow-up of 58 months (range: 7-60 months). In contrast, 7 (5.9%) of the 119 men receiving MIES-RRP, developed inguinal hernia during mean follow-up of 21 months (range: 13-31 months). The hernia-free survival was significantly higher after MIES-RRP than after conventional RRP (P=0.037). Our results suggest that MIES-RRP is less associated with post-operative inguinal hernia than conventional RRP.

  14. Neoadjuvant Treatment of High-Risk, Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Prior to Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Pietzak, Eugene J; Eastham, James A

    2016-05-01

    Multimodal strategies combining local and systemic therapy offer the greatest chance of cure for many with men with high-risk prostate cancer who may harbor occult metastatic disease. However, no systemic therapy combined with radical prostatectomy has proven beneficial. This was in part due to a lack of effective systemic agents; however, there have been several advancements in the metastatic and castrate-resistant prostate cancer that might prove beneficial if given earlier in the natural history of the disease. For example, novel hormonal agents have recently been approved for castration-resistant prostate cancer with some early phase II neoadjuvant showing promise. Additionally, combination therapy with docetaxel-based chemohormonal has demonstrated a profound survival benefit in metastatic hormone-naïve patients and might have a role in eliminating pre-existing ADT-resistant tumor cells in the neoadjuvant setting. The Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB)/Alliance 90203 trial has finished accrual and should answer the question as to whether neoadjuvant docetaxel-based chemohormonal therapy provides an advantage over prostatectomy alone. There are also several promising targeted agents and immunotherapies under investigation in phase I/II trials with the potential to provide benefit in the neoadjuvant setting. PMID:26968417

  15. Urethral ultrasonography: A novel diagnostic tool for dysuria following bipolar transurethral plasma kinetic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Chun; Bian, Cui-Dong; Zhou, Ting-Ting; Liu, Min; Huang, Jian-Hua; Peng, Bo

    2016-04-29

    Urethral ultrasonography is non-invasive and able to indicate the urethral lumen clearly, as well as the surrounding tissues of the posterior urethra, without contrast agent or X-ray irradiation. In this paper, we evaluate the reliability of urethral ultrasonography in the diagnosis of dysuria following bipolar transurethral plasma kinetic prostatectomy (TUPKP). A total of 120 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) patients with dysuria undergoing TUPKP were enrolled in this study, with a mean age of 72.8 years. All the patients received urethral ultrasonography, urethroscopy and bladder neck urethra stenosis oulectomy. Among the 120 cases, there were 22 cases of bladder neck closure, 20 bladder orifice stricture, 60 urethral stricture, 10 prostate remnants, 2 calculi in prostatic urethra, 4 dysfunction of bladder detrusor muscle and 2 flap of internal urethral orifice. χ2-test was used for the comparison of ultrasonography and urethral cystoscopy in the diagnosis of dysuria following TRPKP, and no significant difference was found between two diagnostic tools (χ 2 = 0.94, P > 0.05). Urethral ultrasonography is a reliable and minimally invasive diagnostic tool for dysuria following TUPKP and is conducive to early treatment of dysuria following prostatectomy. PMID:27163308

  16. Postoperative self-efficacy and psychological morbidity in radical prostatectomy1

    PubMed Central

    da Mata, Luciana Regina Ferreira; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos; Gomes, Cássia Regina Gontijo; da Silva, Ana Cristina; Pereira, Maria da Graça

    2015-01-01

    Objective: evaluate the general and perceived self-efficacy, psychological morbidity, and knowledge about postoperative care of patients submitted to radical prostatectomy. Identify the relationships between the variables and know the predictors of self-efficacy. Method: descriptive, cross-sectional study, conducted with 76 hospitalized men. The scales used were the General and Perceived Self-efficacy Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, in addition to sociodemographic, clinical and knowledge questionnaires. Results: a negative relationship was found for self-efficacy in relation to anxiety and depression. Psychological morbidity was a significant predictor variable for self-efficacy. An active professional situation and the waiting time for surgery also proved to be relevant variables for anxiety and knowledge, respectively. Conclusion: participants had a good level of general and perceived self-efficacy and small percentage of depression. With these findings, it is possible to produce the profile of patients about their psychological needs after radical prostatectomy and, thus, allow the nursing professionals to act holistically, considering not only the need for care of physical nature, but also of psychosocial nature. PMID:26487129

  17. Time trends in pathologic features of radical prostatectomy--impact of family history.

    PubMed

    Marotte, Jeffrey B; Ferrari, Michelle K; McNeal, John E; Brooks, James D; Presti, Joseph C

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether the clinical or pathological features of patients with a family history of prostate cancer treated by radical prostatectomy differ from patients without a family history. A retrospective analysis of patients treated by radical prostatectomy between 1989 through 2000 was performed. The clinical and pathologic features of patients with a family history (defined as at least one first-degree relative with prostate cancer, N = 103) were compared with those with no family history (N = 456). In addition, the patients were stratified into two groups, those treated from 1989 through 1992 and those treated after 1992. In the entire cohort from 1989 through 2000, patients with a family history had a greater proportion of well-differentiated tumors than the NFH group (26.2% vs. 17.8%; P = 0.05). From 1989 to 1992 there was no statistical difference between patients with a family history (FH) and those without a family history (NFH) with respect to age, prostate specific antigen (PSA), PSA density, clinical or pathologic stage, Gleason grade, or total tumor volume. However, after 1992 the FH group tended to be younger than the NFH group (61.1 vs. 63.4; P = 0.02) and have a lower PSA (6.8 vs. 7.9; P = 0.01) at the time of diagnosis. We believe these differences are predominantly driven by more aggressive screening in patients with a family history of prostate cancer rather than any true genetic differences.

  18. What has to happen before we report radical prostatectomy outcomes of individual surgeons to the public?

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Andrew; Eastham, James

    2010-01-01

    Summary It would appear entirely uncontroversial to suggest that prostate cancer patients should have available information on surgeon outcomes so that they can make informed treatment decisions. We argue that release of surgeon-level data on radical prostatectomy outcomes would be premature at the current time. We point to a series of problems that would need to be addressed before we could be sure that a consumerist approach to surgeon selection would do more good than harm. These include non-standardized reporting of endpoints such as urinary and erectile function, statistically unreliable estimates from low volume surgeons and perverse incentives, such as referring of high risk patients to radiotherapy. We recommend an alternative to the “name-and-shame” paradigm of public outcomes reporting: continuous quality improvement. Surgeons are given reports as to their own outcomes on a private basis, such that no-one else can see their data. This helps to build trust and to avoid perverse incentives. Such reports must be multi-dimensional and based on a comprehensive, patient-reported outcomes system. As outcomes data are meaningless for low volume surgeons, these surgeons would have to choose between focusing on radical prostatectomy and referring patients to higher volume colleagues. Systematic research is required to determine whether such an approach would do more good than harm. PMID:20884248

  19. Does robotic prostatectomy meet its promise in the management of prostate cancer?

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-How; Carter, Stacey C; Hu, Jim C

    2013-06-01

    Following Walsh's advances in pelvic anatomy and surgical technique to minimize intraoperative peri-prostatic trauma more than 30 years ago, open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) evolved to become the gold standard treatment of localized prostate cancer, with excellent long-term survival outcomes [1•]. However, RRP is performed with great heterogeneity, even among high volume surgeons, and subtle differences in surgical technique result in clinically significant differences in recovery of urinary and sexual function. Since the initial description of robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in 2000 [2], and U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval shortly thereafter, RARP has been rapidly adopted and has overtaken RRP as the most popular surgical approach in the management of prostate cancer in the United States [3]. However, the surgical management of prostate cancer remains controversial. This is confounded by the idolatry of new technologies and aggressive marketing versus conservatism in embracing tradition. Herein, we review the literature to compare RRP to RARP in terms of perioperative, oncologic, and quality-of-life outcomes as well as healthcare costs. This is a particularly relevant, given the absence of randomized trials and long-term (more than 10-year) follow-up for RARP biochemical recurrence-free survival.

  20. Integrating Geriatric Assessment into Decision-Making after Prostatectomy: Adjuvant Radiotherapy, Salvage Radiotherapy, or None?

    PubMed Central

    Goineau, Aurore; d’Aillières, Bénédicte; de Decker, Laure; Supiot, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Despite current advancements in the field, management of older prostate cancer patients still remains a big challenge for Geriatric Oncology. The International Society of Geriatric Oncology (ISGO) has recently updated its recommendations in this area, and these have been widely adopted, notably by the European Association of Urology. This article outlines the principles that should be observed in the management of elderly patients who have recently undergone prostatectomy for malignancy or with a biochemical relapse following prostatectomy. Further therapeutic intervention should not be considered in those patients who are classified as frail in the geriatric assessment. In patients presenting better health conditions, salvage radiotherapy is to be preferred to adjuvant radiotherapy, which is only indicated in certain exceptional cases. Radiotherapy of the operative bed presents a higher risk to the elderly. Additionally, hormone therapy clearly shows higher side effects in older patients and therefore it should not be administered to asymptomatic patients. We propose a decision tree based on the ISGO recommendations, with specific modifications for patients in biochemical relapse. PMID:26528437

  1. Vas deferens urethral support improves early post-prostatectomy urine continence.

    PubMed

    van der Poel, H G; De Blok, W; Van Muilekom, H A M

    2012-12-01

    Urine continence is often impaired after radical prostatectomy. Few randomized studies prove the efficacy of novel surgical approaches. Vas deferens urethral support (VDUS) during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) was studied for improvement of early postoperative urine continence in a single-centre prospective double-blind randomized study with a power of 90% to detect a 30% decrease in early incontinence. 112 men were randomized, and 108 could be analyzed (VDUS n = 54, noVDUS n = 54). VDUS improved early continence by 40% at 1 month (59% vs. 35%, P = 0.02); 6 months postoperatively this was 72% vs. 62%, P = 0.41. A 24-h pad test at 1 day, 3 days, and 1 week showed decreased amounts of urine loss in the VDUS group. The ICIQ-SF score was significantly lower for the VDUS group within the first month after surgery. VDUS had no impact upon quality of life questionnaire analyses for overall and lower urinary tract symptom-related quality of life but showed a significant improvement in the social domain of the EORTC-QLQ-C30 questionnaire. VDUS moderately improved early urine continence within 1 month after RALP. PMID:27628467

  2. Managing urine leakage following laparoscopic radical prostatectomy with active suction of the prevesical space

    PubMed Central

    Stránský, Petr; Klečka, Jiří; Trávníček, Ivan; Ürge, Tomáš; Eret, Viktor; Ferda, Jiří; Petersson, Fredrik; Hes, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Urine leakage following laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) is a possible complication that may herald chronic urine incontinence. Intraoperative measures aiming to prevent this is not standardised. Aim Presentation of experience with active suction of the prevesical space in managing postoperative urine leakage. Material and methods At the Department of Urology, where laparoscopy of the upper abdomen and open RP were performed, a protocol for extraperitoneal LRP was established in 8/2008. Until 5/2011, 154 LRPs have been performed. Urine leakage from a suction drain appeared in 9 cases (5.8%). Permanent active suction (with a machine for Büllae thoracic drainage) of the prevesical space with negative pressure of 7-12 cm of H2O was started immediately. Results Urine leakage started after a mean of 0.9 (0-2) days postoperatively and stopped after a mean of 8.1 (15-42) days. Leakage stopped with only suctioning in 7 cases. In one case, open re-anastomosis was performed on the 7th postoperative day (POD). In another case, ineffective active suction was replaced on the 10th POD by needle vented suction without effect and the leakage stopped following gradual shortening of the drain up to the 15th POD. Conclusions Active suction of the prevesical space seems to be an effective intervention to stop postoperative urine leakage after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. PMID:23630554

  3. Robotics and telesurgery--an update on their position in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Rassweiler, J; Safi, K C; Subotic, S; Teber, D; Frede, T

    2005-01-01

    Laparoscopy is handicapped by the reduction of the range of motion from six to only four degrees of freedom. In complicated cases (i.e. radical prostatectomy), there is often a crossing of the hands of surgeon and assistant. Finally, standard laparoscopes allow only 2D-vision. This has a major impact on technically difficult reconstructive procedures such as laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Solutions include the understanding of the geometry of laparoscopy, but also newly developed surgical robots. During the last five years, there has been an increasing development and experience with robotics in urology. This article reviews the actual results focussing on the benefits and problems of robotics in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Own experiences with robot-assisted surgery include more than 1200 laparoscopic radical prostatectomies using a voice-controlled camera-arm (AESOP) as well as six telesurgical interventions with the da Vinci-system. Substantial experimental studies have been performed focussing on the geometry of laparoscopy and new training concepts such as perfused pelvitrainers and models for simulation of urethrovesical anastomosis. The recent literature on robotics in urology has been reviewed based on a MEDLINE/PUBMED research. The geometry of laparoscopy includes the angles between the instruments which have to be in a range of 25 degrees to 45 degrees ; the angles between the instrument and the working plane that should not exceed 55 degrees ; and the bi-planar angle between the shaft of the needle holder and the needle which has to be adapted according to the anatomical situation in range of 90 degrees to 110 degrees . 3-D-systems have not yet proved to be effective due to handling problems such as shutter glasses, video helmets or reduced brightness. At the moment, there are only two robotic surgical systems (AESOP, da Vinci) in clinical use, of which only the da Vinci provides stereovision and all six degrees of freedom (DOF). To date

  4. Dynamic Arterial Elastance in Predicting Arterial Pressure Increase After Fluid Challenge During Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyungseok; Kong, Yu-Gyeong; Jin, Seok-Joon; Chin, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Yeong; Lee, Yoon-Kyung; Hwang, Jai-Hyun; Kim, Young-Kug

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy, specific physiological conditions such as carbon dioxide insufflation and the steep Trendelenburg position can alter the cardiac workload and cerebral hemodynamics. Inadequate arterial blood pressure is associated with hypoperfusion, organ damage, and poor outcomes. Dynamic arterial elastance (Ea) has been proposed to be a useful index of fluid management in hypotensive patients. We therefore evaluated whether dynamic Ea can predict a mean arterial pressure (MAP) increase ≥ 15% after fluid challenge during pneumoperitoneum and the steep Trendelenburg position. We enrolled 39 patients receiving robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. Fluid challenge was performed with 500 mL colloids in the presence of preload-dependent conditions and arterial hypotension. Patients were classified as arterial pressure responders or arterial pressure nonresponders according to whether they showed an MAP increase ≥15% after fluid challenge. Dynamic Ea was defined as the ratio between the pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to assess the arterial pressure responsiveness after fluid challenge during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. Of the 39 patients, 17 were arterial pressure responders and 22 were arterial pressure nonresponders. The mean dynamic Ea before fluid challenge was significantly higher in arterial pressure responders than in arterial pressure nonresponders (0.79 vs 0.61, P < 0.001). In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, dynamic Ea showed an area under the curve of 0.810. The optimal cut-off value of dynamic Ea for predicting an MAP increase of ≥ 15% after fluid challenge was 0.74. Dynamic Ea can predict an MAP increase ≥ 15% after fluid challenge during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. This result suggests that evaluation of arterial pressure responsiveness using dynamic Ea helps to

  5. Seperation of dorsal vein complex from the urethra by blunt finger dissection during radical retropubic prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Atan, Ali; Tuncel, Altuğ; Polat, Fazlı; Balcı, Melih; Yeşil, Süleyman; Köseoğlu, Ersin

    2015-01-01

    We present our initial experience on the isolation of dorsal vein complex by blunt finger dissection in 26 patients with localised prostate cancer who underwent open retropubic radical prostatectomy. Loss of blood was between 300 and 500 mL (mean 350 mL). Two of 26 patients (7.6%) required blood transfusion. There was no positive surgical margin at prostatic apex in the patients. Twenty four of our patients (92.4%) were continent on the 3rd month. Control of dorsal vein complex is very important to decrease blood loss and to improve intraoperative exposure of retropubic area in order to get negative margin of prostatic apex and to provide the urethra long enough for a nice urethrovesical anastomosis. According to our initial experience, this technique seems to provide these aims. PMID:26328213

  6. Perceptions and experiences after radical prostatectomy in Turkish men: a descriptive qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Iyigun, Emine; Ayhan, Hatice; Tastan, Sevinc

    2011-05-01

    Radical prostatectomy (RP) can significantly influence men's quality of life. Data from the Ministry of Health's Fight With Cancer Office Directorate in 2003 show that prostate cancer is third among the 10 most common types of cancer in men, with an incidence of 5.97% in the population. The objectives of this study were to define the experiences and perceptions of Turkish men who have undergone RP and to determine the views and suggestions of men who had undergone RP as to their discharge training content. Following the RP, urinary incontinence (UI) and erectile dysfunction (ED) negatively affect the daily life of men. It has been determined that men need support to deal with these problems they met. Being discharged without obtaining information from the health care staff regarding home catheter care and UI and ED management causes men to experience difficulties and find it difficult to cope when faced with these problems. PMID:20974065

  7. Does the size matter?: Prostate weight does not predict PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Darrell D; Koch, Michael O; Lin, Haiqun; Jones, Timothy D; Biermann, Katharina; Cheng, Liang

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that low prostate weight is a significant negative prognostic factor for prostate cancer. In the current study, the data for 431 men who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy between 1990 and 1998 were analyzed for association between prostate weight and various clinical and pathologic parameters. These included age, preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, PSA recurrence, pathologic stage, Gleason grade, extraprostatic extension, positive surgical margins, tumor volume, associated high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, perineural invasion, and lymph node metastasis. Potential associations were probed by using Cox regression model analysis. A significant positive correlation was found between prostate weight and increasing patient age or increasing preoperative PSA level. There was no significant independent association between prostate weight and any of the other variables examined. No association was found between prostate weight and PSA recurrence. Although increasing prostate weight correlates with increased patient age and higher preoperative PSA level, it does not independently predict postoperative cancer recurrence.

  8. Chemotherapy and novel therapeutics before radical prostatectomy for high-risk clinically localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Cha, Eugene K; Eastham, James A

    2015-05-01

    Although both surgery and radiation are potential curative options for men with clinically localized prostate cancer, a significant proportion of men with high-risk and locally advanced disease will demonstrate biochemical and potentially clinical progression of their disease. Neoadjuvant systemic therapy before radical prostatectomy (RP) is a logical strategy to improve treatment outcomes for men with clinically localized high-risk prostate cancer. Furthermore, delivery of chemotherapy and other systemic agents before RP affords an opportunity to explore the efficacy of these agents with pathologic end points. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, primarily with docetaxel (with or without androgen deprivation therapy), has demonstrated feasibility and safety in men undergoing RP, but no study to date has established the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant chemohormonal therapies. Other novel agents, such as those targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, clusterin, and immunomodulatory therapeutics, are currently under investigation.

  9. Hemostatic hydrodissection of the neurovascular bundles during robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: safety and efficacy trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekattil, Sijo J.; Dahm, Philipp; Vieweg, Johannes W.

    2009-02-01

    Preservation of continence and potency after Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (RALP) are two key outcome measures that patients consider when comparing different treatment options for localized prostate cancer. Ensuring that positive surgical margins are as low as possible provides oncologic control. Various techniques to optimize these outcomes have been employed. This study presents the early outcomes for Hemostatic Hydrodissection of the Neurovascular Bundles during 86 consecutive RALPs. Positive margin rates were 12.5% overall (9% for pT2 and 28.6% for pT3); continence at 6 months was 100%, at 3 months 90% and at 1 month 66%. In patients with no preoperative erectile dysfunction (preoperative SHIM of 25), 79% had return of erections sufficient for intercourse by 6 months. 2 of these patients were able to have intercourse 2 weeks after surgery. These preliminary findings appear promising.

  10. Transurethral Nd:YALO3 laser prostatectomy for prostatic hyperplasia--18 cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen B.; Chen, Zi-Fu; Huang, Chao; Gao, Xiang-Xun; Lin, Sheng-Sheng; Zhan, Tian-qi; Shen, Hong Y.; Zeng, Rui R.; Zhou, Ye P.; Yu, Gui F.; Huang, Cheng H.; Zeng, Zhang D.

    1994-05-01

    18 cases of BHP were treated since 1990 by Nd:YALO3 (Nd:YAP) laser transurethral prostatectomy. The ages of these patients from 54 to 88 years with a mean age of 69.6 years. In all cases, there were dysuria, 10 cases acute retention of urine, 5 cases residual urine more than 50 ml, 12 cases abnormal ECG. 4 cases chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema, 4 cases hypertension and 3 cases diabetic. The working conditions of the laser machine are as follows: wavelength of laser: 1079.5 nm; output power of fiber: variation range from 0 to 100 w. The merits of the procedure were less bleeding during operation, shorter operation time and more quick convascence. Cure has been achieved in 11 cases and improvement in 2 cases. The indication, merits and complication of TULP were discussed.

  11. Surgical planning for radical prostatectomies using three-dimensional visualization and a virtual reality display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Paul A.; Robb, Richard A.; King, Bernard F.; Myers, R. P.; Camp, Jon J.

    1995-04-01

    Thousands of radical prostatectomies for prostate cancer are performed each year. Radical prostatectomy is a challenging procedure due to anatomical variability and the adjacency of critical structures, including the external urinary sphincter and neurovascular bundles that subserve erectile function. Because of this, there are significant risks of urinary incontinence and impotence following this procedure. Preoperative interaction with three-dimensional visualization of the important anatomical structures might allow the surgeon to understand important individual anatomical relationships of patients. Such understanding might decrease the rate of morbidities, especially for surgeons in training. Patient specific anatomic data can be obtained from preoperative 3D MRI diagnostic imaging examinations of the prostate gland utilizing endorectal coils and phased array multicoils. The volumes of the important structures can then be segmented using interactive image editing tools and then displayed using 3-D surface rendering algorithms on standard work stations. Anatomic relationships can be visualized using surface displays and 3-D colorwash and transparency to allow internal visualization of hidden structures. Preoperatively a surgeon and radiologist can interactively manipulate the 3-D visualizations. Important anatomical relationships can better be visualized and used to plan the surgery. Postoperatively the 3-D displays can be compared to actual surgical experience and pathologic data. Patients can then be followed to assess the incidence of morbidities. More advanced approaches to visualize these anatomical structures in support of surgical planning will be implemented on virtual reality (VR) display systems. Such realistic displays are `immersive,' and allow surgeons to simultaneously see and manipulate the anatomy, to plan the procedure and to rehearse it in a realistic way. Ultimately the VR systems will be implemented in the operating room (OR) to assist the

  12. Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy learning curve for experienced laparoscopic surgeons: does it really exist?

    PubMed Central

    Tobias-Machado, Marcos; Mitre, Anuar Ibrahim; Rubinstein, Mauricio; da Costa, Eduardo Fernandes; Hidaka, Alexandre Kyoshi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RALP) is a minimally invasive procedure that could have a reduced learning curve for unfamiliar laparoscopic surgeon. However, there are no consensuses regarding the impact of previous laparoscopic experience on the learning curve of RALP. We report on a functional and perioperative outcome comparison between our initial 60 cases of RALP and last 60 cases of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP), performed by three experienced laparoscopic surgeons with a 200+LRP cases experience. Materials and Methods Between January 2010 and September 2013, a total of 60 consecutive patients who have undergone RALP were prospectively evaluated and compared to the last 60 cases of LRP. Data included demographic data, operative duration, blood loss, transfusion rate, positive surgical margins, hospital stay, complications and potency and continence rates. Results The mean operative time and blood loss were higher in RALP (236 versus 153 minutes, p<0.001 and 245.6 versus 202ml p<0.001). Potency rates at 6 months were higher in RALP (70% versus 50% p=0.02). Positive surgical margins were also higher in RALP (31.6% versus 12.5%, p=0.01). Continence rates at 6 months were similar (93.3% versus 89.3% p=0.43). Patient’s age, complication rates and length of hospital stay were similar for both groups. Conclusions Experienced laparoscopic surgeons (ELS) present a learning curve for RALP only demonstrated by longer operative time and clinically insignificant blood loss. Our initial results demonstrated similar perioperative and functional outcomes for both approaches. ELS were able to achieve satisfactory oncological and functional results during the learning curve period for RALP. PMID:27136471

  13. Genetic markers associated with early cancer-specific mortality following prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wennuan; Xie, Chunmei C.; Thomas, Christopher Y.; Kim, Seong-Tae; Lindberg, Johan; Egevad, Lars; Wang, Zhong; Zhang, Zheng; Sun, Jishan; Sun, Jielin; Koty, Patrick P.; Kader, A. Karim; Cramer, Scott D.; Bova, G. Steve; Zheng, S. Lilly; Grönberg, Henrik; Isaacs, William B.; Xu, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND To identify novel effectors and markers of localized but potentially life-threatening prostate cancer (PCa), we evaluated chromosomal copy number alterations (CNAs) in tumors from patients who underwent prostatectomy and correlated these with clinicopathologic features and outcome. METHODS CNAs in tumor DNAs from 125 prostatectomy patients in the discovery cohort were assayed with high resolution Affymetrix 6.0 SNP microarrays and then analyzed using the Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer (GISTIC) algorithm. RESULTS The assays revealed twenty significant regions of CNAs, four of them novel, and identified the target genes of four of the alterations. By univariate analysis, seven CNAs were significantly associated with early PCa-specific mortality. These included gains of chromosomal regions that contain the genes MYC, ADAR, or TPD52 and losses of sequences that incorporate SERPINB5, USP10, PTEN, or TP53. On multivariate analysis, only the CNAs of PTEN and MYC contributed additional prognostic information independent of that provided by pathologic stage, Gleason score, and initial PSA level. Patients whose tumors had alterations of both genes had a markedly elevated risk of PCa-specific mortality (OR = 53; C.I.= 6.92–405, P = 1 × 10−4). Analyses of 333 tumors from three additional distinct patient cohorts confirmed the relationship between CNAs of PTEN and MYC and lethal PCa. CONCLUSION This study identified new CNAs and genes that likely contribute to the pathogenesis of localized PCa and suggests that patients whose tumors have acquired CNAs of PTEN, MYC, or both have an increased risk of early PCa-specific mortality. PMID:23609948

  14. Assessing variability of the 24-hour pad weight test in men with post-prostatectomy incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Rena D.; Cohn, Joshua A.; Fedunok, Pauline A.; Chung, Doreen E.; Bales, Gregory T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Decision-making regarding surgery for post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI) is challenging. The 24-hour pad weight test is commonly used to objectively quantify PPI. However, pad weight may vary based upon activity level. We aimed to quantify variability in pad weights based upon patient-reported activity. Materials and Methods: 25 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy were prospectively enrolled. All patients demonstrated clinical stress urinary incontinence without clinical urgency urinary incontinence. On three consecutive alternating days, patients submitted 24-hour pad weights along with a short survey documenting activity level and number of pads used. Results: Pad weights collected across the three days were well correlated to the individual (ICC 0.85 (95% CI 0.74–0.93), p<0.001). The mean difference between the minimum pad weight leakage and maximum leakage per patient was 133.4g (95% CI 80.4–186.5). The mean increase in 24-hour leakage for a one-point increase in self-reported activity level was 118.0g (95% CI 74.3–161.7, p<0.001). Pad weights also varied significantly when self-reported activity levels did not differ (mean difference 51.2g (95% CI 30.3–72.1), p<0.001). Conclusions: 24-hour pad weight leakage may vary significantly on different days of collection. This variation is more pronounced with changes in activity level. Taking into account patient activity level may enhance the predictive value of pad weight testing. PMID:27256187

  15. Average Weight of Seminal Vesicles: An Adjustment Factor for Radical Prostatectomy Specimens Weighed With Seminal Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Tjionas, George A; Epstein, Jonathan I; Williamson, Sean R; Diaz, Mireya; Menon, Mani; Peabody, James O; Gupta, Nilesh S; Parekh, Dipen J; Cote, Richard J; Jorda, Merce; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N

    2015-12-01

    The International Society of Urological Pathology in 2010 recommended weighing prostates without seminal vesicles (SV) to include only prostate weight in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density (PSAD) calculation, because SV do not produce PSA. Large retrospective cohorts exist with combined weight recorded that needs to be modified for retrospective analysis. Weights of prostates and SV were separately recorded in 172 consecutive prostatectomies. The average weight of SV and proportion of prostate weight from combined weight were calculated. The adjustment factors were then validated on databases of 2 other institutions. The average weight of bilateral SV was 6.4 g (range = 1-17.3 g). The prostate constituted on average 87% (range = 66% to 98%) of the total specimen weight. There was no correlation between patient age and prostate weight with SV weight. The best performing correction method was to subtract 6.4 g from total radical prostatectomy weight and to use this weight for PSAD calculation. The average weights of retrospective specimens weighed with SV were not significantly different between the 3 institutions. Using our data allowed calibration of the weights and PSAD between the cohorts weighed with and without SV. Thus, prostate weight in specimens including SV weight can be adjusted by subtracting 6.4 g, resulting in significant change of PSAD. Some institution-specific variations may exist, which could further increase the precision of retrospective analysis involving prostate weight and PSAD. However, unless institution-specific adjustment parameters are developed, we recommend that this correction factor be used for retrospective cohorts or in institutions where combined weight is still recorded.

  16. Phase 1 Trial of Neoadjuvant Radiation Therapy Before Prostatectomy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, Bridget F.; Quaranta, Brian P.; Pura, John A.; Lee, W.R.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Gerber, Leah; Haake, Michael; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Robertson, Cary N.; Polascik, Thomas J.; Moul, Judd W.

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate, in a phase 1 study, the safety of neoadjuvant whole-pelvis radiation therapy (RT) administered immediately before radical prostatectomy in men with high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Twelve men enrolled and completed a phase 1 single-institution trial between 2006 and 2010. Eligibility required a previously untreated diagnosis of localized but high-risk prostate cancer. Median follow-up was 46 months (range, 14-74 months). Radiation therapy was dose-escalated in a 3 × 3 design with dose levels of 39.6, 45, 50.4, and 54 Gy. The pelvic lymph nodes were treated up to 45 Gy with any additional dose given to the prostate and seminal vesicles. Radical prostatectomy was performed 4-8 weeks after RT completion. Primary outcome measure was intraoperative and postoperative day-30 morbidity. Secondary measures included late morbidity and oncologic outcomes. Results: No intraoperative morbidity was seen. Chronic urinary grade 2+ toxicity occurred in 42%; 2 patients (17%) developed a symptomatic urethral stricture requiring dilation. Two-year actuarial biochemical recurrence-free survival was 67% (95% confidence interval 34%-86%). Patients with pT3 or positive surgical margin treated with neoadjuvant RT had a trend for improved biochemical recurrence-free survival compared with a historical cohort with similar adverse factors. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant RT is feasible with moderate urinary morbidity. However, oncologic outcomes do not seem to be substantially different from those with selective postoperative RT. If this multimodal approach is further evaluated in a phase 2 setting, 54 Gy should be used in combination with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy to improve biochemical outcomes.

  17. Urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy – experience of the last 100 cases

    PubMed Central

    Szymański, Michał; Wolski, Jan Karol; Nadolski, Tomasz; Kalinowski, Tomasz; Demkow, Tomasz; Peczkowski, Piotr; Pilichowska, Małgorzata; Ligaj, Marcin; Michalski, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy (RP) is a recognized treatment method of organ-confined prostate cancer. Among post-surgery complications, urinary incontinence is a major one. The aim of this study was to determine the incontinence rate after RP and to analyze factors that might affect it. Between March 2007 and December 2008, 132 RP's were performed at Warsaw Cancer Center. A questionnaire to assess the condition before and after RP was developed by the authors and sent to all treated patients. The questionnaire focused on health status information, function in urinary domain, rate of returning to “normal” activity level as before RP and satisfaction from the treatment. The median age of patients was 62 years. Out of 132 patients 102 subjects (77.2%) responded to the questionnaire. Of all responders, 35 patients (34.3%) reported total urinary continence after RP. After RP 35(34.3%) patients reported total urinary continence and in 55(53.9%) patients urinary incontinence of medium degree was present. In 12 (11.8%) patients significant urinary incontinence developed. The most common cause of urine dripping (82% of patients with any degree of urinary incontinence) was associated with abdominal muscle pressure. No statistically significant association between urinary incontinence and adjuvant radiotherapy after RP or the surgeon performing the RP was found (>0.79, >0.803). Radical prostatectomy carries a certain risk of complications. We observed an 88.2% rate of significant (total and moderate degree) urinary continence. The adjuvant radiotherapy and surgeons, who performed the RP, did not affect the rate of incontinence. PMID:24578896

  18. Effectiveness of Postgraduate Training for Learning Extraperitoneal Access for Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Achim, Mary; Munsell, Mark; Matin, Surena

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To determine the effectiveness of postgraduate training for learning extraperitoneal robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (EP-RARP) and to identify any unmet training needs. Materials and Methods The training resources used were live surgery observations, digital video disc instruction, postgraduate courses, and literature review. Modifications to the transperitoneal (TP) setup in equipment, patient positioning, port placement, and access technique were identified. A surgeon who had previous experience with 898 TP robot-assisted radical prostatectomies (TP-RARPs) performed EP-RARP in 30 patients. We evaluated setup results, emphasizing access-related difficulties, and compared the EP cohort with a nonrandomized, concurrent TP cohort of 62 patients for short-term outcomes. Results The median setup time for EP was 26 minutes (range 15–65 min) for EP compared with 14 to 17 minutes for the comparable TP setup and dropping the bladder. During EP setup and dissection, peritoneal entry occurred in 37%, incorrect port spacing in 10%, epigastric vessel injury in 10%, and other minor pitfalls in 10%. No significant differences were found between EP and TP in postsetup operative times, hospital stay, complications, surgical margin status with organ-confined disease, or lymph node dissection yield. EP had significantly higher estimated blood loss (300 vs 200 mL, P=0.001) and more symptomatic lymphoceles when extended pelvic lymph node dissection was performed (3/16 vs 0/47, P=0.001). Conclusions Using postgraduate education resources, an experienced TP-RARP surgeon successfully transitioned to EP-RARP, achieving the major objectives of safety and equivalent outcomes. We identified several minor nuances in the setup that need further refinement in future education models. PMID:21745117

  19. Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy and previous surgical history: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Adrien N; Lavery, Hugh J; Hobbs, Adele R; Chin, Edward; Samadi, David B

    2013-06-01

    Previous abdominal or prostate surgery can be a significant barrier to subsequent minimally invasive procedures, including radical prostatectomy (RP). This is relevant to a quarter of prostatectomy patients who have had previous surgery. The technological advances of robot-assisted laparoscopic RP (RALP) can mitigate some of these challenges. To that end, our objective was to elucidate the effect of previous surgery on RALP, and to describe a multidisciplinary approach to the previously entered abdomen. One-thousand four-hundred and fourteen RALP patients were identified from a single-surgeon database. Potentially difficult cases were discussed preoperatively and treated in a multidisciplinary fashion with a general surgeon. Operative, pathological, and functional outcomes were analyzed after stratification by previous surgical history. Four-hundred and twenty (30 %) patients underwent previous surgery at least once. Perioperative outcomes were similar among most groups. Previous major abdominal surgery was associated with increased operative time (147 vs. 119 min, p < 0.001), as was the presence of adhesions (120 vs. 154 min, p < 0.001). Incidence of complications was comparable, irrespective of surgical history. Major complications included two enterotomies diagnosed intraoperatively and one patient requiring reoperation. All cases were performed robotically, without conversion to open-RP. There was no difference in biochemical disease-free survival among surgical groups and continence and potency were equivalent between groups. In conclusion, previous abdominal surgery did not affect the safety or feasibility of RALP, with all patients experiencing comparable perioperative, functional, and oncologic outcomes. PMID:27000905

  20. Obesity and Risk of Biochemical Failure for Patients Receiving Salvage Radiotherapy After Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    King, Christopher R. Spiotto, Michael T.; Kapp, Daniel S.

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: Obesity has been proposed as an independent risk factor for patients undergoing surgery or radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer. Using body mass index (BMI) as a measure of obesity, we tested its role as a risk factor for patients receiving salvage RT after prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: Rates of subsequent biochemical relapse were examined in 90 patients who underwent salvage RT between 1984 and 2004 for biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy. Median follow-up was 3.7 years. The BMI was tested as a continuous and categorical variable (stratified as <25, 25-<30, and {>=}30 kg/m{sup 2}). Univariate and multivariate proportional hazards regression analyses were performed for clinical, pathologic, and treatment factors associated with time to relapse after salvage RT. Results: There were 40 biochemical failures after salvage RT with a median time to failure of 1.2 years. The BMI was not associated with adverse clinical, pathologic, or treatment factors. On multivariate analysis, obesity was independently significant (hazard ratio [HR], 1.2; p = 0.01), along with RT dose (HR, 0.7; p = 0.003) and pre-RT prostate-specific antigen level (HR, 1.2; p = 0.0003). Conclusions: This study is weakly suggestive that obesity may be a risk factor for salvage RT patients. Whether this results from greater biologic aggressiveness or technical inadequacies cannot be answered by this study. Given the very high failure rate observed for severely obese patients, we propose that technical difficulties with RT are at play. This hypothesis is supported by the RT literature and could be prospectively investigated. Techniques that optimize targeting, especially in obese patients, perhaps seem warranted at this time.

  1. Prostate Cancer Biochemical Recurrence Rates After Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ginzburg, Serge; Nevers, Thomas; Staff, Ilene; Tortora, Joseph; Champagne, Alison; Kesler, Stuart S.; Laudone, Vincent P.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To determine prostate cancer biochemical recurrence rates with respect to surgical margin (SM) status for patients undergoing robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP). Methods: IRB-approved radical prostatectomy database was queried. Patients were stratified as low, intermediate, and high risk according to D’Amico's risk classification. Postoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values were obtained every 3 mo for the first year, then biannually and annually thereafter. Biochemical recurrence was defined as ≥0.2ng/mL. Patients receiving adjuvant or salvage treatment were included. Positive surgical margin was defined as presence of cancer cells at inked resection margin in the final specimen. Margin presence (negative/positive), margin multiplicity (single/multiple), and margin length (≤3mm focal and >3mm extensive) were noted. Kaplan-Meier curves of biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS) as a function of SM were generated. Forward stepwise multivariate Cox regression was performed, with preoperative PSA, Gleason score, pathologic stage, prostate gland weight, and SM as covariates. Results: At our institution, 1437 patients underwent RALP (2003-2009). Of these, 1159 had sufficient data and were included in our analysis. Mean follow-up was 16 mo. Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated significant increase in BRFS in low-risk and intermediate-risk groups with negative SM. Overall BRFS at 5 y was 72%. Gleason score, pathologic stage, and SM status were significant prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Negative surgical margins resulted in lower biochemical recurrence rates for low-risk and intermediate-risk groups. Multifocal and longer positive margins were associated with higher biochemical recurrence rates compared with unifocal and shorter positive margins. Documenting biochemical recurrence rates for RALP is important, because this treatment for localized prostate cancer is validated. PMID

  2. [TREATMENT OF URINARY INCONTINENCE AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY USING TRAINING OF PELVIC MUSCLES UNDER THE CONTROL OF BIOFEEDBACK].

    PubMed

    Demidko, Yu L; Glybochko, P V; Vinarov, A Z; Rapoport, L M; Chaly, M E; Akhvlediani, N D; Esilevsky, Yu M; Demidko, L S; Bayduvaliev, A M; Myannik, S A

    2015-01-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is one of the most frequent complications of radical prostatectomy (RPE) performed for prostate cancer. Conservative methods of treatment include pelvic floor muscle training under the control of biofeedback (BFB). This method was applied in 87 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. 42 (48.3%) patients for 2-4 sessions had achieved skill of isolated contraction of the perineum muscles with minimal participation of anterior abdominal wall muscles. Another 45 (51.7%) patients required support in the form of biofeedback for two EMG channels. The best time for observed regression of clinical symptoms was 5.1 months. In patients with stable skill of isolated pelvic muscle contractions this parameter was 4 months, and in the absence of sustainable skill of isolated contractions - 9.4 months (p=0.001).

  3. Radical prostatectomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 114. ... LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 115.

  4. Single-institution comparative study on the outcomes of salvage cryotherapy versus salvage robotic prostatectomy for radio-resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Anup; Agarwal, Vidhi; Singh, Prabhjot; Patel, Rupen; Rivas, Rodolfo; Nething, Josh; Muruve, Nic

    2015-01-01

    Background Although primary treatment of localized prostate cancer provides excellent oncologic control, some men who chose radiotherapy experience a recurrence of disease. There is no consensus on the most appropriate management of these patients after radiotherapy failure. In this single-institution review, we compare our oncologic outcome and toxicity between salvage prostatectomy and cryotherapy treatments. Methods From January 2004 to June 2013, a total of 23 salvage procedures were performed. Six of those patients underwent salvage prostatectomy while 17 underwent salvage cryotherapy by two high-volume fellowship-trained urologists. Patients being considered for salvage therapy had localized disease at presentation, a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) < 10 ng/mL at recurrence, life expectancy > 10 years at recurrence, and a negative metastatic workup. Patients were followed to observe cancer progression and toxicity of treatment. Results Patients who underwent salvage cryotherapy were statistically older with a higher incidence of hypertension than our salvage prostatectomy cohort. With a mean follow up of 14.1 months and 7.2 months, the incidence of disease progression was 23.5% and 16.7% after salvage cryotherapy and prostatectomy, respectively. The overall complication rate was also 23.5% versus 16.7%, with the most frequent complication after salvage cryotherapy being urethral stricture and after salvage prostatectomy being severe urinary incontinence. There were no rectal injuries with salvage prostatectomy and one rectourethral fistula in the cohort after salvage cryotherapy. Conclusion While recurrences from primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer do occur, there is no consensus on its management. In our experience, salvage procedures were generally safe and effective. Both salvage cryotherapy and salvage prostatectomy allow for adequate cancer control with minimal toxicity. PMID:27014657

  5. Urinary Continence Outcomes after Puboprostatic Ligament Preserving Open Retropubic Radical Prostatectomy at a Sub-Saharan Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Kaggwa, S.; Galukande, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Open retropubic radical prostatectomy is a commonly performed procedure for clinically localized prostate cancer. The demand for high level functional outcomes after therapy is increasing especially for young age patients; in this regard refinements in the surgical technique have been made. There is limited data to show the success of some of these refinements in resource limited settings. Methods. A retrospective clinical study was performed over a 2-year period at Mengo Hospital, Urology Unit. Men with clinically localized prostate cancer and who consented to the procedure were eligible and were recruited. Consequently excluded were those that turned out to have advanced disease and those with severe comorbidities. Patients were followed up for 3 months after surgery. Data was entered using SPSS version 17 and analyzed. Results. A total of 24 men with clinically localized prostate cancer underwent open retropubic puboprostatic ligament preserving radical prostatectomy technique. Mean age was 66, range 54–75 years. Outcome. Two patients had stress incontinence and three were incontinent at 3 months. The urinary continence recovery rate was 19/24 (79%) at 3 months. Conclusion. Preservation of the puboprostatic ligament in open retropubic radical prostatectomy was associated with rapid and a high rate of return to urinary continence among men with clinically localized disease. PMID:27382635

  6. A predictive role for noncancerous prostate cells: low connexin-26 expression in radical prostatectomy tissues predicts metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Bijnsdorp, I V; Rozendaal, L; van Moorselaar, R J A; Geldof, A A

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is important to identify markers that predict whether prostate cancer will metastasise. The adjacent noncancerous cells (influenced by the tumour cells) may also express potential markers. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of cancer cells on noncancerous cells and to assess the value of the cell-communication protein connexin-26 (Cx26) as a marker to predict the development of metastasis. Methods: The effect of conditioned medium (CM) from PrCa cells on in vitro noncancerous cell proliferation, migration and invasion and Cx26 expression was determined. Connexin-26 expression was investigated in prostatectomy tissues from 51 PrCa patients by immunohistochemistry and compared with various clinicopathological parameters. Results: Proliferation, migration and invasion of noncancerous cells were influenced by CM from the PrCa cell lines. Importantly, a clear relation was found between low Cx26 expression in the noncancerous tissue in prostatectomy sections and the risk of development of metastasis (P<0.0002). Kaplan–Meier analysis showed a relation between low Cx26 expression in noncancerous tissues and time to biochemical recurrence (P=0.0002). Conclusion: Measuring Cx26 expression in the adjacent noncancerous tissues (rather than cancer tissues) of prostatectomy sections could help to identify high-risk patients who may benefit from adjuvant therapy to decrease the risk of metastasis. PMID:23169284

  7. [Salvage radical prostatectomy after external radiotherapy for prostate cancer: indications, morbidity and results. Review from CCAFU prostate section].

    PubMed

    Paparel, P; Soulie, M; Mongiat-Artus, P; Cornud, F; Borgogno, C

    2010-05-01

    Local recurrence after external radiotherapy for prostate cancer occurs in 30 to 50 % and is often diagnosed by a rising PSA. The absence of local control after radiotherapy is a risk factor of metastases and specific mortality. There are several therapeutic options to treat these patients: surveillance, hormonotherapy and salvage therapies (radical prostatectomy, cystoprostatectomy, brachytherapy, high intensity focused ultrasound [HIFU] and cryotherapy). Hormonotherapy is not a curative treatment and after a couple of years, the disease will progress again. Local salvage therapies are the only treatment to have the potential to cure these patients with the condition of very strict inclusion criteria. Among these therapies, only radical prostatectomy demonstrated his efficacity with a follow-up of 10 years on specific survival and survival without biological progression respectively from 70 to 77 % and from 30 to 43 %. During last decade, morbidity of RP has strongly decreased with a percentage of rectal and ureteral injury at 3 %. Nevertheless, percentage of urinary incontinence remains high from 29 to 50 %. Salvage mini-invasive therapies (cryotherapy, HIFU and cryotherapy) are under constant evolution due to progress of technology. Functional and oncological results are better with last generation devices but need to be evaluated and compared with radical prostatectomy.

