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Sample records for post-radical prostatectomy nerve-sparing

  1. Nerve-sparing techniques and results in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Aytac, Omer; Atug, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Nerve-sparing techniques in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) have advanced with the developments defining the prostate anatomy and robotic surgery in recent years. In this review we discussed the surgical anatomy, current nerve-sparing techniques and results of these operations. It is important to define the right and key anatomic landmarks for nerve-sparing in RARP which can demonstrate individual variations. The patients' risk assessment before the operation and intraoperative anatomic variations may affect the nerve-sparing technique, nerve-sparing degree and the approach. There is lack of randomized control trials for different nerve-sparing techniques and approaches in RARP, therefore accurate preoperative and intraoperative assessment of the patient is crucial. Current data shows that, performing the maximum possible nerve-sparing using athermal techniques have better functional outcomes. PMID:27995221

  2. Direct Administration of Nerve-Specific Contrast to Improve Nerve Sparing Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Connor W.; Gibbs, Summer L.

    2017-01-01

    Nerve damage remains a major morbidity following nerve sparing radical prostatectomy, significantly affecting quality of life post-surgery. Nerve-specific fluorescence guided surgery offers a potential solution by enhancing nerve visualization intraoperatively. However, the prostate is highly innervated and only the cavernous nerve structures require preservation to maintain continence and potency. Systemic administration of a nerve-specific fluorophore would lower nerve signal to background ratio (SBR) in vital nerve structures, making them difficult to distinguish from all nervous tissue in the pelvic region. A direct administration methodology to enable selective nerve highlighting for enhanced nerve SBR in a specific nerve structure has been developed herein. The direct administration methodology demonstrated equivalent nerve-specific contrast to systemic administration at optimal exposure times. However, the direct administration methodology provided a brighter fluorescent nerve signal, facilitating nerve-specific fluorescence imaging at video rate, which was not possible following systemic administration. Additionally, the direct administration methodology required a significantly lower fluorophore dose than systemic administration, that when scaled to a human dose falls within the microdosing range. Furthermore, a dual fluorophore tissue staining method was developed that alleviates fluorescence background signal from adipose tissue accumulation using a spectrally distinct adipose tissue specific fluorophore. These results validate the use of the direct administration methodology for specific nerve visualization with fluorescence image-guided surgery, which would improve vital nerve structure identification and visualization during nerve sparing radical prostatectomy. PMID:28255352

  3. Direct Administration of Nerve-Specific Contrast to Improve Nerve Sparing Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Barth, Connor W; Gibbs, Summer L

    2017-01-01

    Nerve damage remains a major morbidity following nerve sparing radical prostatectomy, significantly affecting quality of life post-surgery. Nerve-specific fluorescence guided surgery offers a potential solution by enhancing nerve visualization intraoperatively. However, the prostate is highly innervated and only the cavernous nerve structures require preservation to maintain continence and potency. Systemic administration of a nerve-specific fluorophore would lower nerve signal to background ratio (SBR) in vital nerve structures, making them difficult to distinguish from all nervous tissue in the pelvic region. A direct administration methodology to enable selective nerve highlighting for enhanced nerve SBR in a specific nerve structure has been developed herein. The direct administration methodology demonstrated equivalent nerve-specific contrast to systemic administration at optimal exposure times. However, the direct administration methodology provided a brighter fluorescent nerve signal, facilitating nerve-specific fluorescence imaging at video rate, which was not possible following systemic administration. Additionally, the direct administration methodology required a significantly lower fluorophore dose than systemic administration, that when scaled to a human dose falls within the microdosing range. Furthermore, a dual fluorophore tissue staining method was developed that alleviates fluorescence background signal from adipose tissue accumulation using a spectrally distinct adipose tissue specific fluorophore. These results validate the use of the direct administration methodology for specific nerve visualization with fluorescence image-guided surgery, which would improve vital nerve structure identification and visualization during nerve sparing radical prostatectomy.

  4. Realistic Anatomical Prostate Models for Surgical Skills Workshops Using Ballistic Gelatin for Nerve-Sparing Radical Prostatectomy and Fruit for Simple Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Uri; Klotz, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Understanding of prostate anatomy has evolved as techniques have been refined and improved for radical prostatectomy (RP), particularly regarding the importance of the neurovascular bundles for erectile function. The objectives of this study were to develop inexpensive and simple but anatomically accurate prostate models not involving human or animal elements to teach the terminology and practical aspects of nerve-sparing RP and simple prostatectomy (SP). Materials and Methods The RP model used a Foley catheter with ballistics gelatin in the balloon and mesh fabric (neurovascular bundles) and balloons (prostatic fascial layers) on either side for the practice of inter- and intrafascial techniques. The SP model required only a ripe clementine, for which the skin represented compressed normal prostate, the pulp represented benign tissue, and the pith mimicked fibrous adhesions. A modification with a balloon through the fruit center acted as a "urethra." Results Both models were easily created and successfully represented the principles of anatomical nerve-sparing RP and SP. Both models were tested in workshops by urologists and residents of differing levels with positive feedback. Conclusions Low-fidelity models for prostate anatomy demonstration and surgical practice are feasible. They are inexpensive and simple to construct. Importantly, these models can be used for education on the practical aspects of nerve-sparing RP and SP. The models will require further validation as educational and competency tools, but as we move to an era in which human donors and animal experiments become less ethical and more difficult to complete, so too will low-fidelity models become more attractive. PMID:21379431

  5. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and frozen-section analysis efficiently predict upgrading, upstaging, and extraprostatic extension in patients undergoing nerve-sparing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Roberto; Cozzi, Gabriele; Petralia, Giuseppe; Alessi, Sarah; Renne, Giuseppe; Bottero, Danilo; Brescia, Antonio; Cioffi, Antonio; Cordima, Giovanni; Ferro, Matteo; Matei, Deliu Victor; Mazzoleni, Federica; Musi, Gennaro; Mistretta, Francesco Alessandro; Serino, Alessandro; Tringali, Valeria Maria Lucia; Coman, Ioan; De Cobelli, Ottavio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in predicting upgrading, upstaging, and extraprostatic extension in patients with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). MpMRI may reduce positive surgical margins (PSM) and improve nerve-sparing during robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) for localized prostate cancer PCa. This was a retrospective, monocentric, observational study. We retrieved the records of patients undergoing RARP from January 2012 to December 2013 at our Institution. Inclusion criteria were: PSA <10 ng/mL; clinical stage nerve-sparing RARP. During surgery, the specimen was sent for FSA of the posterolateral aspects. The surgeon, according to the localization scheme provided by the mpMRI, inked the region of the posterolateral aspect of the prostate that had to be submitted to FSA. We evaluated association between clinical features and PSM, upgrading, upstaging, and presence of unfavorable disease. Two hundred fifty-four patients who underwent nerve-sparing RARP were included. PSM rate was 29.13% and 15.75% at FSA and final pathology respectively. Interestingly, the use of FSA reduced PSM rate in pT3 disease (25.81%). Higher PIRADS scores demonstrated to be related to high probability of upgrading and upstaging. This significativity remains even when considering PIRADS 2–3 versus 4 versus 5 and PIRADS 2–3 versus 4–5. Also PSM at FSA were associated with higher probability of upgrading and upstaging. PIRADS score and FSA resulted to be strictly related to grading and staging, thus being able to predict upgrading and/or upstaging at

  6. Comparisons of regular and on-demand regimen of PED5-Is in the treatment of ED after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Shi.; Tang, Zhuang; Deng, Linghui; Liu, Liangren; Han, Ping; Yang, Lu; Wei, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) have been recommended as first line therapy for erectile dysfunction for patients received nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. We examed the efficiency of PDE5-Is and considered the optimal application. Systematic search of PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library was performed to identify all the studies. We identified 103 studies including 3175 patients, of which 14 were recruited for systematic review. Compared with placebo, PDE5-Is significantly ameliorated the International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function domain score (IIEF) scores (MD 4.89, 95% CI 4.25–5.53, p < 0.001). By network meta-analysis, sildenafil seems to be the most efficiency with a slightly higher rate of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEATs), whereas tadalafil had the lowest TEATs. In terms of IIEF scores, regular regimen was remarkably better than on-demand (MD 3.28, 95% CI 1.67–4.89, p < 0.001). Regular use was not associated with higher proportion of patients suffering TEATs compared with on-demand (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.90–1.16, p = 0.72). Compared with placebo, PDE5-Is manifested significantly improved treatment outcomes. Overall, regular regimen demonstrated statistically pronounced better potency than on-demand. Coupled with the comparable rate of side effects, these findings support the regular delivery procedure to be a cost-effective option for patients.

  7. Comparisons of regular and on-demand regimen of PED5-Is in the treatment of ED after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shi.; Tang, Zhuang; Deng, Linghui; Liu, Liangren; Han, Ping; Yang, Lu; Wei, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) have been recommended as first line therapy for erectile dysfunction for patients received nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. We examed the efficiency of PDE5-Is and considered the optimal application. Systematic search of PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library was performed to identify all the studies. We identified 103 studies including 3175 patients, of which 14 were recruited for systematic review. Compared with placebo, PDE5-Is significantly ameliorated the International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function domain score (IIEF) scores (MD 4.89, 95% CI 4.25–5.53, p < 0.001). By network meta-analysis, sildenafil seems to be the most efficiency with a slightly higher rate of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEATs), whereas tadalafil had the lowest TEATs. In terms of IIEF scores, regular regimen was remarkably better than on-demand (MD 3.28, 95% CI 1.67–4.89, p < 0.001). Regular use was not associated with higher proportion of patients suffering TEATs compared with on-demand (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.90–1.16, p = 0.72). Compared with placebo, PDE5-Is manifested significantly improved treatment outcomes. Overall, regular regimen demonstrated statistically pronounced better potency than on-demand. Coupled with the comparable rate of side effects, these findings support the regular delivery procedure to be a cost-effective option for patients. PMID:27611008

  8. Erectile dysfunction post-radical prostatectomy – a challenge for both patient and physician

    PubMed Central

    Bratu, O; Oprea, I; Marcu, D; Spinu, D; Niculae, A; Geavlete, B; Mischianu, D

    2017-01-01

    Post-radical prostatectomy erectile dysfunction (post RP ED) is a major postoperative complication with a great impact on the quality of life of the patients. Until present, no proper algorithm or guideline based on the clinical trials has been established for the management of post RP ED. According to literature, it is better to initiate a penile rehabilitation program as soon as possible after surgery than doing nothing, in order to prevent and limit the postoperative local hypoxygenation and fibrosis. The results of numerous clinical trials regarding the effectiveness of the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors therapy on post RP ED have made them the gold standard treatment. Encouraging results have been achieved in studies with vacuum erectile devices, intraurethral suppositories with alprostadil and intracavernosal injections, but due to their side effects, especially in the cases of intracavernosal injections and intraurethral suppositories, their clinical use was limited therefore making them a second line option for the post RP ED treatment. What should not be forgotten is that penile implant prosthesis has proven very effective, numerous studies confirming high rates of satisfaction for both patients and partners. PMID:28255370

  9. Multiparametric MRI for Recurrent Prostate Cancer Post Radical Prostatectomy and Postradiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The clinical suspicion of local recurrence of prostate cancer (PCa) after radical prostatectomy (RP) and after radiation therapy (RT) is based on the onset of biochemical failure. The aim of this paper was to review the current role of multiparametric-MRI (mp-MRI) in the detection of locoregional recurrence. A systematic literature search using the Medline and Cochrane Library databases was performed from January 1995 up to November 2013. Bibliographies of retrieved and review articles were also examined. Only those articles reporting complete data with clinical relevance for the present review were selected. This review article is divided into two major parts: the first one considers the role of mp-MRI in the detection of PCa local recurrence after RP; the second part provides an insight about the impact of mp-MRI in the depiction of locoregional recurrence after RT (interstitial or external beam). Published data indicate an emerging role for mp-MRI in the detection and localization of locally recurrent PCa both after RP and RT which represents an information of paramount importance to perform focal salvage treatments. PMID:24967355

  10. Efficacy and safety of short- and long-term, regular and on-demand regimens of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in treating erectile dysfunction after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Daxue; Wang, Xiao-yan; Zong, Huan-tao; Zhang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Background We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of short-term (≤6 months) and long-term (>6 months), regular (OaD) and on-demand (PRN) regimens of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) in treating erectile dysfunction (ED) after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (NSRP). Methods We conducted a literature search in August 2016. Sources included PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases. The main outcome was International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) domain score, and the secondary outcome was treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Results Eight articles involving 13 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were used in this analysis: they suggested that PDE5-Is can improve the IIEF-EF distinctly in comparison with placebo in short and long term (mean difference [MD]: 2.26, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45–3.08, P<0.00001, and MD: 4.5, 95% CI: 3.6–5.4, P<0.00001), and long-term use of PDE5-Is (>6 months) can improve the IIEF-EF distinctly in comparison with short-term use of PDE5-Is (≤6 months) (MD: 3.9, 95% CI: 3.01–4.8, P<0.00001). OaD of PDE5-Is significantly improved the IIEF-EF compared to placebo in short and long term (MD: 4.08, 95% CI: 3.2–4.97, P<0.00001, and MD: 4.74, 95% CI: 3.79–5.69, P<0.00001). No significant differences were found in IIEF-EF changes between PRN and placebo (≤6 months) (MD: 2.64, 95% CI: −0.87 to 6.14, P=0.14), and between PRN and OaD group (>6 months) (MD: −0.58, 95% CI: −9.86 to 8.74, P=0.91). There were more TEAEs in PDE5-Is group in comparison with placebo (odds ratio [OR]: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.26–1.91, P<0.0001), and TEAEs in OaD group were not significantly different from those seen in PRN group (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.78–1.4, P=0.77). Conclusion Our meta-analysis suggests that PDE5-Is are efficient and safe for treatment of ED after NSRP, and we should choose the regular regimen for short term and regular or on-demand regimen for long term. Further high

  11. FROGG high-risk prostate cancer workshop: patterns of practice and literature review. Part II post-radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Margot; Sidhom, Mark; Kneebone, Andrew B; Hayden, Amy J; Martin, Jarad M; Christie, David; Skala, Marketa; Tai, Keen-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Australian and New Zealand radiation oncologists with an interest in uro-oncology were invited to undertake a pattern of practice survey dealing with issues encountered in the management of high-risk prostate cancer in the post-prostatectomy setting. Responses from practitioners revealed a lack of consensus regarding the optimal timing of radiation therapy, the use of whole pelvic radiation therapy and the use of androgen deprivation therapy. A review of the literature outlining the current body of knowledge and the clinical studies that will inform future practice is presented.

  12. Nerve-sparing robotic radical hysterectomy: our technique.

    PubMed

    Puntambekar, Shailesh P; Lawande, Akhil; Desai, Riddhi; Kenawadekar, Rahul; Joshi, Saurabh; Joshi, Geetanjali Agarwal

    2014-03-01

    Robotic surgery is now becoming accepted for treatment of gynaecological malignancies. Nerve preservation during radical hysterectomy is increasingly being offered due to improved post-operative bladder and sexual function. We aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of performing a nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy robotically and to assess the oncological and functional outcomes associated with this surgery. Between August 2011 and January 2013, a total of 12 non-consecutive patients underwent robotic surgery for early stage cervical cancer at our institution. Patients comprising FIGO stage IA2 to IB1 were treated with nerve-sparing robotic radical hysterectomy using a C1 (Querleu-Morrow classification) type technique. The feasibility, operative time, blood loss, oncological outcome and post-operative bladder function were assessed. All the procedures were completed robotically without conversion to laparoscopy or laparotomy. The mean age of the patients was 56 years (range 44-76) and their mean body mass index was 22.6 kg/m(2) (range 18.1-26.4). The mean operative time was 156 min (range 120-250); the mean blood loss was 120 ml (50-250). The Foley catheter was removed on the third post-operative day, with full recovery of bladder function in all patients except one who required prolonged catheterisation for 3 weeks. Residual urine was 40 ml (range 30-80). Parametrial margins of 2.5-3 cm, distal vaginal margins of 2-2.5 cm and a mean nodal harvest of 24 (range 18-30) were achieved. The mean hospital stay was 3 days (range 2-6). The median follow-up is 12 months. There is no loco-regional recurrence. All the patients are sexually active. Robotic nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy is technically feasible to perform, and is oncologically safe for early stage cervical carcinoma.

  13. Prostatic fascia and recovery of sexual function after radical prostatectomy: Is it a "Veil of Aphrodite" or "Veil of mystery"!

    PubMed

    Mandhani, Anil

    2009-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is one of the most controversial aspects associated with radical prostatectomy. Since Walsh's description of neurovascular bundle there have been number of articles describing various modification to the technique of bilateral nerve sparing to augment the recovery of sexual function. There is a very thin line between performing an ideal nerve sparing and giving equally good oncological outcome in terms of negative surgical margin. "Veil of Aphrodite" nerve sparing technique was conceptualized by Menon et al. Lately other related terms have emerged in the literature e.g., "high anterior release, "curtain dissection," or "incremental nerve sparing. Does veil technique of radical prostatectomy help improve recovery of sexual function? Do mere presence of nerves in veil account for potency? Are these nerve parasympathetic? This short review tries to find the answer of these questions in contemporary world literature.

  14. The optimal timing of post-prostate biopsy magnetic resonance imaging to guide nerve-sparing surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Young Hwii; Song, Phil Hyun; Moon, Ki Hak; Jung, Hee Chang; Cheon, Jun; Sung, Deuk Jae

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our study was to evaluate the impact of the interval between prostate biopsy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the accuracy of simple tumor localization, which is essential information that enables nerve-sparing surgery. We also sought to determine the optimal timing of a post-biopsy MRI. A total of 184 patients who had undergone MRI before radical prostatectomy at an institution without a predetermined schedule for MRI after a prostate biopsy were enrolled. The mean interval from the biopsy to the MRI was 30.8 ± 18.6 days. The accuracy of the MRI for simplified tumor location (right, left, bilateral and none) was 44.6%. In the group with discordant pathologic and MRI findings, the most common reason recorded was ‘MRI predicted a unilateral lesion, but pathology revealed bilateral lesions’ (58.3%), followed by ‘MRI predicted no lesion, but pathology revealed the presence of a lesion’ (32.0%). Multivariable analysis showed that the discordant group had a shorter interval (25.0 ± 14.3 vs 38.1 ± 20.6 days, P < 0.01) preceding the MRI and a higher rate of hemorrhage as observed by MRI (80.4% vs 54.8%, P < 0.01) in comparison with the accordant group. In receiver operating characteristics analysis, the area under the curve of the MRI interval in accurate prediction of the tumor location was 0.707 (P < 0.001). At the MRI interval's cutoff of 28.5 days, the sensitivity was 73.2% and the specificity was 63.7%. When the MRI was performed within 28 days, the accumulated accuracy was only 26.1% (23/88); however, when it was performed after 28 days, the reversely accumulated accuracy was 61.5% (59/96). These data support a waiting period of at least 4 weeks after a biopsy before performing an MRI for the purposes of surgical refinement. PMID:24407179

  15. Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator in Laparoscopic Nerve-Sparing Radical Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Min; Wang, Zhilian; Wei, Fang; Wang, Jingfang; Wang, Wei; Ping, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Pelvic autonomic nerve preservation during radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer has become a priority in recent years. This pilot study was undertaken to evaluate laparoscopic nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy (L-NSRH) using the Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator (CUSA) in women with cervical cancer. Methods Patients with stage IB1 or IIA1 cervical cancer underwent L-NSRH with pelvic lymphadenectomy. The patients were randomly assigned to receive L-NSRH using a CUSA (CUSA group; n = 24) or using other techniques (non-CUSA group; n = 21). Recovery of bladder function (indwelling catheter time and time to spontaneous voiding) blood loss, duration of hospital stay, lymph node harvesting, and postoperative complications were compared between the 2 groups. Patients were followed for up to 3 years to determine the maintenance of effect. Results All patients underwent L-NSRH successfully. Intraoperative blood loss was significantly less in the CUSA than in the non-CUSA group (P = 0.005). Length of hospital stay (P = 0.006) and indwelling catheter time (P = 0.008) were both significantly reduced in the CUSA group compared with that in the non-CUSA group. The spontaneous voiding rate 10 days postoperatively was 95.8% with CUSA and 85.7% with non-CUSA techniques. Two patients developed postoperative complications in the CUSA group as did 3 patients in the non-CUSA group. These were cases of lymphocyst formation or urinary tract infection. Conclusions Laparoscopic nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy using CUSA was safe and feasible in patients with cervical cancer. Our results provide initial evidence that L-NSRH using CUSA preserves pelvic autonomic nerve function. PMID:26807637

  16. Radical prostatectomy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... prostatectomy - discharge; Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy - discharge; LRP - discharge; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy - discharge ; RALP - discharge; Pelvic lymphadenectomy - discharge; Prostate cancer - prostatectomy

  17. The controversy surrounding penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Clavell-Hernández, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy (RP) techniques have been refined in the last few decades. Despite nerve-sparing surgery, erectile dysfunction (ED) still seems to be affecting more than half of patients undergoing RP. Penile rehabilitation consists of understanding the mechanisms that affect erectile function (EF) and utilizing pharmacologic agents, devices or interventions to promote male sexual function before and after any insult to the penile erectile physiologic axis. There currently is a limited amount of clinical trials that assess treatments with the goal of recovering post-prostatectomy EF. The goal of this article is to assess a contemporary series of trials that study penile rehabilitation. Although the current evidence lacks to prove its irrefutable effectiveness, advancements in research and technology forecast a promising future in penile rehabilitation management. PMID:28217445

  18. Simple prostatectomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and suprapubic open prostatectomy. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ... Novick AC, Partin AW, and Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  19. Literature review of factors affecting continence after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Pacik, Dalibor; Fedorko, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy (RP) is the most common cause of stress urinary incontinence (UI) in men. Several anatomic structures affect or may affect urinary continence - urethral sphincter, levator ani muscle, puboprostatic ligaments, bladder neck, endopelvic fascia, neurovascular bundle - and understanding of the anatomy of pelvic floor and urethra is crucial for satisfactory functional outcome of the procedure. Surgical techniques implemented to improve continence rates include nerve-sparing procedure, bladder neck preservation/plication, urethral length preservation, musculofascial reconstruction, puboprostatic ligaments preservation or seminal vesicle preservation. Perioperative (preoperative and postoperative) pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) aims to shorten the duration of postoperative UI and thus, improve early continence rates postoperatively. In the review, complex information regarding anatomical, intra- and perioperative factors affecting urinary continence after RP is provided, including description of important anatomical structures, possible implications for surgical technique and evaluation of different PFMT strategies in perioperative period. PMID:28042624

  20. Prostatectomy - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100046.htm Prostatectomy - Series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 6 Go to slide 2 ...

  1. Intra-operative prostate motion tracking using surface markers for robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteghamatian, Mehdi; Sarkar, Kripasindhu; Pautler, Stephen E.; Chen, Elvis C. S.; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    Radical prostatectomy surgery (RP) is the gold standard for treatment of localized prostate cancer (PCa). Recently, emergence of minimally invasive techniques such as Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (LRP) and Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (RARP) has improved the outcomes for prostatectomy. However, it remains difficult for the surgeons to make informed decisions regarding resection margins and nerve sparing since the location of the tumor within the organ is not usually visible in a laparoscopic view. While MRI enables visualization of the salient structures and cancer foci, its efficacy in LRP is reduced unless it is fused into a stereoscopic view such that homologous structures overlap. Registration of the MRI image and peri-operative ultrasound image using a tracked probe can potentially be exploited to bring the pre-operative information into alignment with the patient coordinate system during the procedure. While doing so, prostate motion needs to be compensated in real-time to synchronize the stereoscopic view with the pre-operative MRI during the prostatectomy procedure. In this study, a point-based stereoscopic tracking technique is investigated to compensate for rigid prostate motion so that the same motion can be applied to the pre-operative images. This method benefits from stereoscopic tracking of the surface markers implanted over the surface of the prostate phantom. The average target registration error using this approach was 3.25+/-1.43mm.

  2. Penile vascular evaluation and sexual function before and after radical retropubic prostatectomy: 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Dubbelman, Yvette D; Wildhagen, Mark F; Dohle, Gert R

    2008-09-01

    Sexual dysfunction is common after surgery for prostate cancer. The aetiology of changes in sexual potency after radical prostatectomy is probably multifactorial, including neurogenic, vascular and psychosexual factors. A prospective study was designed to investigate haemodynamic and psychosexual changes before and after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) for organ-confined prostate cancer. Penile haemodynamic evaluation and an assessment of sexual excitement were performed preoperatively and 3 months after RRP by colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) with visual erotic stimulation combined with a single intracavernous injection of a mixture of papaverine/phentolamine. Questionnaires on sexual function [International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)], general health and quality of life were sent to the patients preoperative, 3 months and 5 years after operation. Forty-eight men participated in the study. Mean age was 62.6 years (range 55-69). CDU did not show any significant reduction in mean peak systolic flow velocity and mean resistance index. From the men who preoperatively had normal arterial inflow 18% developed arteriogenic insufficiency. Some form of veno-occlusive insufficiency and low resistance indices were already present in the majority of normal potent men preoperatively. Surgical technique did not influence penile arterial blood flow after the operation. Three months and 5 years postoperatively, there was a highly significant reduction in erectile function, intercourse satisfaction, overall satisfaction, orgasmic function and sexual desire. However, with respect to the outcome at 3 months there was a significant improvement of orgasmic function 5 years after operation, especially after a bilateral nerve sparing procedure. Erections sufficient for vaginal penetration (questions 3 and 4 of the IIEF, score >or=8) improved from 2% to 11% 3 months and 5 years after RRP respectively. Total IIEF score was significantly better after a bilateral nerve-sparing

  3. Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy After Previous Prostate Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tugcu, Volkan; Sahin, Selcuk; Kargi, Taner; Gokhan Seker, Kamil; IlkerComez, Yusuf; IhsanTasci, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Our objective is to clarify the effect of previous transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) or open prostatectomy (OP) on surgical, oncological, and functional outcomes after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Methods: Between August 1, 2009, and March 31, 2013, 380 patients underwent RARP. Of these, 25 patients had undergone surgery for primary bladder outlet obstruction (TURP, 20 patients; OP, 5 patents) (group 1). A match-paired analysis was performed to identify 36 patients without a history of prostate surgery with equivalent clinicopathologic characteristics to serve as a control group (group 2). Patients followed up for 12 months were assessed. Results: Both groups were similar with respect to preoperative characteristics, as mean age, body mass index, median prostate-specific antigen, prostate volume, clinical stage, the biopsy Gleason score, D'Amico risk, the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification score, the International Prostate Symptom Score, continence, and potency status. RARP resulted in longer console and anastomotic time, as well as higher blood loss compared with surgery-naive patients. We noted a greater rate of urinary leakage (pelvic drainage, >4 d) in group 1 (12% vs 2,8%). The anastomotic stricture rate was significantly higher in group 1 (16% vs 2.8%). No difference was found in the pathologic stage, positive surgical margin, and nerve-sparing procedure between the groups. Biochemical recurrence was observed in 12% (group 1) and 11.1% (group 2) of patients, respectively. No significant difference was found in the continence and potency rates. Conclusions: RARP after TURP or OP is a challenging but oncologically promising procedure with a longer console and anastomosis time, as well as higher blood loss and higher anastomotic stricture rate. PMID:26648678

  4. Prevention and management of post prostatectomy erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Salonia, Andrea; Castagna, Giulia; Capogrosso, Paolo; Castiglione, Fabio; Briganti, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is common in patients with prostate cancer (PC) following radical prostatectomy (RP). Review the available literature concerning prevention and management strategies for post-RP erectile function (EF) impairment in terms of preoperative patient characteristics, intra and postoperative factors that may influence EF recovery, and postoperative treatments for erectile dysfunction (ED). A literature search was performed using Google and PubMed database for English-language original and review articles, either published or e-published up to July 2013. The literature still demonstrates a great inconsistency in the definition of what is considered normal EF both before and after RP. Thus, using validated psychometric instruments with recognized cut-offs for normalcy and severity during the pre- and post-operative evaluation should be routinely considered. Therefore, a comprehensive discussion with the patient about the true prevalence of postoperative ED, the concept of spontaneous or pharmacologically-assisted erections, and the difference between “back to baseline” EF and “erections adequate enough to have successful intercourse” clearly emerge as key issues in the eventual understanding of post-RP ED prevention and promotion of satisfactory EF recovery. Patient factors (including age, baseline EF, comorbid conditions status), cancer selection (non- vs. uni- vs. bilateral nerve-sparing), type of surgery (i.e., intra vs. inter vs. extrafascial surgeries), surgical techniques (i.e., open, laparoscopic and robotically-assisted RP), and surgeon factors (i.e., surgical volume and surgical skill) represent the key significant contributors to EF recovery. A number of preclinical and clinical data show that rehabilitation and treatment in due time are undoubtedly better than leaving the erectile tissue to its unassisted postoperative fate. The role of postoperative ED treatment for those patients who received a non-nerve-sparing RP was also

  5. [Radical prostatectomy - pro robotic].

    PubMed

    Gillitzer, R

    2012-05-01

    Anatomical radical prostatectomy was introduced in the early 1980s by Walsh and Donker. Elucidation of key anatomical structures led to a significant reduction in the morbidity of this procedure. The strive to achieve similar oncological and functional results to this gold standard open procedure but with further reduction of morbidity through a minimally invasive access led to the establishment of laparoscopic prostatectomy. However, this procedure is complex and difficult and is associated with a long learning curve. The technical advantages of robotically assisted surgery coupled with the intuitive handling of the device led to increased precision and shortening of the learning curve. These main advantages, together with a massive internet presence and aggressive marketing, have resulted in a rapid dissemination of robotic radical prostatectomy and an increasing patient demand. However, superiority of robotic radical prostatectomy in comparison to the other surgical therapeutic options has not yet been proven on a scientific basis. Currently robotic-assisted surgery is an established technique and future technical improvements will certainly further define its role in urological surgery. In the end this technical innovation will have to be balanced against the very high purchase and running costs, which remain the main limitation of this technology.

  6. Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy Performed after Previous Suprapubic Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Johnson F.; Feuerstein, Michael; Jazayeri, Seyed Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Operative management of prostate cancer in a patient who has undergone previous open suprapubic simple prostatectomy poses a unique surgical challenge. Herein, we describe a case of intermediate risk prostate cancer in a man who had undergone simple prostatectomy ten years prior to presentation. The patient was found to have Gleason 7 prostate cancer on MRI fusion biopsy of the prostate for elevated PSA and underwent an uncomplicated robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. PMID:27882057

  7. Preservation of penile length after radical prostatectomy: early intervention with a vacuum erection device.

    PubMed

    Dalkin, B L; Christopher, B A

    2007-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy has been shown to have a potential negative impact on penile health. Stretched penile length (SPL), which most closely correlates with erect penile length, was significantly reduced in almost half of men undergoing surgery in several studies. The purpose of this study was to test whether early intervention after surgery with a vacuum erection device could prevent the changes in penile health, as defined by SPL, found in prior studies. Forty-two men with good preoperative sexual function undergoing nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy underwent measurement of SPL preoperative and at 3 months postoperative by a single investigator. Daily use of a vacuum erection device (VED) was begun the day after catheter removal, and continued for 90 days. Men kept a log of their compliance with daily VED use. A decrease in SPL of > or = 1.0 cm was considered significant. Out of 42 men, 39 completed the study. In men who used the VED >50% of possible days, only 1/36 (3%) had a decrease in SPL of > or = 1.0 cm. Of the three men with poor VED compliance, two (67%) had a reduction in SPL of > or = 1.0 cm. When compared to prior studies where 48% of men after surgery had a significant reduction in SPL, early intervention with the daily use of a VED resulted in a significantly lower risk of loss of penile length (P<0.0001). For men wishing to preserve penile health/length after surgery, early intervention with the daily use of a VED should be strongly recommended.

  8. [Simultaneous radical retropubic prostatectomy, diverticulectomy].

    PubMed

    Loran, O B; Sokolov, A E; Guspanov, R I; Polegen'kiĭ, V V

    2014-01-01

    Presented clinical case demonstrates a combination of rare congenital abnormality - giant true diverticula of the bladder - and high-risk prostate cancer, as well as a successful result of simultaneous operation - a radical prostatectomy with diverticulectomy.

  9. A single institution study on patient's self-reporting appraisal and functional outcomes of the first set of men following radical perineal prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Słupski, Piotr; Wiśniewski, Przemysław

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This study evaluates the functional outcomes and satisfaction of an initial series of 47 patients after radical perineal prostatectomy performed in our department. Material and methods The first set of 47 consecutive patients underwent perineal prostatectomy during 2008 and 2009. Continence, sexual outcomes, and satisfaction of the treatment were evaluated using a self-reporting questionnaire, which was mailed to all patients after 15 to 33 months of follow-up. 26 patients (55.3%) returned a completed form and participated in the study. Additionally, final outcomes were compared to results reported elsewhere. Results Amid respondents, 91.7% were satisfied with the chosen treatment and 8.3% regret the previous decision. 38.5% patients reported any urine leakage, 15.4% drip up to 100 ml a day, and only one patient (3.8%) was totally incontinent. 76.9% men report a decline in prior sexual function. Six patients (23.1%) patients have any degree of spontaneous erections and undertake sexual activity. However, as erectile outcomes are adjusted to nine nerve-sparing cases, 66.7% have spontaneous erections and 55.5% undertake sexual activity, but only 40% of them describe their sexual function as satisfying. Conclusions Our survey demonstrates that, because of short operating time, fast recovery, low postoperative pain score, early patient mobilization and feeding, and a small (8-10 cm) and inconspicuous skin incision, radical perineal prostatectomy fully deserves to be recognized as a low-morbidity procedure. The perineal approach provides a quality of life and patients satisfaction rate comparable to trendy, highly equipped procedures and emerges as an attractive alternative to them. Even novice “perineal surgeons” may achieve favorable results. PMID:24578947

  10. Endoscopic simple prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Borkowski, Tomasz; Chłosta, Piotr; Dobruch, Jakub; Fiutowski, Marek; Jaskulski, Jarosław; Słojewski, Marcin; Szydełko, Tomasz; Szymański, Michał; Demkow, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many options exist for the surgical treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), including transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), laser surgery, and open adenomectomy. Recently, endoscopic techniques have been used in the treatment of BPH. Material and methods We reviewed clinical studies in PubMed describing minimally invasive endoscopic procedures for the treatment of BPH. Results Laparoscopic adenomectomy (LA) and robotic–assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) were introduced in the early 2000s. These operative techniques have been standardized and reproducible, with some individual modifications. Studies analyzing the outcomes of LA and RASP have reported significant improvements in urinary flow and decreases in patient International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). These minimally invasive approaches have resulted in a lower rate of complications, shorter hospital stays, smaller scars, faster recoveries, and an earlier return to work. Conclusions Minimally invasive techniques such as LA and RASP for the treatment BPH are safe, efficacious, and allow faster recovery. These procedures have a short learning curve and offer new options for the surgeon treating BPH. PMID:25667758

  11. Modified Pfannenstiel approach for radical retropubic prostatectomy: a 3-year experience.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, M; Ayyathurai, R; Nieder, A M; Soloway, M S

    2008-01-01

    A modified Pfannenstiel approach for radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) has been described previously. We present our experience with this approach for performing a RRP over the past 3 years. Between January 2003 and July 2006, 544 consecutive RRPs by modified Pfannenstiel approach between January 2003 and July 2006 were performed. We analyzed blood loss, transfusions, use of drain, pain score, analgesia and hospital stay. Patients were followed up at 6 weeks, three monthly for a year and six monthly thereafter. All clinical and operative variables were entered into a database and analyzed. A total of 544 men underwent RRP with median follow-up of 11 (s.d.+/-10.5) months. The mean age was 60 (s.d.+/-7) years. About 83, 91 and 95% of patients had nerve sparing, bladder neck preservation and a lymph node dissection, respectively. Fifty-three patients had a concurrent inguinal hernia repair through the same incision. Mean estimated blood loss was 431 (s.d.+/-267) ml. The pathological staging distribution was T2, 82%; T3a, 9%; and T3b, 9%. The mean pain score at days 1 and 7 were 3.7 (s.d.+/-2.5) and 3.3 (s.d.+/-3), respectively. The median hospital stay was 36 h (s.d.+/-24). About 5.5% have had biochemical recurrence. At 12 months 97% were continent and 46% potent. RRP using a modified Pfannenstiel approach offers safety and efficacy. It facilitates repair of associated inguinal hernia through the same incision.

  12. Multiple cores of Gleason score 6 correlate with favourable findings at radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Carla L.; Walsh, Patrick C.; Partin, Alan W.; Epstein, Jonathan I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish whether the good prognosis of Gleason score 6 (GS6) is maintained in the setting of multiple involved cores. Patients and Methods In total, 6156 men (from 1 April 2000 to 30 April 2007) with GS6 on biopsy underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) at our institution. The number of positive cores was correlated with the outcome at RP. Results More positive cores correlated with less organ-confined disease (P < 0.001), positive margins (P < 0.012), increasing RP grade (P < 0.001) and increased seminal vesicles/lymph node involvement (P = 0.012). For men with data available, the actuarial risk of being biochemically free of disease at 5 years was 93.2% when ≤6 cores were positive (812 men followed to 5 years) vs 89.1% if >6 cores were positive (41 men followed to 2 years) (P = 0.6). Although the predicted ‘cure rate’ of >75% probability of a tumour showing no evidence of biochemical recurrence at 10 years after RP was statistically different between cases with ≤6 vs >6 positive cores (P < 0.0001), the outcome in both groups was still favourable (90.5% vs 84%). Partin-like tables were generated factoring in the number of positive cores to predict organ-confined disease as a guide for urologists to perform nerve-sparing surgery. For example, with T1c disease, there was a ≥75% probability of organ-confined disease with one to three positive cores regardless of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and the same probability was present with four to six positive cores and a PSA level of 0–4 ng/mL. Conclusion A low Gleason score on biopsy is a powerful prognostic finding, such that this favourable outcome is maintained even in the setting of multiple positive cores with GS6. PMID:23350787

  13. Laparoscopic versus open radical prostatectomy in high prostate volume cases: impact on oncological and functional results

    PubMed Central

    Alessandro, Sciarra; Alessandro, Gentilucci; Susanna, Cattarino; Michele, Innocenzi; Francesca, Di Quilio; Andrea, Fasulo; heland, Magnus Von; Vincenzo, Gentile; Stefano, Salciccia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background and objective: To prospectively compare the laparoscopic versus open approach to RP in cases with high prostate volume and to evaluate a possible different impact of prostate volume. Materials and Methods: From March 2007 to March 2013 a total of 120 cases with clinically localized prostate cancer (PC) and a prostate volume>70cc identified for radical prostatectomy (RP), were prospectively analyzed in our institute. Patients were offered as surgical technique either an open retropubic or an intraperitoneal laparoscopic (LP) approach. In our population, 54 cases were submitted to LP and 66 to open RP. We analyzed the association of the surgical technique with perioperative, oncological and postoperative functional parameters. Results: In those high prostate volume cases, the surgical technique (laparoscopic versus open) does not represent a significant independent factor able to influence positive surgical margins rates and characteristics (p=0.4974). No significant differences (p>0.05) in the overall rates of positive margins was found, and also no differences following stratification according to the pathological stage and nerve sparing (NS) procedure. The surgical technique was able to significantly and independently influence the hospital stay, time of operation and blood loss (p<0.001). On the contrary, in our population, the surgical technique was not a significant factor influencing all pathological and 1-year oncological or functional outcomes (p>0.05). Conclusions: In our prospective non randomized analysis on high prostate volumes, the laparoscopic approach to RP is able to guarantee the same oncological and functional results of an open approach, maintaining the advantages in terms of perioperative outcomes. PMID:27256175

  14. Intraoperative Optical Biopsy During Robotic-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Using Confocal Endomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mach, Kathleen E.; Bui, Daniel; Liu, Jen-Jane; Rouse, Robert V.; Harris, Theodore; Leppert, John T.; Liao, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intraoperative optical biopsy technologies may aid identification of important anatomic landmarks and improve surgical outcomes of robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP).We sought to evaluate the feasibility of confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) during RARP. Materials and Methods Twenty-one patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer scheduled for RARP were recruited. After intravenous administration of fluorescein, 15 patients underwent in vivo intraoperative CLE of prostatic and periprostatic structures using either a 2.6-mm or 0.85-mm imaging probe. Standard robotic instruments were used to grasp and maneuver the CLE probes for image acquisition. CLE imaging was performed ex vivo on fresh prostate specimens from 20 patients. Confocal video sequences acquired in vivo and ex vivo were reviewed and analyzed, with additional image processing using a mosaicing algorithm. Processed confocal images were compared with standard hematoxylin and eosin analysis of imaged regions. Results CLE was successfully integrated with robotic surgery, including co-registration of confocal video sequences with white light and probe handling with standard robotic instrumentation. Intraoperative CLE imaging of the neurovascular bundle prior to and following nerve-sparing dissection revealed characteristic features including dynamic vascular flow and intact axon fibers. Ex vivo confocal imaging of the prostatic parenchyma demonstrated the normal prostatic glands, stroma, and prostate carcinoma. Conclusions We report the initial feasibility of optical biopsy of prostatic and periprostatic tissue during RARP. Image guidance and tissue interrogation using CLE offers a new intraoperative imaging method that has the potential to improve the functional and oncologic outcomes of prostate cancer surgery. PMID:26626214

  15. Prostate volume estimations using magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasound compared to radical prostatectomy specimens

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Nicholas R.; Lavallée, Luke T.; Nguyen, Laura N.; Witiuk, Kelsey; Ross, James; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Shabana, Wael; MacDonald, Blair; Scheida, Nicola; Fergusson, Dean; Momoli, Franco; Cnossen, Sonya; Morash, Christopher; Cagiannos, Ilias; Breau, Rodney H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We sought to evaluate the accuracy of prostate volume estimates in patients who received both a preoperative transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to the referent pathological specimen post-radical prostatectomy. Methods: Patients receiving both TRUS and MRI prior to radical prostatectomy at one academic institution were retrospectively analyzed. TRUS and MRI volumes were estimated using the prolate ellipsoid formula. TRUS volumes were collected from sonography reports. MRI volumes were estimated by two blinded raters and the mean of the two was used for analyses. Pathological volume was calculated using a standard fluid displacement method. Results: Three hundred and eighteen (318) patients were included in the analysis. MRI was slightly more accurate than TRUS based on interclass correlation (0.83 vs. 0.74) and absolute risk bias (higher proportion of estimates within 5, 10, and 20 cc of pathological volume). For TRUS, 87 of 298 (29.2%) prostates without median lobes differed by >10 cc of specimen volume and 22 of 298 (7.4%) differed by >20 cc. For MRI, 68 of 298 (22.8%) prostates without median lobes differed by >10 cc of specimen volume, while only 4 of 298 (1.3%) differed by >20 cc. Conclusions: MRI and TRUS prostate volume estimates are consistent with pathological volumes along the prostate size spectrum. MRI demonstrated better correlation with prostatectomy specimen volume in most patients and may be better suited in cases where TRUS and MRI estimates are disparate. Validation of these findings with prospective, standardized ultrasound techniques would be helpful. PMID:27878049

  16. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor administered immediately after radical prostatectomy temporarily increases the need for incontinence pads, but improves final continence status

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Shinichi; Ito, Akihiro; Kawasaki, Yoshihide; Izumi, Hideaki; Kawamorita, Naoki; Adachi, Hisanobu; Mitsuzuka, Koji; Arai, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i) on urinary continence recovery after bilateral nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (BNSRP). Materials and Methods Between 2002 and 2012, 137 of 154 consecutive patients who underwent BNSRP in our institution retrospectively divided into 3 groups that included patients taking PDE5i immediately after surgery (immediate PDE5i group, n=41), patients starting PDE5i at an outpatient clinic after discharge (PDE5i group, n=56), and patients taking no medication (non-PDE5i group, n=40). Using self-administered questionnaires, the proportion of patients who did not require incontinence pads (pad-free patients) was calculated preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after BNSRP. Severity of incontinence was determined based on the pad numbers and then compared among the 3 groups. Results Proportions of pad-free patients and severity of incontinence initially deteriorated in all of the groups to the lowest values soon after undergoing BNSRP, with gradual improvement noted thereafter. The deterioration was most prominent in the immediate PDE5i group. As compared to the non-PDE5i group, both the PDE5i and immediate PDE5i groups exhibited a better final continence status. Conclusions PDE5i improves final continence status. However, administration of PDE5i immediately after surgery causes a distinct temporary deterioration in urinary incontinence. PMID:27617318

  17. Modified Pfannenstiel approach for radical retropubic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, M; Gomez, Pablo; Sved, Paul; Soloway, Mark S

    2004-08-01

    Radical retropubic prostatectomy is traditionally performed using a vertical midline incision and occasionally using a transverse Pfannenstiel incision. We describe a technique for performing radical retropubic prostatectomy using a modified Pfannenstiel approach. This involves a Y incision of the rectus sheath, instead of a pure transverse incision, and provides both excellent exposure and better cosmetic results.

  18. “Total reconstruction” of the urethrovesical anastomosis contributes to early urinary continence in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xiaoxing; Qiao, Peng; Tan, Zhaohui; Shi, Hongbin; Xing, Nianzeng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To demonstrate the effect of total reconstruction technique on postoperative urinary continence after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP). Material and Methods: LRP was performed using a standard urethrovesical anastomosis in 79 consecutive patients (Group-A) from June 2011 to October 2012, and a total reconstruction procedure in 82 consecutive patients (Group-B) from June 2012 to June 2013. The primary outcome measurement was urinary continence assessed at 1, 2, 4, 12, 24 and 52 weeks after catheter removal. Other data recorded were patient age, body mass index, International Prostate Symptoms Score, prostate volume, preoperative PSA, Gleason score, neurovascular bundle preservation, operation time, estimated blood loss, complications and pathology results. Results: In Group-A, the continence rates at 1, 2, 4, 12, 24 and 52 weeks were 7.59%, 20.25%, 37.97%, 58.22%, 81.01% and 89.87% respectively. In Group-B, the continence rates were 13.41%, 32.92%, 65.85%, 81.71%, 90.24% and 95.12% respectively. Group––B had significantly higher continence rates at 4 and 12 weeks after surgery (P<0.001 and P=0.001). There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to patient's age, body mass index, prostate-specific antigen level, prostate volume, IPSS, estimated blood loss, number of nerve-sparing procedures and postoperative complications. Conclusions: Total reconstruction technique in the procedure of urethrovesical anastomosis during LRP improved early recovery of continence. PMID:27256174

  19. Neuroprotective strategies in radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Jonathan D; Mulhall, John P

    2005-01-01

    In this section, authors from New York give their views on the various neuroprotective strategies for patients having a radical prostatectomy, such as the use of nerve grafts and other approaches. A joint study from Korea, the USA, Canada and the UK is presented in a paper on the importance of patient perception in the clinical assessment and management of BPH. There is also a review of robotic urological surgery. Finally, authors from New York give a review on the life of Isaac Newton. This is a new historical review in the journal, but one that will be of general interest.

  20. Complete Vesicourethral Anastomotic Disruption Following Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Christopher M.; Oberlin, Daniel; Han, Justin S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vesicourethral anastomotic (VUA) disruption with bladder displacement into the abdominal cavity following robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) is an exceedingly rare complication. There have been no cited case reports after robotic surgery but case reports after open radical prostatectomy have been noted. Other complications related to VUA include bleeding with or without pelvic hematoma, bladder neck contracture, or severe stress urinary incontinence. Following radical prostatectomy, studies estimate the rate of VUA leakage to be 1.4% and no exact rate of complete disruption is known given its rarity. However, the majority of these cases are managed conservatively and rarely require reoperation. To date, there are no published studies that describe complete VUA and bladder displacement secondary to a large pelvic hematoma following prostatectomy. We report a rare case of VUA disruption after RALP successfully managed with conservative treatment. PMID:27579438

  1. Long-term Continence Outcomes in Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Vinay; Sivarajan, Ganesh; Glen, B; Taksler, Juliana Laze; Lepor, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Background Urinary incontinence is a common short-term complication of radical prostatectomy (RP). Little is known about the long-term impact of RP on continence. Objective To elucidate the long-term progression of continence after RP. Design, setting, and participants From October 2000 through September 2012, 1788 men undergoing open RP for clinically localized prostate cancer by a single surgeon at an urban tertiary care center prospectively signed consent to be followed before RP and at 3, 6, 12, 24, 96, and 120 mo after RP. A consecutive sampling method was used and all men were included in this study. Intervention Men underwent open RP Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Regression models controlled for preoperative University of California, Los Angeles–Prostate Cancer Index urinary function score (UCLA-PCI-UFS), age, prostate-specific antigen level, Gleason score, stage, nerve-sparing status, race, and marital status were used to evaluate the association of time since RP with two dependent variables: UCLA-PCI-UFS and continence status. Results and limitation The mean UCLA-PCI-UFS declined between 2 yr and 8 yr (83.8 vs 81.8; p = 0.007) and marginally between 8 yr and 10 yr (81.8 vs 79.6; p = 0.036) after RP, whereas continence rate did not significantly change during these intervals. Men ≥60 yr old experienced a decline in mean UCLA-PCI-UFS between 2 yr and 8 yr (p = 0.002) and a marginal decline in continence rate between 2 yr and 10 yr (p = 0.047), whereas these variables did not change significantly in men <60 yr old. These outcomes are for an experienced surgeon, so caution should be exercised in generalizing these results. Conclusions Between 2 yr and 10 yr after RP, there were slight decreases in mean UCLA-PCIUFS and continence rates in this study. Men aged <60 yr had better long-term outcomes. These results provide realistic long-term continence expectations for men undergoing RP. PMID:23957946

  2. Erectile preservation following radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Robert; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men, representing approximately 25% of all new cancer diagnoses in the USA. For clinically localized prostate cancer, the gold standard for therapy remains radical prostatectomy. One of the main adverse effects of this procedure is erectile dysfunction, which can have a significant impact on the patient’s quality of life. There are several mechanisms of erectile dysfunction postprostatectomy, including arteriogenic, venogenic and neurogenic types, as well as the potentially heightened risk of postprostatectomy patients to develop Peyronie’s disease. The purpose of this review is to explain the various treatment options available, including phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernosal injections, intraurethral alprostadil suppositories, vacuum erection devices, and penile prostheses. The role of these therapies in an erectile-dysfunction-treatment function, as well as in penile rehabilitation, will be discussed. Finally, a review of research on novel therapies will also be presented. A comprehensive literature review was performed using the PubMed database. Articles were chosen based on topical relevance and assessed for methodology and major findings. There are data to support the use of each of the therapeutic options in both treatment and rehabilitative roles. More study is needed, however, specifically in regard to penile rehabilitation, to confirm its benefits, as well as to determine optimal rehabilitation protocols. PMID:21789097

  3. Erectile preservation following radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Segal, Robert; Burnett, Arthur L

    2011-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men, representing approximately 25% of all new cancer diagnoses in the USA. For clinically localized prostate cancer, the gold standard for therapy remains radical prostatectomy. One of the main adverse effects of this procedure is erectile dysfunction, which can have a significant impact on the patient's quality of life. There are several mechanisms of erectile dysfunction postprostatectomy, including arteriogenic, venogenic and neurogenic types, as well as the potentially heightened risk of postprostatectomy patients to develop Peyronie's disease. The purpose of this review is to explain the various treatment options available, including phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernosal injections, intraurethral alprostadil suppositories, vacuum erection devices, and penile prostheses. The role of these therapies in an erectile-dysfunction-treatment function, as well as in penile rehabilitation, will be discussed. Finally, a review of research on novel therapies will also be presented. A comprehensive literature review was performed using the PubMed database. Articles were chosen based on topical relevance and assessed for methodology and major findings. There are data to support the use of each of the therapeutic options in both treatment and rehabilitative roles. More study is needed, however, specifically in regard to penile rehabilitation, to confirm its benefits, as well as to determine optimal rehabilitation protocols.

  4. Let’s rethinking about the safety of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor in the patients with erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Ju Ho; Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2016-01-01

    As the radical prostatectomy (RP) for the patient diagnosed as localized prostate cancer has been increasing, erectile dysfunction (ED) associated with RP is increased and ED after RP is a significant risk factor to reduce the quality of life for the patient after RP. Therefore, the treatment concept called penile rehabilitation was introduced and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5I) is used widely for the prostate cancer patient after RP. Generally PDE5I is considered as safe and effective drug for the prostate cancer patient after RP. Recently, a report against the general opinion that PDE5I use is safe in the patient with prostate cancer was reported and the analysis of 5-yr biochemical recurrence-free survival after RP between the PDE5I users and non-PDE5I users after bilateral nerve sparing RP showed decreased 5-yr biochemical recurrence-free survival in the PDE5I users. In addition, a longitudinal cohort study reported that sildenafil, a kind of PDE5I, use might be associated with the development of melanoma and this result suggested the possibility of adverse effect of PDE5I on some kinds of cancers as well as prostate cancer. Moreover, the studies to evaluate the influence of nitric oxide (NO) and guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling pathway associated with PDE5 showed both cancer reduction and cancer development. Therefore, the role of NO and cGMP signaling pathway in cancer was reviewed based on the previous studies and suggested the necessity of further clinical studies concerning about the safety of PDE5I in prostate cancer. PMID:27419107

  5. [Rage against the machine -- necessity of robotic assisted prostatectomy].

    PubMed

    Friedrich, M; Steiner, T; Popken, G

    2013-03-01

    During the last decade urologists have faced a dramatic increase in robotic surgery. Despite the exceptional acceptance of this technique there is a complete lack of evidence for the equi-efficacy or superiority of this technique compared to open or laparoscopic prostatectomy. There is now an increasing body of evidence for the evaluation of robotic assisted prostatectomy. Robotic assisted prostatectomy is a safe procedure. The rate of technical failure is small. The rate of surgical complications is comparable with that of open or conventional laparoscopic prostatectomy. Similar to the conventional laparoscopic prostatectomy there is a trend for a minor blood loss and a smaller transfusion rate compared to the retropubic approach. In recent meta-analyses there is no advatage regarding the oncological or functional outcome for robotic prostatectomy. Neither the rate of positive surgical margins nor the rate of biochemical recurrence favours robotic prostatectomy. Regarding functional outcome some publications describe better results for urinary and sexual function for robotic surgery. Careful evaluation of these data reveals a low level of evidence due to a strong bias in favour of robotic surgery. In contrast, recent analysis of "Medicare" data reveal a considerable poorer urinary function after robotic prostatectomy compared to open retropubic prostatectomy. The Urological Board of the Helios Hospital Group does not recommend the use of a robotic device for radical prostatectomy.

  6. Characteristics of positive surgical margins in robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy, open retropubic radical prostatectomy, and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: a comparative histopathologic study from a single academic center.

    PubMed

    Albadine, Roula; Hyndman, Matthew E; Chaux, Alcides; Jeong, J Y; Saab, Shahrazad; Tavora, Fabio; Epstein, Jonathan I; Gonzalgo, Mark L; Pavlovich, Christian P; Netto, George J

    2012-02-01

    Studies detailing differences in positive surgical margin among open retropubic radical prostatectomy, laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, and robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy are lacking. A retrospective review of all prostatectomies with positive surgical margin performed at our center in 2007 disclosed 99 cases, 6 (5%) of which were reinterpreted cases as having negative margins. Ninety-three cases were, therefore, included, corresponding to 37 retropubic radical prostatectomies, 19 laparoscopic radical prostatectomies, and 37 robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomies. The relationship of positive surgical margin characteristics to clinicopathologic parameters and biochemical recurrence was assessed. The most commonly found positive surgical margin site was the apex/distal third in all groups (62% retropubic prostatectomies, 79% laparoscopic prostatectomies, 60% robotic-assisted prostatectomies). Total linear length of positive surgical margin sites was significantly correlated with preoperative prostate-specific antigen, preoperative prostate-specific antigen density, pT stage, and tumor volume (P ≤ .001). We found no significant differences among the 3 groups with respect to total linear length, number of foci, laterality, or location of positive surgical margin. The rate of biochemical recurrence was also comparable in the 3 groups. On univariate analyses, biochemical recurrence was significantly associated with preoperative prostate-specific antigen values, preoperative prostate-specific antigen density, Gleason score, number of positive surgical margins, and total linear length of positive surgical margin (P ≤ .02). Only preoperative prostate-specific antigen density and number of positive surgical margin foci were statistically significant (P ≤ .03) independent predictors of biochemical recurrence. We found no significant difference in positive surgical margin characteristics or biochemical recurrence among the 3

  7. Chromatin changes predict recurrence after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hveem, Tarjei S; Kleppe, Andreas; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Ersvær, Elin; Wæhre, Håkon; Nielsen, Birgitte; Kjær, Marte Avranden; Pradhan, Manohar; Syvertsen, Rolf Anders; Nesheim, John Arne; Liestøl, Knut; Albregtsen, Fritz; Danielsen, Håvard E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pathological evaluations give the best prognostic markers for prostate cancer patients after radical prostatectomy, but the observer variance is substantial. These risk assessments should be supported and supplemented by objective methods for identifying patients at increased risk of recurrence. Markers of epigenetic aberrations have shown promising results in several cancer types and can be assessed by automatic analysis of chromatin organisation in tumour cell nuclei. Methods: A consecutive series of 317 prostate cancer patients treated with radical prostatectomy at a national hospital between 1987 and 2005 were followed for a median of 10 years (interquartile range, 7–14). On average three tumour block samples from each patient were included to account for tumour heterogeneity. We developed a novel marker, termed Nucleotyping, based on automatic assessment of disordered chromatin organisation, and validated its ability to predict recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Results: Nucleotyping predicted recurrence with a hazard ratio (HR) of 3.3 (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.1–5.1). With adjustment for clinical and pathological characteristics, the HR was 2.5 (95% CI, 1.5–4.1). An updated stratification into three risk groups significantly improved the concordance with patient outcome compared with a state-of-the-art risk-stratification tool (P<0.001). The prognostic impact was most evident for the patients who were high-risk by clinical and pathological characteristics and for patients with Gleason score 7. Conclusion: A novel assessment of epigenetic aberrations was capable of improving risk stratification after radical prostatectomy. PMID:27124335

  8. [Prostatectomy-pros and cons on open surgery/laparoscopic surgery/robot-assisted surgery].

    PubMed

    Abe, Mitsuhiro; Kawano, Yoshiyuki; Kameyama, Shuji

    2011-12-01

    We have 3 options when perfoming prostatectomy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Those are retropubic radical prostatectomy, laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. We compared the characteristics and results of these techniques. Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy could be superior to the others in many ways. However, it would be very difficult to adopt it in Japan because it would pose economical difficulties. The administrative assistance in the insurance systems requireds much more than we have.

  9. An Unusual Trocar Site Hernia after Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Trocar site hernias are rare complications after laparoscopic surgery but most commonly occur at larger trocar sites placed at the umbilicus. With increased utilization of the laparoscopic approach the incidence of trocar site hernia is increasing. We report a case of a trocar site hernia following an otherwise uncomplicated robotic prostatectomy at a 12 mm right lower quadrant port. The vermiform appendix was incarcerated within the trocar site hernia. Subsequent appendectomy and primary repair of the hernia were performed without complication. PMID:27648335

  10. Prostatectomy: information provision and education for patients.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Paula

    Following the diagnosis of prostate cancer, information should be imparted to ensure an informed decision regarding treatment can be made. The impact of a cancer diagnosis could lead men to opt for surgical intervention without fully understanding the consequences of treatment. Effective communication of evidence-based information can assist men to fully understand the consequences of treatment. Radical prostatectomy, whether robotically assisted laparoscopic or retropubic, will lead to quality-of-life issues with functional outcomes such as erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence being at the forefront. Issues should be discussed and communicated in depth so that frustration and regret following treatment are avoided. A cautious approach to information provision should be considered so the patient does not feel in a position of information overload. Advanced communication skills are of utmost importance to ensure information is tailored to suit individual needs, as no one model of information giving suits all. This article is a rapid literature search relating to post-prostatectomy functional outcomes and how communication and information giving before treatment assists with acceptance of treatment outcomes.

  11. Single port radical prostatectomy: current status.

    PubMed

    Martín, Oscar Darío; Azhar, Raed A; Clavijo, Rafael; Gidelman, Camilo; Medina, Luis; Troche, Nelson Ramirez; Brunacci, Leonardo; Sotelo, René

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the current literature on single port radical prostatectomy (LESS-RP). Single port radical prostatectomy laparoendoscopic (LESS-RP) has established itself as a challenge for urological community, starting with the proposal of different approaches: extraperitoneal, transperitoneal and transvesical, initially described for laparoscopy and then laparoscopy robot-assisted. In order to improve the LESS-RP, new instruments, optical devices, trocars and retraction mechanisms have been developed. Advantages and disadvantages of LESS-RP are controversial, while some claim that it is a non-trustable approach, regarding the low cases number and technical difficulties, others acclaim that despite this facts some advantages have been shown and that previous described difficulties are being overcome, proving this is novel proposal of robotics platform, the Da Vinci SP, integrating the system into "Y". The LESS-RP approach gives us a new horizon and opens the door for rapid standardization of this technique. The few studies and short series available can be result of a low interest in the application of LESS-RP in prostate, probably because of the technical complexity that it requires. The new robotic platform, the da Vinci SP, shows that it is clear that the long awaited evolution of robotic technologies for laparoscopy has begun, and we must not lose this momentum.

  12. Outcomes of robotic assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Prokar; Kirby, Roger S

    2009-03-01

    Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is a rapidly evolving technique for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. However, cynics point to the increasing role of market forces in the robotic revolution. As yet, Europe has not taken up RARP in large numbers and this may in part relate to the high level of expertise in laparoscopy previously gained. Furthermore, setting up a robotic program is a major undertaking for many surgical units. This article reviews the current literature on RARP with regard to oncologic, continence and potency outcomes - the so called 'trifecta'. Preliminary data appears to show an advantage of RARP over open prostatectomy with reduced blood loss, decreased pain, early mobilization, shorter hospital stay and lower margin rates. Most intra-institutional studies demonstrate good postoperative continence and potency with RARP; however this needs to be viewed in the context of a paucity of randomized data available in the literature. There is no definitive data to show an advantage over standard laparoscopy, but the fact that this technique has reached parity with laparoscopy within 5 years is encouraging.

  13. Perineal radical prostatectomy in the minimally invasive era.

    PubMed

    Rioja, Jorge; Rincon Mayans, Anibal; Parra, Raul O

    2012-10-01

    Radical prostatectomy is currently the standard of care for localized prostate cancer. In the last decade, the minimally invasive surgery, especially the robotic surgery has been growing and open techniques are less frequent performed. A non-systematic review of the literature is performed, highlighting the current situation of the perineal radical prostatectomy in the minimally invasive era, its indications, and functional and oncological outcomes. Radical perineal prostatectomy, when compared with other surgical approaches, still experience favorable outcomes. Urologist might be abandoning an underused surgical approach.

  14. Comparison of pathological staging and grading of urothelial bladder carcinoma in post-transurethral resection and post-radical cystectomy specimens.

    PubMed

    Poletajew, S; Fus, Ł; Walędziak, M; Pomada, P; Ciechańska, J; Wasiutyński, A; Radziszewski, P; Górnicka, B

    2014-12-01

    Staging and grading of bladder cancer have a substantial impact on patients' prognosis. However, due to the relatively low quality and quantity of specimens from transurethral resection (TUR), initial histopathological examination may not be fully reliable. The aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of staging and grading in post-TUR and post-radical cystectomy (RC) specimens. Staging and grading in TUR and RC specimens were compared in a group of 181 consecutive patients. All microscopic examinations were performed by dedicated uropathologists. Median time from TUR to RC was 45 days. Additionally, an attempt to identify potential clinical variables influencing the risk of discrepancies was made. In post-RC specimens, the disease was down-staged in 13.8% and up-staged in 54.6% of patients (K = -0.03, p < 0.02). Muscle-invasive bladder cancer was diagnosed in 67.6% of patients initially staged as T1. Cancer was down-graded in 10.3% and up-graded in 17.9% of patients (K = 0.44, p < 0.02). Early onset of disease, female sex and time interval from transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) to RC had no effect on incidence of discrepancies. Pathological post-TUR examination is not predictive for the final stage of cancer. The incidence of under- or overgrading of bladder cancer is significant, and efforts should be made to reduce it.

  15. Urinary prostate specific antigen levels after radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Takayama, T K; Vessella, R L; Brawer, M K; True, L D; Noteboom, J; Lange, P H

    1994-01-01

    It was recently demonstrated that urinary prostate specific antigen (PSA) is discordant with serum PSA in many patients after radical prostatectomy. This observation led to the speculation that elevated urinary PSA in the face of undetectable serum PSA may indicate early disease recurrence. We measured urinary PSA levels in 30 patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma and 7 patients who had undergone cystoprostatectomy for bladder cancer. PSA levels of randomly collected urine samples ranged from 0.00 to 22.9 ng./ml. and 0.01 to 8.37 ng./ml., respectively. There was no correlation among urinary and serum PSA levels, pathological stage or type of operation. In 14 patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy and who had measurable levels of urinary PSA voided specimens were divided into initial stream and end stream voided samples. The PSA levels in the end stream voided samples were significantly less than the initial stream sample in 12 of the 14 patients. In men who had undergone radical prostatectomy urethral swab samples were analyzed for PSA. Of 26 patients 24 had detectable levels of urethral swab PSA (range 0.01 to 39.04 ng./ml., median 0.93 ng./ml.). Urethral swab PSA levels did not correlate with serum PSA values or pathological stage of disease. Of 7 patients who had defunctionalized urethras after radical cystoprostatectomy 5 had significantly elevated PSA in the urethral wash or swab samples (range 4.3 to 24.5 ng./ml.). Immunohistochemical analysis of urethrectomy specimens demonstrated positive staining for PSA in 3 of 4 specimens. We conclude that the major source of urinary PSA following total prostatectomy is the urethra itself rather than residual prostate tissue. Measuring serial urinary PSA appears to have limited value in monitoring patients after radical prostatectomy. Whether this urethral PSA can ever contaminate the serum levels of PSA after radical prostatectomy is currently under investigation.

  16. Lymphatic vessel density in radical prostatectomy specimens.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Bishop, Elena; Zhou, Honghong; Maclennan, Gregory T; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Zhang, Shaobo; Badve, Sunil; Baldridge, Lee Ann; Montironi, Rodolfo

    2008-04-01

    Formation of new lymphatic channels, or lymphangiogenesis, has been associated with poor prognosis in a number of human cancers. Its prognostic significance in prostate cancer is uncertain. We analyzed 122 radical prostatectomy specimens. Immunohistochemistry for lymphatic vessels was performed using a mouse monoclonal antibody reactive with an O-linked sialoglycoprotein found on lymphatic endothelium (clone D2-40, Signet Laboratories, Dedham, Mass). The mean lymphatic vessel densities (LVDs) of the 3 prostate compartments were compared. Lymphatic vessel densities were correlated with other clinical and pathologic characteristics. Mean values for intratumoral, peritumoral, and normal prostate LVD were 3.0, 5.2, and 4.8 lymphatic vessels per 200x field, respectively. The intratumoral LVD was significantly lower than the peritumoral or normal LVD (P < .001), and the LVD of the latter 2 compartments was not significantly different (P = .29). The prostate LVD did not correlate with other clinical and pathologic parameters. In conclusion, LVD is reduced in the intratumoral compartment compared with the peritumoral and normal prostate compartments, whereas the latter 2 have similar LVD. In contrast to other malignancies, quantitation of lymphangiogenesis in prostatic adenocarcinoma does not appear to offer useful prognostic information.

  17. Comparison of Acute Kidney Injury After Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy Versus Retropubic Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Eun-Young; Moon, Yeon-Jin; Yoon, Syn-Hae; Chin, Ji-Hyun; Hwang, Jai-Hyun; Kim, Young-Kug

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with extended hospital stay, a high risk of progressive chronic kidney diseases, and increased mortality. Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy are at increased risk of AKI because of intraoperative bleeding, obstructive uropathy, older age, and preexisting chronic kidney disease. In particular, robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP), which is in increasing demand as an alternative surgical option for retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP), is associated with postoperative renal dysfunction because pneumoperitoneum during RALP can decrease cardiac output and renal perfusion. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of postoperative AKI between RRP and RALP. We included 1340 patients who underwent RRP (n = 370) or RALP (n = 970) between 2013 and 2014. Demographics, cancer-related data, and perioperative laboratory data were evaluated. Postoperative AKI was determined according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Operation and anesthesia time, estimated blood loss, amounts of administered fluids and transfused packed red blood cells, and the lengths of the postoperative intensive care unit and hospital stays were evaluated. Propensity score matching analysis was performed to reduce the influence of possible confounding variables and adjust for intergroup differences between the RRP and RALP groups. After performing 1:1 propensity score matching, the RRP and RALP groups included 307 patients, respectively. The operation time and anesthesia time in RALP were significantly longer than in the RRP group (both P < 0.001). However, the estimated blood loss and amount of administered fluids in RALP were significantly lower than in RRP (both P < 0.001). Also, RALP demonstrated a significantly lower incidence of transfusion and smaller amount of transfused packed red blood cells than RRP (both P < 0.001). Importantly, the incidence of AKI in RALP

  18. Radical prostatectomy in high-risk prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ischia, Joseph; Gleave, Martin

    2013-03-01

    One consistent finding in the studies regarding treating men with prostate cancer is that men with high-risk disease have the most to gain from treatment with curative intent. Men with high-risk or locally-advanced prostate cancer require treatment to the primary cancer or risk dying prematurely from their disease. Increasingly, combined androgen deprivation therapy + radiation treatment is seen as the standard treatment as a result of prospective studies in this space, and the perceived increased morbidity of radical prostatectomy in the setting of a "low" cure rate as monotherapy. In the absence of a well-conducted randomized trial, there is no definite evidence that one treatment is superior to the other. The advantages of radical prostatectomy are that it provides excellent local control of the primary tumor without an increase in morbidity, accurately stages the disease to guide further therapy, and removes benign sources of prostate-specific antigen so that failures can be promptly identified and subsequent treatment can be initiated in a timely manner. Although several guidelines recommend radiation treatment over radical prostatectomy as first-line treatment, there is no evidence that surgery is inferior and radical prostatectomy should remain part of any informed discussion regarding treatment options for men with high-risk prostate cancer.

  19. Laboratory and clinical experience with neodymium:YAG laser prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabalin, John N.

    1996-05-01

    Since 1991, we have undertaken extensive laboratory and clinical studies of the Neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) laser for surgical treatment of bladder outlet obstruction due to prostatic enlargement or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Side-firing optical fibers which emit a divergent, relatively low energy density Nd:YAG laser beam produce coagulation necrosis of obstructing periurethral prostate tissue, followed by gradual dissolution and slough in the urinary stream. Laser-tissue interactions and Nd:YAG laser dosimetry for prostatectomy have been studied in canine and human prostate model systems, enhancing clinical application. Ongoing studies examine comparative Nd:YAG laser dosimetry for various beam configurations produced by available side-firing optical fibers and continue to refine operative technique. We have documented clinical outcomes of Nd:YAG laser prostatectomy in 230 consecutive patients treated with the UrolaseTM side-firing optical fiber. Nd:YAG laser coagulation the prostate produces a remarkably low acute morbidity profile, with no significant bleeding or fluid absorption. No postoperative incontinence has been produced. Serial assessments of voiding outcomes over more than 3 years of followup show objective and symptomatic improvement following Nd:YAG laser prostatectomy which is comparable to older but more morbid electrosurgical approaches. Nd:YAG laser prostatectomy is a safe, efficacious, durable and cost-effective treatment for BPH.

  20. Single plus one port laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: a report of 8 cases in one center.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yi; Xu, Dan-Feng; Liu, Yu-Shan; Cui, Xin-Gang; Che, Jian-Ping; Yao, Ya-Cheng; Yin, Lei

    2011-05-01

    Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is considered the first treatment of choice for local prostate cancer due to its minimal invasion advantage. To further achieve the goal of minimal invasion, single port laparoscopic radical prostatectomy has been developed to minimize the complications associated with puncture tracks. The aim of this study was to illustrate the technique for single port laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and evaluate its efficacy and safety. We reported 8 cases of radical prostatectomy with excellent early outcome carried out in Shanghai Changzheng Hospital from June 2009 to August 2009 using a home-made multiple instrument access port and adding an additional small incision at McBurney point.

  1. Level of education and mortality after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Froehner, Michael; Koch, Rainer; Propping, Stefan; Liebeheim, Dorothea; Hübler, Matthias; Baretton, Gustavo B; Hakenberg, Oliver W; Wirth, Manfred P

    2017-01-01

    Estimating the risk of competing mortality is of importance in men with early prostate cancer to choose the most appropriate way of management and to avoid over- or under-treatment. In this study, we investigated the impact of the level of education in this context. The study sample consisted of 2630 patients with complete data on level of education (college, university degree, master craftsmen, comparable profession, or others), histopathological tumor stage (organ confined or extracapsular), lymph node status (negative or positive), and prostatectomy specimen Gleason score (<7, 7, or 8–10) who underwent radical prostatectomy between 1992 and 2007. Overall, prostate cancer-specific, competing, and second cancer-related mortalities were study endpoints. Cox proportional hazard models for competing risks were used to study combined effects of the variables on these endpoints. A higher level of education was independently associated with decreased overall mortality after radical prostatectomy (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.75, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.62–0.91, P = 0.0037). The mortality difference was attributable to decreased second cancer mortality (HR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.40–0.85, P = 0.0052) and noncancer mortality (HR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55–0.98, P = 0.0345) but not to differences in prostate cancer-specific mortality (HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.79–1.69, P = 0.4536 in the full model). In conclusion, the level of education might serve as an independent prognostic parameter supplementary to age, comorbidity, and smoking status to estimate the risk of competing mortality and to choose optimal treatment for men with early prostate cancer who are candidates for radical prostatectomy. PMID:28051039

  2. Level of education and mortality after radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Froehner, Michael; Koch, Rainer; Propping, Stefan; Liebeheim, Dorothea; Hübler, Matthias; Baretton, Gustavo B; Hakenberg, Oliver W; Wirth, Manfred P

    2017-01-01

    Estimating the risk of competing mortality is of importance in men with early prostate cancer to choose the most appropriate way of management and to avoid over- or under-treatment. In this study, we investigated the impact of the level of education in this context. The study sample consisted of 2630 patients with complete data on level of education (college, university degree, master craftsmen, comparable profession, or others), histopathological tumor stage (organ confined or extracapsular), lymph node status (negative or positive), and prostatectomy specimen Gleason score (<7, 7, or 8-10) who underwent radical prostatectomy between 1992 and 2007. Overall, prostate cancer-specific, competing, and second cancer-related mortalities were study endpoints. Cox proportional hazard models for competing risks were used to study combined effects of the variables on these endpoints. A higher level of education was independently associated with decreased overall mortality after radical prostatectomy (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.75, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.62-0.91, P = 0.0037). The mortality difference was attributable to decreased second cancer mortality (HR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.40-0.85, P = 0.0052) and noncancer mortality (HR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55-0.98, P = 0.0345) but not to differences in prostate cancer-specific mortality (HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.79-1.69, P = 0.4536 in the full model). In conclusion, the level of education might serve as an independent prognostic parameter supplementary to age, comorbidity, and smoking status to estimate the risk of competing mortality and to choose optimal treatment for men with early prostate cancer who are candidates for radical prostatectomy.

