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Sample records for post-suicide attempt case

  1. A very unusual case of attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Misiak, Piotr; Jabłoński, Sławomir; Dziwińska, Katarzyna; Terlecki, Artur

    2016-06-01

    We would like to present a case report of a very unusual suicide attempt. A 48-year-old female patient tried to commit suicide by stabbing herself with a kitchen knife into her neck. Suicide by self-stabbing is uncommon, constituting only 1-3% of suicide attempts. Patients with self-inflicted stab wounds may have a higher incidence of surgical interventions based on the stab location. Surprisingly, the mortality associated with this kind of wound is low. Most medical centers have very limited experience with this infrequent injury. There are only a few case reports and small series published in the literature of the subject.

  2. Eszopiclone-induced Parasomnia with Suicide Attempt: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Pennington, J Gibson; Guina, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Eszopiclone is a benzodiazepine-like hypnotic that is commonly prescribed to treat insomnia. However, eszopiclone's efficacy has been questionable in several clinical trials, and its pharmacologic profile makes its effects on sleep and behavior difficult to predict. We report a case demonstrating an instance of eszopiclone-induced parasomnia involving paranoia and a suicide attempt in a patient taking eszopiclone. We explore possible biochemical explanations examining the pharmacologic profile of eszopiclone and its potential for drug-drug interactions, especially with concomitant administration of monoaminergic medications such as antidepressants. Caution should be exercised when prescribing these medications, and evidence-based treatments for insomnia (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy, biofeedback, sedating antidepressants) should be considered prior to sedative-hypnotic administration.

  3. Eszopiclone-induced Parasomnia with Suicide Attempt: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Guina, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Eszopiclone is a benzodiazepine-like hypnotic that is commonly prescribed to treat insomnia. However, eszopiclone’s efficacy has been questionable in several clinical trials, and its pharmacologic profile makes its effects on sleep and behavior difficult to predict. We report a case demonstrating an instance of eszopiclone-induced parasomnia involving paranoia and a suicide attempt in a patient taking eszopiclone. We explore possible biochemical explanations examining the pharmacologic profile of eszopiclone and its potential for drug-drug interactions, especially with concomitant administration of monoaminergic medications such as antidepressants. Caution should be exercised when prescribing these medications, and evidence-based treatments for insomnia (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy, biofeedback, sedating antidepressants) should be considered prior to sedative-hypnotic administration. PMID:27974999

  4. Sleep problems and suicide attempts among adolescents: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Koyawala, Neel; Stevens, Jack; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M; Cannon, Elizabeth A; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    This study used a case-control design to compare sleep disturbances in 40 adolescents who attempted suicide with 40 never-suicidal adolescents. Using hierarchical logistic regression analyses, we found that self-reported nighttime awakenings were significantly associated with attempted suicide, after controlling for antidepressant use, antipsychotic use, affective problems, and being bullied. In a separate regression analysis, the parent-reported total sleep problems score also predicted suicide attempt status, controlling for key covariates. No associations were found between suicide attempts and other distinct sleep problems, including falling asleep at bedtime, sleeping a lot during the day, trouble waking up in the morning, sleep duration, and parent-reported nightmares. Clinicians should be aware of sleep problems as potential risk factors for suicide attempts for adolescents.

  5. Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Attempt in Iran: A Case-Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Behrooz; Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Leo, Diego De; Saeed, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and its disorders are associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviors Research has shown that 6-8% of those who use alcohol have a history of suicide attempt. Given the prohibition of alcohol use legally, the increased alcohol consumption, and the lack of strong evidence in favor of its use associated with suicide in Iran, this study was conducted to determine the link between suicide attempt and alcohol abuse. The case-crossover method was used in this research. Out of 305 referrals to the emergency room due to a suicide attempt, 100 reported drinking alcohol up to six hours before their attempt. Paired Matching and Usual Frequency were employed to analyze the data with STATA 12.0. The probability of attempting suicide up to six hours after drinking alcohol appeared increased by 27 times (95% CI: 8.1-60.4). Separate analysis for each of these hours from the first to the sixth hour after alcohol use was also performed. Fifty percent of attempted suicides happened one hour after alcohol use. Relative risk for the first and second hour was 10% and 5% respectively. Alcohol use is a strong proximal risk factor for attempted suicide among Iranian subjects. Prevention of alcohol use should be considered in setting up of the national Suicide attempt prevention program. PMID:26925903

  6. Case-control association study of TGOLN2 in attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Pamela B; Stütz, Adrian M; Seifuddin, Fayaz; Huo, Yuqing; Goes, Fernando S; Jancic, Dubravka; Judy, Jennifer T; Depaulo, J Raymond; Gershon, Elliot S; McMahon, Francis J; Zandi, Peter P; Potash, James B; Willour, Virginia L

    2010-07-01

    Family, twin, and adoption studies provide convincing evidence for a genetic contribution to suicidal behavior. The heritability for suicidal behavior depends in part on the transmission of psychiatric disorders, such as mood disorders and substance use disorders, but is also partly independent of them. Three linkage studies using the attempted suicide phenotype in pedigrees with bipolar disorder, major depression, or alcoholism have provided consistent evidence that 2p11-12 harbors a susceptibility gene for attempted suicide. A microarray expression study using postmortem brain samples has implicated a gene from the 2p11-12 candidate region, the trans-Golgi network protein 2 (TGOLN2) gene, as being consistently up-regulated in suicide cases as compared to controls. Here, we present a TGOLN2 case-control association study using nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). These nine SNPs, which include seven tag SNPs and two coding SNPs, have been genotyped in 517 mood disorder subjects with a history of attempted suicide and 515 normal controls. Allelic and genotypic analyses of the case-control sample did not provide evidence for association with the attempted suicide phenotype. Eight of the nine SNPs provided supportive evidence for association (P-values ranging from 0.008 to 0.03) when we compared the attempted suicide cases with a history of alcoholism to the attempted suicide cases without a history of alcoholism. However, this association finding was not replicated in an independent sample. Taken together, these analyses do not provide support for the hypothesis that common genetic variation in TGOLN2 contributes significantly to the risk for attempted suicide in subjects with major mood disorders.

  7. [A report on attempted suicide cases involving patients accepted by public health care institutions].

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Tetsushi; Tsuji, Motohiro; Yamada, Naoto

    2011-01-01

    We investigated attempted suicide cases, both successful and failed involving patients, accepted by public health care institutions in Shiga Prefecture, whose population is about 1. 4 million, from the 12th January 2010 to 14th February 2010. Prefectural emergency hospitals, fire stations, and pathologists cooperated in the investigation, and the cases were reported with the age and sex as well as the means and results of the attempts. How these institutions cooperated in the cases was also reported. A total number of 104 people attempted suicide, in which 40 people (38.5%) succeeded, 54 people (51.9%) failed, and the outcome was unknown in 10 people (9.6%). Forty-one people (39.4%) were in their 30s, being the most common age group. Successful suicides were most prominent among elderly males, and failed attempts were most prominent among young females. Hanging and poisonous gassing were the common means of suicide among the successful cases, and overdose, drinking, and wrist -cutting were the common means among the failed attempts. Sixty-four people (61.5%) were admitted to public emergency hospitals, 51 people (49.0%) were rescued by fire workers, and 34 people (32.7%) were sent for autopsy following police reports on fatal cases as suicide. Successful suicides and males were mostly sent for pathological examination without any coordinated care from different medical institutions, whereas, failed cases and females were often taken care of by several institutions. Five people (4.8%) were referred for psychiatric help. Suicide intervention needs to take account of differences in the sex, age, means, and other characteristics of those who attempt suicide. Each institution plays an important role, and they need to cooperate in order to establish an effective intervention.

  8. Accidental subclavian artery catheterization during attempted internal jugular central venous catheter placement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Paliwal, Bharat; Kamal, Manoj; Purohit, Anamika; Rana, Kirti; Chouhan, Dilip Singh

    2015-01-01

    Central venous catheter placement has been routinely employed for anesthetic and intensive care management. Despite proper technique used and expertise complications do occur; some of which are related to catheter misplacements. We report a case in which subclavian artery was accidently catheterized during attempted internal jugular venous cannulation.

  9. A Case Control Study of Suicide and Attempted Suicide in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beautrais, Annette L.

    2002-01-01

    Risk factors for serious suicidal behavior among older adults were examined in a case control study of adults aged 55 and older who died by suicide or made suicide attempts and who were compared with randomly selected comparison subjects. Multivariate analyses suggested that mood disorders were the most significant risk factor for suicidal…

  10. How Parental Reactions Change in Response to Adolescent Suicide Attempt.

    PubMed

    Greene-Palmer, Farrah N; Wagner, Barry M; Neely, Laura L; Cox, Daniel W; Kochanski, Kristen M; Perera, Kanchana U; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined parental reactions to adolescents' suicide attempts and the association of reactions with future suicidal self-directed violence. Participants were 81 mothers and 49 fathers of 85 psychiatric inpatient adolescents. Maternal hostility and paternal anger and arguing predicted future suicide attempts. From pre- to post-attempt, mothers reported feeling increased sadness, caring, anxiety, guilt, fear, and being overwhelmed; fathers reported increased sadness, anxiety, and fear. Findings have clinical implications; improving parent-child relationships post-suicide attempt may serve as a protective factor for suicide.

  11. Attempted Serial Neonaticides: Case Report and a Brief Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Barros, Alcina Juliana Soares; Rosa, Regis Goulart; Telles, Lisieux Elaine de Borba; Taborda, José Geraldo Vernet

    2016-01-01

    Neonaticide is an infant murder occurring on the day of birth. The case reports found in the literature are often focused on the mother as the agent in the context of pregnancy denial, dissociative symptoms, or psychosis. However, this report describes a rare case of attempted serial neonaticides, in which the acts were committed by a nurse at the nursery of a referral hospital in Brazil. The authors describe a forensic psychiatric evaluation for criminal responsibility and correlate the information from this particular case with relevant forensic themes, namely neonaticide, Munchausen by proxy syndrome, and serial healthcare killers.

  12. The effectiveness of control strategies for dementia-driven wandering, preventing escape attempts: a case report.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Daniel Valle; González, María Teresa Daza; Agis, Inmaculada Fernández; Strizzi, Jenna; Rodríguez, Raquel Alarcón

    2013-03-01

    One of the most complicated aspects of caring for patients with dementia is dementia-driven wandering due to its adverse ramifications. We report a case of an 80-year-old man who had been previously diagnosed with dementia (with a score of 6 on the Reisberg Global Deterioration Scale - GDS). The patient went to an Adult Day Care Center on a daily basis where he demonstrated wandering behavior with a high rate of escape attempts (the number of times the Center's glass exit door was approached). The objective of this study is to present effective non-pharmacological intervention strategies for dementia-driven wandering; assessed strategies included: environmental (subjective barriers), cognitive/behavioral (cognitive training with differential reinforcement), and combined (subjective barriers + cognitive/behavioral). The results showed that all of these three strategies significantly decreased the number of escape attempts.

  13. Accidental carotid artery catheterization during attempted central venous catheter placement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Maietta, Pauline Marie

    2012-08-01

    More than 2.1 million central venous catheters are placed annually. While carotid artery cannulation is rare, its effects can be devastating. Anesthesia providers frequently work with central venous catheters in the perioperative setting. Therefore, it is imperative that they be able to identify and react appropriately to carotid artery injury both in preexisting central lines and those that they have placed. This case report details a case of accidental carotid artery catheterization during attempted right internal jugular vein catheterization and the steps taken to treat the patient following its recognition. A discussion of technique for central venous catheterization, indications for suspicion of arterial puncture, methods for confirming venous or arterial placement, appropriate methods for management of carotid artery cannulation, and the benefit of ultrasound in central venous cannulation follow. Through the appropriate use of equipment, early detection and management of carotid artery injury, and proper training, patient outcomes may be improved.

  14. Penetrating Brain Injury after Suicide Attempt with Speargun: Case Study and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John R.; Aghion, Daniel M.; Doberstein, Curtis E.; Cosgrove, G. Rees; Asaad, Wael F.

    2014-01-01

    Penetrating cranial injury by mechanisms other than gunshots are exceedingly rare, and so strategies and guidelines for the management of PBI are largely informed by data from higher-velocity penetrating injuries. Here, we present a case of penetrating brain injury by the low-velocity mechanism of a harpoon from an underwater fishing speargun in an attempted suicide by a 56-year-old Caucasian male. The case raised a number of interesting points in management of low-velocity penetrating brain injury (LVPBI), including benefit in delaying foreign body removal to allow for tamponade; the importance of history-taking in establishing the social/legal significance of the events surrounding the injury; the use of cerebral angiogram in all cases of PBI; advantages of using dual-energy CT to reduce artifact when available; and antibiotic prophylaxis in the context of idiosyncratic histories of usage of penetrating objects before coming in contact with the intracranial environment. We present here the management of the case in full along with an extended discussion and review of existing literature regarding key points in management of LVPBI vs. higher-velocity forms of intracranial injury. PMID:25071701

  15. A case of suicide attempt with long-acting methylphenidate (Concerta).

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Esra; Karaman, Mehmet Goksin; Yurteri, Nihal; Erdogan, Ayten

    2010-11-01

    The prescribed use of methylphenidate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is widespread. The intranasal and parenteral abuse of methylphenidate (Ritalin) among teenagers is becoming increasingly more common, and deaths have been reported. Newer medical treatment options of long-acting stimulants offer effective treatment with a lower risk of abuse potential. We describe a case of a 17-year-old girl who had attempted suicide by ingesting 270 mg of Concerta. During the third years of treatment with Concerta, parents of patient reported that the patient had a depressive mood in the last week, and had attempted suicide with five tablets of Concerta 54 mg. She was sent to a local hospital with a diagnosis of long-acting methylphenidate overdose. All of vital and laboratory findings were normal except heart rate, which was 132 beats/min. Since more than 3 h have elapsed after the time of ingestion, activated charcoal administration was not carried out at the hospital. She was only observed for 12 h at the emergency department and later discharged from the hospital. While long-acting stimulants offer lower risk of abuse, their greater availability increases the likelihood of ingestion of this nature. Education of clinicians and families to be aware of this risk should reduce the frequency of this complication of treatment.

  16. Attempted suicide by massive insulin injection: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Thewjitcharoen, Yotsapon; Lekpittaya, Nampetch; Himathongkam, Thep

    2008-12-01

    The authors present a case of an 80-year-old man, non-diabetic, who attempted suicide by injecting himself subcutaneously with 10,000 units of Humulin R and 6000 units of Humulin N. Administration of dextrose intravenously was required for 13 days to maintain the capillary blood glucose within the range of 100-180 mg/dl. Hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, and elevated liver enzymes were also seen after massive insulin injection. Glucose requirement index was established to demonstrate the trend of glucose requirement during hospitalization. He recovered completely without any complication after monitoring blood glucose and titrating intravenous glucose carefully for two weeks. Current literature about how to manage insulin overdose was reviewed in the present article.

  17. [Unsuccessful suicidal attempt with use of self-prepared bullet -- case report].

    PubMed

    Malec, Katarzyna; Gasiński, Mateusz; Kuchta, Krzysztof; Kozok, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Gunshot injuries of the viscerocranium are rarely reported during times of peace in Europe. Penetrating wounds to the maxillofacial region pose a significant challenge for surgeons as they often comprise serious soft and bone tissue defects.We present a case report of 38-year-old male with gunshot wound to the viscerocranium after suicidal attempt. The patient's general condition was stable. The inlet wound was found in the submental region in the central line penetrating deep into the floor of the mouth, to the left, avoiding large vessels and hypoglossal nerve. No exit wound was identified. The ophthalmic examination revealed the limitation of motion in the left eyeball and diplopia in the whole field of vision. The revision was performed under general anesthesia. Control CT scan revealed the presence of one metallic fragment wedged in the hard palate. Second look of oral cavity with particular emphasis on the hard palate was performed. Shrapnel proved to be wedged in the bone of the hard palate very firmly and complete removal without damaging the function of the palate was impossible. The decision was made to withdraw from surgical removal of the remaining piece of the projectile. In most cases, it is recommended to remove all foreign material from human body. However, in the illustrated case we decided to leave small debris in the craniofacial skeleton. In our opinion, further surgical revision would result in greater tissue damage, disproportionate to the benefits of the removal of all fragments of the projectile.

  18. Characteristics of Impulsive Suicide Attempts and Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Thomas R.; Swann, Alan C.; Powell, Kenneth E.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; O'Carroll, Patrick W.

    2002-01-01

    Examined impulsive suicide attempts within a population-based, case-control study of nearly lethal suicide attempts among adolescents and young adults. Impulsive attempts were more likely among those who had been in a physical fight and less likely among those who were depressed. Findings suggest inadequate control of aggressive impulses as a…

  19. A Cognitive Therapy Intervention for Suicide Attempters: An Overview of the Treatment and Case Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Michele S.; Henriques, Gregg R.; Warman, Debbie M.; Brown, Gregory K.; Beck, Aaron T.

    2004-01-01

    Although suicidal behavior is a serious public health problem, few effective treatments exist to treat this population. This article describes a new cognitive therapy intervention that has been developed for treating recent suicide attempters. The intervention is based on general principles of cognitive therapy and targets the automatic thoughts…

  20. An Unmatched Case-Control Study of Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts in Houston, Texas: Research Methods and Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Ikeda, Robin M.; Mercy, James A.; Powell, Kenneth E.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Simon, Thomas R.; Lee, Roberta K.; Frankowski, Ralph F.

    2002-01-01

    This article details the research methods and measurements used in conducting a population-based, case-control study of nearly lethal suicide attempts among persons aged 13-34 years. This study was designed to extend understanding of suicidal behavior and prevention activities beyond identification of mental illnesses. Overall strengths and…

  1. [Antidepressant treatment and risk of suicidal attempts. A case series report].

    PubMed

    Henzen, Alexandre; Sentissi, Othman; Arnold, Myriam

    2013-12-04

    Scientific evidence that fluoxetine is one of the effective treatment of depression exists. Since 2000, a debate has been launched concerning the possibility of antidepressant drugs, especially, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor to induce suicidality in some depressive patients. Suicidal attempts of 3 of the outpatients taken into care in a crisis center in Geneva, following the introduction of fluoxetine in the usual dose of 20 mg per day, led us to investigate and to carry out a non-exhaustive comprehensive literature review of available randomized trials, meta-analyses and epidemiological studies. This work enabled us to highlight some points of interest, including medical attitudes and therapeutic guidelines that sometimes seem to be contradictory, especially regarding the use of antidepressants in children and adolescents.

  2. Experiment 2018, First Fracturing Attempt Below Casing Shoe in EE-2 (1982-7-19/20)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffers, Bernard

    1983-03-15

    The purpose of Experiment 2018 was to achieve a hydraulic connection between EE-2 and EE-3 in the region just below their respective casing shoes. To protect the cassing of EE-2, the fracturing fluid had to be pumped down a 3-1/2 inch drill string to an Otis casing packer set 240 ft above the casing shoe of EE-2. Pumping started at 16:23 of July 19, 1982, and was terminated at 2:02 on July 20, 1982, due to hardware failure, after some trouble with the setting of the casing packer had delayed the beginning of the experiment for approximately two days. Prior to the experiment, a sand plug in EE-2 had been set, with its top at 11,910 ft (all depths referenced her are cable depths). A total of 5,698 bbls had been pumped. No hydraulic connection appeared at the end of Experiment 2018.

  3. Analysis of hydrogen cyanide in air in a case of attempted cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, R; Nyholm, S; Åstot, C

    2012-10-10

    A 32-year-old man attempted to poison his ex-girlfriend with hydrogen cyanide by hiding the pesticide Uragan D2 in her car. During the police investigation, chemical analysis of the air inside the car was performed. Hydrogen cyanide was detected through on-site air analysis using a portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy gas analyzer and colorimetric gas detection tubes. Furthermore, impinger air-sampling was performed for off-site sample preparation and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All three independent techniques demonstrated the presence of hydrogen cyanide, at concentrations of 14-20 ppm. Owing to the high volatility of hydrogen cyanide, the temperature and the time since exposure have a substantial effect on the likelihood of detecting hydrogen cyanide at a crime scene. The prevailing conditions (closed space, low temperature) must have supported the preservation of HCN in the car thus enabling the identification even though the analysis was performed several days after the hydrogen cyanide source was removed. This paper demonstrates the applicability of combining on-site FTIR measurements and off-site GC-MS analysis of a crime scene in order to ensure fast detection as well as unambiguous identification for forensic purposes of hydrogen cyanide in air.

  4. Suicide Attempt by Intravenous Potassium Self-Poisoning: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Battefort, Florent; Dehours, Emilie; Vallé, Baptiste; Hamdaoui, Ahmed; Bounes, Vincent; Ducassé, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Overdose of potassium is not as frequently encountered in clinical practice as hyperkalaemia due to acute or chronic renal disease. However, potassium overdoses leading to serious consequences do occur. Case Presentation. A 20-year-old nurse student presented with a cardiac arrest with asystole rhythm. Beside the patient were found four 50-mL syringes and empty vials of potassium chloride (20 mL, 10%). After initial resuscitation with epinephrine, 125 mL of a 4.2% intravenous solution of sodium bicarbonate were injected which resulted in the recovery of an effective cardiac activity. The patient recovered without sequelae. Conclusion. The difficulty in this case was to recognize the potassium poisoning. The advanced resuscitation with the use of a specific treatment helped to resuscitate the patient. PMID:23326708

  5. Case study of attempts to enact self service tobacco display ordinances: a tale of three communities

    PubMed Central

    Bidell, M.; Furlong, M.; Dunn, D.; Koegler, J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine self service tobacco displays (SSTDs) and youth retail tobacco access by comparing longitudinal illegal tobacco sales rates in three communities in Santa Barbara County, California, that considered or implemented ordinances banning SSTDs. A confirmatory survey was also conducted to substantiate the longitudinal data.
DESIGN—A longitudinal case study design was utilised. Five undercover tobacco buys were conducted between 1994 and 1997 (n = 332). In addition, one confirmatory survey was conducted in a geographically separated area, which had no ordinances banning SSTDs (n = 57).
RESULTS—Decreases in youth buy rates were reported in all three communities. Most notably, the first city to enact a SSTD ban, Carpinteria, achieved a 0% sales rate, which was maintained throughout the study period. In contrast, Santa Barbara and Goleta experienced considerable drops in their illegal sales rates, but neither community obtained results as dramatic as those found in Carpinteria. The confirmatory survey showed that 32.1% of stores with SSTDs sold cigarettes to minors; this compares to a sales rate of 3.4% in stores without SSTDs (χ2 (1) = 8.11, p = 0.004).
CONCLUSIONS—Efforts to enact self service bans are likely to meet with retail and tobacco industry opposition, as was the case in this study's three communities. The process of community debate, resultant publicity surrounding the issue, and enactment of SSTD ordinances may serve to not only increase merchant awareness of youth tobacco laws and their penalties but also may contribute to reduced youth cigarette sales rates. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.


Keywords: self service tobacco displays; youth tobacco access; community tobacco control efforts PMID:10691760

  6. Repair of Penetrating Pericardial and Diaphragmatic Injury with Cormatrix® Patch in a Case of Suicide Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Jiritano, Federica; Garrasi, Carlo; Cristodoro, Lucia; Bevacqua, Egidio; Mastroroberto, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    The authors report the case of a suicide attempt. A 59-year-old man with self-inflicted penetrating chest trauma underwent emergency cardiothoracic surgery. Pre-operative computed tomography scan showed critical proximity between the blade and the right ventricle. Intraoperative findings showed a pericardial laceration and a huge diaphragmatic lesion with heart and abdominal organs integrity. The diaphragm muscle was repaired with a CorMatrix® patch, an acceptable alternative to the traditional synthetic mesh avoiding infection and repeated herniation.

  7. Aripiprazole augmentation in managing comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and bipolar disorder: a case with suicidal attempts.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jianbo; Lu, Qiaoqiao; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Tingting; Xu, Yi; Hu, Shaohua

    2017-01-01

    Comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and bipolar disorder (BD) have long been an intractable problem in clinical practice. The increased risk of manic/hypomanic switch hinders the use of antidepressants for managing coexisting OCD symptoms in BD patients. We herein present a case of a patient with BD-OCD comorbidity, who was successfully treated with mood stabilizers and aripiprazole augmentation. The young female patient reported recurrent depressive episodes and aggravating compulsive behaviors before hospitalization. Of note, the patient repetitively attempted suicide and reported dangerous driving because of intolerable mental sufferings. The preexisting depressive episode and OCD symptoms prompted the use of paroxetine, which consequently triggered the manic switching. Her diagnosis was revised into bipolar I disorder. Minimal response with mood stabilizers prompted the addition of aripiprazole (a daily dose of 10 mg), which helped to achieve significant remission in emotional and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. This case highlights the appealing efficacy of a small dose of aripiprazole augmentation for treating BD-OCD comorbidity. Well-designed clinical trials are warranted to verify the current findings.

  8. Aripiprazole augmentation in managing comorbid obsessive–compulsive disorder and bipolar disorder: a case with suicidal attempts

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jianbo; Lu, Qiaoqiao; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Tingting; Xu, Yi; Hu, Shaohua

    2017-01-01

    Comorbid obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and bipolar disorder (BD) have long been an intractable problem in clinical practice. The increased risk of manic/hypomanic switch hinders the use of antidepressants for managing coexisting OCD symptoms in BD patients. We herein present a case of a patient with BD–OCD comorbidity, who was successfully treated with mood stabilizers and aripiprazole augmentation. The young female patient reported recurrent depressive episodes and aggravating compulsive behaviors before hospitalization. Of note, the patient repetitively attempted suicide and reported dangerous driving because of intolerable mental sufferings. The preexisting depressive episode and OCD symptoms prompted the use of paroxetine, which consequently triggered the manic switching. Her diagnosis was revised into bipolar I disorder. Minimal response with mood stabilizers prompted the addition of aripiprazole (a daily dose of 10 mg), which helped to achieve significant remission in emotional and obsessive–compulsive symptoms. This case highlights the appealing efficacy of a small dose of aripiprazole augmentation for treating BD–OCD comorbidity. Well-designed clinical trials are warranted to verify the current findings. PMID:28096676

  9. Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders as Risk Factors for Attempted Suicide among Adolescents: A Case Control Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Thomas M.; Cornelius, Jack R.; Lynch, Kevin G.

    2002-01-01

    Tests substance-related and non-substance-related psychiatric disorders as predictors of attempted suicide among adolescents. Bipolar disorder, cocaine use disorders, and conduct disorder were found to be predictive of attempted suicide in univariate testing. Higher rates of cocaine use disorder/conduct disorder, hallucinogen use disorder/conduct…

  10. Retaining a Legacy while Avoiding Trademark Infringement: A Case Study of One University's Attempt to Develop a Consistent Athletic Brand Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alessandri, Sue Westcott

    2007-01-01

    This case study chronicles Syracuse University's athletic department's attempt to achieve consistency in its identity program by changing its identity during 2004, and then again in 2005. The changes were owing to high-level personnel changes on both the academic and athletic sides of the university. This case details the many issues arising from…

  11. Relationship between Personality Profiles and Suicide Attempt via Medicine Poisoning among Hospitalized Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Shafiee-Kandjani, Ali Reza; Amiri, Shahrokh; Arfaie, Asghar; Ahmadi, Azadeh; Farvareshi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Inflexible personality traits play an important role in the development of maladaptive behaviors among patients who attempt suicide. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between personality profiles and suicide attempt via medicine poisoning among the patients hospitalized in a public hospital. Materials and Methods. Fifty-nine patients who attempted suicide for the first time and hospitalized in the poisoning ward were selected as the experimental group. Sixty-three patients hospitalized in the other wards for a variety of reasons were selected as the adjusted control group. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Personality Inventory, 3rd version (MCMI-III) was used to assess the personality profiles. Results. The majority of the suicide attempters were low-level graduates (67.8% versus 47.1%, OR = 2.36). 79.7% of the suicide attempters were suffering from at least one maladaptive personality profile. The most common maladaptive personality profiles among the suicide attempters were depressive personality disorder (40.7%) and histrionic personality disorder (32.2%). Among the syndromes the most common ones were anxiety clinical syndrome (23.7%) and major depression (23.7%). Conclusion. Major depression clinical syndrome, histrionic personality disorder, anxiety clinical syndrome, and depressive personality disorder are among the predicators of first suicide attempts for the patients hospitalized in the public hospital due to the medicine poisoning.

  12. Relationship between Personality Profiles and Suicide Attempt via Medicine Poisoning among Hospitalized Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shafiee-Kandjani, Ali Reza; Amiri, Shahrokh; Arfaie, Asghar; Ahmadi, Azadeh; Farvareshi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Inflexible personality traits play an important role in the development of maladaptive behaviors among patients who attempt suicide. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between personality profiles and suicide attempt via medicine poisoning among the patients hospitalized in a public hospital. Materials and Methods. Fifty-nine patients who attempted suicide for the first time and hospitalized in the poisoning ward were selected as the experimental group. Sixty-three patients hospitalized in the other wards for a variety of reasons were selected as the adjusted control group. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Personality Inventory, 3rd version (MCMI-III) was used to assess the personality profiles. Results. The majority of the suicide attempters were low-level graduates (67.8% versus 47.1%, OR = 2.36). 79.7% of the suicide attempters were suffering from at least one maladaptive personality profile. The most common maladaptive personality profiles among the suicide attempters were depressive personality disorder (40.7%) and histrionic personality disorder (32.2%). Among the syndromes the most common ones were anxiety clinical syndrome (23.7%) and major depression (23.7%). Conclusion. Major depression clinical syndrome, histrionic personality disorder, anxiety clinical syndrome, and depressive personality disorder are among the predicators of first suicide attempts for the patients hospitalized in the public hospital due to the medicine poisoning. PMID:27433491

  13. Pre-Service Teachers' Attempts at Debating Contemporary Issues in Science Education: A Case Study from Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koosimile, Anthony T.; Suping, Shanah M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper constitutes an attempt to explore trends, issues and challenges that emerge when three different cohorts of pre-service teachers debate contemporary issues in science education at the University of Botswana. Apart from the author's experience of teaching the course, the impetus for this study also comes from a growing interest in the…

  14. Rapid improvement of depressive symptoms in suicide attempters following treatment with milnacipran and tricyclic antidepressants - a case series.

    PubMed

    Kirino, Eiji; Gitoh, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is a serious social problem in many countries, including Japan. The majority of people who commit suicide suffer from depression. Suicide attempt patients suffering from serious physical injuries are initially treated in hospital emergency departments. The present post hoc analysis examined data from patients admitted to an emergency hospital for treatment of physical injuries, resulting from a suicide attempt, and initial psychiatric treatment for depression and prevention of future suicide attempts. The effects on depressive symptoms were studied in two groups of patients using the 17-item Hamilton depression scale (HAMD). One group (n = 6) had received intravenous tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) (amitriptyline or clomipramine) while the other group (n = 7) had been treated orally with milnacipran, a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepressant. Prior to treatment the four highest scoring items on the HAMD scale were the same in both groups namely, item 1 (depressed mood), item 3 (suicidality), item 7 (interest in work and activities), and item 10 (psychic anxiety). After 1 week of treatment, mean global HAMD scores were significantly reduced in both groups. Treatment resulted in a significant reduction of five HAMD items in the TCA group, whereas in the milnacipran group 12 HAMD items were significantly reduced. Suicidality (item 3) was significantly improved by 1 week treatment with milnacipran, but not by TCAs. Milnacipran rapidly improved a wide range of depressive symptoms, including suicidality within the first week. The improvement with milnacipran would appear to be, at least, equivalent to that achieved with TCAs, possibly affecting a wider range of symptoms. Since milnacipran has been shown in comparative studies to be better tolerated than TCAs, this antidepressant offers an interesting option for the treatment of suicidal patients in an emergency setting.

  15. Suicide Attempt Characteristics, Diagnoses, and Future Attempts: Comparing Multiple Attempters to Single Attempters and Ideators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Regina; Scott, Michelle; Hicks, Roger; Wilcox, Holly C.; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Shaffer, David

    2008-01-01

    The study compares psychiatric diagnoses and future suicide attempt outcomes of multiple attempters (MAs), single attempters (SAs) and ideators. The results conclude that MAs strongly predict later suicide attempts and diagnosis than SAs and ideators.

  16. Coping Card Usage can Further Reduce Suicide Reattempt in Suicide Attempter Case Management Within 3-Month Intervention.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Chuan; Hsieh, Ling-Yu; Wang, Ming-Yu; Chou, Cheng-Hsiang; Huang, Min-Wei; Ko, Huei-Chen

    2016-02-01

    This randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of using crisis coping cards (n = 32) in the case management of suicide prevention compared with case management without the use of coping cards (n = 32) over a 3-month intervention period. The generalized estimating equation was used to examine the interaction effect between treatments and time on suicide risk, depression, anxiety, and hopelessness. Results indicated that subsequent suicidal behaviors, severity of suicide risk, depression, anxiety, and hopelessness were reduced more in the coping card intervention group compared to the case management only group. Moreover, for the survival curves of time to suicide reattempt, the coping card group showed a significantly longer time to reattempt than the case management only group at 2-month and 3-month intervention periods.

  17. RESULTS OF A DATING ATTEMPT -CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS RELEVANT TO THE CASE OF THE CRETACEOUS TERTIARY EXTINCTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Asaro, Frank; Michel, Helen V.; Alvarez, Luis W.; Alvarez, Walter

    1980-09-01

    In Gubbio, Italy, a l em layer of clay between extensive limestone formations marks the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary Periods. This clay layer was known to have been deposited about 65 million years ago when many life forms became extinct, but the length of time associated with the deposition was not known. In an attempt to measure this time with normally deposited meteoritic material as a clock, extensive measurements of iridium abundances (and those of many other elements) were made on the Gubbio rocks. Neutron activation analysis was the principal tool used in these studies. About 50 elements are searched for in materials like the earth's crust, about 40 are detected and about 30 are measured with useful precision. We were not able to determine exactly how long the clay deposition took. Instead the laboratory studies on the chemical and physical nature of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary led to the theory that an asteroid collision with the earth was responsible for the extinction of many forms of life including the dinosaurs.

  18. Self-injection of household cleaning detergents into a ventriculoperitoneal shunt reservoir during a suicide attempt: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, Jason W; Osbun, Joshua W; Arias, Eric J; Reynolds, Lauren C; Chyatte, Douglas; Reynolds, Matthew R

    2016-09-01

    Self-injection of household cleaning detergents (more specifically, commercial toilet bowl cleaner) into the reservoir of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) has never been reported in the neurosurgical literature. A right-handed 41-year-old female with a past medical history significant for bipolar depression (with multiple prior hospital admissions for suicide attempts) and pseudotumor cerebri (status-post VPS placement from a right frontal approach) successfully injected ∼5 ml of toilet bowl cleaner into her ventricular shunt reservoir during a suicide attempt. She was found unresponsive by a family member 48 h after this event and presented to our hospital in moribund neurological condition (bilaterally fixed and dilated pupils with decerebrate posturing). Head computed tomography (CT) demonstrated marked ventriculomegaly. She was taken emergently to the operating room for placement of a left frontal ventriculostomy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampled intraoperatively showed numerous Gram-positive cocci (later determined to be Staphylococcus epidermidis). For this reason, her right-sided shunt system was also removed in its entirety. She was treated with broad-spectrum intravenous and intraventricular antibiotics for her bacterial ventriculitis and her CSF was aggressively drained to treat her hydrocephalus. Once her infection had resolved, the shunt was replaced (using a right parietal approach) and she went on to make an excellent neurological recovery. Here, the authors present the case of a patient who self-injected household cleaning detergents into her VPS reservoir-and, likely, the ventricular system-during a suicide attempt and subsequently developed hydrocephalus and ventriculitis. Following this infrequent clinical scenario, consideration should be given to temporary ventriculostomy placement and shunt removal. Moreover, in patients with a known history of psychiatric co-morbidities-and particularly those patients with prior suicide attempts

  19. Perinatal conditions and parental age at birth as risk markers for subsequent suicide attempt and suicide: a population based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Rasmussen, Finn; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2012-09-01

    Restricted fetal growth and young maternal age have been associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviour later in life. Research investigating the independent and interacting effects of these risk factors with parental mental health and socio-economic status is scarce. A case-control study was effected through record linkage between Swedish registers. Individuals born 1973-1983 who were hospitalized due to a suicide attempt (n = 17,159) or committed suicide (n = 1,407) were matched to ≤10 controls by sex, month and county of birth. Controlling for parental conditions, significantly increased odds ratios (OR) for suicide attempt were found for low birth weight (OR = 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01-1.25), short birth length (OR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.08-1.22), short and light for gestational age (OR = 1.23, 95 % CI: 1.10-1.38), short but not light for gestational age (OR = 1.18, 95 % CI: 1.09, 1.29), teenage motherhood (OR = 1.66, 95 % CI 1.53-1.80), young fatherhood (OR = 1.33, 95 % CI 1.27-1.39) and multiparity (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI 1.31-1.50). For completed suicide, increased odds ratios were found for low birth weight (OR = 1.65, 95 % CI 1.16-2.35), teenage motherhood (OR = 1.44, 95 % CI 1.09-1.90) and young fatherhood (OR = 1.20, 95 % CI 1.02-1.41). There was a synergy effect between teenage motherhood and parental psychiatric inpatient care with regard to suicide attempt in offspring [synergy index = 1.53 (95 % CI 1.27-1.84)]. Low birth weight and length, and short and light for gestational age may increase the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviour, and more research is needed to investigate underlying mechanisms. Public health implications from this study include measures to improve pre- and perinatal parental mental health, particularly in teenage pregnancies.

  20. Attempted Non-Family Abductions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined cases of attempted nonfamily abductions, to determine child and family characteristics that may serve as risk factors for such incidents. The prevalence and risk-marker findings from this study reinforce the need to continue teaching "stranger danger" and suggest that children living in stressful or unstable family environments…

  1. Multiple suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Tuckman, J; Youngman, W F; Kreizman, G

    1968-04-01

    A sample of 157 persons who attempted suicide from 2 to 6 times was compared with a sample of 1,045 single attempted suicides on a number of personal and social characteristics and other factors related to the act itself. Suicide death rates, obtained through a follow-up of both groups for a year following the last attempt, were also compared. It is concluded (1) that the two groups are essentially similar in their general characteristics and in their risk of suicide and (2) that, among multiples, little change occurs from first to second attempt. However, it is pointed out that both groups are at considerably higher risk of suicide than those who have not made attempts.

  2. How do cathartic drugs act? A case study on Gregor Horst (1578-1636) and his attempt to defend Galenist theory.

    PubMed

    Schweikardt, C

    1998-12-01

    This case study deals with the argument of the Galenist author Gregor Horst (1578-1636), Medical Professor at Giessen University, Germany, and later town phyusician in Ulm, in the discussion on how purgatives act. Horst tried to reconcile a number of different opinions within a Galenist framework. His vast erudition enabled him to compare several classical as well as contemporary opinions. He takes into account Galen (129-c.200/216), Erasistratos (c. 330-255 BC), Asclepiades (fl. 1st century BC), the Hippocratic Corpus and the Problemata Aristotelis from antiquity, Mesue and Mundinus (c. 1270-1326) from the Middle Ages, and Jean Fernel (c. 1497-1558), Girolamo Cardano (1501-c. 1576), Johannes Costaeus (d. 1603), Laurent Joubert (1529-1583), Francisco Valles (1524-1592), Tobias Dorncreilius (1571-1605) and Gavriele Falloppio (1523-1562) from contemporary authors. Horst also integrated some Paracelsian ideas from Joseph Duchesne alias Quercetanus (1549-1609). In his attempt to preserve fundamentals of Galenic thought, Horst created a complicated theory nearly breaking under its own weight. He shows a rising divergence within traditional views as well as the fragmentation of Renaissance Galenism which took place already before the discovery of the blood circulation.

  3. Young People's Risk of Suicide Attempts after Contact with a Psychiatric Department--A Nested Case-Control Design Using Danish Register Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul

    2012-01-01

    Background: There seems to be an increased risk of children and adolescents committing or attempting suicide after contact with a psychiatric department. Children and adolescents living in families with low socio-economic status (SES) might have an especially increased suicide attempt risk. Methods: A complete extraction of Danish register data…

  4. Socio-Demographic, Clinical and Behavioral Characteristics Associated with a History of Suicide Attempts among Psychiatric Outpatients: A Case Control Study in a Northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Arnaud-Gil, Carlos Alberto; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Molina-Espinoza, Luis Fernando; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the epidemiology of suicide attempts among psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. This study was aimed to determine the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients in two public hospitals in Durango, Mexico. Methods: Two hundred seventy six psychiatric outpatients (154 suicide attempters and 122 patients without suicide attempt history) attended the two public hospitals in Durango City, Mexico were included in this study. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics were obtained retrospectively from all outpatients and compared in relation to the presence or absence of suicide attempt history. Results: Increased prevalence of suicide attempts was associated with mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (F10-19) (P=0.01), schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (F20-29) (P=0.02), mood (affective) disorders (F30-39) (P<0.001), and disorders of adult personality and behavior (F60-69) (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that suicide attempts were associated with young age (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.06-1.39; P=0.003), female gender (OR=2.98, 95% CI: 1.55-5.73; P=0.001), urban residence (OR=2.31, 95% CI: 1.17-4.57; P=0.01), memory impairment (OR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.07-3.40; P=0.02), alcohol consumption (OR=2.39, 95% CI: 1.21-4.70; P=0.01), and sexual promiscuity (OR=3.90, 95% CI: 1.74-8.77; P<0.001). Conclusions: We report the association of suicide attempts with socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics in psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. Results may be useful for an optimal planning of preventive measures against suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients. PMID:24711751

  5. Inpatient hospitalization in addiction treatment for patients with a history of suicide attempt: a case of support for treatment performance measures.

    PubMed

    Glass, Joseph E; Ilgen, Mark A; Winters, Jamie J; Murray, Regan L; Perron, Brian E; Chermack, Stephen T

    2010-09-01

    This study attempts to validate substance use disorder (SUD) treatment performance measures (PM) in a naturalistic treatment setting. Despite its significance in healthcare systems and in SUD populations, suicidality is one patient characteristic that remains unexplored in the context of SUD PMs. The current study focused on the extent to which the care processes encouraged by SUD PMs were associated with improved outcomes in patients with a prior suicide attempt as compared to those without. We abstracted Addiction Severity Index and health services data from the VA medical record for 381 veterans who initiated outpatient SUD treatment and completed baseline intake measures at a Midwestern VA hospital. Cox proportional hazard regressions examined how baseline characteristics, prior suicide attempts, and PM status predicted the time until hospitalization for psychiatric or substance use problems. Prior suicide attempts significantly interacted with treatment engagement, and hospitalization risk was significantly higher among individuals with a prior suicide attempt who did not meet PMs. This study provides initial observational evidence that past suicide attempts may be a factor that should be considered when defining performance standards that influence the processes of SUD treatment. Future research on PMs should take into account the differences on indicators of high risk and poor treatment outcomes.

  6. Repeated suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, S

    2000-12-01

    Attempted suicide is an act associated with childhood sexual abuse, depression, bipolar illness, substance abuse, and other diagnoses, as documented in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994). Three women, who attended a group to decrease their depression and increase their self-esteem and who had histories of multiple suicide attempts, agreed to participate in interviews designed to determine the common factors associated with their suicide attempts and to examine the assertion that their suicide attempts were an addiction, similar to their addictions to alcohol and drugs. The common factors found were depression, substance use disorders with early abuse and risky behaviors, history of sexual abuse, faulty relationships, alteration of mood with a suicide plan, and distorted and illogical thinking and motivation. The similarities to addiction also were described. Based on the complexity of factors that emerged and the addictive nature of the suicide attempts, treatment for similar patients needs to be multidimensional and ongoing to allow sufficient time to monitor progress and address the numerous factors involved.

  7. Alexithymia and low cooperativeness are associated with suicide attempts in male military personnel with adjustment disorder: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Na, Kyoung-Sae; Oh, Sei-Joong; Jung, Han-Yong; Irene Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Yong-Ku; Han, Changsu; Ko, Young-Hoon; Paik, Jong-Woo; Kim, Shin-Gyeom

    2013-02-28

    Subpopulations of patients with adjustment disorder are at increased risk for suicide. The current study investigated whether personality traits, including alexithymia, temperament, and character, are associated with an increased risk of suicide in individuals with adjustment disorder. Age- and sex-matched patients meeting the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for adjustment disorder with (n=92) and without (n=92) a history of suicide attempts were recruited for the present study. Ninety-two healthy individuals who did not meet diagnostic criteria for Axis I or II diagnoses were used as controls. The Toronto alexithymia scale-20 (TAS-20) and the temperament and character inventory (TCI) were used to assess personality traits. Significantly higher total and subscale scores on the TAS-20, including on the difficulty-identifying-feelings (DIF) and difficulty-describing-feelings (DDF) subscales, and lower scores on the TCI cooperativeness subscale were noted in adjustment-disorder patients with previous suicide attempts. In the multivariate regression analysis, high DDF and DIF and low cooperativeness increased the risk of suicide attempts in adjustment-disorder patients. A subsequent path analysis revealed that high DDF had a direct effect on suicide attempts, whereas high DIF had an indirect effect on suicide attempts via low cooperativeness.

  8. Alcohol Consumption and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Kenneth E.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Swann, Alan C.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Lee, Roberta K.; Bayer, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a case-control study of the association between nearly lethal suicide attempts and facets of alcohol consumption; namely, drinking frequency, drinking quantity, binge drinking, alcoholism, drinking within 3 hours of suicide attempt, and age began drinking. In bivariate analyses, all measures were associated with nearly lethal suicide…

  9. Dacryomeniscometry: an early attempt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Arthur; Papas, Eric B.; Keshavarzi, Kaykhosrow; Lum, Edward; Ehrmann, Klaus

    2000-06-01

    The pre-corneal tear layer provides an important optical as well as physiological function. Hence, the ability to assess the quality and behavior of tears, especially in dry-eye, marginal dry-eye and contact lens patients is important. While a large range of clinical tests exists for assessing tear quality, many are subjective and show poor repeatability. Since the tear meniscus is dependent on factors such as volume, viscosity and 'wettability,' we attempted to develop an optical system for imaging the tear meniscus. A basic prototype to test feasibility has been constructed. An algorithm for computing the profile of the meniscus was also developed. The methodology is described together with some examples of tear menisci imaged and analyzed.

  10. An attempt to extend the Habitat Harshness Hypothesis to tidal flats: A case study of Anomalocardia brasiliana (Bivalvia: Veneridae) reproductive biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corte, Guilherme Nascimento; Yokoyama, Leonardo Querobim; Amaral, A. Cecília Z.

    2014-10-01

    The Habitat Harshness Hypothesis (HHH) predicts that populations inhabiting the intertidal area of a dissipative beach should produce more gametes and have a longer reproductive cycle than those inhabiting an intermediate or reflective beach. This hypothesis was proposed for the exposed morphodynamic continuum between the reflective and dissipative states; however, no attempt has been made thus far to verify whether the HHH is valid for tidal flats. In this study, we analysed the reproductive cycle of Anomalocardia brasiliana in an intermediate beach and in a tidal flat and compared the results to determine whether the reproductive cycles of A. brasiliana were in agreement with the predictions of the HHH and to examine the possibility of extending this hypothesis to tidal flats. A continuous spawning season and synchrony between sexes were observed at both sites, although the reproductive effort was higher in the intermediate beach. The results of this first attempt did not support the extension of the HHH to tidal flats. It is possible that hypotheses that take into account only physical variables may not be the most adequate for describing environments with such a high species richness and high abundance as tidal flats. Nevertheless, other studies are necessary to confidently expand or refute the HHH with regard to tidal flats, and this topic should be considered as a priority in future investigations in sandy beach ecology.

  11. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Maqbali, Mandhar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors) and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support). All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor. PMID:27602193

  12. Palliative care after attempted suicide in the absence of premorbid terminal disease: a case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Peter; Le, Brian

    2013-02-01

    Palliative care involvement in the management of incomplete suicide in patients without terminal illness is rare. This paper documents two such cases and explores some of the clinical and ethical issues raised.

  13. Medical Conditions and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeda, Robin M.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Powell, Kenneth E.; Simon, Thomas R.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Durant, Tonji M.; Swahn, Monica H.

    2002-01-01

    This population-based, case-control study examined physical illness as a risk factor for suicidal behavior. Case patients were more likely than controls to report having any serious medical conditions. Results suggest that young men with medical conditions are at increased risk for nearly lethal suicide attempts. (Contains 33 references and 3…

  14. Psychopathology Associated with Suicide Attempts among Rural Adolescents of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xianchen; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Zhao, Zhongtang

    2005-01-01

    This case control study examined the relationship between psychopathological profiles and self reported suicide attempts among rural adolescents of China. Cases consisted of 142 adolescents who reported a suicide attempt in the past 6 months in a questionnaire survey (n = 1,365). An equal number of adolescents without reporting a suicide attempt,…

  15. Suicide Attempts among Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrsi, Rachel; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between substance abuse and suicide is indicated by high rate of attempted suicide among alcoholics and drug abusers, as well as increased likelihood of repeated attempts in these populations. This study reports on psychological characteristics of male drug suicide attempters who are in treatment for their addiction problem.…

  16. Attempted Suicide among Iranian Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheikholeslami, Homayoun; Kani, Camellia; Ziaee, Amir

    2008-01-01

    Predictors of suicide attempts in Iran, to distinguish any similarities and differences of these predictors between suicide attempts in Iran and other developed and developing countries and to investigate the relation between general psychiatric symptoms and repetition of suicidal attempts were assessed. The validated Farsi version of the General…

  17. Reasons for Attempted Suicide in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Wiktorsson, Stefan; Duberstein, Paul; Berg, Anne Ingeborg; Fässberg, Madeleine Mellqvist; Waern, Margda

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Using the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide as a guiding framework, we investigated older adults' causal attributions for suicidal behavior. We hypothesized that older adults who attributed their suicidal behavior to thwarted belongingness or perceived burdensomeness would be more likely to use more immediately lethal means and to re-attempt suicide during the 12-month follow-up. Design Prospective cohort study in western Sweden. Participants A total of 101 older adults who presented to medical emergency rooms for suicide attempts. Measurements Participants were asked why they attempted suicide. Results Attributions included: a desire to escape (n=29), reduced functioning and autonomy (n=24), psychological problems, including depression (n=24), somatic problems and physical pain (n=16), perceived burdensomeness (n=13), social problems that reflected either thwarted belongingness or family conflict (n=13) and lack of meaning in life (n=8); 41 participants provided more than one reason. No specific reason was given by 28 participants, 15 of whom reported not understanding or remembering why they attempted suicide and 13 reported simply wanting to die (or go to sleep and not wake up). As hypothesized, patients who attributed the attempt to thwarted belongingness were more likely to use more immediately lethal means for their index attempt and were more likely to re-attempt during follow-up. This was not the case for those reporting burdensomeness. Conclusions People who attribute suicide attempts to thwarted belongingness use more lethal methods and have a poorer prognosis. Replications across diverse cultural settings are needed to determine whether attributing suicide attempts to thwarted belongingness may warrant increased monitoring. PMID:25158916

  18. Cognitive Distortions and Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Jager-Hyman, Shari; Cunningham, Amy; Wenzel, Amy; Mattei, Stephanie; Brown, Gregory K.; Beck, Aaron T.