  8. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: histopathologic and biochemical recurrence data at one-year follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Vipul; Thaly, Rahul; Shah, Ketul

    2007-02-01

    Introduction: Robotically assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is a minimally invasive alternative for the treatment of prostate cancer. We report the histopathologic and short term PSA outcomes of 500 robotic prostatectomies. Materials and Methods: Five hundred patients underwent robotic radical prostatectomy. The procedure was performed via a six trocar transperitoneal technique. Prostatectomy specimens were analyzed for TNM Stage, Gleason's grade, tumor location, volume, specimen weight, seminal vesicle involvement and margin status. A positive margin was reported if cancer cells were found at the inked specimen margin. PSA data was collected every three months for the first year, then every six months for a year, then yearly. Results: Average pre-operative PSA was 6.9 (1-90) with Gleason's score of 5 (2%), 6 (52%), 7 (40%), 8 (4%), 9(2%). Post operatively histopathologic analysis showed Gleason's 6 (44%), 7(42%), 8(10%), 9(4%). 10%, 5%, 63%, 15%, 5% and 2% had pathologic stage T2a, T2b, T2c, T3a, T3b and T4 respectively. Positive margin rate was 9.4% for the entire series. The positive margin rate per 100 cases was: 13% (1-100), 8% (101-200), 13% (201-300), 5% (301-400) and 8% (401-500). By stage it was 2%, 4%, 2.5% for T2a, T2b, T2c tumors, 23% (T3a), 46% (T3b) and 53% (T4a). For organ confined disease (T2) the margin rate was 2.5% and 31% for non organ confined disease. There were a total of 47 positive margins, 26 (56%) posterolateral, 4 (8.5%) apical, 4 (8.5%) bladder neck, 2 (4%) seminal vesicle and 11 (23%) multifocally. Ninety five percent of patients (n=500) have undetectable PSA (<0.1) at average follow up of 9.7 months. Recurrence has only been seen with non organ confined tumors. Those patients with a minimum follow up of 1 year (average 15.7 months) 95% have undetectable PSA (<.1). Conclusion: Our initial experience with robotic radical prostatectomy is promising. Histopathologic outcomes are acceptable with a low overall margin positive rate

  9. Cystostomy–free open suprapubic transvesical prostatectomy: Is it a safe method?

    PubMed Central

    Hassanpour, Abbas; Hosseini, Mohammad Mehid; Yousefi, Alireza; Inaloo, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare open suprapubic transvesical prostatectomy (OSP) without insertion of suprapubic cystostomy, OSP with insertion of cystostomy, and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Patients and Methods: A total of 104 patients with an indication for prostatectomy were retrospectively assigned to TURP (group 1), OSP with cystostomy (group 2), and OSP without cystostomy (group 3). They were evaluated for length of the operation, length of hospital stay, post-operative complications, hemoglobin drop, changes of blood pressure, and intraoperative blood loss. Results: Mean age was 67.2 ± 8.7 in group 1, 73.3 ± 8.4 in group 2, and 74.0 ± 5.7 in group 3. Prostatic volume was 35.9 ± 13.8, 74.1 ± 33.8, and 74.3 ± 31.8 in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was no significant difference in prostatic volume between groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.99), but in group 1 it was lesser than groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.00). Length of the operation was 1.2 ± 0.2 in group 3 and 1.1 ± 0.2 in group 2, without a significant difference (P = 0.45). Length of hospital stay in group 3 (2.3 ± 0.4 days) was lesser than that in group 2 (2.6 ± 0.7) (P = 0.01). The amount of hemoglobin drop was 1.1 ± 0.9 in group 1, 1.1 ± 0.7 in group 2, and 1.4 ± 0.91 in group 3 without a significant difference between all groups. The amount of bleeding during operation was 173 ± 103 in group 2 and 161 ± 78 in group 3 (P = 0.98). Conclusion: OSP without insertion of cystostomy tube is a relatively safe method; however, larger studies are needed. It is also comparable to TURP in terms of postoperative efficacy and complications. PMID:27141195

  10. Radical perineal prostatectomy: a model for evaluating local response of prostate therapy.

    PubMed

    Paulson, David F; Vieweg, Johannes W G

    2002-08-01

    To establish a model for preoperative counseling and postoperative outcome in patients who choose radical perineal prostatectomy for the clinically localized prostatic malignancy, the following postulates have been identified: (1) the use of preoperative prostate specific antigen (PSA) and Gleason Sum at the time of biopsy can be used to segregate the outcome among patients with Gleason Sum 2 through 6, 7, and 8 through 10. (2) Postoperative PSA levels are excellent surrogate endpoints for defining disease control. (3) The biology of the primary malignancy defines the interval of death after recurrence. A total of 1242 men with the median age of 65.2 years who had Stage cT 1-2 NOMO disease underwent radical perineal prostatectomy. The final pathologic specimen was characterized with regard to disease extent and Gleason Sum. Patients were followed at 2 weeks, 2 months, and then at 6-month intervals for biochemical, physical, and radiographic evidence of disease recurrence. Outcome was evaluated by determining time to biochemical failure (PSA 0.5 ng/ml or greater) or cancer associated death (death with a detectable PSA independent of treatment). Median time to non-cancer death was 19.3 years. Median cancer-associated death endpoints were not reached by patients with organ confined disease. Results were 17.7 years for specimen confined disease and 12.7 years for margin positive disease. At 5 years, 8, 35, and 65% of patients with organ confined, specimen confined, or margin positive disease, respectively, had PSA failure. This served as an excellent surrogate endpoint, preceding cancer associated death by 5-12 years, depending on the biological aggressiveness predicted by Gleason Sum. When segregated by Gleason Sum 2 through 6, 7 or 8 through 10 at the time of biopsy, there was a distinct differentiation in survival among these Gleason Sum classifications according to the PSA at the time of biopsy. This study confirms our postulates and provides guidelines for

  11. Mid-term biochemical recurrence-free outcomes following robotic versus laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Rochat, Charles-Henry; Sauvain, Jean; Dubernard, Pierre; Hebert, April E; Kreaden, Usha

    2011-12-01

    We compared 5-year biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free rates for robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP). Three hundred and twelve consecutive patients who underwent RALP from 2003 to 2008 were compared to 97 consecutive LRP patients from 1999 to 2004. All laparoscopic surgeries were performed by one surgeon and robotic surgeries were performed by this surgeon or a laparoscopically naïve surgeon. Both groups were evaluated for perioperative outcome, pathologic status, and mid-term oncologic outcomes (5-year BCR-free rates at prostate-specific antigen [PSA] cutoffs of <0.4, <0.2, or <0.1 ng/ml). Baseline characteristics were equivalent except for age (61.9 years vs. 65.1 years, P < 0.0001). RALP operating time was shorter (215.5 min vs. 305.3, P < 0.0001), and resulted in fewer complications (3.8% vs. 10.3%, P = 0.0214) and blood transfusions (2.9% vs. 13.4%, P = 0.0003). Positive surgical margins were equivalent (pT2 20.9% vs. 28.8%, P = 0.1818). Overall 5-year BCR-free rates were comparable for RALP (97.6, 93.4, and 85.1%) and LRP (97.7, 89.7, and 79.7%) at PSA cutoff levels of <0.4, <0.2, and <0.1 ng/ml, respectively. There was a significant difference in BCR-free rates between the RALP and LRP groups for patients with organ-confined (pT2) disease at 0.2 ng/ml (96.4% vs. 88.7%, P = 0.0373) and 0.1 ng/ml (91.0% vs. 83.0%, P = 0.0470). We report lower morbidity, comparable pathologic outcome and improved mid-term oncologic results in patients with organ-confined disease after RALP in comparison to LRP. PMID:27628114

  12. Vacuum therapy in penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy: review of hemodynamic and antihypoxic evidence.

    PubMed

    Qian, Sheng-Qiang; Gao, Liang; Wei, Qiang; Yuan, Jiuhong

    2016-01-01

    Generally, hypoxia is a normal physiological condition in the flaccid penis, which is interrupted by regular nocturnal erections in men with normal erectile function. [1] Lack of spontaneous and nocturnal erections after radical prostatectomy due to neuropraxia results in persistent hypoxia of cavernosal tissue, which leads to apoptosis and degeneration of cavernosal smooth muscle fibers. Therefore, overcoming hypoxia is believed to play a crucial role during neuropraxia. The use of a vacuum erectile device (VED) in penile rehabilitation is reportedly effective and may prevent loss of penile length. The corporal blood after VED use is increased and consists of both arterial and venous blood, as revealed by color Doppler sonography and blood gas analysis. A similar phenomenon was observed in negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). However, NPWT employs a lower negative pressure than VED, and a hypoperfused zone, which increases in response to negative pressure adjacent to the wound edge, was observed. Nonetheless, questions regarding ideal subatmospheric pressure levels, modes of action, and therapeutic duration of VED remain unanswered. Moreover, it remains unclear whether a hypoperfused zone or PO 2 gradient appears in the penis during VED therapy. To optimize a clinical VED protocol in penile rehabilitation, further research on the mechanism of VED, especially real-time PO 2 measurements in different parts of the penis, should be performed. PMID:26289397

  13. A single nucleotide polymorphism in ADIPOQ predicts biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy in localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guiming; Sun, LiJiang; Zhu, Yao; Ye, Dingwei

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin has been implicated in prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness. However, the role of genetic variations in the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) gene in PCa progression remains unknown. To determine whether genetic variants in ADIPOQ are associated with the risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). We evaluated three common ADIPOQ polymorphisms in 728 men with clinically localized PCa who underwent RP. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan–Meier analysis were used to assess their prognostic significance on BCR. The plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. ADIPOQ rs182052 variant allele was associated with both increased risk of BCR [HR: 2.44; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.57–3.79, P = 6×10−5] and decreased adiponectin level (β = −0.048, P = 0.004). Stratified analyses demonstrated that the association was more pronounced in men with higher visceral adipose tissue. Our data support that the ADIPOQ rs182052 SNP may be a predictive biomarker for BCR after RP by a possible mechanism of altering the adiponectin level. If validated, genetic predictors of outcome may help individualizing treatment for PCa. PMID:26320190

  14. Rectourinary Fistula after Radical Prostatectomy: Review of the Literature for Incidence, Etiology, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Hiroshi; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2011-01-01

    Although rectourinary fistula (RUF) after radical prostatectomy (RP) is rare, it is an important issue impairing the quality of life of patients. If the RUF does not spontaneously close after colostomy, surgical closure should be considered. However, there is no standard approach and no consensus in the literature. A National Center for Biotechnology Information (NVBI) PubMed search for relevant articles published between 1995 and December 2010 was performed using the medical subject headings “radical prostatectomy” and “fistula.” Articles relevant to the treatment of RUF were retained. RUF developed in 0.6% to 9% of patients after RP. Most cases required colostomy, but more than 50% of them needed surgical fistula closure thereafter. The York-Mason technique is the most common approach, and closure using a broad-based flap of rectal mucosa is recommended after excision of the RUF. New techniques using a sealant or glue are developing, but further successful reports are needed. PMID:22110993

  15. Vacuum therapy in penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy: review of hemodynamic and antihypoxic evidence

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Sheng-Qiang; Gao, Liang; Wei, Qiang; Yuan, Jiuhong

    2016-01-01

    Generally, hypoxia is a normal physiological condition in the flaccid penis, which is interrupted by regular nocturnal erections in men with normal erectile function.1 Lack of spontaneous and nocturnal erections after radical prostatectomy due to neuropraxia results in persistent hypoxia of cavernosal tissue, which leads to apoptosis and degeneration of cavernosal smooth muscle fibers. Therefore, overcoming hypoxia is believed to play a crucial role during neuropraxia. The use of a vacuum erectile device (VED) in penile rehabilitation is reportedly effective and may prevent loss of penile length. The corporal blood after VED use is increased and consists of both arterial and venous blood, as revealed by color Doppler sonography and blood gas analysis. A similar phenomenon was observed in negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). However, NPWT employs a lower negative pressure than VED, and a hypoperfused zone, which increases in response to negative pressure adjacent to the wound edge, was observed. Nonetheless, questions regarding ideal subatmospheric pressure levels, modes of action, and therapeutic duration of VED remain unanswered. Moreover, it remains unclear whether a hypoperfused zone or PO2 gradient appears in the penis during VED therapy. To optimize a clinical VED protocol in penile rehabilitation, further research on the mechanism of VED, especially real-time PO2 measurements in different parts of the penis, should be performed. PMID:26289397

  16. Current rehabilitation strategy: clinical evidence for erection recovery after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Erectile function (EF) recovery remains a prominent functional outcome underachievement of radical prostatectomy (RP), despite the success of anatomic “nerve-sparing” technique and its recent refinements in the modern surgical era. Delayed (for as much as a few years) or incomplete (partial and unusable) EF recovery commonly occurs in many men still today undergoing this surgery. “Penile rehabilitation”, alternatively termed “EF rehabilitation”, originated formally as a therapeutic practice approximately 15 years ago for addressing post-RP erectile dysfunction (ED) beyond conventional ED management. Although the premise of this therapy is conceptually sound and generally accepted, in reference to the implementation of strategies for promoting EF recovery to a naturally functional level in the absence of erectile aids (distinct from the premise of conventional ED management), the optimal manner and efficacy of currently suggested therapeutic strategies are far less established. Such strategies include regimens of standard ED-specific therapies (e.g., oral, intracavernosal, and intraurethral pharmacotherapies; vacuum erection device therapy) and courses of innovative interventions (e.g., statins, erythropoietin, angiotensin receptor blockers). An endeavor in evolution, erection rehabilitation may ideally comprise an integrative program of sexual health management incorporating counseling, coaching, guidance toward general health optimization and application of demonstrably effective “rehabilitative” interventions. Ongoing intensive discovery and rigorous investigation are required to establish efficacy of therapeutic prospects that fulfill the intent of post-RP erection rehabilitation. PMID:26816720

  17. 2015 update of erectile dysfunction management following radical prostatectomy: from basic research to clinical management.

    PubMed

    Gur, Serap; Sikka, Suresh C; Kadowitz, Philip J; Silberstein, Jonathan; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2015-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy (RP) is the most commonly employed curative intervention for the treatment of prostate cancer. However, due to the proximity of the cavernous nerves (CN) to the prostate, RP results in transient and/often permanent erectile dysfunction (ED). While the prevention of traction injuries during the RP is critical for the preservation of erectile function, several preclinical studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of neuroprotective (or neuroregenerative) agents in mitigating neuronal injuries sustained during RP. The maintenance or restoration of erectile function after injury may be enhanced in the postoperative period by the stimulation of neurogenesis to protect and restore injured nerves from further deterioration. The present review aims to evaluate and summarize research of these treatment strategies as published in the National Library of Medicine (Pubmed) from 2000 to 2015. The keywords used for the search were ED, RP, CN injury, immunophilin ligands, neurotrophins and phosphodiesterase (PDE)5 inhibitors, and animal models. Current guidelines for treatment targeting CN recovery recommend the use of immunophilin ligands, neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, sonic hedgehog (Shh), Rho-kinase, PDE5 inhibitors, erythropoietin (EPO), hyperbaric oxygen, gene, stem cells, and triiodothyronine (T3) therapy. Additionally, this review identifies remaining gaps in general knowledge and recent updates recognizing the need for further preclinical and clinical trials.

  18. Severe Hypotension, Hypoxia, and Subcutaneous Erythema Induced by Indigo Carmine Administration during Open Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Voelzke, Bryan B.

    2016-01-01

    Indigo carmine (also known as 5,5′-indigodisulfonic acid sodium salt or indigotine) is a blue dye that is administered intravenously to examine the urinary tract and usually is biologically safe and inert. Indigo carmine rarely may cause adverse reactions. We treated a 66-year-old man who had general anesthesia and radical retropubic prostatectomy for prostate cancer. He had a previous history of allergy to bee sting with nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Within 1 minute after injection of indigo carmine for evaluation of the ureters, the patient developed hypotension to 40 mmHg, severe hypoxia (the value of SpO2 (peripheral capillary oxygen saturation) was 75% on 40% inspired oxygen concentration), poor air movement and bilateral diffuse wheezing on auscultation, and marked subcutaneous erythema at the upper extremities. After treatment with 100% oxygen, epinephrine (total, 1.5 mg), hydrocortisone (100 mg), diphenhydramine (50 mg), albuterol nebulizer (0.083%), and continuous infusion of epinephrine (0.15 μg/kg/min), the vital signs became stable, and he recovered completely. In summary, indigo carmine rarely may cause life-threatening anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reaction that may necessitate rapid treatment to stabilize cardiovascular, hemodynamic, and pulmonary function.

  19. Simple prophylactic procedure of inguinal hernia after radical retropubic prostatectomy: isolation of the spermatic cord.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yasuyuki; Okuno, Tetsuo; Kijima, Toshiki; Iwai, Aki; Matsuoka, Yoh; Kawakami, Satoru; Kihara, Kazunori

    2009-10-01

    To reduce the incidence of inguinal hernia (IH) after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP), a simple prophylactic procedure was carried out during RRP. A consecutive 82 patients who had undergone RRP for clinically localized prostate cancer between July 2002 and October 2006 at Toride Kyodo General Hospital were enrolled. From July 2002 to November 2003, 20 patients underwent conventional RRP. Thereafter, 62 patients underwent conventional RRP with blunt dissection of the peritoneum at the internal inguinal ring and isolation of the spermatic cord from the peritoneum as a prophylactic procedure for IH. There was no significant difference in patient characteristics between the two groups. In the conventional RRP group, IH occurred in 10 patients during a median range follow-up period of 41 (1 to 73) months. In contrast, in the RRP plus prophylactic procedure group, IH occurred in one patient (1.6%) during a median range follow-up period of 41 (25 to 59) months. The incidence of IH after RRP plus the prophylactic procedure was significantly lower than that after conventional RRP, indicating the efficacy of the presented procedure.

  20. Factors predicting outcomes of penile rehabilitation with udenafil 50 mg following radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, T-H; Ha, Y-S; Choi, S H; Yoo, E S; Kim, B W; Yun, S-J; Kim, W-J; Kwon, Y S; Kwon, T G

    2016-01-01

    Udenafil is a selective phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor made available in recent years for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Herein, we evaluated independent predictors of potency recovery in radical prostatectomy (RP) patients who underwent penile rehabilitation with udenafil 50 mg. One hundred and forty-three men who underwent RP were enrolled in a penile rehabilitation program using udenafil 50 mg every other day. The rate of regained potency in the study group was significantly higher compared with the recovery rate seen in patients who were not part of the penile rehabilitation program (41.3% vs 13.0%; P<0.001). On the multivariate Cox analyses, preoperative International Index of Erectile Function-5 scores (hazard ratio (HR), 1.049; P=0.040), alcohol consumption (HR, 2.043; P=0.020) and Gleason biopsy score (HR, 0.368; P=0.024) were independent preoperative predictors for potency recovery. Among post-RP variables, the use of robotic procedures (HR, 2.287; P=0.030) and pathologic stage (HR, 0.506; P=0.038) were significantly associated with potency recovery. This study identified predictive factors for the recovery of potency in patients undergoing penile rehabilitation with udenafil following RP. Our results could provide physicians with useful information for counseling RP patients and selecting optimal candidates for penile rehabilitation.

  1. Frozen section evaluation of margins in radical prostatectomy specimens: a contemporary study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Nunez, Amberly L; Giannico, Giovanna A; Mukhtar, Faisal; Dailey, Virginia; El-Galley, Rizk; Hameed, Omar

    2016-10-01

    The utility of routine frozen section (FS) analysis for margin evaluation during radical prostatectomy (RP) remains controversial. A retrospective search was conducted to identify RPs evaluated by FS over a 5-year period. The potential of FS to discriminate between benign and malignant tissue and to predict final margins was evaluated. During the study period, 71 (12.3%) of 575 cases underwent FS evaluation of margins, generating 192 individual FSs. There were 8 FSs diagnosed as atypical/indeterminate because of significant freezing, crushing, and/or thermal artifacts; 11 as positive for carcinoma; and 173 as benign. Two FSs classified as benign were diagnosed as positive for carcinoma on subsequent permanent section. Frozen sections' sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma were 85%, 100%, 100%, 99%, and 99%, respectively. Overall RP final margin predictive accuracy was 81%. Positive FS was significantly associated with perineural invasion on biopsy and extraprostatic extension and higher stage disease on RP, but not with the overall final margin status. The high FS accuracy supports its use to guide the extent of surgery. However, FS cannot be used to predict the overall final margin status. Recognition of the histological artifacts inherent to the FS procedure is important to ensure appropriate utilization.

  2. Prognostic Value of Prostaglandin-endoperoxide Synthase 2 Polymorphisms in Prostate Cancer Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Hsueh; Pao, Jiunn-Bey; Lu, Te-Ling; Lee, Hong-Zin; Lee, Yung-Chin; Liu, Chia-Chu; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Lin, Victor C.; Yu, Chia-Cheng; Yin, Hsin-Ling; Huang, Shu-Pin; Bao, Bo-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Backgroud: Increasing evidence suggests the involvement of chronic inflammation in the progression of prostate cancer, and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), also known as cyclooxygenase-2, catalyzes the rate-limiting steps of the pathway. We hypothesized that genetic variants of PTGS2 can influence the outcome of prostate cancer patients. Methods: We genotyped five haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to detect common genetic variations across the PTGS2 region in 458 prostate cancer patients treated with radical prostatectomy. Results: One SNP, rs4648302, was associated with disease recurrence. Five-year recurrence-free survival rate increased according to the number of variant alleles inherited (55.6%, 70.7%, and 100.0% for patients with different genotypes; P = 0.037), and the effect was maintained in multivariable analysis. Public dataset analyses also suggested that PTGS2 expression was correlated with prostate cancer prognosis. Conclusion: Our results indicated that PTGS2 could be a potential prognostic marker to improve the prediction of disease recurrence in prostate cancer patients. PMID:27647999

  3. Severe Hypotension, Hypoxia, and Subcutaneous Erythema Induced by Indigo Carmine Administration during Open Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Voelzke, Bryan B.

    2016-01-01

    Indigo carmine (also known as 5,5′-indigodisulfonic acid sodium salt or indigotine) is a blue dye that is administered intravenously to examine the urinary tract and usually is biologically safe and inert. Indigo carmine rarely may cause adverse reactions. We treated a 66-year-old man who had general anesthesia and radical retropubic prostatectomy for prostate cancer. He had a previous history of allergy to bee sting with nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Within 1 minute after injection of indigo carmine for evaluation of the ureters, the patient developed hypotension to 40 mmHg, severe hypoxia (the value of SpO2 (peripheral capillary oxygen saturation) was 75% on 40% inspired oxygen concentration), poor air movement and bilateral diffuse wheezing on auscultation, and marked subcutaneous erythema at the upper extremities. After treatment with 100% oxygen, epinephrine (total, 1.5 mg), hydrocortisone (100 mg), diphenhydramine (50 mg), albuterol nebulizer (0.083%), and continuous infusion of epinephrine (0.15 μg/kg/min), the vital signs became stable, and he recovered completely. In summary, indigo carmine rarely may cause life-threatening anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reaction that may necessitate rapid treatment to stabilize cardiovascular, hemodynamic, and pulmonary function. PMID:27610263

  4. Pharmacological Treatment of Post-Prostatectomy Incontinence: What is the Evidence?

    PubMed

    Løvvik, Anja; Müller, Stig; Patel, Hitendra R H

    2016-08-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common and debilitating problem, and post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI) is becoming an increasing problem, with a higher risk among elderly men. Current treatment options for PPI include pelvic floor muscle exercises and surgery. Conservative treatment has disputable effects, and surgical treatment is expensive, is not always effective, and may have complications. This article describes the prevalence and causes of PPI and the current treatment methods. We conducted a search of the PUBMED database and reviewed the current literature on novel medical treatments of PPI, with special focus on the aging man. Antimuscarinic drugs, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, duloxetine, and α-adrenergic drugs have been proposed as medical treatments for PPI. Most studies were small and used different criteria for quantifying incontinence and assessing treatment results. Thus, there is not enough evidence to recommend the use of these medications as standard treatment of PPI. To determine whether medical therapy is a viable option in the treatment of PPI, randomized, placebo-controlled studies are needed that also assess side effects in the elderly population. PMID:27554370

  5. A single nucleotide polymorphism in ADIPOQ predicts biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy in localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chengyuan; Qu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Guiming; Sun, LiJiang; Zhu, Yao; Ye, Dingwei

    2015-10-13

    Adiponectin has been implicated in prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness. However, the role of genetic variations in the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) gene in PCa progression remains unknown. To determine whether genetic variants in ADIPOQ are associated with the risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). We evaluated three common ADIPOQ polymorphisms in 728 men with clinically localized PCa who underwent RP. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to assess their prognostic significance on BCR. The plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. ADIPOQ rs182052 variant allele was associated with both increased risk of BCR [HR: 2.44; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.57-;3.79, P = 6×10-5] and decreased adiponectin level (β = -0.048, P = 0.004). Stratified analyses demonstrated that the association was more pronounced in men with higher visceral adipose tissue. Our data support that the ADIPOQ rs182052 SNP may be a predictive biomarker for BCR after RP by a possible mechanism of altering the adiponectin level. If validated, genetic predictors of outcome may help individualizing treatment for PCa.

  6. Oncologic Outcome of Radical Prostatectomy as Monotherapy for Men with High-risk Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Junya; Miyake, Hideaki; Inoue, Taka-aki; Ogawa, Takayoshi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Fujisawa, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to review our experience with radical prostatectomy (RP) as monotherapy for men with high-risk prostate cancer (PCa). Patients and Methods This study included 382 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with high-risk PCa according to the D'Amico definition and subsequently underwent RP without neoadjuvant therapy. Biochemical recurrence (BR) was defined as a serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level ≥ 0.2 ng/ml on two consecutive measurements, and none of the patients received any adjuvant therapies until their serum PSA levels reached ≥ 0.4 ng/ml. Results The median preoperative serum PSA level in these 382 patients was 15.9 ng/ml. Pathological stages ≥ pT2c and Gleason scores ≥ 8 were observed in 288 and 194 patients, respectively. During the observation period (median, 48.0 months), BR occurred in 134 patients, and the 5-year BR-free survival rate was 60.1%; however, no patient died of cancer progression. Multivariate analysis identified capsular invasion, seminal vesicle invasion, and surgical margin status as independent predictors of BR. Conclusions Comparatively favorable cancer control could be achieved using RP as monotherapy for men with high-risk PCa; however, RP alone may be insufficient for patients with capsular invasion, seminal vesicle invasion, and/or surgical margin positivity. PMID:27390578

  7. Prognostic Value of Prostaglandin-endoperoxide Synthase 2 Polymorphisms in Prostate Cancer Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Hsueh; Pao, Jiunn-Bey; Lu, Te-Ling; Lee, Hong-Zin; Lee, Yung-Chin; Liu, Chia-Chu; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Lin, Victor C.; Yu, Chia-Cheng; Yin, Hsin-Ling; Huang, Shu-Pin; Bao, Bo-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Backgroud: Increasing evidence suggests the involvement of chronic inflammation in the progression of prostate cancer, and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), also known as cyclooxygenase-2, catalyzes the rate-limiting steps of the pathway. We hypothesized that genetic variants of PTGS2 can influence the outcome of prostate cancer patients. Methods: We genotyped five haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to detect common genetic variations across the PTGS2 region in 458 prostate cancer patients treated with radical prostatectomy. Results: One SNP, rs4648302, was associated with disease recurrence. Five-year recurrence-free survival rate increased according to the number of variant alleles inherited (55.6%, 70.7%, and 100.0% for patients with different genotypes; P = 0.037), and the effect was maintained in multivariable analysis. Public dataset analyses also suggested that PTGS2 expression was correlated with prostate cancer prognosis. Conclusion: Our results indicated that PTGS2 could be a potential prognostic marker to improve the prediction of disease recurrence in prostate cancer patients.

  8. Frozen section evaluation of margins in radical prostatectomy specimens: a contemporary study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Nunez, Amberly L; Giannico, Giovanna A; Mukhtar, Faisal; Dailey, Virginia; El-Galley, Rizk; Hameed, Omar

    2016-10-01

    The utility of routine frozen section (FS) analysis for margin evaluation during radical prostatectomy (RP) remains controversial. A retrospective search was conducted to identify RPs evaluated by FS over a 5-year period. The potential of FS to discriminate between benign and malignant tissue and to predict final margins was evaluated. During the study period, 71 (12.3%) of 575 cases underwent FS evaluation of margins, generating 192 individual FSs. There were 8 FSs diagnosed as atypical/indeterminate because of significant freezing, crushing, and/or thermal artifacts; 11 as positive for carcinoma; and 173 as benign. Two FSs classified as benign were diagnosed as positive for carcinoma on subsequent permanent section. Frozen sections' sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma were 85%, 100%, 100%, 99%, and 99%, respectively. Overall RP final margin predictive accuracy was 81%. Positive FS was significantly associated with perineural invasion on biopsy and extraprostatic extension and higher stage disease on RP, but not with the overall final margin status. The high FS accuracy supports its use to guide the extent of surgery. However, FS cannot be used to predict the overall final margin status. Recognition of the histological artifacts inherent to the FS procedure is important to ensure appropriate utilization. PMID:27649947

  9. Do tumor volume, percent tumor volume predict biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy? A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yang; Li, He; Xu, Peng; Wang, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore the effects of tumor volume (TV) and percent tumor volume (PTV) on biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). An electronic search of Medline, Embase and CENTRAL was performed for relevant studies. Studies evaluated the effects of TV and/or PTV on BCR after RP and provided detailed results of multivariate analyses were included. Combined hazard ratios (HRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects or fixed-effects models. A total of 15 studies with 16 datasets were included in the meta-analysis. Our study showed that both TV (HR 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00-1.07; P=0.03) and PTV (HR 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00-1.02; P=0.02) were predictors of BCR after RP. The subgroup analyses revealed that TV predicted BCR in studies from Asia, PTV was significantly correlative with BCR in studies in which PTV was measured by computer planimetry, and both TV and PTV predicted BCR in studies with small sample sizes (<1000). In conclusion, our meta-analysis demonstrated that both TV and PTV were significantly associated with BCR after RP. Therefore, TV and PTV should be considered when assessing the risk of BCR in RP specimens. PMID:26885209

  10. 2015 update of erectile dysfunction management following radical prostatectomy: from basic research to clinical management.

    PubMed

    Gur, Serap; Sikka, Suresh C; Kadowitz, Philip J; Silberstein, Jonathan; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2015-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy (RP) is the most commonly employed curative intervention for the treatment of prostate cancer. However, due to the proximity of the cavernous nerves (CN) to the prostate, RP results in transient and/often permanent erectile dysfunction (ED). While the prevention of traction injuries during the RP is critical for the preservation of erectile function, several preclinical studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of neuroprotective (or neuroregenerative) agents in mitigating neuronal injuries sustained during RP. The maintenance or restoration of erectile function after injury may be enhanced in the postoperative period by the stimulation of neurogenesis to protect and restore injured nerves from further deterioration. The present review aims to evaluate and summarize research of these treatment strategies as published in the National Library of Medicine (Pubmed) from 2000 to 2015. The keywords used for the search were ED, RP, CN injury, immunophilin ligands, neurotrophins and phosphodiesterase (PDE)5 inhibitors, and animal models. Current guidelines for treatment targeting CN recovery recommend the use of immunophilin ligands, neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, sonic hedgehog (Shh), Rho-kinase, PDE5 inhibitors, erythropoietin (EPO), hyperbaric oxygen, gene, stem cells, and triiodothyronine (T3) therapy. Additionally, this review identifies remaining gaps in general knowledge and recent updates recognizing the need for further preclinical and clinical trials. PMID:25354178

  11. In-vitro and clinical evaluation of transurethral laser-induced prostatectomy (TULIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Swol, Christiaan F. P.; Verdaasdonck, Rudolf M.; Mooibroek, Jaap; Boon, Tom A.

    1993-05-01

    Transurethral ultrasound-guided laser induced prostatectomy (TULIP) is a recent development in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The system is based upon Nd:YAG laser irradiation delivered by a right angled fiber. The dosimetry used in a clinical situation is mostly based upon animal studies. In this study, the light and temperature distribution in the prostate during Nd:YAG laser irradiation were modeled using Monte Carlo and finite differences theory. The results of this model were compared with in vitro experiments. The influence of the different parameters involved, e.g., the scanning speed and the power of the laser beam, were evaluated. Initial results show the temperature distribution and thus the therapeutic effect of the TULIP procedure. Until now 36 patients have been treated successfully. The mean in-hospital time was somewhat shorter than for a TURP treatment while the results were comparable. These treatments, however, show the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms involved. Modeling and subsequent in vitro and in vivo measurements might improve the understanding and safe and successful application of prostate treatment using laser based systems.

  12. Impact of obesity on functional and oncological outcomes in radical perineal prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Altay, Bulent; Erkurt, Bulent; Guzelburc, Vahit; Kiremit, Murat Can; Boz, Mustafa Yucel; Albayrak, Selami

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluated the impact of obesity on perioperative morbidity, functional, and oncological outcomes after radical perineal prostatectomy (RPP). Methods: A total of 298 consecutive patients underwent RPP at our institution. Patients were categorized into 3 groups based on their body mass index (BMI): Normal weight <25 kg/m2 (Group 1), overweight 25 to <30 kg/m2 (Group 2), and obese ≥30 kg/m2 (Group 3). We compared the groups with respect to perioperative data, postoperative oncologic, and functional outcomes. Evaluation of urinary continence and erectile function was performed using a patient-reported questionnaire and the International Index of Erectile Function-5 questionnaire, respectively, administered preoperatively and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Limitations included short follow-up time, retrospective design and lack of a morbidly obese group. Results: No significant differences were found among the 3 groups with regard to operative time, estimated blood loss, length of hospital stay, catheter removal time, positive surgical margin, and complication rates. At 12 months, 94.7%, 95% and 95% of normal, overweight and obese patients, respectively, were continent (free of pad use) (p = 0.81). At 12 months, 30.6%, 29.8% and 30.4% of patients had spontaneous erections and were able to penetrate and complete intercourse in Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3, respectively (p = 0.63). Conclusions: In this cohort of patients, no clinically relevant risks were associated with increasing BMI. PMID:26600881

  13. The Role of Radiotherapy After Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gandaglia, Giorgio; Cozzarini, Cesare; Mottrie, Alexandre; Bossi, Alberto; Fossati, Nicola; Montorsi, Francesco; Briganti, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    A non-negligible proportion of prostate cancer (PCa) patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) harbors aggressive disease. These individuals are at higher risk of experiencing recurrence after surgery. Results from prospective, randomized trials support the efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy (aRT) on cancer control in selected patients with adverse disease features at RP. However, only one of these randomized trials found a significant benefit of aRT on survival. Although such a level of evidence is not currently available for salvage RT, retrospective studies demonstrated that this approach leads to excellent outcomes if administered at the earliest sign of PSA recurrence. Prognostic models might help clinicians in identifying patients who would benefit the most from adjuvant and/or salvage RT. This individualized approach would allow sparing the risk of short- and long-term toxicity in a substantial proportion of patients. Nonetheless, results from randomized trials are still awaited to compare the efficacy of (early) salvage and aRT. PMID:26449841

  14. Severe Hypotension, Hypoxia, and Subcutaneous Erythema Induced by Indigo Carmine Administration during Open Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Nandate, Koichiro; Voelzke, Bryan B

    2016-01-01

    Indigo carmine (also known as 5,5'-indigodisulfonic acid sodium salt or indigotine) is a blue dye that is administered intravenously to examine the urinary tract and usually is biologically safe and inert. Indigo carmine rarely may cause adverse reactions. We treated a 66-year-old man who had general anesthesia and radical retropubic prostatectomy for prostate cancer. He had a previous history of allergy to bee sting with nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Within 1 minute after injection of indigo carmine for evaluation of the ureters, the patient developed hypotension to 40 mmHg, severe hypoxia (the value of SpO2 (peripheral capillary oxygen saturation) was 75% on 40% inspired oxygen concentration), poor air movement and bilateral diffuse wheezing on auscultation, and marked subcutaneous erythema at the upper extremities. After treatment with 100% oxygen, epinephrine (total, 1.5 mg), hydrocortisone (100 mg), diphenhydramine (50 mg), albuterol nebulizer (0.083%), and continuous infusion of epinephrine (0.15 μg/kg/min), the vital signs became stable, and he recovered completely. In summary, indigo carmine rarely may cause life-threatening anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reaction that may necessitate rapid treatment to stabilize cardiovascular, hemodynamic, and pulmonary function. PMID:27610263

  15. Expression profiling of prostate cancer tissue delineates genes associated with recurrence after prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Martin Mørck; Høyer, Søren; Lynnerup, Anne-Sophie; Ørntoft, Torben Falck; Sørensen, Karina Dalsgaard; Borre, Michael; Dyrskjøt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer death amongst males. The main clinical dilemma in treating prostate cancer is the high number of indolent cases that confer a significant risk of overtreatment. In this study, we have performed gene expression profiling of tumor tissue specimens from 36 patients with prostate cancer to identify transcripts that delineate aggressive and indolent cancer. Key genes were validated using previously published data and by tissue microarray analysis. Two molecular subgroups were identified with a significant overrepresentation of tumors from patients with biochemical recurrence in one of the groups. We successfully validated key transcripts association with recurrence using two publically available datasets totaling 669 patients. Twelve genes were found to be independent predictors of recurrence in multivariate logistical regression analysis. SFRP4 gene expression was consistently up regulated in patients with recurrence in all three datasets. Using an independent cohort of 536 prostate cancer patients we showed SFRP4 expression to be an independent predictor of recurrence after prostatectomy (HR = 1.35; p = 0.009). We identified SFRP4 to be associated with disease recurrence. Prospective studies are needed in order to assess the clinical usefulness of the identified key markers in this study. PMID:26522007

  16. Prediction of biochemical recurrence and prostate cancer specific death in men after radical retropublic prostatectomy: Use of pathology and computer-assisted quantitative nuclear grading information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Masood Ahmed

    Prostate cancer is the most common solid tumour in man. Accordingly, it is expected that 1 in 6 men will experience prostate cancer during their lifetime. Over the past 20 years there have been tremendous advancements in both diagnostic as well as surgical approach to prostate cancer. This has led not only to earlier detection of the disease in its natural history, but also the availability of effective surgical management. Furthermore, the discovery of serum prostate specific antigen as a marker for prostate cancer along with greater acceptance of prostate cancer screening has resulted in an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer in men younger than 50 years of age. This is an age group that has traditionally been associated with a poor prognosis after radical prostatectomy. In addition, despite being able to effectively remove the whole of the gland with limited morbidity, approximately 25% of men after radical prostatectomy will experience biochemical recurrence with time. Moreover, the majority will progress to distant metastases and/or die from prostate cancer. We firstly investigated whether radical prostatectomy is a viable option for men younger than 50 years of age diagnosed with clinically localised prostate cancer. We also determined factors that predict disease recurrence after radical prostatectomy. As many men demonstrate evidence of biochemical recurrence with some showing further progression after radical prostatectomy, we, therefore, investigated whether pathological variables as well as nuclear morphometry could be used to predict those that are at an increased risk for disease recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Our results demonstrated that 1) radical prostatectomy can be safely performed in younger men as it can provide excellent long-term disease-free survival; 2) We determined that there are a number of factors that are associated with an increased risk for disease recurrence after radical prostatectomy; 3) We have constructed a new

  17. An appraisal of a technical modification for prevention of bladder neck stenosis in retropubic prostatectomy: An initial report

    PubMed Central

    Ajape, Abdulwahab Akanbi; Kuranga, Sulyman Alege; Babata, AbdulLateef; Kura, Mustapha Mohammed; Bello, Jibril O.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To report the experience with our technical modification of the trigone-bladder neck complex management in the prevention of bladder neck stenosis (BNS) following open simple retropubic prostatectomy. Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective review of data of patients that underwent open simple retropubic prostatectomy with technical modification of the trigone-bladder neck complex in two Nigerian tertiary hospitals, by a single surgeon, from January 2007 to December 2011. The data analysed included the demographic variables, the modes of presentation, need for blood transfusion, duration of catheterization and the duration of hospital stay. The primary end-point was the development or otherwise of BNS. Results: Eighty-seven patients’ data were available for analysis from a total of 91 patients. The mean age (±standard deviation [SD]) was 65.14 years (±10.55). Preoperative urinary retention was present in 58% of the patients. The maximal flow rate (Qmax) was 12.05 ml/s among the 20 patients that had preoperative uroflowmetry. The transfusion rate was 35%, but almost two-third of them had only one unit of blood transfused. The mean weight (±SD) of the enucleated adenoma was 82.64 g (±36.63). Bladder irrigation was required in 14% of the patients, majority of the patients had urethral catheter removed after 96 h and the mean hospital stay was 6.52 days. No patient developed BNS after a mean follow-up duration of 16.39 months. Conclusion: Bladder neck stenosis can be a distressing complication of prostatectomy. The result of our technical modification of managing the trigone-bladder-neck complex looks promising for prevention or delaying the onset of BNS. A long-term observation and a prospective randomised control trial to ascertain this initial experience is needed. PMID:26834392

  18. Rationale and development of image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy post-prostatectomy: the present standard of care?

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Julia R; McNair, Helen A; Dearnaley, David P

    2015-01-01

    The indications for post-prostatectomy radiotherapy have evolved over the last decade, although the optimal timing, dose, and target volume remain to be well defined. The target volume is susceptible to anatomical variations with its borders interfacing with the rectum and bladder. Image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy has become the gold standard for radical prostate radiotherapy. Here we review the current evidence for image-guided techniques with intensity-modulated radiotherapy to the prostate bed and describe current strategies to reduce or account for interfraction and intrafraction motion. PMID:26635484

  19. Transurethral prostatectomy: immediate and postoperative complications. A cooperative study of 13 participating institutions evaluating 3,885 patients.

    PubMed

    Mebust, W K; Holtgrewe, H L; Cockett, A T; Peters, P C

    1989-02-01

    The mortality rate for transurethral prostatectomy was 0.2 per cent in 3,885 patients reviewed retrospectively. The immediate postoperative morbidity rate was 18 per cent. Increased morbidity was found in patients with a resection time of more than 90 minutes, gland size of more than 45 gm., acute urinary retention and patient age greater than 80 years, and in the black population. Of the patients 77 per cent had significant pre-existing medical problems. Operative mortality, significant morbidity and hospital stay were reduced in comparison to studies done 15 and 30 years ago.

  20. "Learning curve" may not be enough: assessing the oncological experience curve for robotic radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Y Mark; Sutherland, Douglas E; Linder, Brian; Engel, Jason D

    2010-03-01

    The use of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) is widespread in the community. A definitive RALP "learning curve" has not been defined and existing learning curves do not account for urologists without prior advanced laparoscopic skills. Therefore, an easily evaluable metric, the "oncological experience curve," would be clinically useful to all urologists performing RALP. Positive surgical margin (PSM) status for all subjects undergoing RALP during the first 4 years of a single surgeon's experience was assessed. Univariate and multivariate analyses and logistic regression identified predictors of PSM creation and their correlation with surgeon case volume. The oncological experience curve was defined as the case point at which only pT2 stage, not surgeon volume (and thus surgeon inexperience), predicted PSM in the logistic regression. A total of 469 consecutive subjects comprised our cohort. Overall pT2 and pT3 PSM rates were 20% and 40%, respectively. Preoperative prostate-specific antigen, pathologic stage, and year of surgery were associated with PSM occurrence. Pathologic stage exclusively correlated to PSM in pT2 specimens for the first time during the fourth year, after 290 subjects had been treated. pT2 PSM rate before and after Case 290 was 25% and 10%, respectively (p < 0.001). The oncological experience curve is a clinically meaningful measure to evaluate the RALP learning curve for non-fellowship-trained urologists. The oncological experience curve may be much longer than the previously reported learning curves. Surgeons should consider whether they can build enough experience to minimize suboptimal oncological outcomes before embarking on or continuing a RALP program.

  1. Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter Remains Constant during Robot Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Verdonck, Philip; Kalmar, Alain F.; Suy, Koen; Geeraerts, Thomas; Vercauteren, Marcel; Mottrie, Alex; De Wolf, Andre M.; Hendrickx, Jan F. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background During robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP), a CO2 pneumoperitoneum (CO2PP) is applied and the patient is placed in a head-down position. Intracranial pressure (ICP) is expected to acutely increase under these conditions. A non-invasive method, the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measurement, may warn us that the mechanism of protective cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shifts becomes exhausted. Methods After obtaining IRB approval and written informed consent, ONSD was measured by ocular ultrasound in 20 ASA I–II patients at various stages of the RALRP procedure: baseline awake, after induction, after applying the CO2PP, during head-down position, after resuming the supine position, in the postoperative anaesthesia care unit, and on day one postoperatively. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) was calculated as the mean arterial (MAP) minus central venous pressure (CVP). Results The ONSD did not change during head-down position, although the CVP increased from 4.2(2.5) mm Hg to 27.6(3.8) mm Hg. The CPP was decreased 70 min after assuming the head-down position until 15 min after resuming the supine position, but remained above 60 mm Hg at all times. Conclusion Even though ICP has been documented to increase during CO2PP and head-down positioning, we did not find any changes in ONSD during head-down position. These results indicate that intracranial blood volume does not increase up to a point that CSF migration as a compensation mechanism becomes exhausted, suggesting any increases in ICP are likely to be small. PMID:25369152

  2. Efficacy of Salvage Radiotherapy Plus 2-Year Androgen Suppression for Postradical Prostatectomy Patients With PSA Relapse

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, Richard; Danjoux, Cyril; Gardner, Sandra; Morton, Gerard; Szumacher, Ewa; Loblaw, D. Andrew; Cheung, Patrick; Pearse, Maria

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of a combined approach of radiotherapy (RT) plus 2-year androgen suppression (AS) as salvage treatment for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: Seventy-five patients with PSA relapse after RP were treated with salvage RT plus 2-year AS, as per a pilot, prospective study. AS started within 1 month after completion of salvage RT and consisted of nilutamide for 4 weeks and buserelin acetate depot subcutaneously every 2 months for 2 years. Relapse-free rate including freedom from PSA relapse was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. PSA relapse was defined as a PSA rise above 0.2 ng/mL with two consecutive increases over a minimum of 3 months. A Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate prognostic factors for relapse. Results: Median age of the cohort was 63 years at the time of salvage RT. Median follow-up from salvage RT was 6.4 years. All achieved initially complete PSA response (< 0.2) with the protocol treatment. Relapse-free rate including the freedom from PSA relapse was 91.5% at 5 years and 78.6% at 7 years. Overall survival rate was 93.2% at both 5 and 7 years. On Cox regression analysis, pT3 stage and PSA relapse less than 2 years after RP were significant prognostic factors for relapse. Conclusion: The combined treatment of salvage RT plus 2-year AS yielded an encouraging result for patients with PSA relapse after RP and needs a confirmatory study.