  3. Detection of circulating prostatic cells during radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Planz, B; Szyska, P; Valdor, M; Boeckmann, W; Füzesi, L; Jakse, G

    1997-01-01

    The detection of micrometastasis of prostate cancer could help to decide more appropriate therapeutic strategies in an individual patient. We have developed a flow cytometric method for detecting cytokeratin-positive cells in the peripheral blood before, during and after radical prostatectomy in patients with prostatic carcinoma. By means of this technique we were able to detect a higher number of cytokeratin-positive cells in the intraoperative blood sample than in the pre- and postoperative blood sample in 15 patients with prostate cancer (P < 0.05). Our results show an increase in the number of cytokeratin-positive cells with increasing tumor stage and grade, as well a good correlation of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value with the number of cytokeratin-positive cells (r > 0.6). Our results underline the importance of no-touch techniques at prostatectomy to minimize release of tumor cells into the circulation during surgery. In the light of our results we consider that the indication for cell savers during radical prostatectomy should be reevaluated. The possibility of detecting single metastatic cells in peripheral blood will enable better individual patient management, and open up new modalities for diagnosing early prostate cancer and enhancing patient monitoring in relapse and tumor progression.

  4. Justice and Surgical Innovation: The Case of Robotic Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Katrina; Johnson, Jane; Carter, Drew

    2016-09-01

    Surgical innovation promises improvements in healthcare, but it also raises ethical issues including risks of harm to patients, conflicts of interest and increased injustice in access to health care. In this article, we focus on risks of injustice, and use a case study of robotic prostatectomy to identify features of surgical innovation that risk introducing or exacerbating injustices. Interpreting justice as encompassing matters of both efficiency and equity, we first examine questions relating to government decisions about whether to publicly fund access to innovative treatments. Here the case of robotic prostatectomy exemplifies the difficulty of accommodating healthcare priorities such as improving the health of marginalized groups. It also illustrates challenges with estimating the likely long-term costs and benefits of a new intervention, the difficulty of comparing outcomes of an innovative treatment to those of established treatments, and the further complexity associated with patient and surgeon preferences. Once the decision has been made to fund a new procedure, separate issues of justice arise at the level of providing care to individual patients. Here, the case of robotic prostatectomy exemplifies how features of surgical innovation, such as surgeon learning curves and the need for an adequate volume of cases at a treatment centre, can exacerbate injustices associated with treatment cost and the logistics of travelling for treatment. Drawing on our analysis, we conclude by making a number of recommendations for the just introduction of surgical innovations.

  5. Contact laser prostatectomy in a patient on chronic anticoagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Edward J.

    1995-05-01

    The `gold standard' therapy for patients with symptomatic bladder outlet obstruction secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia has always been electrocautery TURP. However, in patients with medical problems requiring chronic anticoagulation, this procedure is contraindicated due to the extreme risk of hemorrhage, both during the procedure and the immediate post operative period. With the recent development of contact laser prostatectomy the patient on chronic anticoagulation can safely undergo the procedure. Herein, I present a case of a 60 year old with significant bladder outlet obstruction yielding an AUA symptom score of 18. The patient had a history of multiple episodes of deep venous thrombosis of the left leg with three prior pulmonary emboli. He was maintained on chronic anticoagulation with alternating days of 3.5 mg. and 5.0 mg. of warfarin sodium (coumadin). Preoperative cystoscopy showed a 4 cm prostatic fossa obstructed by tri-lobar hypertrophy, with large kissing lateral lobes and visual obstruction from the verumontanum. The patient underwent a contact laser prostatectomy with the SLT Nd:YAG laser at 50 watts. There was minimal bleeding both during the procedure and in the immediate postoperative period. At three months post-op the AUA symptom score had decreased to 2. This case demonstrated that contact laser prostatectomy can be safely and effectively performed in patients on chronic anticoagulation.

  6. Canine transurethral laser prostatectomy using a rotational technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cromeens, Douglas M.; Johnson, Douglas E.

    1995-05-01

    Conventional radical prostatectomy in the dog has historically been attended by unacceptably high incidence of urinary incontinence (80 - 100%). Ablation of the prostate can be accomplished in the dog by transurethral irradiation of the prostate with the Nd:YAG laser and a laterally deflecting fiber. Exposure has ranged between 40 and 60 watts for 60 seconds at 4 fixed locations. Although prostatectomies performed with the above described technique offers significant advantage over conventional prostatectomies, the high power density at each location can result in small submucosal explosions (`popcorn effect') that increase the potential for bleeding and rupture of the prostatic capsule. We describe a new technique in which the energy is applied continuously by a laser fiber rotating around a central point. Delivering 40 watts of Nd:YAG energy for 4 minutes using a new angle-delivery device (UrotekTM), we produced results comparable to those of other previously reported techniques in the canine model with two added advantages: (1) a more even application of heat resulting in no `popcorn' effect and (2) a more reliably predictable area of coagulative necrosis within a given axial plane. This technique should provide additional safety for the veterinary surgeon performing visual laser ablation of the prostate in the dog.

  7. Artificial urinary sphincter for post-prostatectomy incontinence: a review.

    PubMed

    James, Mary H; McCammon, Kurt A

    2014-06-01

    The artificial urinary sphincter remains the gold standard for treatment of post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence. The AMS 800 (American Medical Systems, Minnetonka, MN, USA) is the most commonly implanted artificial urinary sphincter. Having been on the market for almost 40 years, there is an abundance of literature regarding its use, but no recent review has been published. We reviewed the current literature regarding the indications, surgical principles, outcomes and complications of artificial urinary sphincter implantation for stress urinary incontinence after prostatectomy. A PubMed search was carried out for articles on the artificial urinary sphincter from 1995 to present. The review was centered on articles related to the use of the AMS 800 for stress urinary incontinence in males after prostatectomy. Relevant articles were reviewed. The majority of patients will achieve social continence (1 pad per day) after artificial urinary sphincter implantation; however, rates of total continence (no pad usage) are significantly lower. Patient satisfaction outcomes average greater than 80% in most series. Potential complications requiring reoperation include infection (0.5-10.6%) and urethral erosion (2.9-12%). Revision surgeries are most commonly as a result of urethral atrophy, which ranges from 1.6 to 11.4%. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier freedom from reoperation ranges from 50 to 79%, while the 10-year Kaplan-Meier freedom from mechanical failure is 64%. The artificial urinary sphincter is a reliable device with good outcomes. As expected with any prosthetic device, complications including mechanical failure, infection, erosion and recurrent incontinence remain significant concerns. Despite known complications, the patient satisfaction rates after artificial urinary sphincter implantation remain high. Appropriate patient counseling and adherence to surgical principles are imperative.

  8. Anaesthetic considerations for endoscopic extraperitoneal and laparoscopic transperitoneal radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Aedtner, Bernd; Olthoff, Derk; Koenig, Fritjoff; Rabenalt, Robert; Filos, Kriton S; McNeill, Alan; Liatsikos, Evangelos N

    2006-09-01

    We focus on the anaesthesiology and requirements for minimally invasive procedures for treating localized prostate cancer. The management of anaesthesia for laparoscopic and endoscopic radical prostatectomy (RP) can be more complex than expected. Numerous groups, especially early in their experience, have had problems (e.g. hypercarbia) with the anaesthesiology of the procedure. Co-operation between the surgeon and the anaesthesiologist is of paramount importance for a safe and effective laparoscopic or endoscopic RP. Nevertheless, the relative anaesthetic equipment and trained personnel should be available before embarking on such technically proficient procedures.

  9. Augmented Reality Image Guidance in Minimally Invasive Prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Daniel; Mayer, Erik; Chen, Dongbin; Anstee, Ann; Vale, Justin; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Edwards, Philip'eddie'

    This paper presents our work aimed at providing augmented reality (AR) guidance of robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery (RALP) using the da Vinci system. There is a good clinical case for guidance due to the significant rate of complications and steep learning curve for this procedure. Patients who were due to undergo robotic prostatectomy for organ-confined prostate cancer underwent preoperative 3T MRI scans of the pelvis. These were segmented and reconstructed to form 3D images of pelvic anatomy. The reconstructed image was successfully overlaid onto screenshots of the recorded surgery post-procedure. Surgeons who perform minimally-invasive prostatectomy took part in a user-needs analysis to determine the potential benefits of an image guidance system after viewing the overlaid images. All surgeons stated that the development would be useful at key stages of the surgery and could help to improve the learning curve of the procedure and improve functional and oncological outcomes. Establishing the clinical need in this way is a vital early step in development of an AR guidance system. We have also identified relevant anatomy from preoperative MRI. Further work will be aimed at automated registration to account for tissue deformation during the procedure, using a combination of transrectal ultrasound and stereoendoscopic video.

  10. Use of a semiconductor diode laser in laser prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakr, Ghazi; Watson, Graham M.; Lawrence, William

    1996-05-01

    The gold standard surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Over the past few years, TURP has been challenged by laser prostatectomy, a technique that offered many advantages including minimal bleeding, short hospital stay, no fluid absorption, rapid learning curve and better change to preserve antegrade ejaculation. Laser prostatectomy can be done by vaporizing or coagulating prostatic tissue and more recently by using a combination of both: The hybrid technique Nd:YAG lasers have been used, (coupled with contact tips or with side firing or even bare fibers) to either coagulate or vaporize prostatic tissue. Recently semiconductor diode lasers have become available and offer certain advantages. They are compact portable units with no need for water cooling, yet they have sufficient power for tissue vaporization. Diomed (Cambridge, U.K.), produces a 60 W gallium aluminum arsenide semiconductor diode laser emitting at 810 nm. We report the first clinical experience using a semiconductor diode laser for prostates using a combination of contact tip and sidefiring.

  11. Patterns of Care, Utilization, and Outcomes of Treatments for Localized Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP), compared to open radical prostatectomy (ORP), external beam radiotherapy (XRT), and brachytherapy (BRCY). The...study design. While SEER-Medicare lacks the granularity to determine nerve- sparing technique and validated instrument evaluation of incontinence and...standardized to 2008 dollars. Of the study cohort, 26% received surgery, 38% external bean radiotherapy , and 36% brachytherapy. Among surgical patients

  12. Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy: Comparison of the Open and Robotic Approaches for Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Loeb, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy represents the standard of care for surgical treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer. First described in 1904, the operation became widely performed only after advances in diagnostic and surgical techniques occurred later in the century. Over time, open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) became the most common operation for prostate cancer, and excellent long-term survival outcomes have been reported. More recently, minimally invasive techniques such as the robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) were introduced. Despite a lack of prospectively collected, long-term data supporting its use, RALRP has overtaken RRP as the most frequently performed prostate cancer operation in the United States. This article uses currently available data to compare oncologic, functional, and quality-of-life outcomes associated with both the open and robotic approaches to radical prostatectomy. PMID:23172996

  13. Anatomical basis for carrying out a state-of-the-art radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Atsushi; Tewari, Ashutosh K

    2012-01-01

    Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy has consolidated the position of surgical treatment for localized prostate cancer in the USA. In a few years, it is expected to spread rapidly worldwide. However, surgical anatomy has trailed the advance in surgical techniques of robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. Therefore, we reviewed the recent literature, which sometimes refutes the established consensus on pelvic anatomy, for the state-of-the-art technique. We also describe the anatomical findings for each basic step during robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy, and show evidence-based surgical techniques. Of course, these findings will also be useful for radical retropubic, perineal and conventional laparoscopic prostatectomy. Surgical anatomy should always be developing and changing with advances in surgical approaches.

  14. Evaluating and managing urinary incontinence after prostatectomy: beyond pads and diapers.

    PubMed

    Atiemo, Humphrey O; Moy, Louis; Vasavada, Sandip; Rackley, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    Men who become persistently incontinent after undergoing prostatectomy have a variety of options for regaining control, ranging from behavioral changes to surgery. To determine the best therapy, one should define the problem with a thorough urologic evaluation.

  15. Controversies in the management of localized prostate cancer: radical prostatectomy still the standard of care.

    PubMed

    Budäus, Lars; Huland, Hartwig; Graefen, Markus

    2012-12-01

    The optimal treatment for clinically localized prostate cancer is an ongoing subject of controversy. Treatment decisions must take tumour staging, risk assessment, life expectancy and consideration of the major side effects of multiple available treatment regimens into account. Despite technical advances reduced the side effects of radiation therapy, the majority of patients with newly diagnosed organ confined prostate cancer decide to undergo radical prostatectomy. Refinements of radical prostatectomy surgical techniques during the last decade are influenced by better understanding of the anatomy of the small pelvis and resulted in excellent functional and oncological outcomes. Additionally, the surgeons experience was identified as a key determinant for improved surgical outcomes. Recently, retrospective studies revealed that also patients with locally advanced disease benefit from radical prostatectomy. Advantages of radical prostatectomy include a precise pathological staging that assesses the need for additional therapies. Moreover, PSA can easily be used as an accurate surrogate marker during follow-up in such patients.

  16. [International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on handling and staging of radical prostatectomy specimens].

    PubMed

    Compérat, Eva; Camparo, Philippe; Srigley, John; Delahunt, Brett; Egevad, Lars

    2013-06-01

    The 2009 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) consensus conference on handling and staging of radical prostatectomy specimens issued recommendations for standardization of pathology reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens. The conference addressed specimen handling, T2 substaging, prostate cancer volume, extraprostatic extension, lymphovascular invasion, seminal vesicle invasion, lymph node metastases and surgical margins. This review summarizes the conclusions and recommendations resulting from the consensus process.

  17. Transurethral ultrasound-guided laser prostatectomy: initial Luebeck experince

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Stephen; Spitzenpfeil, Elisabeth; Knipper, Ansgar; Jocham, Dieter

    1994-02-01

    Transurethral ultrasound guided laser prostatectomy is one of the most promising alternative invasive treatment modalities for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The principle feature is an on- line 3-D controlling of Nd:YAG laser denaturation of the periurethral tissue. Necrotic tissue is not removed, but sloughs away with the urinary stream within weeks. The bleeding hazard during and after the operation is minimal. By leaving the bladder neck untouched, sexual function is not endangered. Thirty-one patients with symptomatic BPH were treated with the TULIP system and followed up for at least 12 weeks. Suprapubic bladder drainage had to be maintained for a mean time of 37 days. Conventional TURP was performed in four patients due to chronic infection, recurrent bleeding, and poor results. Our initial experience with the TULIP system shows it to be very efficient and safe. A longer follow up of a larger patient population is necessary to compare the therapeutic efficiency to conventional transurethral resection.

  18. DaVinci-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: the learning curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Carter Q.; Ho, Khai-Linh V.; Gettman, Matthew T.

    2007-02-01

    Objective: To define the learning curve for daVinci-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (DLP) at our institution. Methods: The data from 170 patients who underwent DLP between August 2002 and December 2004 by a single surgeon (MTG) were reviewed. Operative time, hemoglobin decrease, conversion to open procedure, positive margin rates, complications, length of stay (LOS), length of catheterization, continence, and erectile function were analyzed. Results: Hemoglobin decrease (p=0.11), positive margin rates (p=0.80), and early urinary continence (p=0.17) did not significantly correlate with surgical experience. A trend towards lower complications (p=0.07) and an earlier return of erectile function (p=0.09) was noted with increased experience with DLP. Operative time, hospital stay, catheterization time, and open conversion showed significant association with patient sequence. Median operative time for the first 60 and the last 110 patients was 323.5 and 239.5 minutes (p=<0.0001), respectively. Median LOS for the aforementioned groups was 53 and 51 hours (p=0.009). Length of catheterization declined significantly between the first 60 and the remaining 110 patients, 14 as compared to 11.5 days (p=<0.0001). Eight open conversions occurred, six were in the first 30 patients (p=0.03). Conclusion: As an indicator of the learning curve, the operative time in our series showed no correlation with sequence after the 60 th patient. Thus, despite the advantages of robotics, the learning curve to efficient performance of daVinciassisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is long. Oncological and functional outcomes should not be affected during the learning curve.

  19. Laser prostatectomy using a right angle delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Flavio T.; Mitre, Anuar I.; Chavantes, Maria C.; Arap, Sami

    1995-05-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) represents a major health problem in old men. In the present transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the gold standard treatment for BPH. Although TURP is related to low mortality rates its mobidity is quite high. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new surgical treatment for BPH we undertook 30 patients with symptomatic BPH. All of them were submitted to a laser prostatectomy using a lateral delivery system (non contact) connected to a Nd-YAG laser font. The preoperative evaluation showed a prostate weight ranging from 30,5 to 86 grams (mean equals 42,5). The preoperative prostatic specific antigen (PSA) ranged from 0,9 to 10,2 ng/dl (mean equals 4.3). The International prostate symptom score (I-PSS) ranged from 16 to 35 points (means equals 23,58). The flow rate ranged from 0 to m 12.8 ml/sec (mean equals 4,65) and the postvoid residual urine from 20 to 400 ml (mean equals 100). We obtained follow-up in 20 patients. After three months after the procedure the parameters were: I-PSS from 4 to 20 points (mean equals 7,0) p < 0.05. Flow rate from 6,5 to m 19.4 ml/sec (mean equals 12,95) p < 0.05 and the postvoid residual urine from 17 to 70 ml (mean equals 30 ml) p < 0.05. No blood transfusion was required. The complications were persistent disuria in two patients, bladder neck contracture in one patient and urethral stenosis in one patient. We concluded that laser prostatectomy is a safe and effective treatment for BPH.

  20. A comparative study of complications and outcomes associated with radical retropubic prostatectomy and robot assisted radical prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettman, Matthew T.

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcomes among a matched cohort of prostate cancer patients treated with radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) and robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Materials and methods: Between 2002 and 2005, 294 patients underwent RARP at our institution. Comparison RRP patients were matched 2:1 for surgical year, age, PSA, clinical stage, and biopsy grade (n=588). Outcomes among groups were compared. From an oncologic standpoint, pathologic features among groups were assessed and Kaplan-Meier estimates of PSA recurrence free survival were compared. Results: Overall margin positivity was not significantly different between groups (RARP, 15.6%, RRP, 17%), yet risk of apical margin was significantly less with RARP. RARP was associated with significantly shorter hospitalization (p<0.01) and lower incidence of blood transfusion (p < 0.01). Early complications were higher in the RARP group (16% vs 10%, p<0.01). Among late complications, risk of bladder neck contracture was lower with RARP (1.2%, p=0.02). Adjuvant hormonal therapy was significantly higher in the RRP group (6.6% p<0.01). Continence at 1 year among groups was equivalent (p=0.15). Potency at 1 year was better among RARP patients (p=0.02). At a median followup of 1.3 years, PSA recurrence free estimates were not significantly different (92% vs 92%, p=0.69). Conclusions: Early complications were higher in this RARP group, but this experience includes cases performed in the learning curve. Oncologic, quality of life, and functional data in this study revealed encouraging results for RARP when compared to RRP.

  1. Comparison of Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy and Open Radical Prostatectomy Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Na Rae; Son, Soo Kyung; Kim, Dae Keun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To systematically update evidence on the clinical efficacy and safety of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) versus retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) in patients with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Electronic databases, including ovidMEDLINE, ovidEMBASE, the Cochrane Library, KoreaMed, KMbase, and others, were searched, collecting data from January 1980 to August 2013. The quality of selected systematic reviews was assessed using the revised assessment of multiple systematic reviews and the modified Cochrane Risk of Bias tool for non-randomized studies. Results A total of 61 studies were included, including 38 from two previous systematic reviews rated as best available evidence and 23 additional studies that were more recent. There were no randomized controlled trials. Regarding safety, the risk of complications was lower for RARP than for RRP. Among functional outcomes, the risk of urinary incontinence was lower and potency rate was significantly higher for RARP than for RRP. Regarding oncologic outcomes, positive margin rates were comparable between groups, and although biochemical recurrence (BCR) rates were lower for RARP than for RRP, recurrence-free survival was similar after long-term follow up. Conclusion RARP might be favorable to RRP in regards to post-operative complications, peri-operative outcomes, and functional outcomes. Positive margin and BCR rates were comparable between the two procedures. As most of studies were of low quality, the results presented should be interpreted with caution, and further high quality studies controlling for selection, confounding, and selective reporting biases with longer-term follow-up are needed to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of RARP. PMID:27401648

  2. Differential adoption of laser prostatectomy for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Schroeck, Florian R.; Hollingsworth, John M.; Hollenbeck, Brent K.; Jacobs, Bruce L.; Suskind, Anne M.; Sarma, Aruna V.; Wei, John T.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether socioeconomic environment affects the adoption of new laser technology for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). METHODS Using all payer data, we identified all discharges for laser prostatectomy or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) performed in Florida (2001–2009). We determined whether or not each of 114 healthcare markets (Hospital Service Areas) offered laser prostatectomy or TURP and assessed the market-level socioeconomic environment using a previously described ZIP code based summary score. We used generalized estimating equations to examine the association of socioeconomic environment with offering laser prostatectomy or TURP, adjusting for additional market characteristics. RESULTS Better socioeconomic environment was associated with offering laser prostatectomy (odds ratio 1.21 for each 1 point increase in summary score, 95% confidence interval 1.08–1.35, P <.001). Adoption of laser prostatectomy over time was more rapid in markets with superior socioeconomic environment (P <.001 for interaction of socioeconomic summary score with year), such that by study midpoint, 82% of advantaged vs 54% of disadvantaged markets had adopted this new technology. In contrast, socioeconomic environment had only minimal effects on whether or not a market offered TURP. CONCLUSION We found delayed access to new laser technology in more disadvantaged socioeconomic environments, which may translate into disparities in certain outcomes after transurethral surgery for BPH. PMID:23522295

  3. Effect of age on biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Ozden, Cuneyt; Aktas, Binhan Kagan; Bulut, Suleyman; Erbay, Guven; Tagci, Suleyman; Gokkaya, Cevdet S; Baykam, Mehmet M; Memis, Ali

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between patient's age and biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP). Data from RRP applied to 305 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were included in the study. Patients were divided into the three age groups, < 60 years, 60-70 years, and > 70 years. The groups were compared regarding adverse pathological findings on RRP specimen, BCR, and biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS) rates. The rates of positive surgical margin, seminal vesicle invasion, lymph node involvement, RRP specimens' Gleason score, and BCR were not significantly different among the three age groups. bRFS rates were not different either. Nonorgan-confined disease and extracapsular extension (ECE) rates were significantly higher in the group of 60-70 years group than in the other two age groups. Factors associated with BCR in multivariate Cox regression analysis were ECE, seminal vesicle invasion, positive surgical margin, and RRP specimens' Gleason score of ≥ 4+3. Patient age and preoperative prostate specific antigen levels were not identified to be associated with BCR. Post-RRP nonorgan-confined disease and ECE are more frequently seen in patients of 60-70 years of age group than in other age groups. However, patient age is not an independent prognostic factor associated with bRFS.

  4. Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy after High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Failure

    PubMed Central

    Telis, Leon; Jazayeri, Seyed Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Background. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in men. As new focal therapies become more popular in treatment of prostate cancer, failure cases requiring salvage therapy with either surgical or other techniques are being reported. Objective. To report the options in treatment of prostate cancer after recurrence or failure of the primary treatment modality. Methods. We report a salvage robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) for prostate cancer recurrence following high intensity focused ultrasound treatment (HIFU) in the United States. Results. A 67-year-old man who underwent HIFU treatment for prostate adenocarcinoma 2 years prior was presented with a rising prostate specific antigen of 6.1 ng/mL to our clinic. A biopsy proven recurrent disease in the area of previous treatment documented the failure of treatment. The patient elected to undergo a salvage RALP. The operation time was 159 minutes. The patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 1 with no complications. The catheter was removed on post-op day 10. The patient reserved sexual function and urinary continence. The PSA levels on 6 months' follow-up are undetectable. Conclusions. Salvage RALP is an effective and safe treatment choice for recurrent prostate adenocarcinoma following failed HIFU treatment if operated by an experienced surgeon. PMID:28243479

  5. Re-constructing masculinity following radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Kenneth; Guerro-Blanco, Monica; Patel, Anup; Abel, Paul

    2010-12-01

    Prostate cancer is common in older men. Surgical treatment involving removal of the prostate can result in temporary or permanent erectile dysfunction (ED) and incontinence and have a major impact on men's masculine identity. Seven men were interviewed about their experiences and concerns following prostatectomy, and the transcripts were analysed employing Foucauldian Discourse Analysis to identify the ways in which they constructed their masculinity. Participants drew upon four main discourses when discussing the impact of surgical treatment on their sense of masculinity: masculine identity and sexual activity, ED as a normative experience, mental resilience and vulnerability. Penetrative sex was constructed as central to a masculine identity, but inability to achieve this was normalised in terms of the ageing process. Stereotypically masculine qualities of emotional control and rationality were drawn on in describing their reaction to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer but they also experienced a new-found sense of physical vulnerability. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the clinical management of ED post-surgery and helping men adjust to life following treatment.

  6. Incontinence after radical prostatectomy: Anything new in its management?

    PubMed Central

    Caremel, Romain; Corcos, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: With the increasing number of radical prostatectomies (RP) performed, male stress urinary incontinence (SUI) has become common. The artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) is the gold standard to treat SUI post-RP, but new devices have recently been developed. We review the recent studies on the treatment of SUI post-RP; we also describe the surgical techniques, mechanisms of action and results of these new procedures. Methods: We conducted a literature review search in the PubMed/Medline and Embase databases. Our search was restricted to recent articles. We included studies even if the urinary incontinence was due to sphincter deficiency after RP in non-neurologic patients. Results: We found 8 cohort studies for the surgical procedure: 3 studies concerning slings, 1 involving balloons adjustable implant, and 4 involving new devices. The only randomized controlled trial (RCT) was a pharmacologic clinical trial comparing duloxetine to placebo. The social continence rates were analyzed for 6 studies and were up to 66%. Conclusion: New minimally invasive surgical procedures have emerged as the main alternative to AUS, with social continence rates up to 60% despite just 1 RCT studying the pharmacologic approach. There is an urgent need for well-designed clinical trials to clarify the role of new surgical alternatives in the management of SUI post-RP. New technologies should continue to be evaluated and compared with the AUS, which remains the gold standard. PMID:25024791

  7. Extended lymph node dissection in robotic radical prostatectomy: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Sameer; Alemozaffar, Mehrdad; Gill, Inderbir; Aron, Monish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The role and extent of extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) during radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer patients remains unclear. Materials and Methods: A PubMed literature search was performed for studies reporting on treatment regimens and outcomes in patients with prostate cancer treated by RP and extended lymph node dissection between 1999 and 2013. Results: Studies have shown that RP can improve progression-free and overall survival in patients with lymph node-positive prostate cancer. While this finding requires further validation, it does allow urologists to question the former treatment paradigm of aborting surgery when lymph node invasion from prostate cancer occurred, especially in patients with limited lymph node tumor infiltration. Studies show that intermediate- and high-risk patients should undergo ePLND up to the common iliac arteries in order to improve nodal staging. Conclusions: Evidence from the literature suggests that RP with ePLND improves survival in lymph node-positive prostate cancer. While studies have shown promising results, further improvements and understanding of the surgical technique and post-operative treatment are required to improve treatment for prostate cancer patients with lymph node involvement. PMID:27127352

  8. Open radical retropubic prostatectomy 2007: the true minimally invasive surgery for localized prostate cancer?

    PubMed

    Nosnik, Israel P; Gan, Tong J; Moul, Judd W

    2007-09-01

    The introduction of robotic laparoscopic assisted prostatectomy at our institution and nationwide has been a great advancement and has caused us to focus and fine-tune our goal for improvements in prostate cancer outcomes whether the patient elects for robotic laparoscopic assisted prostatectomy or open minimally invasive radical retropubic prostatectomy. While these authors favor the open technique performed by highly skilled urologic surgical oncologists, the lessons we have learned to date suggest that it is the skill of the surgeon that determines outcome, regardless of whether or not the operation is performed by an open or robotic laparoscopic technique. The concepts we have articulated here are related to resection and avoidance of positive margins, limited intraoperative blood loss and pain control, which allow equivalence in these outcome areas, regardless of technique.

  9. Avoiding and managing vascular injury during robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nunez Bragayrac, Luciano A.; Machuca, Victor; Garza Cortes, Roberto; Azhar, Raed A.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increase in the number of urologic procedures performed robotically assisted; this is the case for radical prostatectomy. Currently, in the USA, 67% of prostatectomies are performed robotically assisted. With this increase in robotic urologic surgery it is clear that there are more surgeons in their learning curve, where most of the complications occur. Among the complications that can occur are vascular injuries. These can occur in the initial stages of surgery, such as in accessing the abdominal cavity, as well as in the intraoperative or postoperative setting. We present the most common vascular injuries in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, as well as their management and prevention. We believe that it is of vital importance to be able to recognize these injuries so that they can be prevented. PMID:25642293

  10. Avoiding and managing vascular injury during robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, René; Nunez Bragayrac, Luciano A; Machuca, Victor; Garza Cortes, Roberto; Azhar, Raed A

    2015-02-01

    There has been an increase in the number of urologic procedures performed robotically assisted; this is the case for radical prostatectomy. Currently, in the USA, 67% of prostatectomies are performed robotically assisted. With this increase in robotic urologic surgery it is clear that there are more surgeons in their learning curve, where most of the complications occur. Among the complications that can occur are vascular injuries. These can occur in the initial stages of surgery, such as in accessing the abdominal cavity, as well as in the intraoperative or postoperative setting. We present the most common vascular injuries in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, as well as their management and prevention. We believe that it is of vital importance to be able to recognize these injuries so that they can be prevented.

  11. Cystolithotomy during robotic radical prostatectomy: Single-stage procedure for concomitant bladder stones

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Gerald Y.; Sooriakumaran, Prasanna; Peters, David L.; Srivastava, Abhishek; Tewari, Ashutosh

    2012-01-01

    Asymptomatic concomitant vesical calculi are an occasional finding on routine radiologic staging and evaluation of patients with early prostate cancer. We report the first case of single-stage robotic cystolithotomy for multiple bladder stones in a 64-year-old man undergoing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy, and discuss the approaches available for ensuring complete stone clearance in this unique setting. We show that concomitant bladder stone extraction during robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy is feasible and does not add significantly to operative time. This technique avoids the need to undergo additional general anesthetic procedures with potential complications such as bleeding, urethral stricture formation, and bladder perforation, prior to the prostatectomy. PMID:22557729

  12. Evaluation of quality of life after radical prostatectomy-experience in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Dragićević, Svetomir M; Krejović-Marić, Snežana P; Hasani, Bajram H; Soldatović, Ivan A; Bojić, Svetlana D; Canović, Predrag

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare health related quality of life (QoL) of patients with prostate cancer, who had undergone radical prostatectomy (RP), with patients who were carefully monitored. This prospective study included 56 patients who had undergone the radical prostatectomy (RP) and 48 non-operated patients (watchful waiting, WW). All patients filled EPIC questionnaire at baseline, 1th, 3rd, 6th and 12th month. At baseline, mean scores were similar in both groups, but one month after the surgery in RP group, patients had statistically significant lower score of urinary incontinency, urinary function and sexual function compared with WW patients. These scores were significantly higher in the 3rd, 6th and 12th month in operated patients, but there was no improvement in the WW group. Radical prostatectomy does not significantly improve quality of life. Prostatectomized patients had worse scores on the QoL scale, with exception of the urinary disturbance dimension.

  13. Associations Between Serum Vitamin D and Adverse Pathology in Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nyame, Yaw A.; Bowen, Diana K.; Jordan, Gregory; Batai, Ken; Dixon, Michael; Hollowell, Courtney M.P.; Kielb, Stephanie; Meeks, Joshua J.; Gann, Peter H.; Macias, Virgilia; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Catalona, William J.; Kittles, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lower serum vitamin D levels have been associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Among men with localized prostate cancer, especially with low- or intermediate-risk disease, vitamin D may serve as an important biomarker of disease aggression. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between adverse pathology at the time of radical prostatectomy and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) levels. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out from 2009 to 2014, nested within a large epidemiologic study of 1,760 healthy controls and men undergoing prostate cancer screening. In total, 190 men underwent radical prostatectomy in the cohort. Adverse pathology was defined as the presence of primary Gleason 4 or any Gleason 5 disease, or extraprostatic extension. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the relationship between 25-OH D and adverse pathology at the time of prostatectomy. Results Eighty-seven men (45.8%) in this cohort demonstrated adverse pathology at radical prostatectomy. The median age in the cohort was 64.0 years (interquartile range, 59.0 to 67.0). On univariate analysis, men with adverse pathology at radical prostatectomy demonstrated lower median serum 25-OH D (22.7 v 27.0 ng/mL, P = .007) compared with their counterparts. On multivariate analysis, controlling for age, serum prostate specific antigen, and abnormal digital rectal examination, serum 25-OH D less than 30 ng/mL was associated with increased odds of adverse pathology (odds ratio, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.25 to 5.59; P = .01). Conclusion Insufficiency/deficiency of serum 25-OH D is associated with increased odds of adverse pathology in men with localized disease undergoing radical prostatectomy. Serum 25-OH D may serve as a useful biomarker in prostate cancer aggressiveness, which deserves continued study. PMID:26903577

  14. Contemporaneous comparison of open vs minimally-invasive radical prostatectomy for high-risk prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Mullins, Jeffrey K.; Eifler, John B.; Voth, Kipp; Hyams, Elias S.; Han, Misop; Pavlovich, Christian P.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Partin, Alan W.; Allaf, Mohamad E.; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives • To analyze pathological and short-term oncological outcomes in men undergoing open and minimally-invasive radical prostatectomy (MIRP) for high-risk prostate cancer (HRPC; prostate-specific antigen level [PSA] >20 ng/mL, ≥cT2c, Gleason score 8–10) in a contemporaneous series. Patients and Methods • In total, 913 patients with HRPC were identified in the Johns Hopkins Radical Prostatectomy Database subsequent to the inception of MIRP at this institution (2002–2011) • Of these, 743 (81.4%) underwent open radical retropubic prostatectomy (ORRP), 105 (11.5%) underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) and 65 (7.1%) underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) for HRPC. • Appropriate comparative tests were used to evaluate patient and prostate cancer characteristics. • Proportional hazards regression models were used to predict biochemical recurrence. Results • Age, race, body mass index, preoperative PSA level, clinical stage, number of positive cores and Gleason score at final pathology were similar between ORRP and MIRP. • On average, men undergoing MIRP had smaller prostates and more organ-confined (pT2) disease (P = 0.02). • The number of surgeons and surgeon experience were greatest for the ORRP cohort. • Overall surgical margin rate was 29.4%, 34.3% and 27.7% (P = 0.52) and 1.9%, 2.9% and 6.2% (P = 0.39) for pT2 disease in men undergoing ORRP, RALRP and LRP, respectively. • Biochemical recurrence-free survival among ORRP, RALRP and LRP was 56.3%, 67.8% and 41.1%, respectively, at 3 years (P = 0.6) and the approach employed did not predict biochemical recurrence in regression models. Conclusions • At an experienced centre, MIRP is comparable to open radical prostatectomy for HRPC with respect to surgical margin status and biochemical recurrence. PMID:23356390

  15. A laparoscopic radical prostatectomy assisted by the "ZEUS" robotic system: an initial case report.

    PubMed

    Eto, Masatoshi; Yokomizo, Akira; Koga, Hirofumi; Tsunoda, Toshiyuki; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Hashizume, Makoto; Naito, Seiji

    2005-02-01

    A 68-year-old man with prostate cancer, T1cN0M0, was treated with laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) assisted by the ZEUS robotic system. The ZEUS system was utilized only for vesico-urethral anastomosis, one of the most difficult procedures to perform during LRP. We could complete the vesico-urethral anastomosis using the ZEUS system for 100 min without any intraoperative complications. The urethral catheter was removed 7 days after operation. To our knowledge, this is the initial case of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy using the ZEUS system.

  16. Robotic-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy after the First Decade: Surgical Evolution or New Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Skarecky, Douglas W.

    2013-01-01

    Early studies indicate that robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) has promising short-term outcomes; however, RARP is beyond its infancy, and the long-term report cards are now beginning. The important paradigm shift introduced by RARP is the reevaluation of the entire open radical prostatectomy experience in surgical technique by minimizing blood loss and complications, maximizing cancer free outcomes, and a renewed assault in preserving quality of life outcomes by many novel mechanisms. RARP provides a new technical “canvas” for surgical masters to create upon, and in ten years, has reinvigorated a 100-year-old “gold standard” surgery. PMID:23691367

  17. Impact of trainee involvement with robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Anil A; Derboghossians, Armen; Chang, Allen; Karia, Rajiv; Finley, David S; Slezak, Jeff; Jacobsen, Steven J; Chien, Gary W

    2013-09-01

    Robotic-assisted surgery has been rapidly adopted within urology practice. As a result, academic centers are challenged with the burden of how to effectively train residents and fellows to perform robotic-assisted surgery without compromising outcomes. We evaluated the perioperative outcomes of trainee involvement with robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) within our healthcare organization. We retrospectively reviewed RARP cases performed at our institution between September 2008 and December 2010 using a single da Vinci robotic platform. Trainees consisted of urology residents and fellows who operated with staff surgeons on select operating days, whereas two staff surgeon teams performed RARP on alternate days. We compared clinicopathologic variables including operating time, estimated blood loss, surgical margin rates, and complication rates between the trainee and staff-only surgeon groups. Overall, 1,019 RARP surgeries were performed within the study period and trainees participated in 162 cases (16 %). Clinical characteristics were similar between men undergoing surgery with a trainee and those without. Positive surgical margin rates were lower for patients with pT2 disease for cases with trainee involvement (11 vs. 19 %, p = 0.02), although overall margin rates and margin rates for patients with pT3 disease were similar between the groups (p = 0.34). Surgical cases involving trainees were longer (241 vs. 200 min, p < 0.001) and resulted in higher estimated blood loss (190 vs. 120 mL, p < 0.001) than the two staff surgeon cases. However, transfusion rates as well as intraoperative and postoperative complication rates did not differ significantly between groups. In conclusion, surgical margin rates were lower in teaching cases for patients with pT2 disease. Importantly, trainee involvement in RARP is safe, with similar perioperative outcomes to staff-only surgical cases. This information may be useful for training and surgical planning.

  18. Allogeneic versus autologous blood transfusion and survival after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chalfin, Heather J.; Frank, Steven M.; Feng, Zhaoyong; Trock, Bruce J.; Drake, Charles G.; Partin, Alan W.; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Ness, Paul M.; Jeong, Byong C.; Lee, Seung B.; Han, Misop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Potential adverse effects of blood transfusion (BT) remain controversial, especially for clinical outcomes after curative cancer surgery. Some postulate that immune modulation after allogeneic BT predisposes to recurrence and death, but autologous superiority is not established. This study assessed whether BT is associated with long-term prostate cancer recurrence and survival a large single-institutional radical prostatectomy (RP) database. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Between 1994 and 2012, a total of 11,680 patients had RP with available outcome and transfusion data. A total of 7443 (64%) had complete covariate data. Clinical variables associated with biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were identified with Cox proportional hazards models for three groups: no BT (reference, 27.7%, n = 2061), autologous BT only (68.8%, n = 5124), and any allogeneic BT (with or without autologous, 3.5%, n = 258). RESULTS Median (range) follow-up was 6 (1–18) years. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly decreased OS (but not BRFS or PCSS) in the allogeneic group versus autologous and no BT groups (p = 0.006). With univariate analysis, any allogeneic BT had a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.29 (range, 1.52–3.46; p < 0.0001) for OS, whereas autologous BT was not significant (HR, 1.04 [range, 0.82–1.32], p = 0.752). In multivariable models, neither autologous nor allogeneic BT was independently associated with BRFS, CSS, or OS, and a dose response was not observed for allogeneic units and BRFS. CONCLUSION Although allogeneic but not autologous BT was associated with decreased long-term OS, after adjustment for confounding clinical variables, BT was not independently associated with OS, BRFS, or CSS regardless of transfusion type. Notably, no association was observed between allogeneic BT and cancer recurrence. Observed differences in OS may reflect confounding. PMID:24601996

  19. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and resection of rectum performed together: first experience

    PubMed Central

    Orhalmi, Julius; Kosina, Josef; Balik, Michal; Pacovsky, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Laparoscopy is an increasingly used approach in the surgical treatment of rectal cancer and prostate cancer. The anatomical proximity of the two organs is the main reason to consider performing both procedures simultaneously. Aim To present our first experience of laparoscopic rectal resection and radical prostatectomy, performed simultaneously, in 3 patients. Material and methods The first patient was diagnosed with locally advanced rectal cancer and tumor infiltration of the prostate and seminal vesicles. The other 2 patients were diagnosed with tumor duplicity. The surgery of the first patient started with laparoscopic prostatectomy except division of the prostate from the rectal wall. The next step was resection of the rectum, extralevator amputation of the rectum and vesicourethral anastomosis. In the other patients, resection of the rectum, followed by radical prostatectomy, was performed. Results The median follow-up was 12 months. The median operation time was 4 h 40 min, with blood loss of 300 ml. The operations and postoperative course were without incident in the case of 2 patients. However, 1 patient had stercoral peritonitis and a vesicorectal fistula in the early postoperative stage. Sigmoidostomy and postponed ureteroileal conduit were carried out. All patients were in oncologic remission. Conclusions Combined laparoscopic rectal resection and radical prostatectomy is a viable option for selected patients with locally advanced rectal cancer or tumor duplication. The procedures were completed without complications in 2 out of 3 patients. PMID:26649093

  20. A Novel Approach for Performing Bone Marrow Aspiration at the Time of Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J.; Reyes, Diane K.; Gorin, Michael A.; Hortopan, Steven; Partin, Alan W.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Ross, Ashley E.; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    The bone marrow microenvironment represents a “metastatic niche” in which prostate cancer cells may persist and evade cytotoxic therapy. In order to study the biology of prostate cancer dissemination, we have established a safe and efficient method for performing pubic bone marrow aspiration at the time of radical prostatectomy. We herein describe our experience with this technique. PMID:27175343

  1. A Novel Approach for Performing Bone Marrow Aspiration at the Time of Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Reyes, Diane K; Gorin, Michael A; Hortopan, Steven; Partin, Alan W; Pienta, Kenneth J; Ross, Ashley E; Schaeffer, Edward M

    2016-05-01

    The bone marrow microenvironment represents a "metastatic niche" in which prostate cancer cells may persist and evade cytotoxic therapy. In order to study the biology of prostate cancer dissemination, we have established a safe and efficient method for performing pubic bone marrow aspiration at the time of radical prostatectomy. We herein describe our experience with this technique.

  2. Total cysto-prostatectomy: Technique description and results in 2 dogs.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Nicholas; Souza, Carlos H de M; Franz, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    We describe a novel technique for total cysto-prostatectomy, followed by uretero-urethral anastomosis in 2 dogs. The technique was successful and was performed without pubic osteotomy. Post-operative urinary tract infections may be a potentially serious event.

  3. The Effect of Intensive Education On Urinary Incontinence Following Radical Prostatectomy: A Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Novick, Besma Jassani; Angie, Michelle; Walker, Esteban; Kitay, Renee; Monday, Kathryn; Albert, Nancy M

    2014-01-01

    Intense bladder control education failed to improve bladder control among patients who underwent a radical prostatectomy as treatment of their prostate cancer. Despite this educational intervention, participants continued to experience post-operative bladder control problems. Nurses need to develop and implement novel interventions that might enhance bladder control.

  4. Biochemical Recurrence Prediction in High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients, Following Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Noriya; Yumioka, Tetsuya; Iwamoto, Hideto; Masago, Toshihiko; Morizane, Shuichi; Honda, Masashi; Sejima, Takehiro; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Background High-risk prostate cancer treatment has been controversial. Some high-risk prostate cancer patients fail to respond to radical prostatectomy only. Thus, we aimed to investigate the predictive factors for biochemical recurrence (BCR) and identify patients who could achieve sufficient therapeutic effect by radical prostatectomy only. Methods Of 264 medical records reviewed, 141 low-intermediate-risk and 100 high-risk prostate cancer patients, excluding those who had received neoadjuvant hormone therapy, were analyzed. BCR was defined as the first increase in prostate-specific antigen levels (≥ 0.2 ng/mL), with levels not decreasing to undetectable limits, after radical prostatectomy. Log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to determine the prognostic factors. We investigated the perioperative predictive factors for BCR and BCR-free survival rates, with the number of National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) high-risk factors for high-risk prostate cancer patients who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Results Multivariate analyses showed that clinical T3 was significantly associated with BCR [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.052; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26–12.99; P = 0.019]. Of the 100 patients, 77 had 1 high-risk factor and 23 had ≥ 2 high-risk factors; the 1-year BCR-free survival rate of patients with 1 high-risk factor and those with ≥ 2 high-risk factors was 94.8% and 69.6%, respectively. Patients with ≥ 2 high-risk factors were significantly associated with BCR (P = 0.002). No difference in BCR rate between patients with 1 high-risk factor and those with low- and intermediate-risk was found. Conclusion High-risk prostate cancer patients with 1 NCCN high-risk factor can be considered for robot-assisted radical prostatectomy treatment only. PMID:28070166

  5. Robotic and Open Radical Prostatectomy: The First Prospective Randomised Controlled Trial Fuels Debate Rather than Closing the Question.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Nicola; Wiklund, Peter; Rochat, Charles-Henry; Montorsi, Francesco; Dasgupta, Prokar; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Canda, Abdullah E; Piechaud, Thierry; Artibani, Walter; Mottrie, Alexandre

    2017-03-01

    Despite the finally acquired level 1 evidence, the urologic debate on open versus robotic prostatectomy still persists. This trial from Brisbane will encourage future studies that will better inform this debate and define what robotic surgery offers.

  6. Economic Evaluation Study (Cheer Compliant) Laser Prostatectomy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Outcomes and Cost-effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yu-Chao; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Chou, Chih-Yuan; Hou, Chen-Pang; Chen, Chien-Lun; Chang, Phei-Lang; Tsui, Ke-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine which surgical treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms, which is suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is more cost-effective and yields a better patient's preference. Treatment outcome, cost, and perioperative complications to assess the treatment effectiveness of using laser prostatectomy as a treatment for BPH were investigated in this study. This retrospective study included 100 patients who underwent transurethral resection of prostate (TUR-P) and another 100 patients who received high-powered 120 W (GreenLight HPS) laser prostatectomy between 2005 and 2011. International Prostate Symptom Score and uroflow parameters were collected before the surgery and the uroflow and postvoiding residual volumes were evaluated before treatment and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment. The results of 100 treatments after HPS laser prostatectomy were compared with the results of 100 patients who received TUR-P from the same surgeon. Complication rates and admission costs were analyzed. From 2005 to 2011, 200 consecutive patients underwent endoscopic surgery. Study participants were men with BPH with mean age of 71.3 years old. The peak flow rate went from 8.47 to 15.83 mL/s for 3 months after laser prostatectomy. Laser therapy groups showed better improvement in symptom score, shortened length of stay, and quality of life score when compared with those of TUR-P procedures. The estimated cost for laser prostatectomy was high when compared with cost of any other TUR-P procedural option at Chang Gung Hospital (P = 0.001). All admission charges were similar except for the cost of the laser equipment and accessories (mainly the laser fiber) (P = 0.001). Due to this cost of equipment, it increased the total admission charges for the laser group and therefore made the cost for the laser group higher than that of the TUR-P group. Perioperative complications, such as the need for checking for bleeding, urinary retention rate or

  7. Radical prostatectomy in the presence of ongoing refractory ESBL Escherichia coli bacterial prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    McLoughlin, Louise Catherine; McDermott, T E D; Thornhill, John Alan

    2014-01-01

    A 44-year-old Indian national with a prostate-specific antigen of 5.4 ng/mL underwent 12-core transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies. Following this, he had three hospital admissions with severe urosepsis secondary to extended spectrum β lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli. He had recurrent sepsis immediately after discontinuation of intravenous meropenem to which the ESBL was sensitive. He proceeded to radical prostatectomy for intermediate-high risk Gleason 7 prostate cancer, while still on intravenous meropenem, 2 months after his biopsy. His prostatectomy involved a difficult dissection due to inflammatory changes and fibrosis after multiple septic episodes. He had complete resolution of infection after surgery with discontinuation of antibiotics on the third postoperative day, without any recurrence of sepsis. PMID:25315803

  8. Salvage external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy: current status and controversy.

    PubMed

    Raldow, Ann; Hamstra, Daniel A; Kim, Sung; Yu, James B

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in American men. What to do when prostate cancer recurs months or years after a patient undergoes radical prostatectomy is an area of active research. Patients who underwent radical prostatectomy without immediate adjuvant radiation therapy (ART) but subsequently have evidence of recurrent disease are candidates for Salvage Radiation Therapy (SRT). Though there are three prospective randomized trials illustrating the efficacy of post-operative ART for selected patients, similarly strong evidence is lacking for SRT. In this article, we define the biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer, distinguish SRT from ART, outline the evidence for SRT, and make recommendations with regard to radiotherapy volume and dose. We discuss the known side effects from SRT, weigh the cost and benefit of SRT, and discuss possible tools that may improve the cost/benefit ratio for SRT by helping to select patients whom SRT may be more likely to benefit.

  9. Zero positive surgical margins after radical prostatectomy: is the end in sight.

    PubMed

    Skarecky, Douglas W; Brenner, Mattew; Rajan, Sudhir; Rodriguez, Esequiel; Narula, Navneet; Melgoza, Frank; Ahlering, Thomas E

    2008-11-01

    Positive surgical margins represents incomplete resection by the surgeon, and the elimination of positive margins represents the only clinical feature during radical prostatectomy that can lead directly to improved cancer outcomes. The introduction of new robot-assisted technology and technical refinements has led to declines of positive surgical margins. Although margins induced by incomplete cancer resection by the surgeon have been reduced for organ-confined disease, the 'Holy Grail' of zero margins is not yet attainable in prostatectomy, and is more problematic in cancer that has penetrated beyond the prostate. Intraoperative frozen biopsies are imprecise. The union of real-time optical coherence tomography technology of the da Vinci robotic platform for identification of positive margin sites, and technical advances with wider excisions during surgery may provide promise for further reduction of surgical margins to zero.

  10. Robot assisted radical prostatectomy: how I do it. Part II: Surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Roger F; Hueber, Pierre-Alain; Zorn, Kevin C

    2013-12-01

    The introduction of the "da Vinci Robotic Surgical System" (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has been an important step towards a minimally invasive approach to radical prostatectomy. Technologic peculiarities, such as three-dimensional vision, wristed instrumentation with seven degrees of freedom of motion, lack of tremor, a 10x-magnification and a comfortable seated position for the surgeon has added value to the procedure for the surgeon and the patient. In this article, we describe the 9 step surgical technique for robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) that is currently used in our institution (University of Montreal Hospital Center (CHUM) - Hopital St-Luc). We use the four-arm da Vinci Surgical System. Our experience with RARP is now over 250 cases with the senior surgeon having performed over 1200 RARPs and we have continually refined our technique to improve patient outcomes.

  11. Telephone follow-up of patients after radical prostatectomy: a systematic review1

    PubMed Central

    da Mata, Luciana Regina Ferreira; da Silva, Ana Cristina; Pereira, Maria da Graça; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos

    2014-01-01

    Objective to assess and summarize the best scientific evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials about telephone follow-up of patients after radical prostatectomy, based on information about how the phone calls are made and the clinical and psychological effects for the individuals who received this intervention. Method the search was undertaken in the electronic databases Medline, Web of Science, Embase, Cinahl, Lilacs and Cochrane. Among the 368 references found, five were selected. Results two studies tested interventions focused on psychological support and three tested interventions focused on the physical effects of treatment. The psychoeducative intervention to manage the uncertainty about the disease and the treatment revealed statistically significant evidences and reduced the level of uncertainty and anguish it causes. Conclusion the beneficial effects of telephone follow-up could be determined, as a useful tool for the monitoring of post-prostatectomy patients. PMID:26107844

  12. Local Administration of Tranexamic Acid During Prostatectomy Surgery: Effects on Reducing the Amount of Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Pourfakhr, Pejman; Gatavi, Elham; Gooran, Shahram; Etezadi, Farhad; Khajavi, Mohamad Reza; Pourroustaei, Reza; Shariat Moharari, Reza; Najafi, Atabak

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the issues in prostatectomy surgery is bleeding. Although tranexamic acid (TRA) is an antifibrinolytic agent for reducing bleeding, controversies surround its use. Objectives In this study, the effect of local administration of TRA on reducing bleeding during prostatectomy surgery was evaluated. Methods A total of 186 patients who underwent prostatectomy surgery were assessed in this clinical trial study. Patients were divided randomly into two groups. After prostate removal, TRA (500 mg TRA with 5 mL total volume) to the intervention group and normal saline to the control group were sprayed with the same volume. At the end of surgery, the prescribed blood bags were measured and recorded. Hemoglobin and platelet levels were recorded 6 hours after the test. Moreover, the amounts of blood inside the blood bags in the first 24 hours, the second 24 hours, and the total length of hospital stay were recorded and compared in each group. Results By comparing the measured values before and after surgery, we found that the amounts of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet decreased. The mean blood loss in the intervention group was recorded at 340 mL and that in the control group was 515 mL. The maximum bleeding in the control group was almost twice as much as that in the intervention group. Blood loss in the intervention group with the administration of TRA was significantly lesser than that in the control group (P = 0.01). The decrease in platelet level in the intervention group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P = 0.03). Conclusions The present study showed that local administration of TRA significantly reduces bleeding after prostatectomy surgery and is effective in preventing postoperative hemoglobin decrease. PMID:27896241

  13. Transperitoneal Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Should Be Considered in Prostate Cancer Patients with Pelvic Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Plagakis, Sophie; Foreman, Darren; Sutherland, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We highlight two cases of transperitoneal robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in patients with pelvic kidneys because of congenital development and renal transplant. These uncommon cases present a challenge to the surgeon contemplating surgery because of access and anomalous vascular and ureteral anatomy. We describe the technical considerations that are paramount in effectively completing transperitoneal RARP, and believe it should be considered as a treatment option in men with pelvic kidneys. PMID:27579412

  14. Risk of Urinary Incontinence Following Prostatectomy: The Role of Physical Activity and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Luly, Jason; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Andriole, Gerald L.; Kibel, Adam S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Urinary incontinence is one of the most commonly reported and distressing side effects of radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma. Several studies have suggested that symptoms may be worse in obese men but to our knowledge no research has addressed the joint effects of obesity and a sedentary lifestyle. We evaluated the association of obesity and lack of physical activity with urinary incontinence in a sample of men who had undergone radical prostatectomy. Materials and Methods Height and weight were abstracted from charts, and obesity was defined as body mass index 30 kg/m2 or greater. Men completed a questionnaire before surgery that included self-report of vigorous physical activity. Men who reported 1 hour or more per week of vigorous activities were considered physically active. Men reported their incontinence to the surgeon at their urology visits. Information on incontinence was abstracted from charts at 6 and 58 weeks after surgery. Results At 6 weeks after surgery 59% (405) of men were incontinent, defined as any pad use. At 58 weeks after surgery 22% (165) of men were incontinent. At 58 weeks incontinence was more prevalent in men who were obese and physically inactive (59% incontinent). Physical activity may offset some of the negative consequences of being obese because the prevalence of incontinence at 58 weeks was similar in the obese and active (25% incontinent), and nonbese and inactive (24% incontinent) men. The best outcomes were in men who were nonobese and physically active (16% incontinent). Men who were not obese and were active were 26% less likely to be incontinent than men who were obese and inactive (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.52–1.06). Conclusions Pre-prostatectomy physical activity and obesity may be important factors in post-prostatectomy continence levels. Interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and decreasing weight in patients with prostate cancer may improve quality of life by offsetting the negative side effects

  15. Early Experience with Laparoscopic Retropubic Simple Prostatectomy in Patients with Voluminous Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Han Ki; Kwon, Joon Beom; Cho, Sung Ryong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Laparoscopic simple prostatectomy was recently developed to treat voluminous benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We describe the surgical technique and assess the feasibility of laparoscopic simple prostatectomy through our early experience. Materials and Methods The medical records of 11 patients who underwent laparoscopic simple prostatectomy between March 2008 and January 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The subjects were limited to the patients who satisfied the following conditions: prostate volume was at least 75 g, acute urinary retention repeatedly occurred or maximal flow rate (Qmax) was at most 10 ml/s, and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) was at least 12. The surgery was performed by the laparoscopic extraperitoneal approach with a transcapsular route. Feasibility was assessed by objective operative parameters (reconversion, operating time, and blood loss) and perioperative complications. Data on short-term follow-up were also available. Results The mean age of the patients was 70.6 years. Mean preoperative prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume were 6.1 ng/ml and 109.3 cc, respectively. Mean operation time was 191.9 minutes and estimated blood loss was 390.9 cc. The resected adenoma weighed on average 72.4 g. No conversion to open surgery was required. Mean preoperative IPSS and quality of life (QoL) scores were 26.86 and 4.86. Mean Qmax, measured before the surgery, was 4.5 ml/s and residual urine was 106 ml. Mean postoperative IPSS and QoL scores were 4.2 and 1.5. After the surgery, mean Qmax was 15.5 ml/s and residual urine was 24.1 ml. Conclusions In the case of voluminous BPH, laparoscopic retropubic simple prostatectomy is expected to be a useful treatment on the condition that the learning curve can be overcome with clinical experience. PMID:20495695

  16. Post-Prostatectomy Image-Guided Radiotherapy: The Invisible Target Concept

    PubMed Central

    Vilotte, Florent; Antoine, Mickael; Bobin, Maxime; Latorzeff, Igor; Supiot, Stéphane; Richaud, Pierre; Thomas, Laurence; Leduc, Nicolas; Guérif, Stephane; Iriondo-Alberdi, Jone; de Crevoisier, Renaud; Sargos, Paul

    2017-01-01

    In the era of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) appears crucial to control dose delivery and to promote dose escalation while allowing healthy tissue sparing. The place of IGRT following radical prostatectomy is poorly described in the literature. This review aims to highlight some key points on the different IGRT techniques applicable to prostatic bed radiotherapy. Furthermore, methods used to evaluate target motion and to reduce planning target volume margins will also be explored. PMID:28337425

  17. Post-Prostatectomy Image-Guided Radiotherapy: The Invisible Target Concept.

    PubMed

    Vilotte, Florent; Antoine, Mickael; Bobin, Maxime; Latorzeff, Igor; Supiot, Stéphane; Richaud, Pierre; Thomas, Laurence; Leduc, Nicolas; Guérif, Stephane; Iriondo-Alberdi, Jone; de Crevoisier, Renaud; Sargos, Paul

    2017-01-01

    In the era of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) appears crucial to control dose delivery and to promote dose escalation while allowing healthy tissue sparing. The place of IGRT following radical prostatectomy is poorly described in the literature. This review aims to highlight some key points on the different IGRT techniques applicable to prostatic bed radiotherapy. Furthermore, methods used to evaluate target motion and to reduce planning target volume margins will also be explored.

  18. Australian men's long term experiences following prostatectomy: a qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Peter 'kevin'; Laws, Tom A

    The experiences of men in the immediate postoperative period following surgery for primary prostate cancer are well reported in the literature. Recognition of the unresolved morbidity encountered by men in the medium term suggests that a more complete understanding of how men cope in the long term is needed. Health professionals are deserving of a more complete literature for the purpose of providing holistic care for this group of men, providing informed advocacy and better support for men living with the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Emerging literature reveals that men's knowledge of the long term problems associated with prostatectomy was inadequate at the time they consented to treatment; the likely outcomes at all phases of recovery should be taken into account when deciding on choice of treatment or no treatment. This qualitative study aims to describe men's long term recovery following prostatectomy for the purpose identifying the effects of unresolved post surgical morbidity. The content analysis of focus group interviews revealed that incontinence and impotence were a major source of emotional tension affecting the men's social interactions and sense of self-worth. The men expressed great regret over the lack of information accessible to them for evaluating the risk and nature of long term problems. The thick description provided in this study identifies the need for empathetic assessment of men with ongoing post surgical issues and alerts the reader to the inadequacies of information provided prior to consent to prostatectomy.

  19. Robot assisted radical prostatectomy: how I do it. Part I: Patient preparation and positioning.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Roger F; Hueber, Pierre-Alain; Zorn, Kevin C

    2013-10-01

    Radical prostatectomy remains the standard treatment for long term cure of clinically localized prostate cancer, offering excellent oncologic outcomes, with cancer-specific survival approaching 95% at 15 years after surgery. The introduction of the "da Vinci Robotic Surgical System" (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has been another important step toward a minimally invasive approach to radical prostatectomy. Technologic peculiarities, such as three-dimensional vision, wristed instrumentation with seven degrees of freedom of motion, lack of tremor, a 10x-magnification and a comfortable seated position for the surgeon has added value to the surgeon and patient. In this first part of a two article series, we describe preoperative patient preparation and positioning protocols for robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) that are currently used in our institution (University of Montreal Hospital Center (CHUM)-Hopital St-Luc). We use the four-arm da Vinci Si Surgical System. Our experience with RARP is now over 250 cases with the senior surgeon having performed over 1200 RARPs and we have continually refined our technique to improve patient outcomes.

  20. Outcome of radical retropubic prostatectomy at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ikuerowo, Stephen Odunayo; Doherty, Alaba Fredrick; Bioku, Muftau Jimoh; Abolarinwa, Abimbola Ayodeji; Adebayo, Adekunle Azeez; Oyeleke, Steves Olaide; Omisanjo, Olufunmilade Akinfolarin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men in Nigeria and most cases present when the disease is already in an advanced stage. Radical prostatectomy for early prostate cancer is therefore not a commonly performed operation by urologists in Nigeria. We have had training and significant experience in radical retropubic prostatectomy. We, therefore, report the outcome of our initial experience. Materials and Methods: We review the record of men with early prostate cancer who had radical retropubic prostatectomy in our institution from 2007 to 2015. Results: There were 34 men who had radical retropubic prostatectomy in the 8-year period of review. The youngest and oldest patients were aged 50 and 71 years, respectively. The mean age was 64.2 years. All the patients were diagnosed following 12-core ultrasound-guided transrectal prostate biopsy for elevated serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). The mean serum PSA was 15.3 (range 8.5-100.3) ng/ml. The disease was pT1, pT2, and pT3 in 6, 20, and 8 patients respectively. General anesthesia was employed in 28 (82.4%) patients and combined epidural and subarachnoid block anesthesia for 6 (17.6%) patients. The total duration of operation was 128-252 min (mean = 160 min). No blood transfusion was given in 5 (14.7%) patients while each of the remaining 29 (85.3%) patients had 2-5 units of blood intra- or post-operatively. There was no perioperative mortality. Complications include operation-induced erectile dysfunction in 12 (35.3%), major urinary incontinence in 1 (2.9%), lymphocele in 2 (5.9%), and reoperation due to anastomotic leak and right ureteric injury in 1 (2.9%). After a median follow-up of 42 months, disease recurrence has occurred in 3 (8.8%) patients 1 (2.9%) of whom has died of diabetic renal failure. Conclusion: Radical prostatectomy can be safely performed in men with early prostate cancer in Nigeria and should be offered to suitable patients. PMID:27630388

  1. Artificial urinary sphincter for urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy: a historical cohort from 2004 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Augusto Cesar Soares; Rodrigues, Luíza de Oliveira; Azevedo, Daniela Castelo; Carvalho, Lélia Maria de Almeida; Fernandes, Mariana Ribeiro; Avelar, Sandra de Oliveira Sapori; Horta, Maria da Glória Cruvinel; Kelles, Silvana Márcia Bruschi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate a cohort of patients with prostate cancer and persistent urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy. From January 2004 to December 2015, eighty-six individuals were identified to have received an AUS implant, provided by a private nonprofit HMO operating in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. On total, there were 91 AUS implants, with a median interval between radical prostatectomy and AUS implant of 3.6 years (IQR 1.9 to 5.5). The rate of AUS cumulative survival, after a median follow-up of 4.1 years (IQR 1.7-7.2 years), was 44% (n=40). The median survival of AUS implants was 2.9 years (IQR 0.5-7.9 years). Thirty-seven AUS implants (40.7%) resulted in grade III surgical complications. There were 5 deaths at 2.1, 4.7, 5.7, 5.7 and 6.5 years of follow-up, but none due to causes directly associated to the AUS implant. Persistent severe incontinence was documented in 14 (15.3%) additional patients. From the 51 AUS implants which resulted in grade III surgical complications or persistent severe incontinence, 24 (47.1%) underwent surgical revisions. Explantation of the sphincter or its components was observed in 6 cases (25.0%). Mechanical failure, described as fluid loss and/or inability to recycle the AUS device, was observed in 4 devices (16.7%). In conclusion, although AUS implants are recommended as the gold-standard treatment of severe urinary incontinence after prostatectomy, the observed high rates of malfunction and grade III adverse events are a matter of concern warranting further assessment on the safety and efficacy of these devices. PMID:28124538

  2. Artificial urinary sphincter for urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy: a historical cohort from 2004 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Santos, Augusto Cesar Soares Dos; Rodrigues, Luíza de Oliveira; Azevedo, Daniela Castelo; Carvalho, Lélia Maria de Almeida; Fernandes, Mariana Ribeiro; Avelar, Sandra de Oliveira Sapori; Horta, Maria Glória Cruvinel; Kelles, Silvana Márcia Bruschi

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate a cohort of patients with prostate cancer and persistent urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy. From January 2004 to December 2015, eighty-six individuals were identified to have received an AUS implant, provided by a private nonprofit HMO operating in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. On total, there were 91 AUS implants, with a median interval between radical prostatectomy and AUS implant of 3.6 years (IQR 1.9 to 5.5). The rate of AUS cumulative survival, after a median follow-up of 4.1 years (IQR 1.7-7.2 years), was 44% (n=40). The median survival of AUS implants was 2.9 years (IQR 0.5-7.9 years). Thirty-seven AUS implants (40.7%) resulted in grade III surgical complications. There were 5 deaths at 2.1, 4.7, 5.7, 5.7 and 6.5 years of follow-up, but none due to causes directly associated to the AUS implant. Persistent severe incontinence was documented in 14 (15.3%) additional patients. From the 51 AUS implants which resulted in grade III surgical complications or persistent severe incontinence, 24 (47.1%) underwent surgical revisions. Explantation of the sphincter or its components was observed in 6 cases (25.0%). Mechanical failure, described as fluid loss and/or inability to recycle the AUS device, was observed in 4 devices (16.7%). In conclusion, although AUS implants are recommended as the gold-standard treatment of severe urinary incontinence after prostatectomy, the observed high rates of malfunction and grade III adverse events are a matter of concern warranting further assessment on the safety and efficacy of these devices.

  3. A motorized ultrasound system for MRI-ultrasound fusion guided prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifabadi, Reza; Xu, Sheng; Pinto, Peter; Wood, Bradford J.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: This study presents MoTRUS, a motorized transrectal ultrasound system, to enable remote navigation of a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe during da Vinci assisted prostatectomy. MoTRUS not only provides a stable platform to the ultrasound probe, but also allows the physician to navigate it remotely while sitting on the da Vinci console. This study also presents phantom feasibility study with the goal being intraoperative MRI-US image fusion capability to bring preoperative MR images to the operating room for the best visualization of the gland, boundaries, nerves, etc. Method: A two degree-of-freedom probe holder is developed to insert and rotate a bi-plane transrectal ultrasound transducer. A custom joystick is made to enable remote navigation of MoTRUS. Safety features have been considered to avoid inadvertent risks (if any) to the patient. Custom design software has been developed to fuse pre-operative MR images to intraoperative ultrasound images acquired by MoTRUS. Results: Remote TRUS probe navigation was evaluated on a patient after taking required consents during prostatectomy using MoTRUS. It took 10 min to setup the system in OR. MoTRUS provided similar capability in addition to remote navigation and stable imaging. No complications were observed. Image fusion was evaluated on a commercial prostate phantom. Electromagnetic tracking was used for the fusion. Conclusions: Motorized navigation of the TRUS probe during prostatectomy is safe and feasible. Remote navigation provides physician with a more precise and easier control of the ultrasound image while removing the burden of manual manipulation of the probe. Image fusion improved visualization of the prostate and boundaries in a phantom study.

  4. Intraoperative Radiotherapy During Radical Prostatectomy for Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: Technical and Dosimetric Aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Krengli, Marco; Terrone, Carlo; Ballare, Andrea; Loi, Gianfranco; Tarabuzzi, Roberto; Marchioro, Giansilvio; Beldi, Debora; Mones, Eleonora; Bolchini, Cesare R.T.; Volpe, Alessandro; Frea, Bruno

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To analyze the feasibility of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) in patients with high-risk prostate cancer and candidates for radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: A total of 38 patients with locally advanced prostate cancer were enrolled. No patients had evidence of lymph node or distant metastases, probability of organ-confined disease >25%, or risk of lymph node involvement >15% according to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Nomogram. The IORT was delivered after exposure of the prostate by a dedicated linear accelerator with beveled collimators using electrons of 9 to 12 MeV to a total dose of 10-12 Gy. Rectal dose was measured in vivo by radiochromic films placed on a rectal probe. Administration of IORT was followed by completion of radical prostatectomy and regional lymph node dissection. All cases with extracapsular extension and/or positive margins were scheduled for postoperative radiotherapy. Patients with pT3 to pT4 disease or positive nodes received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Results: Mean dose detected by radiochromic films was 3.9 Gy (range, 0.4-8.9 Gy) to the anterior rectal wall. The IORT procedure lasted 31 min on average (range, 15-45 min). No major intra- or postoperative complications occurred. Minor complications were observed in 10/33 (30%) of cases. Of the 27/31 patients who completed the postoperative external beam radiotherapy, 3/27 experienced Grade 2 rectal toxicity and 1/27 experienced Grade 2 urinary toxicity. Conclusions: Use of IORT during radical prostatectomy is feasible and allows safe delivery of postoperative external beam radiotherapy to the tumor bed without relevant acute rectal toxicity.

  5. Initial Canadian experience with robotic simple prostatectomy: Case series and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, Nathan Y.; Van Zyl, Stephan; St. Martin, Blair A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Robotic-assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) has been touted as an alternative to open simple prostatectomy (OSP) to treat large gland benign prostatic hyperplasia. Our study assesses our institution’s experience with RASP and reviews the literature. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review from January 2011 to November 2013 of all patients undergoing RASP and OSP. Operative and 90-day outcomes, including operation time, intraoperative blood loss, length of hospital stay (LOS), transfusion requirements, and complication rates, were assessed. Results: Thirty-two patients were identified: 4 undergoing RASP and 28 undergoing OSP. There was no difference in mean age at surgery (69.3 vs. 75.2 years; p = 0.17), mean Charlson Comorbidity Index (2.5 vs. 3.5; p = 0.19), and mean prostate volume on TRUS (239 vs. 180 mL; p = 0.09) in the robotic and open groups, respectively. There was a significant difference in the mean length of operation, with RASP exceeding OSP (161 vs. 79 min; p = 0.008). The mean intraoperative blood loss was significantly higher in the open group (835.7 vs. 218.8 mL; p = 0.0001). Mean LOS was shorter in the RASP group (2.3 vs. 5.5 days; p = 0.0001). No significant differences were noted in the 90-day transfusion rate (p = 0.13), or overall complication rate at 0% with RASP vs. 57.1% with OSP (p = 0.10). Conclusions: Our data suggest RASP has a shorter LOS and lower intraoperative volume of blood loss, with the disadvantage of a longer operating time, compared to OSP. It is a feasible technique and deserves further investigation and consideration at Canadian centres performing robotic prostatectomies. PMID:26425225

  6. Effect of Sulforaphane in Men with Biochemical Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Cipolla, Bernard G; Mandron, Eric; Lefort, Jean Marc; Coadou, Yves; Della Negra, Emmanuel; Corbel, Luc; Le Scodan, Ronan; Azzouzi, Abdel Rahmene; Mottet, Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    Increases in serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) occur commonly in prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy and are designated "biochemical recurrence." Because the phytochemical sulforaphane has been studied extensively as an anticancer agent, we performed a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter trial with sulforaphane in 78 patients (mean age, 69 ± 6 years) with increasing PSA levels after radical prostatectomy. Treatment comprised daily oral administration of 60 mg of a stabilized free sulforaphane for 6 months (M0-M6) followed by 2 months without treatment (M6-M8). The study was designed to detect a 0.012 log (ng/mL)/month decrease in the log PSA slope in the sulforaphane group from M0 to M6. The primary endpoint was not reached. For secondary endpoints, median log PSA slopes were consistently lower in sulforaphane-treated men. Mean changes in PSA levels between M6 and M0 were significantly lower in the sulforaphane group (+0.099 ± 0.341 ng/mL) than in placebo (+0.620 ± 1.417 ng/mL; P = 0.0433). PSA doubling time was 86% longer in the sulforaphane than in the placebo group (28.9 and 15.5 months, respectively). PSA increases >20% at M6 were significantly greater in the placebo group (71.8%) than in the sulforaphane group (44.4%); P = 0.0163. Compliance and tolerance were very good. Sulforaphane effects were prominent after 3 months of intervention (M3-M6). After treatment, PSA slopes from M6 to M8 remained the same in the 2 arms. Daily administration of free sulforaphane shows promise in managing biochemical recurrences in prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy.

