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Sample records for post-suicide attempt case

  1. A very unusual case of attempted suicide

    PubMed Central

    Jabłoński, Sławomir; Dziwińska, Katarzyna; Terlecki, Artur

    2016-01-01

    We would like to present a case report of a very unusual suicide attempt. A 48-year-old female patient tried to commit suicide by stabbing herself with a kitchen knife into her neck. Suicide by self-stabbing is uncommon, constituting only 1-3% of suicide attempts. Patients with self-inflicted stab wounds may have a higher incidence of surgical interventions based on the stab location. Surprisingly, the mortality associated with this kind of wound is low. Most medical centers have very limited experience with this infrequent injury. There are only a few case reports and small series published in the literature of the subject. PMID:27516789

  2. A very unusual case of attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Misiak, Piotr; Jabłoński, Sławomir; Dziwińska, Katarzyna; Terlecki, Artur

    2016-06-01

    We would like to present a case report of a very unusual suicide attempt. A 48-year-old female patient tried to commit suicide by stabbing herself with a kitchen knife into her neck. Suicide by self-stabbing is uncommon, constituting only 1-3% of suicide attempts. Patients with self-inflicted stab wounds may have a higher incidence of surgical interventions based on the stab location. Surprisingly, the mortality associated with this kind of wound is low. Most medical centers have very limited experience with this infrequent injury. There are only a few case reports and small series published in the literature of the subject. PMID:27516789

  3. A case of attempted suicide by self-hanging.

    PubMed

    Braye, S G; Guy, G

    1985-03-01

    A young man arrived at the accident and emergency department after attempting suicidal self-hanging. He was cyanosed and showed severe respiratory distress. His posture, hyperreflexia and state of consciousness suggested decerebration. A dire prognosis was expected. Four days later he recovered. No residual physical or mental sequelae were found during follow up. The "post-suspension syndrome" in our case was similar to those recorded in several continental reviews. Apart from a case report of a "miraculous deliverance" following an unsuccessful judicial hanging at Oxford in 1650, no other report of this syndrome has been made in the English literature. This syndrome has an excellent prognosis and requires very little active intervention to ensure a favourable outcome.

  4. [Rebuilding post-suicide interventions from a caring ethics perspective].

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Wen-Chii

    2006-12-01

    Suicide has become a critical mental health problem in Taiwan. Most studies on the issue are related to suicide rates and risk factors, and their relationships with mental illnesses. These findings help health professionals to understand what life might have been like for a suicide victim before the suicide, but not what life is like after a suicide attempt; how to detect the possibility of a subsequent suicide attempt, rather than how to help people who have attempted suicide to construct a good life. The purpose of this article is to encourage nurses to engage in dialogue with suicidal patients by understanding their explanatory models and by self-reflection. This not only enables suicidal patients to move from shame toward taking responsibility for themselves and others, but also enables nurses to rebuild their experiential knowledge.

  5. Attempted suicide or hitting the nail on the head. Case report.

    PubMed

    Spiers, A S

    1994-12-01

    A case is reported of attempted suicide by hammering nails through the skull into the brain. This unique attempt at self-destruction was unsuccessful and the treatment, initially by an untrained first-aider and then by a neurosurgeon, was surprisingly simple. There were no long-term sequelae. PMID:7861109

  6. Sleep problems and suicide attempts among adolescents: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Koyawala, Neel; Stevens, Jack; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M; Cannon, Elizabeth A; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    This study used a case-control design to compare sleep disturbances in 40 adolescents who attempted suicide with 40 never-suicidal adolescents. Using hierarchical logistic regression analyses, we found that self-reported nighttime awakenings were significantly associated with attempted suicide, after controlling for antidepressant use, antipsychotic use, affective problems, and being bullied. In a separate regression analysis, the parent-reported total sleep problems score also predicted suicide attempt status, controlling for key covariates. No associations were found between suicide attempts and other distinct sleep problems, including falling asleep at bedtime, sleeping a lot during the day, trouble waking up in the morning, sleep duration, and parent-reported nightmares. Clinicians should be aware of sleep problems as potential risk factors for suicide attempts for adolescents.

  7. Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Attempt in Iran: A Case-Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Behrooz; Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Leo, Diego De; Saeed, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and its disorders are associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviors Research has shown that 6-8% of those who use alcohol have a history of suicide attempt. Given the prohibition of alcohol use legally, the increased alcohol consumption, and the lack of strong evidence in favor of its use associated with suicide in Iran, this study was conducted to determine the link between suicide attempt and alcohol abuse. The case-crossover method was used in this research. Out of 305 referrals to the emergency room due to a suicide attempt, 100 reported drinking alcohol up to six hours before their attempt. Paired Matching and Usual Frequency were employed to analyze the data with STATA 12.0. The probability of attempting suicide up to six hours after drinking alcohol appeared increased by 27 times (95% CI: 8.1-60.4). Separate analysis for each of these hours from the first to the sixth hour after alcohol use was also performed. Fifty percent of attempted suicides happened one hour after alcohol use. Relative risk for the first and second hour was 10% and 5% respectively. Alcohol use is a strong proximal risk factor for attempted suicide among Iranian subjects. Prevention of alcohol use should be considered in setting up of the national Suicide attempt prevention program. PMID:26925903

  8. How Parental Reactions Change in Response to Adolescent Suicide Attempt.

    PubMed

    Greene-Palmer, Farrah N; Wagner, Barry M; Neely, Laura L; Cox, Daniel W; Kochanski, Kristen M; Perera, Kanchana U; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined parental reactions to adolescents' suicide attempts and the association of reactions with future suicidal self-directed violence. Participants were 81 mothers and 49 fathers of 85 psychiatric inpatient adolescents. Maternal hostility and paternal anger and arguing predicted future suicide attempts. From pre- to post-attempt, mothers reported feeling increased sadness, caring, anxiety, guilt, fear, and being overwhelmed; fathers reported increased sadness, anxiety, and fear. Findings have clinical implications; improving parent-child relationships post-suicide attempt may serve as a protective factor for suicide.

  9. Attempted Serial Neonaticides: Case Report and a Brief Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Barros, Alcina Juliana Soares; Rosa, Regis Goulart; Telles, Lisieux Elaine de Borba; Taborda, José Geraldo Vernet

    2016-01-01

    Neonaticide is an infant murder occurring on the day of birth. The case reports found in the literature are often focused on the mother as the agent in the context of pregnancy denial, dissociative symptoms, or psychosis. However, this report describes a rare case of attempted serial neonaticides, in which the acts were committed by a nurse at the nursery of a referral hospital in Brazil. The authors describe a forensic psychiatric evaluation for criminal responsibility and correlate the information from this particular case with relevant forensic themes, namely neonaticide, Munchausen by proxy syndrome, and serial healthcare killers. PMID:26259153

  10. Attempted Serial Neonaticides: Case Report and a Brief Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Barros, Alcina Juliana Soares; Rosa, Regis Goulart; Telles, Lisieux Elaine de Borba; Taborda, José Geraldo Vernet

    2016-01-01

    Neonaticide is an infant murder occurring on the day of birth. The case reports found in the literature are often focused on the mother as the agent in the context of pregnancy denial, dissociative symptoms, or psychosis. However, this report describes a rare case of attempted serial neonaticides, in which the acts were committed by a nurse at the nursery of a referral hospital in Brazil. The authors describe a forensic psychiatric evaluation for criminal responsibility and correlate the information from this particular case with relevant forensic themes, namely neonaticide, Munchausen by proxy syndrome, and serial healthcare killers.

  11. The effectiveness of control strategies for dementia-driven wandering, preventing escape attempts: a case report.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Daniel Valle; González, María Teresa Daza; Agis, Inmaculada Fernández; Strizzi, Jenna; Rodríguez, Raquel Alarcón

    2013-03-01

    One of the most complicated aspects of caring for patients with dementia is dementia-driven wandering due to its adverse ramifications. We report a case of an 80-year-old man who had been previously diagnosed with dementia (with a score of 6 on the Reisberg Global Deterioration Scale - GDS). The patient went to an Adult Day Care Center on a daily basis where he demonstrated wandering behavior with a high rate of escape attempts (the number of times the Center's glass exit door was approached). The objective of this study is to present effective non-pharmacological intervention strategies for dementia-driven wandering; assessed strategies included: environmental (subjective barriers), cognitive/behavioral (cognitive training with differential reinforcement), and combined (subjective barriers + cognitive/behavioral). The results showed that all of these three strategies significantly decreased the number of escape attempts.

  12. Attempted suicide by cop: a case study of traumatic brain injury and the insanity defense.

    PubMed

    Bresler, Scott; Scalora, Mario J; Elbogen, Eric B; Moore, Y Scott

    2003-01-01

    Over the years, there have been a number of well-publicized incidents involving persons who seemingly maneuver police officers into shooting them. Such cases, while relatively rare compared with most forms of violence, nevertheless pose difficult challenges to law enforcement agencies. Relatively little is known about persons who engage in suicide by cop incidents. To our knowledge, there has been no published indepth research on instigators of suicide by cop who survived. In this paper, we present a case study of an individual who engaged in and lived through three separate "attempted suicide by cop" incidents. After describing relevant history as well as events of the most recent incident, we compare the case with the extant literature on suicide by cop and analyze commonalities and differences. Finally, we examine the legal considerations involved, with particular attention devoted to the role the individual's traumatic brain injury played in applying the insanity defense.

  13. A Case of Attempted Suicide in Huntington's Disease: Ethical and Moral Considerations.

    PubMed

    Furfari, Kristin; Zehnder, Nichole; Abbott, Jean

    2016-01-01

    A 62-year-old female with Huntington's disease presented after a suicide attempt. Her advance directive stated that she did not want intubation or resuscitation, which her family acknowledged and supported. Despite these directives, she was resuscitated in the emergency department and continued to state that she would attempt suicide again. Her suicidality in the face of a chronic and advancing illness, and her prolonged consistency in her desire to take her own life, left careproviders wondering how to provide ethical, respectful care to this patient. Tension between the ethical principles of autonomy and beneficence is central in this case. The patient's narrative demonstrated that her suicide was an autonomous decision, free from coercion or disordered thinking from mental illness. Beneficence then would seem to necessitate care aligned with the patient's desire to end her life, which created ethical uneasiness for her family and careproviders. The case highlights several end-of-life ethical considerations that have received much recent attention. With ongoing discussions about the legalization of aid in dying across the country, caregivers are challenged to understand what beneficence means in people with terminal illnesses who want a say in their death. This case also highlights the profound moral distress of families and careproviders that arises in such ethically challenging scenarios.

  14. Delayed akathisia and suicidal attempts following epidural droperidol infusion--a case report.

    PubMed

    Hung, Y C; Ho, Y Y; Shen, C L

    1999-09-01

    Epidural administration of droperidol has been used to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) caused by opioids, but the adverse reactions were relatively neglected. We present a patient who received patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) with bupivacaine-morphine-droperidol mixture for one and half days following hemorrhoidectomy, developed paroxysmal adverse reactions of akathisia, dysphoria, and suicidal attempts 3 days after the initiation of the treatment. The use of droperidol in PCEA for prevention of nausea and vomiting therefore needs to be re-evaluated according to the serious side effects occurring in our case.

  15. Penetrating Brain Injury after Suicide Attempt with Speargun: Case Study and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John R.; Aghion, Daniel M.; Doberstein, Curtis E.; Cosgrove, G. Rees; Asaad, Wael F.

    2014-01-01

    Penetrating cranial injury by mechanisms other than gunshots are exceedingly rare, and so strategies and guidelines for the management of PBI are largely informed by data from higher-velocity penetrating injuries. Here, we present a case of penetrating brain injury by the low-velocity mechanism of a harpoon from an underwater fishing speargun in an attempted suicide by a 56-year-old Caucasian male. The case raised a number of interesting points in management of low-velocity penetrating brain injury (LVPBI), including benefit in delaying foreign body removal to allow for tamponade; the importance of history-taking in establishing the social/legal significance of the events surrounding the injury; the use of cerebral angiogram in all cases of PBI; advantages of using dual-energy CT to reduce artifact when available; and antibiotic prophylaxis in the context of idiosyncratic histories of usage of penetrating objects before coming in contact with the intracranial environment. We present here the management of the case in full along with an extended discussion and review of existing literature regarding key points in management of LVPBI vs. higher-velocity forms of intracranial injury. PMID:25071701

  16. A Case Report of Prolonged Apnea during ECT in a Patient with Suicidal Attempt by Organophosphorus Poison.

    PubMed

    Moudi, Sussan; Alijanpour, Ebrahim; Manouchehri, Ali-Asghar; Jafarian, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides have been used in some cases for suicidal attempts. Such poison can affect plasma cholinesterase activity. The case was a 47-year-old man hospitalized due to suicide attempt with swallowing agricultural poison. The patient, diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD), underwent treatment with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). At the first ECT session, the patient developed apnea for 45 minutes following receiving 20 mg succinylcholine. The patient was intubated; after restoration of respiration depth and rate, the patient was extubated. Collectively, in cases with history of suicide attempts, taking organophosphorus pesticides should be warn for pre-ECT anesthesia. PMID:24644472

  17. A Case Report of Prolonged Apnea during ECT in a Patient with Suicidal Attempt by Organophosphorus Poison

    PubMed Central

    Moudi, Sussan; Alijanpour, Ebrahim; Manouchehri, Ali-asghar; Jafarian, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides have been used in some cases for suicidal attempts. Such poison can affect plasma cholinesterase activity. The case was a 47-year-old man hospitalized due to suicide attempt with swallowing agricultural poison. The patient, diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD), underwent treatment with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). At the first ECT session, the patient developed apnea for 45 minutes following receiving 20 mg succinylcholine. The patient was intubated; after restoration of respiration depth and rate, the patient was extubated. Collectively, in cases with history of suicide attempts, taking organophosphorus pesticides should be warn for pre-ECT anesthesia. PMID:24644472

  18. [Are near-death experiences following attempted suicide important for suicide risk assessment? A case report].

    PubMed

    Kralovec, Karl; Plöderl, Martin; Aistleiner, Ursula; Fartacek, Clemens; Fartacek, Reinhold

    2009-01-01

    We describe a 59-year old patient who reported a near-death experience following attempted suicide. The near-death experience induced reduction of suicidality. Previous studies suggested a high prevalence of near-death experiences following attempted suicide and that near-death experiences may decrease rather than increase subsequent suicide risk. Implications for suicide risk assessment are discussed.