  3. Implications of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair on open, laparoscopic, and robotic radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Spernat, Dan; Sofield, David; Moon, Daniel; Louie-Johnsun, Mark; Woo, Henry H

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There have been anecdotal reports of surgeons having to abandon radical prostatectomy (RP) after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair (LIHR) due to obliteration of tissue planes by mesh. Nodal dissection may also be compromised. We prospectively collected data from four experienced prostate surgeons from separate institutions. Our objective was to evaluate the success rate of performing open RP (ORP), laparoscopic RP (LRP) and robotic assisted RP (RALRP) and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) after LIHR, and the frequency of complications. Methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained databases of men who underwent RP after LIHR between 2004 and 2010 at four institutions was undertaken. The data recorded included age, preoperative prostate-specific antigen, preoperative Gleason score, and clinical stage. The operative approach, success or failure to perform RP, success or failure to perform PLND, pathological stage, and complications were also recorded. Results: A total of 1,181 men underwent RP between 2004 and 2010. Fifty-seven patients (4.8%) underwent RP after LIHR. An ORP was attempted in 19 patients, LRP in 33, and RALRP in 5. All 57 cases were able to be successfully completed. Ten of the 18 open PLND were able to be completed (55.6%). Four of the 22 laparoscopic LND were able to be completed (18.2%). Robotic LND was possible in 5 of 5 cases (100%). Therefore, it was not possible to complete a LND 56.8% of patients. Complications were limited to ten patients. These complications included one LRP converted to ORP due to failure to progress, and one rectourethral fistula in a salvage procedure post failed high intensity focused ultrasound. Conclusions: LIHR is an increasingly common method of treating inguinal hernias. LIHR is not a contra-indication to RP. However PLND may not be possible in over 50% of patients who have had LIHR. Therefore, these patients may be under-staged and under treated. PMID:24693528

  4. 4-Ports endoscopic extraperitoneal radical prostatectomy: preliminary and learning curve results

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Humberto do Nascimento; Siqueira, Tiberio Moreno; Barreto, Françualdo; Menezes, Leonardo Gomes; Luna, Mauro José Catunda; Calado, Adriano Almeida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction There is a lack of studies in our national scenario regarding the results obtained by laparoscopic radical prostatectomy technique (LRP). Except for a few series, there are no consistent data on oncological, functional, and perioperative results on LRP held in Brazil. As for the LRP technique performed by extraperitoneal access (ELRP), when performed by a single surgeon, the results are even scarcer. Objective To analyze the early perioperative and oncologic results obtained with the ELRP, throughout the technical evolution of a single surgeon. Patients and methods A non-randomized retrospective study was held in a Brazilian hospital of reference. In the 5-year period, 115 patients underwent the ELRP procedure. Patients were divided into two groups, the first 57 cases (Group 1) and the following 58 cases, (Group 2). A comparative analysis between the groups of efficacy results and ELRP safety was carried out. Results The average age of patients was 62.8 year-old and the PSA of 6.9ng/dl. The total surgery time was 135.8 minutes on average, and the urethral-bladder anastomosis was 21.9 min (23.3 min versus 20.7 min). The positive surgical margins (PSM) rate was 17.1%, showing no difference between groups (16.4% versus 17.9%; p=0.835). There was statistical difference between the groups in relation to the anastomosis time, estimated blood loss and the withdrawal time of the urinary catheter. Conclusion The ELRP technique proved to be a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of prostate cancer, with low morbidity. PMID:27286105

  5. AB032. Penile rehabilitation using Vacuum Erection Device for erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Dingwei; Shen, Yijun; Dai, Bo; Zhang, Hailiang; Shi, Guohai; Zhu, Yao; Zhu, Yiping; Lu, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Erectile dysfunction (ED) is one of the most common complications of radical prostatectomy (RP), and seriously affecting the quality of life for patients after RP. At present, more and more doctors and patients increasingly accept and use penile rehabilitation therapies to treat ED post-RP. Among them, the vacuum erectile device (VED), a non-invasive means, can improve hypoxia within the penis and inhibit smooth muscle cell apoptosis and cavernous fibrosis. We summarize the efficacy of VED for treatment of ED after RP, and investigate patient compliance and satisfaction. Methods One group of 259 patients undergoing RP, including 143 cases of open RP, 116 cases of laparoscopic RP. All patients used VED (Osbon, Timm Medical, Inc.) for rehabilitation within 3 months after RP. Another group undergoing RP but not using VED was control. IIEF-5 scores, length and circumference of penis and SEP3 percentage were compared between these groups before and after RP. The compliance of VED and satisfaction for rehabilitation were also compared. Results The IIEF-5 score after 6 months rehabilitation was significantly higher in the patients using VED than that in the controls (P<0.05).The shortening of penile length and circumference after VED were also significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05). The average length using VED was 10 months (1-18 months), and IIEF-5 score and penile length and circumference were higher in those using VED more than 1 year than those using less than six months (P<0.05). The SEP3 and satisfaction rate were significantly higher in 172 cases undergoing neurovascular-bundle-sparing RP than controls (P<0.05). Conclusions The early use of VED rehabilitation can improve erectile function for RP patients, help to preserve the length and reduce the shrinkage of penis. Long-term use of VED can have better results.

  6. Penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy: patients’ attitude and feasibility in China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yi-Jun; Li, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the behavior of Chinese erectile dysfunction (ED) patients after radical prostatectomy (RP) who were offered the penile rehabilitation and to assess their attitude and feasibility of rehabilitation after RP in China. Materials and methods Comprehensive medical and sexual histories of 187 evaluable PCa patients for RP were obtained together with their attitude towards penile rehabilitation. The rehabilitation data was compared between patients who accepted this treatment or not. The successful intercourse rate six months after treatment was also compared among three rehabilitation interventions, including phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE-5i), vacuum erection device (VED) and combination of both. Results 141 (75.4%) patients reported being sexually active in the six months before RP.122 (65.2%) patients wished to preserve sexual activity and 80 (42.8%) had interest in penile rehabilitation after RP. Penile rehabilitation rate was 30.5%. The patients with younger age (P<0.001), higher IIEF-5 score preoperatively (P=0.03) and no adjuvant therapy post-RP (P=0.01) were more acceptable for rehabilitation. Main reasons for refusal of rehabilitation included lack of sexual interest followed by high cost of treatment. The successful intercourse rate was not significantly different among three rehabilitation interventions (P=0.32). Conclusions Less than one-third of Chinese RP patients accepted penile rehabilitation postoperatively. Patients’ attitude towards rehabilitation was conservative because of many reasons from traditional Chinese culture, doctors and patients themselves. Penile rehabilitation was feasible and effective in Chinese RP patients. PMID:26816718

  7. Anatomic Boundaries of the Clinical Target Volume (Prostate Bed) After Radical Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltshire, Kirsty L.; Brock, Kristy K.; Haider, Masoom A.; Zwahlen, Daniel; Kong, Vickie; Chan, Elisa; Moseley, Joanne; Bayley, Andrew; Catton, Charles; Chung, Peter W.M.; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Milosevic, Michael; Kneebone, Andrew; Warde, Padraig; Menard, Cynthia

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: We sought to derive and validate an interdisciplinary consensus definition for the anatomic boundaries of the postoperative clinical target volume (CTV, prostate bed). Methods and Materials: Thirty one patients who had planned for radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy were enrolled and underwent computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) simulation prior to radiotherapy. Through an iterative process of consultation and discussion, an interdisciplinary consensus definition was derived based on a review of published data, patterns of local failure, surgical practice, and radiologic anatomy. In validation, we analyzed the distribution of surgical clips in reference to the consensus CTV and measured spatial uncertainties in delineating the CTV and vesicourethral anastomosis. Clinical radiotherapy plans were retrospectively evaluated against the consensus CTV (prostate bed). Results: Anatomic boundaries of the consensus CTV (prostate bed) are described. Surgical clips (n = 339) were well distributed throughout the CTV. The vesicourethral anastomosis was accurately localized using central sagittal computed tomography reconstruction, with a mean {+-} standard deviation uncertainty of 1.8 {+-} 2.5 mm. Delineation uncertainties were small for both MRI and computed tomography (mean reproducibility, 0-3.8 mm; standard deviation, 1.0-2.3); they were most pronounced in the anteroposterior and superoinferior dimensions and at the superior/posterior-most aspect of the CTV. Retrospectively, the mean {+-} standard deviation CTV (prostate bed) percentage of volume receiving 100% of prescribed dose was only 77% {+-} 26%. Conclusions: We propose anatomic boundaries for the CTV (prostate bed) and present evidence supporting its validity. In the absence of gross recurrence, the role of MRI in delineating the CTV remains to be confirmed. The CTV is larger than historically practiced at our institution and should be encompassed by a microscopic tumoricidal dose.

  8. Urinary Continence after Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy: The Impact of Intravesical Prostatic Protrusion

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Jung Ki; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok-Soo; Zargar, Homayoun; Autorino, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the impact of intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) on the outcomes of robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP). Materials and Methods The medical records of 1094 men who underwent RALP from January 2007 to March 2013 were analyzed using our database to identify 641 additional men without IPP (non-IPP group). We excluded 259 patients who presented insufficient data and 14 patients who did not have an MRI image. We compared the following parameters: preoperative transrectal ultrasound, prostate specific antigen (PSA), clinicopathologic characteristics, intraoperative characteristics, postoperative oncologic characteristics, minor and major postoperative complications, and continence until postoperative 1 year. IPP grade was stratified by grade into three groups: Grade 1 (IPP≤5 mm), Grade 2 (5 mm10 mm). Results Of the 821 patients who underwent RALP, 557 (67.8%) experienced continence at postoperative 3 months, 681 (82.9%) at 6 months, and 757 (92.2%) at 12 months. According to IPP grade, there were significant differences in recovering full continence at postoperative 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months (p<0.001). On multivariate analysis, IPP was the most powerful predictor of postoperative continence in patients who underwent RALP (p<0.001). Using a generalized estimating equation model, IPP also was shown to be the most powerful independent variable for postoperative continence in patients who underwent RALP (p<0.001). Conclusion Patients with low-grade IPP have significantly higher chances of recovering full continence. Therefore, the known IPP grade will be helpful during consultations with patients before RALP. PMID:27401645

  9. Postoperative Prostate-Specific Antigen Velocity Independently Predicts for Failure of Salvage Radiotherapy After Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    King, Christopher R. Presti, Joseph C.; Brooks, James D.; Gill, Harcharan; Spiotto, Michael T.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: Identification of patients most likely to benefit from salvage radiotherapy (RT) using postoperative (postop) prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics. Methods and Materials: From 1984 to 2004, 81 patients who fit the following criteria formed the study population: undetectable PSA after radical prostatectomy (RP); pathologically negative nodes; biochemical relapse defined as a persistently detectable PSA; salvage RT; and two or more postop PSAs available before salvage RT. Salvage RT included the whole pelvic nodes in 55 patients and 4 months of total androgen suppression in 56 patients. The median follow-up was >5 years. All relapses were defined as a persistently detectable PSA. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards multivariable analysis were performed for all clinical, pathological, and treatment factors predicting for biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS). Results: There were 37 biochemical relapses observed after salvage RT. The 5-year bRFS after salvage RT for patients with postop prostate-specific antigen velocity {<=}1 vs. >1 ng/ml/yr was 59% vs. 29%, p = 0.002. In multivariate analysis, only postop PSAV (p = 0.0036), pre-RT PSA level {<=}1 (p = 0.037) and interval-to-relapse >10 months (p = 0.012) remained significant, whereas pelvic RT, hormone therapy, and RT dose showed a trend (p = {approx}0.06). PSAV, but not prostate-specific antigen doubling time, predicted successful salvage RT, suggesting an association of zero-order kinetics with locally recurrent disease. Conclusions: Postoperative PSA velocity independently predicts for the failure of salvage RT and can be considered in addition to high-risk features when selecting patients in need of systemic therapy following biochemical failure after RP. For well-selected patients, salvage RT can achieve high cure rates.

  10. Phase I-II Study of Intraoperative Radiation Therapy (IORT) After Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Saracino, Biancamaria Gallucci, Michele; De Carli, Piero; Soriani, Antonella; Papalia, Rocco; Marzi, Simona; Landoni, Valeria; Petrongari, Maria Grazia; Arcangeli, Stefano; Forastiere, Ester; Sentinelli, Steno; Arcangeli, Giorgio

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: Recent studies have suggested an {alpha}/{beta} ratio in prostate cancer of 1.5-3 Gy, which is lower than that assumed for late-responsive normal tissues. Therefore the administration of a single, intraoperative dose of irradiation should represent a convenient irradiation modality in prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Between February 2002 and June 2004, 34 patients with localized prostate cancer with only one risk factor (Gleason score {>=}7, Clinical Stage [cT] {>=}2c, or prostate-specific antigen [PSA] of 11-20 ng/mL) and without clinical evidence of lymph node metastases were treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) and intraoperative radiotherapy on the tumor bed. A dose-finding procedure based on the Fibonacci method was employed. Dose levels of 16, 18, and 20 Gy were selected, which are biologically equivalent to total doses of about 60-80 Gy administered with conventional fractionation, using an {alpha}/{beta} ratio value of 3. Results: At a median follow-up of 41 months, 24 (71%) patients were alive with an undetectable PSA value. No patients died from disease, whereas 2 patients died from other malignancies. Locoregional failures were detected in 3 (9%) patients, 2 in the prostate bed and 1 in the common iliac node chain outside the radiation field. A PSA rise without local or distant disease was observed in 7 (21%) cases. The overall 3-year biochemical progression-free survival rate was 77.3%. Conclusions: Our dose-finding study demonstrated the feasibility of intraoperative radiotherapy in prostate cancer also at the highest administered dose.

  11. Higher prostate weight is inversely associated with Gleason score upgrading in radical prostatectomy specimens.

    PubMed

    Reis, Leonardo Oliveira; Zani, Emerson Luis; Freitas, Leandro L L; Denardi, Fernandes; Billis, Athanase

    2013-01-01

    Background. Protective factors against Gleason upgrading and its impact on outcomes after surgery warrant better definition. Patients and Methods. Consecutive 343 patients were categorized at biopsy (BGS) and prostatectomy (PGS) as Gleason score, ≤6, 7, and ≥8; 94 patients (27.4%) had PSA recurrence, mean followup 80.2 months (median 99). Independent predictors of Gleason upgrading (logistic regression) and disease-free survival (DFS) (Kaplan-Meier, log-rank) were determined. Results. Gleason discordance was 45.7% (37.32% upgrading and 8.45% downgrading). Upgrading risk decreased by 2.4% for each 1 g of prostate weight increment, while it increased by 10.2% for every 1 ng/mL of PSA, 72.0% for every 0.1 unity of PSA density and was 21 times higher for those with BGS 7. Gleason upgrading showed increased clinical stage (P = 0.019), higher tumor extent (P = 0.009), extraprostatic extension (P = 0.04), positive surgical margins (P < 0.001), seminal vesicle invasion (P = 0.003), less "insignificant" tumors (P < 0.001), and also worse DFS, χ (2) = 4.28, df = 1, P = 0.039. However, when setting the final Gleason score (BGS ≤6 to PGS 7 versus BGS 7 to PGS 7), avoiding allocation bias, DFS impact is not confirmed, χ (2) = 0.40, df = 1, P = 0.530.Conclusions. Gleason upgrading is substantial and confers worse outcomes. Prostate weight is inversely related to upgrading and its protective effect warrants further evaluation.

  12. The Effect of Tumor-Prostate Ratio on Biochemical Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Yong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Prostate tumor volume calculated after surgery using pathologic tissue has been shown to be an independent risk factor for biochemical recurrence. Nonetheless, prostate size varies among individuals, regardless of the presence or absence of cancer. We assumed to be lower margin positive rate in the surgical operation, when the prostate volume is larger and the tumor lesion is same. Thus, we defined the tumor-prostate ratio in the ratio of tumor volume to prostate volume. In order to compensate the prostate tumor volume, the effect of tumor-prostate ratio on biochemical recurrence was examined. Materials and Methods This study included 251 patients who underwent open retropubic radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer in a single hospital. We analyzed the effects of tumor volume and tumor-prostate ratio, as well as the effects of known risk factors for biochemical recurrence, on the duration of disease-free survival. Results In the univariate analysis, the risk factors that significantly impacted disease-free survival time were found to be a prostate-specific antigen level ≥10 ng/mL, a tumor volume ≥5 mL, tumor-prostate ratio ≥10%, tumor capsular invasion, lymph node invasion, positive surgical margins, and seminal vesicle invasion. In the multivariate analysis performed to evaluate the risk factors found to be significant in the univariate analysis, positive surgical margins (hazard ratio=3.066) and a tumor density ≥10% (hazard ratio=1.991) were shown to be significant risk factors for biochemical recurrence. Conclusions Tumor-prostate ratio, rather than tumor volume, should be regarded as a significant risk factor for biochemical recurrence. PMID:27574595

  13. Robotic prostatectomy is associated with increased patient travel and treatment delay

    PubMed Central

    Maurice, Matthew J.; Zhu, Hui; Kim, Simon P.; Abouassaly, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: New technologies may limit access to treatment. We investigated radical prostatectomy (RP) access over time since robotic introduction and the impact of robotic use on RP access relative to other approaches in the modern era. Methods: Using the National Cancer Data Base, RPs performed during the eras of early (2004–2005) and late (2010–2011) robotic dissemination were identified. The primary endpoints, patient travel distance and treatment delay, were compared by era, and for 2010–2011, by surgical approach. Analyses included multivariable and multinomial logistic regression. Results: 138 476 cases were identified, 32% from 2004–2005 and 68% from 2010–2011. In 2010–2011, 74%, 21%, and 4.3% of RPs were robotic, open, and laparoscopic, respectively. Treatment in 2010–2011 and robotic approach were independently associated with increased patient travel distance and longer treatment delay (p<0.001). Men treated robotically had 1.1–1.2 times higher odds of traveling medium-to-long-range distances and 1.2–1.3 higher odds of delays 90 days or greater compared to those treated open (p<0.001). Laparoscopic approach was associated with increased patient travel and treatment delay, but to a lesser extent than the robotic approach (p<0.001). In high-risk patients, treatment delays remained significantly longer for minimally invasive approaches (p<0.001). Other factors associated with the robotic approach included referral from an outside facility, treatment at an academic or high-volume hospital, higher income, and private insurance. Potential limitations include the retrospective observational design and lack of external validation of the primary outcomes. Conclusions: The robotic approach is associated with increased travel burden and treatment delay, potentially limiting access to surgical care. PMID:27713799

  14. The prognostic value of lymphovascular invasion in radical prostatectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi; Huang, Hai; Pan, Xiu-Wu; Xu, Dan-Feng; Cui, Xin-Gang; Chen, Jie; Hong, Yi; Gao, Yi; Yin, Lei; Ye, Jian-Qing; Li, Lin

    2016-01-01

    To systematically evaluate the prognostic value of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in radical prostatectomy (RP) by a meta-analysis based on the published literature. To identify relevant studies, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science database were searched from 1966 to May 2014. Finally, 25 studies (9503 patients) were included. LVI was found in 12.2% (1156/9503) of the RP specimens. LVI was found to be correlated with higher pathological tumor stages (greater than pT3 stage) (risk ratio [RR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.73–2.08, P < 0.00001), higher Gleason scores (greater than GS = 7) (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.23–1.38, P < 0.00001), positive pathological node (pN) status (RR 5.67, 95% CI 3.14–10.24, P < 0.00001), extracapsular extension (RR 1.72, 95% CI 1.46–2.02, P < 0.00001), and seminal vesicle involvement (RR 3.36, 95% CI 2.41–4.70, P < 0.00001). The pooled hazard ratio (HR) was statistically significant for Biochemical Recurrence-Free (BCR-free) probability (HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.64–2.56; Z = 6.30, P < 0.00001). Sensitivity analysis showed that the pooled HR and 95% CI were not significantly altered by the omission of any single study. Begg's Funnel plots showed no significant publication bias (P = 0.112). In conclusion, LVI exhibited a detrimental effect on the BCR-Free probability and clinicopathological features in RP specimens, and may prove to be an independent prognostic factor of BCR. PMID:26459779

  15. [Penile implantation surgery for organic impotence due to radical cystectomy or prostatectomy].

    PubMed

    Okada, Y; Kuo, Y J; Hida, S; Nishio, Y; Yoshida, O; Arai, Y; Kihara, Y; Mishina, T

    1987-10-01

    Implantation surgery was performed twelve times in eleven patients with organic impotence, mainly due to radical cystectomy and prostatectomy against malignancy, between March, 1982 and April, 1987. A self-contained type prosthesis (AMS Hydroflex(TM] was used in 7 cases, reservoir type inflatable prosthesis (AMS 700TM) in 2, malleable semirigid type (ESKA-Jonas Silicon Silver(TM) Trimming Tip Version) in 2, and nonmalleable semirigid type (Fuji system Finney type) in 1 case. In the last case, the prosthesis was replaced by AMS Hydroflex 4.5 years later at patient's wish. Excellent results and good patients' acceptance were gained with inflatable-type prosthesis (AMS 700 and Hydroflex) in 7 out of 8 cases (88%), whereas concealment problems were produced by semirigid type prosthesis (Finney and Jonas). Experience with AMS Hydroflex penile implantation is reported for the first time in the Japanese literature. Intraoperatively, it was sometimes difficult to implant a pair of Hydroflex rods into both of the corpus cavernosum. Postoperative perineal pain was almost constantly seen and in one patient, penile edema continued for three weeks and subsided spontaneously in two months. In another patient, the length of the prosthesis (15 cm) was short, and exchange to the longer one (17 cm) was necessary. In this patient, the longer Hydroflex caused erosion of the glans to necessitate its removal on one side. From our experience, the diameter (11 mm) of the Hydroflex seems to be too big for the average Japanese patient. The operative procedures and results of each kind of the prostheses are briefly discussed. PMID:3445849

  16. Comparative Study of Inguinal Hernia Repair Rates After Radical Prostatectomy or External Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lughezzani, Giovanni; Sun, Maxine; Perrotte, Paul; Alasker, Ahmed; Jeldres, Claudio; Isbarn, Hendrik; Budaeus, Lars; Lattouf, Jean-Baptiste; Valiquette, Luc; Benard, Francois; Saad, Fred; Graefen, Markus; Montorsi, Francesco; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: We tested the hypothesis that patients treated for localized prostate cancer with radical prostatectomy (RP) have a higher risk of requiring an inguinal hernia (IH) repair than their counterparts treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Within the Quebec Health Plan database, we identified 6,422 men treated with RP and 4,685 men treated with EBRT for localized prostate cancer between 1990 and 2000, in addition to 6,933 control patients who underwent a prostate biopsy. From among that population, we identified patients who underwent a unilateral or bilateral hernia repair after either RP or EBRT. Kaplan-Meier plots showed IH repair-free survival rates. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models tested the predictors of IH repair after RP or EBRT. Covariates consisted of age, year of surgery, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. Results: IH repair-free survival rates at 1, 2, 5, and 10 years were 96.8, 94.3, 90.5, and 86.2% vs. 98.9, 98.0, 95.4, and 92.2%, respectively, in RP vs. EBRT patients (log-rank test, p < 0.001). IH repair-free survival rates in the biopsy population were 98.3, 97.1, 94.9, and 90.2% at the same four time points. In multivariable Cox regression models, RP predisposed to a 2.3-fold higher risk of IH repair than EBRT (p < 0.001). Besides therapy type, patient age (p < 0.001) represented the only other independent predictor of IH repair. Conclusions: RP predisposes to a higher rate of IH repair relative to EBRT. This observation should be considered at informed consent.

  17. Anti-androgenic activity of absorption-enhanced 3, 3’-diindolylmethane in prostatectomy patients

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Clara; Sethi, Seema; Heilbrun, Lance K; Gupta, Nilesh S; Chitale, Dhananjay A; Sakr, Wael A; Menon, Mani; Peabody, James O; Smith, Daryn W; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Heath, Elisabeth I

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of developing prostate cancer. Antineoplastic effects of cruciferous vegetables are attributable to bioactive indoles, most prominently, 3, 3’-diindolylmethane (DIM). In addition to effects on proliferation and apoptosis, DIM acts as an antiandrogen in prostate cancer cell lines. This study characterized the effects of prostatic DIM on the androgen receptor (AR) in patients with prostate cancer. Men with localized prostate cancer were treated with a specially formulated DIM capsule designed for enhanced bioavailability (BR-DIM) at a dose of 225 mg orally twice daily for a minimum of 14 days. DIM levels and AR activity were assessed at the time of prostatectomy. Out of 28 evaluable patients, 26 (93%) had detectable prostatic DIM levels, with a mean concentration of 14.2 ng/gm. The mean DIM plasma level on BR-DIM therapy was 9.0 ng/mL; levels were undetectable at baseline and in follow-up samples. AR localization in the prostate was assessed with immunohistochemistry. After BR-DIM therapy, 96% of patients exhibited exclusion of the AR from the cell nucleus. In contrast, in prostate biopsy samples obtained prior to BR-DIM therapy, no patient exhibited AR nuclear exclusion. Declines in PSA were observed in a majority of patients (71%). Compliance was excellent and toxicity was minimal. In summary, BR-DIM treatment resulted in reliable prostatic DIM levels and anti-androgenic biologic effects at well tolerated doses. These results support further investigation of BR-DIM as a chemopreventive and therapeutic agent in prostate cancer. PMID:27069550

  18. Effect of radical prostatectomy surgeon volume on complication rates from a large population-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Almatar, Ashraf; Wallis, Christopher J.D.; Herschorn, Sender; Saskin, Refik; Kulkarni, Girish S.; Kodama, Ronald T.; Nam, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical volume can affect several outcomes following radical prostatectomy (RP). We examined if surgical volume was associated with novel categories of treatment-related complications following RP. Methods: We examined a population-based cohort of men treated with RP in Ontario, Canada between 2002 and 2009. We used Cox proportional hazard modeling to examine the effect of physician, hospital and patient demographic factors on rates of treatment-related hospital admissions, urologic procedures, and open surgeries. Results: Over the study interval, 15 870 men were treated with RP. A total of 196 surgeons performed a median of 15 cases per year (range: 1–131). Patients treated by surgeons in the highest quartile of annual case volume (>39/year) had a lower risk of hospital admission (hazard ratio [HR]=0.54, 95% CI 0.47–0.61) and urologic procedures (HR=0.69, 95% CI 0.64–0.75), but not open surgeries (HR=0.83, 95% CI 0.47–1.45) than patients treated by surgeons in the lowest quartile (<15/year). Treatment at an academic hospital was associated with a decreased risk of hospitalization (HR=0.75, 95% CI 0.67–0.83), but not of urologic procedures (HR=0.94, 95% CI 0.88–1.01) or open surgeries (HR=0.87, 95% CI 0.54–1.39). There was no significant trend in any of the outcomes by population density. Conclusions: The annual case volume of the treating surgeon significantly affects a patient’s risk of requiring hospitalization or urologic procedures (excluding open surgeries) to manage treatment-related complications. PMID:26977206

  19. Physician Beliefs and Practices for Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Timothy N.; Ohri, Nitin; Teti, Kristopher G.; Foley, Kathleen A.; Keith, Scott W.; Trabulsi, Edouard J.; Lallas, Costas D.; Dicker, Adam P.; Hoffman-Censits, Jean; Pizzi, Laura T.; Gomella, Leonard G.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Despite results of randomized trials that support adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) after radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer with adverse pathologic features (APF), many clinicians favor selective use of salvage RT. This survey was conducted to evaluate the beliefs and practices of radiation oncologists (RO) and urologists (U) regarding RT after RP. Methods and Materials: We designed a Web-based survey of post-RP RT beliefs and policies. Survey invitations were e-mailed to a list of 926 RO and 591 U. APF were defined as extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, or positive surgical margin. Differences between U and RO in adjuvant RT recommendations were evaluated by comparative statistics. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate factors predictive of adjuvant RT recommendation. Results: Analyzable surveys were completed by 218 RO and 92 U (overallresponse rate, 20%). Adjuvant RT was recommended based on APF by 68% of respondents (78% RO, 44% U, p <0.001). U were less likely than RO to agree that adjuvant RT improves survival and/or biochemical control (p < 0.0001). PSA thresholds for salvage RT were higher among U than RO (p < 0.001). Predicted rates of erectile dysfunction due to RT were higher among U than RO (p <0.001). On multivariate analysis, respondent specialty was the only predictor of adjuvant RT recommendations. Conclusions: U are less likely than RO to recommend adjuvant RT. Future research efforts should focus on defining the toxicities of post-RP RT and on identifying the subgroups of patients who will benefit from adjuvant vs. selective salvage RT.

  20. Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy: analysis of an experienced open surgeon's learning curve after 300 procedures.

    PubMed

    Doumerc, Nicolas; Yuen, Carlo; Savdie, Richard; Rahman, Md Bayzidur; Pe Benito, Ruth; Stricker, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    To critically analyse the learning curve for a single experienced open surgeon converting to robotic surgery. From February 2006 to July 2009, 300 patients underwent a robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) by a single urologist. This study is a prospective analysis of the baseline patient and tumour characteristics, intraoperative and postoperative data, and histopathologic features. To analyse the RALP learning curve, the joinpoint regression method was used. Mean age of the patient was 61.3 years (range 46-76). Mean pre-operative PSA level was 7 ng/ml (range 0.7-41), and follow-up was 14 months (0.7-41). The mean operating time was 185 min (range 119-525). One hundred and ten cases were required to achieve 3-h proficiency. There were no conversions. The mean hospital stay was 2.8 days (range 2-7). Major complications rate was 1.3%. The blood transfusion rate was 0.6%. The overall positive surgical margin (PSM) rate was 21.3%. pT2 and pT3 PSM rate was 10 and 44%, respectively. The joinpoint regression method showed that the learning curve started to plateau for the overall PSM rate after 205 cases (95% CI 200-249). For pT2 and pT3, PSM rate, the learning curve tended to flatten after 130 and 170 cases, respectively. The analysis of an experienced open surgeon learning curve in transferring his skills to the robotic platform has shown that 3-h proficiency requires 110 cases. The overall, pT2, and pT3 PSM rate take approximately 200, 130, and 170 cases, respectively, to flatten. PMID:27628635

  1. Assessing guideline impact on referral patterns of post-prostatectomy patients to radiation oncologists

    PubMed Central

    Taggar, Amandeep; Alghamdi, Majed; Tilly, Derek; Kostaras, Xanthoula; Kerba, Marc; Husain, Siraj; Gotto, Geoff; Sia, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adjuvant radiotherapy (aRT) can improve biochemical progression-free survival in patients with high-risk features (HRF) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Guidelines from Alberta and the Genitourinary Radiation Oncologists of Canada (GUROC) recommend that patients with HRF be referred to radiation oncologists (RO) based on the findings from three randomized, controlled trials (RCT). Our study examines the impact of these recommendations both pre- (2005) and post- (2012) publication of RCT and GUROC guideline establishment. Methods: Patients undergoing RP during 2005 and 2012 were identified from the provincial cancer registry. Charts were retrospectively reviewed and variables of interest were linked to the registry data. RO referral patterns for each year were determined and variables influencing referral (extracapsular extension, positive margin, seminal vesicle invasion, and post-RP prostate-specific antigen [PSA]) were compared. Results: Median time to referral was 26.4 months in 2005 compared to 3.7 months 2012 (p<0.001). Among patients referred post-RP, a higher proportion was referred within six months in 2012 (21%) as compared to 2005 (13%) (p=0.003). Among eligible patients in 2012, 30% were referred for discussion of aRT compared to 24% in 2005 (p=0.003). There was a marked drop in patients referred for salvage radiation therapy beyond six months and a rise in the number of patients who are never referred. Conclusions: Despite an increase in referral rates to RO post-RP from 2005–2012, more than 50% of those patients with HRF did not receive a referral. Initiatives aimed at improving multidisciplinary care and guideline adherence should be undertaken. PMID:27800051

  2. Is an adjustment by transurethral surgery simultaneously needed during the suprapubic open prostatectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yu Seob; Zhang, Li Tao; Zhao, Chen; You, Jae Hyung; Park, Jong Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare suprapubic open prostatectomy (SOP) and a novel SOP with transurethral adjustment of residual adenoma and bleeding (TURARAB) for large sized prostates. Methods Between March 2010 and March 2014, 49 patients with symptomatic BPH (>100 g) were scheduled for SOP or SOP with TURARAB. The patients were subdivided into two groups. In Group I, each patient underwent SOP. In Group II, each patient underwent SOP with TURARAB. Additional transurethral resection of residual adenoma and bleeding control were done through the urethra after enucleation of the prostate adenoma by SOP. Prior to intervention, all patients were analyzed by preoperative complete blood count, blood chemistry, prostate specific antigen, International Prostate Symptom Scores, and transrectal ultrasound of the prostate and uroflowmetry. SOP was performed by a suprapubic transvesical approach via a midline incision. The bladder neck mucosa was circularly incised to expose the prostate adenoma, and the plane between the adenoma and surgical capsule was developed by finger dissection. In addition, in Group II TURARAB was performed using Urosol. Postoperative outcome data were compared in the 1st month and 3rd month. Results There were no statistically significant differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups. Group I required a longer operative time than Group II. Blood transfusion during the operation was unnecessary due to the short amount of time available to control arterial bleeding in the prostatic fossa leading to a marked decrease in perioperative bleeding in Group II. Postoperative voiding function improved significantly in both groups. Conclusions Even for large prostate glands, our novel procedure appears to be an effective and safe operation to reduce operation time, bleeding, and complications. PMID:26157764

  3. Correlation of diffusion-weighted MRI with whole mount radical prostatectomy specimens.

    PubMed

    Van As, N; Charles-Edwards, E; Jackson, A; Jhavar, S; Reinsberg, S; Desouza, N; Dearnaley, D; Bailey, M; Thompson, A; Christmas, T; Fisher, C; Corbishley, C; Sohaib, S

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of benign central gland (bCG), benign peripheral zone (bPZ) and cancer using diffusion-weighted MRI and whole mount specimens. 11 patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer underwent diffusion-weighted MRI prior to radical prostatectomy. A single-shot echo planar image technique was used with b-values of 0 s mm(-2), 300 s mm(-2), 500 s mm(-2) and 800 s mm(-2). Whole mount specimens were compared with ADC maps. Areas of cancer, bCG and bPZ were identified, and regions of interest were drawn on ADC maps. Mean ADC values were recorded for all regions of interest, and paired t-tests were performed to compare mean values. Cancer was outlined in nine patients. In two patients, the tumours were too small to correlate with images; bCG was identified in 11 patients and bPZ was identified in 10 patients. Mean ADC values for bCG, bPZ and cancer were, 1.5 x 10(-3) mm(2) s(-1) (standard error (SE) = 0.04), 1.7 x 10(-3) mm(2) s(-1) (SE = 0.1), and 1.3 x 10(-3) mm(2) s(-1) (SE = 0.09), respectively. The most significant difference between benign tissue and cancer existed at b-values of 0-300 s mm(-2) (bCG vs cancer: mean difference = 0. 29, p = 0.001, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.17-0.41; bPZ vs cancer: mean difference = 0.34, p = 0.003, 95% CI = 0.18-0.61). In conclusion, we have confirmed, using whole mount verification, a significant difference in the ADC between benign tissue and cancer.

  4. Feasibility of planned mini-laparotomy and adhesiolysis at the time of robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy in patients with prior major abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rajih, Emad; Alhathal, Naif; Alenizi, Abdullah M.; El-Hakim, Assaad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Our aim was to report our experience on the feasibility of completing radical prostatectomy robotically after planned open adhesiolysis for prior major abdominal surgery with previous midline laparotomy scar. Methods: We searched our prospectively collected database of robotic assisted-radical prostatectomy (RARP) performed between October 2006 and October 2012 by a single fellowship-trained surgeon to identify all patients who underwent planned initial mini-laparotomy for release of abdominal adhesions at time of RARP. Among 250 RARP patients, five patients fulfilled these criteria. Results: All patients had prostatectomy completed robotically. The mean values of patients’ demographics were as follows: Age 61.8 years (range 54–69), body mass index 30.7 (range 24.3–45.3), and prostate volume 41.5 ml (range 30.8–54). Mean operative time was 245 min (range 190–280) and estimated blood loss 410 ml (range 300–650). Median hospital stay was one day (range 1–7). Postoperatively, there was one prolonged ileus, which resolved spontaneously, and one myocardial infarction. Conclusions: Robotic completion of radical prostatectomy after open adhesiolysis is feasible. This approach maintains most minimally invasive advantages of RARP, despite a slightly longer hospital stay. In the best interest of patients, robotic surgeons are encouraged to finish the case robotically rather than attempting an open approach. PMID:27330582

  5. Prognostic significance of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 polymorphisms on biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Luyao; Lei, Zhengwei; Ma, Xin; Huang, Qingbo; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Hao, Peng; Yang, Minggang; Zhao, Xuetao; Chen, Jun; Liu, Gongxue; Zheng, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is a transmembrane receptor with ligand-induced tyrosine kinase activity and is involved in various biological and pathological processes. Several polymorphisms of FGFR4 are associated with the incidence and mortality of numerous cancers, including prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated whether the polymorphisms of FGFR4 influence the biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer in Chinese men after radical prostatectomy. Three common polymorphisms (rs1966265, rs2011077, and rs351855) of FGFR4 were genotyped from 346 patients with prostate cancer by using the Sequenom MassARRAY system. Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models were used for survival analysis. Results showed biochemical recurrence (BCR) free survival was significantly affected by the genotypes of rs351855 but not influenced by rs1966265 and rs2011077. After adjusting for other variables in multivariable analysis, patients with rs351855 AA/AG genotypes showed significantly worse BCR-free survival than those with the GG genotype (HR = 1.873; 95% CI, 1.209–2.901; P = 0.005). Hence, FGFR4 rs351855 could be a novel independent prognostic factor of BCR after radical prostatectomy in the Chinese population. This functional polymorphism may also provide a basis for surveillance programs. Additional large-scale studies must be performed to validate the significance of this polymorphism in prostate cancer. PMID:27640814

  6. Interphase cytogenetics of prostatic carcinoma in fine needle aspirate smears of radical prostatectomy specimens: A practical screening tool?

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, R.Y.; Troncoso, P.; El-Naggar, A.K.

    1994-09-01

    Identification of chromosomal aberrations that may be used for diagnostic or prognostic evaluation of prostatic adenocarcinoma has been the subject of great interest. In a previous study, we applied the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method on paraffin-embedded material to show that trisomy 7 was associated with the progression of human prostate cancer. In this study, we attempted to assess the utility of the FISH technique in detecting aneuploidy in fine needle aspirate (FNA) smears of prostatic tissues and to compare FISH results with that of DNA flow cytometry (FCM). Paired samples of normal and tumor FNA smears were obtained from 10 radical prostatectomy specimens. Dual-color chromosomes 7 and 9-specific centromeric DNA probes were used for FISH. FISH analysis demonstrated increased frequencies of trisomy 7 cells in all 10 tumors studied when compared with the paired normals. In contrast, 6 of 10 tumors were determined to be diploid by FCM. Our results show that FNA of radical prostatectomy specimens is a practical method for obtaining suitable material for both FISH and FCM analyses of prostate carcinoma. Thus, interphase FISH may be a practical screening tool to determine aneuploidy in FNA smears of prostatic carcinoma.

  7. Prognostic significance of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 polymorphisms on biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Luyao; Lei, Zhengwei; Ma, Xin; Huang, Qingbo; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Hao, Peng; Yang, Minggang; Zhao, Xuetao; Chen, Jun; Liu, Gongxue; Zheng, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is a transmembrane receptor with ligand-induced tyrosine kinase activity and is involved in various biological and pathological processes. Several polymorphisms of FGFR4 are associated with the incidence and mortality of numerous cancers, including prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated whether the polymorphisms of FGFR4 influence the biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer in Chinese men after radical prostatectomy. Three common polymorphisms (rs1966265, rs2011077, and rs351855) of FGFR4 were genotyped from 346 patients with prostate cancer by using the Sequenom MassARRAY system. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models were used for survival analysis. Results showed biochemical recurrence (BCR) free survival was significantly affected by the genotypes of rs351855 but not influenced by rs1966265 and rs2011077. After adjusting for other variables in multivariable analysis, patients with rs351855 AA/AG genotypes showed significantly worse BCR-free survival than those with the GG genotype (HR = 1.873; 95% CI, 1.209-2.901; P = 0.005). Hence, FGFR4 rs351855 could be a novel independent prognostic factor of BCR after radical prostatectomy in the Chinese population. This functional polymorphism may also provide a basis for surveillance programs. Additional large-scale studies must be performed to validate the significance of this polymorphism in prostate cancer. PMID:27640814

  8. Radiation Therapy after Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer: Evaluation of Complications and Influence of Radiation Timing on Outcomes in a Large, Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hegarty, Sarah E.; Hyslop, Terry; Dicker, Adam P.; Showalter, Timothy N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the influence of timing of salvage and adjuvant radiation therapy on outcomes after prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Methods Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database, we identified prostate cancer patients diagnosed during 1995–2007 who had one or more adverse pathological features after prostatectomy. The final cohort of 6,137 eligible patients included men who received prostatectomy alone (n = 4,509) or with adjuvant (n = 894) or salvage (n = 734) radiation therapy. Primary outcomes were genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and erectile dysfunction events and survival after treatment(s). Results Radiation therapy after prostatectomy was associated with higher rates of gastrointestinal and genitourinary events, but not erectile dysfunction. In adjusted models, earlier treatment with adjuvant radiation therapy was not associated with increased rates of genitourinary or erectile dysfunction events compared to delayed salvage radiation therapy. Early adjuvant radiation therapy was associated with lower rates of gastrointestinal events that salvage radiation therapy, with hazard ratios of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.67–0.95) for procedure-defined and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.59, 0.83) for diagnosis-defined events. There was no significant difference between ART and non-ART groups (SRT or RP alone) for overall survival (HR = 1.13 95% CI = (0.96, 1.34) p = 0.148). Conclusions Radiation therapy after prostatectomy is associated with increased rates of gastrointestinal and genitourinary events. However, earlier radiation therapy is not associated with higher rates of gastrointestinal, genitourinary or sexual events. These findings oppose the conventional belief that delaying radiation therapy reduces the risk of radiation-related complications. PMID:25706657

  9. Robot-assisted versus other types of radical prostatectomy: population-based safety and cost comparison in Japan, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Toru; Yasunaga, Hideo; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Matsui, Hiroki; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Kume, Haruki; Changhong, Yu; Kattan, Michael W; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Homma, Yukio

    2014-11-01

    In 2012, Japanese national insurance started covering robot-assisted surgery. We carried out a population-based comparison between robot-assisted and three other types of radical prostatectomy to evaluate the safety of robot-assisted prostatectomy during its initial year. We abstracted data for 7202 open, 2483 laparoscopic, 1181 minimal incision endoscopic, and 2126 robot-assisted radical prostatectomies for oncological stage T3 or less from the Diagnosis Procedure Combination database (April 2012-March 2013). Complication rate, transfusion rate, anesthesia time, postoperative length of stay, and cost were evaluated by pairwise one-to-one propensity-score matching and multivariable analyses with covariants of age, comorbidity, oncological stage, hospital volume, and hospital academic status. The proportion of robot-assisted radical prostatectomies dramatically increased from 8.6% to 24.1% during the first year. Compared with open, laparoscopic, and minimal incision endoscopic surgery, robot-assisted surgery was generally associated with a significantly lower complication rate (odds ratios, 0.25, 0.20, 0.33, respectively), autologous transfusion rate (0.04, 0.31, 0.10), homologous transfusion rate (0.16, 0.48, 0.14), lower cost excluding operation (differences, -5.1%, -1.8% [not significant], -10.8%) and shorter postoperative length of stay (-9.1%, +0.9% [not significant], -18.5%, respectively). However, robot-assisted surgery also resulted in a + 42.6% increase in anesthesia time and +52.4% increase in total cost compared with open surgery (all P < 0.05). Introduction of robotic surgery led to a dynamic change in prostate cancer surgery. Even in its initial year, robot-assisted radical prostatectomy was carried out with several favorable safety aspects compared to the conventional surgeries despite its having the longest anesthesia time and the highest cost.