  7. Outcome of radical prostatectomy in primary circulating prostate cell negative prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Nigel P; Aedo, Sócrates; Reyes, Eduardo; Fuentealba, Cynthia; Jacob, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Around 90% of prostate cancers detected using the serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a screening test are considered to be localised. However, 20–30% of men treated by radical prostatectomy experience biochemical failure within two years of treatment. The presence of primary circulating prostate cells (CPCs) in the blood of these men implies a dissemination of the tumour and could indicate a greater risk of treatment failure. Objective To evaluate the use of the number of primary CPCs detected before surgery in the prediction of biochemical failure at ten years. Hypothesis The dissemination of cancer cells to distant sites will determine the patient’s prognosis. The absence of primary CPCs in men undergoing radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer may imply a less aggressive disease and therefore could be utilised as a prognostic factor to predict biochemical failure after surgery. Methods and patients A single-centre observational study of a cohort of 285 men who underwent radical prostatectomy as monotherapy for prostate cancer, in whom the number of CPCs prior to treatment was determined, and who were followed up for ten years to determine biochemical failure. A Cox proportional risks with polynomial fractions analysis was used to predict biochemical failure based on the number of primary CPCs detected. A decision curve analysis was performed for the model obtained. Results Kaplan–Meier curves for biochemical free survival at ten years was 47.34% (95% CI 38.71–55.48%). It is important to note that in CPC negative men, the ten years Kaplan–Meier biochemical-free survival was 90.35% (95% CI 75.0–96.27) whereas in men who were primary CPC positive, the biochemical free survival rate was 30.00% (95% CI 20.34–40.60%). The Coxs´model to predict biochemical failure using transformed data with a power of minus one for the number of primary CPCs detected, showed a Harrell´s C concordance index of 0.74 and a decision analysis curve

  8. Ischemia modified albumin: does it change during pneumoperitoneum in robotic prostatectomies?

    PubMed Central

    Ozgen, Serpil Ustalar; Ozveren, Bora; Kilercik, Meltem; Aksu, Ugur; Ay, Binnaz; Tufek, Ilter; Kural, Ali Riza; N.Turkeri, Levent; Toraman, Fevzi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The unique positioning of the patient at steep Trendelenburg with prolonged and increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during robotic radical prostatectomy may increase the risk of splanchnic ischemia. We aimed to investigate the acute effects of IAP and steep Trendelenburg position on the level of ischemia modified albumin (IMA) and to test if serum IMA levels might be used as a surrogate marker for possible covert ischemia during robotic radical prostatectomies. Patients and Methods Fifty ASA I-II patients scheduled for elective robotic radical prostatectomy were included in this investigation. Exclusion criteria The patients were excluded from the study when an arterial cannulation could not be accomplished, if the case had to be converted to open surgery or if the calculated intraoperative bleeding exceeded 300ml. All the patients were placed in steep (45 degrees) Trendelenburg position following trocar placement. Throughout the operation the IAP was maintained between 11-14mmHg. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO) were continuously monitored before the induction and throughout the surgery. Blood gases, electrolytes, urea, creatinine, alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST) were recorded. Additionally, IMA levels were measured before, during and after surgery. Results (1) MAP, CO, lactate and hemoglobin (Hb) did not significantly change in any period of surgery (p>0.05); (2) sodium (p<0.01), potassium (p<0.05) and urea (p<0.05) levels decreased at postoperative period, and no significant changes at creatinine, AST, ALT levels were observed in these patients; (3) At the end of surgery (180 min) pCO2, pO2, HCO3 and BE did not change compared to after induction values (p>0.05) but mild acidosis was present in these patients (p<0.01 vs. after induction); (4) IMA levels were found to be comparable before induction (0.34±0.04), after induction (0.31±0.06) and at the end of surgery (0.29±0.05) as well

  9. Intraperitoneal urine leak after prostatectomy confirmed by 99mTc-MAG3 renogram.

    PubMed

    Pogatchnik, Brian; Monti, Serena; Lewis, David H; Heinrich, Demetra A; Mannelli, Lorenzo

    2014-08-01

    A 67-year-old patient presented with abdominal pain and distension 2 days after robotic radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma. He became anuric, and his serum creatinine level doubled, making IV contrast contraindicated. Abdominal CT without contrast demonstrated hypodense fluid in the peritoneum. Tc-MAG3 renogram detected extravasation of radiotracer from the bladder. Follow-up retrograde cystogram revealed a posterior anastomotic leak. The patient underwent uneventful surgical repair and made a full recovery. This case demonstrated that Tc-MAG3 can prove leak from the urinary tract, particularly helpful in the setting of poor renal function and contraindication to IV contrast.

  10. Treatment of post-prostatectomy rectourethral fistula with fibrin sealant (Quixil™) injection: a novel application.

    PubMed

    Verriello, V; Altomare, M; Masiello, G; Curatolo, C; Balacco, G; Altomare, D F

    2010-12-01

    Rectourethral fistulas in adults is a rare but potentially devastating postoperative condition requiring complex and demanding surgery. Fibrin glue treatment has been used with some success in anal and rectovaginal fistulas, and in the case we present here this indication has been extended to a postoperative rectourethral fistula following radical prostatectomy. For the first time, to our knowledge, a fibrin sealant (Quixil) was injected into the fistula tract, and a rectal mucosal flap was used to close the internal opening. The fistula healed in few weeks, and the patient is symptom free after 1 year of follow-up.

  11. Quality of Life and Cost Effectiveness of Prostate Cancer Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    with prostate cancer and receiving RP showed that generic HRQoL had recovered by 6 months. A nerve- sparing RP gave better TABLE 3 The...T E R N A T I O N A L recovery of sexual function and urinary incontinence than non-nerve sparing RP [37]. A study using the Cancer of the...with radical prostatectomy or external beam radiotherapy . Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2004; 7: 144–51 35 Dahn JR, Penedo FJ, Molton I, Lopez L

  12. Robotic-assisted simple prostatectomy: a systematic review and report of a single institution case series.

    PubMed

    Banapour, P; Patel, N; Kane, C J; Cohen, S A; Parsons, J K

    2014-03-01

    Open simple prostatectomy (OSP) is an effective treatment for patients with symptomatic BPH and larger volume prostates; however, it is associated with substantial risks of bleeding, transfusion and prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS). Robotic-assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) potentially offers improved perioperative outcomes for these patients. We systematically reviewed published data on RASP outcomes and analyzed our experience at the University of California San Diego (UCSD). We identified eight published studies, all non-comparative case series (Level 3 evidence), reporting a total of 109 RASP cases from 2008 to 2012. Indications included acute urinary retention (n=48), persistent obstructive symptoms (n=51), failure of medical management (n=9) and recurrent urinary tract infections (n=2). The mean ages ranged from 65 to 77 years. More than 75% of the studies reported a mean LOS <3 days and a transfusion prevalence of 0%. The mean resected prostate weights ranged from 51 to 301 g. For UCSD, indications for surgery included urinary retention (n=11) and failure of medical management (n=5). The mean age was 68 years, transfusion prevalence 0%, mean resected prostate weight 94 g and mean LOS 1 day. All nine series observed substantial postoperative improvements in urinary symptoms and retention. These data suggest that RASP is a safe and efficacious treatment for BPH in select patients with larger prostates. Although LOS and transfusion prevalence for RASP are markedly lower than the published OSP series, comparative studies are needed to verify these results.

  13. Treatment of recurrent prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy: the radiation-oncologists point of view.

    PubMed

    Rischke, H C; Knippen, S; Kirste, S; Grosu, A L

    2012-10-01

    Recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy is a common event. Salvage radiation therapy (RT) is the mainstay of treatment in cases with recurrence defined as PSA failure, offering the chance of cure. Multiple studies showed that the lower the PSA level at the beginning of salvage RT, the better the treatment outcome. There is evidence that higher radiation doses are associated with improved PSA relapse free rates. Four different recurrence patterns exist: 1) local recurrence in the prostatectomy bed only; 2) loco-regional metastases in the pelvic lymph nodes; 3) distant metastases (most commonly nodal or osseous); 4) a combination of local and distant recurrence. Modern functional imaging modalities like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and choline-PET/CT offer additional information to clinical and therapeutic variables and provide high accuracy depending on the level of PSA recurrence and PSA kinetics. These image modalities are valuable tools that can be used for gross tumor volume (GTV) definition in the RT-planning process in the salvage RT setting and guide interdisciplinary salvage therapy strategies in case of locoregional relapse. We discuss the impact of MRI and choline-PET/CT in the salvage setting from the radiation-oncologist point of view.

  14. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: initial 15 cases in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, K; Hatano, T; Nakagami, Y; Ozu, C; Horiguchi, Y; Yonou, H; Tachibana, M; Coughlin, G; Patel, V R

    2008-07-01

    Recently, we have introduced robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) in Japan. This article describes the details of a training program to shorten the learning curve in the absence of an urologist with expertise in robotic surgery. Five months after a 2-day training course of robotic surgery, RALP was first performed in Japan, and a total of 15 cases were performed in the subsequent 4 months. Our training program consisted of: (1) image training using surgical operation videos, (2) dry lab training using a sham pelvic cavity model, and (3) intraoperative mentoring. The operative procedure was divided into five consecutive stages, and time required to complete each stage was recorded. Robotic radical prostatectomy was completed in all patients without conversion to open surgery, except for the first patient in whom a restriction to a 2-h operation had been imposed by the ethics committee. The mean console time and the mean intraoperative blood loss (including urine) reduced from 264.2 min and 459.4 ml, respectively, in the first 11 cases, to 151 min and 133.3 ml, respectively, in the last three cases. With direct intraoperative guidance by the mentor during cases 13 and 14, the operation time was reduced at all five stages of the operative procedure. Our training program proved remarkably effective in reducing the learning curve of RALP in Japan, where there is no person with expertise in robotic surgery.

  15. Preoperative risk factors of postoperative delirium after transurethral prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Sheng; Xu, Lingfan; Zhang, Li; Fan, Song; Liang, Chaozhao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this observational study was to investigate the occurrence of post operation delirium in the elderly patients undergoing the transurethral prostatectomy and to identify these factors associated with the delirium. 485 patients, undergoing the transurethral prostatectomy, were selected. Demographics, medical, cognitive and functional data, IPSS and NIH-CPSI score were collected as predictors for delirium. After surgery, the patients were divided on the basis of delirium onset within one week observation period, and the delirium was diagnosed by the Confusion Assessment Method. Totally, 21.23% (103) subjects were identified as the delirium and it lasted 2.9 ± 0.8 days. Patients with post operation delirium were significantly older and single, widowed and divorced, had a previous history of prehospitalization, were with the poor International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) score, were more impaired in the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and had poor clock drawing test (CDT) and geriatric depression scale (GDS) score. Age, marital status, IPSS and NIH-CPIS score, cognitive and functional status and previous history of hospitalization are the predictors of post operation delirium. Our study has implications in preventing delirium via an early and targeted evaluation. PMID:26064386

  16. [Towards early functional treatment of urinary incontinence after prostatectomy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Moulonguet, A; Verges, J; Delmas, V

    1981-01-01

    The authors report their striking experience of the effectiveness of early functional treatment of urinary incontinence after prostatectomy. This experience is based upon 50 cases collected over a period of 10 years. Treatment is based upon stimulation of the perineal musculature by faradic current, ano-perineal exercises, and mictional rehabilitation. Results, in 50 cases, showed a marked improvement in 43 (86%), including 15 complete cures (30%). Such a favourable result was obtained with six weeks' treatment. It would appear that the result is all the better when treatment is started earlier, whether in a case of arrhythmic incontinence dominated by urgency, or isolated nocturnal incontinence. The results, once acquired, generally persist. A relapse of incontinence often responds adequately to a new series of sessions of functional treatment. It would appear that the mode of action of this functional therapy is based upon a decrease in bladder instability, and an increase in urethra resistance. The authors show that, with their treatment, improvements and cures in urinary incontinence after prostatectomy occur much earlier with the aid of functional treatment than spontaneously. Thus, treatment is worthwhile undertaking.

  17. Postoperative self-efficacy and psychological morbidity in radical prostatectomy1

    PubMed Central

    da Mata, Luciana Regina Ferreira; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos; Gomes, Cássia Regina Gontijo; da Silva, Ana Cristina; Pereira, Maria da Graça

    2015-01-01

    Objective: evaluate the general and perceived self-efficacy, psychological morbidity, and knowledge about postoperative care of patients submitted to radical prostatectomy. Identify the relationships between the variables and know the predictors of self-efficacy. Method: descriptive, cross-sectional study, conducted with 76 hospitalized men. The scales used were the General and Perceived Self-efficacy Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, in addition to sociodemographic, clinical and knowledge questionnaires. Results: a negative relationship was found for self-efficacy in relation to anxiety and depression. Psychological morbidity was a significant predictor variable for self-efficacy. An active professional situation and the waiting time for surgery also proved to be relevant variables for anxiety and knowledge, respectively. Conclusion: participants had a good level of general and perceived self-efficacy and small percentage of depression. With these findings, it is possible to produce the profile of patients about their psychological needs after radical prostatectomy and, thus, allow the nursing professionals to act holistically, considering not only the need for care of physical nature, but also of psychosocial nature. PMID:26487129

  18. Open suprapubic versus retropubic prostatectomy in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia during resident's learning curve: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Arie; Sakuramoto, Paulo; Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; Forseto, Pedro Herminio; Julio, Alexandre Den; Bautzer, Carlos Ricardo Doi; Lins, Leonardo Monte Marques; Kataguiri, Andre; Yamada, Fernanda Batistini; Teixeira, Gabriel Kushiyama; Tobias-Machado, Marcos; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This study compared the suprapubic (SP) versus retropubic (RP) prostatectomy for the treatment of large prostates and evaluated perioperative surgical morbidity and improvement of urinary symptoms. Materials and Methods: In this single centre, prospective, randomised study, 65 consecutive patients with LUTS and surgical indication with prostate volume greater than 75g underwent open prostatectomy to compare the RP (32 patients) versus SP (33 patients) technique. Results: The SP group exhibited a higher incidence of complications (p=0.002). Regarding voiding pattern analysis (IPSS and flowmetry), both were significantly effective compared to pre-treatment baseline. The RP group parameters were significantly better, with higher peak urinary flow (SP: 16.77 versus RP: 23.03mL/s, p=0.008) and a trend of lower IPSS score (SP: 6.67 versus RP 4.14, p=0.06). In a subgroup evaluation of patients with prostate volumes larger than 100g, blood loss was lower in those undergoing SP prostatectomy (p=0.003). Patients with prostates smaller than 100g in the SP group exhibited a higher incidence of low grade late complications (p=0.004). Conclusions: The SP technique was related to a higher incidence of minor complications in the late postoperative period. High volume prostates were associated with increased bleeding when the RP technique was utilized. The RP prostatectomy was associated with higher peak urinary flow and a trend of a lower IPSS Score. PMID:27256183

  19. Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy: American Society for Radiation Oncology/American Urological Association Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Valicenti, Richard K.; Thompson, Ian; Albertsen, Peter; Davis, Brian J.; Goldenberg, S. Larry; Wolf, J. Stuart; Sartor, Oliver; Klein, Eric; Hahn, Carol; Michalski, Jeff; Roach, Mack; Faraday, Martha M.

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this guideline was to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods and Materials: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiation therapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Results: Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, use of radiation therapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a restaging evaluation. Conclusions: Physicians should offer adjuvant radiation therapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (ie, seminal vesicle invastion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and salvage radiation therapy to patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiation therapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiation therapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiation therapy should be made by the patient and the multidisciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. The American Society for Radiation Oncology and American Urological Association websites show this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review.

  20. The development of the wire-loop resectoscope and the ensuing controversy concerning transurethral versus suprapubic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Nation, E F

    1977-07-01

    The development of instruments and machines to make practical the removal of tissue and the controll of hemorrhage transurethrally by use of high frequency current is traced. The vicissitudes of the early users are reviewed and the feuds between them and those who advocated open prostatectomy are recalled.

  1. Spinal Anesthesia Does Not Impact Prostate Cancer Recurrence in a Cohort of Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Kenneth S.; Kulkarni, Sachin; Humphreys, Elizabeth B; Carter, H. Ballentine; Mostwin, Jacek L.; Partin, Alan W; Han, Misop; Wu, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Prior studies suggest a possible association between the use of neuraxial-general anesthesia and a decrease in prostate cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy. We examine the correlation of a spinal anesthesia-only technique on prostate cancer recurrence. Methods Charts from consecutive radical prostatectomy patients of 3 experienced urologists from January 1999 to December 2005 were reviewed. In addition to the usual clinical and pathologic predictors of disease recurrence, patient records were queried for the type of anesthesia (general versus spinal) performed. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the statistical significance of predictors of biochemical recurrence. Results A total of 1,964 patients—1,166 and 798 receiving spinal with sedation or general anesthesia, respectively—had complete preoperative and follow-up data. In univariate proportional hazards analysis, the use of general anesthesia was associated with a trend towards an increased risk of biochemical recurrence when compared with the use of spinal anesthesia (hazard ratio = 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99–1.66, P=0.053). In multi-variable analysis, the effect size (hazard ratio = 1.10, 95% CI 0.85–1.42, P=0.458) was diminished by clinical and pathologic variables. Conclusions This was a retrospective study of patients with prostate cancer who have undergone radical prostatectomy during a time period when the practice of anesthesia for prostatectomy at our institution was transitioned from spinal to general anesthesia. In our study, when controlling for other predictors of advanced prostate cancer, the type of anesthetic given during prostatectomy had no effect on the risk of biochemical recurrence. PMID:24918335

  2. Developing a Robotic Prostatectomy Service and a Robotic Fellowship Programme – Defining the Learning Curve

    PubMed Central

    Vasdev, Nikhil; Bishop, Conrad; Kass-Iliyya, Atoine; Hamid, Sami; McNicholas, Thomas A.; Prasad, Venkat; Mohan-S, Gowrie; Lane, Timothy; Boustead, Gregory; Adshead, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Robotic radical prostatectomy (RRP) is an established treatment for prostate cancer in selected centres with appropriate expertise. We studied our single-centre experience of developing a RRP service and subsequent training of 2 additional surgeons by the initial surgeon and the introduction of United Kingdom's first nationally accredited robotic fellowship training programme. We assessed the learning curve of the 3 surgeons with regard to peri-operative outcomes and oncological results. Patients and Methods Three hundred consecutive patients underwent RRP between November 2008 and August 2012. Patients were divided into 3 equal groups (Group 1, case 1-100; Group 2, case 101-200; and Group 3, case 201-300). Age, ASA score, preoperative co-morbidities and indications for laparoscopic radical prostatectomy were comparable for all 3 patient groups. Peri-operative and oncological outcomes were compared across all 3 groups to assess the impact of the learning curve for laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. All surgical complications were classified using the Clavien-Dindo system. Results The mean age was 60.7 years (range 41-74). There was a significant reduction in the mean console time (p < 0.001), operating time (p < 0.001), mean length of hospital stay (p < 0.001) and duration of catheter (p < 0.001) between the 3 groups as the series progressed. The two most important factors predictive of positive surgical margins (PSM) at RRP were the initial prostate specific antigen (PSA) and tumor stage at diagnosis. The overall PSM rate was 26.7%. For T2/T3 tumors the incidence of PSM reduced as the series progressed (Group 1-22%, Group 2-32% and Group 3-26%). The incidence of major complications i.e. grade Clavien-Dindo system score ≤ III was 2% (6/300). Conclusion RRP is a safe procedure with low morbidity. As surgeons progress through the learning curve peri-operative parameters and oncological outcomes improve. This learning curve is not affected by the

  3. Seperation of dorsal vein complex from the urethra by blunt finger dissection during radical retropubic prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Atan, Ali; Tuncel, Altuğ; Polat, Fazlı; Balcı, Melih; Yeşil, Süleyman; Köseoğlu, Ersin

    2015-01-01

    We present our initial experience on the isolation of dorsal vein complex by blunt finger dissection in 26 patients with localised prostate cancer who underwent open retropubic radical prostatectomy. Loss of blood was between 300 and 500 mL (mean 350 mL). Two of 26 patients (7.6%) required blood transfusion. There was no positive surgical margin at prostatic apex in the patients. Twenty four of our patients (92.4%) were continent on the 3rd month. Control of dorsal vein complex is very important to decrease blood loss and to improve intraoperative exposure of retropubic area in order to get negative margin of prostatic apex and to provide the urethra long enough for a nice urethrovesical anastomosis. According to our initial experience, this technique seems to provide these aims. PMID:26328213

  4. Current technique and results for extended pelvic lymph node dissection during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Roger; Petros, Firas G.; Kukreja, Janet B.; Williams, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    The practice of extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) remains one of the most controversial topics in the management of clinically localized prostate cancer. Although most urologists agree on its benefit for staging and prognostication, the role of the ePLND in cancer control continues to be debated. The increased perioperative morbidity makes it unpalatable, especially in patients with low likelihood of lymph node disease. With the advent of robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy, many surgeons were slow to adopt ePLND in the robotic setting. In this study, we summarize the evidence for the prognostic and therapeutic roles of ePLND, review the clinical tools used for lymph node metastasis prediction and survey the numerous experiences of ePLND compiled by robotic urologic surgeons over the years. PMID:27995219

  5. Transurethral Nd:YALO3 laser prostatectomy for prostatic hyperplasia--18 cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen B.; Chen, Zi-Fu; Huang, Chao; Gao, Xiang-Xun; Lin, Sheng-Sheng; Zhan, Tian-qi; Shen, Hong Y.; Zeng, Rui R.; Zhou, Ye P.; Yu, Gui F.; Huang, Cheng H.; Zeng, Zhang D.

    1994-05-01

    18 cases of BHP were treated since 1990 by Nd:YALO3 (Nd:YAP) laser transurethral prostatectomy. The ages of these patients from 54 to 88 years with a mean age of 69.6 years. In all cases, there were dysuria, 10 cases acute retention of urine, 5 cases residual urine more than 50 ml, 12 cases abnormal ECG. 4 cases chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema, 4 cases hypertension and 3 cases diabetic. The working conditions of the laser machine are as follows: wavelength of laser: 1079.5 nm; output power of fiber: variation range from 0 to 100 w. The merits of the procedure were less bleeding during operation, shorter operation time and more quick convascence. Cure has been achieved in 11 cases and improvement in 2 cases. The indication, merits and complication of TULP were discussed.

  6. Chemotherapy and novel therapeutics before radical prostatectomy for high-risk clinically localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Cha, Eugene K; Eastham, James A

    2015-05-01

    Although both surgery and radiation are potential curative options for men with clinically localized prostate cancer, a significant proportion of men with high-risk and locally advanced disease will demonstrate biochemical and potentially clinical progression of their disease. Neoadjuvant systemic therapy before radical prostatectomy (RP) is a logical strategy to improve treatment outcomes for men with clinically localized high-risk prostate cancer. Furthermore, delivery of chemotherapy and other systemic agents before RP affords an opportunity to explore the efficacy of these agents with pathologic end points. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, primarily with docetaxel (with or without androgen deprivation therapy), has demonstrated feasibility and safety in men undergoing RP, but no study to date has established the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant chemohormonal therapies. Other novel agents, such as those targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, clusterin, and immunomodulatory therapeutics, are currently under investigation.

  7. Direct-to-consumer Internet promotion of robotic prostatectomy exhibits varying quality of information.

    PubMed

    Mirkin, Joshua N; Lowrance, William T; Feifer, Andrew H; Mulhall, John P; Eastham, James E; Elkin, Elena B

    2012-04-01

    Robotic surgery to remove a cancerous prostate has become a popular treatment. Internet marketing of this surgery provides an intriguing case study of direct-to-consumer promotions of medical devices, which are more loosely regulated than pharmaceutical promotions. We investigated whether the claims made in online promotions of robotic prostatectomy were consistent with evidence from comparative effectiveness studies. After performing a search and cross-sectional analysis of websites that mentioned the procedure, we found that many sites claimed benefits that were unsupported by evidence and that 42 percent of the sites failed to mention risks. Most sites were published by hospitals and physicians, which the public may regard as more objective than pages published by manufacturers. Unbalanced information may inappropriately raise patients' expectations. Increasing enforcement and regulation of online promotions may be beyond the capabilities of federal authorities. Thus, the most feasible solution may be for the government and medical societies to promote the production of balanced educational material.

  8. Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy learning curve for experienced laparoscopic surgeons: does it really exist?

    PubMed Central

    Tobias-Machado, Marcos; Mitre, Anuar Ibrahim; Rubinstein, Mauricio; da Costa, Eduardo Fernandes; Hidaka, Alexandre Kyoshi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RALP) is a minimally invasive procedure that could have a reduced learning curve for unfamiliar laparoscopic surgeon. However, there are no consensuses regarding the impact of previous laparoscopic experience on the learning curve of RALP. We report on a functional and perioperative outcome comparison between our initial 60 cases of RALP and last 60 cases of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP), performed by three experienced laparoscopic surgeons with a 200+LRP cases experience. Materials and Methods Between January 2010 and September 2013, a total of 60 consecutive patients who have undergone RALP were prospectively evaluated and compared to the last 60 cases of LRP. Data included demographic data, operative duration, blood loss, transfusion rate, positive surgical margins, hospital stay, complications and potency and continence rates. Results The mean operative time and blood loss were higher in RALP (236 versus 153 minutes, p<0.001 and 245.6 versus 202ml p<0.001). Potency rates at 6 months were higher in RALP (70% versus 50% p=0.02). Positive surgical margins were also higher in RALP (31.6% versus 12.5%, p=0.01). Continence rates at 6 months were similar (93.3% versus 89.3% p=0.43). Patient’s age, complication rates and length of hospital stay were similar for both groups. Conclusions Experienced laparoscopic surgeons (ELS) present a learning curve for RALP only demonstrated by longer operative time and clinically insignificant blood loss. Our initial results demonstrated similar perioperative and functional outcomes for both approaches. ELS were able to achieve satisfactory oncological and functional results during the learning curve period for RALP. PMID:27136471

  9. Technical Note: Method to correlate whole-specimen histopathology of radical prostatectomy with diagnostic MR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, Deirdre M. Lee, Jenny; Foltz, Warren D.; Samavati, Navid; Jewett, Michael A. S.; Kwast, Theo van der; Chung, Peter; Ménard, Cynthia; Brock, Kristy K.

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: Validation of MRI-guided tumor boundary delineation for targeted prostate cancer therapy is achieved via correlation with gold-standard histopathology of radical prostatectomy specimens. Challenges to accurate correlation include matching the pathology sectioning plane with the in vivo imaging slice plane and correction for the deformation that occurs between in vivo imaging and histology. A methodology is presented for matching of the histological sectioning angle and position to the in vivo imaging slices. Methods: Patients (n = 4) with biochemical failure following external beam radiotherapy underwent diagnostic MRI to confirm localized recurrence of prostate cancer, followed by salvage radical prostatectomy. High-resolution 3-D MRI of the ex vivo specimens was acquired to determine the pathology sectioning angle that best matched the in vivo imaging slice plane, using matching anatomical features and implanted fiducials. A novel sectioning device was developed to guide sectioning at the correct angle, and to assist the insertion of reference dye marks to aid in histopathology reconstruction. Results: The percentage difference in the positioning of the urethra in the ex vivo pathology sections compared to the positioning in in vivo images was reduced from 34% to 7% through slicing at the best match angle. Reference dye marks were generated, which were visible in ex vivo imaging, in the tissue sections before and after processing, and in histology sections. Conclusions: The method achieved an almost fivefold reduction in the slice-matching error and is readily implementable in combination with standard MRI technology. The technique will be employed to generate datasets for correlation of whole-specimen prostate histopathology with in vivo diagnostic MRI using 3-D deformable registration, allowing assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of MRI parameters for prostate cancer. Although developed specifically for prostate, the method is readily

  10. Temporal Trends and Predictors of Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection in Open or Minimally Invasive Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Feifer, Andrew H.; Elkin, Elena B.; Lowrance, William T.; Denton, Brian; Jacks, Lindsay; Yee, David S.; Coleman, Jonathan A.; Laudone, Vincent P.; Scardino, Peter T.; Eastham, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) is an important component of prostate cancer staging and treatment, especially for surgical patients with high-risk tumor features. It is not clear how the shift from open radical prostatectomy (ORP) to minimally invasive radical prostatectomy (MIRP) has affected use of PLND. Our objective was to identify predictors of PLND and assess the impact of surgical technique in a contemporary, population-based cohort. Methods In Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registry data linked with Medicare claims, we identified men who had ORP or MIRP for prostate cancer in 2003–2007. We evaluated the impact of surgical approach on PLND and examined interactions between surgical procedure, PSA and Gleason score, controlling for patient and tumor characteristics. Results Of 6,608 men who had ORP or MIRP, 70% (n=4,600) had PLND. Use of PLND declined over time, overall and within subgroups defined by procedure type. PLND was 5 times more likely in men receiving ORP than MIRP, controlling for patient and tumor characteristics. Elevated PSA and biopsy Gleason score, but not clinical stage, were associated with greater odds of PLND in both ORP and MIRP groups. However, the magnitude of the association between these factors and PLND was significantly greater for ORP patients. Conclusion PLND was less common in men who received MIRP, independent of tumor risk factors. A decline in PLND rates was not fully explained by an increase in MIRP. These trends may signal a surgical approach-dependent disparity in prostate cancer staging and therapy. PMID:21412757

  11. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy in low- and high-risk prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Boylu, Uğur; Bindayi, Ahmet; Küçük, Eyüp Veli; Önol, Fikret Fatih; Gümüş, Eyüp

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the benefit of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in the low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients suitable for active surveillance and in the high-risk PCa patients who would be considered for alternative treatments such as radiotherapy (RT) and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) instead of radical prostatectomy. Material and methods Of 548 patients, who underwent RARP, 298 PCa patients (258 low-risk and 40 high-risk) with a mean of 3.6 years follow-up, were included into this study. Oncological outcomes were compared separately in low- and high-risk PCa patients. Results The pathologic Gleason scores were ≥7 in 73 (28%), and 68 (26%) patients had a pathologic stage of T3, 29 (11%) patients had a positive surgical margin (PSM), and 20 (7%) patients had biochemical recurrence (BCR) in the first year follow-up in the low-risk group. Of 258 low-risk PCa patients, a total of 93 (36%) patients had not either BCR, pathologic Gleason score ≥7, or ≥pT3 disease with PSM. In the high-risk group, the pathologic stage was pT2 in 14 (35%) patients and 29 (72%) patients had no biochemical recurrence in the follow-up of these high-risk PCa patients. Of 40 high-risk PCa patients, in a total of 25 (62.5%) patients ≥pT3b disease, BCR, pT3a disease with PSM were not detected. Conclusion Approximately two thirds of high-risk PCa patients benefit from RARP without additional RT or ADT. Besides, more than one third of low-risk PCa patients who fit active surveillance criteria would have unfavorable results. PMID:28270949

  12. The enhanced detection of persistent disease after prostatectomy with a new prostate specific antigen immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Takayama, T K; Vessella, R L; Brawer, M K; Noteboom, J; Lange, P H

    1993-08-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) determinations after radical prostatectomy are valuable in detecting persistent disease. Previously, we determined that 0.4 ng./ml. PSA was a reliable clinical threshold using the Hybritech Tandem-R PSA assay. Recently, we reported that a new PSA immunoassay (Abbott IMx PSA) correlated well with results of the Tandem-R immunoradiometric PSA assay and had a lower threshold. Using a conservative threshold of 0.1 ng./ml. PSA for the IMx PSA assay, we analyzed IMx PSA values in serial postoperative serum from 72 radical prostatectomy patients whose initial Tandem-R levels were less than 0.4 ng./ml. PSA. The lower detection limits of the IMx PSA assay allowed approximately a third (15 of 42) more detection of persistent disease within 8 months of surgery. When the PSA level remained undetectable for more than 8 months but the disease eventually recurred the lead times averaged 9 to 12 months when 0.1 ng./ml. PSA was used to signify persistent disease. All patients whose PSA levels reached 0.1 ng./ml. PSA and were subsequently followed for more than 3 months continued to have increasing levels. Also, every man who eventually had recurrence also had a PSA serum level of at least 0.1 ng./ml. PSA within 28 months postoperatively, although the subsequent increase from 0.1 to 0.4 ng./ml. PSA sometimes took several years. Although the clinical impact of these findings is yet unknown, new or altered PSA assays with lower detection limits can provide unique information that may offer opportunities for improved clinical investigation and possibly patient management.

  13. Genetic markers associated with early cancer-specific mortality following prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wennuan; Xie, Chunmei C.; Thomas, Christopher Y.; Kim, Seong-Tae; Lindberg, Johan; Egevad, Lars; Wang, Zhong; Zhang, Zheng; Sun, Jishan; Sun, Jielin; Koty, Patrick P.; Kader, A. Karim; Cramer, Scott D.; Bova, G. Steve; Zheng, S. Lilly; Grönberg, Henrik; Isaacs, William B.; Xu, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND To identify novel effectors and markers of localized but potentially life-threatening prostate cancer (PCa), we evaluated chromosomal copy number alterations (CNAs) in tumors from patients who underwent prostatectomy and correlated these with clinicopathologic features and outcome. METHODS CNAs in tumor DNAs from 125 prostatectomy patients in the discovery cohort were assayed with high resolution Affymetrix 6.0 SNP microarrays and then analyzed using the Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer (GISTIC) algorithm. RESULTS The assays revealed twenty significant regions of CNAs, four of them novel, and identified the target genes of four of the alterations. By univariate analysis, seven CNAs were significantly associated with early PCa-specific mortality. These included gains of chromosomal regions that contain the genes MYC, ADAR, or TPD52 and losses of sequences that incorporate SERPINB5, USP10, PTEN, or TP53. On multivariate analysis, only the CNAs of PTEN and MYC contributed additional prognostic information independent of that provided by pathologic stage, Gleason score, and initial PSA level. Patients whose tumors had alterations of both genes had a markedly elevated risk of PCa-specific mortality (OR = 53; C.I.= 6.92–405, P = 1 × 10−4). Analyses of 333 tumors from three additional distinct patient cohorts confirmed the relationship between CNAs of PTEN and MYC and lethal PCa. CONCLUSION This study identified new CNAs and genes that likely contribute to the pathogenesis of localized PCa and suggests that patients whose tumors have acquired CNAs of PTEN, MYC, or both have an increased risk of early PCa-specific mortality. PMID:23609948

  14. AIM1 PROMOTER HYPERMETHYLATION AS A PREDICTOR OF DECREASED RISK OF RECURRENCE FOLLOWING RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Eli; Begum, Shahnaz; Brait, Mariana; Zahurak, Marianna; Maldonado, Leonel; Eisenberger, Mario A; Epstein, Jonathan I; Partin, Alan W; Sidransky, David; Hoque, Mohammad Obaidul

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prognostic significance of six epigenetic biomarkers (AIM1, CDH1, KIF1A, MT1G, PAK3 and RBM6 promoter hypermethlation) in a homogeneous group of prostate cancer patients, following radical prostatectomy. Patients and Methods Biomarker analyses were performed retrospectively on tumors from 95 prostate cancer patients all with a Gleason score of 3+4=7 and a minimum follow up period of 8 years. Using Quantitative Methylation Specific PCR (QMSP), we analyzed the promoter region of six genes in primary prostate tumor tissues. Time to any progression was the primary endpoint and development of metastatic disease and/or death from prostate cancer was a secondary endpoint. The association of clinicopathological and biomolecular risk factors to recurrence was performed using the Log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model for multivariate analysis. To identify independent prognostic factors, a stepwise selection method was used. Results At a median follow-up time of 10 years, 48 patients (50.5%) had evidence of recurrence: biochemical/PSA relapse, metastases, or death from prostate cancer. In the final multivariate analysis for time to progression, the significant factors were: older age, HR=0.95 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.0) (P=0.03), positive lymph nodes HR=2.11 (95%CI: 1.05, 4.26) (P=0.04) and decreased hypermethylation of AIM1 HR=0.45 (95%CI: 0.2, 1.0) (P=0.05). Conclusions Methylation status of AIM1 in the prostate cancer specimen may predict for time to recurrence in Gleason 3+4=7 patients undergoing prostatectomy. These results should be validated in a larger and unselected cohort. PMID:22127895

  15. The Timing of Salvage Radiotherapy After Radical Prostatectomy: A Systematic Review

    SciTech Connect

    King, Christopher R.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Salvage radiotherapy (SRT) after radical prostatectomy can potentially eradicate residual microscopic disease. Defining the optimal patient and treatment factors is essential and is particularly relevant within the context of adjuvant vs early vs delayed postoperative radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A systematic review of all published SRT studies was performed to identify the pathologic, clinical, and treatment factors associated with relapse-free survival (RFS) after SRT. A total of 41 studies encompassing 5597 patients satisfied the study entry criteria. Radiobiologic interpretation of biochemical tumor control was used to provide the framework for the observed relationships. Results: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level before SRT (P<.0001) and RT dose (P=.0052) had a significant and independent association with RFS. There was an average 2.6% loss of RFS for each incremental 0.1 ng/mL PSA at the time of SRT (95% CI, {approx}2.2-3.1). With a PSA level of 0.2 ng/mL or less before SRT, the RFS approached 64%. The dose for salvage RT in the range of 60-70 Gy seemed to be on the steep part of the sigmoidal dose-response curve, with a dose of 70 Gy achieving 54% RFS compared with only 34% for 60 Gy. There was a 2% improvement in RFS for each additional Gy (95% CI, {approx}0.9-3.2). The observed dose-response was less robust on sensitivity analysis. Conclusions: This study provides Level 2a evidence for initiating SRT at the lowest possible PSA. Dose escalation is also suggested by the data. Progressively better tumor control rates with SRT after radical prostatectomy are achieved with a lower PSA at initiation and with a higher RT dose. Early salvage RT may be an equivalent strategy to adjuvant RT.

  16. Obesity and Risk of Biochemical Failure for Patients Receiving Salvage Radiotherapy After Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    King, Christopher R. Spiotto, Michael T.; Kapp, Daniel S.

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: Obesity has been proposed as an independent risk factor for patients undergoing surgery or radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer. Using body mass index (BMI) as a measure of obesity, we tested its role as a risk factor for patients receiving salvage RT after prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: Rates of subsequent biochemical relapse were examined in 90 patients who underwent salvage RT between 1984 and 2004 for biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy. Median follow-up was 3.7 years. The BMI was tested as a continuous and categorical variable (stratified as <25, 25-<30, and {>=}30 kg/m{sup 2}). Univariate and multivariate proportional hazards regression analyses were performed for clinical, pathologic, and treatment factors associated with time to relapse after salvage RT. Results: There were 40 biochemical failures after salvage RT with a median time to failure of 1.2 years. The BMI was not associated with adverse clinical, pathologic, or treatment factors. On multivariate analysis, obesity was independently significant (hazard ratio [HR], 1.2; p = 0.01), along with RT dose (HR, 0.7; p = 0.003) and pre-RT prostate-specific antigen level (HR, 1.2; p = 0.0003). Conclusions: This study is weakly suggestive that obesity may be a risk factor for salvage RT patients. Whether this results from greater biologic aggressiveness or technical inadequacies cannot be answered by this study. Given the very high failure rate observed for severely obese patients, we propose that technical difficulties with RT are at play. This hypothesis is supported by the RT literature and could be prospectively investigated. Techniques that optimize targeting, especially in obese patients, perhaps seem warranted at this time.

  17. Radical prostatectomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sometimes, laparoscopic surgery is performed using a robotic system. The surgeon moves the instruments and camera using robotic arms while sitting at a control console near the operating table. Not every hospital offers robotic surgery. Perineal : ...

  18. Results From the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Trial Number 4: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Radical Prostatectomy Versus Watchful Waiting

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Trial Number 4 (SPCG-4), 347 men were randomly assigned to radical prostatectomy and 348 to watchful waiting. In the most recent analysis (median follow-up time = 12.8 years), the cumulative mortality curves had been stable over the follow-up. At 15 years, the absolute risk reduction of dying from prostate cancer was 6.1% following randomization to radical prostatectomy, compared with watchful waiting. Hence, 17 need to be randomized to operation to avert one death. Data on self-reported symptoms, stress from symptoms, and quality of life were collected at 4 and 12.2 years of median follow-up. These questionnaire studies show an intricate pattern of symptoms evolving after surgery, hormonal treatments, signs of tumor progression, and also from natural aging. This article discusses some of the main findings of the SPCG-4 study. PMID:23271778

  19. International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) consensus conference on handling and staging of radical prostatectomy specimens: rationale and organization.

    PubMed

    Egevad, Lars; Srigley, John R; Delahunt, Brett

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 International Society of Urological Pathology consensus conference in Boston, made recommendations regarding the standardization of pathology reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens. The activities of the conference were coordinated through five workgroups. The results are presented in five separate reports covering (1) specimen handling, (2) T2 substaging and prostate cancer volume, (3) extraprostatic extension, lymphovascular invasion and locally advanced disease, (4) seminal vesicles and lymph node metastases and (5) surgical margins. In this introductory article we describe some novel features of the organization of the consensus process. Following the completion of a pre-meeting survey conference, participants discussed and voted on 43 specific issues of contention relating to the pathological reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens. Consensus, defined as agreement by at least 65% of participants present, was achieved for 30 questions.

  20. Biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy in intermediate-risk group men increases with the number of risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Furubayashi, Nobuki; Negishi, Takahito; Iwai, Hidenori; Nagase, Kei; Taguchi, Kenichi; Shimokawa, Mototsugu; Nakamura, Motonobu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to determine whether the number and type of risk factors are associated with biochemical recurrence-free survival after radical prostatectomy in men with D’Amico intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Between August 1998 and May 2013, 481 Japanese patients underwent antegrade radical prostatectomy. The relationships between the rate of PSA failure after radical prostatectomy and the number and type of risk factors were examined in the intermediate-risk group. Results: According to the D’Amico criteria, the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups comprised 107, 222, and 152 patients, respectively. The median follow-up period after surgery was 54.1 months. The 5-year PSA failure-free rates in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 96.5%, 88.9%, and 72.6%, respectively (P < 0.001). The 5-year PSA failure-free rate in the intermediate-risk group with one, two, and three intermediate risk factors was 94.9%, 88.4%, and 49.0%, respectively (P < 0.001). The difference between the high- and intermediate-risk group with three intermediate risk factors was statistically significant based on the log-rank test (P = 0.039). Conclusion: The number of intermediate risk factors is significantly associated with the PSA failure-free survival rate after radical prostatectomy in the intermediate-risk group. Patients classified into the intermediate-risk group based on all three intermediate risk factors are less likely to achieve a complete cure through surgery alone. PMID:28197033

  1. The normal post-surgical anatomy of the male pelvis following radical prostatectomy as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Allen, Steven D; Thompson, Alan; Sohaib, S Aslam

    2008-06-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of recurrent prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy have been documented in the radiology literature; however little has been written on the range of normal post-operative appearances. Common routes of surgical access for radical prostatectomy include retropubic and transperineal, although newer minimally invasive methods are gaining increasing acceptance. Specifically the range of appearances of the anastomotic site, the prostatic bed, the position of the bladder base, periurethral tissue, levator sling, rectum and residual seminal vesicles (if present) are demonstrated. A non-enhancing low signal nodule is frequently seen at the vesicourethral anastomosis or within the seminal vesicle remnant and usually represents fibrosis. Appearances following different surgical accesses do not differ tremendously, although the retropubic fat pad is reduced or absent following a retropubic approach. Anterior rectal-wall scarring may be present following a transperineal approach. Other post-surgical findings that may mimic disease include a lymphocoele and injected bladder-neck bulking agent. Many patients referred for MRI following radical prostatectomy will have a pathological study showing disease recurrence, although in non-pathological studies the radiological features can differ significantly. It is important for the radiologist to be aware of the spectrum of normal post-surgical appearances so not to confuse these with locally recurrent disease.

  2. Single-institution comparative study on the outcomes of salvage cryotherapy versus salvage robotic prostatectomy for radio-resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Anup; Agarwal, Vidhi; Singh, Prabhjot; Patel, Rupen; Rivas, Rodolfo; Nething, Josh; Muruve, Nic

    2015-01-01

    Background Although primary treatment of localized prostate cancer provides excellent oncologic control, some men who chose radiotherapy experience a recurrence of disease. There is no consensus on the most appropriate management of these patients after radiotherapy failure. In this single-institution review, we compare our oncologic outcome and toxicity between salvage prostatectomy and cryotherapy treatments. Methods From January 2004 to June 2013, a total of 23 salvage procedures were performed. Six of those patients underwent salvage prostatectomy while 17 underwent salvage cryotherapy by two high-volume fellowship-trained urologists. Patients being considered for salvage therapy had localized disease at presentation, a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) < 10 ng/mL at recurrence, life expectancy > 10 years at recurrence, and a negative metastatic workup. Patients were followed to observe cancer progression and toxicity of treatment. Results Patients who underwent salvage cryotherapy were statistically older with a higher incidence of hypertension than our salvage prostatectomy cohort. With a mean follow up of 14.1 months and 7.2 months, the incidence of disease progression was 23.5% and 16.7% after salvage cryotherapy and prostatectomy, respectively. The overall complication rate was also 23.5% versus 16.7%, with the most frequent complication after salvage cryotherapy being urethral stricture and after salvage prostatectomy being severe urinary incontinence. There were no rectal injuries with salvage prostatectomy and one rectourethral fistula in the cohort after salvage cryotherapy. Conclusion While recurrences from primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer do occur, there is no consensus on its management. In our experience, salvage procedures were generally safe and effective. Both salvage cryotherapy and salvage prostatectomy allow for adequate cancer control with minimal toxicity. PMID:27014657

  3. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: histopathologic and biochemical recurrence data at one-year follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Vipul; Thaly, Rahul; Shah, Ketul

    2007-02-01

    Introduction: Robotically assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is a minimally invasive alternative for the treatment of prostate cancer. We report the histopathologic and short term PSA outcomes of 500 robotic prostatectomies. Materials and Methods: Five hundred patients underwent robotic radical prostatectomy. The procedure was performed via a six trocar transperitoneal technique. Prostatectomy specimens were analyzed for TNM Stage, Gleason's grade, tumor location, volume, specimen weight, seminal vesicle involvement and margin status. A positive margin was reported if cancer cells were found at the inked specimen margin. PSA data was collected every three months for the first year, then every six months for a year, then yearly. Results: Average pre-operative PSA was 6.9 (1-90) with Gleason's score of 5 (2%), 6 (52%), 7 (40%), 8 (4%), 9(2%). Post operatively histopathologic analysis showed Gleason's 6 (44%), 7(42%), 8(10%), 9(4%). 10%, 5%, 63%, 15%, 5% and 2% had pathologic stage T2a, T2b, T2c, T3a, T3b and T4 respectively. Positive margin rate was 9.4% for the entire series. The positive margin rate per 100 cases was: 13% (1-100), 8% (101-200), 13% (201-300), 5% (301-400) and 8% (401-500). By stage it was 2%, 4%, 2.5% for T2a, T2b, T2c tumors, 23% (T3a), 46% (T3b) and 53% (T4a). For organ confined disease (T2) the margin rate was 2.5% and 31% for non organ confined disease. There were a total of 47 positive margins, 26 (56%) posterolateral, 4 (8.5%) apical, 4 (8.5%) bladder neck, 2 (4%) seminal vesicle and 11 (23%) multifocally. Ninety five percent of patients (n=500) have undetectable PSA (<0.1) at average follow up of 9.7 months. Recurrence has only been seen with non organ confined tumors. Those patients with a minimum follow up of 1 year (average 15.7 months) 95% have undetectable PSA (<.1). Conclusion: Our initial experience with robotic radical prostatectomy is promising. Histopathologic outcomes are acceptable with a low overall margin positive rate

  4. Significance and management of positive surgical margins at the time of radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, Jonathan L.; Eastham, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Positive surgical margins (PSM) at the time of radical prostatectomy (RP) result in an increased risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) and secondary treatment. We review current literature with a focus on stratifying the characteristics of the PSM that may define its significance, the impact of modern imaging and surgical approaches in avoidance of PSM, and management strategies when PSM do occur. We performed a review of the available literature to identify factors associated with PSM and their management. PSM have been repeatedly demonstrated to be associated with an increased risk of BCR following RP. The specific characteristics (size, number, location, Gleason score at the margin) of the PSM may influence the risk of recurrence. Novel imaging and surgical approaches are being investigated and may allow for reductions of PSM in the future. The use of adjuvant treatment for a PSM remains controversial and should be decided on an individual basis after a discussion about the risks and benefits. The goal of RP is complete resection of the tumor. PSM are associated with increased risk of BCR and secondary treatments. Of the risk factors associated with BCR after RP, a PSM is directly influenced by surgical technique. PMID:25378825

  5. Optimism and prostate cancer-specific expectations predict better quality of life after robotic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Andrea A; Perez, Martin A; Oh, Sindy; Crocitto, Laura

    2012-06-01

    We examined the relations among generalized positive expectations (optimism), prostate-cancer specific expectations, and prostate cancer-related quality of life in a prospective sample of 83 men who underwent robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) for prostate cancer. Optimism was significantly associated with higher prostate cancer-specific expectations, β = .36, p < .001. In addition, optimism and prostate cancer-specific expectations were independent prospective predictors of better scores on the following prostate cancer-related quality of life scales: Sexual Intimacy and Sexual Confidence; Masculine Self-Esteem (specific expectations only), Health Worry, Cancer Control, and Informed Decision Making (βs > .21, ps < .05). When considered simultaneously, both optimism and specific expectations contributed uniquely to better Health Worry and Cancer Control scores, optimism was a unique predictor of better Sexual Intimacy and Sexual Confidence scores, and specific expectations uniquely predicted higher scores on Informed Decision Making. Although optimism and prostate-cancer specific expectations are related, they contribute uniquely to several prostate cancer-related quality of life outcomes following RALP and may be important targets for quality of life research with this population.

  6. Standardized 4-step technique of bladder neck dissection during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Zanaty, Marc; Rajih, Emad; El-Hakim, Assaad; Zorn, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Bladder neck (BN) dissection is considered one of the most challenging steps during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Better understanding of the BN anatomy, coupled with a standardized approach may facilitate dissection while minimizing complications. We describe in this article the 4 anatomic spaces during standardized BN dissection, as well other technical maneuvers of managing difficult scenarios including treatment of a large median lobe or patients with previous transurethral resection of the prostate. The first step involves the proper identification of the BN followed by slow horizontal dissection of the first layer (the dorsal venous complex and perivesicle fat). The second step proceeds with reconfirming the location of the BN followed by midline dissection of the second anatomical layer (the anterior bladder muscle and mucosa) using the tip of the monopolar scissor until the catheter is identified. The deflated catheter is then grasped by the assistant to apply upward traction on the prostate from 2 directions along with downward traction on the posterior bladder wall by the tip of the suction instrument. This triangulation allows easier, and safer visual, layer by layer, dissection of the third BN layer (the posterior bladder mucosa and muscle wall). The forth step is next performed by blunt puncture of the fourth layer (the retrotrigonal fascia) aiming to enter into the previously dissected seminal vesical space. Finally, both vas deferens and seminal vesicles are pulled through the open BN and handed to the assistant for upper traction to initiate Denovillier's dissection and prostate pedicle/neurovascular bundle control. PMID:27995220

  7. Oncologic Outcome of Radical Prostatectomy as Monotherapy for Men with High-risk Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Junya; Miyake, Hideaki; Inoue, Taka-aki; Ogawa, Takayoshi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Fujisawa, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to review our experience with radical prostatectomy (RP) as monotherapy for men with high-risk prostate cancer (PCa). Patients and Methods This study included 382 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with high-risk PCa according to the D'Amico definition and subsequently underwent RP without neoadjuvant therapy. Biochemical recurrence (BR) was defined as a serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level ≥ 0.2 ng/ml on two consecutive measurements, and none of the patients received any adjuvant therapies until their serum PSA levels reached ≥ 0.4 ng/ml. Results The median preoperative serum PSA level in these 382 patients was 15.9 ng/ml. Pathological stages ≥ pT2c and Gleason scores ≥ 8 were observed in 288 and 194 patients, respectively. During the observation period (median, 48.0 months), BR occurred in 134 patients, and the 5-year BR-free survival rate was 60.1%; however, no patient died of cancer progression. Multivariate analysis identified capsular invasion, seminal vesicle invasion, and surgical margin status as independent predictors of BR. Conclusions Comparatively favorable cancer control could be achieved using RP as monotherapy for men with high-risk PCa; however, RP alone may be insufficient for patients with capsular invasion, seminal vesicle invasion, and/or surgical margin positivity. PMID:27390578

  8. Erectile Dysfunction after Radical Prostatectomy: Prevalence, Medical Treatments, and Psychosocial Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Emanu, Jessica C.; Avildsen, Isabelle K.; Nelson, Christian J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review This review will discuss erectile dysfunction (ED) in prostate cancer patients following radical prostatectomy (RP). It will focus on the prevalence and current treatments for ED as well as the emotional impact of ED and the current psychosocial interventions designed to help patients cope with this side effect. Recent findings While there is a large discrepancy in prevalence rates of ED after RP, several recent studies have cited rates as high as 85%. The concept of “penile rehabilitation” is now the standard of practice to treat ED following RP. However, many men avoid seeking help or utilizing ED treatments. This avoidance is related to the shame, frustration, and distress many men with ED and their partners experience. Recent psychosocial interventions have been developed to facilitate the use of treatments and help men cope with ED. These interventions have shown initial promise, however, continued intervention development is needed to reduce distress and improve long-term erectile function (EF) outcomes. Summary ED is a significant problem following prostate cancer surgery. While there are effective medical treatments, the development of psychosocial interventions should continue to evolve to maximize the assistance we can give to men and their partners. PMID:26808052

  9. Reporting Gleason grade/score in synoptic reports of radical prostatectomies

    PubMed Central

    Renshaw, Andrew A.; Mena-Allauca, Mercy; Gould, Edwin W.

    2016-01-01

    Context: The format of a synoptic report can significantly affect the accuracy, speed, and preference with which a reader can retrieve information. Objective: The objective of this study is to compare different formats of Gleason grading/score in synoptic reports of radical prostatectomies. Methods: The performance of 16 nonpathologists (cancer registrars, MDs, medical non-MDs, and nonmedical) at identifying specific information in various formatted synoptic reports using a computerized quiz that measured both accuracy and speed. Results: Compared to the standard format (primary, secondary, tertiary grades, and total score on separate lines), omitting tertiary grade when Not applicable reduced accuracy (72 vs. 97%, P < 0.001) and increased time to retrieve information 63% (P < 0.001). No user preferred to have tertiary grade omitted. Both the biopsy format (primary + secondary = total score, tertiary on a separate line) and the single line format (primary + secondary + (tertiary) -> total score) were associated with increased speed of data extraction (18 and 24%, respectively, P < 0.001). The single line format was more accurate (100% vs. 97%, P = 0.02). No user preferred the biopsy format, and only 7/16 users preferred the single line format. Conclusions Different report formats for Gleason grading significantly affect users speed, accuracy, and preference; users do not always prefer either speed or accuracy. PMID:28163976

  10. [Treatment of erectile dysfunction after nerve-preserving radical retropubic prostatectomy].

    PubMed

    Veliev, E I; Loran, O B

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was evaluation of erectile function (EF) recovery and effects of PDE-5 inhibitor tadalafil in the treatment of erectile impairment one year after conduction of nerve-preserving retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP). Thirty patients with intact EF before surgery who had RRP were divided into two groups. In 18 patients of group I vasculonervous fascicles (VNF) were preserved on both sides. A unilateral nerve-preserving technique was used in 12 patients of group 2. Tadalafil administration was started 3 months after operation in the dose 20 mg. In group I partial erection was observed in 11 patients, was absent in 33% (6 patients), a complete erection was in one (6%) patient. Thus, 67% (12 patients) could maintain erection sufficient for coitus. Out of 12 patients of group 2, a complete erection was achieved in none patients, partial erection was observed in 5 (42%) patients, erection did not occur in 7 (58%) patients. Thus, EF is better in patients with bilateral preservation of VNF than in unilateral one. Pharmacotherapy of erectile dysfunction after nerve-preserving RRP is most effective. It is desirable to adhere to early postoperative policy in the treatment of EF. PDE-5 inhibitors are rather effective if the patient has a partial erection. They fail in the absence of spontaneous erections. Early therapy prevents subsequent progression of erectile dysfunction.

  11. In-vitro and clinical evaluation of transurethral laser-induced prostatectomy (TULIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Swol, Christiaan F. P.; Verdaasdonck, Rudolf M.; Mooibroek, Jaap; Boon, Tom A.

    1993-05-01

    Transurethral ultrasound-guided laser induced prostatectomy (TULIP) is a recent development in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The system is based upon Nd:YAG laser irradiation delivered by a right angled fiber. The dosimetry used in a clinical situation is mostly based upon animal studies. In this study, the light and temperature distribution in the prostate during Nd:YAG laser irradiation were modeled using Monte Carlo and finite differences theory. The results of this model were compared with in vitro experiments. The influence of the different parameters involved, e.g., the scanning speed and the power of the laser beam, were evaluated. Initial results show the temperature distribution and thus the therapeutic effect of the TULIP procedure. Until now 36 patients have been treated successfully. The mean in-hospital time was somewhat shorter than for a TURP treatment while the results were comparable. These treatments, however, show the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms involved. Modeling and subsequent in vitro and in vivo measurements might improve the understanding and safe and successful application of prostate treatment using laser based systems.

  12. Significance and management of positive surgical margins at the time of radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Jonathan L; Eastham, James A

    2014-10-01

    Positive surgical margins (PSM) at the time of radical prostatectomy (RP) result in an increased risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) and secondary treatment. We review current literature with a focus on stratifying the characteristics of the PSM that may define its significance, the impact of modern imaging and surgical approaches in avoidance of PSM, and management strategies when PSM do occur. We performed a review of the available literature to identify factors associated with PSM and their management. PSM have been repeatedly demonstrated to be associated with an increased risk of BCR following RP. The specific characteristics (size, number, location, Gleason score at the margin) of the PSM may influence the risk of recurrence. Novel imaging and surgical approaches are being investigated and may allow for reductions of PSM in the future. The use of adjuvant treatment for a PSM remains controversial and should be decided on an individual basis after a discussion about the risks and benefits. The goal of RP is complete resection of the tumor. PSM are associated with increased risk of BCR and secondary treatments. Of the risk factors associated with BCR after RP, a PSM is directly influenced by surgical technique.

  13. Independent Predictors of Recovery of Continence 3 Months After Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Jun; Ha, Yun-Sok; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To investigate the factors that predict recovery of continence within 3 months after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Patients and Methods The charts of 452 patients who underwent RARP with a minimum follow-up period of 3 months were collected prospectively and reviewed retrospectively. Urinary continence was determined using the self-administered validated Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaire during the routine follow-up visits. Results The overall continence rate 3 months after RARP was 79.9%. In an univariate logistic regression test, age<70 years, higher preoperative Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) score, lower clinical T1 stage, lower biopsy and pathologic Gleason score, shorter operative time, lower estimated blood loss, smaller prostate volume (<40 cc) were associated with recovery of urinary continence within 3 months after RARP (P<0.05). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, younger age, higher SHIM score, lower clinical T1 stage, lower body mass index (BMI), and smaller prostate volume were independent factors that predicted return of continence within 3 months after RARP (P<0.05). Conclusions Younger age (<70 years), higher preoperative SHIM score, clinical T1 stage, lower BMI, and smaller prostate volume (<40 cc) independently predicted recovery of continence within 3 months after RARP. PMID:22651546

  14. Long-Term Oncological Outcomes for Young Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Venclovas, Zilvinas; Gudinaviciene, Inga; Zviniene, Kristina; Matjosaitis, Aivaras Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to describe PCa characteristics and long-term outcomes in young men aged ≤55 years after radical prostatectomy (RP) and to compare them with older men cohort. Methods. Among 2,200 patients who underwent RP for clinically localized PCa at our centre between 2001 and 2015, 277 (10.3%) men aged ≤55 years were identified. All preoperative and pathological parameters were compared between groups. Biochemical progression free survival (BPFS) and disease progression free survival (DPFS) were assessed at 5 and 10 years. Results. Men aged ≤55 years had similar pathological tumor characteristics and biochemical recurrence rate (BCR) compared to their older counterparts. Disease progression rate 2.5% versus 0.4% was higher in older patients (p = 0.026). BPFS rate was not different in both study groups. Estimated 10-year DPFS was 98.8% in younger men compared to 89.2% in their older counterparts (p = 0.031). Multivariate Cox regression showed that Gleason score lymph-nodes and surgical margins status were significant predictors for disease progression. Conclusions. In our cohort, men aged ≤55 years had similar pathological PCa characteristics and BCR rate in comparison with older men. RP can be performed with excellent long-term DPFS results in men with localized PCa at ≤55 years of age. PMID:28299340

  15. Myocardial infarction and subsequent death in a patient undergoing robotic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Judy

    2009-10-01

    A 52-year-old patient, ASA physical status IV, undergoing a radical prostatectomy for cancer with a robotic system had a cardiac arrest 3 hours into the case. All attempts to resuscitate were unsuccessful, and several hours later he was pronounced dead. Underlying patient comorbidity and procedural issues contributed to the patient's death. The patient had a history of coronary artery disease that required the placement of drug-eluting stents 2 years before this surgical procedure. The preoperative cardiac evaluation and pharmacological management of patients with drug-eluting coronary stents are reviewed. There are a number of positional and technical considerations for patients undergoing robotic surgical procedures, especially in relation to the requirement of low-lithotomy and steep Trendelenburg positions. The cardiac and respiratory systems are especially vulnerable to the extreme and lengthy head-down position. The needed positioning, combined with the problems associated with insufflation, presents a unique challenge in anesthetic management. This course reviews the current literature on the surgical implications for patients with drug-eluting stents and the physiologic factors related to position and pneumoperitoneum and their associated stressors. By using a review of the contemporary literature, a best-evidence approach to anesthetic management is reviewed.

  16. Frozen section evaluation of margins in radical prostatectomy specimens: a contemporary study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Nunez, Amberly L; Giannico, Giovanna A; Mukhtar, Faisal; Dailey, Virginia; El-Galley, Rizk; Hameed, Omar

    2016-10-01

    The utility of routine frozen section (FS) analysis for margin evaluation during radical prostatectomy (RP) remains controversial. A retrospective search was conducted to identify RPs evaluated by FS over a 5-year period. The potential of FS to discriminate between benign and malignant tissue and to predict final margins was evaluated. During the study period, 71 (12.3%) of 575 cases underwent FS evaluation of margins, generating 192 individual FSs. There were 8 FSs diagnosed as atypical/indeterminate because of significant freezing, crushing, and/or thermal artifacts; 11 as positive for carcinoma; and 173 as benign. Two FSs classified as benign were diagnosed as positive for carcinoma on subsequent permanent section. Frozen sections' sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma were 85%, 100%, 100%, 99%, and 99%, respectively. Overall RP final margin predictive accuracy was 81%. Positive FS was significantly associated with perineural invasion on biopsy and extraprostatic extension and higher stage disease on RP, but not with the overall final margin status. The high FS accuracy supports its use to guide the extent of surgery. However, FS cannot be used to predict the overall final margin status. Recognition of the histological artifacts inherent to the FS procedure is important to ensure appropriate utilization.

  17. Handling of radical prostatectomy specimens: total embedding with large-format histology.

    PubMed

    Montironi, Rodolfo; Lopez Beltran, Antonio; Mazzucchelli, Roberta; Cheng, Liang; Scarpelli, Marina

    2012-01-01

    A problem when handling radical prostatectomy specimens (RPS) is that cancer is often not visible at gross examination, and the tumor extent is always underestimated by the naked eye. The challenge is increased further by the fact that prostate cancer is a notoriously multifocal and heterogeneous tumor. For the pathologist, the safest method to avoid undersampling of cancer is evidently that the entire prostate is submitted. Even though whole mounts of sections from RPS appear not to be superior to sections from standard blocks in detecting adverse pathological features, their use has the great advantage of displaying the architecture of the prostate and the identification and location of tumour nodules more clearly, with particular reference to the index tumour; further, it is easier to compare the pathological findings with those obtained from digital rectal examination (DRE), transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), and prostate biopsies. We are in favour of complete sampling of the RPS examined with the whole mount technique. There are reasons in favour and a few drawbacks. Its implementation does not require an additional amount of work from the technicians' side. It gives further clinical significance to our work of uropathologists.

  18. High Chance of Late Recovery of Urinary and Erectile Function Beyond 12 Months After Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Philipp; Preisser, Felix; Graefen, Markus; Steuber, Thomas; Salomon, Georg; Haese, Alexander; Michl, Uwe; Huland, Hartwig; Tilki, Derya

    2016-10-12

    Urinary incontinence (UI) and erectile dysfunction (ED) after radical prostatectomy (RP) can impose a strong burden. While most studies focus on certain time points after RP when analyzing functional outcome, there is paucity of evidence on late functional recovery in patients with UI or ED at 12 mo after RP. Using longitudinal patient data from a large European single-center, we show that the chance of regaining continence among patients (n=974) with UI (≥1 pad/24h) at 12 mo after RP was 38.6% after 24 mo and 49.7% after 36 mo. The corresponding rates for patients (n=1115) with ED (defined as International Index of Erectile Function-5 score <18) at 12 mo after RP were 30.8% at 24 mo and 36.5% at 36 mo after RP. Patients with postoperative UI or ED 12 mo after RP should be counseled about their good chance of achieving continence or potency in the course of time.

  19. The effect on erection and orgasm of cystectomy, prostatectomy and vesiculectomy for cancer of the bladder: a clinical and electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    Bergman, B; Nilsson, S; Petersén, I

    1979-04-01

    Forty-three men who had been subjected to cystectomy and concomitant prostatectomy, vesiculectomy and urethrectomy were interviewed about their pre-operative and post-operative sexual activities at a mean of 3 (range 1 to 8) years after operation. Twenty-eight of the 38 men (74%) who had been sexually active continued to have some form of sexual activity, 21 of them achieving orgasm. Only 3 men had penile erection; 2 of them had been subjected to prostatectomy and 1 to prostatic resection. One of these men treated by prostatectomy had also had urethrectomy. Electromyographic registration from the striated external urethral sphincter, the bulbocavernosus muscle and the levator ani muscle showed normal duration of muscular contractions and length of interval between contractions after operation. The pattern of impulses during organs did not differ from that of normal men.

  20. Quality of life of patients after retropubic prostatectomy - Pre- and postoperative scores of the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with newly diagnosed early stage prostate cancer (PCa) face a difficult choice of different treatment options with curative intention. They must consider both goals of optimising quantity and quality of life. The quality of life (QoL) is a psychometric outcome which is measured using validated questionnaires. Only few data are published concerning pre - and postoperative QoL. Methods This study investigated pre perative QoL of 185 patients who consecutively underwent open radical retropubic prostatectomy for organ-confined PCa to postoperative QoL of another 185 patients. The EORTC QLQ-C30, EORTC QLQPR25 module and 24 h ICS pad test were used (mean follow-up 28.6 months). Results The examined symptom scores of the EORTC QLQ-PR25 were on lowest level. In the dyspnoea symptom score differences of age emerged: the amount of patients who are short of breath rose significantly in older patients after surgery (p < 0.05 paired, two-tailed student's t-test).. Lastly, the urinary symptom score was found postal-therapeutically low; this fact was age independent. The results of sexual symptom score need to be taken into consideration, since prostatectomy resulted in a significant reduction of sexual activity independent of age. All functioning scales postoperatively reached high values without significant changes (p > 0.05 student's t-test ), which implies a high QoL after surgery. A reliable and satisfying status of continence was found in our patients after retropubic prostatectomy. A high rate of patients (89.2%) would choose retropubic prostatectomy again. Conclusion Retropubic prostatectomy represents a reliable and accepted procedure in the treatment of organ-confined PCa. For the first time it could be shown that patients` QoL remained on a high level after retropubic prostatectomy. Nevertheless, the primary avoidance or postoperative therapy of erectile dysfunction should be in the focus of surgeons. PMID:22047686

  1. Prediction of biochemical recurrence and prostate cancer specific death in men after radical retropublic prostatectomy: Use of pathology and computer-assisted quantitative nuclear grading information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Masood Ahmed

    Prostate cancer is the most common solid tumour in man. Accordingly, it is expected that 1 in 6 men will experience prostate cancer during their lifetime. Over the past 20 years there have been tremendous advancements in both diagnostic as well as surgical approach to prostate cancer. This has led not only to earlier detection of the disease in its natural history, but also the availability of effective surgical management. Furthermore, the discovery of serum prostate specific antigen as a marker for prostate cancer along with greater acceptance of prostate cancer screening has resulted in an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer in men younger than 50 years of age. This is an age group that has traditionally been associated with a poor prognosis after radical prostatectomy. In addition, despite being able to effectively remove the whole of the gland with limited morbidity, approximately 25% of men after radical prostatectomy will experience biochemical recurrence with time. Moreover, the majority will progress to distant metastases and/or die from prostate cancer. We firstly investigated whether radical prostatectomy is a viable option for men younger than 50 years of age diagnosed with clinically localised prostate cancer. We also determined factors that predict disease recurrence after radical prostatectomy. As many men demonstrate evidence of biochemical recurrence with some showing further progression after radical prostatectomy, we, therefore, investigated whether pathological variables as well as nuclear morphometry could be used to predict those that are at an increased risk for disease recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Our results demonstrated that 1) radical prostatectomy can be safely performed in younger men as it can provide excellent long-term disease-free survival; 2) We determined that there are a number of factors that are associated with an increased risk for disease recurrence after radical prostatectomy; 3) We have constructed a new

  2. [First 24 Japanese cases of robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy using the daVinci Surgical System].

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Kunihiko; Hatano, Tadashi; Nakagami, Yoshihiro; Ozu, Choichiro; Horiguchi, Yutaka; Sakamoto, Noboru; Yonov, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Yoshio; Ohori, Makoto; Tachibana, Masaaki; Patel, Vipul R

    2008-05-01

    In Japan, as of September 2007, prostatectomy is conducted with open surgical procedures in more than 90% of the cases. Following the first reported robotic prostatectomy by Binder, et al. in 2000, a robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) using the daVinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, California, USA) has been extensively used as a standard procedure with gratifying results in the United States. In the Asian region, in contrast, RALP is still in an introductory phase. Recently, we introduced RALP in Japan. A total of 24 patients received robotic surgery within a year since August 2006. RALP was completed in all patients without conversion to open surgery, except for the first patient in whom a restriction to a 2-hour operation had been imposed by the Ethical Committee. The mean operative time using the daVinci device and the mean estimated blood loss were 232.0 (range; 136-405) minutes and 313.0 (range; 10-1,000) ml, respectively. The training program we recently developed proved remarkably effective in reducing the learning curve of robotic surgery in Japan, where there is no person with expertise in this operating procedure. In particular, the intraoperative guidance given by the expert was useful after relevant problematic points were delineated by operators who received comprehensive video-based image training and actually performed robot surgery in several cases. With direct intraoperative guidance by the mentor during cases 13 and 14, both the operation time and estimated blood loss was markedly reduced.

  3. A 2D to 3D ultrasound image registration algorithm for robotically assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteghamatian, Mehdi; Pautler, Stephen E.; McKenzie, Charles A.; Peters, Terry M.

    2011-03-01

    Robotically assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP) is an effective approach to resect the diseased organ, with stereoscopic views of the targeted tissue improving the dexterity of the surgeons. However, since the laparoscopic view acquires only the surface image of the tissue, the underlying distribution of the cancer within the organ is not observed, making it difficult to make informed decisions on surgical margins and sparing of neurovascular bundles. One option to address this problem is to exploit registration to integrate the laparoscopic view with images of pre-operatively acquired dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI that can demonstrate the regions of malignant tissue within the prostate. Such a view potentially allows the surgeon to visualize the location of the malignancy with respect to the surrounding neurovascular structures, permitting a tissue-sparing strategy to be formulated directly based on the observed tumour distribution. If the tumour is close to the capsule, it may be determined that the adjacent neurovascular bundle (NVB) needs to be sacrificed within the surgical margin to ensure that any erupted tumour was resected. On the other hand, if the cancer is sufficiently far from the capsule, one or both NVBs may be spared. However, in order to realize such image integration, the pre-operative image needs to be fused with the laparoscopic view of the prostate. During the initial stages of the operation, the prostate must be tracked in real time so that the pre-operative MR image remains aligned with patient coordinate system. In this study, we propose and investigate a novel 2D to 3D ultrasound image registration algorithm to track the prostate motion with an accuracy of 2.68+/-1.31mm.

  4. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: Oncological outcome analysis from a single-center Indian experience of 6 years

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shashikant; Agrawal, Vikas; Khatri, Naushad; Sharma, Rajan; Kurien, Abraham; Ganpule, Arvind; Muthu, V.; Sabnis, Ravindra B.; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of published data on laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) in India. Although the published short-term oncologic outcomes after LRP are encouraging, intermediate and long-term data are lacking. Objective: We analyzed the oncological outcome after LRP based on 6 years of experience and compared it with the other single-center published literature. Materials and Methods: Of the 90 patients who underwent LRP for a clinical T2 localized disease, 73 patients with at least a follow up of one year were analyzed. Patients were classified as low-, intermediate-, and high-risk D′Amico groups in 22 (30%), 26 (36%), and 25 (34%) of the patient population, respectively. Progression of disease was defined as a PSA of 0.4ng/ml with a confirmatory rise. We used Kaplan-Meier product limit estimates to calculate actuarial 5-year probabilities of biochemical progression-free survival. Univariate analysis of risk factors for biochemical recurrence (BCR) was done. Results: The mean age of the patients was 63.3 ± 6.6 years. The average follow-up for patients was 22 (12-72) months. There was no prostatic cancer-specific mortality. Fourteen patients had BCR. The 5-year progression-free probability for men with low-, intermediate-, and high-risk prostate cancers was 91%, 82%, and 58%, respectively. High-risk group, Gleason sum more than 8, extracapsular extension, and positive surgical margin were significantly associated with biochemical progression. Conclusions: LRP provided a similar level of oncological success as reported by the other contemporary single-center published literature PMID:22557714

  5. Assessing guideline impact on referral patterns of post-prostatectomy patients to radiation oncologists

    PubMed Central

    Taggar, Amandeep; Alghamdi, Majed; Tilly, Derek; Kostaras, Xanthoula; Kerba, Marc; Husain, Siraj; Gotto, Geoff; Sia, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adjuvant radiotherapy (aRT) can improve biochemical progression-free survival in patients with high-risk features (HRF) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Guidelines from Alberta and the Genitourinary Radiation Oncologists of Canada (GUROC) recommend that patients with HRF be referred to radiation oncologists (RO) based on the findings from three randomized, controlled trials (RCT). Our study examines the impact of these recommendations both pre- (2005) and post- (2012) publication of RCT and GUROC guideline establishment. Methods: Patients undergoing RP during 2005 and 2012 were identified from the provincial cancer registry. Charts were retrospectively reviewed and variables of interest were linked to the registry data. RO referral patterns for each year were determined and variables influencing referral (extracapsular extension, positive margin, seminal vesicle invasion, and post-RP prostate-specific antigen [PSA]) were compared. Results: Median time to referral was 26.4 months in 2005 compared to 3.7 months 2012 (p<0.001). Among patients referred post-RP, a higher proportion was referred within six months in 2012 (21%) as compared to 2005 (13%) (p=0.003). Among eligible patients in 2012, 30% were referred for discussion of aRT compared to 24% in 2005 (p=0.003). There was a marked drop in patients referred for salvage radiation therapy beyond six months and a rise in the number of patients who are never referred. Conclusions: Despite an increase in referral rates to RO post-RP from 2005–2012, more than 50% of those patients with HRF did not receive a referral. Initiatives aimed at improving multidisciplinary care and guideline adherence should be undertaken. PMID:27800051

  6. Histopathological features of ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate in 1,051 radical prostatectomy specimens.