    2014-01-01

    Although theorists have posited that suicidal individuals are more likely than non-suicidal individuals to experience cognitive distortions, little empirical work has examined whether those who recently attempted suicide are more likely to engage in cognitive distortions than those who have not recently attempted suicide. In the present study, 111 participants who attempted suicide in the 30 days prior to participation and 57 psychiatric control participants completed measures of cognitive distortions, depression, and hopelessness. Findings support the hypothesis that individuals who recently attempted suicide are more likely than psychiatric controls to experience cognitive distortions, even when controlling for depression and hopelessness. Fortune telling was the only cognitive distortion uniquely associated with suicide attempt status. However, fortune telling was no longer significantly associated with suicide attempt status when controlling for hopelessness. Findings underscore the importance of directly targeting cognitive distortions when treating individuals at risk for suicide. PMID:25294949

  19. The Influence of Geographic Mobility on Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lloyd B.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Powell, Kenneth E.; Simon, Thomas R.; Mercy, James A.; Lee, Roberta K.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Swann, Alan C.; Bayer, Timothy; O'Carroll, Patrick W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a population-based, case-control study of nearly lethal suicide attempts with 153 cases and 513 controls. Results indicate that moving in the past year is positively associated with a nearly lethal suicide attempt, as are specific characteristics of the move. Findings confirm and extend prior research by demonstrating a relationship…

  20. Cecal Leiomyoma: Can We Attempt Endoscopic Resection?

    PubMed Central

    Badipatla, Kanthi Rekha; Kamireddy, Chandana; Niazi, Masooma; Nayudu, Suresh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal leiomyomas are smooth muscle tumors arising from the muscularis mucosae, muscularis propriae and possibly from smooth muscle of the vessel wall. Management depends on the size, location and the clinical scenario. Endoscopic snare cauterization with or without saline lift has been described in literature for tumors involving the left colon. To the best of our knowledge, endoscopic resection of right colon leiomyoma was never attempted in the past. We present a case of cecal leiomyoma which was resected endoscopically. PMID:28058080

  1. Suicide attempt with a mix of synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones: Case report of non-fatal intoxication with AB-CHMINACA, AB-FUBINACA, alpha-PHP, alpha-PVP and 4-CMC.

    PubMed

    Klavž, Janez; Gorenjak, Maksimiljan; Marinšek, Martin

    2016-08-01

    We report on a case of intoxication with a mix of new psychoactive substances. A 38-year-old male was brought to the emergency department (ED) following the ingestion of an unknown drug in a suicide attempt. During the transport, he became progressively more somnolent and unresponsive to painful stimuli. Urine and stomach content were collected on admission to be screened for drugs of abuse and medicinal drugs. After admission, the patient's next of kin presented five small grip seal plastic bags containing different powders/crystals, and they were sent for analysis along with urine and stomach content to the toxicology laboratory. An easy and rapid sample preparation technique was applied for the extraction of urine and stomach content. Samples were extracted with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) technique and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A small amount of powder material from the bags was diluted in methanol and injected directly into the GC-MS instrument. Obtained spectra (EI) were evaluated against SWGDRUG library. Five different designer drugs were identified in the powder material, including synthetic cannabinoids (AB-CHMINACA, AB-FUBINACA) and synthetic cathinones (alpha-PHP, alpha-PVP and 4-CMC). With the exception of 4-CMC, all of these substances were also detected in the stomach content along with the prescription drugs. This is the first time that a positive identification of these five drugs has been made by a clinical laboratory in Slovenia.

  2. Are attempts to have impaired children justifiable?

    PubMed

    Anstey, K W

    2002-10-01

    In a recent case, artificial insemination was employed by a couple in an attempt to ensure the birth of a deaf child. In response to this, I argue that individuals should not be allowed to select for or against deafness. While I establish that preferences for deaf children can be inherently just, allowing individuals to secure these preferences may have unacceptable consequences for existing persons who are deaf. I show that these follow even granting this couple's contestable understanding of the deaf as a minority group.

  3. Homicide attempt with a Japanese samurai sword.

    PubMed

    Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Berthelon, Laurent; Geraut, Annie; Tracqui, Antoine; Ludes, Bertrand

    2003-07-01

    The use of Japanese swords for homicidal attempts is rare. A Japanese samurai sword is a sharp and cutting object. When faced with the use of this weapon, one must distinguish between stabs and incised wounds. Incised wounds can rarely lead to death, but because of the size of the weapon, stabs usually cause much more serious injuries. Stabs also imply a penetrating movement, whereas incised wounds can be the consequence of protective circular blows. Therefore, it is important to distinguish clinically between these two kinds of wounds. We report a case where the perpetrator argued he had given a circular blow, unfortunately hitting the victim. The pieces of evidence are discussed.

  4. Unusual attempted suicide by shooting through heart.

    PubMed

    Kadis, P; Pogorevc, L; Sipek, M; Vidovic, D

    2005-01-17

    Gunshot wounds in the heart are frequent suicidal injuries, especially in men. Most of them are lethal, but some cases of survival due to immediate and proper surgical treatment are reported. However, survival without specific treatment is extremely rare. In our case, a 44-year man attempted suicide by home-made shooting device. A special 12 cm long and 2.5 mm wide needle-like missile entered his body at the left anterior part of his chest, passed through the heart and lower lobe of right lung and exited at the right side of his back. The patient was able to move normally and he also looked for medical help immediately after attempting suicide. We found large atypical-shaped entrance wound on the anterior part of the chest, which was surgically treated, and tiny pointed exit wound under the right scapula. The patient was stable from cardio-circulatory and respiratory aspects from the time of admission to discharge from the hospital. We found only minimal pericardial bleeding (up to 10 mm thick) and there was no need for surgical intervention. In the next 2 weeks the haematoma absorbed spontaneously. The gunshot injury healed without any complication. Paranoid psychosis was diagnosed by psychiatrist and this probably had been the cause of attempting suicide. We think that the favorable outcome of the proved heart gunshot injury in our patient was due to the needle-shaped low-energy missile, which caused only tiny gunshot (stab) hole in the heart. Such a heart injury caused only minimal bleeding into the pericardial sac without heart tamponade.

  5. Coping Strategies in Patients Who Had Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    KONKAN, Ramazan; ERKUŞ, Gizem Hanzade; GÜÇLÜ, Oya; ŞENORMANCI, Ömer; AYDIN, Erkan; ÜLGEN, Mine Cansu; SUNGUR, Mehmet Z.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate coping strategies suggested to be a determinant of suicide attempt and to compare them with coping strategies of healthy volunteers. Methods This study was conducted on 50 patients who had suicide attempts within the past two months and 52 healthy volunteers who did not have any suicide attempt. They were evaluated with the Turkish version of COPE inventory. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 for Windows. Results In the suicide attempt group, ‘active coping’, ‘planning’, ‘positive reinterpretation and growth’ scores were found to be lower than that in the control group. On the other hand, ‘restraint coping’, ‘acceptance’, ‘focus on and venting of emotions’, ‘behavioral disengagement’, ‘substance use’ and nonfunctional coping total points were significantly higher in the suicide attempt group. The patients with depression in the suicide group were found less of the ‘positive reinterpretation and growth’ but more of the ‘substance use’ compared to the healthy group. Subjects who attempted suicide more than once tended to ‘substance use’ rather than ‘active coping’. ‘Focus on and venting of emotions’ scores in suicide attempters were higher in women than in males. Conclusion We observed that individuals who attempted suicide have fewer functional coping strategies and more nonfunctional coping strategies than who do not attempt suicide. It was determined that under stressful situations, individuals with depression tended to alcohol and substance abuse instead of positive reinterpretation and growth. In subjects who had recurrent suicidal attempts, alcohol and substance abuse was more common than active coping. Women were using focusing on and venting of emotions techniques much more than men. We assume that to monitor, and in case of necessity, to change the coping strategies in suicide attempters are vitally important for preventing suicide

  6. When attempts at robbing prey turn fatal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M.

    2012-07-01

    Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases.

  7. 50 CFR 38.15 - Attempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.15 Attempt. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will attempt to commit any offense prohibited by this part....

  8. 50 CFR 38.15 - Attempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.15 Attempt. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will attempt to commit any offense prohibited by this part....

  9. 50 CFR 38.15 - Attempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.15 Attempt. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will attempt to commit any offense prohibited by this part....

  10. 50 CFR 38.15 - Attempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.15 Attempt. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will attempt to commit any offense prohibited by this part....

  11. 50 CFR 38.15 - Attempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.15 Attempt. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will attempt to commit any offense prohibited by this part....

  12. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarchiapone, Marco; Carli, Vladimir; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Roy, Alec

    2009-01-01

    We wished to examine determinants of suicidal behavior in prisoners. 903 male prisoners had a psychiatric interview which included various psychometric tests. Suicide attempters were compared with prisoners who had never attempted suicide. Significantly more of the attempters had a history of psychiatric disorder, substance abuse, a family history…

  13. Causative factors for suicide attempts by overdose in epileptics.

    PubMed

    Mendez, M F; Lanska, D J; Manon-Espaillat, R; Burnstine, T H

    1989-10-01

    We investigated possible causative factors for the high epileptic suicide rate by reviewing the cases of 22 patients with idiopathic epilepsy found among 711 patients hospitalized for a suicide attempt by overdose. Suicide attempts occurred with increased seizure activity in one epileptic; otherwise, no relationships were found with seizure-related variables. When matched by age, sex, and race with 44 nonepileptic controls from the same population, the epileptics had more borderline personality disorders with multiple impulsive suicide attempts (45.5% vs 13.6%), more psychotic disturbances, including command hallucinations (31.8% vs 9.1%), fewer adjustment disorders (18.2% vs 45.5%), and a comparable frequency of depression (13.6% vs 25%). We conclude that suicide attempts in epileptics are primarily associated with interictal psychopathologic factors, such as borderline personality disorder and psychosis, rather than with specific psychosocial stressors, seizure variables, or anticonvulsant medications.

  14. Comorbidity of Psychiatric and Personality Disorders in First Suicide Attempters

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K. Nagaraja; Kulkarni, Ranganath R.; Begum, Shamshad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Attempted suicide is a common clinical problem in a general hospital setting. It has a serious clinical and socio-economical impact too. Aims: To study the psychosocial, psychiatric, and personality profile of the first suicide attempters in a general hospital. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional, hospital-based, descriptive study. Materials and Methods: All the consecutive cases of first suicide attempt (n=100) treated in a general hospital were studied to know the clinical profile. Variables related to socio-demographic characteristics, family background, suicide characteristics, psychiatric morbidity, and comorbidity were analyzed. Risk-Rescue rating was applied to know the medical seriousness of the suicide attempt. Presumptive stressful life event scale was utilized to calculate life events score. Structured clinical interview (MINI Plus) and semi-structured clinical interview (IPDE) were used for axis-I and axis-II (personality) diagnoses. The results were analyzed using appropriate statistical measures. Results: Family history of psychiatric illnesses (31%) and suicide (11%) were noted. Insecticides and pesticides were the most common agents (71%) employed to attempt suicide. Interpersonal difficulties (46%) were the most frequent stressor. Overall medical seriousness of the suicide attempt was of moderate lethality. 93% of the suicide attempters had at least one axis-I and/or axis-II psychiatric disorder. Most common diagnostic categories were mood disorders, adjustment disorders, and substance-related disorders, with axis-I disorders (89%), personality disorders (52%), and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders (51.6%). Conclusion: Individuals who made first suicide attempt were young adults, had lower educational achievement; overall seriousness of the suicide attempt was of moderate lethality, high prevalence of psychiatric morbidity, personality disorders, and comorbidity, and had sought medical help from general practitioners. PMID:23833346

  15. LPG Dependence after a Suicide Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Aldemir, Ebru; Akyel, Betül; Altıntoprak, A. Ender; Aydın, Rezzan; Coşkunol, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Inhalant abuse is a problem that is getting more common all around the world. The increase in prevalence of inhalant abuse escalates morbidity and mortality rates. About 22% of people using inhalant have died at their first attempt. Particularly propane, butane, or propane-butane mixture has highest mortality rates. Sudden sniffing death syndrome, cardiomyopathy, central nervous system toxicity, hematological abnormalities, kidney toxicity, and hepatocellular toxicities are the major complications of inhalant abuse. Herein we present a patient with inhalant use disorder. At the age of 19, after a stressful life event he had unsuccessfully tried to suicide by inhaling LPG (liquefied petroleum gas, a mixture of butane and propane gases). After he realized that he had hallucinations and felt better during the inhalation, he started to abuse it. He was addicted to LPG for 10 years at the time of admission. Besides being dangerous for the society security, this intense level of LPG inhalation (12 liters a day) not giving any physical harm makes this case interesting. PMID:25664196

  16. The Teacher Leadership Process: Attempting Change within Embedded Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kristy S.; Stanulis, Randi N.; Brondyk, Susan K.; Hamilton, Erica R.; Macaluso, Michael; Meier, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    This embedded case study examines the leadership practices of eleven teacher leaders in three urban schools to identify how these teacher leaders attempt to change the teaching practice of their colleagues while working as professional learning community leaders and as mentors for new teachers. Using a theoretical framework integrating complex…

  17. Attempting to demystify law reports for the non-lawyer.

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, V A

    1988-01-01

    To a non-lawyer, references to law reports can appear confusing and complicated. This brief article attempts to explain how to decode such references and thus get to the reports. Those wishing to pursue the matter further are referred to more detailed explanations. This article deals primarily with English case law and is up to date as of December 1987. PMID:3351882

  18. Help-Seeking Behavior Prior to Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Lauren Seymour; Ikeda, Robin M.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo

    2002-01-01

    The association between help-seeking and nearly lethal suicide attempts was evaluated using data from a population-based, case-control study. Measures of help-seeking included type of consultant contacted, and whether suicide was discussed. Findings suggest efforts to better understand the role of help-seeking in suicide prevention deserves…

  19. Is attempted suicide different in adolescent and adults?

    PubMed

    Parellada, Mara; Saiz, Pilar; Moreno, Dolores; Vidal, Jorge; Llorente, Cloe; Alvarez, Mar; García-Portilla, Paz; Ruiz-Sancho, Ana; Arango, Celso; Bobes, Julio

    2008-01-15

    Attempted suicide may be a different phenomenon in adolescents than in adults. To our knowledge, direct comparisons between these two populations are very scarce. The aim of this study is to analyze the differences between adolescents and adults in methods of attempted suicide, accompanying certainty of death, and intentionality. All cases admitted to one adult (n=173) and one adolescent (n=104) inpatient unit who attempted suicide in the period from January 2003 through October 2005 were included in a prospective, common, national register, with data on methods, circumstances, and intentionality. The methodology followed that of the WHO/Euro Multicenter Study on Parasuicide. A stratified analysis was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel procedure in order to control for the effects of gender and diagnosis. Adolescents used significantly more over-the-counter medicines. Adults were significantly more certain of the possible fatal outcome of their attempt and had a significantly more severe intention when harming themselves. Individuals appear to use the methods that are available to them to attempt suicide. Adolescents may display more impulsive and less lethal directed behavior than adults or, alternatively, they are more frequently admitted for less severe attempts.

  20. Unsuccessful Retrieval Attempts Enhance Subsequent Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornell, Nate; Hays, Matthew Jensen; Bjork, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Taking tests enhances learning. But what happens when one cannot answer a test question--does an unsuccessful retrieval attempt impede future learning or enhance it? The authors examined this question using materials that ensured that retrieval attempts would be unsuccessful. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were asked fictional…

  1. Arthrogryposis associated with unsuccessful attempts at termination of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hall, J G

    1996-05-03

    We report three cases of failed termination of pregnancy in which the children were subsequently born with arthrogryposis (AMC) (multiple congenital contractures). Arthrogryposis is a sign with many causes. We suggest that the multiple congenital contractures seen in these children are due to vascular compromise during the attempted termination with secondary loss of functional neurons leading to fetal akinesia and subsequent contractures. Two of the children have additional evidence of intrauterine vascular compromise. Limitation of movement secondary to the rupture of the fetal membranes and continuous leakage of amniotic fluid after the attempted termination may have compounded the contractures in two of the children.

  2. Attempted suicide of an adolescent with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Katsunaka; Onishi, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Although the suicide risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been suggested to be higher than previously recognized, there are few case reports focusing on the process for preventing suicide reattempts. We reported that a 17-year-old male who had attempted suicide by jumping was admitted to our emergency department and hospitalized for lumbar spine fracture. In addition to the diagnosis of adjustment disorder, he was diagnosed as ASD according to his life history. This article presents the characteristics of the suicidal behaviors and the process for preventing a suicide reattempt associated with an adolescent with ASD who attempted suicide.

  3. Modal analysis of dislocation vibration and reaction attempt frequency

    DOE PAGES

    Sobie, Cameron; Capolungo, Laurent; McDowell, David L.; ...

    2017-02-04

    Transition state theory is a fundamental approach for temporal coarse-graining. It estimates the reaction rate for a transition processes by quantifying the activation free energy and attempt frequency for the unit process. To calculate the transition rate of a gliding dislocation, the attempt frequency is often obtained from line tension estimates of dislocation vibrations, a highly simplified model of dislocation behavior. This work revisits the calculation of attempt frequency for a dislocation bypassing an obstacle, in this case a self-interstitial atom (SIA) loop. First, a direct calculation of the vibrational characteristics of a finite pinned dislocation segment is compared tomore » line tension estimates before moving to the more complex case of dislocation-obstacle bypass. The entropic factor associated with the attempt frequency is calculated for a finite dislocation segment and for an infinite glide dislocation interacting with an SIA loop. Lastly, it is found to be dislocation length independent for three cases of dislocation-self interstitial atom (SIA) loop interactions.« less

  4. [Abnormal daytime drowsiness--attempt at typology].

    PubMed

    Meier-Ewert, K

    1991-11-01

    Abnormal drowsiness during the day is defined on the basis of three criteria: 1. subjective feeling of increased tiredness, 2. objective observation of attacks of falling asleep, 3. detection of premature falling asleep in the multiple sleep latency test. About 3 to 4% of the population of modern industrial countries complain of this symptom which very quickly leads to inability to work in numerous occupations (driving instructors, lorry drivers, airline pilots). In many cases, the symptoms can be eliminated by effective methods of treatment. Early diagnosis and therapy is hence an important task of physicians. Clinically suitable tools and methods of measurement for appraising the phenomena are at present: 1. the multiple sleep latency test (Richardson et al., 1978), 2. the multiple staying awake test (Mitler et al., 1982), 3. the vigilance test according to Quatember and Maly from the Vienna test system. In neurophysiological terms, an attempt is made to differentiate between: REM drowsiness, non-REM drowsiness, hypofunction of the arousal systems of the reticular formation, and hyperfunction and overstimulation of the arousal systems of the reticular formation (over-aroused tiredness). Approaches to a clinical typology of abnormal drowsiness are available from two points of departure: 1. Forms of permanent somnolence which are not alleviated but intensified by a brief restorative sleep and resemble the 'oversleeping syndrome' of the healthy individual. 2. Attacks of imperative falling asleep in narcoleptic patients. The characteristic of this form of abnormal drowsiness during the day is that in the interval between the attacks of falling asleep patients can take on any healthy person with regard to alertness, reaction capacity and ready wit. After a brief restorative sleep of less than 5 min., they immediately feel fresh, alert and fit again.

  5. Completed Suicides and their Previous Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David; Beck, Aaron T.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the reliability of the findings of Ovenstone and Krietman (some completed suicides have attempted suicide previously, whereas other completed suicides have no such history) with a sample of completed suicides in the United States. (Author/RK)

  6. Depressed suicide attempters with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Ramberg, Maria; Stanley, Barbara; Ystgaard, Mette; Mehlum, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder are well-established risk factors for suicidal behavior. This study compared depressed suicide attempters with and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder with respect to additional diagnoses, global functioning, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, history of traumatic exposure, and suicidal behavior. Adult patients consecutively admitted to a general hospital after a suicide attempt were interviewed and assessed for DSM-IV diagnosis and clinical correlates. Sixty-four patients (71%) were diagnosed with depression; of them, 21 patients (32%) had posttraumatic stress disorder. There were no group differences in social adjustment, depressive symptoms, or suicidal intent. However, the group with comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder had more additional Axis I diagnoses, a higher degree of childhood trauma exposure, and more often reported previous suicide attempts, non-suicidal self-harm, and vengeful suicidal motives. These findings underline the clinical importance of diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in suicide attempters.

  7. Suicidal Attempt and Psychiatric Disorders in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Rahgozart, Mehdi; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Malekafzali, Hossein; Davidian, Haratoun; Naghavi, Hamidreza; Soori, Hamid; Yazdi, Seyed Abbas Bagheri

    2005-01-01

    This study is part of broader research aimed to determine the lifetime prevalence and pattern of comorbidity on self-reported suicidal attempts in the general population of Iran. Overall, 25,180 subjects were interviewed, face-to-face, at home; the lifetime prevalence was 1.4% (0.9% males and 2% females). The majority of attempters were 26-55…

  8. Ecological correlates of adolescent attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1990-01-01

    Rates of adolescent attempted suicide were correlated with social indicators over the electoral wards of Edinburgh (Scotland). Rates were found to be higher in wards where child neglect and misbehavior were more common. Rates of attempted suicide in the total population also were related to the housing pattern/social class of the wards. The importance of identifying similarities and differences in the patterns of suicidal behavior of adolescents and adults was noted.

  9. Poststroke suicide attempts and completed suicides

    PubMed Central

    Glader, Eva-Lotta; Norrving, Bo; Asplund, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined attempted and completed suicides after stroke to determine whether they were associated with socioeconomic status, other patient characteristics, or time after stroke. Methods: This nationwide cohort study included stroke patients from Riksstroke (the Swedish Stroke Register) from 2001 to 2012. We used personal identification numbers to link the Riksstroke data with other national registers. Suicide attempts were identified by a record of hospital admission for intentional self-harm (ICD-10: X60-X84), and completed suicides were identified in the national Cause of Death Register. We used multiple Cox regression to analyze time from stroke onset to first suicide attempt. Results: We observed 220,336 stroke patients with a total follow-up time of 860,713 person-years. During follow-up, there were 1,217 suicide attempts, of which 260 were fatal. This was approximately double the rate of the general Swedish population. Patients with lower education or income (hazard ratio [HR] 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–1.68) for primary vs university and patients living alone (HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.52–1.97) had an increased risk of attempted suicide, and patients born outside of Europe had a lower risk compared to patients of European origin. Male sex, young age, severe stroke, and poststroke depression were other factors associated with an increased risk of attempted suicide after stroke. The risk was highest during the first 2 years after stroke. Conclusions: Both clinical and socioeconomic factors increase the risk of poststroke suicide attempts. This suggests a need for psychosocial support and suicide preventive interventions in high-risk groups of stroke patients. PMID:25832661

  10. Factors Associated With Suicidal Attempts in Iran: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hakim Shooshtari, Mitra; Malakouti, Seyyed Kazem; Panaghi, Leili; Mohseni, Shohreh; Mansouri, Naghmeh; Rahimi Movaghar, Afarin

    2016-01-01

    Context: Suicide prevention is a health service priority. Some surveys have assessed suicidal behaviors and potential risk factors. Objectives: The current paper aimed to gather information about etiology of suicide attempts in Iran. Data Sources: Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc as well as gray literature were searched. Study Selection: By electronic and gray literature search, 128 articles were enrolled in this paper. Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc were searched for electronic search. After reading the abstracts, 84 studies were excluded and full texts of 44 articles were reviewed critically. Data Extraction: Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc as well as gray literature were searched to find any study about etiologic factors of suicide attempt in Iran. Results: Depressive disorder was the most common diagnosis in suicide attempters that is 45% of the evaluated cases had depression. One study that had used Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) found that Histrionics in females and Schizophrenia and Paranoia in males were significantly influential. Family conflicts with 50.7% and conflict with parents with 44% were two effective psychosocial factors in suicidal attempts. In around one fourth (28.7%) of the cases, conflict with spouse was the main etiologic factor. Conclusions: According to the methodological limitations, outcomes should be generalized cautiously. Further studies will help to plan preventive strategies for suicidal attempts; therefore, continued researches should be conducted to fill the data gaps. PMID:27284284

  11. Autobiographical Memory and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettersen, Kenneth; Rydningen, Nora Nord; Christensen, Tore Buer; Walby, Fredrik A.

    2010-01-01

    According to the cry of pain model of suicidal behavior, an over-general autobiographical memory function is often found in suicide attempters. The model has received empirical support in several studies, mainly of depressed patients. The present study investigated whether deficits in autobiographical memory may be associated with an increased…

  12. Coping Strategies in People Attempting Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Bazrafshan, Mohammad-Rafi; Jahangir, Fereidun; Mansouri, Amir; Kashfi, Seyyed Hannan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Having a set of effective coping skills can prevent suicidal behavior by increasing self-control and self-direction. This study examines coping styles used by suicidal patients. Objectives: The researchers in this study try to identify coping strategies used by suicide attempters admitted to Shiraz Shahid Faghihi Hospital emergency room. Materials and Methods: This is a analytical cross-sectional study. Participants consisted of 50 suicide-attempted people admitted to Shiraz Faghihi Hospital. Instruments for data collections were a demographic checklist and the coping styles scale of Carver, Schier and Wintrope. Data were collected conveniently and analyzed using descriptive and analytic (Pearson Correlation, Student’s t-tests, and ANOVA) statistical methods. Results: Suicide attempted people used less useful coping strategies (Mean = 49.32) more than the other strategies (respectively mean of problem focused and emotion focused strategies were 30.27 and 27.83). Using ANOVA, in different educational level, problem focused and less effective coping skills of samples differed significantly (P = 0.009, P = 0.006, respectively). People with low educational level used less effective coping skills. There was a significant difference between men and women scores in use of less effective coping skills (P = 0.029). Conclusions: Teaching effective coping skills by psychological consultants in suicide attempted people, especially for women and people with low educational level, is important PMID:24971300

  13. Impaired Decision Making in Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Cannon, Elizabeth A.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Reynolds, Brady; Campo, John V.; Pajer, Kathleen A.; Barbe, Remy P.; Brent, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Decision-making deficits have been linked to suicidal behavior in adults. However, it remains unclear whether impaired decision making plays a role in the etiopathogenesis of youth suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine decision-making processes in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison…

  14. Suicide, Suicide Attempts, and Suicidal Ideation.

    PubMed

    Klonsky, E David; May, Alexis M; Saffer, Boaz Y

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Fortunately, recent developments in suicide theory and research promise to meaningfully advance knowledge and prevention. One key development is the ideation-to-action framework, which stipulates that (a) the development of suicidal ideation and (b) the progression from ideation to suicide attempts are distinct phenomena with distinct explanations and predictors. A second key development is a growing body of research distinguishing factors that predict ideation from those that predict suicide attempts. For example, it is becoming clear that depression, hopelessness, most mental disorders, and even impulsivity predict ideation, but these factors struggle to distinguish those who have attempted suicide from those who have only considered suicide. Means restriction is also emerging as a highly effective way to block progression from ideation to attempt. A third key development is the proliferation of theories of suicide that are positioned within the ideation-to-action framework. These include the interpersonal theory, the integrated motivational-volitional model, and the three-step theory. These perspectives can and should inform the next generation of suicide research and prevention.

  15. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the…

  16. Carboxyhaemoglobin dissociation in the cadaver following attempted resuscitation.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, H M

    1976-01-01

    A series of 300 cases of fatal carbon-monoxide poisoning showed wide variations in carboxyhaemoglobin saturation. Levels below 50% in 24 subjects under the age of 70 were probably falsely low following attempted resuscitation on the way to hospital. Artificial respiration, especially with oxygen-rich gas, causes dissociation of carboxyhaemoglobin in the lungs of the cadaver while movement of blood into and out of the lungs, with mixing, lowers the saturation levels in the neighbouring large veins. In four cases subclavian blood showed saturation levels much lower than blood from sites further from the lungs. Blood should be taken from the femoral vein to get true readings. PMID:1249248

  17. Lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis following attempted epidural anesthesia--case report.

    PubMed

    Haisa, T; Todo, T; Mitsui, I; Kondo, T

    1995-02-01

    A 30-year-old female experienced a sudden sharp pain radiating down to the left leg from the lower back at epidural intubation for anesthesia at childbirth. She continued to complain of pain in the left leg afterwards. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated a conglomeration of adherent nerve roots due to lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis. Microsurgical dissection of adherent nerve roots was performed. Her symptoms disappeared after surgery, but soon recurred, being less severe and responsive to anti-inflammatory agents. Lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis should be considered for differential diagnosis in patients presenting with back and leg pain syndrome.

  18. Attempting to Balance Wiki-Feminism: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Walter

    2013-01-01

    There has been a long culture war over the validity of "Wikipedia" for research. Many university departments banned it as a primary source starting around 2007, but many others still allow it as a heuristic prompt. Certainly, one knows that students are still going to "Wikipedia" and dabbling in it. This reflects a recent gain in "Wikipedia"…

  19. The Iranian Hostage Rescue Attempt, A Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    tactically feasible, operationally vacant, and strategically risky. Tactically, had it not been for the failure to forecast and identify the dust storm...experienced the first elements of suspended dust known as haboobs .140 Through use of the aircraft FLIR, the C-130 crew was able to maintain contact...desert and failure to forecast the dust phenomena resulted in the in- flight abort of the number 5 helicopter and introduced a factor that burdened

  20. Drug Addiction as Risk for Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Dragisic, Tatjana; Dickov, Aleksandra; Dickov, Veselin; Mijatovic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Suicide is closely linked to the substances use. Therefore it is very important to confirm the factors that affect the possibility of suicidal behavior. Methodology: The survey included 200 respondents; 100 heroin addicts on the substitution program that attempted suicide and 100 opiate addicts who have not attempted suicide. The evaluation included a questionnaire with socio-demographic, hereditary and addiction data, legal problems and then the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–MMPI-2. Results: The results showed a statistically significant difference compared to the personality structure, especially pronounced in hypersensitive structures, in relation to the duration of addictive experience and duration of heroin by intravenous route, as well as in relation to the presence of psychotic disorders, drug abuse and suicidal behavior in the family. Conclusion: As risk factors among opiate addicts are indentified interfered biological and psychological factors and the effects of the substances themselves. PMID:26236166

  1. Active and passive problem solving as moderators of the relation between negative life event stress and suicidal ideation among suicide attempters and non-attempters.

    PubMed

    Linda, Wendy P; Marroquín, Brett; Miranda, Regina

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether active problem solving would buffer against, whereas passive problem solving would exacerbate, the association of negative life stress with suicidal ideation. Young adult college students (73 females, M(age) = 19.0) from a diverse urban public university, with (n = 37) and without (n = 59) a suicide attempt history completed measures of life stress, problem solving, hopelessness, depression, and suicidal ideation. Hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to test moderating roles of active and passive problem solving, along with suicide attempt history, on the relation between negative life event stress and suicidal ideation. There was a weaker relation between life stress and suicidal ideation at high and average levels of relevant problem solving than at low levels, and this was the case primarily for suicide attempters but not for non-attempters. Individuals with a past attempt produced more passive solutions than non-attempters, but among attempters, even passive problem solving buffered the association of life stress with suicidal ideation. Relevant problem solving in the face of life stress may be especially important for individuals vulnerable to suicidal ideation due to an attempt history. Among such at-risk individuals, generating even passive solutions in the face of life stress may be more adaptive than generating few solutions. Thus, clinical interventions with suicide attempters that focus on generating solutions to problems, even if these are initially passive, may help mitigate the effect of life stress on suicidal ideation.

  2. First Attempts at Antihydrogen Trapping in ALPHA

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Humphries, A. J.; Jenkins, M. J.; Joergensen, L. V.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Bray, C. C.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; Wurtele, J. S.; Cesar, C. L.; Lambo, R.; Silveira, D. M.; Fujiwara, M. C.

    2008-08-08

    The ALPHA apparatus is designed to produce and trap antihydrogen atoms. The device comprises a multifunction Penning trap and a superconducting, neutral atom trap having a minimum-B configuration. The atom trap features an octupole magnet for transverse confinement and solenoidal mirror coils for longitudinal confinement. The magnetic trap employs a fast shutdown system to maximize the probability of detecting the annihilation of released antihydrogen. In this article we describe the first attempts to observe antihydrogen trapping.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus in Antarctica: carriage and attempted eradication.

    PubMed Central

    Krikler, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    The carriage of Staphylococcus aureus was studied in a group of 28 men living in a totally isolated environment for a year. Initially, nasal, axillary and perineal swabs were taken at weekly intervals, but from week 24 throat swabs were taken from known nasal carriers. Several attempts were made during the study to eradicate S. aureus. Eight subjects consistently carried their own phage type throughout the study, despite the application of antibacterial agents. In three subjects strains were isolated late in the study of a phage type which had either not been isolated before in this study, or had not been found for a prolonged period. Nine of the 12 nasal carriers also yielded S. aureus from the throat. It is apparent that following attempted eradication, S. aureus may seem to disappear, only to reappear some time later; 'eradication' in this case would be an erroneous appellation. PMID:3794322

  4. Modifiable Risk Factors for Attempted Suicide in Australian Clinical and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gregory L.; Page, Andrew; Clover, Kerrie; Taylor, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Modifiable risk factors for suicide attempt require identification in clinical and community samples. The aim of this study was to determine if similar social and psychiatric factors are associated with suicide attempts in community and clinical settings and whether the magnitude of effect is greater in clinical populations. Two case-control…

  5. Social Risk and Protective Factors for Suicide Attempts in Low Income African American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Sherry, Alissa; Bethea, Kafi; Wyckoff, Sarah; Compton, Michael T.; Grall, Marnette Bender; Scholl, Larry; Price, Ann Webb; Kellermann, Arthur; Thompson, Nancy; Parker, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine a broad array of potential social risk and protective factors for suicide attempt among 200 African American men and women receiving care at a large, public, urban hospital. Specifically, we examined the effect of the following potential risk factors for suicide attempt: life hassles, partner abuse,…

  6. [Acute spinal subdural hematoma after attempted spinal anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Likar, R; Mathiaschitz, K; Spendel, M; Krumpholz, R; Martin, E

    1996-01-01

    This is a report of a case of a subdural haematoma with resulting paraplegia after attempted spinal anaesthesia. Epidural and subdural haematomas are rare complications after central neural blockade. The complication described here was the result of an unsuccessful attempt to puncture the spinal channel. The patient was a 72-year-old woman with a fracture of the left femoral neck, which it was intended to stabilize operatively. Findings that made lumbar spinal puncture difficult were severe overweight, and lordosis and scoliosis of the lumbar spine resulting from degenerative changes. Spinal anaesthesia was suggested because the patient had eaten shortly before and because she suffered from asthma. From the aspect of haemostasis no contraindications were present, and the anaesthesist was experienced in spinal anaesthesia even under difficult anatomical conditions. Several unsuccessful attempts were made to puncture the lumbar spinal channel while the patient was lying on her right side. It was also impossible to reach the spinal channel from a median or left paramedian approach. We used atraumatic pencil-point needles (Sprotte gauge 24, 90 mm). No blood was aspirated during any of the attempts. The surgical intervention was finally performed under a general anaesthetic in view of the urgency. No significant complications occurred during the operation, and no neurological abnormalities were observed immediately after or in the next 8 h after the operation. At 12 h after the operation a paraparesis was found caudal to L3. After this had been verified by radiological and neurological tests, neurosurgical decompression was carried out as quickly as possible. During the operation a distinct subdural haematoma without any detectable source of bleeding was discovered. Even after surgical revision and evacuation of the remaining haematoma it was not possible to reverse the paraplegia, in spite of rehabilitation measures. Despite a certain fragility of the vessel and

  7. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Future Adolescent Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewinsohn, Peter M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined psychosocial risk factors for attempting suicide in 1,508 high school students, 26 of whom attempted suicide during year following entry into study. Strongest predictors of future suicide attempt were history of past attempt, current suicidal ideation and depression, recent attempt by friend, low self-esteem, and having been born to…

  8. An attempt to diagnose cancer by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uda, M.; Maeda, K.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Yokode, Y.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE is suitable especially for trace elemental analysis for atoms with high atomic numbers, which are contained in matrices composed mainly of light elements such as biological materials. An attempt has been made to distinguish elemental concentrations of cancer tissues from those of normal ones. Kidney, testis and urinary bladder cancer tissues were examined by PIXE. Key elements to diagnose these cancers were Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe and Zn. Enrichment of Fe and Ti, and deficiency of Zn could be seen in the kidney cancer. An opposite tendency was observed in the testicular cancer. Imbalance of these elemental concentrations in characteristic organs might give us a possibility for cancer diagnosis.

  9. After Sample-Delivery Attempt, Sol 62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander collected a soil sample and attempted to deliver some of it to a laboratory oven on the deck during the mission's 62nd Martian day, or sol, (July 28, 2008). The sample came from a hard layer at the bottom of the 'Snow White' trench and might have contained water ice mixed with the soil. This image taken after the attempt to deliver the sample through the open doors to cell number zero on the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer shows that very little of the soil fell onto the screened opening.

    Not enough material reached the oven, through a funnel under the screen, to proceed with analysis of the sample material.

    Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera took this image at 7:54 a.m. local solar time on Sol 62. The size of the screened opening is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) long by 4 centimeters (1.5 inches) wide.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Suicides and Medically Serious Attempters Are of the Same Population in Chinese Rural Young Adults1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Sun, Long; Conwell, Yeates; Qin, Ping; Jia, Cun-Xian; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Tu, Xin-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide rates in China are among the highest in the world, although there has been a decreasing trend in the past few years. One practical approach to study the characteristics and risk factors of suicide is to interview the suicide attempters. Aims It was to compare completed suicides with serious attempters that may shed lights on suicide prevention strategies. Method This is a combination of two case control studies for suicide completers and suicide attempters respectively. After a sample of suicides (n=392) and community living controls (n=416) were obtained and studied in rural China, we collected in the same rural areas data of suicide attempt and studied 507 medically serious attempters and 503 community counterparts. Results Characteristics and previously observed risk factors were compared between the suicides and the attempters, and we found that the demographic characteristics and risk factors for the suicides were also for the medically serious attempters but at some lesser degrees for the attempters than for the suicides. It was especially true of suicide intent, deficient coping, negative life events, and impulsivity. While most of the demographic characteristics were not significantly different between the suicides and the attempters, most of the clinical variables could distinguish the two groups. Conclusions The suicide victims and the serious attempters could be of the same group of people who were at the edge of fatal self-injury, and the same clinical risk factors but of different degrees have divided them into the life and death groups. PMID:25723561

  11. Flavonoid Bioavailability and Attempts for Bioavailability Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Thilakarathna, Surangi H.; Rupasinghe, H. P. Vasantha

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of phytochemicals that have shown numerous health effects and have therefore been studied extensively. Of the six common food flavonoid classes, flavonols are distributed ubiquitously among different plant foods whereas appreciable amounts of isoflavones are found in leguminous plant-based foods. Flavonoids have shown promising health promoting effects in human cell culture, experimental animal and human clinical studies. They have shown antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory effects as well as ability to modulate cell signaling and gene expression related disease development. Low bioavailability of flavonoids has been a concern as it can limit or even hinder their health effects. Therefore, attempts to improve their bioavailability in order to improve the efficacy of flavonoids are being studied. Further investigations on bioavailability are warranted as it is a determining factor for flavonoid biological activity. PMID:23989753

  12. Psychiatric symptoms following attempted natural childbirth.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    As natural childbirth has become more popular, new prenatal training groups have developed, some of which are committed to only one method of dealing with labour and delivery. This paper describes five women and four men who sought psychiatric treatment within 6 months of attempted natural childbirth that did not proceed as planned. Their symptoms included depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive behaviour, phobic symptoms, and marital and sexual problems. Thus, natural childbirth, although undoubtedly beneficial in most instances, is not suitable for all deliveries and may occasionally have adverse effects. Prenatal programs should emphasize an individual, flexible approach to labour and delivery and should present the possibility of the need for analgesia, anesthesia or obstetric intervention in a positive light. PMID:7139485

  13. Aspirations of Latina adolescent suicide attempters

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    Parents’ aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents’ aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes in youths’ behavior can be deleterious, such as when adolescents manifest suicidal behaviors. We examined aspirations expressed by 12 Latina adolescent suicide attempters and their parents and compared them to 12 non-suicidal Latinas and parents. Qualitative analyses revealed that incongruence of aspirations between girls and their parents were greater among suicidal teens. Suicidal and non-suicidal Latinas presented contrasting aspirations: the former on gaining independence and the latter on completing their education and pursuing careers. Findings may inform developmental research and ways in which clinicians and policymakers can help Latinas achieve their own and their parents’ aspirations. PMID:24013464

  14. Fatal Phenol Toxicity Following Attempted Tattoo Removal.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Huang; Li, Shu-Hua; Byard, Roger W

    2016-07-01

    Tattoo removal is increasingly required as the number of, particularly young, people acquiring tattoos is increasing. A 21-year-old man is reported who underwent attempted removal of large dragon tattoo utilizing a tattoo machine that injected a phenol-containing solution. At the end of the 3-h procedure, he collapsed and died. At autopsy, large areas of white skin discoloration with focal necrosis and sloughing were present overlying areas of previous tattooing. Histological examination showed collections of eosinophilic fluid with a minimal chronic inflammatory infiltrate in better preserved areas, with focal areas of dermal necrosis. Toxicology was positive for phenol in cardiac blood and liver tissue. There were no underlying organic disease or injuries present which could have caused or contributed to death. This idiosyncratic method of tattoo removal involving subcutaneous injection of phenol had resulted in death most likely from cardiotoxicity.

  15. Epidemiological aspects of suicide attempts among Moroccan children

    PubMed Central

    Mekaoui, Nour; Karboubi, Lamiae; Ouadghiri, Fatima Zahra; Dakhama, Badr Sououd Benjelloun

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior among children has significantly increased in Morocco. We conducted a study on the epidemiological aspect to propose a treatment strategy. Descriptive retrospective study over a period of 3 years (April 2012-April 2015) involving children who visited pediatric medical emergencies of the Children Hospital of Rabat after an autolysis attempt. We observed epidemiological parameters, history, social and family context, the means used, the presumed cause, clinical manifestation, and the management. 66 patients were identified. A female predominance was found (sex =15). The average age was 13 years old. This was a first episode in 97% of cases. Psychiatric history was found in 6 patients. The causes of suicide attempt were unidentified in 65%. The most frequent cause was family conflict (35%). The most frequent method was pharmaceutical drug ingestion (54.4%). Children were asymptomatic (57.6%). Neurological manifestations (30%) were most frequent. Digestive symptoms (12%) and hemodynamic (3%) were also discovered. Patients were hospitalized in a general pediatric service 92.4% of the times, admitted to intensive care 4.5% of the times, and two patients refused to be hospitalized. The treatment consisted of gastric lavage (18%) supplemented by symptomatic measures. The outcome was favorable in 95.4% of cases. We recorded 2 deaths by rat poison poisoning. All patients were advised in writing after leaving to follow up with a psychological treatment. Suicide attempts are the result of an ill being, mostly among children living in a family with conflict. Upstream treatment is essential to identify children at risk. Additionally, a psychiatric care in hospital is essential to avoid recurrences. PMID:27642451

  16. Epidemiological aspects of suicide attempts among Moroccan children.

    PubMed

    Mekaoui, Nour; Karboubi, Lamiae; Ouadghiri, Fatima Zahra; Dakhama, Badr Sououd Benjelloun

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior among children has significantly increased in Morocco. We conducted a study on the epidemiological aspect to propose a treatment strategy. Descriptive retrospective study over a period of 3 years (April 2012-April 2015) involving children who visited pediatric medical emergencies of the Children Hospital of Rabat after an autolysis attempt. We observed epidemiological parameters, history, social and family context, the means used, the presumed cause, clinical manifestation, and the management. 66 patients were identified. A female predominance was found (sex =15). The average age was 13 years old. This was a first episode in 97% of cases. Psychiatric history was found in 6 patients. The causes of suicide attempt were unidentified in 65%. The most frequent cause was family conflict (35%). The most frequent method was pharmaceutical drug ingestion (54.4%). Children were asymptomatic (57.6%). Neurological manifestations (30%) were most frequent. Digestive symptoms (12%) and hemodynamic (3%) were also discovered. Patients were hospitalized in a general pediatric service 92.4% of the times, admitted to intensive care 4.5% of the times, and two patients refused to be hospitalized. The treatment consisted of gastric lavage (18%) supplemented by symptomatic measures. The outcome was favorable in 95.4% of cases. We recorded 2 deaths by rat poison poisoning. All patients were advised in writing after leaving to follow up with a psychological treatment. Suicide attempts are the result of an ill being, mostly among children living in a family with conflict. Upstream treatment is essential to identify children at risk. Additionally, a psychiatric care in hospital is essential to avoid recurrences.

  17. Severe Mental Illness, Somatic Delusions, and Attempted Mass Murder.

    PubMed

    Sarteschi, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    A case of an attempted mass shooting at a large psychiatric hospital in the United States by a 30-year-old male with severe mental illness, somatic delusions, and exceptional access to healthcare professionals is reported. Six persons were shot, one died at the scene, and the shooter was then killed by the police. Data were gathered from court documents and media accounts. An analysis of the shooter's psychiatric history, his interactions with healthcare professionals, and communications prior to the shooting suggest a rare form of mass murder, a random attack by a documented psychotic and delusional individual suffering with somatic delusions. Despite his being psychotic, the killer planned the attack and made a direct threat 1 month prior to the shootings. This case highlights problems with the healthcare system, indicating that it might be ill equipped to appropriately deal with severe mental illness.

  18. Age-Specific Characteristics of Serious Suicide Attempters in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Pengcheng; Yang, Rong; Phillips, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics of four age groups of patients with medically serious suicide attempts from nine general hospitals in China (N = 617) were compared. There were no significant age-group differences by residence (rural vs. urban), method of attempt, proportion with prior attempts, or level of family functioning. Attempters [less than or equal to]20…

  19. Adolescent Suicide Attempters: What Predicts Future Suicidal Acts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind; Haldorsen, Tor

    2006-01-01

    Predictors for repetition of suicide attempts were evaluated among 92 adolescent suicide attempters 9 years after an index suicide attempt (90% females). Five were dead, two by suicide. Thirty-one (42%) of 73 had repeated a suicide attempt. In multiple Cox regression analysis, four factors had an independent predictive effect: comorbid disorders,…

  20. Psychiatric Genocide: Nazi Attempts to Eradicate Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Torrey, E. Fuller; Yolken, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Although the Nazi genocide of Jews during World War II is well known, the concurrent Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients is much less widely known. An attempt was made to estimate the number of individuals with schizophrenia who were sterilized and murdered by the Nazis and to assess the effect on the subsequent prevalence and incidence of this disease. It is estimated that between 220 000 and 269 500 individuals with schizophrenia were sterilized or killed. This total represents between 73% and 100% of all individuals with schizophrenia living in Germany between 1939 and 1945. Postwar studies of the prevalence of schizophrenia in Germany reported low rates, as expected. However, postwar rates of the incidence of schizophrenia in Germany were unexpectedly high. The Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients was the greatest criminal act in the history of psychiatry. It was also based on what are now known to be erroneous genetic theories and had no apparent long-term effect on the subsequent incidence of schizophrenia. PMID:19759092

  1. After the Attempt: Maintaining the Therapeutic Alliance Following a Patient's Suicide Attempt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, J. Russell; Newman, Cory F.

    2005-01-01

    The risk of a patient's suicide is a prominent occupational hazard for psychotherapists. The precise number of patients who attempt suicide while in treatment and then resume therapy with the same therapist is not known, but this situation is a relatively common occurrence in clinical practice. Such scenarios can pose significant challenges to the…

  2. Pediatric Emergency Department Suicidal Patients: Two-Site Evaluation of Suicide Ideators, Single Attempters, and Repeat Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Baraff, Larry J.; Berk, Michele; Grob, Charles; Devich-Navarro, Mona; Suddath, Robert; Piacentini, John; Tang, Lingqi

    2008-01-01

    The study examines ideators, single attempters, and repeats attempters of suicide to clarify optimal strategies for emergency department management and risk assessment to help them in reducing youth suicide and suicide attempts. Depression was found to be a strong predictor of suicide/suicide attempts along with substance use, externalizing…

  3. Attempts to develop radioactive anticancer drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.S.; Brown, I.; Chir, B.; Carpenter, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1953, attempts have been made to develop radioactive drugs. Preparations of tritiated menadiol sodium diphosphate (T-MNDP) of high specific activity showed a definite, though limited, but sometimes useful effect in the treatment of certain patients with advanced tumors, especially adenocarcinoma of the colon and of the pancreas and malignant melanoma of the skin. The next step was to use a much more effective isotope. 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinol bis (diammonium phosphate) - abbreviated 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-MNDP - has been synthesized, and in laboratory studies appears more promising. /sup 125/I provides radiations which behave predominately like high LET radiation, despite the accompanying X and gamma radiations. The astatine analogue, 6-/sup 211/At-astato-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinol bis (disodium phosphate) has also been synthesized. Confirming and greatly extending the earlier findings with T-MNDP, in vitro experiments showed that 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-MNDP is concentrated selectively in the cells of some human malignant tumors by a factor of about 15 to 20 or more in relation to the cells of normal origin that were studied. Macrodosimetric considerations and comparison with clinical treatments with T-MNDP suggest practical dosage. A typical treatment for a patient of body weight 70 kg with localized inoperable carcinoma of the colon could be 8 intravenous injections each of approximately 120mCi of 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-MNDP to a toal of 0.97 Ci in 25 days. Risks of late carcinogenesis and leukemogenesis are calculated to be less than 1%. Clinical indications are discussed briefly. Animal experiments are in progress and further preclinical studies are required.