  10. Salvage Radical Prostatectomy for Radiation-recurrent Prostate Cancer: A Multi-institutional Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Chade, Daher C.; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Cronin, Angel M.; Savage, Caroline J.; Karnes, R. Jeffrey; Blute, Michael L.; Briganti, Alberto; Montorsi, Francesco; van derPoel, Henk G.; Van Poppel, Hendrik; Joniau, Steven; Godoy, Guilherme; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Gleave, Martin E.; Dall’Oglio, Marcos; Srougi, Miguel; Scardino, Peter T.; Eastham, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Oncologic outcomes in men with radiation-recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) treated with salvage radical prostatectomy (SRP) are poorly defined. Objective To identify predictors of biochemical recurrence (BCR), metastasis, and death following SRP to help select patients who may benefit from SRP. Design, setting, and participants This is a retrospective, international, multi-institutional cohort analysis. There was a median follow-up of 4.4 yr following SRP performed on 404 men with radiation-recurrent PCa from 1985 to 2009 in tertiary centers. Intervention Open SRP. Measurements BCR after SRP was defined as a serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥0.1 or ≥0.2 ng/ml (depending on the institution). Secondary end points included progression to metastasis and cancer-specific death. Results and limitations Median age at SRP was 65 yr of age, and median pre-SRP PSA was 4.5 ng/ml. Following SRP, 195 patients experienced BCR, 64 developed metastases, and 40 died from PCa. At 10 yr after SRP, BCR-free survival, metastasis-free survival, and cancer-specific survival (CSS) probabilities were 37% (95% confidence interval [CI], 31–43), 77% (95% CI, 71–82), and 83% (95% CI, 76–88), respectively. On preoperative multivariable analysis, pre-SRP PSA and Gleason score at postradiation prostate biopsy predicted BCR (p = 0.022; global p < 0.001) and metastasis (p = 0.022; global p < 0.001). On postoperative multivariable analysis, pre-SRP PSA and pathologic Gleason score at SRP predicted BCR (p = 0.014; global p < 0.001) and metastasis (p < 0.001; global p < 0.001). Lymph node involvement (LNI) also predicted metastasis (p = 0.017). The main limitations of this study are its retrospective design and the follow-up period. Conclusions In a select group of patients who underwent SRP for radiation-recurrent PCa, freedom from clinical metastasis was observed in >75% of patients 10 yr after surgery. Patients with lower pre-SRP PSA levels and lower postradiation prostate

  11. Prognostic Factors for Anastomotic Urinary Leakage Following Retropubic Radical Prostatectomy and Correlation With Voiding Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cormio, Luigi; Di Fino, Giuseppe; Scavone, Carmen; Maroscia, Domenico; Mancini, Vito; Ruocco, Nicola; Bellanti, Francesco; Selvaggio, Oscar; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Carrieri, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the occurrence and grade of cystographically detected urinary leakage (UL) in a contemporary series of open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RP), whether patients' clinical variables predict occurrence of UL, and whether occurrence of UL correlates with patients' voiding outcomes in terms of urinary continence and anastomotic stricture (AS). Enrolled patients underwent cystography 7 days after retropubic RP; in case of UL, the catheter was left in situ and cystography repeated at 7 days intervals until demonstrating absence of UL. Leakage was classified as grade I = extraperitoneal leak <6 cm, grade II = extraperitoneal leak >6 cm, grade III = leak freely extending in the small pelvis. Voiding was evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months after RP using the 24-hour pad test and uroflowmetry; in cases of maximum flow rate <10 mL/s, urethrocystoscopy was carried out to determine presence and location of an AS. The first postoperative cystogram showed UL in 52.6% of patients (grade I in 48.1%, grade II in 21.5%, and grade III in 30.4% of the cases). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that patients with UL had significantly greater prostate volume (64.5 vs 34.8 cc, P < 0.001), loss of serum hemoglobin (4.77 vs 4.19 g/dL, P < 0.001), lower postoperative serum total proteins (4.85 vs 5.4 g/dL, P < 0.001), and higher rate of AS (20.6% vs. 2.8%, p < 0.001) than those without UL. Continence rate at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively was 34.2%, 76%, and 90%, respectively, in patients with UL compared with 77.5%, 80.3%, and 93% in patients without UL; such difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001) only at 3 months follow-up. ROC curve analysis showed that prostate volume and postoperative serum total proteins had the best AUC (0.821 and 0.822, respectively) and when combined, their positive and negative predictive values for UL were 90% and 93%, respectively. In conclusion, half of the patients undergoing open

  12. AB272. Penile rehabilitation following radical prostatectomy: practice patterns among Japanese Urological Association members

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Kazuhito; Horie, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    Objective A compromise in erectile function is commonly experienced after radical prostatectomy (RP). Despite the fact that the benefits are still unclear, penile rehabilitation after RP has become the standard of care for many urologists. Given the lack of definitive proof regarding the benefits, however, a standard program or optimal algorithm does not exist. Furthermore, financial, insurance, and cultural considerations might cause regional differences in the practice of penile rehabilitation. We sought to explore contemporary trends in penile rehabilitation practice patterns of Japanese Urological Association (JUA) members. We also review the epidemiology, rational and current literature on penile rehabilitation after RP. Methods The proprietary questionnaire was comprised of 35 questions that addressed practitioner demographic factors and current practice status regarding rehabilitation. The questionnaire was mailed to all the representatives of urology departments authorized by the JUA. Results 376 physicians completed the questionnaire, representing a response rate of 31%. Twenty percent of the responders were members of the Japanese Society for Sexual Medicine (JSSM), 10% had formal sexual medicine specialty training, 68% were urologic oncology specialists, and 91% performed RP. Of the responders, 47% were not aware of the concept of penile rehabilitation and 29% performed some form of rehabilitation. As part of the primary rehabilitation strategy, 97% used phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i), 8% used a vacuum device, 13% used intracavernosal injections, and 2% used intra-urethral prostaglandin. Twenty percent commenced rehabilitation immediately after urethral catheter removal, and 36% within the first three months after RP. 37%, 21%, and 18% ceased rehabilitation at ≤12, 13-18, and 19-24 months, respectively. With regard to the primary reason for not performing rehabilitation: 52% said they were not familiar with the concept; 22% said patients

  13. Prognostic Factors for Anastomotic Urinary Leakage Following Retropubic Radical Prostatectomy and Correlation With Voiding Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cormio, Luigi; Di Fino, Giuseppe; Scavone, Carmen; Maroscia, Domenico; Mancini, Vito; Ruocco, Nicola; Bellanti, Francesco; Selvaggio, Oscar; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Carrieri, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to determine the occurrence and grade of cystographically detected urinary leakage (UL) in a contemporary series of open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RP), whether patients’ clinical variables predict occurrence of UL, and whether occurrence of UL correlates with patients’ voiding outcomes in terms of urinary continence and anastomotic stricture (AS). Enrolled patients underwent cystography 7 days after retropubic RP; in case of UL, the catheter was left in situ and cystography repeated at 7 days intervals until demonstrating absence of UL. Leakage was classified as grade I = extraperitoneal leak <6 cm, grade II = extraperitoneal leak >6 cm, grade III = leak freely extending in the small pelvis. Voiding was evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months after RP using the 24-hour pad test and uroflowmetry; in cases of maximum flow rate <10 mL/s, urethrocystoscopy was carried out to determine presence and location of an AS. The first postoperative cystogram showed UL in 52.6% of patients (grade I in 48.1%, grade II in 21.5%, and grade III in 30.4% of the cases). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that patients with UL had significantly greater prostate volume (64.5 vs 34.8 cc, P < 0.001), loss of serum hemoglobin (4.77 vs 4.19 g/dL, P < 0.001), lower postoperative serum total proteins (4.85 vs 5.4 g/dL, P < 0.001), and higher rate of AS (20.6% vs. 2.8%, p < 0.001) than those without UL. Continence rate at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively was 34.2%, 76%, and 90%, respectively, in patients with UL compared with 77.5%, 80.3%, and 93% in patients without UL; such difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001) only at 3 months follow-up. ROC curve analysis showed that prostate volume and postoperative serum total proteins had the best AUC (0.821 and 0.822, respectively) and when combined, their positive and negative predictive values for UL were 90% and 93%, respectively. In conclusion, half of the patients

  14. Evaluation of a genomic classifier in radical prostatectomy patients with lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hak J; Yousefi, Kasra; Haddad, Zaid; Abdollah, Firas; Lam, Lucia LC; Shin, Heesun; Alshalalfa, Mohammed; Godebu, Elana; Wang, Song; Shabaik, Ahmed; Davicioni, Elai; Kane, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of the Decipher test in predicting lymph node invasion (LNI) on radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens. Methods We identified 1,987 consecutive patients with RP who received the Decipher test between February and August 2015 (contemporary cohort). In the contemporary cohort, only the Decipher score from RP specimens was available for analysis. In addition, we identified a consecutive cohort of patients treated with RP between 2006 and 2012 at the University of California, San Diego, with LNI upon pathologic examination (retrospective cohort). The retrospective cohort yielded seven, 22, and 18 tissue specimens from prostate biopsy, RP, and lymph nodes (LNs) for individual patients, respectively. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the performance of Decipher in the contemporary cohort with LNI as the endpoint. In the retrospective cohort, concordance of risk groups was assessed using validated cut-points for low (<0.45), intermediate (0.45–0.60), and high (>0.60) Decipher scores. Results In the contemporary cohort, 51 (2.6%) patients had LNI. Decipher had an odds ratio of 1.73 (95% confidence interval, 1.46–2.05) and 1.42 (95% confidence interval, 1.19–1.7) per 10% increase in score on univariable and multivariable (adjusting for pathologic Gleason score, extraprostatic extension, and seminal vesicle invasion), respectively. No significant difference in the clinical and pathologic characteristics between the LN positive patients of contemporary and retrospective cohorts was observed (all P>0.05). Accordingly, among LN-positive patients in the contemporary cohort and retrospective cohort, 80% and 77% had Decipher high risk scores (P=1). In the retrospective cohort, prostate biopsy cores with the highest Gleason grade and percentage of tumor involvement had 86% Decipher risk concordance with both RP and LN specimens. Conclusion Decipher scores were highly concordant between pre- and

  15. High-Dose Adjuvant Radiotherapy After Radical Prostatectomy With or Without Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ost, Piet; Cozzarini, Cesare; De Meerleer, Gert; Fiorino, Claudio; De Potter, Bruno; Briganti, Alberto; Nagler, Evi V.T.; Montorsi, Francesco; Fonteyne, Valerie; Di Muzio, Nadia

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the outcome and toxicity in patients receiving high-dose (>69 Gy) adjuvant radiotherapy (HD-ART) and the impact of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2008, 225 node-negative patients were referred for HD-ART with or without ADT to two large academic institutions. Indications for HD-ART were extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), and/or positive surgical margins at radical prostatectomy (RP). A dose of at least 69.1 Gy was prescribed to the prostate bed and seminal vesicle bed. The ADT consisted of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analog. The duration and indication of ADT was left at the discretion of the treating physician. The effect of HD-ART and ADT on biochemical (bRFS) and clinical (cRFS) relapse-free survival was examined through univariate and multivariate analysis, with correction for known patient- and treatment-related variables. Interaction terms were introduced to evaluate effect modification. Results: After a median follow-up time of 5 years, the 7-year bRFS and cRFS were 84% and 88%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, the addition of ADT was independently associated with an improved bRFS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.4, p = 0.02) and cRFS (HR 0.2, p = 0.008). Higher Gleason scores and SVI were associated with decreased bRFS and cRFS. A lymphadenectomy at the time of RP independently improved cRFS (HR 0.09, p = 0.009). The 7-year probability of late Grade 2-3 toxicity was 29% and 5% for genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, respectively. The absolute incidence of Grade 3 toxicity was <1% and 10% for GI and GU symptoms, respectively. The study is limited by its retrospective design and the lack of a standardized use of ADT. Conclusions: This retrospective study shows significantly improved bRFS and cRFS rates with the addition of ADT to HD-ART, with low Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity and 10% Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity.

  16. Efficacy of Duloxetine in the Early Management of Urinary Continence after Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Alan, Cabir; Eren, Ali E.; Ersay, Ahmet R.; Kocoglu, Hasan; Basturk, Gokhan; Demirci, Emrah

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the efficacy of early duloxetine therapy in stress urinary incontinence occurring after radical prostatectomy (RP). Material and Method Patients that had RP were randomly divided into 2 groups following the removal of the urinary catheter. Group A patients (n = 28) had pelvic floor exercise and duloxetine therapy. Group B patients (n = 30) had only pelvic floor exercise. The incontinence status of the patients and number of pads were recorded and 1-hour pad test and Turkish validation of International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form test were applied to the patients at the follow-up. Results When the dry state of the patients was evaluated, 5, 17, 3, and 2 of 28 Group A patients stated that they were completely dry in the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th month respectively and pad use was stopped. There was no continence in 30 Group B in the first 3 months. Twelve, 6, and 8 patients stated that they were completely dry in the 6th, 9th and 12th month, respectively. But 3 of 4 patients in whom dryness could not be provided were using a mean of 7.6 pads in the first day and a mean of 1.3 pads after 1 year. When pad use of the patients was evaluated, the mean monthly number of pad use was determined to be 6.2 (4-8) in the initial evaluation, 2.7 (0-5) in the in 3rd month, 2 (0-3) in the 6th month and 1.6 (0-2) pad/d in the 9th month in the group taking medicine. The mean monthly number of pads used was determined to be 5.8 (4-8) in the initial evaluation, 4.3 (3-8) in the 3rd month, 3 (0-6) in the 6th month and 1.6 (0-6) pad/d in the 9th month in the group not taking medicine. Conclusion According to the results, early duloxetine therapy in stress urinary incontinence that occurred after RP provided early continence. PMID:26195963

  17. Evaluation of the Prostate Bed for Local Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy Using Endorectal Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Liauw, Stanley L.; Pitroda, Sean P.; Eggener, Scott E.; Stadler, Walter M.; Pelizzari, Charles A.; Vannier, Michael W.; Oto, Aytek

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To summarize the results of a 4-year period in which endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was considered for all men referred for salvage radiation therapy (RT) at a single academic center; to describe the incidence and location of locally recurrent disease in a contemporary cohort of men with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy (RP), and to identify prognostic variables associated with MRI findings in order to define which patients may have the highest yield of the study. Methods and Materials: Between 2007 and 2011, 88 men without clinically palpable disease underwent eMRI for detectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) after RP. The median interval between RP and eMRI was 32 months (interquartile range, 14-57 months), and the median PSA level was 0.30 ng/mL (interquartile range, 0.19-0.72 ng/mL). Magnetic resonance imaging scans consisting of T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging were evaluated for features consistent with local recurrence. The prostate bed was scored from 0-4, whereby 0 was definitely normal, 1 probably normal, 2 indeterminate, 3 probably abnormal, and 4 definitely abnormal. Local recurrence was defined as having a score of 3-4. Results: Local recurrence was identified in 21 men (24%). Abnormalities were best appreciated on T2-weighted axial images (90%) as focal hypointense lesions. Recurrence locations were perianastomotic (67%) or retrovesical (33%). The only risk factor associated with local recurrence was PSA; recurrence was seen in 37% of men with PSA >0.3 ng/mL vs 13% if PSA {<=}0.3 ng/mL (P<.01). The median volume of recurrence was 0.26 cm{sup 3} and was directly associated with PSA (r=0.5, P=.02). The correlation between MRI-based tumor volume and PSA was even stronger in men with positive margins (r=0.8, P<.01). Conclusions: Endorectal MRI can define areas of local recurrence after RP in a minority of men without clinical evidence of disease, with yield related to PSA

  18. Open prostatectomy with a rectal balloon: A new technique to control postoperative blood loss

    PubMed Central

    Mohyelden, Khaled; Abdel-Kader, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate a new technique, the rectal balloon (RB), to control blood loss after transvesical prostatectomy (TVP). Patients and methods Over 2 years 100 patients were prospectively randomised into two equal groups. All patients underwent TVP for their benign prostatic hyperplasia but a RB (a balloon fixed to a three-way Foley catheter tip by a plaster strip, making it airtight) was used in group 2. The RB was placed in the rectum opposing the prostate and inflated (pressure controlled) for 15 min. Haemoglobin levels were assessed before and after TVP. Blood transfusion, the amount of saline used for irrigation, duration of catheterisation, hospital stay, and rectal complaints were recorded. Patients were followed up at 1 and 3 months after TVP. Results The enucleated adenoma weight was 102 g in group 1 and 106 g in group 2. There was a significant difference between groups 1 and 2 in haemoglobin loss within the first 24 h after TVP, and in total loss, of 0.9 g and 0.2 g (P = 0.008), and 1.9 g and 1 g (P = 0.001), respectively. There was also a significant difference between the groups in the saline volume used for irrigation (11.4 vs. 2.5 L), catheter duration (5.7 vs. 4.3 days), and hospital stay (6.2 vs. 5.1 days), favouring group 2. Blood transfusions were needed in four patients in group 1 and one in group 2. There were no rectal complaints. Conclusion The use of an inflated RB after TVP is a simple and safe procedure with no specific operative technique, that reduces postoperative blood loss, the incidence of blood transfusion, the volume of saline for irrigation, and shortens the catheterisation period and hospital stay, with no rectal complications. PMID:26413329

  19. Identification of isolated and early prostatic adenocarcinoma in radical prostatectomy specimens with correlation to biopsy cores: clinical and pathogenetic significance.

    PubMed

    Mai, Kien T; Landry, Denise C; Yazdi, Hossein M; Stinson, William A; Perkins, D Garth; Morash, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Prostatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) is a multifocal disease. In this study, we identified isolated and small foci of PAC (ISPAC) in radical prostatectomy specimens, described the histopathologic features, investigated their zonal distribution in the prostate and their relationship with large tumor nodules, and correlated the findings with those of preceding biopsy cores. One hundred and thirty radical prostatectomy specimens performed for PAC or for urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder with incidental PAC were reviewed for identification of ISPAC. Prostates were serially sectioned in the horizontal plane and submitted in toto for microscopic examination. ISPAC were defined as foci of PAC measuring less than 3 mm in maximum diameter. There were 461 ISPAC identified in 114 cases. They were distributed in the transitional zone (TZ) (18 foci), the apex (73 foci), the anterior horn of the non-TZ (NTZ) (118 foci), the base (8 foci), and the remaining NTZ (244 foci). ISPAC usually consisted of groups of small acini with a GS ranging from 2 to 7 (3 + 4). GSs of ISPAC consisted of single grade or two consecutive grades equal to or lower than those of the main PAC. ISPAC were more often located in close proximity to large tumor nodules. The number of ISPAC increased with the tumor volume up to 3 cm3, then decreased as the PAC became more extensive (p value = 0.02, statistically significant). Prostates with NTZ PAC <1.5 cm3 and TZ PAC or prostates containing 4 or more than 4 ISPAC tended to be frequently associated with small foci of PAC in biopsy cores In this study, we identified ISPAC that likely represent foci of PAC in early development and account for the multicentricity and heterogeneity of PAC. ISPAC in the NTZ were common and may account for small foci of PAC or atypia in biopsy cores. Although these small foci of PAC or atypia in biopsy cores without accompanying higher GS PAC were often associated with significant PAC, they may also occasionally represent

  20. Incidence of Second Malignancies in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Radical Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Sarah Nicole; Tyldesley, Scott; Hamm, Jeremy; Jiang, Wei Ning; Keyes, Mira; Pickles, Tom; Lapointe, Vince; Kahnamelli, Adam; McKenzie, Michael; Miller, Stacy; Morris, W. James

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the second malignancy incidence in prostate cancer patients treated with brachytherapy (BT) relative to radical prostatectomy (RP) and to compare both groups with the cancer incidence in the general population. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2010, 2418 patients were treated with Iodine 125 prostate BT monotherapy at the British Columbia Cancer Agency, and 4015 referred patients were treated with RP. Cancer incidence was compared with the age-matched general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Pelvic malignancies included invasive and noninvasive bladder cancer and rectal cancer. Cox multivariable analysis was performed with adjustment for covariates to determine whether treatment (RP vs BT) was associated with second malignancy risk. Results: The median age at BT was 66 years and at RP 62 years. The SIR comparing BT patients with the general population was 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-1.22) for second malignancy and was 1.53 (95% CI 1.12-2.04) for pelvic malignancy. The SIR comparing RP patients with the general population was 1.11 (95% CI 0.98-1.25) for second malignancy and was 1.11 (95% CI 0.82-1.48) for pelvic malignancy. On multivariable analysis, older age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.05) and smoking (HR 1.65) were associated with increased second malignancy risk (P<.0001). Radical prostatectomy was not associated with a decreased second malignancy risk relative to BT (HR 0.90, P=.43), even when excluding patients who received postprostatectomy external beam radiation therapy (HR 1.13, P=.25). Older age (HR 1.09, P<.0001) and smoking (HR 2.17, P=.0009) were associated with increased pelvic malignancy risk. Radical prostatectomy was not associated with a decreased pelvic malignancy risk compared with BT (HR 0.57, P=.082), even when excluding postprostatectomy external beam radiation therapy patients (HR 0.87, P=.56). Conclusions: After adjustment for covariates, BT patients did not have an increased second

  1. Improved biochemical outcome with adjuvant radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer with poor pathologic features

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Carlos; Kestin, Larry L. . E-mail: lkestin@beaumont.edu; Weed, Dan W.; Krauss, Daniel; Vicini, Frank A.; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: The indications for adjuvant external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) after radical prostatectomy (RP) are poorly defined. We performed a retrospective comparison of our institution's experience treating prostate cancer with RP vs. RP followed by adjuvant EBRT. Methods and materials: Between 1987 and 1998, 617 patients with clinical Stage T1-T2N0M0 prostate cancer underwent RP. Patients who underwent preoperative androgen deprivation and those with positive lymph nodes were excluded. Of the 617 patients, 34 (5.5%) with an undetectable postoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level underwent adjuvant prostatic fossa RT at a median of 0.25 year (range, 0.1-0.6) postoperatively because of poor pathologic features. The median total dose was 59.4 Gy (range, 50.4-66.6 Gy) in 1.8-2.0-Gy fractions. These 34 RP+RT patients were compared with the remaining 583 RP patients. Biochemical failure was defined as any postoperative PSA level {>=}0.1 ng/mL and any postoperative PSA level {>=}0.3 ng/mL (at least 30 days after surgery). Administration of androgen deprivation was also scored as biochemical failure when applying either definition. The median clinical follow-up was 8.2 years (range, 0.1-11.2 years) for RP and 8.4 years (range, 0.3-13.8 years) for RP+RT. Results: Radical prostatectomy + radiation therapy patients had a greater pathologic Gleason score (mean, 7.3 vs. 6.5; p < 0.01) and pathologic T stage (median, T3a vs. T2c; p < 0.01). Age (median, 65.7 years) and pretreatment PSA level (median, 7.9 ng/mL) were similar between the treatment groups. Extracapsular extension was present in 72% of RP+RT patients vs. 27% of RP patients (p < 0.01). The RP+RT patients were more likely to have seminal vesicle invasion (29% vs. 9%, p < 0.01) and positive margins (73% vs. 36%, p < 0.01). Despite these poor pathologic features, the 5-year biochemical control (BC) rate (PSA < 0.1 ng/mL) was 57% for RP+RT and 47% for RP (p = 0.28). For patients with extracapsular extension, the

  2. Adjuvant versus salvage radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy: do the AUA/ASTRO guidelines have all the answers?

    PubMed

    Su, Michael Z; Kneebone, Andrew B; Woo, Henry H

    2014-11-01

    Debate continues surrounding the indications for adjuvant and salvage radiotherapy as the published randomized trials have only addressed adjuvant treatment. Salvage radiotherapy has been advocated to limit significant toxicity to patients that would not have benefited from immediate adjuvant radiotherapy. The American Urological Association and American Society for Radiation Oncology guideline released in 2013 has since recommended offering adjuvant therapy to all patients with any adverse features and salvage to those with prostate-specific antigen or local recurrence. The suggested criteria is limited in its application as it potentially subjects patients with few adverse features to adjuvant therapy despite not qualifying as high risk according to established postoperative predictive tools such as the Kattan nomogram. This article reviews the indications for postoperative radiotherapy, limitations of the guideline and alternative prognostication tools for clinicians faced with biochemical or locally recurrent post-prostatectomy prostate cancer.

  3. Short-, Intermediate-, and Long-term Quality of Life Outcomes Following Radical Prostatectomy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Vinay; Lee, Ted; McClintock, Tyler R; Lepor, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Many clinically localized prostate cancers that are diagnosed today are low risk, and prevention of disease-specific mortality may only be realized decades after treatment. Radical prostatectomy (RP) may adversely impact health-related quality of life (HRQOL) by causing both transient or permanent urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. In contrast, RP may also improve HRQOL via relief of lower urinary tract symptoms in men suffering from these symptoms prior to surgery. Because the average man treated for prostate cancer has a life expectancy of approximately 14 years, it is imperative to consider the long-term impact of RP on both survival and HRQOL in treatment decision making. This comprehensive literature review examines short-, intermediate-, and long-term HRQOL following RP. In addition, the long-term results of RP are compared with other treatment modalities for treating clinically localized prostate cancer. PMID:24659913

  4. [Mid-term outcomes and survival rates in patients with radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) under current Czech healthcare system].

    PubMed

    Safarík, L; Bílek, R; Vísek, J A; Novák, K; Tuíková, J; Pesl, M; Stolz, J; Dvorácek, J

    2009-01-01

    The mid-term results (5 yr) after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) are outlined and compared with pre- and postoperative parameters of patients. While 5 years survival could be expected in as many as 92.4%, relatively higher age (majority over 65) brings a higher risk of complications with it, though fully comparable with international standards. No perioperative mortality was recorded (0%), obstructive symptoms post-operatively developed in 13.4% patients, who were subsequently managed successfully endoscopically. Continence with maximum one pad per 24 hours was recorded in 77.2%, the severe incontinence was only in 3.3%. Spontaneous erection was reported in 4.3%, but except for higher age, the other objective factors were involved.

  5. Feasibility of robotic radical prostatectomy for medication refractory chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: Initial results.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Sameer; Satkunasivam, Raj; Aron, Monish

    2016-01-01

    Four patients diagnosed with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), met criteria for National Institute of Health (NIH) Category III prostatitis, failed multiple medicinal treatments and underwent robotic radical prostatectomy (RRP). Median operative time (range): 157 (127-259) min. Validated functional questionnaires responses and NIH CP symptom index (NIH-CPSI) score were collected for each patient's status at different time points pre- and post-operatively. Median decreases (range) were: International Prostate Symptom Score - 14 (1-19); Sexual Health Inventory for Men - 6 (-14-22); and NIH-CPSI total - 23.5 (13-33). Median length of follow-up (range) was 34 (24-43) months. RRP appears to be an option for carefully selected patients with medication-refractory CP/CPPS who understand that baseline sexual function may not be restored postoperatively.

  6. Feasibility of robotic radical prostatectomy for medication refractory chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: Initial results.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Sameer; Satkunasivam, Raj; Aron, Monish

    2016-01-01

    Four patients diagnosed with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), met criteria for National Institute of Health (NIH) Category III prostatitis, failed multiple medicinal treatments and underwent robotic radical prostatectomy (RRP). Median operative time (range): 157 (127-259) min. Validated functional questionnaires responses and NIH CP symptom index (NIH-CPSI) score were collected for each patient's status at different time points pre- and post-operatively. Median decreases (range) were: International Prostate Symptom Score - 14 (1-19); Sexual Health Inventory for Men - 6 (-14-22); and NIH-CPSI total - 23.5 (13-33). Median length of follow-up (range) was 34 (24-43) months. RRP appears to be an option for carefully selected patients with medication-refractory CP/CPPS who understand that baseline sexual function may not be restored postoperatively. PMID:27555685

  7. Feasibility of robotic radical prostatectomy for medication refractory chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: Initial results

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Sameer; Satkunasivam, Raj; Aron, Monish

    2016-01-01

    Four patients diagnosed with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), met criteria for National Institute of Health (NIH) Category III prostatitis, failed multiple medicinal treatments and underwent robotic radical prostatectomy (RRP). Median operative time (range): 157 (127–259) min. Validated functional questionnaires responses and NIH CP symptom index (NIH-CPSI) score were collected for each patient's status at different time points pre- and post-operatively. Median decreases (range) were: International Prostate Symptom Score – 14 (1–19); Sexual Health Inventory for Men – 6 (−14–22); and NIH-CPSI total – 23.5 (13–33). Median length of follow-up (range) was 34 (24–43) months. RRP appears to be an option for carefully selected patients with medication-refractory CP/CPPS who understand that baseline sexual function may not be restored postoperatively. PMID:27555685

  8. Definition and visualisation of regions of interest in post-prostatectomy image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Linda J Cox, Jennifer; Eade, Thomas; Rinks, Marianne; Kneebone, Andrew

    2014-09-15

    Standard post-prostatectomy radiotherapy (PPRT) image verification uses bony anatomy alignment. However, the prostate bed (PB) moves independently of bony anatomy. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) can be used to soft tissue match, so radiation therapists (RTs) must understand pelvic anatomy and PPRT clinical target volumes (CTV). The aims of this study are to define regions of interest (ROI) to be used in soft tissue matching image guidance and determine their visibility on planning CT (PCT) and CBCT. Published CTV guidelines were used to select ROIs. The PCT scans (n = 23) and CBCT scans (n = 105) of 23 post-prostatectomy patients were reviewed. Details on ROI identification were recorded. Eighteen patients had surgical clips. All ROIs were identified on PCTs at least 90% of the time apart from mesorectal fascia (MF) (87%) due to superior image quality. When surgical clips are present, the seminal vesicle bed (SVB) was only seen in 2.3% of CBCTs and MF was unidentifiable. Most other structures were well identified on CBCT. The anterior rectal wall (ARW) was identified in 81.4% of images and penile bulb (PB) in 68.6%. In the absence of surgical clips, the MF and SVB were always identified; the ARW was identified in 89.5% of CBCTs and PB in 73.7%. Surgical clips should be used as ROIs when present to define SVB and MF. In the absence of clips, SVB, MF and ARW can be used. RTs must have a strong knowledge of soft tissue anatomy and PPRT CTV to ensure coverage and enable soft tissue matching.

  9. Salvage Radiotherapy for Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels After Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer: Dose-Response Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Johnny Ray; Buskirk, Steven J.; Heckman, Michael G.; Diehl, Nancy N.; Ko, Stephen J.; Macdonald, Orlan K.; Schild, Steven E.; Pisansky, Thomas M.

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association between external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) dose and biochemical failure (BcF) of prostate cancer in patients who received salvage prostate bed EBRT for a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level after radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: We evaluated patients with a rising PSA level after prostatectomy who received salvage EBRT between July 1987 and October 2007. Patients receiving pre-EBRT androgen suppression were excluded. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the association between EBRT dose and BcF. Dose was considered as a numeric variable and as a categoric variable (low, <64.8 Gy; moderate, 64.8-66.6 Gy; high, >66.6 Gy). Results: A total of 364 men met study selection criteria and were followed up for a median of 6.0 years (range, 0.1-19.3 years). Median pre-EBRT PSA level was 0.6 ng/mL. The estimated cumulative rate of BcF at 5 years after EBRT was 50% overall and 57%, 46%, and 39% for the low-, moderate-, and high-dose groups, respectively. In multivariable analysis adjusting for potentially confounding variables, there was evidence of a linear trend between dose and BcF, with risk of BcF decreasing as dose increased (relative risk [RR], 0.77 [5.0-Gy increase]; p = 0.05). Compared with the low-dose group, there was evidence of a decreased risk of BcF for the high-dose group (RR, 0.60; p = 0.04), but no difference for the moderate-dose group (RR, 0.85; p = 0.41). Conclusions: Our results suggest a dose response for salvage EBRT. Doses higher than 66.6 Gy result in decreased risk of BcF.

  10. Electrical impedance map (EIM) for margin assessment during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) using a microendoscopic probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahara, Aditya; Khan, Shadab; Schned, Alan R.; Hyams, Elias S.; Halter, Ryan J.

    2015-03-01

    Positive surgical margins (PSMs) found following prostate cancer surgery are a significant risk factor for post-operative disease recurrence. Noxious adjuvant radiation and chemical-based therapies are typically offered to men with PSMs. Unfortunately, no real-time intraoperative technology is currently available to guide surgeons to regions of suspicion during the initial prostatectomy where immediate surgical excisions could be used to reduce the chance of PSMs. A microendoscopic electrical impedance sensing probe was developed with the intention of providing real-time feedback regarding margin status to surgeons during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) procedures. A radially configured 17-electrode microendoscopic probe was designed, constructed, and initially evaluated through use of gelatin-based phantoms and an ex vivo human prostate specimen. Impedance measurements are recorded at 10 frequencies (10 kHz - 100 kHz) using a high-speed FPGA-based electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system. Tetrapolar impedances are recorded from a number of different electrode configurations strategically chosen to sense tissue in a pre-defined sector underlying the probe face. A circular electrical impedance map (EIM) with several color-coded pie-shaped sectors is created to represent the impedance values of the probed tissue. Gelatin phantom experiments show an obvious distinction in the impedance maps between high and low impedance regions. Similarly, the EIM generated from the ex vivo prostate case shows distinguishing features between cancerous and benign regions. Based on successful development of this probe and these promising initial results, EIMs of additional prostate specimens are being collected to further evaluate this approach for intraoperative surgical margin assessment during RALP procedures.

  11. Predictors of positive surgical margins at open and robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: a single surgeon series.

    PubMed

    Weerakoon, Mahesha; Sengupta, Shomik; Sethi, Kapil; Ischia, Joseph; Webb, David R

    2012-12-01

    Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP), increasingly used to treat localized prostate cancer, has advantages over open radical prostatectomy (ORP) in terms of reduced bleeding and quicker convalescence. However, debate continues over whether RALRP provides superior or at least equivalent surgical outcomes. This study compares positive surgical margins (+SM), as a surrogate for long-term cancer control, at RALRP and ORP performed by a single experienced surgeon during the process of taking up RALRP. 400 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for prostate cancer under a single surgeon (DW) between November 1999 and July 2009 were studied. Prior to July 2005, all patients underwent ORP; after this date, most patients were treated by RALRP. Data were collected by retrospective chart review and analysed independently of the treating surgeon. +SM were defined as the presence of cancer at an inked surface. Overall, 23 (11.5%) of 200 patients undergoing RALRP had +SM, compared to 40 (20.0%) of 200 patients undergoing ORP (P < 0.05). On univariate logistic regression analysis, in addition to surgical approach (odds ratio [OR] = 1.92), patient age (OR = 1.05), pathologic stage (OR = 3.93) and specimen Gleason (GS) score (OR = 1.86) were significant predictors of +SM. On multivariate analysis, surgical approach, p-stage and specimen GS remained significant predictors of +SM. RALRP is associated with lower rates of +SM compared to ORP, even after adjusting for other known risk factors. Of note, the RALRP in this study were part of the surgeon's learning curve. PMID:27628470

  12. Secondary Circulating Prostate Cells Predict Biochemical Failure in Prostate Cancer Patients after Radical Prostatectomy and without Evidence of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Nigel P.; Reyes, Eduardo; Orellana, Nelson; Fuentealba, Cynthia; Bádinez, Leonardo; Olivares, Ruben; Porcell, José; Dueñas, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Although 90% of prostate cancer is considered to be localized, 20%–30% of patients will experience biochemical failure (BF), defined as serum PSA >0.2 ng/mL, after radical prostatectomy (RP). The presence of circulating prostate cells (CPCs) in men without evidence of BF may be useful to predict patients at risk for BF. We describe the frequency of CPCs detected after RP, relation with clinicopathological parameters, and association with biochemical failure. Methods and Patients. Serial blood samples were taken during followup after RP, mononuclear cells were obtained by differential gel centrifugation, and CPCs identified using standard immunocytochemistry using anti-PSA monoclonal antibodies. Age, pathological stage (organ confined, nonorgan confined), pathological grade, margin status (positive, negative), extracapsular extension, perineural, vascular, and lymphatic infiltration (positive, negative) were compared with the presence/absence of CPCs and with and without biochemical failure. Kaplan Meier methods were used to compare the unadjusted biochemical failure free survival of patients with and without CPCs. Results. 114 men participated, and secondary CPCs were detected more frequently in patients with positive margins, extracapsular extension, and vascular and lymphatic infiltration and were associated with biochemical failure independent of these clinicopathological variables, and with a shorter time to BF. Conclusions. Secondary CPCs are an independent risk factor associated with increased BF in men with a PSA <0.2 ng/mL after radical prostatectomy, but do not determine if the recurrence is due to local or systemic disease. These results warrant larger studies to confirm the findings. PMID:23653529

  13. Intraoperative Management of an Incidentally Identified Ectopic Ureter Inserting Into the Prostate of a Patient Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Udit; Dauw, Casey A; Li, Amy Y; Miller, David C; Wolf, J Stuart; Morgan, Todd M

    2015-08-01

    Congenital variations in urinary tract anatomy present unique surgical challenges when they present without prior knowledge. Ectopic ureters occur as a rare anatomic variation of the urinary tract and are often associated with duplicated renal collecting systems. While the condition is uncommon, even more atypical is its discovery and subsequent diagnosis during surgical intervention for treatment of localized prostate cancer.We describe the intraoperative management of a unique case of bilateral ectopic ureters, with a right-sided ureter inserting into the prostate of a 54-year-old male undergoing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy. While unknown at the time of surgery, this right-sided ureter was associated with a nonfunctioning right upper renal moiety of a duplex renal collecting system. This aberration was discovered intraoperatively and confirmed with imaging, and a robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy with right distal ureterectomy was performed. PMID:26266359

  14. Clinical map document based on XML (cMDX): document architecture with mapping feature for reporting and analysing prostate cancer in radical prostatectomy specimens

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The pathology report of radical prostatectomy specimens plays an important role in clinical decisions and the prognostic evaluation in Prostate Cancer (PCa). The anatomical schema is a helpful tool to document PCa extension for clinical and research purposes. To achieve electronic documentation and analysis, an appropriate documentation model for anatomical schemas is needed. For this purpose we developed cMDX. Methods The document architecture of cMDX was designed according to Open Packaging Conventions by separating the whole data into template data and patient data. Analogue custom XML elements were considered to harmonize the graphical representation (e.g. tumour extension) with the textual data (e.g. histological patterns). The graphical documentation was based on the four-layer visualization model that forms the interaction between different custom XML elements. Sensible personal data were encrypted with a 256-bit cryptographic algorithm to avoid misuse. In order to assess the clinical value, we retrospectively analysed the tumour extension in 255 patients after radical prostatectomy. Results The pathology report with cMDX can represent pathological findings of the prostate in schematic styles. Such reports can be integrated into the hospital information system. "cMDX" documents can be converted into different data formats like text, graphics and PDF. Supplementary tools like cMDX Editor and an analyser tool were implemented. The graphical analysis of 255 prostatectomy specimens showed that PCa were mostly localized in the peripheral zone (Mean: 73% ± 25). 54% of PCa showed a multifocal growth pattern. Conclusions cMDX can be used for routine histopathological reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens and provide data for scientific analysis. PMID:21078179

  15. The Single-Knot Running Vesicourethral Anastomosis after Minimally Invasive Prostatectomy: Review of the Technique and Its Modifications, Tips, and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Albisinni, Simone; Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2016-01-01

    The vesicourethral anastomosis represents a step of major difficulty at the end of minimally invasive radical prostatectomy. Over 10 years ago, we have devised the single-knot running vesicourethral anastomosis, which has been widely adopted in urologic departments worldwide. Aim of the current paper is to review the technique, its adaptability in complex situations, its complications, and possible modifications, including the use of barbed sutures. PMID:27340567

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life 2 Years After Treatment With Radical Prostatectomy, Prostate Brachytherapy, or External Beam Radiotherapy in Patients With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer, Montserrat Suarez, Jose Francisco; Guedea, Ferran; Fernandez, Pablo; Macias, Victor; Marino, Alfonso; Hervas, Asuncion; Herruzo, Ismael; Ortiz, Maria Jose; Villavicencio, Humberto; Craven-Bratle, Jordi; Garin, Olatz; Aguilo, Ferran

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To compare treatment impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with localized prostate cancer, from before treatment to 2 years after the intervention. Methods and Materials: This was a longitudinal, prospective study of 614 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy (134), three-dimensional external conformal radiotherapy (205), and brachytherapy (275). The HRQL questionnaires administered before and after treatment (months 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24) were the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (General and Prostate Specific), the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC), and the American Urological Association Symptom Index. Differences between groups were tested by analysis of variance and within-group changes by univariate repeated-measures analysis of variance. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) models were constructed to assess between-group differences in HRQL at 2 years of follow-up after adjusting for clinical variables. Results: In each treatment group, HRQL initially deteriorated after treatment with subsequent partial recovery. However, some dimension scores were still significantly lower after 2 years of treatment. The GEE models showed that, compared with the brachytherapy group, radical prostatectomy patients had worse EPIC sexual summary and urinary incontinence scores (-20.4 and -14.1; p < 0.001), and external radiotherapy patients had worse EPIC bowel, sexual, and hormonal summary scores (-3.55, -5.24, and -1.94; p < 0.05). Prostatectomy patients had significantly better EPIC urinary irritation scores than brachytherapy patients (+4.16; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Relevant differences between treatment groups persisted after 2 years of follow-up. Radical prostatectomy had a considerable negative effect on sexual functioning and urinary continence. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy had a moderate negative impact on bowel

  17. The Single-Knot Running Vesicourethral Anastomosis after Minimally Invasive Prostatectomy: Review of the Technique and Its Modifications, Tips, and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Albisinni, Simone; Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2016-01-01

    The vesicourethral anastomosis represents a step of major difficulty at the end of minimally invasive radical prostatectomy. Over 10 years ago, we have devised the single-knot running vesicourethral anastomosis, which has been widely adopted in urologic departments worldwide. Aim of the current paper is to review the technique, its adaptability in complex situations, its complications, and possible modifications, including the use of barbed sutures. PMID:27340567

  18. Biopsy Quantitative Patohistology and Seral Values of Prostate Specific Antigen-Alpha (1) Antichymotrypsine Complex in Prediction of Adverse Pathology Findings after Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Tomasković, Igor; Milicić, Valerija; Tomić, Miroslav; Ruzić, Boris; Ulamec, Monika

    2015-09-01

    In this prospective study we examined the utility of parameters obtained on prostate needle biopsy and prostate specific antigen-alpha(1)-antichymotripsine complex (PSA-ACT) to predict adverse pathologic findings after radical prostatectomy. 45 consecutive patients assigned for radical prostatectomy due to clinically localized prostate cancer were included in the study. Prostate biopsy parameters such as number of positive cores, the greatest percentage of tumor in the positive cores, Gleason score, perineural invasion, unilaterality or bilaterality of the tumor were recorded. PSA-ACT was determined using sandwich immunoassay chemiluminiscent method (Bayer, Tarrytown, New York). We analyzed relationship of preoperative PSA, PSA-ACTand quantitative biopsy parameters with final pathology after prostatectomy. Adverse findings were considered when extracapsular extension of cancer (pT3) was noted. Postoperatively, 29 (64.4%) patients were diagnosed with pT2 disease and 16 (35.6%) with pT3 disease. There was a significant difference in localized vs. locally advanced disease in number of positive biopsy cores (p<0.001), greatest percentage of tumor in the core (p=0.008), localization of the tumor (p=0.003) and perineural invasion (p=0.004). Logistic regression was used to develop a model on the multivariate level. It included number of positive cores and PSA-ACT and was significant on our cohort with the reliability of 82.22%. The combination of PSA-ACT and a large scale of biopsy parameters could be used in prediction of adverse pathologic findings after radical prostatectomy. Clinical decisions and patients counselling could be influenced by these predictors but further confirmation on a larger population is necessary. PMID:26898067

  19. Nomograms for predicting Gleason upgrading in a contemporary Chinese cohort receiving radical prostatectomy after extended prostate biopsy: development and internal validation.

    PubMed

    He, Biming; Chen, Rui; Gao, Xu; Ren, Shancheng; Yang, Bo; Hou, Jianguo; Wang, Linhui; Yang, Qing; Zhou, Tie; Zhao, Lin; Xu, Chuanliang; Sun, Yinghao

    2016-03-29

    The current strategy for the histological assessment of prostate cancer (PCa) is mainly based on the Gleason score (GS). However, 30-40% of patients who undergo radical prostatectomy (RP) are misclassified at biopsy pathologically. Thus, we developed and validated nomograms for the prediction of Gleason score upgrading (GSU) in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy after extended prostate biopsy in a Chinese population. This retrospective study included a total of 411 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy at our institute after having prostate biopsies between 2011 and 2015. The final pathologic GS was upgraded in 151 (36.74%) of the cases in all patients and 92 (60.13%) cases in men with GS=6. In multivariate analyses, the primary biopsy GS, secondary biopsy GS and obesity were predictive of GSU in the patient cohort assessed. In patients with GS=6, the significant predictors of GSU included the body mass index (BMI), prostate-specific antigen density(PSAD) and percentage of positive cores. The area under the curve (AUC) of the prediction models was 0.753 for the entire patient population and 0.727 for the patients with GS=6. Both nomograms were well calibrated, and decision curve analysis demonstrated a high net benefit across a wide range of threshold probabilities. This study may be relevant for improved risk assessment and clinical decision-making in PCa patients. PMID:26943768

  20. Perlecan/HSPG2 and matrilysin/MMP-7 as indices of tissue invasion: tissue localization and circulating perlecan fragments in a cohort of 288 radical prostatectomy patients

    PubMed Central

    Grindel, Brian; Li, Quanlin; Arnold, Rebecca; Petros, John; Zayzafoon, Majd; Muldoon, Mark; Stave, James; Chung, Leland W. K.; Farach-Carson, Mary C.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) cells use matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) to degrade tissue during invasion. Perlecan/HSPG2 is degraded at basement membranes, in reactive stroma and in bone marrow during metastasis. We previously showed MMP-7 efficiently degrades perlecan. We now analyzed PCa tissue and serum from 288 prostatectomy patients of various Gleason grades to decipher the relationship between perlecan and MMP-7 in invasive PCa. In 157 prostatectomy specimens examined by tissue microarray, perlecan levels were 18% higher than their normal counterparts. In Gleason grade 4 tissues, MMP-7 and perlecan immunostaining levels were highly correlated with each other (average correlation coefficient of 0.52) in PCa tissue, regardless of grade. Serial sections showed intense, but non-overlapping, immunostaining for MMP-7 and perlecan at adjacent borders, reflecting the protease-substrate relationship. Using a capture assay, analysis of 288 PCa sera collected at prostatectomy showed elevated levels of perlecan fragments, with most derived from domain IV. Perlecan fragments in PCa sera were associated with overall MMP-7 staining levels in PCa tissues. Domain IV perlecan fragments were present in stage IV, but absent in normal, sera, suggesting perlecan degradation during metastasis. Together, perlecan fragments in sera and MMP-7 in tissues of PCa patients are measures of invasive PCa. PMID:26862737

  1. Surgical access for radical retropubic prostatectomy in the phenotypically narrow and steep black male’s pelvis is exacerbated by a posterior pubic symphyseal protuberance: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, William Derval; Chin, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Men of African descent are known to have a narrower and steeper pelvis that is associated with a higher risk of positive surgical margins after radical retropubic prostatectomy. We describe the additional challenge posed when a very prominent posterior pubic symphyseal protuberance is present in the pelvis of a Black man during this operation and how to overcome it. Presentation of case A 61-year old man of African-descent with organ-confined prostate cancer underwent a radical retropubic prostatectomy. He had a very prominent posterior pubic symphyseal protuberance on a background of a phenotypically narrow and steep pelvis, precluding adequate surgical access to the prostate. Using a combination of resection of the protuberance, modification of patient position and lighting, coordinated retraction and long instruments, surgical access was achieved. Discussion The coexistence of a very prominent posterior pubic symphyseal protuberance in a Black male with a narrow and steep pelvis poses a surgical challenge in accessing the prostate, particularly the apex. This can be overcome by surgical resection of the protuberance, patient waist extension by operating table flexion, use of head lamps or intracavitary lighting, adequate retraction and use of appropriately long instruments. Conclusion Surgical access to the prostate, particularly its apex, when performing radical retropubic prostatectomy in a Black man with a very prominent posterior pubic symphyseal protuberance may be achieved by a combination of manoeuvres and adjuncts described herein. PMID:26162531

  2. Focal cryosurgery for treatment of primary prostate cancer: the male lumpectomy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onik, Gary M.

    2003-06-01

    Cryosurgery, in which the whole gland is frozen, has a high rate of impotence, similar to non-nerve sparing radical prostatectomy. In this paper we will present a pilot study in which 9 patients treated with focal, unilateral nerve sparing cryosurgery were followed for up to 6 years. Methods- Prior to focal nerve sparing cryosurgery all patients were re-biopsied on the side opposite the previous positive biopsy. One neurovascular one spared on the side opposite the positive biopsy. Just prior to the start of freezing a 22 gauge spinal needle was placed into Denonvillier's fascia via a transperineal route and saline were injected to separate the rectum from the prostate. CHT was stopped in all patients postoperatively. PSA"s were obtained every 3 months for the first two years and then every 6 months thereafter. Patients were considered to have a stable PSA if they had two consecutive PSA"s without a rise. All patients were strongly encouraged to have routine biopsies despite a stable PSA. Results-Between 6/95 and 11/00, 9 patients had focal, nerve sparing cryosurgery. Follow up ranged from 6-72 months with a mean of 36 months. All patients have stable PSA"s at this time. Six patients routinely biopsied had negative biopsies. Potency (defined as erection sufficient to complete intercourse to the satisfaction of the patient) has been maintained in 7 of 9 patients. Conclusion-Focal nerve sparing cryosurgery, in which one NVB is spared, appears to preserve potency in a majority of patients without compromising cancer control. These preliminary results warrant further study.