    PubMed

    Seipel, Amanda H; Wiklund, Fredrik; Wiklund, N Peter; Egevad, Lars

    2013-04-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma (DAC) of the prostate is thought to have worse prognosis than prostatic acinar carcinoma (PAC). We aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of histopathological patterns of DAC. A series of 1,051 radical prostatectomy specimens from Karolinska University Hospital 1998-2005 was reviewed. A ductal component was classified as classical DAC (DACC) if it had columnar, pseudostratified epithelium, elongated nuclei, and papillary, glandular, or cribriform architecture; borderline DAC (DACB) if it lacked elongated nuclei or classical architecture; and prostatic adenocarcinoma with ductal features (PCDF) if stratified high-grade nuclei were found. DACC, DACB, and PCDF were seen in 2.6, 4.0, and 1.6 % of the cases. DAC was usually mixed with PAC and constituted 10-100 % (mean 40 %) of the main tumor. Location was periurethral, peripheral, or both in 69.8, 3.5, and 26.7 %. Necrosis was seen in 31.3 %, stromal invasion of DAC in 52.3 %, and intraductal spread in 91.9 %. In DACC/DACB and PAC, extraprostatic extension was seen in 66.7 and 42.4 % (p < 0.001) and seminal vesicle invasion in 13.0 and 5.0 % (p = 0.0045). DACC, DACB, and PCDF had a hazard ratio for biochemical recurrence of 1.5 (0.7-2.8), 1.4 (0.8-2.6) and 1.2 (0.5-2.7). When PCDF was excluded from DAC, hazard ratio was 1.4 (95 % CI 0.9-2.3, p = 0.12). Location, % DAC, necrosis, stromal invasion, or Gleason score were not predictive of recurrence. This suggests that DACC and DACB are more aggressive than average PAC, while cancers with acinar architecture and pseudostratified high-grade nuclei should not be included in DAC.

  7. Patient comorbidity predicts hospital length of stay after robot-assisted prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Potretzke, Aaron M; Kim, Eric H; Knight, Brent A; Anderson, Barrett G; Park, Alyssa M; Sherburne Figenshau, R; Bhayani, Sam B

    2016-06-01

    We sought to examine the impact of baseline patient characteristics and perioperative outcomes on postoperative hospital length of stay (LOS), following the robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients receiving RARP at our institution by two surgeons between January 2012 and March 2014 (n = 274). Baseline patient characteristics were collected, including Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Discharge criteria were identical for all patients and included: return of bowel function, pain controlled with oral medications, and ambulation without assistance. LOS was calculated as the number of midnights spent in the hospital following surgery. Postoperative hospital LOS was equal to 1 day for 225 patients and >1 day for 49 patients. Baseline patient and tumor characteristics, including age, race, body-mass index (BMI), pathologic stage, and Gleason score, were not significantly different. Mean operative time was shorter for patients with LOS > 1 day (155 vs. 173 min, p < 0.01) on univariate analysis. Patients with LOS > 1 day were more likely to have had a complication: 8/49 (17 %) vs. 14/225 (6 %), p < 0.01. However, multivariate logistic regression found baseline CCI > 2 as the only independent predictor of LOS > 1 day (OR = 3.2, p = 0.03), controlling for age, race, BMI, Gleason score, tumor stage, blood loss, operative time, and occurrence of complication. In our experience, baseline patient comorbidity, quantified by CCI, was the only independent predictor of hospital LOS greater than 1 day following RARP. Preoperative assessment of patient comorbidity should be used to better counsel patients on their anticipated postoperative course.

  8. Anatomic Boundaries of the Clinical Target Volume (Prostate Bed) After Radical Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltshire, Kirsty L.; Brock, Kristy K.; Haider, Masoom A.; Zwahlen, Daniel; Kong, Vickie; Chan, Elisa; Moseley, Joanne; Bayley, Andrew; Catton, Charles; Chung, Peter W.M.; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Milosevic, Michael; Kneebone, Andrew; Warde, Padraig; Menard, Cynthia

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: We sought to derive and validate an interdisciplinary consensus definition for the anatomic boundaries of the postoperative clinical target volume (CTV, prostate bed). Methods and Materials: Thirty one patients who had planned for radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy were enrolled and underwent computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) simulation prior to radiotherapy. Through an iterative process of consultation and discussion, an interdisciplinary consensus definition was derived based on a review of published data, patterns of local failure, surgical practice, and radiologic anatomy. In validation, we analyzed the distribution of surgical clips in reference to the consensus CTV and measured spatial uncertainties in delineating the CTV and vesicourethral anastomosis. Clinical radiotherapy plans were retrospectively evaluated against the consensus CTV (prostate bed). Results: Anatomic boundaries of the consensus CTV (prostate bed) are described. Surgical clips (n = 339) were well distributed throughout the CTV. The vesicourethral anastomosis was accurately localized using central sagittal computed tomography reconstruction, with a mean {+-} standard deviation uncertainty of 1.8 {+-} 2.5 mm. Delineation uncertainties were small for both MRI and computed tomography (mean reproducibility, 0-3.8 mm; standard deviation, 1.0-2.3); they were most pronounced in the anteroposterior and superoinferior dimensions and at the superior/posterior-most aspect of the CTV. Retrospectively, the mean {+-} standard deviation CTV (prostate bed) percentage of volume receiving 100% of prescribed dose was only 77% {+-} 26%. Conclusions: We propose anatomic boundaries for the CTV (prostate bed) and present evidence supporting its validity. In the absence of gross recurrence, the role of MRI in delineating the CTV remains to be confirmed. The CTV is larger than historically practiced at our institution and should be encompassed by a microscopic tumoricidal dose.

  9. Urinary Continence after Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy: The Impact of Intravesical Prostatic Protrusion

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Jung Ki; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok-Soo; Zargar, Homayoun; Autorino, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the impact of intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) on the outcomes of robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP). Materials and Methods The medical records of 1094 men who underwent RALP from January 2007 to March 2013 were analyzed using our database to identify 641 additional men without IPP (non-IPP group). We excluded 259 patients who presented insufficient data and 14 patients who did not have an MRI image. We compared the following parameters: preoperative transrectal ultrasound, prostate specific antigen (PSA), clinicopathologic characteristics, intraoperative characteristics, postoperative oncologic characteristics, minor and major postoperative complications, and continence until postoperative 1 year. IPP grade was stratified by grade into three groups: Grade 1 (IPP≤5 mm), Grade 2 (5 mm10 mm). Results Of the 821 patients who underwent RALP, 557 (67.8%) experienced continence at postoperative 3 months, 681 (82.9%) at 6 months, and 757 (92.2%) at 12 months. According to IPP grade, there were significant differences in recovering full continence at postoperative 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months (p<0.001). On multivariate analysis, IPP was the most powerful predictor of postoperative continence in patients who underwent RALP (p<0.001). Using a generalized estimating equation model, IPP also was shown to be the most powerful independent variable for postoperative continence in patients who underwent RALP (p<0.001). Conclusion Patients with low-grade IPP have significantly higher chances of recovering full continence. Therefore, the known IPP grade will be helpful during consultations with patients before RALP. PMID:27401645

  10. Robotic prostatectomy is associated with increased patient travel and treatment delay

    PubMed Central

    Maurice, Matthew J.; Zhu, Hui; Kim, Simon P.; Abouassaly, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: New technologies may limit access to treatment. We investigated radical prostatectomy (RP) access over time since robotic introduction and the impact of robotic use on RP access relative to other approaches in the modern era. Methods: Using the National Cancer Data Base, RPs performed during the eras of early (2004–2005) and late (2010–2011) robotic dissemination were identified. The primary endpoints, patient travel distance and treatment delay, were compared by era, and for 2010–2011, by surgical approach. Analyses included multivariable and multinomial logistic regression. Results: 138 476 cases were identified, 32% from 2004–2005 and 68% from 2010–2011. In 2010–2011, 74%, 21%, and 4.3% of RPs were robotic, open, and laparoscopic, respectively. Treatment in 2010–2011 and robotic approach were independently associated with increased patient travel distance and longer treatment delay (p<0.001). Men treated robotically had 1.1–1.2 times higher odds of traveling medium-to-long-range distances and 1.2–1.3 higher odds of delays 90 days or greater compared to those treated open (p<0.001). Laparoscopic approach was associated with increased patient travel and treatment delay, but to a lesser extent than the robotic approach (p<0.001). In high-risk patients, treatment delays remained significantly longer for minimally invasive approaches (p<0.001). Other factors associated with the robotic approach included referral from an outside facility, treatment at an academic or high-volume hospital, higher income, and private insurance. Potential limitations include the retrospective observational design and lack of external validation of the primary outcomes. Conclusions: The robotic approach is associated with increased travel burden and treatment delay, potentially limiting access to surgical care. PMID:27713799

  11. Anti-androgenic activity of absorption-enhanced 3, 3’-diindolylmethane in prostatectomy patients

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Clara; Sethi, Seema; Heilbrun, Lance K; Gupta, Nilesh S; Chitale, Dhananjay A; Sakr, Wael A; Menon, Mani; Peabody, James O; Smith, Daryn W; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Heath, Elisabeth I

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of developing prostate cancer. Antineoplastic effects of cruciferous vegetables are attributable to bioactive indoles, most prominently, 3, 3’-diindolylmethane (DIM). In addition to effects on proliferation and apoptosis, DIM acts as an antiandrogen in prostate cancer cell lines. This study characterized the effects of prostatic DIM on the androgen receptor (AR) in patients with prostate cancer. Men with localized prostate cancer were treated with a specially formulated DIM capsule designed for enhanced bioavailability (BR-DIM) at a dose of 225 mg orally twice daily for a minimum of 14 days. DIM levels and AR activity were assessed at the time of prostatectomy. Out of 28 evaluable patients, 26 (93%) had detectable prostatic DIM levels, with a mean concentration of 14.2 ng/gm. The mean DIM plasma level on BR-DIM therapy was 9.0 ng/mL; levels were undetectable at baseline and in follow-up samples. AR localization in the prostate was assessed with immunohistochemistry. After BR-DIM therapy, 96% of patients exhibited exclusion of the AR from the cell nucleus. In contrast, in prostate biopsy samples obtained prior to BR-DIM therapy, no patient exhibited AR nuclear exclusion. Declines in PSA were observed in a majority of patients (71%). Compliance was excellent and toxicity was minimal. In summary, BR-DIM treatment resulted in reliable prostatic DIM levels and anti-androgenic biologic effects at well tolerated doses. These results support further investigation of BR-DIM as a chemopreventive and therapeutic agent in prostate cancer. PMID:27069550

  12. Is rhabdomyolysis an anaesthetic complication in patients undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Karaoren, Gulsah; Bakan, Nurten; Kucuk, Eyüp Veli; Gumus, Eyup

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), pneumoperitoneum, intraoperative fluid restriction and prolonged Trendelenburg position may cause rhabdomyolysis (RM) due to hypoperfusion in gluteal muscles and lower extremities. In this study, it was aimed to assess effects of body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, intra-operative positioning, fluid restriction and length of surgery on the development of RM in RARP patients during the perioperative period. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study included 52 American Society of Anesthesiologists I–II patients aged 50–80 years with BMI >25 kg/m2, who underwent RARP. Fluid therapy with normal saline (1 ml/kg/h) and 6% hydroxyethyl starch 200/05 (1 ml/kg/h) was given during the surgery. Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), operation time (OT) and Trendelenburg time (TT) were recorded. Blood samples for creatine phosphokinase (CPK), blood urea nitrogen, creatinine (Cr), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine kinase-MB, cardiac troponin I and arterial blood gases were drawn at baseline and on 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. RM was defined by serum CPK level exceeding 5000 IU/L. RESULTS: Seven patients met predefined criteria for RM. There were positive correlations among serum CPK and Cr, AST, ALT and LDH levels. However, there was no significant difference in BMI, OT and TT between patients with or without RM (P > 0.05). CCI scores were higher in patients with RM than those without (3.00 ± 0.58 vs. 2.07 ± 0.62; P < 0.01). No renal impairment was detected among patients with RM at the post-operative period. CONCLUSIONS: It was found that comorbid conditions are more important in the development of RM during RARP rather than BMI, OT or TT. Patients with higher comorbidity are at risk for RM development and that this should be kept in mind at follow-up and when informing patients. PMID:27251811

  13. Resident Involvement and Experience Do Not Affect Peri-Operative Complications Following Robotic Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Daniel T.; Viera, Anthony J.; Matthews, Jonathan; Raynor, Mathew C.; Woods, Michael E.; Pruthi, Raj S.; Wallen, Eric M.; Nielsen, Matthew E.; Smith, Angela B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Most urologic training programs use robotic prostatectomy (RP) as an introduction to teach residents appropriate robotic technique. However, concerns may exist regarding differences in RP outcomes with resident involvement. Our objective was therefore to evaluate whether resident involvement affects complications, operative time, or length of stay following RP. Methods Using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (2005 – 2011), we identified patients who underwent RP, stratified them by resident presence or absence during surgery, and compared hospital length of stay (LOS), operative time, and postoperative complications using bivariable and multivariable analyses. A secondary analysis comparing outcomes of interest across postgraduate year (PGY) levels was also performed. Results 5,087 patients who underwent RPs were identified, in which residents participated in 56%, during the study period. After controlling for potential confounders, resident present and absent groups were similar in 30-day mortality (0.0% vs. 0.2%, p = 0.08), serious morbidity (1.8% vs. 2.1%, p = 0.33), and overall morbidity (5.1% vs. 5.4%, p = 0.70). While resident involvement did not affect LOS, operative time was longer when residents were present (median: 208 vs. 183 minutes, p < 0.001). Similar findings were noted when assessing individual PGY levels. Conclusions Regardless of PGY level, resident involvement in RPs appears safe and does not appear to affect postoperative complications or length of stay. While resident involvement in RPs does result in longer operative times, this is necessary for the learning process. PMID:24985554

  14. Dyadic planning of health-behavior change after prostatectomy: a randomized-controlled planning intervention.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Silke; Scholz, Urte; Gralla, Oliver; Roigas, Jan; Knoll, Nina

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of dyadic planning for health-behavior change. Dyadic planning refers to planning health-behavior change together with a partner. We assumed that dyadic planning would affect the implementation of regular pelvic-floor exercise (PFE), with other indicators of social exchange and self-regulation strategies serving as mediators. In a randomized-controlled trial at a German University Medical Center, 112 prostatectomy-patients with partners were randomly assigned to a dyadic PFE-planning condition or one of three active control conditions. Questionnaire data were assessed at multiple time points within six months post-surgery, measuring self-reported dyadic PFE-planning and pelvic-floor exercise as primary outcomes and social exchange (support, control) and a self-regulation strategy (action control) as mediating mechanisms. There were no specific intervention effects with regard to dyadic PFE-planning or pelvic-floor exercise, as two active control groups also showed increases in either of these variables. However, results suggested that patients instructed to plan dyadically still benefited from self-reported dyadic PFE-planning regarding pelvic-floor exercise. Cross-sectionally, received negative control from partners was negatively related with PFE only in control groups and individual action control mediated between self-reported dyadic PFE-planning and PFE for participants instructed to plan PFE dyadically. Longitudinally, action control mediated between self-reported dyadic PFE-planning and pelvic-floor exercise for all groups. Findings provide support for further investigation of dyadic planning in health-behavior change with short-term mediating effects of behavior-specific social exchange and long-term mediating effects of better self-regulation.

  15. Correlation of diffusion-weighted MRI with whole mount radical prostatectomy specimens.

    PubMed

    Van As, N; Charles-Edwards, E; Jackson, A; Jhavar, S; Reinsberg, S; Desouza, N; Dearnaley, D; Bailey, M; Thompson, A; Christmas, T; Fisher, C; Corbishley, C; Sohaib, S

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of benign central gland (bCG), benign peripheral zone (bPZ) and cancer using diffusion-weighted MRI and whole mount specimens. 11 patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer underwent diffusion-weighted MRI prior to radical prostatectomy. A single-shot echo planar image technique was used with b-values of 0 s mm(-2), 300 s mm(-2), 500 s mm(-2) and 800 s mm(-2). Whole mount specimens were compared with ADC maps. Areas of cancer, bCG and bPZ were identified, and regions of interest were drawn on ADC maps. Mean ADC values were recorded for all regions of interest, and paired t-tests were performed to compare mean values. Cancer was outlined in nine patients. In two patients, the tumours were too small to correlate with images; bCG was identified in 11 patients and bPZ was identified in 10 patients. Mean ADC values for bCG, bPZ and cancer were, 1.5 x 10(-3) mm(2) s(-1) (standard error (SE) = 0.04), 1.7 x 10(-3) mm(2) s(-1) (SE = 0.1), and 1.3 x 10(-3) mm(2) s(-1) (SE = 0.09), respectively. The most significant difference between benign tissue and cancer existed at b-values of 0-300 s mm(-2) (bCG vs cancer: mean difference = 0. 29, p = 0.001, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.17-0.41; bPZ vs cancer: mean difference = 0.34, p = 0.003, 95% CI = 0.18-0.61). In conclusion, we have confirmed, using whole mount verification, a significant difference in the ADC between benign tissue and cancer.

  16. Postoperative Prostate-Specific Antigen Velocity Independently Predicts for Failure of Salvage Radiotherapy After Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    King, Christopher R. Presti, Joseph C.; Brooks, James D.; Gill, Harcharan; Spiotto, Michael T.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: Identification of patients most likely to benefit from salvage radiotherapy (RT) using postoperative (postop) prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics. Methods and Materials: From 1984 to 2004, 81 patients who fit the following criteria formed the study population: undetectable PSA after radical prostatectomy (RP); pathologically negative nodes; biochemical relapse defined as a persistently detectable PSA; salvage RT; and two or more postop PSAs available before salvage RT. Salvage RT included the whole pelvic nodes in 55 patients and 4 months of total androgen suppression in 56 patients. The median follow-up was >5 years. All relapses were defined as a persistently detectable PSA. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards multivariable analysis were performed for all clinical, pathological, and treatment factors predicting for biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS). Results: There were 37 biochemical relapses observed after salvage RT. The 5-year bRFS after salvage RT for patients with postop prostate-specific antigen velocity {<=}1 vs. >1 ng/ml/yr was 59% vs. 29%, p = 0.002. In multivariate analysis, only postop PSAV (p = 0.0036), pre-RT PSA level {<=}1 (p = 0.037) and interval-to-relapse >10 months (p = 0.012) remained significant, whereas pelvic RT, hormone therapy, and RT dose showed a trend (p = {approx}0.06). PSAV, but not prostate-specific antigen doubling time, predicted successful salvage RT, suggesting an association of zero-order kinetics with locally recurrent disease. Conclusions: Postoperative PSA velocity independently predicts for the failure of salvage RT and can be considered in addition to high-risk features when selecting patients in need of systemic therapy following biochemical failure after RP. For well-selected patients, salvage RT can achieve high cure rates.

  17. Racial Disparities in Oncologic Outcomes After Radical Prostatectomy: Long-term Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Faisal, Farzana A.; Sundi, Debasish; Cooper, John L.; Humphreys, Elizabeth B.; Partin, Alan W.; Han, Misop; Ross, Ashley E.; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To report race-based outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP) in a cohort stratified by National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk category with updated follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS Studies describing racial disparities in outcomes after RP are conflicting. We studied 15,993 white and 1634 African American (AA) pretreatment-naïve men who underwent RP at our institution (1992–2013) with complete preoperative and pathologic data. Pathologic outcomes were compared between races using appropriate statistical tests; biochemical recurrence (BCR) for men with complete follow-up was compared using multivariate models that controlled separately for preoperative and postoperative covariates. RESULTS Very low- and low-risk AA men were more likely to have positive surgical margins (P <.01), adverse pathologic features (P <.01), and be upgraded at RP (P <.01). With a median follow-up of 4.0 years after RP, AA race was an independent predictor of BCR among NCCN low-risk (HR, 2.16; P <.001) and intermediate-risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.34; P = .024) classes and pathologic Gleason score ≤6 (HR, 2.42; P <.001) and Gleason score 7 (HR, 1.71; P <.001). BCR-free survival for very low-risk AA men was similar to low-risk white men (P = .890); BCR-free survival for low-risk AA men was similar to intermediate-risk white men (P = .060). CONCLUSION When stratified by NCCN risk, AA men with very low-, low-, or intermediate-risk prostate cancer who undergo RP are more likely to have adverse pathologic findings and BCR compared with white men. AA men with “low risk” prostate cancer, especially those considering active surveillance, should be counseled that their recurrence risks can resemble those of whites in higher risk categories. PMID:25432835

  18. Identification of men with the highest risk of early disease recurrence after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sundi, Debasish; Wang, Vinson; Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W.; Tran, Phuoc T.; Ross, Ashley E.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Men destined to have early biochemical recurrence (BCR) following radical prostatectomy (RP) may be optimal candidates for multimodal treatment. Here we identified pre-operative predictors of early BCR within a surgical cohort who recurred. Methods An institutional prostate cancer (PCa) database containing over 20,000 patients was queried to identify 1471 men who had BCR after RP, and pre-operative predictors of early versus late BCR were assessed. Early BCR was defined as recurrence within one year after RP. Within the recurrence cohort, those with National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) high-risk features were more likely to experience early BCR. Therefore, in all NCCN high-risk men in the database, we abstracted detailed pathologic biopsy data. Among 753 high-risk men, 41 alternate multivariable criteria were assessed for their ability to predict early BCR in crude and adjusted logistic regression models. Results The criteria that best identified those likely to experience early BCR are primary Gleason pattern 5 on biopsy or ≥4 cores containing pattern 4 (odds ratio 3.17, p <0.001). These criteria included 26.7% of NCCN high-risk men. Additionally, these criteria selected for men within the high-risk classification who were at significantly higher risk of subsequent metastasis (adjusted hazard ratio 3.04, p<0.001) and cancer-specific death (adjusted hazard ratio 3.27, p<0.001). Conclusions In men with PCa who present with high-risk features, pre-operative criteria have the ability to discriminate the subgroup most likely to experience early BCR after RP. Men at risk for early disease recurrence may be the most suitable candidates for multimodal therapy. PMID:24453066

  19. Psychotherapy and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor in early rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy: a prospective randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Naccarato, A M E P; Reis, L O; Ferreira, U; Denardi, F

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of group psychotherapy and the use of a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE-5i) in the early rehabilitation stage of patients with prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). Fifty-six patients undergoing RP for prostate cancer were randomised into four groups, and 53 completed the protocol: Group 1 - control (n = 11), Group 2 - group psychotherapy (n = 16), Group 3 - lodenafil 80 mg/one tablet per week (n = 12) and Group 4 - group psychotherapy + lodenafil 80 mg/one tablet per week (n = 14). The groups were individually evaluated for erectile function (IIEF-5) and quality of life - QoL (SF-36) weekly, with two meetings held a week apart before the RP and 12 weekly meetings after surgery. The ages ranged from 39 to 76 years, average 61.84. There were no significant medication side effects. Only Group 4 showed improvement in intimacy with a partner and satisfaction with their sex life (P = 0.045 and P = 0.013 respectively), and with no significant worsening of the IIEF-5 (P = 0.250) reported. All groups showed worsening in the final result of the role limitations caused by physical problems (P = 0.009) and role limitations caused by emotional problems (P = 0.002) of the SF-36, but Group 4 had a significantly higher score for the role limitations caused by physical problems (P = 0.009) than the other groups. In conclusion, precocious integral treatment involving group psychotherapy and PDE-5i before and after RP led to less deterioration of erectile function and other domains related to physical aspects (SF-36), with improvement in intimacy with their partner and satisfaction in their sex life, being superior to single treatments.

  20. 4-Ports endoscopic extraperitoneal radical prostatectomy: preliminary and learning curve results

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Humberto do Nascimento; Siqueira, Tiberio Moreno; Barreto, Françualdo; Menezes, Leonardo Gomes; Luna, Mauro José Catunda; Calado, Adriano Almeida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction There is a lack of studies in our national scenario regarding the results obtained by laparoscopic radical prostatectomy technique (LRP). Except for a few series, there are no consistent data on oncological, functional, and perioperative results on LRP held in Brazil. As for the LRP technique performed by extraperitoneal access (ELRP), when performed by a single surgeon, the results are even scarcer. Objective To analyze the early perioperative and oncologic results obtained with the ELRP, throughout the technical evolution of a single surgeon. Patients and methods A non-randomized retrospective study was held in a Brazilian hospital of reference. In the 5-year period, 115 patients underwent the ELRP procedure. Patients were divided into two groups, the first 57 cases (Group 1) and the following 58 cases, (Group 2). A comparative analysis between the groups of efficacy results and ELRP safety was carried out. Results The average age of patients was 62.8 year-old and the PSA of 6.9ng/dl. The total surgery time was 135.8 minutes on average, and the urethral-bladder anastomosis was 21.9 min (23.3 min versus 20.7 min). The positive surgical margins (PSM) rate was 17.1%, showing no difference between groups (16.4% versus 17.9%; p=0.835). There was statistical difference between the groups in relation to the anastomosis time, estimated blood loss and the withdrawal time of the urinary catheter. Conclusion The ELRP technique proved to be a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of prostate cancer, with low morbidity. PMID:27286105

  1. Phase I-II Study of Intraoperative Radiation Therapy (IORT) After Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Saracino, Biancamaria Gallucci, Michele; De Carli, Piero; Soriani, Antonella; Papalia, Rocco; Marzi, Simona; Landoni, Valeria; Petrongari, Maria Grazia; Arcangeli, Stefano; Forastiere, Ester; Sentinelli, Steno; Arcangeli, Giorgio

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: Recent studies have suggested an {alpha}/{beta} ratio in prostate cancer of 1.5-3 Gy, which is lower than that assumed for late-responsive normal tissues. Therefore the administration of a single, intraoperative dose of irradiation should represent a convenient irradiation modality in prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Between February 2002 and June 2004, 34 patients with localized prostate cancer with only one risk factor (Gleason score {>=}7, Clinical Stage [cT] {>=}2c, or prostate-specific antigen [PSA] of 11-20 ng/mL) and without clinical evidence of lymph node metastases were treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) and intraoperative radiotherapy on the tumor bed. A dose-finding procedure based on the Fibonacci method was employed. Dose levels of 16, 18, and 20 Gy were selected, which are biologically equivalent to total doses of about 60-80 Gy administered with conventional fractionation, using an {alpha}/{beta} ratio value of 3. Results: At a median follow-up of 41 months, 24 (71%) patients were alive with an undetectable PSA value. No patients died from disease, whereas 2 patients died from other malignancies. Locoregional failures were detected in 3 (9%) patients, 2 in the prostate bed and 1 in the common iliac node chain outside the radiation field. A PSA rise without local or distant disease was observed in 7 (21%) cases. The overall 3-year biochemical progression-free survival rate was 77.3%. Conclusions: Our dose-finding study demonstrated the feasibility of intraoperative radiotherapy in prostate cancer also at the highest administered dose.

  2. Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) polymorphisms are associated with relapse after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cotignola, Javier; Leonardi, Daiana B.; Shahabi, Ahva; Acuña, Alejandro D.; Stern, Mariana C.; Navone, Nora; Scorticati, Carlos; De Siervi, Adriana; Mazza, Osvaldo; Vazquez, Elba

    2013-01-01

    Background Organ confined prostate cancer (PCa) can be cured by radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP); however, some tumors will still recur. Current tools fail to identify patients at risk of recurrence. Glutathione-S-Transferases (GSTs) are involved in the metabolism of carcinogens, hormones and drugs. Thus, genetic polymorphisms that modify the GSTs activities may modify the risk of PCa recurrence. Methods We retrospectively recruited Argentine PCa patients treated with RRP to study the association between GSTs polymorphisms and PCa biochemical relapse after RRP. We genotyped germline DNA in 105 patients for: GSTP1 c.313 A>G (p.105 Ile>Val, rs1695) by PCR-RFLP; and GSTT1 null and GSTM1 null polymorphisms by multiplex-PCR. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate these associations. Results Patients with GSTP1 c.313 GG genotype showed shorter biochemical relapse-free survival (BRFS) (p=0.003) and higher risk for recurrence in unadjusted (Hazard Ratio (HR)=3.16, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI)=1.41–7.06, p=0.005) and multivariate models (HR=3.01, 95% CI=1.13–8.02, p=0.028). We did not find significant associations for GSTT1 and GSTM1 genotypes. In addition, we found shorter BRFS (p=0.010) and increased risk for recurrence for patients having 2 or more risk alleles when we combined the genotypes of the three GSTs in multivariate models (HR=3.06, 95% CI=1.20–7.80, p=0.019). Conclusions Our results give support to the implementation of GSTs genotyping for personalized therapies as a novel alternative for PCa management for patients who undergo RRP. This is the first study that examined GST polymorphisms in PCa progression in Argentine men. Replication of our findings in larger cohort is warranted. PMID:23146971

  3. Comparative Study of Inguinal Hernia Repair Rates After Radical Prostatectomy or External Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lughezzani, Giovanni; Sun, Maxine; Perrotte, Paul; Alasker, Ahmed; Jeldres, Claudio; Isbarn, Hendrik; Budaeus, Lars; Lattouf, Jean-Baptiste; Valiquette, Luc; Benard, Francois; Saad, Fred; Graefen, Markus; Montorsi, Francesco; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: We tested the hypothesis that patients treated for localized prostate cancer with radical prostatectomy (RP) have a higher risk of requiring an inguinal hernia (IH) repair than their counterparts treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Within the Quebec Health Plan database, we identified 6,422 men treated with RP and 4,685 men treated with EBRT for localized prostate cancer between 1990 and 2000, in addition to 6,933 control patients who underwent a prostate biopsy. From among that population, we identified patients who underwent a unilateral or bilateral hernia repair after either RP or EBRT. Kaplan-Meier plots showed IH repair-free survival rates. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models tested the predictors of IH repair after RP or EBRT. Covariates consisted of age, year of surgery, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. Results: IH repair-free survival rates at 1, 2, 5, and 10 years were 96.8, 94.3, 90.5, and 86.2% vs. 98.9, 98.0, 95.4, and 92.2%, respectively, in RP vs. EBRT patients (log-rank test, p < 0.001). IH repair-free survival rates in the biopsy population were 98.3, 97.1, 94.9, and 90.2% at the same four time points. In multivariable Cox regression models, RP predisposed to a 2.3-fold higher risk of IH repair than EBRT (p < 0.001). Besides therapy type, patient age (p < 0.001) represented the only other independent predictor of IH repair. Conclusions: RP predisposes to a higher rate of IH repair relative to EBRT. This observation should be considered at informed consent.

  4. Prognostic significance of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 polymorphisms on biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Luyao; Lei, Zhengwei; Ma, Xin; Huang, Qingbo; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Hao, Peng; Yang, Minggang; Zhao, Xuetao; Chen, Jun; Liu, Gongxue; Zheng, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is a transmembrane receptor with ligand-induced tyrosine kinase activity and is involved in various biological and pathological processes. Several polymorphisms of FGFR4 are associated with the incidence and mortality of numerous cancers, including prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated whether the polymorphisms of FGFR4 influence the biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer in Chinese men after radical prostatectomy. Three common polymorphisms (rs1966265, rs2011077, and rs351855) of FGFR4 were genotyped from 346 patients with prostate cancer by using the Sequenom MassARRAY system. Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models were used for survival analysis. Results showed biochemical recurrence (BCR) free survival was significantly affected by the genotypes of rs351855 but not influenced by rs1966265 and rs2011077. After adjusting for other variables in multivariable analysis, patients with rs351855 AA/AG genotypes showed significantly worse BCR-free survival than those with the GG genotype (HR = 1.873; 95% CI, 1.209–2.901; P = 0.005). Hence, FGFR4 rs351855 could be a novel independent prognostic factor of BCR after radical prostatectomy in the Chinese population. This functional polymorphism may also provide a basis for surveillance programs. Additional large-scale studies must be performed to validate the significance of this polymorphism in prostate cancer. PMID:27640814

  5. [COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF POSITIVE SURGICAL MARGIN RATES IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING ROBOT- ASSISTED OR RETROPUBIC RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY FOR PROSTATE CANCER].

    PubMed

    Veliev, E L; Sokolov, E A; Loran, O B

    2015-01-01

    The issue of comparative evaluation of oncological and functional outcomes of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) and radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) is widely discussed in the international literature. A key point in studying the oncological efficacy of both techniques is a comparative evaluation of positive surgical margin (PSM) rates as one of the main prognostic factors influencing the further course of prostate cancer. Available data so far are inconsistent, which prompted us to conduct our own research. A retrospective analysis was performed in two groups of patients who underwent RARP (n = 63) and RRP (n = 116) from January 2014 to April 2015. Despite a general trend towards lower PSM rates in RARP group compared to RRP group (12.7 and 21.6%, respectively, p = 0.09), no significant differences were found in the stratification of patients in both groups depending on the risk of prostate cancer progression and pathological stage. These data show the potential equality of the two methods regarding intraoperative control of resection margins.

  6. The “peritoneal scaffold” technique of extended pelvic lymph node dissection during radical prostatectomy: A novel technique

    PubMed Central

    Mallikarjuna, Chiruvella; Nayak, Prasant; Ghouse, Syed Mohammed; Reddy, K. Purnachandra; Ragoori, Deepak Reddy; Bendigeri, M. T.; Reddy, Siva

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Laparoscopic or robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) is a frequently used approach for localized carcinoma prostate. For intermediate and high-risk cancers, extended pelvic lymph node dissection (e-PLND), is often performed. Conventional e-PLND involves piecemeal retrieval of lymphatic tissue. We describe a novel technique of laparoscopic e-PLND, which involves en-masse removal of pelvic lymph nodes from each side, based on an overlying peritoneal scaffold. Materials and Methods: Fifteen cases of intermediate and high-risk carcinoma prostate underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) with peritoneal scaffold based e-PLND within a period of 1 year. We describe the surgical techqniue and outcomes in terms of operative time and lymph nodes retrieved. Results: The mean operating times for “peritoneal scaffold” lymphatic dissection was 48 min (38–64). The total number of lymph nodes retrieved was 18 (14–22). There were no cases with postoperative lymph collection or hematoma. Conclusion: The “peritoneal scaffold” technique of e-PLND is a novel technique, which involves having a peritoneal scaffold to bind and hold all the lymphatic tissues together in its anatomical orientation during dissection. This enables complete retrieval of specimen during LRP and RALP. PMID:27843216

  7. Changes in reciprocal support provision and need-based support from partners of patients undergoing radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke; Roigas, Jan; Gralla, Oliver

    2011-07-01

    We examined need-related and reciprocal provision of support in couples facing radical prostatectomy and its sequelae, including patients' urinary incontinence. Partners' reciprocal support provision to patients was assumed to drop from prior to until after patients' surgeries and increase again in the following months, while need-related indicators were assumed to remain unique correlates throughout. In this study of German prostatectomy patients and their partners, N = 141 couples provided data on 4 measurement occasions from presurgery to 1-year postsurgery. Need-based predictors of partners' support provision were patients' mobilized support, such as efforts to obtain advice or comfort, and degree of postsurgery incontinence. Strength of association between partner-received and provided supports served as an indicator of reciprocal support provision. Data suggested that partners' reciprocal support provision dropped significantly postsurgery and then increased again in the following months. This was true for emotional as well as instrumental reciprocal support provision. Findings also indicated that one need-based predictor of partners' support provision, patients' mobilization of support from their partners, remained a unique correlate of partners' support provision to patients. Reciprocal support provision in couples may vary during the adaptation to illness-related functional impairment and coexist with need-oriented support provision.

  8. Discontinuous unilateral involvement of 12 part core biopsies by adenocarcinoma predicts bilateral involvement of subsequent radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Lowenthal, Brett Matthew; Liao, Xiaoyan; Wen, Fang; Bagherzadeh, Nader; Mahooti, Sepi

    2016-08-01

    At our institution, percent tumor burden in prostate core biopsies is quantified using variations of one of two methods. Measurement by the Aggregate method reports only adenocarcinoma and omits intervening stroma and benign prostatic glands while the Discontinuous method includes the intervening stroma and benign glands between distinct foci of adenocarcinoma. In this study, we selected cases with 12-part core biopsies that were followed by a radical prostatectomy within two years. Interestingly, we found that when adenocarcinoma involved prostate 12-part core biopsies and subsequent resection unilaterally, there is no significant difference in absolute percentage of tumor using either measuring method (P = 0.4). In contrast, when adenocarcinoma involved the biopsies unilaterally and subsequent prostatectomy bilaterally, the two measurement methods had a statistically significant difference in percentage scores (P = 0.002). In the study cohort, other factors including Gleason score (P = 0.88) and total number of adenocarcinoma-involved cores (P = 0.27) did not introduce any significant correlation with bilateral involvement. In this study, we found that biopsies that discontinuously and unilaterally involve half of a prostate are much more likely to involve both lobes than those that are unilateral and present in nodular aggregates.

  9. Evaluation of pelvic floor muscle strength before and after robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy and early outcomes on urinary continence.

    PubMed

    Manley, Lauren; Gibson, Luke; Papa, Nathan; Beharry, Bhawanie Koonj; Johnson, Liana; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Bolton, Damien M

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) assessment and training before and after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP) in improving PFM strength and urinary continence. We performed an analysis of a database of patients who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP) performed by two urologists from 2011 to 2013. Pelvic floor muscle (PFM) activation and strength were graded by a trained pelvic floor physiotherapist. Patients were given an exercise program, grouped according to the strength of their pelvic floor as graded by assessment, to complete before and after surgery. PFM strength was recorded preoperatively, 4 days post-catheter removal and 4 weeks post-catheter removal. Continence was recorded at 4 weeks postop and was defined as the requirement of no continence aids. A total of 98 patients had RARP and a preoperative physiotherapy assessment plus postoperative appointments at around 1 and 4 weeks post-RARP. The majority of men improved their PFM strength regardless of preoperative strength with no significant predictors of postoperative strength found. Age was the only significant predictor of postoperative incontinence. In this pilot study, a majority of patients increased their pelvic floor strength with time. Pelvic floor physiotherapy is an important modifiable patient factor, which does have an impact in improving patients' urinary continence by strengthening the pelvic floor muscles. Patient age influences response to pelvic floor physiotherapy.

  10. The ratio of oleic-to-stearic acid in the prostate predicts biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study examined lifestyle-related factors that may influence the prognosis of clinically localized prostate cancer, we evaluated the relative impact of obesity and prostatic fatty acid concentrations at diagnosis on risk of biochemical failure following radical prostatectomy. Height and weight w...

  11. Robot-assisted versus other types of radical prostatectomy: population-based safety and cost comparison in Japan, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Toru; Yasunaga, Hideo; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Matsui, Hiroki; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Kume, Haruki; Changhong, Yu; Kattan, Michael W; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Homma, Yukio

    2014-11-01

    In 2012, Japanese national insurance started covering robot-assisted surgery. We carried out a population-based comparison between robot-assisted and three other types of radical prostatectomy to evaluate the safety of robot-assisted prostatectomy during its initial year. We abstracted data for 7202 open, 2483 laparoscopic, 1181 minimal incision endoscopic, and 2126 robot-assisted radical prostatectomies for oncological stage T3 or less from the Diagnosis Procedure Combination database (April 2012-March 2013). Complication rate, transfusion rate, anesthesia time, postoperative length of stay, and cost were evaluated by pairwise one-to-one propensity-score matching and multivariable analyses with covariants of age, comorbidity, oncological stage, hospital volume, and hospital academic status. The proportion of robot-assisted radical prostatectomies dramatically increased from 8.6% to 24.1% during the first year. Compared with open, laparoscopic, and minimal incision endoscopic surgery, robot-assisted surgery was generally associated with a significantly lower complication rate (odds ratios, 0.25, 0.20, 0.33, respectively), autologous transfusion rate (0.04, 0.31, 0.10), homologous transfusion rate (0.16, 0.48, 0.14), lower cost excluding operation (differences, -5.1%, -1.8% [not significant], -10.8%) and shorter postoperative length of stay (-9.1%, +0.9% [not significant], -18.5%, respectively). However, robot-assisted surgery also resulted in a + 42.6% increase in anesthesia time and +52.4% increase in total cost compared with open surgery (all P < 0.05). Introduction of robotic surgery led to a dynamic change in prostate cancer surgery. Even in its initial year, robot-assisted radical prostatectomy was carried out with several favorable safety aspects compared to the conventional surgeries despite its having the longest anesthesia time and the highest cost.

  12. Radiation Therapy after Radical Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer: Evaluation of Complications and Influence of Radiation Timing on Outcomes in a Large, Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hegarty, Sarah E.; Hyslop, Terry; Dicker, Adam P.; Showalter, Timothy N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the influence of timing of salvage and adjuvant radiation therapy on outcomes after prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Methods Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database, we identified prostate cancer patients diagnosed during 1995–2007 who had one or more adverse pathological features after prostatectomy. The final cohort of 6,137 eligible patients included men who received prostatectomy alone (n = 4,509) or with adjuvant (n = 894) or salvage (n = 734) radiation therapy. Primary outcomes were genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and erectile dysfunction events and survival after treatment(s). Results Radiation therapy after prostatectomy was associated with higher rates of gastrointestinal and genitourinary events, but not erectile dysfunction. In adjusted models, earlier treatment with adjuvant radiation therapy was not associated with increased rates of genitourinary or erectile dysfunction events compared to delayed salvage radiation therapy. Early adjuvant radiation therapy was associated with lower rates of gastrointestinal events that salvage radiation therapy, with hazard ratios of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.67–0.95) for procedure-defined and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.59, 0.83) for diagnosis-defined events. There was no significant difference between ART and non-ART groups (SRT or RP alone) for overall survival (HR = 1.13 95% CI = (0.96, 1.34) p = 0.148). Conclusions Radiation therapy after prostatectomy is associated with increased rates of gastrointestinal and genitourinary events. However, earlier radiation therapy is not associated with higher rates of gastrointestinal, genitourinary or sexual events. These findings oppose the conventional belief that delaying radiation therapy reduces the risk of radiation-related complications. PMID:25706657

  13. Machine learning approaches to analyze histological images of tissues from radical prostatectomies.

    PubMed

    Gertych, Arkadiusz; Ing, Nathan; Ma, Zhaoxuan; Fuchs, Thomas J; Salman, Sadri; Mohanty, Sambit; Bhele, Sanica; Velásquez-Vacca, Adriana; Amin, Mahul B; Knudsen, Beatrice S

    2015-12-01

    Computerized evaluation of histological preparations of prostate tissues involves identification of tissue components such as stroma (ST), benign/normal epithelium (BN) and prostate cancer (PCa). Image classification approaches have been developed to identify and classify glandular regions in digital images of prostate tissues; however their success has been limited by difficulties in cellular segmentation and tissue heterogeneity. We hypothesized that utilizing image pixels to generate intensity histograms of hematoxylin (H) and eosin (E) stains deconvoluted from H&E images numerically captures the architectural difference between glands and stroma. In addition, we postulated that joint histograms of local binary patterns and local variance (LBPxVAR) can be used as sensitive textural features to differentiate benign/normal tissue from cancer. Here we utilized a machine learning approach comprising of a support vector machine (SVM) followed by a random forest (RF) classifier to digitally stratify prostate tissue into ST, BN and PCa areas. Two pathologists manually annotated 210 images of low- and high-grade tumors from slides that were selected from 20 radical prostatectomies and digitized at high-resolution. The 210 images were split into the training (n=19) and test (n=191) sets. Local intensity histograms of H and E were used to train a SVM classifier to separate ST from epithelium (BN+PCa). The performance of SVM prediction was evaluated by measuring the accuracy of delineating epithelial areas. The Jaccard J=59.5 ± 14.6 and Rand Ri=62.0 ± 7.5 indices reported a significantly better prediction when compared to a reference method (Chen et al., Clinical Proteomics 2013, 10:18) based on the averaged values from the test set. To distinguish BN from PCa we trained a RF classifier with LBPxVAR and local intensity histograms and obtained separate performance values for BN and PCa: JBN=35.2 ± 24.9, OBN=49.6 ± 32, JPCa=49.5 ± 18.5, OPCa=72.7 ± 14.8 and Ri=60.6

  14. Decipher correlation patterns post prostatectomy: initial experience from 2 342 prospective patients

    PubMed Central

    Den, R B; Santiago-Jimenez, M; Alter, J; Schliekelman, M; Wagner, J R; Renzulli II, J F; Lee, D I; Brito, C G; Monahan, K; Gburek, B; Kella, N; Vallabhan, G; Abdollah, F; Trabulsi, E J; Lallas, C D; Gomella, L G; Woodlief, T L; Haddad, Z; Lam, L L C; Deheshi, S; Wang, Q; Choeurng, V; du Plessis, M; Jordan, J; Parks, B; Shin, H; Buerki, C; Yousefi, K; Davicioni, E; Patel, V R; Shah, N L

    2016-01-01

    Background: Currently, there are multiple commercially available RNA-based biomarkers that are Medicare approved and suggested for use by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. There is uncertainty as to which patients benefit from genomic testing and for whom these tests should be ordered. Here, we examined the correlation patterns of Decipher assay to understand the relationship between the Decipher and patient tumor characteristics. Methods: De-identified Decipher test results (including Decipher risk scores and clinicopathologic data) from 2 342 consecutive radical prostatectomy (RP) patients tested between January and September 2015 were analyzed. For clinical testing, tumor specimen from the highest Gleason grade was sampled using a 1.5 mm tissue punch. Decipher scores were calculated based on a previously locked model. Correlations between Decipher score and clinicopathologic variables were computed using Spearman's rank correlation. Mixed-effect linear models were used to study the association of practice type and Decipher score. The significance level was 0.05 for all tests. Results: Decipher score had a positive correlation with pathologic Gleason score (PGS; r=0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34−0.41), pathologic T-stage (r=0.31, 95% CI 0.28−0.35), CAPRA-S (r=0.32, 95% CI 0.28−0.37) and patient age (r=0.09, 95% CI 0.05-0.13). Decipher reclassified 52%, 76% and 40% of patients in CAPRA-S low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups, respectively. We detected a 28% incidence of high-risk disease through the Decipher score in pT2 patients and 7% low risk in pT3b/pT4, PGS 8−10 patients. There was no significant difference in the Decipher score between patients from community centers and those from academic centers (P=0.82). Conclusions: Although Decipher correlated with baseline tumor characteristics for over 2 000 patients, there was significant reclassification of tumor aggressiveness as compared to clinical parameters alone

  15. The Association of Fatty Acid Levels and Gleason Grade among Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhiguo; Reinstatler, Lael; Klaassen, Zachary; Xu, Yi; Yang, Xiaoyu; Madi, Rabii; Terris, Martha K.; Qian, Steven Y.; Kelavkar, Uddhav; Moses, Kelvin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data suggest that omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids (FAs) may be associated with cancer incidence and/or cancer mortality, whereas ω-3 FAs are potentially protective. We examined the association of the ratio of ω-6 to ω-3 FA (ω-6:ω-3) and individual FA components with pathological results among men with prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing radical prostatectomy. Methods Sixty-nine men were included in the study. Components of ω-6 (linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA), and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA)) and ω-3 (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass selective detector separation. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine association of FA with pathological high grade (Gleason ≥4+3) disease. Results The were 35 men with low grade disease (Gleason ≤3+4) and 34 men with high grade disease. Men with low grade disease were significantly younger (58y vs 61y, p = 0.012) and had lower D’Amico clinical classification (p = 0.001) compared to men with high grade disease. There was no significant association of ω-6:ω-3 with high grade disease (OR 0.93, p = 0.78), however overall ω-6, ω-3, and individual components of ω-6 and ω-3 FAs except EPA were significantly associated with high grade disease (ω-6: OR 3.37, 95% CI: 1.27,8.98; LA: OR 3.33, 95% CI:1.24,8.94; AA: OR 2.93, 95% CI:1.24,6.94; DGLA: OR 3.21, 95% CI:1.28,8.04; ω-3: OR 3.47, 95% CI:1.22,9.83; DHA: OR 3.13, 95% CI:1.26,7.74). ω-6 and ω-3 FA components were highly correlated (Spearman ρ = 0.77). Conclusion Higher levels of individual components of ω-6 and ω-3FAs may be associated with higher-grade PCa. Impact Studies into the causative factors/pathways regarding FAs and prostate carcinogenesis may prove a potential association with PCa aggressiveness. PMID:27880795

  16. Prognostic Factors for Anastomotic Urinary Leakage Following Retropubic Radical Prostatectomy and Correlation With Voiding Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cormio, Luigi; Di Fino, Giuseppe; Scavone, Carmen; Maroscia, Domenico; Mancini, Vito; Ruocco, Nicola; Bellanti, Francesco; Selvaggio, Oscar; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Carrieri, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to determine the occurrence and grade of cystographically detected urinary leakage (UL) in a contemporary series of open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RP), whether patients’ clinical variables predict occurrence of UL, and whether occurrence of UL correlates with patients’ voiding outcomes in terms of urinary continence and anastomotic stricture (AS). Enrolled patients underwent cystography 7 days after retropubic RP; in case of UL, the catheter was left in situ and cystography repeated at 7 days intervals until demonstrating absence of UL. Leakage was classified as grade I = extraperitoneal leak <6 cm, grade II = extraperitoneal leak >6 cm, grade III = leak freely extending in the small pelvis. Voiding was evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months after RP using the 24-hour pad test and uroflowmetry; in cases of maximum flow rate <10 mL/s, urethrocystoscopy was carried out to determine presence and location of an AS. The first postoperative cystogram showed UL in 52.6% of patients (grade I in 48.1%, grade II in 21.5%, and grade III in 30.4% of the cases). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that patients with UL had significantly greater prostate volume (64.5 vs 34.8 cc, P < 0.001), loss of serum hemoglobin (4.77 vs 4.19 g/dL, P < 0.001), lower postoperative serum total proteins (4.85 vs 5.4 g/dL, P < 0.001), and higher rate of AS (20.6% vs. 2.8%, p < 0.001) than those without UL. Continence rate at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively was 34.2%, 76%, and 90%, respectively, in patients with UL compared with 77.5%, 80.3%, and 93% in patients without UL; such difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001) only at 3 months follow-up. ROC curve analysis showed that prostate volume and postoperative serum total proteins had the best AUC (0.821 and 0.822, respectively) and when combined, their positive and negative predictive values for UL were 90% and 93%, respectively. In conclusion, half of the patients

  17. High-Dose Adjuvant Radiotherapy After Radical Prostatectomy With or Without Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ost, Piet; Cozzarini, Cesare; De Meerleer, Gert; Fiorino, Claudio; De Potter, Bruno; Briganti, Alberto; Nagler, Evi V.T.; Montorsi, Francesco; Fonteyne, Valerie; Di Muzio, Nadia

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the outcome and toxicity in patients receiving high-dose (>69 Gy) adjuvant radiotherapy (HD-ART) and the impact of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2008, 225 node-negative patients were referred for HD-ART with or without ADT to two large academic institutions. Indications for HD-ART were extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), and/or positive surgical margins at radical prostatectomy (RP). A dose of at least 69.1 Gy was prescribed to the prostate bed and seminal vesicle bed. The ADT consisted of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analog. The duration and indication of ADT was left at the discretion of the treating physician. The effect of HD-ART and ADT on biochemical (bRFS) and clinical (cRFS) relapse-free survival was examined through univariate and multivariate analysis, with correction for known patient- and treatment-related variables. Interaction terms were introduced to evaluate effect modification. Results: After a median follow-up time of 5 years, the 7-year bRFS and cRFS were 84% and 88%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, the addition of ADT was independently associated with an improved bRFS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.4, p = 0.02) and cRFS (HR 0.2, p = 0.008). Higher Gleason scores and SVI were associated with decreased bRFS and cRFS. A lymphadenectomy at the time of RP independently improved cRFS (HR 0.09, p = 0.009). The 7-year probability of late Grade 2-3 toxicity was 29% and 5% for genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, respectively. The absolute incidence of Grade 3 toxicity was <1% and 10% for GI and GU symptoms, respectively. The study is limited by its retrospective design and the lack of a standardized use of ADT. Conclusions: This retrospective study shows significantly improved bRFS and cRFS rates with the addition of ADT to HD-ART, with low Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity and 10% Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity.

  18. Evolution of the clinical presentation of men undergoing radical prostatectomy for high-risk prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Ross, Ashley E.; Han, Misop; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Partin, Alan W.; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the outcomes and potential effect of improved longitudinal screening in men presenting with high-risk (advanced clinical stage [> T2b], Gleason score 8–10 or prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level > 20 ng/mL) prostate cancer (PC). Patients and methods The Institutional Review Board approved, Institutional Radical Prostatectomy Database (1992–2010) was queried for men with high-risk PC based on D’Amico criteria. Year of surgery was divided into two cohorts: the Early PSA Era (EPE, 1992–2000) and the Contemporary PSA Era (CPE, 2001–2010). PC features and outcomes were evaluated using appropriate comparative tests. Results In total, 667 men had high-risk PC in the EPE and 764 in the CPE. In the EPE, 598 (89.7%) men presented with one high-risk feature; 173 (29.0%) men had a Gleason score of 8–10 on biopsy. In the CPE, 717 (93.9%) men presented with one high-risk feature (P = 0.004) and 494 (68.9%) men had a Gleason score of 8–10. At 10 years, biochemical-free survival (BFS) was 44.1% and 36.4% in the EPE and CPE, respectively (P = 0.04); metastases-free survival (MFS) was 77.1% and 85.1% (P = 0.6); and PC-specific survival (CSS) was 83.3% and 96.2% (P = 0.5). BFS, MFS and CSS were worse for men with more than one high-risk feature in both eras. Conclusions Over the PSA era, an increasing percentage of men with high-risk PC were categorized by a biopsy Gleason score of 8–10. The accumulation of multiple high-risk features increases the risk of biochemical recurrence, the development of metastases and death from PC. BFS, MFS and CSS are stable over the PSA era for these men. The balance between a greater proportion of men having high Gleason disease and a greater proportion with small, less advanced tumours may explain the stability in MFS and CSS over time. PMID:21880104

  19. Risk Factors for Intraprostatic Incision into Malignant Glands at Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Woo; Readal, Nathaniel; Jeong, Byong Chang; Humphreys, Elizabeth B.; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Partin, Alan W.; Han, Misop

    2014-01-01

    Background Histologically identified intraprostatic incision (IPI) into malignant glands is associated with an increase in biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy (RP). However, the predictor of IPI is poorly evaluated. Objective To evaluate the risk factors for IPI into cancer during RP for clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa). Design, setting, and participants Between January 1993 and July 2013, 19 986 men with clinically localized PCa underwent RP at our institution. This study includes 14 434 cases that had complete clinicopathologic data. IPI was defined as an iatrogenic incision into the prostate resulting in the presence of malignant glands at the inked surgical margin, regardless of accompanying pathologic features. Intervention Open, retropubic, robot-assisted laparoscopic and pure laparoscopic RP. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted for risk factors of IPI in RP specimens. Results and limitations The overall incidence of IPI into malignant tissue was noted in 410 (2.8%) cases. In multivariable analysis, obesity, lower prostate weight, surgeon experience, and pure laparoscopic RP were associated with a higher risk of IPI. The odds ratios (OR) for body mass index and prostate weight were 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.08; p < 0.001) and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.98–0.99, p < 0.001), respectively. The ORs for surgeon experience (>250 cases) and pure laparoscopic RP compared to open RP were 0.71 (95% CI, 0.55–0.90, p = 0.005) and 2.05 (95% CI, 1.35–3.11; p = 0.001), respectively. Conclusions The risk of IPI during RP is higher in men with obesity and lower prostate weight. In addition, a pure laparoscopic RP and the early series of each surgeon were associated with a higher risk of IPI. However, tumor characteristics were not associated with the IPI occurrence. Patient summary Intraprostatic incision occurrence is associated with obesity, small

  20. The cost-utility of open prostatectomy compared with active surveillance in early localised prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an on-going debate about whether to perform surgery on early stage localised prostate cancer and risk the common long term side effects such as urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Alternatively these patients could be closely monitored and treated only in case of disease progression (active surveillance). The aim of this paper is to develop a decision-analytic model comparing the cost-utility of active surveillance (AS) and radical prostatectomy (PE) for a cohort of 65 year old men with newly diagnosed low risk prostate cancer. Methods A Markov model comparing PE and AS over a lifetime horizon was programmed in TreeAge from a German societal perspective. Comparative disease specific mortality was obtained from the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group trial. Direct costs were identified via national treatment guidelines and expert interviews covering in-patient, out-patient, medication, aids and remedies as well as out of pocket payments. Utility values were used as factor weights for age specific quality of life values of the German population. Uncertainty was assessed deterministically and probabilistically. Results With quality adjustment, AS was the dominant strategy compared with initial treatment. In the base case, it was associated with an additional 0.04 quality adjusted life years (7.60 QALYs vs. 7.56 QALYs) and a cost reduction of €6,883 per patient (2011 prices). Considering only life-years gained, PE was more effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €96,420/life year gained. Sensitivity analysis showed that the probability of developing metastases under AS and utility weights under AS are a major sources of uncertainty. A Monte Carlo simulation revealed that AS was more likely to be cost-effective even under very high willingness to pay thresholds. Conclusion AS is likely to be a cost-saving treatment strategy for some patients with early stage localised prostate cancer. However, cost-effectiveness is

  1. Efficacy of Duloxetine in the Early Management of Urinary Continence after Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Alan, Cabir; Eren, Ali E.; Ersay, Ahmet R.; Kocoglu, Hasan; Basturk, Gokhan; Demirci, Emrah

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the efficacy of early duloxetine therapy in stress urinary incontinence occurring after radical prostatectomy (RP). Material and Method Patients that had RP were randomly divided into 2 groups following the removal of the urinary catheter. Group A patients (n = 28) had pelvic floor exercise and duloxetine therapy. Group B patients (n = 30) had only pelvic floor exercise. The incontinence status of the patients and number of pads were recorded and 1-hour pad test and Turkish validation of International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form test were applied to the patients at the follow-up. Results When the dry state of the patients was evaluated, 5, 17, 3, and 2 of 28 Group A patients stated that they were completely dry in the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th month respectively and pad use was stopped. There was no continence in 30 Group B in the first 3 months. Twelve, 6, and 8 patients stated that they were completely dry in the 6th, 9th and 12th month, respectively. But 3 of 4 patients in whom dryness could not be provided were using a mean of 7.6 pads in the first day and a mean of 1.3 pads after 1 year. When pad use of the patients was evaluated, the mean monthly number of pad use was determined to be 6.2 (4-8) in the initial evaluation, 2.7 (0-5) in the in 3rd month, 2 (0-3) in the 6th month and 1.6 (0-2) pad/d in the 9th month in the group taking medicine. The mean monthly number of pads used was determined to be 5.8 (4-8) in the initial evaluation, 4.3 (3-8) in the 3rd month, 3 (0-6) in the 6th month and 1.6 (0-6) pad/d in the 9th month in the group not taking medicine. Conclusion According to the results, early duloxetine therapy in stress urinary incontinence that occurred after RP provided early continence. PMID:26195963

  2. Improved biochemical outcome with adjuvant radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer with poor pathologic features

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Carlos; Kestin, Larry L. . E-mail: lkestin@beaumont.edu; Weed, Dan W.; Krauss, Daniel; Vicini, Frank A.; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: The indications for adjuvant external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) after radical prostatectomy (RP) are poorly defined. We performed a retrospective comparison of our institution's experience treating prostate cancer with RP vs. RP followed by adjuvant EBRT. Methods and materials: Between 1987 and 1998, 617 patients with clinical Stage T1-T2N0M0 prostate cancer underwent RP. Patients who underwent preoperative androgen deprivation and those with positive lymph nodes were excluded. Of the 617 patients, 34 (5.5%) with an undetectable postoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level underwent adjuvant prostatic fossa RT at a median of 0.25 year (range, 0.1-0.6) postoperatively because of poor pathologic features. The median total dose was 59.4 Gy (range, 50.4-66.6 Gy) in 1.8-2.0-Gy fractions. These 34 RP+RT patients were compared with the remaining 583 RP patients. Biochemical failure was defined as any postoperative PSA level {>=}0.1 ng/mL and any postoperative PSA level {>=}0.3 ng/mL (at least 30 days after surgery). Administration of androgen deprivation was also scored as biochemical failure when applying either definition. The median clinical follow-up was 8.2 years (range, 0.1-11.2 years) for RP and 8.4 years (range, 0.3-13.8 years) for RP+RT. Results: Radical prostatectomy + radiation therapy patients had a greater pathologic Gleason score (mean, 7.3 vs. 6.5; p < 0.01) and pathologic T stage (median, T3a vs. T2c; p < 0.01). Age (median, 65.7 years) and pretreatment PSA level (median, 7.9 ng/mL) were similar between the treatment groups. Extracapsular extension was present in 72% of RP+RT patients vs. 27% of RP patients (p < 0.01). The RP+RT patients were more likely to have seminal vesicle invasion (29% vs. 9%, p < 0.01) and positive margins (73% vs. 36%, p < 0.01). Despite these poor pathologic features, the 5-year biochemical control (BC) rate (PSA < 0.1 ng/mL) was 57% for RP+RT and 47% for RP (p = 0.28). For patients with extracapsular extension, the

  3. Incidence of Second Malignancies in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Radical Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Sarah Nicole; Tyldesley, Scott; Hamm, Jeremy; Jiang, Wei Ning; Keyes, Mira; Pickles, Tom; Lapointe, Vince; Kahnamelli, Adam; McKenzie, Michael; Miller, Stacy; Morris, W. James

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the second malignancy incidence in prostate cancer patients treated with brachytherapy (BT) relative to radical prostatectomy (RP) and to compare both groups with the cancer incidence in the general population. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2010, 2418 patients were treated with Iodine 125 prostate BT monotherapy at the British Columbia Cancer Agency, and 4015 referred patients were treated with RP. Cancer incidence was compared with the age-matched general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Pelvic malignancies included invasive and noninvasive bladder cancer and rectal cancer. Cox multivariable analysis was performed with adjustment for covariates to determine whether treatment (RP vs BT) was associated with second malignancy risk. Results: The median age at BT was 66 years and at RP 62 years. The SIR comparing BT patients with the general population was 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-1.22) for second malignancy and was 1.53 (95% CI 1.12-2.04) for pelvic malignancy. The SIR comparing RP patients with the general population was 1.11 (95% CI 0.98-1.25) for second malignancy and was 1.11 (95% CI 0.82-1.48) for pelvic malignancy. On multivariable analysis, older age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.05) and smoking (HR 1.65) were associated with increased second malignancy risk (P<.0001). Radical prostatectomy was not associated with a decreased second malignancy risk relative to BT (HR 0.90, P=.43), even when excluding patients who received postprostatectomy external beam radiation therapy (HR 1.13, P=.25). Older age (HR 1.09, P<.0001) and smoking (HR 2.17, P=.0009) were associated with increased pelvic malignancy risk. Radical prostatectomy was not associated with a decreased pelvic malignancy risk compared with BT (HR 0.57, P=.082), even when excluding postprostatectomy external beam radiation therapy patients (HR 0.87, P=.56). Conclusions: After adjustment for covariates, BT patients did not have an increased second

  4. Feasibility of robotic radical prostatectomy for medication refractory chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: Initial results

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Sameer; Satkunasivam, Raj; Aron, Monish

    2016-01-01

    Four patients diagnosed with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), met criteria for National Institute of Health (NIH) Category III prostatitis, failed multiple medicinal treatments and underwent robotic radical prostatectomy (RRP). Median operative time (range): 157 (127–259) min. Validated functional questionnaires responses and NIH CP symptom index (NIH-CPSI) score were collected for each patient's status at different time points pre- and post-operatively. Median decreases (range) were: International Prostate Symptom Score – 14 (1–19); Sexual Health Inventory for Men – 6 (−14–22); and NIH-CPSI total – 23.5 (13–33). Median length of follow-up (range) was 34 (24–43) months. RRP appears to be an option for carefully selected patients with medication-refractory CP/CPPS who understand that baseline sexual function may not be restored postoperatively. PMID:27555685

  5. Feasibility of robotic radical prostatectomy for medication refractory chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: Initial results.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Sameer; Satkunasivam, Raj; Aron, Monish

    2016-01-01

    Four patients diagnosed with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), met criteria for National Institute of Health (NIH) Category III prostatitis, failed multiple medicinal treatments and underwent robotic radical prostatectomy (RRP). Median operative time (range): 157 (127-259) min. Validated functional questionnaires responses and NIH CP symptom index (NIH-CPSI) score were collected for each patient's status at different time points pre- and post-operatively. Median decreases (range) were: International Prostate Symptom Score - 14 (1-19); Sexual Health Inventory for Men - 6 (-14-22); and NIH-CPSI total - 23.5 (13-33). Median length of follow-up (range) was 34 (24-43) months. RRP appears to be an option for carefully selected patients with medication-refractory CP/CPPS who understand that baseline sexual function may not be restored postoperatively.

  6. Short-, Intermediate-, and Long-term Quality of Life Outcomes Following Radical Prostatectomy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Vinay; Lee, Ted; McClintock, Tyler R; Lepor, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Many clinically localized prostate cancers that are diagnosed today are low risk, and prevention of disease-specific mortality may only be realized decades after treatment. Radical prostatectomy (RP) may adversely impact health-related quality of life (HRQOL) by causing both transient or permanent urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. In contrast, RP may also improve HRQOL via relief of lower urinary tract symptoms in men suffering from these symptoms prior to surgery. Because the average man treated for prostate cancer has a life expectancy of approximately 14 years, it is imperative to consider the long-term impact of RP on both survival and HRQOL in treatment decision making. This comprehensive literature review examines short-, intermediate-, and long-term HRQOL following RP. In addition, the long-term results of RP are compared with other treatment modalities for treating clinically localized prostate cancer. PMID:24659913

  7. Decreased TSPAN1 promotes prostate cancer progression and is a marker for early biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Jianjun; Shao, Xiaoguang; Kang, Xunlei; Qin, Jun; You, M. James; Huang, Yiran; Dong, Baijun; Xue, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Patients with prostate cancer (PCa) have a variable prognosis. It is challenging to recognize the progressive disease. In this study, we focused on TSPAN1, a new member of the tetraspanin family. Its expression was decreased in progressive PCa and was an independent prognosis factor of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. In vitro, knockdown and overexpression of TSPAN1 in PCa cell lines showed that TSPAN1 could inhibit cell proliferation and migration. TSPAN1 was positive related to PTEN in both clinical specimen and mouse models. The combination of these two markers could increase their prognosis value especially in low risk patients. In vitro TSPAN1 knockdown resulted in increased Akt phosphorylation and caused evident cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase. Our data suggests that TSPAN1 is a valuable marker to recognize more progressive PCa. PMID:27556508

  8. Perioperative outcomes following radical prostatectomy for patients with disseminated cancer: An analysis of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database

    PubMed Central

    Satkunasivam, Raj; Wallis, Christopher J.D.; Byrne, James; Hoffman, Azik; Cheung, Douglas C.; Kulkarni, Girish S.; Nathens, Avery B.; Nam, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We sought to determine whether patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) in the context of disseminated cancer have higher 30-day complications. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database. Men undergoing RP (from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2014) for prostate cancer were identified and stratified by presence (n=97) or absence (n=27 868) of disseminated cancer. The primary outcome was major complications (death, re-operation, cardiac or neurologic events) within 30 days of surgery. Secondary outcomes included pulmonary, infectious, venous thromboembolic, and bleeding complications; prolonged length of stay; and concomitant procedures (bowel-related, cystectomy, urinary diversion, and major ureteric reconstruction). Odds ratios (OR) for each complication were calculated using univariable logistic regression. Results We did not identify a difference in major complication rates (OR 2.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71–7.16). Patients with disseminated cancer had increased risk of venous thromboembolic events (OR 3.30, 95% CI 1.04–10.48) and transfusion (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.18–5.05), but similar odds of pulmonary and infectious complications and length of stay. Bowel procedures were rare, however, a significantly higher proportion of patients with disseminated cancer required bowel procedures (2.1% vs. 0.3%; p=0.03). Patients with disseminated cancer undergoing RP had greater comorbidities and higher predicted probability of morbidity and mortality. This study is limited by its retrospective design, lack of cancer-specific variables, and prostatectomy-specific complications. Conclusions RP in the context of disseminated cancer may be associated with increased perioperative complications. Caution should be exercised in embarking on this practice outside of clinical trials. PMID:28096918

  9. Loss of PTEN expression is associated with increased risk of recurrence after prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Alcides; Peskoe, Sarah B; Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Schultz, Luciana; Albadine, Roula; Hicks, Jessica; De Marzo, Angelo M; Platz, Elizabeth A; Netto, George J

    2012-11-01

    PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10) is one of the most frequently lost tumor suppressor genes in human cancers and it has been described in more than two-thirds of patients with advanced/aggressive prostate cancer. Previous studies suggest that, in prostate cancer, genomic PTEN loss is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis. Thus, we evaluated whether immunohistochemical PTEN expression in prostate cancer glands was associated with higher risk of recurrence, using a nested case-control study that included 451 men who recurred and 451 men who did not recur with clinically localized prostate cancer treated by radical prostatectomy. Recurrence was defined as biochemical recurrence (serum prostate-specific antigen >0.2 ng/ml) or clinical recurrence (local recurrence, systemic metastases, or prostate cancer-related death). Cases and controls were matched on pathological T stage, Gleason score, race/ethnicity, and age at surgery. Odds ratios of recurrence and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression to account for the matching factors and to adjust for year of surgery, preoperative prostate-specific antigen concentrations, and status of surgical margins. Men who recurred had a higher proportion of PTEN negative expression (16 vs 11%, P=0.05) and PTEN loss (40 vs 31%, P=0.02) than controls. Men with markedly decreased PTEN staining had a higher risk of recurrence (odds ratio=1.67; 95% confidence intervals 1.09, 2.57; P=0.02) when compared with all other men. In summary, in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated by prostatectomy, decreased PTEN expression was associated with an increased risk of recurrence, independent of known clinicopathological factors.

  10. A comparative analysis of primary and secondary Gleason pattern predictive ability for positive surgical margins after radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Sfoungaristos, S; Kavouras, A; Kanatas, P; Polimeros, N; Perimenis, P

    2011-01-01

    To compare the predictive ability of primary and secondary Gleason pattern for positive surgical margins in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer and a preoperative Gleason score ≤ 6. A retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients undergone a radical prostatectomy between January 2005 and October 2010 was conducted. Patients' age, prostate volume, preoperative PSA, biopsy Gleason score, the 1st and 2nd Gleason pattern were entered a univariate and multivariate analysis. The 1st and 2nd pattern were tested for their ability to predict positive surgical margins using receiver operating characteristic curves. Positive surgical margins were noticed in 56 cases (38.1%) out of 147 studied patients. The 2nd pattern was significantly greater in those with positive surgical margins while the 1st pattern was not significantly different between the 2 groups of patients. ROC analysis revealed that area under the curve was 0.53 (p=0.538) for the 1st pattern and 0.60 (p=0.048) for the 2nd pattern. Concerning the cases with PSA <10 ng/ml, it was also found that only the 2nd pattern had a predictive ability (p=0.050). When multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted it was found that the 2nd pattern was the only independent predictor. The second Gleason pattern was found to be of higher value than the 1st one for the prediction of positive surgical margins in patients with preoperative Gleason score ≤ 6 and this should be considered especially when a neurovascular bundle sparing radical prostatectomy is planned, in order not to harm the oncological outcome.

  11. Electrical impedance map (EIM) for margin assessment during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) using a microendoscopic probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahara, Aditya; Khan, Shadab; Schned, Alan R.; Hyams, Elias S.; Halter, Ryan J.

    2015-03-01

    Positive surgical margins (PSMs) found following prostate cancer surgery are a significant risk factor for post-operative disease recurrence. Noxious adjuvant radiation and chemical-based therapies are typically offered to men with PSMs. Unfortunately, no real-time intraoperative technology is currently available to guide surgeons to regions of suspicion during the initial prostatectomy where immediate surgical excisions could be used to reduce the chance of PSMs. A microendoscopic electrical impedance sensing probe was developed with the intention of providing real-time feedback regarding margin status to surgeons during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) procedures. A radially configured 17-electrode microendoscopic probe was designed, constructed, and initially evaluated through use of gelatin-based phantoms and an ex vivo human prostate specimen. Impedance measurements are recorded at 10 frequencies (10 kHz - 100 kHz) using a high-speed FPGA-based electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system. Tetrapolar impedances are recorded from a number of different electrode configurations strategically chosen to sense tissue in a pre-defined sector underlying the probe face. A circular electrical impedance map (EIM) with several color-coded pie-shaped sectors is created to represent the impedance values of the probed tissue. Gelatin phantom experiments show an obvious distinction in the impedance maps between high and low impedance regions. Similarly, the EIM generated from the ex vivo prostate case shows distinguishing features between cancerous and benign regions. Based on successful development of this probe and these promising initial results, EIMs of additional prostate specimens are being collected to further evaluate this approach for intraoperative surgical margin assessment during RALP procedures.

  12. Definition and visualisation of regions of interest in post-prostatectomy image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Linda J Cox, Jennifer; Eade, Thomas; Rinks, Marianne; Kneebone, Andrew

    2014-09-15

    Standard post-prostatectomy radiotherapy (PPRT) image verification uses bony anatomy alignment. However, the prostate bed (PB) moves independently of bony anatomy. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) can be used to soft tissue match, so radiation therapists (RTs) must understand pelvic anatomy and PPRT clinical target volumes (CTV). The aims of this study are to define regions of interest (ROI) to be used in soft tissue matching image guidance and determine their visibility on planning CT (PCT) and CBCT. Published CTV guidelines were used to select ROIs. The PCT scans (n = 23) and CBCT scans (n = 105) of 23 post-prostatectomy patients were reviewed. Details on ROI identification were recorded. Eighteen patients had surgical clips. All ROIs were identified on PCTs at least 90% of the time apart from mesorectal fascia (MF) (87%) due to superior image quality. When surgical clips are present, the seminal vesicle bed (SVB) was only seen in 2.3% of CBCTs and MF was unidentifiable. Most other structures were well identified on CBCT. The anterior rectal wall (ARW) was identified in 81.4% of images and penile bulb (PB) in 68.6%. In the absence of surgical clips, the MF and SVB were always identified; the ARW was identified in 89.5% of CBCTs and PB in 73.7%. Surgical clips should be used as ROIs when present to define SVB and MF. In the absence of clips, SVB, MF and ARW can be used. RTs must have a strong knowledge of soft tissue anatomy and PPRT CTV to ensure coverage and enable soft tissue matching.