  4. ['Broken hearted teenagers': adolescents that had gone through suicide attempt].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Freitas, Mary Landy Vasconcelos; Pordeus, Augediva Maria Jucá; Lira, Samira Valentim Gama; Silva, Juliana Guimarães E

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the reasons of the suicidal behavior in adolescents, taking in this anthropologic analysis, the impact in the familiar and social context. The study was conducted during the period of March to August, 2005 using a qualitative approach and ethnography as methods. The participants of this study were 12 teenagers, assisted in an emergency hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil, for suicide attempt using any kind of mechanisms. As shown in the experiment's result, the main reason of the attempts was a broken heart, this as a reason of dating someone and others love relationship established between two persons. Not only broken heart was mentioned, there were also cases of problems with family bonds, the affection and the lack of attention to the individual adolescent. In this context, the inability of the health professional was very clear. Under the presented circumstances, the professional must come up with a new praxis approach. The suicide is a real fact present at the teenagers' life and it is necessary to redirect the Brazilian Unified Health System s philosophy and operational principles of the way health professionals cope with this demanding the society to embrace the politics that cares for the human being life and wellness.

  5. Factitious Disorder Presenting with Attempted Simulation of Fournier's Gangrene.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Joseph; Poullos, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a severe polymicrobial necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, genital, or perianal regions. The classic presentation is severe pain and swelling with systemic signs. Crepitus and cutaneous necrosis are often seen. Characteristic CT findings include subcutaneous gas and inflammatory stranding. Unless treated aggressively, patients can rapidly become septic and die. Factitious Disorder is the falsification of one's own of medical or psychological signs and symptoms. Many deceptive methods have been described, from falsely reporting physical or psychological symptoms, to manipulating lab tests, or even injecting or ingesting foreign substances in order to induce illness. We present a case of a 35-year-old man with factitious disorder who attempted to simulate Fournier's gangrene by injecting his scrotum with air and fluid. We will review the clinical presentation and diagnosis of Factitious Disorder, as well as Fournier's gangrene.

  6. Attempted Suicide by Massive Warfarin Ingestion Conservatively Managed Using Phytonadione

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kruti S.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment strategies for acute toxicity following massive ingestion of warfarin are not well described in the literature. Warfarin is the primary oral anticoagulation agent used in the treatment of thromboembolic disease, and patients with acute toxicity are at risk for life-threatening hemorrhages. Treatment options include phytonadione (vitamin K1), fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) used alone or in combination. FFP and PCC can be associated with volume complications, undesirable thromboembolic events, and increased costs. We describe the case of a 63-year-old female with acute warfarin toxicity following a massive ingestion of warfarin (420 mg–450 mg) in an attempt to commit suicide. Upon arrival to the emergency department, serial INR checks were initiated to help guide dosing strategy and later adjusted based on INR response to treatment using only phytonadione. PMID:28044113

  7. Predictors of Suicide Attempts in Clinically Depressed Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ahye; Song, Jungeun; Yook, Ki-Hwan; Jon, Duk-In; Jung, Myung Hun; Hong, Narei; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2016-01-01

    We examined predictors of suicide attempts in clinically depressed adolescents in Korea and gender differences in suicidal behavior. In total, 106 adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorder were recruited in South Korea. We assessed various variables that might affect suicide attempts, and used a structured interview for the diagnosis of depression and comorbidities and to evaluate suicidality. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were compared between suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt groups and we examined significant predictors of suicide attempts. Gender differences in suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were also analyzed. Among 106 depressed participants, 50 (47.2%) adolescents were classified in the suicide attempt group. Generally, the suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt group shared similar clinical characteristics. The suicide attempt group had more females, more major depressive disorder diagnoses, more depressive episodes, and higher suicidal ideation than the non-suicide attempt group. Suicidal ideation was the only significant predictor of suicidal attempt, regardless of gender. Higher suicidal ideation frequency scores and more non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors were shown in the female suicide attempt group than the male suicide attempt group. It is recommended that suicidal ideation be assessed regularly and managed rigorously to decrease suicide risks in depressive adolescents. PMID:27776392

  8. Penetrating thoracic injuries - treatment of two patients after suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Greberski, Krzysztof; Bugajski, Paweł; Rzymski, Stanisław; Jarząbek, Radosław; Olczak, Bogumił; Kalawski, Ryszard

    2015-03-01

    Thoracic injuries are usually caused by penetrating or blunt trauma. The primary method of treatment is surgery. This study describes two cases of male patients with stab wounds of the chest resulting from suicide attempts. The first case involved a 29-year-old patient transported and admitted to the hospital with a knife still in his chest; its blade extended from the jugular notch to the 5(th) thoracic vertebra but did not damage any important structures. The applied treatment, limited to evacuating the knife, resulted in a satisfactory outcome, and the patient was discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU) in good condition. The second patient reached the hospital on his own. On admission, he did not reveal the real cause of the wound; however, in view of his deteriorating condition, he admitted that the knife penetrated deeply into the mediastinum. In this case, sternotomy was necessary to stop the bleeding of the pulmonary trunk and internal thoracic artery. After completion of treatment, the patient was discharged in good condition. The described management of life-threatening situations conducted by a multidisciplinary team of consultants enabled the choice of optimal treatment methods and resulted in successful outcomes.

  9. Suicide attempts among depressed adolescents in primary care.

    PubMed

    Fordwood, Samantha R; Asarnow, Joan R; Huizar, Diana P; Reise, Steven P

    2007-01-01

    Although depression is strongly associated with suicide attempts and suicide deaths, most depressed youth do not make an attempt, indicating the need to identify additional risk factors. We examined suicide attempts among 451 depressed primary care patients, 13 to 21 years of age. In bivariate analyses, youth classified as suicide attempters showed elevated levels of psychopathology, specifically depressive symptoms, externalizing behaviors, anxiety, substance use, mania, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Externalizing behaviors and depression severity uniquely contributed to the prediction of suicide attempts in multivariate analyses. High levels of environmental stress as well as a few key stressful events were associated with suicide attempts; a recent romantic breakup or being assaulted added to suicide attempt risk, beyond the effects of psychopathology. Implications of results for primary care preventive services and suicide attempt prevention are discussed.

  10. Attempted Suicide Rates in U.S. Remain Unchanged

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. Remain Unchanged Men more often resorted to violent means, while women turned to poisoning, drowning, study ... likely to attempt suicide, but males used more violent methods. And all attempts were most common in ...

  11. CSF 5-HIAA Predicts Suicide Risk after Attempted Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstrom, Peter; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Studied suicide risk after attempted suicide, as predicted by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolite concentrations, in 92 psychiatric mood disorder inpatients admitted shortly after attempting suicide. Results revealed that low CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) predicted short-range suicide risk after attempted suicide in mood…

  12. Suicide Attempts among Depressed Adolescents in Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fordwood, Samantha R.; Asarnow, Joan R.; Huizar, Diana P.; Reise, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    Although depression is strongly associated with suicide attempts and suicide deaths, most depressed youth do not make an attempt, indicating the need to identify additional risk factors. We examined suicide attempts among 451 depressed primary care patients, 13 to 21 years of age. In bivariate analyses, youth classified as suicide attempters…

  13. Laboratory Measured Behavioral Impulsivity Relates to Suicide Attempt History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Mathias, Charles W.; Marsh, Dawn M.; Papageorgiou, T. Dorina; Swann, Alan C.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between laboratory behavioral measured impulsivity (using the Immediate and Delayed Memory Tasks) and suicidal attempt histories. Three groups of adults were recruited, those with either: no previous suicide attempts (Control, n = 20), only a single suicide attempt (Single, n = 20), or…

  14. Reported childhood trauma and suicide attempts in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Roy, Alec

    2005-12-01

    Childhood traumas are associated with suicidal behavior but this aspect has not been examined in relation to schizophrenia. In this study, 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had attempted suicide were compared with 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had never attempted suicide for their scores on the 34-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). It was found that schizophrenics who had attempted suicide reported significantly higher CTQ scores for emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect than schizophrenics who had never attempted suicide. Therefore, childhood trauma may be a risk factor predisposing schizophrenic patients to attempt suicide.

  15. A diffusion tensor imaging study of suicide attempters

    PubMed Central

    Thapa-Chhetry, Binod; Sublette, M. Elizabeth; Sullivan, Gregory M.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John; Parsey, Ramin V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined white matter abnormalities in suicide attempters using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This study sought to identify white matter regions altered in individuals with a prior suicide attempt. Methods DTI scans were acquired in 13 suicide attempters with major depressive disorder (MDD), 39 non-attempters with MDD, and 46 healthy participants (HP). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was determined in the brain using two methods: region of interest (ROI) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). ROIs were limited a priori to white matter adjacent to the caudal anterior cingulate cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Results Using the ROI approach, suicide attempters had lower FA than MDD non-attempters and HP in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Uncorrected TBSS results confirmed a significant cluster within the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex indicating lower FA in suicide attempters compared to non-attempters. There were no differences in ADC when comparing suicide attempters, non-attempters and HP groups using ROI or TBSS methods. Conclusions Low FA in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex was associated with a suicide attempt history. Converging findings from other imaging modalities support this finding, making this region of potential interest in determining the diathesis for suicidal behavior. PMID:24462041

  16. An examination of suicide attempts among incarcerated sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Jeglic, Elizabeth L; Spada, Ashley; Mercado, Cynthia Calkins

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about suicide attempts among sex offenders. This study examines the rates of nonfatal suicide attempts among a sample (N = 3,030) of incarcerated male sex offenders. Overall, the authors found that 14% of sex offenders in the study sample had made a suicide attempt at some point in their lives. Of those, 11% had reported a suicide attempt prior to incarceration, 0.5% had made a suicide attempt while incarcerated, and 2.5% made suicide attempts both prior to and during incarceration. Sex offenders who made suicide attempts were significantly more likely than those who did not make suicide attempts to have had an abusive childhood, a history of psychiatric problems, intellectual impairment, male victims, and related victims. Suicide attempters also scored higher on actuarial risk measures than nonattempters. No differences were found in attempter status between sex offenders who committed sex offenses against children and those who committed sex offenses against adults. A history of psychiatric problems and treatment as well as childhood abuse/neglect and perpetration against male victims predicted suicide attempter status. These findings are discussed as they pertain to suicide prevention, risk assessment, and the collateral consequences of sex offender legislation.

  17. Childhood physical abuse, aggression, and suicide attempts among criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Swogger, Marc T; You, Sungeun; Cashman-Brown, Sarah; Conner, Kenneth R

    2011-02-28

    Childhood physical abuse (CPA) has numerous short and long-term negative effects. One of the most serious consequences of CPA is an increased risk for suicide attempts. Clarifying the mechanisms by which CPA increases risk for suicidal behavior may enhance preventive interventions. One potential mechanism is a tendency toward aggression. In a sample of 266 criminal offenders, ages 18-62, we examined the relationships among CPA, lifetime aggression, and suicide attempts and tested lifetime history of aggression as a mediator of the relationship between CPA and suicide attempts. Results indicated that CPA and aggression were associated with suicide attempts. Consistent with our hypothesis, lifetime aggression mediated the CPA and suicide attempts relationship. Findings suggest that aggression may be an important mediator of the relationship between CPA and suicide attempts among criminal offenders, and are consistent with the possibility that treating aggression may reduce risk for suicide attempts.

  18. Attempting to Unravel the Australian Megatsunami Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    some purported Australian megatsunami deposits. There are simpler and arguably more realistic explanations for the evidence. These results start to cast doubt upon the original interpretations for SE Australian megatsunamis. If this is the case and these deposits are not related to megastsunamis, what caused them?

  19. Unintentional strangulation by a cervical collar after attempted suicide by hanging.

    PubMed

    Lemyze, Malcolm; Palud, Aurore; Favory, Raphael; Mathieu, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    We report the case of a young man who attempted suicide by hanging and whose neurological status deteriorated until the cervical collar, that had been correctly placed by the prehospital team, was removed. We discuss the physiopathological mechanisms leading to death in hanging that is, a blockage of the blood stream to the brain leading to vasogenic and cytotoxic cerebral edema rather than asphyxia or spinal fracture. Our case supports the early removal of neck stabilization devices that can dangerously harm the patient after an attempted suicide by hanging, by increasing intracerebral pressure.

  20. [Non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts: grounding of differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Nitkowski, D; Petermann, F

    2010-01-01

    Three criteria for differential diagnosis of non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts were validated by means of more recent empirical studies. Criteria concerning motives (functions), methods of self-injury (medical severity), lifetime frequency and lifetime number of episodes were investigated. Literature research showed only a few studies concentrated on a direct comparison of non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts. Therefore, studies examing the relationship of suicide intent to the relevant features, are considered, too. Empirical results concerning motives (functions), methods (medical severity), lifetime frequency and number of episodes were compared to the three criteria. Except for lifetime frequency, studies support the criteria. However, in the case of motives, a more differentiated examination is needed to distinguish between non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts. To optimize the assessment, guidelines should be slightly modified. Because of the phenomenological overlap of non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts, a dimensional assessment can be helpful.

  1. Characteristics of Spirituality and Religion Among Suicide Attempters.

    PubMed

    Mandhouj, Olfa; Perroud, Nader; Hasler, Roland; Younes, Nadia; Huguelet, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    Spirituality and religiousness are associated with a lower risk of suicide. A detailed assessment of spirituality among 88 suicide attempters hospitalized after a suicide attempt was performed. Factors associated with the recurrence of suicide attempts over 18 months were looked into. Spirituality was low among most suicide attempters in comparison with the general population. Two groups were identified: those with a high score of depression who featured "low" in spirituality and those with a more heterogeneous profile, for example, involving personality disorders, characterized by a "high" spirituality. At the follow-up, the "meaning in life" score appeared to correlate with recurrence of suicide. Clinical implications are discussed herein.

  2. A woman's attempt at a perverse solution and its failure.

    PubMed

    Chasseguet-Smirgel, J

    1988-01-01

    The Programme Committee of the Montreal Congress asked the author to present a case of perversion connected with traumas. Rather than speak about erotization of the effects of the trauma (death or castration anxiety transformed into a source of pleasure) the author relates the first 18 months of analysis of a young woman whose important narcissistic trauma, the result of an inadequate early relationship with her mother, is camouflaged by an avidity for sexual excitations. The aim is to transform narcissistic pain which cannot be worked through into sexuality for which release is possible. Sexuality becomes a means of expressing feelings of hate, revenge and triumph over the primary object. The ensuing perverse solution--an attempt to slip into the primal scene by identification with the sadistic penis--does not succeed. The author advances certain hypotheses concerning the mother-daughter relationship which seem to explain this failure and to explain too the absence of a stable perverse organization in women. There follows a longing to return to the womb, in the shape of the fantasied destruction of the contents of the mother's belly, expressed as the fantasy of the end of the world, and which the author labels as 'the archaic matrix of the Oedipus complex'.

  3. Vallecular rupture with cervical spine fracture after a failed hanging suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Joong Keun; Lee, Seong Rok; Lee, Ho Min; Lee, Jung Min; Lee, Jong Cheol

    2013-09-01

    Hanging is a common method of suicide. We present a case of vallecular rupture and cervical spine fracture without an external wound after a failed hanging suicide attempt. Surgical treatment involved posterior fusion of C2 to 3, followed by repair of the vallecular rupture via an external approach. The patient recovered with no residual physical or mental sequelae.

  4. The Association between Bankruptcy and Hospital-Presenting Attempted Suicide: A Record Linkage Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidger, Judi; Gunnell, David; Jarvik, Jeffrey G.; Overstreet, Karen A.; Hollingworth, William

    2011-01-01

    The associations between admissions to an emergency department following attempted suicide and personal bankruptcy in the preceding and subsequent 2 years were evaluated. Records from a level 1 trauma center (June 1993-December 2002) in Seattle, WA, were linked with case files from the local U.S. District Bankruptcy Court (June 1991 onward).…

  5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Suicide Attempt History among Veterans Receiving Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Lisa A.; Betthauser, Lisa M.; Homaifar, Beeta Y.; Villarreal, Edgar; Harwood, Jeri E. F.; Staves, Pamela J.; Huggins, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    History of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been found to increase risk of suicidal behavior. The association between suicide attempt history among veterans with PTSD and/or TBI was explored. Cases (N = 81) and 2:1 matched controls (N = 160) were randomly selected from a Veterans Affairs Medical Center…

  6. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hyun Sil

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the rate of suicide attempts and relevant variables and identified risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. A total of 2,100 Korean adolescents, including 1,321 student adolescents and 779 delinquent adolescents, were…

  7. 7 CFR 400.122 - Attempts to locate debtor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attempts to locate debtor. 400.122 Section 400.122... Succeeding Crop Years § 400.122 Attempts to locate debtor. Before disclosing delinquent debt information to a credit reporting agency, FCIC shall take reasonable action to locate a debtor for whom FCIC does not...

  8. 7 CFR 400.122 - Attempts to locate debtor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attempts to locate debtor. 400.122 Section 400.122... Succeeding Crop Years § 400.122 Attempts to locate debtor. Before disclosing delinquent debt information to a credit reporting agency, FCIC shall take reasonable action to locate a debtor for whom FCIC does not...

  9. Erroneous Memories Arising from Repeated Attempts to Remember

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkel, Linda A.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of repeated and prolonged attempts at remembering on false memory rates was assessed in three experiments. Participants saw and imagined pictures and then made repeated recall attempts before taking a source memory test. Although the number of items recalled increased with repeated tests, the net gains were associated with more source…

  10. Atmospheric pressure and suicide attempts in Helsinki, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Laura; Ruuhela, Reija; Ostamo, Aini; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suominen, Kirsi; Partonen, Timo

    2012-11-01

    The influence of weather on mood and mental health is commonly debated. Furthermore, studies concerning weather and suicidal behavior have given inconsistent results. Our aim was to see if daily weather changes associate with the number of suicide attempts in Finland. All suicide attempts treated in the hospitals in Helsinki, Finland, during two separate periods, 8 years apart, were included. Altogether, 3,945 suicide attempts were compared with daily weather parameters and analyzed with a Poisson regression. We found that daily atmospheric pressure correlated statistically significantly with the number of suicide attempts, and for men the correlation was negative. Taking into account the seasonal normal value during the period 1971-2000, daily temperature, global solar radiation and precipitation did not associate with the number of suicide attempts on a statistically significant level in our study. We concluded that daily atmospheric pressure may have an impact on suicidal behavior, especially on suicide attempts of men by violent methods ( P < 0.001), and may explain the clustering of suicide attempts. Men seem to be more vulnerable to attempt suicide under low atmospheric pressure and women under high atmospheric pressure. We show only statistical correlations, which leaves the exact mechanisms of interaction between weather and suicidal behavior open. However, suicidal behavior should be assessed from the point of view of weather in addition to psychiatric and social aspects.

  11. Atmospheric pressure and suicide attempts in Helsinki, Finland.

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, Laura; Ruuhela, Reija; Ostamo, Aini; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suominen, Kirsi; Partonen, Timo

    2012-11-01

    The influence of weather on mood and mental health is commonly debated. Furthermore, studies concerning weather and suicidal behavior have given inconsistent results. Our aim was to see if daily weather changes associate with the number of suicide attempts in Finland. All suicide attempts treated in the hospitals in Helsinki, Finland, during two separate periods, 8 years apart, were included. Altogether, 3,945 suicide attempts were compared with daily weather parameters and analyzed with a Poisson regression. We found that daily atmospheric pressure correlated statistically significantly with the number of suicide attempts, and for men the correlation was negative. Taking into account the seasonal normal value during the period 1971-2000, daily temperature, global solar radiation and precipitation did not associate with the number of suicide attempts on a statistically significant level in our study. We concluded that daily atmospheric pressure may have an impact on suicidal behavior, especially on suicide attempts of men by violent methods (P < 0.001), and may explain the clustering of suicide attempts. Men seem to be more vulnerable to attempt suicide under low atmospheric pressure and women under high atmospheric pressure. We show only statistical correlations, which leaves the exact mechanisms of interaction between weather and suicidal behavior open. However, suicidal behavior should be assessed from the point of view of weather in addition to psychiatric and social aspects.

  12. [Caring for suicide attempters in twelve healthcare institutions in Picardie].

    PubMed

    Bernardy-Prud'homme, Aurore; Delgrange, Didier; Podik, Jean Etienne; Dubois, Gérard; Braillon, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Simple tools to help in caring for people having attempted to commit suicide are often lacking or are unsuitable. Faced with this situation, a standardised questionnaire was sent to practitioners in all public institutions in Picardie which care for suicide attempters. A real effort must be made by healthcare professionals in order to improve the care provided to these patients.

  13. Interpersonal Precipitants and Suicide Attempts in Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodsky, Beth S.; Groves, Shelly A.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John; Stanley, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is often characterized by multiple low lethality suicide attempts triggered by seemingly minor incidents, and less commonly by high lethality attempts that are attributed to impulsiveness or comorbid major depression. The relationships among life events, impulsiveness, and type of suicidal behavior has hardly…

  14. Familism, Family Environment, and Suicide Attempts among Latina Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Juan B.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Baumann, Ana A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n = 109) and nonattempters (n = 107) were recruited from the New York City area. Latent class analysis revealed three family…

  15. Childhood Diagnoses and Later Risk for Multiple Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, M. David; Joiner, Thomas E.; Rumzek, Harold

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between childhood diagnosis, personality psychopathology and suicidal behavior in young adulthood was explored in a sample of 327 suicide ideators, single attempters, and multiple attempters. Of the total sample, 174 received at least one childhood diagnosis; the 153 without a diagnosis provided a comparison group. Results suggest…

  16. Suicide Ideation and Attempts in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Gorman, Angela A.; Hillwig-Garcia, Jolene; Syed, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Frequency of suicide ideation and attempts in 791 children with autism (1-16 years), 35 nonautistic depressed children, and 186 typical children and risk factors in autism were determined. Percent of children with autism for whom suicide ideation or attempts was rated as sometimes to very often a problem by mothers (14%) was 28 times greater than…

  17. Reported Childhood Trauma and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2005-01-01

    Childhood traumas are associated with suicidal behavior but this aspect has not been examined in relation to schizophrenia. In this study, 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had attempted suicide were compared with 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had never attempted suicide for their scores on the 34-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire…

  18. Assessing African American Adolescents' Risk for Suicide Attempts: Attachment Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Maureen E.; Benoit, Marilyn; O'Donnell, Regina M.; Getson, Pamela R.; Silber, Tomas; Walsh, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates risk factors in African American adolescent suicide attempters (n=51) and nonsuicidal (n=124) adolescents. Results show that threat of separation from a parental figure, insomnia, neglect, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and failing grades were the strongest predictors of suicide attempt. Unexpected findings include high levels of…

  19. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…

  20. Characteristics of Chinese Suicide Attempters: An Emergency Room Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jie; Jia, Shuhua; Jiang, Chao; Sun, Jie

    2006-01-01

    Studying the characteristics of attempted suicide is helpful in knowing the background of some completed suicides and improving prevention or intervention strategies. This current study analyzed data of 74 suicide attempters and 92 accident injured patients admitted to 6 hospital emergency rooms in an area of Northeastern China and found both…

  1. Cognitive Style and Pleasant Activities among Female Adolescent Suicide Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared cognitive style and pleasant activities of 77 suicide-attempting female minority adolescents with those of 39 psychiatrically disturbed and 23 nondisturbed female adolescents. Suicide attempters reported significantly fewer alternatives for solving interpersonal problems, were significantly more focused on problems, and were more likely…

  2. The Meaning of Suicide Attempts by Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everall, Robin D.

    2000-01-01

    Describes study identifying themes that characterize experiences of young adults who made one suicide attempt between the ages of 20 and 24. Six major themes identified include: family experiences, adolescent interactions, emotional experiences, self-destructive behaviors, depression, and perception of control. Views suicide attempts as a…

  3. (De-) criminalization of attempted suicide in India: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Kumar, Saurabh; Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Dhawan, Anju; Sagar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Attempted suicide is a serious problem requiring mental health interventions, but it continues to be treated as a criminal offence under the section 309 of Indian Penal Code. The article reviews the international legal perspective across various regions of the world, discusses the unintended consequences of section 309 IPC and highlights the need for decriminalization of attempted suicide in India. The Mental Health Care Bill, 2013, still under consideration in the Rajya Sabha (upper house), has proposed that attempted suicide should not be criminally prosecuted. Decriminalization of suicidal attempt will serve to cut down the undue stigma and avoid punishment in the aftermath of incident, and lead to a more accurate collection of suicide-related statistics. From a policy perspective, it will further emphasize the urgent need to develop a framework to deliver mental health services to all those who attempt suicide. PMID:25535437

  4. Immigration and recommended care after a suicide attempt in Europe: equity or bias?

    PubMed

    Bursztein Lipsicas, Cendrine; Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik; Wasserman, Danuta; Apter, Alan; Bobes, Julio; Kerkhof, Ad; Michel, Konrad; Renberg, Ellinor Salander; van Heeringen, Kees; Värnik, Airi; Schmidtke, Armin

    2014-02-01

    This report describes the investigation of care recommendations in the medical system across European countries to immigrants who attempted suicide. Data from seven European countries with 8865 local and 2921 immigrant person-cases were derived from the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour and ensuing MONSUE (Monitoring Suicidal Behaviour in Europe) project. The relationship between immigrant status and type of aftercare recommended was analysed with binary logistic regression, adjusting for gender, age, method of attempt and the Centre collecting the data. Clear disparities were identified in the care recommendation practices toward immigrants, compared with hosts, over and above differing policies by the European Centres.

  5. A Novel Therapy for People Who Attempt Suicide and Why We Need New Models of Suicide.

    PubMed

    Michel, Konrad; Valach, Ladislav; Gysin-Maillart, Anja

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a model of suicidal behaviour based on suicide as a goal-directed action, and its implications. An action theoretical model has guided the authors in the development of a brief therapy for individuals who attempt suicide (ASSIP-Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program). Key elements are an early therapeutic alliance, narrative interviewing, psychoeducation, a joint case conceptualization, safety planning, and regular letters over 24 months. In a randomized controlled trial, ASSIP was highly effective in reducing the risk of suicide reattempts. The therapeutic elements in this treatment are described and possible implications for future directions in clinical suicide prevention discussed.

  6. A Novel Therapy for People Who Attempt Suicide and Why We Need New Models of Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Konrad; Valach, Ladislav; Gysin-Maillart, Anja

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model of suicidal behaviour based on suicide as a goal-directed action, and its implications. An action theoretical model has guided the authors in the development of a brief therapy for individuals who attempt suicide (ASSIP—Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program). Key elements are an early therapeutic alliance, narrative interviewing, psychoeducation, a joint case conceptualization, safety planning, and regular letters over 24 months. In a randomized controlled trial, ASSIP was highly effective in reducing the risk of suicide reattempts. The therapeutic elements in this treatment are described and possible implications for future directions in clinical suicide prevention discussed. PMID:28257071

  7. Posttraumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and suicide attempt history among veterans receiving mental health services.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Lisa A; Betthauser, Lisa M; Homaifar, Beeta Y; Villarreal, Edgar; Harwood, Jeri E F; Staves, Pamela J; Huggins, Joseph A

    2011-08-01

    History of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been found to increase risk of suicidal behavior. The association between suicide attempt history among veterans with PTSD and/or TBI was explored. Cases (N = 81) and 2:1 matched controls (N = 160) were randomly selected from a Veterans Affairs Medical Center clinical database. PTSD history was associated with an increased risk for a suicide attempt (OR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.5, 5.1). This increased risk was present for those with and without a history of TBI. Results support incorporating PTSD history when assessing suicide risk among veterans with and without TBI.

  8. Temperament, hopelessness, and attempted suicide: direct and indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Rosellini, Anthony J; Bagge, Courtney L

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated whether hopelessness mediated the relations between temperament and recent suicide attempter status in a psychiatric sample. Negative temperament and positive temperament (particularly the positive emotionality subscale) uniquely predicted levels of hopelessness. Although these temperament constructs also demonstrated significant indirect effects on recent suicide attempter status, the effects were partially (for the broad temperament scales) or fully (for the positive emotionality subscale) mediated by the levels of hopelessness. These findings indicate that a tendency to experience excessive negative emotions as well as a paucity of positive emotions may lead individuals to experience hopelessness. Although temperament may also indirectly influence suicide attempter status, hopelessness mediates these relations.

  9. [Risk factors for suicide attempts in elderly and old elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Polewka, Andrzej; Chrostek Maj, Jan; Kroch, Stanisław; Szkolnicka, Beata; Mikołaszek-Boba, Magdalena; Groszek, Barbara; Zieba, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the phenomenon of suicide attempt in the elderly inhabitants of Kraków. Special attention has been paid to the group of "seniors"--aged 75 years or over. The authors have analyzed all the 136 cases of suicide attempts by individuals aged over 60 years, selected from the cases of suicide attempts by self-intoxications by patients hospitalized in the Department of Clinical Toxicology, CMUJ in Kraków in the years 2000-2002. The group concerned included 45 males and 91 females. A large number of subjects (over a half of the total) ranged in age from 60 to 65 years. The group of seniors comprised 35 individuals (aged 75 years or over), including 7 males and 28 females. On the basis of the data from medical documentation, the subjects were analysed from the point of view of their health condition and in the psycho-social context. In the majority of cases the subjects are pensioners residing in Kraków, often living alone. In the case of 98% of the subjects, it was their first suicide attempt. Pharmaceuticals used for self-poisoning were most frequently psychotropic, or mixed-type drugs. The assessment of the severity of poisoning indicates that in about 20% patients poisoning was severe. 70% of the subjects suffered from depressive, reactive, or situational disorders, affective depression or organic brain disorders, often with dementive signs. A significant number of subjects suffered from hypertension, coronary artery disease, arteriosclerosis, or alimentary tract diseases. In the group of the seniors, the most conspicuous problems included serious somatic diseases (malignant diseases and chronic respiratory system diseases), depression, organic dementia, loneliness, and bad family situation. Taking into consideration the scantiness of research into attempted and completed suicide in the elderly and in the old elderly, the present authors stress the importance of the continuation of the research to prevent suicide in the aforesaid

  10. Factors influencing attempted and completed suicide in postnatal women: A population-based study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shu-Chuan; Chang, Jung-Chen; Yeh, Ming-Kung; Wang, Shun-Mu; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The aims of study were to investigate risk factors associated with attempted and completed suicide. This nested case–control study was conducted using the medical and death data of nearly all pregnant women for the period 2002–2012 in Taiwan. A total of 139 cases of attempted suicide and 95 cases of completed suicide were identified; for each case, 10 controls were randomly selected and matched to the cases according to age and year of delivery. A conditional logistic regression model was used. The mean attempted and completed suicide rates were 9.91 and 6.86 per 100,000 women with live births, respectively. Never having married and postpartum depression also increased the risk of attempted suicide (OR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.09–3.88 and OR = 2.51; 95% CI = 1.10–5.75, respectively) and completed suicide (OR = 20.27; 95% CI = 8.99–45.73 and OR = 21.72; 95% CI = 8.08–58.37, respectively). Other factors for attempted suicide included being widowed or divorced, and having a caesarean delivery or suicide history. Other factors for completed suicide included lower education level, low infant birth weight, and diagnosis of anxiety or mood disorder. These results suggest that people should appropriately assess potential risk factors and provide assistance for postnatal women to reduce the occurrence of suicide events. PMID:27173845

  11. Maoa and Maob polymorphisms and personality traits in suicide attempters and healthy controls: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Balestri, Martina; Calati, Raffaella; Serretti, Alessandro; Hartmann, Annette M; Konte, Bettina; Friedl, Marion; Giegling, Ina; Rujescu, Dan

    2017-03-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission dysfunctions have been well documented in patients with suicidal behaviour. We investigated monoamine oxidase A (MAOA: rs2064070, rs6323, rs909525) and B (MAOB: rs1799836, rs2311013, rs2205655) genetic modulation of personality traits (Temperament and Character Inventory, TCI) as endophenotype for suicidal behaviour. 108 suicide attempters and 286 healthy controls of German origin were screened. Among females, allelic analyses revealed associations between MAOA rs6323 A allele and higher Harm Avoidance in suicide attempters and MAOB rs2205655 A allele and higher Cooperativeness scores in healthy controls. Among males, MAOA rs909525 A allele was associated with higher Reward Dependence in suicide attempters. Multivariate analyses controlling for age and educational level mainly confirmed results. Case-control analyses in this subsample do not differ from our previously reported one. Despite of the small sample size, a possible involvement of these genes in the modulation of personality traits closely related to suicidal behaviour cannot be excluded.

  12. [Attempted suicide during the financial crisis in Athens].

    PubMed

    Stavrianakos, K; Kontaxakis, V; Moussas, G; Paplos, K; Papaslanis, T; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Papadimitriou, Gn

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is considered as the result of complex cognitive and emotional processes and it is a timeless, global and multifactorial phenomenon. Periods of financial crises in the past, such as the Great Depression in the USA in 1929 and the economic crises of Asia, Russia and Argentina in the late 1990s, have been associated with impairment of mental health of the economically affected. Unemployment, job insecurity, debts, poverty and social exclusion seems to lead to higher incidence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and increased suicidality. Alcohol and substance use and the reduction of the state budget for health services reinforce the negative effects of the economic recession on mental health. The financial crisis which currently affects many European countries began in 2008 and its impact on the mental health of European citizens is in progress. Greece is probably the most affected country by the European financial crisis. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential impact of the crisis' consequences on the attempted suicide rates in the Athens population and the differentiation of suicide attempters on social, demographic and clinical-psychopathological parameters during the crisis. A retrospective study was conducted. The semi-structured records of 165 attempters who were hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Clinics of the "Sotiria" General Hospital in Athens, after attempted suicide in the years 2007 and 2011, before and during the financial crisis respectively, were studied. Among suicide attempters 95(57.6%) were suffering from mental disorders. Most often diagnoses were these of mood disorders (n=60, 63.2%). Demographic data, current psychiatric disorder, previous suicide attempt and severity of psychopathology at the time of suicide attempt were recorded for each patient. Furthermore, the severity of each suicide attempt was estimated. Suicide attempts were 70 in 2007, before the financial crisis (mean age 36.9 years, 71% women

  13. An Attempt to Validate a Measure of Structure in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabassol, David J.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty male adolescents were given a structure inventory (CASI) devised by the author, and also the Locus Of Control (I-E) instrument, and the Adjective Check List (ACL), in an attempt to validate the first-named inventory. (Editor)

  14. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-05-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress.

  15. Conducting Research on Adolescent Suicide Attempters: Dilemmas and Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Berk, Michele; Adrian, Molly; McCauley, Elizabeth; Asarnow, Joan; Avina, Claudia; Linehan, Marsha

    2014-01-01

    Research on effective treatments for adolescent suicide attempters is urgently needed. However, there has been a lack of research in this area. This is likely a result of the multiple challenges faced by investigators working with individuals at high risk of suicide. Based on our experiences conducting a large, randomized clinical trial with adolescent suicide attempters, in this article, we review ways to address these challenges in order to facilitate needed research on suicide prevention in adolescents. PMID:24954969

  16. Predicting significant maternal morbidity in women attempting vaginal birth after cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Scifres, Christina M; Rohn, Amanda; Odibo, Anthony; Stamilio, David; Macones, George A

    2011-03-01

    Attempting vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) places women at an increased risk for complications. We set out to identify factors that are predictive of major morbidity in women who attempt VBAC. A nested case-control study was performed within a large retrospective cohort study of women with a history of at least one cesarean. Women who attempted VBAC were identified and those who experienced at least one complication of a composite adverse outcome consisting of uterine rupture, bladder injury, and bowel injury (cases) were compared with those who did not experience one of these adverse outcomes (controls). We analyzed risk factors for major maternal morbidity using univariable and multivariable methods. The accuracy of the multivariable prediction model was assessed with receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Of 25,005 women with a history of previous cesarean, 13,706 (54.9%) attempted VBAC. The composite outcome occurred in 300 (2.1%) women attempting VBAC. Using logistic regression analysis, prior abdominal surgery (odds ratio [OR] 1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 2.1), augmented labor (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.46), and induction of labor (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.48 to 2.76) were associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome. Prior vaginal delivery (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.54) was associated with decreased risk for the composite outcome. The ROC curve generated from the regression model has an area under the curve of 0.65 and an unfavorable tradeoff between sensitivity and specificity. Women attempting VBAC with a history of abdominal surgery or those who undergo augmentation or induction of labor are at an increased risk for major maternal morbidity, and women with a prior vaginal delivery have a decreased risk of major morbidity. The multivariable model developed cannot accurately predict major maternal morbidity.

  17. The characteristics of suicide attempts based on the suicidal intent scale scores.

    PubMed

    Polewka, Andrzej; Mikołaszek-Boba, Magdalena; Chrostek Maj, Jan; Groszek, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the work was to present the characteristics of suicide attempts, distinguished on the basis of the scores in the Suicidal Intent Scale questionnaire (SIS), created by Aaron Beck, professor of psychiatry from Philadelphia. The group examined comprised 238 patients (63 males and 175 females) hospitalised in the Department of Clinical Toxicology CMUJ in Kraków in the years 2000-2001, after a suicidal self-intoxication with xenobiotics. The examination was conducted by means of the Suicidal Intent Scale (SIS)--a psychological test created by Aaron Beck. In the case of about 65% of the patients examined, their suicide attempts most frequently were acts of impulsive behaviour, rarely planned for longer than three hours before the realization and usually made in another person's presence or in a situation in which another person's intervention was highly probable. Such attempts had the character of "a cry for help", and were aimed at effecting some change or at manipulating the environment. Nevertheless, the patients acted in a conviction that their act was a serious attempt at ending life, and, most frequently, they maintained such opinions during the examination. On the other hand, they rarely expressed further suicidal intents, and more frequently accepted the fact that their lives had been saved. By contrast, the remaining 35% of the patients examined had attempted suicide with the evident intention to kill themselves; they had taken full precautions against being discovered and had planned suicide carefully to eliminate the smallest possibility of intervention. In the majority of cases, they still maintained the wish to die after the attempt. As the results of the examination indicate, the Suicidal Intent Scale, and, especially, the Precautions subscale, point at the important aspect of suicidal intentions, which, being of vital importance for the diagnostic purposes and suicide prevention, requires further investigation.

  18. Characteristic Risk Factors Associated with Planned versus Impulsive Suicide Attempters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaeha; Lee, Kang-Sook; Kim, Dai Jin; Hong, Seung-Chul; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Oh, Youngmin; Wang, Sheng-Min; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to investigate predictors for planned suicide attempters. Methods This study included 1,003 patients who attempted suicide and visited emergency department. They were divided into two groups, planned suicide attempters (SAs; n=133 [13.3%]) and impulsive SAs (n=870, [86.7%]), and the demographic variables, clinical characteristics, factors related to suicide, and psychiatric resources of the groups were compared. Results Major depressive disorder and substance use disorders were more common among planned SAs than among impulsive SAs. Additionally, the planned SAs were older, more likely to be divorced, separated or widowed, and more likely to have comorbid medical illnesses, severe depression, higher suicidality, and self-blaming tendencies than the impulsive SAs. Financial problems and physical illnesses were more common in planned SAs but interpersonal conflicts were more frequent in impulsive SAs. Planned SAs had fewer previous suicide attempts but these were more serious suicide attempts. The presence of the hope to die, a written will, and suicidal ideation of a repetitive, intense, and continuous nature were predictive of planned SAs. Conclusion The present findings demonstrated that planned SAs had more severe psychopathology and medical illnesses than impulsive SAs. Therefore, screening for depression, substance use disorders, and suicidal plans among old and medically ill patients may be important for preventing suicide attempts. PMID:26598591

  19. Non-psychotropic medication and risk of suicide or attempted suicide: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gorton, Hayley C; Webb, Roger T; Kapur, Navneet; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To establish which non-psychotropic medications have been assessed in relation to risk of suicide or attempted suicide in observational studies, document reported associations and consider study strengths and limitations. Design Systematic review. Methods Four databases (Embase, Medline, PsycINFO and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts) were searched from 1990 to June 2014, and reference lists of included articles were hand-searched. Case–control, cohort and case only studies which reported suicide or attempted suicide in association with any non-psychotropic medication were included. Outcome measures The outcomes eligible for inclusion were suicide and attempted suicide, as defined by the authors of the included study. Results Of 11 792 retrieved articles, 19 were eligible for inclusion. Five studies considered cardiovascular medication and antiepileptics; two considered leukotriene receptor antagonists, isotretinoin and corticosteroids; one assessed antibiotics and another assessed varenicline. An additional study compared multiple medications prescribed to suicide cases versus controls. There was marked heterogeneity in study design, outcome and exposure classification, and control for confounding factors; particularly comorbid mental and physical illness. No increased risk was associated with cardiovascular medications, but associations with other medications remained inconclusive and meta-analysis was inappropriate due to study heterogeneity. Conclusions Whether non-psychotropic medications are associated with increased risk of suicide or attempted suicide remains largely unknown. Robust identification of suicide outcomes and control of comorbidities could improve quantification of risk associated with non-psychotropic medication, beyond that conferred by underlying physical and mental illnesses. PMID:26769782

  20. CSF 5-HIAA, cortisol and DHEAS levels in suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Chatzittofis, Andreas; Nordström, Peter; Hellström, Christer; Arver, Stefan; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2013-10-01

    The serotonin system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are involved in the biological vulnerability to suicidal behaviour. Altered levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate ester DHEAS have been reported in neuropsychiatric conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate CSF levels of 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and CSF and plasma levels of cortisol and DHEAS in 28 medication free suicide attempters and 19 healthy volunteers. Another aim was to investigate the relationship between neuroendocrine measures and childhood trauma in suicide attempters. As the study design includes a longitudinal part, we investigated whether CSF cortisol, 5-HIAA or DHEAS would predict subsequent suicide. We hypothesized higher cortisol levels in suicide attempters and lower CSF 5-HIAA levels and higher cortisol levels in suicide victims. Suicide attempters had higher CSF and plasma cortisol levels compared to healthy volunteers. Male suicide attempters had higher CSF DHEAS levels and female suicide attempters had lower CSF 5-HIAA levels compared to male and female healthy volunteers respectively. Exposure to interpersonal violence as a child showed a negative correlation with CSF cortisol/DHEAS ratio adjusted for age, gender and depression severity in a regression analysis. Suicide victims tended to have low CSF 5-HIAA and high CSF cortisol. Abused suicide victims had higher CSF cortisol compared to suicide victims with low exposure to interpersonal violence as a child. The results underlie the important role of the serotonergic system and HPA axis in suicidal behaviour and suggest that CSF DHEAS may be elevated in male suicide attempters.

  1. Identifying Differences between Depressed Adolescent Suicide Ideators and Attempters

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Millner, Alexander J.; Stewart, Jeremy G.; Esposito, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent depression and suicide are pressing public health concerns, and identifying key differences among suicide ideators and attempters is critical. The goal of the current study is to test whether depressed adolescent suicide attempters report greater anhedonia severity and exhibit aberrant effort-cost computations in the face of uncertainty. Methods Depressed adolescents (n = 101) ages 13–19 years were administered structured clinical interviews to assess current mental health disorders and a history of suicidality (suicide ideators = 55, suicide attempters = 46). Then, participants completed self-report instruments assessing symptoms of suicidal ideation, depression, anhedonia, and anxiety as well as a computerized effort-cost computation task. Results Compared with depressed adolescent suicide ideators, attempters report greater anhedonia severity, even after concurrently controlling for symptoms of suicidal ideation, depression, and anxiety. Additionally, when completing the effort-cost computation task, suicide attempters are less likely to pursue the difficult, high value option when outcomes are uncertain. Follow-up, trial-level analyses of effort-cost computations suggest that receipt of reward does not influence future decision-making among suicide attempters, however, suicide ideators exhibit a win-stay approach when receiving rewards on previous trials. Limitations Findings should be considered in light of limitations including a modest sample size, which limits generalizability, and the cross-sectional design. Conclusions Depressed adolescent suicide attempters are characterized by greater anhedonia severity, which may impair the ability to integrate previous rewarding experiences to inform future decisions. Taken together, this may generate a feeling of powerlessness that contributes to increased suicidality and a needless loss of life. PMID:26233323

  2. The Relationship of Childhood Abuse and Neglect with Suicide Attempts in an Adult Unipolar Depression Sample

    PubMed Central

    YILDIRIM, Feride; KÜÇÜKGÖNCÜ, Suat; BEŞTEPE, Engin Emrem; YILDIRIM, Murat Serkan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Unipolar depression is an important psychiatric disorder that leads to an increased risk of suicide. However, not all depression patients attempt suicide. This reflects the presence of other factors that may be related to suicide other than the sole presence of psychopathology. Drawing upon the clinical evidence linking childhood abuse and neglect experiences with suicide; this study aimed at investigating the relationship of childhood abuse and neglect experiences with suicide attempts in patients with unipolar depression. Method One hundred six unipolar depressed patients between the ages of 18 and 65 were included in the study. Patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders, neurological disorders, alcohol-substance abuse problems, and a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score of <17 were excluded from the study. The BDI, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), and the Suicide Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ) were administered to all patients. Suicidal and non-suicidal cases were determined according to clinic interviews and the patients’ responses in the SBQ. Results Sixty-four patients have previously attempted suicide. Although there was no significant difference between unipolar depression patients with a history of suicide attempts and patients with no history of suicide attempts in terms of average age, education and marital status, however, female/male ratio in the former group was determined to be significantly higher. BDI, STAXI continuous anger and outward anger average scores, and average CTQ-28 emotional abuse, physical abuse and total scores were significantly higher in the group with a history of suicide attempts. The predictors of suicide attempts were higher BDI and CTQ-28 physical abuse scores and female gender. The predictors for average SBQ scores were determined as higher BDI, CTQ-28 sexual abuse, and STAXI outward anger and continuous anger scores. Conclusion Childhood physical and

  3. Family history of suicide and interpersonal functioning in suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Rajalin, Mia; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Salander Renberg, Ellinor; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in interpersonal relationships are associated with a wide range of psychiatric diagnoses and have been reported as a trigger for suicidal behavior, too. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal problems and family history of suicide in suicide attempters and to describe relevant patterns of interpersonal problems in this patient group. The study involves 181 patients having their clinical follow-up after a suicide attempt. Family history of suicide was assessed by using the Karolinska Self Harm History Interview or retrieved in patient records. The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems was used to assess personal style in an interpersonal context. Suicide attempters with a family history of suicide had significantly more often an intrusive personal style. The results remained significant after adjustment for personality disorder. The specific interpersonal patterns associated with family history of suicide may interfere with the ability to create stable, long-lasting relationships. In regards to treatment, these personal qualities could cause difficulties in the alliance with health care personnel and make it harder for suicide attempters to accept or benefit from treatment. Attention to suicide attempters' interpersonal problems is of importance to lower their distress.

  4. Adolescent attachment security, family functioning, and suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Sheftall, Arielle H; Mathias, Charles W; Furr, R Michael; Dougherty, Donald M

    2013-01-01

    Theories of suicidal behavior suggest that the desire to die can arise from disruption of interpersonal relationships. Suicide research has typically studied this from the individual's perspective of the quality/frequency of their social interactions; however, the field of attachment may offer another perspective on understanding an individual's social patterns and suicide risk. This study examined attachment along with broader family functioning (family adaptability and cohesion) among 236 adolescent psychiatric inpatients with (n = 111) and without (n = 125) histories of suicide attempts. On average, adolescents were 14 years of age and Hispanic (69%). Compared to those without suicide attempts, adolescent attempters had lower self-reported maternal and paternal attachment and lower familial adaptability and cohesion. When comparing all three types of attachment simultaneously in the logistic regression model predicting suicide attempt status, paternal attachment was the only significant predictor. Suicide attempt group was also significantly predicted by self-rated Cohesion and Adaptability; neither of the parent ratings of family functioning were significant predictors. These findings are consistent with the predictions of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide about social functioning and support the efforts to develop attachment-based interventions as a novel route towards suicide prevention.

  5. Bullying and suicide attempts among adolescents kept in custody.

    PubMed

    Kiriakidis, Stavros P

    2008-01-01

    This contribution explores the associations between suicide attempts; bullying; and the familial, educational, legal, and institutional characteristics of young offenders in custody. The sample was 152 randomly selected male young offenders aged 16-21 years (M = 18.9, SD = 1.3) years from the largest young offenders' institution in Scotland, who completed structured personal interviews. Rates of reported suicide attempts were significantly higher in the population of young offenders than reported rates from general population samples. Being in residential care, the presence of a social worker for the family, family history of alcohol abuse, family history of suicide attempts, the experience of being bullied in custody, contact with a psychologist in the community, and being a violent offender were significantly related to increased risk of suicide attempts in custody. Compared to those who were not bullied, offenders who were bullied in custody were 9.22 times more likely to attempt suicide. The implications these findings for reducing bullying in penal settings are discussed.