  19. Copycat suicidal attempt by a 7 year old boy after watching homicidal behavior in media: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Suicidal behavior in media may promote others towards suicide. No published study was found about suicidal attempt in children less than 10 years old after watching a homicidal behavior. Case presentation This is a report of a 7 year old boy referred because he hanged himself after watching homicidal behavior of hanging in a fictional movie. Discussion To the author's knowledge, there was no published report of copycat suicidal attempt in a 7 year old child after watching a homicidal behavior in media. This report warns about an imitative effect of movie watching of homicidal behavior on suicidal attempt. PMID:19138418

  20. Characteristics of Impulsive Suicide Attempts and Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Thomas R.; Swann, Alan C.; Powell, Kenneth E.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; O'Carroll, Patrick W.

    2002-01-01

    Examined impulsive suicide attempts within a population-based, case-control study of nearly lethal suicide attempts among adolescents and young adults. Impulsive attempts were more likely among those who had been in a physical fight and less likely among those who were depressed. Findings suggest inadequate control of aggressive impulses as a…

  1. A Cognitive Therapy Intervention for Suicide Attempters: An Overview of the Treatment and Case Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Michele S.; Henriques, Gregg R.; Warman, Debbie M.; Brown, Gregory K.; Beck, Aaron T.

    2004-01-01

    Although suicidal behavior is a serious public health problem, few effective treatments exist to treat this population. This article describes a new cognitive therapy intervention that has been developed for treating recent suicide attempters. The intervention is based on general principles of cognitive therapy and targets the automatic thoughts…

  2. Is religiosity a protective factor against attempted suicide: a cross-cultural case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sisask, Merike; Varnik, Airi; Kolves, Kairi; Bertolote, Jose M; Bolhari, Jafar; Botega, Neury J; Fleischmann, Alexandra; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    This cross-cultural study investigates whether religiosity assessed in three dimensions has a protective effect against attempted suicide. Community controls (n = 5484) were more likely than suicide attempters (n = 2819) to report religious denomination in Estonia (OR = 0.5) and subjective religiosity in four countries: Brazil (OR = 0.2), Estonia (OR = 0.5), Islamic Republic of Iran (OR = 0.6), and Sri Lanka (OR = 0.4). In South Africa, the effect was exceptional both for religious denomination (OR = 5.9) and subjective religiosity (OR = 2.7). No effects were found in India and Vietnam. Organizational religiosity gave controversial results. In particular, subjective religiosity (considering him/herself as religious person) may serve as a protective factor against non-fatal suicidal behavior in some cultures. PMID:20112143

  3. An Unusual Case of Suicide Attempt Using Intravenous Injection of Kerosene.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M N; Sutradhar, S R; Ahmed, S M; Chowdhury, I H

    2016-07-01

    Kerosene belongs to the hydrocarbon group of compounds, used as a fuel for lamps, as well as heating and cooking in developing countries. Accidental kerosene poisoning and intoxication usually occur by inhalation or by occupational percutaneous absorption. Adults usually ingest kerosene for the purpose of self-harm, and children may ingest accidentally. Suicidal attempt using intravenous kerosene is an extra ordinary and very rare occurrence. A very few data are available regarding effects of intravenous administration of kerosene and its management. PMID:27612910

  4. Clinical Characteristics of the Suicide Attempters Who Refused to Participate in a Suicide Prevention Case Management Program.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyoung; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Oh, Youngmin; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2015-10-01

    Case management interventions for suicide attempters aimed at helping adjust their social life to prevent reattempts have high nonparticipation and dropout rates. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of the group who refused to participate in the suicide prevention program in Korea. A total of 489 patients with a suicide attempt who visited Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, the Catholic University of Korea, from December 2009 to December 2013 were analyzed. All patients were divided into the participation group (n = 262) and the refusal group (n = 227) according to their participation in the case management program. Demographic and clinical characteristics of each group were examined. Results showed that the refusal group had low risks for suicide in terms of risk factors related with psychopathologies and presenting suicide behavior. That is, the refusal group had less patients with co-morbid medical illnesses and more patients with mild severity of depression compared to the participation group. However, the refusal group had more interpersonal conflict, more isolation of social integrity, and more impaired insight about suicide attempt. The results suggest that nonparticipation in the case management program may depend upon the patient's impaired insight about the riskiness of suicide and lack of social support. PMID:26425048

  5. Clinical Characteristics of the Suicide Attempters Who Refused to Participate in a Suicide Prevention Case Management Program.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyoung; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Oh, Youngmin; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2015-10-01

    Case management interventions for suicide attempters aimed at helping adjust their social life to prevent reattempts have high nonparticipation and dropout rates. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of the group who refused to participate in the suicide prevention program in Korea. A total of 489 patients with a suicide attempt who visited Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, the Catholic University of Korea, from December 2009 to December 2013 were analyzed. All patients were divided into the participation group (n = 262) and the refusal group (n = 227) according to their participation in the case management program. Demographic and clinical characteristics of each group were examined. Results showed that the refusal group had low risks for suicide in terms of risk factors related with psychopathologies and presenting suicide behavior. That is, the refusal group had less patients with co-morbid medical illnesses and more patients with mild severity of depression compared to the participation group. However, the refusal group had more interpersonal conflict, more isolation of social integrity, and more impaired insight about suicide attempt. The results suggest that nonparticipation in the case management program may depend upon the patient's impaired insight about the riskiness of suicide and lack of social support.

  6. Analysis of hydrogen cyanide in air in a case of attempted cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, R; Nyholm, S; Åstot, C

    2012-10-10

    A 32-year-old man attempted to poison his ex-girlfriend with hydrogen cyanide by hiding the pesticide Uragan D2 in her car. During the police investigation, chemical analysis of the air inside the car was performed. Hydrogen cyanide was detected through on-site air analysis using a portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy gas analyzer and colorimetric gas detection tubes. Furthermore, impinger air-sampling was performed for off-site sample preparation and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All three independent techniques demonstrated the presence of hydrogen cyanide, at concentrations of 14-20 ppm. Owing to the high volatility of hydrogen cyanide, the temperature and the time since exposure have a substantial effect on the likelihood of detecting hydrogen cyanide at a crime scene. The prevailing conditions (closed space, low temperature) must have supported the preservation of HCN in the car thus enabling the identification even though the analysis was performed several days after the hydrogen cyanide source was removed. This paper demonstrates the applicability of combining on-site FTIR measurements and off-site GC-MS analysis of a crime scene in order to ensure fast detection as well as unambiguous identification for forensic purposes of hydrogen cyanide in air. PMID:22704552

  7. Analysis of hydrogen cyanide in air in a case of attempted cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, R; Nyholm, S; Åstot, C

    2012-10-10

    A 32-year-old man attempted to poison his ex-girlfriend with hydrogen cyanide by hiding the pesticide Uragan D2 in her car. During the police investigation, chemical analysis of the air inside the car was performed. Hydrogen cyanide was detected through on-site air analysis using a portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy gas analyzer and colorimetric gas detection tubes. Furthermore, impinger air-sampling was performed for off-site sample preparation and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All three independent techniques demonstrated the presence of hydrogen cyanide, at concentrations of 14-20 ppm. Owing to the high volatility of hydrogen cyanide, the temperature and the time since exposure have a substantial effect on the likelihood of detecting hydrogen cyanide at a crime scene. The prevailing conditions (closed space, low temperature) must have supported the preservation of HCN in the car thus enabling the identification even though the analysis was performed several days after the hydrogen cyanide source was removed. This paper demonstrates the applicability of combining on-site FTIR measurements and off-site GC-MS analysis of a crime scene in order to ensure fast detection as well as unambiguous identification for forensic purposes of hydrogen cyanide in air.

  8. Rehabilitation approaches to dysphagia that was developed for a patient who attempted to commit suicide by hanging: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kii, Y; Mizuma, M

    2014-04-01

    We report our experience with a case of attempted suicidal hanging presenting with dysphagia, in which rehabilitation approaches resulted in improvement. A 36-year-old man was discovered collapsed at home. From the finding of a broken cord nearby, attempted suicide by hanging was suspected. He was transported to hospital after 40 minutes, and regained consciousness after emergency treatment. There were no noteworthy findings on brain magnetic resonance imaging, cervical spine computed tomography, or vocal cord examination. There were no noteworthy psychiatric disorders or cognitive abnormalities. On hospital day 10, he showed signs of dysphagia. Videofluoroscopic examination of swallowing revealed piriform sinuses residue and aspiration after ingestion of jelly in any posture. Rehabilitation approaches were started based on the diagnosis of dysphagia due to impaired transit through the piriform sinuses. The patient achieved independent oral intake by 40 days after the injury. In this case, dysphagia was considered attributable to compression of the vagus nerves running along the lateral aspects of the neck by the cord used in the hanging. If compression is brief, full functional recovery can be expected. Implementation of rehabilitation approaches is also important in this situation.

  9. Retaining a Legacy while Avoiding Trademark Infringement: A Case Study of One University's Attempt to Develop a Consistent Athletic Brand Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alessandri, Sue Westcott

    2007-01-01

    This case study chronicles Syracuse University's athletic department's attempt to achieve consistency in its identity program by changing its identity during 2004, and then again in 2005. The changes were owing to high-level personnel changes on both the academic and athletic sides of the university. This case details the many issues arising from…

  10. Relationship between Personality Profiles and Suicide Attempt via Medicine Poisoning among Hospitalized Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shafiee-Kandjani, Ali Reza; Amiri, Shahrokh; Arfaie, Asghar; Ahmadi, Azadeh; Farvareshi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Inflexible personality traits play an important role in the development of maladaptive behaviors among patients who attempt suicide. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between personality profiles and suicide attempt via medicine poisoning among the patients hospitalized in a public hospital. Materials and Methods. Fifty-nine patients who attempted suicide for the first time and hospitalized in the poisoning ward were selected as the experimental group. Sixty-three patients hospitalized in the other wards for a variety of reasons were selected as the adjusted control group. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Personality Inventory, 3rd version (MCMI-III) was used to assess the personality profiles. Results. The majority of the suicide attempters were low-level graduates (67.8% versus 47.1%, OR = 2.36). 79.7% of the suicide attempters were suffering from at least one maladaptive personality profile. The most common maladaptive personality profiles among the suicide attempters were depressive personality disorder (40.7%) and histrionic personality disorder (32.2%). Among the syndromes the most common ones were anxiety clinical syndrome (23.7%) and major depression (23.7%). Conclusion. Major depression clinical syndrome, histrionic personality disorder, anxiety clinical syndrome, and depressive personality disorder are among the predicators of first suicide attempts for the patients hospitalized in the public hospital due to the medicine poisoning. PMID:27433491

  11. Notifying Parents Following a College Student Suicide Attempt: A Review of Case Law and FERPA, and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Decisions by university officials not to notify a student's parents following a suicide attempt on campus have been severely criticized by some observers. Although courts have not imposed a parental notice requirement, the practice is advantageous to students in many situations. The author recommends a system of notification that relies primarily…

  12. Considering Patients' Mental Capacity When Giving Them Bad News May Help Their Well-Being: A Case of Suicide Attempt after Being Informed of Lung Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    Mental capacity is a central determinant of patients' ability to make autonomous decisions about their care and deal with bad news. Physicians should be cognizant of this when giving patients bad news in efforts to help them to cope with the illness and to avoid a deterioration of their mental well-being. To show the importance of this concept, a case of suicide attempt with lung cancer is exemplified. A 76-year-old woman attempted suicide after receiving a diagnosis of lung cancer. Her recent life had been emotionally turbulent and she did not have sufficient mental capacity to accept and cope with this truth. She developed depression before attempting suicide. PMID:24963431

  13. Rapid improvement of depressive symptoms in suicide attempters following treatment with milnacipran and tricyclic antidepressants - a case series.

    PubMed

    Kirino, Eiji; Gitoh, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is a serious social problem in many countries, including Japan. The majority of people who commit suicide suffer from depression. Suicide attempt patients suffering from serious physical injuries are initially treated in hospital emergency departments. The present post hoc analysis examined data from patients admitted to an emergency hospital for treatment of physical injuries, resulting from a suicide attempt, and initial psychiatric treatment for depression and prevention of future suicide attempts. The effects on depressive symptoms were studied in two groups of patients using the 17-item Hamilton depression scale (HAMD). One group (n = 6) had received intravenous tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) (amitriptyline or clomipramine) while the other group (n = 7) had been treated orally with milnacipran, a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepressant. Prior to treatment the four highest scoring items on the HAMD scale were the same in both groups namely, item 1 (depressed mood), item 3 (suicidality), item 7 (interest in work and activities), and item 10 (psychic anxiety). After 1 week of treatment, mean global HAMD scores were significantly reduced in both groups. Treatment resulted in a significant reduction of five HAMD items in the TCA group, whereas in the milnacipran group 12 HAMD items were significantly reduced. Suicidality (item 3) was significantly improved by 1 week treatment with milnacipran, but not by TCAs. Milnacipran rapidly improved a wide range of depressive symptoms, including suicidality within the first week. The improvement with milnacipran would appear to be, at least, equivalent to that achieved with TCAs, possibly affecting a wider range of symptoms. Since milnacipran has been shown in comparative studies to be better tolerated than TCAs, this antidepressant offers an interesting option for the treatment of suicidal patients in an emergency setting. PMID:22247614

  14. Ipsilateral carpal, metacarpal, and ankle fractures resulting from an attempted basketball slam-dunk. A case report.

    PubMed

    McClelland, S J; Fithian, D C

    1988-01-01

    A 23-year-old male recreational basketball player sustained an open ankle fracture and ipsilateral carpal and metacarpal fractures as a result of a fall while attempting a slam-dunk. The wrist and hand fractures were treated nonoperatively. The open ankle fracture required irrigation, debridement, and open reduction/internal fixation. In addition to the prerequisite leaping ability, long-term success in "playing above the rim" requires experience, exceptional physical agility, and the mental discipline to anticipate and avoid slam-dunk opportunities with high risk for personal injury.

  15. Suicide Attempt Characteristics, Diagnoses, and Future Attempts: Comparing Multiple Attempters to Single Attempters and Ideators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Regina; Scott, Michelle; Hicks, Roger; Wilcox, Holly C.; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Shaffer, David

    2008-01-01

    The study compares psychiatric diagnoses and future suicide attempt outcomes of multiple attempters (MAs), single attempters (SAs) and ideators. The results conclude that MAs strongly predict later suicide attempts and diagnosis than SAs and ideators.

  16. Coping Card Usage can Further Reduce Suicide Reattempt in Suicide Attempter Case Management Within 3-Month Intervention.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Chuan; Hsieh, Ling-Yu; Wang, Ming-Yu; Chou, Cheng-Hsiang; Huang, Min-Wei; Ko, Huei-Chen

    2016-02-01

    This randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of using crisis coping cards (n = 32) in the case management of suicide prevention compared with case management without the use of coping cards (n = 32) over a 3-month intervention period. The generalized estimating equation was used to examine the interaction effect between treatments and time on suicide risk, depression, anxiety, and hopelessness. Results indicated that subsequent suicidal behaviors, severity of suicide risk, depression, anxiety, and hopelessness were reduced more in the coping card intervention group compared to the case management only group. Moreover, for the survival curves of time to suicide reattempt, the coping card group showed a significantly longer time to reattempt than the case management only group at 2-month and 3-month intervention periods.