  13. Prostate Cancer Detection Using High-Spatial Resolution MRI at 7.0 Tesla: Correlation with Histopathologic Findings at Radical Prostatectomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Radical Prostatectomy 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Andrew B. Rosenkrantz, M.D. 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER E - Mail ...resolution high SNR images. Our ultimate system employed two transmit-receive elements and six receive-only elements, avoiding parallel transmission...prostate imaging at 7.0T and tested initially in human volunteers. Such a system does not require parallel transmission. A system with two

  14. Prospective Evaluation of Intraprostatic Inflammation and Focal Atrophy as a Predictor of Risk of High-Grade Prostate Cancer and Recurrence after Prostatectomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    attained education (SELECT), race/ethnicity (SELECT), family history of prostate cancer (SELECT), body mass index (SELECT), waist circumference (PCPT...Inflammation and Focal Atrophy as a Predictor of Risk of High-Grade Prostate Cancer and Recurrence after Prostatectomy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Prospective Evaluation of Intraprostatic Inflammation and Focal Atrophy as a Predictor of Risk of High-Grade Prostate Cancer and Recurrence after

  15. Health-Related Quality of Life 2 Years After Treatment With Radical Prostatectomy, Prostate Brachytherapy, or External Beam Radiotherapy in Patients With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer, Montserrat Suarez, Jose Francisco; Guedea, Ferran; Fernandez, Pablo; Macias, Victor; Marino, Alfonso; Hervas, Asuncion; Herruzo, Ismael; Ortiz, Maria Jose; Villavicencio, Humberto; Craven-Bratle, Jordi; Garin, Olatz; Aguilo, Ferran

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To compare treatment impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with localized prostate cancer, from before treatment to 2 years after the intervention. Methods and Materials: This was a longitudinal, prospective study of 614 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy (134), three-dimensional external conformal radiotherapy (205), and brachytherapy (275). The HRQL questionnaires administered before and after treatment (months 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24) were the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (General and Prostate Specific), the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC), and the American Urological Association Symptom Index. Differences between groups were tested by analysis of variance and within-group changes by univariate repeated-measures analysis of variance. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) models were constructed to assess between-group differences in HRQL at 2 years of follow-up after adjusting for clinical variables. Results: In each treatment group, HRQL initially deteriorated after treatment with subsequent partial recovery. However, some dimension scores were still significantly lower after 2 years of treatment. The GEE models showed that, compared with the brachytherapy group, radical prostatectomy patients had worse EPIC sexual summary and urinary incontinence scores (-20.4 and -14.1; p < 0.001), and external radiotherapy patients had worse EPIC bowel, sexual, and hormonal summary scores (-3.55, -5.24, and -1.94; p < 0.05). Prostatectomy patients had significantly better EPIC urinary irritation scores than brachytherapy patients (+4.16; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Relevant differences between treatment groups persisted after 2 years of follow-up. Radical prostatectomy had a considerable negative effect on sexual functioning and urinary continence. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy had a moderate negative impact on bowel

  16. [11C]Choline PET/CT in therapy response assessment of a neoadjuvant therapy in locally advanced and high risk prostate cancer before radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzenböck, Sarah M.; Knieling, Anna; Souvatzoglou, Michael; Kurth, Jens; Steiger, Katja; Eiber, Matthias; Esposito, Irene; Retz, Margitta; Kübler, Hubert; Gschwend, Jürgen E.; Schwaiger, Markus; Krause, Bernd J.; Thalgott, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies have shown promising results of neoadjuvant therapy in prostate cancer (PC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of [11C]Choline PET/CT in therapy response monitoring after combined neoadjuvant docetaxel chemotherapy and complete androgen blockade in locally advanced and high risk PC patients. Results In [11C]Choline PET/CT there was a significant decrease of SUVmax and SUVmean (p = 0.004, each), prostate volume (p = 0.005) and PSA value (p = 0.003) after combined neoadjuvant therapy. MRI showed a significant prostate and tumor volume reduction (p = 0.003 and 0.005, respectively). Number of apoptotic cells was significantly higher in prostatectomy specimens of the therapy group compared to pretherapeutic biopsies and the control group (p = 0.02 and 0.003, respectively). Methods 11 patients received two [11C]Choline PET/CT and MRI scans before and after combined neoadjuvant therapy followed by radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. [11C]Choline uptake, prostate and tumor volume, PSA value (before/after neoadjuvant therapy) and apoptosis (of pretherapeutic biopsy/posttherapeutic prostatectomy specimens of the therapy group and prostatectomy specimens of a matched control group without neoadjuvant therapy) were assessed and tested for differences and correlation using SPSS. Conclusions The results showing a decrease in choline uptake after combined neoadjuvant therapy (paralleled by regressive and apoptotic changes in histopathology) confirm the potential of [11C]Choline PET/CT to monitor effects of neoadjuvant therapy in locally advanced and high risk PC patients. Further studies are recommended to evaluate its use during the course of neoadjuvant therapy for early response assessment. PMID:27572317

  17. Prostate Cancer Detection Using High-Spatial Resolution MRI at 7.0 Tesla: Correlation with Histopathologic Findings at Radical Prostatectomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    focal region of decreased T2 signal in the peripheral zone suspicious for tumor in both patients. In patient 1, the suspicious area was located in...the right posterolateral peripheral zone (Figure 1a); in patient 2, the suspicious area was located in the left posterolateral peripheral zone (Figure...Following prostatectomy, pathologic analysis of the specimen demonstrated a dominant Gleason 3+4 tumor in the posterior right apical peripheral

  18. The Single-Knot Running Vesicourethral Anastomosis after Minimally Invasive Prostatectomy: Review of the Technique and Its Modifications, Tips, and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Albisinni, Simone; Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2016-01-01

    The vesicourethral anastomosis represents a step of major difficulty at the end of minimally invasive radical prostatectomy. Over 10 years ago, we have devised the single-knot running vesicourethral anastomosis, which has been widely adopted in urologic departments worldwide. Aim of the current paper is to review the technique, its adaptability in complex situations, its complications, and possible modifications, including the use of barbed sutures. PMID:27340567

  19. The natural history of metastatic progression in men with prostate-specific antigen recurrence after radical prostatectomy: long-term follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Antonarakis, Emmanuel S.; Feng, Zhaoyong; Trock, Bruce J.; Humphreys, Elizabeth B.; Carducci, Michael A.; Partin, Alan W.; Walsh, Patrick C.; Eisenberger, Mario A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe metastasis-free survival (MFS) in men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence following radical prostatectomy, and to define clinical prognostic factors modifying metastatic risk. PATIENTS AND METHODS We conducted a retrospective analysis of 450 men treated with prostatectomy at a tertiary hospital between July 1981 and July 2010 who developed PSA recurrence (≥0.2 ng/mL) and never received adjuvant or salvage therapy before the development of metastatic disease. We estimated MFS using the Kaplan–Meier method, and investigated factors influencing the risk of metastasis using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS Median follow-up after prostatectomy was 8.0 years, and after biochemical recurrence was 4.0 years. At last follow-up, 134 of 450 patients (29.8%) had developed metastases, while median MFS was 10.0 years. Using multivariable regressions, two variables emerged as independently predictive of MFS: PSA doubling time (<3.0 vs 3.0–8.9 vs 9.0–14.9 vs ≥15.0 months) and Gleason score (≤6 vs 7 vs 8–10). Using these stratifications of Gleason score and PSA doubling time, tables were constructed to predict median, 5- and 10-year MFS after PSA recurrence. In different patient subsets, median MFS ranged from 1 to 15 years. CONCLUSIONS In men undergoing prostatectomy, MFS after PSA recurrence is variable and is most strongly influenced by PSA doubling time and Gleason score. These parameters serve to stratify men into different risk groups with respect to metastatic progression. Our findings may provide the background for appropriate selection of patients, treatments and endpoints for clinical trials. PMID:21777360

  20. Perlecan/HSPG2 and matrilysin/MMP-7 as indices of tissue invasion: tissue localization and circulating perlecan fragments in a cohort of 288 radical prostatectomy patients

    PubMed Central

    Grindel, Brian; Li, Quanlin; Arnold, Rebecca; Petros, John; Zayzafoon, Majd; Muldoon, Mark; Stave, James; Chung, Leland W. K.; Farach-Carson, Mary C.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) cells use matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) to degrade tissue during invasion. Perlecan/HSPG2 is degraded at basement membranes, in reactive stroma and in bone marrow during metastasis. We previously showed MMP-7 efficiently degrades perlecan. We now analyzed PCa tissue and serum from 288 prostatectomy patients of various Gleason grades to decipher the relationship between perlecan and MMP-7 in invasive PCa. In 157 prostatectomy specimens examined by tissue microarray, perlecan levels were 18% higher than their normal counterparts. In Gleason grade 4 tissues, MMP-7 and perlecan immunostaining levels were highly correlated with each other (average correlation coefficient of 0.52) in PCa tissue, regardless of grade. Serial sections showed intense, but non-overlapping, immunostaining for MMP-7 and perlecan at adjacent borders, reflecting the protease-substrate relationship. Using a capture assay, analysis of 288 PCa sera collected at prostatectomy showed elevated levels of perlecan fragments, with most derived from domain IV. Perlecan fragments in PCa sera were associated with overall MMP-7 staining levels in PCa tissues. Domain IV perlecan fragments were present in stage IV, but absent in normal, sera, suggesting perlecan degradation during metastasis. Together, perlecan fragments in sera and MMP-7 in tissues of PCa patients are measures of invasive PCa. PMID:26862737

  1. International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens. Working group 1: specimen handling.

    PubMed

    Samaratunga, Hemamali; Montironi, Rodolfo; True, Lawrence; Epstein, Jonathan I; Griffiths, David F; Humphrey, Peter A; van der Kwast, Theo; Wheeler, Thomas M; Srigley, John R; Delahunt, Brett; Egevad, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 International Society of Urological Pathology Consensus Conference in Boston made recommendations regarding the standardization of pathology reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens. Issues relating to the handling and processing of radical prostatectomy specimens were coordinated by working group 1. Most uropathologists followed similar procedures for fixation of radical prostatectomy specimens, with 51% of respondents transporting tissue in formalin. There was also consensus that the prostate weight without the seminal vesicles should be recorded. There was consensus that the surface of the prostate should be painted. It was agreed that both the prostate apex and base should be examined by the cone method with sagittal sectioning of the tissue sample. There was consensus that the gland should be fully fixed before sectioning. Both partial and complete embedding of prostates was considered to be acceptable as long as the method of partial embedding is stated. No consensus was determined regarding the necessity of weighing and measuring the length of the seminal vesicles, the preparation of whole mounts rather than standardized blocks and the methodology for sampling of fresh tissue for research purposes, and it was agreed that these should be left to the discretion of the working pathologist.

  2. Perlecan/HSPG2 and matrilysin/MMP-7 as indices of tissue invasion: tissue localization and circulating perlecan fragments in a cohort of 288 radical prostatectomy patients.

    PubMed

    Grindel, Brian; Li, Quanlin; Arnold, Rebecca; Petros, John; Zayzafoon, Majd; Muldoon, Mark; Stave, James; Chung, Leland W K; Farach-Carson, Mary C

    2016-03-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) cells use matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) to degrade tissue during invasion. Perlecan/HSPG2 is degraded at basement membranes, in reactive stroma and in bone marrow during metastasis. We previously showed MMP-7 efficiently degrades perlecan. We now analyzed PCa tissue and serum from 288 prostatectomy patients of various Gleason grades to decipher the relationship between perlecan and MMP-7 in invasive PCa. In 157 prostatectomy specimens examined by tissue microarray, perlecan levels were 18% higher than their normal counterparts. In Gleason grade 4 tissues, MMP-7 and perlecan immunostaining levels were highly correlated with each other (average correlation coefficient of 0.52) in PCa tissue, regardless of grade. Serial sections showed intense, but non-overlapping, immunostaining for MMP-7 and perlecan at adjacent borders, reflecting the protease-substrate relationship. Using a capture assay, analysis of 288 PCa sera collected at prostatectomy showed elevated levels of perlecan fragments, with most derived from domain IV. Perlecan fragments in PCa sera were associated with overall MMP-7 staining levels in PCa tissues. Domain IV perlecan fragments were present in stage IV, but absent in normal, sera, suggesting perlecan degradation during metastasis. Together, perlecan fragments in sera and MMP-7 in tissues of PCa patients are measures of invasive PCa.

  3. Focal cryosurgery for treatment of primary prostate cancer: the male lumpectomy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onik, Gary M.

    2003-06-01

    Cryosurgery, in which the whole gland is frozen, has a high rate of impotence, similar to non-nerve sparing radical prostatectomy. In this paper we will present a pilot study in which 9 patients treated with focal, unilateral nerve sparing cryosurgery were followed for up to 6 years. Methods- Prior to focal nerve sparing cryosurgery all patients were re-biopsied on the side opposite the previous positive biopsy. One neurovascular one spared on the side opposite the positive biopsy. Just prior to the start of freezing a 22 gauge spinal needle was placed into Denonvillier's fascia via a transperineal route and saline were injected to separate the rectum from the prostate. CHT was stopped in all patients postoperatively. PSA"s were obtained every 3 months for the first two years and then every 6 months thereafter. Patients were considered to have a stable PSA if they had two consecutive PSA"s without a rise. All patients were strongly encouraged to have routine biopsies despite a stable PSA. Results-Between 6/95 and 11/00, 9 patients had focal, nerve sparing cryosurgery. Follow up ranged from 6-72 months with a mean of 36 months. All patients have stable PSA"s at this time. Six patients routinely biopsied had negative biopsies. Potency (defined as erection sufficient to complete intercourse to the satisfaction of the patient) has been maintained in 7 of 9 patients. Conclusion-Focal nerve sparing cryosurgery, in which one NVB is spared, appears to preserve potency in a majority of patients without compromising cancer control. These preliminary results warrant further study.

  4. Holmium laser enucleation versus simple prostatectomy for treating large prostates: Results of a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Patrick; Alzweri, Laith; Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Somani, Bhaskar K.; Bates, Chris; Aboumarzouk, Omar M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare and evaluate the safety and efficacy of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) and simple prostatectomy for large prostate burdens, as discussion and debate continue about the optimal surgical intervention for this common pathology. Materials and methods A systematic search was conducted for studies comparing HoLEP with simple prostatectomy [open (OP), robot-assisted, laparoscopic] using a sensitive strategy and in accordance with Cochrane collaboration guidelines. Primary parameters of interest were objective measurements including maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) and post-void residual urine volume (PVR), and subjective outcomes including International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and quality of life (QoL). Secondary outcomes of interest included volume of tissue retrieved, catheterisation time, hospital stay, blood loss and serum sodium decrease. Data on baseline characteristics and complications were also collected. Where possible, comparable data were combined and meta-analysis was conducted. Results In all, 310 articles were identified and after screening abstracts (114) and full manuscripts (14), three randomised studies (263 patients) were included, which met our pre-defined inclusion criteria. All these compared HoLEP with OP. The mean transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) volume was 113.9 mL in the HoLEP group and 119.4 mL in the OP group. There was no statistically significant difference in Qmax, PVR, IPSS and QoL at 12 and 24 months between the two interventions. OP was associated with a significantly shorter operative time (P = 0.01) and greater tissue retrieved (P < 0.001). However, with HoLEP there was significantly less blood loss (P < 0.001), patients had a shorter hospital stay (P = 0.03), and were catheterised for significantly fewer hours (P = 0.01). There were no significant differences in the total number of complications recorded amongst HoLEP and OP (P = 0.80). Conclusion The results of the meta

  5. Infiltration of liposome bupivacaine into the transversus abdominis plane for postsurgical analgesia in robotic laparoscopic prostatectomy: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sternlicht, Andrew; Shapiro, Max; Robelen, Gary; Vellayappan, Usha; Tuerk, Ingolf A

    2014-01-01

    Background Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) infiltration has been increasingly used for postsurgical analgesia in abdominal/pelvic procedures; however, duration/extent of analgesia with standard local anesthetics is limited. This pilot study assessed the preliminary efficacy and safety of two volumes of liposome bupivacaine administered via TAP infiltration in patients undergoing robotic laparoscopic prostatectomy. Methods In this single-center, open-label, prospective study, patients older than 18 years received TAP infiltration with liposome bupivacaine immediately after surgery. The first 12 patients received a total volume of 20 mL liposome bupivacaine (266 mg); the next 12 received 40 mL liposome bupivacaine (266 mg). The liposome bupivacaine was diluted with 0.9% normal saline. The primary efficacy measure was duration of analgesia, measured by time to first opioid administration. Secondary outcome measures included patient-assessed pain scores, opioid use, and opioid-related adverse events (AEs). Results Twenty-four patients received liposome bupivacaine (20 mL, n=12; 40 mL, n=12) and were included in the primary analysis. Three refused participation in a 10-day follow-up visit and did not complete the study. Median time to first opioid administration after surgery was 23 and 26 minutes for the 20 and 40 mL groups, respectively. Mean total amount of postsurgical opioids ranged from 25.4 to 27.3 mg; after hospital discharge to day 10, both groups required a mean of 0.7 oxycodone/acetaminophen tablets/day. Mean pain scores of 4.4 and 5.3 were reported at 1 hour and 3.1 and 3.9 at 2 hours postsurgery, with 20 and 40 mL doses, respectively. Neither group had mean scores higher than 3.0 at any further assessments. No opioid-related or treatment-related serious AEs were reported. Conclusion Median time to first opioid administration did not differ between the two groups. No differences in secondary outcomes were observed on the basis of volume administered. These

  6. Salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy for histologically confirmed macroscopic local relapsed prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Buchser, David; Melcon, J. Ignacio Rodriguez; Casquero, Francisco; Llarena, Roberto; Cacicedo, Jon; Bilbao, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility of the use of real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) fusion guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) +/– external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in patients with histologically-proven local relapse after radical prostatectomy. Material and methods We retrospectively reviewed 13 patients treated with real-time MRI-TRUS fusion HDR-BT for a local relapse of prostate cancer after radical surgery. All patients underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to confirm the presence of macroscopic lesions in prostate bed, and choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to rule out nodal or distant metastases. Local failure was confirmed by transrectal biopsy. Patients without previous EBRT received 1 fraction of 15 Gy with HDR-BT plus hypofractionated EBRT (37.5 Gy in 15 fractions). Two patients received 2 fractions of 12 Gy with HDR-BT without EBRT. Follow-up visits were at 1, 3, 6 months, and every 6 months thereafter. Results After a median follow-up of 7 months, all patients showed an appropriate biochemical response. Median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels before treatment, 1 month, and 6 months after HDR-BT were 2.62 ng/ml (range: 1.55-9.61), 0.97 ng/ml (range: 0.12-3.14), 0.23 ng/ml (range: 0.1-0.74), respectively. Five patients (42%) experienced acute grade 1 GU toxicity and 1 patient (8%) suffered from grade 2 GU toxicity. Regarding gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity, 5 patients referred grade 1 acute toxicity and 1 grade 2 (proctitis). No late toxicity has been observed so far. Conclusions MRI-TRUS fusion guided salvage HDR-BT +/– EBRT is a feasible procedure for patients with local macroscopic relapse in tumor bed after radical prostatectomy. Exquisite selection of patients through mpMRI and choline PET/CT is crucial to avoid overtreatment. A larger number of patients and longer follow-up are required in order to draw more solid conclusions

  7. MRI-Derived Restriction Spectrum Imaging Cellularity Index is Associated with High Grade Prostate Cancer on Radical Prostatectomy Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Liss, Michael A.; White, Nathan S.; Parsons, J. Kellogg; Schenker-Ahmed, Natalie M.; Rakow-Penner, Rebecca; Kuperman, Joshua M.; Bartsch, Hauke; Choi, Hyung W.; Mattrey, Robert F.; Bradley, William G.; Shabaik, Ahmed; Huang, Jiaoti; Margolis, Daniel J. A.; Raman, Steven S.; Marks, Leonard S.; Kane, Christopher J.; Reiter, Robert E.; Dale, Anders M.; Karow, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluate a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique to improve detection of aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of pre-surgical prostate MRI scans using an advanced diffusion-weighted imaging technique called restriction spectrum imaging (RSI), which can be presented as a normalized z-score statistic. Scans were acquired prior to radical prostatectomy. Prostatectomy specimens were processed using whole-mount sectioning and regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around individual PCa tumors. Corresponding ROIs were drawn on the MRI imaging and paired with ROIs in regions with no pathology. RSI z-score and conventional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were recorded for each ROI. Paired t-test, ANOVA, and logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: We evaluated 28 patients with 64 ROIs (28 benign and 36 PCa). The mean difference in RSI z-score (PCa ROI–Benign ROI) was 2.17 (SE = 0.11; p < 0.001) and in ADC was 551 mm2/s (SE = 80 mm2/s; paired t-test, p < 0.001). The differences in the means among all groups (benign, primary Gleason 3, and primary Gleason 4) was significant for both RSI z-score (F3,64 = 97.7, p < 0.001) and ADC (F3,64 = 13.9, p < 0.001). A t-test was performed on only PCa tumor ROIs (n = 36) to determine PCa aggressiveness (Gleason 3 vs. Gleason 4) revealing that RSI z-score was still significant (p = 0.03), whereas, ADC values were no longer significant (p = 0.08). In multivariable analysis adjusting for age and race, RSI z-score was associated with PCa aggressiveness (OR 10.3, 95% CI: 1.4–78.0, p = 0.02) while ADC trended to significance (p = 0.07). Conclusion: The RSI-derived normalized cellularity index is associated with aggressive PCa as determined by pathologic Gleason scores. Further utilization of RSI techniques may serve to enhance standardized reporting systems for PCa in the future

  8. HIFU therapy for local recurrence of prostate cancer after external beam radiotherapy and radical prostatectomy - 5,5 years experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovov, V. A.; Vozdvizhenskiy, M. O.; Matysh, Y. S.

    2017-03-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation (HIFU) for local recurrence of prostate cancer after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and radical prostatectomy (RPE). Materials and Methods: During 2007-2013 years 47 patients with local recurrence of prostate cancer after EBRT and RPE undertook HIFU therapy on the system "Ablaterm» (EDAP, France). Relapse arose after an average of 2 years after EBRT and RPE. Median follow-up after HIFU therapy was 38 (12-60) months. The mean age was 68.5 ± 5.8 years. The median PSA level before HIFU - 15.4 (7-48) ng / mL. Results: In 34 patients (72.3%) at six months after treatment the median PSA was 0.4 (0-3.2) ng / mL, in 48 months - 0.9 (0.4-7.5) ng / mL. In 13 patients (27.7%) at 6 months was observed progression of the disease. In general, after a 5-year follow-up 72.3% of the patients had no data for the progression and recurrence. Conclusion: HIFU therapy in patients with local recurrence of prostate cancer after EBRT and RPE is minimally invasive and effective technology.

  9. Feasibility of Neoadjuvant Ad-REIC Gene Therapy in Patients with High-Risk Localized Prostate Cancer Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Kumon, Hiromi; Sasaki, Katsumi; Ariyoshi, Yuichi; Sadahira, Takuya; Araki, Motoo; Ebara, Shin; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masami; Nasu, Yasutomo

    2015-12-01

    In a phase I/IIa study of in situ gene therapy using an adenovirus vector carrying the human REIC/Dkk-3 gene (Ad-REIC), we assessed the inhibitory effects of cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy (RP), in patients with high risk localized prostate cancer (PCa). After completing the therapeutic interventions with initially planned three escalating doses of 1.0 × 10(10) , 1.0 × 10(11) , and 1.0 × 10(12) viral particles (VP) in 1.0-1.2 mL (n = 3, 3, and 6), an additional higher dose of 3.0 × 10(12) VP in 3.6 mL (n = 6) was further studied. Patients with recurrence probability of 35% or more within 5 years after RP as calculated by Kattan's nomogram, were enrolled. They received two ultrasound-guided intratumoral injections at 2-week intervals, followed by RP 6 weeks after the second injection. Based on the findings of MRI and biopsy mapping, as a rule, one track injection to the most prominent cancer area was given to initial 12 patients and 3 track injections to multiple cancer areas in additional 6 patients. As compared to the former group, biochemical recurrence-free survival of the latter showed a significantly favorable outcome. Neoadjuvant Ad-REIC, mediating simultaneous induction of cancer selective apoptosis and augmentation of antitumor immunity, is a feasible approach in preventing cancer recurrence after RP. (199).

  10. Gigapixel surface imaging of radical prostatectomy specimens for comprehensive detection of cancer-positive surgical margins using structured illumination microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mei; Tulman, David B.; Sholl, Andrew B.; Kimbrell, Hillary Z.; Mandava, Sree H.; Elfer, Katherine N.; Luethy, Samuel; Maddox, Michael M.; Lai, Weil; Lee, Benjamin R.; Brown, J. Quincy

    2016-01-01

    Achieving cancer-free surgical margins in oncologic surgery is critical to reduce the need for additional adjuvant treatments and minimize tumor recurrence; however, there is a delicate balance between completeness of tumor removal and preservation of adjacent tissues critical for normal post-operative function. We sought to establish the feasibility of video-rate structured illumination microscopy (VR-SIM) of the intact removed tumor surface as a practical and non-destructive alternative to intra-operative frozen section pathology, using prostate cancer as an initial target. We present the first images of the intact human prostate surface obtained with pathologically-relevant contrast and subcellular detail, obtained in 24 radical prostatectomy specimens immediately after excision. We demonstrate that it is feasible to routinely image the full prostate circumference, generating gigapixel panorama images of the surface that are readily interpreted by pathologists. VR-SIM confirmed detection of positive surgical margins in 3 out of 4 prostates with pathology-confirmed adenocarcinoma at the circumferential surgical margin, and furthermore detected extensive residual cancer at the circumferential margin in a case post-operatively classified by histopathology as having negative surgical margins. Our results suggest that the increased surface coverage of VR-SIM could also provide added value for detection and characterization of positive surgical margins over traditional histopathology. PMID:27257084

  11. Rationale for and review of neoadjuvant therapy prior to radical prostatectomy for patients with high-risk prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    McKay, Rana R; Choueiri, Toni K; Taplin, Mary-Ellen

    2013-09-01

    Despite state of the art local therapy, a significant portion of men with high-risk prostate cancer develop progressive disease. Neoadjuvant systemic therapy prior to radical prostatectomy (RP) is an approach that can potentially maximize survival outcomes in patients with localized disease. This approach is under investigation with a wide array of agents and provides an opportunity to assess pathologic and biologic activity of novel treatments. The aim of this review is to explore the past and present role of neoadjuvant therapy prior to definitive therapy with RP in patients with high-risk localized or locally advanced disease. The results of neoadjuvant androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT), including use of newer agents such as abiraterone, are promising. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, primarily with docetaxel, with or without ADT has also demonstrated efficacy in men with high-risk disease. Other novel agents targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), clusterin, and the immune system are currently under investigation and have led to variable results in early clinical trials. Despite optimistic data, approval of neoadjuvant therapy prior to RP in patients with high-risk prostate cancer will depend on positive results from well designed phase III trials.

  12. Gigapixel surface imaging of radical prostatectomy specimens for comprehensive detection of cancer-positive surgical margins using structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mei; Tulman, David B.; Sholl, Andrew B.; Kimbrell, Hillary Z.; Mandava, Sree H.; Elfer, Katherine N.; Luethy, Samuel; Maddox, Michael M.; Lai, Weil; Lee, Benjamin R.; Brown, J. Quincy

    2016-06-01

    Achieving cancer-free surgical margins in oncologic surgery is critical to reduce the need for additional adjuvant treatments and minimize tumor recurrence; however, there is a delicate balance between completeness of tumor removal and preservation of adjacent tissues critical for normal post-operative function. We sought to establish the feasibility of video-rate structured illumination microscopy (VR-SIM) of the intact removed tumor surface as a practical and non-destructive alternative to intra-operative frozen section pathology, using prostate cancer as an initial target. We present the first images of the intact human prostate surface obtained with pathologically-relevant contrast and subcellular detail, obtained in 24 radical prostatectomy specimens immediately after excision. We demonstrate that it is feasible to routinely image the full prostate circumference, generating gigapixel panorama images of the surface that are readily interpreted by pathologists. VR-SIM confirmed detection of positive surgical margins in 3 out of 4 prostates with pathology-confirmed adenocarcinoma at the circumferential surgical margin, and furthermore detected extensive residual cancer at the circumferential margin in a case post-operatively classified by histopathology as having negative surgical margins. Our results suggest that the increased surface coverage of VR-SIM could also provide added value for detection and characterization of positive surgical margins over traditional histopathology.

  13. Initial clinical results of laser prostatectomy procedure for symptomatic BPH using a new 50-watt diode laser (wavelength 1000 nm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatta, Krishna M.

    1995-05-01

    Lasers have been used for symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in both contact and non-contact modes with reported success rates equivalent to that of Transurethral Resection of Prostate (TURP). A new high power diode laser (Phototome), capable of delivering up to 50 watts of 1000 nm wavelength laser power via a 1 mm quartz fiber, was used to treat 15 patients with symptomatic BPH. Five patients had acute retention, 3 had long term catheter (7 - 48 months), and 8 had severe prostatism. Spinal anesthesia was used in 11 patients, and 4 patients had local anesthesia and intravenous sedation. Four quadrant coagulation with an angle firing probe delivering 50 watts of laser power for 60 seconds in one quadrant was used as the core of the treatment in 11 patients, contact vaporization of BPH tissue was performed in one patient using a 4.5 mm ball tip was used in one patient and three patients with bladder neck stenosis had bladder neck incision performed using a 1 mm quartz fiber delivering 30 watts of laser power. A foley catheter was left indwelling and removed after 5 - 7 days. All patients except one were catheter free after a mean of 8 days. One patient continued to have severe prostatism and had a TURP performed with good results after 3 months of his laser prostatectomy procedure. AUA symptom scores available in 11 patients was found to be 4 after 1 - 3 months of the initial procedure.

  14. [The role of a positive surgical margin after retropubic radical prostatectomy in prognosis of recurrent prostatic cancer].

    PubMed

    Veliev, E I; Petrov, S B; Loran, O B

    2005-01-01

    To estimate the occurrence of positive surgical margins (SM) in conduction of radical retropubic prostatectomy and SM role in development of the recurrence, we studied 216 surgical patients with prostatic cancer aged 41 to 73 years. Stages T2a,b, T3a, T1 and T3b were detected in 41.8, 35.6, 18.7 and 3.9% patients, respectively. A positive SM was verified in 68 of 193 (35.2%) patients. Of them, 36 (52.9%) patients had a focal (a single or short SM), while 32 (47.1%) patients had a long SM. The recurrence occurred in 31 (16.1%) cases, primarily in a long SM. In SM-free patients (group 1) one-year survival was 82% being very close to that in group 2 with a focal SM (83%). The differences between the groups were also minimal by three-year survival (75 and 73.6%, respectively). Thus, recurrence-free survival in the focal process and a short SM differs by three-year survival in the groups insignificantly. The period between month 12 and 24 is most risky in respect to recurrences in a short SM. Patients with a long SM had maximal number of prostatic cancer recurrences.

  15. The interplay of dyadic and individual planning of pelvic-floor exercise in prostate-cancer patients following radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Silke; Knoll, Nina; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Gralla, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    This study broadens the current understanding of the role of planning by focusing on the interplay between individual and dyadic planning (i.e. making plans about the target person's behaviour together with a partner). Self-report data from N=141 prostatectomy-patients and their partners were assessed at three times within 1 year post-surgery. Direct and indirect effects of dyadic and individual planning on patients' pelvic-floor exercise (PFE) were tested. Proposed mediators were social support, social control, and action control. Cross-sectionally, the dyadic planning-PFE relationship was mediated by patients' received support and partners' provided social control. Longitudinally, mediators of dyadic planning were partners' provided social control and support. Effects of individual planning on PFE were mediated by action control at baseline only. Also, at lower levels of individual planning, patients' dyadic planning was more strongly associated with receipt of social control. Results underscore the importance of social factors in the planning process and its mechanisms in health-behaviour change.

  16. Evaluation of Lymphorrhea and Incidence of Lymphoceles: 4DryField® PH in Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Karsch, Johannes-J; Berthold, Martin; Breul, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate impact of polysaccharide hemostat 4DryField PH (4DF) applied on lymph node dissection area after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) on lymphorrhea and lymphocele (LC) formation. Methods. 104 consecutive patients underwent RRP, 51 without 4DF treatment (CT-group) and 53 with 4DF treatment (4DF-group). Groups were comparable (age, risk profile, and lymph node numbers). Postoperative drain loss (PDL) and development of early and late LC were analyzed (mean follow-up at 7 months: 100%). Results. PDL was 452.5 ± 634.2 mL without and 308.5 ± 214 mL with 4DF treatment. PDL > 1000 mL only occurred in CT-group (5/51). Overall, 45 LC (26 in CT- versus 19 in the 4DF-group) were diagnosed. At day 8, LC were equally distributed between groups. Incidence of late LC, however, was twice in controls (16/51) versus 4DF-patients (8/53). Symptomatic LC (4 in untreated patients, 2 in 4DF-patients) were treated with percutaneous drainage (duration: 45 days in untreated patients versus 12 days in 4DF-patients). Conclusion. Application of 4DF on lymph node dissection areas lessened total drain loss and significantly lowered high volume drain loss. Furthermore, 4DF reduced frequency of late lymphoceles and lymphoceles requiring treatment by half, as well as duration of percutaneous drainage by more than two-thirds.

  17. Evaluation of Lymphorrhea and Incidence of Lymphoceles: 4DryField® PH in Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Karsch, Johannes-J.; Berthold, Martin; Breul, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate impact of polysaccharide hemostat 4DryField PH (4DF) applied on lymph node dissection area after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) on lymphorrhea and lymphocele (LC) formation. Methods. 104 consecutive patients underwent RRP, 51 without 4DF treatment (CT-group) and 53 with 4DF treatment (4DF-group). Groups were comparable (age, risk profile, and lymph node numbers). Postoperative drain loss (PDL) and development of early and late LC were analyzed (mean follow-up at 7 months: 100%). Results. PDL was 452.5 ± 634.2 mL without and 308.5 ± 214 mL with 4DF treatment. PDL > 1000 mL only occurred in CT-group (5/51). Overall, 45 LC (26 in CT- versus 19 in the 4DF-group) were diagnosed. At day 8, LC were equally distributed between groups. Incidence of late LC, however, was twice in controls (16/51) versus 4DF-patients (8/53). Symptomatic LC (4 in untreated patients, 2 in 4DF-patients) were treated with percutaneous drainage (duration: 45 days in untreated patients versus 12 days in 4DF-patients). Conclusion. Application of 4DF on lymph node dissection areas lessened total drain loss and significantly lowered high volume drain loss. Furthermore, 4DF reduced frequency of late lymphoceles and lymphoceles requiring treatment by half, as well as duration of percutaneous drainage by more than two-thirds. PMID:27418927

  18. External Validation of the Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Postsurgical Score for Prediction of Disease Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Öztürk, Erdem; Güven, Eşref Oğuz; Başar, Halil

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The cancer of the prostate risk assessment (CAPRA-S) postsurgical score predicts recurrence, metastasis, and cancer-specific survival after radical prostatectomy (RP). We evaluated the relation between CAPRA-S score and biochemical recurrence (BCR) in prostate cancer after RP in our clinic. Materials and Methods. This study was performed on 203 patients with prostate carcinoma who underwent open RP and regional lymph node dissection in our clinic between 2008 and 2013. We calculated the CAPRA-S scores including prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis, pathology Gleason score, surgical margin, seminal vesicle invasion, extracapsular extension, and lymph node involvement. The patients were divided into 3 risk groups (low, intermediate, and high risk) according to risk scores. Results. Recurrence occurred in 17.8% of the patients (36 patients out of 203 patients) with a median of 11.7-month follow-up. The average recurrence-free survival time is 44.6 months. Surgical margin invasion and seminal vesicle invasion significantly correlated with BCR especially in high risk group (11 and 13 of 15 patients, p < 0.05, resp.). Conclusion. CAPRA-S score can be easily calculated and it is useful in clinical practice in order to timely propose adjuvant therapies after surgery. PMID:27833937

  19. Longitudinal modeling of ultrasensitive and traditional prostate-specific antigen and prediction of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Laajala, Teemu D.; Seikkula, Heikki; sadat, Fatemeh Seyednasrollah; Mirtti, Tuomas; Boström, Peter J.; Elo, Laura L.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasensitive prostate-specific antigen (u-PSA) remains controversial for follow-up after radical prostatectomy (RP). The aim of this study was to model PSA doubling times (PSADT) for predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR) and to capture possible discrepancies between u-PSA and traditional PSA (t-PSA) by utilizing advanced statistical modeling. 555 RP patients without neoadjuvant/adjuvant androgen deprivation from the Turku University Hospital were included in the study. BCR was defined as two consecutive PSA values >0.2 ng/mL and the PSA measurements were log2-transformed. One third of the data was reserved for independent validation. Models were first fitted to the post-surgery PSA measurements using cross-validation. Major trends were then captured using linear mixed-effect models and a predictive generalized linear model effectively identified early trends connected to BCR. The model generalized for BCR prediction to the validation set with ROC-AUC of 83.6% and 95.1% for the 1 and 3 year follow-up censoring, respectively. A web-based tool was developed to facilitate its use. Longitudinal trends of u-PSA did not display major discrepancies from those of t-PSA. The results support that u-PSA provides useful information for predicting BCR after RP. This can be beneficial to avoid unnecessary adjuvant treatments or to start them earlier for selected patients. PMID:27805011

  20. The Long-Term Effect of Radical Prostatectomy on Erectile Function, Urinary Continence, and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Comparison to Age-Matched Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Ponholzer, Anton; Augustin, Herbert; Madersbacher, Stephan; Pummer, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. To analyze the impact of radical prostatectomy (RPE) on erectile function and lower urinary tract function in comparison to age-matched healthy men. Materials and Methods. Patients who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy completed questionnaires containing the IIEF-5, the Bristol female LUTS questionnaire, and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Results. Patients after RPE were included (n = 363). Age-matched healthy men (n = 363) were included. The mean IIEF-5 of patients aged 61–70 yrs after RPE was 10.4 ± 6.6 versus 18.8 ± 5.3 in the control cohort; the respective values for men aged 71–80 yrs after RPE were 7.2 ± 6.5 versus 13.6 ± 7.7 in the control cohort. Urinary incontinence after RPE was reported in 41.9% (61–70 years) and 37.7% (71–80) versus 7.5% and 15.1% in the control cohort. The mean IPSS of patients after RPE aged 61–70 yrs was 5.0 ± 4.4 versus 5.5 ± 4.9 in the control cohort; the respective values for men aged 71–80 yrs were 6.0 ± 4.9 versus 7.5 ± 5.7 in the healthy cohort. Conclusions. The negative effect of radical prostatectomy on erectile and urinary incontinence remains substantial. The physiologically declining erectile and lower urinary tract function with ageing reduces the difference between healthy men and those after surgery. Healthy men have a higher IPSS presumably due to the presence of bladder outlet obstruction. PMID:28261619

  1. Need for High Radiation Dose (>=70 Gy) in Early Postoperative Irradiation After Radical Prostatectomy: A Single-Institution Analysis of 334 High-Risk, Node-Negative Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzarini, Cesare; Montorsi, Francesco; Fiorino, Claudio; Alongi, Filippo; Bolognesi, Angelo; Da Pozzo, Luigi Filippo; Guazzoni, Giorgio; Freschi, Massimo; Roscigno, Marco; Scattoni, Vincenzo; Rigatti, Patrizio; Di Muzio, Nadia

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the clinical benefit of high-dose early adjuvant radiotherapy (EART) in high-risk prostate cancer (hrCaP) patients submitted to radical retropubic prostatectomy plus pelvic lymphadenectomy. Patients and Methods: The clinical outcome of 334 hrCaP (pT3-4 and/or positive resection margins) node-negative patients submitted to radical retropubic prostatectomy plus pelvic lymphadenectomy before 2004 was analyzed according to the EART dose delivered to the prostatic bed, <70.2 Gy (lower dose, median 66.6 Gy, n = 153) or >=70.2 Gy (median 70.2 Gy, n = 181). Results: The two groups were comparable except for a significant difference in terms of median follow-up (10 vs. 7 years, respectively) owing to the gradual increase of EART doses over time. Nevertheless, median time to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure was almost identical, 38 and 36 months, respectively. At univariate analysis, both 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were significantly higher (83% vs. 71% [p = 0.001] and 94% vs. 88% [p = 0.005], respectively) in the HD group. Multivariate analysis confirmed EART dose >=70 Gy to be independently related to both bRFS (hazard ratio 2.5, p = 0.04) and DFS (hazard ratio 3.6, p = 0.004). Similar results were obtained after the exclusion of patients receiving any androgen deprivation. After grouping the hormone-naive patients by postoperative PSA level the statistically significant impact of high-dose EART on both 5-year bRFS and DFS was maintained only for those with undetectable values, possibly owing to micrometastatic disease outside the irradiated area in case of detectable postoperative PSA values. Conclusion: This series provides strong support for the use of EART doses >=70 Gy after radical retropubic prostatectomy in hrCaP patients with undetectable postoperative PSA levels.

  2. Preoperative 3-Tesla Multiparametric Endorectal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings and the Odds of Upgrading and Upstaging at Radical Prostatectomy in Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hegde, John V.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Mulkern, Robert V.; Fennessy, Fiona M.; D'Amico, Anthony V.; Tempany, Clare M.C.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether 3-T esla (3T) multiparametric endorectal MRI (erMRI) can add information to established predictors regarding occult extraprostatic or high-grade prostate cancer (PC) in men with clinically localized PC. Methods and Materials: At a single academic medical center, this retrospective study's cohort included 118 men with clinically localized PC who underwent 3T multiparametric erMRI followed by radical prostatectomy, from 2008 to 2011. Multivariable logistic regression analyses in all men and in 100 with favorable-risk PC addressed whether erMRI evidence of T3 disease was associated with prostatectomy T3 or Gleason score (GS) 8-10 (in patients with biopsy GS {<=}7) PC, adjusting for age, prostate-specific antigen level, clinical T category, biopsy GS, and percent positive biopsies. Results: The accuracy of erMRI prediction of extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion was 75% and 95%, respectively. For all men, erMRI evidence of a T3 lesion versus T2 was associated with an increased odds of having pT3 disease (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36-16.98, P=.015) and pGS 8-10 (AOR 5.56, 95% CI 1.10-28.18, P=.038). In the favorable-risk population, these results were AOR 4.14 (95% CI 1.03-16.56), P=.045 and AOR 7.71 (95% CI 1.36-43.62), P=.021, respectively. Conclusions: Three-Tesla multiparametric erMRI in men with favorable-risk PC provides information beyond that contained in known preoperative predictors about the presence of occult extraprostatic and/or high-grade PC. If validated in additional studies, this information can be used to counsel men planning to undergo radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy about the possible need for adjuvant radiation therapy or the utility of adding hormone therapy, respectively.

  3. Are Preexisting Retinal and Central Nervous System-Related Comorbidities Risk Factors for Complications Following Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, David; Cusano, Antonio; Haddock, Peter; Staff, Ilene; Wagner, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess whether retinal and central nervous system (CNS) comorbidities are risk factors for complications following robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP). Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of our RALP database identified 1868 patients who underwent RALP by a single surgeon between December 10, 2003-March 14, 2014. We hypothesized that patients with preexisting retinal or CNS comorbidities were at a greater risk of suffering retinal and CNS complications following RALP. Perioperative complications and risk of recurrence were graded using the Clavien and D'Amico systems, respectively. Results: 40 (2.1%) patients had retinal or CNS-related comorbidities, of which 15 had a history of retinal surgery and 24 had a history of cerebrovascular accident, aneurysm and/or neurosurgery. One additional patient had a history of both retinal and CNS events. Patients with retinal or CNS comorbidities were significantly older, had elevated PSA levels and CCI (Charlson Comorbidity Index) scores than the control group. Blood loss, length of stay, surgical duration, BMI, diagnostic Gleason score and T-stage were not statistically different between groups. No retinal or CNS complications occurred in either group. The distribution of patients between D'Amico risk categories was not statistically different between the groups. There was also no difference in the incidence of total complications between the groups. Conclusions: RALP-associated retinal and CNS complications are rare. While our RALP database is large, the cohort of patients with retinal or CNS-related comorbidities was relatively small. Our dataset suggests retinal and CNS pathology presents no greater risk of suffering from perioperative complications following RALP. PMID:26401857

  4. Bladder neck preservation improves time to continence after radical prostatectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunguang; Wu, Guanqing; Xu, Nan; Wang, Meng; Zeng, Xing; Hu, Zhiquan; Song, Ranran; Yuh, Bertram; Wang, Zhihua; Ye, Zhangqun

    2016-01-01

    Bladder neck preservation (BNP) during radical prostatectomy (RP) may improve postoperative urinary continence, although its overall effectiveness remains controversial. We systematically searched PubMed, Ovid Medline, Embase, CBM and the Cochrane Library to identify studies published before February 2016 that assessed associations between BNP and post-RP urinary continence. Thirteen trials (1130 cases and 1154 controls) assessing BNP versus noBNP (or with bladder neck reconstruction, BNR) were considered suitable for meta-analysis, including two randomized controlled trials (RCT), six prospective and five retrospective studies. Meta-analysis demonstrated that BNP improved early urinary continence rates (6 mo, OR = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.21–2.27; P = 0.001) and long-term urinary continence outcomes (>12 mo, OR = 3.99; 95% CI, 1.94–8.21; P = 0.0002). Patients with BNP also had lower bladder neck stricture frequencies (OR = 0.49; 95% CI, 0.29–0.81; P = 0.006). Anastomotic leak rates, positive surgical margins and biochemical failure rates were comparable between the two groups (P>0.05). There were no differences in baseline characteristics except for a smaller average prostate volume (WMD = −2.24 ml; 95% CI, -4.27 to -0.22; P = 0.03) in BNP patients. Our analyses indicated that BNP during RP improved early recovery and overall long-term (1 year) urinary continence and decreased bladder neck stricture rates without compromising oncologic control. PMID:27634899

  5. Long-term adverse effects after curative radiotherapy and radical prostatectomy: population-based nationwide register study

    PubMed Central

    Fridriksson, Jón Ö.; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Nilsson, Per; Robinson, David; Franck-Lissbrant, Ingela; Ehdaie, Behfar; Eastham, James A.; Widmark, Anders; Karlsson, Camilla T.; Stattin, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the risk of serious adverse effects after radiotherapy (RT) with curative intention and radical prostatectomy (RP). Materials and methods: Men who were diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1997 and 2012 and underwent curative treatment were selected from the Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden. For each included man, five prostate cancer-free controls, matched for birth year and county of residency, were randomly selected. In total, 12,534 men underwent RT, 24,886 underwent RP and 186,624 were controls. Adverse effects were defined according to surgical and diagnostic codes in the National Patient Registry. The relative risk (RR) of adverse effects up to 12 years after treatment was compared to controls and the risk was subsequently compared between RT and RP in multivariable analyses. Results: Men with intermediate- and localized high-risk cancer who underwent curative treatment had an increased risk of adverse effects during the full study period compared to controls: the RR of undergoing a procedures after RT was 2.64 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.56–2.73] and after RP 2.05 (95% CI 2.00–2.10). The risk remained elevated 10–12 years after treatment. For all risk categories of prostate cancer, the risk of surgical procedures for urinary incontinence was higher after RP (RR 23.64, 95% CI 11.71–47.74), whereas risk of other procedures on the lower urinary tract and gastrointestinal tract or abdominal wall was higher after RT (RR 1.67, 95% CI 1.44–1.94, and RR 1.86, 95% CI 1.70–2.02, respectively). Conclusion: The risk of serious adverse effects after curative treatment for prostate cancer remained significantly elevated up to 12 years after treatment. PMID:27333148

  6. New Paradigms for Patient-Centered Outcomes Research in Electronic Medical Records: An Example of Detecting Urinary Incontinence Following Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Tamang, Suzanne; Blayney, Douglas; Brooks, Jim; Shah, Nigam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: National initiatives to develop quality metrics emphasize the need to include patient-centered outcomes. Patient-centered outcomes are complex, require documentation of patient communications, and have not been routinely collected by healthcare providers. The widespread implementation of electronic medical records (EHR) offers opportunities to assess patient-centered outcomes within the routine healthcare delivery system. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of identifying patient centered outcomes within the EHR. Methods: Data from patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing prostatectomy were used to develop and test algorithms to accurately identify patient-centered outcomes in post-operative EHRs – we used urinary incontinence as the use case. Standard data mining techniques were used to extract and annotate free text and structured data to assess urinary incontinence recorded within the EHRs. Results A total 5,349 prostate cancer patients were identified in our EHR-system between 1998–2013. Among these EHRs, 30.3% had a text mention of urinary incontinence within 90 days post-operative compared to less than 1.0% with a structured data field for urinary incontinence (i.e. ICD-9 code). Our workflow had good precision and recall for urinary incontinence (positive predictive value: 0.73 and sensitivity: 0.84). Discussion. Our data indicate that important patient-centered outcomes, such as urinary incontinence, are being captured in EHRs as free text and highlight the long-standing importance of accurate clinician documentation. Standard data mining algorithms can accurately and efficiently identify these outcomes in existing EHRs; the complete assessment of these outcomes is essential to move practice into the patient-centered realm of healthcare. PMID:27347492

  7. Early dutasteride monotherapy in men with detectable serum prostate-specific antigen levels following radical prostatectomy: A prospective trial

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yu Seob; Lee, Jea Whan; Kim, Myung Ki; Jeong, Young Beom

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of early administration of dutasteride in patients with detectable serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels after radical prostatectomy (RP). Materials and Methods A prospective open-label study, with a cumulative analysis of asymptomatic increase in PSA following RP, was conducted from January 2005 to December 2013. An early increase in PSA level was defined as detectable serum PSA level> 0.04 ng/mL. Patients with PSA level>0.04 ng/mL were treated with dutasteride 0.5 mg daily. Serum PSA level and biochemical recurrence (BCR) were monitored. We divided the patients into 2 groups based on the serum PSA response after dutasteride treatment. Results Eighty patients were included in the study. At the median follow-up of 51.8 months, 56 patients (70.0%) showed a decrease of greater than 10% in serum PSA level, and 24 showed increased PSA levels. Twelve of the 56 patients with PSA response showed subsequently increased PSA. Intergroup differences in preoperative PSA levels, PSA nadir levels, and Gleason score of 6 or less were significant (p=0.028, p=0.030, and p=0.035, respectively). A multivariate analysis revealed that Gleason score of 6 or less (p=0.018) and PSA nadir levels (p=0.011) were predictive factors for PSA response after early dutasteride treatment in men with increased PSA levels following RP. Conclusions Early monotherapy of dutasteride showed a decline in serum PSA levels in men with lower nadir PSA levels, and a Gleason score 6, when the serum PSA was detected after RP. PMID:28261678

  8. Evaluating Prostate Cancer Using Fractional Tissue Composition of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens and Pre-Operative Diffusional Kurtosis Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Edward M.; Warren, Anne Y.; Priest, Andrew N.; Barrett, Tristan; Goldman, Debra A.; Gill, Andrew B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Evaluating tissue heterogeneity using non-invasive imaging could potentially improve prostate cancer assessment and treatment. Methods 20 patients with intermediate/high-risk prostate cancer underwent diffusion kurtosis imaging, including calculation of apparent diffusion (Dapp) and kurtosis (Kapp), prior to radical prostatectomy. Whole-mount tissue composition was quantified into: cellularity, luminal space, and fibromuscular stroma. Peripheral zone tumors were subdivided according to Gleason score. Results Peripheral zone tumors had increased cellularity (p<0.0001), decreased fibromuscular stroma (p<0.05) and decreased luminal space (p<0.0001). Gleason score ≥4+3 tumors had significantly increased cellularity and decreased fibromuscular stroma compared to Gleason score ≤3+4 (p<0.05). In tumors, there was a significant positive correlation between median Kapp and cellularity (ρ = 0.50; p<0.05), and a negative correlation with fibromuscular stroma (ρ = -0.45; p<0.05). In normal tissue, median Dapp had a significant positive correlation with luminal space (ρ = 0.65; p<0.05) and a negative correlation with cellularity (ρ = -0.49; p<0.05). Median Kapp and Dapp varied significantly between tumor and normal tissue (p<0.0001), but only median Kapp was significantly different between Gleason score ≥4+3 and ≤3+4 (p<0.05). Conclusions Peripheral zone tumors have increased cellular heterogeneity which is reflected in mean Kapp, while normal prostate has a more homogeneous luminal space and cellularity better represented by Dapp. PMID:27467064

  9. Anesthesiologic Effects of Transperitoneal Versus Extraperitoneal Approach During Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy: Results of a Prospective Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Fabrizio Dal; Crestani, Alessandro; Valotto, Claudio; Guttilla, Andrea; Soncin, Rodolfo; Mangano, Angelo; Zattoni, Filiberto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To compare the effects of CO2 insufflation on hemodynamics and oxygen levels and on acid-base level during Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy (RARP) with transperitoneal (TP) versus extra-peritoneal (EP) accesses. Materials and Methods: Sixty-two patients were randomly assigned to TP (32) and EP (30) to RARP. Pre-operation data were collected for all patients. Hemodynamic, respiratory and blood acid-base parameters were measured at the moment of induction of anesthesia (T0), after starting CO2 insuffation (T1), and at 60 (T2) and 120 minutes (T3) after insufflation. In all cases, the abdominal pressure was set at 15 mmHg. Complications were reported according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Student's two–t-test, with a significance level set at p<0.05, was used to compare categorical values between groups. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the median values of two nonparametric continuous variables. Results: The demographic characteristics of the patients in both groups were statistically comparable. Analysis of intra-operative anesthesiologic parameters showed that partial CO2 pressure during EP was significantly higher than during TP, with a consequent decrease in arterial pH. Other parameters analysed were similar in the two groups. Postoperative complications were comparable between groups. The most important limitations of this study were the small size of the patient groups and the impossibility of maintaining standard abdominal pressure throughout the operational phases, despite attempts to regulate it. Conclusions: This prospective randomized study demonstrates that, from the anesthesiologic viewpoint, during RARP the TP approach is preferable to EP, because of lower CO2 reabsorption and risk of acidosis. PMID:26200539

  10. Magnetic Resonance Lymphography Findings in Patients With Biochemical Recurrence After Prostatectomy and the Relation With the Stephenson Nomogram

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, Hanneke J.M.; Debats, Oscar A.; Roach, Mack; Span, Paul N.; Witjes, J. Alfred; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Lin, Emile N.J.Th. van; Barentsz, Jelle O.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To estimate the occurrence of positive lymph nodes on magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) in patients with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence after prostatectomy and to investigate the relation between score on the Stephenson nomogram and lymph node involvement on MRL. Methods and Materials: Sixty-five candidates for salvage radiation therapy were referred for an MRL to determine their lymph node status. Clinical and histopathologic features were recorded. For 49 patients, data were complete to calculate the Stephenson nomogram score. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine how well this nomogram related to the MRL result. Analysis was done for the whole group and separately for patients with a PSA <1.0 ng/mL to determine the situation in candidates for early salvage radiation therapy, and for patients without pathologic lymph nodes at initial lymph node dissection. Results: MRL detected positive lymph nodes in 47 patients. ROC analysis for the Stephenson nomogram yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.93). Of 29 patients with a PSA <1.0 ng/mL, 18 had a positive MRL. Of 37 patients without lymph node involvement at initial lymph node dissection, 25 had a positive MRL. ROC analysis for the Stephenson nomogram showed AUCs of 0.84 and 0.74, respectively, for these latter groups. Conclusion: MRL detected positive lymph nodes in 72% of candidates for salvage radiation therapy, in 62% of candidates for early salvage radiation therapy, and in 68% of initially node-negative patients. The Stephenson nomogram showed a good correlation with the MRL result and may thus be useful for identifying patients with a PSA recurrence who are at high risk for lymph node involvement.

  11. RHCG and TCAF1 promoter hypermethylation predicts biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer patients treated by radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Siri H.; Switnicki, Michal; Moller, Mia; Haldrup, Christa; Storebjerg, Tine M.; Hedegaard, Jakob; Nordentoft, Iver; Hoyer, Soren; Borre, Michael; Pedersen, Jakob S.; Wild, Peter J.; Park, Jong Y.; Orntoft, Torben F.; Sorensen, Karina D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The lack of biomarkers that can distinguish aggressive from indolent prostate cancer has caused substantial overtreatment of clinically insignificant disease. Here, by genome-wide DNA methylome profiling, we sought to identify new biomarkers to improve the accuracy of prostate cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Experimental design: Eight novel candidate markers, COL4A6, CYBA, TCAF1 (FAM115A), HLF, LINC01341 (LOC149134), LRRC4, PROM1, and RHCG, were selected from Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip analysis of 21 tumor (T) and 21 non-malignant (NM) prostate specimens. Diagnostic potential was further investigated by methylation-specific qPCR analysis of 80 NM vs. 228 T tissue samples. Prognostic potential was assessed by Kaplan-Meier, uni- and multivariate Cox regression analysis in 203 Danish radical prostatectomy (RP) patients (cohort 1), and validated in an independent cohort of 286 RP patients from Switzerland and the U.S. (cohort 2). Results: Hypermethylation of the 8 candidates was highly cancer-specific (area under the curves: 0.79-1.00). Furthermore, high methylation of the 2-gene panel RHCG-TCAF1 was predictive of biochemical recurrence (BCR) in cohort 1, independent of the established clinicopathological parameters Gleason score, pathological tumor stage, and pre-operative PSA (HR (95% confidence interval (CI)): 2.09 (1.26 - 3.46); P = 0.004), and this was successfully validated in cohort 2 (HR (95% CI): 1.81 (1.05 - 3.12); P = 0.032). Conclusion: Methylation of the RHCG-TCAF1 panel adds significant independent prognostic value to established prognostic parameters for prostate cancer and thus may help to guide treatment decisions in the future. Further investigation in large independent cohorts is necessary before translation into clinical utility. PMID:28052017

  12. A comparative study of radical prostatectomy and permanent seed brachytherapy for low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taussky, Daniel; Ouellet, Véronique; Delouya, Guila; Saad, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We sought to compare the outcomes between radical prostatectomy (RP) and permanent seed prostate brachytherapy (PB) in patients with low- and low-intermediate-risk prostate cancer from a single tertiary care centre. Methods: Patients were selected from our institute’s internal database based on preoperative selection criteria from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines (2015) for low- and intermediate-risk patients. No patient had received any neo-adjuvant androgen-deprivation therapy. The endpoint was biochemical recurrence (BCR) or any salvage treatment for both RP and PB at 48 ± 4 months after treatment. The biochemical relapse threshold was set at prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥0.5 ng/mL for PB and two PSA values of ≥0.2 ng/mL for RP. Patients from both treatment groups were compared using non-parametric tests. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine an association of treatment and pretreatment factors with a BCR at 48 months. Results: A total of 575 patients were included in this study; 254 were treated with RP and 321 with PB. BCR was not different between both groups (p=0.84, Chi-square test), and occurred in 21.2% of patients treated with RP and in 20.6% with PB. Based on univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, younger age, higher percentage of positive biopsies, and initial PSA were predictive of BCR. Treatment modality was not predictive in either univariate (odds ratio [OR] 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64–1.44; p=0.84) or multivariate (OR 1.43, 95% CI 0.89–2.30; p=0.14) analyses. Conclusions: Using closely related cutoff values for BCR, both RP and PB did not have significantly different outcomes at four years post-treatment. A longer followup may be necessary to detect a difference between treatments. PMID:27878044

  13. Outcome After Conformal Salvage Radiotherapy in Patients With Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels After Radical Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Geinitz, Hans; Riegel, Martina G.; Thamm, Reinhard; Astner, Sabrina T.; Lewerenz, Carolin; Zimmermann, Frank; Molls, Michael; Nieder, Carsten

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: This study attempts to improve our understanding of the role of salvage radiotherapy (SRT) in patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse after radical prostatectomy with regard to biochemical control, rate of distant metastasis, and survival. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of 96 men treated with conformal prostate bed SRT (median, 64.8 Gy) at a single institution (median follow-up, 70 months). The majority had intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer. Fifty-four percent underwent a resection with positive margins (R1 resection). The median time interval between surgery and SRT was 22 months. Results: After SRT, 66% of patients reached a PSA nadir of less than 0.2 ng/mL. However, the 5-year biochemical no evidence of disease rate was 35%. Seminal vesicle involvement was predictive for a significantly lower biochemical no evidence of disease rate. All patients with a preoperative PSA level greater than 50 ng/mL relapsed biochemically within 2 years. The 5-year distant metastasis rate was 18%, the 5-year prostate cancer-specific survival rate was 90%, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 88%. Significantly more distant metastases developed in patients with a PSA nadir greater than 0.05 ng/mL after SRT, and they had significantly inferior prostate cancer-specific and overall survival rates. Resection status (R1 vs. R0) was not predictive for any of the endpoints. Conclusions: Men with postoperative PSA relapse can undergo salvage treatment by prostate bed radiotherapy, but durable PSA control is maintained only in about one-third of the patients. Despite a high biochemical failure rate after SRT, prostate cancer-specific survival does not decrease rapidly.

  14. Brachytherapy versus prostatectomy in localized prostate cancer: Results of a French multicenter prospective medico-economic study

    SciTech Connect

    Buron, Catherine; Le Vu, Beatrice; Cosset, Jean-Marc; Peiffert, Didier; Delannes, Martine; Flam, Thierry; Guerif, Stephane; Salem, Naji; Chauveinc, Laurent; Livartowski, Alain . E-mail: alain.livartowski@curie.net

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL), patient-reported treatment-related symptoms, and costs of iodine-125 permanent implant interstitial brachytherapy (IB) with those of radical prostatectomy (RP) during the first 2 years after these treatments for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 435 men with localized low-risk prostate cancer, from 11 French hospitals, treated with IB (308) or RP (127), were offered to complete the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer core Quality of Life Questionnaire QLQ-C30 version 3 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the prostate cancer specific EORTC QLQ-PR25 module before and at the end of treatment, 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after treatment. Repeated measures analysis of variance and analysis of covariance were conducted on HRQOL changes. Comparative cost analysis covered initial treatment, hospital follow-up, outpatient and production loss costs. Results: Just after treatment, the decrease of global HRQOL was less pronounced in the IB than in the RP group, with a 13.5 points difference (p < 0.0001). A difference slightly in favor of RP was observed 6 months after treatment (-7.5 points, p = 0.0164) and was maintained at 24 months (-8.2 points, p = 0.0379). Impotence and urinary incontinence were more pronounced after RP, whereas urinary frequency, urgency, and urination pain were more frequent after IB. Mean societal costs did not differ between IB ( Euro 8,019 at T24) and RP ( Euro 8,715 at T24, p = 0.0843) regardless of the period. Conclusions: This study suggests a similar cost profile in France for IB and RP but with different HRQOL and side effect profiles. Those findings may be used to tailor localized prostate cancer treatments to suit individual patients' needs.

  15. Effect of Bladder Neck Preservation and Posterior Urethral Reconstruction during Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy for Urinary Continence

    PubMed Central

    You, Youn Chul; Kim, Tae Hyo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report our results on urinary continence after bladder neck preservation (BNP) and posterior urethral reconstruction (PUR) during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP). Materials and Methods Data from 107 patients who underwent RALP were compared on the basis of whether the patients underwent BNP and PUR, BNP only, or the standard technique (ST). In group A (n=31 patients), ST was performed by using Ven velthoven continuous suturing for urethrovesical anastomosis. In group B (n=28 patients), ST with only PUR was performed. In group C (n=48 patients), both the BNP and PUR techniques were used. "Recovery of continence" was defined as the use of 1 pad (50 ml) or less within 24 hours. Results The three groups were comparable in terms of patient demographics. The mean operative time and the mean blood loss decreased significantly from group A to group C (p=0.021 for mean operative time and p=0.004 for the mean blood loss). Mean catheterization time was 8.9, 7.8, and 7.1 days in each group (p=0.047). Early return of urinary continence at 3 months was observed in group B (89.2%) and group C (90.6%) compared with group A (71%). However, continence at 6 months was comparable in the 3 groups (87.5% in group A, 92.8% in group B, and 92.3% in group C). Rates of positive surgical margins decreased from 30.2% in group A to 20% in group B and 12% in group C. Conclusions BNP and PUR during RALP showed a favorable impact on the early postoperative recovery of continence while not affecting positive surgical margins. PMID:22323971

  16. Phase II Prospective Randomized Trial of a Low-Fat Diet with Fish Oil Supplementation in Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, William J.; Kobayashi, Naoko; Barnard, R. James; Henning, Susanne; Jardack, Patricia M.; Liu, Bingrong; Gray, Ashley; Wan, Junxiang; Konijeti, Ramdev; Freedland, Stephen J.; Castor, Brandon; Heber, David; Elashoff, David; Said, Jonathan; Cohen, Pinchas; Galet, Colette

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies suggest lowering dietary fat and decreasing the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases the risk of prostate cancer development and progression. We conducted a phase II randomized trial to test the effect of decreasing dietary fat combined with decreasing the dietary omega-6:omega-3 ratio on biomarkers related to prostate cancer development and progression. Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were randomly assigned to receive a low-fat diet with 5 grams of fish oil daily (dietary omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 2:1) or a control western diet (omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 15:1) for 4–6 weeks prior to surgery. The primary endpoint was change in serum IGF-1 between arms. Secondary endpoints were serum IGFBP-1, prostate prostaglandin E-2 levels, omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratios, COX-2 and markers of proliferation and apoptosis. Fifty-five patients were randomized and 48 completed the trial. There was no treatment difference in the primary outcome. Positive secondary outcomes in the low-fat fish oil vs. western group were reduced benign and malignant prostate tissue omega-6:omega-3 ratios, reduced proliferation (Ki67 index), and reduced proliferation in an ex-vivo bioassay when patient sera was applied to prostate cancer cells in vitro. In summary, 4–6 weeks of a low-fat diet and fish oil capsules to achieve an omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 2:1 had no effect on serum IGF-1 levels, though in secondary analyses the intervention resulted in decreased prostate cancer proliferation and decreased prostate tissue omega-6:omega-3 ratios. These results support further studies evaluating reduction of dietary fat with fish oil supplementation on modulating prostate cancer biology. PMID:22027686

  17. Randomized Clinical Trial of Brewed Green and Black Tea in Men with Prostate Cancer Prior to Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Susanne M.; Wang, Piwen; Said, Jonathan W.; Huang, Min; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Carpenter, Catherine L.; Heber, David; Aronson, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preclinical and epidemiologic studies suggest chemopreventive effects of green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) in prostate cancer. In the current study we determined the effect of GT and BT consumption on biomarkers related to prostate cancer development and progression. Methods In this exploratory, open label, phase II trial 113 men diagnosed with prostate cancer were randomized to consume six cups daily of brewed GT, BT or water (control) prior to radical prostatectomy (RP). The primary endpoint was prostate tumor markers of cancer development and progression determined by tissue immunostaining of proliferation (Ki67), apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax, Tunel), inflammation [nuclear and cytoplasmic nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB)] and oxidation [8-hydroxydeoxy- guanosine (8OHdG)]. Secondary endpoints of urinary oxidation, tea polyphenol uptake in prostate tissue, and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography and ELISA analysis. Results Ninety three patients completed the intervention. There was no significant difference in markers of proliferation, apoptosis and oxidation in RP tissue comparing GT and BT to water control. Nuclear staining of NFkB was significantly decreased in RP tissue of men consuming GT (p=0.013) but not BT (p=0.931) compared to water control. Tea polyphenols were detected in prostate tissue from 32 of 34 men consuming GT but not in the other groups. Evidence of a systemic antioxidant effect was observed (reduced urinary 8OHdG) only with GT consumption (p=0.03). GT, but not BT or water, also led to a small but statistically significant decrease in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels (p=0.04). Conclusion Given the GT-induced changes in NFkB and systemic oxidation, and uptake of GT polyphenols in prostate tissue, future longer-term studies are warranted to further examine the role of GT for prostate cancer prevention and treatment, and possibly for other prostate conditions such as

  18. Lack of an Association between Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio and PSA Failure of Prostate Cancer Patients Who Underwent Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Yoko; Kawahara, Takashi; Koizumi, Mitsuyuki; Ito, Hiroki; Kumano, Yohei; Ohtaka, Mari; Kondo, Takuya; Mochizuki, Taku; Hattori, Yusuke; Teranishi, Jun-ichi; Yumura, Yasushi; Miyoshi, Yasuhide; Yao, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Uemura, Hiroji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), which can be easily calculated from routine complete blood counts of the peripheral blood, has been suggested to serve as a prognostic factor for some solid malignancies. In the present study, we aimed to determine the relationship between NLR in prostate cancer patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) and their prognosis. Materials and Methods. We assessed NLR in 73 men (patients) who received RP for their prostate cancer. We also performed immunohistochemistry for CD8 and CD66b in a separate set of RP specimens. Results. The median NLR in the 73 patients was 1.85. There were no significant correlations of NLR with tumor grade (p = 0.834), pathological T stage (p = 0.082), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.062), or resection margin status (p = 0.772). Based on the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) to predict biochemical recurrence after RP, potential NLR cut-off point was determined to be 2.88 or 3.88. However, both of these cut-off points did not precisely predict the prognosis. There were no statistically significant differences in the number of CD66b-positive neutrophils or CD8-positive lymphocytes between stromal tissues adjacent to cancer glands and stromal tissues away from cancer glands and between different grades or stages of tumors. Conclusions. There was no association between NLR and biochemical failure after prostatectomy. PMID:27200375

  19. Comparison of two adjuvant hormone therapy regimens in patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy: primary results of study CU1005.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kun; Qin, Xiao-Jian; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Dai, Bo; Zhu, Yao; Shi, Guo-Hai; Shen, Yi-Jun; Zhu, Yi-Ying; Ye, Ding-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The role of adjuvant hormonal therapy and optimized regimens for high-risk localized prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy remains controversial. Herein, the clinical trial CU1005 prospectively evaluated two regimens of maximum androgen blockage  or bicalutamide 150 mg daily as immediate adjuvant therapy for high-risk localized prostate cancer. Overall, 209 consecutive patients were recruited in this study, 107 of whom received 9 months of adjuvant maximum androgen blockage, whereas 102 received 9 months of adjuvant bicalutamide 150 mg. The median postoperative follow-up time was 27.0 months. The primary endpoint was biochemical recurrence. Of the 209 patients, 59 patients developed biochemical recurrence. There was no difference between the two groups with respect to clinical characteristics, including age, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score, surgical margin status, or pathological stages. The maximum androgen blockage group experienced longer biochemical recurrence-free survival (P = 0.004) compared with the bicalutamide 150 mg group. Side-effects in the two groups were similar and could be moderately tolerated in all patients. In conclusion, immediate, 9-month maximum androgen blockage should be considered as an alternative to bicalutamide 150 mg as adjuvant treatment for high-risk localized prostate cancer patients after radical prostatectomy.

  20. Factors effective on survival after radical prostatectomy: To what extent is pre-operative biopsy Gleason scoring is confident in predicting the prognosis?

    PubMed

    Açıkgöz, Onur; Gazel, Eymen; Kasap, Yusuf; Yığman, Metin; Güneş, Zeki Ender; Ölçücüoğlu, Erkan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of different grades on independent survival from the biochemical relapse was investigated through comparison of the histological grades of the biopsy and prostatectomy materials in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). A total of 152 patients undergoing RP following biopsy were retrospectively investigated in an attempt to reveal the effect of discordance between needle biopsy Gleason score and RP Gleason score on prostate specific antigen relapse-free survival. Accordingly, while 58.3% (14/24) survival was seen in the patients in Group 1 (high-graded) with Gleason score 7, 93.7% (15/16) survival has been seen in the patients in Group 2 (low-graded) and Group 3 (same Gleason scores) with Gleason score 7. The difference in-between has been statically found significant (P < 0.001). Similarly, while a 10% (1/10) survival is seen in the patients in Group 1 with Gleason score 8 and above, 75% (3/4) survival has been observed in the patients in Group 2 and 3 with Gleason score 8 and above. Also in this comparison, the difference in-between has been statically found significant (P = 0.041). Eventually, different grading, particularly determination of Gleason score higher than the RP specimen biopsy also bring about bad pathologic parameters and shortened survival periods.

  1. Factors effective on survival after radical prostatectomy: To what extent is pre-operative biopsy Gleason scoring is confident in predicting the prognosis?

    PubMed Central

    Açıkgöz, Onur; Gazel, Eymen; Kasap, Yusuf; Yığman, Metin; Güneş, Zeki Ender; Ölçücüoğlu, Erkan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of different grades on independent survival from the biochemical relapse was investigated through comparison of the histological grades of the biopsy and prostatectomy materials in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). A total of 152 patients undergoing RP following biopsy were retrospectively investigated in an attempt to reveal the effect of discordance between needle biopsy Gleason score and RP Gleason score on prostate specific antigen relapse-free survival. Accordingly, while 58.3% (14/24) survival was seen in the patients in Group 1 (high-graded) with Gleason score 7, 93.7% (15/16) survival has been seen in the patients in Group 2 (low-graded) and Group 3 (same Gleason scores) with Gleason score 7. The difference in-between has been statically found significant (P < 0.001). Similarly, while a 10% (1/10) survival is seen in the patients in Group 1 with Gleason score 8 and above, 75% (3/4) survival has been observed in the patients in Group 2 and 3 with Gleason score 8 and above. Also in this comparison, the difference in-between has been statically found significant (P = 0.041). Eventually, different grading, particularly determination of Gleason score higher than the RP specimen biopsy also bring about bad pathologic parameters and shortened survival periods. PMID:25837974

  2. International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens. Working group 3: extraprostatic extension, lymphovascular invasion and locally advanced disease.

    PubMed

    Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Evans, Andrew J; Delahunt, Brett; Epstein, Jonathan I; Griffiths, David F; van der Kwast, Theo H; Montironi, Rodolfo; Wheeler, Thomas M; Srigley, John R; Egevad, Lars L; Humphrey, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    The International Society of Urological Pathology Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens in Boston made recommendations regarding the standardization of pathology reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens. Issues relating to extraprostatic extension (pT3a disease), bladder neck invasion, lymphovascular invasion and the definition of pT4 were coordinated by working group 3. It was agreed that prostate cancer can be categorized as pT3a in the absence of adipose tissue involvement when cancer bulges beyond the contour of the gland or beyond the condensed smooth muscle of the prostate at posterior and posterolateral sites. Extraprostatic extension can also be identified anteriorly. It was agreed that the location of extraprostatic extension should be reported. Although there was consensus that the amount of extraprostatic extension should be quantitated, there was no agreement as to which method of quantitation should be employed. There was overwhelming consensus that microscopic urinary bladder neck invasion by carcinoma should be reported as stage pT3a and that lymphovascular invasion by carcinoma should be reported. It is recommended that these elements are considered in the development of practice guidelines and in the daily practice of urological surgical pathology.