  6. Risk factors for adult interpersonal violence in suicide attempters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicidal and violent behaviours are interlinked and share common biological underpinnings. In the present study we analysed the association between violent behaviour as a child, childhood trauma, adult psychiatric illness, and substance abuse in relation to interpersonal violence as an adult in suicide attempters with mood disorders. Methods A total of 161 suicide attempters were diagnosed with Structured Clinical Interviews and assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) measuring exposure to violence and expressed violent behaviour in childhood (between 6-14 years of age) and during adult life (15 years or older). Ninety five healthy volunteers were used as a comparison group. A logistic regression analysis was conducted with the two KIVS subscales, expressed violent behaviour as a child and exposure to violence in childhood together with substance abuse, personality disorder diagnoses and age as possible predictors of adult interpersonal violence in suicide attempters. Results Violent behaviour as a child, age and substance abuse were significant predictors of adult interpersonal violence. ROC analysis for the prediction model for adult violence with the KIVS subscale expressed violence as a child gave an AUC of 0.79. Using two predictors: violent behaviour as a child and substance abuse diagnosis gave an AUC of 0.84. The optimal cut-off for the KIVS subscale expressed violence as a child was higher for male suicide attempters. Conclusions Violent behaviour in childhood and substance abuse are important risk factors for adult interpersonal violent behaviour in suicide attempters. PMID:25001499

  7. Adolescent Attachment Security, Family Functioning, and Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Sheftall, Arielle H.; Mathias, Charles W.; Furr, R. Michael; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    Theories of suicidal behavior suggest that the desire to die can arise from disruption of interpersonal relationships. Suicide research has typically studied this from the individual's perspective of the quality/frequency of their social interactions; however, the field of attachment may offer another perspective on understanding an individual’s social patterns and suicide risk. This study examined attachment along with broader family functioning (family adaptability and cohesion) among 236 adolescent psychiatric inpatients with (n = 111) and without (n = 125) histories of suicide attempts. On average, adolescents were 14 years of age and Hispanic (69%). Compared to those without suicide attempts, adolescent attempters had lower self-reported maternal and paternal attachment and lower familial adaptability and cohesion. When comparing all 3 types of attachment simultaneously in the logistic regression model predicting suicide attempt status, paternal attachment was the only significant predictor. Suicide attempt group was also significantly predicted by self-rated Cohesion and Adaptability; neither of the parent ratings of family functioning were significant predictors. These findings are consistent with the predictions of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide about social functioning and support the efforts to develop attachment-based interventions as a novel route towards suicide prevention. PMID:23560608

  8. Familism, family environment, and suicide attempts among Latina youth.

    PubMed

    Peña, Juan B; Kuhlberg, Jill A; Zayas, Luis H; Baumann, Ana A; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n = 109) and nonattempters (n = 107) were recruited from the New York City area. Latent class analysis revealed three family environment types: tight-knit, intermediate-knit, and loose-knit. Tight-knit families (high cohesion and low conflict) were significantly less likely to have teens who attempted suicide as compared with intermediate-knit families or loose-knit families. Moreover, familism increased the odds of being in a tight-knit family versus a loose-knit family and the odds of being in a tight-knit family versus a intermediate-knit. The results suggest that familism may protect against suicide behavior among Latinas via its influence on family environment.

  9. Discerning reported suicide attempts within a youthful offender population.

    PubMed

    Mallett, Christopher; De Rigne, Lea A; Quinn, Linda; Stoddard-Dare, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    With suicide being the third leading cause of death among young people, early identification of risk is critical, particularly for those involved with the juvenile courts. In this study of court-involved youth (N = 433) in two Midwest counties, logistic regression analysis identified some expected and unexpected findings of important demographic, educational, mental health, child welfare, and juvenile court-related variables that were linked to reported suicide attempts. Some of the expected suicide attempt risk factors for these youth included prior psychiatric hospitalization and related mental health services, residential placement, and diagnoses of depression and alcohol dependence. However, the most unexpected finding was that a court disposition to shelter care (group home) was related to a nearly tenfold increased risk in reported suicide attempt. These findings are of importance to families, mental health professionals, and juvenile court personnel to identify those youth who are most at risk and subsequently provide appropriate interventions to prevent such outcomes.

  10. Investigating the Co-Occurrence of Self-Mutilation and Suicide Attempts among Opioid-Dependent Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Elizabeth; Degenhardt, Louisa; Darke, Shane; Nelson, Elliot C.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence and risk factors associated with self-mutilation among opioid dependent cases and controls were determined, and the co-occurrence of self-mutilation and attempted suicide was examined. The prevalence of self-mutilation among cases and controls did not differ significantly (25% vs. 23%, respectively), with gender differences…

  11. Low CSF oxytocin reflects high intent in suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, Jussi; Chatzittofis, Andreas; Hellström, Christer; Nordström, Peter; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin; Asberg, Marie

    2012-04-01

    Data from animal studies suggest that oxytocin is an important modulating neuropeptide in regulation of social interaction. One human study has reported a negative correlation between CSF oxytocin levels, life history of aggression and suicidal behaviour. We hypothesized that CSF oxytocin levels would be related to suicidal behaviour, suicide intent, lifetime interpersonal violence and suicide risk. 28 medication free suicide attempters and 19 healthy volunteers participated in this cross sectional and longitudinal study. CSF and plasma morning basal levels of oxytocin were assessed with specific radio-immunoassays. The Beck Suicide Intent Scale (SIS), the Freeman scale and the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) were used to assess suicide intent and lifetime violent behaviour. All patients were followed up for cause of death. The mean follow-up was 21 years. Suicide attempters had lower CSF oxytocin levels compared to healthy volunteers p=0.077. In suicide attempters CSF oxytocin showed a significant negative correlation with the planning subscale of SIS. CSF oxytocin showed a significant negative correlation with suicide intent, the planning subscale of SIS and Freeman interruption probability in male suicide attempters. Correlations between plasma oxytocin levels and the planning subscale of SIS and Freeman interruption probability were significant in male suicide attempters. Lifetime violent behaviour showed a trend to negative correlation with CSF oxytocin. In the regression analysis suicide intent remained a significant predictor of CSF oxytocin corrected for age and gender whereas lifetime violent behaviour showed a trend to be a predictor of CSF oxytocin. Oxytocin levels did not differ significantly in suicide victims compared to survivors. CSF oxytocin may be an important modulator of suicide intent and interpersonal violence in suicide attempters.

  12. [The sense of coherence and risk of suicide attempt].

    PubMed

    Polewka, A; Chrostek-Maj, J; Kroch, S; Mikołaszek-Boba, M; Ryn, E; Datka, W; Rachel, W

    2001-01-01

    The analysis was based upon 79 patients hospitalized for suicide attempts (drug intoxication) in the Department of Clinical Toxicology CM UJ in Kraków from July to December 2000. The purpose of the study was to estimate the sense of coherence level (according to Antonovsky) as a potential suicide attempt predictor. The population of patients was divided into two groups: patients after first suicide attempt (I) and group after reattempting suicide (II). The examination was based on structure interview, analysis of medical documentation and a number of tests including SOC 29 (by Antonovsky), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), and Beck Hopelessness Scale (HS 20). The most important psychological and independent variable measured in the study was the sense of coherence, introduced first by Aaron Antonovsky as a significant predictor of mental health. The sense of coherence (measured by SOC 29 questionnaire) comprises comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness. Both in foreign and in polish studies the SOC 29 level was lower in clinical groups compared to healthy people. The norm in Polish population was 139 scores in SOC 29. In the present study the average total result (men and women) was 112 scores in the group of patients after first suicide attempt, and in the group of repeated suicide attempters the average total result was even lower--only 99 scores, which makes a statistically significant difference. We also observed a statistically significant dependence between the results of SOC 20 questionnaire, the level of depression measured by Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton Depression Scale, and the level of hopelessness measured by Beck Hopelessness Scale. The above results indicate that the sense of coherence level may make significant risk factor for repeated suicide attempt.

  13. Risk Factors of Attempted Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates of bipolar patients are among the highest of any psychiatric disorder, and improved identification of risk factors for attempted and completed suicide translates into improved clinical outcome. Factors that may be predictive of suicidality in an exclusively bipolar population are examined. White race, family suicide history, and…

  14. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  16. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  17. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  18. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  19. Suicidal ideation and attempted suicide in elderly people - subjective experiences.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Denise Machado Duran; Sousa, Amandia Braga Lima; Grubits, Sonia

    2015-06-01

    We discuss the subjective experiences of elderly people who show suicidal ideation and/or attempts at suicide, based on their own reports. We understand the concept of 'subjective' as referring to intra-psychic experience resulting from social, economic, relationship or biographical conditions. Although the subject is sparsely covered in the literature, it is important, because it is in the field of subjectivity that ideations of, and attempts at, suicide develop and occur until they become a concrete act. Empirical data were collected through semi-structured interviews focusing on: social characterization, portrayal and mode of life, previous mental state, atmosphere of the attempt, effects on the health of the elderly person and family. Based on the analysis of the meanings that emerge, five empirical categories were generated: (1) subject's feeling of being in a non-place; (2) absence of acceptance of losses; (3) suffering due to ingratitude of family members; (4) feeling of uselessness of, and in, life; (5) re-signification of the situations that generate suicide-related conduct. The results point to a fundamental need to incorporate knowledge about the subjective processes into programs for prevention of suicide among the elderly who have ideation of, or attempts at, suicide.

  20. Visual-Motor Problems of Adolescents Who Attempt Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Thomas J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Using the Canter Background Interference Procedure with the Bender Gestalt Test, a group of 18 adolescent suicide attempters earned test scores indicating they had significantly more problems with visual motor coordination than did a control group of 21 adolescents. (Author/SBH)

  1. Treatment Adherence among Latina Female Adolescent Suicide Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Piacentini, John; Van Rossem, Ronan; Graae, Flemming; Cantwell, Coleen; Castro-Blanco, David; Feldman, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Disenfranchised Latina adolescents (N=140) and their mothers presenting at a large urban emergency room after a suicide attempt by the adolescent were assessed to examine treatment adherence. Predictor variables for treatment adherence were established. Results are discussed in relation to treatment session attendance. Implications for the…

  2. 31 CFR 587.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 587.204 Section 587.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA...

  3. 31 CFR 586.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 586.205 Section 586.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA...

  4. Beyond Randomized Controlled Trials in Attempted Suicide Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Simon; Sharon, Cynthia; Coggan, Carol

    2009-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence about what is the best treatment for people who present to hospital after self harm. Most treatment trials have been small and involved unrepresentative groups of patients which result in inconclusive findings. Here we note some of the characteristics of attempted suicide which make it a difficult subject to study. We…

  5. Intolerance to Delayed Reward in Girls with Multiple Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Charles W.; Dougherty, Donald M.; James, Lisa M.; Richard, Dawn M.; Dawes, Michael A.; Acheson, Ashley; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Impulsivity has been conceptualized as influencing the expression of suicidal behavior. Adolescence is a developmental period characterized both by a relatively high rate of suicide attempts and a high level of impulsivity. The current study examined two behavioral measures (delay reward and disinhibition) and one self-report measure of…

  6. Life Situations and Lifestyles of Persons Who Attempt Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakinofsky, Isaac

    A Sample of 228 suicide attempters admitted in the emergency rooms of four general hospitals in an industrial city was studied as part of an ongoing follow-up investigation of the interaction of life situations and stresses and coping skills. Approximately 60% of the sample came from chaotic homes torn apart by family conflict. An assortative…

  7. Characteristics of Suicide Attempters in a Slovenian High School Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomori, Martina; Zalar, Bojan

    2000-01-01

    In a study of Slovenian high school students (N=3,687) results show that those who had attempted suicide and those who had not differed in levels of self-esteem, emotional reaction to family problems, running away from home, and substance abuse. Differences in depression, suicide ideation, family suicide ideation, family suicide occurrence,…

  8. 31 CFR 595.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 595.205 Section 595.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  9. 31 CFR 596.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 596.202 Section 596.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS...

  10. 31 CFR 543.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 543.205 Section 543.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CôTE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS...

  11. ATTEMPTS TO ESTABLISH EXPERIMENTAL CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSIS INFECTION IN LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attempts were made to develop an animal model for Cyclospora cayetanensis to identify a practical laboratory host for studying human cyclosporiasis. Oocysts collected from stool of infected humans in the United States, Haiti, Guatemala, Peru and Nepal were held in potassium dich...

  12. 31 CFR 537.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 537.206 Section 537.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  13. 31 CFR 537.206 - Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies. 537.206 Section 537.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 537.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 537.206 Section 537.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592.202 Section 592.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL...

  16. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592.202 Section 592.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL...

  17. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592.202 Section 592.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL...

  18. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592.202 Section 592.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL...

  19. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592.202 Section 592.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL...

  20. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies. 542.205 Section 542.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS...

  1. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 542.205 Section 542.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  2. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 542.205 Section 542.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  3. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 542.205 Section 542.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  4. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 542.205 Section 542.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  5. Suicide attempts among sexual-minority male youth.

    PubMed

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C; Ream, Geoffrey L

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide data addressing Diamond's (this issue) 4 problem areas in sexual orientation research by comparing gay, bisexual, and questioning male youth who report attempting suicide with those who do not. Secondary analyses were conducted with 2 datasets, 1 with a gay support group (n = 51) and the other with online youth (n = 681). Reported suicide attempts ranged from 39% among support-group youth, to 25% among Internet gay support group youth, to 9% among Internet non-support group youth. Sexual orientation, behavior, and identity did not predict suicidal attempt status, but suicide attempters experienced higher levels of both generic life stressors (low self-esteem, substance use, victimization) and gay-related stressors, particularly those directly related to visible (femininity) and behavioral (gay sex) aspects of their sexual identity. Support-group attendance was related to higher levels of suicidality and life stressors, as well as certain resiliency factors. Results suggest that there exists a minority of sexual-minority youth who are at risk but that it would be inappropriate to characterize the entire population as such.

  6. Identifying the ERP correlate of a recognition memory search attempt

    PubMed Central

    Diana, Rachel A.; Vilberg, Kaia L.; Reder, Lynne M.

    2008-01-01

    Previous recognition memory studies have looked for differences in brain activity during recollection- and familiarity-based responding. Although an ERP component correlated with recollection success has been reported, no analogous component related to search initiation has been found. We argue that such a component has not been discovered because studies have compared trials in which participants have made a search attempt and failed (such as Know responses) with those in which the search attempt is successful (such as Remember responses). In the current study, we compared a task that required judgments of lifetime familiarity (differentiating famous from nonfamous names) with one that required judgments of episodic information (deciding whether a name was seen previously in the experiment). By comparing a task on which familiarity judgments were made with no search attempt to a second task in which a search attempt was likely to occur, we identified a component that may reflect the initiation of a memory search. This effect, maximal between 190 and 235 ms, is correlated with Old judgments in the episodic task. Previous ERP findings (e.g., FN400, parietal old/new effect) were also replicated in the present study. PMID:15885990

  7. EFL Teachers' Attempts at Feedback Innovation in the Writing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Icy; Mak, Pauline; Burns, Anne

    2016-01-01

    To date, research on feedback in second language (L2) writing has primarily focused on feedback per se, with little attention paid to the teachers' professional development with regard to feedback in writing. This study aims to explore the ways in which two secondary teachers in Hong Kong attempted to implement feedback innovation in their writing…

  8. The 24 Hours before Hospitalization: Factors Related to Suicide Attempting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, John A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Psychiatric inpatients (N=59) were interviewd concerning psychological and environmental events that occurred in the 24 hours prior to their hospitalization. Suicide attempters were more likely to have used alcohol or marijuana and less likely to have contacted a health care professional than suicide ideators, even when past history of suicide…

  9. A follow-up study of attempted railway suicides.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, I; Arthur, A J; Farmer, R D

    1994-02-01

    This paper reports the subsequent mortality of 94 persons who attempted suicide by jumping in front of London Underground trains between 1977 and 1979. The follow-up period was 10 yr. Despite the apparent seriousness of the method, completion of suicide was not found to be higher than in previous studies of attempted suicide by other methods. By the end of the follow-up period 18 persons had died, nine of natural causes. Coroners' inquests were held for the unnatural deaths. Seven verdicts of suicide and two of accidental death were recorded. Of the nine unnatural deaths four were from multiple injuries, three from drowning, one from asphyxia and one from acute narcotic poisoning. All four multiple injury deaths were women, three of these were from repeated incidents involving London Underground trains. The time interval between the index attempt and eventual death for the suicide/accident group ranged from 1 day to 43 months. For ethical reasons it was not possible to follow-up attempted suicides who were presumed to have remained alive.

  10. Heroin Addicts Reporting Previous Heroin Overdoses Also Report Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradvik, Louise; Frank, Arne; Hulenvik, Per; Medvedeo, Alvaro; Berglund, Mats

    2007-01-01

    Nonfatal heroin overdoses and suicide attempts are both common among heroin addicts, but there is limited knowledge about the association between them. The sample in the present study consisted of 149 regular heroin users in Malmo, Sweden. Out of these 98 had taken an unintentional heroin overdose at some time and 51 had made at least one attempt…

  11. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548.205 Section 548.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  12. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548.205 Section 548.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  13. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548.205 Section 548.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548.205 Section 548.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548.205 Section 548.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  16. 31 CFR 593.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 593.206 Section 593.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES...

  17. DST non-suppression predicts suicide after attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, Jussi; Carlborg, Andreas; Mårtensson, Björn; Forslund, Kaj; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Nordström, Peter

    2007-04-15

    Most prospective studies of HPA axis have found that non-suppressors in the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) are more likely to commit suicide during the follow-up. Attempted suicide is a strong clinical predictor of suicide. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of DST for suicide in a group of depressed inpatients with and without an index suicide attempt. Historical cohort of 382 psychiatric inpatients with mood disorder admitted to the department of Psychiatry at the Karolinska University Hospital between 1980 and 2000 were submitted to the DST and followed up for causes of death. During the follow-up (mean 18 years), 36 suicides (9.4%) occurred, 20 of these were non-suppressors and 16 were suppressors. There was no statistically significant difference in suicide risk between the suppressors and non-suppressors for the sample as a whole. An index suicide attempt predicted suicide. In suicide attempters with mood disorder, the non-suppressor status was significantly associated with suicide indicating that HPA axis hyperactivity is a risk factor for suicide in this group. The dexamethasone suppression test may be a useful predictor within this population.

  18. 31 CFR 538.211 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 538.211 Section 538.211 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  19. 31 CFR 537.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 537.206 Section 537.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  20. Polywater: an attempt at synthesis in a gas discharge.

    PubMed

    Leiga, A G; Vance, D W; Ward, A T

    1970-04-03

    An attempt to produce polywater in a corona discharge in moist air was unsuccessful. However, the major product produced, nitric acid, has a midrange infrared spectrum which is strikingly similar to that reported for polywater. The Raman spectrum offers a better means of distinguishing between nitric acid and polywater than the infrared spectrum does.

  1. 31 CFR 545.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 545.206 Section 545.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS...

  2. Tubal Pregnancy Associated with Endometrial Carcinoma after In Vitro Fertilization Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Bayoglu Tekin, Yesim; Guvendag Guven, Emine Seda; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Guven, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is rarely seen during reproductive ages and commonly related to infertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), and obesity. Pregnancy associated endometrial carcinoma is even rarer and this is the second case reported in the literature concerning tubal pregnancy associated endometrial carcinoma. We present a case of a 36-year-old woman with a history of PCOS, infertility, and several attempts of ovulation induction and in vitro fertilization, who was diagnosed with tubal pregnancy and a well differentiated endometrial carcinoma. We also review the literature about pregnancy associated endometrial carcinoma in the first trimester. PMID:25614844

  3. [Large atrial septal defects in adults: results of attempted systematic percutaneous closure].

    PubMed

    Petit, J; Losay, J; Lambert, V; Piot, J D; Bertaux, X

    2006-05-01

    Percutaneous closure of ostium secundum atrial septal defects became routine practice from 1998 but remained limited by the size of their diameter at balloon calibration. In March 2004, after an experience of 551 patients, the maximum admissible diameter (40 mm), the biggest size available of the Amplatzer prosthesis, could often be exceeded. The essential anatomical condition was the presence of a circumferential edge--even minimal--except adjacent to the aorta where its absence was not a problem. From 31/03/04 to 31/12/05, 17 patients, 17 to 58 years of age, were included and underwent attempted percutaneous closure by the usual protocol. The insertion of the prosthesis was difficult in every case. It required the use of several techniques to orientate the prosthesis in a satisfactory plane without risking tearing part of the residual atrial septum. The attempt was successful in 16 of the 17 patients. The one failure occurred in a patient with complete absence of a posterior edge. The postoperative course was uncomplicated without residual shunt or displacement of the occluder in the follow-up studies. The authors conclude that very big atrial septal defects with diameters of over 40 mm may be closed percutaneously with the Amplatzer device with a reasonable chance of success. These attempts do not expose the patient to any particular risk and the results, in successful attempts, are comparable to those observed in smaller atrial septal defects.

  4. High Prevalence of Psychotropics Overdose among Suicide Attempters in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinyoung; Kim, Minseob; Kim, Yoo-ra; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Objective The availability of suicide methods affects the risk of suicide attempts. This study examined the patterns of substances ingested by suicide attempters (SAs) and the characteristics of SAs using psychotropic overdoses. Methods Data for 384 of the 462 eligible SAs who used self-poisoning were analyzed. Demographic variables, clinical characteristics, and factors related to the suicide attempts were examined. Results There were 256 (66.7%) females and 128 (33.3%) males. Roughly half the SAs ingested psychotropics (n=179, 46.6%). Agricultural chemicals (n=84, 21.9%) were the second most frequently ingested substances, followed by analgesics (n=62, 16.1%), household products (n=27, 7.0%), and other prescribed medications (n=23, 6.0%). Among psychotropics, the most frequently overdosed drugs were sedative-hypnotics, including hypnotics (n=104) and benzodiazepines (n=78). SAs favored Z-drugs and alprazolam. When compared with SAs with non-psychotropic overdoses, significantly more SAs with psychotropic overdoses were female (76% vs. 58.5%, p<0.001) and had a psychiatric history (59.8% vs. 29.8%, p<0.001). They had significantly more previous suicide attempts (0.52±1.02 vs. 0.32±0.80, p<0.05) and lower risk (7.96±1.49 vs. 8.44±1.99, p<0.01) and medical severity (3.06±0.81 vs. 3.37±0.93, p<0.005) scores. Conclusion Psychotropic overdose, especially with sedative-hypnotics, was a major method in suicide attempts. It is important that psychiatric patients are carefully evaluated and monitored for suicidality when prescribing psychotropics. PMID:26598590

  5. Qualitative study on suicide attempts and ideations with 60 elderly in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Fátima Gonçalves; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Sixty cases of suicidal attempts and ideations among elderly people from thirteen Brazilian municipalities were studied, with the objective of discovering, from what they had to say, their reasons and interpretations for attempting to take their own life. The study, with a hermeneutic and dialectic basis, was based on an interview guide, to steer the conversation with these individuals. It starts with a sociodemographic classification and looks in depth at the person's situation according to their social, community and family circumstances and their physical and mental health, functional capacity, and the reasons given for the suicidal ideations and attempts. This field information was first analysed locally and then cross-categorized according to the method used, severity of the events and reasons given by the elderly people, by sex, age, socioeconomic profile and risk and protection factors. A comprehensive, critical and interpretative summary was made of the material. The results show that failure to listen to and the isolation of elderly people, lack of awareness of the risks on the part of family, the association with physical and mental, functional, social and family losses and violence are predisposing factors, and concurrent in many cases. The conclusion is that vulnerability and self-neglect are reduced where there is family support, care and bonds of unity.

  6. Reduced left precentral regional responses in patients with major depressive disorder and history of suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Tsujii, Noa; Mikawa, Wakako; Tsujimoto, Emi; Adachi, Toru; Niwa, Atsushi; Ono, Hisae; Shirakawa, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed frontal and temporal functional abnormalities in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and a history of suicidal behavior. However, it is unknown whether multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signal changes among individuals with MDD are associated with a history of suicide attempts and a diathesis for suicidal behavior (impulsivity, hopelessness, and aggression). Therefore, we aimed to explore frontotemporal hemodynamic responses in depressed patients with a history of suicide attempts using 52-channel NIRS. We recruited 30 patients with MDD and a history of suicidal behavior (suicide attempters; SAs), 38 patient controls without suicidal behavior (non-attempters; NAs), and 40 healthy controls (HCs) matched by age, gender ratio, and estimated IQ. Regional hemodynamic responses during a verbal fluency task (VFT) were monitored using NIRS. Our results showed that severities of depression, impulsivity, aggression, and hopelessness were similar between SAs and NAs. Both patient groups had significantly reduced activation compared with HCs in the bilateral frontotemporal regions. Post hoc analyses revealed that SAs exhibited a smaller hemodynamic response in the left precentral gyrus than NAs and HCs. Furthermore, the reduced response in the left inferior frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with impulsivity level and hemodynamic responses in the right middle frontal gyrus were negatively associated with hopelessness and aggression in SAs but not in NAs and HCs. Our findings suggest that MDD patients with a history of suicide attempts demonstrate patterns of VFT-induced NIRS signal changes different from those demonstrated by individuals without a history of suicidal behaviors, even in cases where clinical symptoms are similar. NIRS has a relatively high time resolution, which may help visually differentiate SAs from NAs.

  7. Novel psychoactive substance intoxication resulting in attempted murder.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard; Tuddenham, Laurence

    2014-07-01

    A man in his twenties who had no previous history of violence, snorted large quantities of two substances he identified as 3-methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP), and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV); both are recognised as novel psychoactive substances, or commonly described in the media as "legal highs". He also inhaled butane gas. He experienced vivid hallucinations and developed bizarre ideas. During this state of mind he stabbed his father multiple times and was arrested and charged with attempted murder. He had a previous history of drug induced psychosis and although he had some slight residual symptoms before he consumed the substances, these were not considered relevant to his criminal liability at the time of the offence. The hallucinations caused by the use of these substances took six weeks to completely recede. He was convicted of attempted murder and sentenced to four years in prison.

  8. First Attempts at using Active Halo Control at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Joschka; Bruce, Roderik; Garcia Morales, Hector; Höfle, Wolfgang; Kotzian, Gerd; Kwee-Hinzmann, Regina; Langner, Andy; Mereghetti, Alessio; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Adriana; Salvachua, Belen; Stancari, Giulio; Tomás, Rogelio; Valentino, Gianluca; Valuch, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    The beam halo population is a non-negligible factor for the performance of the LHC collimation system and the machine protection. In particular this could become crucial for aiming at stored beam energies of 700 MJ in the High Luminosity (HL-LHC) project, in order to avoid beam dumps caused by orbit jitter and to ensure safety during a crab cavity failure. Therefore several techniques to safely deplete the halo, i.e. active halo control, are under development. In a first attempt a novel way for safe halo depletion was tested with particle narrow-band excitation employing the LHC Transverse Damper (ADT). At an energy of 450 GeV a bunch selective beam tail scraping without affecting the core distribution was attempted. This paper presents the first measurement results, as well as a simple simulation to model the underlying dynamics.

  9. Engagement and Retention of Suicide Attempters in Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Carly J.; Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Brown, Gregory K.; Beck, Aaron T.

    2010-01-01

    Background High attrition rates in longitudinal research can limit study generalizability, threaten internal validity, and decrease statistical power. Research has demonstrated that there can be significant differences between participants who complete a research study and those who drop out prematurely, and that treatment outcomes may be dependent on retention in a treatment protocol. Aims The current paper describes the challenges encountered when implementing a randomized controlled trial of cognitive therapy for the prevention of suicide attempts and the solutions developed to overcome these problems. Methods Problems unique to suicide attempters are discussed, and strategies successfully implemented to boost retention rates are provided. Results The methods implemented appeared to increase retention rates in the randomized controlled trial. Conclusions Many steps can be taken to work with this difficult population, and researchers are encouraged to be as involved and flexible with participants as possible. PMID:20418211

  10. Soil Still in Scoop After Sample-Delivery Attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows that soil remained inside the arm's scoop after an attempt to deliver a soil sample to a laboratory oven during the lander's 60th Martian day, or sol (July 26, 2008).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Intra-operative femoral neck fracture during attempted dislocation of a reduced hemi-arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ling, Samuel Ka Kin; Ma, Chun Man; Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-05-01

    Fragility hip fractures are increasingly common and hemiarthroplasty is one of the standard treatments. Although a common surgery, it should be performed with great caution because of the poor premorbid and bone quality in this demographic. Intra-operative fractures can occur while attempting press fit of the femoral implant. However; vigilance often steps down once the implant is secured and the hip reduced. This case report reminds surgeons that a large amount of torque can be transmitted during intra-operative positioning, such as during an attempt of hip dislocation. This torque, in addition to the risk factor of osteoporotic bone, can result in iatrogenic fractures. Published literature regarding management of an intra-operative fracture while the prosthetic hip is still reduced is lacking. The authors propose that temporary prophylactic cerclage wiring is a prudent and safe procedure prior to hip dislocation.

  12. Collective efficacy, family attachment, and urban adolescent suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Maimon, David; Browning, Christopher R; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2010-09-01

    The suicide rate among American adolescents between the ages of 14-25 has dramatically increased during the last 50 years, and this fact has been the focus of extensive social-scientific investigation. To date, however, research focusing on the joint effects of mental health, family, and contextual-level predictors on adolescents' suicidal behaviors is scarce. Drawing on Durkheim's classic macro-level approach to suicide and collective efficacy theory, we use data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to examine the effect of informal social controls on adolescents' suicide attempts. Analyzing reports from 990 youth, we examine the hypothesis that neighborhood-level collective efficacy and family-level integration and social control independently affect suicide attempts. We also examine the extent to which they interact in their effects on suicidal behavior. Overall, results from multilevel logit models support the Durkheimian expectation that family attachment reduces the probability that adolescents will attempt suicide. The effect of collective efficacy is interactive in nature. Specifically, we find that collective efficacy significantly enhances the protective effect of family attachment and support on adolescent suicidal behaviors. We discuss findings within the context of social control theory.

  13. Adolescent's suicide attempts: populations at risk, vulnerability, and substance use.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Monique; Plancherel, Bernard; Laget, Jacques; Halfon, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Adolescence corresponds to a transition period that requires adaptation and change capacities and skills. Most young people succeed with this challenge, whereas a minority fail. In order to identify with the teenage culture, become autonomous, and differentiate from their parents, some adolescents choose to use drugs, beginning with the use of cigarettes, alcohol, cannabis, followed by other illicit drugs such as opiates and stimulants. A high proportion of these adolescents attempt suicide, which is the primary cause of death during adolescence in many European countries. Who are the "vulnerable" adolescents? What are the mechanisms that can explain the varieties of drug-use initiation or suicide attempts? Can "protective factors" be identified? What kind of strategies might be developed at a social and political level in order to prevent or to minimize drug abuse and suicide attempts, among other harmful behaviors? These issues will be discussed on the basis of the recent literature and in the light of a recent study carried out in the French-speaking part of Switzerland on large cohorts of adolescent drug users. Unresolved critical issues are noted and future needed research is suggested.

  14. Attempts to Produce D2-Gas-Filled Be Shells

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, B; McElfresh, M; Alford, C; Fought, E; Letts, S

    2005-01-14

    We have attempted to fabricate some 0.5 mm diameter D{sub 2}-gas-filled Be shells by coating gas-filled PVA-coated GDP mandrels with Cu-doped Be. We find that during the coating all (or most) of the gas leaks out. This is likely due to either small cracks or holes in the coating that are formed at the earliest points and are maintained during the thickness build-up of the coating, and/or to some level of intrinsic porosity in the coating. This memo documents our efforts.

  15. Prior altitude experience of climbers attempting to summit Aconcagua.

    PubMed

    Borm, Nicholas; Van Roo, Jon D; Pesce, Carlos; Courtney, D Mark; Malik, Sanjeev; Lazio, Matthew P

    2011-01-01

    Aconcagua (6962 m) is one of the seven summits and the highest mountain outside of Asia. Climbers of varying experience are drawn to its nontechnical route. Our objective was to detail the prior altitude experience of climbers attempting to summit Aconcagua. We asked all climbers on the normal route of Aconcagua to complete questionnaires with demographics and prior high altitude experience while acclimatizing at Plaza de Mulas base camp during 9 nonconsecutive days in January 2009. 127 volunteers from 22 countries were enrolled. Mean age was 39.8 years and 88.2% were male. Median altitude at place of residence was 200 m (IQR: 30, 700). Median previous maximum altitude reached was 5895 m (IQR: 5365, 6150). 7.1% of climbers had never been above 4000 m. Median previous maximum sleeping altitude was 4800 m (IQR: 4300, 5486). 12.6% of climbers had never slept above 4000 m. Climbers who performed acclimatization treks spent a mean of 3.6 (2.5, 4.7) days at>3000 m in the previous 2 months. However, 50.4% of climbers performed no acclimatization treks. Although the majority of mountaineers who attempt Aconcagua have prior high altitude experience, a substantial minority has never been above 4000 m.

  16. Male brush-turkeys attempt sexual coercion in unusual circumstances.

    PubMed

    Wells, David A; Jones, Darryl N; Bulger, David; Brown, Culum

    2014-07-01

    Sexual coercion by males is generally understood to have three forms: forced copulation, harassment and intimidation. We studied Australian brush-turkeys, Alectura lathami, to determine whether some male behaviours towards females at incubation mounds could be classified as aggressive, whether males were attempting sexual coercion and, if so, whether the coercion was successful. We found that some male behaviours towards females were significantly more likely to be followed by the cessation of female mound activity, and hence could be classified as aggressive, while others were significantly more likely to be followed by the commencement of female mound activity, and hence could be classified as enticing. Copulation was preceded by higher rates of male enticement and by higher rates of certain types of male aggression. It therefore seemed that males were attempting sexual coercion. There was little evidence, however, that this combination of coercion and enticement was successful in obtaining copulations. While forced copulation did occur, it was infrequent, and no evidence could be found for intimidation. We conclude that harassment is the primary form of sexual coercion by male brush-turkeys. Although sexual coercion is understood to be a sub-optimal tactic, brush-turkey sexual coercion was employed as a primary tactic by dominant males who owned incubation mounds. One possible explanation for this apparent paradox is that aggression is the default solution for social conflicts in this species, and hence can be interpreted as a behavioural syndrome.

  17. Does Household Gun Access Increase the Risk of Attempted Suicide?: Evidence from a National Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Adam M.; Lizotte, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to assess if home firearm access increases the risk of nonfatal suicidal attempts among adolescents. Such a gun focus has largely been limited to case-control studies on completed suicides. This line of research has found that household gun access increases the risk of suicide due to features of available firearms…

  18. Young People's Risk of Suicide Attempts in Relation to Parental Death: A Population-Based Register Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Christiansen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to examine the association between the death of a biological parent and subsequent suicide attempts by young people (aged 10-22 years), and to explore sociodemographic factors as modifying factors in the process. Methods: The study used a nested case-control design. The full study population was obtained…

  19. Genome-Wide Association Study of Suicide Attempts in Mood Disorder Patients

    PubMed Central

    Perlis, Roy H.; Huang, Jie; Purcell, Shaun; Fava, Maurizio; Rush, A. John; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Hamilton, Steven P.; McMahon, Francis J.; Schulze, Thomas; Potash, James B.; Zandi, Peter P.; Willour, Virginia L.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Rietschel, Marcella; Nöthen, Markus; Cichon, Sven; Gurling, Hugh; Bass, Nick; McQuillin, Andrew; Hamshere, Marian; Craddock, Nick; Sklar, Pamela; Smoller, Jordan W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Family and twin studies suggest that liability for suicide attempts is heritable and distinct from mood disorder susceptibility. The authors therefore examined the association between common genomewide variation and lifetime suicide attempts. Method The authors analyzed data on lifetime suicide attempts from genomewide association studies of bipolar I and II disorder as well as major depressive disorder. Bipolar disorder subjects were drawn from the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder cohort, the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium bipolar cohort, and the University College London cohort. Replication was pursued in the NIMH Genetic Association Information Network bipolar disorder project and a German clinical cohort. Depression subjects were drawn from the Sequential Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression cohort, with replication in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety/Netherlands Twin Register depression cohort. Results Strongest evidence of association for suicide attempt in bipolar disorder was observed in a region without identified genes (rs1466846); five loci also showed suggestive evidence of association. In major depression, strongest evidence of association was observed for a single nucleotide polymorphism in ABI3BP, with six loci also showing suggestive association. Replication cohorts did not provide further support for these loci. However, meta-analysis incorporating approximately 8,700 mood disorder subjects identified four additional regions that met the threshold for suggestive association, including the locus containing the gene coding for protein kinase C-epsilon, previously implicated in models of mood and anxiety. Conclusions The results suggest that inherited risk for suicide among mood disorder patients is unlikely to be the result of individual common variants of large effect. They nonetheless provide suggestive evidence for multiple loci, which merit further investigation. PMID:21041247

  20. The Impact of Non-attempted and Dually-Attempted Items on Person Abilities Using Item Response Theory

    PubMed Central

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Tsaousis, Ioannis; Al Harbi, Khaleel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate response strategy with person ability estimates. Two behavioral strategies were examined: (a) the strategy to skip items in order to save time on timed tests, and, (b) the strategy to select two responses on an item, with the hope that one of them may be considered correct. Participants were 4,422 individuals who were administered a standardized achievement measure related to math, biology, chemistry, and physics. In the present evaluation, only the physics subscale was employed. Two analyses were conducted: (a) a person-based one to identify differences between groups and potential correlates of those differences, and, (b) a measure-based analysis in order to identify the parts of the measure that were responsible for potential group differentiation. For (a) person abilities the 2-PL model was employed and later the 3-PL and 4-PL models in order to estimate upper and lower asymptotes of person abilities. For (b) differential item functioning, differential test functioning, and differential distractor functioning were investigated. Results indicated that there were significant differences between groups with completers having the highest ability compared to both non-attempters and dual responders. There were no significant differences between no-attempters and dual responders. The present findings have implications for response strategy efficacy and measure evaluation, revision, and construction. PMID:27790174

  1. Assessing motivations for suicide attempts: development and psychometric properties of the inventory of motivations for suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    May, Alexis M; Klonsky, E David

    2013-10-01

    This study describes the psychometric properties of the Inventory of Motivations for Suicide Attempts (IMSA). The IMSA was designed to comprehensively assess motivations for suicide emphasized by major theories of suicidality. The IMSA was administered to two samples of recent suicide attempters, undergraduates (n = 66) and outpatients (n = 53). The IMSA exhibited a reliable two-factor structure in which one factor represented Intrapersonal motivations related to ending emotional pain, and the second represented Interpersonal motivations related to communication or help-seeking. Convergent validity and divergent validity of IMSA scales were supported by expected patterns of correlations with another measure of suicide motivations. In addition, the IMSA scales displayed clinical utility, in which greater endorsement of intrapersonal motivations was associated with greater intent to die, whereas greater endorsement of interpersonal motivations was associated with less lethal intent and greater likelihood of rescue. Findings suggest the IMSA can be of use for both research and clinical purposes when a comprehensive assessment of suicide motivations is desired.

  2. Early Attempts to Detect the Neutrino at the Cavendish Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Jaume

    2006-03-01

    In the 1920s and early 1930s the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge was preeminent in experimental research on radioactivity and nuclear physics, with theoretical physics playing a subsidiary role in guiding, but not determining the course of experimental research. Soon after Wolfgang Pauli (1900 1958) proposed his neutrino hypothesis in 1930 to preserve conservation of energy and momentum in beta decay, experiments the first of their kind were carried out in the Cavendish Laboratory to detect Pauli’s elusive particle, but they were abandoned in 1936. I trace these early attempts and suggest reasons for their abandonment, which may contribute to an understanding of the complex way in which theoretical entities are accepted by physicists.

  3. Replication data collection highlights value in diversity of replication attempts

    PubMed Central

    DeSoto, K. Andrew; Schweinsberg, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Researchers agree that replicability and reproducibility are key aspects of science. A collection of Data Descriptors published in Scientific Data presents data obtained in the process of attempting to replicate previously published research. These new replication data describe published and unpublished projects. The different papers in this collection highlight the many ways that scientific replications can be conducted, and they reveal the benefits and challenges of crucial replication research. The organizers of this collection encourage scientists to reuse the data contained in the collection for their own work, and also believe that these replication examples can serve as educational resources for students, early-career researchers, and experienced scientists alike who are interested in learning more about the process of replication. PMID:28291224

  4. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ATTEMPTED SUICIDE IN ARMED FORCES

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    The Indian Armed Forces with a closely knit community, life of their own provides a unique opportunity to study the adaptive and maladaptive characteristics of his actions. In this study thirty two percent of attempted suicide in the Armed Forces achieved discharge from service is a testament to the urgency and intensity of the need to get out of the service. Twently-two percent of control psychiathc in-patient who sought environmental change also achieved premature discharge from service, further highlights the intensity of the need of these patients to change their environment. The intensity of these patients need to change their environment is coupled with a marked sense of isolation. They find themselves not only friendless but also incapable of making friends. PMID:21206584

  5. Results of an attempt to reproduce the STAP phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Aizawa, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, Obokata and colleagues reported their observation of a novel cell reprogramming phenomenon they named ‘stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency’ (STAP). The most conclusive evidence for the pluripotency of so-called STAP cells was the purported ability of such cells to contribute to chimera formation. Here, I report the results of an attempt by Haruko Obokata to replicate the phenomenon under the supervision of the Scientific Validity Examination Team of RIKEN. In this follow-up study, putative STAP cells prepared by Haruko Obokata were injected into 1051 embryos, of which 591 were recovered. However, the injected cells made no significant contribution in any of the embryos that developed. PMID:27610221

  6. Behavior of Puerto Rican parrots during failed nesting attempts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.A.; Wilson, M.H.; Field, R.

    1997-01-01

    We compared patterns of nesting behavior of four pairs of Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) that experienced failed nesting attempts to behavior of four pairs of parrots that experienced no substantial nest problems and successfully fledged young without management intervention. Only changes in female parrots' behavior were clearly associated with nest failure. During incubation, decreases in nest attendance, increases in duration of recesses, and increases in frequency of nest entries by female parrots were associated with imminent abandonment of nests. During early chick rearing, similar behavior was associated with the loss of broods. Low nest attendance and long recesses by female parrots during incubation were also associated with successful hatching of eggs followed by death of young several days later. The behavior patterns and changes in Puerto Rican Parrot nesting behavior described in this paper may alert biologists to nest problems that might be mitigated by management intervention.

  7. An aeronautic suicide attempt (2). The psychiatrist's comments.

    PubMed

    Spengler, A

    1993-01-01

    A man without previous flying experience stole an aircraft and took off in order to commit suicide. An air traffic controller managed to convince him to land the plane. This article reports the psychiatrist's investigation into the case.

  8. 'Headless' Chosen for Attempt to Move a Martian Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A rock informally named 'Headless,' on the north side of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, has been selected for an attempt to slide the rock aside with the lander's robotic arm.

    Moving rocks is not among the many tasks the arm was designed to do, but if the maneuver can be accomplished, scientists on the Phoenix team hope to check whether the depth to a subsurface ice layer is any different underneath the area where the rock now sits.

    Headless is about 19 centimeters (7 inches) long, 10 centimeters (4 inches) wide, extends 2 to 3 centimetes (about 1 inch) above the surface.

    This image, originally posted on Aug. 27, 2008 without the label on Headless, is a mosaic of images taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Phoenix, showing the workspace reachable with the robotic arm. The camera took the images during the early afternoon of the mission's 90th Martian day, corresponding to overnight Aug. 25 to Aug. 26.

    The shadow of the the camera itself, atop its mast, is just left of the center of the image and roughly a third of a meter (one foot) wide.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. 100 Years of Attempts to Transform Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Valerie K.; Meltzer, David E.

    2016-12-01

    As far back as the late 1800s, U.S. physics teachers expressed many of the same ideas about physics education reform that are advocated today. However, several popular reform efforts eventually failed to have wide impact, despite strong and enthusiastic support within the physics education community. Broad-scale implementation of improved instructional models today may be just as elusive as it has been in the past, and for similar reasons. Although excellent instructional models exist and have been available for decades, effective and scalable plans for transforming practice on a national basis have yet to be developed and implemented. Present-day teachers, education researchers, and policy makers can find much to learn from past efforts, both in their successes and their failures. To this end, we present a brief outline of some key ideas in U.S. physics education during the past 130 years. We address three core questions that are prominent in the literature: (a) Why and how should physics be taught? (b) What physics should be taught? (c) To whom should physics be taught? Related issues include the role of the laboratory and attempts to make physics relevant to everyday life. We provide here only a brief summary of the issues and debates found in primary-source literature; an extensive collection of historical resources on physics education is available at https://sites.google.com/site/physicseducationhistory/home.

  10. Another attempt to overcome the bent element blues

    SciTech Connect

    Gresho, P.M.; Leone, J.M. Jr.

    1984-02-01

    This paper is the second of a pair in which we attempt, mostly unsuccessfully, to patch a perceived defect in the Galerkin finite element approximations to the pressure gradient. The first was presented earlier this year (Gresho, et al. (1984a)). specifically, we address the problems associated with the bilinear velocity, piecewise-constant pressure element for solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. When the discrete approximation to gradient of P is examined on a mesh of distorted elements (via the bilinear isoparametric mapping), it appears to be not very accurate; from a Taylor series viewpoint, this element is not meant to be bent. After exposing these alleged defects, we proceed to patch the gradient approximation. In the limited context of our techniques used to integrate the time-dependent equations, we discuss and demonstrate the advantages of the new approximation. But we also discuss the numerous disadvantages uncovered during our investigation and, in the end, admit failure - and we continue to sing the Bent Element Blues.

  11. An attempt to decrease anisotropic emissions of neutrons from a cylindrical 241Am-Be-encapsulation source.

    PubMed

    Kowatari, M; Tanimura, Y; Yoshizawa, M

    2014-10-01

    An attempt to decrease the anisotropic emissions of neutrons from a cylindrical (241)Am-Be-encapsulated X3 source was conducted with Monte Carlo calculations and experiments. The influence of metal materials and shapes of the external casing to the anisotropy factor were focussed on. Results obtained by calculations using MCNP4C implied that a light and spherical-shaped external casing decreases the anisotropic emission of neutrons. Experimental results using the spherical-shaped aluminium protection case also revealed that the anisotropy factor was close to 1.0 with wide zenith angle ranges.

  12. Second Attempt of Cabergoline Withdrawal in Patients with Prolactinomas after a Failed First Attempt: Is it Worthwhile?

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Lucio; Albuquerque, José Luciano; Gadelha, Patrícia Sampaio; Rangel Filho, Frederico; Siqueira, Aline Maria C.; da Fonseca, Maíra Melo; Viana, Karoline Frazão; Gomes, Barbara Sales; Lyra, Ruy

    2015-01-01

    Successful discontinuation of cabergoline (CAB) treatment has been reported in 31–75% of prolactinomas patients treated for at least 2 years. In contrast, it is not well established whether CAB therapy can be successfully withdrawn after a failed first attempt. This prospective open trial was designed to address this topic and to try to identify possible predictor factors. Among 180 patients with prolactinomas on CAB therapy, the authors selected those who fulfilled very strict criteria, particularly additional CAB therapy for at least 2 years, normalization of serum prolactin (PRL) levels following CAB restart, no tumor remnant >10 mm, no previous pituitary radiotherapy or surgery; and current CAB dose ≤1.0 mg/week. Recurrence was defined as an increase of PRL levels above the upper limit of normal. A total of 34 patients (70.6% female) treated with CAB for 24–30 months were recruited. Ten patients (29.4%) remained without evidence of recurrence after 24–26 months of follow-up. Twenty-four patients (70.6%) recurred within 15 months (75% within 12 months) after drug withdrawal and ~80% were restarted CAB. Median time to recurrence was 10.5 months (range, 3–15). Despite overlapping values, non-recurring patients had significantly lower mean PRL levels before withdrawal. Moreover, the recurrence rate was lower in subjects without visible tumor on pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) than in those with small remnant tumor (60 vs. 79%), though the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.20). No other characteristic could be identified as a predictor of successful CAB discontinuation. In conclusion, a second attempt of CAB withdrawal after two additional years of therapy may be successful, particularly in patients with lower PRL levels and no visible tumor on pituitary MRI. Close monitoring of PRL level is mandatory, especially within the first year after withdrawal, where most recurrences are detected. PMID:25699020

  13. Second Attempt of Cabergoline Withdrawal in Patients with Prolactinomas after a Failed First Attempt: Is it Worthwhile?

    PubMed

    Vilar, Lucio; Albuquerque, José Luciano; Gadelha, Patrícia Sampaio; Rangel Filho, Frederico; Siqueira, Aline Maria C; da Fonseca, Maíra Melo; Viana, Karoline Frazão; Gomes, Barbara Sales; Lyra, Ruy

    2015-01-01

    Successful discontinuation of cabergoline (CAB) treatment has been reported in 31-75% of prolactinomas patients treated for at least 2 years. In contrast, it is not well established whether CAB therapy can be successfully withdrawn after a failed first attempt. This prospective open trial was designed to address this topic and to try to identify possible predictor factors. Among 180 patients with prolactinomas on CAB therapy, the authors selected those who fulfilled very strict criteria, particularly additional CAB therapy for at least 2 years, normalization of serum prolactin (PRL) levels following CAB restart, no tumor remnant >10 mm, no previous pituitary radiotherapy or surgery; and current CAB dose ≤1.0 mg/week. Recurrence was defined as an increase of PRL levels above the upper limit of normal. A total of 34 patients (70.6% female) treated with CAB for 24-30 months were recruited. Ten patients (29.4%) remained without evidence of recurrence after 24-26 months of follow-up. Twenty-four patients (70.6%) recurred within 15 months (75% within 12 months) after drug withdrawal and ~80% were restarted CAB. Median time to recurrence was 10.5 months (range, 3-15). Despite overlapping values, non-recurring patients had significantly lower mean PRL levels before withdrawal. Moreover, the recurrence rate was lower in subjects without visible tumor on pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) than in those with small remnant tumor (60 vs. 79%), though the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.20). No other characteristic could be identified as a predictor of successful CAB discontinuation. In conclusion, a second attempt of CAB withdrawal after two additional years of therapy may be successful, particularly in patients with lower PRL levels and no visible tumor on pituitary MRI. Close monitoring of PRL level is mandatory, especially within the first year after withdrawal, where most recurrences are detected.