  17. Histopathological pattern of gonads in cases of sex abnormalities in dogs: An attempt of morphological evaluation involving potential for neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Dzimira, Stanislaw; Nizanski, Wojciech; Ochota, Malgorzata; Madej, Janusz A

    2015-10-01

    Disturbances in sex differentiation (DSD - disorder of sexual development) may result from disturbances in sex chromosomes or a disturbed development of gonads, or from genotypic disturbances. The objective of this article is to describe the histological structure of gonads in dogs showing sexual disturbances and a case of a cancer resembling gonadoblastoma in one of the animals. Among the 10 examined dogs with disturbances of sex development only a single case of a gonadoblastoma was observed. In animals with sex disturbances, similarly to humans, there exists a potential tendency for neoplastic lesions in dysgenetic gonads. As a rule, its frequency in population is confined due to the early procedure of castration of non-breeding dogs. In the present study dogs demonstrated phenotypical traits of bitches with developmental anomalies such as hyperplastic clitoris with vestigial os penis (baculum), or abnormalities in the location and structure of the vulva. The material for the study included canine gonads of various breeds, sampled from phenotypical bitches, aged 7 months to 4 years - patients of the Department of Reproduction and Clinic of Farm Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Environmental and Life Sciences in Wroclaw (Poland) in years 2006-2013. The organs were surgically removed from the abdomen and sent for histopathological examination for the purpose of determining their histological structure. The 10 examined cases of altered gonads included 6 bilateral cases of testes (60%), 2 cases of bilateral ovotestis (20%), one case of co-manifestation of testis and ovotestis (10%), and a single case of a testis and a neoplastically altered gonad (gonadoblastoma) (10%).

  18. [Cytological, etiological and prognostic aspects of male infertility. Attempt at classification apropos of 1,303 cases].

    PubMed

    Alexandre, C

    Study of 1303 cases of male sub-fertility led to a certain number of practical conclusions: - From a diagnostic viewpoint, the "fertility" of an individual, which is difficult to assess, depends more on the motility than the number of spermatozoa. This is most faithfully reflected in the crossed penetration test which defines the quality of penetration of a control mucus. The value of electron microscopic cytological study in the case of total asthenospermia or major monomorphous teratospermia, reflecting an irreversible constitutional abnormality of the ultrastructure of the spermatozoon, is emphasised. - From a therapeutic viewpoint, recent progress has involved the technique of surgical treatment for varicocoele as well as hormone therapy. It is essential not to neglect empirical "minor aids" indicated in the case of unexplained abnormalities (homologous artifical insemination in the case of abnormalities in the volume of the ejaculate, retard androgen therapy in the case of polyzoospermia). - From a prognostic viewpoint. The distinction must be drawn between aetiologies of good prognosis (80% of our success) responsible for transient abnormalities in spermatogenesis (infections, metabolic disturbances, varicocoele) and aetiologies with an unfavourable prognosis since they cause tubulopathies of greater or lesser severity with a lesional impairment of spermatogenesis.

  19. RESULTS OF A DATING ATTEMPT -CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS RELEVANT TO THE CASE OF THE CRETACEOUS TERTIARY EXTINCTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Asaro, Frank; Michel, Helen V.; Alvarez, Luis W.; Alvarez, Walter

    1980-09-01

    In Gubbio, Italy, a l em layer of clay between extensive limestone formations marks the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary Periods. This clay layer was known to have been deposited about 65 million years ago when many life forms became extinct, but the length of time associated with the deposition was not known. In an attempt to measure this time with normally deposited meteoritic material as a clock, extensive measurements of iridium abundances (and those of many other elements) were made on the Gubbio rocks. Neutron activation analysis was the principal tool used in these studies. About 50 elements are searched for in materials like the earth's crust, about 40 are detected and about 30 are measured with useful precision. We were not able to determine exactly how long the clay deposition took. Instead the laboratory studies on the chemical and physical nature of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary led to the theory that an asteroid collision with the earth was responsible for the extinction of many forms of life including the dinosaurs.

  20. Self-injection of household cleaning detergents into a ventriculoperitoneal shunt reservoir during a suicide attempt: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, Jason W; Osbun, Joshua W; Arias, Eric J; Reynolds, Lauren C; Chyatte, Douglas; Reynolds, Matthew R

    2016-09-01

    Self-injection of household cleaning detergents (more specifically, commercial toilet bowl cleaner) into the reservoir of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) has never been reported in the neurosurgical literature. A right-handed 41-year-old female with a past medical history significant for bipolar depression (with multiple prior hospital admissions for suicide attempts) and pseudotumor cerebri (status-post VPS placement from a right frontal approach) successfully injected ∼5 ml of toilet bowl cleaner into her ventricular shunt reservoir during a suicide attempt. She was found unresponsive by a family member 48 h after this event and presented to our hospital in moribund neurological condition (bilaterally fixed and dilated pupils with decerebrate posturing). Head computed tomography (CT) demonstrated marked ventriculomegaly. She was taken emergently to the operating room for placement of a left frontal ventriculostomy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampled intraoperatively showed numerous Gram-positive cocci (later determined to be Staphylococcus epidermidis). For this reason, her right-sided shunt system was also removed in its entirety. She was treated with broad-spectrum intravenous and intraventricular antibiotics for her bacterial ventriculitis and her CSF was aggressively drained to treat her hydrocephalus. Once her infection had resolved, the shunt was replaced (using a right parietal approach) and she went on to make an excellent neurological recovery. Here, the authors present the case of a patient who self-injected household cleaning detergents into her VPS reservoir-and, likely, the ventricular system-during a suicide attempt and subsequently developed hydrocephalus and ventriculitis. Following this infrequent clinical scenario, consideration should be given to temporary ventriculostomy placement and shunt removal. Moreover, in patients with a known history of psychiatric co-morbidities-and particularly those patients with prior suicide attempts

  1. Self-injection of household cleaning detergents into a ventriculoperitoneal shunt reservoir during a suicide attempt: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, Jason W; Osbun, Joshua W; Arias, Eric J; Reynolds, Lauren C; Chyatte, Douglas; Reynolds, Matthew R

    2016-09-01

    Self-injection of household cleaning detergents (more specifically, commercial toilet bowl cleaner) into the reservoir of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) has never been reported in the neurosurgical literature. A right-handed 41-year-old female with a past medical history significant for bipolar depression (with multiple prior hospital admissions for suicide attempts) and pseudotumor cerebri (status-post VPS placement from a right frontal approach) successfully injected ∼5 ml of toilet bowl cleaner into her ventricular shunt reservoir during a suicide attempt. She was found unresponsive by a family member 48 h after this event and presented to our hospital in moribund neurological condition (bilaterally fixed and dilated pupils with decerebrate posturing). Head computed tomography (CT) demonstrated marked ventriculomegaly. She was taken emergently to the operating room for placement of a left frontal ventriculostomy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampled intraoperatively showed numerous Gram-positive cocci (later determined to be Staphylococcus epidermidis). For this reason, her right-sided shunt system was also removed in its entirety. She was treated with broad-spectrum intravenous and intraventricular antibiotics for her bacterial ventriculitis and her CSF was aggressively drained to treat her hydrocephalus. Once her infection had resolved, the shunt was replaced (using a right parietal approach) and she went on to make an excellent neurological recovery. Here, the authors present the case of a patient who self-injected household cleaning detergents into her VPS reservoir-and, likely, the ventricular system-during a suicide attempt and subsequently developed hydrocephalus and ventriculitis. Following this infrequent clinical scenario, consideration should be given to temporary ventriculostomy placement and shunt removal. Moreover, in patients with a known history of psychiatric co-morbidities-and particularly those patients with prior suicide attempts

  2. IFN-α-2a (Interferon) and ribavirin induced suicidal attempt in a patient of chronic HCV: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Inder, Deep; Rehan, H S; Yadav, Madhur; Manak, Seema; Kumar, Pawan

    2011-04-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are proteins produced by cells, fibroblasts and macrophages, in response to viral invasion, and mediates immune response. IFN-α and ribavirin are the approved treatment for HCV infection, but also carries a risk of neuropsychiatric adverse effects, viz. insomnia, irritability, mood changes, and depression.We present a case report of depression induced by IFN-α and ribavirin, leading to attempted suicide. Following the episode, antidepressant paroxetine (20 mg o.d.) and zolpidem (10 mg h.s) were added with psychotherapy. No significant improvement was observed. Patient was given a drug dechallenge (IFN-α and ribavirin). Dramatic improvement was seen over 1 month. Following rechallenge with combination, patient again experienced depressive symptoms with suicidal ideation. IFN-α and ribavirin were promptly stopped. Naranjo causality assessment scale revealed probable association with IFN-α and ribavirin. The report intends to improve awareness among clinicians to facilitate early diagnosis and intervention of similar cases. PMID:21572662

  3. Perinatal conditions and parental age at birth as risk markers for subsequent suicide attempt and suicide: a population based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Rasmussen, Finn; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2012-09-01

    Restricted fetal growth and young maternal age have been associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviour later in life. Research investigating the independent and interacting effects of these risk factors with parental mental health and socio-economic status is scarce. A case-control study was effected through record linkage between Swedish registers. Individuals born 1973-1983 who were hospitalized due to a suicide attempt (n = 17,159) or committed suicide (n = 1,407) were matched to ≤10 controls by sex, month and county of birth. Controlling for parental conditions, significantly increased odds ratios (OR) for suicide attempt were found for low birth weight (OR = 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01-1.25), short birth length (OR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.08-1.22), short and light for gestational age (OR = 1.23, 95 % CI: 1.10-1.38), short but not light for gestational age (OR = 1.18, 95 % CI: 1.09, 1.29), teenage motherhood (OR = 1.66, 95 % CI 1.53-1.80), young fatherhood (OR = 1.33, 95 % CI 1.27-1.39) and multiparity (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI 1.31-1.50). For completed suicide, increased odds ratios were found for low birth weight (OR = 1.65, 95 % CI 1.16-2.35), teenage motherhood (OR = 1.44, 95 % CI 1.09-1.90) and young fatherhood (OR = 1.20, 95 % CI 1.02-1.41). There was a synergy effect between teenage motherhood and parental psychiatric inpatient care with regard to suicide attempt in offspring [synergy index = 1.53 (95 % CI 1.27-1.84)]. Low birth weight and length, and short and light for gestational age may increase the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviour, and more research is needed to investigate underlying mechanisms. Public health implications from this study include measures to improve pre- and perinatal parental mental health, particularly in teenage pregnancies.

  4. Attempted Non-Family Abductions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined cases of attempted nonfamily abductions, to determine child and family characteristics that may serve as risk factors for such incidents. The prevalence and risk-marker findings from this study reinforce the need to continue teaching "stranger danger" and suggest that children living in stressful or unstable family environments may be in…

  5. Young People's Risk of Suicide Attempts after Contact with a Psychiatric Department--A Nested Case-Control Design Using Danish Register Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul

    2012-01-01

    Background: There seems to be an increased risk of children and adolescents committing or attempting suicide after contact with a psychiatric department. Children and adolescents living in families with low socio-economic status (SES) might have an especially increased suicide attempt risk. Methods: A complete extraction of Danish register data…

  6. Socio-Demographic, Clinical and Behavioral Characteristics Associated with a History of Suicide Attempts among Psychiatric Outpatients: A Case Control Study in a Northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Arnaud-Gil, Carlos Alberto; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Molina-Espinoza, Luis Fernando; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the epidemiology of suicide attempts among psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. This study was aimed to determine the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients in two public hospitals in Durango, Mexico. Methods: Two hundred seventy six psychiatric outpatients (154 suicide attempters and 122 patients without suicide attempt history) attended the two public hospitals in Durango City, Mexico were included in this study. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics were obtained retrospectively from all outpatients and compared in relation to the presence or absence of suicide attempt history. Results: Increased prevalence of suicide attempts was associated with mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (F10-19) (P=0.01), schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (F20-29) (P=0.02), mood (affective) disorders (F30-39) (P<0.001), and disorders of adult personality and behavior (F60-69) (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that suicide attempts were associated with young age (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.06-1.39; P=0.003), female gender (OR=2.98, 95% CI: 1.55-5.73; P=0.001), urban residence (OR=2.31, 95% CI: 1.17-4.57; P=0.01), memory impairment (OR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.07-3.40; P=0.02), alcohol consumption (OR=2.39, 95% CI: 1.21-4.70; P=0.01), and sexual promiscuity (OR=3.90, 95% CI: 1.74-8.77; P<0.001). Conclusions: We report the association of suicide attempts with socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics in psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. Results may be useful for an optimal planning of preventive measures against suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients. PMID:24711751

  7. Inpatient Hospitalization in Addiction Treatment for Patients with a History of Suicide Attempt: A Case of Support for Treatment Performance Measures†

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Joseph E.; Ilgen, Mark A.; Winters, Jamie J.; Murray, Regan L.; Perron, Brian E.; Chermack, Stephen T.

    2010-01-01

    This study attempts to validate substance use disorder (SUD) treatment performance measures (PM) in a naturalistic treatment setting. Despite its significance in healthcare systems and in SUD populations, suicidality is one patient characteristic that remains unexplored in the context of SUD PMs. The current study focused on the extent to which the care processes encouraged by SUD PMs were associated with improved outcomes in patients with a prior suicide attempt as compared to those without. We abstracted Addiction Severity Index and health services data from the VA medical record for 381 veterans who initiated outpatient SUD treatment and completed baseline intake measures at a Midwestern VA hospital. Cox proportional hazard regressions examined how baseline characteristics, prior suicide attempts, and PM status predicted the time until hospitalization for psychiatric or substance use problems. Prior suicide attempts significantly interacted with treatment engagement, and hospitalization risk was significantly higher among individuals with a prior suicide attempt who did not meet PMs. This study provides initial observational evidence that past suicide attempts may be a factor that should be considered when defining performance standards that influence the processes of SUD treatment. Future research on PMs should take into account the differences on indicators of high risk and poor treatment outcomes. PMID:21053754

  8. Alcohol Consumption and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Kenneth E.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Swann, Alan C.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Lee, Roberta K.; Bayer, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a case-control study of the association between nearly lethal suicide attempts and facets of alcohol consumption; namely, drinking frequency, drinking quantity, binge drinking, alcoholism, drinking within 3 hours of suicide attempt, and age began drinking. In bivariate analyses, all measures were associated with nearly lethal suicide…

  9. Our Attempts in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanichai, Yupa

    During the last decade of twentieth century astronomical articles in Thai scientific magazines were out of date. Interacting galaxies blackholes and other celestial objects beyond solar system were hardly found. While a pocket book for deep space was purposefully written by a lecturer a website of astronomy for Thais was planned by the cooperation of two computer programmers. An obseravatory with 600-mm reflector was the first attempt by a Thai engineer. The product of the first 150-mm reflector Dosonian made in Thailand is sold in low price. Future optical programs are now being planned to be made by Thais. These people have recently worked together to develope astronomy in Thailand.