  3. Prostate volume and biopsy tumor length are significant predictors for classical and redefined insignificant cancer on prostatectomy specimens in Japanese men with favorable pathologic features on biopsy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gleason pattern 3 less often has molecular abnormalities and often behaves indolent. It is controversial whether low grade small foci of prostate cancer (PCa) on biopsy could avoid immediate treatment or not, because substantial cases harbor unfavorable pathologic results on prostatectomy specimens. This study was designed to identify clinical predictors for classical and redefined insignificant cancer on prostatectomy specimens in Japanese men with favorable pathologic features on biopsy. Methods Retrospective review of 1040 PCa Japanese patients underwent radical prostatectomy between 2006 and 2013. Of those, 170 patients (16.3%) met the inclusion criteria of clinical stage ≤ cT2a, Gleason score (GS) ≤ 6, up to two positive biopsies, and no more than 50% of cancer involvement in any core. The associations between preoperative data and unfavorable pathologic results of prostatectomy specimens, and oncological outcome were analyzed. The definition of insignificant cancer consisted of pathologic stage ≤ pT2, GS ≤ 6, and an index tumor volume < 0.5 mL (classical) or 1.3 mL (redefined). Results Pathologic stage ≥ pT3, upgraded GS, index tumor volume ≥ 0.5 mL, and ≥ 1.3 mL were detected in 25 (14.7%), 77 (45.3%), 83 (48.8%), and 53 patients (31.2%), respectively. Less than half of cases had classical (41.2%) and redefined (47.6%) insignificant cancer. The 5-year recurrence-free survival was 86.8%, and the insignificant cancers essentially did not relapse regardless of the surgical margin status. MRI-estimated prostate volume, tumor length on biopsy, prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD), and findings of magnetic resonance imaging were associated with the presence of classical and redefined insignificant cancer. Large prostate volume and short tumor length on biopsy remained as independent predictors in multivariate analysis. Conclusions Favorable features of biopsy often are followed by adverse pathologic

  4. Holmium laser enucleation versus simple prostatectomy for treating large prostates: Results of a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Patrick; Alzweri, Laith; Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Somani, Bhaskar K.; Bates, Chris; Aboumarzouk, Omar M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare and evaluate the safety and efficacy of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) and simple prostatectomy for large prostate burdens, as discussion and debate continue about the optimal surgical intervention for this common pathology. Materials and methods A systematic search was conducted for studies comparing HoLEP with simple prostatectomy [open (OP), robot-assisted, laparoscopic] using a sensitive strategy and in accordance with Cochrane collaboration guidelines. Primary parameters of interest were objective measurements including maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) and post-void residual urine volume (PVR), and subjective outcomes including International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and quality of life (QoL). Secondary outcomes of interest included volume of tissue retrieved, catheterisation time, hospital stay, blood loss and serum sodium decrease. Data on baseline characteristics and complications were also collected. Where possible, comparable data were combined and meta-analysis was conducted. Results In all, 310 articles were identified and after screening abstracts (114) and full manuscripts (14), three randomised studies (263 patients) were included, which met our pre-defined inclusion criteria. All these compared HoLEP with OP. The mean transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) volume was 113.9 mL in the HoLEP group and 119.4 mL in the OP group. There was no statistically significant difference in Qmax, PVR, IPSS and QoL at 12 and 24 months between the two interventions. OP was associated with a significantly shorter operative time (P = 0.01) and greater tissue retrieved (P < 0.001). However, with HoLEP there was significantly less blood loss (P < 0.001), patients had a shorter hospital stay (P = 0.03), and were catheterised for significantly fewer hours (P = 0.01). There were no significant differences in the total number of complications recorded amongst HoLEP and OP (P = 0.80). Conclusion The results of the meta

  5. Infiltration of liposome bupivacaine into the transversus abdominis plane for postsurgical analgesia in robotic laparoscopic prostatectomy: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sternlicht, Andrew; Shapiro, Max; Robelen, Gary; Vellayappan, Usha; Tuerk, Ingolf A

    2014-01-01

    Background Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) infiltration has been increasingly used for postsurgical analgesia in abdominal/pelvic procedures; however, duration/extent of analgesia with standard local anesthetics is limited. This pilot study assessed the preliminary efficacy and safety of two volumes of liposome bupivacaine administered via TAP infiltration in patients undergoing robotic laparoscopic prostatectomy. Methods In this single-center, open-label, prospective study, patients older than 18 years received TAP infiltration with liposome bupivacaine immediately after surgery. The first 12 patients received a total volume of 20 mL liposome bupivacaine (266 mg); the next 12 received 40 mL liposome bupivacaine (266 mg). The liposome bupivacaine was diluted with 0.9% normal saline. The primary efficacy measure was duration of analgesia, measured by time to first opioid administration. Secondary outcome measures included patient-assessed pain scores, opioid use, and opioid-related adverse events (AEs). Results Twenty-four patients received liposome bupivacaine (20 mL, n=12; 40 mL, n=12) and were included in the primary analysis. Three refused participation in a 10-day follow-up visit and did not complete the study. Median time to first opioid administration after surgery was 23 and 26 minutes for the 20 and 40 mL groups, respectively. Mean total amount of postsurgical opioids ranged from 25.4 to 27.3 mg; after hospital discharge to day 10, both groups required a mean of 0.7 oxycodone/acetaminophen tablets/day. Mean pain scores of 4.4 and 5.3 were reported at 1 hour and 3.1 and 3.9 at 2 hours postsurgery, with 20 and 40 mL doses, respectively. Neither group had mean scores higher than 3.0 at any further assessments. No opioid-related or treatment-related serious AEs were reported. Conclusion Median time to first opioid administration did not differ between the two groups. No differences in secondary outcomes were observed on the basis of volume administered. These

  6. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: modified ultradissection reduces pT2 positive surgical margins on the bladder neck.

    PubMed

    Araki, Motoo; Jeong, Wooju; Park, Sung Yul; Lee, Young Hoon; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kumon, Hiromi; Hong, Sung Joon; Rha, Koon Ho

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the positive surgical margin (PSM) rates of 2 techniques of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) for pT2 (localized) prostate cancer. A retrospective analysis was conducted of 361 RARP cases, performed from May 2005 to September 2008 by a single surgeon (KHR) at our institution (Yonsei University College of Medicine). In the conventional technique, the bladder neck was transected first. In the modified ultradissection, the lateral border of the bladder neck was dissected and then the bladder neck was transected while the detrusor muscle of the bladder was well visualized. Perioperative characteristics and outcomes and PSM rates were analyzed retrospectively for pT2 patients (n=217), focusing on a comparison of those undergoing conventional (n=113) and modified ultradissection (n=104) techniques. There was no difference between the conventional and modified ultradissection group in mean age, BMI, PSA, prostate volume, biopsy Gleason score, and D'Amico prognostic criteria distributions. The mean operative time was shorter (p<0.001) and the estimated blood loss was less (p<0.01) in the modified ultradissection group. The PSM rate for the bladder neck was significantly reduced by modified ultradissection, from 6.2% to 0% (p<0.05). In conclusion, modified ultradissection reduces the PSM rate for the bladder neck. PMID:24553487

  7. Evaluation of Lymphorrhea and Incidence of Lymphoceles: 4DryField® PH in Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Karsch, Johannes-J; Berthold, Martin; Breul, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate impact of polysaccharide hemostat 4DryField PH (4DF) applied on lymph node dissection area after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) on lymphorrhea and lymphocele (LC) formation. Methods. 104 consecutive patients underwent RRP, 51 without 4DF treatment (CT-group) and 53 with 4DF treatment (4DF-group). Groups were comparable (age, risk profile, and lymph node numbers). Postoperative drain loss (PDL) and development of early and late LC were analyzed (mean follow-up at 7 months: 100%). Results. PDL was 452.5 ± 634.2 mL without and 308.5 ± 214 mL with 4DF treatment. PDL > 1000 mL only occurred in CT-group (5/51). Overall, 45 LC (26 in CT- versus 19 in the 4DF-group) were diagnosed. At day 8, LC were equally distributed between groups. Incidence of late LC, however, was twice in controls (16/51) versus 4DF-patients (8/53). Symptomatic LC (4 in untreated patients, 2 in 4DF-patients) were treated with percutaneous drainage (duration: 45 days in untreated patients versus 12 days in 4DF-patients). Conclusion. Application of 4DF on lymph node dissection areas lessened total drain loss and significantly lowered high volume drain loss. Furthermore, 4DF reduced frequency of late lymphoceles and lymphoceles requiring treatment by half, as well as duration of percutaneous drainage by more than two-thirds. PMID:27418927

  8. Evaluation of Lymphorrhea and Incidence of Lymphoceles: 4DryField® PH in Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Karsch, Johannes-J.; Berthold, Martin; Breul, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate impact of polysaccharide hemostat 4DryField PH (4DF) applied on lymph node dissection area after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) on lymphorrhea and lymphocele (LC) formation. Methods. 104 consecutive patients underwent RRP, 51 without 4DF treatment (CT-group) and 53 with 4DF treatment (4DF-group). Groups were comparable (age, risk profile, and lymph node numbers). Postoperative drain loss (PDL) and development of early and late LC were analyzed (mean follow-up at 7 months: 100%). Results. PDL was 452.5 ± 634.2 mL without and 308.5 ± 214 mL with 4DF treatment. PDL > 1000 mL only occurred in CT-group (5/51). Overall, 45 LC (26 in CT- versus 19 in the 4DF-group) were diagnosed. At day 8, LC were equally distributed between groups. Incidence of late LC, however, was twice in controls (16/51) versus 4DF-patients (8/53). Symptomatic LC (4 in untreated patients, 2 in 4DF-patients) were treated with percutaneous drainage (duration: 45 days in untreated patients versus 12 days in 4DF-patients). Conclusion. Application of 4DF on lymph node dissection areas lessened total drain loss and significantly lowered high volume drain loss. Furthermore, 4DF reduced frequency of late lymphoceles and lymphoceles requiring treatment by half, as well as duration of percutaneous drainage by more than two-thirds. PMID:27418927

  9. Accuracy of pelvic multiparametric MRI in diagnosing local recurrence following radical prostatectomy. Case report and revision of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Pietro; Garufi, Antonio; Priolo, Giandomenico; Pennisi, Michele

    2015-12-01

    A Caucasian man (73 years old) six years from radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer (PCa) showed biochemical recurrence (BCR); the follow up based on PSA evaluated every 6 months was negative (0.1 ng/ml) for 5 years, but in the last year PSA increased to 0.3 vs 0.5 ng/ml. The patient was asymptomatic and underwent 3.0 Tesla mpMRI equipped with surface 16 channels phased-array coil placed around the pelvic area; multiplanar turbo spin-echo T2-weighted (T2W), axial diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), axial dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) and spectroscopy were performed. Pelvic mpMRI demonstrated the presence of a nodular tissue with a diameter of 10 mm. located on the left of the prostatic fossa near the rectum that was higly sospicious for local PCa recurrence. The patient underwent salvage RT (64 Gy); one year from RT PSA was 0.1 ng/ml suggesting that the patient was free from recurrence. In conclusion, mpMRI could be combined with PSA kinetics in the evaluation of men with BRC also in the presence of PSA values < 1 ng/ml. PMID:26766811

  10. Gigapixel surface imaging of radical prostatectomy specimens for comprehensive detection of cancer-positive surgical margins using structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mei; Tulman, David B.; Sholl, Andrew B.; Kimbrell, Hillary Z.; Mandava, Sree H.; Elfer, Katherine N.; Luethy, Samuel; Maddox, Michael M.; Lai, Weil; Lee, Benjamin R.; Brown, J. Quincy

    2016-06-01

    Achieving cancer-free surgical margins in oncologic surgery is critical to reduce the need for additional adjuvant treatments and minimize tumor recurrence; however, there is a delicate balance between completeness of tumor removal and preservation of adjacent tissues critical for normal post-operative function. We sought to establish the feasibility of video-rate structured illumination microscopy (VR-SIM) of the intact removed tumor surface as a practical and non-destructive alternative to intra-operative frozen section pathology, using prostate cancer as an initial target. We present the first images of the intact human prostate surface obtained with pathologically-relevant contrast and subcellular detail, obtained in 24 radical prostatectomy specimens immediately after excision. We demonstrate that it is feasible to routinely image the full prostate circumference, generating gigapixel panorama images of the surface that are readily interpreted by pathologists. VR-SIM confirmed detection of positive surgical margins in 3 out of 4 prostates with pathology-confirmed adenocarcinoma at the circumferential surgical margin, and furthermore detected extensive residual cancer at the circumferential margin in a case post-operatively classified by histopathology as having negative surgical margins. Our results suggest that the increased surface coverage of VR-SIM could also provide added value for detection and characterization of positive surgical margins over traditional histopathology.

  11. Gigapixel surface imaging of radical prostatectomy specimens for comprehensive detection of cancer-positive surgical margins using structured illumination microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mei; Tulman, David B.; Sholl, Andrew B.; Kimbrell, Hillary Z.; Mandava, Sree H.; Elfer, Katherine N.; Luethy, Samuel; Maddox, Michael M.; Lai, Weil; Lee, Benjamin R.; Brown, J. Quincy

    2016-01-01

    Achieving cancer-free surgical margins in oncologic surgery is critical to reduce the need for additional adjuvant treatments and minimize tumor recurrence; however, there is a delicate balance between completeness of tumor removal and preservation of adjacent tissues critical for normal post-operative function. We sought to establish the feasibility of video-rate structured illumination microscopy (VR-SIM) of the intact removed tumor surface as a practical and non-destructive alternative to intra-operative frozen section pathology, using prostate cancer as an initial target. We present the first images of the intact human prostate surface obtained with pathologically-relevant contrast and subcellular detail, obtained in 24 radical prostatectomy specimens immediately after excision. We demonstrate that it is feasible to routinely image the full prostate circumference, generating gigapixel panorama images of the surface that are readily interpreted by pathologists. VR-SIM confirmed detection of positive surgical margins in 3 out of 4 prostates with pathology-confirmed adenocarcinoma at the circumferential surgical margin, and furthermore detected extensive residual cancer at the circumferential margin in a case post-operatively classified by histopathology as having negative surgical margins. Our results suggest that the increased surface coverage of VR-SIM could also provide added value for detection and characterization of positive surgical margins over traditional histopathology. PMID:27257084

  12. Early assessment of patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Yong; Jeong, Jeongyun; Kang, Dong Il; Johnson, Kelly; Jang, Thomas; Kim, Isaac Yi

    2010-12-01

    Impairments in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and patient satisfaction after definitive treatment for localized prostate cancer can be significant. We assessed patient satisfaction associated with HRQOL following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Prostate cancer-specific HRQOL was assessed using 50 items from the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite and postoperative satisfaction parameters. According to the satisfaction level, 218 consecutive patients were divided into the following three groups: group 1, extremely satisfied (n = 140); group 2, satisfied (n = 54); and group 3, uncertain, dissatisfied and extremely dissatisfied patients (n = 24). Peri-operative characteristics were not significantly different among the three groups. When the mean domain-specific HRQOL subscale scores were compared, there were no statistical differences in urinary and sexual function between groups 1 and 2. Patients in group 2 were more bothered by these domains than those in group 1. Group 3 had significantly lower scores in bowel and hormonal bother than the other groups and significantly lower scores in bowel function when compared to group 1. In daily life related to HRQOL, satisfaction is mainly determined by personal perception and interpretation rather than the objective status of urinary and sexual function. More interestingly, patients in the dissatisfied group were more likely to have bladder and bowel storage symptoms. Additional work is necessary to identify the factors associated with increased risk of pelvic organ storage symptoms following RARP. PMID:27627949

  13. Initial clinical results of laser prostatectomy procedure for symptomatic BPH using a new 50-watt diode laser (wavelength 1000 nm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatta, Krishna M.

    1995-05-01

    Lasers have been used for symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in both contact and non-contact modes with reported success rates equivalent to that of Transurethral Resection of Prostate (TURP). A new high power diode laser (Phototome), capable of delivering up to 50 watts of 1000 nm wavelength laser power via a 1 mm quartz fiber, was used to treat 15 patients with symptomatic BPH. Five patients had acute retention, 3 had long term catheter (7 - 48 months), and 8 had severe prostatism. Spinal anesthesia was used in 11 patients, and 4 patients had local anesthesia and intravenous sedation. Four quadrant coagulation with an angle firing probe delivering 50 watts of laser power for 60 seconds in one quadrant was used as the core of the treatment in 11 patients, contact vaporization of BPH tissue was performed in one patient using a 4.5 mm ball tip was used in one patient and three patients with bladder neck stenosis had bladder neck incision performed using a 1 mm quartz fiber delivering 30 watts of laser power. A foley catheter was left indwelling and removed after 5 - 7 days. All patients except one were catheter free after a mean of 8 days. One patient continued to have severe prostatism and had a TURP performed with good results after 3 months of his laser prostatectomy procedure. AUA symptom scores available in 11 patients was found to be 4 after 1 - 3 months of the initial procedure.

  14. Salvage robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy following failed primary high-intensity focussed ultrasound treatment for localised prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Declan G; Pedersen, John; Costello, Anthony J

    2008-09-01

    We report the first case of salvage robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) following failed primary high-intensity focussed ultrasound (HIFU) for localised carcinoma of the prostate. A 66-year-old male with a presenting prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 5 ng/ml was diagnosed with T1c Gleason 3 + 4 prostate cancer. He underwent transurethral resection of the prostate and HIFU. His PSA dropped to 2.0 ng/ml and repeat biopsy revealed upgrading of his prostate cancer to Gleason 4 + 3. He was referred to us for a second opinion and, following discussion of his options, he underwent RALP. The total operative time was 159 min. There were no intra- or postoperative complications. He was discharged on postoperative day two and was fully continent 10 days following removal of his catheter. His PSA remained undetectable 6 months postoperatively. Salvage RALP was feasible in this case with good functional and short-term oncological outcomes for the patient. PMID:27628262

  15. Pathological Examination of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens in Men with Very Low Risk Disease at Biopsy Reveals Distinct Zonal Distribution of Cancer in Black American Men

    PubMed Central

    Sundi, Debasish; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Ross, Ashley E.; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Of men with very low risk prostate cancer at biopsy recent evidence shows that black American men are at greater risk for adverse oncologic outcomes after radical prostatectomy. We studied radical prostatectomy specimens from black and white men at very low risk to determine whether there are systematic pathological differences. Materials and Methods Radical prostatectomy specimens were evaluated in men with National Comprehensive Cancer Network® (NCCN) very low risk prostate cancer. At diagnosis all men underwent extended biopsy sampling (10 or more cores) and were treated in the modern Gleason grade era. We analyzed tumor volume, grade and location in 87 black and 89 white men. For each specimen the dominant nodule was defined as the largest tumor with the highest grade. Results Compared to white men, black men were more likely to have significant prostate cancer (61% vs 29%), Gleason 7 or greater (37% vs 11%, each p <0.001) and a volume of greater than 0.5 cm3 (45% vs 21%, p = 0.001). Dominant nodules in black men were larger (median 0.28 vs 0.13 cm3, p = 0.002) and more often anterior (51% vs 29%, p = 0.003). In men who underwent pathological upgrading the dominant nodule was also more frequently anterior in black than in white men (59% vs 0%, p = 0.001). Conclusions Black men with very low risk prostate cancer at diagnosis have a significantly higher prevalence of anterior cancer foci that are of higher grade and larger volume. Enhanced imaging or anterior zone sampling may detect these significant anterior tumors, improving the outcome in black men considering active surveillance. PMID:23770146

  16. ["Single potential analysis of cavernous electric activity" (SPACE). Findings before and after surgical dissection of the cavernous nerves within the scope of radical prostatectomy].

    PubMed

    Fabra, M; Porst, H; Schneider, E; Bressel, M

    1993-03-01

    Single potential analysis of cavernous electric activity (SPACE) is said to give information on the integrity of the central and peripheral parts of the autonomic nervous system insofar as it is involved in erectile function. A total of 30 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy with simultaneous severance of the cavernous nerves as treatment for locally advanced cancer were investigated by SPACE before and after the operation. The findings were compared to the those recorded on two different dates in 20 age-matched men who had not undergone surgery and in whom there was no evidence of any lesion of the autonomic nervous system. Even in this control group, few reproducible results were found. Nevertheless, with reference to the items "number of wedges" (i.e. monophasic elements with amplitudes of 25-100 microV) and "maximum amplitudes" of SPACE potentials there was a more than change correlation of the values on the two test dates, which was not found in the prostatectomy group. Although this difference between the two groups investigated was statistically significant, these findings cannot be interpreted as an effect of autonomic denervation of the cavernous bodies. This is attributed to the fact that the postoperative results in the prostatectomy group were more similar to the findings in the control group than to the preoperative measurements taken while the autonomic innervation was still intact. Therefore, our investigations lead us to conclude that routine application of SPACE as a direct check on the integrity of the autonomic nerve fibres involved in erectile dysfunction is not justified at present.

  17. Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled Trial of Polyphenon E in Prostate Cancer Patients before Prostatectomy: Evaluation of Potential Chemopreventive Activities

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Mike M; Ahmann, Frederick R; Nagle, Raymond B; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Tangrea, Joseph A; Parnes, Howard L; Sokoloff, Mitchell H; Gretzer, Matthew B; Chow, H-H Sherry

    2011-01-01

    Compelling pre-clinical and pilot clinical data support the role of green tea polyphenols in prostate cancer prevention. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial of Polyphenon E (enriched green tea polyphenol extract) in men with prostate cancer scheduled to undergo radical prostatectomy. The study aimed to determine the bioavailability of green tea polyphenols in prostate tissue and to measure its effects on systemic and tissue biomarkers of prostate cancer carcinogenesis. Participants received either Polyphenon E (containing 800 mg epigallocatechin gallate) or placebo daily for 3–6 weeks before surgery. Following the intervention, green tea polyphenol levels in the prostatectomy tissue were low to undetectable. Polyphenon E intervention resulted in favorable but not statistically significant changes in serum prostate specific antigen, serum insulin-like growth factor axis, and oxidative DNA damage in blood leukocytes. Tissue biomarkers of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis in the prostatectomy tissue did not differ between the treatment arms. The proportion of subjects who had a decrease in Gleason score between biopsy and surgical specimens was greater in those on Polyphenon E but was not statistically significant. The study's findings of low bioavailability and/or bioaccumulation of green tea polyphenols in prostate tissue and statistically insignificant changes in systemic and tissue biomarkers from 3–6 weeks of administration suggests that prostate cancer preventive activity of green tea polyphenols, if occurring, may be through indirect means and/or that the activity may need to be evaluated with longer intervention durations, repeated dosing, or in patients at earlier stages of the disease. PMID:22044694

  18. Need for High Radiation Dose (>=70 Gy) in Early Postoperative Irradiation After Radical Prostatectomy: A Single-Institution Analysis of 334 High-Risk, Node-Negative Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzarini, Cesare; Montorsi, Francesco; Fiorino, Claudio; Alongi, Filippo; Bolognesi, Angelo; Da Pozzo, Luigi Filippo; Guazzoni, Giorgio; Freschi, Massimo; Roscigno, Marco; Scattoni, Vincenzo; Rigatti, Patrizio; Di Muzio, Nadia

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the clinical benefit of high-dose early adjuvant radiotherapy (EART) in high-risk prostate cancer (hrCaP) patients submitted to radical retropubic prostatectomy plus pelvic lymphadenectomy. Patients and Methods: The clinical outcome of 334 hrCaP (pT3-4 and/or positive resection margins) node-negative patients submitted to radical retropubic prostatectomy plus pelvic lymphadenectomy before 2004 was analyzed according to the EART dose delivered to the prostatic bed, <70.2 Gy (lower dose, median 66.6 Gy, n = 153) or >=70.2 Gy (median 70.2 Gy, n = 181). Results: The two groups were comparable except for a significant difference in terms of median follow-up (10 vs. 7 years, respectively) owing to the gradual increase of EART doses over time. Nevertheless, median time to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure was almost identical, 38 and 36 months, respectively. At univariate analysis, both 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were significantly higher (83% vs. 71% [p = 0.001] and 94% vs. 88% [p = 0.005], respectively) in the HD group. Multivariate analysis confirmed EART dose >=70 Gy to be independently related to both bRFS (hazard ratio 2.5, p = 0.04) and DFS (hazard ratio 3.6, p = 0.004). Similar results were obtained after the exclusion of patients receiving any androgen deprivation. After grouping the hormone-naive patients by postoperative PSA level the statistically significant impact of high-dose EART on both 5-year bRFS and DFS was maintained only for those with undetectable values, possibly owing to micrometastatic disease outside the irradiated area in case of detectable postoperative PSA values. Conclusion: This series provides strong support for the use of EART doses >=70 Gy after radical retropubic prostatectomy in hrCaP patients with undetectable postoperative PSA levels.

  19. Preoperative 3-Tesla Multiparametric Endorectal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings and the Odds of Upgrading and Upstaging at Radical Prostatectomy in Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hegde, John V.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Mulkern, Robert V.; Fennessy, Fiona M.; D'Amico, Anthony V.; Tempany, Clare M.C.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether 3-T esla (3T) multiparametric endorectal MRI (erMRI) can add information to established predictors regarding occult extraprostatic or high-grade prostate cancer (PC) in men with clinically localized PC. Methods and Materials: At a single academic medical center, this retrospective study's cohort included 118 men with clinically localized PC who underwent 3T multiparametric erMRI followed by radical prostatectomy, from 2008 to 2011. Multivariable logistic regression analyses in all men and in 100 with favorable-risk PC addressed whether erMRI evidence of T3 disease was associated with prostatectomy T3 or Gleason score (GS) 8-10 (in patients with biopsy GS {<=}7) PC, adjusting for age, prostate-specific antigen level, clinical T category, biopsy GS, and percent positive biopsies. Results: The accuracy of erMRI prediction of extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion was 75% and 95%, respectively. For all men, erMRI evidence of a T3 lesion versus T2 was associated with an increased odds of having pT3 disease (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36-16.98, P=.015) and pGS 8-10 (AOR 5.56, 95% CI 1.10-28.18, P=.038). In the favorable-risk population, these results were AOR 4.14 (95% CI 1.03-16.56), P=.045 and AOR 7.71 (95% CI 1.36-43.62), P=.021, respectively. Conclusions: Three-Tesla multiparametric erMRI in men with favorable-risk PC provides information beyond that contained in known preoperative predictors about the presence of occult extraprostatic and/or high-grade PC. If validated in additional studies, this information can be used to counsel men planning to undergo radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy about the possible need for adjuvant radiation therapy or the utility of adding hormone therapy, respectively.

  20. Prostate Stem Cell Antigen Expression in Radical Prostatectomy Specimens Predicts Early Biochemical Recurrence in Patients with High Risk Prostate Cancer Receiving Neoadjuvant Hormonal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Han; Park, Weon Seo; Kim, Sun Ho; Park, Boram; Joo, Jungnam; Lee, Geon Kook; Joung, Jae Young; Seo, Ho Kyung; Chung, Jinsoo; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify tissue biomarkers that predict early biochemical recurrence (BCR) in patients with high-risk prostate cancer (PC), toward the goal of increasing the benefits of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT). In 2005–2012, prostatectomy specimens were collected from 134 PC patients who had received NHT and radical prostatectomy. The expression of 13 tissue biomarkers was assessed in the specimens via immunohistochemistry. Time to BCR and factors predictive of BCR were determined by using the Cox proportional hazards model. During the follow-up period (median, 57.5 months), 67 (50.0%) patients experienced BCR. Four (3.0%) patients were tumor-free in the final pathology assessment, and 101 (75.4%) had negative resection margins. Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) was the only significant prognostic tissue biomarker of BCR [hazard ratio (HR), 2.58; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06–6.27; p = 0.037] in a multivariable analysis adjusted by the clinicopathological variables that also significantly predicted BCR; these were seminal vesicle invasion (HR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.32–4.34), initial prostate serum antigen level (HR 1.01; 95% CI, 1.001–1.020), prostate size (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90–0.97), and the Gleason score of preoperative biopsies (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01–1.79). We suggest that PSCA is a useful tissue marker for predicting BCR in patients with high risk PC receiving NHT and radical prostatectomy. PMID:26982980

  1. Prostate Stem Cell Antigen Expression in Radical Prostatectomy Specimens Predicts Early Biochemical Recurrence in Patients with High Risk Prostate Cancer Receiving Neoadjuvant Hormonal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Han; Park, Weon Seo; Kim, Sun Ho; Park, Boram; Joo, Jungnam; Lee, Geon Kook; Joung, Jae Young; Seo, Ho Kyung; Chung, Jinsoo; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify tissue biomarkers that predict early biochemical recurrence (BCR) in patients with high-risk prostate cancer (PC), toward the goal of increasing the benefits of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT). In 2005-2012, prostatectomy specimens were collected from 134 PC patients who had received NHT and radical prostatectomy. The expression of 13 tissue biomarkers was assessed in the specimens via immunohistochemistry. Time to BCR and factors predictive of BCR were determined by using the Cox proportional hazards model. During the follow-up period (median, 57.5 months), 67 (50.0%) patients experienced BCR. Four (3.0%) patients were tumor-free in the final pathology assessment, and 101 (75.4%) had negative resection margins. Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) was the only significant prognostic tissue biomarker of BCR [hazard ratio (HR), 2.58; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-6.27; p = 0.037] in a multivariable analysis adjusted by the clinicopathological variables that also significantly predicted BCR; these were seminal vesicle invasion (HR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.32-4.34), initial prostate serum antigen level (HR 1.01; 95% CI, 1.001-1.020), prostate size (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.97), and the Gleason score of preoperative biopsies (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01-1.79). We suggest that PSCA is a useful tissue marker for predicting BCR in patients with high risk PC receiving NHT and radical prostatectomy. PMID:26982980

  2. Larger Maximum Tumor Diameter at Radical Prostatectomy Is Associated With Increased Biochemical Failure, Metastasis, and Death From Prostate Cancer After Salvage Radiation for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Skyler B.; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Jackson, William C.; Zhou, Jessica; Foster, Benjamin; Foster, Corey; Song, Yeohan; Li, Darren; Palapattu, Ganesh S.; Kunju, Lakshmi; Mehra, Rohit; Sandler, Howard; Feng, Felix Y.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the maximum tumor diameter (MTD) of the dominant prostate cancer nodule in the radical prostatectomy specimen as a prognostic factor for outcome in patients treated with salvage external beam radiation therapy (SRT) for a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value after radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: From an institutional cohort of 575 patients treated with SRT, data on MTD were retrospectively collected. The impact of MTD on biochemical failure (BF), metastasis, and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) was assessed on univariate and multivariate analysis using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: In the 173 patients with MTD data available, median follow-up was 77 months (interquartile range, 47-104 months) after SRT, and median MTD was 18 mm (interquartile range, 13-22 mm). Increasing MTD correlated with increasing pT stage, Gleason score, presence of seminal vesicle invasion, and lymph node invasion. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified MTD of >14 mm to be the optimal cut-point. On univariate analysis, MTD >14 mm was associated with an increased risk of BF (P=.02, hazard ratio [HR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.8), metastasis (P=.002, HR 4.0, 95% CI 2.1-7.5), and PCSM (P=.02, HR 8.0, 95% CI 2.9-21.8). On multivariate analysis MTD >14 mm remained associated with increased BF (P=.02, HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.2), metastasis (P=.02, HR 3.4, 95% CI 1.2-9.2), and PCSM (P=.05, HR 9.7, 95% CI 1.0-92.4), independent of extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, positive surgical margins, pre-RT PSA value, Gleason score, and pre-RT PSA doubling time. Conclusions: For patients treated with SRT for a rising PSA value after prostatectomy, MTD at time of radical prostatectomy is independently associated with BF, metastasis, and PCSM. Maximum tumor diameter should be incorporated into clinical decision making and future clinical risk assessment tools for those patients

  3. Evaluating Prostate Cancer Using Fractional Tissue Composition of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens and Pre-Operative Diffusional Kurtosis Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Edward M.; Warren, Anne Y.; Priest, Andrew N.; Barrett, Tristan; Goldman, Debra A.; Gill, Andrew B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Evaluating tissue heterogeneity using non-invasive imaging could potentially improve prostate cancer assessment and treatment. Methods 20 patients with intermediate/high-risk prostate cancer underwent diffusion kurtosis imaging, including calculation of apparent diffusion (Dapp) and kurtosis (Kapp), prior to radical prostatectomy. Whole-mount tissue composition was quantified into: cellularity, luminal space, and fibromuscular stroma. Peripheral zone tumors were subdivided according to Gleason score. Results Peripheral zone tumors had increased cellularity (p<0.0001), decreased fibromuscular stroma (p<0.05) and decreased luminal space (p<0.0001). Gleason score ≥4+3 tumors had significantly increased cellularity and decreased fibromuscular stroma compared to Gleason score ≤3+4 (p<0.05). In tumors, there was a significant positive correlation between median Kapp and cellularity (ρ = 0.50; p<0.05), and a negative correlation with fibromuscular stroma (ρ = -0.45; p<0.05). In normal tissue, median Dapp had a significant positive correlation with luminal space (ρ = 0.65; p<0.05) and a negative correlation with cellularity (ρ = -0.49; p<0.05). Median Kapp and Dapp varied significantly between tumor and normal tissue (p<0.0001), but only median Kapp was significantly different between Gleason score ≥4+3 and ≤3+4 (p<0.05). Conclusions Peripheral zone tumors have increased cellular heterogeneity which is reflected in mean Kapp, while normal prostate has a more homogeneous luminal space and cellularity better represented by Dapp. PMID:27467064

  4. A novel method of bladder neck imbrication to improve early urinary continence following robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Beattie, K; Symons, J; Chopra, S; Yuen, C; Savdie, R; Thanigasalam, R; Haynes, A M; Matthews, J; Brenner, P C; Rasiah, K; Sutherland, R L; Stricker, P D

    2013-06-01

    Early return of continence forms an important component of quality of life for patients after robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RALP). Here we describe the steps of bladder neck imbrication and vesico-urethral anastomosis improving early continence after RALP. Between April 2008 and July 2009, 202 consecutive patients underwent RALP for clinically localised prostate cancer in a tertiary referral centre by a single surgeon. One hundred and thirty-two (65 %) of these patients agreed to participate in the study. Prior to November 2008, 51 patients underwent standard RALP as described by Patel et al. From November 2008, 81 patients underwent a novel method of bladder neck imbrication. The robotic urethro-vesical anastomosis commences on the posterior wall of the urethra and proceeds anteriorly. In our technique the anastomosis is halted with the suture arms fixed to the anterior abdominal wall. A new suture is used to perform a two-layer repair, anchoring proximally then continuing anteriorly to the level of the urethral stump, where it returns upon itself. The aim is to narrow the urethra to 16 Fr and tighten the second layer to create an imbrication effect. Posterior reconstruction was performed in all patients. Outcome measures were recorded prospectively using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite tool. Our technique shows significant improvement at all stages of follow-up in urinary summary and incontinence scores. Absolute continence rates increased from 8.2 to 20.5 %, 26.7 to 44.3 %, and 47.7 to 62.3 % at 1.5, 3 and 6 months, respectively. These results support the use of our technique in patients undergoing RALP. PMID:27000912

  5. Robotic assisted radical prostatectomy in morbidly obese patients: how to create a cost-effective adequate optical trocar.

    PubMed

    Cestari, Andrea; Sangalli, Mattia; Buffi, Nicolò Maria; Lazzeri, Massimo; Larcher, Alessandro; Scapaticci, Emanuele; Lughezzani, Giovanni; Fabbri, Fabio; Rigatti, Patrizio; Guazzoni, Giorgio

    2013-03-01

    Obesity is a major health issue in modern society, and with the progressive widespread employment of robotic assisted radical prostatectomy (RALP), the urologist-robotic surgeon is increasingly involved in the treatment of obese patients. However, the vast majority of urological departments are not equipped with a complete set of bariatric instruments. One of the potential difficulties of robotic surgery on the morbidly obese patient is the relatively short length of the optical trocar sheath, as the optical robotic arm requires some very valuable centimeters of the sheath to hang onto. This condition may make it impossible to properly reach the peritoneal cavity with the optical trocar during the RALP procedure. We present a series of four morbidly obese patients (BMI ranging from 42.1 to 46.2) with localized prostate cancer treated with RALP. We have developed an effective and "easy-to-implement" solution to the problem of properly elongating the sheath of the optical trocar which involves the use of the plastic cylindrical transparent protective tube of a disposable 26-Ch Amplatz sheath. The Amplatz sheath, with an internal diameter of 13 mm and length of 25 cm, perfectly fits outside of the 13-mm trocar usually employed for the optical trocar. Additionally, the cylindrical tube perfectly fits and hangs onto the robotic optical arm system. Mean operative time was 202.5 min (range 185-220 min). Mean blood loss was 284 mL (range 185-380 mL). Catheterization time and hospital stay were 5 and 6 days, respectively, in all patients. All procedures were safely completed, and no minor or major complications were reported. The optical trocar lengthening technique allowed us to properly perform RALP procedures even in severely morbidly obese patients in an urological setting not equipped for bariatric minimally invasive surgery. PMID:27000892

  6. New Paradigms for Patient-Centered Outcomes Research in Electronic Medical Records: An Example of Detecting Urinary Incontinence Following Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Tamang, Suzanne; Blayney, Douglas; Brooks, Jim; Shah, Nigam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: National initiatives to develop quality metrics emphasize the need to include patient-centered outcomes. Patient-centered outcomes are complex, require documentation of patient communications, and have not been routinely collected by healthcare providers. The widespread implementation of electronic medical records (EHR) offers opportunities to assess patient-centered outcomes within the routine healthcare delivery system. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of identifying patient centered outcomes within the EHR. Methods: Data from patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing prostatectomy were used to develop and test algorithms to accurately identify patient-centered outcomes in post-operative EHRs – we used urinary incontinence as the use case. Standard data mining techniques were used to extract and annotate free text and structured data to assess urinary incontinence recorded within the EHRs. Results A total 5,349 prostate cancer patients were identified in our EHR-system between 1998–2013. Among these EHRs, 30.3% had a text mention of urinary incontinence within 90 days post-operative compared to less than 1.0% with a structured data field for urinary incontinence (i.e. ICD-9 code). Our workflow had good precision and recall for urinary incontinence (positive predictive value: 0.73 and sensitivity: 0.84). Discussion. Our data indicate that important patient-centered outcomes, such as urinary incontinence, are being captured in EHRs as free text and highlight the long-standing importance of accurate clinician documentation. Standard data mining algorithms can accurately and efficiently identify these outcomes in existing EHRs; the complete assessment of these outcomes is essential to move practice into the patient-centered realm of healthcare. PMID:27347492

  7. Outcome After Conformal Salvage Radiotherapy in Patients With Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels After Radical Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Geinitz, Hans; Riegel, Martina G.; Thamm, Reinhard; Astner, Sabrina T.; Lewerenz, Carolin; Zimmermann, Frank; Molls, Michael; Nieder, Carsten

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: This study attempts to improve our understanding of the role of salvage radiotherapy (SRT) in patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse after radical prostatectomy with regard to biochemical control, rate of distant metastasis, and survival. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of 96 men treated with conformal prostate bed SRT (median, 64.8 Gy) at a single institution (median follow-up, 70 months). The majority had intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer. Fifty-four percent underwent a resection with positive margins (R1 resection). The median time interval between surgery and SRT was 22 months. Results: After SRT, 66% of patients reached a PSA nadir of less than 0.2 ng/mL. However, the 5-year biochemical no evidence of disease rate was 35%. Seminal vesicle involvement was predictive for a significantly lower biochemical no evidence of disease rate. All patients with a preoperative PSA level greater than 50 ng/mL relapsed biochemically within 2 years. The 5-year distant metastasis rate was 18%, the 5-year prostate cancer-specific survival rate was 90%, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 88%. Significantly more distant metastases developed in patients with a PSA nadir greater than 0.05 ng/mL after SRT, and they had significantly inferior prostate cancer-specific and overall survival rates. Resection status (R1 vs. R0) was not predictive for any of the endpoints. Conclusions: Men with postoperative PSA relapse can undergo salvage treatment by prostate bed radiotherapy, but durable PSA control is maintained only in about one-third of the patients. Despite a high biochemical failure rate after SRT, prostate cancer-specific survival does not decrease rapidly.

  8. Retrospective Comparison of External Beam Radiotherapy and Radical Prostatectomy in High-Risk, Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Arcangeli, Giorgio; Strigari, Lidia; Arcangeli, Stefano; Petrongari, Maria Grazia; Saracino, Biancamaria; Gomellini, Sara; Papalia, Rocco; Simone, Giuseppe; De Carli, Piero; Gallucci, Michele

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Because of the lack of conclusive and well-conducted randomized studies, the optimal therapy for prostate tumors remains controversial. The aim of this study was to retrospectively compare the results of radical surgery vs. a conservative approach such as external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plus androgen deprivation therapy using an intent-to-treat analysis on two pretreatment defined, concurrently treated, high-risk patient populations. Methods and Materials: Between January 2003 and December 2007, 162 patients with high-risk prostate cancer underwent an EBRT plus androgen deprivation therapy program at the RT department of our institute. In the same period, 122 patients with the same high-risk disease underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) at the urologic department of our institute. Patients with adverse pathologic factors also underwent adjuvant EBRT with or without androgen deprivation therapy. The primary endpoint was freedom from biochemical failure. Results: The two groups of high-risk patients were homogeneous in terms of freedom from biochemical failure on the basis of the clinical T stage, biopsy Gleason score, and initial prostate-specific antigen level. The median follow-up was 38.6 and 33.8 months in the EBRT and RP groups, respectively. The actuarial analysis of the freedom from biochemical failure showed a 3-year rate of 86.8% and 69.8% in the EBRT and RP group, respectively (p = .001). Multivariate analysis of the whole group revealed the initial prostate-specific antigen level and treatment type (EBRT vs. RP) as significant covariates. Conclusion: This retrospective intention-to-treat analysis showed a significantly better outcome after EBRT than after RP in patients with high-risk prostate cancer, although a well-conducted randomized comparison would be the best procedure to confirm these results.

  9. Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy by a single surgeon in Taiwan: experience with the initial 30 cases.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yen-Chuan; Yang, Chi-Rei; Wang, John; Cheng, Chen-Li; Patel, Vipul R

    2008-09-01

    Robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) is an established trend in surgical treatment for localized prostate cancer in the USA; however, RALP is still in its infancy in Taiwan. We have tracked various indicators of proficiency as a single Taiwanese surgeon became familiar with the procedure through experience with 30 initial RALP surgeries using the da Vinci system between December 2005 and April 2007. Here, we report the changes in these proficiency indicators, and the short-term outcomes for the patients. Thirty consecutive patients were classified into group 1 (cases 1-15) and group 2 (cases 16-30). Preoperative clinical characteristics, including age, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiologists anesthetic surgical risks class (ASA), prostate-specific antigen levels (PSA), and Gleason scores were similar between the groups. The clinical stage (T1/T2) was significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1 (p = 0.028). Group 1 needed more frequent insertion of a double-J stent (60% versus 0%) before surgery and evaluation by cystogram before removal of urethral catheter (80% versus 6.7%) than group 2; these differences were statistically significant. Blood loss and transfusion rates were lower in group 2, but complication and conversion rates were higher in group 1. These differences were not statistically significant. Positive surgical margins, continence rates, potency, and intercourse rates at 12 months were similar between the groups. Console time was 262 min in group 1 and 190 min in group 2 (p = 0.033); this appeared to be the best indicator of proficiency. Establishing proficiency as determined by functional outcomes required about 30 cases, but the positive surgical margin rates indicate that experience with more than 30 cases was needed to ascend the learning curve with respect to oncological outcomes. PMID:27628256

  10. Perioperative Blood Transfusion as a Significant Predictor of Biochemical Recurrence and Survival after Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Kwon; Kim, Hyung Suk; Park, Juhyun; Jeong, Chang Wook; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Kim, Hyun Hoe; Kwak, Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There have been conflicting reports regarding the association of perioperative blood transfusion (PBT) with oncologic outcomes including recurrence rates and survival outcomes in prostate cancer. We aimed to evaluate whether perioperative blood transfusion (PBT) affects biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) following radical prostatectomy (RP) for patients with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods A total of 2,713 patients who underwent RP for clinically localized prostate cancer between 1993 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. We performed a comparative analysis based on receipt of transfusion (PBT group vs. no-PBT group) and transfusion type (autologous PBT vs. allogeneic PBT). Univariate and multivariate Cox-proportional hazard regression analysis were performed to evaluate variables associated with BRFS, CSS, and OS. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival estimates for BRFS, CSS, and OS, and log-rank test was used to conduct comparisons between the groups. Results The number of patients who received PBT was 440 (16.5%). Among these patients, 350 (79.5%) received allogeneic transfusion and the other 90 (20.5%) received autologous transfusion. In a multivariate analysis, allogeneic PBT was found to be statistically significant predictors of BRFS, CSS, and OS; conversely, autologous PBT was not. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed significantly decreased 5-year BRFS (79.2% vs. 70.1%, log-rank, p = 0.001), CSS (98.5% vs. 96.7%, log-rank, p = 0.012), and OS (95.5% vs. 90.6%, log-rank, p < 0.001) in the allogeneic PBT group compared to the no-allogeneic PBT group. In the autologous PBT group, however, none of these were statistically significant compared to the no-autologous PBT group. Conclusions We found that allogeneic PBT was significantly associated with decreased BRFS, CSS, and OS. This provides further support for the immunomodulation hypothesis for allogeneic

  11. Anesthesiologic Effects of Transperitoneal Versus Extraperitoneal Approach During Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy: Results of a Prospective Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Fabrizio Dal; Crestani, Alessandro; Valotto, Claudio; Guttilla, Andrea; Soncin, Rodolfo; Mangano, Angelo; Zattoni, Filiberto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To compare the effects of CO2 insufflation on hemodynamics and oxygen levels and on acid-base level during Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy (RARP) with transperitoneal (TP) versus extra-peritoneal (EP) accesses. Materials and Methods: Sixty-two patients were randomly assigned to TP (32) and EP (30) to RARP. Pre-operation data were collected for all patients. Hemodynamic, respiratory and blood acid-base parameters were measured at the moment of induction of anesthesia (T0), after starting CO2 insuffation (T1), and at 60 (T2) and 120 minutes (T3) after insufflation. In all cases, the abdominal pressure was set at 15 mmHg. Complications were reported according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Student's two–t-test, with a significance level set at p<0.05, was used to compare categorical values between groups. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the median values of two nonparametric continuous variables. Results: The demographic characteristics of the patients in both groups were statistically comparable. Analysis of intra-operative anesthesiologic parameters showed that partial CO2 pressure during EP was significantly higher than during TP, with a consequent decrease in arterial pH. Other parameters analysed were similar in the two groups. Postoperative complications were comparable between groups. The most important limitations of this study were the small size of the patient groups and the impossibility of maintaining standard abdominal pressure throughout the operational phases, despite attempts to regulate it. Conclusions: This prospective randomized study demonstrates that, from the anesthesiologic viewpoint, during RARP the TP approach is preferable to EP, because of lower CO2 reabsorption and risk of acidosis. PMID:26200539

  12. Predicting Pathological Features at Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with Prostate Cancer Eligible for Active Surveillance by Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    de Cobelli, Ottavio; Terracciano, Daniela; Tagliabue, Elena; Raimondi, Sara; Bottero, Danilo; Cioffi, Antonio; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara; Petralia, Giuseppe; Cordima, Giovanni; Almeida, Gilberto Laurino; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Buonerba, Carlo; Matei, Deliu Victor; Renne, Giuseppe; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Ferro, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic performance of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PIRADS) score in predicting pathologic features in a cohort of patients eligible for active surveillance who underwent radical prostatectomy. Methods A total of 223 patients who fulfilled the criteria for “Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance”, were included. Mp–1.5 Tesla MRI examination staging with endorectal coil was performed at least 6–8 weeks after TRUS-guided biopsy. In all patients, the likelihood of the presence of cancer was assigned using PIRADS score between 1 and 5. Outcomes of interest were: Gleason score upgrading, extra capsular extension (ECE), unfavorable prognosis (occurrence of both upgrading and ECE), large tumor volume (≥0.5ml), and seminal vesicle invasion (SVI). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and Decision Curve Analyses (DCA) were performed for models with and without inclusion of PIRADS score. Results Multivariate analysis demonstrated the association of PIRADS score with upgrading (P<0.0001), ECE (P<0.0001), unfavorable prognosis (P<0.0001), and large tumor volume (P = 0.002). ROC curves and DCA showed that models including PIRADS score resulted in greater net benefit for almost all the outcomes of interest, with the only exception of SVI. Conclusions mpMRI and PIRADS scoring are feasible tools in clinical setting and could be used as decision-support systems for a more accurate selection of patients eligible for AS. PMID:26444548

  13. Brachytherapy versus prostatectomy in localized prostate cancer: Results of a French multicenter prospective medico-economic study

    SciTech Connect

    Buron, Catherine; Le Vu, Beatrice; Cosset, Jean-Marc; Peiffert, Didier; Delannes, Martine; Flam, Thierry; Guerif, Stephane; Salem, Naji; Chauveinc, Laurent; Livartowski, Alain . E-mail: alain.livartowski@curie.net

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL), patient-reported treatment-related symptoms, and costs of iodine-125 permanent implant interstitial brachytherapy (IB) with those of radical prostatectomy (RP) during the first 2 years after these treatments for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 435 men with localized low-risk prostate cancer, from 11 French hospitals, treated with IB (308) or RP (127), were offered to complete the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer core Quality of Life Questionnaire QLQ-C30 version 3 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the prostate cancer specific EORTC QLQ-PR25 module before and at the end of treatment, 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after treatment. Repeated measures analysis of variance and analysis of covariance were conducted on HRQOL changes. Comparative cost analysis covered initial treatment, hospital follow-up, outpatient and production loss costs. Results: Just after treatment, the decrease of global HRQOL was less pronounced in the IB than in the RP group, with a 13.5 points difference (p < 0.0001). A difference slightly in favor of RP was observed 6 months after treatment (-7.5 points, p = 0.0164) and was maintained at 24 months (-8.2 points, p = 0.0379). Impotence and urinary incontinence were more pronounced after RP, whereas urinary frequency, urgency, and urination pain were more frequent after IB. Mean societal costs did not differ between IB ( Euro 8,019 at T24) and RP ( Euro 8,715 at T24, p = 0.0843) regardless of the period. Conclusions: This study suggests a similar cost profile in France for IB and RP but with different HRQOL and side effect profiles. Those findings may be used to tailor localized prostate cancer treatments to suit individual patients' needs.