  14. Attempt towards a novel classification of triple-negative breast cancer using immunohistochemical markers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Xi; Wang, Ke-Ren; Xing, Hua; Zhai, Xu-Jie; Wang, Li-Ping; Wang, Wan

    2016-08-01

    Significant efforts have been made to gain a better understanding of the heterogeneity of triple-negative breast cancers from the histological to the molecular and genomic levels. In this study, we attempted to bring forward gene expression subtypes of triple-negative breast cancer (TBNC) to the clinic, by translating gene stratification to clinically accessible immunohistochemical (IHC) classification. Using IHC analysis, we categorized 154 TBNC cases into three main subclasses. Differences in the frequencies of basic characteristics and clinicopathological parameters between the subtypes were examined using Chi-square tests. We defined three main groups among the 154 triple-negative cases. The basal-like (BL) group expressed cytokeratin (CK) 5/6 and/or CK14 (83 cases), the AR(+) group demonstrated positivity for androgen receptor (18 cases), and the final group exhibited a CD44+CD24-(/)low phenotype (39 cases). There were three overlapping cases between the BL subgroup and the CD44+CD24-/low phenotype subgroup, and 11 unclassified cases. In this new IHC classification, three subcategories exhibited a statistical difference with regard to age, tumor size, histological grade, tumor necrosis, Ki67 labeling index, relapse-free survival, breast cancer-specific survival and response to chemotherapy. According to our definition, the BL group and CD44+CD24-(/)low phenotype could be observed in tumors that were not triple-negative, and BL tumors that were triple-negative demonstrated almost undistinguishable clinicopathological characteristics compared with BL tumors that were not triple-negative. The same observation was made with CD44+CD24-/low tumors that were triple-negative vs. CD44+CD24-(/)low tumors that were not. The AR+ group demonstrated undistinguishable clinicopathological characteristics compared with the luminal subtype. We successfully distinguished three subtypes exhibiting diverse clinicopathological and prognostic characteristics with the minimum use of

  15. Between Teacher & Parent: Helping the Child Who Attempts Daredevil Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodkin, Adele M.

    2006-01-01

    The urge to surpass their current skills is not unusual for healthy young children. In fact, without it, they wouldn't have bothered to crawl, then stand, then walk, and later "climb many Mt. Everests." In this article, the author assesses the case of a child who carries it a bit further than most children, which frequently put this child's safety…

  16. [The analysis of physicians' work: announcing the end of attempts at in vitro fertilization].

    PubMed

    Santiago-Delefosse, M; Cahen, F; Coeffin-Driol, C

    2003-01-01

    private medical practice increases self-esteem in cases of success but weakens it when IVF attempts fail. In addition, it goes against collective involvement in the work situation, yet such involvement may act as a strong moderating factor for the experience of distress. The second area contrasts work that is well done with recognition by peers. Indeed, in the hierarchy of medical values, recognition by peers that work has been well performed is anchored in successful healing (in the broad sense of the term), whereas in situations of abandonment of IVF attempts, ending the attempt is considered by everyone to be a failure, even if it has been well conducted . The third area opposes objective medical practice to a necessarily subjective medical involvement. The scientific and ideal values which characterise medicine reflect its objective and scientific orientation, but IVF situations are a reminder that medicine is not an exact science and that it can make mistakes. There are numerous special individual cases which reduce certainty that a decision to terminate IVF is well-founded. The fourth area distinguishes between work that is considered to be well done and work considered to be well conducted . Personal estimation of work that is well done is based on the impression that the maximum feasible has been done . But in IVF situations, constant uncertainty leads to professional over-involvement (examinations, verifications, changes of protocols). Work that is poorly done is work that does not cure or that brings no relief. As a result, work that consists in ending IVF attempts, even if it is well conducted , remains a subjective failure for everyone since it does not bring a cure (pregnancy). 2. Areas of tension in the physician-patient relationship. The first area contrasts women's irrational desire with possible support from their husbands, when the time has come to announce the end of the attempts. But this voice/presence of husbands is consi-dered desirable and

  17. Microbiology: lessons from a first attempt at Lake Ellsworth.

    PubMed

    Pearce, D A; Magiopoulos, I; Mowlem, M; Tranter, M; Holt, G; Woodward, J; Siegert, M J

    2016-01-28

    During the attempt to directly access, measure and sample Subglacial Lake Ellsworth in 2012-2013, we conducted microbiological analyses of the drilling equipment, scientific instrumentation, field camp and natural surroundings. From these studies, a number of lessons can be learned about the cleanliness of deep Antarctic subglacial lake access leading to, in particular, knowledge of the limitations of some of the most basic relevant microbiological principles. Here, we focus on five of the core challenges faced and describe how cleanliness and sterilization were implemented in the field. In the light of our field experiences, we consider how effective these actions were, and what can be learnt for future subglacial exploration missions. The five areas covered are: (i) field camp environment and activities, (ii) the engineering processes surrounding the hot water drilling, (iii) sample handling, including recovery, stability and preservation, (iv) clean access methodologies and removal of sample material, and (v) the biodiversity and distribution of bacteria around the Antarctic. Comparisons are made between the microbiology of the Lake Ellsworth field site and other Antarctic systems, including the lakes on Signy Island, and on the Antarctic Peninsula at Lake Hodgson. Ongoing research to better define and characterize the behaviour of natural and introduced microbial populations in response to deep-ice drilling is also discussed. We recommend that future access programmes: (i) assess each specific local environment in enhanced detail due to the potential for local contamination, (ii) consider the sterility of the access in more detail, specifically focusing on single cell colonization and the introduction of new species through contamination of pre-existing microbial communities, (iii) consider experimental bias in methodological approaches, (iv) undertake in situ biodiversity detection to mitigate risk of non-sample return and post-sample contamination, and (v

  18. Attempted treatment of tigers (Panthera tigris) infected with Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Sykes, John M; Ramsay, Edward C

    2007-06-01

    An outbreak of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis occurred in tigers (Panthera tigris) at an exotic felid sanctuary in 2003. In an attempt to find an effective, practical, safe, and affordable method for controlling this epizootic, a clinical treatment trial was conducted. Nonalopecic tigers were studied to address the inapparent carrier state observed at the facility. The efficacy of three topical and environmental treatment combinations of a 2% lime sulfur solution and a peroxide-based cleaner were evaluated in nonalopecic, culture-positive tigers (n = 18) housed in four separate enclosures. Lime sulfur solution was applied topically to all of these animals. As a control, nonalopecic but culture-positive tigers (n = 6) housed in two other enclosures were not treated. Environmental treatments included lime sulfur solution (n = 1), a peroxide-based cleaner (n = 1), and no treatment (n = 2). All solutions were applied at 2-wk intervals for seven treatments. The 2% lime sulfur solution treatments were unsuccessful in resolving infections in most tigers. Lime sulfur was effective in suppressing environmental fungal growth immediately posttreatment, whereas the peroxide-based cleaner was not effective. A follow-up survey of all study tigers and their enclosures was conducted 2 yr later, at which time 22 of 24 tigers (92%) had attained resolution, defined as two sequential negative hair cultures. Review of the culture results during the clinical trial and follow-up study suggests that nonalopecic dermatophytosis in tigers that are housed outdoors may not warrant aggressive individual or environmental treatment, as the infection may clear with time.

  19. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Player, Michael J.; Proudfoot, Judy; Fogarty, Andrea; Whittle, Erin; Spurrier, Michael; Shand, Fiona; Christensen, Helen; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Wilhelm, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men’s specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1) development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors), (2) men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3) understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4) distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5) suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals’ preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk. PMID:26090794

  20. A. Philip Randolph's Attempt at Equal Economic Opportunity: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Joel

    2013-01-01

    A. Philip Randolph, the national president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters was one of the driving forces behind the March on Washington Movement in 1941. In frustration over the federal government's lack of support for opportunities in the booming war industries and equality in the military, Randolph had begun to organize the March…

  1. Non-surgical and non-chemical attempts to treat echinococcosis: do they work?

    PubMed Central

    Tamarozzi, Francesca; Vuitton, Lucine; Brunetti, Enrico; Vuitton, Dominique Angèle; Koch, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) are chronic, complex and neglected diseases. Their treatment depends on a number of factors related to the lesion, setting and patient. We performed a literature review of curative or palliative non-surgical, non-chemical interventions in CE and AE. In CE, some of these techniques, like radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA), were shelved after initial attempts, while others, such as High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound, appear promising but are still in a pre-clinical phase. In AE, RFA has never been tested, however, radiotherapy or heavy-ion therapies have been attempted in experimental models. Still, application to humans is questionable. In CE, although prospective clinical studies are still lacking, therapeutic, non-surgical drainage techniques, such as PAIR (puncture, aspiration, injection, re-aspiration) and its derivatives, are now considered a useful option in selected cases. Finally, palliative, non-surgical drainage techniques such as US- or CT-guided percutaneous biliary drainage, centro-parasitic abscesses drainage, or vascular stenting were performed successfully. Recently, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)-associated techniques have become increasingly used to manage biliary fistulas in CE and biliary obstructions in AE. Development of pre-clinical animal models would allow testing for AE techniques developed for other indications, e.g. cancer. Prospective trials are required to determine the best use of PAIR, and associated procedures, and the indications and techniques of palliative drainage. PMID:25531730

  2. Abdominal aortic thrombosis in association with an attempted Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    Roehm, E F; Twiest, M W; Williams, R C

    1983-03-04

    We report herein a case of an incorrectly applied Heimlich maneuver--to the best of our knowledge, the first reported fatal complication associated with a Heimlich maneuver, acute thrombosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, and the distal aorta. While the Heimlich maneuver is effective for the relief of foreign body-induced upper airway obstruction, increased efforts should be directed toward instructing the public in correctly recognizing and optimally treating airway obstruction.

  3. Tobacco Use and Suicide Attempt: Longitudinal Analysis with Retrospective Reports

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Ivan; Hakes, Jahn K.; Hu, Mei-Chen; Covey, Lirio S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide has been associated with smoking/tobacco use but its association of and change in smoking/tobacco use status with suicide attempt (SA) is not well established. Methods We investigated whether persistent, former tobacco use, initiation, quitting tobacco use, relapse to tobacco use, and DSM-IV nicotine dependence predict independently SA using Wave 1 and 2 data of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. Data from 34,653 US adults interviewed at Wave 1 (2001-02) and Wave 2 (2004-05) were analyzed. The main outcome measure was SA between Wave 1 and Wave 2 as reported at Wave 2. Results Among the 1,673 respondents reporting lifetime SA at Wave 2, 328 individuals reported SA between Wave 1 and Wave 2. Current and former tobacco use at Wave 1 predicted Wave 2 SA independently of socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric history, and prior SA (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.49; 95% CI: 1.13-1.95, AOR: 1.31; 95% CI:1.01-1.69, respectively versus never tobacco users). The strongest association with SA was observed among former tobacco users who relapsed after Wave 1 (AOR: 4.66; 95% CI: 3.49-6.24) and among tobacco use initiators after Wave 1 (AOR: 3.16; 95% CI: 2.23-4.49). Persistent tobacco use (current tobacco use at both Wave 1 and Wave 2) also had an increased risk of SA (AOR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.47-2.42). However, former tobacco users in both Waves 1 and 2 did not show a significantly elevated risk for SA in Wave 2 (AOR:1.09, 95% CI: 0.78-1.52) suggesting that the risk resided mainly in Wave 1 former tobacco users who relapsed to tobacco use by Wave 2. DSM-IV nicotine dependence did not predict SA at Wave 2. Conclusion In a representative sample of US adults, relapse, tobacco use initiation, and persistent tobacco use, which are amenable to intervention, were associated with risk of SA. PMID:25849514

  4. Attitudes towards suicide attempts broadcast on social media: an exploratory study of Chinese microblogs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoxiao; Hao, Bibo; O’Dea, Bridianne; Christensen, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Broadcasting a suicide attempt on social media has become a public health concern in many countries, particularly in China. In these cases, social media users are likely to be the first to witness the suicide attempt, and their attitudes may determine their likelihood of joining rescue efforts. This paper examines Chinese social media (Weibo) users’ attitudes towards suicide attempts broadcast on Weibo. Methods. A total of 4,969 Weibo posts were selected from a customised Weibo User Pool which consisted of 1.06 million active users. The selected posts were then independently coded by two researchers using a coding framework that assessed: (a) Themes, (b) General attitudes, (c) Stigmatising attitudes, (d) Perceived motivations, and (e) Desired responses. Results and Discussion. More than one third of Weibo posts were coded as “stigmatising” (35%). Among these, 22%, 16%, and 15% of posts were coded as “deceitful,” “pathetic,” and “stupid,” respectively. Among the posts which reflected different types of perceived motivations, 57% of posts were coded as “seeking attention.” Among the posts which reflected desired responses, 37% were “not saving” and 28% were “encouraging suicide.” Furthermore, among the posts with negative desired responses (i.e., “not saving” and “encouraging suicide”), 57% and 17% of them were related to different types of stigmatising attitudes and perceived motivations, respectively. Specifically, 29% and 26% of posts reflecting both stigmatising attitudes and negative desired responses were coded as “deceitful” and “pathetic,” respectively, while 66% of posts reflecting both perceived motivations, and negative desired responses were coded as “seeking attention.” Very few posts “promoted literacy” (2%) or “provided resources” (8%). Gender differences existed in multiple categories. Conclusions. This paper confirms the need for stigma reduction campaigns for Chinese social

  5. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Interpersonal Violence in Suicide Attempters.

    PubMed

    Sahlin, Hanna; Moberg, Tomas; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Jokinen, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    The current study compared characteristics of suicidal behavior and interpersonal violence in suicide attempters with and without a history of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). A total of 100 suicide attempters were assessed with Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) and Karolinska Suicide History Interview concerning interpersonal violence and NSSI. There was a high degree of comorbid NSSI in suicide attempters (44%). Suicide attempters with NSSI-history reported more interpersonal violence as adults and more severe suicidal behavior compared to suicide attempters without NSSI. Comorbid NSSI was related to severity of suicidal behavior in a gender specific manner. Comorbid NSSI in suicide attempters may increase suicide and violence risk.

  6. High Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis after a Suicide Attempt with Cyanide: The Rebirth of Cyanide Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Po-Jen; Chang, Che-Fu; Chiu, Chih-Chien; Chan, Jenq-Shyong; Chiang, Wen-Fang; Wu, Chia-Chao; Lin, Shih-Hua; Chen, Jin-Shuen

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman was admitted to our emergency department in a state of unconsciousness after attempting suicide with unknown substances. Severe metabolic acidosis (pH: 6.81), with a high anion gap (36.2) and high lactate level (20.2 mmol/L), was observed. After four hours of intensive medical treatment, the patient regained consciousness, with a return of the arterial pH to 7.42. Finally, cyanide intoxication was diagnosed based on the detection of a serum cyanide level of 3.5 mg/L. The presence of a high anion gap associated with severe lactic acidosis is a clue for making a rapid differential diagnosis of acute cyanide intoxication. Providing intensive and immediate supportive management is also crucial, even in cases without obtainable specific antidotes.

  7. Factitious Disorder Presenting with Attempted Simulation of Fournier’s Gangrene

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Joseph; Poullos, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Fournier’s gangrene is a severe polymicrobial necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, genital, or perianal regions. The classic presentation is severe pain and swelling with systemic signs. Crepitus and cutaneous necrosis are often seen. Characteristic CT findings include subcutaneous gas and inflammatory stranding. Unless treated aggressively, patients can rapidly become septic and die. Factitious Disorder is the falsification of one’s own of medical or psychological signs and symptoms. Many deceptive methods have been described, from falsely reporting physical or psychological symptoms, to manipulating lab tests, or even injecting or ingesting foreign substances in order to induce illness. We present a case of a 35-year-old man with factitious disorder who attempted to simulate Fournier’s gangrene by injecting his scrotum with air and fluid. We will review the clinical presentation and diagnosis of Factitious Disorder, as well as Fournier’s gangrene. PMID:27761196

  8. Suicidality and suicide attempt in a young female on long-term sertraline treatment.

    PubMed

    Santra, Ranjita; Chaudhuri, Patralekha Ray; Dhali, Dibyendu; Mondal, Shirsendu

    2012-10-01

    A 22-year-old woman who was on sertraline 50 mg oral tablets once daily for 2 years for treatment of major depression took 30 such tablets (1500 mg) in a fit of rage, with a suicidal intent. She presented to the Emergency Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital with tachycardia, tachypnea, hypertension, tremors, agitation, confusion, vomiting, and hyperthermia. The patient was admitted and treated symptomatically, and sertraline therapy was discontinued. The unwanted effects subsided within 48 h and she recovered uneventfully within 72 h. This case report describes an unsuccessful attempt of suicide with sertraline overdose in a patient on long-term sertraline therapy and underlines the importance of close monitoring of such patients.

  9. [Clinico-psychopathological characteristics of states in patients with suicidal attempts].

    PubMed

    Ostroglazov, V G; Lisina, M A

    2000-01-01

    A total psychiatric examination of the persons, after attempted suicides was performed during a month of stay in the department of resuscitation of the N.V. Sklifosovsky Institute for the Emergency Medical care. In all the patients some mental pathology was found that took place in the moment of suicide and long before it. In most of the cases the disorders of either affective (48.7%) or schizophrenic (38.5%) spectrum were diagnosed. Psychogenic reactions to stress and personality disorders were in only 10.2% of the patients. In most of the patients (74.7%) a mental disease wasn't diagnosed before in spite of its long duration (11.5 years on the average).

  10. "My friend said it was good LSD": a suicide attempt following analytically confirmed 25I-NBOMe ingestion.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Joji; Poklis, Justin L; Poklis, Alphonse

    2014-01-01

    A new class of synthetic hallucinogens called NBOMe has emerged, and reports of adverse effects are beginning to appear. We report on a case of a suicide attempt after LSD ingestion which was analytically determined to be 25I-NBOMe instead. Clinicians need to have a high index of suspicion for possible NBOMe ingestion in patients reporting the recent use of LSD or other hallucinogens.

  11. “My Friend Said it was Good LSD”: A Suicide Attempt Following Analytically Confirmed 25I-NBOMe Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Joji; Poklis, Justin L.; Poklis, Alphonse

    2014-01-01

    A new class of synthetic hallucinogens called NBOMe has emerged, and reports of adverse effects are beginning to appear. We report on a case of a suicide attempt after LSD ingestion which was analytically determined to be 25I-NBOMe instead. Clinicians need to have a high index of suspicion for possible NBOMe ingestion in patients reporting the recent use of LSD or other hallucinogens. PMID:25364988

  12. Japan's health care system: containing costs and attempting reform.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Naoki; Campbell, John Creighton

    2004-01-01

    As Japan's economy declined, more intensive control of prices and even volume through the fee schedule, plus increases in various copayment rates, led to an actual reduction of medical spending in 2002 for the first time in history. To augment established mechanisms of cost containment, case-mix-based inclusive fees for inpatient care were introduced in university hospitals in 2003 and are planned for subacute and long-term care. However, substantial reform, including the introduction of market-based medicine, is not likely to occur in other areas. Progress in making the delivery system more accountable to patients has been meaningful but slow.

  13. Quadruple Pact Suicide Attempt Involving a Man and Three Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Siddharth; Srinivas, Balachander; Grover, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Pact suicides involving families have been reported in the scientific literature, but reports have been few from India. We report the case of a family, in which the father and three children had entered into a suicidal pact and executed it due to social reasons. A 41-year-old man, with no past psychiatric or substance use history, had reportedly come to know that his wife had been involved in an extra-marital affair. As expressed by him in a suicide note, he could not bear the humiliation due to this and also did not want his children to face disrespect from the society. He along with his daughter and 2 sons, aged 14, 12 and 11 years respectively, thus entered into a suicide pact to end their lives and wrote a suicide note. Man and two of his children consumed aluminum phosphide. However, the youngest son did not consume the poison and raised alarm, following which they were rushed for medical care. The father died, but the three children recovered completely. The case highlights the rare phenomenon of suicide pacts involving an adult and children. PMID:25336777

  14. Suicide Mortality of Suicide Attempt Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Admitted Suicide Attempt Patients, and Admitted Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jae W.; Park, Subin; Yi, Ki K.; Hong, Jin P.

    2012-01-01

    The suicide mortality rate and risk factors for suicide completion of patients who presented to an emergency room (ER) for suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, patients who presented to an ER for psychiatric problems other than suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, psychiatric inpatients…

  15. Suicide Attempts Among Gay and Bisexual Men: Lifetime Prevalence and Antecedents

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Jay P.; Catania, Joseph; Pollack, Lance; Moskowitz, Judith; Canchola, Jesse; Mills, Thomas; Binson, Diane; Stall, Ron

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. We examined lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts and psychosocial correlates in a large population-based sample of men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. A telephone probability sample of US urban MSM (n = 2881) were interviewed between November 1996 and February 1998. Results. Twenty-one percent had made a suicide plan; 12% had attempted suicide (almost half of those 12% were multiple attempters). Most who attempted suicide made their first attempt before age 25. Although prevalence of parasuicide (i.e., attempted suicide) has remained constant across birth cohorts, mean age at initial attempts has declined. Conclusions. MSM are at elevated risk for suicide attempts, with such risk clustered earlier in life. Some risk factors were specific to being gay or bisexual in a hostile environment. PMID:12144994

  16. Medically Serious Suicide Attempters With or Without Plan in Rural China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Long; Zhang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Although previous studies have discussed the risk factors of unplanned suicide behavior in several countries, the unplanned suicide attempt in China was not explored in a large sample. We aim to look into the characteristics of unplanned suicide attempters in China and compare them with those suicide attempters with plans. Subjects were 791 medically serious suicide attempters aged 15-54 years in rural China. The sixth item of Beck's Suicide Intent Scale was used to estimate the planned and unplanned suicide attempt. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the factors related to planned or unplanned suicide attempt. The results showed that the planned suicide attempts were associated with higher education, hopelessness, and previous suicide act. The unplanned suicide attempt tends to be suicide by pesticide and store pesticide at home. A ban of lethal pesticides may be a method for suicide prevention in rural China.

  17. [Agraphia of Gerstmann syndrome--attempt at characterization].

    PubMed

    Lang, C

    1994-05-01

    A review is given of well documented cases of Gerstmann's syndrome covering one century from 1888 to 1991 complemented by two own observations, Convergencies as well as divergencies are pointed out. It is concluded, that although aphasia may be an accompanying condition, aphasic agraphia as described in linguistic terms is not a sufficient explanation of agraphia in Gerstmann's syndrome which implies spatial-graphic particularities like disturbances of symmetry, reduplications of strokes, defective line orientation, choice of a different letter type and occurrence of nonsense characters not contained in the alphabet. Literal paragraphs may appear as well, while semantic errors are virtually lacking. These features are known to occur in apractic or constructive agraphia whose localisation is usually in the left angular/subangular region coincident with a disconnection from homotopic right hemisphere areas by damage of commissural fibres. Lesions of these non-dominant areas may lead to spatial agraphia.

  18. Misoprostol and attempted self-induction of abortion.

    PubMed

    Jones, M M; Fraser, K

    1998-04-01

    Sporadic reports have documented the use, in countries such as Brazil and Mozambique, of misoprostol to self-induce pregnancy termination (PT). This paper presents the case of a young woman from Mozambique who presented to a UK surgery requesting PT . She stated she was concerned about medication she had taken for epigastric pain in early pregnancy. She reluctantly acknowledged the medication was misoprostol obtained from a friend from Portugal. The patient had taken a total dose of 1000 mcg of misoprostol on the same day. After counseling on the potential adverse effects of misoprostol during pregnancy, specifically miscarriage and fetal abnormalities, the woman accepted but later declined a referral for induced abortion. She gave birth to a healthy infant. There is concern that the access to medical information from unregulated sources through the Internet will increase the potentially dangerous use of misoprostol as an abortifacient.

  19. Mental Disorders and Socioeconomic Status: Impact on Population Risk of Attempted Suicide in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Andrew; Taylor, Richard; Hall, Wayne; Carter, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    The population attributable risk (PAR) of mental disorders compared to indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) for attempted suicide was estimated for Australia. For mental disorders, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide was for anxiety disorders (males 28%; females 36%). For SES, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide in males was for…

  20. Individual and environmental contingencies associated with multiple suicide attempts among U.S. military personnel.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; Rudd, M David; Wertenberger, Evelyn

    2016-08-30

    Suicidal behavior among U.S. military personnel persists as a significant public health issue. Previous research indicates the primary motive for suicide attempts among military personnel is the desire to reduce or alleviate emotional distress, a finding that converges with studies in nonmilitary samples. Much less is understood about the consequences of a first suicide attempt that could influence the occurrence of additional suicide attempts. In order to identify these contingencies, 134 active duty Soldiers who had attempted suicide (n=69 first-time attempters, n=65 multiple attempters) participated in structured interviews focused on their experiences immediately following their first attempt. Soldiers were more likely to have made multiple suicide attempts if they were younger at the time of their first attempt, were not admitted to a hospital or treatment program after their first attempt, or experienced emotional and psychological relief immediately afterwards. Results suggest that Soldiers who experience emotional and/or psychological relief immediately after their first suicide attempt or do not receive treatment are more likely to make additional suicide attempts.

  1. Examining the Impact of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Comorbidity on the Medical Lethality of Adolescent "Suicide Attempts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Manama O'Brien, Kimberly H.; Berzin, Stephanie C.

    2012-01-01

    Specific psychiatric diagnoses and comorbidity patterns were examined to determine if they were related to the medical lethality of "suicide attempts" among adolescents presenting to an urban general hospital (N = 375). Bivariate analysis showed that attempters with substance abuse disorders had higher levels of lethality than attempters without…

  2. Self-Injurious Behavior and Suicide Attempts among Indonesian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tresno, Fiona; Ito, Yoshimi; Mearns, Jack

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the prevalence of self-injurious behavior and suicide attempts among college students in Indonesia and examines risk factors distinguishing between 3 groups: self-injury with suicide attempt, non-suicidal self-injury, and non-self-injury. Self-report questionnaires measuring self-injury and suicide attempts, negative mood…

  3. Attempted Suicide, Self-Harm, and Violent Victimization among Regular Illicit Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darke, Shane; McCrim, Michelle Torok; Kaye, Sharlene; Ross, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Relationships among attempted suicide, nonsuicidal self-harm, and physical assault were examined in 400 regular users of heroin and/or psychostimulants. Twenty-eight percent had episodes of nonsuicidal self-harm, 32% had attempted suicide, and 95% had been violently assaulted. The number of suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-harm incidents were…

  4. Young Suicide Attempters Compared with a Control Group: Psychological, Affective, and Attitudinal Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonds, John F.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Compared to normal controls who had never attempted suicide, suicide attempters (n=45) between 16 and 30 years of age admitted to a general hospital psychiatric ward were significantly more hopeless, depressed, and hostile. The suicide attempts seemed to occur in response to stress. A crisis intervention model was suggested as most appropriate way…

  5. Psychosocial Determinants of Suicide Attempts among Black South African Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shilubane, Hilda N.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Bos, Arjan E. R..; van den Borne, Bart; James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Priscilla S.

    2012-01-01

    In South Africa, one in five adolescents attempt suicide. Suicide attempts continue to rise. We aimed to identify psychosocial target points for future educational interventions. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore psychosocial factors associated with past suicide attempts among suicide survivors in Limpopo province,…

  6. Variables Associated with Repeated Suicide Attempt in a Criminal Justice Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakansson, Anders; Bradvik, Louise; Schlyter, Frans; Berglund, Mats

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with repeated suicide attempts among criminal justice clients examined for substance abuse using the Addiction Severity Index. Among suicide attempters (n = 1,404), repeaters (two or more attempts, n = 770) were compared to nonrepeaters. In logistic regression, repetition was associated with…

  7. Circadian Variation in Suicide Attempts in Tokyo from 1978 to 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motohashi, Yutaka

    1990-01-01

    Analyzed circadian variations in suicide attempts in Tokyo from 1978 to 1985 from records of Ambulance Service of Tokyo. Findings showed significant circadian variation in suicide attempts which seemed to be associated with endogenous rhythms, such as mood, and daily variation in social activities. Established peak time for suicide attempts as…

  8. Attempting to Answer a Meaningful Question Enhances Subsequent Learning Even When Feedback Is Delayed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornell, Nate

    2014-01-01

    Attempting to retrieve information from memory enhances subsequent learning even if the retrieval attempt is unsuccessful. Recent evidence suggests that this benefit materializes only if subsequent study occurs immediately after the retrieval attempt. Previous studies have prompted retrieval using a cue (e.g., "whale-???") that has no…

  9. Analysis of the phenomenon of attempted suicides in 1978-2010 in Poland, with particular emphasis on rural areas of Lublin Province.

    PubMed

    Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian; Goździewska, Małgorzata; Zubilewicz, Jadwiga; Kryś-Noszczyk, Karolina

    2012-01-01

    The increasing quality of life of modern man should go hand-in-hand with reducing the scale of the problem of attempted suicides. During the last 55 years, the World Health Organization has recorded an increase in the number of suicides by about 60% in the developed and developing countries. In Poland, the highest rate of suicides have been committed by males, and the circumstances depended on gender, age and socio-economic factors. The aim of the presented study is to present the scale of the problem and present results of the analysis of the phenomenon of attempted suicides in 1978-2010, with particular emphasis on a Polish agricultural region - the Lublin Province in eastern Poland. 167,557 attempted suicides were analyzed across the country, included suicide attempts that resulted in death. Brief description of the state of knowledge and summary: Between 1978-2010 in Poland, the number of attempted suicides was higher in urban than in rural areas, especially among men aged between 31-50 years, while the tendency to commit suicide increased in rural areas in comparison to urban areas. Women usually represented a quarter of the people who attempted or committed suicide, with the majority cases reported in 2002. Most attempted suicides were carried out in the cities, but since 1990, the number of attempted suicides in the country is growing by an average of 8 per annum. In the Lublin Province, far more people are attempting to commit suicide in the rural areas. Despite the trend of increasing numbers of attempted suicides (about 4.36 suicides per year), the number of fatal suicides is decreasing, and the number of suicides committed by teenagers under 14 years of age is decreasing more dynamically.

  10. Suicide Attempts in a Longitudinal Sample of Adolescents Followed Through Adulthood: Evidence of Escalation

    PubMed Central

    Goldston, David B.; Daniel, Stephanie S.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Heilbron, Nicole; Doyle, Otima; Weller, Bridget; Sapyta, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to examine escalation in repeat suicide attempts from adolescence through adulthood, as predicted by sensitization models (and reflected in increasing intent and lethality with repeat attempts, decreasing amount of time between attempts, and decreasing stress to trigger attempts) Method In a prospective study of 180 adolescents followed through adulthood after a psychiatric hospitalization, suicide attempts and antecedent life events were repeatedly assessed (M = 12.6 assessments, SD = 5.1) over an average of 13 years, 6 months (SD = 4 years, 5 months). Multivariate logistic, multiple linear, and negative binomial regression models were used to examine patterns over time. Results After age 17-18, the majority of suicide attempts were repeat attempts (i.e., made by individuals with prior suicidal behavior). Intent increased both with increasing age, and with number of prior attempts. Medical lethality increased as a function of age but not recurrent attempts. The time between successive suicide attempts decreased as a function of number of attempts. The amount of precipitating life stress was not related to attempts. Conclusions Adolescents and young adults show evidence of escalation of recurrent suicidal behavior, with increasing suicidal intent and decreasing time between successive attempts. However, evidence that sensitization processes account for this escalation was inconclusive. Effective prevention programs that reduce the likelihood of individuals attempting suicide for the first time (and entering this cycle of escalation), and relapse prevention interventions that interrupt the cycle of escalating suicidal behavior among individuals who already have made attempts are critically needed. PMID:25622200

  11. How do repeat suicide attempters differ from first timers? An exploratory record based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Vikas; Kattimani, Shivanand; Sarkar, Siddharth; Mathan, Kaliaperumal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence indicates that repeat suicide attempters, as a group, may differ from 1st time attempters. The identification of repeat attempters is a powerful but underutilized clinical variable. Aims: In this research, we aimed to compare individuals with lifetime histories of multiple attempts with 1st time attempters to identify factors predictive of repeat attempts. Setting and Design: This was a retrospective record based study carried out at a teaching cum Tertiary Care Hospital in South India. Methods: Relevant data was extracted from the clinical records of 1st time attempters (n = 362) and repeat attempters (n = 61) presenting to a single Tertiary Care Center over a 4½ year period. They were compared on various sociodemographic and clinical parameters. The clinical measures included Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Coping Strategies Inventory – Short Form, and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Statistical Analysis Used: First time attempters and repeaters were compared using appropriate inferential statistics. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of repeat attempts. Results: The two groups did not significantly differ on sociodemographic characteristics. Repeat attempters were more likely to have given prior hints about their act (χ2 = 4.500, P = 0.034). In the final regression model, beck hopelessness score emerged as a significant predictor of repeat suicide attempts (odds ratio = 1.064, P = 0.020). Conclusion: Among suicide attempters presenting to the hospital, the presence of hopelessness is a predictor of repeat suicide attempts, independent of clinical depression. This highlights the importance of considering hopelessness in the assessment of suicidality with a view to minimize the risk of future attempts. PMID:26933353

  12. [Geographic and helicoid choroidopathies. Clinical and angiographic study; attempted classification].

    PubMed

    Babel, J

    1983-01-01

    Among the helicoid and geographic (or serpiginous) choroidopathies, several entities can be distinguished which differ in their clinical evolution, morphology, angiographic appearance and pathophysiology. The entity is a chorioretinal heredodystrophy characterized by tonguelike strips of choroidal atrophy radiating starlike, from the optic disc. The evolution lasts many years (up to 20 or more), with slow progression and no inflammatory stages. Other types originate from occlusion of one or several short ciliary vessels, or at least of the corresponding choriocapillary network. Inflammation is always present initially. In the acute stage, there are localized or lobular areas of exudation. After an evolution of variable duration, up to 4-5 years, exudation is followed by atrophy and formation of scars at times helicoidal in configuration but somewhat more irregular than the dystrophic entity. Similar scars around the optic disc or in the posterior pole sometimes arise from a generalized vasculopathy e.g. a giant cell arteritis. Several typical cases are presented to demonstrate the variety of manifestations that constitute tentative system of classification.

  13. Attempts to prevent postoperative pancreatic fistula after distal pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, Yoshihiro; Mori, Yasuhisa; Nakata, Kohei; Ohtsuka, Takao; Nakamura, Masafumi

    2017-04-01

    Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is the most frequent and serious complication after distal pancreatectomy (DP) and often leads to other postoperative complications. Numerous studies have been conducted to clarify the risk factors for POPF after DP, and to also determine effective prophylactic treatments. In this article, we review the current evidence on the risk factors for POPF after DP, and also provide new evidence to support the currently implemented prophylactic measures against POPF after DP. The patient-related and surgery-related risk factors and risk factors specific to staplers are discussed. Several studies have suggested that a thick pancreas is a risk factor for POPF using a stapler and that a higher stapler height or pancreatoenteric anastomosis might be useful for preventing POPF when transecting a thick pancreas. Various methods, such as stapler closure, procedures that may be performed in addition to stapler closure, pancreatoenteric anastomosis, pancreatic transection devices, laparoscopic surgery, pancreatic stenting, stump coverage, and somatostatin analogs, have been tested and in comparison with conventional procedures in case-control studies and randomized, controlled trials. Although some studies have shown the superiority of these methods to the conventional procedures, a consensus on precautionary measures that can be taken against POPF remains to be established. Further investigation is necessary to develop a reliable strategy for preventing POPF and to improve the outcomes of patients after DP.

  14. Suicide mortality of suicide attempt patients discharged from emergency room, nonsuicidal psychiatric patients discharged from emergency room, admitted suicide attempt patients, and admitted nonsuicidal psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae W; Park, Subin; Yi, Ki K; Hong, Jin P

    2012-06-01

    The suicide mortality rate and risk factors for suicide completion of patients who presented to an emergency room (ER) for suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, patients who presented to an ER for psychiatric problems other than suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, psychiatric inpatients admitted for suicide attempt, and psychiatric inpatients admitted for other reasons were examined. The records of 3,897 patients who were treated at a general hospital in Seoul, Korea, from July 2003 to December 2006 were reviewed. Forty-three of the 3,897 subjects died by suicide during the 2.5-year observation period. Compared to the general Korean population, the suicide mortality rate was 82-fold higher for suicide attempt patients, admitted; 54-fold higher for suicide attempt patients, discharged; 21-fold higher for nonsuicidal patients, admitted; and 11-fold higher for nonsuicidal patients, discharged. In all four groups, diagnosis of a depressive disorder and suicide attempt at presentation were each significant independent risk factors for suicide completion. These results highlight the need for suicide prevention strategies for depressed patients who present to the ER or are admitted to a psychiatric ward after a suicide attempt.

  15. Are suicide attempts by young Latinas a cultural idiom of distress?

    PubMed Central

    Zayas, Luis H.; Gulbas, Lauren E.

    2015-01-01

    The high rates of suicide attempts among adolescent Hispanic females in the United States have been well established by epidemiological and clinical studies. In this paper, we review the research history of Latina suicide attempts and their characteristics. Then we apply multifaceted conceptual and empirical criteria found in the anthropological and psychiatric literature about cultural idioms of distress to the suicide attempts of young Latinas. We contrast the suicide-attempt phenomenon to the well-known ataque de nervios and propose that the phenomenon may reflect a developmental or cultural variant of the ataque. The attempt-as-idiom proposition is intended to invite discussion that can deepen our understanding of the cultural roots of the suicide attempts and their possible designation as cultural idiom. Establishing the meaning of suicide attempts within a cultural perspective can assist psychological and psychiatric research and clinical interventions. PMID:23075802

  16. Correlates of Attempted Suicide from the Emergency Room of 2 General Hospitals in Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Low, Nancy C. P.; Lamarre, Suzanne; Daneau, Diane; Habel, Youssef; Turecki, Gustavo; Bonin, Jean-Pierre; Morin, Suzanne; Szkrumelak, Nadia; Singh, Santokh; Lesage, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The epidemiology of attempted suicide has not been well characterized because of lack of national data or an International Classification of Diseases (ICD) code for suicide attempts. We conducted a retrospective chart review in 2 adult general hospitals (tertiary and community) in Montreal, Canada, in 2009-2010 to 1) describe the characteristics of men and women who presented to the emergency department (ED) and/or were hospitalized following a suicide attempt, 2) identify factors associated with attempts requiring hospitalizations, and 3) validate the use of International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes for “intentional self-harm” as a method to detect suicide attempts from hospital abstract summary records. Method: All potential suicide attempts were identified from hospital abstract summary records and ED nursing triage file using ICD-10 codes and keywords suggestive of suicide attempts. All identified charts were examined, and those with confirmed suicide attempts were fully reviewed. Results: Of the 5746 identified charts, 369 were fully reviewed. Of these, 176 were for suicide attempters treated in the ED and 193 for hospitalized attempters, of whom 46% had an ICD-10 code for intentional self-harm. Poisoning (46%) was the most frequent method of suicide used. Half of attempters were younger than 34 years, 53% were female, and 75% had a history of mental disorders. Conclusion: About half of individuals who seek medical care for attempted suicide are admitted to hospital. About half of attempters use poisoning as a method of suicide, and a quarter do not have a history of mental disorders. Intentional self-harm codes capture only about half of hospitalized attempters.

  17. Suicide attempts by poisoning in Hanoi, Vietnam: methods used, mental problems, and history of mental health care.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Nguyen Van; Dalman, Christina; Thiem, Nguyen Viet; Nghi, Tran Viet; Allebeck, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate methods of poisoning, presence of mental problems, and the rate of psychiatric care among suicide attempters in Vietnam. Three hundred and nine suicide attempters by poisoning admitted to Bach Mai Hospital's Poison Control Center were investigated by trained nurses and qualified psychiatrists. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess methods of suicide, presence of mental problems, and psychiatric care. The most common methods were poisoning by psychotropic drugs in urban, and pesticides in rural areas. ICD-10 confirmed disorders were present in 68% of the cases and 73% rated positive on SRQ-20. Most patients were not in contact with psychiatric care. Restrictions on availability and handling of drugs and pesticides should be reinforced. Better infrastructures are needed for identification and treatment of persons with mental disorders.

  18. Attempted Suicide Among Students and Young Adults in Montreal, Quebec, Canada: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study of Hospitalized and Nonhospitalized Suicide Attempts Based on Chart Review

    PubMed Central

    Rahme, Elham; Low, Nancy C. P.; Lamarre, Suzanne; Turecki, Gustavo; Bonin, Jean-Pierre; Daneau, Diane; Habel, Youssef; Yung, Emily C. C.; Morin, Suzanne; Szkrumelak, Nadia; Singh, Santokh; Renaud, Johanne; Lesage, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Objective We conducted a chart review to identify postsecondary students and nonstudents in the same age range who presented to the emergency department following a suicide attempt to (1) compare demographic characteristics and suicide risk factors and (2) determine factors associated with more serious attempts requiring hospitalizations. Method The study was conducted in 1 tertiary trauma hospital and 1 community hospital affiliated with McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, between January 1, 2009, and March 31, 2010. Charts of patients with potential suicide attempts were identified from medical records using ICD-10 codes that indicated traumatic injury, intentional self-harm, poisoning, and psychiatric or perception/cognition disorders and from the emergency department triage file using keywords that indicated suicidality or self-harm at presentation. Results In multivariable logistic regression models (odds ratio, 95% CI), students were younger (per 5-year increase: 0.22, 0.12–0.41), less likely to be born in Canada (0.17, 0.06–0.44), and more likely to use less violent methods (laceration, poisoning, other, multiple methods) versus more violent methods (collision, jump, fire burns, firearm, hanging) in their attempt. Fewer students had a history of substance abuse (0.12, 0.02–0.94) but were not different from nonstudents on history of other mental disorders. Less students attempted suicide in the winter/spring (January–April) versus fall (September–December) semester (0.32, 0.11–0.91). Students who attempted suicide were more likely to have family/social support. Those who attempted suicide in the previous year were more likely to require hospitalization for their current suicide attempt. Conclusions Knowledge of specific factors associated with suicide attempts in young people can help inform and guide suicide prevention efforts in both academic and community settings. Specific to the findings of this study regarding the method of suicide

  19. Gender differences in suicide attempters: a retrospective study of precipitating factors for suicide attempts at a critical emergency unit in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a shortage of empirical data concerning precipitating factors for suicides in Japan. The purpose of the present study was to clarify gender differences of precipitating factors for suicide attempts in Japan. Methods The subjects were high-lethality suicide attempters who were admitted to the Nippon Medical School Hospital Critical Care Medical Center between March 1, 2010 and March 31, 2012. Precipitating factors for suicide attempt, method of suicide attempt, psychiatric diagnoses and other sociodemographic data were collected from the patients’ medical records retrospectively, and statistical analyses were performed for categorical variables of male/female. Results The total number of subjects was 193 (88 males and 105 females). The rate of subjects attempting suicide by poisonous gas was significantly higher in males while that of subjects attempting suicide by drug overdose was significantly higher in females. The rate of subjects diagnosed with “major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder” was significantly higher in males while that of subjects diagnosed with “personality disorders” or “dysthymic disorder” was significantly higher in females. Subjects with “health problems”, “financial problems”, “work problems”, “debts (others)” or “unwanted transfer” were significantly more numerous among males; subjects with “family problems”, “parent–child relations” or “loneliness” were significantly more frequently found among females. Conclusions Mental disorders were the most common precipitating factor for suicide attempts regardless of gender. Significant gender differences were observed in psychiatric diagnoses, methods of suicide attempt and psychosocial problems. This indicates the necessity of suicide prevention measures corresponding to these gender differences. PMID:24885851

  20. An Examination of United States Air Force Suicide Decedents Based on Documented Suicide Attempt Histories.

    PubMed

    Kochanski-Ruscio, Kristen; Nademin, Elicia; Perera, Kanchana; LaCroix, Jessica M; Baer, Margaret; Hassen, Helena O; Englert, Maj David; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan

    2016-09-26

    In this study, we compared United States military decedents who died by suicide on their first attempt with decedents who had made multiple attempts. Death investigation files for 217 United States Air Force (USAF) personnel who died by suicide between 1996 and 2006 were coded for demographic, psychosocial, and psychiatric characteristics. Among USAF suicide decedents, 77% died by suicide on their first attempt and 23% had a documented history of at least one prior attempt. Decedents with a history of prior attempts were more likely to have an interpersonal stressor within 3 months of death and were twice as likely to have a documented Axis I diagnosis. There were few differences between military suicide decedents based on history of prior attempts. Further research is needed to inform military suicide prevention endeavors.

  1. The Role of Help-Seeking in Preventing Suicide Attempts among Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexuals

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Ilan H.; Teylan, Merilee; Schwartz, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    One possible approach to prevention of suicide attempts is to encourage help-seeking among individuals at risk. We assessed whether different forms of treatment were associated with lower odds of a suicide attempt in a diverse group of 388 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults aged 18–59, sampled from New York City venues. Of individuals who attempted suicide, 23% sought mental health or medical treatment and 14% sought religious or spiritual treatment prior to the suicide attempt. Black and Latino LGBs were underrepresented in mental health or medical treatment and Black LGBs were overrepresented in religious or spiritual treatment. Seeking mental health or medical treatment was not associated with lower odds of a suicide attempt; seeking religious or spiritual treatment was associated with higher odds of a suicide attempt. We discuss these results and posit hypotheses for further research of this understudied topic. PMID:24825437

  2. A Novel Brief Therapy for Patients Who Attempt Suicide: A 24-months Follow-Up Randomized Controlled Study of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP)

    PubMed Central

    Gysin-Maillart, Anja; Schwab, Simon; Soravia, Leila; Megert, Millie; Michel, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Background Attempted suicide is the main risk factor for suicide and repeated suicide attempts. However, the evidence for follow-up treatments reducing suicidal behavior in these patients is limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP) in reducing suicidal behavior. ASSIP is a novel brief therapy based on a patient-centered model of suicidal behavior, with an emphasis on early therapeutic alliance. Methods and Findings Patients who had recently attempted suicide were randomly allocated to treatment as usual (n = 60) or treatment as usual plus ASSIP (n = 60). ASSIP participants received three therapy sessions followed by regular contact through personalized letters over 24 months. Participants considered to be at high risk of suicide were included, 63% were diagnosed with an affective disorder, and 50% had a history of prior suicide attempts. Clinical exclusion criteria were habitual self-harm, serious cognitive impairment, and psychotic disorder. Study participants completed a set of psychosocial and clinical questionnaires every 6 months over a 24-month follow-up period. The study represents a real-world clinical setting at an outpatient clinic of a university hospital of psychiatry. The primary outcome measure was repeat suicide attempts during the 24-month follow-up period. Secondary outcome measures were suicidal ideation, depression, and health-care utilization. Furthermore, effects of prior suicide attempts, depression at baseline, diagnosis, and therapeutic alliance on outcome were investigated. During the 24-month follow-up period, five repeat suicide attempts were recorded in the ASSIP group and 41 attempts in the control group. The rates of participants reattempting suicide at least once were 8.3% (n = 5) and 26.7% (n = 16). ASSIP was associated with an approximately 80% reduced risk of participants making at least one repeat suicide attempt (Wald χ21 = 13.1, 95% CI

  3. [Characteristics of murder and attempted murder in Cameroon. Study based on expert psychiatric court reports].

    PubMed

    Mbassa Menick, D

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the sociodemographic, psychopathologic and criminological features associated with homicide based on review of expert psychiatric court reports describing murder and attempted murder perpetrators examined at Jamot Hospital in Yaoundé, Cameroon. The study cohort comprised reports describing 12 offenders who were examined at the request of ajudge or public prosecutor from March 1, 2002 to July 31, 2006. There were 8 men (66.7%) and 4 women (33.3%) with a mean age of 18.3 years (range, 17 to 43 years). In 8 cases the criminal act coincided with a difficult period in the offender's life. In the remaining 4 cases the act could not be linked to a specific life event. Assaults were carried out by strangulation, battery, or stabbing (knifes or machetes) in 87.5% of cases and occurred at the victim's home in 68.8% of cases. The main mental disorders diagnosed using the ICD-10 classification were schizophrenia in 41.7% of cases (n = 5), chronic delirium in 25.0% (n = 3), and personality disorder in 8.3 % (n = 1). Nine offenders (75.0%) had a history of mental disorder including 8 within at least six months preceding the assault. Four offenders had already received psychiatric treatment including 2 who required hospitalization following one or more episodes of psychotic decompensation. There were a total of 16 victims including 14 that died and 2 that were seriously wounded but survived thanks to prompt medical attention. The victims included 8 males and 8 females with 11 children (68.7%) and 5 adults (31.3%). In the child group 9 victims died (81.8%) and 2 survived (18.2%). Except one 17-year-old teenager, the 6 female and 3 male child victims were between the ages of 18 months and 8 years. The adult victims included 1 female and 4 males. The main findings of this study were the high incidence of mental disease, especially schizophrenics (66.7%), associated with homicide and the high number of child victims (62.5%). The first

  4. Quantifying the combined effects of attempt rate and swimming capacity on passage through velocity barriers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, T.

    2004-01-01

    The ability of fish to migrate past velocity barriers results from both attempt rate and swimming capacity. Here, I formalize this relationship, providing equations for estimating the proportion of a population successfully passing a barrier over a range of distances and times. These equations take into account the cumulative effect of multiple attempts, the time required to stage those attempts, and both the distance traversed on each attempt and its variability. I apply these equations to models of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) ascending a 23-m-long flume against flows ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 m??s-1. Attempt rate varied between species, attempts, and over time and was influenced by hydraulic variables (velocity of flow and discharge). Distance of ascent was primarily influenced by flow velocity. Although swimming capacity was similar, white sucker had greater attempt rates, and consequently better passage success, than walleye. Over short distances, models for both species predict greater passage success against higher velocities owing to the associated increased attempt rate. These results highlight the importance of attraction to fish passage and the need for further investigation into the hydraulic and other environmental conditions required to simultaneously optimize both attempt rate and passage success.