  3. International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens. Working group 4: seminal vesicles and lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Berney, Daniel M; Wheeler, Thomas M; Grignon, David J; Epstein, Jonathan I; Griffiths, David F; Humphrey, Peter A; van der Kwast, Theo; Montironi, Rodolfo; Delahunt, Brett; Egevad, Lars; Srigley, John R

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 International Society of Urological Pathology Consensus Conference in Boston made recommendations regarding the standardization of pathology reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens. Issues relating to the infiltration of tumor into the seminal vesicles and regional lymph nodes were coordinated by working group 4. There was a consensus that complete blocking of the seminal vesicles was not necessary, although sampling of the junction of the seminal vesicles and prostate was mandatory. There was consensus that sampling of the vas deferens margins was not obligatory. There was also consensus that muscular wall invasion of the extraprostatic seminal vesicle only should be regarded as seminal vesicle invasion. Categorization into types of seminal vesicle spread was agreed by consensus to be not necessary. For examination of lymph nodes, there was consensus that special techniques such as frozen sectioning were of use only in high-risk cases. There was no consensus on the optimal sampling method for pelvic lymph node dissection specimens, although there was consensus that all lymph nodes should be completely blocked as a minimum. There was also a consensus that a count of the number of lymph nodes harvested should be attempted. In view of recent evidence, there was consensus that the diameter of the largest lymph node metastasis should be measured. These consensus decisions will hopefully clarify the difficult areas of pathological assessment in radical prostatectomy evaluation and improve the concordance of research series to allow more accurate assessment of patient prognosis.

  4. High-grade Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Present in a Single Biopsy Core is Associated With Increased Extraprostatic Extension, Seminal Vesicle Invasion, and Positive Surgical Margins at Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chaux, Alcides; Fajardo, Daniel A.; Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Partin, Alan W.; Eisenberger, Mario; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Netto, George J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the pathologic outcome of prostate-specific antigen-screened patients with high-grade (Gleason score ≥ 8) prostate cancer limited to 1 biopsy core, without clinical evidence of disease. METHODS Ninety-two patients with only 1 biopsy core with cancer and treated by radical prostatectomy were divided into 4 groups according to the biopsy Gleason score: 3 + 3 = 6 (23 cases), 3 + 4 = 7 (25 cases), 4 + 3 = 7 (20 cases), and ≥8 (24 cases). RESULTS Cases with Gleason score ≥8 showed a significantly higher proportion of extraprostatic extension (50%), positive surgical margins (21%), and seminal vesicle invasion (12%) when compared with the other groups. Patients with Gleason score ≥8 in the biopsy had a 25-fold increased in the odds ratio for extraprostatic extension in the prostatectomy. The incidence of extraprostatic extension was higher in those with prostatic cancer involving ≥50% of one core (88%) compared with cases involving <50% (32%). CONCLUSION In patients with prostate cancer limited to 1 biopsy core, the presence of Gleason score ≥8 significantly increased the incidence of extraprostatic extension, positive surgical margins, and seminal vesicle invasion. The odds ratio was substantially higher in patients with ≥50% of Gleason ≥8 in the biopsy core. These data might be taken into account for proper clinical management of this set of patients. PMID:22173174

  5. Short-term clinicopathological outcome of neoadjuvant chemohormonal therapy comprising complete androgen blockade, followed by treatment with docetaxel and estramustine phosphate before radical prostatectomy in Japanese patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the outcome of neoadjuvant chemohormonal therapy comprising complete androgen blockade followed by treatment with docetaxel and estramustine phosphate before radical prostatectomy in Japanese patients with a high risk of localized prostate cancer (PCa). Methods Complete androgen blockade followed by 6 cycles of docetaxel (30 mg/m2) with estramustine phosphate (560 mg) were given to 18 PCa patients before radical prostatectomy. Subsequently, the clinical and pathological outcomes were analyzed. Results No patients had severe adverse events during chemohormonal therapy, and hence they were treated with radical prostatectomy. Two patients (11.1%) achieved pathological complete response. Surgical margins were negative in all patients. At a median follow-up of 18 months, 14 patients (77.8%) were disease-free without PSA recurrence. All 4 patients with PSA recurrence had pathologic T3b or T4 disease and 3 of these 4 patients had pathologic N1 disease. Conclusion We found that neoadjuvant chemohormonal therapy with complete androgen blockade followed by treatment with docetaxel and estramustine phosphate before radical prostatectomy was safe, feasible, and associated with favorable pathological outcomes in patients with a high risk of localized PCa. PMID:22214417

  6. Pretreatment Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio: A Predictor of Advanced Prostate Cancer and Biochemical Recurrence in Patients Receiving Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-Ming; Zhu, Yao; Ma, Xiao-Cheng; Qin, Xiao-Jian; Wan, Fang-Ning; Dai, Bo; Sun, Li-Jiang; Ye, Ding-Wei

    2015-10-01

    The pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is reportedly associated with the clinical outcomes of many cancers. However, it has not been widely investigated whether the pretreatment NLR is associated with the pathological characteristics of prostate cancer (PCa) and biochemical recurrence in PCa patients receiving radical prostatectomy (RP).In this cohort study, a total of 1688 PCa patients who had undergone RP were analyzed retrospectively, and a subset of 237 of these patients were evaluated to determine the relationship between pretreatment NLR and biochemical recurrence. Patients were divided into a high-NLR group (NLR ≥2.36) and a low-NLR group (NLR < 2.36) according to the pretreatment NLR. The association between the pretreatment NLR and pathological stage and lymph node involvement was evaluated using logistic regression analysis. Time of biochemical recurrence was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox's proportional hazard regression model was used to compare the time of biochemical recurrence between the groups.As compared with patients in the low-NLR group, those in the high-NLR group had an increased risk of pT3-4 disease (odds ratio (OR), 1.883; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.419-2.500; P < 0.001), and a 1.7-fold increased risk of lymph node involvement (OR, 1.685; 95% CI, 1.101-2.579; P = 0.016). For the subset of 237 patients, those with a high NLR showed a significantly shorter median biochemical recurrence-free survival time (51.9 months) than those with a low NLR (76.5 months; log-rank test, P = 0.019). However, multivariate analysis indicated that the NLR was not an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence (hazard ratio, 1.388; 95% CI, 0.909-2.118; P = 0.129).Our findings suggest that the pretreatment NLR may be associated with pathological stage and lymph node involvement in PCa patients receiving RP, and that PCa patients with a high NLR may have a higher rate of biochemical recurrence following

  7. Does prostate configuration affect the efficacy and safety of GreenLight HPS™ laser photoselective vaporization prostatectomy (PVP)?

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiao; Strom, Kurt; Spaliviero, Massimiliano; Wong, Carson

    2013-02-01

    We evaluate the efficacy and safety of GreenLight HPS™ laser photoselective vaporization prostatectomy (PVP) for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with different prostate configuration. Patients were stratified into two groups: bilobe (group I) and trilobe (group II) BPH. Transurethral PVP was performed using a 120 W GreenLight HPS™ side-firing laser system. American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUASS), Quality of Life (QoL) score, maximum flow rate (Q max), and postvoid residual (PVR) were measured preoperatively and at 1 and 4 weeks and 3, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months postoperatively. A number of 160 consecutive patients were identified (I: 86, II: 74). Among the preoperative parameters, there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in prostate volume (I: 46.0 ± 19.8; II: 87.5 ± 39.6 ml), Q max (I: 9.9 ± 3.9; II: 8.7 ± 3.5 ml/sec), PVR (I: 59.2 ± 124.6; II: 97.7 ± 119.1 ml) and PSA (I: 1.4 ± 1.4; II: 3.6 ± 2.6 ng/ml), while AUASS and QoL were similar (p > 0.05). Significant differences (p < 0.05) in laser utilization (I: 9.5 ± 6.6; II: 19.5 ± 11.6 min) and energy usage (I: 63.1 ± 43.9; II: 132.5 ± 81.1 kJ) were noted. Clinical outcomes (AUASS, QoL, Q max, and PVR) showed immediate and stable improvement from baseline (p < 0.05) within each group, but no significant differences between the two groups were observed during the follow-up period (p > 0.05). The incidences of adverse events were low and similar in both groups. Our experience suggests that BPH configuration has little effect on the efficacy and safety of GreenLight HPS™ laser PVP.

  8. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus radical prostatectomy in patients with localized prostate cancer: long-term follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this work was to assess the overall survival, cause-specific survival and biochemical failure-free survival of a contemporary cohort of patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods We did a retrospective cohort study of our institution’s registry of patients undergoing either IMRT or RP between January 1999 and March 2010, and assessed Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), age at diagnosis, Gleason score, and digital rectal examination. Two groups were separated according to RP or IMRT treatment and these groups were in turn divided into risk groups according to the D’Amico classification. Overall survival (OS), cause-specific survival (CSS), mortality from other causes (MOC), and biochemical disease-free survival (BDFS) were assessed. Results Twelve-hundred patients were included: 993 in the RP group and 207 in the IMRT group. The IMRT group had older age, PSA at diagnosis and a significantly higher percentage of cancer on the needle biopsy (p <0.001). Of the 207 patients who underwent IMRT, 54% presented comorbidities. Median follow-up was 91.7 months for the RP group and 76 months for the IMRT group. The OS at 5 and 7 was 96.2, and 93.7 for the RP group respectively and 88.4, and 83.1 for the IMRT group respectively (p <0.001). There were no significant differences in the CSS in relation to treatment received among the low- and high-risk groups, while in the intermediate-risk group, patients who underwent to RP had a higher CSS than patients who underwent IMRT (99.6% vs 94.1%, p = 0.003). The IMRT group had a significantly better BDFS than the RP group (86.4% vs. 74.3%, respectively, p = 0.016). Conclusions Patients treated with RP were significantly younger and had a better prognosis than patients treated using IMRT, and according to our results, RP had better outcomes in terms of OS while IMRT had greater MOC. Treatment

  9. Preoperative characteristics of high-Gleason disease predictive of favourable pathological and clinical outcomes at radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Ross, Ashley E.; Lin, Brian M.; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Han, Misop; Walsh, Patrick C.; Partin, Alan W.; Pavlovich, Christian P.; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate preoperative characteristics that distinguish favourable and unfavourable pathological and clinical outcomes in men with high biopsy Gleason sum (8 – 10) prostate cancer to better select men who will most benefit from radical prostatectomy (RP). PATIENTS AND METHODS The Institutional Review Board-approved institutional RP database (1982 – 2010) was analysed for men with high-Gleason prostate cancer on biopsy; 842 men were identified. The 10-year biochemical-free (BFS), metastasis-free (MFS) and prostate cancer-specific survival (CSS) were calculated using the Kaplan – Meier method to verify favourable pathology as men with Gleason <8 at RP or ≤ pT3a compared with men with unfavourable pathology with Gleason 8 – 10 and pT3b or N1. Preoperative characteristics were compared using appropriate comparative tests. Logistic regression determined preoperative predictors of unfavourable pathology. RESULTS There was favourable pathology in 656 (77.9%) men. The 10-year BFS, MFS and CSS were 31.0%, 60.9% and 74.8%, respectively. In contrast, men with unfavourable pathological findings had significantly worse 10-year BFS, MFS and CSS, at 4.3%, 29.1% and 52.3%, respectively (all P < 0.001). In multivariable logistic regression, a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration of > 10 ng/mL (odds ratio [OR] 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.38 – 3.62, P = 0.001), advanced clinical stage (≥ cT2b; OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.55 – 4.21, P < 0.001), Gleason pattern 9 or 10 at biopsy (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.59 – 4.09, P < 0.001), increasing number of cores positive with high-grade cancer (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.01 – 1.34, P = 0.04) and > 50% positive core involvement (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.17 – 4.35, P = 0.015) were predictive of unfavourable pathology. CONCLUSIONS Men with high-Gleason sum at biopsy are at high risk for biochemical recurrence, metastasis and death after RP; men with high Gleason sum and advanced pathological stage (pT3b or N1) have the worst

  10. Effect of Preoperative Risk Group Stratification on Oncologic Outcomes of Patients with Adverse Pathologic Findings at Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Won Sik; Kim, Lawrence H. C.; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Rha, Koon Ho; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon; Ham, Won Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend postoperative radiation therapy based only on adverse pathologic findings (APFs), irrespective of preoperative risk group. We assessed whether a model incorporating both the preoperative risk group and APFs could predict long-term oncologic outcomes better than a model based on APFs alone. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 4,404 men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) at our institution between 1992 and 2014. After excluding patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy or with incomplete pathological or follow-up data, 3,092 men were included in the final analysis. APFs were defined as extraprostatic extension (EPE), seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), or a positive surgical margin (PSM). The adequacy of model fit to the data was compared using the likelihood-ratio test between the models with and without risk groups, and model discrimination was compared with the concordance index (c-index) for predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). We performed multivariate Cox proportional hazard model and competing risk regression analyses to identify predictors of BCR and PCSM in the total patient group and each of the risk groups. Results Adding risk groups to the model containing only APFs significantly improved the fit to the data (likelihood-ratio test, p <0.001) and the c-index increased from 0.693 to 0.732 for BCR and from 0.707 to 0.747 for PCSM. A RP Gleason score (GS) ≥8 and a PSM were independently associated with BCR in the total patient group and also each risk group. However, only a GS ≥8 and SVI were associated with PCSM in the total patient group (GS ≥8: hazard ratio [HR] 5.39 and SVI: HR 3.36) and the high-risk group (GS ≥8: HR 6.31 and SVI: HR 4.05). Conclusion The postoperative estimation of oncologic outcomes in men with APFs at RP was improved by considering preoperative risk group stratification. Although a PSM was an

  11. External validation and comparison of two nomograms predicting the probability of Gleason sum upgrading between biopsy and radical prostatectomy pathology in two patient populations: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Takanobu; Oka, Ryo; Endo, Takumi; Yano, Masashi; Kamijima, Shuichi; Kamiya, Naoto; Fujimura, Masaaki; Sekita, Nobuyuki; Mikami, Kazuo; Hiruta, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to validate and compare the predictive accuracy of two nomograms predicting the probability of Gleason sum upgrading between biopsy and radical prostatectomy pathology among representative patients with prostate cancer. We previously developed a nomogram, as did Chun et al. In this validation study, patients originated from two centers: Toho University Sakura Medical Center (n = 214) and Chibaken Saiseikai Narashino Hospital (n = 216). We assessed predictive accuracy using area under the curve values and constructed calibration plots to grasp the tendency for each institution. Both nomograms showed a high predictive accuracy in each institution, although the constructed calibration plots of the two nomograms underestimated the actual probability in Toho University Sakura Medical Center. Clinicians need to use calibration plots for each institution to correctly understand the tendency of each nomogram for their patients, even if each nomogram has a good predictive accuracy.

  12. Conservative treatment of a recto-urethral fistula due to salvage HIFU for local recurrence of prostate cancer, 5 years after radical prostatectomy and external beam radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Topazio, Luca; Perugia, Claudio; Finazzi-Agro, Enrico

    2012-11-09

    Recto-urethral fistula is one of the most serious complications caused by high-intensity-focused ultrasound used as salvage treatment for recurrence of prostate cancer after brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). We report the case of a recto-urethral fistula in a 68-year-old patient, who previously had undergone radical prostatectomy and EBRT for prostate cancer (pT3 N0 Mx). The fistula was treated conservatively by an indwelling Foley catheter, without the creation of an intestinal diversion. The fistula was assessed initially by a retrograde and a CT scan of the pelvis with contrast medium and reassessed periodically by means of retrograde urethrograms. To date, 24 months after this episode, no evidence of recurrence of the fistula has been found.

  13. Effect of positive surgical margins on biochemical failure, biochemical recurrence-free survival, and overall survival after radical prostatectomy: median long-term results.

    PubMed

    Huri, Emre; Aydogmus, Yasin; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Dadali, Mumtaz; Karakan, Tolga; Emir, Levent; Germiyanoglu, Cankon

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the median long-term effects of positive surgical margin (PSM) and other prognostic factors on biochemical recurrence-free survival, overall survival, and biochemical failure in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. Our study included 121 patients with pT2-3N0 disease treated between March 2006 and August 2012. The patients were divided into two groups: those with PSM and those with negative surgical margin (NSM). We analyzed the age, clinical and pathological stages, preoperative and postoperative Gleason scores, duration of the follow-up, adjuvant chemo-/radiotherapy, biochemical failure, biochemical recurrence-free survival, and overall survival in these patients. PSM was found in 25 (20%) patients, whereas 96 patients had NSM. The median follow-up time was 46.6 months (range 12-72 months) for the PSM group and 48.3 months (range 7-149 months) for the NSM group. The biochemical failure rate was 24% in the PSM group and 8.3% in the NSM group (p = 0.029). The biochemical recurrence-free survival was found as 76% in the PSM group and 91.7% in the NSM group. The difference between the groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). The overall survival was 100% in both groups. The surgical margins of the radical prostatectomy material is an important pathological indicator for biochemical failure at mid long-term follow-up. We did not find any effect of PSM on overall survival or biochemical recurrence-free survival.

  14. Perioperative changes in pro and anticoagulant factors in prostate cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic and robotic radical prostatectomy with different anaesthetic techniques

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic prostatectomy (LRP) may activate clotting system influencing the risk of perioperative thrombosis in patients with prostate cancer. Moreover, different anaesthetic techniques can also modify coagulant factors. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects on pro- and anti-coagulant and fibrinolytic factors of two established types of anaesthesia in patients with prostate cancer undergoing elective LRP. Methods 102 patients with primary prostate cancer, who underwent conventional LRP or robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), were studied and divided into 2 groups to receive total intravenous anesthesia with target-controlled infusion (TIVA-TCI) or balanced inhalation anaesthesia (BAL) prior to surgery. Before the induction of anaesthesia (T0), 1 hr (T1) and 24 hrs post-surgery (T2), some pro-coagulant factors, fibronolysis markers, p-selectin and haemostatic system inhibitors were evaluated. Results Both TIVA-TCI and BAL patients showed a marked and significant increase in pro-coagulant factors and consequent reduction in haemostatic system inhibitors in the early post operative period (p???0.004 for each markers). Use of RALP showed a significant increase in prothrombotic markers as compared to LRP. In TIVA patients undergoing LRP, a significant reduction of p-selectin levels between T0 and T2 (p?=?0.001) was observed as compared to BAL, suggesting a better protective effect on platelet activation of anaesthetic agents used for TIVA. Conclusions Both anaesthetic techniques significantly seem to increase the risk of thrombosis in prostate cancer patients undergoing LRP, mainly when the robotic device was utilized, encouraging the use of a peri-operative thromboembolic prophylaxis in these patients. PMID:25129475

  15. Acute Radiation-Induced Nocturia in Prostate Cancer Patients Is Associated With Pretreatment Symptoms, Radical Prostatectomy, and Genetic Markers in the TGF{beta}1 Gene

    SciTech Connect

    De Langhe, Sofie; De Ruyck, Kim; Ost, Piet; Fonteyne, Valerie; Werbrouck, Joke; De Meerleer, Gert; De Neve, Wilfried; Thierens, Hubert

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: After radiation therapy for prostate cancer, approximately 50% of the patients experience acute genitourinary symptoms, mostly nocturia. This may be highly bothersome with a major impact on the patient's quality of life. In the past, nocturia is seldom reported as a single, physiologically distinct endpoint, and little is known about its etiology. It is assumed that in addition to dose-volume parameters and patient- and therapy-related factors, a genetic component contributes to the development of radiation-induced damage. In this study, we investigated the association among dosimetric, clinical, and TGF{beta}1 polymorphisms and the development of acute radiation-induced nocturia in prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Data were available for 322 prostate cancer patients treated with primary or postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Five genetic markers in the TGF{beta}1 gene (-800 G>A, -509 C>T, codon 10 T>C, codon 25 G>C, g.10780 T>G), and a high number of clinical and dosimetric parameters were considered. Toxicity was scored using an symptom scale developed in-house. Results: Radical prostatectomy (P<.001) and the presence of pretreatment nocturia (P<.001) are significantly associated with the occurrence of radiation-induced acute toxicity. The -509 CT/TT (P=.010) and codon 10 TC/CC (P=.005) genotypes are significantly associated with an increased risk for radiation-induced acute nocturia. Conclusions: Radical prostatectomy, the presence of pretreatment nocturia symptoms, and the variant alleles of TGF{beta}1 -509 C>T and codon 10 T>C are identified as factors involved in the development of acute radiation-induced nocturia. These findings may contribute to the research on prediction of late nocturia after IMRT for prostate cancer.

  16. International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens. Working group 2: T2 substaging and prostate cancer volume.

    PubMed

    van der Kwast, Theo H; Amin, Mahul B; Billis, Athanase; Epstein, Jonathan I; Griffiths, David; Humphrey, Peter A; Montironi, Rodolfo; Wheeler, Thomas M; Srigley, John R; Egevad, Lars; Delahunt, Brett

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 International Society of Urological Pathology consensus conference in Boston made recommendations regarding the standardization of pathology reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens. Issues relating to the substaging of pT2 prostate cancers according to the TNM 2002/2010 system, reporting of tumor size/volume and zonal location of prostate cancers were coordinated by working group 2. A survey circulated before the consensus conference demonstrated that 74% of the 157 participants considered pT2 substaging of prostate cancer to be of clinical and/or academic relevance. The survey also revealed a considerable variation in the frequency of reporting of pT2b substage prostate cancer, which was likely a consequence of the variable methodologies used to distinguish pT2a from pT2b tumors. Overview of the literature indicates that current pT2 substaging criteria lack clinical relevance and the majority (65.5%) of conference attendees wished to discontinue pT2 substaging. Therefore, the consensus was that reporting of pT2 substages should, at present, be optional. Several studies have shown that prostate cancer volume is significantly correlated with other clinicopathological features, including Gleason score and extraprostatic extension of tumor; however, most studies fail to demonstrate this to have prognostic significance on multivariate analysis. Consensus was reached with regard to the reporting of some quantitative measure of the volume of tumor in a prostatectomy specimen, without prescribing a specific methodology. Incorporation of the zonal and/or anterior location of the dominant/index tumor in the pathology report was accepted by most participants, but a formal definition of the identifying features of the dominant/index tumor remained undecided.

  17. Clinical significance of the prostate-specific antigen doubling time prior to and following radical prostatectomy to predict the outcome of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Hisashi; Ohori, Makoto; Tachibana, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    With the advent of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a larger number of prostate cancers in the early phase have been successfully detected. Although decisions to perform prostate biopsies are routinely based on PSA levels, the PSA level is easily influenced by benign prostatic hyperplasia, with poor specificity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the clinical significance of prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) prior to and following radical prostatectomy. In total, 488 patients with T1c-3N0M0 prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy were included. Preoperative and postoperative PSADT were retrospectively correlated with pathological and clinical outcomes. Preoperative PSADT was measured in 204 of the 488 patients. In total, 16 out of 20 patients with a preoperative PSADT of >24 months had a cancer confined to the prostate compared with 105 of 184 patients with a PSADT of <24 months. The PSA non-recurrence rate at 5 years for patients with a preoperative PSADT of >24 months was significantly better compared with those with a preoperative PSADT of <24 months (P=0.011). Patients with a PSADT of >24 months and stable PSADT were associated with PSA recurrence following surgery, based on multivariate analysis. Postoperative PSADT was measured in 51 of 111 patients with PSA failure following surgery. Pathologically, 7 of 8 patients with a post-PSADT of >24 months had a cancer confined to the prostate compared with 14 of 43 patients with a post-PSADT of <24 months. These results suggest that patients with longer preoperative PSADTs appeared to have a favorable pathological result and a higher PSA non-recurrence rate compared with those with shorter preoperative PSADTs. A longer postoperative PSADT may facilitate the observation of patients with PSA recurrence without immediate secondary treatments. PMID:28357104

  18. African American Men With Very Low–Risk Prostate Cancer Exhibit Adverse Oncologic Outcomes After Radical Prostatectomy: Should Active Surveillance Still Be an Option for Them?

    PubMed Central

    Sundi, Debasish; Ross, Ashley E.; Humphreys, Elizabeth B.; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Active surveillance (AS) is a treatment option for men with very low–risk prostate cancer (PCa); however, favorable outcomes achieved for men in AS are based on cohorts that under-represent African American (AA) men. To explore whether race-based health disparities exist among men with very low–risk PCa, we evaluated oncologic outcomes of AA men with very low–risk PCa who were candidates for AS but elected to undergo radical prostatectomy (RP). Patients and Methods We studied 1,801 men (256 AA, 1,473 white men, and 72 others) who met National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria for very low–risk PCa and underwent RP. Presenting characteristics, pathologic data, and cancer recurrence were compared among the groups. Multivariable modeling was performed to assess the association of race with upgrading and adverse pathologic features. Results AA men with very low–risk PCa had more adverse pathologic features at RP and poorer oncologic outcomes. AA men were more likely to experience disease upgrading at prostatectomy (27.3% v 14.4%; P < .001), positive surgical margins (9.8% v 5.9%; P = .02), and higher Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Post-Surgical scoring system (CAPRA-S) scores. On multivariable analysis, AA race was an independent predictor of adverse pathologic features (odds ratio, [OR], 3.23; P = .03) and pathologic upgrading (OR, 2.26; P = .03). Conclusion AA men with very low–risk PCa who meet criteria for AS but undergo immediate surgery experience significantly higher rates of upgrading and adverse pathology than do white men and men of other races. AA men with very low–risk PCa should be counseled about increased oncologic risk when deciding among their disease management options. PMID:23775960

  19. Factors related to receipt of non-cancer-related transurethral prostatectomy: findings from a large prospective study of 106 769 middle-aged and older Australian men

    PubMed Central

    Joshy, Grace; Soga, Kay; Korda, Rosemary J; Patel, Manish I; Banks, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Background Transurethral prostatectomy (TURP) is a common surgical intervention for chronic lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Little large-scale evidence exists on factors related to receipt of non-cancer-related TURP. Methods A prospective study of men aged ≥45 years participating in the 45 and Up Study, a large Australian cohort study, without prior prostatectomy and/or bowel/genital/urinary-tract cancer; questionnaire data were linked to hospitalisations and deaths. HRs for TURP were estimated in relation to multiple factors, adjusting for confounders. Results There were 3416 incident TURPs among 106 769 men (median follow-up 5.8 years), with rates of 1.8, 5.3, 9.1 and 11.4/1000 person-years for ages 45–54, 55–64, 65–74 and ≥75 years, respectively. Age-adjusted rates of TURP varied markedly according to baseline LUTS from 2.2/1000 person-years with no/mild symptoms to 30.7/1000 person-years with severe symptoms. Annual household income ≥$70 000 versus <$20 000, having private health insurance and living in major cities were associated with higher TURP rates; there were no significant differences according to baseline diabetes, stroke, high blood pressure or cardiovascular disease. Men reporting severe versus no physical functioning limitation, high versus low psychological distress or poor versus excellent self-rated health were 36–51% more likely to undergo procedures overall, but were 24–37% less likely to undergo procedures following additional adjustment for need (baseline LUTS). Conclusions TURP rates were most strongly related to baseline LUTS and age, consistent with appropriate health services targeting. Lower TURP rates in men experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage and with poor health/disability, after accounting for baseline LUTS, suggest inequity and factors such as frailty and risks related to surgery. PMID:28179415

  20. Prognostic Significance of Percentage and Architectural Types of Contemporary Gleason Pattern 4 Prostate Cancer in Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Choy, Bonnie; Pearce, Shane M; Anderson, Blake B; Shalhav, Arieh L; Zagaja, Gregory; Eggener, Scott E; Paner, Gladell P

    2016-10-01

    The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) 2014 consensus meeting recommended a novel grade grouping for prostate cancer that included dividing Gleason score (GS) 7 into grade groups 2 (GS 3+4) and 3 (GS 4+3). This division of GS 7, essentially determined by the percent of Gleason pattern (GP) 4 (< or >50%), raises the question of whether a more exact quantification of the percent GP 4 within GS 7 will yield additional prognostic information. Modifications were also made by ISUP regarding the definition of GP 4, now including 4 main architectural types: cribriform, glomeruloid, poorly formed, and fused glands. This study was conducted to analyze the prognostic significance of the percent GP 4 and main architectural types of GP 4 according to the 2014 ISUP grading criteria in radical prostatectomies (RPs). The cohort included 585 RP cases of GS 6 (40.2%), 3+4 (49.0%), and 4+3 (10.8%) prostate cancers. Significantly different 5-year biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival rates were observed among GS 6 (99%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 97%-100%), 3+4 (81%, 95% CI: 76%-86%), and 4+3 (60%, 95% CI: 45%-71%) cancers (P<0.01). Dividing the GP 4 percent into quartiles showed a 5-year BCR-free survival of 84% (95% CI: 78%-89%) for 1% to 20%, 74% (95% CI: 62%-83%) for 21% to 50%, 66% (95% CI: 50%-78%) for 51% to 70%, and 32% (95% CI: 9%-59%) for >70% (P<0.001). Among the GP 4 architectures, cribriform was the most prevalent (43.7%), and combination of architectures with cribriform present was more frequently observed in GS 4+3 (60.3%). Glomeruloid was mostly (67.1%) seen combined with other GP 4 architectures. Unlike the other GP 4 architectures, glomeruloid as the sole GP 4 was observed only as a secondary pattern (ie, 3+4). Among patients with GS 7 cancer, the presence of cribriform architecture was associated with decreased 5-year BCR-free survival when compared with GS 7 cancers without this architecture (68% vs. 85%, P<0.01), whereas the presence of

  1. Interstitial laser prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Douglas E.; Cromeens, Douglas M.; Price, Roger E.

    1994-05-01

    Interstitial laser coagulation of the canine prostate using the Sharplan interstitial thermal therapy fiber (Model 25432) was performed in 9 adult dogs and the subsequent gross and histopathologic changes occurring in the prostate were studied at intervals ranging from 1 hour to 5 weeks. A large well-demarcated area of acute coagulative necrosis developed around each fiber tract which in turn was surrounded by a prominent narrow zone of marked tissue disruption and an outer zone of hemorrhage. Liquefaction developed within the coagulative areas within 24 hours and by 4 days, each prostatic lobe contained an irregular cavity which became lined by normal-appearing transitional epithelium and that by 5 weeks, communicated with the prostatic urethra. These changes, similar to those reported following transurethral visual laser ablation of the prostate, suggest that interstitial laser thermal therapy may provide an alternative means for treating selected patients suffering from prostatic enlargement.

  2. High Occurrence of Aberrant Lymph Node Spread on Magnetic Resonance Lymphography in Prostate Cancer Patients With a Biochemical Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, Hanneke J.M.; Lin, Emile N. van; Debats, Oscar A.; Witjes, J. Alfred; Span, Paul N.; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Barentsz, Jelle O.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the pattern of lymph node spread in prostate cancer patients with a biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy, eligible for salvage radiotherapy; and to determine whether the clinical target volume (CTV) for elective pelvic irradiation in the primary setting can be applied in the salvage setting for patients with (a high risk of) lymph node metastases. Methods and Materials: The charts of 47 prostate cancer patients with PSA recurrence after prostatectomy who had positive lymph nodes on magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) were reviewed. Positive lymph nodes were assigned to a lymph node region according to the guidelines of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) for delineation of the CTV for pelvic irradiation (RTOG-CTV). We defined four lymph node regions for positive nodes outside this RTOG-CTV: the para-aortal, proximal common iliac, pararectal, and paravesical regions. They were referred to as aberrant lymph node regions. For each patient, clinical and pathologic features were recorded, and their association with aberrant lymph drainage was investigated. The distribution of positive lymph nodes was analyzed separately for patients with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <1.0 ng/mL. Results: MRL detected positive aberrant lymph nodes in 37 patients (79%). In 20 patients (43%) a positive lymph node was found in the pararectal region. Higher PSA at the time of MRL was associated with the presence of positive lymph nodes in the para-aortic region (2.49 vs. 0.82 ng/mL; p = 0.007) and in the proximal common iliac region (1.95 vs. 0.59 ng/mL; p = 0.009). There were 18 patients with a PSA <1.0 ng/mL. Ten of these patients (61%) had at least one aberrant positive lymph node. Conclusion: Seventy-nine percent of the PSA-recurrent patients had at least one aberrant positive lymph node. Application of the standard RTOG-CTV for pelvic irradiation in the salvage setting therefore seems to be inappropriate.

  3. Socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life among patients with prostate cancer 6 months after radical prostatectomy: a longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Jens; Hofreuter-Gätgens, Kerstin; Lüdecke, Daniel; Fisch, Margit; Graefen, Markus; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the explanatory contribution of disease, patient and healthcare factors among patients with prostate cancer. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting and participants In all, 246 patients from 2 hospitals in Hamburg/Germany who underwent radical prostatectomy completed a questionnaire shortly before discharge from hospital and again 6 months later. Outcome measures HRQOL as assessed by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ C-30 including global quality of life, 5 functional scales and 9 symptom scales/items. Generalised estimating equations were calculated to analyse longitudinal data. Results Lower SES measured by income, education and occupational status is significantly associated with lower HRQOL 6 months after treatment. This especially holds true for the functional scales. After introducing disease, patient and healthcare factors, associations remain significant in the majority of cases. The explanatory contribution of patient factors such as comorbidity or psychosocial characteristics and of healthcare factors is slightly stronger than that of disease factors. Conclusions We identified strong social inequalities in HRQOL among patients with prostate cancer 6 months after surgery, in Germany. The underlying causes could not be sufficiently identified, and further research regarding these associations and their explanatory factors is needed. PMID:27259527

  4. Prevalence and impact of incompetence of internal jugular valve on postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Roh, Go Un; Kim, Won Oak; Rha, Koon Ho; Lee, Byung Ho; Jeong, Hae Won; Na, Sungwon

    2016-01-01

    Internal jugular vein (IJV) is the main pathway of cerebral venous drainage and its valves prevent regurgitation of blood to the brain. IJV valve incompetence (IJVVI) is known to be associated with cerebral dysfunctions. It occurs more often in male over 50 years old, conditions elevating intra-abdominal or intra-thoracic pressure. In robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP), elderly male undergoes surgery in Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum applied. Therefore, we assessed the IJVVI during RALRP and its influence on postoperative cognitive function. 57 patients undergoing RALRP were enrolled. Neurocognitive tests including Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Color Word Stroop Test, digit span test, and grooved pegboard test were performed the day before and 2 days after surgery. During surgery, IJVVI was assessed with ultrasonography in supine position with and without pneumoperitoneum, and Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum. 50 patients underwent sonographic assessment and 41 patients completed neurocognitive examination. A total of 27 patients presented IJVVI, 19 patients in supine position without pneumoperitoneum, 7 patients in supine position with pneumoperitoneum and 1 patient in Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum. In neurocognitive tests, patients with IJVVI showed statistically significant decline of score in MMSE postoperatively (p<0.05). IJVVI occurred in 38% in supine position but the incidence was increased to 54% after Trendelenburg position and pneumoperitoneum. Patients with IJVVI did not show significant differences in cognitive function tests except MMSE. Clinical and neurological significance of physiologic changes associated RALRP should be studied further.

  5. International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens. Working group 5: surgical margins.

    PubMed

    Tan, Puay Hoon; Cheng, Liang; Srigley, John R; Griffiths, David; Humphrey, Peter A; van der Kwast, Theodore H; Montironi, Rodolfo; Wheeler, Thomas M; Delahunt, Brett; Egevad, Lars; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 International Society of Urological Pathology Consensus Conference in Boston, made recommendations regarding the standardization of pathology reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens. Issues relating to surgical margin assessment were coordinated by working group 5. Pathologists agreed that tumor extending close to the 'capsular' margin, yet not to it, should be reported as a negative margin, and that locations of positive margins should be indicated as either posterior, posterolateral, lateral, anterior at the prostatic apex, mid-prostate or base. Other items of consensus included specifying the extent of any positive margin as millimeters of involvement; tumor in skeletal muscle at the apical perpendicular margin section, in the absence of accompanying benign glands, to be considered organ confined; and that proximal and distal margins be uniformly referred to as bladder neck and prostatic apex, respectively. Grading of tumor at positive margins was to be left to the discretion of the reporting pathologists. There was no consensus as to how the surgical margin should be regarded when tumor is present at the inked edge of the tissue, in the absence of transected benign glands at the apical margin. Pathologists also did not achieve agreement on the reporting approach to benign prostatic glands at an inked surgical margin in which no carcinoma is present.

  6. Vesico-urethral anastomosis (VUA) evaluation of short- and long-term outcome after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP): selective cystogram to improve outcome.

    PubMed

    Tillier, C; van Muilekom, H A M; Bloos-van der Hulst, J; Grivas, N; van der Poel, H G

    2017-01-12

    The role of a cystogram to assess the vesico-urethral anastomosis (VUA) after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP) has been debated. Early catheter removal without cystogram was reported to be associated with a trend towards an increased risk of acute urinary retention (AUR). In two cohorts we studied the effects of VUA leakage on cystogram and functional outcome after RARP. Cohort A contained 1390 consecutive men that routinely underwent a cystogram after RARP. Transurethral catheter (TUC) was removed in the absence of VUA leakage or minimal leakage on subsequent repeat cystogram. Outcome was compared to a group of 120 men that underwent cystography 7-10 days after RARP but had the TUC removed independent of cystography findings (cohort B). Outcome was assessed by early clinical follow-up and quality of life (QOL) questionnaires at 6 months. Men in cohort B had an increased risk of AUR and 6 months voiding complaints when compared to cohort A. The incidence of AUR and voiding complaints was associated with grade 2-3 leakage on cystography in cohort B but not in cohort A. Grade 2-3 leakage on cystogram was more likely in men with larger prostates larger and preoperative voiding complaints. Selective cystogram in men with larger prostates and preoperative lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) may prevent early AUR and voiding complaints after RARP when prolonged TUC use is applied.

  7. The Rate of Secondary Malignancies After Radical Prostatectomy Versus External Beam Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: A Population-Based Study on 17,845 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Bhojani, Naeem; Capitanio, Umberto; Suardi, Nazareno; Jeldres, Claudio; Isbarn, Hendrik; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Graefen, Markus; Arjane, Philippe; Duclos, Alain; Lattouf, Jean-Baptiste; Saad, Fred; Valiquette, Luc; Montorsi, Francesco; Perrotte, Paul; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: External-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) may predispose to secondary malignancies that include bladder cancer (BCa), rectal cancer (RCa), and lung cancer (LCa). We tested this hypothesis in a large French Canadian population-based cohort of prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Overall, 8,455 radical prostatectomy (RP) and 9,390 EBRT patients treated between 1983 and 2003 were assessed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. Three endpoints were examined: (1) diagnosis of secondary BCa, (2) LCa, or (3) RCa. Covariates included age, Charlson comorbidity index, and year of treatment. Results: In multivariable analyses that relied on incident cases diagnosed 60 months or later after RP or EBRT, the rates of BCa (hazard ratio [HR], 1.4; p = 0.02), LCa (HR, 2.0; p = 0.004), and RCa (HR 2.1; p <0.001) were significantly higher in the EBRT group. When incident cases diagnosed 120 months or later after RP or EBRT were considered, only the rates of RCa (hazard ratio 2.2; p = 0.003) were significantly higher in the EBRT group. In both analyses, the absolute differences in incident rates ranged from 0.7 to 5.2% and the number needed to harm (where harm equaled secondary malignancies) ranged from 111 to 19, if EBRT was used instead of RP. Conclusions: EBRT may predispose to clinically meaningfully higher rates of secondary BCa, LCa and RCa. These rates should be included in informed consent consideration.

  8. Retzus-sparing robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: a step–by-step technique description of this first brazilian experience

    PubMed Central

    Tobias-Machado, Marcos; Nunes-Silva, Igor; Hidaka, Alexandre Kiyoshi; Sato, Leticia Lumy Kanawa; Almeida, Roberto; Colombo, Jose Roberto; Zampolli, Hamilton de Campos; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Retzus-sparing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy(RARP) is a newly approach that preserve the Retzus structures and provide better recovery of continence and erectile function. In Brazil, this approach has not yet been previously reported. Objective: Our goal is to describe Step-by-Step the Retzus-sparing RARP surgical technique and report our first Brazilian experience. Methods: We present a case of a 60-year-old white man with low risk prostate cancer. Surgical materials were four arms Da Vinci robotic platform system, six transperitoneal portals, two prolene wires and Polymer Clips. This surgical technique was step-by-step described according to Galfano et al. One additional step was added as a modification of Galfano et al. Primary technique description: The closure of the Denovellier fascia. Results: We have operated one patient with this technique. The operative time was 180minutes, console time was135 min, the blood loss was 150ml, none perioperative or postoperative complications was found, hospital stay of 01 day. The anatomopathological classification revealed a pT2aN0M0 specimen with free surgical margins. The patient achieved continence immediately after bladder stent retrieval. Full erection reported after 30 days of surgery. Conclusion: Retzus-sparing RARP approach is feasible and reproducible. However, further comparative studies are necessary to demonstrate potential benefits in continence and sexual outcomes over the standard approaches. PMID:27649115

  9. Specific learning curve for port placement and docking of da Vinci(®) Surgical System: one surgeon's experience in robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Dal Moro, F; Secco, S; Valotto, C; Artibani, W; Zattoni, F

    2012-12-01

    Port placement and docking of the da Vinci(®) Surgical System is fundamental in robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP). The aim of our study was to investigate learning curves for port placement and docking of robots (PPDR) in RALP. This manuscript is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data looking at PPDR in 526 patients who underwent RALP in our institute from April 2005 to May 2010. Data included patient-factor features such as body mass index (BMI), and pre-, intra- and post-operative data. Intra-operative information included operation time, subdivided into anesthesia, PPDR and console times. 526 patients underwent RALP, but only those in whom PPDR was performed by the same surgeon without laparoscopic and robotic experience (F.D.M.) were studied, totalling 257 cases. The PPDR phase revealed an evident learning curve, comparable with other robotic phases. Efficiency improved until approximately the 60th case (P < 0.001), due more to effective port placement than to docking of robotic arms. In our experience, conversion to open surgery is so rare that statistical evaluation is not significant. Conversion due to robotic device failure is also very rare. This study on da Vinci procedures in RALP revealed a learning curve during PPDR and throughout the robotic-assisted procedure, reaching a plateau after 60 cases.

  10. Akt Activation Correlates with Snail Expression and Potentially Determines the Recurrence of Prostate Cancer in Patients at Stage T2 after a Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Hua, Kuo-Tai; Lee, Wei-Jiunn; Lin, Yung-Wei; Liu, Yen-Nien; Chen, Chi-Long; Wen, Yu-Ching; Chien, Ming-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Our previous work demonstrated the epithelial-mesenchymal transition factor, Snail, is a potential marker for predicting the recurrence of localized prostate cancer (PCa). Akt activation is important for Snail stabilization and transcription in PCa. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate the relationship between the phosphorylated level of Akt (p-Akt) in radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens and cancer biochemical recurrence (BCR). Using a tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry, the expression of p-Akt was measured in benign and neoplastic tissues from RP specimens in 53 patients whose cancer was pathologically defined as T2 without positive margins. Herein, we observed that the p-Akt level was higher in PCa than in benign tissues and was significantly associated with the Snail level. A high p-Akt image score (≥8) was significantly correlated with a higher histological Gleason sum, Snail image score, and preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value. Moreover, the high p-Akt image score and Gleason score sum (≥7) showed similar discriminatory abilities for BCR according to a receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis and were correlated with worse recurrence-free survival according to a log-rank test (p < 0.05). To further determine whether a high p-Akt image score could predict the risk of BCR, a Cox proportional hazard model showed that only a high p-Akt image score (hazard ratio (HR): 3.12, p = 0.05) and a high Gleason score sum (≥7) (HR: 1.18, p = 0.05) but not a high preoperative PSA value (HR: 0.62, p = 0.57) were significantly associated with a higher risk of developing BCR. Our data indicate that, for localized PCa patients after an RP, p-Akt can serve as a potential prognostic marker that improves predictions of BCR-free survival. PMID:27455254

  11. Evaluation of ERG and SPINK1 by Immunohistochemical Staining and Clinicopathological Outcomes in a Multi-Institutional Radical Prostatectomy Cohort of 1067 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, James D.; Wei, Wei; Hawley, Sarah; Auman, Heidi; Newcomb, Lisa; Boyer, Hilary; Fazli, Ladan; Simko, Jeff; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Troyer, Dean A.; Carroll, Peter R.; Gleave, Martin; Lance, Raymond; Lin, Daniel W.; Nelson, Peter S.; Thompson, Ian M.; True, Lawrence D.; Feng, Ziding; McKenney, Jesse K.

    2015-01-01

    Distinguishing between patients with early stage, screen detected prostate cancer who must be treated from those that can be safely watched has become a major issue in prostate cancer care. Identification of molecular subtypes of prostate cancer has opened the opportunity for testing whether biomarkers that characterize these subtypes can be used as biomarkers of prognosis. Two established molecular subtypes are identified by high expression of the ERG oncoprotein, due to structural DNA alterations that encode for fusion transcripts in approximately ½ of prostate cancers, and over-expression of SPINK1, which is purportedly found only in ERG-negative tumors. We used a multi-institutional prostate cancer tissue microarray constructed from radical prostatectomy samples with associated detailed clinical data and with rigorous selection of recurrent and non-recurrent cases to test the prognostic value of immunohistochemistry staining results for the ERG and SPINK1 proteins. In univariate analysis, ERG positive cases (419/1067; 39%) were associated with lower patient age, pre-operative serum PSA levels, lower Gleason scores (≤3+4=7) and improved recurrence free survival (RFS). On multivariate analysis, ERG status was not correlated with RFS, disease specific survival (DSS) or overall survival (OS). High-level SPINK1 protein expression (33/1067 cases; 3%) was associated with improved RFS on univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Over-expression of either protein was not associated with clinical outcome. While expression of ERG and SPINK1 proteins was inversely correlated, it was not mutually exclusive since 3 (0.28%) cases showed high expression of both. While ERG and SPINK1 appear to identify discrete molecular subtypes of prostate cancer, only high expression of SPINK1 was associated with improved clinical outcome. However, by themselves, neither ERG nor SPINK1 appear to be useful biomarkers for prognostication of early stage prostate cancer. PMID

  12. Evaluation of ERG and SPINK1 by Immunohistochemical Staining and Clinicopathological Outcomes in a Multi-Institutional Radical Prostatectomy Cohort of 1067 Patients.

    PubMed

    Brooks, James D; Wei, Wei; Hawley, Sarah; Auman, Heidi; Newcomb, Lisa; Boyer, Hilary; Fazli, Ladan; Simko, Jeff; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Troyer, Dean A; Carroll, Peter R; Gleave, Martin; Lance, Raymond; Lin, Daniel W; Nelson, Peter S; Thompson, Ian M; True, Lawrence D; Feng, Ziding; McKenney, Jesse K

    2015-01-01

    Distinguishing between patients with early stage, screen detected prostate cancer who must be treated from those that can be safely watched has become a major issue in prostate cancer care. Identification of molecular subtypes of prostate cancer has opened the opportunity for testing whether biomarkers that characterize these subtypes can be used as biomarkers of prognosis. Two established molecular subtypes are identified by high expression of the ERG oncoprotein, due to structural DNA alterations that encode for fusion transcripts in approximately ½ of prostate cancers, and over-expression of SPINK1, which is purportedly found only in ERG-negative tumors. We used a multi-institutional prostate cancer tissue microarray constructed from radical prostatectomy samples with associated detailed clinical data and with rigorous selection of recurrent and non-recurrent cases to test the prognostic value of immunohistochemistry staining results for the ERG and SPINK1 proteins. In univariate analysis, ERG positive cases (419/1067; 39%) were associated with lower patient age, pre-operative serum PSA levels, lower Gleason scores (≤ 3+4=7) and improved recurrence free survival (RFS). On multivariate analysis, ERG status was not correlated with RFS, disease specific survival (DSS) or overall survival (OS). High-level SPINK1 protein expression (33/1067 cases; 3%) was associated with improved RFS on univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Over-expression of either protein was not associated with clinical outcome. While expression of ERG and SPINK1 proteins was inversely correlated, it was not mutually exclusive since 3 (0.28%) cases showed high expression of both. While ERG and SPINK1 appear to identify discrete molecular subtypes of prostate cancer, only high expression of SPINK1 was associated with improved clinical outcome. However, by themselves, neither ERG nor SPINK1 appear to be useful biomarkers for prognostication of early stage prostate cancer.

  13. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment following laparoscopic robot-assisted radical prostatectomy for the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections: did the AUA guidelines make a difference?

    PubMed

    Haifler, Miki; Mor, Yoram; Dotan, Zohar; Ramon, Jacob; Zilberman, Dorit E

    2016-12-16

    We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the American Urological Association (AUA) antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines in patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP). Our prospective registry database was reviewed for all RALP cases. The following variables were evaluated: age, associated comorbidities, body mass index (BMI), total operative time, length of stay (LOS), prostate weight, pathological grade and stage. Until 11/2011, RALP patients were treated with antibiotics administered in the operating room and continued until urethral catheter removal. Since 11/2011, all patients were treated with a single intravenous dose of Cephalosporin and Aminoglycoside given within 30 min of surgical incision. The rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) was evaluated in both groups. 229 RALP patients were identified. The first 60 patients (26.2%) were treated according to the old protocol (Group 1) while the remaining 169 (73.8%) were treated according to the new protocol (Group 2). Group match was identified in all categories but LOS. Moreover, LOS was found to be longer in Group 1 compared with Group 2 (5.8 vs. 4.5 days, p < 0.001). CAUTI rate was similar in both groups (8.3 vs. 8.9%, respectively, p = 0.89). Logistic regression analysis did not demonstrate any association between treatment protocol and potential risk for CAUTI. Therefore, a single preoperative dose of antibiotics does not increase the rate of CAUTI following RALP compared with prolonged antibiotic treatment. Moreover, it was found to be associated with shorter LOS. Complying with the AUA guidelines may reduce morbidity and medical costs.

  14. Patients treated with radical prostatectomy with positive digital rectal examination findings in the intermediate-risk group are prone to PSA recurrence

    PubMed Central

    FURUBAYASHI, NOBUKI; NEGISHI, TAKAHITO; URA, SHINTARO; MUTAGUCHI, JUN; TAGUCHI, KENICHI; SHIMOKAWA, MOTOTSUGU; NAKAMURA, MOTONOBU

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the possibility of performing radical prostatectomy (RP) alone to achieve a radical cure for prostate cancer in the intermediate-risk group. Samples were collected from 638 Japanese patients who underwent antegrade RP between August 1998 and May 2013; subsequently, 157 patients were excluded. According to the D'Amico criteria, the low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups comprised 107, 222 and 152 patients, respectively. The 5-year prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure-free survival rates in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 96.5, 88.9 and 72.6%, respectively (P<0.001; degrees of freedom=2). In the intermediate-risk group, the difference in PSA failure-free survival between the 0

  15. Evaluation of biochemical recurrence in patients with high-risk prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy plus androgen deprivation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yutaka; Kiba, Keisuke; Yoshikawa, Motokiyo; Hirayama, Akihide; Kunikata, Seiji; Uemura, Hirotsugu

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the biochemical recurrence (BCR) in patients with high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiotherapy (RT) plus androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Methods Subjects were patients with National Comprehensive Cancer Network-defined high-risk PCa treated with either RP or RT plus ADT. We calculated BCR-free survival in patients with those treatments and evaluated risk factor against BCR. Results A total of 114 patients, 71 RP and 43 RT plus ADT, were evaluated. A total of 59 and 20.9% of patients experienced BCR in the RP and RT treatment groups, respectively. The 5-year BCR-free survival probabilities improved significantly for patients who received RT compared to those who received RP (81.3 vs 37.3%, P<0.001). According to the number of risk factors, 59.2% of patients in the RP and 51.2% of patients in the RT treatment groups were classified with one risk factor (P<0.014). The 5-year BCR-free survival probabilities for patients treated with RP were 46.6 and 21.7% for one and multiple risk factors, respectively (P=0.008). On univariate analysis, only the number of risk factors had a significant impact on the risk of BCR. Meanwhile, there were no significant differences in the 5-year BCR-free survival probabilities between one and multiple risk factors in patients treated with RT. Conclusion Among patients treated with RP, a marked heterogeneity existed in the oncological outcomes. Based on these findings, the number of risk factors should be emphasized to decide the optimal treatments for patients with high-risk PCa. PMID:27981044

  16. The Incremental Value of Contrast-Enhanced MRI in the Detection of Biopsy-Proven Local Recurrence of Prostate Cancer After Radical Prostatectomy: Effect of Reader Experience

    PubMed Central

    Wassberg, Cecilia; Akin, Oguz; Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Shukla-Dave, Amita; Zhang, Jingbo; Hricak, Hedvig

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study is to retrospectively assess the incremental value of contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) to T2-weighted MRI in the detection of postsurgical local recurrence of prostate cancer by readers of different experience levels, using biopsy as the reference standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty-two men with biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy underwent 1.5-T endorectal MRI with multiphase contrast-enhanced imaging and had biopsy within 3 months of MRI. Two radiologists (reader 1 had 1 year and reader 2 had 6 years of experience) independently reviewed each MRI study and classified the likelihood of recurrent cancer on a 5-point scale. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (Az) were calculated to assess readers’ diagnostic performance with T2-weighted MRI alone and combined with CE-MRI. Interobserver agreement was assessed using Cohen kappa statistics. RESULTS Thirty-three patients (63%) had biopsy-proven local recurrence of prostate cancer. With the addition of CE-MRI to T2-weighted imaging, the Az for cancer detection increased significantly for reader 1 (0.77 vs 0.85; p = 0.0435) but not for reader 2 (0.86 vs 0.88; p = 0.7294). The use of CE-MRI improved interobserver agreement from fair (κ = 0.39) to moderate (κ = 0.58). CONCLUSION CE-MRI increased interobserver agreement and offered incremental value to T2-weighted MRI in the detection of locally recurrent prostate cancer for the relatively inexperienced reader. PMID:22826397

  17. Impact of preoperative and postoperative membranous urethral length measured by 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging on urinary continence recovery after robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wan; Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Byung Kwan; Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Jeong, Byong Chang; Seo, Seong Il; Jeon, Seong Soo; Choi, Han Yong; Lee, Hyun Moo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction We sought to investigate the impact of preoperative and postoperative membranous urethral length (MUL) on urinary continence using 3 Tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Methods Between 2008 and 2013, 190 men with RARP underwent preoperative and postoperative MRI. Patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy or who were lost to followup were excluded, leaving 186 patients eligible for analysis. Preoperative MUL was estimated from the prostate apex to the penile bulb, while postoperative MUL was estimated from the bladder neck to penile bulb. Patients with no pads or protection were considered to have complete continence. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors associated with urinary incontinence at six and 12 months. Results Age was commonly associated with urinary incontinence at six and 12 months. In addition, diabetes mellitus (DM) was another factor associated with urinary incontinence at 12 months. When adjusting these variables, preoperative MUL ≤16 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.14; p=0.022), postoperative MUL ≤14 mm (95% CI 1.16–9.80; p=0.025) and percent change of MUL >18% (95% CI 1.17–7.23; p=0.021) were significantly associated with urinary incontinence at six months. However, at 12 months, preoperative MUL ≤13.5 mm (95% CI 1.85–19.21; p=0.003) and postoperative MUL ≤13 mm (95% CI 1.24–13.84; p=0.021) had impacts on urinary incontinence, but not percent change of MUL. Conclusions Preoperative and postoperative MUL were significantly associated with urinary continence recovery after RARP. Therefore, efforts to preserve MUL are highly recommended during surgery for optimal continence outcomes after RARP. PMID:28360954

  18. Adenovirus vector carrying REIC/DKK-3 gene: neoadjuvant intraprostatic injection for high-risk localized prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kumon, H; Ariyoshi, Y; Sasaki, K; Sadahira, T; Araki, M; Ebara, S; Yanai, H; Watanabe, M; Nasu, Y

    2016-01-01

    As the First-In-Human study of in situ gene therapy using an adenovirus vector carrying the human REIC (reduced expression in immortalized cell)/Dkk-3 gene (Ad-REIC), we conducted neoadjuvant intraprostatic injections in patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). Patients with recurrence probability of 35% or more within 5 years following RP, as calculated by Kattan's nomogram, were enrolled. Patients received two ultrasound-guided intratumoral injections at 2-week intervals, followed by RP 6 weeks after the second injection. After confirming the safety of the therapeutic interventions with initially planned three escalating doses of 1.0 × 1010, 1.0 × 1011 and 1.0 × 1012 viral particles (vp) in 1.0–1.2 ml (n=3, 3 and 6), an additional higher dose of 3.0 × 1012 vp in 3.6 ml (n=6) was further studied. All four DLs including the additional dose level-4 (DL-4) were feasible with no adverse events, except for grade 1 or 2 transient fever. Laboratory toxicities were grade 1 or 2 elevated aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase (n=4). Regarding antitumor activities, cytopathic effects (tumor degeneration with cytolysis and pyknosis) and remarkable tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in the targeted tumor areas were detected in a clear dose-dependent manner. Consequently, biochemical recurrence-free survival in DL-4 was significantly more favorable than in patient groups DL-1+2+3. PMID:27767086

  19. Genetic variants in microRNAs and microRNA target sites predict biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy in localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Pin; Lévesque, Eric; Guillemette, Chantal; Yu, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Lin, Victor C; Chung, I-Che; Chen, Lih-Chyang; Laverdière, Isabelle; Lacombe, Louis; Fradet, Yves; Chang, Ta-Yuan; Lee, Hong-Zin; Juang, Shin-Hun; Bao, Bo-Ying

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence indicates that microRNAs might participate in prostate cancer initiation, progression and treatment response. Germline variations in microRNAs might alter target gene expression and modify the efficacy of prostate cancer therapy. To determine whether genetic variants in microRNAs and microRNA target sites are associated with the risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). We retrospectively studied two independent cohorts composed of 320 Asian and 526 Caucasian men with pathologically organ-confined prostate cancer who had a median follow-up of 54.7 and 88.8 months after RP, respectively. Patients were systematically genotyped for 64 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs and microRNA target sites, and their prognostic significance on BCR was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression model. After adjusting for known clinicopathologic risk factors, two SNPs (MIR605 rs2043556 and CDON rs3737336) remained associated with BCR. The numbers of risk alleles showed a cumulative effect on BCR [perallele hazard ratio (HR) 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-2.21, p for trend = 0.005] in Asian cohort, and the risk was replicated in Caucasian cohort (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.15-2.08, p for trend = 0.004) and in combined analysis (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.26-1.96, p for trend <0.001). Results warrant replication in larger cohorts. This is the first study demonstrating that SNPs in microRNAs and microRNA target sites can be predictive biomarkers for BCR after RP.

  20. Exposure to Agent Orange is a significant predictor of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based recurrence and a rapid PSA doubling time after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sagar R.; Freedland, Stephen J.; Aronson, William J.; Kane, Christopher J.; Presti, Joseph C.; Amling, Christopher L.; Terris, Martha K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate and report the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with prostate cancer and previous exposure to Agent Orange (AO), particularly in relationship to race. PATIENTS AND METHODS In 1495 veterans who had undergone RP the clinicopathological characteristics, biochemical progression rates, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time (DT) after recurrence between AO-exposed and unexposed men were compared using logistic and linear regression and Cox proportional hazards analyses, and stratified by race. RESULTS The 206 (14%) men with AO exposure were more likely to be black (P = 0.001), younger (P < 0.001), treated more recently (P < 0.001), have a higher body mass index (P = 0.001), have clinical stage T1 disease (P < 0.001), and have lower preoperative PSA levels (P = 0.001). After adjusting for several clinical characteristics, AO exposure was not significantly related to adverse pathological features but was significantly associated with biochemical progression risk (relative risk 1.55, 95% confidence interval 1.15–2.09, P = 0.004) and shorter PSADT (P < 0.001) after recurrence (8.2 vs 18.6 months). When stratified by race, these associations were present and similar in both races, with no significant interaction between race and AO exposure for predicting biochemical recurrence or mean adjusted PSADT (P interaction >0.20). CONCLUSIONS Patients with AO exposure and treated with RP were more likely to be black, present with lower risk features, have an increased risk of biochemical progression, and shorter PSADT after recurrence. When stratified by race, the association between AO exposure and poor outcomes was present in both races. These findings suggest that among selected men who choose RP, AO exposure might be associated with more aggressive prostate cancer. PMID:19298411

  1. Genetic variants of the CYP1B1 gene as predictors of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy in localized prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gu, Cheng-Yuan; Qin, Xiao-Jian; Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhu, Yu; Wan, Fang-Ning; Zhang, Gui-Ming; Sun, Li-Jiang; Zhu, Yao; Ye, Ding-Wei

    2016-07-01

    Clinically localized prostate cancer is curative. Nevertheless many patients suffered from biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Mounting evidence suggest that estrogen and xenobiotic carcinogens play an essential role in progression of prostate cancervia oxidative estrogen metabolism. CYP1B1 is an enzyme involved in the hydroxylation of estrogens, a reaction of key relevance in estrogen metabolism. Given the role of CYP1B1 in the oxidative metabolism of endogenous/exogenous estrogen and compounds, CYP1B1 polymorphisms have the potential to modify its expression and subsequently lead to progression. We hypothesize that genetic variants of the CYP1B1 gene may influence clinical outcome in clinically localized prostate cancer patients. In this cohort study, we genotyped 9 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the CYP1B1 gene in 312 patients treated with RP. For replication, these SNPs were genotyped in an independent cohort of 426 patients. The expression level of CYP1B1 in the adjacent normal prostate tissues was quantified by reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models were utilized to identify SNPs that correlated with BCR. CYP1B1 rs1056836 was significantly associated with BCR (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40-0.89, P = 0.002) and relative CYP1B1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest inherited genetic variation in the CYP1B1 gene may contribute to variable clinical outcomes for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer.

  2. The Intraocular Pressure under Deep versus Moderate Neuromuscular Blockade during Low-Pressure Robot Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy in a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seokyung; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Jung Hwa; Kim, Chan Yun; Park, HeeJoon; Bai, Sun-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine whether continuous deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) improves the surgical conditions and facilitates robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) under low intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) to attenuate the increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) during CO2 pneumoperitoneum in the steep Trendelenburg (ST) position. Methods Sixty-seven patients undergoing RALRP were randomly assigned to a moderate NMB group (Group M), including patients who received atracurium infusion until the end of the ST position, maintaining a train of four count of 1–2; and the deep NMB group (Group D), including patients who received rocuronium infusion, maintaining a post-tetanic count of 1–2. IOP was measured in all patients at nine separate time points. All RALRPs were performed by one surgeon, who rated the overall and worst surgical conditions at the end of the ST position. Results The highest IOP value was observed at T4 (60 min after the ST position) in both Group M (23.3 ± 2.7 mmHg) and Group D (19.8 ± 2.1 mmHg). RALRP was accomplished at an IAP of 8 mmHg in 88% Group D patients and 25% Group M patients. The overall surgical condition grade was 4.0 (3.0–5.0) in Group D and 3.0 (2.0–5.0) in Group M (P < 0.001). Conclusion The current study demonstrated that continuous deep NMB may improve surgical conditions and facilitate RALRP at a low IAP, resulting in significant attenuation of the increase on IOP. Moreover, low-pressure pneumoperitoneum, facilitated by deep NMB still provided acceptable surgical conditions. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02109133 PMID:26317357

  3. Unexpected Long-term Improvements in Urinary and Erectile Function in a Large Cohort of Men with Self-reported Outcomes Following Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Justin K.; Assel, Melissa; Thong, Alan E.; Sjoberg, Daniel D.; Mulhall, John P.; Sandhu, Jaspreet; Vickers, Andrew J.; Ehdaie, Behfar

    2015-01-01

    Background It is generally assumed that if a man does not regain urinary continence or erectile function within 12 mo of radical prostatectomy (RP), then the chance of subsequent recovery is low. Objective To determine the probability of achieving good urinary function (UF) or erectile function (EF) up to 48 mo postoperatively in men who reported poor UF or EF at 12 mo after RP. Design, setting, and participants We identified 3187 patients who underwent RP from 2007 through 2013 at a tertiary institution and had extended multidisciplinary follow-up with patient-reported UF and EF scores at ≥12 mo. Intervention Open or minimally invasive RP. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Primary outcome was good UF as defined by a urinary score ≥17 (range: 0–21) or good EF as defined by a modified International Index of Erectile Function-6 score ≥22 (range: 1–30). The probability of functional recovery beyond 12 mo was determined by Kaplan-Meier analyses. Results and limitations Among patients incontinent at 12 mo, the probability of achieving good UF at 24, 36, and 48 mo was 30%, 49%, and 59%. In patients experiencing erectile dysfunction at 12 mo, the probability of recovering EF at 24, 36, and 48 mo was 22%, 32%, and 40%. On multivariable analyses, 12-mo functional score and age were associated with recovery, but only score was consistently significant. Conclusions Men with incontinence or erectile dysfunction at 12 mo have higher than anticipated rates of subsequent functional improvement. Probability of recovery is strongly influenced by score at 12 mo. Further research should address the impact of ongoing multidisciplinary follow-up care on our observed rates of recovery. Patient summary Many prostate cancer patients continue to recover urinary and erectile function after 12 mo. The level of functional recovery by 12 mo is associated with long-term recovery and should be discussed by the physician and patient when deciding on rehabilitative

  4. Urodynamic assessment of bladder and urethral function among men with lower urinary tract symptoms after radical prostatectomy: A comparison between men with and without urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hansol; Kim, Ki Bom; Lee, Sangchul; Lee, Sang Wook; Kim, Myong; Cho, Sung Yong; Oh, Seung-June

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We compared bladder and urethral functions following radical prostatectomy (RP) between men with and without urinary incontinence (UI), using a large-scale database from SNU-experts-of-urodynamics-leading (SEOUL) Study Group. Materials and Methods Since July 2004, we have prospectively collected data on urodynamics from 303 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following RP at three affiliated hospitals of SEOUL Study Group. After excluding 35 patients with neurogenic abnormality, pelvic irradiation after surgery, or a history of surgery on the lower urinary tract, 268 men were evaluated. We compared the urodynamic findings between men who had LUTS with UI (postprostatectomy incontinence [PPI] group) and those who had LUTS without UI (non-PPI group). Results The mean age at an urodynamic study was 68.2 years. Overall, a reduced bladder compliance (≤20 mL/cmH2O) was shown in 27.2% of patients; and 31.3% patients had idiopathic detrusor overactivity. The patients in the PPI group were older (p=0.001) at an urodynamic study and had a lower maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) (p<0.001), as compared with those in the non-PPI group. Bladder capacity and detrusor pressure during voiding were also significantly lower in the PPI group. In the logistic regression, only MUCP and maximum cystometric capacity were identified as the related factor with the presence of PPI. Conclusions In our study, significant number of patients with LUTS following RP showed a reduced bladder compliance and detrusor overactivity. PPI is associated with both impairment of the urethral closuring mechanism and bladder storage dysfunction. PMID:26682020

  5. The influence of membranous stretched urethral length and urethral circumference on postoperative recovery of continence after radical prostatectomy: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Dae Sung; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Se Joong; Kim, Sun Il

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We investigate the influence of stretched membranous urethral length (SUL) and urethral circumference (UC) on postoperative recovery of continence after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods: To evaluate the distal continence zone intraoperatively, we individually measured and recorded stretched membranous urethral length (distance between the urogenital diaphragm and the prostate apex with cephalad retraction, SUL) and urethral circumference (UC) after exposure of the urethra. We analyzed the association between magnetic resonance imaging-measured membranous urethral length (MRIL) and urethral diameter (MRID) and intraoperative SUL and UC and influence on return to continence. Results: The mean patient age, SUL and UC were 66.5 ± 6.0 years, 24.2 ± 3.3 mm, and 27.5 ± 4.4 mm, respectively. MRIL and MRID were 11.3 ± 1.6 mm and 10.6 ± 1.9mm, respectively. In the bivariate correlation analysis, there was no statistically significant correlation between SUL and MRIL (p = 0.201) and between UC and MRID (p = 0.124). In the Kaplan-Meier curve analysis, cumulative continence rates between the two groups dichotomized at the median value according to age (p = 0.0519), SUL (p = 0.6583), UC (p = 0.4031), MRIL (p = 0.4042), and MRID (p = 0.8191) were not significantly different. High SUL-to-MRIL ratio (>2.2) was the only significant predictor of lower cumulative continence rate (p = 0.0457). Conclusions: MRIL measured during surgery was not associated with postoperative continence recovery after RP. We observed that an excessively long membranous urethra compared to the urethral length on preoperative MRI is predictive of poorer postoperative continence recovery. However, small sample size and potential confounding surgical factors limit the significance of this study. PMID:26029292

  6. Effect of a low-fat fish oil diet on proinflammatory eicosanoids and cell-cycle progression score in men undergoing radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Galet, Colette; Gollapudi, Kiran; Stepanian, Sevan; Byrd, Joshua B; Henning, Susanne M; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Heber, David; Said, Jonathan; Cohen, Pinchas; Aronson, William J

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that a 4- to 6-week low-fat fish oil (LFFO) diet did not affect serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 levels (primary outcome) but resulted in lower omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratios in prostate tissue and lower prostate cancer proliferation (Ki67) as compared with a Western diet. In this post hoc analysis, the effect of the LFFO intervention on serum pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and 15-S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid [15(S)-HETE], and the cell-cycle progression (CCP) score were investigated. Serum fatty acids and eicosanoids were measured by gas chromatography and ELISA. CCP score was determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Associations between serum eicosanoids, Ki67, and CCP score were evaluated using partial correlation analyses. BLT1 (LTB4 receptor) expression was determined in prostate cancer cell lines and prostatectomy specimens. Serum omega-6 fatty acids and 15(S)-HETE levels were significantly reduced, and serum omega-3 levels were increased in the LFFO group relative to the Western diet group, whereas there was no change in LTB4 levels. The CCP score was significantly lower in the LFFO compared with the Western diet group. The 15(S)-HETE change correlated with tissue Ki67 (R = 0.48; P < 0.01) but not with CCP score. The LTB4 change correlated with the CCP score (r = 0.4; P = 0.02) but not with Ki67. The LTB4 receptor BLT1 was detected in prostate cancer cell lines and human prostate cancer specimens. In conclusion, an LFFO diet resulted in decreased 15(S)-HETE levels and lower CCP score relative to a Western diet. Further studies are warranted to determine whether the LFFO diet antiproliferative effects are mediated through the LTB4/BLT1 and 15(S)-HETE pathways.

  7. A double-blind, randomized, neoadjuvant study of the tissue effects of POMx pills in men with prostate cancer before radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Freedland, Stephen J; Carducci, Michael; Kroeger, Nils; Partin, Alan; Rao, Jian-Yu; Jin, Yusheng; Kerkoutian, Susan; Wu, Hong; Li, Yunfeng; Creel, Patricia; Mundy, Kelly; Gurganus, Robin; Fedor, Helen; King, Serina A; Zhang, Yanjun; Heber, David; Pantuck, Allan J

    2013-10-01

    Pomegranates slow prostate cancer xenograft growth and prolong prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling times in single-arm human studies. Pomegranates' effects on human prostate tissue are understudied. We hypothesized that orally administered pomegranate extract (POMx; Pom Wonderful) would lower tissue 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an oxidative stress biomarker. Seventy men were randomized to two tablets, POMx or placebo, daily up to four weeks before radical prostatectomy. Tissue was analyzed for intraprostatic urolithin A, a pomegranate metabolite, benign and malignant 8-OHdG, and cancer pS6 kinase, NF-κB, and Ki67. Primary endpoint was differences in 8-OHdG, and the study was powered to detect 35% reduction. POMx was associated with 16% lower benign tissue 8-OHdG (P = 0.095), which was not statistically significant. POMx was well tolerated with no treatment-related withdrawals. There were no differences in baseline clinicopathological features between arms. Urolithin A was detected in 21 of the 33 patients in the POMx group versus 12 of the 35 in the placebo group (P = 0.031). Cancer pS6 kinase, NF-κB, Ki67, and serum PSA changes were similar between arms. POMx before surgery results in pomegranate metabolite accumulation in prostate tissues. Our primary endpoint in this modest-sized short-term trial was negative. Future larger longer studies are needed to more definitively test whether POMx reduces prostate oxidative stress, as well as further animal testing to better understand the multiple mechanisms through which POMx may alter prostate cancer biology.

  8. Clinical Validation of the 2005 ISUP Gleason Grading System in a Cohort of Intermediate and High Risk Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Faraj, Sheila F; Bezerra, Stephania M; Yousefi, Kasra; Fedor, Helen; Glavaris, Stephanie; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Tosoian, Jeffrey; Johnson, Michael H; Davicioni, Elai; Trock, Bruce J; Schaeffer, Edward M; Ross, Ashley E; Netto, George J

    2016-01-01

    In 2005, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) introduced several modifications to the original Gleason system that were intended to enhance the prognostic power of Gleason score (GS). The objective of this study was to clinically validate the 2005 ISUP Gleason grading system for its ability to detect metastasis. We queried our institutional RP database for men with NCCN clinically localized intermediate to high-risk disease undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) between 1992 and 2010 with no additional treatment until the time of metastatic progression. A case-cohort design was utilized. A total of 333 available RP samples were re-reviewed and GS was reassigned per the 2005 ISUP Gleason system. Cumulative incidence of metastasis was 0%, 8.4%, 24.5% and 44.4% among specimens that were downgraded, unchanged, had one point GS increase and two point GS increase, respectively. The hazard ratio for metastasis raised in GS 8 and 9 compared to GS 7 from 2.77 and 5.91 to 3.49 and 9.31, respectively. The survival c-index of GS increased from 0.70 to 0.80 when samples were re-graded at 5 years post RP. The c-index of the reassigned GS was higher than the original GS (0.77 vs 0.64) for predicting PCSM at 10 years post RP. The regraded GS improved the prediction of metastasis and PCSM. This validates the updated Gleason grading system using an unambiguous clinical endpoint and highlights the need for reassignment of Gleason grading according to 2005 ISUP system when considering comparisons of novel biomarkers to clinicopathological variables in archival cohorts.