  14. Association between number of prostate biopsies and patient-reported functional outcomes after radical prostatectomy: implications for active surveillance protocols

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Christopher B.; Tin, Amy L.; Sjoberg, Daniel D.; Mulhall, John P.; Sandhu, Jaspreet; Laudone, Vincent P.; Eastham, James A.; Scardino, Peter T.; Ehdaie, Behfar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Men with prostate cancer who progress on active surveillance (AS) are subject to multiple prostate biopsies prior to radical prostatectomy (RP). Our objective was to evaluate whether the number of preoperative prostate biopsies affects functional outcomes after RP. Materials and methods We identified men treated with RP at our institution between 2008 and 2011. At 6 and 12 months post-operatively, patients completed questionnaires assessing erectile and urinary function. Men with preoperative incontinence or erectile dysfunction or who did not complete the questionnaire were excluded. Primary outcomes were urinary and erectile function at 12 months postoperatively. We used logistic regression to estimate the impact of number of prostate biopsies on functional outcomes after adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Results We identified 2,712 men treated with RP between 2008 and 2011. Most men (80%) had 1 preoperative prostate biopsy, 16% had 2, and 4% had at least 3. On adjusted analysis, erectile function at 12 months was not significantly different for men with 2 (OR 1.25; 95% CI 0.90, 1.75) or 3 or more (OR 1.52; 95% CI 0.84, 2.78) biopsies, compared to those with 1. Similarly, urinary function at 12 months was not significantly different for men with 2 (0.84, 95% CI 0.64, 1.10) or 3 or more (0.99, 95% CI 0.60, 1.61) biopsies compared to those with 1. Conclusions We did not find evidence that more preoperative prostate biopsies adversely affected erectile or urinary function at 12 months following RP. PMID:26118438

  15. Magnetic Resonance Lymphography Findings in Patients With Biochemical Recurrence After Prostatectomy and the Relation With the Stephenson Nomogram

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, Hanneke J.M.; Debats, Oscar A.; Roach, Mack; Span, Paul N.; Witjes, J. Alfred; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Lin, Emile N.J.Th. van; Barentsz, Jelle O.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To estimate the occurrence of positive lymph nodes on magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) in patients with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence after prostatectomy and to investigate the relation between score on the Stephenson nomogram and lymph node involvement on MRL. Methods and Materials: Sixty-five candidates for salvage radiation therapy were referred for an MRL to determine their lymph node status. Clinical and histopathologic features were recorded. For 49 patients, data were complete to calculate the Stephenson nomogram score. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine how well this nomogram related to the MRL result. Analysis was done for the whole group and separately for patients with a PSA <1.0 ng/mL to determine the situation in candidates for early salvage radiation therapy, and for patients without pathologic lymph nodes at initial lymph node dissection. Results: MRL detected positive lymph nodes in 47 patients. ROC analysis for the Stephenson nomogram yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.93). Of 29 patients with a PSA <1.0 ng/mL, 18 had a positive MRL. Of 37 patients without lymph node involvement at initial lymph node dissection, 25 had a positive MRL. ROC analysis for the Stephenson nomogram showed AUCs of 0.84 and 0.74, respectively, for these latter groups. Conclusion: MRL detected positive lymph nodes in 72% of candidates for salvage radiation therapy, in 62% of candidates for early salvage radiation therapy, and in 68% of initially node-negative patients. The Stephenson nomogram showed a good correlation with the MRL result and may thus be useful for identifying patients with a PSA recurrence who are at high risk for lymph node involvement.

  16. Impact of prior abdominal surgery on the outcomes after robotic - assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Nozomu; Takao, Tetsuya; Yamamichi, Gaku; Okusa, Takuya; Taniguchi, Ayumu; Tsutahara, Koichi; Tanigawa, Go; Yamaguchi, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the influence of prior abdominal surgery on the outcomes after robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients with prostate cancer who underwent RALP between June 2012 and February 2015 at our institution. Patients with prior abdominal surgery were compared with those without prior surgery while considering the mean total operating, console, and port-insertion times; mean estimated blood loss; positive surgical margin rate; mean duration of catheterization; and rate of complications. Results: A total of 203 patients who underwent RALP during the study period were included in this study. In all, 65 patients (32%) had a prior history of abdominal surgery, whereas 138 patients (68%) had no prior history. The total operating, console, and port-insertion times were 328 and 308 (P=0.06), 252 and 242 (P=0.28), and 22 and 17 minutes (P=0.01), respectively, for patients with prior and no prior surgery. The estimated blood losses, positive surgical margin rates, mean durations of catheterization, and complication rates were 197 and 170 mL (P=0.29), 26.2% and 20.2% (P=0.32), 7.1 and 6.8 days (P=0.74), and 12.3% and 8.7% (P=0.42), respectively. Furthermore, whether prior abdominal surgery was performed above or below the umbilicus or whether single or multiple surgeries were performed did not further affect the perioperative outcomes. Conclusions: Our results suggest that RALP can be performed safely in patients with prior abdominal surgery, without increasing the risk of complications. PMID:27622285

  17. Long-term adverse effects after curative radiotherapy and radical prostatectomy: population-based nationwide register study

    PubMed Central

    Fridriksson, Jón Ö.; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Nilsson, Per; Robinson, David; Franck-Lissbrant, Ingela; Ehdaie, Behfar; Eastham, James A.; Widmark, Anders; Karlsson, Camilla T.; Stattin, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the risk of serious adverse effects after radiotherapy (RT) with curative intention and radical prostatectomy (RP). Materials and methods: Men who were diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1997 and 2012 and underwent curative treatment were selected from the Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden. For each included man, five prostate cancer-free controls, matched for birth year and county of residency, were randomly selected. In total, 12,534 men underwent RT, 24,886 underwent RP and 186,624 were controls. Adverse effects were defined according to surgical and diagnostic codes in the National Patient Registry. The relative risk (RR) of adverse effects up to 12 years after treatment was compared to controls and the risk was subsequently compared between RT and RP in multivariable analyses. Results: Men with intermediate- and localized high-risk cancer who underwent curative treatment had an increased risk of adverse effects during the full study period compared to controls: the RR of undergoing a procedures after RT was 2.64 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.56–2.73] and after RP 2.05 (95% CI 2.00–2.10). The risk remained elevated 10–12 years after treatment. For all risk categories of prostate cancer, the risk of surgical procedures for urinary incontinence was higher after RP (RR 23.64, 95% CI 11.71–47.74), whereas risk of other procedures on the lower urinary tract and gastrointestinal tract or abdominal wall was higher after RT (RR 1.67, 95% CI 1.44–1.94, and RR 1.86, 95% CI 1.70–2.02, respectively). Conclusion: The risk of serious adverse effects after curative treatment for prostate cancer remained significantly elevated up to 12 years after treatment. PMID:27333148

  18. Short-term clinicopathological outcome of neoadjuvant chemohormonal therapy comprising complete androgen blockade, followed by treatment with docetaxel and estramustine phosphate before radical prostatectomy in Japanese patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the outcome of neoadjuvant chemohormonal therapy comprising complete androgen blockade followed by treatment with docetaxel and estramustine phosphate before radical prostatectomy in Japanese patients with a high risk of localized prostate cancer (PCa). Methods Complete androgen blockade followed by 6 cycles of docetaxel (30 mg/m2) with estramustine phosphate (560 mg) were given to 18 PCa patients before radical prostatectomy. Subsequently, the clinical and pathological outcomes were analyzed. Results No patients had severe adverse events during chemohormonal therapy, and hence they were treated with radical prostatectomy. Two patients (11.1%) achieved pathological complete response. Surgical margins were negative in all patients. At a median follow-up of 18 months, 14 patients (77.8%) were disease-free without PSA recurrence. All 4 patients with PSA recurrence had pathologic T3b or T4 disease and 3 of these 4 patients had pathologic N1 disease. Conclusion We found that neoadjuvant chemohormonal therapy with complete androgen blockade followed by treatment with docetaxel and estramustine phosphate before radical prostatectomy was safe, feasible, and associated with favorable pathological outcomes in patients with a high risk of localized PCa. PMID:22214417

  19. Diagnostic Value of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Detecting Residual or Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Radical Prostatectomy: A Pooled Analysis of 12 Individual Studies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Meng, Nan; Chi, Da; Zhao, Yingjie; Wang, Zhekun; Luo, Yahong

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the diagnostic value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) in patients with recurrent or residual prostate cancer (PCa) after radical prostatectomy. Studies were systematically searched in the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, SCI, CBM, CNKI, VIP, Wan Fang, and other databases. Additional studies were manually searched using the references of the retrieved articles. The retrieved deadline was Sep. 6th, 2014. Selection of eligible studies for inclusion was based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the quality of the studies was reviewed based on the QUADAS criteria. The Meta Disc 1.4 and Stata 12.1 software were used for meta-analysis, and a summary receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed. The patient-based pooled weighted estimates of the sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio, and 95 % confidence interval were calculated. Seven articles (12 studies) were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled estimates of the sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the curve were 0.88 (95 % CI 0.84-0.91), 0.87 (95 % CI  0.81-0.92), and 0.9391, respectively. The diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was 50.4 (95 % CI 26.0-97.6) and Q* was 0.8764. DCE-MRI has high sensitivity and specificity in the evaluation of locally recurrent or residual PCa after radical prostatectomy.

  20. Evaluating PSA Density as a Predictor of Biochemical Failure after Radical Prostatectomy: Results of a Prospective Study after a Median Follow-Up of 36 Months

    PubMed Central

    Perimenis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the predictive ability of PSA density for biochemical relapse after radical prostatectomy in patients operated for clinically localized disease and to compare its predictive strength with preoperative PSA and Gleason score. Patients and Methods. The study evaluated 244 patients with localized disease who underwent an open retropubic radical prostatectomy between February 2007 and April 2011. PSA was measured every 3 months after surgery with a mean follow-up period of 36 months. Two consecutive rises >0.2 ng/mL were considered as biochemical relapse. Results. Biochemical recurrence was observed in 71 (29.1%). A great correlation was found between relapse and PSA (P = 0.005), PSA density (P = 0.002), Gleason score (P = 0.015), pathological stage (P = 0.001), positive surgical margins (P = 0.021), and invasion of seminal vesicles (P < 0.001) and lymph nodes (P < 0.001). We also found that PSA density was associated with adverse pathological findings. In univariate and multivariate analysis both PSA (P = 0.006) and PSA density (P = 0.009) were found to be significant predictors for relapse in contrast to tumor grade. Conclusion. PSA density is a valuable parameter in estimating the danger of biochemical failure and it may increase predictive potential through the incorporation in preoperative nomograms. PMID:23762630

  1. Effect of Preoperative Risk Group Stratification on Oncologic Outcomes of Patients with Adverse Pathologic Findings at Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Won Sik; Kim, Lawrence H. C.; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Rha, Koon Ho; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon; Ham, Won Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend postoperative radiation therapy based only on adverse pathologic findings (APFs), irrespective of preoperative risk group. We assessed whether a model incorporating both the preoperative risk group and APFs could predict long-term oncologic outcomes better than a model based on APFs alone. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 4,404 men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) at our institution between 1992 and 2014. After excluding patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy or with incomplete pathological or follow-up data, 3,092 men were included in the final analysis. APFs were defined as extraprostatic extension (EPE), seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), or a positive surgical margin (PSM). The adequacy of model fit to the data was compared using the likelihood-ratio test between the models with and without risk groups, and model discrimination was compared with the concordance index (c-index) for predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). We performed multivariate Cox proportional hazard model and competing risk regression analyses to identify predictors of BCR and PCSM in the total patient group and each of the risk groups. Results Adding risk groups to the model containing only APFs significantly improved the fit to the data (likelihood-ratio test, p <0.001) and the c-index increased from 0.693 to 0.732 for BCR and from 0.707 to 0.747 for PCSM. A RP Gleason score (GS) ≥8 and a PSM were independently associated with BCR in the total patient group and also each risk group. However, only a GS ≥8 and SVI were associated with PCSM in the total patient group (GS ≥8: hazard ratio [HR] 5.39 and SVI: HR 3.36) and the high-risk group (GS ≥8: HR 6.31 and SVI: HR 4.05). Conclusion The postoperative estimation of oncologic outcomes in men with APFs at RP was improved by considering preoperative risk group stratification. Although a PSM was an

  2. Radiotherapy After Prostatectomy: Improved Biochemical Relapse-Free Survival With Whole Pelvic Compared With Prostate Bed Only for High-Risk Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Spiotto, Michael T.; Hancock, Steven L.; King, Christopher R.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To compare the biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) among patients receiving whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) vs. prostate bed RT (PBRT) after radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: Between 1985 and 2005, 160 patients underwent adjuvant or salvage RT after radical prostatectomy. A short course of total androgen suppression was also given concurrently to 87 patients. Of the 160 patients, 114 were considered at high risk of lymph node involvement because they had a pathologic Gleason score of {>=}8, a preoperative prostate-specific antigen level >20 ng/mL, seminal vesicle or prostate capsule involvement, or pathologic lymph node involvement. Of this group, 72 underwent WPRT and 42 underwent PBRT. The median follow-up was >5 years for all patient subsets. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards multivariate analyses were performed for all clinical, pathologic, and treatment factors predicting for bRFS. Results: Whole pelvic RT resulted in superior bRFS compared with PBRT (p = 0.03). The advantage of WPRT was limited to high-risk patients, with a 5-year bRFS rate of 47% (95% confidence interval, 35-59%) after WPRT vs. 21% (95% confidence interval, 8-35%) after PBRT (p = 0.008). For low-risk patients, no difference (p = 0.9) was found. On multivariate analysis, only WPRT (p = 0.02) and a preoperative prostate-specific antigen level <1.0 ng/mL (p = 0.002) were significantly associated with bRFS. The benefit from total androgen suppression with postoperative RT was only observed when given concurrently with WPRT (p 0.04) and not with PBRT (p = 0.4). Conclusion: The results of our study have indicated that WPRT confers superior bRFS compared with PBRT for high-risk patients receiving adjuvant or salvage RT after radical prostatectomy. This advantage was observed only with concurrent TAS. These results are analogous to the benefit from WPRT seen in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 94-13 study.

  3. The clinical role of multimodality imaging in the detection of prostate cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy: past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Paparo, Francesco; Massollo, Michela; Rollandi, Ludovica; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Ruggieri, Filippo Grillo; Rollandi, Gian Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Detection of the recurrence sites in prostate cancer (PCa) patients affected by biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy (RP) and radiation therapy (RT) is still a challenge for clinicians, nuclear medicine physicians, and radiologists. In the era of personalised and precision care, this task requires the integration, amalgamation, and combined analysis of clinical and imaging data from multiple sources. At present, multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mpMRI) and choline–positron emission tomography (PET) are giving encouraging results; their combination allows the effective detection of local, lymph nodal, and skeletal recurrences at low PSA levels. Future diagnostic perspectives include the clinical implementation of PET/MRI scanners, multimodal fusion imaging platforms for retrospective co-registration of PET and MR images, real-time transrectal ultrasound/mpMRI fusion imaging, and novel organ-specific PET radiotracers. PMID:26435743

  4. Improving time to continence after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy: augmentation of the total anatomic reconstruction technique by adding dynamic detrusor cuff trigonoplasty and suprapubic tube placement.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Ashutosh K; Ali, Adnan; Ghareeb, George; Ludwig, Wesley; Metgud, Sheela; Theckumparampil, Nithin; Takenaka, Atsushi; Chugtai, Bilal; Shrivastava, Abhishek; Kaplan, Steve A; Leung, Robert; Paryani, Rahul; Grushow, Siobhan; Durand, Matthieu; Peyser, Alexandra; Chopra, Sameer; Harneja, Niyati; Lee, Richard K; Herman, Michael; Robinson, Brian; Shevchuck, Maria M

    2012-12-01

    After robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy, total anatomic reconstruction (TR) with the additions of a circumapical urethral dissection, a dynamic detrusor cuff trigonoplasty, and placement of a suprapubic catheter was performed in 49 patients from June to July 2012. Continence at 6 weeks after catheter removal was assessed for an initial group of 23 patients, and also at 2 weeks in an additional 26 patients who most recently had undergone surgery. Follow-up appointments and telephone interviews were used to assess pad use and continence. Of the initial 23 patients receiving the modified TR, 60.9% had 0 pad use at 6 weeks. By 2 weeks, 65.4% of the most recent 26 patients operated on achieved continence with 0-1 pad use. Preservation and reconstruction of the pelvic floor and supporting bladder structures leads to an earlier return of continence. These key steps need to be validated and confirmed in larger and randomized trials. PMID:23230868

  5. Prospective randomized comparison of the safety, efficacy, and cosmetic outcome associated with mini-transverse and mini-longitudinal radical prostatectomy incisions

    PubMed Central

    Kava, Bruce R.; Ayyathurai, Rajinikanth; Soloway, Cynthia T.; Suarez, Miguel; Kanagarajah, Prashanth; Murugesan, Manoharan

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Open radical retropubic prostatectomy (ORP) has traditionally been performed through a lower midline incision. Prior efforts to reduce pain and expedite recovery include a variety of alterations in length and the orientation of the incision. The aim of our study is to compare the safety, efficacy, and cosmetic outcomes associated with transverse and longitudinal mini-radical prostatectomy incisions. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing ORP at a single institution were studied. Patients were randomized to receive either a modified transverse or longitudinal incision. In all patients, the length of the incision was 7cm. The following parameters were compared between the two groups: Perioperative blood loss, duration of surgery, technical factors, pain and analgesic requirements, length of hospital stay (LOS), and pathological stage. The Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) was used to compare the cosmetic aspects associated with the incisions. Results: Fifty-six patients underwent a transverse (n=27) and longitudinal (n=29) mini- incision ORP. No significant differences were noted in the perioperative parameters that were compared (P>0.116). None of the patients required blood transfusion, there were no wound complications. Perioperative pain and analgesic requirements were not significantly different among the two study arms (P>0.433). The POSAS indicated no significant difference in cosmesis scores with both incisions (P>0.09). Conclusions: Seven-centimeter transverse and longitudinal mini-incisions offer alternatives to the standard ORP incision, and to minimally invasive approaches. Both incisions are safe, associated with little postoperative pain, and a short postoperative LOS. Both incisions provide highly satisfactory cosmesis for the patient. PMID:21116351

  6. The dosimetric significance of using 10 MV photons for volumetric modulated arc therapy for post-prostatectomy irradiation of the prostate bed

    PubMed Central

    Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to analyse the dosimetric differences when using 10 MV instead of 6 MV for VMAT treatment plans for post-prostatectomy irradiation of the prostate bed. Methods and materials Ten post-prostatectomy prostate bed irradiation cases previously treated using 6 MV with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) were re-planned using 10 MV with VMAT. Prescription dose was 66.6 Gy with 1.8 Gy per fraction for 37 daily fractions. The same structure set, number of arcs, field sizes, and minimum dose to the Planning Target Volume (PTV) were used for both 6 MV and 10 MV plans. Results were collected for dose to Organs at Risk (OAR) constraints, dose to the target structures, number of monitor units for each arc, Body V5, Conformity Index, and Integral Dose. The mean values were used to compare the 6 MV and 10 MV results. To determine the statistical significance of the results, a paired Student t test and power analysis was performed. Results Statistically significant lower mean values were observed for the OAR dose constraints for the rectum, bladder-Clinical Target Volume (bladder-CTV), left femoral head, and right femoral head. Also, statistically significant lower mean values were observed for the Body V5, Conformity Index, and Integral Dose. Conclusions Several dosimetric benefits were observed when using 10 MV instead of 6 MV for VMAT based treatment plans. Benefits include sparing more dose from the OAR while still maintaining the same dose coverage to the PTV. Other benefits include lower Body V 5,Conformity Index, and Integral Dose. PMID:27247557

  7. African American Men With Very Low–Risk Prostate Cancer Exhibit Adverse Oncologic Outcomes After Radical Prostatectomy: Should Active Surveillance Still Be an Option for Them?

    PubMed Central

    Sundi, Debasish; Ross, Ashley E.; Humphreys, Elizabeth B.; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Active surveillance (AS) is a treatment option for men with very low–risk prostate cancer (PCa); however, favorable outcomes achieved for men in AS are based on cohorts that under-represent African American (AA) men. To explore whether race-based health disparities exist among men with very low–risk PCa, we evaluated oncologic outcomes of AA men with very low–risk PCa who were candidates for AS but elected to undergo radical prostatectomy (RP). Patients and Methods We studied 1,801 men (256 AA, 1,473 white men, and 72 others) who met National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria for very low–risk PCa and underwent RP. Presenting characteristics, pathologic data, and cancer recurrence were compared among the groups. Multivariable modeling was performed to assess the association of race with upgrading and adverse pathologic features. Results AA men with very low–risk PCa had more adverse pathologic features at RP and poorer oncologic outcomes. AA men were more likely to experience disease upgrading at prostatectomy (27.3% v 14.4%; P < .001), positive surgical margins (9.8% v 5.9%; P = .02), and higher Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Post-Surgical scoring system (CAPRA-S) scores. On multivariable analysis, AA race was an independent predictor of adverse pathologic features (odds ratio, [OR], 3.23; P = .03) and pathologic upgrading (OR, 2.26; P = .03). Conclusion AA men with very low–risk PCa who meet criteria for AS but undergo immediate surgery experience significantly higher rates of upgrading and adverse pathology than do white men and men of other races. AA men with very low–risk PCa should be counseled about increased oncologic risk when deciding among their disease management options. PMID:23775960

  8. Acute Radiation-Induced Nocturia in Prostate Cancer Patients Is Associated With Pretreatment Symptoms, Radical Prostatectomy, and Genetic Markers in the TGF{beta}1 Gene

    SciTech Connect

    De Langhe, Sofie; De Ruyck, Kim; Ost, Piet; Fonteyne, Valerie; Werbrouck, Joke; De Meerleer, Gert; De Neve, Wilfried; Thierens, Hubert

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: After radiation therapy for prostate cancer, approximately 50% of the patients experience acute genitourinary symptoms, mostly nocturia. This may be highly bothersome with a major impact on the patient's quality of life. In the past, nocturia is seldom reported as a single, physiologically distinct endpoint, and little is known about its etiology. It is assumed that in addition to dose-volume parameters and patient- and therapy-related factors, a genetic component contributes to the development of radiation-induced damage. In this study, we investigated the association among dosimetric, clinical, and TGF{beta}1 polymorphisms and the development of acute radiation-induced nocturia in prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Data were available for 322 prostate cancer patients treated with primary or postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Five genetic markers in the TGF{beta}1 gene (-800 G>A, -509 C>T, codon 10 T>C, codon 25 G>C, g.10780 T>G), and a high number of clinical and dosimetric parameters were considered. Toxicity was scored using an symptom scale developed in-house. Results: Radical prostatectomy (P<.001) and the presence of pretreatment nocturia (P<.001) are significantly associated with the occurrence of radiation-induced acute toxicity. The -509 CT/TT (P=.010) and codon 10 TC/CC (P=.005) genotypes are significantly associated with an increased risk for radiation-induced acute nocturia. Conclusions: Radical prostatectomy, the presence of pretreatment nocturia symptoms, and the variant alleles of TGF{beta}1 -509 C>T and codon 10 T>C are identified as factors involved in the development of acute radiation-induced nocturia. These findings may contribute to the research on prediction of late nocturia after IMRT for prostate cancer.

  9. [Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy for Patients with Prostatic Cancer and Factors Promoting Installation of the Robotic Surgical Equipment-Questionnaire Survey].

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Taiji; Tanaka, Shigeru

    2015-08-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey of hospitals with robot-assisted surgical equipment to study changes of the surgical case loads after its installation and the managerial strategies for its purchase. The study included 154 hospitals (as of April 2014) that were queried about their radical prostatectomy case loads from January 2009 to December 2013, strategies for installation of the equipment in their hospitals, and other topics related to the study purpose. The overall response rate of hospitals was 63%, though it marginally varied according to type and area. The annual case load was determined based on the results of the questionnaire and other modalities. It increased from 3,518 in 2009 to 6,425 in 2013. The case load seemed to be concentrated in hospitals with robot equipment since the increase of their number was very minimal over the 5 years. The hospitals with the robot treated a larger number of newly diagnosed patients with the disease than before. Most of the patients were those having localized cancer that was indicated for radical surgery, suggesting again the concentration of the surgical case loads in the hospitals with robots. While most hospitals believed that installation of a robot was necessary as an option for treatment procedures, the future strategy of the hospital, and other reasons, the action of the hospital to gain prestige may be involved in the process of purchasing the equipment. In conclusion, robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy has become popular as a surgical procedure for prostate cancer in our society. This may lead to a concentration of the surgical case load in a limited number of hospitals with robots. We also discuss the typical action of an acute-care hospital when it purchases expensive clinical medical equipment.

  10. [Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy for Patients with Prostatic Cancer and Factors Promoting Installation of the Robotic Surgical Equipment-Questionnaire Survey].

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Taiji; Tanaka, Shigeru

    2015-08-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey of hospitals with robot-assisted surgical equipment to study changes of the surgical case loads after its installation and the managerial strategies for its purchase. The study included 154 hospitals (as of April 2014) that were queried about their radical prostatectomy case loads from January 2009 to December 2013, strategies for installation of the equipment in their hospitals, and other topics related to the study purpose. The overall response rate of hospitals was 63%, though it marginally varied according to type and area. The annual case load was determined based on the results of the questionnaire and other modalities. It increased from 3,518 in 2009 to 6,425 in 2013. The case load seemed to be concentrated in hospitals with robot equipment since the increase of their number was very minimal over the 5 years. The hospitals with the robot treated a larger number of newly diagnosed patients with the disease than before. Most of the patients were those having localized cancer that was indicated for radical surgery, suggesting again the concentration of the surgical case loads in the hospitals with robots. While most hospitals believed that installation of a robot was necessary as an option for treatment procedures, the future strategy of the hospital, and other reasons, the action of the hospital to gain prestige may be involved in the process of purchasing the equipment. In conclusion, robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy has become popular as a surgical procedure for prostate cancer in our society. This may lead to a concentration of the surgical case load in a limited number of hospitals with robots. We also discuss the typical action of an acute-care hospital when it purchases expensive clinical medical equipment. PMID:26411654

  11. Calcifications in prostate and ejaculatory system: a study on 298 consecutive whole mount sections of prostate from radical prostatectomy or cystoprostatectomy specimens.

    PubMed

    Suh, Jae Hee; Gardner, Jerad M; Kee, Keun H; Shen, Steven; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

    2008-06-01

    Although calcifications in the prostate are a common manifestation, the relationship between calcifications and prostate cancer is not clearly documented as in breast cancer. In addition, anatomical distribution of calcifications by zones of the prostate and ejaculatory system has not been systematically studied. To study the frequency and patterns of calcifications within the prostate and ejaculatory system, we reviewed the whole mount sections of 298 consecutive prostatectomy or cystoprostatectomy specimens. Calcifications were evaluated in the prostate (central, peripheral and transition zones, and verumontanum), ejaculatory ducts, and seminal vesicles. We graded the degree of calcifications as mild, moderate, or severe. Calcifications in the prostate and ejaculatory system were common, and their frequency in our series is as follows: 88.6% (264/298) of prostates, 58.1% (173/298) of seminal vesicles, and 17.1% (51/298) of ejaculatory ducts. The prostatic calcifications occurred mostly in benign glands and/or stroma of all zones and the verumontanum. Calcifications were more common in the transition zone than other zones. There were 4 cases of prostatic calcifications in the areas of prostatic adenocarcinoma: 3 cases with calcifications in the tumor glands and 1 case with calcifications in tumor stroma but not in the accompanying tumor glands. In conclusion, calcifications are a very common finding in prostatectomy specimens and seem mostly to be associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, calcifications can occur in direct association with prostatic adenocarcinoma, although the incidence of this association is not as high as in breast carcinoma. Also, ejaculatory system calcifications are not an infrequent finding.

  12. Prospective Assessment of Gastrointestinal and Genitourinary Toxicity of Salvage Radiotherapy for Patients With Prostate-Specific Antigen Relapse or Local Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Pearse, Maria; Choo, Richard Danjoux, Cyril; Gardner, Sandra; Morton, Gerard; Szumacher, Ewa; Loblaw, Andrew; Cheung, Patrick

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To assess the acute and late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity of salvage radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A total of 75 patients with prostate-specific antigen relapse or clinically isolated local recurrence after radical prostatectomy were accrued between 1998 and 2002 for a Phase II study to evaluate the efficacy of salvage RT plus 2-year androgen suppression. Acute and late GI and GU toxicity was prospectively assessed using the National Cancer Institute Expanded Common Toxicity Criteria Version 2. For acute toxicity, prevalence was examined. For late toxicity, cumulative incidences of Grade 2 or higher and Grade 3 toxicity were calculated. Results: Median age was 67 years at the time of salvage RT. Median time from radical prostatectomy to RT was 36.2 months. Median follow-up was 45.1 months. Seventy-five patients were available for acute toxicity analysis, and 72 for late toxicity. Twelve percent and 40% had preexisting GI and GU dysfunction before RT, respectively. Sixty-eight percent, 21%, and 5% experienced Grade 1, 2, and 3 acute GI or GU toxicity, respectively. Cumulative incidences of Grade 2 or higher late GI and GU toxicity at 36 months were 8.7% and 22.6%, and Grade 3 late GI and GU toxicity, 1.6% and 2.8%, respectively. None had Grade 4 late toxicity. The severity of acute GU toxicity (Grade < 2 vs. {>=} 2) was a significant predictor factor for Grade 2 or higher late GU toxicity after adjusting for preexisting GU dysfunction. Conclusion: Salvage RT generally was well tolerated. Grade 3 or higher late GI or GU toxicity was uncommon.

  13. Exclusive image guided IMRT vs. radical prostatectomy followed by postoperative IMRT for localized prostate cancer: a matched-pair analysis based on risk-groups

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To investigate whether patients treated for a localized prostate cancer (PCa) require a radical prostatectomy followed by postoperative radiotherapy or exclusive radiotherapy, in the modern era of image guided IMRT. Methods 178 patients with PCa were referred for daily exclusive image guided IMRT (IG-IMRT) using an on-line 3D ultra-sound based system and 69 patients were referred for postoperative IMRT without image guidance after radical prostatectomy (RP + IMRT). Patients were matched in a 1:1 ratio according to their baseline risk group before any treatment. Late toxicity was scored using the CTV v3.0 scale. Biochemical failure was defined as a postoperative PSA ≤ 0.1 ng/mL followed by 1 consecutive rising PSA for the postoperative group of patients and by the Phoenix definition (nadir + 2 ng/mL) for the group of patients treated with exclusive radiotherapy. Results A total of 98 patients were matched (49:49). From the start of any treatment, the median follow-up was 56.6 months (CI 95% = [49.6-61.2], range [18.2-115.1]). No patient had late gastrointestinal grade ≥ 2 toxicity in the IG-IMRT group vs. 4% in the RP + IMRT group. Forty two percent of the patients in both groups had late grade ≥ 2 genitourinary toxicity. The 5-year FFF rates in the IG-IMRT group and in the RP + IMRT groups were 93.1% [80.0-97.8] and 76.5% [58.3-87.5], respectively (p = 0.031). Conclusions Patients with a localized PCa treated with IG-IMRT had better oncological outcome than patients treated with RP + IMRT. Further improvements in postoperative IMRT using image guidance and dose escalation are urgently needed. PMID:22978763

  14. Association of microRNA-126 expression with clinicopathological features and the risk of biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer patients undergoing radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective Numerous studies have suggested that microRNA-126 (miR-126) is involved in development of various cancer types as well as in malignant proliferation and invasion. However, its role in human prostate cancer (PCa) is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate miR-126 expression in PCa and its prognostic value for PCa patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Methods A series of 128 cases with PCa were evaluated for the expression levels of miR-126 by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the correlation between miR-126 expression and prognosis of PCa patients. Results Compared with non-cancerous prostate tissues, the expression level of miR-126 was significantly decreased in PCa tissues (PCa vs. non-cancerous prostate: 1.05 ± 0.63 vs. 2.92 ± 0.98, P < 0.001). Additionally, the loss of miR-126 expression was dramatically associated with aggressive clinical pathological features, including advanced pathological stage (P = 0.001), positive lymph node metastasis (P = 0.006), high preoperative PSA (P = 0.003) and positive angiolymphatic invasion (P = 0.001). Moreover, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that PCa patients with low miR-126 expression have shorter biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival than those with high miR-126 expression. Furthermore, multivariate analysis indicated that miR-126 expression was an independent prognostic factor for BCR-free survival after radical prostatectomy. Conclusion These findings suggest for the first time that the loss of miR-126 expression may play a positive role in the malignant progression of PCa. More importantly, the downregulation of miR-126 may serve as an independent predictor of BCR-free survival in patients with PCa. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1740080792113255. PMID

  15. Is the transition from open to robotic prostatectomy fair to your patients? A single-surgeon comparison with 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Nadler, Robert B; Casey, Jessica T; Zhao, Lee C; Navai, Neema; Smith, Zachary L; Zhumkhawala, Ali; Macejko, Amanda M

    2010-01-01

    Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is a procedure thought to require experience with a significant number of cases before mastering. Most RARP series examine outcomes after the learning curve or by combining results from multiple surgeons. We review a single surgeon's experience during the transition from open radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) to RARP using a matched case-control model. We prospectively analyzed 50 RARP cases and made comparison with the last 50 consecutive RRP cases. Operative time was longer for RARP than RRP (341 versus 235 min, p < 0.01), and mean estimated blood loss was less for RARP than RRP (533 versus 1,540 ml, p < 0.01). There was a trend towards fewer positive surgical margins (PSM) for RARP (10%) than RRP (24%; p = 0.06). High-risk patients were found to have a greater percentage of PSM following RRP (70%) in comparison with RARP (17%; p = 0.04). The number of patients who experienced complications was no different between groups (16 versus 12, p = 0.37). Erectile function at 12, 18, and 24 months showed no difference between groups (p = 0.15, 0.92, and 0.23, respectively). There was no difference in continence at 1 year (88.6% versus 89.1%; p = 0.94). During 27.1 months of follow-up for the RARP group and 30.4 months for the RRP group, 92% and 94% of patients had an undetectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (defined as ≤0.1), respectively (p = 0.38). We report similar outcomes in patients undergoing RARP by a surgeon transitioning from RRP to RARP, confirming that the learning curve does not affect patient outcomes over a 2-year follow-up. PMID:27628630

  16. Evaluation of early pelvic floor physiotherapy on the duration and degree of urinary incontinence after radical retropubic prostatectomy in a non-teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Cornel, E B; de Wit, R; Witjes, J A

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to study the effect of early pelvic floor re-education on the degree and duration of incontinence and to evaluate the results of radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) performed in a non-teaching hospital. This is a non-randomised study. From March 2000 to November 2003, 57 consecutive men, who underwent RRP for localized prostate cancer, participated in a pelvic floor re-educating program. Continence was defined as a loss of no more than 2-g urine on the 24-h pad test and no use of pads. The 24-h pad test was performed once in every 4 weeks until the patient indicated that he was continent. Diurnal and nocturnal continence was achieved after 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months post catheter removal in 40, 49, 70, 86 and 88% of all men, respectively. Comparison of our results with current literature suggest that the time period towards continence after a RRP can be shortened relevantly if pelvic floor re-education is started directly after catheter removal.

  17. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy outcome data: how should surgeon’s performance be reported? A retrospective learning curve analysis of two surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Sarah; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Chandra, Ashish; Brown, Christian; Cahill, Declan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To document the learning curve for the laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) procedure and discuss the optimal usage of prospectively documented outcome data for reporting a surgeon’s performance. Materials and methods Using prospectively collected data from the first series of patients to undergo LRP by two surgeons in the same institution, linear and logistic regression multivariate analyses per 25 patients were carried out to graphically represent the surgical learning curve for operative time, blood loss, complications, length of stay (LOS), and positive margins. Surgeon A carried out 275 operations between 2003–2009; Surgeon B carried out 225 between 2008–2012. Results Learning curves showing continuous improvement of each of the above outcomes were demonstrated for both cohorts. For surgeon A, a plateau was observed for LOS and T2 positive margins after 100 and 150 surgeries respectively. No such plateau was observed for surgeon B. Conclusion On documenting these learning curves and discussion of the reporting methods used, we concluded that the most informative outcome measure, with the least potential observer bias was T2 positive margins. Whether as a single measure or in combination with others, this has potential for use as an objective outcome representative of improvement in a surgeon’s skill over time. PMID:27563346

  18. Socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life among patients with prostate cancer 6 months after radical prostatectomy: a longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Jens; Hofreuter-Gätgens, Kerstin; Lüdecke, Daniel; Fisch, Margit; Graefen, Markus; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the explanatory contribution of disease, patient and healthcare factors among patients with prostate cancer. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting and participants In all, 246 patients from 2 hospitals in Hamburg/Germany who underwent radical prostatectomy completed a questionnaire shortly before discharge from hospital and again 6 months later. Outcome measures HRQOL as assessed by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ C-30 including global quality of life, 5 functional scales and 9 symptom scales/items. Generalised estimating equations were calculated to analyse longitudinal data. Results Lower SES measured by income, education and occupational status is significantly associated with lower HRQOL 6 months after treatment. This especially holds true for the functional scales. After introducing disease, patient and healthcare factors, associations remain significant in the majority of cases. The explanatory contribution of patient factors such as comorbidity or psychosocial characteristics and of healthcare factors is slightly stronger than that of disease factors. Conclusions We identified strong social inequalities in HRQOL among patients with prostate cancer 6 months after surgery, in Germany. The underlying causes could not be sufficiently identified, and further research regarding these associations and their explanatory factors is needed. PMID:27259527

  19. Differentiation of prostate cancer from normal tissue in radical prostatectomy specimens by desorption electrospray ionization and touch spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kerian, K S; Jarmusch, A K; Pirro, V; Koch, M O; Masterson, T A; Cheng, L; Cooks, R G

    2015-02-21

    Radical prostatectomy is a common treatment option for prostate cancer before it has spread beyond the prostate. Examination for surgical margins is performed post-operatively with positive margins reported to occur in 6.5-32% of cases. Rapid identification of cancerous tissue during surgery could improve surgical resection. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is an ambient ionization method which produces mass spectra dominated by lipid signals directly from prostate tissue. With the use of multivariate statistics, these mass spectra can be used to differentiate cancerous and normal tissue. The method was applied to 100 samples from 12 human patients to create a training set of MS data. The quality of the discrimination achieved was evaluated using principal component analysis - linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) and confirmed by histopathology. Cross validation (PCA-LDA) showed >95% accuracy. An even faster and more convenient method, touch spray (TS) mass spectrometry, not previously tested to differentiate diseased tissue, was also evaluated by building a similar MS data base characteristic of tumor and normal tissue. An independent set of 70 non-targeted biopsies from six patients was then used to record lipid profile data resulting in 110 data points for an evaluation dataset for TS-MS. This method gave prediction success rates measured against histopathology of 93%. These results suggest that DESI and TS could be useful in differentiating tumor and normal prostate tissue at surgical margins and that these methods should be evaluated intra-operatively.

  20. Delivery of human mesenchymal adipose-derived stem cells restores multiple urological dysfunctions in a rat model mimicking radical prostatectomy damages through tissue-specific paracrine mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yiou, René; Mahrouf-Yorgov, Meriem; Trébeau, Céline; Zanaty, Marc; Lecointe, Cécile; Souktani, Richard; Zadigue, Patricia; Figeac, Florence; Rodriguez, Anne-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) and erectile dysfunction (ED) are the most common functional urological disorders and the main sequels of radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy holds promise for repairing tissue damage due to RP. Because animal studies accurately replicating post-RP clinical UI and ED are lacking, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the urological benefits of MSC in this setting. To determine whether and by which mechanisms MSC can repair damages to both striated urethral sphincter (SUS) and penis in the same animal, we delivered human multipotent adipose stem cells, used as MSC model, in an immunocompetent rat model replicating post-RP UI and ED. In this model, we demonstrated by using noninvasive methods in the same animal from day 7 to day 90 post-RP injury that MSC administration into both the SUS and the penis significantly improved urinary continence and erectile function. The regenerative effects of MSC therapy were not due to transdifferentiation and robust engraftment at injection sites. Rather, our results suggest that MSC benefits in both target organs may involve a paracrine process with not only soluble factor release by the MSC but also activation of the recipient's secretome. These two effects of MSC varied across target tissues and damaged-cell types. In conclusion, our work provides new insights into the regenerative properties of MSC and supports the ability of MSC from a single source to repair multiple types of damage, such as those seen after RP, in the same individual.

  1. The Rate of Secondary Malignancies After Radical Prostatectomy Versus External Beam Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: A Population-Based Study on 17,845 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Bhojani, Naeem; Capitanio, Umberto; Suardi, Nazareno; Jeldres, Claudio; Isbarn, Hendrik; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Graefen, Markus; Arjane, Philippe; Duclos, Alain; Lattouf, Jean-Baptiste; Saad, Fred; Valiquette, Luc; Montorsi, Francesco; Perrotte, Paul; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: External-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) may predispose to secondary malignancies that include bladder cancer (BCa), rectal cancer (RCa), and lung cancer (LCa). We tested this hypothesis in a large French Canadian population-based cohort of prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Overall, 8,455 radical prostatectomy (RP) and 9,390 EBRT patients treated between 1983 and 2003 were assessed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. Three endpoints were examined: (1) diagnosis of secondary BCa, (2) LCa, or (3) RCa. Covariates included age, Charlson comorbidity index, and year of treatment. Results: In multivariable analyses that relied on incident cases diagnosed 60 months or later after RP or EBRT, the rates of BCa (hazard ratio [HR], 1.4; p = 0.02), LCa (HR, 2.0; p = 0.004), and RCa (HR 2.1; p <0.001) were significantly higher in the EBRT group. When incident cases diagnosed 120 months or later after RP or EBRT were considered, only the rates of RCa (hazard ratio 2.2; p = 0.003) were significantly higher in the EBRT group. In both analyses, the absolute differences in incident rates ranged from 0.7 to 5.2% and the number needed to harm (where harm equaled secondary malignancies) ranged from 111 to 19, if EBRT was used instead of RP. Conclusions: EBRT may predispose to clinically meaningfully higher rates of secondary BCa, LCa and RCa. These rates should be included in informed consent consideration.