  5. Interpersonal violence and the prediction of short-term risk of repeat suicide attempt

    PubMed Central

    Haglund, Axel; Lindh, Åsa U.; Lysell, Henrik; Renberg, Ellinor Salander; Jokinen, Jussi; Waern, Margda; Runeson, Bo

    2016-01-01

    In this multi-center cohort study, suicide attempters presenting to hospital (N = 355, 63% women) were interviewed using the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) and followed-up by medical record review. Main outcome was non-fatal or fatal repeat suicide attempt within six months. Also, repeat attempt using a violent method was used as an additional outcome in separate analyses. Data were analyzed for the total group and for men and women separately. Repeat attempts were observed within six months in 78 persons (22%) and 21 (6%) of these used a violent method. KIVS total score of 6 or more was associated with repeat suicide attempt within six months (OR = 1.81, CI 1.08–3.02) and predicted new attempts with a sensitivity of 62% and a specificity of 53%. A three-fold increase in odds ratio was observed for repeat attempt using a violent method (OR = 3.40, CI 1.22–9.49). An association between exposure to violence in adulthood and violent reattempt was seen in women (OR = 1.38, CI 1.06–1.82). The overall conclusions are that information about interpersonal violence may help predict short-term risk for repeat suicide attempt, and that structured assessment of interpersonal violence may be of value in risk assessment after attempted suicide. PMID:27841333

  6. Temporal variations in suicide attempt rates: A hospital-based study from India

    PubMed Central

    Kattimani, Shivanand; Penchilaiya, Venkatalakshmi; Sarkar, Siddharth; Muthukrishnan, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Temporal variations of suicide attempts can help to better understand correlates of suicidal behavior. This study attempted to find the diurnal, weekly, and seasonal variations in suicide attempts at a tertiary care hospital in India. Materials and Methods: This record-based study was conducted among patients evaluated at a crisis intervention clinic over a 4-year period at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Southern India. Patients who attempted suicide in recent past and had been medically stabilized were evaluated in this clinic. The distribution of suicide attempts across the time of the day, the day of the week, and month of the year was assessed. Results: Of the 407 patients who were included in the analysis, the frequency of suicide attempts varied across time of the day (χ2 = 134.504, P < 0.001). The most common period of the day for the attempt was evenings (6 pm to 9 pm). There were no significant temporal associations between month of the year or day of the week and suicide attempts though peaks were observed for June among the months and Sundays among days of the week. Conclusion: Diurnal variations exist in the suicide attempts. This has implications on clinical caseloads on emergency departments, especially during the times when staffing might be sub-optimal. PMID:27843841

  7. An attempt to use sweeteners as a material for accident dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; José, Flávio A; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2010-02-01

    In case of a radiological accident, it is important to determine the exposure to radiation of the general population. Several materials can be used to reconstruct the exposed dose. Tooth enamel has been studied for a long time, and now the procedures to determine the dose are well established for in vitro measurements. Many materials have been investigated by different techniques: sugar, wall bricks, roof tiles, plastics, watch glass, ruby present in watches, medicines carried by persons and shell button, among others. In this work an attempt is made to use sweeteners as a possible accident dosimeter material because they are becoming increasingly common. Sweeteners based on saccharine, cyclamate, stevia, and aspartame were acquired in local stores, and ESR spectrum was recorded before and after gamma irradiation. Spectrum simulation demonstrated that there are two main radicals with g = 2.0063, A = 1.6 mT, and g = 2.0048, A = 5 mT due to lactose. For the better characterization of spectroscopic and dosimetric properties of these materials, higher microwave frequency (K-band, nu approximately 24 GHz) was also employed. Experiments in X-band (nu approximately 9 GHz) showed that low dose levels of 500 mGy can be measured with this material, demonstrating the potential use of sweeteners for retrospective dosimetry.

  8. Reversal of innate aversions: attempts to induce a preference for chili peppers in rats.

    PubMed

    Rozin, P; Gruss, L; Berk, G

    1979-12-01

    Although humans frequently develop preferences for innately unpalatable bitter or irritant substances, such preferences are extremely rare in animals. An attempt was made to understand the nature of this difference by systematic experiments with laboratory rats, with chili pepper as the unpalatable substance. In parallel with major aspects of the human experience with chili pepper, rats were exposed to it as a flavoring in all their food for periods up to 11 mo from birth, without significant preference enhancement. Gradual introduction of chili into the diet also had no effect, nor did a series of poisoning and safety experiences designed to teach the rats that only chili-flavored foods were safe to eat. A sequence of seven pairings of chili-flavored diet with prompt recovery from thiamine deficiency did significantly attenuate the innate aversion and may have induced a chili preference in at least one case. Extensive experience with chili did not reliably make rats much less sensitive to its oral effects. The only reliable way to eliminate chili aversion in rats is to destroy their chemical irritant sense, which was accomplished in one group of rats. It is concluded that in contrast to humans, it is extremely difficult to reverse innate aversions in rats.

  9. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups.

    PubMed

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-11-01

    The suicide rates in Denmark have been declining during the last two decades. The decline was relatively larger among women than among men. All age groups experienced a decline except the very young with stable rates and the very old with increasing rates. The Universal, Selective, Indicated (USI) model recommended by Institute of Medicine was used as a framework for the thesis. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward the entire population; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. At the universal level, a review was carried out to highlight the association between availability of methods for suicide and suicide rate. There were mostly studies of firearms, and the conclusion of the review was that there was clear indication of restricted access to lethal means was associated with decline in suicide with that specific method, and in many cases also with overall suicide mortality. Restricting access is especially important for methods with high case fatality rate. Our own study indicated a beneficial effect on suicide rates of restrictions in access to barbiturates, dextropropoxyphen, domestic gas and car exhaust with high content of carbon monoxide. Although a range of other factors in the society might also be of importance, it was concluded that restrictions in access to dangerous means for suicide were likely to play an important role in reducing suicide rates in Denmark, especially for women. At the selective level, there are several important risk groups such as psychiatric patients, persons with alcohol and drug abuse, persons with newly diagnosed severe physical illness, all who previously attempted suicide, and groups of homeless, institutionalized, prisoners and other socially excluded persons. The thesis focused on homeless persons and psychiatric patients, especially patients

  10. How to Talk to a Teenager about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    How to Talk to a Teenager about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family This information is intended to help inform and guide adults when talking with a ... to the hospital for help.”) Talking to your teenager after a suicide attempt in your family It ...

  11. Factors Associated with Recent Suicide Attempts in Clients Presenting for Addiction Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Alexander; Mazmanian, Dwight; Jamieson, John; Black, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Factors associated with recent suicide attempts were examined in clients who sought treatment at an addictions facility between 2001 and 2008. Clients who reported being hospitalized for attempting suicide in the past year (n = 76) were compared to all other clients (n = 5914) on demographic, mental health, substance use, and problem gambling…

  12. Changing patterns of attempted suicide in Greece: clinicoepidemiological and psychodynamic data.

    PubMed

    Ierodiakonou, C S; Iacovides, A; Ierodiakonou-Benou, I

    1998-01-01

    Greece is known to have one of the lowest rates of both completed and attempted suicides. Yet during the last three decades the pattern of suicide attempts has shown some differentiations, which point to possible changes in family structure and social behavior, bringing the pattern closer to that of western countries. While in 1971-72 the ratio of male to female attempters was 1:4.6, in 1994-96 it was 1:2.3 - the mean age rose from early to middle adulthood - more married people attempted suicide than before - more attempters took alcohol before the act etc. There are, nevertheless, many steady features, e.g. the low rates of attempters in old age (above 65 years: 7.9% of the total), the methods used, the type of preceding stressful life events (more financial than emotional in males), no drug abuse etc. Since the low rates of suicide attempts in Greece have been attributed to cultural parameters and the close bonds in the family, psychodynamic studies were also carried out, which showed that adolescent attempters preserve the ability for outward aggression and their self-destructive act is due to other than intrapsychic factors (usually social and relational problems).

  13. African American and Caucasian Attempters Compared for Suicide Risk Factors: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare African American and Caucasian substance dependent suicide attempters for risk factors for suicidal behavior. One hundred and fifty-eight African American and 95 Caucasian substance dependent patients who had attempted suicide were interviewed and their family history of suicidal behavior recorded. Patients…

  14. Predicting Future Suicide Attempts Among Adolescent and Emerging Adult Psychiatric Emergency Patients.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Adam G; Czyz, Ewa K; King, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine specific characteristics of suicidal ideation in combination with histories of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) to best evaluate risk for a future attempt among high-risk adolescents and emerging adults. Participants in this retrospective medical record review study were 473 (53% female; 69% Caucasian) consecutive patients, ages 15 to 24 years (M=19.4 years) who presented for psychiatric emergency services during a 9-month period. These patients' medical records, including a clinician-administered Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, were coded at the index visit and at future visits occurring within the next 18 months. Logistic regression models were used to predict suicide attempts during this period. Socioeconomic status, suicidal ideation severity (i.e., intent, method), suicidal ideation intensity (i.e., frequency, controllability), a lifetime history of suicide attempt, and a lifetime history of NSSI were significant independent predictors of a future suicide attempt. Suicidal ideation added incremental validity to the prediction of future suicide attempts above and beyond the influence of a past suicide attempt, whereas a lifetime history of NSSI did not. Sex moderated the relationship between the duration of suicidal thoughts and future attempts (predictive for male patients but not female). Results suggest value in incorporating both past behaviors and current thoughts into suicide risk formulation. Furthermore, suicidal ideation duration warrants additional examination as a potential critical factor for screening assessments evaluating suicide risk among high-risk samples, particularly for male patients.

  15. Attempts to Stop or Reduce Daily Cannabis Use: An Intensive Natural History Study

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, John R.; Naud, Shelly; Budney, Alan J.; Fingar, James R.; Callas, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    We attempted to replicate and add to our prior study of attempts to stop or reduce cannabis use among daily cannabis users trying to change on their own, by observing a larger sample and adding further clinically-relevant outcomes. Daily users (n = 193) who intended to stop or reduce sometime in the next 3 months called an Interactive Voice Response system each morning for 3 months to report on cannabis use, attempts to stop or reduce, withdrawal symptoms, etc., on the prior day. This study replicated our prior findings that a) cannabis users trying to change make many, and often rapid, transitions among use as usual, reduction and abstinence; b) reduction attempts are more common than abstinence attempts; c) quit and reduction attempts are short-lived and few participants achieve long-term abstinence; d) alcohol and drug use are not greater on abstinence days; and e) few users seek treatment. Novel findings included f) a greater number of days of abstinence or intentional reduction predicted a greater decline in cannabis dependence; g) most users do not prepare before their quit attempt; h) coping outcomes during abstinence predict increased duration of abstinence; i) tobacco use is less common on days of abstinence; and j) withdrawal symptoms occur even with short quit attempts. Replication tests in more generalizable samples and of longer duration are indicated. Further natural history studies are likely to provide information to help improve the content of psychological treatments for cannabis use. PMID:26828641

  16. “Patterns of Distress, Precipitating Events, and Reflections on Suicide Attempts by Young Latinas”

    PubMed Central

    Zayas, Luis H.; Gulbas, Lauren E; Fedoravicius, Nicole; Cabassa, Leopoldo J

    2010-01-01

    By most epidemiological accounts, young US Latinas attempt suicide more often than other youth. Little is known, however, about the circumstance and internal experiences of the attempts. To understand this phenomenon, we conducted thematic analyses of twenty-seven qualitative interviews with teenage Latinas (aged 11-19) living in New York City who had attempted suicide. Collected between July 2005 and July 2009, the interviews explored the emotional, cognitive and physical experiences of the attempts and the social situations in which they took place. Results show that the girls were divisible nearly equally into a group with a stated intent of death and a group that did not intend death. The pathways to the suicidal event consisted of a pattern of continuous, escalating stress (primarily at home) that created the emotionally combustible conditions for the attempt. A trigger event that either reminded them of past stress or revived feelings of that stress catalyzed the attempt. Guilt and remorse were common responses to the suicide attempts, and on reflection the girls demonstrated some broader perspectives. Results of the analysis clarify the sociocultural context of the suicide attempts, underscoring the cultural discontinuity experienced by adolescent Latinas, who struggle to reconcile traditional Hispanic gender socialization with their own insertion in a modern Western society. PMID:20347199

  17. Suicide Intent and Accurate Expectations of Lethality: Predictors of Medical Lethality of Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gregory K.; Henriques, Gregg R.; Sosdjan, Daniella; Beck, Aaron T.

    2004-01-01

    The degree of intent to commit suicide and the severity of self-injury were examined in individuals (N = 180) who had recently attempted suicide. Although a minimal association was found between the degree of suicide intent and the degree of lethality of the attempt, the accuracy of expectations about the likelihood of dying was found to moderate…

  18. Emotional Antecedents and Consequences of Deliberate Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Alexander L.; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.

    2007-01-01

    Emotional experiences immediately prior to (emotional antecedents) and following (emotional consequences) deliberate self-harm and suicide attempts in female inmates (N = 63) were examined. Anger was the antecedent emotion reported by the largest proportion of individuals who had engaged in deliberate self-harm (45.16%), suicide attempts (40.9%),…

  19. A Brief History of Attempts To Monitor Testing. NBETPP Statements, Volume 2, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madaus, George F.

    This paper provides a brief history of attempts to monitor testing in the United States. It describes proposals for monitoring from the first attempts in the 1920s to similar proposals in the 1990s. The discussion focuses on: (1) Giles Ruche's proposal for a consumer research bureau on tests; (2) Oscar K. Burros' reviews of tests and efforts to…

  20. How to Talk to a School Age Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk to a School Age Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family This information is intended to help inform and ... six to twelve year old child after a suicide attempt in the family. It is not intended to replace the advice ...

  1. How to Talk to a Teenager about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    How to Talk to a Teenager about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family This information is intended to help inform and ... six to twelve year old child after a suicide attempt in the family. It is not intended to replace the advice ...

  2. A Life History of a Korean Adolescent Girl Who Attempted Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Sungeun

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores the life history of a South Korean adolescent girl who attempted suicide. The study focuses on how sociocultural values affected her suicide attempt and how she made meaning out of the experience. The results revealed that her life history was a process of seeking independence and autonomy, and freeing herself from…

  3. Is Poor Premorbid Functioning a Risk Factor for Suicide Attempts in First-Admission Psychosis?

    PubMed Central

    Bakst, Shelly; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2009-01-01

    Background While poor premorbid functioning is associated with poorer outcomes in psychotic illnesses, little is known about whether it is also a risk factor for suicide attempts. Objective The current study examined the association of premorbid functioning and suicide attempts in a county-wide cohort of first admission inpatients. Method Data were derived from participants of the Suffolk County Mental Health Project (n=444) over the course of 48 month follow-up. Premorbid functioning was estimated and categorized (good vs. poor/declining) using the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS). Results Poorer premorbid functioning was significantly associated with increased likelihood of a suicide attempt prior to first psychiatric hospital admission. Specifically, 33.0% of participants with poor/declining premorbid functioning had a history of suicide attempts compared to 23.5% with good premorbid functioning. Among participants with a prior attempt (n=126), poor premorbid functioning was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of additional attempts during the four years after first hospitalization. Conclusion Identifying those with poor premorbid functioning and prior histories of attempts could help clinicians target high-risk patients. Thus, greater attention to persons with both risk factors may form the basis for early interventions aimed towards reducing the risk for subsequent suicide attempts. PMID:19954930

  4. Treatment for Adolescents Following a Suicide Attempt: Results of a Pilot Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Deidre; Spirito, Anthony; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of a skills-based treatment protocol to a supportive relationship therapy for adolescents after a suicide attempt. Method: Thirty-nine adolescents (12-17 years old) and parents who presented to a general pediatric emergency department or inpatient unit of a child psychiatric hospital after a suicide attempt were…

  5. A Short Note on the Relationship between Pass Rate and Multiple Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying; Liu, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    For a certification, licensure, or placement exam, allowing examinees to take multiple attempts at the test could effectively change the pass rate. Change in the pass rate can occur without any change in the underlying latent trait, and can be an artifact of multiple attempts and imperfect reliability of the test. By deriving formulae to compute…

  6. Longitudinal Trajectories and Predictors of Adolescent Suicidal Ideation and Attempts Following Inpatient Hospitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Nock, Matthew K.; Simon, Valerie; Aikins, Julie Wargo; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Spirito, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Remarkably little is known regarding the temporal course of adolescent suicidal ideation and behavior, the prediction of suicidal attempts from changes in suicidal ideation, or the prediction of suicidal attempts after accounting for suicidal ideation as a predictor. A sample of 143 adolescents 12-15 years old was assessed during psychiatric…

  7. Gratitude and Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts among Chinese Adolescents: Direct, Mediated, and Moderated Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xian; Li, Nini; Ye, Baojuan

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 1252 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.00 years), this study examined the direct relations between gratitude and adolescents' suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. This study also examined indirect relations between gratitude and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts via two self-system beliefs--coping efficacy and self-esteem.…

  8. Prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation and attempts among children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Dupuis, Lorette C; Ray, Robin

    2017-04-01

    Suicide is a potentially preventable public health issue. It is therefore important to examine its immediate precursors, including suicidal ideation and attempts, to help in the development of future public health interventions. The present study reports the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts in the past 12 months in children and adolescents and identifies correlates of such behaviors in a large and diverse sample of middle and high school students. Data were drawn from a representative sample of Ottawa students (n=1922) aged 11-20 years (14.4±1.9 years) from three cycles (2009, 2011 and 2013) of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS), a cross-sectional school-based appraisal of students in grades 7-12 across Ontario, Canada. Overall, 10.8% of students exhibited suicidal ideation and 3.0% reported suicide attempts in the past 12 months. The conditional probability of making an attempt was 25.5% among suicide ideators. Multivariable analyses indicated that being a girl and using alcohol and cannabis were positively associated with suicidal ideation, while tobacco was positively associated with suicide attempts. Being a victim of school bullying was significantly associated with reports of suicidal ideation and attempts, whereas school connectedness had protective effects against both suicidal ideation and attempts. These results indicate that suicidal ideation and attempts are related to other risky behaviors. Suicide-prevention efforts should be integrated within broader health-promoting initiatives.

  9. Alcohol Use Disorders and Risk Factor Interactions for Adolescent Suicidal Ideation and Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Thomas M.; Lynch, Kevin G.; Donovan, John E.; Clark, Duncan B.

    2001-01-01

    Adolescents diagnosed with at least one mental disorder were studied to determine predictors of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Major depression was predictive of suicidal ideation and attempts for both genders. Chronic stress was found predictive of male suicidal ideations, while low self esteem and family dysfunction were predictive in…

  10. The Relationship between Social Skills and Depression in Adolescent Suicide Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spirito, Anthony; And Others

    Although suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents in the United States, there are little empirical data available on psychological factors which may lead an adolescent to consider or attempt suicide. To address this issue, the relationships among depression, social skills, and severity of suicidal attempt were investigated in…

  11. Attempts to stop or reduce daily cannabis use: An intensive natural history study.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R; Naud, Shelly; Budney, Alan J; Fingar, James R; Callas, Peter W

    2016-05-01

    We attempted to replicate and add to our prior study of attempts to stop or reduce cannabis use among daily cannabis users trying to change on their own, by observing a larger sample and adding further clinically relevant outcomes. Daily users (n = 193) who intended to stop or reduce sometime in the next 3 months called an Interactive Voice Response system each morning for 3 months to report on cannabis use, attempts to stop or reduce, withdrawal symptoms, and so forth, on the prior day. This study replicated our prior findings that (a) cannabis users trying to change make many, and often rapid, transitions among use as usual, reduction, and abstinence; (b) reduction attempts are more common than abstinence attempts; (c) quit and reduction attempts are short-lived and few participants achieve long-term abstinence; (d) alcohol and drug use are not greater on abstinence days; and (e) few users seek treatment. Novel findings included (f) a greater number of days of abstinence or intentional reduction predicted a greater decline in cannabis dependence, (g) most users do not prepare before their quit attempt, (h) coping outcomes during abstinence predict increased duration of abstinence, (i) tobacco use is less common on days of abstinence, and (j) withdrawal symptoms occur even with short quit attempts. Replication tests in more generalizable samples and of longer duration are indicated. Further natural history studies are likely to provide information to help improve the content of psychological treatments for cannabis use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a) An attempt to export from the United States any defense articles in violation of the provisions of...

  13. Environmental Cues and Attempts to Change in Daily Cannabis Users: An Intensive Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, John R.; Naud, Shelly; Budney, Alan J.; Fingar, James R.; Callas, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We tested whether environmental cues prompt or inhibit quit or reduction attempts among heavy cannabis users. Methods We recruited 196 daily cannabis users who intended to stop or reduce at some point in the next 3 months. Users called an Interactive Voice Response system daily over 3 months to report on cues that might prompt an attempt to quit or reduce (e.g., a request to stop), cues that might inhibit a quit/reduction attempt (e.g., someone offering cannabis), cannabis use, and attempts to stop or reduce cannabis. No treatment was provided. Results Our major findings were a) cost and health/psychological problems were the most common prompting cues, and seeing others use and being offered cannabis were the most common inhibiting cues, b) the number of different types of prompting cues prospectively predicted an increase in attempts to change in a dose-related manner, c) more proximal cues appeared to be more strongly related to change, d) requests to stop or reduce, and physical or psychological problems from cannabis, best predicted change attempts, and e) inhibiting cues did not consistently predict the probability of an attempt to change. Conclusion These preliminary results suggest several environmental cues prompt attempts to change cannabis use. Thus, interventions to increase the frequency of these cues, and specifically requests to stop or reduce cannabis use, and reinforcing concerns about health and mental adverse events from cannabis use may increase cannabis reduction or cessation. PMID:26872879

  14. Post-Admission Cognitive Therapy: A Brief Intervention for Psychiatric Inpatients Admitted After a Suicide Attempt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Cox, Daniel W.; Greene, Farrah N.

    2012-01-01

    To date, no empirically based inpatient intervention for individuals who have attempted suicide exists. We present an overview of a novel psychotherapeutic approach, Post-Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT), currently under development and empirical testing for inpatients who have been admitted for a recent suicide attempt. PACT is adapted from an…

  15. Characteristics of Suicide Attempters and Nonattempters with Schizophrenia in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Xiang, Meng-Ze; Mao, Wen-Jun; Hou, Zai-Jin; Tang, Mu-Ni; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan; Yip, Paul S. F.; Conwell, Yeates

    2006-01-01

    In this study, demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals with schizophrenia in a Chinese rural community who had attempted suicide at some time in their lives and those who had not made a suicide attempt were compared. Among individuals with schizophrenia, subjects with (n = 38) and without (n = 472) a lifetime history of suicide…

  16. Personality Disorder Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts over 10 Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ansell, Emily B.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Markowitz, John C.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Yen, Shirley; Pinto, Anthony; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Identifying personality disorder (PD) risk factors for suicide attempts is an important consideration for research and clinical care alike. However, most prior research has focused on single PDs or categorical PD diagnoses without considering unique influences of different PDs, or severity (sum) of PD criteria on the risk for suicide related outcomes. This has usually been done in cross-sectional or retrospective assessment methods. Rarely are dimensional models of PDs examined in longitudinal, naturalistic prospective designs. In addition, it is important to consider divergent risk factors in predicting the risk of ever making a suicide attempt versus making an increasing number of attempts within the same model. Method This study examined 431 participants who were followed for 10 years in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS). Baseline assessments of personality disorder criteria were summed as dimensional counts of personality pathology and examined as predictors of suicide attempts reported at annual interviews throughout the ten-year follow-up. We employed univariate and multivariate zero-inflated Poisson regression models to simultaneously evaluate PD risk factors for ‘ever attempt’ and for increasing numbers of attempts among attempters. Results Consistent with prior research, borderline PD was uniquely associated with ever attempting. However, only narcissistic PD was uniquely associated with an increasing number of attempts. Conclusion These findings highlight the relevance of both borderline and narcissistic personality pathology as unique contributors to suicide related outcomes. PMID:25705977

  17. Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Status during the Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters (TASA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Brent, David A.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Emslie, Graham; Wells, Karen; Walkup, John T.; Stanley, Barbara; Bukstein, Oscar; Kennard, Betsy D.; Compton, Scott; Coffey, Barbara; Cwik, Mary F.; Posner, Kelly; Wagner, Ann; March, John S.; Riddle, Mark; Goldstein, Tina; Curry, John; Capasso, Lisa; Mayes, Taryn; Shen, Sa; Gugga, S. Sonia; Turner, J. Blake; Barnett, Shannon; Zelazny, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the course of depression during the treatment of adolescents with depression who had recently attempted suicide. Method: Adolescents (N = 124), ages 12 to 18 years, with a 90-day history of suicide attempt, a current diagnosis of depressive disorder (96.0% had major depressive disorder), and a Children's Depression Rating…

  18. Multiple Attempts for Online Assessments in an Operations Management Course: An Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orchard, Ryan K.

    2016-01-01

    In learning management systems, tools for online homework assessments include a number of alternatives for the assessment settings, including the ability to permit students to attempt an assessment multiple times, with options for how the multiple attempts are administered. A specific implementation of online assessments in an introductory…

  19. Genetic variation in DNMT3B and increased global DNA methylation is associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Murphy, T M; Mullins, N; Ryan, M; Foster, T; Kelly, C; McClelland, R; O'Grady, J; Corcoran, E; Brady, J; Reilly, M; Jeffers, A; Brown, K; Maher, A; Bannan, N; Casement, A; Lynch, D; Bolger, S; Buckley, A; Quinlivan, L; Daly, L; Kelleher, C; Malone, K M

    2013-02-01

    Recently, a significant epigenetic component in the pathology of suicide has been realized. Here we investigate candidate functional SNPs in epigenetic-regulatory genes, DNMT1 and DNMT3B, for association with suicide attempt (SA) among patients with co-existing psychiatric illness. In addition, global DNA methylation levels [5-methyl cytosine (5-mC%)] between SA and psychiatric controls were quantified using the Methylflash Methylated DNA Quantification Kit. DNA was obtained from blood of 79 suicide attempters and 80 non-attempters, assessed for DSM-IV Axis I disorders. Functional SNPs were selected for each gene (DNMT1; n = 7, DNMT3B; n = 10), and genotyped. A SNP (rs2424932) residing in the 3' UTR of the DNMT3B gene was associated with SA compared with a non-attempter control group (P = 0.001; Chi-squared test, Bonferroni adjusted P value = 0.02). Moreover, haplotype analysis identified a DNMT3B haplotype which differed between cases and controls, however this association did not hold after Bonferroni correction (P = 0.01, Bonferroni adjusted P value = 0.56). Global methylation analysis showed that psychiatric patients with a history of SA had significantly higher levels of global DNA methylation compared with controls (P = 0.018, Student's t-test). In conclusion, this is the first report investigating polymorphisms in DNMT genes and global DNA methylation quantification in SA risk. Preliminary findings suggest that allelic variability in DNMT3B may be relevant to the underlying diathesis for suicidal acts and our findings support the hypothesis that aberrant DNA methylation profiles may contribute to the biology of suicidal acts. Thus, analysis of global DNA hypermethylation in blood may represent a biomarker for increased SA risk in psychiatric patients.

  20. Prediction by data mining, of suicide attempts in Korean adolescents: a national study

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sung Man; Lee, Seung A; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to develop a prediction model for suicide attempts in Korean adolescents. Methods We conducted a decision tree analysis of 2,754 middle and high school students nationwide. We fixed suicide attempt as the dependent variable and eleven sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and extrapersonal variables as independent variables. Results The rate of suicide attempts of the total sample was 9.5%, and severity of depression was the strongest variable to predict suicide attempt. The rates of suicide attempts in the depression and potential depression groups were 5.4 and 2.8 times higher than that of the non-depression group. In the depression group, the most powerful factor to predict a suicide attempt was delinquency, and the rate of suicide attempts in those in the depression group with higher delinquency was two times higher than in those in the depression group with lower delinquency. Of special note, the rate of suicide attempts in the depressed females with higher delinquency was the highest. Interestingly, in the potential depression group, the most impactful factor to predict a suicide attempt was intimacy with family, and the rate of suicide attempts of those in the potential depression group with lower intimacy with family was 2.4 times higher than that of those in the potential depression group with higher intimacy with family. And, among the potential depression group, middle school students with lower intimacy with family had a 2.5-times higher rate of suicide attempts than high school students with lower intimacy with family. Finally, in the non-depression group, stress level was the most powerful factor to predict a suicide attempt. Among the non-depression group, students who reported high levels of stress showed an 8.3-times higher rate of suicide attempts than students who reported average levels of stress. Discussion Based on the results, we especially need to pay attention to depressed females with higher delinquency and those with

  1. Examining the impact of psychiatric diagnosis and comorbidity on the medical lethality of adolescent suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    McManama O'Brien, Kimberly H; Berzin, Stephanie C

    2012-08-01

    Specific psychiatric diagnoses and comorbidity patterns were examined to determine if they were related to the medical lethality of suicide attempts among adolescents presenting to an urban general hospital (N=375). Bivariate analysis showed that attempters with substance abuse disorders had higher levels of lethality than attempters without substance abuse. Regression results indicated having depression comorbid with any other diagnosis was not associated with medical lethality. However, having a substance abuse disorder was associated with higher suicide attempt lethality, highlighting the importance of substance abuse as a risk factor for lethal suicide attempts in adolescents. This finding stimulates critical thinking around the understanding of suicidal behavior in youth and the development and implementation of treatment strategies for suicidal adolescents with substance abuse disorders.

  2. Comorbid bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder and history of suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; Martinez, Jennifer; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Morgan, Theresa A; Dalrymple, Kristy

    2014-06-01

    Both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder are associated with elevated rates of attempted suicide; however, no studies have examined whether there is an independent, additive risk for suicide attempts in patients diagnosed with both disorders. In the present study from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, 3,465 psychiatric outpatients were interviewed with semistructured interviews. Compared to the bipolar patients without borderline personality disorder, the patients diagnosed with both bipolar and borderline personality disorder were significantly more likely to have made a prior suicide attempt. The patients with borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder were nonsignificantly more likely than the borderline patients without bipolar disorder to have made a prior suicide attempt. Bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder were each associated with an increased rate of suicide attempts. The co-occurrence of these disorders conferred an additive risk, although the influence of borderline personality disorder was greater than that of bipolar disorder.

  3. Suicide Disclosure in Suicide Attempt Survivors: Does Family Reaction Moderate or Mediate Disclosure's Effect on Depression?

    PubMed

    Frey, Laura M; Hans, Jason D; Cerel, Julie

    2016-02-01

    Existing literature has found a link between disclosure of a stigmatized identity and improved mental health; however, research on the impact of suicide disclosure to family members is scarce. Suicide attempt survivors (n = 74) in the United States were examined to assess whether family reaction moderates or mediates the relationship between suicide disclosure and subsequent depression symptoms. Family reaction did not moderate but did mediate the relationship between disclosure and depression symptoms while controlling for time since most recent attempt. Higher rates of disclosure predicted more positive family reactions, which in turn predicted less severe depression symptoms. Findings indicate that family members can play an essential role in the recovery process after an attempt occurs, which has important implications for both researchers and clinicians who seek to decrease stigma for attempt survivors while simultaneously decreasing the likelihood of future attempts.

  4. Schizophrenia and Suicide Attempts: Findings from a Representative Community-Based Canadian Sample

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with suicide attempts among those with schizophrenia (n = 101) versus those without (n = 21,643) in a representative sample of noninstitutionalized Canadians. The lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts among persons with schizophrenia was 39.2% versus 2.8% of nonafflicted individuals. After adjusting for sociodemographics, childhood adversities, substance abuse/dependence, depression/anxiety, and chronic pain, those with schizophrenia had 6 times the odds (OR = 6.47) of attempting suicide. Among persons with schizophrenia, suicide attempts were associated with female gender (OR = 4.59), substance abuse/dependence (OR = 6.31), depression (OR = 4.93), and childhood physical abuse (OR = 5.75). Community-dwelling persons with schizophrenia appear to be at high risk for suicide attempts. PMID:26977319

  5. A closer look at self-reported suicide attempts: false positives and false negatives.

    PubMed

    Plöderl, Martin; Kralovec, Karl; Yazdi, Kurosch; Fartacek, Reinhold

    2011-02-01

    The validity of self-reported suicide attempt information is undermined by false positives (e.g., incidences without intent to die), or by unreported suicide attempts, referred to as false negatives. In a sample of 1,385 Austrian adults, we explored the occurrence of false positives and false negatives with detailed, probing questions. Removing false positives decreased the rate of suicide attempters from 4.3% to 2.7%. Probing questions also revealed 0.8% false negatives. We recommend using probing questions with both those who report a suicide attempt and those who do not report a suicide attempt to increase the validity of self-reported suicide-related information.

  6. Family Relationships and Latina Teen Suicide Attempts: Reciprocity, Asymmetry, and Detachment.

    PubMed

    Gulbas, Lauren E; Zayas, Luis H; Nolle, Allyson P; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Kuhlberg, Jill A; Baumann, Ana A; Pena, Juan B

    Using qualitative data collected from adolescent Latinas and their parents, this article describes ways in which family relationships are organized within low-income Latino families (n = 24) with and without a daughter who attempted suicide. Based on a family-level analysis approach, we present a framework that categorizes relationships as reciprocal, asymmetrical, or detached. Clear differences are identified: Families of non-attempters primarily cluster in reciprocal families, whereas families with an adolescent suicide attempter exhibit characteristics of asymmetrical or detached families. Our results highlight the need for detailed clinical attention to family communication patterns, especially in Latino families. Clinicians may reduce the likelihood of an attempt or repeated attempts by raising mutual, reciprocal exchanges of words and support between parents and daughter.

  7. Family Relationships and Latina Teen Suicide Attempts: Reciprocity, Asymmetry, and Detachment

    PubMed Central

    Gulbas, Lauren E.; Zayas, Luis H.; Nolle, Allyson P.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Baumann, Ana A.; Pena, Juan B.

    2016-01-01

    Using qualitative data collected from adolescent Latinas and their parents, this article describes ways in which family relationships are organized within low-income Latino families (n = 24) with and without a daughter who attempted suicide. Based on a family-level analysis approach, we present a framework that categorizes relationships as reciprocal, asymmetrical, or detached. Clear differences are identified: Families of non-attempters primarily cluster in reciprocal families, whereas families with an adolescent suicide attempter exhibit characteristics of asymmetrical or detached families. Our results highlight the need for detailed clinical attention to family communication patterns, especially in Latino families. Clinicians may reduce the likelihood of an attempt or repeated attempts by raising mutual, reciprocal exchanges of words and support between parents and daughter. PMID:27330263

  8. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Lifetime Suicide Attempts Among Blacks in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Sean; Baser, Raymond E.; Breeden, Gregory; Neighbors, Harold W.; Jackson, James S.

    2009-01-01

    Context Lack of data on the lifetime prevalence and age at onset of suicide ideation, plans, and attempts among blacks in the United States limits the creation and evaluation of interventions to reduce suicide among black Americans. Objective To examine the prevalence and correlates of suicide ideation, planning, and attempts across 2 ethnic classifications of blacks in a nationally representative sample. Design, Setting, and Participants Data are from the National Survey of American Life, a national household probability sample of 5181 black respondents aged 18 years and older, conducted between February 2001 and June 2003, using a slightly modified adaptation of the World Health Organization World Mental Health version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Bivariate and survival analyses were used to delineate patterns and correlates of nonfatal suicidal behavior. Main Outcome Measures Self-reports of lifetime suicide ideation, planning, and attempts. Results Survey respondents, categorized as African Americans and Caribbean Americans, reported lifetime prevalence of 11.7% for suicide ideation and 4.1% for attempts. Among the respondents who reported ideation, 34.6% transitioned to making a plan and only 21% made an unplanned attempt. Among 4 ethnic-sex groups, the 7.5% lifetime prevalence for attempts among Caribbean black men was the highest among black Americans. The greatest risk of progressing to suicide planning or attempt among ideators occurred within the first year after ideation onset. Blacks at higher risk for suicide attempts were in younger birth cohorts, less educated, Midwest residents, and had 1 or more Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition disorders. Conclusions This study documents the burden of nonfatal suicidality among US blacks, notably Caribbean black men, and individuals making planned attempts. Advancing research on the transition from suicide planning to attempt is vital to the efficacy of

  9. The Use of Cannabis as a Predictor of Early Onset of Bipolar Disorder and Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Rafaela Torres Portugal; Nogueira, Sarah de Oliveira; do Nascimento, João Paulo Rodrigues; de Lima, Laisa Soares; da Nóbrega, Taís Bastos; Virgínio, Mariana da Silva; Moreno, Lucas Monte da Costa; Sampaio, Bruno Henrique Barbosa; Souza, Fábio Gomes de Matos e

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Bipolar disorder (BD) implies risk of suicide. The age at onset (AAO) of BD carries prognostic significance. Substance abuse may precede the onset of BD and cannabis is the most common illicit drug used. The main goal of this study is to review the association of cannabis use as a risk factor for early onset of BD and for suicide attempts. Materials and Methods. PubMed database was searched for articles using key words “bipolar disorder,” “suicide attempts,” “cannabis,” “marijuana,” “early age at onset,” and “early onset.” Results. The following percentages in bipolar patients were found: suicide attempts 3.6–42%; suicide attempts and substance use 5–60%; suicide attempts and cannabis use 15–42%. An early AAO was associated with cannabis misuse. The mean age of the first manic episode in individuals with and without BD and cannabis use disorder (CUD) was 19.5 and 25.1 years, respectively. The first depressive episode was at 18.5 and 24.4 years, respectively. Individuals misusing cannabis showed increased risk of suicide. Discussion. Cannabis use is associated with increased risk of suicide attempts and with early AAO. However, the effect of cannabis at the AAO and suicide attempts is not clear. PMID:26097750

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Lifetime Suicide Attempts Among Transgender Persons in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Brandon D L; Socías, María Eugenia; Kerr, Thomas; Zalazar, Virginia; Sued, Omar; Arístegui, Inés

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the lifetime prevalence and correlates of attempted suicide among transgender persons in Argentina. Data were derived from a nation-wide, cross-sectional survey conducted in 2013. We assessed individual, social, and structural correlates of reporting a history of attempting suicide using logistic regression. Among 482 participants, the median age was 30, 91% identified as transwomen, and 32% resided in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. A lifetime suicide attempt was reported by 159 (33%), among whom the median age at first attempt was 17. In a multivariate model, internalized stigma was positively associated with a history of suicidal behavior, while participants with stable housing had reduced odds of prior suicide attempt(s). These findings suggest that reducing stigma and mitigating structural vulnerabilities (through, for example, the enactment and enforcement of laws that prohibit discrimination based on gender identity to ensure equitable access to housing) could be effective targets for intervention to reduce suicide attempts among transgender individuals in Argentina.

  11. Pathways to suicide attempts among male offenders: the role of agency.

    PubMed

    Byng, Richard; Howerton, Amanda; Owens, Christabel V; Campbell, John

    2015-07-01

    Suicide is common among offenders, who are at increased risk of homelessness, unemployment and mental illness and are prone to impulsivity. Release from prison is a particularly vulnerable time. This qualitative study investigated the views of 35 offenders in South-West England prior to and after release from prison, enquiring into their previous suicide attempts and how they saw their future. Semi-structured interviews were analysed thematically, comparing individuals who had made one, more than one, and no suicide attempts. Multiple attempters were often in despair and enmeshed in substance misuse, with little control over their lives. Most of those with one-off or no previous attempts portrayed themselves as having more mastery. One-off attempters described using particularly violent means. The role of different types of agency in pathways to and from suicide is discussed. Iterational agency, the selective reactivation of past patterns of behaviour, appeared to dominate in individuals who were choosing between further suicide attempts and substance use. Projective agency, having a more future orientation, appeared more prominent in some single attempters and in those individuals with plans to escape crime and social exclusion.

  12. Cross-Sectional Survey on Quitting Attempts among Adolescent Smokers in Dharan, Eastern Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Marahatta, Kedar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Adolescents frequently attempt smoking cessation but are unable to maintain long term abstinence because they are dependent on nicotine and experience withdrawal symptoms. Objectives. This study aimed to explore the quitting attempts among adolescent smokers in Dharan Municipality of Eastern Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using pretested self-administered questionnaire adapted from Global Youth Tobacco Survey to assess current smokers and quitting attempts among 1312 adolescent students in middle (14-15 years) and late adolescence (16–19 years). Chi square test was used for association of various factors with quitting attempts. Results. The prevalence of current smoking was 13.7%. Among the current smokers, 66.5% had attempted to quit in the past because they believed smoking was harmful to health (35.5%). The median duration of quitting was 150 days. Nearly 8% of the current smokers were unwilling to quit in the future because they thought it is already a habit (60%). Smokers who are willing to quit smoking in the future were more likely to have made quitting attempts (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.40–4.45). Conclusion. Relapse often occurs even after multiple quitting attempts. Tobacco focused interventions to support abstinence are important during adolescence to prevent habituation. PMID:27747130

  13. The Use of Cannabis as a Predictor of Early Onset of Bipolar Disorder and Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Leite, Rafaela Torres Portugal; Nogueira, Sarah de Oliveira; do Nascimento, João Paulo Rodrigues; de Lima, Laisa Soares; da Nóbrega, Taís Bastos; Virgínio, Mariana da Silva; Moreno, Lucas Monte da Costa; Sampaio, Bruno Henrique Barbosa; de Matos E Souza, Fábio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Bipolar disorder (BD) implies risk of suicide. The age at onset (AAO) of BD carries prognostic significance. Substance abuse may precede the onset of BD and cannabis is the most common illicit drug used. The main goal of this study is to review the association of cannabis use as a risk factor for early onset of BD and for suicide attempts. Materials and Methods. PubMed database was searched for articles using key words "bipolar disorder," "suicide attempts," "cannabis," "marijuana," "early age at onset," and "early onset." Results. The following percentages in bipolar patients were found: suicide attempts 3.6-42%; suicide attempts and substance use 5-60%; suicide attempts and cannabis use 15-42%. An early AAO was associated with cannabis misuse. The mean age of the first manic episode in individuals with and without BD and cannabis use disorder (CUD) was 19.5 and 25.1 years, respectively. The first depressive episode was at 18.5 and 24.4 years, respectively. Individuals misusing cannabis showed increased risk of suicide. Discussion. Cannabis use is associated with increased risk of suicide attempts and with early AAO. However, the effect of cannabis at the AAO and suicide attempts is not clear.

  14. Acute abdomen as a consequence of an unusual suicide attempt: intra-abdominal injection of sulfuric acid

    PubMed Central

    Lepore, Anna; D’Antini, Davide; Raimondo, Pasquale; Mirabella, Lucia; Pennisi, Leonardo; Carrillo, Giuseppe; Cotoia, Antonella; Dambrosio, Michele; Cinnella, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    Caustic ingestion is a common cause of life-threatening upper gastrointestinal tract injuries. It mostly happens in children as accidental exposure, but may occur in adults as a result of suicide attempt. We present a case of an acute abdomen that occurred after a peculiar way of self-administration of sulfuric acid as a suicide attempt in an adult psychiatric male patient, already known for self-harm with caustic agents in the previous years. In a few hours, the patient developed diffuse peritonitis, pneumoperitoneum, and a rapid hemodynamic deterioration, as a consequence of ileum and sigmoid necrosis, requiring an emergency surgery with the application of a damage control strategy. The patient was then transferred to intensive care unit for hemodynamic stabilization, and definitive surgical correction of the abdominal lesions was performed after 3 days with Hartmann procedure. Thirty-nine days after hospital admission, the patient was discharged. In conclusion, to our knowledge, never has been reported in the literature a case of intra-abdominal self-administration of caustic substance causing a rapid evolution of clinical conditions and requiring the application of damage control strategy. PMID:27853393

  15. A study of suicide and attempted suicide by self-immolation in an Irish psychiatric population: an increasing problem.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, J M; Panchal, J L; O'Sullivan, S T; O'Shaughnessy, M; O'Connor, T P; Keeley, H; Kelleher, M J

    1998-03-01

    In the Western World self-immolation is an uncommon but dramatic method of attempting suicide. In-patients who attempt suicide by fire-setting tend to be female with severe psychopathology. In a previous study from the South of Ireland, seven cases from a psychiatric and prison population were identified in a five year period from 1984 to 1989. This would represent an annual rate of 1.07 per cent of burns treated in the burns unit at Cork University Hospital. In this study 12 cases were identified for the years 1994 and 1995. This represents an increase of 3.5 per cent from 1.07 to 4.6 per cent of all burns treated at the same institution. Ten of these patients had a previous psychiatric history and eight of them were resident on a psychiatric ward when they committed the act. Seven of the patients were found to have a high degree of suicide intent of whom four died of their injuries, which gives a mortality rate for this group of 33 per cent. Effective prevention policies are necessary if this increasing problem is to be curtailed.

  16. Gland New Psychosis: New Onset Adult Psychosis with Suicidal Ideation and Attempt in the Setting of Thyroid Storm

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of new onset psychosis in the setting of thyroid storm in a woman with no previous psychiatric history. The patient presented with ongoing suicidal ideation, a suicide attempt that was interrupted by her husband, and audio and visual hallucinations. The patient was placed on a psychiatric hold and treated for thyrotoxicosis as well as psychosis. Treatment of the thyroid hormone overload resulted in a rapid resolution of her symptoms; she was discharged in excellent condition, and she has had no repeat hallucinations or self-injury ideation or attempts since. Although rare, thyrotoxicosis is a potentially life-threatening cause of psychiatric illness and should always be kept on the differential diagnosis for a patient with a first episode of psychosis. This case highlights how thyroid storm physiology, beyond its well-studied hemodynamic and metabolic instability, can be potentially fatal due to psychiatric sequelae. It also highlights the crucial role of a thorough history and physical exam in all patients. PMID:28367346

  17. Lethal Forethought: Delayed Reward Discounting Differentiates High- and Low-Lethality Suicide Attempts in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.; Szanto, Katalin; Siegle, Greg J.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Forman, Steven D.; Sahakian, Barbara; Reynolds, Charles F.; Clark, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Background The decision to commit suicide may be impulsive, but lethal suicidal acts often involve planning and forethought. People who attempt suicide make disadvantageous decisions in other contexts, but nothing is known about the way they decide about the future. Can the willingness to postpone future gratification differentiate between individuals prone to serious, premeditated and less serious, unplanned suicidal acts? Methods Four groups of depressed participants aged 60+ made choices between smaller immediate and larger delayed monetary rewards: 15 who made high-lethality suicide attempts, 14 who made low-lethality suicide attempts, 12 who seriously contemplated suicide, and 42 people with depression but no history of suicidal thoughts. The reference group was 31 psychiatrically healthy elders. Results Individuals who had made low-lethality attempts displayed an exaggerated preference for immediate rewards compared to non-suicidal depressed and healthy controls. Those who had carried out high-lethality suicide attempts were more willing to delay future rewards, compared to low-lethality attempters. Better planned suicide attempts were also associated with willingness to wait for larger rewards. These effects were unchanged after accounting for education, global cognitive function, substance use disorders, psychotropic medications, and possible brain injury from attempts. Discount rates were correlated with having debt but were not significantly associated with income, hopelessness, depressive severity, premorbid IQ, age at first attempt, or choice of violent means. Conclusions While clinicians often focus on impulsivity in patients at risk for suicide, these data suggest that identifying biological characteristics and treatments for non-impulsive suicidal older people may be even more important. PMID:21329911

  18. A population-based longitudinal study of risk factors for suicide attempts in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bolton, James M; Pagura, Jina; Enns, Murray W; Grant, Bridget; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-10-01

    No longitudinal study has examined risk factors for future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to investigate baseline sociodemographic characteristics, comorbid mental disorders, specific depressive symptoms, and previous suicidal behavior as potential risk factors for suicide attempts at 3 years follow-up. Data came from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions (NESARC), a large nationally representative longitudinal survey of mental illness in adults [Wave 1 (2001-2002); Wave 2 (2004-2005) n=34,653]. Logistic regression examined associations between risk factors present at Wave 1 and suicide attempts at Wave 2 (n=169) among individuals with major depressive disorder at baseline assessment (n=6004). Risk factors for incident suicide attempts at Wave 2 (n=63) were identified among those with major depressive disorder at Wave 1 and no lifetime history of suicide attempts (n=5170). Results revealed specific comorbid anxiety, personality, and substance use disorders to be associated with incident suicide attempts at Wave 2. Comorbid borderline personality disorder was strongly associated with suicide attempts in all models. Several comorbid disorders were strongly associated with suicide attempts at Wave 2 even after adjusting for previous suicidal behavior, notably posttraumatic stress disorder (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.20; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.27-3.83) and dependent personality disorder (AOR=4.43; 95% CI 1.93-10.18). These findings suggest that mental illness comorbidity confers an increased risk of future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder that is not solely accounted for by past suicidal behavior.

  19. The investigation of factors related to suicide attempts in Southeastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Okan Ibiloglu, Aslihan; Atli, Abdullah; Demir, Suleyman; Gunes, Mehmet; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Bulut, Mahmut; Sir, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Background Suicide is an important health problem in Turkey as it is in all regions of the world. Suicidal behavior has multiple causes, which are broadly divided into those related to proximal stressors and those due to predisposition. Suicide statistics may be associated with mental health disorders, which are among the foremost predictors of suicide attempts. More than 90% of patients who commit suicide have a diagnosable psychiatric disorder, usually a major depressive disorder. Other major risk factors for suicide attempts are history of suicide attempts in the family, stressful life events, sleep disturbances, poor income, unemployment, severity of symptoms of depression, and anxiety. Sleep is a complex phenomenon. Sleep disturbances can therefore be contributed to the emergence of suicidal behavior allowing for the possibility of predicting future suicides. Methods We evaluated 106 patients who were admitted after suicide attempts to the Department of Psychiatry at Dicle University Faculty of Medicine. The recruited subjects were assessed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, and the intensity of symptoms was evaluated using the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The mean values of the subjects attempting multiple and single suicides were compared using appropriate inferential statistical tests. Results Most suicide attempts are believed to be preventable. Our results revealed that a great variety of risk factors are associated with an increased risk for multiple suicide attempts. Most of these attempts appeared to be spontaneous and impulsive rather than planned. In particular, this study highlights the importance of previous suicide attempts, history of suicide in the family, history of stressful life events in the previous 6 months, poor income, unemployment, sleep disturbances, severe hopelessness with depression, and coexisting symptoms of anxiety as risk factors

  20. An Attempt to Improve Student Engagement with Class Content via a Student-produced Wiki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, B. E.

    2014-07-01

    In a freshman-level honors astronomy class, an attempt was made to use a student-produced wiki to improve student engagement and connection with the class material. This attempt was not entirely successful due to unforeseen challenges such as the assignment being too open-ended and too time consuming to grade. Despite these challenges, the wiki was successful in encouraging the students to reflect more on the class material, and to connect that material to the “real world.” While the wiki assignment that was originally attempted will not be repeated in future classes, certain portions will continue to be used to enhance student engagement.