  10. Attempted suicide and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Czeizel, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Background: The aim of the Budapest Monitoring System of Self-Poisoning Pregnant Women was to evaluate the potential congenital abnormality inducing effect of extremely large doses of drugs among pregnant women who attempted suicide. This system was appropriate to describe the characteristics of these pregnant women as a secondary finding from this model. Methods: All self-poisoned patients were cared for at a toxicological inpatient clinic in Budapest, between 1960 and 1993. Of a total of 1,044 pregnant women identified from the three different periods of the project, only 19 (1.8%) died. Women who survived were visited at home to reveal birth outcomes, and their exposed children were examined medically to identify congenital abnormalities and tested to estimate their cognitive-behavioral status. The previous or subsequent children of these pregnant women were used as controls with a similar examination protocol. Results: In general, self-poisoned pregnant women were young (peak age was between 18 and 20 years), 62% had their first pregnancy, 55% were unmarried, they had lower socioeconomic status, 46% were smokers and 22.5% drinkers, but depression/panic disorder occurred only among 17 pregnant women. Suicide attempts with drugs were most frequent in the fourth post-conceptional week and second month of pregnancy. In general they used smaller doses of drugs for suicide than non-pregnant age-matched women. Of 1,044 self-poisoned pregnant women, 926 had known pregnancy outcomes and 411 (44.4%) delivered live-born babies. Conclusions: The self-poisoning model appears to have several benefits (e.g., dose-response estimation of drugs) in comparison with other methods when evaluating teratogenic/fetotoxic effect of drugs. It is suggested that an international monitoring system of self-poisoned pregnant women should be established to provide a larger data base. PMID:21483214

  11. An attempt to extend the Habitat Harshness Hypothesis to tidal flats: A case study of Anomalocardia brasiliana (Bivalvia: Veneridae) reproductive biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corte, Guilherme Nascimento; Yokoyama, Leonardo Querobim; Amaral, A. Cecília Z.

    2014-10-01

    The Habitat Harshness Hypothesis (HHH) predicts that populations inhabiting the intertidal area of a dissipative beach should produce more gametes and have a longer reproductive cycle than those inhabiting an intermediate or reflective beach. This hypothesis was proposed for the exposed morphodynamic continuum between the reflective and dissipative states; however, no attempt has been made thus far to verify whether the HHH is valid for tidal flats. In this study, we analysed the reproductive cycle of Anomalocardia brasiliana in an intermediate beach and in a tidal flat and compared the results to determine whether the reproductive cycles of A. brasiliana were in agreement with the predictions of the HHH and to examine the possibility of extending this hypothesis to tidal flats. A continuous spawning season and synchrony between sexes were observed at both sites, although the reproductive effort was higher in the intermediate beach. The results of this first attempt did not support the extension of the HHH to tidal flats. It is possible that hypotheses that take into account only physical variables may not be the most adequate for describing environments with such a high species richness and high abundance as tidal flats. Nevertheless, other studies are necessary to confidently expand or refute the HHH with regard to tidal flats, and this topic should be considered as a priority in future investigations in sandy beach ecology.

  12. Myocardial Injury without Electrocardiographic Changes after a Suicide Attempt by an Overdose of Glimepiride and Zolpidem: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Chou, Shengpu; Ayabe, Seiji; Sekine, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    A 40-year-old diabetic man was admitted to our hospital for poor glycemic control. During hospitalization, he took 42 mg glimepiride and 50 mg zolpidem as a suicide attempt. The following day, the creatine kinase-MB fraction and troponin I levels were elevated to 112 IU/L and 8.77 ng/mL, respectively, without any electrocardiographic abnormalities. The patient recovered completely without any complications. Four weeks later, coronary computed tomography angiography and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy revealed moderate one-vessel coronary disease without the evidence of myocardial ischemia or old infarction. Cardiac-specific markers must be considered in sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemic patients, particularly when the patient is unconscious and does not exhibit any clinical manifestations. PMID:26521901

  13. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Maqbali, Mandhar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors) and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support). All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor. PMID:27602193

  14. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Maqbali, Mandhar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors) and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support). All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  15. Surviving a Suicide Attempt.

    PubMed

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Maqbali, Mandhar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2016-09-01

    Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors) and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support). All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor. PMID:27602193

  16. Psychopathology Associated with Suicide Attempts among Rural Adolescents of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xianchen; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Zhao, Zhongtang

    2005-01-01

    This case control study examined the relationship between psychopathological profiles and self reported suicide attempts among rural adolescents of China. Cases consisted of 142 adolescents who reported a suicide attempt in the past 6 months in a questionnaire survey (n = 1,365). An equal number of adolescents without reporting a suicide attempt,…

  17. Transgenerational Patterns of Suicide Attempt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Susan B.; Rutter, Carolyn M.

    1991-01-01

    Using data from 2,304 community residents, found self-reports of suicide attempts were more common among persons with than without family history of suicide. Nearly one in four suicide attempters reported family history of suicide. Being female and unmarried, respondent mental disorder, parent mental disorder, and parent suicide attempt exerted…

  18. Attempted Suicide among Iranian Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheikholeslami, Homayoun; Kani, Camellia; Ziaee, Amir

    2008-01-01

    Predictors of suicide attempts in Iran, to distinguish any similarities and differences of these predictors between suicide attempts in Iran and other developed and developing countries and to investigate the relation between general psychiatric symptoms and repetition of suicidal attempts were assessed. The validated Farsi version of the General…

  19. Attempted suicide among Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Sheikholeslami, Homayoun; Kani, Camellia; Ziaee, Amir

    2008-08-01

    Predictors of suicide attempts in Iran, to distinguish any similarities and differences of these predictors between suicide attempts in Iran and other developed and developing countries and to investigate the relation between general psychiatric symptoms and repetition of suicidal attempts were assessed. The validated Farsi version of the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used to assess multiple dimensions of quality of life of suicide attempters as depression, anxiety, social dysfunction, and somatic symptoms. Pivotal differences emerged in the clinical profiles of suicide attempters living in a developing country versus developed countries. In developing countries, those who attempt suicides are more likely to have no psychiatric disorder and are less likely to have used alcohol as part of the suicide attempt, but are more likely to have been assaulted physically or verbally. The results on the GHQ-28 indicate that the process through which individuals move from suicidal thought to action may decrease multiple dimensions of quality of life.

  20. Cognitive Distortions and Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Jager-Hyman, Shari; Cunningham, Amy; Wenzel, Amy; Mattei, Stephanie; Brown, Gregory K; Beck, Aaron T

    2014-08-01

    Although theorists have posited that suicidal individuals are more likely than non-suicidal individuals to experience cognitive distortions, little empirical work has examined whether those who recently attempted suicide are more likely to engage in cognitive distortions than those who have not recently attempted suicide. In the present study, 111 participants who attempted suicide in the 30 days prior to participation and 57 psychiatric control participants completed measures of cognitive distortions, depression, and hopelessness. Findings support the hypothesis that individuals who recently attempted suicide are more likely than psychiatric controls to experience cognitive distortions, even when controlling for depression and hopelessness. Fortune telling was the only cognitive distortion uniquely associated with suicide attempt status. However, fortune telling was no longer significantly associated with suicide attempt status when controlling for hopelessness. Findings underscore the importance of directly targeting cognitive distortions when treating individuals at risk for suicide.

  1. Temperament Characteristics of Suicide Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrabian, Albert; Weinstein, Lisa

    1985-01-01

    In a preliminary study of a single group of suicide attempters, male and female subjects did not differ in temperament characteristics. Data from both sexes indicated that suicide-prone individuals have unpleasant, arousable, and submissive temperaments, with arousability a strong discriminator of suicide attempters relative to the general…

  2. Cardiovascular collapse with attempted pericardial drain withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Molly B; Spitznagel, Rachel A; Kugler, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac tamponade is a rare but serious emergency condition in the pediatric population. As treatment, a pericardial drain is often placed to evacuate the fluid. We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with cardiac tamponade secondary to renal failure. After the tamponade resolved, she suffered cardiovascular collapse upon attempted drain withdrawal. This case highlights an unusual cause for cardiovascular collapse, which occurred on blind removal of a pericardial drain. PMID:27625522

  3. Cardiovascular collapse with attempted pericardial drain withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Molly B; Spitznagel, Rachel A; Kugler, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac tamponade is a rare but serious emergency condition in the pediatric population. As treatment, a pericardial drain is often placed to evacuate the fluid. We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with cardiac tamponade secondary to renal failure. After the tamponade resolved, she suffered cardiovascular collapse upon attempted drain withdrawal. This case highlights an unusual cause for cardiovascular collapse, which occurred on blind removal of a pericardial drain.

  4. Cardiovascular collapse with attempted pericardial drain withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Molly B; Spitznagel, Rachel A; Kugler, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac tamponade is a rare but serious emergency condition in the pediatric population. As treatment, a pericardial drain is often placed to evacuate the fluid. We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with cardiac tamponade secondary to renal failure. After the tamponade resolved, she suffered cardiovascular collapse upon attempted drain withdrawal. This case highlights an unusual cause for cardiovascular collapse, which occurred on blind removal of a pericardial drain. PMID:27625522

  5. [Attempted suicide of youth with Asperger's disorder].

    PubMed

    Mikami, Katsunaka; Ohya, Akitoshi; Akasaka, Kuni; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    Research of Asperger's disorder is increasing through strong interest in this disorder. However, there are few reports on suicide attempts among youths with this disorder. We examined the clinical characteristics of serious suicide attempts of adolescents, and indicated the frequency of pervasive developmental disorders among them. In the present study, we reported a suicide attempt using briquettes by a youth with Asperger's disorder aged 23, who had a history of two suicide attempts by hanging. In this case, we examined the predisposing factors to suicide and possible intervention to prevent a re-attempt. As a result, in this case, we suggested that low self-esteem due to repeated serious social failures and feelings of isolation, although there was a social support system, were psycho-social predisposing factors. Moreover, the "conflict" between the patient and his parents, who should have provided social support for him, had made him feel alone. This "conflict" was composed of 1) the primary symptoms of Asperger's disorder (deficit of emotional reciprocity and unreasonable insistence on restricted thoughts.) and 2) his parents' insufficient comprehension of Asperger's disorder. This "conflict" was distinct from the conflict of interpersonal friction based on emotional interaction. In order to prevent a suicide re-attempt, we mainly intervened in the problem of low self-esteem due to repeated serious social failures and having feelings of isolation. We concluded that to prevent a suicide re-attempt in patients with Asperger's disorder, it is important to diagnose and treat the disorder and comorbidity, and it is more important to recognize and aggressively intervene in psycho-social predisposing factors.

  6. Suicide Management Plan--Post Suicide Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhoff, Robert; Royster, Sharon

    This document contains a suicide management plan developed specifically for colleges. The suicide management plan described includes pre-planning, immediate response to the event, press releases, college staff jobs, college responses (such as memorials or scholarships), interaction with the family, and staff counseling. The plan is presented as a…

  7. [Fluctuations and seasonality in suicidal attempts].

    PubMed

    Polewka, Andrzej; Szkolnicka, Beata; Targosz, Dorota; Groszek, Barbara; Kroch, Stanisław; Chrostek Maj, Jan; Zieba, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze seasonality and temporal fluctuations in suicide attempts by persons living in Krakow and hospitalized in the Department of Clinical Toxicology CMUJ in the years 2000-2002. The research focussed on the frequency of suicide attempts in relation to the time of the day, day of the week, and month of the year. Temporal fluctuations in the frequency of suicide attempts have been assessed on the basis of the data from medical documentation concerning 2757 suicide attempts by individuals ranging in age from 14 to 90 years. The group consisted of 1607 females and 1150 males. According to the results of the research, seasonality and temporal fluctuations in the frequency of suicide attempts is different for males and females. In the case of the males examined, no dependence between the frequency of suicide attempts and a particular month or season has been observed. In the case of females, on the contrary, the data indicate the existence of a seasonal pattern with the peak in the spring (or early part of the summer), and in the autumn--in October and November. In males, the peak day for attempted suicide was Monday, whereas in females--Sunday and Monday. As regards the time of the day, both the results of the present research and data collected by WHO/EURO indicate that suicide attempts occurred most frequently in the evening, late in the evening or in the early part the night. In conclusion, it has been emphasized that the majority of suicide attempts, especially by females, occurs late in the evening or early in the night. This finding seems to be of particular importance for suicide prevention--it can contribute to the increase in the effectiveness of the organization of work in the Crisis Intervention Centres and make therapists and patients' families aware of the existence of periods of an increased suicide risk. The research has been conducted owing to the cooperation between the department of Clinical Toxicology, CMUJ and the

  8. Suicide Attempts in the United States Army

    PubMed Central

    Ursano, Robert J.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Stein, Murray B.; Naifeh, James A.; Aliaga, Pablo A.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Colpe, Lisa J.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Cox, Kenneth L.; Heeringa, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Importance The U.S. Army suicide attempt rate increased sharply during the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Comprehensive research on this important health outcome has been hampered by a lack of integration among Army administrative data systems. Objective To identify risk factors for Regular Army suicide attempts during the years 2004–2009 using data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS). Design, Setting, and Participants There were 9,791 medically documented suicide attempts among Regular Army soldiers during the study period. Individual-level person-month records from Army and Department of Defense administrative data systems were analyzed to identify socio-demographic, service-related, and mental health risk factors distinguishing suicide attempt cases from an equal-probability control sample of 183,826 person-months. Main Outcome and Measures Suicide attempts were identified using Department of Defense Suicide Event Report records and ICD-9 E95x diagnostic codes. Predictor variables were constructed from Army personnel and medical records. Results Enlisted soldiers accounted for 98.6% of all suicide attempts, with an overall rate of 377/100,000 person-years, versus 27.9/100,000 person-years for officers. Significant multivariate predictors among enlisted soldiers included socio-demographic characteristics (female gender, older age at Army entry, younger current age, low education, non-hispanic white), short length of service, never or previously deployed, and the presence and recency of mental health diagnoses. Among officers, only socio-demographic characteristics (female gender, older age at Army entry, younger current age, and low education) and the presence and recency of mental health diagnoses were significant. Conclusions and Relevance Results represent the most comprehensive accounting of U.S. Army suicide attempts to date and reveal unique risk profiles for enlisted soldiers and officers, and highlighting the

  9. Attempted suicide, suicidal intent, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A S; Stenager, E; Brahe, U B

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate suicidal intent to the suicide method chosen and the medical lethality of the suicidal act, and to discuss how ingestion of alcohol impacts these three factors. The study was based upon interviews with 139 suicidal patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital. The results indicated a tendency for suicide attempters using wrist-cutting to score low on the Suicidal Intent Scale. Patients using kinds of self-injury other than self-poisoning or wrist-cutting scored high. In the case of self-poisoning, suicidal intent did not influence the choice of toxic agent, nor was the choice of method and/or choice of toxic agent affected by alcohol ingestion. A correlation between suicidal intent and the lethality of the suicide attempt was seen only among patients without a diagnosis of alcohol dependence. Alcohol-dependent patients who made highly lethal attempts scored relatively low on the Suicidal Intent Scale. The results indicate that the lethality of the suicidal act is only an incomplete guide to a patient's suicidal intent. However, it should be stressed that, despite the fact that alcohol-dependent suicide attempters may not strongly wish to die, they are nonetheless at high risk for making fatal suicide attempts.