  9. Trends in immediate perioperative morbidity and delay in discharge after open and minimally invasive radical prostatectomy (RP): a 20-year institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Mullins, Jeffrey K.; Ross, Ashley E.; Hyams, Elias S.; Partin, Alan W.; Han, Misop; Walsh, Patrick C.; Schaeffer, Edward M.; Pavlovich, Christian P.; Allaf, Mohamad E.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the development of the clinical care pathway to discharge after radical prostatectomy (RP) at a large, academic medical centre over the past 20 years, focusing on the rates and reasons for deviation. Patients and methods In all, 18 049 men were identified from the Johns Hopkins RP database who had undergone surgery since 1991. Patients in whom the length of stay (LOS) was ≤ 95th percentile, defined the clinical care pathway to discharge and those in whom LOS was ≥ 98th percentile were termed ‘off-pathway’. Results The mean LOS decreased from 7.7 days in 1991 to 1.6 days in 2010. Of 7126 patients undergoing RP since 2005, 1803(25.3%), 4881(68.5%) and 312 (4.4%) were discharged on postoperative day (POD) 1, 2 and 3, respectively; 126 (1.8%) patients, discharged on POD4–21 were ‘off-pathway’. The most common reasons for delay of discharge were ileus (44, 0.615%), urine leak (12, 0.17%), anaemia requiring blood transfusion (nine, 0.126%) and bleeding requiring re-exploration (six, 0.08%). The proportion of patients ‘off-pathway’ was 1.20%, 1.06% and 4.01% for retropubic RP (RRP), laparoscopic RP (LRP) and robot-assisted laparoscopic RP (RALRP), respectively (P < 0.001). Ileus delayed discharge in 0.28%, 0.37% and 1.9% of patients undergoing RRP, LRP and RALRP, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusions The clinical care pathway to discharge after RP has changed dramatically at our institution over the past 20 years. RALRP appears to result in a higher proportion of ‘off-pathway’ patients, primarily due to ileus, compared with RRP and LRP. However, very few patients were discharged ‘off-pathway’. PMID:23759008

  10. Clinical Validation of the 2005 ISUP Gleason Grading System in a Cohort of Intermediate and High Risk Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Kasra; Fedor, Helen; Glavaris, Stephanie; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W.; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Tosoian, Jeffrey; Johnson, Michael H.; Davicioni, Elai; Trock, Bruce J.; Schaeffer, Edward M.; Ross, Ashley E.; Netto, George J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2005, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) introduced several modifications to the original Gleason system that were intended to enhance the prognostic power of Gleason score (GS). The objective of this study was to clinically validate the 2005 ISUP Gleason grading system for its ability to detect metastasis. We queried our institutional RP database for men with NCCN clinically localized intermediate to high-risk disease undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) between 1992 and 2010 with no additional treatment until the time of metastatic progression. A case-cohort design was utilized. A total of 333 available RP samples were re-reviewed and GS was reassigned per the 2005 ISUP Gleason system. Cumulative incidence of metastasis was 0%, 8.4%, 24.5% and 44.4% among specimens that were downgraded, unchanged, had one point GS increase and two point GS increase, respectively. The hazard ratio for metastasis raised in GS 8 and 9 compared to GS 7 from 2.77 and 5.91 to 3.49 and 9.31, respectively. The survival c-index of GS increased from 0.70 to 0.80 when samples were re-graded at 5 years post RP. The c-index of the reassigned GS was higher than the original GS (0.77 vs 0.64) for predicting PCSM at 10 years post RP. The regraded GS improved the prediction of metastasis and PCSM. This validates the updated Gleason grading system using an unambiguous clinical endpoint and highlights the need for reassignment of Gleason grading according to 2005 ISUP system when considering comparisons of novel biomarkers to clinicopathological variables in archival cohorts. PMID:26731672

  11. The surgical learning curve for robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: experience of a single surgeon with 500 cases in Taiwan, China.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yen-Chuan; Yang, Chun-Kuang; Chang, Kuangh-Si; Wang, John; Hung, Siu-Wan; Tung, Min-Che; Tewari, Ashutosh K; Patel, Vipul R

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the learning curve for cancer control from an initial 250 cases (Group I) and subsequent 250 cases (Group II) of robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) performed by a single surgeon. Five hundred consecutive patients with clinically localized prostate cancer received RALP and were evaluated. Surgical parameters and perioperative complications were compared between the groups. Positive surgical margin (PSM) and biochemical recurrence (BCR) were assessed as cancer control outcomes. Patients in Group II had significantly more advanced prostate cancer than those in Group I (22.2% vs 14.2%, respectively, with Gleason score 8-10, P= 0.033; 12.8% vs 5.6%, respectively, with clinical stage T3, P= 0.017). The incidence of PSM in pT3 was decreased significantly from 49% in Group I to 32.6% in Group II. A meaningful trend was noted for a decreasing PSM rate with each consecutive group of 50 cases, including pT3 and high-risk patients. Neurovascular bundle (NVB) preservation was significantly influenced by the PSM in high-risk patients (84.1% in the preservation group vs 43.9% in the nonpreservation group). The 3-year, 5-year, and 7-year BCR-free survival rates were 79.2%, 75.3%, and 70.2%, respectively. In conclusion, the incidence of PSM in pT3 was decreased significantly after 250 cases. There was a trend in the surgical learning curve for decreasing PSM with each group of 50 cases. NVB preservation during RALP for the high-risk group is not suggested due to increasing PSM.

  12. Application of fibrin sealant at the urethrovesical anastomosis in robotic assisted radical prostatectomy: does it enable earlier Foley catheter and Jackson-Pratt drain removal?

    PubMed

    Flury, Sarah C; Starnes, Danielle N; Steers, William D

    2008-01-01

    Leakage at the urethrovesical anastomosis in the post-operative period can result in morbidity including ileus. We examined the effectiveness of using a fibrin sealant at the anastomosis to limit urine leakage thereby facilitating earlier Jackson-Pratt drain and Foley catheter removal following robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALRP). Forty consecutive patients underwent RALRP by one surgeon at our institution. The first 20 patients underwent standard operation and served as the control group. The subsequent 20 patients underwent the same operation with addition of fibrin sealant following a running absorbable sutured urethrovesical anastomosis. The two groups were compared for age (60.5 vs. 58.2 years), pre-operative PSA (5.23 vs. 4.71), Gleason score (6.3 vs. 6.5), stage at resection, and prostate size at resection (51.7 vs. 47.7 g). Wilcoxon rank sum test determined no statistically significant differences in the groups. Patients in the fibrin sealant group had 1.3 versus 2.1 days with a Jackson-Pratt drain, 9.75 versus 12.1 days with a catheter, and an average of 38.6 versus 63.2 cc of drainage per shift. Catheters were removed when a cystogram demonstrated no extravasation of contrast. Two patients in the control group and no patients in the fibrin sealant group had large-volume leakage and ileus post-operatively. In patients undergoing RALRP, application of fibrin sealant at the urethrovesical anastomosis appears to facilitate sealing, thereby allowing earlier removal of the JP drain, by 0.8 days, and the Foley catheter, by 2.35 days, than in controls. No patients in the fibrin sealant group suffered post-operative ileus. This adjunct may be especially useful early in the learning process to reduce morbidity.

  13. Genetic variants of the CYP1B1 gene as predictors of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy in localized prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Cheng-Yuan; Qin, Xiao-Jian; Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhu, Yu; Wan, Fang-Ning; Zhang, Gui-Ming; Sun, Li-Jiang; Zhu, Yao; Ye, Ding-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Clinically localized prostate cancer is curative. Nevertheless many patients suffered from biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Mounting evidence suggest that estrogen and xenobiotic carcinogens play an essential role in progression of prostate cancervia oxidative estrogen metabolism. CYP1B1 is an enzyme involved in the hydroxylation of estrogens, a reaction of key relevance in estrogen metabolism. Given the role of CYP1B1 in the oxidative metabolism of endogenous/exogenous estrogen and compounds, CYP1B1 polymorphisms have the potential to modify its expression and subsequently lead to progression. We hypothesize that genetic variants of the CYP1B1 gene may influence clinical outcome in clinically localized prostate cancer patients. In this cohort study, we genotyped 9 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the CYP1B1 gene in 312 patients treated with RP. For replication, these SNPs were genotyped in an independent cohort of 426 patients. The expression level of CYP1B1 in the adjacent normal prostate tissues was quantified by reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models were utilized to identify SNPs that correlated with BCR. CYP1B1 rs1056836 was significantly associated with BCR (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40–0.89, P = 0.002) and relative CYP1B1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest inherited genetic variation in the CYP1B1 gene may contribute to variable clinical outcomes for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. PMID:27399092

  14. Comparative Toxicity and Dosimetric Profile of Whole-Pelvis Versus Prostate Bed-Only Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Lin Haibo; Bar Ad, Voichita; Tochner, Zelig; Both, Stefan

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To assess whether whole-pelvis (WP) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer (PCa) after prostatectomy is associated with increased toxicity compared to prostate-bed only (PB) IMRT. Methods and Materials: All patients (n = 67) undergoing postprostatectomy IMRT to 70.2 Gy at our institution from January 2006 to January 2009 with minimum 12-month follow-up were divided into WP (n = 36) and PB (n = 31) comparison groups. WP patients received initial pelvic nodal IMRT to 45 Gy. Pretreatment demographics, bladder and rectal dose-volume histograms, and maximum genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities were compared. Logistic regression models evaluated uni- and multivariate associations between pretreatment demographics and toxicities. Results: Pretreatment demographics including age and comorbidities were similar between groups. WP patients had higher Gleason scores, T stages, and preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, and more WP patients underwent androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). WP minimum (Dmin) and mean bladder doses, bladder volumes receiving more than 5 Gy (V5) and V20, rectal Dmin, and PB bladder and rectal V65 were significantly increased. Maximum acute GI toxicity was Grade 2 and was increased for WP (61%) vs. PB (29%) patients (p = 0.001); there was no significant difference in acute Grade {>=}2 GU toxicity (22% WP vs. 10% PB; p = 0.193), late Grade {>=}2 GI toxicity (3% WP vs. 0% PB; p = 0.678), or late Grade {>=}2 GU toxicity (28% WP vs. 19% PB; p = 0.274) with 25-month median follow-up (range, 12-44 months). On multivariate analysis, long-term ADT use was associated with Grade {>=}2 late GU toxicity (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Despite dosimetric differences in irradiated bowel, bladder, and rectum, WP IMRT resulted only in clinically significant increased acute GI toxicity in comparison to that with PB IMRT, with no differences in GU or late GI toxicity.

  15. A Double Blind, Randomized, Neoadjuvant Study of the Tissue effects of POMx Pills in Men with Prostate Cancer Prior to Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Freedland, Stephen J.; Carducci, Michael; Kroeger, Nils; Partin, Alan; Rao, Jian-yu; Jin, Yusheng; Kerkoutian, Susan; Wu, Hong; Li, Yunfeng; Creel, Patricia; Mundy, Kelly; Gurganus, Robin; Fedor, Helen; King, Serina A.; Zhang, Yanjun; Heber, David; Pantuck, Allan J.

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranates slow prostate cancer xenograft growth and prolong PSA doubling times in single-arm human studies. Pomegranates’ effects on human prostate tissue are understudied. We hypothesized orally administered pomegranate extract (POMx; PomWonderful, Los Angeles, CA) would lower tissue 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an oxidative stress biomarker. 70 men were randomized to 2 tablets POMx or placebo daily up to 4 weeks prior to radical prostatectomy. Tissue was analyzed for intra-prostatic Urolithin A, a pomegranate metabolite, benign and malignant 8-OHdG, and cancer pS6 kinase, NFκB, and Ki67. Primary end-point was differences in 8-OHdG powered to detect 30% reduction. POMx was associated with 16% lower benign tissue 8-OHdG (p=0.095), which was not statistically significant. POMx was well-tolerated with no treatment-related withdrawals. There were no differences in baseline clinicopathological features between arms. Urolithin A was detected in 21/33 patient in the POMx group vs. 12/35 in the placebo group (p=0.031). Cancer pS6 kinase, NFκB, Ki67, and serum PSA changes were similar between arms. POMx prior to surgery results in pomegranate metabolite accumulation in prostate tissues. Our primary end-point in this modest-sized short-term trial was negative. Future larger longer studies are needed to more definitely test whether POMx reduces prostate oxidative stress as well as further animal testing to better understand the multiple mechanisms through which POMx may alter prostate cancer biology. PMID:23985577

  16. Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) Preoperative Score Versus Postoperative Score (CAPRA-S): ability to predict cancer progression and decision-making regarding adjuvant therapy after radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Seo, Won Ik; Kang, Pil Moon; Kang, Dong Il; Yoon, Jang Ho; Kim, Wansuk; Chung, Jae Il

    2014-09-01

    The University of California, San Francisco, announced in 2011 Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Postsurgical (CAPRA-S) score which included pathologic data, but there were no results for comparing preoperative predictors with the CAPRA-S score. We evaluated the validation of the CAPRA-S score in our institution and compare the result with the preoperative progression predictor, CAPRA score. Data of 130 patients were reviewed who underwent radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer from 2008 to 2013. Performance of CAPRA-S score in predicting progression free probabilities was assessed through Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression test. Additionally, prediction probability was compared with preoperative CAPRA score by logistic regression analysis. Comparing CAPRA score, the CAPRA-S score showed improved prediction ability for 5 yr progression free survival (concordance index 0.80, P = 0.04). After risk group stratification, 3 group model of CAPRA-S was superior than 3 group model of CAPRA for 3-yr progression free survival and 5-yr progression free survival (concordance index 0.74 vs. 0.70, 0.77 vs. 0.71, P < 0.001). Finally the CAPRA-S score was the more ideal predictor concerned with adjuvant therapy than the CAPRA score through decision curve analysis. The CPARA-S score is a useful predictor for disease progression after radical prostatectomy.

  17. Topically applied NO-releasing nanoparticles can increase intracorporal pressure and elicit spontaneous erections in a rat model of radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tar, Moses; Cabrales, Pedro; Mahantesh, Navarti; Adler, Brandon; Nacharaju, Parimala; Friedman, Adam; Friedman, Joel; Davies, Kelvin P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) suffer from erectile dysfunction (ED) refractory to PDE5 inhibitors, which act downstream of CN-mediated release of nitric oxide (NO). Direct delivery of NO to the penis could potentially circumvent this limitation. Aim To determine if topically applied NO-releasing nanoparticles (NO-np) can elicit erections in a rat model of RP and demonstrate that the mechanism is through increased blood flow. Methods 26 Sprague–Dawley rats underwent bilateral transection of the CN. One week later NO-np were applied topically to the penile shaft in DMSO-gel (10 animals) or coconut oil (6 animals). Control animals were treated with empty-np. Erectile function was determined through the intracorporal pressure/blood pressure ratio (ICP/BP). The effect of the NO-np on blood flow was determined using a hamster dorsal window chamber. Main Outcome Measures Animals were investigated for spontaneous erections, onset and duration of erectile response and basal ICP/BP ratio. Microcirculatory blood-flow was determined through arteriolar and venular diameter and blood flow. Results Eight of ten animals treated with NO-np suspended in DMSO-gel had significant increases in basal ICP/BP, and six out of these ten animals demonstrated spontaneous erections of approximately one minute duration. Onset of spontaneous erections ranged from 5–37 minutes and occurred for at least 45 minutes. Similar results were observed with NO-np applied in coconut oil. No erectile response was observed in control animal models treated with empty-np. The hamster dorsal window chamber demonstrated NO-np applied as a suspension in coconut oil caused a significant increase in the microcirculatory blood flow, sustained over 90 minutes. Conclusions Topically applied NO-np induced spontaneous erections and increased basal ICP in an animal model of RP. These effects are most likely due to increased microcirculatory blood flow. These characteristics suggest that

  18. Does the Time From Biopsy to Radical Prostatectomy Affect Gleason Score Upgrading in Patients With Clinical T1c Prostate Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Eroglu, Muzaffer; Sarici, Hasmet; Telli, Onur; Ozgur, Berat Cem; Bozkurt, Selen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose It is debated whether treatment delay worsens oncologic results in localized prostate cancer (PCa). Few studies have focused on the role of a delay between the time of biopsy and the time of surgery. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effect of the time period between biopsy and surgery on Gleason score upgrading (GSU). Materials and Methods A total of 290 patients who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy in Ankara Training and Research Hospital were included in the study. The biopsy Gleason score, age, total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value, prostate volumes, and PSA density (PSAD) were analyzed in all patients. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with GSU (group 1) and patients without GSU (group 2). Variables having a p-value of ≤0.05 in the univariate analysis were selected and then evaluated by use of multivariate logistic regression models. Results were considered significant at p<0.05. Results GSU occurred in 121 of 290 patients (41.7%). The mean age of the patients was 66.0±7.2 years in group 1 and 65.05±5.60 years in group 2 (p=0.18). The mean PSA values of groups 1 and 2 were 8.6±4.1 and 8.8±4.3 ng/dL, respectively. The mean prostate volumes of groups 1 and 2 were 43.8±14.1 and 59.5±29.8 mL, respectively. The PSAD of group 1 was significantly higher than that of group 2 (0.20 vs. 0.17, p=0.003). The mean time to surgery was shorter in group 2 (group 1, 52.2±22.6 days; group 2, 45.3±15.5 days; p=0.004). According to the logistic regression, time from biopsy to surgery is important in the prediction of GSU. Conclusions We suggest that the time period between biopsy and surgery is a significant factor that affects GSU in patients with clinically localized PCa. PMID:24955224

  19. PD-L1 promoter methylation is a prognostic biomarker for biochemical recurrence-free survival in prostate cancer patients following radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Jörn; Sailer, Verena; Ellinger, Jörg; Dietrich, Dimo; Kristiansen, Glen

    2016-01-01

    Background The rapid development of programmed death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors has generated an urgent need for biomarkers assisting the selection of patients eligible for therapy. The use of PD-L1 immunohistochemistry, which has been suggested as a predictive biomarker, however, is confounded by multiple unresolved issues. The aim of this study therefore was to quantify PD-L1 DNA methylation (mPD-L1) in prostate tissue samples and to evaluate its potential as a biomarker in prostate cancer (PCa). Results In the training cohort, normal tissue showed significantly lower levels of mPD-L1 compared to tumor tissue. High mPD-L1 in PCa was associated with biochemical recurrence (BCR) in univariate Cox proportional hazards (hazard ratio (HR)=2.60 [95%CI: 1.50-4.51], p=0.001) and Kaplan-Meier analyses (p<0.001). These results were corroborated in an independent validation cohort in univariate Cox (HR=1.24 [95%CI: 1.08-1.43], p=0.002) and Kaplan-Meier analyses (p=0.029). Although mPD-L1 and PD-L1 protein expression did not correlate in the validation cohort, both parameters added significant prognostic information in bivariate Cox analysis (HR=1.22 [95%CI: 1.05-1.42], p=0.008 for mPD-L1 and HR=2.58 [95%CI: 1.43-4.63], p=0.002 for PD-L1 protein expression). Methods mPD-L1 was analyzed in a training cohort from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n=498) and was subsequently measured in an independent validation cohort (n=299) by quantitative methylation-specific real-time PCR. All patients had undergone radical prostatectomy. Conclusions mPD-L1 is a promising biomarker for the risk stratification of PCa patients and might offer additional relevant prognostic information to the implemented clinical parameters, particularly in the setting of immune checkpoint inhibition. PMID:27835597

  20. A comparison of plasma and prostate lycopene in response to typical servings of tomato soup, sauce or juice in men before prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Elizabeth M; Hadley, Craig W; Moran, Nancy E; Riedl, Kenneth M; Gong, Michael C; Pohar, Kamal; Schwartz, Steven J; Clinton, Steven K

    2015-08-28

    Tomato product consumption and estimated lycopene intake are hypothesised to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. To define the impact of typical servings of commercially available tomato products on resultant plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations, men scheduled to undergo prostatectomy (n 33) were randomised either to a lycopene-restricted control group ( < 5 mg lycopene/d) or to a tomato soup (2-2¾ cups prepared/d), tomato sauce (142-198 g/d or 5-7 ounces/d) or vegetable juice (325-488 ml/d or 11-16·5 fluid ounces/d) intervention providing 25-35 mg lycopene/d. Plasma and prostate carotenoid concentrations were measured by HPLC. Tomato soup, sauce and juice consumption significantly increased plasma lycopene concentration from 0·68 (sem 0·1) to 1·13 (sem 0·09) μmol/l (66 %), 0·48 (sem 0·09) to 0·82 (sem 0·12) μmol/l (71 %) and 0·49 (sem 0·12) to 0·78 (sem 0·1) μmol/l (59 %), respectively, while the controls consuming the lycopene-restricted diet showed a decline in plasma lycopene concentration from 0·55 (sem 0·60) to 0·42 (sem 0·07) μmol/l ( - 24 %). The end-of-study prostate lycopene concentration was 0·16 (sem 0·02) nmol/g in the controls, but was 3·5-, 3·6- and 2·2-fold higher in tomato soup (P= 0·001), sauce (P= 0·001) and juice (P= 0·165) consumers, respectively. Prostate lycopene concentration was moderately correlated with post-intervention plasma lycopene concentrations (r 0·60, P =0·001), indicating that additional factors have an impact on tissue concentrations. While the primary geometric lycopene isomer in tomato products was all-trans (80-90 %), plasma and prostate isomers were 47 and 80 % cis, respectively, demonstrating a shift towards cis accumulation. Consumption of typical servings of processed tomato products results in differing plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations. Factors including meal composition and genetics deserve further evaluation to determine their impacts on lycopene absorption and

  1. Association between Allogeneic or Autologous Blood Transfusion and Survival in Patients after Radical Prostatectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiao-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Background A number of studies have investigated the effect of perioperative blood transfusion (PBT) for patients after radical prostatectomy (RP), with some reporting conflicting results. A systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis were conducted to explore the association between PBT (autologous or allogeneic) and biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS), overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients undergoing RP. Methods The PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases were searched for published controlled clinical studies on perioperative allogeneic or autologous blood transfusion (BT) and patient survival after RP. STATA software version 12.0 was used for data analysis. We used hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to test the correlation between BT and patient survival after RP. Results Data from a total of 26,698 patients in ten published studies were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis results showed that autologous BT was not associated with BRFS (HR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.96–1.18; Z = 1.17; P = 0.24), OS (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.71–1.04; Z = 1.58; P = 0.11), or CSS (HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.49–1.96; Z = 0.05; P = 0.96). Allogeneic BT exhibited a significant association with worse BRFS (HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01–1.16; Z = 2.37; P = 0.02), OS (HR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.24–1.64; Z = 4.95; P<0.01) and CSS (HR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.18–2.56; Z = 2.81; P = 0.005). Conclusion Our data showed an association between allogeneic BT and reduced BRFS, OS and CSS in patients after RP. These findings indicate that perioperative blood conservation strategies are important for decreasing the allogeneic BT rate. PMID:28135341

  2. Radical Prostatectomy Findings in White Hispanic/Latino Men With NCCN Very Low-risk Prostate Cancer Detected by Template Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Kryvenko, Oleksandr N.; Lyapichev, Kirill; Chinea, Felix M.; Prakash, Nachiketh Soodana; Pollack, Alan; Gonzalgo, Mark L.; Punnen, Sanoj; Jorda, Merce

    2016-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy (RP) outcomes have been studied in White and Black non-Hispanic men qualifying for Epstein active surveillance criteria (EASC). Herein, we first analyzed such outcomes in White Hispanic men. We studied 70 men with nonpalpable Gleason score 3+3 = 6 (Grade Group [GG] 1) prostate cancer (PCa) with ≤2 positive cores on biopsy who underwent RP. In 18 men, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density (PSAD) was >0.15 ng/mL/g. Three of these had insignificant and 15 had significant PCa. The remaining 52 men qualified for EASC. One patient had no PCa identified at RP. Nineteen (37%) had significant PCa defined by volume (n = 7), grade (n = 7), and volume and grade (n = 5). Nine cases were 3+4 = 7 (GG 2) (5/9 [56%] with pattern 4 <5%), 2 were 3+5 = 8 (GG 4), and 1 was 4+5 = 9 (GG 5). Patients with significant PCa more commonly had anterior dominant disease (11/19, 58%) versus patients with insignificant cancer (7/33, 21%) (P = 0.01). In 12 cases with higher grade at RP, the dominant tumor nodule was anterior in 6 (50%) and posterior in 6 (median volumes: 1.1 vs. 0.17 cm3, respectively; P = 0.01). PSA correlated poorly with tumor volume (r = 0.28, P = 0.049). Gland weight significantly correlated with PSA (r = 0.54, P < 0.001). While PSAD and PSA mass density correlated with tumor volume, only PSA mass density distinguished cases with significant disease (median, 0.008 vs. 0.012 μg/g; P = 0.03). In summary, a PSAD threshold of 0.15 works well in predicting significant tumor volume in Hispanic men. EASC appear to perform better in White Hispanic men than previously reported outcomes for Black non-Hispanic and worse than in White non-Hispanic men. Significant disease is often Gleason score 3+3 = 6 (GG 1) PCa >0.5 cm3. Significant PCa is either a larger-volume anterior disease that may be detected by multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging-targeted biopsy or anterior sampling of the prostate or higher-grade smaller-volume posterior disease that in most

  3. A Contemporary Analysis of Outcomes of Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate With Seminal Vesicle Invasion (pT3b) After Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Ross, Ashley E.; Schaeffer, Edward M.; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Han, Misop; Walsh, Patrick C.; Partin, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite earlier detection and stage migration, seminal vesicle invasion is still reported in the prostate specific antigen era and remains a poor prognostic indicator. We investigated outcomes in men with pT3b disease in the contemporary era. Materials and Methods The institutional radical prostatectomy database (1982 to 2010) of 18,505 men was queried and 989 with pT3b tumors were identified. The cohort was split into pre-prostate specific antigen (1982 to 1992), and early (1993 to 2000) and contemporary (2001 to present) prostate specific antigen eras. Of the 732 men identified in the prostate specific antigen era 140 had lymph node involvement and were excluded from study. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine biochemical recurrence-free, metastasis-free and prostate cancer specific survival. Proportional hazard models were used to determine predictors of biochemical recurrence-free, metastasis-free and cancer specific survival. Results In the pre-prostate specific antigen, and early and contemporary prostate specific antigen eras, 7.7%, 4.3% and 3.3% of patients, respectively, had pT3bN0 disease (p >0.001). In pT3bN0 cases, the 10-year biochemical recurrence-free survival rate was 25.8%, 28.6% and 19.6% (p = 0.8), and the cancer specific survival rate was 79.9%, 79.6% and 83.8% (p = 0.6) among the eras, respectively. In pT3bN0 cases in the prostate specific antigen era, prostate specific antigen, clinical stage T2b or greater, pathological Gleason sum 7 and 8–10, and positive surgical margins were significant predictors of biochemical recurrence-free survival on multivariate analysis while clinical stage T2c or greater and Gleason 8–10 were predictors of metastasis-free and cancer specific survival. Conclusions Despite a decreased frequency of pT3b disease, and lower rates of positive surgical margins and lymph nodes, patients with seminal vesicle invasion continue to have low biochemical recurrence-free survival. Advanced clinical stage

  4. Phase IIa, randomized placebo-controlled trial of single high dose cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and daily Genistein (G-2535) versus double placebo in men with early stage prostate cancer undergoing prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jarrard, David; Konety, Badrinath; Huang, Wei; Downs, Tracy; Kolesar, Jill; Kim, Kyung Mann; Havighurst, Tom; Slaton, Joel; House, Margaret G; Parnes, Howard L; Bailey, Howard H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: Prostate cancer (PCa) represents an important target for chemoprevention given its prolonged natural history and high prevalence. Epidemiologic and laboratory data suggest that vitamin D and genistein (soy isoflavone) may decrease PCa progression. The effect of vitamin D on prostate epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation is well documented and genistein may augment this affect through inhibition of the CYP24 enzyme, which is responsible for intracellular vitamin D metabolism. In addition, both genistein and vitamin D inhibit the intraprostatic synthesis of prostaglandin E2, an important mediator of inflammation. The objectives of this prospective multicenter trial were to compare prostate tissue calcitriol levels and down-stream related biomarkers in men with localized prostate cancer randomized to receive cholecalciferol and genistein versus placebo cholecalciferol and placebo genistein during the pre-prostatectomy period. Methods: Men undergoing radical prostatectomy were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: (1) cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) 200,000 IU as one dose at study entry plus genistein (G-2535), 600 mg daily or (2) placebo cholecalciferol day 1 and placebo genistein PO daily for 21-28 days prior to radical prostatectomy. Serum and tissue analyses were performed and side-effects recorded. Results: A total of 15 patients were enrolled, 8 in the placebo arm and 7 in the vitamin D3 + genistein (VD + G) arm. All patients were compliant and completed the study. No significant differences in side effect profiles were noted. Utilization of the VD + G trended toward increased calcitriol serum concentrations when compared to placebo (0.104 ± 0.2 vs. 0.0013 ± 0.08; p=0.08); however, prostate tissue levels did not increase. Calcidiol levels did not change (p=0.5). Immunohistochemistry for marker analyses using VECTRA automated quantitation revealed a increase in AR expression (p=0.04) and a trend toward increased

  5. The Prostate Cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trial: VA/NCI/AHRQ Cooperative Studies Program #407 (PIVOT): design and baseline results of a randomized controlled trial comparing radical prostatectomy with watchful waiting for men with clinically localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilt, Timothy J

    2012-12-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death in men. In the United States, 90% of men with prostate cancer are more than age 60 years, diagnosed by early detection with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test, and have disease believed confined to the prostate gland (clinically localized). Common treatments for clinically localized prostate cancer include watchful waiting (WW), surgery to remove the prostate gland (radical prostatectomy), external-beam radiation therapy and interstitial radiation therapy (brachytherapy), and androgen deprivation. Little is known about the relative effectiveness and harms of treatments because of the paucity of randomized controlled trials. The Department of Veterans Affairs/National Cancer Institute/Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Cooperative Studies Program Study #407:Prostate Cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trial (PIVOT), initiated in 1994, is a multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing radical prostatectomy with WW in men with clinically localized prostate cancer. We describe the study rationale, design, recruitment methods, and baseline characteristics of PIVOT enrollees. We provide comparisons with eligible men declining enrollment and men participating in another recently reported randomized trial of radical prostatectomy vs WW conducted in Scandinavia. We screened 13 022 men with prostate cancer at 52 US medical centers for potential enrollment. From these, 5023 met initial age, comorbidity, and disease eligibility criteria, and a total of 731 men agreed to participate and were randomized. The mean age of enrollees was 67 years. Nearly one-third were African American. Approximately 85% reported that they were fully active. The median PSA was 7.8ng/mL (mean 10.2ng/mL). In three-fourths of men, the primary reason for biopsy leading to a diagnosis of prostate cancer was a PSA elevation or rise. Using previously developed tumor risk

  6. {sup 18}F-Choline Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography–Driven High-Dose Salvage Radiation Therapy in Patients With Biochemical Progression After Radical Prostatectomy: Feasibility Study in 60 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angelillo, Rolando M.; Sciuto, Rosa; Ramella, Sara; Papalia, Rocco; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A.; Trodella, Luca E.; Fiore, Michele; Gallucci, Michele; Maini, Carlo L.; Trodella, Lucio

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively review data of a cohort of patients with biochemical progression after radical prostatectomy, treated according to a uniform institutional treatment policy, to evaluate toxicity and feasibility of high-dose salvage radiation therapy (80 Gy). Methods and Materials: Data on 60 patients with biochemical progression after radical prostatectomy between January 2009 and September 2011 were reviewed. The median value of prostate-specific antigen before radiation therapy was 0.9 ng/mL. All patients at time of diagnosis of biochemical recurrence underwent dynamic {sup 18}F-choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), which revealed in all cases a local recurrence. High-dose salvage radiation therapy was delivered up to total dose of 80 Gy to 18F-choline PET/CT-positive area. Toxicity was recorded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, scale. Results: Treatment was generally well tolerated: 54 patients (90%) completed salvage radiation therapy without any interruption. Gastrointestinal grade ≥2 acute toxicity was recorded in 6 patients (10%), whereas no patient experienced a grade ≥2 genitourinary toxicity. No grade 4 acute toxicity events were recorded. Only 1 patient (1.7%) experienced a grade 2 gastrointestinal late toxicity. With a mean follow-up of 31.2 months, 46 of 60 patients (76.6%) were free of recurrence. The 3-year biochemical progression-free survival rate was 72.5%. Conclusions: At early follow-up, {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT-driven high-dose salvage radiation therapy seems to be feasible and well tolerated, with a low rate of toxicity.

  7. Factors associated with blood loss during radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-era: an overview of the Department of Defense (DOD) Center for Prostate Disease Research (CPDR) national database.

    PubMed

    Moul, Judd W; Sun, Leon; Wu, Hongyu; McLeod, David G; Amling, Christopher; Lance, Raymond; Foley, John; Sexton, Wade; Kusuda, Leo; Chung, Andrew; Soderdahl, Douglas; Donahue, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    Radical Prostatectomy (RP) has been traditionally associated with significant operative blood loss and high risk of transfusion. However, over the last few years, centers of excellence have reported less bleeding and transfusion. To verify and document changes in the epidemiology of bleeding and transfusion of men electing RP, we undertook an analysis of such cases in the Department of Defense (DoD) Center for Prostate Disease Research (CPDR) Multicenter Research Database. Using the Department of Defense Center for Prostate Disease Research (CPDR) Multicenter National Research Database, a query of all RPs performed between January 1, 1985 and December 31, 2000 was conducted revealing 2918 cases with blood-loss data available for analysis from nine hospital sites. These cases were analyzed over time (calendar year) and changes in the characteristics of the patients, disease severity, and surgical results were compared with estimated blood loss (EBL) and transfusion data. Among the 2918 evaluable men, 2399 (82%) underwent a retropubic RP, 97% had clinical T1-2 disease, and 77% had a PSA level > or =10.0 ng/mL. Overall median operation time was 3.8 h, and EBL was 1000 cc. Examining trends over time, there was a dramatic decline in median operative time, EBL, and transfusion rate. In multiple linear regression analysis, operative time, operative approach, surgery year, lymphadenectomy status, and neoadjuvant hormonal therapy were significant predictor of EBL. Blood loss difference between retropubic and perineal RP became insignificant in the latter years. Radical prostatectomy is being performed more commonly on men with earlier stage disease in the PSA-Era. The operation is now performed more rapidly with less blood loss and fewer transfusion requirements. In a broad practice experience represented here, autologous blood donation would appear to be unnecessary for the majority of men and the blood loss advantage traditionally associated with perineal RP is no longer

  8. Phase 2 study of (99m)Tc-trofolastat SPECT/CT to identify and localize prostate cancer in intermediate- and high-risk patients undergoing radical prostatectomy and extended pelvic lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Goffin, Karolien E; Joniau, Steven; Tenke, Peter; Slawin, Kevin; Klein, Eric A; Stambler, Nancy; Strack, Thomas; Babich, John; Armor, Thomas; Wong, Vivien

    2017-03-16

    Rationale:(99m)Tc-trofolastat ((99m)Tc-MIP-1404), a small-molecule inhibitor of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), shows high potential to detect prostate cancer (PCa) non-invasively using single-photon-emission-computed-tomography (SPECT). We therefore wanted to assess the performance of (99m)Tc-trofolastat SPECT/CT in a phase 2 multi-center, multi-reader prospective study in patients with intermediate- and high-grade PCa, prior to radical prostatectomy and extended pelvic lymph node dissection, with histopathology as gold standard. Methods: 105 PCa patients with an increased risk of lymph node involvement (LNI) received a pelvic (99m)Tc-trofolastat SPECT/CT prior to radical prostatectomy with extended pelvic lymph node dissection. Sensitivity of (99m)Tc-trofolastat for detection of PCa on a patient- and lobe-basis, using visual and semi-quantitative (tumor-to-background ratio, TBR) scores and of LNI was evaluated as well as correlation of uptake within the gland to Gleason scores (GS) and assessment of the predictive potential of (99m)Tc-trofolastat-uptake for LNI. Results: PCa was detected in 98 patients (94%) with acceptable variability between readers. There was a significantly higher visual score and TBR in positive lobes compared to tumor-negative lobes. ROC analysis showed that visual scores more accurately discriminated lobes with GS ≤3+3 from ≥3+4, while TBRs discriminated high-grade disease from normal lobes better. Visual scores and TBRs correlated significantly with GS. (99m)Tc-trofolastat SPECT/CT detected LNI with sensitivity of 50%, and specificity of 87% and TBR values significantly predicted LNI with a sensitivity of 90%. Conclusion:(99m)Tc-trofolastat SPECT/CT detects PCa with high sensitivity in patients with intermediate- and high-risk PCa compared to histology. It has potential to be used as surrogate marker for Gleason scores and predict LNI.

  9. Effect of Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on the Sonographic Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter as a Surrogate for Intracranial Pressure during Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Wook-Jong; Lee, Joonho; Han, Yun A.; Lim, Jinwook; Hwang, Jai-Hyun; Cho, Seong-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Background Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can increase intracranial pressure. Pneumoperitoneum and the Trendelenburg position are associated with an increased intracranial pressure. We investigated whether PEEP ventilation could additionally influence the sonographic optic nerve sheath diameter as a surrogate for intracranial pressure during pneumoperitoneum combined with the Trendelenburg position in patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. Methods After anesthetic induction, 38 patients were randomly allocated to a low tidal volume ventilation (8 ml/kg) without PEEP group (zero end-expiratory pressure [ZEEP] group, n = 19) or low tidal volume ventilation with 8 cmH2O PEEP group (PEEP group, n = 19). The sonographic optic nerve sheath diameter was measured prior to skin incision, 5 min and 30 min after pneumoperitoneum and the Trendelenburg position, and at the end of surgery. The study endpoint was the difference in the sonographic optic nerve sheath diameter 5 min after pneumoperitoneum and the Trendelenburg position between the ZEEP and PEEP groups. Results Optic nerve sheath diameters 5 min after pneumoperitoneum and the Trendelenburg position did not significantly differ between the groups [least square mean (95% confidence interval); 4.8 (4.6–4.9) mm vs 4.8 (4.7–5.0) mm, P = 0.618]. Optic nerve sheath diameters 30 min after pneumoperitoneum and the Trendelenburg position also did not differ between the groups [least square mean (95% confidence interval); 4.5 (4.3–4.6) mm vs 4.5 (4.4–4.6) mm, P = 0.733]. Conclusions An 8 cmH2O PEEP application under low tidal volume ventilation does not induce an increase in the optic nerve sheath diameter during pneumoperitoneum combined with the steep Trendelenburg position, suggesting that there might be no detrimental effects of PEEP on the intracranial pressure during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT02516566 PMID:28107408

  10. Long-term follow-up of {sup 111}In-capromab pendetide (ProstaScint) scan as pretreatment assessment in patients who undergo salvage radiotherapy for rising prostate-specific antigen after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nagda, Suneel N. . E-mail: snagda@gmail.com; Mohideen, Najeeb; Lo, Simon S.; Khan, Usman B.S.; Dillehay, Gary; Wagner, Robert; Campbell, Steven; Flanigan, Robert

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term failure patterns in patients who underwent an {sup 111}In-capromab pendetide (ProstaScint) scan as part of their pretreatment assessment for a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level after prostatectomy and subsequently received local radiotherapy (RT) to the prostate bed. Methods: Fifty-eight patients were referred for evaluation of a rising PSA level after radical prostatectomy. All patients had negative findings for metastatic disease after abdominal/pelvis imaging with CT and isotope bone scans. All patients underwent a capromab pendetide scan, and the sites of uptake were noted. All patients were treated with local prostate bed RT (median dose 66.6 Gy). Results: Of the 58 patients, 20 had biochemical failure (post-RT PSA level >0.2 ng/mL or a rise to greater than the nadir PSA), including 6 patients with positive uptake outside the bed (positive elsewhere). The 4-year biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) rates for patients with negative (53%), positive in the prostate bed alone (45%), or positive elsewhere (74%) scan findings did not differ significantly (p = 0.51). The positive predictive value of the capromab pendetide scan in detecting disease outside the bed was 27%. The capromab pendetide scan status had no effect on bRFS. Those with a pre-RT PSA level of <1 ng/mL had improved bRFS (p = 0.003). Conclusion: The capromab pendetide scan has a low positive predictive value in patients with positive elsewhere uptake and the 4-year bRFS was similar to that for those who did not exhibit positive elsewhere uptake. Therefore, patients with a postprostatectomy rising PSA level should considered for local RT on the basis of clinicopathologic factors.

  11. Motion magnification for endoscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Baxter, John S. H.; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Peters, Terry M.

    2014-03-01

    Endoscopic and laparoscopic surgeries are used for many minimally invasive procedures but limit the visual and haptic feedback available to the surgeon. This can make vessel sparing procedures particularly challenging to perform. Previous approaches have focused on hardware intensive intraoperative imaging or augmented reality systems that are difficult to integrate into the operating room. This paper presents a simple approach in which motion is visually enhanced in the endoscopic video to reveal pulsating arteries. This is accomplished by amplifying subtle, periodic changes in intensity coinciding with the patient's pulse. This method is then applied to two procedures to illustrate its potential. The first, endoscopic third ventriculostomy, is a neurosurgical procedure where the floor of the third ventricle must be fenestrated without injury to the basilar artery. The second, nerve-sparing robotic prostatectomy, involves removing the prostate while limiting damage to the neurovascular bundles. In both procedures, motion magnification can enhance subtle pulsation in these structures to aid in identifying and avoiding them.

  12. Prostate-Specific Antigen Persistence After Radical Prostatectomy as a Predictive Factor of Clinical Relapse-Free Survival and Overall Survival: 10-Year Data of the ARO 96-02 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegel, Thomas; Bartkowiak, Detlef; Bottke, Dirk; Thamm, Reinhard; Hinke, Axel; Stöckle, Michael; Wirth, Manfred; Störkel, Stephan; Golz, Reinhard; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Hofmann, Rainer; Feldmann, Horst-Jürgen; Kälble, Tilman; Siegmann, Alessandra; Hinkelbein, Wolfgang; Steiner, Ursula; Miller, Kurt

    2015-02-01

    Objective: The ARO 96-02 trial primarily compared wait-and-see (WS, arm A) with adjuvant radiation therapy (ART, arm B) in prostate cancer patients who achieved an undetectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Here, we report the outcome with up to 12 years of follow-up of patients who retained a post-RP detectable PSA and received salvage radiation therapy (SRT, arm C). Methods and Materials: For the study, 388 patients with pT3-4pN0 prostate cancer with positive or negative surgical margins were recruited. After RP, 307 men achieved an undetectable PSA (arms A + B). In 78 patients the PSA remained above thresholds (median 0.6, range 0.05-5.6 ng/mL). Of the latter, 74 consented to receive 66 Gy to the prostate bed, and SRT was applied at a median of 86 days after RP. Clinical relapse-free survival, metastasis-free survival, and overall survival were determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Patients with persisting PSA after RP had higher preoperative PSA values, higher tumor stages, higher Gleason scores, and more positive surgical margins than did patients in arms A + B. For the 74 patients, the 10-year clinical relapse-free survival rate was 63%. Forty-three men had hormone therapy; 12 experienced distant metastases; 23 patients died. Compared with men who did achieve an undetectable PSA, the arm-C patients fared significantly worse, with a 10-year metastasis-free survival of 67% versus 83% and overall survival of 68% versus 84%, respectively. In Cox regression analysis, Gleason score ≥8 (hazard ratio [HR] 2.8), pT ≥ 3c (HR 2.4), and extraprostatic extension ≥2 mm (HR 3.6) were unfavorable risk factors of progression. Conclusions: A persisting PSA after prostatectomy seems to be an important prognosticator of clinical progression for pT3 tumors. It correlates with a higher rate of distant metastases and with worse overall survival. A larger prospective study is required to determine which patient subgroups

  13. Surgical Management of Neurovascular Bundle in Uterine Fibroid Pseudocapsule

    PubMed Central

    Malvasi, Antonio; Hurst, Brad S.; Tsin, Daniel A.; Davila, Fausto; Dominguez, Guillermo; Dell'edera, Domenico; Cavallotti, Carlo; Negro, Roberto; Gustapane, Sarah; Teigland, Chris M.; Mettler, Liselotte

    2012-01-01

    The uterine fibroid pseudocapsule is a fibro-neurovascular structure surrounding a leiomyoma, separating it from normal peripheral myometrium. The fibroid pseudocapsule is composed of a neurovascular network rich in neurofibers similar to the neurovascular bundle surrounding a prostate. The nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy has several intriguing parallels to myomectomy. It may serve either as a useful model in modern fibroid surgical removal, or it may accelerate our understanding of the role of the fibrovascular bundle and neurotransmitters in the healing and restoration of reproductive potential after intracapsular myomectomy. Surgical innovations, such as laparoscopic or robotic myomectomy applied to the intracapsular technique with magnification of the fibroid pseudocapsule surrounding a leiomyoma, originated from the radical prostatectomy method that highlighted a careful dissection of the neurovascular bundle to preserve sexual functioning after prostatectomy. Gentle uterine leiomyoma detachment from the pseudocapsule neurovascular bundle has allowed a reduction in uterine bleeding and uterine musculature trauma with sparing of the pseudocapsule neuropeptide fibers. This technique has had a favorable impact on functionality in reproduction and has improved fertility outcomes. Further research should determine the role of the myoma pseudocapsule neurovascular bundle in the formation, growth, and pathophysiological consequences of fibroids, including pain, infertility, and reproductive outcomes. PMID:22906340

  14. Surgery for Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of retroperitoneal lymph node surgery called nerve-sparing surgery that is very successful when done by ... children. These men may wish to discuss nerve-sparing surgery with their doctors, as well as sperm ...

  15. Promoter methylation of the immune checkpoint receptor PD-1 (PDCD1) is an independent prognostic biomarker for biochemical recurrence-free survival in prostate cancer patients following radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Goltz, Diane; Gevensleben, Heidrun; Dietrich, Jörn; Ellinger, Jörg; Landsberg, Jennifer; Kristiansen, Glen; Dietrich, Dimo

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers that facilitate the prediction of disease recurrence in prostate cancer (PCa) may enable physicians to personalize treatment for individual patients. In the current study, PD-1 (PDCD1) promoter methylation was assessed in a cohort of 498 PCa patients included in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and a second cohort of 300 PCa cases treated at the University Hospital of Bonn. In the TCGA cohort, the PD-1 promoter was significantly hypermethylated in carcinomas versus normal prostatic epithelium (55.5% vs. 38.2%, p < 0.001) and PD-1 methylation (mPD-1) inversely correlated with PD-1 mRNA expression in PCa (Spearman's ρ = -0.415, p < 0.001). In both cohorts, mPD-1 significantly correlated with preoperative prostate specific antigen (PSA). In univariate Cox Proportional Hazard analysis, mPD-1 served as a significant prognostic factor for biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival (Hazard ratio: HR = 2.35 [1.35-4.10], p = 0.003, n = 410) in the TCGA cohort. In multivariate analysis, mPD-1 was shown to add significant independent prognostic information adjunct to pathologic tumor category (pT) and Gleason grading group (HR = 2.08 [1.16-3.74], p = 0.014, n = 350). PD-1 promoter methylation analyses could thus potentially aid the identification of patients which might benefit from adjuvant treatment after radical prostatectomy. Moreover, our data suggest an intrinsic role of PD-1 in PCa carcinogenesis and disease progression, which needs to be addressed in future studies.

  16. Is age an independent risk factor for medical complications following minimally invasive radical prostatectomy? An evaluation of contemporary American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement (ACS-NSQIP) data.

    PubMed

    Dagrosa, Lawrence M; Ingimarsson, Johann P; Gorlov, Ivan P; Higgins, John H; Hyams, Elias S

    2016-12-01

    While robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) is an effective treatment for localized prostate cancer, the risk of complications in older patients can be a deterrent to surgery. We evaluated the rate of medical complications following RALRP in a national dataset of safety events, and assessed whether age is an independent risk factor for these complications. Retrospective analysis of patients undergoing RALRP between 2009 and 2012 in the prospectively maintained American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement (ACS-NSQIP) database was performed. Demographic and comorbid data were collated, medical complications occurring during the 30-day post-operative period were identified. We identified age-related comorbidities, and complications associated with these comorbidities. A binary logistic regression model with age and age-related comorbidities as predictors and specific complication as outcome, was used to evaluate whether age is an independent risk factor for these complications. 12,123 patients underwent RALRP between 2009 and 2012, with a mean age of 62 (22-92). Post-operative medical complications included urinary tract infection (UTI) (1.77 %), deep venous thrombosis (DVT) (0.67 %), pulmonary embolism (PE) (0.45 %), pneumonia (PNA) (0.27 %), myocardial infarction (MI) (0.12 %), and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) (0.01 %). Nine comorbidities were positively correlated with age (p < 0.05). Four medical complications were associated with these age-related comorbidities: MI, CVA, PNA, and UTI. On multivariate analysis, age was an independent risk factor for post-operative PNA (p < 0.05), but not for MI (p = 0.09), UTI (p = 0.3) or CVA (p = 0.2). Patient age was independently associated with post-operative pneumonia only. These data suggest that RALRP can be considered as a treatment option in selected older patients with minimal increased risk for post-operative complications.

  17. Oncological results, functional outcomes and health-related quality-of-life in men who received a radical prostatectomy or external beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer: a study on long-term patient outcome with risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Itsuhiro; Hara, Noboru; Nishiyama, Tsutomu; Kaneko, Masaaki; Hoshii, Tatsuhiko; Tsuchida, Emiko; Takahashi, Kota

    2009-05-01

    Health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) after a radical prostatectomy (RP) or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) has not been studied in conjunction with oncological outcomes in relation to disease risk stratification. Moreover, the long-term outcomes of these treatment approaches have not been studied. We retrospectively analyzed oncological outcomes between consecutive patients receiving RP (n=86) and EBRT (n=76) for localized prostate cancer. HRQOL and functional outcomes could be assessed in 62 RP (79%) and 54 EBRT (79%) patients over a 3-year follow-up period (median: 41 months) using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) and the University of California Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index (UCLA PCI). The 5-year biochemical progression-free survival did not differ between the RP and EBRT groups for low-risk (74.6% vs. 75.0%, P=0.931) and intermediate-risk (61.3% vs. 71.1%, P=0.691) patients. For high-risk patients, progression-free survival was lower in the RP group (45.1%) than in the EBRT group (79.7%) (P=0.002). The general HRQOL was comparable between the two groups. Regarding functional outcomes, the RP group reported lower scores on urinary function and less urinary bother and sexual bother than the EBRT group (P<0.001, P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). With risk stratification, the low- and intermediate-risk patients in the RP group reported poorer urinary function than patients in the EBRT group (P<0.001 for each). The sexual function of the high-risk patients in the EBRT group was better than that of the same risk RP patients (P<0.001). Biochemical recurrence was not associated with the UCLA PCI score in either group. In conclusion, low- to intermediate-risk patients treated with an RP may report relatively decreased urinary function during long-term follow-up. The patient's HRQOL after treatment did not depend on biochemical recurrence.

  18. Patterns and Predictors of Early Biochemical Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy and Adjuvant Radiation Therapy in Men With pT{sub 3}N{sub 0} Prostate Cancer: Implications for Multimodal Therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Briganti, Alberto; Joniau, Steven; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Cozzarini, Cesare; Sun, Maxine; Tombal, Bertrand; Haustermans, Karin; Hinkelbein, Wolfgang; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.; Montorsi, Francesco; Van Poppel, Hein; Wiegel, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: The aim of our study was to evaluate patterns and predictors of early biochemical recurrence (eBCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) and adjuvant radiation therapy (aRT) in order to identify which individuals might benefit from additional treatments. Methods and Materials: We evaluated 390 patients with pT{sub 3}N{sub 0} prostate cancer (PCa) receiving RP and aRT at 6 European centers between 1993 and 2006. Patients who were free from BCR at <2 years' follow-up were excluded. This resulted in 374 assessable patients. Early BCR was defined as 2 consecutive prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test values >0.2 ng/mL within 2 or 3 years after aRT. Uni- and multivariable Cox regression analyses predicting overall and eBCR after aRT were fitted. Covariates consisted of preoperative PSA results, surgical margins, pathological stage, Gleason score, and aRT dose. Results: Overall, 5- and 8-year BCR-free survival rates were 77.1% and 70.8%, respectively. At a median follow-up of 86 months after aRT, 33 (8.8%) and 55 (14.6%) men experienced BCR within 2 or 3 years after aRT, respectively. In multivariable analyses, Gleason scores of 8 to 10 represented the only independent predictor of eBCR after aRT (all, P≤.01). The risk of BCR was significantly higher in patients with a Gleason score of 8 to 10 disease than in those with Gleason 2 to 6 within 24 months after treatment, after adjusting for all covariates (all, P≤.04). However, given a 24-month BCR free period, the risk of subsequent BCR for men with poorly differentiated disease was equal to that of men with less aggressive disease (all, P≥.3). Conclusions: High Gleason score represents the only predictor of eBCR after RP and aRT in patients affected by pT{sub 3}N{sub 0} PCa. Given the association between early PSA recurrence, clinical progression, and mortality, these patients might be considered candidates for adjuvant medical therapy and/or prophylactic whole-pelvis radiation therapy in addition to a

  19. Improved Image-Guided Laparoscopic Prostatectomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    the prostate specimens were placed in prone position on a surgical table. USE scans were performed in a system- atic sextant approach, similar to...of the gland (Figure 4). The sextant approach was neces- sary to ensure that the scans were in the same plane with the histopathology diagrams (axial...6 Figure 4. Ultrasound elastography data collection process using the sextant approach; RF data was acquired in axial planes (1–6) from the gland’s

  20. Improved Image-Guided Laparoscopic Prostatectomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    A.2 Materials and Methods Figure A.1: Ultrasound elastography data collection process using the sextant ap- proach; RF data was acquired in axial...were performed in a systematic sextant approach, similar to that used for image guided biopsies. RF data was acquired in axial planes (from gland’s...base, through mid gland, to apex) on the left and right side of the gland (Figure A.1). The sextant approach was necessary to ensure that the scans

  1. Improved Image-Guided Laparoscopic Prostatectomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    pancreas, lymph nodes, and thyroid .[1,2,3,4,5] Ultrasound elastography is thus a very promising image guidance method for robot-assisted procedures...Li, Z., Zhang, X., Chen, M., and Luo, Z., “Real-time ultrasound elastography in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Laparoscopic Ultrasound

  2. Multimodal treatment for high-risk prostate cancer with high-dose intensity-modulated radiation therapy preceded or not by radical prostatectomy, concurrent intensified-dose docetaxel and long-term androgen deprivation therapy: results of a prospective phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The optimal management of high-risk prostate cancer remains uncertain. In this study we assessed the safety and efficacy of a novel multimodal treatment paradigm for high-risk prostate cancer. Methods This was a prospective phase II trial including 35 patients with newly diagnosed high-risk localized or locally advanced prostate cancer treated with high-dose intensity-modulated radiation therapy preceded or not by radical prostatectomy, concurrent intensified-dose docetaxel-based chemotherapy and long-term androgen deprivation therapy. Primary endpoint was acute and late toxicity evaluated with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Secondary endpoint was biochemical and clinical recurrence-free survival explored with the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Acute gastro-intestinal and genito-urinary toxicity was grade 2 in 23% and 20% of patients, and grade 3 in 9% and 3% of patients, respectively. Acute blood/bone marrow toxicity was grade 2 in 20% of patients. No acute grade ≥4 toxicity was observed. Late gastro-intestinal and genito-urinary toxicity was grade 2 in 9% of patients each. No late grade ≥3 toxicity was observed. Median follow-up was 63 months (interquartile range 31–79). Actuarial 5-year biochemical and clinical recurrence-free survival rate was 55% (95% confidence interval, 35-75%) and 70% (95% confidence interval, 52-88%), respectively. Conclusions In our phase II trial testing a novel multimodal treatment paradigm for high-risk prostate cancer, toxicity was acceptably low and mid-term oncological outcome was good. This treatment paradigm, thus, may warrant further evaluation in phase III randomized trials. PMID:24423462

  3. Time-gated optical imaging to detect positive prostate cancer margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zi-Jing; Alexandrakis, George; Patel, Nimit; Shen, Jinhui; Tang, Liping; Liu, Hanli

    2009-02-01

    Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) has revolutionized the surgical treatment of prostate cancer. This procedure permits complete removal of the prostate and seminal vesicles while minimizing pain and recovery time. However, the laparoscopic approach greatly limits the surgeon's tactile sensation during the procedure. This is particularly true with robot-assisted LRP where no tactile feedback is available forcing the surgeon to rely solely on visual cues. The surgeon and pathologist perform intraoperative frozen section pathologic analysis of a few select tissue fragments, but this is time consuming and costly. Concrete conclusions based on such samples are unreliable as they do not reflect the entire surgical margin status. In this case a conservative approach might dictate removal of more marginal material than necessary, thereby compromising the important nerve-sparing aspects of the procedure. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of using multi-modal time-gated optical imaging, i.e. time-resolved light reflectance and auto-fluorescence life-time imaging performed by an ICCD (Intensified Charge-Coupled Device) imaging system to enable clinicians to detect positive tumor margins with high sensitivity and specificity over the prostate. Results from animal experiments present the potential of identifying differences in optical signals between prostate cancer and control tissues. Results also show that the use of classification algorithms can identify cancerous regions with high sensitivity and specificity.

  4. Biomarker, Molecular, and Technologic Advances in Urologic Pathology, Oncology, and Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Carla L; Harik, Lara R; Cohen, Cynthia; Osunkoya, Adeboye O

    2017-04-01

    Urologic pathology is evolving rapidly. Emerging trends include the expanded diagnostic utility of biomarkers and molecular testing, as well as adapting to the plethora of technical advances occurring in genitourinary oncology, surgical practice, and imaging. We illustrate those trends by highlighting our approach to the diagnostic workup of a few selected disease entities that pathologists may encounter, including newly recognized subtypes of renal cell carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, and prostate cancer, some of which harbor a distinctive chromosomal translocation, gene loss, or mutation. We illustrate applications of immunohistochemistry for differential diagnosis of needle core renal biopsies, intraductal carcinoma of the prostate, and amyloidosis and cite encouraging results from early studies using targeted gene expression panels to predict recurrence after prostate cancer surgery. At our institution, pathologists are working closely with urologic surgeons and interventional radiologists to explore the use of intraoperative frozen sections for margins and nerve sparing during robotic prostatectomy, to pioneer minimally invasive videoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy, and to refine image-guided needle core biopsies and cryotherapy of prostate cancer as well as blue-light/fluorescence cystoscopy. This collaborative, multidisciplinary approach enhances clinical management and research, and optimizes the care of patients with urologic disorders.

  5. Telerobotic minimally invasive procedures in urology--laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Binder, Jochen; Kramer, Wolfgang

    2002-09-01

    A telerobotic device, the daVinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Mountain View, CA) is one of the recently developed, remotely operated systems for laparoscopic surgical procedures. This telemanipulation system consists of two components: a control console operated by the surgeon, and the surgical arm cart that holds a three-dimensional (3-D) 30 degrees laparoscope and two detachable laparoscopic surgical tools. The instruments are equipped with a wrist--a unique feature that provides additional dexterity. Since its clinical introduction in Europe in early 1999, this system has opened up a new era in minimally invasive surgery enhancing endoscopic vision and anastomosis suturing. For the first time, cardiac surgeons were able to perform a totally endoscopic coronary bypass procedure on a beating heart.

  6. Deep sedation in GreenLight laser prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Fligou, Fotini; Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Flaris, Nicolaos; Al-Aown, Abdulrahman; Kyriazis, Iason; Vasilas, Marinos; Panagopoulos, Vasilis; Perimenis, Petros; Liatsikos, Evangelos; Vrettos, Theofanis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Evaluation of ketamine and propofol combination for the performance of photoselective vaporization of prostate (PVP). Patients and Methods: Twenty-six patients undergoing PVP for benign prostatic hyperplasia were included in the study. Co-morbidities were present in 24 patients. Midazolam 2 mg intravenous was administered for the induction to anesthesia. Propofol (10 mg/ml) and ketamine (1 mg/ml) were administered with the use of two pumps. An initial bolus dose of 0.03 ml/kg of propofol and 5 mg of ketamine was administered intravenously. The anesthesia was maintained by continuous infusion of 0.01 ml/kg/min of propofol and 2 ml/min of ketamine. Fentanyl was administered when deemed necessary. The level of sedation, peri-operative parameters and side-effects were recorded. Results: The average periods from the induction of anesthesia and intraoperative infusion were 12.38 ± 5.84 min and 59.5 ± 22.15 min, respectively. Average propofol and total ketamine dose were 85.5 ± 10.62 μg/kg/min and 144.9 ± 45.62 mg, respectively. The average dose of fentanyl administered was 29.81 ± 27.40 μcg. An average period between the end of the infusion and the discharge to the urology clinic was 34.62 ± 22.89 min. Ten patients experienced nausea and five eventually vomited. Hallucinations were observed in five cases while visual disturbances in two patients. Conclusion: The combined use of ketamine and propofol for the performance of PVP proved to be an efficient method for anesthesia. The “deep sedation” provided by these drugs was not associated with significant side-effects. Moreover, the use of the above method is indicated in patients with significant co-morbidities that should undergo PVP. PMID:27141193

  7. Evaluation of laser prostatectomy devices by thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molenaar, David G.; van Vliet, Remco J.; van Swol, Christiaan F. P.; Boon, Tom A.; Verdaasdonck, Rudolf M.

    1994-12-01

    The treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) using Nd:YAG laser light has become an accepted alternative to TURP. However, there is no consensus to the dosimetry using the various laser devices. In our study, we evaluate the optical and thermal characteristics of 7 commercially available side firing laser probes. For the thermal analysis, an optical method was used based on `Schlieren' techniques producing color images of the temperature distribution around the laser probe in water. Absolute temperatures were obtained after calibration measurements with thermocouples. Laser probes using metal mirrors for beam deflection heated up entirely. The local temperature rose up to 100 degrees centigrade, thus inducing vapor bubble formation that interfered with the emitted beam. Laser devices, using total internal reflection for deflection, showed far less heating primarily at the exit window, though Fresnel reflections and secondary beams indirectly heated up the (metal) housing of the tip. After clinical application, the absorption at the probe surface and hence temperature increased due to probe deterioration. Color Schlieren imaging is a powerful method for the thermal evaluation of laser devices. The thermal behavior of laser probes can be used as a guidance for the method of application and as an indication of the lifetime of the probes.

  8. Photoactive dye enhanced tissue ablation for endoscopic laser prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Minwoo; Nguyen, Trung Hau; Nguyen, Van Phuc; Oh, Junghwan; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2015-02-01

    Laser light has been widely used as a surgical tool to treat benign prostate hyperplasia with high laser power. The purpose of this study was to validate the feasibility of photoactive dye injection to enhance light absorption and eventually to facilitate tissue ablation with low laser power. The experiment was implemented on chicken breast due to minimal optical absorption Amaranth (AR), black dye (BD), hemoglobin powder (HP), and endoscopic marker (EM), were selected and tested in vitro with a customized 532-nm laser system with radiant exposure ranging from 0.9 to 3.9 J/cm2. Light absorbance and ablation threshold were measured with UV-VIS spectrometer and Probit analysis, respectively, and compared to feature the function of the injected dyes. Ablation performance with dye-injection was evaluated in light of radiant exposure, dye concentration, and number of injection. Higher light absorption by injected dyes led to lower ablation threshold as well as more efficient tissue removal in the order of AR, BD, HP, and EM. Regardless of the injected dyes, ablation efficiency principally increased with input parameter. Among the dyes, AR created the highest ablation rate of 44.2+/-0.2 μm/pulse due to higher absorbance and lower ablation threshold. Preliminary tests on canine prostate with a hydraulic injection system demonstrated that 80 W with dye injection yielded comparable ablation efficiency to 120 W with no injection, indicating 33 % reduced laser power with almost equivalent performance. In-depth comprehension on photoactive dye-enhanced tissue ablation can help accomplish efficient and safe laser treatment for BPH with low power application.

  9. Transurethral ultrasound-guided laser-induced prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babayan, Richard K.; Roth, Robert A.

    1991-07-01

    A transurethral ultrasound-guided Nd:YAG laser delivery system has been developed for use as an alternative approach to the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The TULIP system has been extensively tested in canine models and is currently undergoing FDA trials in humans.

  10. Validation of Biomarkers Predictive of Recurrence Following Prostatectomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-14

    NM, Fernandes TF, Croce CM, Litwack G: Overexpressed full-length human BCL2 extends the survival of baculovirus-infected Sf9 insect cells, Proc Natl...the survival of baculovirus- infected Sf9 insect cells, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1992, 89:7295-7299 58. Wagner AJ, Small MB, Hay N: Myc-mediated

  11. Validation of Biomarkers Predictive of Recurrence Following Prostatectomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    Yue W, Mosquera JM, Bubley GJ , Li V, Rubin MA, Libermann TA, Sanda MG: Identification of the transcription factor single-minded homologue 2 as a...intraepithelial neoplasia. Histopathology 2005, 47:597–601 35. Maschler S, Gebeshuber CA, Wiedemann EM, Alacakaptan M, Schreiber M, Custic I, Beug H...Strausberg RL, Marie SK, Shinjo SM, Yan H, Riggins GJ , Bigner DD, Karchin R, Papadopoulos N, Parmigiani G, Vogelstein B, Velculescu VE, Kinzler KW: An

  12. Evolving transcriptomic fingerprint based on genome‐wide data as prognostic tools in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schliekelman, Mark; Shin, Heesun; Erho, Nicholas; Davicioni, Elai

    2015-01-01

    Background Information Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common disease but only a small subset of patients are at risk of developing metastasis and lethal disease, and identifying which patients will progress is challenging because of the heterogeneity underlying tumour progression. Understanding this heterogeneity at the molecular level and the resulting clinical impact is a critical step necessary for risk stratification. Defining genomic fingerprint elucidates molecular variation and may improve PCa risk stratification, providing more accurate prognostic information of tumour aggressiveness (or lethality) for prognostic biomarker development. Therefore, we explored transcriptomic differences between patients with indolent disease outcome and patients who developed metastasis post‐radical prostatectomy using genome‐wide expression data in the post radical prostatectomy clinical space before metastatic spread. Results Based on differential expression analysis, patients with adverse pathological findings who are at higher risk of developing metastasis have a distinct transcriptomic fingerprint that can be detected on surgically removed prostate specimens several years before metastasis detection. Nearly half of the transcriptomic fingerprint features were non‐coding RNA highlighting their pivotal role in PCa progression. Protein‐coding RNA features in the fingerprint are involved in multiple pathways including cell cycle, chromosome structure maintenance and cytoskeleton organisation. The metastatic transcriptomic fingerprint was determined in independent cohorts verifying the association between the fingerprint and metastatic patients. Further, the fingerprint was confirmed in metastasis lesions demonstrating that the fingerprint represents early metastatic transcriptomic changes, suggesting its utility as a prognostic tool to predict metastasis and provide clinical value in the early radical prostatectomy setting. Conclusions Here, we show that transcriptomic

  13. Current state of prostate cancer treatment in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Belinda F; Aiken, William D; Mayhew, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer in Jamaica as well as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. One report suggested that Jamaica has the highest incidence rate of prostate cancer in the world, with an age-standardised rate of 304/100,000 per year. The Caribbean region is reported to have the highest mortality rate of prostate cancer worldwide. Prostate cancer accounts for a large portion of the clinical practice for health-care practitioners in Jamaica. The Jamaica Urological Society is a professional body comprising 19 urologists in Jamaica who provide most of the care for men with prostate cancer in collaboration with medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and a palliative care physician. The health-care system is structured in two tiers in Jamaica: public and private. The urologist-to-patient ratio is high, and this limits adequate urological care. Screening for prostate cancer is not a national policy in Jamaica. However, the Jamaica Urological Society and the Jamaica Cancer Society work synergistically to promote screening as well as to provide patient education for prostate cancer. Adequate treatment for localised prostate cancer is available in Jamaica in the forms of active surveillance, nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy, external beam radiation, and brachytherapy. However, there is a geographic maldistribution of centres that provide prostate cancer treatment, which leads to treatment delays. Also, there is difficulty in affording some treatment options in the private health-care sectors. Androgen deprivation therapy is available for treatment of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer and is subsidised through a programme called the National Health Fund. Second-line hormonal agents and chemotherapeutic agents are available but are costly to most of the population. The infrastructure for treatment of prostate cancer in Jamaica is good, but it requires additional technological advances as well as additional specialist

  14. [Masturbation device (EGG) as a new penile rehabilitation tool: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoshikazu; Tanda, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Hisao; Nitta, Toshikazu; Akagashi, Keigo; Hanzawa, Tatsuo; Tobe, Musashi; Haga, Kazunori; Uchida, Kosuke; Honma, Ichiya

    2013-05-01

    Erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy (RP) is still a significant burden as a post-operative morbidity, despite advances in nerve-sparing techniques and penile (erectile function) rehabilitation (PR) programs. We assessed the effects of stimulation with the masturbation device "EGG" on enhancement of erectile response along with administration of phospho diesterase type 5 inhibitor. We also studied the change of self-esteem and motivation for continuation of PR after stimulation with EGG. Eight nonresponders for PDE5-I who underwent retropubic RP were enrolled. Patients' median age was 71.5 years old. No patients received adjuvant therapy for prostate cancer. The patients' erectile response in the penile rehabilitation session (masturbation) with PDE5-I+manual stimulation and PDE5-I+stimulation with EGG were evaluated by erection hardness score (EHS). Changes of self-esteem and motivation for penile rehabilitation were assessed by the self-esteem subscale of the Self-Esteem and Relationship (SEAR) questionnaire and one original question, respectively. PDE5-I + stimulation with EGG significantly enhanced EHS compared to PDE5-I+manual stimulation in the eight patients (p=0.027). Transformed score of self-esteem subscale score of SEAR questionnaire was significantly increased in the PR session with EGG compared to the PR session with manual stimulation (p=0.043). Six patients who showed a better erectile response with EGG retained motivation for continuation of PR. PDE5-I+stimulation with EGG improved the erectile response in post-RP patients. EGG as a masturbation device may have a potential for contribution to successful PR.

  15. Postprostatectomy Erectile Dysfunction: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Salonia, Andrea; Briganti, Alberto; Montorsi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In the current era of the early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) and the development of minimally invasive surgical techniques, erectile dysfunction (ED) represents an important issue, with up to 68% of patients who undergo radical prostatectomy (RP) complaining of postoperative erectile function (EF) impairment. In this context, it is crucial to comprehensively consider all factors possibly associated with the prevention of post-RP ED throughout the entire clinical management of PCa patients. A careful assessment of both oncological and functional baseline characteristics should be carried out for each patient preoperatively. Baseline EF, together with age and the overall burden of comorbidities, has been strongly associated with the chance of post-RP EF recovery. With this goal in mind, internationally validated psychometric instruments are preferable for ensuring proper baseline EF evaluations, and questionnaires should be administered at the proper time before surgery. Careful preoperative counselling is also required, both to respect the patient's wishes and to avoid false expectations regarding eventual recovery of baseline EF. The advent of robotic surgery has led to improvements in the knowledge of prostate surgical anatomy, as reflected by the formal redefinition of nerve-sparing techniques. Overall, comparative studies have shown significantly better EF outcomes for robotic RP than for open techniques, although data from prospective trials have not always been consistent. Preclinical data and several prospective randomized trials have demonstrated the value of treating patients with oral phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5is) after surgery, with the concomitant potential benefit of early re-oxygenation of the erectile tissue, which appears to be crucial for avoiding the eventual penile structural changes that are associated with postoperative neuropraxia and ultimately result in severe ED. For patients who do not properly respond to PDE5is, proper

  16. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of on-Demand vs. nightly sildenafil citrate as assessed by Rigiscan and the international index of erectile function.

    PubMed

    Kim, D J; Hawksworth, D J; Hurwitz, L M; Cullen, J; Rosner, I L; Lue, T F; Dean, R C

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have evaluated the use of PDE5 inhibitors in penile rehabilitation following nerve-sparing prostatectomy. These studies have evaluated the use of various pharmacologic agents as well as various approaches to treatment (on-demand vs. rehabilitative). Most of these studies relied on self-reported outcomes to determine efficacy of the therapy which could allow response bias to affect their results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nightly sildenafil citrate therapy during penile rehabilitation, using nocturnal penile rigidity (RigiScan(™), Gotop Medical, Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) in addition to the IIEF-EF. Patients with localized prostate cancer and normal erectile function prior to nsRP were randomized to take either nightly 50 mg sildenafil citrate or placebo starting the night following surgery. Both groups were allowed on-demand sildenafil citrate. Erectile function was evaluated at 2 weeks, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-operatively, with a final assessment made at 13 months, following a 1 month drug washout. At all time points, self-reported (IIEF-EF) and objective (RigiScan(™)) measures were obtained and evaluated. About 74 of 97 randomized patients completed the study. On completion, 40% of patients in each group had normal erectile function based on RigiScan(™) (p = 1.0). Additionally, no statistical differences were seen using the IIEF-EF domain (32.4% of placebo, 29% of treatment; p = 0.79). Multivariable analysis showed no significant differences in erectile function based on treatment intervention. Results did show that African-American men in this cohort were at higher risk for lower RigiScan(™) scores over time (OR: 0.48, p = 0.0399). This study demonstrates that nightly sildenafil citrate does not provide a therapeutic benefit for recovery of erectile function post-prostatectomy when compared to on-demand dosing using both self-reported as well as objective measures. Differences in objective recovery parameters

  17. Incontinence Morbidity Following Radical Prostatectomy: Psychosocial Impact on African American and White Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    sensation, whereas others described a flaccid penis you’re dead, or like Alzheimer’s.’ It as though and were unable to have intercourse. Besides...had previously, or shrinkage of their penis . Some The loss of sexual function was sometimes confided their frustration that sex had become a weighed... Robinson D, PierceK, PreisserJ, DuganE, SuggsP, Cohen S. 18. The Ethnograph v5.07TM Text Based Qualitative Data Relationship between patient reports

  18. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy training for residents: Hospital Universitario La Paz model

    PubMed Central

    Gregorio, Sergio Alonso y; Molina, Susana Sánchez; Gómez, Angel Tabernero; Ledo, Jesús Cisneros; Sebastián, Jesús Díez; Barthel, Jesús Javier de la Peña

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the last decade, we have seen the advance of laparoscopic surgery in urology. All laparoscopic procedures in our department are performed by staff members and are assisted by a single resident, ensuring resident training in laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of the Hospital La Paz training program for residents in the field of laparoscopic surgery. Material and methods We have done a retrospective review of LRP performed by the residents in our department. We also evaluated different variables. Descriptive statistical analysis was done and the results were compared with the descriptive analysis of the initial series of our department. Results We reviewed 82 patients, with an average age of 61.6 years. Most cases were pT1c at diagnosis. Average surgical time was 288 minutes, with a transfusion rate of 9.7% and a intra and postoperative complication rates of 1.2% and 7.3%. The mean hospital stay was 3.3 days. Histological results of this series are: 76.8% of pT2 and 23.2% of pT3. The biochemical relapse rate is 15.8%. Global surgical margin rate is 20.7%. The global continence rate is 52.4%. Conclusions The outcomes of LRP performed by residents are similar to the ones reported in the initial series of our department. The fact that 84.6% of the residents formed in this period actually belong to different laparoscopic units supports the success of La Paz Hospital training model. PMID:25247081

  19. Hypofractionated IMRT of the Prostate Bed After Radical Prostatectomy: Acute Toxicity in the PRIAMOS-1 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Sonja; Striecker, Thorbjoern; Kessel, Kerstin; Sterzing, Florian; Habl, Gregor; Edler, Lutz; Debus, Juergen; Herfarth, Klaus

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer is currently being investigated in large phase 3 trials. However, there are few data on postoperative hypofractionation. The Radiation therapy for the Prostate Bed With or Without the Pelvic Lymph Nodes (PRIAMOS 1) trial was initiated as a prospective phase 2 trial to assess treatment safety and toxicity of a hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate bed. Methods and Materials: From February to September 2012, 40 patients with indications for adjuvant or salvage radiation therapy were enrolled. One patient dropped out before treatment. Patients received 54 Gy in 18 fractions to the prostate bed with IMRT and daily image guidance. Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities (according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0) were recorded weekly during treatment and 10 weeks after radiation therapy. Results: Overall acute toxicity was favorable, with no recorded adverse events grade ≥3. Acute GI toxicity rates were 56.4% (grade 1) and 17.9% (grade 2). Acute GU toxicity was recorded in 35.9% of patients (maximum grade 1). Urinary stress incontinence was not influenced by radiation therapy. The incidence of grade 1 urinary urge incontinence increased from 2.6% before to 23.1% 10 weeks after therapy, but grade 2 urge incontinence remained unchanged. Conclusions: Postoperative hypofractionated IMRT of the prostate bed is tolerated well, with no severe acute side effects.