  1. Correlates of Process of Suicide Attempt and Perception of Its Prevention.

    PubMed

    Ram, Dushad; Mahegowda, Darshan; Gowdappa H, Basavana

    2016-07-01

    Objective: Suicide attempt may follow a process right from the inception of the first information about ‎suicide until the act itself. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between ‎perception of suicide prevention with the process of suicide attempt and demographic ‎variables following a suicidal attempt.‎ Method: In this hospital based cross-sectional study, 168 consecutive admitted participants with a ‎suicide attempt were screened, and 109 who met the study criteria were recruited to ‎participate in this study before discharge. They were assessed using the socio-demographic ‎and clinical proforma designed for this study as well as by the Pierce Suicide Intent Scale. To ‎assess the process of suicide attempt and perception of suicide prevention, a 17- item ‎questionnaire was developed and used after rigorous literature search. The Cronbach's ‎alpha coefficient value of this questionnaire found to be 0.84 in the reliability analysis.‎ Results: Media was the first source of information, and the majority had short duration of ‎preoccupation and interval between making the decision and the actual attempt and the ‎control of emotion during the attempt. A significant positive correlation was observed ‎between the source of the first information and age (p<01), reason for the method used and ‎economic status (p<01), duration since the first information and family history of suicide (p<01). Psychiatric diagnosis had a statistically significant association with the method used (p<01), duration of preoccupation (p<01), preparedness (p<01) and emotional state during ‎the attempt (p<01). A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the ‎source of the first information and education (p<01), any psychiatric diagnosis and duration ‎since the first death wish (p<01). On the score of perception about suicide prevention, a ‎significant group difference was observed for marital status, occupation, medical

  2. Zoonotic trypanosomes in South East Asia: Attempts to control Trypanosoma lewisi using veterinary drugs.

    PubMed

    Desquesnes, Marc; Yangtara, Sarawut; Kunphukhieo, Pawinee; Chalermwong, Piangjai; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Herder, Stéphane

    2016-06-01

    A growing number of atypical human infections due to the livestock parasite Trypanosoma evansi, or to the rat parasite Trypanosoma lewisi, are reported in humans in Asia. In some cases, clinical evolutions request treatments, however, so far, there were very few attempts to control T. lewisi using trypanocidal drugs. In a study published elsewhere, the efficacy of human trypanocides is evaluated in laboratory rats, and it concludes that none of them is able to cure rats experimentally infected with T. lewisi. Control of T. lewisi in rat would be a step for identification of drugs against this parasite. In the present study, 4 veterinary drugs: diminazene aceturate, isometamidium chloride, melarsomine hydrochloride and quinapyramine sulfate and chloride, were evaluated at low and high doses, in intra-muscular injections to normal rats experimentally infected with a stock of T. lewisi from Thailand. None of these treatments being efficient, a trial was also made using melarsomine hydrochloride in T. evansi infected rats and in mixed T. lewisi and T. evansi infected rats, in order to demonstrate the efficacy of the drugs under the present protocol. T. evansi was cleared from the rat's blood the day after the treatment, while, T. lewisi remained unaffected until the end of the experiment. These observations clearly demonstrated the efficacy of melarsomine hydrochloride against T. evansi and its inefficacy against T. lewisi. In conclusion none of the veterinary drugs was efficient against this stock of T. lewisi. Other protocols using higher doses or other drugs and T. lewisi stocks should be investigated in further studies. The control of T. lewisi infection in Wistar rats, using veterinary trypanocidal drugs, remains so far unsuccessful.

  3. Analysis of non-pharmacological interventions attempted prior to pro re nata medication use.

    PubMed

    Martin, Krystle; Arora, Vinita; Fischler, Ilan; Tremblay, Renee

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate what non-pharmacological interventions are applied by nursing staff prior to the administration of psychotropic pro re nata (PRN) medication. Best practices would instruct clinical staff to provide non-pharmacological strategies, such as de-escalation and skills coaching, as the first response to patient distress, anxiety, or agitation. Non-pharmacological strategies might be safer for patients, promote more collaborative relationships, and facilitate greater skills development for managing symptoms. The literature has highlighted that poor documentation of pre-PRN administration interventions has limited our understanding of this practice, but evidence suggests that when this information is available, non-pharmaceutical approaches are not being attempted in the majority of cases. This is troubling given that, while clinically appropriate in some instances, PRN have been subject to criticism and lack critical evidence to support their use. The current study is a continuation of our previous work, which examined the reason, frequency, documentation, and outcome (e.g. effectiveness, side-effects) of PRN medication use at our facility. A chart review was conducted to understand what happens prior to the administration of PRN medication at our facility across all inpatient units over the course of 3 months. Results support previous findings that non-pharmacological interventions are poorly documented by front-line staff and are seemingly used infrequently. The use of these interventions differs by patient presentation (e.g. agitation, insomnia), and most often include supportive measures. The findings suggest that both documentation and intervention practices of nursing staff require further investigation and adjustment to align with best practices.

  4. [Disappearance of the ozone layer and skin cancer: attempt at risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Schaart, F M; Garbe, C; Orfanos, C E

    1993-02-01

    The increased incidence of skin cancer recorded worldwide is alarming. The incidence of malignant melanoma has doubled in Germany every 10-15 years during recent decades, for example, as documented in the population-based cancer registry of the Saarland. In 1989, the incidence was 8.3 cases/100,000 inhabitants a year equally for both sexes. Non-melanoma skin cancer (basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas) showed a similar dramatic increase like melanoma and ranged in second place in the Saarland Cancer Registry in 1989, exceeded in men only by lung cancers and in women only by breast cancer. Their incidence was 93.4/100,000 in men and 55.8/100,000 in women. Epidemiological studies worldwide revealed a correlation between the increase of skin cancer incidence and UV exposure in white populations, and Caucasians living in regions near the equator are predominantly affected by this increase. Recently, incidence values for non-melanoma skin cancer in the USA were reported to be 232/100,000, whereas, for Queensland/Australia even numbers as high as 2398/100,000 (males) and 1908/100,000 (females) have been published. So far, the increase in skin cancer incidence has been related to changes in leisure time habits with increasing UV exposure. In this paper, an attempt is made to estimate any additional future risks for the development of skin cancer as a result of increasing UV radiation caused by stratospheric ozone depletion. Its reduction has been reported to be 3% over large areas of the globe (65 degrees North to 65 degrees South) according to the latest study of the United Nations Environment Programme.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Suicidal ideation and reported suicide attempts in Greece during the economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Economou, Marina; Madianos, Michael; Peppou, Lily Evangelia; Theleritis, Christos; Patelakis, Athanasios; Stefanis, Costas

    2013-02-01

    The financial crisis in Greece is largely impinging on the health and mental health of the population, raising concerns about a potential rise in suicide rates. The aim of this study was to explore changes in suicidal ideation and reported suicide attempts between 2009 and 2011 in a representative sample of the population and in several population subgroups. The socio-economic predictors of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in 2011 were also investigated. Two nationwide cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted in 2009 and 2011 using the same methodology. A random and representative sample of 2192 and 2256 people, respectively, took part in the surveys. Between 2009 and 2011, there was a substantial increase in the prevalence of suicidal ideation and reported suicide attempts. People suffering from depression, men, married individuals, people experiencing financial strain, people with low interpersonal trust, and individuals with a history of suicide attempts were particularly vulnerable.

  6. Attempted suicide among transgender persons: The influence of gender-based discrimination and victimization.

    PubMed

    Clements-Nolle, Kristen; Marx, Rani; Katz, Mitchell

    2006-01-01

    To determine the independent predictors of attempted suicide among transgender persons we interviewed 392 male-to-female (MTF) and 123 female-to-male (FTM) individuals. Participants were recruited through targeted sampling, respondent-driven sampling, and agency referrals in San Francisco. The prevalence of attempted suicide was 32% (95% CI = 28% to 36%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis younger age (<25 years), depression, a history of substance abuse treatment, a history of forced sex, gender-based discrimination, and gender-based victimization were independently associated with attempted suicide. Suicide prevention interventions for transgender persons are urgently needed, particularly for young people. Medical, mental health, and social service providers should address depression, substance abuse, and forced sex in an attempt to reduce suicidal behaviors among transgender persons. In addition, increasing societal acceptance of the transgender community and decreasing gender-based prejudice may help prevent suicide in this highly stigmatized population.

  7. Parental divorce, parental depression, and gender differences in adult offspring suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Lizardi, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Keyes, Katherine; Hasin, Deborah

    2009-12-01

    Research suggests parental divorce during childhood increases risk of suicide attempt for male but not female offspring. The negative impact on offspring associated with parental divorce may be better explained by parental psychopathology, such as depression. We examined whether adult offspring of parental divorce experience elevated risk of suicide attempt, controlling for parental history of depression, and whether the risk varies by the gender of the offspring. Using the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), the sample consists of respondents who experienced parental divorce (N = 4895). Multivariable regressions controlled for age, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, and parental history of depression. Females living with their fathers were significantly more likely to report lifetime suicide attempts than females living with their mothers, even after controlling for parental depression. Findings suggest that childhood/adolescent parental divorce may have a stronger impact on suicide attempt risk in female offspring than previously recognized.

  8. Treatment Compliance of Adolescents after Attempted Suicide: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Craig D.; Cortell, Ranon; Wagner, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates compliance with mental health treatments among suicidal adolescents. Results show that child psychopathology and parental attitudes toward treatment plays an important part in increasing compliance with mental health treatment for adolescent suicide attempters.

  9. Factors accounting for youth suicide attempt in Hong Kong: a model building.

    PubMed

    Wan, Gloria W Y; Leung, Patrick W L

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed at proposing and testing a conceptual model of youth suicide attempt. We proposed a model that began with family factors such as a history of physical abuse and parental divorce/separation. Family relationship, presence of psychopathology, life stressors, and suicide ideation were postulated as mediators, leading to youth suicide attempt. The stepwise entry of the risk factors to a logistic regression model defined their proximity as related to suicide attempt. Path analysis further refined our proposed model of youth suicide attempt. Our originally proposed model was largely confirmed. The main revision was dropping parental divorce/separation as a risk factor in the model due to lack of significant contribution when examined alongside with other risk factors. This model was cross-validated by gender. This study moved research on youth suicide from identification of individual risk factors to model building, integrating separate findings of the past studies.

  10. Involuntary Euthanasia and Current Attempts to Define Persons with Mental Retardation as Less Than Human.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusthaus, Evelyn W.

    1985-01-01

    The author examines current attempts to define mentally retarded persons as less than human and suggests that these ideologies are being used to justify euthanasia practices and to formulate euthanasia policies. (CL)

  11. Correlates of suicide ideation and attempts in children and adolescents with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Baweja, Raman; Calhoun, Susan; Mahr, Fauzia; Aggarwal, Richa; Arnold, Mariah

    2014-01-01

    This is the first study determining correlates of suicide behavior in children with eating disorders using multiple sleep, psychological, and demographic variables. Mothers rated suicide ideation and attempts in 90 children ages 7-18 with bulimia nervosa or anorexia nervosa. Suicide ideation was more prevalent in children with bulimia nervosa (43%) than children with anorexia nervosa (20%). All children with bulimia nervosa who experienced ideation attempted suicide, whereas only 3% of children with anorexia nervosa attempted suicide. Correlates of ideation were externalizing behavior problems and sleep disturbances. Correlates of attempts were bulimia nervosa, self-induced vomiting, nightmares, and physical or sexual abuse. These problems should be assessed and targeted for intervention because of their association with suicide behavior.

  12. Suicidal ideation and reported suicide attempts in Greece during the economic crisis

    PubMed Central

    Economou, Marina; Madianos, Michael; Peppou, Lily Evangelia; Theleritis, Christos; Patelakis, Athanasios; Stefanis, Costas

    2013-01-01

    The financial crisis in Greece is largely impinging on the health and mental health of the population, raising concerns about a potential rise in suicide rates. The aim of this study was to explore changes in suicidal ideation and reported suicide attempts between 2009 and 2011 in a representative sample of the population and in several population subgroups. The socio-economic predictors of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in 2011 were also investigated. Two nationwide cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted in 2009 and 2011 using the same methodology. A random and representative sample of 2192 and 2256 people, respectively, took part in the surveys. Between 2009 and 2011, there was a substantial increase in the prevalence of suicidal ideation and reported suicide attempts. People suffering from depression, men, married individuals, people experiencing financial strain, people with low interpersonal trust, and individuals with a history of suicide attempts were particularly vulnerable. PMID:23471802

  13. How to Talk to a Preschool Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... about a family member’s suicide attempt. • Understand that young children may only be able to deal with a little bit of information at a time, and may ask more questions over time. • Keep it simple and ...

  14. Paralimbic and lateral prefrontal encoding of reward value during intertemporal choice in attempted suicide

    PubMed Central

    Vanyukov, Polina M.; Szanto, Katalin; Hallquist, Michael N.; Siegle, Greg J.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Forman, Steven D.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alongside impulsive suicide attempts, clinicians encounter highly premeditated suicidal acts, particularly in older adults. We have previously found that in contrast to the more impulsive suicide attempters’ inability to delay gratification, serious and highly planned suicide attempts were associated with greater willingness to wait for larger rewards. This study examines neural underpinnings of intertemporal preference in suicide attempters. We expected that impulsivity and suicide attempts, particularly poorly planned ones, would predict altered paralimbic subjective value representations. We also examined lateral prefrontal and paralimbic correlates of premeditation in suicidal behavior. Methods Forty-eight participants aged 46–90 years underwent extensive clinical and cognitive characterization and completed the delay discounting task in the scanner: 26 individuals with major depression (13 with and 13 without history of suicide attempt) and 22 healthy controls. Results More impulsive individuals displayed greater activation in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to value difference favoring the delayed option. Suicide attempts, particularly better-planned ones, were associated with deactivation of the lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) in response to value difference favoring the immediate option. Findings were robust to medication exposure, depression severity, and possible brain damage from suicide attempts, among other confounders. Finally, in suicide attempters longer reward delays were associated with diminished parahippocampal responses. Conclusions Impulsivity was associated with an altered paralimbic (precuneus/PCC) encoding of value difference during intertemporal choice. By contrast, better-planned suicidal acts were associated with altered lPFC representations of value difference. The study provides preliminary evidence of impaired decision processes in both impulsive and premeditated suicidal behavior. PMID:26446615

  15. Executive Functioning in Men with Schizophrenia and Substance Use Disorders. Influence of Lifetime Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Capella, Maria del Mar; Prat, Gemma; Forero, Diego A.; López-Vera, Silvia; Navarro, José Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Background Lifetime suicide attempts in patients with comorbidity between psychotic disorders and Substance Use Disorder (SUD), known as dual diagnosis, was associated with a worse clinical and cognitive state, poor prognosis and premature death. However, to date no previous study has examined the cognitive performance of these patients considering as independent the presence or absence of lifetime suicide attempts. Methods We explore executive functioning differences between suicide attempters and non-attempters in dual schizophrenia (DS) patients and the possible related factors for both executive performance and current suicide risk. Fifty DS male patients in remission of SUD and clinically stables, 24 with and 26 without lifetime suicide attempts, were evaluated. We considered Z scores for all neuropsychological tests and a composite summary score for both premorbid IQ and executive functioning. Results DS patients showed low performance in set-shifting, planning and problem solving tasks. Those with suicide attempts presented lower composite summary scores, together with worse problem solving skills and decision-making, compared with non-attempters. However, after controlling for alcohol dependence, only differences in decision-making remained. Executive functioning was related to the premorbid intelligence quotient, and several clinical variables (duration, severity, months of abstinence and relapses of SUD, global functioning and negative symptoms). A relationship between current suicide risk, and first-degree relatives with SUD, insight and positive symptoms was also found. Conclusions Our results suggest that problem solving and, especially, decision-making tasks might be sensitive to cognitive impairment of DS patients related to presence of lifetime suicide attempts. The assessment of these executive functions and cognitive remediation therapy when necessary could be beneficial for the effectiveness of treatment in patients with DS. However, further

  16. Adolescent self-injurers: Comparing non-ideators, suicide ideators, and suicide attempters

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jeremy G.; Esposito, Erika C.; Glenn, Catherine R.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Pridgen, Bryan; Gold, Joseph; Auerbach, Randy P.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidality are serious health concerns; however, factors that contribute to the transition from NSSI to suicide ideation and suicide attempts are unclear. To address this gap, we investigated whether demographic characteristics, child maltreatment, and psychiatric factors are associated with the level suicidality among adolescents with a history of self-injury. Participants were three groups of adolescent inpatient self-injurers (n = 397, 317 female), aged 13–18 years (M = 15.44, SD = 1.36): (a) non-ideators (n = 96; no current suicide ideation and no lifetime suicide attempts), (b) suicide ideators (n = 149; current ideation and no lifetime attempts), and (c) suicide attempters (n = 152; current ideation and at least one lifetime attempt). Participants completed interviews assessing psychiatric diagnoses, suicidality, and NSSI characteristics, as well as questionnaires on childhood trauma, psychiatric symptoms, and risky behavior engagement. Depression severity was associated with greater odds being a suicide ideator (p < 0.001, OR = 1.04) and an attempter (p < 0.001, OR = 1.05) compared to a non-ideator. Suicide attempters used more NSSI methods and reported greater risky behavior engagement than non-ideators (p = 0.03, OR = 1.29 and p = 0.03, OR = 1.06, respectively) and ideators (p = 0.015, OR = 1.25 and p = 0.04, OR = 1.05, respectively); attempters used more severe NSSI methods (e.g., burning). Our results identify a wide range of risk markers for increasing lethality in a sample at high risk for suicide mortality; future research is needed to refine risk assessments for adolescent self-injurers and determine the clinical utility of using risk markers for screening and intervention. PMID:27716512

  17. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER INCREASES RISK FOR SUICIDE ATTEMPT IN ADULTS WITH RECURRENT MAJOR DEPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Daniel; Wilcox, Holly C.; MacKinnon, Dean F.; Mondimore, Francis M.; Schweizer, Barbara; Jancic, Dunya; Coryell, William H.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Potash, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetics of Recurrent Early-Onset Depression study (GenRED II) data were used to examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and attempted suicide in a population of 1,433 individuals with recurrent early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD). We tested the hypothesis that PTSD resulting from assaultive trauma increases risk for attempted suicide among individuals with recurrent MDD. Methods Data on lifetime trauma exposures and clinical symptoms were collected using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies version 3.0 and best estimate diagnoses of MDD, PTSD, and other DSM-IV Axis I disorders were reported with best estimated age of onset. Results The lifetime prevalence of suicide attempt in this sample was 28%. Lifetime PTSD was diagnosed in 205 (14.3%) participants. We used discrete time-survival analyses to take into account timing in the PTSD-suicide attempt relationship while adjusting for demographic variables (gender, race, age, and education level) and comorbid diagnoses prior to trauma exposure. PTSD was an independent predictor of subsequent suicide attempt (HR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.6, 3.8; P < .0001). Neither assaultive nor nonassaultive trauma without PTSD significantly predicted subsequent suicide attempt after Bonferroni correction. The association between PTSD and subsequent suicide attempt was driven by traumatic events involving assaultive violence (HR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.3, 2.2; P < .0001). Conclusions Among those with recurrent MDD, PTSD appears to be a vulnerability marker of maladaptive responses to traumatic events and an independent risk factor for attempted suicide. Additional studies examining differences between those with and without PTSD on biological measures might shed light on this potential vulnerability PMID:23893768

  18. Toxoplasmosis Titers and past Suicide Attempts Among Older Adolescents Initiating SSRI Treatment.

    PubMed

    Coryell, William; Yolken, Robert; Butcher, Brandon; Burns, Trudy; Dindo, Lilian; Schlechte, Janet; Calarge, Chadi

    2016-01-01

    Latent infection with toxoplasmosis is a prevalent condition that has been linked in animal studies to high-risk behaviors, and in humans, to suicide and suicide attempts. This analysis investigated a relationship between suicide attempt history and toxoplasmosis titers in a group of older adolescents who had recently begun treatment with an SSRI. Of 108 participants, 17 (15.7 %) had a lifetime history of at least one suicide attempt. All were given structured and unstructured diagnostic interviews and provided blood samples. Two individuals (11.9%) with a past suicide attempt, and two (2.1%) without this history, had toxoplasmosis titers ≥ 10 IU/ml (p = 0.166). Those with a past suicide attempt had mean toxoplasmosis titers that were significantly different (p = 0.018) from those of patients who lacked this history. An ROC analysis suggested a lower optimal threshold for distinguishing patients with and without suicide attempts (3.6 IU/ml) than that customarily used to identify seropositivity. Toxoplasmosis titers may quantify a proneness to suicidal behavior in younger individuals being treated with antidepressants.

  19. Common Pesticides Used in Suicide Attempts Following the 2012 Paraquat Ban in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Won; Hwang, Il-Woong; Kim, Jae-Wook; Moon, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Park, Suyeon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2015-10-01

    To determine the change in pesticides used during suicide attempts after the 2012 paraquat (PQ) ban, we evaluated the annual number of suicide attempts by pesticide ingestion between 2011 and 2014. We extracted demographic, clinical outcome, and pesticide class data from the medical records of 1,331 patients that attempted suicide by pesticide ingestion. Pesticides were sorted into 5 groups: herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, other pesticides, and combined pesticides. Each group was subdivided into various classes based on publications by the respective Resistance Action Committees. The chi-square test for trends was used to compare the annual incidence of categorical variables. The total number of suicide attempts decreased each year, from 399 in 2011 to 245 in 2014. Simultaneously, PQ ingestion decreased from 253 patients in 2011 to 60 in 2014. The proportion of PQ to pesticides also decreased from 63.4% in 2011 to 24.5% in 2014. Furthermore, the rate of decrease in the proportion of PQ to all herbicide categories increased by calendar year. In conclusion, there is a significant trend in increased annual number of suicides and proportion of suicides using glyphosates and glufosinates versus total herbicides. However, the number of suicide attempts using glyphosate and glufosinate is lower than that using PQ. The ratio of persons completing suicide to those attempting suicide after pesticide ingestion has decreased every year after the PQ ban.

  20. Lack of Association between Toxocara Exposure and Suicide Attempts in Psychiatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Infection with Toxocara may affect the central nervous system. A high seroprevalence of Toxocara infection has been reported in psychiatric patients. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report about an association of Toxocara infection with suicide attempts. Therefore, we sought to determine whether Toxocara exposure is associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric patients. We studied 282 psychiatric outpatients (156 with suicide attempts and 126 without suicide attempts). Sera of patients were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies by using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. One of the 156 (0.6%) suicide attempters and 1 (0.8%) of the 126 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.04–13.02; P = 1.00). Toxocara seropositivity was significantly higher (P = 0.01) in male patients with consumption of raw dried goat meat than male patients without this consumption. Results suggest that Toxocara exposure is not associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients in Durango City, Mexico. However, further studies with larger samples sizes to confirm our results should be conducted. Too few patients were seropositive to assess further associations of Toxocara exposure with sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of the psychiatric patients. PMID:26483971

  1. Impulsivity, aggression and brain structure in high and low lethality suicide attempters with borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Soloff, Paul; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity and aggressiveness are trait dispositions associated with the vulnerability to suicidal behavior across diagnoses. They are associated with structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks involved in regulation of mood, impulse and behavior. They are also core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD), a disorder defined, in part, by recurrent suicidal behavior. We assessed the relationships between personality traits, brain structure and lethality of suicide attempts in 51 BPD attempters using multiple regression analyses on structural MRI data. BPD was diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients-revised, impulsivity by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), aggression by the Brown-Goodwin Lifetime History of Aggression (LHA), and high lethality by a score of 4 or more on the Lethality Rating Scale (LRS). Sixteen High Lethality attempters were compared to 35 Low Lethality attempters, with no significant differences noted in gender, co-morbidity, childhood abuse, BIS or LHA scores. Degree of medical lethality (LRS) was negatively related to gray matter volumes across multiple fronto-temporal-limbic regions. Effects of impulsivity and aggression on gray matter volumes discriminated High from Low Lethality attempters and differed markedly within lethality groups. Lethality of suicide attempts in BPD may be related to the mediation of these personality traits by specific neural networks. PMID:24656768

  2. An attempt to monitor tectonic forces in the Vrancea active geodynamic zone: The Baspunar experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besutiu, Lucian; Zlagnean, Luminita; Plopeanu, Marin

    2013-04-01

    (sparsely) run in the area, have provided inconsistent results on the PCF current dynamics. The Baspunar Geodynamic Observatory (BGO) has been designed and implemented by the Solid Earth Dynamics Department in the Institute of Geodynamics of the Romanian Academy in order to reveal and monitor eventual motions along PCF in the attempt to correlate variations in the slip rate with changes in the seismicity released within Vrancea zone. The first BGO records were strongly affected by changes in the atmospheric parameters. Consequently, technical measures and special corrections for the removal or at least mitigation of the effects created by changes in temperature, air pressure and humidity have been applied to the observations. In order to improve the signal to noise ratio, some mathematical filters have been applied too. The paper is aimed at revealing results of the geodetic observations along with preliminary geodynamic considerations. On the overall, after about two years of monitoring, PCF appears as an active tectonic contact. It mainly behaves as a left-lateral fault, but some short episodes with a reverse slip (dextral) were also pointed out. Correlations with crustal and intermediate-depth earthquakes occurring in both cases within the bending zone of East Carpathians are illustrated and discussed.

  3. Integrating the Chemical Fluxes of Transported Sediments in Large Rivers: AN Attempt on the Ganga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France-Lanord, C.; Lupker, M.; Lavé, J.; Bouchez, J.; Galy, V.; Gaillardet, J.; Metivier, F.

    2010-12-01

    Large rivers are the main conveyors of continental material to the oceans through sediment and dissolved fluxes. The redistribution of elements is fundamental in Earth surface processes and central in various biogeochemical cycles. The nature of the exported continental material is a function of the processes operating in the river’s catchment. From external forcings such as climate, tectonics or anthropogenic activity, having a strong control on erosion and weathering, to transport dynamics and sediment storage in flood plain, chemical elements are segregated from source to sink. Evaluating the composition of the exported sediments is thus essential in our understanding of large scale processes. This raises the problem of integrating the sediments chemical composition both spatially in a river section and temporally during the hydrogram. Efforts have been made to precisely determine de total flux of transported material of major world rivers but the determination of associated chemical solid fluxes is still limited. Also it is now recognized that surface sediments composition does not reflect in most cases the average sediment composition (Galy et al. 2007; Bouchez et al. in press). Nevertheless, global chemical budgets still rely on simple averaging of the available data counting mainly on surface sediment samples. Hydrodynamic sorting of minerals exerts a first order control on the chemistry of sediments in the water column, segregating elements according to the flow dynamics and the water depth. This has to be accounted for in order to derive accurate chemical fluxes. This work is an attempt to integrate the chemical flux of the sediments transported by the Ganga. The river was sampled at various stages of the monsoon at the same location in Bangladesh between 2004 and 2010 using a point sampler to collect sediments throughout the water column. Sediments were analyzed for major elements and grain-size. The systematic use of Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers

  4. Increased CRP levels may be a trait marker of suicidal attempt.

    PubMed

    Courtet, Ph; Jaussent, I; Genty, C; Dupuy, A M; Guillaume, S; Ducasse, D; Olié, E

    2015-10-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Identifying biomarkers will help enhance our understanding of suicidal pathophysiology and improve its prevention. Therefore, we investigated CRP levels in 600 depressed inpatients: 520 patients had a lifetime history of suicide attempts and 80 patients did not have any history of suicide attempts. For all patients, we assessed socio-demographic features, lifetime Axis I DSM-IV diagnoses, depression intensity, suicidal ideation, characteristics of suicidal history, and history of childhood trauma. The day following admission, fasting blood tests yielded samples collected for the measurement of high sensitivity hs-CRP. CRP levels were associated with a history of suicide attempts. The risk of suicide attempts increased with higher levels of CRP in a dose-response way before and after adjustments for age, gender, chronic diseases, addiction and anxiety comorbidities, antidepressants use, smoking status and sexual abuse. Noteworthy, the association between CRP levels and history of suicide attempts remained significant after having excluded patients with chronic diseases. There was no significant difference in CRP levels between patients who attempted suicide more or less than a week before plasma sampling, and no significant difference in CRP levels was evidenced between high vs low suicidal ideation. In conclusion, this is the first study suggesting that CRP may be a trait marker for suicidal vulnerability by associating CRP levels and a lifetime history of suicide attempts in depressed inpatients. Therefore, determining the inflammatory marker profile of individuals exhibiting suicidal behaviors could be relevant for anticipating behaviors and refining new therapeutic opportunities.

  5. Factors Associated with Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempt among School-Going Urban Adolescents in Peru.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bimala; Nam, Eun Woo; Kim, Ha Yun; Kim, Jong Koo

    2015-11-20

    The study examines the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, and associated factors among school-going urban adolescents in Peru. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample of 916 secondary school adolescents in 2014. A structured questionnaire adapted from Global School-based Student Health Survey was used to obtain information. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models at 5% level of significance. Overall, 26.3% reported having suicidal ideation, and 17.5% reported having attempted suicide during the past 12 months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female sex, being in a fight, being insulted, being attacked, perceived unhappiness, smoking and sexual intercourse initiation were significantly associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation, while female sex, being in a fight, being insulted, being attacked, perceived unhappiness, alcohol and illicit drug use were related to suicide attempt. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts observed in the survey area is relatively high. Female adolescents are particularly vulnerable to report suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Interventions that address the issue of violence against adolescents, fighting with peers, health risk behaviors particularly initiation of smoking, alcohol and illicit drug use and encourage supportive role of parents may reduce the risk of suicidal behaviors.

  6. Examining the unique relations between anxiety sensitivity factors and suicidal ideation and past suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Allan, Nicholas P; Norr, Aaron M; Boffa, Jay W; Durmaz, Daphne; Raines, Amanda M; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-08-30

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) has recently been linked to suicidality. Specifically, AS cognitive concerns has been implicated as a risk factor, and AS physical concerns as a protective factor, for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. However, no studies have used structural equation modeling (SEM) to address issues of skewed suicide variables and bifactor modeling of AS to address the high degree of overlap between the lower-order dimensions of AS that limit interpretation of these past findings. AS, suicidal ideation, past suicide attempts, and depression were assessed in a clinical sample of 267 individuals (M age=35.45 years, SD=16.53; 52.1% female). The global AS and AS cognitive concerns factors were positively, significantly associated with suicidal ideation, though these effects were nonsignificant controlling for depression. The global AS factor was positively, significantly associated with suicide attempts, controlling for depression. The current study demonstrated that the relations between AS and suicidal ideation are not maintained when accounting for depression, suggesting that the relation between AS and suicidal ideation may be mediated by depression. The positive relation between global AS and suicide attempts is consistent with theories positing suicide attempts as a consequence of an inability to cope with intolerable distress.

  7. Exploring the risk factors contributing to suicide attempt among adolescents: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Bazrafshan, Mohammad-Rafi; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Molazem, Zahra; Mani, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since suicide attempt among adolescents is a major challenge and the reasons why this age group attempt suicide are complex, the aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors that contribute to suicide attempt among adolescents. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative content analysis, 14 adolescents (12–19 years old) who were admitted in two hospitals in Shiraz, Iran, were interviewed. Participants who tried attempt suicide with medication were selected by purposive sampling and the data were gathered by semi-structured interviews. Data analysis was guided by the conventional approach of qualitative content analysis. Results: Three major themes and 13 subthemes emerged from data analysis. The main themes were: (a) Individual factors and experiences (psycho-emotional problems, puberty, religious beliefs, stress management strategies, marriage and love, field and level of education); (b) family factors (family structure, family relationship, family economic features, family health conditions); and (c) social factors (suicidal behavior in others, media influence, professional support). Conclusions: This study identified three major themes related to suicide attempt among adolescents in the context. As a result, suicide prevention and care provision should formulate a comprehensive method, considering the interaction of medical besides individual, familiar, and social factors in their assessment and care provision. PMID:26985229

  8. Which symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder are associated with suicide attempts?

    PubMed

    Selaman, Zeynep M H; Chartrand, Hayley K; Bolton, James M; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-03-01

    Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder are at increased risk for suicide attempts. The present study aimed to determine which of the specific DSM-IV symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are independently associated with suicide attempts. Data came from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). The NESARC has a sample size of N = 34653. The full sample size included in analyses was 2322 individuals with PTSD. Among individuals with lifetime PTSD, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, as well as any mood, substance, personality, or anxiety disorder (excluding PTSD), increasing numbers of re-experiencing and avoidance symptoms were significantly correlated with suicide attempts. Of the specific symptoms, having physical reactions by reminders of the trauma, being unable to recall some part of it, and having the sense of a foreshortened future, were all associated with suicide attempts. These findings will help extend our understanding of the elevated risk for suicide attempts in individuals with PTSD.

  9. Age of minority sexual orientation development and risk of childhood maltreatment and suicide attempts in women.

    PubMed

    Corliss, Heather L; Cochran, Susan D; Mays, Vickie M; Greenland, Sander; Seeman, Teresa E

    2009-10-01

    Women with minority sexual orientations (e.g., lesbian, bisexual) are more likely than heterosexual women to report histories of childhood maltreatment and attempted suicide; however, the importance of the timing of minority sexual orientation development in contributing to this increased risk is uncertain. This study investigated relationships between self-reported ages of achieving minority sexual orientation development milestones (first awareness of same-gender attractions, disclosure of a minority sexual orientation to another person, and same-gender sexual contact), and childhood maltreatment and suicide attempt experiences in a sample of 2,001 women recruited from multiple-community sources. Younger age of minority sexual orientation development milestones was positively linked to self-reported recall of childhood maltreatment experiences, and to a childhood suicide attempt. After adjusting for differences in maltreatment, the odds of suicide attempt attributable to younger age of sexual orientation development milestones was reduced by 50 to 65%, suggesting that maltreatment may account for about half of the elevated risk for childhood suicide attempts among women with early minority sexual orientation development. Implications for services, interventions, and further research to address maltreatment disparities for sexual minorities are discussed.

  10. Factors Associated with Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempt among School-Going Urban Adolescents in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bimala; Nam, Eun Woo; Kim, Ha Yun; Kim, Jong Koo

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, and associated factors among school-going urban adolescents in Peru. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample of 916 secondary school adolescents in 2014. A structured questionnaire adapted from Global School-based Student Health Survey was used to obtain information. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models at 5% level of significance. Overall, 26.3% reported having suicidal ideation, and 17.5% reported having attempted suicide during the past 12 months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female sex, being in a fight, being insulted, being attacked, perceived unhappiness, smoking and sexual intercourse initiation were significantly associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation, while female sex, being in a fight, being insulted, being attacked, perceived unhappiness, alcohol and illicit drug use were related to suicide attempt. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts observed in the survey area is relatively high. Female adolescents are particularly vulnerable to report suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Interventions that address the issue of violence against adolescents, fighting with peers, health risk behaviors particularly initiation of smoking, alcohol and illicit drug use and encourage supportive role of parents may reduce the risk of suicidal behaviors. PMID:26610536

  11. Anxiety disorders associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in the National Comorbidity Survey.

    PubMed

    Sareen, Jitender; Houlahan, Tanya; Cox, Brian J; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2005-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between anxiety disorders and suicidal ideation or suicide attempts in a nationally representative sample (N = 5877; age, 15-54; response rate, 82.4%). A modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to make DSM-III-R mental disorder diagnoses. Two multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed with suicidal ideation (N = 754) and suicide attempts (N = 259) as dependent variables. In each regression, the independent variables entered were lifetime social phobia, panic disorder, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, simple phobia, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Covariates in the analyses were sociodemographics, lifetime mood disorders, substance use disorders, nonaffective psychosis, antisocial personality disorder, and presence of three or more lifetime DSM-III-R diagnoses. PTSD was significantly associated with suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio = 2.79; p < 0.01) and suicide attempts (adjusted odds ratio = 2.67; p < 0.01). None of the other anxiety disorders were significantly associated with suicidal ideation or attempts. The robust association between PTSD and suicide attempts has important implications for psychiatric assessment of suicidal behavior. Future research is required to investigate the mechanisms underlying the relationship between PTSD and suicidal behavior.

  12. Frequency and clinical features of patients who attempted suicide by Hara-Kiri in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kato, Koji; Kimoto, Keitaro; Kimoto, Kousuke; Takahashi, Yuki; Sato, Reiko; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-09-01

    Hara-kiri is a unique Japanese custom, primarily stemming from the manners and customs that a samurai held. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical features of individuals who attempted suicide by hara-kiri. We enrolled 647 patients who had attempted suicide. Clinical features were compared between those who had employed hara-kiri and those who had used other methods. 25 of the 647 subjects had attempted suicide by hara-kiri. The ratio of men to women and the proportion of patients with mood disorders were significantly higher in the hara-kiri group than in the other methods group. The average length of stay in either the hospital or in the intensive care unit was also longer in the hara-kiri group than in the other methods group. Hara-kiri is an original Japanese method of attempting suicide, and suicide attempts by hara-kiri may be aimed at maintaining a reputation or taking responsibility.

  13. Copy Number Variation in Subjects with Major Depressive Disorder Who Attempted Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Perlis, Roy H.; Ruderfer, Douglas; Hamilton, Steven P.; Ernst, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Background Suicide is one of the top ten leading causes of death in North America and represents a major public health burden, partcularly for people with Major Depressive disorder (MD). Many studies have suggested that suicidal behavior runs in families, however, identification of genomic loci that drive this efffect remain to be identified. Methodology/Principal Findings Using subjects collected as part of STAR*D, we genotyped 189 subjects with MD with history of a suicide attempt and 1073 subjects with Major Depressive disorder that had never attempted suicide. Copy Number Variants (CNVs) were called in Birdsuite and analyzed in PLINK. We found a set of CNVs present in the suicide attempter group that were not present in in the non-attempter group including in SNTG2 and MACROD2 – two brain expressed genes previously linked to psychopathology; however, these results failed to reach genome-wide signifigance. Conclusions These data suggest potential CNVs to be investigated further in relation to suicide attempts in MD using large sample sizes. PMID:23029476

  14. Attempted Observations of the 2009 Occultation of a Star by Nix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Widemann, T.; Sicardy, B.; Lister, T.; Tholen, D. J.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Adams, E. R.

    2009-12-01

    We attempted to observe the predicted 4 March 2009, 13:56 UT, approximately 6-second-long occultation of an 11th magnitude star by Pluto's small moon Nix, which is fainter than 23rd magnitude. In parallel starlight, the path was 88 km in width with a one-sigma range from 44 km to 110 km. The Tycho star is at 18 12 09.86 17 42 03.3 (J2000.0), and has R=11.8 and K=10.4. The occultation path was predicted to cross the Hawaiian islands, with a southern boundary cutting through Maui and missing the telescopes on Mauna Kea, but the uncertainty in the prediction (1 sigma) was about 500 km (though only 5 minutes in time). The path's speed was 15 km/s. In the event, we obtained data only from the 2-m Faulkes telescope on Maui, with uneven skies. Our trailed images did not show evidence of the occultation, which would have dropped the observed intensity at the merged star/Nix position by about 12 magnitudes or, more likely, if Nix and Pluto were merged by about 3 magnitudes. Weather prevented observations with MegaCam on the CFHT, with a MIT POETS on the IRTF, with PanSTARRS on Maui, as well as with an 0.4-m telescope at Windward Community College on Oahu. For administrative reasons, we did not succeed in obtaining data with the 3.7-m AEOS telescope on Maui. In any case, the event was at low altitude, only 21°, so pointing was at the limits for several of the telescopes. Our collaboration between Williams College and MIT is with J. L. Elliot and M. J. Person at MIT and B. A. Babcock and S. P. Souza at Williams. We thank C. Veillet in Paris, J. Ciotti, M. Kessler, and G. T. Elliott on Oahu, and L. Young and M. Buie in Boulder for their collaboration. JMP's work on Pluto is supported in part by grant NNX08AO50G from NASA's Planetary Science Division and MIT's by NNX07AN63G.

  15. Suicide and attempted suicide among South Asians in England: who is at risk?

    PubMed

    Ineichen, Bernard

    2008-09-01

    Evidence from both large-scale and small-scale studies suggests differences and similarities in patterns of suicide and attempted suicide between South Asians and the total population in England. Among South Asians, the excess of females among both suicides and attempted suicides is even more marked; the traditional view of a strong family structure among Asians is confirmed, although cultural conflict between generations is apparent. The technique of suicide by burning among Asians appears to be waning. Asians who attempt or complete suicide are more likely to be suffering from stress, but less likely to have been diagnosed as mentally ill. Their psychological problems appear to have been frequently overlooked by general practitioners, or not presented to them. Differences in religion, with Hindus producing higher rates than Muslims, and demographic, geographical, financial and cultural differences, contribute to the need for disaggregation and up-to-date research.

  16. Suicide Attempts and Personal Need for Structure Among Ex-Offenders.

    PubMed

    Majer, John M; Beasley, Christopher; Jason, Leonard A

    2017-02-01

    Suicide attempts were examined in relation to sociodemographic (age, gender, ethnicity), psychopathological (prior psychiatric hospitalizations, physical and sexual abuse histories), and cognitive (personal need for structure) variables among a sample of ex-offenders with substance use disorders ( N = 270). Hierarchical logistic regression was conducted to determine whether personal need for structure would significantly predict whether participants reported past suicide attempts beyond sociodemographic and psychopathological predictors. Personal need for structure and prior psychiatric hospitalizations were the only significant predictors, with higher values of these predictors increasing the likelihood of suicide attempts. Findings are consistent with a cognitive model for understanding suicide behavior, suggesting that persons with a high need for cognitive structures operate with persistent and rigid thought processes that contribute to their risk of suicide.

  17. The Association between Anhedonia, Suicidal Ideation, and Suicide Attempts in a Large Student Sample.

    PubMed

    Winer, E Samuel; Drapeau, Christopher W; Veilleux, Jennifer C; Nadorff, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a significant risk factor for suicide. Evidence suggests that anhedonia may be a symptom of depression that is uniquely associated with suicidality. However, exactly how anhedonia is related to suicide is unclear. To provide more specific evidence regarding this association, we investigated relationships between anhedonia, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. A large combined undergraduate sample completed the novel Specific Loss of Interest and Pleasure Scale (SLIPS), the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R). Anhedonia was associated with suicidal ideation, even when accounting for depressive symptoms. Additionally, anhedonia was not associated with suicide attempts when symptoms of depression were held constant. The current study provides novel evidence regarding the relationship between anhedonia and risk of attempting suicide. Future research can examine the role anhedonia plays in the unfolding of suicidal behavior over time.

  18. Suicide attempts and self-harm behaviors in psychiatric sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Jill D; Gonsalves, Valerie

    2014-06-01

    Suicidality and self-harm behaviors among sex offenders remain underreported in the clinical literature and are often misunderstood in this complex population. The present study aims to identify rates of suicide attempts and self-injurious behaviors in a sample of 1,184 psychiatric inpatients, 462 of whom are sexual offenders. Between-group comparisons revealed significant differences in history of suicide attempts and self-harm behaviors, with sexual offenders evidencing greater rates of both. Significant psychiatric correlates of suicide attempts and self-harm behaviors among sex offenders varied by group and included a variety of psychiatric symptom presentations. These are compared with the general literature on suicide risk and the sex offender population. Implications for treatment of these behaviors in a sex offender population are discussed.

  19. Suicide and attempted suicide among South Asians in England: who is at risk?

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from both large-scale and small-scale studies suggests differences and similarities in patterns of suicide and attempted suicide between South Asians and the total population in England. Among South Asians, the excess of females among both suicides and attempted suicides is even more marked; the traditional view of a strong family structure among Asians is confirmed, although cultural conflict between generations is apparent. The technique of suicide by burning among Asians appears to be waning. Asians who attempt or complete suicide are more likely to be suffering from stress, but less likely to have been diagnosed as mentally ill. Their psychological problems appear to have been frequently overlooked by general practitioners, or not presented to them. Differences in religion, with Hindus producing higher rates than Muslims, and demographic, geographical, financial and cultural differences, contribute to the need for disaggregation and up-to-date research. PMID:22477861

  20. High rates of suicide and attempted suicide using pesticides in Nickerie, Suriname, South America.

    PubMed

    Graafsma, T; Kerkhof, A; Gibson, D; Badloe, R; van de Beek, L M

    2006-01-01

    Suicide and attempted suicide are identified as a serious mental health problem in Suriname, especially in the district of Nickerie. An epidemiological study in the Nickerie catchment area revealed high rates of suicide (48 per 100,000) and attempted suicide (207 per 100,000) on average in the years 2000-2004. Particularly remarkable is the high number of attempted suicides among males (49%), and the use of pesticides in both fatal (55%) and nonfatal suicidal behavior (44%). Probably this high incidence of suicidal behavior reflects the very poor economic situation of the district, poverty of most of the population, high levels of alcohol misuse, domestic violence, the rigidity of Hindustani culture regarding family traditions, the accessibility of pesticides, and the lack of future perspectives. Health care alone will not be sufficient to tackle this problem. One of the most urgent measures to prevent suicides is to stow away pesticides in locked cabinets with the key held by the proprietor.

  1. Suicide attempts and psychological risk factors in patients with bipolar and unipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Joanna; Dmitrzak-Węglarz, Monika; Skibińska, Maria; Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra; Leszczyńska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Rajewska-Rager, Aleksandra; Maciukiewicz, Małgorzata; Czerski, Piotr; Hauser, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is an important clinical problem in psychiatric patients. The highest risk of suicide attempts is noted in affective disorders. The aim of the study was looking for suicide risk factors among personality dimensions and value system in patients with diagnosis of unipolar and bipolar affective disorder (n=189 patients, n=101 controls). To establish the diagnosis, we used SCID (Structured clinical interview for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition) questionnaire, TCI (Temperament and Character Inventory) questionnaire and Value Survey--to assess the personality. The main limitations of the study are number of participants, lack of data about stressful life events and treatment with lithium. Novelty seeking and harm avoidance dimensions constituted suicide attempt risk factors in the group of patients with affective disorders. Protective role of cooperativeness was discovered. Patients with and without suicide attempt in lifetime history varied in self-esteem position in Value Survey.

  2. Trait anger, anger expression, and suicide attempts among adolescents and young adults: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Stephanie S; Goldston, David B; Erkanli, Alaattin; Franklin, Joseph C; Mayfield, Andrew M

    2009-09-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between anger, anger expression, and suicidal behavior have been largely cross-sectional and have yielded mixed findings. In a prospective, naturalistic study, we examined how trait anger and anger expression influenced the likelihood of suicide attempts among 180 adolescents followed for up to 13.3 years after discharge from an inpatient psychiatry unit. Results showed that higher trait anger and anger expressed outwardly over the follow-up was related to increased likelihood of suicide attempts among boys. For girls, trait anger and both the inward and outward expression of anger moderated the risk for suicide attempts associated with major depression. These results are interpreted in light of theory regarding behavioral activation and behavioral inhibition systems.

  3. To what extent do smokers make spontaneous quit attempts and what are the implications for smoking cessation maintenance? Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four country survey

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jae; Yong, Hua-Hie; McNeill, Ann; Murray, Rachael L.; O’Connor, Richard J.; Cummings, K. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To assess the extent to which quit attempts are spontaneous and to evaluate if this is a determinant of smoking cessation maintenance, with better control for memory effects. Methods: We use data from 3,022 smokers who made quit attempts between Waves 4 and 5 and/or Waves 5 and 6 of the International Tobacco Control Four country survey. Outcomes (quitting for 6 months) were confirmed at the next wave for cases where the attempt began within the previous 6 months. We assessed the length of delay between the decision to quit and implementation and whether the attempt followed a “spur-of-the-moment” decision or some serious prior consideration. Outcomes were modeled using generalized estimating equations. Results: Prior consideration of quitting was unrelated to the outcome, but there were complex relationships for the delay between choosing a quit day and implementation. Those who reported quitting on the day they decided and those who delayed for 1 week or more had comparable rates of 6-month abstinence. Delaying for 1–6 days was associated with a greater relapse rate than those who quit on the day, although this effect became nonsignificant in multivariate analyses. Conclusions: Quitting is on most smokers’ minds regularly and most attempts are not preceded by a long lead in period following the decision to try. Neither prior consideration nor delay between the decision to quit and implementation was clearly related to outcomes. Previous findings of greater success for spontaneous quit attempts may be because they conflate setting a date in advance with planning and also perhaps some differential memory effects. PMID:20889481

  4. Drugs Associated with More Suicidal Ideations Are also Associated with More Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Henry T.; Allison, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Context In randomized controlled trials (RCTs), some drugs, including CB1 antagonists for obesity treatment, have been shown to cause increased suicidal ideation. A key question is whether drugs that increase or are associated with increased suicidal ideations are also associated with suicidal behavior, or whether drug–induced suicidal ideations are unlinked epiphenomena that do not presage the more troubling and potentially irrevocable outcome of suicidal behavior. This is difficult to determine in RCTs because of the rarity of suicidal attempts and completions. Objective To determine whether drugs associated with more suicidal ideations are also associated with more suicide attempts in large spontaneous adverse event (AE) report databases. Methodology Generalized linear models with negative binomial distribution were fitted to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event (AE) Reporting System (AERS) data from 2004 to 2008. A total of 1,404,470 AEs from 832 drugs were analyzed as a function of reports of suicidal ideations; other non-suicidal adverse reactions; drug class; proportion of reports from males; and average age of subject for which AE was filed. Drug was treated as the unit of analysis, thus the statistical models effectively had 832 observations. Main Outcome Measures Reported suicide attempts and completed suicides per drug. Results 832 drugs, ranging from abacavir to zopiclone, were evaluated. The 832 drugs, as primary suspect drugs in a given adverse event, accounted for over 99.9% of recorded AERS. Suicidal ideations had a significant positive association with suicide attempts (p<.0001) and had an approximately 131-fold stronger magnitude of association than non-suicidal AERs, after adjusting for drug class, gender, and age. Conclusions In AE reports, drugs that are associated with increased suicidal ideations are also associated with increased suicidal attempts or completions. This association suggests that drug-induced suicidal ideations

  5. Time to hospitalization for suicide attempt by the timing of parental suicide during offspring early development.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto, S Janet; Runeson, Bo; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Lichtenstein, Paul; Wilcox, Holly C

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Previous studies have suggested that children who experience parental suicide at earlier ages are at higher risk of future hospitalization for suicide attempt. However, how the trajectories of risk differ by offspring age at the time of parental suicide is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE To study time at risk to suicide attempt hospitalization among offspring of suicide decedents as compared with offspring of unintentional injury decedents by their developmental period at the time of parental death. DESIGN Population-based retrospective cohort study. SETTING Sweden. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-six thousand ninety-six offspring who experienced parental suicide and 32 395 offspring of unintentional injury decedents prior to age 25 years between the years 1973 and 2003. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Parametric survival analysis was used to model the time to hospitalization for suicide attempt among offspring who lost a parent during early childhood (0-5 years old), later childhood (6-12 years old), adolescence (13-17 years old), and young adulthood (18-24 years old). RESULTS The risk in offspring who lost a parent to suicide or an unintentional injury during childhood surpassed the other age groups' risk approximately 5 years after the origin and, for the youngest group, continued to rise over decades. Offspring who lost a parent during adolescence or young adulthood were at greatest risk within 1 to 2 years after parental death, and risk declined over time. Offspring who lost a parent to suicide in childhood and young adulthood had earlier onset of hospitalization for suicide attempt compared with offspring who lost a parent to an unintentional injury. CONCLUSIONS The hospitalization risk for suicide attempt in offspring who lost a parent during their childhood is different from those who lost a parent later in development. The results suggest critical windows for careful monitoring and intervention for suicide attempt risk, especially 1 to 2 years after parental death for the

  6. Detection of mental imagery and attempted movements in patients with disorders of consciousness using EEG

    PubMed Central

    Horki, Petar; Bauernfeind, Günther; Klobassa, Daniela S.; Pokorny, Christoph; Pichler, Gerald; Schippinger, Walter; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.