  2. The Role of M1 and M2 Macrophages in Prostate Cancer in relation to Extracapsular Tumor Extension and Biochemical Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lanciotti, M.; Masieri, L.; Raspollini, M. R.; Minervini, A.; Mari, A.; Comito, G.; Giannoni, E.; Carini, M.; Chiarugi, P.; Serni, S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of our work was to investigate the causal connection between M1 and M2 macrophage phenotypes occurrence and prostate cancer, their correlation with tumor extension (ECE), and biochemical recurrence (BR). Patient and Methods. Clinical and pathological data were prospectively gathered from 93 patients treated with radical prostatectomy. Correlations of commonly used variables were evaluated with uni- and multivariate analysis. The relationship between M1 and M2 occurrence and BR was also assessed with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results. Above all in 63.4% there was a M2 prevalence. M1 occurred more frequently in OC disease, while M2 was more represented in ECE. At univariate analysis biopsy and pathologic GS and M2 were statistically correlated with ECE. Only pathologic GS and M2 confirmed to be correlated with ECE. According to macrophage density BCR free survival curves presented a statistically significant difference. When we stratified our population for M1 and M2,we did not find any statistical difference among curves. At univariate analysis GS, pTNM, and positive margins resulted to be significant predictors of BCR, while M1 and M2 did not achieve the statistical significance. At multivariate analysis, only GS and pathologic stage were independent predictors of BR. Conclusion. In our study patients with higher density of M count were associated with poor prognosis; M2 phenotype was significantly associated with ECE. PMID:24738060

  3. Effect of combined treatment with salvage radiotherapy plus androgen suppression on quality of life in patients with recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Andrew; Choo, Richard . E-mail: choo.c@mayo.edu; Danjoux, Cyril; Morton, Gerard; Loblaw, D. Andrew; Szumacher, Ewa; Cheung, Patrick; Deboer, Gerrit; Chander, Sarat

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of salvage radiotherapy (RT) plus 2-year androgen suppression (AS) on quality of life (QOL). Methods and Materials: A total of 74 patients with biopsy-proven local recurrence or PSA relapse after radical prostatectomy were treated with salvage RT plus 2-year AS, as per a phase II study. Quality of life was prospectively assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire 30-Item Version 3.0 with the added prostate cancer-specific module at baseline and predefined follow-up visits. Results: Patients experienced a significant increase in bowel dysfunction (23%) by the end of RT (p < 0.0001). This bowel dysfunction improved after RT but remained slightly elevated (5-10%) throughout the 2-year AS period. This extent of residual bowel dysfunction would be considered of minimal clinical importance. A similar, but less pronounced, pattern of change did occur for urinary dysfunction. Erectile function showed no change during RT, but had an abrupt decline (10%) with initiation of AS that was of moderate clinical significance (p < 0.01). None of the other QOL domains demonstrated a persistent, significant change from baseline that would be considered of major clinical significance. Conclusion: The combined treatment with salvage RT plus 2-year AS had relatively minor long-term effects on QOL.

  4. Insight into current surgical techniques and practice patterns associated with robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy: a national survey of urologists within the USA.

    PubMed

    Dyche, Damon J; Coffey, Mary; Sarle, Richard; Kernen, Kenneth; Seifman, Brian; Relle, James; Hollander, Jay; Hafron, Jason

    2010-08-01

    Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) has been rapidly adopted throughout the USA. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevailing RARP operative techniques and perceptions within the USA. An anonymous web-based survey was sent electronically to a list of 920 robotic urological surgeons. The survey assessed surgeon demographics, surgical technique, and postoperative care related to RARP. The study was comprised of urologists from community hospitals (76%) and university hospitals/specialty centers (24%). All geographic sections of the American Urological Association were represented. The most common neurovascular preservation techniques were ante/retrograde approach (48%), athermal (22%), and preservation of lateral pelvic fascia (17%). Surgeon choice of neurovascular preservation technique varied with the average number of procedures performed per year (P = 0.0065). High-volume surgeons tended to require a higher number of robotic cases in order to go through the learning curve of the "comfortable" (P = 0.001) and "expert" levels (P < 0.0001). The majority of surgeons reported that RARP (as compared with open surgery) improved urinary continence (77.2%), sexual function (65.6%), and surgical margin rates (53.8%). RARP is an evolving surgical procedure with significant variability in practice patterns among US surgeons. Further studies are necessary to compare the various techniques in order to improve surgical outcomes. PMID:27628775

  5. Specific learning curve for port placement and docking of da Vinci(®) Surgical System: one surgeon's experience in robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Dal Moro, F; Secco, S; Valotto, C; Artibani, W; Zattoni, F

    2012-12-01

    Port placement and docking of the da Vinci(®) Surgical System is fundamental in robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP). The aim of our study was to investigate learning curves for port placement and docking of robots (PPDR) in RALP. This manuscript is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data looking at PPDR in 526 patients who underwent RALP in our institute from April 2005 to May 2010. Data included patient-factor features such as body mass index (BMI), and pre-, intra- and post-operative data. Intra-operative information included operation time, subdivided into anesthesia, PPDR and console times. 526 patients underwent RALP, but only those in whom PPDR was performed by the same surgeon without laparoscopic and robotic experience (F.D.M.) were studied, totalling 257 cases. The PPDR phase revealed an evident learning curve, comparable with other robotic phases. Efficiency improved until approximately the 60th case (P < 0.001), due more to effective port placement than to docking of robotic arms. In our experience, conversion to open surgery is so rare that statistical evaluation is not significant. Conversion due to robotic device failure is also very rare. This study on da Vinci procedures in RALP revealed a learning curve during PPDR and throughout the robotic-assisted procedure, reaching a plateau after 60 cases. PMID:27628472

  6. Prevalence and impact of incompetence of internal jugular valve on postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Roh, Go Un; Kim, Won Oak; Rha, Koon Ho; Lee, Byung Ho; Jeong, Hae Won; Na, Sungwon

    2016-01-01

    Internal jugular vein (IJV) is the main pathway of cerebral venous drainage and its valves prevent regurgitation of blood to the brain. IJV valve incompetence (IJVVI) is known to be associated with cerebral dysfunctions. It occurs more often in male over 50 years old, conditions elevating intra-abdominal or intra-thoracic pressure. In robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP), elderly male undergoes surgery in Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum applied. Therefore, we assessed the IJVVI during RALRP and its influence on postoperative cognitive function. 57 patients undergoing RALRP were enrolled. Neurocognitive tests including Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Color Word Stroop Test, digit span test, and grooved pegboard test were performed the day before and 2 days after surgery. During surgery, IJVVI was assessed with ultrasonography in supine position with and without pneumoperitoneum, and Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum. 50 patients underwent sonographic assessment and 41 patients completed neurocognitive examination. A total of 27 patients presented IJVVI, 19 patients in supine position without pneumoperitoneum, 7 patients in supine position with pneumoperitoneum and 1 patient in Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum. In neurocognitive tests, patients with IJVVI showed statistically significant decline of score in MMSE postoperatively (p<0.05). IJVVI occurred in 38% in supine position but the incidence was increased to 54% after Trendelenburg position and pneumoperitoneum. Patients with IJVVI did not show significant differences in cognitive function tests except MMSE. Clinical and neurological significance of physiologic changes associated RALRP should be studied further. PMID:26921505

  7. TEN-YEAR FOLLOW-UP OF NEOADJUVANT THERAPY WITH GOSERELIN ACETATE AND FLUTAMIDE PRIOR TO RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY FOR CLINICAL T3 AND T4 PROSTATE CANCER: UPDATE ON SOUTHWEST ONCOLOGY GROUP STUDY 9109

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Ryan K.; Tangen, Catherine M.; Powell, Isaac J.; Lowe, Bruce A.; Haas, Gabriel P.; Carroll, Peter R.; Canby-Hagino, Edith D.; White, Ralph deVere; Hemstreet, George P.; Crawford, E. David; Thompson, Ian M.; Klein, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The optimal management for clinical stage T3 and T4 (N0, M0) prostate cancer is uncertain. Herein we update the results with ten-year data of a phase II prospective trial of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy with goserelin acetate and flutamide followed by radical prostatectomy for locally-advanced prostate cancer (SWOG 9109). Materials and Methods 62 patients with clinical stage T3 and T4 (N0, M0) prostate cancer were enrolled. Cases were classified by stage T3 versus T4 and by volume of disease (bulky > 4 cm and non-bulky ≤ 4 cm). Results A total of 55 of 61 eligible patients completed the trial with radical prostatectomy after neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). The median pre-operative PSA value was 19.8 ng/ml, and 67% of patients had a Gleason score of 7 or higher. Among 41 patients last known to be alive, median follow-up is 10.6 years (range 5.1–12.6 years). In all, 38 patients have had disease progression (30/55, 55%) or died without progression (8/55, 15%) for a ten-year PFS estimate of 40% (95% CI, 27–53%). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 7.5 years, and median survival has not been reached. The ten-year overall survival (OS) estimate is 68% (95% CI, 56–80%). Conclusions In this small, prospective phase II study, neoadjuvant hormonal therapy with goserelin acetate and flutamide followed by radical prostatectomy achieves long-term PFS and OS comparable to alternative treatments. This approach is feasible and may be an alternative to a strategy of combined radiation and ADT. PMID:22386416

  8. Radical Prostatectomy versus External Beam Radiotherapy for cT1-4N0M0 Prostate Cancer: Comparison of Patient Outcomes Including Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Satoru; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Shiraishi, Kenshiro; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Morikawa, Teppei; Kakutani, Shigenori; Takeshima, Yuta; Miyazaki, Hideyo; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Tohru; Kume, Haruki; Homma, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Background Although radical prostatectomy (RP) and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) have been considered as comparable treatments for localized prostate cancer (PC), it is controversial which treatment is better. The present study aimed to compare outcomes, including mortality, of RP and EBRT for localized PC. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 891 patients with cT1-4N0M0 PC who underwent either RP (n = 569) or EBRT (n = 322) with curative intent at our single institution between 2005 and 2012. Of the EBRT patients, 302 (93.8%) underwent intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Related to these, other-cause mortality (OCM) was also calculated. Biochemical recurrence-free survival was assessed as a secondary endpoint. Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis. Results Median follow-up durations were 53 and 45 months, and median ages were 66 and 70 years (P <0.0001), in the RP and EBRT groups, respectively. As a whole, significantly better prognoses of the RP group than the EBRT group were observed for both OS and CSS, although OCM was significantly higher in the EBRT group. There was no death from PC in men with low and intermediate D’Amico risks, except one with intermediate-risk in the EBRT group. In high-risk patients, significantly more patients died from PC in the EBRT group than the RP group. Multivariate analysis demonstrated the RP group to be an independent prognostic factor for better CSS. On the other hand, the EBRT group had a significantly longer biochemical recurrence-free survival than the RP group. Conclusions Mortality outcomes of both RP and EBRT were generally favorable in low and intermediate risk patients. Improvement of CSS in high risk patients was seen in patients receiving RP over those receiving EBRT. PMID:26506569

  9. A Double Blind, Randomized, Neoadjuvant Study of the Tissue effects of POMx Pills in Men with Prostate Cancer Prior to Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Freedland, Stephen J.; Carducci, Michael; Kroeger, Nils; Partin, Alan; Rao, Jian-yu; Jin, Yusheng; Kerkoutian, Susan; Wu, Hong; Li, Yunfeng; Creel, Patricia; Mundy, Kelly; Gurganus, Robin; Fedor, Helen; King, Serina A.; Zhang, Yanjun; Heber, David; Pantuck, Allan J.

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranates slow prostate cancer xenograft growth and prolong PSA doubling times in single-arm human studies. Pomegranates’ effects on human prostate tissue are understudied. We hypothesized orally administered pomegranate extract (POMx; PomWonderful, Los Angeles, CA) would lower tissue 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an oxidative stress biomarker. 70 men were randomized to 2 tablets POMx or placebo daily up to 4 weeks prior to radical prostatectomy. Tissue was analyzed for intra-prostatic Urolithin A, a pomegranate metabolite, benign and malignant 8-OHdG, and cancer pS6 kinase, NFκB, and Ki67. Primary end-point was differences in 8-OHdG powered to detect 30% reduction. POMx was associated with 16% lower benign tissue 8-OHdG (p=0.095), which was not statistically significant. POMx was well-tolerated with no treatment-related withdrawals. There were no differences in baseline clinicopathological features between arms. Urolithin A was detected in 21/33 patient in the POMx group vs. 12/35 in the placebo group (p=0.031). Cancer pS6 kinase, NFκB, Ki67, and serum PSA changes were similar between arms. POMx prior to surgery results in pomegranate metabolite accumulation in prostate tissues. Our primary end-point in this modest-sized short-term trial was negative. Future larger longer studies are needed to more definitely test whether POMx reduces prostate oxidative stress as well as further animal testing to better understand the multiple mechanisms through which POMx may alter prostate cancer biology. PMID:23985577

  10. Comparative Toxicity and Dosimetric Profile of Whole-Pelvis Versus Prostate Bed-Only Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Lin Haibo; Bar Ad, Voichita; Tochner, Zelig; Both, Stefan

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To assess whether whole-pelvis (WP) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer (PCa) after prostatectomy is associated with increased toxicity compared to prostate-bed only (PB) IMRT. Methods and Materials: All patients (n = 67) undergoing postprostatectomy IMRT to 70.2 Gy at our institution from January 2006 to January 2009 with minimum 12-month follow-up were divided into WP (n = 36) and PB (n = 31) comparison groups. WP patients received initial pelvic nodal IMRT to 45 Gy. Pretreatment demographics, bladder and rectal dose-volume histograms, and maximum genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities were compared. Logistic regression models evaluated uni- and multivariate associations between pretreatment demographics and toxicities. Results: Pretreatment demographics including age and comorbidities were similar between groups. WP patients had higher Gleason scores, T stages, and preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, and more WP patients underwent androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). WP minimum (Dmin) and mean bladder doses, bladder volumes receiving more than 5 Gy (V5) and V20, rectal Dmin, and PB bladder and rectal V65 were significantly increased. Maximum acute GI toxicity was Grade 2 and was increased for WP (61%) vs. PB (29%) patients (p = 0.001); there was no significant difference in acute Grade {>=}2 GU toxicity (22% WP vs. 10% PB; p = 0.193), late Grade {>=}2 GI toxicity (3% WP vs. 0% PB; p = 0.678), or late Grade {>=}2 GU toxicity (28% WP vs. 19% PB; p = 0.274) with 25-month median follow-up (range, 12-44 months). On multivariate analysis, long-term ADT use was associated with Grade {>=}2 late GU toxicity (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Despite dosimetric differences in irradiated bowel, bladder, and rectum, WP IMRT resulted only in clinically significant increased acute GI toxicity in comparison to that with PB IMRT, with no differences in GU or late GI toxicity.

  11. The Effect of the Vesical Adaptation Response to Diuresis on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms after Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy: A Pilot Proof of Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Nobuhiro; Aikawa, Ken; Hoshi, Seiji; Yabe, Michihiro; Akaihata, Hidenori; Hata, Junya; Sato, Yuichi; Ogawa, Soichiro; Ishibashi, Kei; Kojima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background When urine output increases, voided volume at each voiding also increases in normal subjects. This is generally understood as a vesical adaptation response to diuresis (VARD). Because lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are supposed to be improved by the change in bladder function after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP), the aim of the present study was to investigate whether VARD is involved in the improvement of LUTS after RARP. Methods 100 consecutive patients who underwent RARP and had the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QOL) index, a frequency-volume chart (FVC), uroflowmetry, and post-voided residual urine (PVR) available were evaluated before and after RARP. This cohort was divided into patients with and without preoperative LUTS according to the preoperative IPSS total score. VARD was defined as the presence of a significant correlation between the urine output rate and voided volume at each voiding (R2>0.2). Results In patients with preoperative LUTS, the IPSS total, storage, and voiding symptom scores were significantly improved after RARP (all P<0.001). The QOL index was also significantly improved after RARP (P<0.05). Although VARD was not seen before RARP (R2 = 0.05), it was seen after RARP (3 months R2 = 0.22, 12 months R2 = 0.23). PVR was significantly reduced after RARP (P = 0.004). Conclusions Improvement of LUTS was seen with acquisition of VARD after RARP. As a result, urinary QOL was also improved in patients with preoperative LUTS. RARP might be an effective procedure for amelioration of LUTS by the acquisition of VARD. PMID:27447829

  12. Prospective assessment of time-dependent changes in quality of life of Japanese patients with prostate cancer following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Akira; Furukawa, Junya; Hinata, Nobuyuki; Fujisawa, Masato

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize changes in the quality of life (QOL) of Japanese patients following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). This study included 298 consecutive localized prostate cancer (PC) patients undergoing RARP. The health-related QOL and disease-specific QOL were assessed using The Medical Outcomes Study 8-Item Short Form (SF-8) and The Extended Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC), respectively, before and 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after RARP. At 1 month after RARP, four (physical function, role limitations because of physical health problems, social function and role limitations because of emotional problems) of the eight scores in SF-8 were significantly impaired compared with those of baseline scores. However, all eight scores on all postoperative assessments, except for at 1 month after RARP, showed no significant differences from baseline scores. Although there were no significant differences in the bowel function, bowel bother, sexual bother, hormonal function or hormonal bother between baseline and postoperative assessments of EPIC at all time points, the urinary function, urinary incontinence and sexual function scores at 1, 3 and 6 months after RARP were significantly inferior to those of baseline scores, and urinary bother and urinary irritation/obstruction scores at 1 month after RARP were significantly impaired compared with those of baseline scores. These findings suggest that the health-related QOL of Japanese PC patients undergoing RARP may not be markedly deteriorated following RARP; however, as for the disease-specific QOL, urinary and sexual functions, particularly those early after RARP, appeared to be significantly impaired.

  13. Urodynamic assessment of bladder and urethral function among men with lower urinary tract symptoms after radical prostatectomy: A comparison between men with and without urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hansol; Kim, Ki Bom; Lee, Sangchul; Lee, Sang Wook; Kim, Myong; Cho, Sung Yong; Oh, Seung-June

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We compared bladder and urethral functions following radical prostatectomy (RP) between men with and without urinary incontinence (UI), using a large-scale database from SNU-experts-of-urodynamics-leading (SEOUL) Study Group. Materials and Methods Since July 2004, we have prospectively collected data on urodynamics from 303 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following RP at three affiliated hospitals of SEOUL Study Group. After excluding 35 patients with neurogenic abnormality, pelvic irradiation after surgery, or a history of surgery on the lower urinary tract, 268 men were evaluated. We compared the urodynamic findings between men who had LUTS with UI (postprostatectomy incontinence [PPI] group) and those who had LUTS without UI (non-PPI group). Results The mean age at an urodynamic study was 68.2 years. Overall, a reduced bladder compliance (≤20 mL/cmH2O) was shown in 27.2% of patients; and 31.3% patients had idiopathic detrusor overactivity. The patients in the PPI group were older (p=0.001) at an urodynamic study and had a lower maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) (p<0.001), as compared with those in the non-PPI group. Bladder capacity and detrusor pressure during voiding were also significantly lower in the PPI group. In the logistic regression, only MUCP and maximum cystometric capacity were identified as the related factor with the presence of PPI. Conclusions In our study, significant number of patients with LUTS following RP showed a reduced bladder compliance and detrusor overactivity. PPI is associated with both impairment of the urethral closuring mechanism and bladder storage dysfunction. PMID:26682020

  14. Exposure to Agent Orange is a significant predictor of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based recurrence and a rapid PSA doubling time after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sagar R.; Freedland, Stephen J.; Aronson, William J.; Kane, Christopher J.; Presti, Joseph C.; Amling, Christopher L.; Terris, Martha K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate and report the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with prostate cancer and previous exposure to Agent Orange (AO), particularly in relationship to race. PATIENTS AND METHODS In 1495 veterans who had undergone RP the clinicopathological characteristics, biochemical progression rates, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time (DT) after recurrence between AO-exposed and unexposed men were compared using logistic and linear regression and Cox proportional hazards analyses, and stratified by race. RESULTS The 206 (14%) men with AO exposure were more likely to be black (P = 0.001), younger (P < 0.001), treated more recently (P < 0.001), have a higher body mass index (P = 0.001), have clinical stage T1 disease (P < 0.001), and have lower preoperative PSA levels (P = 0.001). After adjusting for several clinical characteristics, AO exposure was not significantly related to adverse pathological features but was significantly associated with biochemical progression risk (relative risk 1.55, 95% confidence interval 1.15–2.09, P = 0.004) and shorter PSADT (P < 0.001) after recurrence (8.2 vs 18.6 months). When stratified by race, these associations were present and similar in both races, with no significant interaction between race and AO exposure for predicting biochemical recurrence or mean adjusted PSADT (P interaction >0.20). CONCLUSIONS Patients with AO exposure and treated with RP were more likely to be black, present with lower risk features, have an increased risk of biochemical progression, and shorter PSADT after recurrence. When stratified by race, the association between AO exposure and poor outcomes was present in both races. These findings suggest that among selected men who choose RP, AO exposure might be associated with more aggressive prostate cancer. PMID:19298411

  15. Akt Activation Correlates with Snail Expression and Potentially Determines the Recurrence of Prostate Cancer in Patients at Stage T2 after a Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Hua, Kuo-Tai; Lee, Wei-Jiunn; Lin, Yung-Wei; Liu, Yen-Nien; Chen, Chi-Long; Wen, Yu-Ching; Chien, Ming-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Our previous work demonstrated the epithelial-mesenchymal transition factor, Snail, is a potential marker for predicting the recurrence of localized prostate cancer (PCa). Akt activation is important for Snail stabilization and transcription in PCa. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate the relationship between the phosphorylated level of Akt (p-Akt) in radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens and cancer biochemical recurrence (BCR). Using a tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry, the expression of p-Akt was measured in benign and neoplastic tissues from RP specimens in 53 patients whose cancer was pathologically defined as T2 without positive margins. Herein, we observed that the p-Akt level was higher in PCa than in benign tissues and was significantly associated with the Snail level. A high p-Akt image score (≥8) was significantly correlated with a higher histological Gleason sum, Snail image score, and preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value. Moreover, the high p-Akt image score and Gleason score sum (≥7) showed similar discriminatory abilities for BCR according to a receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis and were correlated with worse recurrence-free survival according to a log-rank test (p < 0.05). To further determine whether a high p-Akt image score could predict the risk of BCR, a Cox proportional hazard model showed that only a high p-Akt image score (hazard ratio (HR): 3.12, p = 0.05) and a high Gleason score sum (≥7) (HR: 1.18, p = 0.05) but not a high preoperative PSA value (HR: 0.62, p = 0.57) were significantly associated with a higher risk of developing BCR. Our data indicate that, for localized PCa patients after an RP, p-Akt can serve as a potential prognostic marker that improves predictions of BCR-free survival. PMID:27455254

  16. Genetic variants of the CYP1B1 gene as predictors of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy in localized prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gu, Cheng-Yuan; Qin, Xiao-Jian; Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhu, Yu; Wan, Fang-Ning; Zhang, Gui-Ming; Sun, Li-Jiang; Zhu, Yao; Ye, Ding-Wei

    2016-07-01

    Clinically localized prostate cancer is curative. Nevertheless many patients suffered from biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Mounting evidence suggest that estrogen and xenobiotic carcinogens play an essential role in progression of prostate cancervia oxidative estrogen metabolism. CYP1B1 is an enzyme involved in the hydroxylation of estrogens, a reaction of key relevance in estrogen metabolism. Given the role of CYP1B1 in the oxidative metabolism of endogenous/exogenous estrogen and compounds, CYP1B1 polymorphisms have the potential to modify its expression and subsequently lead to progression. We hypothesize that genetic variants of the CYP1B1 gene may influence clinical outcome in clinically localized prostate cancer patients. In this cohort study, we genotyped 9 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the CYP1B1 gene in 312 patients treated with RP. For replication, these SNPs were genotyped in an independent cohort of 426 patients. The expression level of CYP1B1 in the adjacent normal prostate tissues was quantified by reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models were utilized to identify SNPs that correlated with BCR. CYP1B1 rs1056836 was significantly associated with BCR (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40-0.89, P = 0.002) and relative CYP1B1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest inherited genetic variation in the CYP1B1 gene may contribute to variable clinical outcomes for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. PMID:27399092

  17. A comparison of plasma and prostate lycopene in response to typical servings of tomato soup, sauce or juice in men before prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Elizabeth M; Hadley, Craig W; Moran, Nancy E; Riedl, Kenneth M; Gong, Michael C; Pohar, Kamal; Schwartz, Steven J; Clinton, Steven K

    2015-08-28

    Tomato product consumption and estimated lycopene intake are hypothesised to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. To define the impact of typical servings of commercially available tomato products on resultant plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations, men scheduled to undergo prostatectomy (n 33) were randomised either to a lycopene-restricted control group ( < 5 mg lycopene/d) or to a tomato soup (2-2¾ cups prepared/d), tomato sauce (142-198 g/d or 5-7 ounces/d) or vegetable juice (325-488 ml/d or 11-16·5 fluid ounces/d) intervention providing 25-35 mg lycopene/d. Plasma and prostate carotenoid concentrations were measured by HPLC. Tomato soup, sauce and juice consumption significantly increased plasma lycopene concentration from 0·68 (sem 0·1) to 1·13 (sem 0·09) μmol/l (66 %), 0·48 (sem 0·09) to 0·82 (sem 0·12) μmol/l (71 %) and 0·49 (sem 0·12) to 0·78 (sem 0·1) μmol/l (59 %), respectively, while the controls consuming the lycopene-restricted diet showed a decline in plasma lycopene concentration from 0·55 (sem 0·60) to 0·42 (sem 0·07) μmol/l ( - 24 %). The end-of-study prostate lycopene concentration was 0·16 (sem 0·02) nmol/g in the controls, but was 3·5-, 3·6- and 2·2-fold higher in tomato soup (P= 0·001), sauce (P= 0·001) and juice (P= 0·165) consumers, respectively. Prostate lycopene concentration was moderately correlated with post-intervention plasma lycopene concentrations (r 0·60, P =0·001), indicating that additional factors have an impact on tissue concentrations. While the primary geometric lycopene isomer in tomato products was all-trans (80-90 %), plasma and prostate isomers were 47 and 80 % cis, respectively, demonstrating a shift towards cis accumulation. Consumption of typical servings of processed tomato products results in differing plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations. Factors including meal composition and genetics deserve further evaluation to determine their impacts on lycopene absorption and

  18. Long-Term Follow-Up and Risk of Cancer Death After Radiation for Post-Prostatectomy Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, Gregory P.; Du, Fei; Michalek, Joel E.; Hermans, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: The results of salvage radiation therapy for rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels after radical prostatectomy appear favorable, but the ultimate outcome is uncertain, given the relatively short follow-up in most studies. We report on a group of patients at a median follow-up of 13.9 years after salvage radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 1995, 92 patients were referred postoperatively for radiation for a rising PSA level. PSA level at the time of referral ranged from 0.1 to 30.5 ng/ml (median, 1.5 ng/ml). The median time from surgery to radiation was 2.1 years (range,, 0.3-7.4 years). Radiation was directed to the prostatic fossa only with a median dose of 6,500 cGy (range, 6,000-7,000 cGy). Results: Eighty-five patients experienced a PSA drop after radiation, as predicted by Gleason score and PSA level at the start of radiation. Five- and 10-year biochemical failure free survival (BFFS) was 35% and 26%, respectively, and overall survival was 86% and 67%, respectively. Median survival was 12.0 years, and median BFF was 2.3 years. The presurgery PSA level was not predictive, but the PSA level at the start of radiation predicted a response. Patients with Gleason 8 to 9 cancers had a significantly higher progression rate than those with lower Gleason scores. There were no significant differences in outcomes based on pathology findings (none vs. positive margins vs. positive seminal vesicles). Overall, 22 (24%) patients died directly from prostate cancer, resulting in a 10-year cancer-specific survival rate of 82%. Multivariate analysis risk factors for dying of cancer were Gleason's score (8 to 9) and PSA at the start of radiation therapy (>1.0 ng/ml). Conclusions: Patients have a good response to salvage radiation therapy. A small but durable subgroup appears to have permanent control. In those for whom therapy fails, radiation delays the need for other salvage therapy, indicating at least a transient benefit to most patients.

  19. Radical Prostatectomy Findings in White Hispanic/Latino Men With NCCN Very Low-risk Prostate Cancer Detected by Template Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Kryvenko, Oleksandr N.; Lyapichev, Kirill; Chinea, Felix M.; Prakash, Nachiketh Soodana; Pollack, Alan; Gonzalgo, Mark L.; Punnen, Sanoj; Jorda, Merce

    2016-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy (RP) outcomes have been studied in White and Black non-Hispanic men qualifying for Epstein active surveillance criteria (EASC). Herein, we first analyzed such outcomes in White Hispanic men. We studied 70 men with nonpalpable Gleason score 3+3 = 6 (Grade Group [GG] 1) prostate cancer (PCa) with ≤2 positive cores on biopsy who underwent RP. In 18 men, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density (PSAD) was >0.15 ng/mL/g. Three of these had insignificant and 15 had significant PCa. The remaining 52 men qualified for EASC. One patient had no PCa identified at RP. Nineteen (37%) had significant PCa defined by volume (n = 7), grade (n = 7), and volume and grade (n = 5). Nine cases were 3+4 = 7 (GG 2) (5/9 [56%] with pattern 4 <5%), 2 were 3+5 = 8 (GG 4), and 1 was 4+5 = 9 (GG 5). Patients with significant PCa more commonly had anterior dominant disease (11/19, 58%) versus patients with insignificant cancer (7/33, 21%) (P = 0.01). In 12 cases with higher grade at RP, the dominant tumor nodule was anterior in 6 (50%) and posterior in 6 (median volumes: 1.1 vs. 0.17 cm3, respectively; P = 0.01). PSA correlated poorly with tumor volume (r = 0.28, P = 0.049). Gland weight significantly correlated with PSA (r = 0.54, P < 0.001). While PSAD and PSA mass density correlated with tumor volume, only PSA mass density distinguished cases with significant disease (median, 0.008 vs. 0.012 μg/g; P = 0.03). In summary, a PSAD threshold of 0.15 works well in predicting significant tumor volume in Hispanic men. EASC appear to perform better in White Hispanic men than previously reported outcomes for Black non-Hispanic and worse than in White non-Hispanic men. Significant disease is often Gleason score 3+3 = 6 (GG 1) PCa >0.5 cm3. Significant PCa is either a larger-volume anterior disease that may be detected by multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging-targeted biopsy or anterior sampling of the prostate or higher-grade smaller-volume posterior disease that in most

  20. Visualization of prostatic nerves by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Yeoreum; Jeon, Seung Hwan; Park, Yong Hyun; Jang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Ji Youl; Kim, Ki Hean

    2016-01-01

    Preservation of prostatic nerves is critical to recovery of a man’s sexual potency after radical prostatectomy. A real-time imaging method of prostatic nerves will be helpful for nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (NSRP). Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT), which provides both structural and birefringent information of tissue, was applied for detection of prostatic nerves in both rat and human prostate specimens, ex vivo. PS-OCT imaging of rat prostate specimens visualized highly scattering and birefringent fibrous structures superficially, and these birefringent structures were confirmed to be nerves by histology or multiphoton microscopy (MPM). PS-OCT could easily distinguish these birefringent structures from surrounding other tissue compartments such as prostatic glands and fats. PS-OCT imaging of human prostatectomy specimens visualized two different birefringent structures, appearing fibrous and sheet-like. The fibrous ones were confirmed to be nerves by histology, and the sheet-like ones were considered to be fascias surrounding the human prostate. PS-OCT imaging of human prostatectomy specimens along the perimeter showed spatial variation in the amount of birefringent fibrous structures which was consistent with anatomy. These results demonstrate the feasibility of PS-OCT for detection of prostatic nerves, and this study will provide a basis for intraoperative use of PS-OCT. PMID:27699090

  1. Visualization of prostatic nerves by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Yeoreum; Jeon, Seung Hwan; Park, Yong Hyun; Jang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Ji Youl; Kim, Ki Hean

    2016-01-01

    Preservation of prostatic nerves is critical to recovery of a man’s sexual potency after radical prostatectomy. A real-time imaging method of prostatic nerves will be helpful for nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (NSRP). Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT), which provides both structural and birefringent information of tissue, was applied for detection of prostatic nerves in both rat and human prostate specimens, ex vivo. PS-OCT imaging of rat prostate specimens visualized highly scattering and birefringent fibrous structures superficially, and these birefringent structures were confirmed to be nerves by histology or multiphoton microscopy (MPM). PS-OCT could easily distinguish these birefringent structures from surrounding other tissue compartments such as prostatic glands and fats. PS-OCT imaging of human prostatectomy specimens visualized two different birefringent structures, appearing fibrous and sheet-like. The fibrous ones were confirmed to be nerves by histology, and the sheet-like ones were considered to be fascias surrounding the human prostate. PS-OCT imaging of human prostatectomy specimens along the perimeter showed spatial variation in the amount of birefringent fibrous structures which was consistent with anatomy. These results demonstrate the feasibility of PS-OCT for detection of prostatic nerves, and this study will provide a basis for intraoperative use of PS-OCT.

  2. The Prostate Cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trial: VA/NCI/AHRQ Cooperative Studies Program #407 (PIVOT): design and baseline results of a randomized controlled trial comparing radical prostatectomy with watchful waiting for men with clinically localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilt, Timothy J

    2012-12-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death in men. In the United States, 90% of men with prostate cancer are more than age 60 years, diagnosed by early detection with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test, and have disease believed confined to the prostate gland (clinically localized). Common treatments for clinically localized prostate cancer include watchful waiting (WW), surgery to remove the prostate gland (radical prostatectomy), external-beam radiation therapy and interstitial radiation therapy (brachytherapy), and androgen deprivation. Little is known about the relative effectiveness and harms of treatments because of the paucity of randomized controlled trials. The Department of Veterans Affairs/National Cancer Institute/Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Cooperative Studies Program Study #407:Prostate Cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trial (PIVOT), initiated in 1994, is a multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing radical prostatectomy with WW in men with clinically localized prostate cancer. We describe the study rationale, design, recruitment methods, and baseline characteristics of PIVOT enrollees. We provide comparisons with eligible men declining enrollment and men participating in another recently reported randomized trial of radical prostatectomy vs WW conducted in Scandinavia. We screened 13 022 men with prostate cancer at 52 US medical centers for potential enrollment. From these, 5023 met initial age, comorbidity, and disease eligibility criteria, and a total of 731 men agreed to participate and were randomized. The mean age of enrollees was 67 years. Nearly one-third were African American. Approximately 85% reported that they were fully active. The median PSA was 7.8ng/mL (mean 10.2ng/mL). In three-fourths of men, the primary reason for biopsy leading to a diagnosis of prostate cancer was a PSA elevation or rise. Using previously developed tumor risk

  3. Phase IIa, randomized placebo-controlled trial of single high dose cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and daily Genistein (G-2535) versus double placebo in men with early stage prostate cancer undergoing prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jarrard, David; Konety, Badrinath; Huang, Wei; Downs, Tracy; Kolesar, Jill; Kim, Kyung Mann; Havighurst, Tom; Slaton, Joel; House, Margaret G; Parnes, Howard L; Bailey, Howard H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: Prostate cancer (PCa) represents an important target for chemoprevention given its prolonged natural history and high prevalence. Epidemiologic and laboratory data suggest that vitamin D and genistein (soy isoflavone) may decrease PCa progression. The effect of vitamin D on prostate epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation is well documented and genistein may augment this affect through inhibition of the CYP24 enzyme, which is responsible for intracellular vitamin D metabolism. In addition, both genistein and vitamin D inhibit the intraprostatic synthesis of prostaglandin E2, an important mediator of inflammation. The objectives of this prospective multicenter trial were to compare prostate tissue calcitriol levels and down-stream related biomarkers in men with localized prostate cancer randomized to receive cholecalciferol and genistein versus placebo cholecalciferol and placebo genistein during the pre-prostatectomy period. Methods: Men undergoing radical prostatectomy were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: (1) cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) 200,000 IU as one dose at study entry plus genistein (G-2535), 600 mg daily or (2) placebo cholecalciferol day 1 and placebo genistein PO daily for 21-28 days prior to radical prostatectomy. Serum and tissue analyses were performed and side-effects recorded. Results: A total of 15 patients were enrolled, 8 in the placebo arm and 7 in the vitamin D3 + genistein (VD + G) arm. All patients were compliant and completed the study. No significant differences in side effect profiles were noted. Utilization of the VD + G trended toward increased calcitriol serum concentrations when compared to placebo (0.104 ± 0.2 vs. 0.0013 ± 0.08; p=0.08); however, prostate tissue levels did not increase. Calcidiol levels did not change (p=0.5). Immunohistochemistry for marker analyses using VECTRA automated quantitation revealed a increase in AR expression (p=0.04) and a trend toward increased

  4. The Prostate Cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trial: VA/NCI/AHRQ Cooperative Studies Program #407 (PIVOT): design and baseline results of a randomized controlled trial comparing radical prostatectomy with watchful waiting for men with clinically localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilt, Timothy J

    2012-12-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death in men. In the United States, 90% of men with prostate cancer are more than age 60 years, diagnosed by early detection with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test, and have disease believed confined to the prostate gland (clinically localized). Common treatments for clinically localized prostate cancer include watchful waiting (WW), surgery to remove the prostate gland (radical prostatectomy), external-beam radiation therapy and interstitial radiation therapy (brachytherapy), and androgen deprivation. Little is known about the relative effectiveness and harms of treatments because of the paucity of randomized controlled trials. The Department of Veterans Affairs/National Cancer Institute/Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Cooperative Studies Program Study #407:Prostate Cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trial (PIVOT), initiated in 1994, is a multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing radical prostatectomy with WW in men with clinically localized prostate cancer. We describe the study rationale, design, recruitment methods, and baseline characteristics of PIVOT enrollees. We provide comparisons with eligible men declining enrollment and men participating in another recently reported randomized trial of radical prostatectomy vs WW conducted in Scandinavia. We screened 13 022 men with prostate cancer at 52 US medical centers for potential enrollment. From these, 5023 met initial age, comorbidity, and disease eligibility criteria, and a total of 731 men agreed to participate and were randomized. The mean age of enrollees was 67 years. Nearly one-third were African American. Approximately 85% reported that they were fully active. The median PSA was 7.8ng/mL (mean 10.2ng/mL). In three-fourths of men, the primary reason for biopsy leading to a diagnosis of prostate cancer was a PSA elevation or rise. Using previously developed tumor risk

  5. Long-term follow-up of {sup 111}In-capromab pendetide (ProstaScint) scan as pretreatment assessment in patients who undergo salvage radiotherapy for rising prostate-specific antigen after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nagda, Suneel N. . E-mail: snagda@gmail.com; Mohideen, Najeeb; Lo, Simon S.; Khan, Usman B.S.; Dillehay, Gary; Wagner, Robert; Campbell, Steven; Flanigan, Robert

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term failure patterns in patients who underwent an {sup 111}In-capromab pendetide (ProstaScint) scan as part of their pretreatment assessment for a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level after prostatectomy and subsequently received local radiotherapy (RT) to the prostate bed. Methods: Fifty-eight patients were referred for evaluation of a rising PSA level after radical prostatectomy. All patients had negative findings for metastatic disease after abdominal/pelvis imaging with CT and isotope bone scans. All patients underwent a capromab pendetide scan, and the sites of uptake were noted. All patients were treated with local prostate bed RT (median dose 66.6 Gy). Results: Of the 58 patients, 20 had biochemical failure (post-RT PSA level >0.2 ng/mL or a rise to greater than the nadir PSA), including 6 patients with positive uptake outside the bed (positive elsewhere). The 4-year biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) rates for patients with negative (53%), positive in the prostate bed alone (45%), or positive elsewhere (74%) scan findings did not differ significantly (p = 0.51). The positive predictive value of the capromab pendetide scan in detecting disease outside the bed was 27%. The capromab pendetide scan status had no effect on bRFS. Those with a pre-RT PSA level of <1 ng/mL had improved bRFS (p = 0.003). Conclusion: The capromab pendetide scan has a low positive predictive value in patients with positive elsewhere uptake and the 4-year bRFS was similar to that for those who did not exhibit positive elsewhere uptake. Therefore, patients with a postprostatectomy rising PSA level should considered for local RT on the basis of clinicopathologic factors.

  6. {sup 18}F-Choline Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography–Driven High-Dose Salvage Radiation Therapy in Patients With Biochemical Progression After Radical Prostatectomy: Feasibility Study in 60 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angelillo, Rolando M.; Sciuto, Rosa; Ramella, Sara; Papalia, Rocco; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A.; Trodella, Luca E.; Fiore, Michele; Gallucci, Michele; Maini, Carlo L.; Trodella, Lucio

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively review data of a cohort of patients with biochemical progression after radical prostatectomy, treated according to a uniform institutional treatment policy, to evaluate toxicity and feasibility of high-dose salvage radiation therapy (80 Gy). Methods and Materials: Data on 60 patients with biochemical progression after radical prostatectomy between January 2009 and September 2011 were reviewed. The median value of prostate-specific antigen before radiation therapy was 0.9 ng/mL. All patients at time of diagnosis of biochemical recurrence underwent dynamic {sup 18}F-choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), which revealed in all cases a local recurrence. High-dose salvage radiation therapy was delivered up to total dose of 80 Gy to 18F-choline PET/CT-positive area. Toxicity was recorded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, scale. Results: Treatment was generally well tolerated: 54 patients (90%) completed salvage radiation therapy without any interruption. Gastrointestinal grade ≥2 acute toxicity was recorded in 6 patients (10%), whereas no patient experienced a grade ≥2 genitourinary toxicity. No grade 4 acute toxicity events were recorded. Only 1 patient (1.7%) experienced a grade 2 gastrointestinal late toxicity. With a mean follow-up of 31.2 months, 46 of 60 patients (76.6%) were free of recurrence. The 3-year biochemical progression-free survival rate was 72.5%. Conclusions: At early follow-up, {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT-driven high-dose salvage radiation therapy seems to be feasible and well tolerated, with a low rate of toxicity.

  7. Motion magnification for endoscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Baxter, John S. H.; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Peters, Terry M.

    2014-03-01

    Endoscopic and laparoscopic surgeries are used for many minimally invasive procedures but limit the visual and haptic feedback available to the surgeon. This can make vessel sparing procedures particularly challenging to perform. Previous approaches have focused on hardware intensive intraoperative imaging or augmented reality systems that are difficult to integrate into the operating room. This paper presents a simple approach in which motion is visually enhanced in the endoscopic video to reveal pulsating arteries. This is accomplished by amplifying subtle, periodic changes in intensity coinciding with the patient's pulse. This method is then applied to two procedures to illustrate its potential. The first, endoscopic third ventriculostomy, is a neurosurgical procedure where the floor of the third ventricle must be fenestrated without injury to the basilar artery. The second, nerve-sparing robotic prostatectomy, involves removing the prostate while limiting damage to the neurovascular bundles. In both procedures, motion magnification can enhance subtle pulsation in these structures to aid in identifying and avoiding them.

  8. Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of a Pharmacokinetic Model-Based Dosing Scheme Versus a Conventional Fentanyl Dosing Regimen For Patient-Controlled Analgesia Immediately Following Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Jin, Seok-Joon; Lim, Hyeong-Seok; Kwon, Youn-Ju; Park, Se-Ung; Yi, Jung-Min; Chin, Ji-Hyun; Hwang, Jai-Hyun; Kim, Young-Kug

    2016-01-01

    Conventional, intravenous, patient-controlled analgesia, which is only administered by demand bolus without basal continuous infusion, is closely associated with inappropriate analgesia. Pharmacokinetic model-based dosing schemes can quantitatively describe the time course of drug effects and achieve optimal drug therapy. We compared the efficacy and safety of a conventional dosing regimen for intravenous patient-controlled analgesia that was administered by demand bolus without basal continuous infusion (group A) versus a pharmacokinetic model-based dosing scheme performed by decreasing the dosage of basal continuous infusion according to the model-based simulation used to achieve a targeted concentration (group B) following robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy.In total, 70 patients were analyzed: 34 patients in group A and 36 patients in group B. The postoperative opioid requirements, pain scores assessed by the visual analog scale, and adverse events (eg, nausea, vomiting, pruritis, respiratory depression, desaturation, sedation, confusion, and urinary retention) were compared on admission to the postanesthesia care unit and at 0.5, 1, 4, 24, and 48 h after surgery between the 2 groups. All patients were kept for close observation in the postanesthesia care unit for 1 h, and then transferred to the general ward.The fentanyl requirements in the postanesthesia care unit for groups A and B were 110.0 ± 46.4 μg and 77.5 ± 35.3 μg, respectively. The pain scores assessed by visual analog scale at 0.5, 1, 4, and 24 h after surgery in group B were significantly lower than in group A (all P < 0.05). There were no differences in the adverse events between the 2 groups.We found that the pharmacokinetic model-based dosing scheme resulted in lower opioid requirements, lower pain scores, and no significant adverse events in the postanesthesia care unit following robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy in comparison with conventional dosing

  9. Prostate-Specific Antigen Persistence After Radical Prostatectomy as a Predictive Factor of Clinical Relapse-Free Survival and Overall Survival: 10-Year Data of the ARO 96-02 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegel, Thomas; Bartkowiak, Detlef; Bottke, Dirk; Thamm, Reinhard; Hinke, Axel; Stöckle, Michael; Wirth, Manfred; Störkel, Stephan; Golz, Reinhard; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Hofmann, Rainer; Feldmann, Horst-Jürgen; Kälble, Tilman; Siegmann, Alessandra; Hinkelbein, Wolfgang; Steiner, Ursula; Miller, Kurt

    2015-02-01

    Objective: The ARO 96-02 trial primarily compared wait-and-see (WS, arm A) with adjuvant radiation therapy (ART, arm B) in prostate cancer patients who achieved an undetectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Here, we report the outcome with up to 12 years of follow-up of patients who retained a post-RP detectable PSA and received salvage radiation therapy (SRT, arm C). Methods and Materials: For the study, 388 patients with pT3-4pN0 prostate cancer with positive or negative surgical margins were recruited. After RP, 307 men achieved an undetectable PSA (arms A + B). In 78 patients the PSA remained above thresholds (median 0.6, range 0.05-5.6 ng/mL). Of the latter, 74 consented to receive 66 Gy to the prostate bed, and SRT was applied at a median of 86 days after RP. Clinical relapse-free survival, metastasis-free survival, and overall survival were determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Patients with persisting PSA after RP had higher preoperative PSA values, higher tumor stages, higher Gleason scores, and more positive surgical margins than did patients in arms A + B. For the 74 patients, the 10-year clinical relapse-free survival rate was 63%. Forty-three men had hormone therapy; 12 experienced distant metastases; 23 patients died. Compared with men who did achieve an undetectable PSA, the arm-C patients fared significantly worse, with a 10-year metastasis-free survival of 67% versus 83% and overall survival of 68% versus 84%, respectively. In Cox regression analysis, Gleason score ≥8 (hazard ratio [HR] 2.8), pT ≥ 3c (HR 2.4), and extraprostatic extension ≥2 mm (HR 3.6) were unfavorable risk factors of progression. Conclusions: A persisting PSA after prostatectomy seems to be an important prognosticator of clinical progression for pT3 tumors. It correlates with a higher rate of distant metastases and with worse overall survival. A larger prospective study is required to determine which patient subgroups

  10. Safety and Potential Effect of a Single Intracavernous Injection of Autologous Adipose-Derived Regenerative Cells in Patients with Erectile Dysfunction Following Radical Prostatectomy: An Open-Label Phase I Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haahr, Martha Kirstine; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Damkier, Per; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Lund, Lars; Sheikh, Søren Paludan

    2016-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, and radical prostatectomy (RP) often results in erectile dysfunction (ED) and a substantially reduced quality of life. The efficacy of current interventions, principal treatment with PDE-5 inhibitors, is not satisfactory and this condition presents an unmet medical need. Preclinical studies using adipose-derived stem cells to treat ED have shown promising results. Herein, we report the results of a human phase 1 trial with autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) freshly isolated after a liposuction. Methods Seventeen men suffering from post RP ED, with no recovery using conventional therapy, were enrolled in a prospective phase 1 open-label and single-arm study. All subjects had RP performed 5–18 months before enrolment, and were followed for 6 months after intracavernosal transplantation. ADRCs were analyzed for the presence of stem cell surface markers, viability and ability to differentiate. Primary endpoint was the safety and tolerance of the cell therapy while the secondary outcome was improvement of erectile function. Any adverse events were reported and erectile function was assessed by IIEF-5 scores. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02240823. Findings Intracavernous injection of ADRCs was well-tolerated and only minor events related to the liposuction and cell injections were reported at the one-month evaluation, but none at later time points. Overall during the study period, 8 of 17 men recovered their erectile function and were able to accomplish sexual intercourse. Post-hoc stratification according to urinary continence status was performed. Accordingly, for continent men (median IIEFinclusion = 7 (95% CI 5–12), 8 out of 11 men recovered erectile function (IIEF6months = 17 (6–23)), corresponding to a mean difference of 0.57 (0.38–0.85; p = 0.0069), versus inclusion. In contrast, incontinent men did not regain erectile function (median IIEF1

  11. First case of 18F-FACBC PET/CT-guided salvage radiotherapy for local relapse after radical prostatectomy with negative 11C-Choline PET/CT and multiparametric MRI: New imaging techniques may improve patient selection.