  10. Prosecuting attempted suicides in London: 1891-1913.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2009-12-01

    A study of 30 cases of attempted suicide tried at the Old Bailey criminal court in London (England) from 1891 to 1913 indicated that having made prior attempts was the only predictor of the severity of the sentence. 22 individuals were tried for murdering or attempting to murder their child and also attempting suicide. None of the murderers but half of the attempted murderers were found not guilty, or guilty then released. Mothers used drowning more than did fathers and were more likely to be found not guilty.

  11. Suicide attempt with a mix of synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones: Case report of non-fatal intoxication with AB-CHMINACA, AB-FUBINACA, alpha-PHP, alpha-PVP and 4-CMC.

    PubMed

    Klavž, Janez; Gorenjak, Maksimiljan; Marinšek, Martin

    2016-08-01

    We report on a case of intoxication with a mix of new psychoactive substances. A 38-year-old male was brought to the emergency department (ED) following the ingestion of an unknown drug in a suicide attempt. During the transport, he became progressively more somnolent and unresponsive to painful stimuli. Urine and stomach content were collected on admission to be screened for drugs of abuse and medicinal drugs. After admission, the patient's next of kin presented five small grip seal plastic bags containing different powders/crystals, and they were sent for analysis along with urine and stomach content to the toxicology laboratory. An easy and rapid sample preparation technique was applied for the extraction of urine and stomach content. Samples were extracted with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) technique and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A small amount of powder material from the bags was diluted in methanol and injected directly into the GC-MS instrument. Obtained spectra (EI) were evaluated against SWGDRUG library. Five different designer drugs were identified in the powder material, including synthetic cannabinoids (AB-CHMINACA, AB-FUBINACA) and synthetic cathinones (alpha-PHP, alpha-PVP and 4-CMC). With the exception of 4-CMC, all of these substances were also detected in the stomach content along with the prescription drugs. This is the first time that a positive identification of these five drugs has been made by a clinical laboratory in Slovenia.

  12. Attempted suicide in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Habil, M H; Ganesvaran, T; Agnes, L S

    A total of 306 patients were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur in 1989 after attempting suicide. Fourteen of them succumbed to injuries. Psychosocial data of 296 patients out of the 306 survivors are reported. Suicidal behaviour is more common in the young and especially amongst the females. Nearly 45.0% of them are from social class IV and V. Persons of Indian ethnic origin are overrepresented, while in Malays suicidal behavior seemed to be less common. Self-poisoning was reported to be the commonest method in attempting suicide. Diagnosis of adjustment disorder was made in 58.5% of the patients. Two-thirds of the patients had an intention score of less than 10 on the Pierce's Scale.

  13. Attempted suicide: an operant formulation.

    PubMed

    Bostock, T; Williams, C L

    1975-06-01

    An alternative formulation of attempted suicide is offered, in which the phenomenon is considered within the context of social learning theory. The suicidal behaviour is viewed as an operant which is reinforced and maintained by the consequent interpersonal contingencies. The modification of the suicidal behaviour then involves alteration of the contingent consequences. This theoretical formulation is elaborated and the treatment principles and practice are outlined.

  14. Psychiatric aspects of murder and attempted murder.

    PubMed

    Medicott, R W

    1976-01-14

    The clinical data and forensic aspects of 28 individuals charged with murder and 10 charged with attempted murder examined over the last 35 years are recorded. The majority of those aged 40 years or over were criminally insane. A positive family history of psychiatric illness was present in the majority of the criminally insane group. Murder and attempted murder in the setting of a stable marriage was almost invariably the result of serious psychiatric illness. After the clearcut cases of schizophrenia and depressive illness were separated there were left a mixed paranoid group and a large group of individuals with severe personality disorders. Of the forensic aspects a case is made for the wider use of "unfitness to plead" in the severely psychotic. The follow-up of cases strongly suggested that those found not guilty on psychiatric grounds were likely to be held for longer periods than those treated as criminals. The author suggests that the public would be better protected if the Crown sought an insanity verdict in some cases rather than oppose it.

  15. Negative Life Events and Attempted Suicide in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-Chao; Jia, Cun-Xian; Zhang, Ji-Yu; Wang, Lin-Lin; Liu, Xian-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the association between negative life events (NLEs) and attempted suicide in rural China. Methods Six rural counties were selected from disease surveillance points in Shandong province, China. A total of 409 suicide attempters in rural areas between October 1, 2009, and March 31, 2011, and an equal number of matched controls were interviewed. We compared negative life events experienced within 1 month, 1–3 months, 3–6months, and 6–2 months prior to attempted suicide for cases and prior to interview for controls. We used multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between NLEs and attempted suicide. Results Suicide attempters experienced more NLEs within the last year prior to suicide attempt than controls prior to interview (83.1% vs. 33.5%). There was a significant dose-response relationship between NLEs experienced within the last year and increased risk of attempted suicide. Timing of NLEs analysis showed that NLEs experienced in the last month and 6–12 months prior to suicide attempt were significantly associated with elevated risk of attempted suicide, even after adjusting for mental disorders and demographic factors. Of NLEs, quarrelling with spouse, quarrelling with other family members, conflicting with friends or neighbors, family financial difficulty, and serious illness were independently related to attempted suicide. Conclusion NLEs are significantly associated with increased risk for attempted suicide in rural China. Stress management and intervention may be important to prevent suicidal behavior in rural China. PMID:25611854

  16. Filicide, attempted filicide, and psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Valença, Alexandre M; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Nascimento, Isabella; Nardi, Antonio E

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the study was to describe and discuss the cases of two women who faced criminal charges, one for attempting to murder her three children and the other for killing her 1-year-old boy. After a forensic psychiatric assessment of their level of criminal responsibility, these patients were considered not guilty by reason of insanity and were committed to forensic mental hospitals. These two patients received a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia, according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria. In both cases, psychotic symptoms were present before the manifestation of violent behavior, in the form of persecutory delusions, auditory hallucinations, and pathological impulsivity. The investigation into cases of filicide may contribute powerfully to expand our understanding of motivational factors underlying this phenomenon and enhance the odds for effective prevention.

  17. Filicide, attempted filicide, and psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Valença, Alexandre M; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Nascimento, Isabella; Nardi, Antonio E

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the study was to describe and discuss the cases of two women who faced criminal charges, one for attempting to murder her three children and the other for killing her 1-year-old boy. After a forensic psychiatric assessment of their level of criminal responsibility, these patients were considered not guilty by reason of insanity and were committed to forensic mental hospitals. These two patients received a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia, according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria. In both cases, psychotic symptoms were present before the manifestation of violent behavior, in the form of persecutory delusions, auditory hallucinations, and pathological impulsivity. The investigation into cases of filicide may contribute powerfully to expand our understanding of motivational factors underlying this phenomenon and enhance the odds for effective prevention. PMID:21210804

  18. When attempts at robbing prey turn fatal.

    PubMed

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M

    2012-07-01

    Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases.

  19. When attempts at robbing prey turn fatal.

    PubMed

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M

    2012-07-01

    Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases. PMID:22710934

  20. Exploring the Association between Serum BDNF and Attempted Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, Rebecca B.; Perera, Stefan; Bawor, Monica; Dennis, Brittany B.; El-Sheikh, Wala; DeJesus, Jane; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Vair, Judith; Sholer, Heather; Hutchinson, Nicole; Iordan, Elizabeth; Mackie, Pam; Islam, Shofiqul; Dehghan, Mahshid; Brasch, Jennifer; Anglin, Rebecca; Minuzzi, Luciano; Thabane, Lehana; Samaan, Zainab

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death and a significant public health concern. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein important to nervous system function, has been implicated in psychiatric disorders and suicidal behaviour. We investigated the association between serum levels of BDNF and attempted suicide in a sample of 281 participants using a case-control study design. Participants were recruited from clinical and community settings between March 2011 and November 2014. Cases (individuals who had attempted suicide) (n = 84) were matched on sex and age (within five years) to both psychiatric controls (n = 104) and community controls (n = 93) with no history of suicide attempts. We collected fasting blood samples, socio-demographic information, physical measurements, and detailed descriptions of suicide attempts. We used linear regression analysis to determine the association between BDNF level (dependent variable) and attempted suicide (key exposure variable), adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, current smoking status, and antidepressant use. 250 participants were included in this analysis. In the linear regression model, attempted suicide was not significantly associated with BDNF level (β = 0.28, SE = 1.20, P = 0.82). Our findings suggest that no significant association exists between attempted suicide and BDNF level. However, the findings need to be replicated in a larger cohort study. PMID:27121496

  1. 50 CFR 38.15 - Attempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.15 Attempt. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will attempt to commit any offense prohibited by this part....

  2. 50 CFR 38.15 - Attempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.15 Attempt. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will attempt to commit any offense prohibited by this part....

  3. 50 CFR 38.15 - Attempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.15 Attempt. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will attempt to commit any offense prohibited by this part....

  4. 50 CFR 38.15 - Attempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.15 Attempt. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will attempt to commit any offense prohibited by this part....

  5. 50 CFR 38.15 - Attempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.15 Attempt. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will attempt to commit any offense prohibited by this part....

  6. Adolescent suicide attempts and adult adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Brière, Frédéric N.; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Klein, Daniel; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent suicide attempts are disproportionally prevalent and frequently of low severity, raising questions regarding their long-term prognostic implications. In this study, we examined whether adolescent attempts were associated with impairments related to suicidality, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in adulthood (objective 1) and whether these impairments were better accounted for by concurrent adolescent confounders (objective 2). Method 816 adolescents were assessed using interviews and questionnaires at four time points from adolescence to adulthood. We examined whether lifetime suicide attempts in adolescence (by T2, mean age 17) predicted adult outcomes (by T4, mean age 30) using linear and logistic regressions in unadjusted models (objective 1) and adjusting for sociodemographic background, adolescent psychopathology, and family risk factors (objective 2). Results In unadjusted analyses, adolescent suicide attempts predicted poorer adjustment on all outcomes, except those related to social role status. After adjustment, adolescent attempts remained predictive of axis I and II psychopathology (anxiety disorder, antisocial and borderline personality disorder symptoms), global and social adjustment, risky sex, and psychiatric treatment utilization. However, adolescent attempts no longer predicted most adult outcomes, notably suicide attempts and major depressive disorder. Secondary analyses indicated that associations did not differ by sex and attempt characteristics (intent, lethality, recurrence). Conclusions Adolescent suicide attempters are at high risk of protracted and wide-ranging impairments, regardless of the characteristics of their attempt. Although attempts specifically predict (and possibly influence) several outcomes, results suggest that most impairments reflect the confounding contributions of other individual and family problems or vulnerabilites in adolescent attempters. PMID:25421360

  7. Attempted Suicide Triggers in Thai Adolescent Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sukhawaha, Supattra; Arunpongpaisal, Suwanna; Rungreangkulkij, Somporn

    2016-06-01

    The study goal was to describe attempted suicide triggers in Thai adolescents. A descriptive exploratory qualitative study approach was used utilizing in-depth interviews with twelve adolescents who had attempted suicide and six of their parents. Content analysis was conducted. Attempted suicide triggers were (1) severe verbal criticisms and expulsion to die by a significant family member, (2) disappointed and unwanted by boyfriend in first serious relationship, (3) unwanted pregnancy, and (4) mental illness leading to intense emotions and irresistible impulses. These attempted suicide triggers should be of concern and brought into suicide prevention management programs such as emotional management, effective communication for adolescents and family. PMID:27256938

  8. LPG Dependence after a Suicide Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Aldemir, Ebru; Akyel, Betül; Altıntoprak, A. Ender; Aydın, Rezzan; Coşkunol, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Inhalant abuse is a problem that is getting more common all around the world. The increase in prevalence of inhalant abuse escalates morbidity and mortality rates. About 22% of people using inhalant have died at their first attempt. Particularly propane, butane, or propane-butane mixture has highest mortality rates. Sudden sniffing death syndrome, cardiomyopathy, central nervous system toxicity, hematological abnormalities, kidney toxicity, and hepatocellular toxicities are the major complications of inhalant abuse. Herein we present a patient with inhalant use disorder. At the age of 19, after a stressful life event he had unsuccessfully tried to suicide by inhaling LPG (liquefied petroleum gas, a mixture of butane and propane gases). After he realized that he had hallucinations and felt better during the inhalation, he started to abuse it. He was addicted to LPG for 10 years at the time of admission. Besides being dangerous for the society security, this intense level of LPG inhalation (12 liters a day) not giving any physical harm makes this case interesting. PMID:25664196

  9. LPG Dependence after a Suicide Attempt.

    PubMed

    Aldemir, Ebru; Akyel, Betül; Altıntoprak, A Ender; Aydın, Rezzan; Coşkunol, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Inhalant abuse is a problem that is getting more common all around the world. The increase in prevalence of inhalant abuse escalates morbidity and mortality rates. About 22% of people using inhalant have died at their first attempt. Particularly propane, butane, or propane-butane mixture has highest mortality rates. Sudden sniffing death syndrome, cardiomyopathy, central nervous system toxicity, hematological abnormalities, kidney toxicity, and hepatocellular toxicities are the major complications of inhalant abuse. Herein we present a patient with inhalant use disorder. At the age of 19, after a stressful life event he had unsuccessfully tried to suicide by inhaling LPG (liquefied petroleum gas, a mixture of butane and propane gases). After he realized that he had hallucinations and felt better during the inhalation, he started to abuse it. He was addicted to LPG for 10 years at the time of admission. Besides being dangerous for the society security, this intense level of LPG inhalation (12 liters a day) not giving any physical harm makes this case interesting. PMID:25664196

  10. The Teacher Leadership Process: Attempting Change within Embedded Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kristy S.; Stanulis, Randi N.; Brondyk, Susan K.; Hamilton, Erica R.; Macaluso, Michael; Meier, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    This embedded case study examines the leadership practices of eleven teacher leaders in three urban schools to identify how these teacher leaders attempt to change the teaching practice of their colleagues while working as professional learning community leaders and as mentors for new teachers. Using a theoretical framework integrating complex…

  11. Is attempted suicide different in adolescent and adults?

    PubMed

    Parellada, Mara; Saiz, Pilar; Moreno, Dolores; Vidal, Jorge; Llorente, Cloe; Alvarez, Mar; García-Portilla, Paz; Ruiz-Sancho, Ana; Arango, Celso; Bobes, Julio

    2008-01-15

    Attempted suicide may be a different phenomenon in adolescents than in adults. To our knowledge, direct comparisons between these two populations are very scarce. The aim of this study is to analyze the differences between adolescents and adults in methods of attempted suicide, accompanying certainty of death, and intentionality. All cases admitted to one adult (n=173) and one adolescent (n=104) inpatient unit who attempted suicide in the period from January 2003 through October 2005 were included in a prospective, common, national register, with data on methods, circumstances, and intentionality. The methodology followed that of the WHO/Euro Multicenter Study on Parasuicide. A stratified analysis was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel procedure in order to control for the effects of gender and diagnosis. Adolescents used significantly more over-the-counter medicines. Adults were significantly more certain of the possible fatal outcome of their attempt and had a significantly more severe intention when harming themselves. Individuals appear to use the methods that are available to them to attempt suicide. Adolescents may display more impulsive and less lethal directed behavior than adults or, alternatively, they are more frequently admitted for less severe attempts.