    2014-01-01

    Further development of an EEG based communication device for patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC) could benefit from addressing the following gaps in knowledge—first, an evaluation of different types of motor imagery; second, an evaluation of passive feet movement as a mean of an initial classifier setup; and third, rapid delivery of biased feedback. To that end we investigated whether complex and/or familiar mental imagery, passive, and attempted feet movement can be reliably detected in patients with DoC using EEG recordings, aiming to provide them with a means of communication. Six patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) took part in this study. The patients were verbally instructed to perform different mental imagery tasks (sport, navigation), as well as attempted feet movements, to induce distinctive event-related (de)synchronization (ERD/S) patterns in the EEG. Offline classification accuracies above chance level were reached in all three tasks (i.e., attempted feet, sport, and navigation), with motor tasks yielding significant (p < 0.05) results more often than navigation (sport: 10 out of 18 sessions; attempted feet: 7 out of 14 sessions; navigation: 4 out of 12 sessions). The passive feet movements, evaluated in one patient, yielded mixed results: whereas time-frequency analysis revealed task-related EEG changes over neurophysiological plausible cortical areas, the classification results were not significant enough (p < 0.05) to setup an initial classifier for the detection of attempted movements. Concluding, the results presented in this study are consistent with the current state of the art in similar studies, to which we contributed by comparing different types of mental tasks, notably complex motor imagery and attempted feet movements, within patients. Furthermore, we explored new venues, such as an evaluation of passive feet movement as a mean of an initial classifier setup, and rapid delivery of biased feedback. PMID:25566029

  7. Acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and vulnerability to suicide attempts among emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Judelysse; Miranda, Regina; Polanco, Lillian

    2011-11-01

    Cultural factors are often neglected in studies of suicidal behavior among emerging adults. The present study examined acculturative stress and perceived discrimination as statistical predictors of a suicide attempt history among an ethnically diverse sample of 969 emerging adults, ages 18-25 (M = 18.8). Females made up 68% of the sample, and the racial/ethnic composition included Asian, Latino, Black, and White (US-born and non-US-born) individuals. There were no statistically significant racial/ethnic differences in endorsement of a suicide attempt history, with an overall rate of 8% in the sample. Asian participants reported higher acculturative stress than all other racial/ethnic groups, while both Asian and Black participants reported having experienced more discrimination in the previous year, compared to other groups. Logistic regression analyses suggested that familial acculturative stress was associated with 2 times higher odds of endorsing a past suicide attempt, overall. More specifically, it was associated with over 2 times higher odds among Asian participants, over 4 times higher odds among Black participants, and over 3 times higher odds among non-US-born White participants, while social acculturative stress was associated with over 3 times higher odds of endorsing a past suicide attempt among Latino participants. Environmental acculturative stress was associated with decreased odds of endorsing a suicide attempt history, overall, but not when examined separately by racial/ethnic group. Perceived discrimination was associated with over 5 times higher odds of a suicide attempt, overall, and specifically was associated with over 3 times higher odds among Latino participants and over 10 times higher odds among White, US-born participants. These findings suggest the importance of addressing culturally-related variables in treatment with emerging adults of racially/ethnically diverse backgrounds to reduce risk for suicidal behavior.

  8. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, as psychological toxin: increase in suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Starkman, Monica N

    2006-07-01

    Previous studies of psychological morbidity produced by September 11, 2001, focused primarily on short-term development of posttraumatic stress disorder or depression in East Coast cities targeted. This study aimed to determine whether suicide attempts medically harmful enough to necessitate admission to the general hospital increased in the 2 years following September 11, 2001, in a region not on the East Coast, and if so, to characterize individuals contributing to this increase. This retrospective study compared two time periods: 2 years preceding and 2 years following September 11, 2001. Psychiatric consultation reports for all suicide attempters medically admitted to the University of Michigan Health Systems Hospital in Ann Arbor, Michigan, were examined (N = 254). In the 2-year period following September 11, 2001, there was a 49% increase in the number of individuals making a harmful suicide attempt (p = 0.002). The effect was greatest in the months following the attacks but continued over the next year, with a stepwise decline corresponding to the number of months elapsed since September 11. In the period following September 11, 2001, fewer subjects reported multiple personal stressors (p = 0.03). The subjects in the two time periods were not significantly different in age, gender, prior suicide attempts, prior psychiatric treatment, alcohol abuse, substance abuse, depression, or psychosis. Overrepresentation by those most vulnerable to suicide attempts did not account for the increased number of suicide attempts. The effects of chronic stress in the general population across the United States elicited by the terrorism of September 11, 2001, may have been of greater magnitude and longer lasting than previously realized.

  9. Differences between Impulsive and Non-Impulsive Suicide Attempts among Individuals Treated in Emergency Rooms of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Meerae; Lee, Soojung

    2016-01-01

    Objective A considerable proportion of suicide attempts are the result of sudden desires. Understanding such impulsive suicide attempts is necessary for effective interventions. We evaluated the impulsivity of suicide attempters treated in emergency rooms. The aim of the study was to identify the characteristics of impulsive suicide attempts by comparing these individuals to those who attempted to commit suicide in a non-impulsive manner. Methods This study analyzed suicide attempters who visited the emergency departments of seven selected university hospitals. A total of 269 medical records in which impulsivity of suicide attempt were confirmed were subject to be analyzed. The impulsivity of the suicide attempt was examined using a summative score of items 6 and 15 on the Suicide Intent Scale. Results A total of 48.0% of the participants were impelled by sudden inclinations to attempt suicide. Impulsive attempters were younger, unmarried and less physical illness than non-impulsive attempters, whereas no significant differences were found on psychiatric history and previous suicide history. Impulsive suicide attempters had suicide ideations that were not as severe (χ2=55.33, p<0.001) or intense (t=-8.38, p<0.001) as their counterparts'. Furthermore, medical results of impulsive suicide attempts were better than non-impulsive suicide attempts (t=-3.77, p<0.001). Conclusion The results suggested that a considerable proportion of suicide attempts were the result of sudden inclinations. Impulsive attempts were made in relatively earlier stages of suicide ideation; consequently, they have less intent than non-impulsive attempts. PMID:27482239

  10. Effect of phone call versus face-to-face follow-up on recurrent suicide attempts prevention in individuals with a history of multiple suicide attempts

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Ghafur; Amini, Mohsen; Mahaki, Behzad; Bagherian-Sararoudi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the efficacy of different ways of communications on prevention of suicidal reattempt, we compared the efficacy of phone call versus face-to-face follow-up in patients with previous attempt. Materials and Methods: In a randomized controlled clinical trial, 55 suicide reattempters who were admitted to the poisoning emergency were divided into phone call (29 patients) and face-to-face (26 patients) groups randomly. They were followed at 8 occasions: 2nd and 4th weeks, and the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 8th months. The suicidal reattempt, suicidal thought, hope, and interest of the patients were assessed on each occasion, and the patients were guided to visit by a therapist, if needed. The findings were analyzed by Mann–Whitney, Chi-square, Cochran, Friedman, and independent t-tests using SPSS 20. Results: The status of “hope” and “interest” improved in both groups, but it showed more significant difference in the face-to-face group. Suicidal thoughts in both groups decreased over time, and this was more significant in the face-to-face group. However, we did not found any significant difference in the frequency of the suicidal reattempts between two groups. Conclusion: Face-to-face versus phone call follow-up of suicide attempters can significantly alleviate suicidal thoughts and improve hopes and interests. PMID:28028524

  11. Stochastic Estimation Applied to the Land Speed of Sound Record Attempt by a Rocket Car.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    STOCHASTIC ESTIMATION APPLIED TO THE LAND SPEED OF SOUND RECORD ATTEMPT BY A ROCKET CAR THESIS David A. Reinholz Captain, USAF 0.-- AFIT/GAE/AA/83DZ24 I...ESTIMATION APPLIED TO THE LAND SPEED OF SOUND RECORD ATTEMPT BY A ROCKET CAR THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force...first to interest me in the Budweiser Rocket Car and helped provide guidance throughout my work. The person with the most "corporate knowledge" about

  12. Power and Control in Kathmandu: A Comparison of Attempted Power, Actual Power, and Achieved Power.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Thapa, Sirjana; Wu, Shali

    2016-05-05

    We argue that the concept of power has been inadvertently sidelined in recent theory and research on husband violence. Three types of relationship power may matter with respect to husband violence: attempted power, actual power, and achieved power. Analyses of a randomly selected representative sample of 270 married or partnered women in Kathmandu showed that actual power was related to husband violence prevalence, severity, and injury. Achieved power was related to husband violence prevalence and severity, and attempted power was related to husband violence injury. Implications are discussed.

  13. Is parenting style a predictor of suicide attempts in a representative sample of adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are serious but not rare conditions in adolescents. However, there are several research and practical suicide-prevention initiatives that discuss the possibility of preventing serious self-harm. Profound knowledge about risk and protective factors is therefore necessary. The aim of this study is a) to clarify the role of parenting behavior and parenting styles in adolescents’ suicide attempts and b) to identify other statistically significant and clinically relevant risk and protective factors for suicide attempts in a representative sample of German adolescents. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th grade of different school types in Germany was conducted. In this survey, the lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts was investigated as well as potential predictors including parenting behavior. A three-step statistical analysis was carried out: I) As basic model, the association between parenting and suicide attempts was explored via binary logistic regression controlled for age and sex. II) The predictive values of 13 additional potential risk/protective factors were analyzed with single binary logistic regression analyses for each predictor alone. Non-significant predictors were excluded in Step III. III) In a multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, all significant predictor variables from Step II and the parenting styles were included after testing for multicollinearity. Results Three parental variables showed a relevant association with suicide attempts in adolescents – (all protective): mother’s warmth and father’s warmth in childhood and mother’s control in adolescence (Step I). In the full model (Step III), Authoritative parenting (protective: OR: .79) and Rejecting-Neglecting parenting (risk: OR: 1.63) were identified as significant predictors (p < .001) for suicidal attempts. Seven further variables were interpreted to be

  14. Decision Making in Social Context in Patients with Suicide Attempt History.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Loyo, Luis; Ventura-Martínez, Eva; González-Garrido, Andrés Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Decision making has been found to be altered in suicide attempters, but little is known of their performance in social contexts. Twenty-seven depressed suicide attempters (DSA), 25 nonsuicidal depressed patients (DP), and 60 healthy participants (HC) were evaluated by a decision-making task in social context. Results indicated DSA and DP obtained lower gains and invested more money with angry partners. DSA were found to invest less money than DP and HC with happy partners. DSA showed insensitivity toward rewards/punishment contingency, and they did not use the socioemotional stimuli to guide their decisions.

  15. Failing the Future: Three Unsuccessful Attempts to Replicate Bem's ‘Retroactive Facilitation of Recall’ Effect

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Stuart J.; Wiseman, Richard; French, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    Nine recently reported parapsychological experiments appear to support the existence of precognition. We describe three pre-registered independent attempts to exactly replicate one of these experiments, ‘retroactive facilitation of recall’, which examines whether performance on a memory test can be influenced by a post-test exercise. All three replication attempts failed to produce significant effects (combined n = 150; combined p = .83, one-tailed) and thus do not support the existence of psychic ability. PMID:22432019

  16. Suicides and suicide attempts in the U.S. Military, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Bush, Nigel E; Reger, Mark A; Luxton, David D; Skopp, Nancy A; Kinn, Julie; Smolenski, Derek; Gahm, Gregory A

    2013-06-01

    The Department of Defense Suicide Event Report Program collects extensive information on suicides and suicide attempts from the U.S. Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and Navy. Data are compiled on demographics, suicide event details, behavioral health treatment history, military history, and information about other potential risk factors such as psychosocial stressors that were present at the time of the event. The ultimate goal of this standardized suicide surveillance program is to assist suicide prevention in the U.S. military. Descriptive data are presented on 816 suicides and 1,514 suicide attempts reported through the program between 2008 and 2010.

  17. Suicide Attempt Characteristics Among Veterans and Active-Duty Service Members Receiving Mental Health Services: A Pooled Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Villatte, Jennifer L.; O’Connor, Stephen S.; Leitner, Rebecca; Kerbrat, Amanda H.; Johnson, Lora L.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Past suicidal behaviors are among the strongest and most consistent predictors of eventual suicide and may be particularly salient in military suicide. The current study compared characteristics of suicide attempts in veterans (N = 746) and active-duty service members (N = 1,013) receiving treatment for acute suicide risk. Baseline data from six randomized controlled trials were pooled and analyzed using robust regression. Service members had greater odds of having attempted suicide relative to veterans, though there were no differences in number of attempts made. Service members also had higher rates of premilitary suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Veterans disproportionately attempted suicide by means of overdose. In veterans, combat deployment was associated with lower odds of lifetime suicide attempt, while history of NSSI was associated with greater attempt odds. Neither was significantly associated with lifetime suicide attempt in service members. Implications for suicide assessment and treatment are discussed. PMID:26740909

  18. Psychiatric Diagnoses as Contemporaneous Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Adolescents and Young Adults: Developmental Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, David B.; Daniel, Stephanie Sergent; Erkanli, Alaattin; Reboussin, Beth A.; Mayfield, Andrew; Frazier, Patricia H.; Treadway, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, naturalistic study was to examine the relationships between suicide attempts and contemporaneous psychiatric disorders, and developmental changes in these relationships from adolescence to young adulthood. The sample consisted of 180 adolescents, 12-19 years of age at hospitalization, repeatedly assessed for up to…

  19. The Effectiveness of Policies and Programs that Attempt to Reduce Firearm Violence: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarios, Matthew D.; Pratt, Travis C.

    2012-01-01

    In response to rising rates of firearms violence that peaked in the mid-1990s, a wide range of policy interventions have been developed in an attempt to reduce violent crimes committed with firearms. Although some of these approaches appear to be effective at reducing gun violence, methodological variations make comparing effects across program…

  20. Characteristics of Living and Deceased Suicidal Military Personnel Based on Single Versus Multiple Suicide Attempt Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-27

    Suicide Prevention and Significance of Tertiary Prevention Efforts There are three stages of prevention in regard to illness and injury (Green...Finally, tertiary prevention is treatment to prevent the recurrence of illness or injury (Green & MILITARY SINGLE VERSUS MULTIPLE SUICIDE ATTEMPTS 3...Kreuter, 2005). Tertiary prevention is the aim of the present study as its purpose is to investigate the factors that are

  1. Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR)--The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Christine M.; Jordan, Alicia; Lambert, Patrice; Porter, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that each student with a Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR) order have an Individualized Healthcare Plan (IHP) and an Emergency Care Plan (ECP) developed by the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) with input from parents or guardians,…

  2. Suicides and Suicide Attempts in the U.S. Military, 2008-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Nigel E.; Reger, Mark A.; Luxton, David D.; Skopp, Nancy A.; Kinn, Julie; Smolenski, Derek; Gahm, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Defense Suicide Event Report Program collects extensive information on suicides and suicide attempts from the U.S. Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and Navy. Data are compiled on demographics, suicide event details, behavioral health treatment history, military history, and information about other potential risk factors such as…

  3. Cooling Spheres and Accumulating Lead: The History of Attempts to Date the Earth's Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Stephen G.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a chronology of scientific efforts designed to determine the age of the earth. Summarizes scientists' attempts at dating the planet's formation, including the examination of lead in the environment, the calculation of the earth's cooling temperature and time, the study of geological sedimentation and the analysis of moon rocks. (TW)

  4. A Slave to Yellow Peril: The 1886 Chinese Ouster Attempt in Wichita, Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtwright, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Wichita's [Kansas] war on the Chinese began in 1886. Although a small war in comparison to other anti-Chinese outbursts in the American West, the persecution and violence against the city's small Asian population was nonetheless terrifying and significant to those who were the focus of the racist demonstrations. In an attempt to follow the…

  5. Attempting to Predict Withdrawal from Higher Education Using Demographic, Psychological and Educational Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlton, John P.; Barrow, Corinne; Hornby-Atkinson, Pat

    2006-01-01

    Demographic, psychological and secondary level examination measures were obtained at the start of undergraduate courses in an attempt to predict first-year higher education (HE) withdrawal. As usual, withdrawal was greatest for males. Overall, intrinsic motivation and independent study expectations were better predictors of withdrawal than…

  6. Suicide and Attempted Suicide in Young People. Report on a Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1974

    Suicide and attempted suicide are problems which continue to occupy the world-wide attention of both health service administrators and research workers. National statistics of completed suicides have shown an increase in rates among people aged 15-24 years and even among children below the age of 15. Conference discussions were based on working…

  7. Polymorphism in CRHR1 gene affects the IL-1β levels in suicidal attempters.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Clarissa R; Gazal, Marta; Quevedo, Luciana de A; Costa, Joice Luisa; Wiener, Carolina D; Jansen, Karen; de Mola, Christian Loret; Oses, Jean P; Souza, Luciano D M; Portela, Luiz Valmor; Pinheiro, Ricardo T; da Silva, Ricardo A; Lara, Diogo R; Ghisleni, Gabriele

    2017-03-01

    Approximately one million people commit suicide every year, being suicide attempts and ideation even more common. Changes in stress response and activation of the immune system have been associated with suicide risk. Here we investigated the interaction between immune system and HPA axis alterations in the suicide risk, looking for the influence of rs110402 CRHR1 SNP in the IL-1β levels according to suicide ideation and attempt. This study evaluated 171 subjects of which 15 had suicidal ideation, 20 had suicide attempt and 136 were controls. Genotyping was performed by real-time PCR and IL-1β levels were measured by ELISA. Our data showed that for each point increase in IL-1β levels the risk of suicide attempt increased 5% [relative risk = 1.05 (95% CI: 1.0-1.10)]. After sample stratification by rs110402 SNP genotypes, we observed that in subjects carrying the A allele the risk raised to 15% [relative risk = 1.15 (95% CI: 1.03-1.28)], suggesting an apparent effect modification. Thus, this study showed that alterations in CRHR1 gene were associated with higher levels of IL-1β, and increased risk for suicide, reinforcing the importance of multifactorial interactions of biological markers for psychiatric disorders.

  8. Risk Factors Related to Suicidal Ideation and Attempted Suicide: Comparative Study of Korean and American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both…

  9. Personality Differences in Attempted Suicide versus Suicide in Adults 50 Years of Age or Older

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Useda, J. David; Duberstein, Paul R.; Conner, Kenneth R.; Beckman, Anthony; Franus, Nathan; Tu, Xin; Conwell, Yeates

    2007-01-01

    The authors tested hypotheses concerning personality differences in treatment-seeking suicide attempters (AT; n = 60) and a community sample of suicides (SU; n = 43) over age 50. On the basis of prior research, the authors hypothesized that SU would be lower in Neuroticism and Openness and higher in Conscientiousness. A 2-group (AT vs. SU)…

  10. Insomnia is Associated with Suicide Attempt in Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Daniel B.; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Begley, Amy; Szanto, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    Background Insomnia increases in prevalence with age, is strongly associated with depression, and has been identified as a risk factor for suicide in several studies. The aim of this study was to determine whether insomnia severity varies between those who have attempted suicide (n = 72), those who only contemplate suicide (n = 28), and those who are depressed but have no suicidal ideation or attempt history (n = 35). Methods Participants were middle-aged and older adults (Age 44–87, M = 66 years) with depression. Insomnia severity was measured as the sum of the early, middle, and late insomnia items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. General linear models examined relations between group status as the independent variable and insomnia severity as the dependent variable. Results The suicide attempt group suffered from more severe insomnia than the suicidal ideation and non-suicidal depressed groups (p < .05). Differences remained after adjusting for potential confounders including demographics, cognitive ability, alcohol dependence in the past month, severity of depressed mood, anxiety, and physical health burden. Moreover, greater insomnia severity in the suicide attempt group could not be explained by interpersonal difficulties, executive functioning, benzodiazepine use, or by the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Conclusion Our results suggest that insomnia may be more strongly associated with suicidal behavior than with the presence of suicidal thoughts alone. Accordingly, insomnia is a potential treatment target for reducing suicide risk in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:26552935

  11. Contributors to Suicidal Ideation among Bipolar Patients with and without a History of Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Michael H.; Chessick, Cheryl A.; Miklowitz, David J.; Goldberg, Joseph F.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Miyahara, Sachiko; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Marangell, Lauren; Bauer, Mark S.; Thomas, Marshall R.; Bowden, Charles L.; Sachs, Gary S.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to develop models for vulnerability to suicidal ideation in bipolar patients. Logistic regression models examined correlates of suicidal ideation in patients who had versus had not attempted suicide previously. Of 477 patients assessed, complete data on demographic, illness history, and personality variables were available…

  12. Suicide Attempts and Severe Psychiatric Morbidity among Former Child Welfare Clients--A National Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinnerljung, Bo; Hjern, Anders; Lindblad, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Background: Few large sample studies have examined psychiatric morbidity among former child welfare/protection clients. In this study, risks for suicide attempts and severe psychiatric morbidity in younger years were assessed for former child welfare clients in ten national birth cohorts, comparing them with general population peers and…

  13. Changing Roles in a Classroom: An Attempt That Didn't Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensign, Jacque

    In an attempt to analyze the success or failure of school reform efforts, this study looked closely at student and teacher interactions in one elementary classroom where a "democratic" approach was being implemented. The study used Victor Turner's work on rituals to analyze one episode in a third-grade classroom (one student sucked on a…

  14. Factors Associated with Suicide Attempts in Female Inmates: The Hegemony of Hopelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Alexander L.; Specht, Matthew W.; Cellucci, Tony

    2005-01-01

    In this study factors associated with past suicide attempts in female inmates were examined. Female inmate participants (N = 105) were given structured diagnostic assessments of antisocial and borderline personality disorders and substance dependence, as well as measures of depression, hopelessness, problem-focused coping styles, and reasons for…

  15. Differences in Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Suicide Attempts in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brausch, Amy M.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    As suicide attempts and self-injury remain predominant health risks among adolescents, it is increasingly important to be able to distinguish features of self-harming adolescents from those who are at risk for suicidal behaviors. The current study examined differences between groups of adolescents with varying levels of self-harmful behavior in a…

  16. Creating the "International Mind": The League of Nations Attempts to Reform History Teaching, 1920-1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Ken

    2016-01-01

    After the First World War, the League of Nations, through its International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation, attempted to reshape the teaching of history in its member states. The League's supporters realized that its long-term success depended in part on supportive public opinion and that this, in turn, had implications for education. Aware…

  17. Disregarding Familiarity during Recollection Attempts: Content-Specific Recapitulation as a Retrieval Orientation Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Stephen J.; Gallo, David A.

    2015-01-01

    People can use a content-specific recapitulation strategy to trigger memories (i.e., mentally reinstating encoding conditions), but how people deploy this strategy is unclear. Is recapitulation naturally used to guide all recollection attempts, or is it only used selectively, after retrieving incomplete information that requires additional…

  18. Retrieval Attempts Enhance Learning, but Retrieval Success (versus Failure) Does Not Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornell, Nate; Klein, Patricia Jacobs; Rawson, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Retrieving information from memory enhances learning. We propose a 2-stage framework to explain the benefits of retrieval. Stage 1 takes place as one attempts to retrieve an answer, which activates knowledge related to the retrieval cue. Stage 2 begins when the answer becomes available, at which point appropriate connections are strengthened and…

  19. Retrieval attempts enhance learning regardless of time spent trying to retrieve.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Kalif E; Hausman, Hannah; Kornell, Nate

    2017-03-01

    Attempting to retrieve information from memory is an engaging cognitive activity. We predicted that people would learn more when they had spent more time attempting to retrieve. In experiments 1a and 1b, participants were shown trivia questions for 0, 5, 10, or 30 seconds and then the answer was revealed. They took a final test immediately or after 48 hours. Retrieval enhanced learning, but the length of the retrieval attempt had no effect (i.e., final test performance was equivalent in the 5-, 10-, and 30-second conditions and worse in the 0-second condition). During the initial retrieval attempt, more time did increase recall, suggesting that participants continued to engage in productive retrieval activities when given more time. Showing the answer for longer (7 versus 2 seconds) increased learning in Experiments 2a and 2b. Experiment 3 examined the effect of retrieval success and Experiment 4 replicated the results using different materials. These results have direct implications for current theories of retrieval.

  20. Coping Skills Among Adolescent Suicide Attempters: Results of a Multisite Study

    PubMed Central

    Mirkovic, Bojan; Labelle, Réal; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Belloncle, Vincent; Bodeau, Nicolas; Knafo, Alexandra; Condat, Agnès; Bapt-Cazalets, Nathalie; Marguet, Christophe; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Cohen, David; Gérardin, Priscille

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A multisite study was undertaken to advance our understanding of how coping skills, depression, and suicidal ideation are related among adolescents who attempt suicide. Two hypotheses were postulated: productive coping and nonproductive coping would be associated, respectively, with lower and higher depression scores when age, sex, and stressful life events (SLEs) were controlled; and productive coping and nonproductive coping would be associated, respectively, with the presence and absence of suicidal ideation when age, sex, and SLEs were controlled. Methods: Participants were 167 adolescents (13 to 17 years of age) hospitalized for attempting suicide in 5 pediatric departments across France. Four instruments were administered: the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia—Present and Lifetime Version, the Adolescent Coping Scale, the Life Events Questionnaire, and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Descriptive analyses and univariate and multiple regression models were completed. Results: Both hypotheses were confirmed. Focus on the positive emerged as a significant variable in both models; depression emerged as a significant variable in the suicidal ideation model. The only sex difference observed was that girls made greater use of wishful thinking and seek social support. Conclusions: These findings suggest that coping skills are important mechanisms through which depression and suicidal ideation are maintained after attempting suicide. In intervening with adolescents who have attempted suicide, it may be useful to emphasize cognitive work geared to looking on the bright side, positive thinking, and fighting depression. PMID:25886670

  1. Health risk behaviors in relation to making a smoking quit attempt among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Ana M; Lee, Christina S; MacPherson, Laura; Strong, David R; Borrelli, Belinda; Brown, Richard A

    2009-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine youth risk behaviors in relation to: (a) making a smoking quit attempt, and (b) successful cessation among adolescent smokers. Data were analyzed from the public use dataset of the 2003 national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The sample consisted of 2,033 students (weighted mean age of 16.3 years, 49.8% female, 73.6% White) who reported a history of daily smoking. While almost two-thirds (63.5%) of adolescent smokers reported making a quit attempt in the last year, only 10% of those were able to successfully quit. Factors associated with making a quit attempt included depression and participating in sports while high-risk sexual activity and engaging in substance use other than alcohol or marijuana were negatively related to making a quit attempt. Externalizing health behaviors (e.g., fighting, drug use, and high risk sexual activity) were associated with decreased likelihood of cessation. Findings from this study may inform efforts to develop more effective smoking prevention and treatment programs for youth.

  2. Risk Factors Associated with Suicide Attempts and Other Self-Injury among Hong Kong Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Joy P. S.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Ho, S. Y.; Lam, T. H.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined 1,361 Chinese adolescents who reported self-injurious behaviors. Groups A and B both acknowledged deliberate self-injury, but only Group A had made a suicide attempt. Group C reported accidental self-injury. Deliberate self-injurers (Groups A and B) were more frequently girls, older, and with more suicidal ideation. Group A had…

  3. An assessment of suicide attempts by self-poisoning in the west of Iran.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Farid; Beiki, Omid; Ahmadijouybari, Tuoraj; Amini, Saeed; Moradinazar, Mehdi; Hatemi, Masoame; Moradi, Masoud

    2014-10-01

    Intentional self-poisoning that is widely used all over the world is one of the most common methods of suicide. This study aim was to determine the rate of attempted intentional self-poisoning and to identify high risk persons in the west of Iran (Kermanshah). A total of 3138 people (1279 M and 1859 F) studied. The average annual rate of suicide in Kermanshah was 153 persons per 100 000 people. The most number of attempted intentional self-poisoning (55.5%) were in the 20-29 year age group. The most popular toxic substances for self-poisoning were drugs (71%) and oil and fuels (15%), respectively. The most number of intentional self-poisoning suicides are attempted by drugs. By considering the high rate of intentional self-poisoning, low age of suicide attempts and also its high mortality rate in Kermanshah, it is necessary to stop the opportunity to buy over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, especially those being most misused.

  4. An Attempt to Simulate Letter-by-Letter Dyslexia in Normal Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiset, Stephanie; Arguin, Martin; Fiset, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    We attempted to simulate the main features of letter-by-letter (LBL) dyslexia in normal readers through stimulus degradation (i.e. contrast reduction and removal of high spatial frequencies). The results showed the word length and the letter confusability effects characteristic of LBL dyslexia. However, the interaction of letter confusability and…

  5. Individual- and Structural-Level Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Transgender Adults

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Bockting, Walter

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed individual (i.e., internalized transphobia) and structural forms of stigma as risk factors for suicide attempts among transgender adults. Internalized transphobia was assessed through a 26-item scale including four dimensions: pride, passing, alienation and shame. State-level structural stigma was operationalized as a composite index, including: density of same-sex couples; proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination; and aggregated public opinion towards homosexuality. Multivariable logistic generalized estimating equation models assessed associations of interest among an online sample of transgender adults (N=1,229) representing 48 states and the District of Columbia. Lower levels of structural stigma were associated with fewer lifetime suicide attempts (AOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92–0.997), and a higher score on the internalized transphobia scale was associated with greater lifetime suicide attempts (AOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04–1.33). Addressing stigma at multiple levels is necessary to reduce the vulnerability of suicide attempts among transgender adults. PMID:26287284

  6. Empirically Derived Learning Disability Subtypes: A Replication Attempt and Longitudinal Patterns over 15 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spreen, Otfried; Haaf, Robert G.

    1986-01-01

    Test scores of two groups of learning disabled children (N=63 and N=96) were submitted to cluster analysis in an attempt to replicate previously described subtypes. All three subtypes (visuo-perceptual, linguistic, and articulo-graphomotor types) were identified along with minimally and severely impaired subtypes. Similar clusters in the same…

  7. Attempted Suicide and Associated Health Risk Behaviors among Native American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Lana; Doshi, Sonal R.; Jones, Sherry Everett

    2004-01-01

    Suicide represents the second-leading cause of death among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth aged 15-24 years. Data from the 2001 Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to examine the association between attempted suicide among high school students and unintentional injury and violence behaviors, sexual risk…

  8. The Association between Suicide Screening Practices and Attempts Requiring Emergency Care in Juvenile Justice Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Catherine A.; Dobrin, Adam

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To provide a national description of suicide screening practices in juvenile residential facilities and to examine their association with whether facilities experience a suicide attempt. Method: Multivariate modeling with data from the 2000 Juvenile Residential Facility Census (n = 3690 facilities). Results: Controlling for facility…

  9. Sex Differences in Developmental Trends of Suicide Ideation, Plans, and Attempts among European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeninger, Daria K.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Feldman, Betsy J.; Conger, Rand D.

    2010-01-01

    Although suicide ideation, plans, and attempts increase during adolescence, it remains unclear whether boys' and girls' risk for these outcomes peaks at different ages. We used longitudinal categorical data ("never," "once," "2+ times") from the Family Transitions Project (N = 1,248 rural European Americans, ages 11-19) to investigate whether…

  10. Gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among US Army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Maguen, Shira; Skopp, Nancy A; Zhang, Ying; Smolenski, Derek J

    2015-02-28

    In order to best tailor suicide prevention initiatives and programs, it is critical to gain an understanding of how service members׳ suicide risk factors may differ by gender. We aimed to better understand gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among soldiers, including demographic, military, mental health, and other risk factors. We also examined risk factors uniquely associated with suicide and suicide attempts. We conducted a retrospective study of 1857 US Army soldiers who died by suicide or attempted suicide between 2008 and 2010 and had a Department of Defense Suicide Event Report. Female and male soldiers had more similarities than differences when examining risk factors associated with suicide. The only gender difference approaching significance was workplace difficulties, which was more strongly associated with suicide for female soldiers, compared to their male counterparts. Among suicide decedents, the most common risk factor was having a failed intimate relationship in the 90 days prior to suicide. Among those who attempted suicide, the most common risk factor was a major psychiatric diagnosis. Better understanding both gender differences and risk factors uniquely associated with suicide has critical prevention and public health implications as we work to better understand preventable mortality in our youngest generation of service members.

  11. Suicide Attempts within 12 Months of Treatment for Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Peter C.; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    There are limited prospective data on suicide attempts (SA) during the months following treatment for substance use disorders (SUD), a period of high risk. In an analysis of the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study, a longitudinal naturalistic multisite study of treated SUDs, variables associated with SA in the 12 months following SUD treatment…

  12. Identity Construction as Nexus of Multimembership: Attempts at Reconciliation through an Online Intercultural Communication Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Gayle; Temples, Amanda Lanier

    2011-01-01

    Using situated learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991) and communities of practice (Wenger, 1998) as our theoretical framework, we focused on two female graduate students in applied linguistics as each attempted to negotiate memberships in multiple communities during an international exchange program. Eleven students at six universities took part in an…

  13. Suicide Attempts and Suicide among Marines: A Decade of Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gradus, Jaimie L.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Suvak, Michael K.; Giasson, Hannah L.; Miller, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Suicidal behavior among military personnel is of paramount public health importance because of the increased risk of death from suicide in this population. Pre- and post-Marine recruit training risk factors for suicide attempts among current and former Marines were examined in 10 years following recruit training. The characteristics of the…

  14. Intra-Personal and Extra-Personal Predictors of Suicide Attempts of South Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ji-Young; Bae, Sung-Man

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore significant variables predicting adolescent suicidal attempts. Socio-environmental variables such as gender, school record, school grade, school adaptation, and family intimacy together with intra-individual variables including depression, anxiety, delinquency, stress, and self-esteem were considered as…

  15. Acculturative Stress, Perceived Discrimination, and Vulnerability to Suicide Attempts among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Judelysse; Miranda, Regina; Polanco, Lillian

    2011-01-01

    Cultural factors are often neglected in studies of suicidal behavior among emerging adults. The present study examined acculturative stress and perceived discrimination as statistical predictors of a suicide attempt history among an ethnically diverse sample of 969 emerging adults, ages 18-25 (M = 18.8). Females made up 68% of the sample, and the…

  16. Suicidal Ideation and Attempts among Sexual Minority Youths Receiving Social Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Eugene N.; Freedenthal, Stacey; Wisneski, Hope

    2008-01-01

    The increased risk of suicidal ideation and attempts among sexual minority youths have been documented in studies using both convenience samples and representative community samples. However, as most youths do not access social services, these studies do not necessarily represent the sexual minority youths that community-based social workers may…

  17. A comparison of delay discounting among substance users with and without suicide attempt history

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Richard T.; Vassileva, Jasmin; Gonzalez, Raul; Martin, Eileen M.

    2012-01-01

    Although substance use disorders are associated with overall increased suicide risk, there is considerable variability in suicide risk among substance dependent individuals (SDIs). Impairment in impulse control is common among SDIs and may contribute to vulnerability to suicidal behavior. The present study examined the relation between one specific aspect of impulsivity, delay discounting, and suicide attempt history in a sample of SDIs. An interaction was observed between suicide attempt history and discounting rates across delayed reward size. Specifically, SDIs with no history of attempted suicide, devalued small relative to large delayed rewards. In contrast, SDIs with a history of suicide attempts appeared comparatively indifferent to delayed reward size, discounting both small and large delayed rewards at essentially identical rates. These findings provide evidence that, despite the view that SDIs are characterized by marked difficulties in impulsivity, significant variability nevertheless exists within this group in delay discounting tendencies. Furthermore, these differences provide preliminary evidence that specific aspects of impulsivity may help to identify those most at risk for suicidal behavior in this population. The potential implications of our findings for suicide prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:22369220

  18. Psychological Dimensions Associated with Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in the National Comorbidity Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Brian J.; Enns, Murray W.; Clara, Ian P.

    2004-01-01

    Three important psychological dimensions in the suicide literature (neuroticism, self-criticism, and hopelessness) were examined in relation to suicidal ideation and attempts in the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey (Kessler et al., 1994; n = 5,877), after first controlling for the effects of previously identified sociodemographic and psychiatric…

  19. Suicide Ideation, Plan, and Attempt in the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Orozco, Ricardo; Nock, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The study examines data from the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey to study the prevalence and risk factors for suicide ideation, plan, and attempt among Mexican adolescents. The results reveal patterns of the risk factors and suggest that intervention should focus on adolescents with mental disorders to effectively prevent suicides.

  20. Gender Differences in Predictors of Suicidal Thoughts and Attempts Among Homeless Veterans that Abuse Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benda, Brent B.

    2005-01-01

    This study of 315 male and 310 female homeless military veterans in a V.A. inpatient program designed to treat substance abusers, many of whom also suffer psychiatric disorders, was designed to examine gender differences in factors associated with the odds of having suicidal thoughts, and of attempting suicide, in comparison to being nonsuicidal.…

  1. Attempted and Completed Incidents of Stranger-Perpetrated Child Sexual Abuse and Abduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Bernard; Bradford, Michael; Pease, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To establish the prevalence, typology and nature of attempted or completed incidents of stranger-perpetrated sexual abuse or abduction of children "away from home". Methods: A questionnaire was completed by 2,420 children (83% response rate) aged 9-16 years in 26 elementary and high schools in North-West England. Results: Of…

  2. Classification of Co-Occurring Depression and Substance Abuse Symptoms Predicts Suicide Attempts in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effinger, Jenell M.; Stewart, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Although both depression and substance use have been found to contribute to suicide attempts, the synergistic impact of these disorders has not been fully explored. Additionally, the impact of subthreshold presentations of these disorders has not been researched. We utilized the Quadrant Model of Classification (a matrix of severity of two…

  3. Making the Change: Pioneering Attempts in Implementing Reform in Mathematics Teacher Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Patience O., Ed.; Leitzel, James R. C., Ed.

    This document is primarily intended for postsecondary faculty who are interested in initiating change in the mathematical preparation of teachers. It has been compiled from the experiences of a two-and-one-half day summer workshop held in June 1994, followed by a year in which participating institutions attempted various ways to implement reform…

  4. Normal Metabolic Levels in Prefrontal Cortex in Euthymic Bipolar I Patients with and without Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Marlos Vasconcelos; Nery-Fernandes, Fabiana; Guimarães, José Luiz; Quarantini, Lucas de Castro; de Oliveira, Irismar Reis; Ladeia-Rocha, Giovanna G.; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; de Araujo Neto, César; Miranda-Scippa, Ângela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction/Objective. Evidence suggests that the prefrontal cortex has been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD), but few neurochemical studies have evaluated this region in bipolar patients and there is no information from BD suicide attempters using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (H+MRS). The objective was to evaluate the metabolic function of the medial orbital frontal cortex in euthymic BD type I suicide and nonsuicide attempters compared to healthy subjects by H+MRS. Methods. 40 euthymic bipolar I outpatients, 19 without and 21 with history of suicide attempt, and 22 healthy subjects were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview with the DSM-IV axis I, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and underwent H+MRS. Results. We did not find any metabolic abnormality in medial orbital frontal regions of suicide and nonsuicide BD patients and BD patients as a group compared to healthy subjects. Conclusions. The combined chronic use of psychotropic drugs with neuroprotective or neurotrophic effects leading to a euthymic state for longer periods of time may improve neurometabolic function, at least measured by H+MRS, even in suicide attempters. Besides, these results may implicate mood dependent alterations in brain metabolic activity. However, more studies with larger sample sizes of this heterogeneous disorder are warranted to clarify these data. PMID:26075096

  5. Suicide Attempts and Family History of Suicide in Three Psychiatric Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremeau, Fabien; Staner, Luc; Duval, Fabrice; Correa, Humberto; Crocq, Marc-Antoine; Darreye, Angelina; Czobor, Pal; Dessoubrais, Cecile; Macher, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The influence of a family history of suicide on suicide attempt rate and characteristics in depression, schizophrenia, and opioid dependence was examined. One hundred sixty inpatients with unipolar depression, 160 inpatients with schizophrenia, and 160 opioid-dependent patients were interviewed. Overall, a family history of suicide was associated…

  6. Locus of Control as a Mediator of College Students' Reactions to Teacher Compliance Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Robert A.; And Others

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of student locus of control on perceptions of and resistance to teacher influence attempts. Subjects, 302 college students, were provided with 22 sets of Behavior Alteration Messages and were instructed to rate on a 1-5 scale "how frequently your teacher uses statements of each type to get you to…

  7. Predictors for Associate Degree Nursing Students' First Attempt on NCLEX-RN

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Nursing program administrators need to identify significant predictors for associate degree nursing (ADN) students to determine characteristics of those who will most likely pass the NCLEX-RN® on the first attempt. The purpose of the quantitative study with a correlation prediction design was to determine if a relationship existed between the…

  8. An adaptive response to uncertainty can lead to weight gain during dieting attempts

    PubMed Central

    Higginson, A. D.; McNamara, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Peoples’ attempts to lose weight by low calorie diets often result in weight gain because of over-compensatory overeating during lapses. Animals usually respond to a change in food availability by adjusting their foraging effort and altering how much energy reserves they store. But in many situations the long-term availability of food is uncertain, so animals may attempt to estimate it to decide the appropriate level of fat storage. Methodology: We report the results of a conceptual model of feeding in which the animal knows whether food is currently abundant or limited, but does not know the proportion of time, there will be an abundance in the long-term and has to learn it. Results: If the food supply is limited much of the time, such as during cycles of dieting attempts, the optimal response is to gain a lot of weight when food is abundant. Conclusions and implications: This implies that recurring attempts to diet, by signalling to the body that the food supply is often insufficient, will lead to a greater fat storage than if food was always abundant. Our results shed light on the widespread phenomenon of weight gain during weight cycling and indicate possible interventions that may reduce the incidence of obesity. PMID:27920041

  9. Preschoolers' Behavioural Reenactment of ''Failed Attempts'': The Roles of Intention-Reading, Emulation and Mimicry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chi-Tai; Heyes, Celilia; Charman, Tony

    2006-01-01

    To clarify the nature of the social cognitive skills involved in preschoolers' reenactment of actions on objects, we studied 31- and 41-month-old children's reenactment of intended acts (''failed attempts'') in Meltzoff's [Meltzoff, A. N. (1995)]. Understanding the intentions of others: Reenactment of intended acts by 18-month-old children.…

  10. Working with or against the Stores?: A Non-Governmental Organization Working with Alcohol Purchase Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geidne, Susanna; Eriksson, Charli

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse the implementation by a non-governmental organization (NGO) of an intervention with two different strategies--one employing confrontational approaches, the other cooperative ones--aiming to reduce the rate of successful purchase attempts (PAs) of medium-strength beer in Sweden.…

  11. Adolescent and caregiver perception of family functioning: relation to suicide ideation and attempts.

    PubMed

    Lipschitz, Jessica M; Yen, Shirley; Weinstock, Lauren M; Spirito, Anthony

    2012-12-30

    This study assessed the relationship between perceived family functioning and two indicators of suicidality in an adolescent sample. A total of 103 adolescents psychiatrically hospitalized for suicidal ideation and/or behavior completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing family functioning, negative affectivity, suicidal ideation in the past week assessed by Beck's Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS; Beck et al., 1979), and past suicide attempts. Participants' primary caregivers also completed a questionnaire on family functioning. A paired samples t-test evaluated overall discrepancy between adolescent- and caregiver-reported family functioning. Linear and logistic regression models were used to evaluate the simple associations between perceived family functioning and suicidal indicators (BSS and previous attempt status), as well as the associations between perceived family functioning and suicidal indicators after controlling for negative affect. Results indicated that adolescents' ratings of family functioning were significantly worse than caregivers' ratings, and positively associated with BSS scores and a history of suicide attempt. When negative affect was controlled for, adolescent-reported family functioning was significantly associated with BSS, but only trended toward significance with attempt status. Findings suggest that adolescents' perceptions of family functioning may be a key contributing factor to suicidal ideation in adolescents with psychiatric disorders.

  12. Serotonin Transporter (5-HTTLPR) Genotype, Childhood Abuse, and Suicide Attempts in Adult Psychiatric Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Brandon E.; McGeary, John E.; Beevers, Christopher G.; Miller, Ivan W.

    2006-01-01

    There is growing evidence that a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) moderates the impact of negative life events (e.g., childhood abuse) on the development of depression. However, it is unclear whether the gene x environment interaction predicts suicide attempts specifically. In addition, previous studies have not…

  13. Attempted ultrasound-guided ethanol ablation of a suspected pancreatic pseudocyst in a dog.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Ryan A; Fields, Erica L; Whittemore, Jacqueline C

    2016-11-01

    A 9-year-old, spayed female toy poodle dog developed refractory anorexia after pancreatitis. Abdominal imaging showed a cystic structure compressing the stomach. Appetite improved after percutaneous drainage of the structure, but the structure refilled within 48 h. Percutaneous ethanol ablation of the structure was attempted. Afterwards, the patient developed fatal hypotensive shock.

  14. A comparison of delay discounting among substance users with and without suicide attempt history.

    PubMed

    Liu, Richard T; Vassileva, Jasmin; Gonzalez, Raul; Martin, Eileen M

    2012-12-01

    Although substance use disorders are associated with overall increased suicide risk, there is considerable variability in suicide risk among substance-dependent individuals (SDIs). Impairment in impulse control is common among SDIs, and it may contribute to vulnerability to suicidal behavior. The present study examined the relation between one specific aspect of impulsivity-delay discounting-and suicide attempt history in a sample of SDIs. An interaction was observed between suicide attempt history and discounting rates across delayed reward size. Specifically, SDIs with no history of attempted suicide, devalued small relative to large delayed rewards. In contrast, SDIs with a history of suicide attempts appeared comparatively indifferent to delayed reward size, discounting both small and large delayed rewards at essentially identical rates. These findings provide evidence that, despite the view that SDIs are characterized by marked difficulties in impulsivity, significant variability exists within this group in delay-discounting tendencies. Furthermore, these differences provide preliminary evidence that specific aspects of impulsivity may help to identify those most at risk for suicidal behavior in this population. The potential implications of our findings for suicide prevention efforts are discussed.

  15. Assessment of Depression and Suicidal Actions: Agreement between Suicide Attempters and Informant Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, Timothy M.; Overholser, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledgeable informants may be able to provide useful information about depressive symptoms and suicidal actions when a suicidal patient is uncooperative with a clinical interview or not available for a psychiatric evaluation. The present study was designed to examine information gathered from psychiatric inpatients who had attempted suicide as…

  16. Familism, Parent-Adolescent Conflict, Self-Esteem, Internalizing Behaviors and Suicide Attempts among Adolescent Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Pena, Juan B.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent Latinas continue to report higher levels of suicide attempts than their African-American and White peers. The phenomenon is still not understood and is theorized to be the result of the confluence of many cultural, familial, and individual level factors. In Latino cultures, belief in the importance of the family, the value known as…

  17. Previous Attempts to Debunk the Mythical Retention Chart and Corrupted Dale's Cone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramony, Deepak Prem; Molenda, Michael; Betrus, Anthony K.; Thalheimer, Will

    2014-01-01

    Critics have been attempting to debunk the mythical retention chart at least since 1971. The earliest critics, David Curl and Frank Dwyer, were addressing just the retention data. Beginning around 2002, a new generation of critics has taken on the illegitimate combination of the retention chart and Edgar Dale's Cone of Experience--the corrupted…

  18. Trait Anger, Anger Expression, and Suicide Attempts among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Stephanie S.; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Franklin, Joseph C.; Mayfield, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between anger, anger expression, and suicidal behavior have been largely cross-sectional and have yielded mixed findings. In a prospective, naturalistic study, we examined how trait anger and anger expression influenced the likelihood of suicide attempts among 180 adolescents followed for up to 13.3 years after…

  19. Hopelessness as a Predictor of Attempted Suicide among First Admission Patients with Psychosis: A 10-Year Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klonsky, E. David; Kotov, Roman; Bakst, Shelly; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the longitudinal relationship of hopelessness to attempted suicide in psychotic disorders. This study addresses this gap by assessing hopelessness and attempted suicide at multiple time-points over 10 years in a first-admission cohort with psychosis (n = 414). Approximately one in five participants attempted suicide during…

  20. The Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters Study (TASA): Predictors of Suicidal Events in an Open Treatment Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, David A.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Compton, Scott; Emslie, Graham; Wells, Karen; Walkup, John T.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Bukstein, Oscar; Stanley, Barbara; Posner, Kelly; Kennard, Betsy D.; Cwik, Mary F.; Wagner, Ann; Coffey, Barbara; March, John S.; Riddle, Mark; Goldstein, Tina; Curry, John; Barnett, Shannon; Capasso, Lisa; Zelazny, Jamie; Hughes, Jennifer; Shen, Sa; Gugga, S. Sonia; Turner, J. Blake

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify the predictors of suicidal events and attempts in adolescent suicide attempters with depression treated in an open treatment trial. Method: Adolescents who had made a recent suicide attempt and had unipolar depression (n =124) were either randomized (n = 22) or given a choice (n = 102) among three conditions. Two…