  20. Towards disparity joint upsampling for robust stereoscopic endoscopic scene reconstruction in robotic prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiongbiao; McLeod, A. Jonathan; Jayarathne, Uditha L.; Pautler, Stephen E.; Schlacta, Christopher M.; Peters, Terry M.

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) scene reconstruction from stereoscopic binocular laparoscopic videos is an effective way to expand the limited surgical field and augment the structure visualization of the organ being operated in minimally invasive surgery. However, currently available reconstruction approaches are limited by image noise, occlusions, textureless and blurred structures. In particular, an endoscope inside the body only has the limited light source resulting in illumination non-uniformities in the visualized field. These limitations unavoidably deteriorate the stereo image quality and hence lead to low-resolution and inaccurate disparity maps, resulting in blurred edge structures in 3-D scene reconstruction. This paper proposes an improved stereo correspondence framework that integrates cost-volume filtering with joint upsampling for robust disparity estimation. Joint bilateral upsampling, joint geodesic upsampling, and tree filtering upsampling were compared to enhance the disparity accuracy. The experimental results demonstrate that joint upsampling provides an effective way to boost the disparity estimation and hence to improve the surgical endoscopic scene 3-D reconstruction. Moreover, the bilateral upsampling generally outperforms the other two upsampling methods in disparity estimation.

  1. Prostatic Fatty Acids and Cancer Recurrence Following Radical Prostatectomy for Early-Stage Prostate Cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Results from some observational studies suggest that diet and energy balance influence the clinical course of early-stage prostate cancer. To evaluate possible mechanisms, we prospectively examined the relation between prostatic concentrations of fatty acids at diagnosis and cancer recurr...

  2. Interaction between high power 532nm laser and prostatic tissue: in vitro evaluation for laser prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun Wook; Peng, Yihlih Steven; Stinson, Douglas

    2011-03-01

    Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) has been developed for effective treatment of obstructive benign prostatic hyperplasia. To maximize tissue ablation for large prostate gland, identifying the optimal power level for PVP is still necessary. We investigated the effect of various power levels on in vitro bovine prostate ablation with a 532-nm laser system. A custom-made 532-nm laser was employed to provide various power levels, delivered through a newly designed 750-μm side-firing fiber. Tissue ablation efficiency was evaluated in terms of power (P; 120~200W), treatment speed of fiber (TS; 2~8 mm/s), and working distance between fiber and tissue surface (WD; 1~5 mm). Coagulation depth was also estimated macroscopically and histologically (H&E) at various Ps. Both 180 and 200W yielded comparable ablated volume (104.3+/-24.7 vs. 104.1+/-23.9 mm3 at TS=4 mm/s and WD=2 mm; p=0.99); thus, 180W was identified as the optimal power to maximize tissue ablation, by removing tissue up to 80% faster than 120W (41.7+/-9.9 vs. 23.2+/-3.4 mm3/s at TS=4 mm/s and WD=2 mm; p<0.005). Tissue ablation was maximized at TS=4 mm/s and ablated equally efficiently at up to 3 mm WD (104.5+/-16.7 mm3 for WD=1 mm vs. 93.4+/-7.4 mm3 for WD=3 mm at 180W; p=0.33). The mean thickness of coagulation zone for 180W was 20% thicker than that for 120W (1.31+/-0.17 vs. 1.09+/-0.16 mm; p<0.005). The current in vitro study demonstrated that 180W was the optimal power to maximize tissue ablation efficiency with enhanced coagulation characteristics.

  3. Intraoperative drug-eluting stent thrombosis in a patient undergoing robotic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aarti; Berkeley, Abiona

    2009-11-01

    Insertion of drug-eluting stents is one of the strategies for treating patients with coronary artery disease. These patients can be a perioperative challenge in management as they need to be maintained on antiplatelet therapy to prevent stent thrombosis, which puts them at an increased risk for surgical bleeding. Recently revised guidelines on elective surgery following insertion of a drug-eluting stent recommend dual antiplatelet therapy for a period of twelve months. The management of a patient who presented for surgery more than two years after the insertion of a drug-eluting stent, and who developed in-stent thrombosis intraoperatively, is presented.

  4. [Waist-hip ratio and perioperative bleeding in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy].

    PubMed

    León-Ramírez, Víctor; Santiago-López, Janaí; Reyes-Rivera, Juan Gabriel; Miguel-Soto, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la prostatectomía radical se asocia con sangrado perioperatorio y múltiples transfusiones. La obesidad abdominal representa un factor de riesgo perioperatorio. Sugerimos un efecto protector del adipocito en pacientes oncológicos sometidos a prostatectomía radical. El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto del índice cintura-cadera (ICC) sobre la magnitud del sangrado y los requerimientos perioperatorios de transfusiones en pacientes oncológicos sometidos a prostatectomía radical. Métodos: estudio de cohorte en 156 pacientes. Se integraron dos grupos: el control (ICC < 0.95) y el problema (ICC > 0.95); se registraron la magnitud del sangrado y las fracciones transfundidas durante la cirugía y en el postoperatorio. Se utilizaron medidas de tendencia central y dispersión, así como chi cuadrada, t de Student, U de Mann-Whitney y ANOVA. Una p < 0.05 fue significativa. Resultados: encontramos diferencias significativas en el peso, índice de masa corporal, cintura, índice cintura-cadera, sangrado perioperatorio, fracciones transfundidas, permanencia de la sonda y días de hospitalización. Conclusión: los pacientes sometidos a prostatectomía radical con ICC ≥ 0.95 tuvieron un sangrado y requerimientos transfusionales perioperatorios menores que aquellos con un ICC < 0.95.

  5. Pharmacological Prevention and Reversion of Erectile Dysfunction after Radical Prostatectomy, By Modulation of Nitric Oxide/Cgmp Pathways

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    determine the time course of histological and functional changes affecting the penile corpora cavernosa after bilateral cavernosal nerve resection (BCNR... affects the quality of life of male patients and their partners. We have now determined that this neuropraxia causes the loss of smooth muscle cells by...histological and functional changes affecting the penile corpora cavernosa after bilateral cavernosal nerve resection (BCNR) in the rat, as an experimental

  6. Detection of benign epithelia, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and cancer regions in radical prostatectomy tissues using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devpura, Suneetha; Thakur, Jagdish S.; Naik, Ratna; Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Sakr, Wael A.; Naik, Vaman M.

    2010-04-01

    In this study we have investigated Benign Epithelia (BE), Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN), adenocarcinoma, and different Gleason scores in human prostate bulk tissues using Raman spectroscopy. A careful investigation of the data shows that two main differences in the Raman spectral features of BE, PIN, and cancerous tissues: (i) a strong variations in the band intensities of certain bands, (ii) shift in certain band positions. In order to quantify these variations, Raman data were further analyzed using chemometric methods of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA). The PCA and DFA clearly separated the data into three main distinct pathological groups representing BE, PIN, and cancerous state in tissue. Similarly the analysis of the Raman data of tissues with different Gleason scores shows that the data can be categorized into three distinct groups representing Gleason scores 6, 7, and 8. The results of this study demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy can diagnose different stages of the prostate cancer.

  7. Detection of benign epithelia, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and cancer regions in radical prostatectomy tissues using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devpura, Suneetha; Thakur, Jagdish S.; Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Sakr, Wael A.; Naik, Vaman M.; Naik, Ratna

    2010-03-01

    We have studied benign epithelia (BE), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), adenocarcinoma, and cancerous tissues of different Gleason scores in human prostrate bulk tissues using Raman spectroscopy. The data shows two main differences in the Raman spectral features of BE, PIN and cancerous tissues: (i) A strong variations in the peak intensities, (ii) shift in certain peak positions. In order to quantify these variations, Raman data were analyzed using chemometric methods of principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The PCA and DFA clearly separated the data into three main distinct pathological groups representing BE, PIN and cancer. Similarly the analysis of different Gleason scores shows that the data can be categorized into three distinct groups representing Gleason score 6, 7, and 8. The results demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy can be used to distinguish different stages of the prostrate cancer.

  8. The Effect of Hospital and Surgeon Volume on Racial Differences in Recurrence-Free Survival After Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gooden, Kyna M.; Howard, Daniel L.; Carpenter, William R.; Carson, April P.; Taylor, Yhenneko J.; Peacock, Sharon; Godley, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study investigates associations between hospital and surgeon volume, and racial differences in recurrence after surgery for prostate cancer. Methods Data from the 1991 to 2002 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results-Medicare database were examined for 962 black and 7387 white men who received surgery for prostate cancer within 6 months of diagnosis during 1993–1999. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relationships between volume (grouped in tertiles), recurrence or death, and race, controlling for age, Gleason grade, and comorbidity score. Results Prostate cancer recurrence-free survival rates improved with hospital and surgical volume. Black men were more likely to experience recurrence than white men [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.34; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20 –1.50]. Stratification by hospital volume revealed that racial differences persisted for medium and high volume hospitals, even after covariate adjustments (medium HR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.04 –1.61; high HR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.07–1.73). Racial differences persisted within medium and high levels of surgeon volume as well (medium HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.10 –1.85; high HR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.14 –2.16). Conclusions High hospital and physician volumes were not associated with reduced racial differences in recurrence-free survival after prostate cancer surgery, contrary to expectation. This study suggests that social and behavioral characteristics, and some aspects of access, may play a larger role than organizational or systemic characteristics with regard to recurrence-free survival for this population. PMID:18953228

  9. Pharmacological Prevention and Reversion of Erectile Dysfunction After Radical Prostatectomy, by Modulation of Nitric Oxide/cGMP Pathways

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    clinically as a vasodilator for the treatment of coronary artery disease and angina pectoris (22-24), and experimentally for its antifibrotic effects in the...Géczy J. Efficacy and safety of once- and twice-daily formulations of molsidomine in patients with stable angina pectoris : double-blind and open...synthase phosphorylation. Mol Pharmacol 2005; 68: 226–232. 44 Ghofrani HA, Osterloh IH, Grimminger F. Sildenafil: from angina to erectile dysfunction to

  10. Assessment and management of interfractional variations in daily diagnostic-quality-CT guided prostate-bed irradiation after prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Feng; Ahunbay, Ergun; Lawton, Colleen; Allen Li, X.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify interfractional anatomic variations and limitations of the current practice of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for prostate-bed patients and to study dosimetric benefits of an online adaptive replanning scheme that addresses the interfractional variations. Methods: Contours for the targets and organs at risk (OARs) from daily diagnostic-quality CTs acquired with in-room CT (CTVision, Siemens) were generated by populating the planning contours using an autosegmentation tool based on deformable registration (ABAS, Elekta) with manual editing for ten prostate-bed patients treated with postoperative daily CT-guided IMRT. Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) obtained by maximizing the overlap of contours for a structure between the daily and plan contours was used to quantify the organ deformation between the plan and daily CTs. Three interfractional-variation-correction schemes, the current standard practice of IGRT repositioning, a previously developed online adaptive RT (ART), and the full reoptimization, were applied to these daily CTs and a number of dose-volume quantities for the targets and organs at risk were compared for their effectiveness to account for the interfractional variations. Results: Large interfractional organ deformations in prostate-bed irradiation were seen. The mean DSCs for CTV, rectum, and bladder were 86.6 ± 5.1% (range from 61% to 97%), 77.3% ± 7.4% (range from 55% to 90%), and 75.4% ± 11.2% (range from 46% to 96%), respectively. The fractional and cumulative dose-volume quantities for CTV and PTV: V100 (volume received at least 100% prescription dose), and rectum and bladder: V{sub 45Gy} and V{sub 60Gy} (volume received at least 45 or 60 Gy), were compared for the repositioning, adaptive, reoptimization, and original plans. The fractional and cumulative dosimetric results were nearly the same. The average cumulative CTV V100 were 88.0%, 98.4%, 99.2%, and 99.3% for the IGRT, ART, reoptimization, and original plans, respectively. The corresponding rectal V{sub 45Gy} (V{sub 60Gy}) were 58.7% (27.3%), 48.1% (20.7%), 43.8% (16.1%), and 44.9% (16.8%). The results for bladder were comparable among three schemes. Paired two-tailed Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed and it was found that ART and reoptimization provide better target coverage and better OAR sparing, especially rectum sparing. Conclusions: The interfractional organ motions and deformations during prostate-bed irradiation are significant. The online adaptive replanning scheme is capable of effectively addressing the large organ deformation, resulting in cumulative doses equivalent to those originally planned.

  11. Extended lymph node dissection in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: lymph node yield and distribution of metastases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Lim, Sey Kiat; Koo, Kyo Chul; Han, Woong Kyu; Hong, Sung Joon; Rha, Koon Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we reported our experience performing robotic extended lymph node dissection (eLND) in patients with prostate cancer. A total of 147 patients with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer who underwent robotic eLND from May 2008 to December 2011 were included in this analysis. The dissection template extended to the ureter crossing the iliac vessels. We assessed lymph node yield, lymph node positivity, and perioperative outcomes. Lymph node positivity was also evaluated according to the number of lymph nodes (LNs) removed (<22 vs ≥22). The median number of LNs removed was 22 (11-51), and 97 positive LNs were found in 24 patients (16.3%). While the obturator fossa was the most common site for LN metastases (42.3%, 41/97), the internal iliac area was the most common area for a single positive LN packet (20.8%, 5/24). Eight patients (33.3%, 8/24) had positive LNs at the common iliac area. The incidence of positive LNs did not differ according to the number of LNs removed. Complications associated with eLND occurred in 21 patients (14.3%) and symptomatic lymphocele was found in five patients (3.4%). In conclusion, robotic eLND can be performed with minimal morbidity. Furthermore, LN yield and the node positive rate achieved using this robotic technique are comparable to those of open series. In addition, the extent of dissection is more important than the absolute number of LNs removed in eLND, and the robotic technique is not a prohibitive factor for performing eLND.

  12. Pharmacological Prevention and Reversion of Erectile Dysfunction After Radical Prostatectomy, by Modulation of Nitric Oxide/cGMP Pathways

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    profibrotic factor. Results Body weights were reduced by STZ treatment . Glycemia, glucosuria, or proteinuria, were evident in most of the diabetic mice...Oxidative stress was exacerbated in 4 Principal Investigator: Gonzalez-Cadavid, Nestor F. diabetic animals and reduced by insulin treatment . iNOS ko...allopurinol or decorin compared to the untreated diabetic iNOSko. Glucosuria, ketonuria, and proteinuria, were not affected by any treatment . In

  13. Pharmacological Prevention and Reversion of Erectile Dysfunction After Radical Prostatectomy, by Modulation of Nitric Oxide/cGMP Pathways

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    aging and diabetes ), and with another localized fibrotic process (Dupuytren’s disease). Most of the current pharmacological treatments for PD are... diabetes ) and Dupuytren contracture, another localized fibrotic process. Most of the current pharmacological treatments for PD are not based on...ureteral obstruction and hepatic fibrosis in animals fed a high-fat diet and in those with streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy .65–70 inOs also

  14. Fibrotic Protein Expression Profiles in Penile Tissue of Patients With Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Cabrini, Marcelo R.; Sezen, Sena F.; Lagoda, Gwen; Segal, Robert L.; Feng, Zhaoyong; Andreoni, Cassio; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFβ1) and related signaling pathway proteins in a large cohort of human penile tissue (HPT) samples. Methods HPT was collected from patients undergoing penile prosthesis implantation (PPI) for erectile dysfunction (ED) and divided into 2 groups: post-radical prostatectomy ED (RP-ED; n=57) or organic ED (O-ED; n=30). HPT from patients undergoing partial penectomy without ED was used as controls (CON; n=6). Western blot analysis was performed to investigate the protein expressions of TGFβ1, thrombospondin 1 (TSP1; an activator of TGFβ1), fibronectin (FN; an extracellular matrix glycoprotein induced by TGFβ1) and a family of transcriptional factors activated by TGFβ1 [Smad2, phospho-Smad2-serine-465/467 (pSmad2), Smad3, phospho-Smad3-serine-423/425 (pSmad3)]. Results Expressions of TGFβ1 and TSP1 were significantly higher in both RP-ED (p<0.05) and O-ED (p<0.05) groups compared to that of the CON group, and were not different between either ED groups. Expressions of Smad2, pSmad2, Smad3, pSmad3 and FN were similar among all groups. Within the RP-ED group, a subgroup analysis showed that time from RP to PPI was related to increased expression of pSmad2 (p<0.05) and previous history of intracavernosal injection was related to increased expression of TGFβ1 (p<0.05) . Conclusion Our results demonstrate that TSP1 and TGFβ1-dependent fibrotic changes occur in penile tissue in patients with ED regardless of etiology. The unchanged expression of the Smad transcriptional factors may be reconciled by a Smad-independent downstream signaling pathway transmitting TGFβ1 signals. PMID:24075003

  15. Preserving Sexual Function after Urologic Surgery in Men

    PubMed Central

    Omah-Maharajh, Dave A.; Perez-Marrero, Ramon

    1991-01-01

    Recent changes in urological treatment, such as early orchiopexy and adolescent variococelectomy, can help to preserve fertility and reduce the risk of testicular malignancy. Nerve-sparing operations have been developed for cancer of the prostate, bladder, and testicle to prevent or reduce their sequelae of impotence and retrograde ejaculation. These new advances must be embraced with caution so as not to compromise patients' chances for curative treatment. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:21229075

  16. A Phase I/II Study of Combination Neoadjuvant Hormone Therapy and Weekly OGX-011 Prior to Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with Localized Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    preparatory steps have bee (Number R04-0092). Federal regulatory approval was given on 17 December 2004 (File Number 9427-B 32C). However, HSRRB final...the LSAB+ kit (Dako, Carpente - ria, CA) was used as the detection system. The staining intensity was assessed as described above for CISH and also

  17. A Phase I/II Study of Combination Neoadjuvant Hormone Therapy and Weekly OGX-011 Prior to Radical to Prostatectomy in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    pathologic conditions including Alzheimer’s [7] and nephrotoxic injury [8]. Clusterin levels increase dramatically during castration- induced ...CHATELAIN G, NORTH S, BRUN G: Stress- induced transcription of the clusterin/apoJ gene. Biochemical Journal. (1997) 328(1): 45-50. 17. HUMPHREYS DT...apoptosis in rat prostate epithelial cells [9], in androgen dependent Shionogi tumors [10], and human prostate cancer CRW22 [11] and PC82 [12] xenografts. In

  18. Phase I/II Study of Combination Neoadjuvant Hormone Therapy and Weekly OGX-011 (Clusterin Antisense Oligonulceotide) Prior to Radical Prostatectomy in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    castration- induced apoptosis in rat prostate epithelial cells [9], in androgen dependent Shionogi tumors [10], and human prostate cancer CRW22 [11... Biochemical Sciences. (2000) 25(3): 95-8. 16. MICHEL D, CHATELAIN G, NORTH S, BRUN G: Stress- induced transcription of the clusterin/apoJ gene...carcinoma [6], and with various pathologic conditions including Alzheimer’s [7] and nephrotoxic injury [8]. Clusterin levels increase dramatically during

  19. Phase I/II Study of Combination Neoadjuvant Hormone Therapy and Weekly OGX-011 (Clusterin Antisense Oligonulceotide) Prior to Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with Localized Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    conditions including Alzheimer’s [7] and nephrotoxic injury [8]. Clusterin levels increase dramatically during castration- induced apoptosis in rat ...95-8. 16. MICHEL D, CHATELAIN G, NORTH S, BRUN G: Stress- induced transcription of the clusterin/apoJ gene. Biochemical Journal. (1997) 328(1...proteins at time of cell stress. Indeed, clusterin is substantially more potent than other HSP’s at inhibiting stress- induced protein precipitation

  20. Study of Combination Neoadjuvant Hormone Therapy and Weekly OGX-011 (Clusterin Antisense Oligonulceotide) Prior to Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with Localized Prostate Cancer. Phase 1 and 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    castration- induced apoptosis in rat prostate epithelial cells [9], in androgen dependent Shionogi tumors [10], and human prostate cancer CRW22 [11... Biochemical Sciences. (2000) 25(3): 95-8. 16. MICHEL D, CHATELAIN G, NORTH S, BRUN G: Stress- induced transcription of the clusterin/apoJ gene...carcinoma [6], and with various pathologic conditions including Alzheimer’s [7] and nephrotoxic injury [8]. Clusterin levels increase dramatically during

  1. Prospective Evaluation of Intraprostatic Inflammation and Focal Atrophy as a Predictor of Risk of High-Grade Prostate Cancer and Recurrence after Prostatectomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    Here we report on the exciting finding for mast cells, a component of the innate immune system . Final data included 462 men who recurred (cases) and 462...Prostate cancer, risk, incidence, recurrence, inflammation, focal atrophy, mast cells, immune cells, tissue microarray, biopsy, image analysis, odds...investigate the specific immune cell milieu of the prostate that may be associated with the development of an aggressive prostate cancer phenotype. These

  2. Reduced CD147 expression is linked to ERG fusion-positive prostate cancers but lacks substantial impact on PSA recurrence in patients treated by radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Grupp, Katharina; Höhne, Thorsten Simon; Prien, Kristina; Hube-Magg, Claudia; Tsourlakis, Maria Christina; Sirma, Hüseyin; Pham, Taher; Heinzer, Hans; Graefen, Markus; Michl, Uwe; Simon, Ronald; Wilczak, Waldemar; Izbicki, Jakob; Sauter, Guido; Minner, Sarah; Schlomm, Thorsten; Steurer, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    The extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer CD147 has been suggested as a prognostic marker in prostate cancer. CD147 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing 11,152 prostate cancer specimens. Results were compared to tumor phenotype, biochemical recurrence, ERG status and deletions on PTEN, 3p13, 6q15 and 5q21. CD147 expression was strong in benign prostatic glands and often reduced in prostate cancers. CD147 immunostaining was found in 71.7% of 7628 interpretable cases. CD147 staining was considered strong in 34.6%, moderate in 24.3% and weak in 12.8% of cancers while 28.3% did not show any CD147 reactivity. Reduced CD147 staining was strongly associated with both TMPRSS2-ERG-rearrangement and ERG expression (p<0.0001 each). Within the subgroups of ERG positive and negative cancers, deletions of PTEN, 3p13, 6q15 and 5q21 were unrelated to the CD147 expression status. Decreased CD147 expression was significantly linked to high preoperative PSA values, high Gleason grade, advanced tumor stage (p<0.0001 each), and positive lymph node involvement (p=0.0026) in all cancers. There was a marginal, but statistically significant, association of reduced CD147 expression with early biochemical recurrence (p=0.0296). The significant reduction of CD147 expression in ERG positive prostate cancer provides further evidence for marked biological differences between "fusion type" and "non-fusion type" prostate cancer. Despite a weak association with PSA recurrence, CD147 cannot be considered a relevant prognostic biomarker.

  3. Prospective Evaluation of Intraprostatic Inflammation and Focal Atrophy as a Predictor of Risk of High-Grade Prostate Cancer and Recurrence after Prostatectomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Chief results from Aim 3: Here we report on the exciting finding for mast cells, a component of the innate immune system. We quantified mast cells...manuscript on mast cells and recurrence was submitted for publication (to Cancer Immunology Research). Presentations and abstracts: Talks in which

  4. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this procedure aren't available. Open or robot-assisted prostatectomy The surgeon makes an incision in ... transurethral microwave therapy. If you have open or robot-assisted prostatectomy, you might need to restrict activity ...

  5. Integrative Analysis of Genome-wide Gene Expression for Prostate Cancer Prognosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    prostatectomy. All cases were confirmed from pathology records. Exclusion criteria were applied as planned: (1) recurrent patients who underwent...were treated by radical prostatectomy. We applied the same inclusion and exclusion criteria as above. 5 2. Assembled consortium database

  6. Asian society of gynecologic oncology workshop 2010

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jae Weon; Aziz, Mohamad Farid; Devi, Uma K.; Ngan, Hextan Y. S.; Nam, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kato, Tomoyasu; Ryu, Hee Sug; Fujii, Shingo; Lee, Yoon Soon; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Kim, Tae-Joong; Kim, Young Tae; Wang, Kung-Liahng; Lee, Taek Sang; Ushijima, Kimio; Shin, Sang-Goo; Chia, Yin Nin; Wilailak, Sarikapan; Park, Sang Yoon; Katabuchi, Hidetaka; Kamura, Toshiharu

    2010-01-01

    This workshop was held on July 31-August 1, 2010 and was organized to promote the academic environment and to enhance the communication among Asian countries prior to the 2nd biennial meeting of Australian Society of Gynaecologic Oncologists (ASGO), which will be held on November 3-5, 2011. We summarized the whole contents presented at the workshop. Regarding cervical cancer screening in Asia, particularly in low resource settings, and an update on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was described for prevention and radical surgery overview, fertility sparing and less radical surgery, nerve sparing radical surgery and primary chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer, were discussed for management. As to surgical techniques, nerve sparing radical hysterectomy, optimal staging in early ovarian cancer, laparoscopic radical hysterectomy, one-port surgery and robotic surgery were introduced. After three topics of endometrial cancer, laparoscopic surgery versus open surgery, role of lymphadenectomy and fertility sparing treatment, there was a special additional time for clinical trials in Asia. Finally, chemotherapy including neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, optimal surgical management, and the basis of targeted therapy in ovarian cancer were presented. PMID:20922136

  7. Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) approach for large juxta-anal gastrointestinal stromal tumour.

    PubMed

    Wachter, Nicolas; Wörns, Marcus-Alexander; Dos Santos, Daniel Pinto; Lang, Hauke; Huber, Tobias; Kneist, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are rarely found in the rectum. Large rectal GISTs in the narrow pelvis sometimes require extended abdominal surgery to obtain free resection margins, and it is a challenge to preserve sufficient anal sphincter and urogenital function. Here we present a 56-year-old male with a locally advanced juxta-anal non-metastatic GIST of approximately 10 cm in diameter. Therapy with imatinib reduced the tumour size and allowed partial intersphincteric resection (pISR). The patient underwent an electrophysiology-controlled nerve-sparing hybrid of laparoscopic and transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) in a multimodal setting. The down-to-up approach provided sufficient dissection plane visualisation and allowed the confirmed nerve-sparing. Lateroterminal coloanal anastomosis was performed. Follow-up showed preserved urogenital function and good anorectal function, and the patient remains disease-free under adjuvant chemotherapy as of 12 months after surgery. This report suggests that the TAMIS approach enables extraluminal high-quality oncological and function-preserving excision of high-risk GISTs.

  8. Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) approach for large juxta-anal gastrointestinal stromal tumour

    PubMed Central

    Wachter, Nicolas; Wörns, Marcus-Alexander; dos Santos, Daniel Pinto; Lang, Hauke; Huber, Tobias; Kneist, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are rarely found in the rectum. Large rectal GISTs in the narrow pelvis sometimes require extended abdominal surgery to obtain free resection margins, and it is a challenge to preserve sufficient anal sphincter and urogenital function. Here we present a 56-year-old male with a locally advanced juxta-anal non-metastatic GIST of approximately 10 cm in diameter. Therapy with imatinib reduced the tumour size and allowed partial intersphincteric resection (pISR). The patient underwent an electrophysiology-controlled nerve-sparing hybrid of laparoscopic and transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) in a multimodal setting. The down-to-up approach provided sufficient dissection plane visualisation and allowed the confirmed nerve-sparing. Lateroterminal coloanal anastomosis was performed. Follow-up showed preserved urogenital function and good anorectal function, and the patient remains disease-free under adjuvant chemotherapy as of 12 months after surgery. This report suggests that the TAMIS approach enables extraluminal high-quality oncological and function-preserving excision of high-risk GISTs. PMID:27279406

  9. Metabolomic Profiling of Prostate Cancer Progression During Active Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    that the profile captures the phenotype of Gleason grade 4 we will use clinically significant tumors from men who underwent immediate surgery (i.e. not...matched tumor and benign tissue samples from 5 open prostatectomy (RRP) cases and 5 robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RAL) cases (including 3...criteria, collection of sufficient frozen tissue from the prostatectomy, matched to serum and urine collected prior to surgery , and collection of clinical

  10. Prostate Upgrading Team Project — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Aim 1: We will develop a risk assessment tool using commonly-collected clinical information from a series of contemporary radical prostatectomies to predict the risk of prostate cancer upgrading to high grade cancer at radical prostatectomy. These data will be combined as a part of our Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) GU Working Group into a risk assessment tool; this tool will be named the EDRN Prostatectomy Upgrading Calculator or (EPUC).

  11. Prostate Cancer Pathology Resource Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    quality, and 7 RNA and protein biomarkers were comparable for derivatives from standard open prostatectomy compared to robotic assisted...laparoscopic prostatectomy. A manuscript describing the comparison of derivatives from open vs. robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy has been submitted...and is included as Appendix 2. The title of the manuscript is “Biobanking of derivatives from radical retropubic and robot −assisted laparoscopic

  12. Experimental NOTES in urology: are we moving forward?

    PubMed

    Granberg, Candace F; Gettman, Matthew T

    2012-04-01

    This articles discusses the preclinical development of natural orifice surgery in urology. Rationale for this approach is provided. The description of transvaginal nephrectomy and NOTES prostatectomy is described.

  13. Genetic and Epigenetic Biomarkers for Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Radiotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    prostatectomy are urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction, and typical post-operative complications . Radiation therapy (RT) shows several distinct...temporary bladder or bowel symptoms during treatment. There is a risk of protracted rectal symptoms from radiation proctitis , and the risk of erectile...advantages over radical prostatectomy. RT avoids complications from surgery as well as risks associated with anesthesia. Moreover, this therapy

  14. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    FAS activity in prostatectomy samples, intraprostatic lipid as measured by MRSI and prostate tumor aggressiveness. 3) To quantify key metabolic ...intermediates involved in lipid metabolism , mitochondrial function, inflammation, and apoptosis in the prostatectomy samples. 15. SUBJECT TERMS : none...vivo intraprostatic fat as measured by 1H MRSI, metabolic signatures of lipid oxidation and metabolism , and prostate cancer aggressiveness, our

  15. Renal parenchymal histopathology predicts life-threatening chronic kidney disease as a result of radical nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Sejima, Takehiro; Honda, Masashi; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    The preoperative prediction of post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency plays an important role in the decision-making process regarding renal surgery options. Furthermore, the prediction of both postoperative renal insufficiency and postoperative cardiovascular disease occurrence, which is suggested to be an adverse consequence caused by renal insufficiency, contributes to the preoperative policy decision as well as the precise informed consent for a renal cell carcinoma patient. Preoperative nomograms for the prediction of post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency, calculated using patient backgrounds, are advocated. The use of these nomograms together with other types of nomograms predicting oncological outcome is beneficial. Post-radical nephrectomy attending physicians can predict renal insufficiency based on the normal renal parenchymal pathology in addition to preoperative patient characteristics. It is suggested that a high level of global glomerulosclerosis in nephrectomized normal renal parenchyma is closely associated with severe renal insufficiency. Some studies showed that post-radical nephrectomy severe renal insufficiency might have an association with increased mortality as a result of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, such pathophysiology should be recognized as life-threatening, surgically-related chronic kidney disease. On the contrary, the investigation of the prediction of mild post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency, which is not related to adverse consequences in the postoperative long-term period, is also promising because the prediction of mild renal insufficiency might be the basis for the substitution of radical nephrectomy for nephron-sparing surgery in technically difficult or compromised cases. The deterioration of quality of life caused by post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency should be investigated in conjunction with life-threatening matters.

  16. Combined image-processing algorithms for improved optical coherence tomography of prostate nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitchian, Shahab; Weldon, Thomas P.; Fiddy, Michael A.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2010-07-01

    Cavernous nerves course along the surface of the prostate gland and are responsible for erectile function. These nerves are at risk of injury during surgical removal of a cancerous prostate gland. In this work, a combination of segmentation, denoising, and edge detection algorithms are applied to time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of rat prostate to improve identification of cavernous nerves. First, OCT images of the prostate are segmented to differentiate the cavernous nerves from the prostate gland. Then, a locally adaptive denoising algorithm using a dual-tree complex wavelet transform is applied to reduce speckle noise. Finally, edge detection is used to provide deeper imaging of the prostate gland. Combined application of these three algorithms results in improved signal-to-noise ratio, imaging depth, and automatic identification of the cavernous nerves, which may be of direct benefit for use in laparoscopic and robotic nerve-sparing prostate cancer surgery.

  17. Lateral Arm Free Flap With Preservation of the Posterior Antebrachial Cutaneous Nerve.

    PubMed

    Ki, Sae Hwi

    2016-05-01

    The lateral arm free flap offers many advantages in reconstruction of soft tissue defect and reconstruction of extremities. However, this free flap is associated with sensory loss at the posterior forearm due to injury of the posterior antebrachial cutaneous nerve (PABCN).The PABCN-sparing lateral arm free flaps were performed in 19 patients with various soft tissue defects of the extremity, and the outcomes of free flap reconstructions using this modification are evaluated. All flaps survived without partial necrosis. Three patients experienced transient sensory loss in the posterior area of the forearm after flap harvest.In this study, lateral arm free flaps can be elevated without necessarily sacrificing the PABCN. This nerve-sparing modification decreases the donor-site morbidity of lateral arm free flaps and further increases the overall usefulness of this flap in soft tissue reconstructions of the extremities.

  18. Traumatic neuroma of the inferior alveolar nerve: a case report.

    PubMed

    Arribas-García, Ignacio; Alcalá-Galiano, Andrea; Gutiérrez, Ramón; Montalvo-Moreno, Juan José

    2008-03-01

    Traumatic neuromas are rare entities which characteristically arise subsequently to surgery and are usually accompanied by pain, typically neuralgic. We present an unusual case of an intraosseous traumatic neuroma of the inferior alveolar nerve following tooth extraction. A 56-year-old man consulted for paresthesias and hyperesthesia in the left mandibular region following extraction of the left mandibular third molar (#38). The panoramic radiograph revealed a radiolucent lesion in the inferior alveolar nerve canal, and CT demonstrated the existence of a mass within the canal, producing widening of the same. Nerve-sparing excisional biopsy was performed. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with traumatic neuroma of the left inferior alveolar nerve. After 3 years of follow-up, the patient is asymptomatic and there are no signs of recurrence.

  19. Current Laser Treatments for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The latest technical improvements in the surgical armamentarium are remarkable. In particular, advancements in the urologic field are so exceptional that we could observe the flare-up of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and laser prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) and holmium laser prostatectomy are the most generalized options for laser surgery of BPH, and both modalities have shown good postoperative results. In comparison to transurethral prostatectomy (TURP), they showed similar efficacy and a much lower complication rate in randomized prospective clinical trials. Even in cases of large prostates, laser prostatectomy showed comparable efficacy and safety profiles compared to open prostatectomy. From a technical point of view, PVP is considered to be an easier technique for the urologist to master. Furthermore, patients can be safely followed up in an outpatient clinic. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) mimics open prostatectomy because the adenomatous tissue is peeled off the surgical capsule in both procedures. Therefore, HoLEP shows notable volume reduction of the prostate similar to open prostatectomy with fewer blood transfusions, shorter hospital stay, and cost reduction regardless of prostate size. Outcomes of laser prostatectomy for BPH are encouraging but sometimes are unbalanced because safety and feasibility studies were reported mainly for PVP, whereas long-term data are mostly available for HoLEP. We need longer-term randomized clinical data to identify the reoperation rate of PVP and to determine which procedure is the ideal alternative to TURP and open prostatectomy for each patient. PMID:21165192

  20. Contemporary approaches for processing and handling of radical prostactomy specimens.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ming-Tse; Cheng, Liang

    2010-02-01

    Standardized protocols for processing radical prostatectomy specimens are critical for superior patient management. It provides accurate information to the clinician in a reliable and consistent format to enhance patient care and prognosis. In recent years, processing protocols have been proposed by various authoritative groups, with similar suggestions for most parts of the practice guidelines; however, discrepancy in processing approaches still exists. Standardization improves the quality and consistency of pathology reports. In this review article, we incorporate the processing schemes for radical prostatectomy addressed in literature and propose a comprehensively standardized approach to evaluate radical prostatectomy specimens.

  1. ROPE Registry Project to Determine the Safety and Efficacy of Prostate Artery Embolisation (PAE) for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Secondary to Benign Prostatic Enlargement (LUTS BPE).

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-03

    Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Caused by Benign Prostatic Enlargement (LUTS BPE); Prostate Artery Embolisation (PAE); Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP); Open Prostatectomy; Laser Enucleation or Ablation of the Prostate

  2. Sexuality and Aging: An Overview for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, Dave

    1982-01-01

    Discusses male and female sexual response in aging adults. Describes common medical problems and their relationship to sexuality in older adults. Considers common surgeries including hysterectomy, mastectomy, and prostatectomy and sexuality in older adults. Discusses implications for counselors. (RC)

  3. Urinary incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... prostate in men Nervous system conditions, such as multiple sclerosis or stroke Nerve or muscle damage after radiation ... Instructions Indwelling catheter care Kegel exercises - self-care Multiple sclerosis - discharge Prostate resection - minimally invasive - discharge Radical prostatectomy - ...

  4. Observation as Good as Surgery for Some Men with Prostate Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Many men diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer could forego radical prostatectomy and live as long as men who have immediate surgery, according to long-awaited results from a clinical trial published July 19, 2012, in NEJM.

  5. Assessing Adverse Events of Postprostatectomy Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Evaluation of Outcomes in the Regione Emilia-Romagna, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Timothy N.; Hegarty, Sarah E.; Rabinowitz, Carol; Maio, Vittorio; Hyslop, Terry; Dicker, Adam P.; Louis, Daniel Z.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Although the likelihood of radiation-related adverse events influences treatment decisions regarding radiation therapy after prostatectomy for eligible patients, the data available to inform decisions are limited. This study was designed to evaluate the genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and sexual adverse events associated with postprostatectomy radiation therapy and to assess the influence of radiation timing on the risk of adverse events. Methods: The Regione Emilia-Romagna Italian Longitudinal Health Care Utilization Database was queried to identify a cohort of men who received radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer during 2003 to 2009, including patients who received postprostatectomy radiation therapy. Patients with prior radiation therapy were excluded. Outcome measures were genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and sexual adverse events after prostatectomy. Rates of adverse events were compared between the cohorts who did and did not receive postoperative radiation therapy. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were developed for each class of adverse events, including models with radiation therapy as a time-varying covariate. Results: A total of 9876 men were included in the analyses: 2176 (22%) who received radiation therapy and 7700 (78%) treated with prostatectomy alone. In multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, the additional exposure to radiation therapy after prostatectomy was associated with increased rates of gastrointestinal (rate ratio [RR] 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.27; P<.001) and urinary nonincontinence events (RR 1.83; 95% CI 1.83-2.80; P<.001) but not urinary incontinence events or erectile dysfunction. The addition of the time from prostatectomy to radiation therapy interaction term was not significant for any of the adverse event outcomes (P>.1 for all outcomes). Conclusion: Radiation therapy after prostatectomy is associated with an increase in gastrointestinal and genitourinary adverse events. However

  6. Management of Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lepor, Herbert

    2004-01-01

    Critics of screening have stated that early detection of prostate cancer does not necessarily reflect a diminishing death rate from the disease. However, several recent reports have demonstrated that the death rate from prostate cancer is decreasing, representing the most compelling validation for aggressive screening. Prostate cancer can be halted only if there is no evidence of systemic or regional metastases and the disease is confined to the surgical field or the radiation template. Surgeons and radiation oncologists must make a concerted effort to exclude men with regional and systemic metastases who are unlikely to benefit from treatment. With the widespread acceptance of prostate-specific antigen screening, a greater proportion of men are being diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer. Both radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy are able to halt disease spread in this significant subset of men, but survival outcomes indicate that radical prostatectomy is a more reliable treatment than radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Overall, the immediate treatment-related morbidity of radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy in the modern era is quite low. Radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy appear to have a similar impact on continence and erectile function. There is a need for neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies that can be utilized in those cases where radical prostatectomy and radiation are less likely to completely eradicate or destroy the cancer. PMID:16985859

  7. Raman microspectroscopy for visualization of peripheral nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamikawa, Takeo; Harada, Yoshinori; Koizumi, Noriaki; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2013-02-01

    The peripheral nervous system plays an important role in motility, sensory, and autonomic functions of the human body. Preservation of peripheral nerves in surgery is essential for improving quality of life of patients. To preserve peripheral nerves, detection of ne peripheral nerves that cannot be identi ed by human eye or under white light imaging is necessary. In this study, we sought to provide a proof-of-principle demonstration of a label-free detection technique of peripheral nerve tissues against adjacent tissues that employs spontaneous Raman microspectroscopy. A line-illumination confocal Raman microscope was used for the experiment. A laser operating at the wavelength of 532 nm was used as an excitation laser light. We obtained Raman spectra of peripheral nerve, brous connective tissue, skeletal muscle, blood vessel, and adipose tissue of Wistar rats, and extracted speci c spectral features of peripheral nerves and adjacent tissues. By applying multivariate image analysis, peripheral nerves were clearly detected against adjacent tissues without any preprocessing neither xation nor staining. These results suggest the potential of the Raman spectroscopic observation for noninvasive and label-free nerve detection, and we expect this method could be a key technique for nerve-sparing surgery.

  8. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in patients with peripheral nervous system lesions.

    PubMed

    Podnar, Simon; Vodušek, David B

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction in peripheral nervous system (PNS) disorders is larger than in comparable control populations. This is particularly true for polyneuropathies with autonomic nervous system involvement, and for localized lesions with LUT innervation. LUT symptoms may be the guide to the diagnosis of processes localized in the lumbosacral spinal canal (as in cauda equina syndrome), and in the pelvis. Typical LUT dysfunctions (LUTD) caused by PNS involvement include bladder and sphincter hypoactivity with poor emptying, and incontinence. Paradoxically, bladder overactivity may also occur in pure PNS lesions. The acute cauda equina syndrome is an emergency requiring magnetic resonance imaging and surgery; in chronic neurogenic LUTD due to PNS involvement, the diagnosis of the lesion may be clarified by clinical neurophysiologic testing. Other important causes of neurogenic LUT dysfunction are perineoabdominal and pelvic surgeries. Surgeons are devising nerve-sparing techniques to prevent such major and often persistent complications in patients who are otherwise cured of the underlying disease. LUTD significantly affects the quality of life in patients and may lead to recurring urinary infections and upper urinary tract involvement. Thorough assessment of LUT function by urodynamics may be necessary in patients who are not improved by simple conservative measures.

  9. Upgrading Reference Set — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    We are proposing a multi-institutional study to identify molecular biomarkers and clinical measures that will predict presence of Gleason 7 or higher cancer (as evidence in the radical prostatectomy specimen) among patients with a biopsy diagnosis of Gleason score ≤ 6 prostate cancer. This proposal will be conducted in two phases. The first phase will assemble an “Upgrading Reference Set” that will include clinical information as well as biologics on a cohort of 600 men. The first phase will also assess the clinical parameters associated with upgrading, as well as, perform a central pathology review of both biopsies and prostatectomy specimens to confirm tumor grade. The second phase will use the biologics collected in phase 1 to evaluate a series of biomarkers to further refine the prediction of Gleason 7-10 cancer at radical prostatectomy.

  10. Penile rehabilitation: the evolutionary concept in the management of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hakky, Tariq S; Baumgarten, Adam S; Parker, Justin; Zheng, Yin; Kongnyuy, Mike; Martinez, Daniel; Carrion, Rafael E

    2014-04-01

    A compromise in erectile function is commonly experienced after radical prostatectomy and has been attributed to injury to vascular, neurogenic, and smooth muscle. The concept of rehabilitation after organ injury is not a novel concept and is one that has been applied to all aspects of medicine. Penile rehabilitation has been classically defined as the use of a device or pharmacologic agent to aid erectile function recovery after radical prostatectomy. Here we redefine penile rehabilitation as the use of any device, medication, or intervention to promote male sexual function as a primer before and after any insult to the penile erectile physiologic axis. We also review the epidemiology, rational and current literature on penile rehabilitation after prostatectomy.

  11. SIU/ICUD Consultation on Urethral Strictures: Posterior urethral stenosis after treatment of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Herschorn, Sender; Elliott, Sean; Coburn, Michael; Wessells, Hunter; Zinman, Leonard

    2014-03-01

    Posterior urethral stenosis can result from radical prostatectomy in approximately 5%-10% of patients (range 1.4%-29%). Similarly, 4%-9% of men after brachytherapy and 1%-13% after external beam radiotherapy will develop stenosis. The rate will be greater after combination therapy and can exceed 40% after salvage radical prostatectomy. Although postradical prostatectomy stenoses mostly develop within 2 years, postradiotherapy stenoses take longer to appear. Many result in storage and voiding symptoms and can be associated with incontinence. The evaluation consists of a workup similar to that for lower urinary tract symptoms, with additional testing to rule out recurrent or persistent prostate cancer. Treatment is usually initiated with an endoscopic approach commonly involving dilation, visual urethrotomy with or without laser treatment, and, possibly, UroLume stent placement. Open surgical urethroplasty has been reported, as well as urinary diversion for recalcitrant stenosis. A proposed algorithm illustrating a graded approach has been provided.

  12. Treatment- and Disease-Related Complications of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Simoneau, Anne R

    2006-01-01

    One of the highlights of the 16th International Prostate Cancer Update was a session on treatment- and disease-related complications of prostate disease. It began with presentation of a challenging case of rising prostate-specific antigen levels after radical prostatectomy, followed by an overview of the use of zoledronic acid in prostate cancer, a review of side effects of complementary medicines, an overview of complications of cryotherapy, an assessment of complications of brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy, and a comparison of laparoscopy versus open prostatectomy. PMID:17021643

  13. Past, present and future of urological robotic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ramesh; Menon, Mani

    2016-01-01

    The first urologic robotic program in the world was built at the Vattikuti Urology Institute, Henry Ford Hospital Detroit, Michigan, in 2000 under the vision of surgical innovator, Dr. Mani Menon for the radical prostatectomy. The robot-assisted radical prostatectomy continues being modified with techniques to improve perioperative and surgical outcomes. The application of robotic surgical technique has since been expanded to the bladder and upper urinary tract surgery. The evolution of surgical technique and its expansion of application will continue to improve quality, outcome parameters and experience for the patients. PMID:26981588

  14. Multigene Testing in Localized Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ashley E

    2016-05-01

    Currently, there are several commercially available multigene tests for risk stratification in prostate cancer. These tests have been validated retrospectively; however, prospective studies are needed to fully establish their clinical roles. In some cases, molecular studies may add value, and updated NCCN Guidelines recommend "consideration" of molecular tests under certain circumstances, such as to help ascertain the likelihood of death from conservative management, of biochemical progression after radical prostatectomy or external-beam therapy, and of developing metastasis after radical prostatectomy or salvage radiotherapy.

  15. Race Treatment and Cardiovascular Health: A Study of Men With Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    the cases; paper records were requested on an as-needed basis to supplement electronically available data (only 22 (1.1%) charts were requested for...1.2%) Prostatectomy 102 (10.2%) 115 (11.5%) Alternative/ Herbal Therapy 7 (0.7%) 15 (1.5%) * Not Necessarily Mutually Exclusive Preliminary

  16. Developing an Instrument to Measure Socioeconomic Disparities in Quality of Care for Men with Early Stage Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    with radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. However, regardless of race, men of lower socioeconomic status are less likely to receive...socioeconomic status are also more likely to have treatment related complications after prostate cancer treatment. This suggests that disparities in...Patients with early stage prostate cancer have excellent cause specific survival after definitive local therapy with radiation therapy or radical

  17. Genetic and Epigenetic Biomarkers for Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Radiotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    treatment. There is a risk of protracted rectal symptoms from radiation proctitis , and the risk of erectile dysfunction increases over time. Brachytherapy...prostate cancer are surgical treatment or radiotherapy. Radiation therapy (RT) shows several distinct advantages over radical prostatectomy. RT avoids... complications from surgery as well as risks associated with anesthesia. Moreover, this therapy includes a low risk of urinary incontinence. Major

  18. A one-day couple group intervention to enhance sexual recovery for surgically treated men with prostate cancer and their partners: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Daniela; He, Chang; Mitchell, Staci; Wood, David P; Hola, Victor; Thelen-Perry, Steve; Montie, James E

    2013-01-01

    Researchers evaluated the acceptance and effectiveness of a group intervention that provided education about post-prostatectomy sexual recovery and peer support for couples. Couples valued the intervention and retained the information. Partners became accepting of erectile dysfunction and communicated more openly about upsetting topics.

  19. Genomic Basis of Prostate Cancer Health Disparity Among African American Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Prostate Risk Assessment ( CAPRA -S) score,23,24 and the Stephenson nomogram.25 This comparison is limited to post-surgical assessment, because literature...PR: The CAPRA -S score: A straightforward tool for improved prediction of outcomes after radical prostatectomy. Cancer 117:5039-46, 2011 24. Greene KL

  20. Global Genomic Analysis of Prostate, Breast and Pancreatic Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Gleason grade to assess prognosis of the disease and risk assessment tools such as CAPRA -S (Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Post- Surgical...JF, Carroll PR. The CAPRA -S score: A straightforward tool for improved prediction of outcomes after radical prostatectomy.Cancer. 2011 Nov 15;117(22

  1. Prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... If the cancer has not spread outside the prostate gland, common treatments include: Surgery ( radical prostatectomy ) Radiation therapy , including brachytherapy and proton therapy If you are older, your doctor may recommend simply monitoring the cancer with PSA tests and biopsies. Hormone therapy is ...

  2. Molecular Determinants of Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    benign-appearing glandular epithelium from these same radical prostatectomy specimens (one-tailed p=0.0012 by Student’s T-test), suggesting that NEK6...staining intensity (normalized as a percentile rank in each TMA) of cells within histologically benign-appearing glandular tissue (left) and tumor tissue

  3. Patterns of Care, Utilization, and Outcomes of Treatments for Localized Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    consecutive radical retropubic prostatectomies. J Urol 2004;172:2227–31. [33] Kolata G. Results unproven, robotic surgery wins converts. New York...Kolata G: Results Unproven, Robotic Surgery Wins Converts. New York: New York Times, February 13, 2010. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2010/ 02

  4. Patterns of Care, Utilization, and Outcomes of Treatments for Localized Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    in morphine sulfate equivalents, the number of prescriptions filled and costs were compared. We performed multivariate analysis adjusted for...with greater total morphine sulfate equivalent use than the minimally invasive operation. Perineal prostatectomy was associated with more narcotic...narcotic use and preferred provider organization health plan were associated with greater morphine sulfate equivalents and narcotic refills while

  5. Mouse Orthotopic Xenographs of Human Prostate Primary Tumors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 4 from cancer) were isolated from multiple samples of 4 radical prostatectomy surgical specimens, two of which belonged...pellet (12.5 mg, 90 day- release) was implanted subcutaneously in all mice. 5 PI: Loda, Massimo b) Eight primary cell cultures (4 from benign

  6. Prostatic aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Abbas, F; Kamal, M K; Talati, J

    1995-03-01

    Prostatic aspergillosis is rare with only 3 cases reported previously. We report a case of localized invasive aspergillosis of the prostate in a nonimmunocompromised patient with chronic urinary retention and recurrent urinary tract infections. Transurethral resection followed by open prostatectomy was performed for massive prostatomegaly. No systemic antifungal therapy was required for cure. The literature is reviewed, and diagnostic and management options are discussed.

  7. Should the involvement of skeletal muscle by prostatic adenocarcinoma be reported on biopsies?

    PubMed

    Sadimin, Evita T; Ye, Huihui; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2016-03-01

    Skeletal muscle is seen at the distal part of the prostate apex, where benign glands may reside as part of normal anatomy and histology, and extends more proximally anteriorly. At times, prostatic adenocarcinoma can be seen admixed with skeletal muscle, raising the question of extraprostatic extension. Although there has been increased attention regarding biopsy sampling of the distal apex to guide the performing of the apical dissection on radical prostatectomy, the finding of skeletal muscle involvement by prostatic adenocarcinoma has not been consistently reported by pathologists on biopsies. We searched our database spanning 12 years from 2000 to 2012 for all patients who had prostatic adenocarcinoma Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 involving skeletal muscle on biopsy. We identified 220 patients who met the criteria. Of the 220 patients, 101 underwent prostatectomy, which comprised the "study group." Prostatectomy reports from these patients were compared with those of a "control group," which consisted of 201 contemporaneous patients with Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 prostatic adenocarcinoma on biopsy without skeletal muscle involvement. The results showed a significantly higher percentage of positive margins in the study group compared with the control group (P = .006). The study group also had a higher percentage of positive margins at the apex admixed with skeletal muscle (P = .008). In summary, the findings in this study support that pathologists should report the involvement of skeletal muscle by tumor, and recommend that urologists performing radical prostatectomies on these patients try to ensure adequate excision in the apical area to avoid positive apical margin.

  8. [Prostate cancer external beam radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    de Crevoisier, R; Pommier, P; Latorzeff, I; Chapet, O; Chauvet, B; Hennequin, C

    2016-09-01

    The prostate external beam radiotherapy techniques are described, when irradiating the prostate or after prostatectomy, with and without pelvic lymph nodes. The following parts are presented: indications of radiotherapy, total dose and fractionation, planning CT image acquisition, volume of interest delineation (target volumes and organs at risk) and margins, Intensity modulated radiotherapy planning and corresponding dose-volume constraints, and finally Image guided radiotherapy.

  9. NCCU/BBRI-Duke/Urology Partnership In Prostate Cancer Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    endocannabinoid methanandamide- mediated cell proliferation and androgen receptor expression in EA006AA African American prostate cancer cells. 2...therapeutic intervention against prostate cancer Pilot Project #5: Feasibility of Endurance Exercise Training on Cardiovascular Risk Factors...endurance exercise training on exercise capacity following radical prostatectomy among with men with localized prostate cancer . 2. To assess the

  10. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Prostate Which Was Initially Misdiagnosed as Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Osamu, Soma; Murasawa, Hiromi; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Koie, Takuya; Ohyama, Chikara

    2017-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the prostate is a very rare tumor. We report a case of 65-year-old man with SFT of the prostate which was initially misdiagnosed as prostate cancer. Finally, we performed total prostatectomy and the tumor was histologically diagnosed as SFT of the prostate. The patient's clinical course has progressed favorably with no obvious recurrence 18 months postoperatively.

  11. Bioengineering Multifunctional Quantum Dot-Polypeptide Assemblies and Immunoconjugates for the Ablation of Advanced Prostate Cancer Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    disease [1]. Localized prostate cancer is generally treated with surgery (radical prostatectomy), radiation therapy, or cryotherapy [2]. However, disease...radiation therapy, or cryotherapy (3). However, disease relapse after surgery is a common occurrence, mainly due to the outgrowth of minimal residual disease

  12. Patient Race and Outcome Preferences as Predictors of Urologists’ Treatment Recommendations and Referral Patterns in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    African Americans are more likely to fear surgery and distrust physicians than members of other racial/ethnic groups [13,18] – and may therefore refuse...disadvantaged patients are less appropriate for surgery . Such patients might be more likely to experience postoperative complications and require...recurrence, survival, and long-term erectile dysfunction and incontinence. KEYWORDS surgery , prostatectomy, surgical volume, postoperative

  13. Incorporation of fiber optic beam shaping into a laparoscopic probe for laser stimulation of the cavernous nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozburun, Serhat; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Mayeh, Mona; Burnett, Arthur L.; Farahi, Faramarz; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2010-02-01

    The cavernous nerves (CN) course along the prostate surface and are responsible for erectile function. Improved identification and preservation of the CN's is critical to maintaining sexual potency after prostate cancer surgery. Noncontact optical nerve stimulation (ONS) of the CN's was recently demonstrated in a rat model, in vivo, as a potential alternative to electrical nerve stimulation (ENS) for identification of the CN's during prostate surgery. However, the therapeutic window for ONS is narrow, so optimal design of the fiber optic delivery system is critical for safe, reproducible stimulation. This study describes modeling, assembly, and testing of an ONS probe for delivering a small, collimated, flat-top laser beam for uniform CN stimulation. A direct comparison of the magnitude and response time of the intracavernosal pressure (ICP) for both Gaussian and flat-top spatial beam profiles was performed. Thulium fiber laser radiation (λ=1870 nm) was delivered through a 200-μm fiber, with distal fiber tip chemically etched to convert a Gaussian to flat-top beam profile. The laser beam was collimated to a 1-mm-diameter spot using an aspheric lens. Computer simulations of light propagation were used to optimize the probe design. The 10-Fr (3.4-mm-OD) laparoscopic probe provided a constant radiant exposure at the nerve surface. The probe was tested in four rats, in vivo. ONS of the CN's was performed with a 1-mm-diameter spot, 5- ms pulse duration, and pulse rate of 20 Hz for a duration of 15-30 s. The flat-top laser beam profile consistently produced a faster and higher ICP response at a lower radiant exposure than the Gaussian beam profile due, in part, to easier alignment of the more uniform beam with nerve. With further development, ONS may be used as a diagnostic tool for identification of the CN's during laparoscopic and robotic nerve-sparing prostate cancer surgery.

  14. Quality of life in rectal cancer surgery: What do the patient ask?

    PubMed Central

    De Palma, Giovanni D; Luglio, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    Rectal cancer surgery has dramatically changed with the introduction of the total mesorectal excision (TME), which has demonstrated to significantly reduce the risk of local recurrence. The combination of TME with radiochemotherapy has led to a reduction of local failure to less than 5%. On the other hand, surgery for rectal cancer is also impaired by the potential for a significant loss in quality of life. This is a new challenge surgeons should think about nowadays: If patients live more, they also want to live better. The fight against cancer cannot only be based on survival, recurrence rate and other oncological endpoints. Patients are also asking for a decent quality of life. Rectal cancer is probably a paradigmatic example: Its treatment is often associated with the loss or severe impairment of faecal function, alteration of body anatomy, urogenital problems and, sometimes, intractable pain. The evolution of laparoscopic colorectal surgery in the last decades is an important example, which emphasizes the importance that themes like scar, recovery, pain and quality of life might play for patients. The attention to quality of life from both patients and surgeons led to several surgical innovations in the treatment of rectal cancer: Sphincter saving procedures, reservoir techniques (pouch and coloplasty) to mitigate postoperative faecal disorders, nerve-sparing techniques to reduce the risk for sexual dysfunction. Even more conservative procedures have been proposed alternatively to the abdominal-perineal resection, like the local excisions or transanal endoscopic microsurgery, till the possibility of a wait and see approach in selected cases after radiation therapy. PMID:26730279

  15. Retroperitoneal hematoma following radical orchiectomy: Two cases

    PubMed Central

    Glicksman, Rachel; Hamilton, Robert J.; Chung, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of testicular cancer is dependent on the stage of disease at presentation. Stage 1 testicular cancer is treated with radical orchiectomy, followed by active surveillance, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy. Occasionally, unusual and unexpected postoperative changes can be seen on computed tomography (CT), and may raise concern for metastatic disease. Here, we present two cases of testicular cancer patients who developed retroperitoneal hematomas post-radical orchiectomy, one as a classical clinical presentation, and the other as an atypical radiological entity only. The first is a case of a 38-year-old male with a non-seminoma testicular cancer, who developed severe flank pain, hemodynamic instability, and progressive anemia from a retroperitoneal hematoma in the immediate (<24 hours) postoperative period, requiring urgent surgical evacuation. The second is a case of a 33-year-old male with a testicular seminoma who had a large, suspicious retroperitoneal mass on a staging CT scan concerning for metastatic disease, which was later diagnosed as a retroperitoneal hematoma. These cases reveal the clinical variability with which a retroperitoneal hematoma post-radical orchiectomy may present. In addition, the second case demonstrates the importance of recognizing radiological postoperative changes and ensuring that these findings are not mistaken for and treated as metastatic disease. PMID:28163811

  16. Characterization of prostate cancer missed by sextant biopsy.

    PubMed

    Bak, John B; Landas, Steve K; Haas, Gabriel P

    2003-09-01

    There is a trend to increase the number of prostate biopsies taken to increase the detection rate of prostate cancer. We examined radical prostatectomy specimens and correlated the findings to those of preoperative sextant biopsy in an effort to identify the characteristics of tumors that went undetected by our biopsy regimen. Seventy-one patients diagnosed with prostate cancer based on sextant biopsy who underwent radical prostatectomy at our institution from June 1995 to November 2001 had prostatectomy specimens and biopsy slides reviewed. These specimens were step-sectioned and whole-mounted. The location, size, and grade of individual cancer foci in the prostatectomy specimens were correlated with results of the original sextant biopsies. Clinically significant tumors were defined as those with volume > 0.5 mL or Gleason score > or= 7 and extracapsular extension. In 33 patients (46%), there was concordance of biopsy and prostatectomy findings. In 38 patients (54%), additional lesions were demonstrated in the prostatectomy specimens that were not detected by our sextant biopsies. These included 13 cases (34%) with tumors > 0.5 mL and 25 cases in which the lesions were < 0.5 mL in size. However, 7 of these cases contained tumors with Gleason score > or =7. Tumors were located in the transition zone in 8 of these 38 cases (21%), and the remaining tumors were located in the peripheral zone (79%). No tumors with extracapsular extension were missed. Thus, 20 of the 71 cases (28%) had clinically significant cancers that went undetected by the traditional sextant biopsy method. Greater than 50% of patients who underwent sextant biopsy of the prostate had additional tumors that were missed when compared to the pathologic specimen. As many as 28% of these patients had clinically significant cancer based on size and grade criteria. A strategy of increased numbers of biopsies would improve the detection rate of these clinically important tumors. However, the ideal strategy

  17. Current penile-rehabilitation strategies: Clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Segal, Robert L; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Burnett, Arthur L

    2013-09-01

    We review the current strategies used for penile rehabilitation (PR) after a radical prostatectomy, where PR is defined as the attempt to restore spontaneous erectile function so that the patient can generate erections with no need for erectile aids. We searched PubMed for relevant reports, using the keywords 'radical prostatectomy', 'penile rehabilitation', 'phosphodiesterase inhibitors', 'vacuum erection device', 'injection therapy', 'urethral suppository', and 'erectile dysfunction'. In all, 155 articles were identified and reviewed, and had a level of evidence ranging from 1b-4. The use of PR strategies should be based on the patient's goals after a thorough explanation of realistic expectations, and the risks and consequences of the various treatment options. While a multitude of studies suggest a benefit with PR strategies, there are no established, proven regimens. Further research is needed to establish the optimal approaches to PR.

  18. The Impact of Central Obesity on Storage Luts and Urinary Incontinence After Prostatic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gacci, Mauro; Sebastianelli, Arcangelo; Salvi, Matteo; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Tubaro, Andrea; Gravas, Stavros; Moncada, Ignacio; Serni, Sergio; Maggi, Mario; Vignozzi, Linda

    2016-09-01

    In the developed and developing countries, the overall prevalence of central obesity in the elderly men is growing. In addition, the progressive aging of male population increased the possibilities of coexisting morbidities associated with obesity such as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) or to prostate cancer (PCa) needing primary treatment, including radical prostatectomy (RP), which can further adversely affect the quality of life. Simple and radical prostatectomy are the most common surgical procedures in urologic unit all over the world for BPE and PCa, respectively. After both interventions, patients can present bothering storage LUTS that can worsen all the other clinical outcomes. Preset study will review the role of central obesity as a risk factor for storage LUTS or urinary incontinence, after prostatic surgery for BPE or PCa.

  19. [Prostate cancer. Part 2: Review of the various tumor grading systems over the years 1966-2015 and future perspectives of the new grading of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP)].

    PubMed

    Helpap, B; Bubendorf, L; Kristiansen, G

    2016-02-01

    The continued development of methods in needle biopsies and radical prostatectomy for treatment of prostate cancer has given special emphasis to the question of the prognostic relevance of the various systems of grading. The classical purely histological grading system of Gleason has been modified several times in the past decades and cleared the way for a new grading system by the prognostic grading of Epstein. Assessment of the old and also modified combined histological and cytological grading of Mostofi, the World health Organization (WHO) and the urologic-pathological working group of prostate cancer in connection with the Gleason grading (combined Gleason-Helpap grading), has led to considerably improved rates of concordance between biopsy and radical prostatectomy and to improved estimations of prognosis beside its contribution to the development of a more practicable grading system for clinical use.

  20. Association of FGFR4 genetic polymorphisms with prostate cancer risk and prognosis.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, L M; Karlins, E; Karyadi, D M; Kwon, E M; Koopmeiners, J S; Stanford, J L; Ostrander, E A

    2009-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is thought to be involved in many critical cellular processes and has been associated with prostate cancer risk. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within or near FGFR4 were analyzed in a population-based study of 1458 prostate cancer patients and 1352 age-matched controls. We found no evidence to suggest that any of the FGFR4 SNP genotypes were associated with prostate cancer risk or with disease aggressiveness, Gleason score or stage. A weak association was seen between rs351855 and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Subset analysis of cases that had undergone radical prostatectomy revealed an association between rs351855 and prostate cancer risk. Although our results confirm an association between FGFR4 and prostate cancer risk in radical prostatectomy cases, they suggest that the role of FGFR4 in disease risk and outcomes at a population-based level appears to be minor.

  1. [Robotic surgery -- the modern surgical treatment of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Szabó, Ferenc János; Alexander, de la Taille

    2014-09-01

    Minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery replaces many open surgery procedures in urology due to its advantages concerning post-operative morbidity. However, the technical challenges and need of learning have limited the application of this method to the work of highly qualified surgeons. The introduction of da Vinci surgical system has offered important technical advantages compared to the laparoscopic surgical procedure. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy became a largely accepted procedure. It has paved the way for urologists to start other, more complex operations, decreasing this way the operative morbidity. The purpose of this article is to overview the history of robotic surgery, its current and future states in the treatment of the cancer. We present our robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and the results.

  2. Peptide amphiphile nanofiber hydrogel delivery of sonic hedgehog protein to the cavernous nerve to promote regeneration and prevent erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Choe, Shawn; Bond, Christopher W; Harrington, Daniel A; Stupp, Samuel I; McVary, Kevin T; Podlasek, Carol A

    2017-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) has high impact on quality of life in prostatectomy, diabetic and aging patients. An underlying mechanism is cavernous nerve (CN) injury, which causes ED in up to 80% of prostatectomy patients. We examine how sonic hedgehog (SHH) treatment with innovative peptide amphiphile nanofiber hydrogels (PA), promotes CN regeneration after injury. SHH and its receptors patched (PTCH1) and smoothened (SMO) are localized in PG neurons and glia. SMO undergoes anterograde transport to signal to downstream targets. With crush injury, PG neurons degenerate and undergo apoptosis. SHH protein decreases, SMO localization changes to the neuronal cell surface, and anterograde transport stops. With SHH treatment SHH is taken up at the injury site and undergoes retrograde transport to PG neurons, allowing SMO transport to occur, and neurons remain intact. SHH treatment prevents neuronal degeneration, maintains neuronal, glial and downstream target signaling, and is significant as a regenerative therapy.

  3. [Clinical to planning target volume margins in prostate cancer radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Ramiandrisoa, F; Duvergé, L; Castelli, J; Nguyen, T D; Servagi-Vernat, S; de Crevoisier, R

    2016-10-01

    The knowledge of inter- and intrafraction motion and deformations of the intrapelvic target volumes (prostate, seminal vesicles, prostatectomy bed and lymph nodes) as well as the main organs at risk (bladder and rectum) allow to define rational clinical to planning target volume margins, depending on the different radiotherapy techniques and their uncertainties. In case of image-guided radiotherapy, prostate margins and seminal vesicles margins can be between 5 and 10mm. The margins around the prostatectomy bed vary from 10 to 15mm and those around the lymph node clinical target volume between 7 and 10mm. Stereotactic body radiotherapy allows lower margins, which are 3 to 5mm around the prostate. Image-guided and stereotactic body radiotherapy with adequate margins allow finally moderate or extreme hypofractionation.

  4. Male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. 1: Assessment.

    PubMed

    Dorey, G

    Male lower urinary tract symptoms include frequency, nocturia, urgency, urge incontinence, stress incontinence, post-micturition dribble and post-prostatectomy incontinence. All of these symptoms can be treated conservatively. In this article, the first of two parts, a detailed subjective and objective assessment is provided based on a Delphi study undertaken by the author. The objective assessment includes a digital rectal examination to assess the pelvic floor muscle strength in order to provide a patient-specific exercise programme. The diagnosis of stress incontinence, urge incontinence, post-prostatectomy incontinence, post-micturition dribble and functional incontinence is made from the assessment. Men with lower urinary tract symptoms need a detailed subjective and objective assessment before a diagnosis is made and individual treatment is planned.

  5. Developing an Instrument to Measure Socioeconomic Disparities in Quality of Care for Men with Early-Stage Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    dilation of prostatic urethra) Diagnosis of proctitis : 558.1 (Gastroenteritis and colitis due to radiation ) Diagnosis of cystitis: 595.x (Cystitis...cause specific survival after definitive local therapy with radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. However, regardless of race, men of lower...more likely to die of their cancer. Men of lower socioeconomic status are also more likely to have treatment related complications after prostate

  6. A new vision for day surgery.

    PubMed

    Baskerville, Paul

    2006-07-01

    The premise that underlines this article (based on a presentation delivered at AfPP's Annual Congress in October 2006) is that all elective surgery performed in this country should be day surgery. This should eventually include patients undergoing hip replacements, radical prostatectomies, aortic aneurysm repair and hepatectomies, to name a few. All of these procedures we should perform, safely and well, under the British definition of day surgery as 'going home at the end of the day'.

  7. [Highlights of the 2010 ERUS meeting, September 29 to October 1, 2010, Bordeaux, France].

    PubMed

    Descazeaud, Aurélien

    2011-01-01

    This work summarizes the highlights of what was presented at the seventh edition of the European Robotic Urology Symposium meeting which took place in Bordeaux, France, from September 29 to October 1, 2010. Future developments of robotic surgery and training in robotic were discussed. Robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy was largely discussed. The use of robotic in renal and bladder surgery was also developed. The congress contained update lectures, debates, live cases transmission of robotic surgery, and poster and video communications.

  8. Patient Preferences for Outcomes Associated with Surgical Management of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    We evaluated preferences for current urinary and sexual function following radical prostatectomy in men with clinically localized prostate cancer. We...their current urinary and sexual functioning, (2) men who were only bothered by their current sexual functioning, and (3) men who were not bothered...and those who have urinary and/or sexual dysfunction would not be willing to trade much of their remaining life span to have perfect functioning.

  9. Disparities in Intratumoral Steroidogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Testosterone X Lipid Panel X SHBG X 5 Prostatectomy or excision of CRPC progression2 X 1 Height, weight, and waist circumference ...be completed for this study: 1) Anthropometric measures: Height, weight, and waist circumference measurements will be completed. 2) Blood...or excision of CRPC progression2 X 1 Height, weight, and waist circumference will be measured and collected 2 With tissue procurement for

  10. Targeted Radiation Therapy for Cancer Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    technique for treating left-sided breast cancer, which allows sparing of the heart. The Calypso system provides a previously unavailable level of...from both centers. Task 6. Post-prostatectomy Daily Target Guided Radiotherapy Using Real-Time, State-of-the-Art Motion Tracking with the Calypso...the skin surface to track breathing motion during a breath-hold technique for left-sided breast cancer treatment. Analysis would reveal the

  11. Quantification of Protein Signatures in Archived Human Prostate Tissues Using Shotgun Proteomic Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    proteins were subsequently incubated with wheat - germ agglutinin (WGA) and con canavalin- A (ConA) beads, washed, and el uted with sol uble n-acetyl...prostate radial prostatectomies and have focused on optimizing protocols to extract and profile proteins in matched normal and dise ased tissue s...human prostate cancer using label-free, quantitative mass spectrometry. Last year we were able to extract up to 1 00 micrograms of total protein

  12. An Embryonic Growth Pathway is Reactivated in Human Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    assess growth of the four cell lines, a Gompertz prostatectomy (n = 2), and six prostate cancer (PC) speci- growth model was fitted to each line. Day... Gompertz model with men (N), in hyperplastic (benign) tissue from men without line-specific asymptote and growth rate was estimated via Gauss-New...histologically confirmed tumor with histologically con- The plots and Gompertz fits were generated in R version 1.6.25.1 (36). firmed benign tissue obtained from

  13. Giant prostatic hyperplasia: report of a previously asymptomatic man presenting with gross hematuria and hypovolemic shock.

    PubMed

    Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; Carneiro, Ariê; Tristão, Rodrigo Alves; Sakuramoto, Paulo Kouiti; Youssef, Jorg Daoud Merched; Lopes Neto, Antonio Correa; Santiago, Lucila Heloísa Simardi; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima

    2015-01-01

    Giant prostatic hyperplasia is a rare condition characterized by very high volume benign prostatic enlargement (>500g). Few cases have been reported so far and most of them are associated with severe lower urinary symptoms. We report the first case of asymptomatic giant prostatic hyperplasia in an elderly man who had a 720g prostate adenoma, sudden gross hematuria and hypovolemic shock. The patient was successfully treated with open transvesical prostatectomy and had an uneventful postoperative recovery.

  14. Use of eQTL Analysis for the Discovery of Target Genes Identified by GWAS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    prostate tissue-specific expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) dataset; and 2) utilize this dataset to identify candidate genes for existing...set of 500 samples of normal prostate tissue sampled from men with PC. To date, we have pre-screened normal prostate tissue with the use of H&E...stained sections from 4000 men having a radical prostatectomy in order to identify those cases meeting our strict selection criteria for further

  15. Mercola 7-gene signature for prostate cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM) was used to develop a 7-gene classifier. The overall prediction accuracy and sensitivity is 71% and 76%, respectively. The inclusion of the Gleason sum to the seven-gene classifier raised the prediction accuracy and sensitivity to 83% and 76% respectively This prognostic signature is closely associated with biochemical recurrence in patients after radical prostatectomy. The seven genes are: RRAGD, PQBP1, HIST1H2BC, ALDH1A2, TRIM22, RBPMS, HSPB8.

  16. Novel Optical Methods for Identification, Imaging, and Preservation of the Cavernous Nerves Responsible for Penile Erections during Prostate Cancer Surgery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    precise mapping of the CNs during adical prostatectomy. Ideally, OCT could be used to mage the topographic landscape of the entire postero- ateral aspect...recommendations of the Panel of Euthanasia of the American Veterinary Medical Association. After euthanization, the CN was removed and fixed with a...However, a major limitation of this study is that the rat prostate model represents an idealized version of the human anatomy . In the rat, the CN

  17. The Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    and RNA ) from prostate cancer patients. These specimens are linked to clinical and outcome data and supported by an informatics infrastructure. In...models, manufact