  12. Unsuccessful Retrieval Attempts Enhance Subsequent Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornell, Nate; Hays, Matthew Jensen; Bjork, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Taking tests enhances learning. But what happens when one cannot answer a test question--does an unsuccessful retrieval attempt impede future learning or enhance it? The authors examined this question using materials that ensured that retrieval attempts would be unsuccessful. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were asked fictional…

  13. Secondary Prevention of Attempted Suicide in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotgrove, Andrew; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studies adolescents discharged from a hospital following suicide attempt who were randomly allocated to a treatment group receiving standard management plus a token allowing readmission to the hospital on demand, or a control group receiving standard management only. Results suggest lower rates of repeat suicide attempts in the group that received…

  14. Ecological Correlates of Adolescent Attempted Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1990-01-01

    Rates of adolescent attempted suicide were correlated with social indicators over electoral wards of Edinburgh, Scotland. Rates were found to be higher in wards where child neglect and misbehavior were more common. Rates of attempted suicides in total population also were related to housing patterns/social class of the wards. (Author/NB)

  15. Selected Risk Factors in Adolescent Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adcock, Anthony G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined stress, depression, attempted suicide, and knowledge of common signs of potential suicide among 3,803 eighth and tenth graders. Found females at greater risk of suicide attempts than males. Both males and females who engaged in sexual intercourse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk than abstainers; such differences were more…

  16. A Case Study of a Three-Year Pilot Program on One District's Attempt to Increase the Gifted Identification of Diverse Elementary School Students by Having a Talent Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Robin Kesterson

    2009-01-01

    This case study examined ways elementary school students from diverse populations (minorities and children from low socioeconomic status environments) were included in a talent development program, and determined if that inclusion proved to be beneficial for gifted identification. With intentional regard for the idea of talent development, this…

  17. Attempted suicide of an adolescent with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Katsunaka; Onishi, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Although the suicide risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been suggested to be higher than previously recognized, there are few case reports focusing on the process for preventing suicide reattempts. We reported that a 17-year-old male who had attempted suicide by jumping was admitted to our emergency department and hospitalized for lumbar spine fracture. In addition to the diagnosis of adjustment disorder, he was diagnosed as ASD according to his life history. This article presents the characteristics of the suicidal behaviors and the process for preventing a suicide reattempt associated with an adolescent with ASD who attempted suicide. PMID:25084822

  18. Suicide attempt by jumping: a study of gonadal axis hormones in male suicide attempters versus men who fell by accident.

    PubMed

    Markianos, Manolis; Tripodianakis, John; Istikoglou, Christos; Rouvali, Olga; Christopoulos, Markos; Papageorgopoulos, Pavlos; Seretis, Andreas

    2009-11-30

    Low plasma total testosterone (T) levels may influence the sense of well-being and produce depressive symptomatology, increasing the risk of suicide. In a previous study, we reported reduced serum T levels in male psychiatric patients after a suicide attempt. The reduction was more pronounced in subjects who used violent attempt methods, and we discussed the possible influence of stress of hospitalization, serious medical condition and treatment. In order to minimize the influence of such factors, we compared in this study the levels of plasma sex hormones of 15 psychiatric patients (10 suffering from schizophrenia and 5 from depression) who had attempted suicide by jumping with those of a group of 18 male subjects who were hospitalized after accidentally falling from a high height. Compared with a healthy control group of 40 males, both accident and attempt groups had lower T levels. The attempt group showed a trend toward lower T levels compared with levels in the accident group. In the accident group, luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were elevated compared with levels in healthy controls, indicating a normal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. This was not the case for the attempt group, where low T levels were not accompanied by increases in LH. Cortisol and prolactin were similarly elevated in both patient groups, but were not related to the low T levels. The results indicate that male psychiatric patients who attempt suicide by violent methods may have low total plasma T levels, possibly due to a dysfunction of the HPG axis at the hypothalamic-pituitary level. Monitoring HPG axis function in future studies could prove to be a predictor of suicide at least for male psychiatric attempters, and could lead to preventive strategies.

  19. Alcohol abuse and suicide attempts among youth.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, Pinka; Dave, Dhaval; Dave, Daval; Kaestner, Robert; Markowitz, Sara

    2004-06-01

    This study uses the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) to explore the causal relationship between alcohol abuse (binge drinking and clinically defined alcohol use disorders) and suicide attempts among youth. We use an empirical approach that allows one to assess the possible existence and strength of a causal relationship without relying on identifying assumptions. Our results suggest that a causal relationship between binge drinking and suicide attempts is very unlikely. The findings, however, support a causal relationship between clinically defined alcohol use disorders and suicide attempts among girls.

  20. Near-death experiences and attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Greyson, B

    1981-01-01

    Attempted suicide is correlated with an increase subsequent risk of committed suicide. However, preliminary data and psychodynamic hypotheses suggest that serious suicide attempts followed by transcendental near-death experiences (NDEs) may decrease rather than increase subsequent overt suicide risk, despite the NDEs' apparent "romanticization" of death. Studies of NDEs and of their influence on suicidal ideation are proposed which may yield greater understanding of self-destructive urges and new strategies of suicide prevention.

  1. Ecological correlates of adolescent attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1990-01-01

    Rates of adolescent attempted suicide were correlated with social indicators over the electoral wards of Edinburgh (Scotland). Rates were found to be higher in wards where child neglect and misbehavior were more common. Rates of attempted suicide in the total population also were related to the housing pattern/social class of the wards. The importance of identifying similarities and differences in the patterns of suicidal behavior of adolescents and adults was noted. PMID:2375273

  2. Ecological correlates of adolescent attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1990-01-01

    Rates of adolescent attempted suicide were correlated with social indicators over the electoral wards of Edinburgh (Scotland). Rates were found to be higher in wards where child neglect and misbehavior were more common. Rates of attempted suicide in the total population also were related to the housing pattern/social class of the wards. The importance of identifying similarities and differences in the patterns of suicidal behavior of adolescents and adults was noted.

  3. Suicidal behaviour. An attempt to modify the environment. Part IV.

    PubMed

    Lukianowicz, N

    1975-01-01

    A study was undertaken of 76 males patients (following suicidal attempts) admitted in 1962 and 1963 to Holywell Hospital, a psychiatric hospital in Antrim, Norther Ireland. Their age, psychiatric condition, personality, intelligence, civil state, social class, religion, etc., were reviewed and the findings were compared with the findings in: (a) 100 suicidal females treated in the same hospital for the same reason in the same 2 years; (b) a group of 45 suicidal males admitted to the same hospital in 1971, and (c) a group of 91 suicidal female subjects treated in Holywell in 1971. The aim of the inquiry was to find out: (a) whether there were any sex-linked differences between these groups; (b) whether there were any changes in methods used in suicidal attempts in the last decade, and (c) whether our hypothesis about gain-motivation in many suicidal attempts was correct. The results of the study showed that: (a) sex and all personal and social factors reviewed were of little significance in the incidence of suicidal attempts and in the methods employed in their execution; (b) in both 1971 groups there was a shift from violent to non-violent means, and (c) two-thirds of all patients, irrespective of sex, social class, religion, etc., not only claimed having tried to achieve some personal gains, but apparently did achieve them by their suicidal behaviour. This seems to support our hypothesis that in many cases suicidal behaviour is in fact an attempt to modify the environment to the patient's benefit.

  4. Poststroke suicide attempts and completed suicides

    PubMed Central

    Glader, Eva-Lotta; Norrving, Bo; Asplund, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined attempted and completed suicides after stroke to determine whether they were associated with socioeconomic status, other patient characteristics, or time after stroke. Methods: This nationwide cohort study included stroke patients from Riksstroke (the Swedish Stroke Register) from 2001 to 2012. We used personal identification numbers to link the Riksstroke data with other national registers. Suicide attempts were identified by a record of hospital admission for intentional self-harm (ICD-10: X60-X84), and completed suicides were identified in the national Cause of Death Register. We used multiple Cox regression to analyze time from stroke onset to first suicide attempt. Results: We observed 220,336 stroke patients with a total follow-up time of 860,713 person-years. During follow-up, there were 1,217 suicide attempts, of which 260 were fatal. This was approximately double the rate of the general Swedish population. Patients with lower education or income (hazard ratio [HR] 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–1.68) for primary vs university and patients living alone (HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.52–1.97) had an increased risk of attempted suicide, and patients born outside of Europe had a lower risk compared to patients of European origin. Male sex, young age, severe stroke, and poststroke depression were other factors associated with an increased risk of attempted suicide after stroke. The risk was highest during the first 2 years after stroke. Conclusions: Both clinical and socioeconomic factors increase the risk of poststroke suicide attempts. This suggests a need for psychosocial support and suicide preventive interventions in high-risk groups of stroke patients. PMID:25832661

  5. [Adolescents after suicidal attempts. Sociological characteristics].

    PubMed

    Rosa, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents are thought to be one of the high risk groups for suicidal behaviours. About 400 persons till 20 years old commit suicide every year, and from 10 to 20 times more suicide attempts. The paper discusses differences in sociological profiles of youngsters after suicidal attempts and those who never had suicidal attempts. There were several factors in the scope of interest as: sociodemo-graphic characteristics, family structure, school problems, relationship with peers, history of abusive behaviours of youngsters and their relatives. Some particular elements of suicidal acts (suicidal thoughts, circumstances, events directly preceding the attempts, motives for suicidal attempts) were also described. The study group was comprised of 100 adolescents recruited from consecutive patients presented to the Clinic of Acute Poisonings of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine between January 2001 and June 2002 due to self-poisoning. The reference group (100 youngsters) was randomly selected from the different types of secondary schools situated in the area of Lodz voivodeship. The data were collected with help of standardized surveys. The results obtained point to some differences between the study group. The groups differ in 24 among 31 analysed variables. The average teenager who attempts suicide is a 17 year old girl, living in a big city with a full family (not necessarily biological) who was faced with relational and school problems, and affected by abusive behaviour. Sociological characteristics of individuals attempting suicide together with precise diagnosis of risk factors and risk groups is the important step toward the effective prevention of suicide behaviour. Suicidal behaviour appears to be a significant public health problem, and suicide prevention itself should be the essential component of each mental health promotion program.

  6. Profiling psychiatric inpatient suicide attempts in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ikeshita, Katsumi; Shimoda, Shigero; Norimoto, Kazunobu; Arita, Keisuke; Shimamoto, Takuya; Murata, Kiyoshi; Makinodan, Manabu; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is an adverse event that can occur even when patient are hospitalized in psychiatric facilities. This study delineates the demographic characteristics of suicide attempts in mental hospitals and psychiatric wards of general hospitals in Japan, a country where the suicide rate is remarkably high. Analyses of incident reports on serious suicide attempts in psychiatric inpatients were performed using prefectural incident records between April 1, 2001, and December 31, 2012. Suicide reports were included for 35 incidents that occurred over 11 years, and demonstrated that 83% of patients (n = 29) committed suicide and 17% (n = 6) survived their attempt with serious aftereffects, such as cognitive impairment or persistent vegetative state. The male/female ratio of inpatient suicide was 1.5:1. The mean age of the attempters was 50.5 years (SD = 18.2). The most common psychiatric diagnoses for those with suicide incident reports were schizophrenia spectrum disorders (51.4%) and affective disorders (40%). Hanging (60%) was the most common method of suicide attempt, followed by jumping in front of moving objects (14.3%) and jumping from height (11.4%). Fifty-four percent of suicides (n = 19) occurred within hospital sites and the remainder (46%; n = 16) occurred outside hospital sites (e.g., on medical leave or elopement) while they were still inpatients. PMID:25345233

  7. Forensic analysis and psycholegal implications of parricide and attempted parricide.

    PubMed

    Weisman, A M; Sharma, K K

    1997-11-01

    In a retrospective archive study, 64 adjudicated adult cases involving the murder or attempted murder of at least one parent, referred for forensic evaluations are described. Biographic, demographic, diagnostic, crime scene, psycholoegal opinion, and disposition data are presented. Results indicated a 40% rate of insanity acquitees. Attempted parricide subjects were more likely to have inpatient psychiatric histories, witnesses present during the criminal act, nonresponsiveness towards their actions, competency raised, and a hospital disposition. Gender and ethnicity were found to have a significant effect on ultimate disposition. Fifty-four percent of the sample opined psychotic were sentenced to prison, suggesting other factors considered by judge and jury. Profile characteristics and typologies are presented. The findings are compared to studies involving parricide and legal strategies involving similar cases.