    PubMed

    Brunocilla, Eugenio; Schiavina, Riccardo; Nanni, Cristina; Borghesi, Marco; Cevenini, Matteo; Molinaroli, Enrico; Vagnoni, Valerio; Castellucci, Paolo; Ceci, Francesco; Fanti, Stefano; Gaudiano, Caterina; Golfieri, Rita; Martorana, Giuseppe

    2014-09-30

    We present the first case of salvage radiotherapy based on the results of 18F-FACBC PET/CT performed for a PSA relapse after radical prostatectomy. The patients underwent 11CCholine PET/CT and multiparametric MRI that were negative while 18F-FACBC PET/CT visualized a suspected local relapse confirmed by transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy. No distant relapse was detected. Thus the patient was submitted to salvage radiotherapy in the prostatic fossa. After 20 months of follow-up, the PSA was undetectable and 18F-FACBC PET/CT was negative. Salvage radiotherapy after surgery, provided that it is administered at the earliest evidence of the biochemical relapse, may improve cancer control and favourably influence the course of disease as well as the adjuvant approach. New imaging techniques may increase the efficacy of the salvage radiotherapy thus helping in the selection of the patients. Preliminary clinical reports showed an improvement in the detection rate of 20-40% of 18F-FACBC in comparison with 11C-Choline for the detection of disease relapse after radical prostatecomy, rendering the 18F-FACBC the potential radiotracer of the future for prostate cancer.

  12. Management of end-stage erectile dysfunction and stress urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy by simultaneous dual implantation using a single trans-scrotal incision: surgical technique and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Salamanca, Juan I; Espinós, Estefanía Linares; Moncada, Ignacio; Portillo, Luis Del; Carballido, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and end-stage erectile dysfunction (ED) after radical prostatectomy (RP) can decrease a patient's quality of life (QoL). We describe a surgical technique involving scrotal incision for simultaneous dual implantation of an artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) and an inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP). Patients with moderate to severe SUI (>3 pads per day) and end-stage ED following RP were selected for dual implantation. An upper transverse scrotal incision was made, followed by bulbar urethra dissection and AUS cuff placement. Through the same incision, the corpora cavernosa was exposed, and an IPP positioned. Followed by extraperitoneal reservoirs placement and pumps introduced in the scrotum. Short-term, intra- and post-operative complications; continence status and erectile function; and patient satisfaction and QoL were recorded. A total of 32 patients underwent dual implantation. Early AUS-related complications were: AUS reservoir migration and urethral erosion. One case of distal corporal extrusion occurred. No prosthetic infection was reported. Over 96% of patients were socially the continent (≤1 pad per day) and > 95% had sufficient erections for intercourse. Limitations of the study were the small number of patients, the lack of the control group using a perineal approach for AUS placement and only a 12 months follow-up. IPP and AUS dual implantation using a single scrotal incision technique is a safe and effective option in patients with SUI and ED after RP. Further studies on larger numbers of patients are warranted. PMID:25657083

  13. A retrospective comparison of androgen deprivation (AD) vs. no AD among low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with brachytherapy, external beam radiotherapy, or radical prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Ciezki, Jay P. . E-mail: ciezkij@ccf.org; Klein, Eric A.; Angermeier, Kenneth; Ulchaker, James; Chehade, Nabil; Altman, Andrew; Mahadevan, Arul; Reddy, Chandana A.

    2004-12-01

    Purpose: To examine the value of androgen deprivation (AD) in the curative treatment of low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with the three major modalities: radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP), external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), and permanent prostate implantation (PI). Methods and materials: During 1996-2001, 1668 patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer were treated at The Cleveland Clinic Foundation. Only patients with a minimum of 2 years of prostate-specific antigen follow-up were included in the analysis, and biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) was used as the endpoint. Patients were grouped according to treatment modality and stratified according to the use of AD. Results: The overall 5-year bRFS rate was 87.8%. The 5-year bRFS rate for low-risk patients was 89% and for intermediate-risk patients was 79%. For low-risk patients, the 5-year bRFS rates by treatment modality (without AD vs. with AD, respectively) were PI: 90% vs. 93%; EBRT: 90% vs. 93%; and RRP: 89% vs. 84%. For intermediate-risk patients, the 5-year bRFS rates by treatment modality (without AD vs. with AD, respectively) were PI: 88% vs. 82%; EBRT: 81% vs. 84%; and RRP: 75% vs. 72%. None of the comparisons within risk groups or among modalities supports an increased efficacy with the use of AD. Conclusion: Five-year bRFS rates in low-risk and intermediate-risk patients are not improved by the use of AD.

  14. The Role of Endorectal Coil MRI in the management of patients with prostate cancer and in determining radical prostatectomy surgical margin status: A report of a single surgeon's practice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianqing; Loughlin, Kevin R.; Zou, Kelly H.; Haker, Steven; Tempany, Clare M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of combination of endorectal coil and external multicoil array MRI in the management of prostate cancer and predicting the surgical margin status in a single surgical practice. Materials and Methods We reviewed all patients referred by a single surgeon from January 1993 to May 2002 for staging prostate MRI prior to selecting treatment. All MRI examinations were performed using 1.5T (Signa; GE Medical Systems) with a combination of endorectal and pelvic multi-coil array. The tumor size, stage and total gland volume on MR, PSA and Gleason grade were all compared with the pathological stage and diagnosis of positive surgical margin (PSM). Result A total of 232 patients were evaluated, of which 110 underwent radical prostatectomy all performed by one surgeon (Group 1), and 122 did not (Group 2). The results showed MRI stage, PSA and age, all significantly different (P<0.001). In Group 1, the results showed a high specificity (99%) and accuracy (91%) of the MRI staging T3. Post-surgical follow up (median 4.5 years) showed 90% of men had PSA levels below 0.1ng/ml. The positive surgical margin (PSM) rate was 16%. There was no significant difference found on MR imaging between PSM group and non-PSM group. A single tumor length above 1.8cm was the cut point above which there was PSM (P=0.002). Conclusion In conclusion, the combined use of clinical data and endorectal MR imaging can help optimize patient management and selection for surgery, and in a single surgeon's practice lead to successful outcomes. PMID:17572201

  15. Patterns and Predictors of Early Biochemical Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy and Adjuvant Radiation Therapy in Men With pT{sub 3}N{sub 0} Prostate Cancer: Implications for Multimodal Therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Briganti, Alberto; Joniau, Steven; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Cozzarini, Cesare; Sun, Maxine; Tombal, Bertrand; Haustermans, Karin; Hinkelbein, Wolfgang; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.; Montorsi, Francesco; Van Poppel, Hein; Wiegel, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: The aim of our study was to evaluate patterns and predictors of early biochemical recurrence (eBCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) and adjuvant radiation therapy (aRT) in order to identify which individuals might benefit from additional treatments. Methods and Materials: We evaluated 390 patients with pT{sub 3}N{sub 0} prostate cancer (PCa) receiving RP and aRT at 6 European centers between 1993 and 2006. Patients who were free from BCR at <2 years' follow-up were excluded. This resulted in 374 assessable patients. Early BCR was defined as 2 consecutive prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test values >0.2 ng/mL within 2 or 3 years after aRT. Uni- and multivariable Cox regression analyses predicting overall and eBCR after aRT were fitted. Covariates consisted of preoperative PSA results, surgical margins, pathological stage, Gleason score, and aRT dose. Results: Overall, 5- and 8-year BCR-free survival rates were 77.1% and 70.8%, respectively. At a median follow-up of 86 months after aRT, 33 (8.8%) and 55 (14.6%) men experienced BCR within 2 or 3 years after aRT, respectively. In multivariable analyses, Gleason scores of 8 to 10 represented the only independent predictor of eBCR after aRT (all, P≤.01). The risk of BCR was significantly higher in patients with a Gleason score of 8 to 10 disease than in those with Gleason 2 to 6 within 24 months after treatment, after adjusting for all covariates (all, P≤.04). However, given a 24-month BCR free period, the risk of subsequent BCR for men with poorly differentiated disease was equal to that of men with less aggressive disease (all, P≥.3). Conclusions: High Gleason score represents the only predictor of eBCR after RP and aRT in patients affected by pT{sub 3}N{sub 0} PCa. Given the association between early PSA recurrence, clinical progression, and mortality, these patients might be considered candidates for adjuvant medical therapy and/or prophylactic whole-pelvis radiation therapy in addition to a

  16. Long-Term Follow-Up of a Prospective Trial of Trimodality Therapy of Weekly Paclitaxel, Radiation, and Androgen Deprivation in High-Risk Prostate Cancer With or Without Prior Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Arif; Wu, Yin; Mirmiran, Alireza; DiBiase, Steven; Goloubeva, Olga; Bridges, Benjamin; Mannuel, Heather; Engstrom, Christine; Dawson, Nancy; Amin, Pradip; Kwok, Young

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Weekly paclitaxel, concurrent radiation, and androgen deprivation (ADT) were evaluated in patients with high-risk prostate cancer (PC) with or without prior prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: Eligible post-RP patients included: pathological T3 disease, or rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) {>=}0.5 ng/mL post-RP. Eligible locally advanced PC (LAPC) patients included: 1) cT2b-4N0N+, M0; 2) Gleason score (GS) 8-10; 3) GS 7 + PSA 10-20 ng/mL; or 4) PSA 20-150 ng/mL. Treatment included ADT (4 or 24 months), weekly paclitaxel (40, 50, or 60 mg/m{sup 2}/wk), and pelvic radiation therapy (total dose: RP = 64.8 Gy; LAPC = 70.2 Gy). Results: Fifty-nine patients were enrolled (LAPC, n = 29; RP, n = 30; ADT 4 months, n = 29; 24 months, n = 30; whites n = 29, African Americans [AA], n = 28). Baseline characteristics (median [range]) were: age 67 (45-86 years), PSA 5.9 (0.1-92.1 ng/mL), GS 8 (6-9). At escalating doses of paclitaxel, 99%, 98%, and 95% of doses were given with radiation and ADT, respectively, with dose modifications required primarily in RP patients. No acute Grade 4 toxicities occurred. Grade 3 toxicities were diarrhea 15%, urinary urgency/incontinence 10%, tenesmus 5%, and leukopenia 3%. Median follow-up was 75.3 months (95% CI: 66.8-82.3). Biochemical progression occurred in 24 (41%) patients and clinical progression in 11 (19%) patients. The 5- and 7-year OS rates were 83% and 67%. There were no differences in OS between RP and LAPC, 4- and 24-month ADT, white and AA patient categories. Conclusions: In addition to LAPC, to our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate concurrent chemoradiation with ADT in high-risk RP patients. With a median follow-up of 75.3 months, this trial also represents the longest follow-up of patients treated with taxane-based chemotherapy with EBRT in high-risk prostate cancer. Concurrent ADT, radiation, and weekly paclitaxel at 40 mg/m{sup 2}/week in RP patients and 60 mg/m{sup 2}/week in LAPC patients is

  17. First case of 18F-FACBC PET/CT-guided salvage retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for disease relapse after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and negative 11C-choline PET/CT: new imaging techniques may expand pioneering approaches.

    PubMed

    Schiavina, Riccardo; Concetti, Sergio; Brunocilla, Eugenio; Nanni, Cristina; Borghesi, Marco; Gentile, Giorgio; Cevenini, Matteo; Bianchi, Lorenzo; Molinaroli, Enrico; Fanti, Stefano; Martorana, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We present the first case of salvage retroperitoneal lymph node dissection based on the results of (18)F-FACBC PET/CT performed for a prostate-specific antigen relapse after radical prostatectomy. The patients underwent (11)C-choline PET/CT, which turned out negative, while (18)F-FACBC PET/CT visualized two lymph node metastases confirmed at pathological examination. Preliminary clinical reports showed an improvement in the detection rate of 20-40% for (18)F-FACBC in comparison with (11)C-choline, rendering the (18)F-FACBC the potential radiotracer of the future. Salvage surgery for prostate cancer is a fascinating but controversial approach. New diagnostic tools may improve its potential by increasing the assessment and the selection of the patients.

  18. [Benign prostatic hyperplasia: prostatectomy and alternatives].

    PubMed

    Sulser, T

    1995-06-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common disease of men and will lead in most cases to micturition difficulties. Up to now 2 or 4 of 10 men in their sixties are operated for BPH. As standard treatment we know the transurethral resection of the prostate and in some cases of very big adenomas the open adenomectomy carried out in a suprapubic or retropubic way. However, in view of a rare, but as a result of these treatments appearing morbidity we have to ask ourselves whether the surgical resection of the obstructive prostatic tissue remains the only way of treatment. For several years now apart from drug therapy there have also been applied less invasive alternatives. Whether these alternatives of little side effect and further complications are equally effective for the treatment of the obstructive BPH is to verify. This paper provides a general view of the possibilities of the surgical interventions as well as of their alternatives. Because of a lack of dates as to the efficiency of particular procedures a final judgement is outstanding in most cases. Where possible we hear of particular alternatives, though fully promoted, being nothing but a passing tendency. This is certainly true of the hyperthermy, the balloon dilatation and the urethral implants. These by now various conspicuous necrotising procedures (transurethral microwave thermotherapy, laser-ablation, high intensity focused ultrasound, transurethral needle-ablation) are by now in prospective random studies still subject to extensive clinical tests. The question whether one of these alternatives will one day be apt to exceed the TURP as "golden standard" of BPH-treatment, that remains as far as now the question to be put. The advantages of the necrotising procedures, at present highly recommended, consist in the first place of a rare intra- and postoperative morbidity with a simultaneous lack of mortality. These procedures can be performed as a outpatient or as a short stationary treatment and sometime even under local anaesthesia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7541567

  19. Time-gated optical imaging to detect positive prostate cancer margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zi-Jing; Alexandrakis, George; Patel, Nimit; Shen, Jinhui; Tang, Liping; Liu, Hanli

    2009-02-01

    Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) has revolutionized the surgical treatment of prostate cancer. This procedure permits complete removal of the prostate and seminal vesicles while minimizing pain and recovery time. However, the laparoscopic approach greatly limits the surgeon's tactile sensation during the procedure. This is particularly true with robot-assisted LRP where no tactile feedback is available forcing the surgeon to rely solely on visual cues. The surgeon and pathologist perform intraoperative frozen section pathologic analysis of a few select tissue fragments, but this is time consuming and costly. Concrete conclusions based on such samples are unreliable as they do not reflect the entire surgical margin status. In this case a conservative approach might dictate removal of more marginal material than necessary, thereby compromising the important nerve-sparing aspects of the procedure. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of using multi-modal time-gated optical imaging, i.e. time-resolved light reflectance and auto-fluorescence life-time imaging performed by an ICCD (Intensified Charge-Coupled Device) imaging system to enable clinicians to detect positive tumor margins with high sensitivity and specificity over the prostate. Results from animal experiments present the potential of identifying differences in optical signals between prostate cancer and control tissues. Results also show that the use of classification algorithms can identify cancerous regions with high sensitivity and specificity.

  20. Can TRUS Power Doppler Predict the Preservation of Erectile Function in HIFU Treatment of Localised Prostate Cancer? — A Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoh, I. M.; Calleary, J. G.; Moore, C.; Emberton, M.; Allen, C.

    2006-05-01

    Perhaps the single most significant unifying feature in men diagnosed with organ confined prostate cancer is the hope of erectile preservation in the treatment that offers cure. Although it is not 100% certain that the preservation of neurovascular bundle (NVB) can actually lead to intact sexual function, there is evidence that non-sparing nerve radical prostatectomy has a much higher incidence of impotence compared to nerve-sparing ones. The idea to monitor NVB flow can be realized using a simple power Doppler technique that was done before and after HIFU. The NVB flow was found intact in all patients (n=14). Tumescence returned in 93% of patients with a mean time of 6 weeks for this to occur. The erectile function score, IIEF-15 decreased by a third but shows a trend towards recovery. This preliminary study demonstrates the feasibility of transrectal power Doppler as a monitoring tool to provide immediate feedback on the NVB flow which was found intact in all patients. Although early reports of the tumescence proved encouraging, its full impact on erectile function will require longer follow-up.

  1. Simultaneous penile prosthesis and male sling/artificial urinary sphincter

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dominic; Romero, Claudio; Alba, Frances; Westney, O Lenaine; Wang, Run

    2013-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) from urethral sphincteric deficiency is not an uncommon problem. The commonest etiology is intervention for localized prostate cancer and/or radical cystoprostatectomy for muscle invasive bladder cancer. Despite advances in surgical technology with robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy and nerve sparing techniques, the rates of ED and SUI remain relatively unchanged. They both impact greatly on quality of life domains and have been associated with poor performance outcomes. Both the artificial urinary sphincter and penile prosthesis are gold standard treatments with proven efficacy, satisfaction and durability for end-stage SUI and ED respectively. Simultaneous prosthesis implantation for concurrent conditions has been well described, mostly in small retrospective series. The uptake of combination surgery has been slow due in part to technical demands of the surgery and to an extent, a heightened anxiety over potential complications. This paper aims to discuss the technical aspect of concurrent surgery for both disease entity and the current published outcomes of the various surgical techniques with this approach. PMID:23202702

  2. Evaluation of laser prostatectomy devices by thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molenaar, David G.; van Vliet, Remco J.; van Swol, Christiaan F. P.; Boon, Tom A.; Verdaasdonck, Rudolf M.

    1994-12-01

    The treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) using Nd:YAG laser light has become an accepted alternative to TURP. However, there is no consensus to the dosimetry using the various laser devices. In our study, we evaluate the optical and thermal characteristics of 7 commercially available side firing laser probes. For the thermal analysis, an optical method was used based on `Schlieren' techniques producing color images of the temperature distribution around the laser probe in water. Absolute temperatures were obtained after calibration measurements with thermocouples. Laser probes using metal mirrors for beam deflection heated up entirely. The local temperature rose up to 100 degrees centigrade, thus inducing vapor bubble formation that interfered with the emitted beam. Laser devices, using total internal reflection for deflection, showed far less heating primarily at the exit window, though Fresnel reflections and secondary beams indirectly heated up the (metal) housing of the tip. After clinical application, the absorption at the probe surface and hence temperature increased due to probe deterioration. Color Schlieren imaging is a powerful method for the thermal evaluation of laser devices. The thermal behavior of laser probes can be used as a guidance for the method of application and as an indication of the lifetime of the probes.

  3. Transurethral ultrasound-guided laser-induced prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babayan, Richard K.; Roth, Robert A.

    1991-07-01

    A transurethral ultrasound-guided Nd:YAG laser delivery system has been developed for use as an alternative approach to the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The TULIP system has been extensively tested in canine models and is currently undergoing FDA trials in humans.

  4. Optical characteristics of side-firing fibers for laser prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, Remco J.; Molenaar, David G.; van Swol, Christiaan F. P.; Boon, Tom A.; Verdaasdonck, Rudolf M.

    1994-12-01

    Various side firing fibers have been developed in the past two years for Nd:YAG laser treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). The method to deflect the beam laterally determines the power density at the urethral wall and consequent tissue effects. In this study the optical characteristics of eight different side firing fibers were evaluated by measuring transmission and bean profiles. A scanning device was developed which consisted of a sensor that was translated in two directions in front of the side firing fiber, while submerged in water. The transmission of the devices was measured by placing them in a transparent water filled tank in front of a power meter. The scans provided a three dimensional power density distribution of the fibers. The exit angle varied from 41 to 100 degrees, with respect to the fiber axis. The divergence of the beams was different in two directions, resulting in an elliptical spot at the urethral wall. The spot size ranged from 6.6 to 17.5 mm2 for a clinically relevant situation at 5 mm from the tip. The transmission of a new side firing fiber ranged from 43 to 83 percent compared to a bare fiber. Due to the unique optical characteristics of each device, there is a large variation in the power density at the tissue and thus a specific dosimetry protocol for each fiber is required.

  5. Photoactive dye enhanced tissue ablation for endoscopic laser prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Minwoo; Nguyen, Trung Hau; Nguyen, Van Phuc; Oh, Junghwan; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2015-02-01

    Laser light has been widely used as a surgical tool to treat benign prostate hyperplasia with high laser power. The purpose of this study was to validate the feasibility of photoactive dye injection to enhance light absorption and eventually to facilitate tissue ablation with low laser power. The experiment was implemented on chicken breast due to minimal optical absorption Amaranth (AR), black dye (BD), hemoglobin powder (HP), and endoscopic marker (EM), were selected and tested in vitro with a customized 532-nm laser system with radiant exposure ranging from 0.9 to 3.9 J/cm2. Light absorbance and ablation threshold were measured with UV-VIS spectrometer and Probit analysis, respectively, and compared to feature the function of the injected dyes. Ablation performance with dye-injection was evaluated in light of radiant exposure, dye concentration, and number of injection. Higher light absorption by injected dyes led to lower ablation threshold as well as more efficient tissue removal in the order of AR, BD, HP, and EM. Regardless of the injected dyes, ablation efficiency principally increased with input parameter. Among the dyes, AR created the highest ablation rate of 44.2+/-0.2 μm/pulse due to higher absorbance and lower ablation threshold. Preliminary tests on canine prostate with a hydraulic injection system demonstrated that 80 W with dye injection yielded comparable ablation efficiency to 120 W with no injection, indicating 33 % reduced laser power with almost equivalent performance. In-depth comprehension on photoactive dye-enhanced tissue ablation can help accomplish efficient and safe laser treatment for BPH with low power application.

  6. Postprostatectomy Erectile Dysfunction: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Salonia, Andrea; Briganti, Alberto; Montorsi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In the current era of the early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) and the development of minimally invasive surgical techniques, erectile dysfunction (ED) represents an important issue, with up to 68% of patients who undergo radical prostatectomy (RP) complaining of postoperative erectile function (EF) impairment. In this context, it is crucial to comprehensively consider all factors possibly associated with the prevention of post-RP ED throughout the entire clinical management of PCa patients. A careful assessment of both oncological and functional baseline characteristics should be carried out for each patient preoperatively. Baseline EF, together with age and the overall burden of comorbidities, has been strongly associated with the chance of post-RP EF recovery. With this goal in mind, internationally validated psychometric instruments are preferable for ensuring proper baseline EF evaluations, and questionnaires should be administered at the proper time before surgery. Careful preoperative counselling is also required, both to respect the patient's wishes and to avoid false expectations regarding eventual recovery of baseline EF. The advent of robotic surgery has led to improvements in the knowledge of prostate surgical anatomy, as reflected by the formal redefinition of nerve-sparing techniques. Overall, comparative studies have shown significantly better EF outcomes for robotic RP than for open techniques, although data from prospective trials have not always been consistent. Preclinical data and several prospective randomized trials have demonstrated the value of treating patients with oral phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5is) after surgery, with the concomitant potential benefit of early re-oxygenation of the erectile tissue, which appears to be crucial for avoiding the eventual penile structural changes that are associated with postoperative neuropraxia and ultimately result in severe ED. For patients who do not properly respond to PDE5is, proper

  7. [Masturbation device (EGG) as a new penile rehabilitation tool: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoshikazu; Tanda, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Hisao; Nitta, Toshikazu; Akagashi, Keigo; Hanzawa, Tatsuo; Tobe, Musashi; Haga, Kazunori; Uchida, Kosuke; Honma, Ichiya

    2013-05-01

    Erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy (RP) is still a significant burden as a post-operative morbidity, despite advances in nerve-sparing techniques and penile (erectile function) rehabilitation (PR) programs. We assessed the effects of stimulation with the masturbation device "EGG" on enhancement of erectile response along with administration of phospho diesterase type 5 inhibitor. We also studied the change of self-esteem and motivation for continuation of PR after stimulation with EGG. Eight nonresponders for PDE5-I who underwent retropubic RP were enrolled. Patients' median age was 71.5 years old. No patients received adjuvant therapy for prostate cancer. The patients' erectile response in the penile rehabilitation session (masturbation) with PDE5-I+manual stimulation and PDE5-I+stimulation with EGG were evaluated by erection hardness score (EHS). Changes of self-esteem and motivation for penile rehabilitation were assessed by the self-esteem subscale of the Self-Esteem and Relationship (SEAR) questionnaire and one original question, respectively. PDE5-I + stimulation with EGG significantly enhanced EHS compared to PDE5-I+manual stimulation in the eight patients (p=0.027). Transformed score of self-esteem subscale score of SEAR questionnaire was significantly increased in the PR session with EGG compared to the PR session with manual stimulation (p=0.043). Six patients who showed a better erectile response with EGG retained motivation for continuation of PR. PDE5-I+stimulation with EGG improved the erectile response in post-RP patients. EGG as a masturbation device may have a potential for contribution to successful PR.

  8. Postprostatectomy Erectile Dysfunction: A Review.

    PubMed

    Capogrosso, Paolo; Salonia, Andrea; Briganti, Alberto; Montorsi, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    In the current era of the early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) and the development of minimally invasive surgical techniques, erectile dysfunction (ED) represents an important issue, with up to 68% of patients who undergo radical prostatectomy (RP) complaining of postoperative erectile function (EF) impairment. In this context, it is crucial to comprehensively consider all factors possibly associated with the prevention of post-RP ED throughout the entire clinical management of PCa patients. A careful assessment of both oncological and functional baseline characteristics should be carried out for each patient preoperatively. Baseline EF, together with age and the overall burden of comorbidities, has been strongly associated with the chance of post-RP EF recovery. With this goal in mind, internationally validated psychometric instruments are preferable for ensuring proper baseline EF evaluations, and questionnaires should be administered at the proper time before surgery. Careful preoperative counselling is also required, both to respect the patient's wishes and to avoid false expectations regarding eventual recovery of baseline EF. The advent of robotic surgery has led to improvements in the knowledge of prostate surgical anatomy, as reflected by the formal redefinition of nerve-sparing techniques. Overall, comparative studies have shown significantly better EF outcomes for robotic RP than for open techniques, although data from prospective trials have not always been consistent. Preclinical data and several prospective randomized trials have demonstrated the value of treating patients with oral phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5is) after surgery, with the concomitant potential benefit of early re-oxygenation of the erectile tissue, which appears to be crucial for avoiding the eventual penile structural changes that are associated with postoperative neuropraxia and ultimately result in severe ED. For patients who do not properly respond to PDE5is, proper

  9. Current state of prostate cancer treatment in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Belinda F; Aiken, William D; Mayhew, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer in Jamaica as well as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. One report suggested that Jamaica has the highest incidence rate of prostate cancer in the world, with an age-standardised rate of 304/100,000 per year. The Caribbean region is reported to have the highest mortality rate of prostate cancer worldwide. Prostate cancer accounts for a large portion of the clinical practice for health-care practitioners in Jamaica. The Jamaica Urological Society is a professional body comprising 19 urologists in Jamaica who provide most of the care for men with prostate cancer in collaboration with medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and a palliative care physician. The health-care system is structured in two tiers in Jamaica: public and private. The urologist-to-patient ratio is high, and this limits adequate urological care. Screening for prostate cancer is not a national policy in Jamaica. However, the Jamaica Urological Society and the Jamaica Cancer Society work synergistically to promote screening as well as to provide patient education for prostate cancer. Adequate treatment for localised prostate cancer is available in Jamaica in the forms of active surveillance, nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy, external beam radiation, and brachytherapy. However, there is a geographic maldistribution of centres that provide prostate cancer treatment, which leads to treatment delays. Also, there is difficulty in affording some treatment options in the private health-care sectors. Androgen deprivation therapy is available for treatment of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer and is subsidised through a programme called the National Health Fund. Second-line hormonal agents and chemotherapeutic agents are available but are costly to most of the population. The infrastructure for treatment of prostate cancer in Jamaica is good, but it requires additional technological advances as well as additional specialist

  10. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of on-Demand vs. nightly sildenafil citrate as assessed by Rigiscan and the international index of erectile function.

    PubMed

    Kim, D J; Hawksworth, D J; Hurwitz, L M; Cullen, J; Rosner, I L; Lue, T F; Dean, R C

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have evaluated the use of PDE5 inhibitors in penile rehabilitation following nerve-sparing prostatectomy. These studies have evaluated the use of various pharmacologic agents as well as various approaches to treatment (on-demand vs. rehabilitative). Most of these studies relied on self-reported outcomes to determine efficacy of the therapy which could allow response bias to affect their results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nightly sildenafil citrate therapy during penile rehabilitation, using nocturnal penile rigidity (RigiScan(™), Gotop Medical, Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) in addition to the IIEF-EF. Patients with localized prostate cancer and normal erectile function prior to nsRP were randomized to take either nightly 50 mg sildenafil citrate or placebo starting the night following surgery. Both groups were allowed on-demand sildenafil citrate. Erectile function was evaluated at 2 weeks, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-operatively, with a final assessment made at 13 months, following a 1 month drug washout. At all time points, self-reported (IIEF-EF) and objective (RigiScan(™)) measures were obtained and evaluated. About 74 of 97 randomized patients completed the study. On completion, 40% of patients in each group had normal erectile function based on RigiScan(™) (p = 1.0). Additionally, no statistical differences were seen using the IIEF-EF domain (32.4% of placebo, 29% of treatment; p = 0.79). Multivariable analysis showed no significant differences in erectile function based on treatment intervention. Results did show that African-American men in this cohort were at higher risk for lower RigiScan(™) scores over time (OR: 0.48, p = 0.0399). This study demonstrates that nightly sildenafil citrate does not provide a therapeutic benefit for recovery of erectile function post-prostatectomy when compared to on-demand dosing using both self-reported as well as objective measures. Differences in objective recovery parameters

  11. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of on-Demand vs. nightly sildenafil citrate as assessed by Rigiscan and the international index of erectile function.

    PubMed

    Kim, D J; Hawksworth, D J; Hurwitz, L M; Cullen, J; Rosner, I L; Lue, T F; Dean, R C

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have evaluated the use of PDE5 inhibitors in penile rehabilitation following nerve-sparing prostatectomy. These studies have evaluated the use of various pharmacologic agents as well as various approaches to treatment (on-demand vs. rehabilitative). Most of these studies relied on self-reported outcomes to determine efficacy of the therapy which could allow response bias to affect their results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nightly sildenafil citrate therapy during penile rehabilitation, using nocturnal penile rigidity (RigiScan(™), Gotop Medical, Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) in addition to the IIEF-EF. Patients with localized prostate cancer and normal erectile function prior to nsRP were randomized to take either nightly 50 mg sildenafil citrate or placebo starting the night following surgery. Both groups were allowed on-demand sildenafil citrate. Erectile function was evaluated at 2 weeks, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-operatively, with a final assessment made at 13 months, following a 1 month drug washout. At all time points, self-reported (IIEF-EF) and objective (RigiScan(™)) measures were obtained and evaluated. About 74 of 97 randomized patients completed the study. On completion, 40% of patients in each group had normal erectile function based on RigiScan(™) (p = 1.0). Additionally, no statistical differences were seen using the IIEF-EF domain (32.4% of placebo, 29% of treatment; p = 0.79). Multivariable analysis showed no significant differences in erectile function based on treatment intervention. Results did show that African-American men in this cohort were at higher risk for lower RigiScan(™) scores over time (OR: 0.48, p = 0.0399). This study demonstrates that nightly sildenafil citrate does not provide a therapeutic benefit for recovery of erectile function post-prostatectomy when compared to on-demand dosing using both self-reported as well as objective measures. Differences in objective recovery parameters

  12. Incorporation of tissue-based genomic biomarkers into localized prostate cancer clinics.

    PubMed

    Moschini, Marco; Spahn, Martin; Mattei, Agostino; Cheville, John; Karnes, R Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Localized prostate cancer (PCa) is a clinically heterogeneous disease, which presents with variability in patient outcomes within the same risk stratification (low, intermediate or high) and even within the same Gleason scores. Genomic tools have been developed with the purpose of stratifying patients affected by this disease to help physicians personalize therapies and follow-up schemes. This review focuses on these tissue-based tools. At present, four genomic tools are commercially available: Decipher™, Oncotype DX®, Prolaris® and ProMark®. Decipher™ is a tool based on 22 genes and evaluates the risk of adverse outcomes (metastasis) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Oncotype DX® is based on 17 genes and focuses on the ability to predict outcomes (adverse pathology) in very low-low and low-intermediate PCa patients, while Prolaris® is built on a panel of 46 genes and is validated to evaluate outcomes for patients at low risk as well as patients who are affected by high risk PCa and post-RP. Finally, ProMark® is based on a multiplexed proteomics assay and predicts PCa aggressiveness in patients found with similar features to Oncotype DX®. These biomarkers can be helpful for post-biopsy decision-making in low risk patients and post-radical prostatectomy in selected risk groups. Further studies are needed to investigate the clinical benefit of these new technologies, the financial ramifications and how they should be utilized in clinics. PMID:27044421

  13. Oncological outcomes following robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy in a multiracial Asian population.

    PubMed

    Alvin, Low Wei Xiang; Gee, Sim Hong; Hong, Huang Hong; Christopher, Cheng Wai Sam; Henry, Ho Sien Sun; Weber, Lau Kam On; Hoon, Tan Puay; Shiong, Lee Lui

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluates the oncological outcomes of RARP in a multiracial Asian population from a single institution. All suitable patients from 1st January 2003-30th June 2013 were identified from a prospectively maintained cancer registry. Peri-operative and oncological outcomes were analysed. Significance was defined as p < 0.05. There were n = 725 patients identified with a mean follow-up duration 28 months. The mean operative time, EBL and LOS were 186 min, 215 ml and 3 days, respectively. The pathological stage was pT2 in 68.6% (n = 497/725), pT3 in 31.3% (n = 227/725) and n = 1 patient with pT4 disease. The pathological Gleason scores (GS) were 6 in 27.9% (n = 202/725), GS 7 in 63.6% (n = 461/725) and GS ≥ 8 in 8.0 % (n = 58/725). The node positivity rate was 5.8% (n = 21/360). The positive margin rates were 31.0% (n = 154/497) and 70.9% (n = 161/227) for pT2 and pT3, respectively, and decreasing PSM rates are observed with surgical maturity. The biochemical recurrence rates were 9.7% (n = 48/497) and 34.2% (n = 78/228) for pT2 and pT3/T4, respectively. On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of BCR were pathological T stage and pathological Gleason score. Post-operatively, 78.5% (n = 569/725) of patients had no complications and 17.7% (n = 128/725) had minor (Clavien grade I-II) complications. This series, representing the largest from Southeast Asia, suggests that RARP can be a safe and oncologically feasible treatment for localised prostate cancer in an institution with moderate workload. PMID:26531200

  14. Laser Prostatectomy: Holmium Laser Enucleation and Photoselective Laser Vaporization of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Bostanci, Yakup; Kazzazi, Amir; Djavan, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Historically, transurethral resection of the prostate has been the gold standard for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Laser technology has been used to treat BPH for > 15 years. Over the past decade, it has gained wide acceptance by experienced urologists. This review provides an evidence-based update on laser surgery for BPH with a focus on photoselective laser vaporization and holmium laser enucleation of the prostate surgeries and assesses the safety, efficacy, and durability of these techniques. PMID:23671400

  15. Soft tissue navigation for laparoscopic prostatectomy: evaluation of camera pose estimation for enhanced visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumhauer, M.; Simpfendörfer, T.; Schwarz, R.; Seitel, M.; Müller-Stich, B. P.; Gutt, C. N.; Rassweiler, J.; Meinzer, H.-P.; Wolf, I.

    2007-03-01

    We introduce a novel navigation system to support minimally invasive prostate surgery. The system utilizes transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) and needle-shaped navigation aids to visualize hidden structures via Augmented Reality. During the intervention, the navigation aids are segmented once from a 3D TRUS dataset and subsequently tracked by the endoscope camera. Camera Pose Estimation methods directly determine position and orientation of the camera in relation to the navigation aids. Accordingly, our system does not require any external tracking device for registration of endoscope camera and ultrasonography probe. In addition to a preoperative planning step in which the navigation targets are defined, the procedure consists of two main steps which are carried out during the intervention: First, the preoperatively prepared planning data is registered with an intraoperatively acquired 3D TRUS dataset and the segmented navigation aids. Second, the navigation aids are continuously tracked by the endoscope camera. The camera's pose can thereby be derived and relevant medical structures can be superimposed on the video image. This paper focuses on the latter step. We have implemented several promising real-time algorithms and incorporated them into the Open Source Toolkit MITK (www.mitk.org). Furthermore, we have evaluated them for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) navigation scenarios. For this purpose, a virtual evaluation environment has been developed, which allows for the simulation of navigation targets and navigation aids, including their measurement errors. Besides evaluating the accuracy of the computed pose, we have analyzed the impact of an inaccurate pose and the resulting displacement of navigation targets in Augmented Reality.

  16. Interaction between high power 532nm laser and prostatic tissue: in vivo evaluation for laser prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Reza; Kang, Hyun Wook; Peng, Steven Yihlih; Stinson, Douglas; Beck, Michael; Koullick, Ed

    2011-03-01

    A previous in vitro study demonstrated that 180W was the optimal power to reduce photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) time for larger prostate glands. In this study, we investigated anatomic and histologic outcomes and ablation parameters of 180W laser performed with a new 750-μm side-firing fiber in a survival study of living canines. Eight male canines underwent anterograde PVP with the 180W 532-nm laser. Four each animals were euthanized 3 hours or 8 weeks postoperatively. Prostates were measured and histologically analyzed after hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), or Gomori trichrome (GT) staining. Compared to the previous 120W laser, PVP with the 180W laser bloodlessly created a 76% larger cavity (mean 11.8 vs. 6.7 cm3; p=0.014) and ablated tissue at a 77% higher rate (mean 2.3 vs. 1.3 cm3/min; p=0.03) while H&E- and TTC-staining demonstrated its 33% thicker mean coagulation zone (2.0+/-0.4 vs. 1.5+/-0.3 mm). H&E-stained cross-sectional prostatic tissue specimens from the 3-hour (acute) group showed histologic evolution of concentric non-viable coagulation zone, partially viable hyperemic transition zone of repair, and viable non-treated zone. H&E- and GT-stained specimens from the 8-week (chronic) group revealed healed circumferentially epithelialized, non-edematous, prostatic urethral channels with no increase in collagen in the subjacent prostatic tissue vis-á-vis the normal control. Our canine study demonstrates that 180W 532-nm laser PVP with its new fiber has a significantly higher ablation rate with a more hemostatic coagulation zone, but equally favorable tissue interaction and healing, compared with our previous 120W canine study.

  17. The changing practice of transurethral prostatectomy: a comparison of cases performed in 1990 and 2000.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J. R.; Urwin, G. H.; Stower, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is considered by many to be the 'gold standard' treatment for benign prostatic enlargement. However, with the relatively recent introduction of pharmacological and other surgical treatment modalities, the performance of TURP appears to be in decline. METHODS: A retrospective casenote analysis of 200 patients who underwent TURP in 1990 and the year 2000 with the aim of identifying changes in the incidence and practice of TURP. RESULTS: There was a decline in the number of TURPs performed of 31.6% over the 10-year period, with more being carried out because of urinary retention. In 2000, the patient was older and the operative procedure took statistically longer than 10-years earlier, but the weight of prostate tissue resected, patient satisfaction and complication rates were similar. CONCLUSIONS: At present, TURP is in decline, with urinary retention being the commonest indication. The population at present is older but this does not carry additional co-morbidity. The weight of resection has not altered, although surgery currently takes longer to perform. PMID:15527580

  18. American Urological Association survey of transurethral prostatectomy and the impact of changing medicare reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Holtgrewe, H L

    1990-08-01

    The American Urological Association, in a survey of all American urologists, found that TURP accounts for 38 per cent of their major surgery and also found that activities associated with the operation account for nearly 25 per cent of their total patient workload. American urologists regard TURP as complex, and they believe proficiency requires more practical case experience during residency training than is required for any other urologic operation. American urologists assign TURP a significantly higher relative value than that proposed in the pending national Medicare Fee Schedule formulated by medical economists and the Physician Payment Review Commission. The legislated reductions in allowable Medicare fees for TURP and the possible shift in management of benign prostatic hyperplasia to nonsurgical methods create a financial vulnerability for American urologists who remain economically dependent on this dominant operation. Adjustments in practice patterns and manpower policy planning may well be required.

  19. Towards disparity joint upsampling for robust stereoscopic endoscopic scene reconstruction in robotic prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiongbiao; McLeod, A. Jonathan; Jayarathne, Uditha L.; Pautler, Stephen E.; Schlacta, Christopher M.; Peters, Terry M.

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) scene reconstruction from stereoscopic binocular laparoscopic videos is an effective way to expand the limited surgical field and augment the structure visualization of the organ being operated in minimally invasive surgery. However, currently available reconstruction approaches are limited by image noise, occlusions, textureless and blurred structures. In particular, an endoscope inside the body only has the limited light source resulting in illumination non-uniformities in the visualized field. These limitations unavoidably deteriorate the stereo image quality and hence lead to low-resolution and inaccurate disparity maps, resulting in blurred edge structures in 3-D scene reconstruction. This paper proposes an improved stereo correspondence framework that integrates cost-volume filtering with joint upsampling for robust disparity estimation. Joint bilateral upsampling, joint geodesic upsampling, and tree filtering upsampling were compared to enhance the disparity accuracy. The experimental results demonstrate that joint upsampling provides an effective way to boost the disparity estimation and hence to improve the surgical endoscopic scene 3-D reconstruction. Moreover, the bilateral upsampling generally outperforms the other two upsampling methods in disparity estimation.

  20. Interaction between high power 532nm laser and prostatic tissue: in vitro evaluation for laser prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun Wook; Peng, Yihlih Steven; Stinson, Douglas

    2011-03-01

    Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) has been developed for effective treatment of obstructive benign prostatic hyperplasia. To maximize tissue ablation for large prostate gland, identifying the optimal power level for PVP is still necessary. We investigated the effect of various power levels on in vitro bovine prostate ablation with a 532-nm laser system. A custom-made 532-nm laser was employed to provide various power levels, delivered through a newly designed 750-μm side-firing fiber. Tissue ablation efficiency was evaluated in terms of power (P; 120~200W), treatment speed of fiber (TS; 2~8 mm/s), and working distance between fiber and tissue surface (WD; 1~5 mm). Coagulation depth was also estimated macroscopically and histologically (H&E) at various Ps. Both 180 and 200W yielded comparable ablated volume (104.3+/-24.7 vs. 104.1+/-23.9 mm3 at TS=4 mm/s and WD=2 mm; p=0.99); thus, 180W was identified as the optimal power to maximize tissue ablation, by removing tissue up to 80% faster than 120W (41.7+/-9.9 vs. 23.2+/-3.4 mm3/s at TS=4 mm/s and WD=2 mm; p<0.005). Tissue ablation was maximized at TS=4 mm/s and ablated equally efficiently at up to 3 mm WD (104.5+/-16.7 mm3 for WD=1 mm vs. 93.4+/-7.4 mm3 for WD=3 mm at 180W; p=0.33). The mean thickness of coagulation zone for 180W was 20% thicker than that for 120W (1.31+/-0.17 vs. 1.09+/-0.16 mm; p<0.005). The current in vitro study demonstrated that 180W was the optimal power to maximize tissue ablation efficiency with enhanced coagulation characteristics.

  1. Hypofractionated IMRT of the Prostate Bed After Radical Prostatectomy: Acute Toxicity in the PRIAMOS-1 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Sonja; Striecker, Thorbjoern; Kessel, Kerstin; Sterzing, Florian; Habl, Gregor; Edler, Lutz; Debus, Juergen; Herfarth, Klaus

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer is currently being investigated in large phase 3 trials. However, there are few data on postoperative hypofractionation. The Radiation therapy for the Prostate Bed With or Without the Pelvic Lymph Nodes (PRIAMOS 1) trial was initiated as a prospective phase 2 trial to assess treatment safety and toxicity of a hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate bed. Methods and Materials: From February to September 2012, 40 patients with indications for adjuvant or salvage radiation therapy were enrolled. One patient dropped out before treatment. Patients received 54 Gy in 18 fractions to the prostate bed with IMRT and daily image guidance. Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities (according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0) were recorded weekly during treatment and 10 weeks after radiation therapy. Results: Overall acute toxicity was favorable, with no recorded adverse events grade ≥3. Acute GI toxicity rates were 56.4% (grade 1) and 17.9% (grade 2). Acute GU toxicity was recorded in 35.9% of patients (maximum grade 1). Urinary stress incontinence was not influenced by radiation therapy. The incidence of grade 1 urinary urge incontinence increased from 2.6% before to 23.1% 10 weeks after therapy, but grade 2 urge incontinence remained unchanged. Conclusions: Postoperative hypofractionated IMRT of the prostate bed is tolerated well, with no severe acute side effects.