  8. Decision-making competence and attempted suicide

    PubMed Central

    Szanto, Katalin; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Parker, Andrew M; Hallquist, Michael N; Vanyukov, Polina M; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y

    2015-01-01

    Objective The propensity of people vulnerable to suicide to make poor life decisions is increasingly well documented. Do they display an extreme degree of decision biases? The present study used a behavioral decision approach to examine the susceptibility of low-lethality and high-lethality suicide attempters to common decision biases, which may ultimately obscure alternative solutions and deterrents to suicide in a crisis. Method We assessed older and middle-aged individuals who made high-lethality (medically serious; N=31) and low-lethality suicide attempts (N=29). Comparison groups included suicide ideators (N=30), non-suicidal depressed (N=53), and psychiatrically healthy participants (N=28). Attempters, ideators, and non-suicidal depressed participants had unipolar non-psychotic major depression. Decision biases included sunk cost (inability to abort an action for which costs are irrecoverable), framing (responding to superficial features of how a problem is presented), under/overconfidence (appropriateness of confidence in knowledge), and inconsistent risk perception. Data were collected between June of 2010 and February of 2014. Results Both high- and low-lethality attempters were more susceptible to framing effects, as compared to the other groups included in this study (p≤ 0.05, ηp2 =.06). In contrast, low-lethality attempters were more susceptible to sunk costs than both the comparison groups and high-lethality attempters (p≤ 0.01, ηp2 =.09). These group differences remained after accounting for age, global cognitive performance, and impulsive traits. Premorbid IQ partially explained group differences in framing effects. Conclusion Suicide attempters’ failure to resist framing may reflect their inability to consider a decision from an objective standpoint in a crisis. Low-lethality attempters’ failure to resist sunk-cost may reflect their tendency to confuse past and future costs of their behavior, lowering their threshold for acting on suicidal

  9. Factors Associated With Suicidal Attempts in Iran: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hakim Shooshtari, Mitra; Malakouti, Seyyed Kazem; Panaghi, Leili; Mohseni, Shohreh; Mansouri, Naghmeh; Rahimi Movaghar, Afarin

    2016-01-01

    Context: Suicide prevention is a health service priority. Some surveys have assessed suicidal behaviors and potential risk factors. Objectives: The current paper aimed to gather information about etiology of suicide attempts in Iran. Data Sources: Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc as well as gray literature were searched. Study Selection: By electronic and gray literature search, 128 articles were enrolled in this paper. Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc were searched for electronic search. After reading the abstracts, 84 studies were excluded and full texts of 44 articles were reviewed critically. Data Extraction: Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc as well as gray literature were searched to find any study about etiologic factors of suicide attempt in Iran. Results: Depressive disorder was the most common diagnosis in suicide attempters that is 45% of the evaluated cases had depression. One study that had used Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) found that Histrionics in females and Schizophrenia and Paranoia in males were significantly influential. Family conflicts with 50.7% and conflict with parents with 44% were two effective psychosocial factors in suicidal attempts. In around one fourth (28.7%) of the cases, conflict with spouse was the main etiologic factor. Conclusions: According to the methodological limitations, outcomes should be generalized cautiously. Further studies will help to plan preventive strategies for suicidal attempts; therefore, continued researches should be conducted to fill the data gaps. PMID:27284284

  10. Comment: Transgenerational Patterns of Suicide Attempt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Shirley L.

    1991-01-01

    Notes that subject of transgenerational patterns of suicide attempt calls for examination of variables extending beyond those examined in previous article (Sorenson and Rutter, 1991). Considers possible significance of such variables as respondent's income, employment status, and length of residence in the community. Contends that scales assessing…

  11. Impaired Decision Making in Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Cannon, Elizabeth A.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Reynolds, Brady; Campo, John V.; Pajer, Kathleen A.; Barbe, Remy P.; Brent, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Decision-making deficits have been linked to suicidal behavior in adults. However, it remains unclear whether impaired decision making plays a role in the etiopathogenesis of youth suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine decision-making processes in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison…

  12. Personality subtypes of adolescents who attempt suicide.

    PubMed

    Cross, Dorthie; Westen, Drew; Bradley, Bekh

    2011-10-01

    Research suggests that personality pathology is shared among a considerable portion of adolescents presenting suicidal behavior. Furthermore, heterogeneity of personality within this population suggests a need to tease apart different types of attempters. The goal of this study was to identify the personality subtypes of adolescents who attempt suicide. We analyzed data on 266 adolescents, ages 13 to 18 years, with a history of at least one suicide attempt who were selected by treating clinicians for having at least some degree of personality problems. We used a Q-factor analysis to identify subtypes based on the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-II for Adolescents (a 200-item measure of personality pathology used by clinically experienced observers). We derived six subtypes: Externalizing, Internalizing, Emotionally dysregulated, High functioning, Narcissistic, and Immature. The subtypes differed on measures of adaptive functioning, axis I and II pathology, and etiology. Adolescents who attempt suicide constitute a heterogeneous group, and they vary meaningfully on a measure of personality pathology. Interventions targeting suicidal behaviors in adolescents should consider individual differences.

  13. Autobiographical Memory and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettersen, Kenneth; Rydningen, Nora Nord; Christensen, Tore Buer; Walby, Fredrik A.

    2010-01-01

    According to the cry of pain model of suicidal behavior, an over-general autobiographical memory function is often found in suicide attempters. The model has received empirical support in several studies, mainly of depressed patients. The present study investigated whether deficits in autobiographical memory may be associated with an increased…

  14. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the variables, with…

  15. First Attempts at Asteroid Shape Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Maurice

    2012-05-01

    Results are presented from initial attempts at asteroid shape-modeling. Three asteroids were chosen in this study: 1708 Polit, 2036 Sheragul and 3015 Candy. Observations used in this study were made by the author, at a variety of locations, most recently at the Preston Gott Observatory at Texas Tech University.

  16. Attempting to Balance Wiki-Feminism: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Walter

    2013-01-01

    There has been a long culture war over the validity of "Wikipedia" for research. Many university departments banned it as a primary source starting around 2007, but many others still allow it as a heuristic prompt. Certainly, one knows that students are still going to "Wikipedia" and dabbling in it. This reflects a recent gain in "Wikipedia"…

  17. Drug Addiction as Risk for Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Dragisic, Tatjana; Dickov, Aleksandra; Dickov, Veselin; Mijatovic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Suicide is closely linked to the substances use. Therefore it is very important to confirm the factors that affect the possibility of suicidal behavior. Methodology: The survey included 200 respondents; 100 heroin addicts on the substitution program that attempted suicide and 100 opiate addicts who have not attempted suicide. The evaluation included a questionnaire with socio-demographic, hereditary and addiction data, legal problems and then the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–MMPI-2. Results: The results showed a statistically significant difference compared to the personality structure, especially pronounced in hypersensitive structures, in relation to the duration of addictive experience and duration of heroin by intravenous route, as well as in relation to the presence of psychotic disorders, drug abuse and suicidal behavior in the family. Conclusion: As risk factors among opiate addicts are indentified interfered biological and psychological factors and the effects of the substances themselves. PMID:26236166

  18. First Attempts at Antihydrogen Trapping in ALPHA

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Humphries, A. J.; Jenkins, M. J.; Joergensen, L. V.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Bray, C. C.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; Wurtele, J. S.; Cesar, C. L.; Lambo, R.; Silveira, D. M.; Fujiwara, M. C.

    2008-08-08

    The ALPHA apparatus is designed to produce and trap antihydrogen atoms. The device comprises a multifunction Penning trap and a superconducting, neutral atom trap having a minimum-B configuration. The atom trap features an octupole magnet for transverse confinement and solenoidal mirror coils for longitudinal confinement. The magnetic trap employs a fast shutdown system to maximize the probability of detecting the annihilation of released antihydrogen. In this article we describe the first attempts to observe antihydrogen trapping.

  19. First Attempts at Antihydrogen Trapping in ALPHA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, G. B.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Bray, C. C.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Funakoshi, R.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jenkins, M. J.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kurchaninov, L.; Lambo, R.; Madsen, N.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Page, R. D.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; El Nasr, S. Seif; Silveira, D. M.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2008-08-01

    The ALPHA apparatus is designed to produce and trap antihydrogen atoms. The device comprises a multifunction Penning trap and a superconducting, neutral atom trap having a minimum-B configuration. The atom trap features an octupole magnet for transverse confinement and solenoidal mirror coils for longitudinal confinement. The magnetic trap employs a fast shutdown system to maximize the probability of detecting the annihilation of released antihydrogen. In this article we describe the first attempts to observe antihydrogen trapping.

  20. An Attempt to Sample Upper Atmospheric Bacteria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canales, D. R. J.; Edgar, B.; Lefer, B. L.; Dunbar, B.; Gamblin, R.; Ehteshami, A.; Nowling, M.; Ahmad, H.; Bias, C.; Pena, M.

    2015-12-01

    Attempts have been made over the last decade to find the density and diversity of living microorganisms in the stratosphere using both air planes and zero pressure balloons. Most of the published attempts to survey stratospheric microorganisms by the scientific community have involved heavy devices that could not be used on ultralight weight balloons, making this research expensive and thereby reducing the opportunities for sampling. In this project, we attempted to find how high a light weight balloon could collect microorganisms, and to bridge scientific study with hobbyist feasibility at lower cost. Our approach was to use hobbyist level items that lower the weight so that lighter weather balloons could be used. This approach will allow more sampling possibilities while also lowering cost of study. We have conducted two successful test flights. While there were no successful samples from the upper atmosphere, the fact that the system can capture surface organisms with the fact that sensors had viable data shows that anyone with interest can help find and study atmospheric microorganisms.

  1. Social Risk and Protective Factors for Suicide Attempts in Low Income African American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Sherry, Alissa; Bethea, Kafi; Wyckoff, Sarah; Compton, Michael T.; Grall, Marnette Bender; Scholl, Larry; Price, Ann Webb; Kellermann, Arthur; Thompson, Nancy; Parker, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine a broad array of potential social risk and protective factors for suicide attempt among 200 African American men and women receiving care at a large, public, urban hospital. Specifically, we examined the effect of the following potential risk factors for suicide attempt: life hassles, partner abuse,…

  2. Modifiable Risk Factors for Attempted Suicide in Australian Clinical and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gregory L.; Page, Andrew; Clover, Kerrie; Taylor, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Modifiable risk factors for suicide attempt require identification in clinical and community samples. The aim of this study was to determine if similar social and psychiatric factors are associated with suicide attempts in community and clinical settings and whether the magnitude of effect is greater in clinical populations. Two case-control…

  3. Spirituality and attempted suicide among American Indians.

    PubMed

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Goldberg, Jack; Beals, Janette; Herrell, Richard; Manson, Spero M

    2003-04-01

    American Indians exhibit suicide-related behaviors at rates much higher than the general population. This study examines the relation of spirituality to the lifetime prevalence of attempted suicide in a probability sample of American Indians. Data were derived from a cross-sectional sample of 1456 American Indian tribal members (age range 15-57yr) who were living on or near their Northern Plains reservations between 1997 and 1999. Data were collected by personal interviews. Commitment to Christianity was assessed using a measure of beliefs. Commitment to tribal cultural spirituality (or forms of spirituality deriving from traditions that predate European contact) was assessed using separate measures for beliefs and spiritual orientations. Results indicated that neither commitment to Christianity nor to cultural spirituality, as measured by beliefs, was significantly associated with suicide attempts (p(trend) for Christianity=0.22 and p(trend) for cultural spirituality=0.85). Conversely, commitment to cultural spirituality, as measured by an index of spiritual orientations, was significantly associated with a reduction in attempted suicide (p(trend)=0.01). Those with a high level of cultural spiritual orientation had a reduced prevalence of suicide compared with those with low level of cultural spiritual orientation. (OR=0.5, 95% CI=0.3, 0.9). This result persisted after simultaneous adjustment for age, gender, education, heavy alcohol use, substance abuse and psychological distress. These results are consistent with anecdotal reports suggesting the effectiveness of American Indian suicide-prevention programs emphasizing orientations related to cultural spirituality.

  4. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Future Adolescent Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewinsohn, Peter M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined psychosocial risk factors for attempting suicide in 1,508 high school students, 26 of whom attempted suicide during year following entry into study. Strongest predictors of future suicide attempt were history of past attempt, current suicidal ideation and depression, recent attempt by friend, low self-esteem, and having been born to…

  5. Withdrawal of nonfutile life support after attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Brown, Samuel M; Elliott, C Gregory; Paine, Robert

    2013-01-01

    End-of-life decision making is fraught with ethical challenges. Withholding or withdrawing life support therapy is widely considered ethical in patients with high treatment burden, poor premorbid status, or significant projected disability even when such treatment is not "futile." Whether such withdrawal of therapy in the aftermath of attempted suicide is ethical is not well established in the literature. We provide a clinical vignette and propose criteria under which such withdrawal would be ethical. We suggest that it is appropriate to withdraw life support, regardless of the cause of the critical illness or disability, when the following criteria are met: (1) Surrogates request withdrawal of care and the adequacy of surrogates is confirmed, (2) an external reasonability standard is met, (3) passage of time, perhaps 72 hours, to allow certainty regarding the patient's wishes, and (4) psychiatric morbidity should be considered as grounds for withdrawal only in truly treatment-refractory cases. Fundamentally, we believe the question to ask is, "If this were not an attempted suicide, would a request to withdraw care be reasonable?" We believe that under these circumstances, such withdrawal of life support, even in an individual who has attempted suicide, does not constitute physician assistance with suicide and is distinct from physician aid-in-dying in several important respects.

  6. After Sample-Delivery Attempt, Sol 62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander collected a soil sample and attempted to deliver some of it to a laboratory oven on the deck during the mission's 62nd Martian day, or sol, (July 28, 2008). The sample came from a hard layer at the bottom of the 'Snow White' trench and might have contained water ice mixed with the soil. This image taken after the attempt to deliver the sample through the open doors to cell number zero on the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer shows that very little of the soil fell onto the screened opening.

    Not enough material reached the oven, through a funnel under the screen, to proceed with analysis of the sample material.

    Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera took this image at 7:54 a.m. local solar time on Sol 62. The size of the screened opening is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) long by 4 centimeters (1.5 inches) wide.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Suicides and Medically Serious Attempters Are of the Same Population in Chinese Rural Young Adults1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Sun, Long; Conwell, Yeates; Qin, Ping; Jia, Cun-Xian; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Tu, Xin-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide rates in China are among the highest in the world, although there has been a decreasing trend in the past few years. One practical approach to study the characteristics and risk factors of suicide is to interview the suicide attempters. Aims It was to compare completed suicides with serious attempters that may shed lights on suicide prevention strategies. Method This is a combination of two case control studies for suicide completers and suicide attempters respectively. After a sample of suicides (n=392) and community living controls (n=416) were obtained and studied in rural China, we collected in the same rural areas data of suicide attempt and studied 507 medically serious attempters and 503 community counterparts. Results Characteristics and previously observed risk factors were compared between the suicides and the attempters, and we found that the demographic characteristics and risk factors for the suicides were also for the medically serious attempters but at some lesser degrees for the attempters than for the suicides. It was especially true of suicide intent, deficient coping, negative life events, and impulsivity. While most of the demographic characteristics were not significantly different between the suicides and the attempters, most of the clinical variables could distinguish the two groups. Conclusions The suicide victims and the serious attempters could be of the same group of people who were at the edge of fatal self-injury, and the same clinical risk factors but of different degrees have divided them into the life and death groups. PMID:25723561

  8. Flavonoid Bioavailability and Attempts for Bioavailability Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Thilakarathna, Surangi H.; Rupasinghe, H. P. Vasantha

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of phytochemicals that have shown numerous health effects and have therefore been studied extensively. Of the six common food flavonoid classes, flavonols are distributed ubiquitously among different plant foods whereas appreciable amounts of isoflavones are found in leguminous plant-based foods. Flavonoids have shown promising health promoting effects in human cell culture, experimental animal and human clinical studies. They have shown antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory effects as well as ability to modulate cell signaling and gene expression related disease development. Low bioavailability of flavonoids has been a concern as it can limit or even hinder their health effects. Therefore, attempts to improve their bioavailability in order to improve the efficacy of flavonoids are being studied. Further investigations on bioavailability are warranted as it is a determining factor for flavonoid biological activity. PMID:23989753

  9. Aspirations of Latina adolescent suicide attempters

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    Parents’ aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents’ aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes in youths’ behavior can be deleterious, such as when adolescents manifest suicidal behaviors. We examined aspirations expressed by 12 Latina adolescent suicide attempters and their parents and compared them to 12 non-suicidal Latinas and parents. Qualitative analyses revealed that incongruence of aspirations between girls and their parents were greater among suicidal teens. Suicidal and non-suicidal Latinas presented contrasting aspirations: the former on gaining independence and the latter on completing their education and pursuing careers. Findings may inform developmental research and ways in which clinicians and policymakers can help Latinas achieve their own and their parents’ aspirations. PMID:24013464

  10. Epidemiological aspects of suicide attempts among Moroccan children

    PubMed Central

    Mekaoui, Nour; Karboubi, Lamiae; Ouadghiri, Fatima Zahra; Dakhama, Badr Sououd Benjelloun

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior among children has significantly increased in Morocco. We conducted a study on the epidemiological aspect to propose a treatment strategy. Descriptive retrospective study over a period of 3 years (April 2012-April 2015) involving children who visited pediatric medical emergencies of the Children Hospital of Rabat after an autolysis attempt. We observed epidemiological parameters, history, social and family context, the means used, the presumed cause, clinical manifestation, and the management. 66 patients were identified. A female predominance was found (sex =15). The average age was 13 years old. This was a first episode in 97% of cases. Psychiatric history was found in 6 patients. The causes of suicide attempt were unidentified in 65%. The most frequent cause was family conflict (35%). The most frequent method was pharmaceutical drug ingestion (54.4%). Children were asymptomatic (57.6%). Neurological manifestations (30%) were most frequent. Digestive symptoms (12%) and hemodynamic (3%) were also discovered. Patients were hospitalized in a general pediatric service 92.4% of the times, admitted to intensive care 4.5% of the times, and two patients refused to be hospitalized. The treatment consisted of gastric lavage (18%) supplemented by symptomatic measures. The outcome was favorable in 95.4% of cases. We recorded 2 deaths by rat poison poisoning. All patients were advised in writing after leaving to follow up with a psychological treatment. Suicide attempts are the result of an ill being, mostly among children living in a family with conflict. Upstream treatment is essential to identify children at risk. Additionally, a psychiatric care in hospital is essential to avoid recurrences. PMID:27642451

  11. Epidemiological aspects of suicide attempts among Moroccan children.

    PubMed

    Mekaoui, Nour; Karboubi, Lamiae; Ouadghiri, Fatima Zahra; Dakhama, Badr Sououd Benjelloun

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior among children has significantly increased in Morocco. We conducted a study on the epidemiological aspect to propose a treatment strategy. Descriptive retrospective study over a period of 3 years (April 2012-April 2015) involving children who visited pediatric medical emergencies of the Children Hospital of Rabat after an autolysis attempt. We observed epidemiological parameters, history, social and family context, the means used, the presumed cause, clinical manifestation, and the management. 66 patients were identified. A female predominance was found (sex =15). The average age was 13 years old. This was a first episode in 97% of cases. Psychiatric history was found in 6 patients. The causes of suicide attempt were unidentified in 65%. The most frequent cause was family conflict (35%). The most frequent method was pharmaceutical drug ingestion (54.4%). Children were asymptomatic (57.6%). Neurological manifestations (30%) were most frequent. Digestive symptoms (12%) and hemodynamic (3%) were also discovered. Patients were hospitalized in a general pediatric service 92.4% of the times, admitted to intensive care 4.5% of the times, and two patients refused to be hospitalized. The treatment consisted of gastric lavage (18%) supplemented by symptomatic measures. The outcome was favorable in 95.4% of cases. We recorded 2 deaths by rat poison poisoning. All patients were advised in writing after leaving to follow up with a psychological treatment. Suicide attempts are the result of an ill being, mostly among children living in a family with conflict. Upstream treatment is essential to identify children at risk. Additionally, a psychiatric care in hospital is essential to avoid recurrences. PMID:27642451

  12. Severe Mental Illness, Somatic Delusions, and Attempted Mass Murder.

    PubMed

    Sarteschi, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    A case of an attempted mass shooting at a large psychiatric hospital in the United States by a 30-year-old male with severe mental illness, somatic delusions, and exceptional access to healthcare professionals is reported. Six persons were shot, one died at the scene, and the shooter was then killed by the police. Data were gathered from court documents and media accounts. An analysis of the shooter's psychiatric history, his interactions with healthcare professionals, and communications prior to the shooting suggest a rare form of mass murder, a random attack by a documented psychotic and delusional individual suffering with somatic delusions. Despite his being psychotic, the killer planned the attack and made a direct threat 1 month prior to the shootings. This case highlights problems with the healthcare system, indicating that it might be ill equipped to appropriately deal with severe mental illness. PMID:26224045

  13. Adolescent Suicide Attempters: What Predicts Future Suicidal Acts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind; Haldorsen, Tor

    2006-01-01

    Predictors for repetition of suicide attempts were evaluated among 92 adolescent suicide attempters 9 years after an index suicide attempt (90% females). Five were dead, two by suicide. Thirty-one (42%) of 73 had repeated a suicide attempt. In multiple Cox regression analysis, four factors had an independent predictive effect: comorbid disorders,…

  14. History of attempts to quantify environmental mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hollaender, A.

    1981-01-01

    It became obvious in the early 1960's that the ready recognition of mutations produced by chemicals could have a profound influence on the refinement of methods to detect environmental mutagens. The experience derived over the previous 30 years in characterizing the effects of ionizing and ultraviolet radiation on the genetic mechanism came to serve us in good stead. Although the effects of chemicals are considerably more complicated and often require the analysis of individual substances, nonetheless, the area has developed rapidly in recent decades. The establishment and historical background of the International Association of Environmental Mutagen Societies (IAEMS) will be discussed. An attempt at the quantitation of chemical effects has been developed in comparison with radiation mutagenesis. As a first step, a definition of the Mutagen Burden or unavoidable exposure to chemicals will be discussed. A mathematical approach (Haynes/Eckhardt) will be considered and finally an outline for the comprehensive investigation of detailed interscience study will be made of less than six chemicals.

  15. Psychiatric Genocide: Nazi Attempts to Eradicate Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Torrey, E. Fuller; Yolken, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Although the Nazi genocide of Jews during World War II is well known, the concurrent Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients is much less widely known. An attempt was made to estimate the number of individuals with schizophrenia who were sterilized and murdered by the Nazis and to assess the effect on the subsequent prevalence and incidence of this disease. It is estimated that between 220 000 and 269 500 individuals with schizophrenia were sterilized or killed. This total represents between 73% and 100% of all individuals with schizophrenia living in Germany between 1939 and 1945. Postwar studies of the prevalence of schizophrenia in Germany reported low rates, as expected. However, postwar rates of the incidence of schizophrenia in Germany were unexpectedly high. The Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients was the greatest criminal act in the history of psychiatry. It was also based on what are now known to be erroneous genetic theories and had no apparent long-term effect on the subsequent incidence of schizophrenia. PMID:19759092

  16. Sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters among the rural agrarian community of central India

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Kshirod Kumar; Gupta, Neha; Bhabulkar, Sneha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suicides, attempted suicides and different form of suicidal behaviors are on the rise in most part of the world. It is generally assumed that official suicidal rate are underestimated from the true rate by 20-100 % due to prevailing socio-cultural issues, religious attitude, stigma attached, and legal process involved. Attempted suicides occur 8-20 times more frequently than complete suicide. Statistics on attempted suicide or deliberate self harm are not usually available officially. Materials and Methods: All the cases of attempted suicide who were admitted and referred for psychiatric evaluation and management to a rural medical college of central India during a period of one Year (April 13-March-14), following initial recovery they were evaluated on a semi-structured performa on socio demographic profile, mode of attempt and reason for attempt. Data collected was analyzed using suitable statistical methods. Results: Total 68 cases were evaluated during the study period. 43% of the cases were involved in farming. Among 85% of the study population pesticide consumption was the common mode of attempt, which is easily available among the agrarian community of rural India. Interpersonal conflict in the family due to indebtedness, financial loss due to crop failure was the commonest reason for attempt. Conclusion: Though there is reduced reporting in the incidents of suicide cases in media from this region, still quite a number of people attempt suicide due to financial constraint from crop failure, ongoing indebtedness, and poor socioeconomic condition culminating into poor mental health among the rural agrarian community of central Maharashtra. PMID:27212825

  17. Pediatric Emergency Department Suicidal Patients: Two-Site Evaluation of Suicide Ideators, Single Attempters, and Repeat Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Baraff, Larry J.; Berk, Michele; Grob, Charles; Devich-Navarro, Mona; Suddath, Robert; Piacentini, John; Tang, Lingqi

    2008-01-01

    The study examines ideators, single attempters, and repeats attempters of suicide to clarify optimal strategies for emergency department management and risk assessment to help them in reducing youth suicide and suicide attempts. Depression was found to be a strong predictor of suicide/suicide attempts along with substance use, externalizing…

  18. Attempts to develop radioactive anticancer drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.S.; Brown, I.; Chir, B.; Carpenter, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1953, attempts have been made to develop radioactive drugs. Preparations of tritiated menadiol sodium diphosphate (T-MNDP) of high specific activity showed a definite, though limited, but sometimes useful effect in the treatment of certain patients with advanced tumors, especially adenocarcinoma of the colon and of the pancreas and malignant melanoma of the skin. The next step was to use a much more effective isotope. 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinol bis (diammonium phosphate) - abbreviated 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-MNDP - has been synthesized, and in laboratory studies appears more promising. /sup 125/I provides radiations which behave predominately like high LET radiation, despite the accompanying X and gamma radiations. The astatine analogue, 6-/sup 211/At-astato-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinol bis (disodium phosphate) has also been synthesized. Confirming and greatly extending the earlier findings with T-MNDP, in vitro experiments showed that 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-MNDP is concentrated selectively in the cells of some human malignant tumors by a factor of about 15 to 20 or more in relation to the cells of normal origin that were studied. Macrodosimetric considerations and comparison with clinical treatments with T-MNDP suggest practical dosage. A typical treatment for a patient of body weight 70 kg with localized inoperable carcinoma of the colon could be 8 intravenous injections each of approximately 120mCi of 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-MNDP to a toal of 0.97 Ci in 25 days. Risks of late carcinogenesis and leukemogenesis are calculated to be less than 1%. Clinical indications are discussed briefly. Animal experiments are in progress and further preclinical studies are required.

  19. PEG closure in the second attempt

    PubMed Central

    Schiffmann, Leif; Roth, Marin; Kuehn, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: This case report demonstrates successful endoscopic treatment of a persistent gastrocutaneous fistula after removal of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in a 21-year-old patient with mucoviscidosis after lung transplantation. Because the initial OTSC clip (gastric) did not close the fistula sufficiently, we had to remove it and replace it with a larger OTSC clip (colon) in a second intervention. That clip finally sufficiently closed the fistula. PMID:27556092

  20. Predictors of Suicide Attempts in Clinically Depressed Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ahye; Song, Jungeun; Yook, Ki-Hwan; Jon, Duk-In; Jung, Myung Hun; Hong, Narei; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2016-01-01

    We examined predictors of suicide attempts in clinically depressed adolescents in Korea and gender differences in suicidal behavior. In total, 106 adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorder were recruited in South Korea. We assessed various variables that might affect suicide attempts, and used a structured interview for the diagnosis of depression and comorbidities and to evaluate suicidality. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were compared between suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt groups and we examined significant predictors of suicide attempts. Gender differences in suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were also analyzed. Among 106 depressed participants, 50 (47.2%) adolescents were classified in the suicide attempt group. Generally, the suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt group shared similar clinical characteristics. The suicide attempt group had more females, more major depressive disorder diagnoses, more depressive episodes, and higher suicidal ideation than the non-suicide attempt group. Suicidal ideation was the only significant predictor of suicidal attempt, regardless of gender. Higher suicidal ideation frequency scores and more non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors were shown in the female suicide attempt group than the male suicide attempt group. It is recommended that suicidal ideation be assessed regularly and managed rigorously to decrease suicide risks in depressive adolescents. PMID:27776392

  1. Evaluation of attempted suicide in emergency departments in Sanliurfa province, southeastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Canan; Er, Gülistan; Munir, Kerim M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim Attempted suicide is one of the most important public health problems among preventable causes of mortality in the general population. Identifying risk factors for the prevention of suicide is a major public health goal. The aim of this study was to determine the annual rate of attempted suicide, related risk factors, and interventions, among referrals to emergency departments in the Sanliurfa province of southeastern Turkey. Subjects and methods Data were obtained from all emergency departments in the province based on the ‘Suicide Attempt Registry’ standardized records for the calendar year 2010. Sociodemographic characteristics, aetiology, psychiatric history, psychiatric consultations, and interventions were examined. The groups were analysed with the chi-square test; the significance level was set at p<0.05. Results The annual rate of suicide attempts was 55.39 in 100,000 for the calendar year 2010. The rate was 3.47 times higher among women than men, and in particular 4.15 times higher for the 15–24 year age group among women than in men with the highest incidence of suicide attempts. The majority of cases were referred in April and May. Medication or toxic agent ingestions comprised 90.3 % of cases. The main reason for attempts was family problems or domestic violence among women, and economic hardships among men, and rates of physical and mental problems were similar for both sexes. Only 8.8 % of cases were subsequently referred for psychiatric consultation. Among cases with a prior suicide attempt history, 44.6 % had a reported psychiatric disorder. Conclusion The results of this investigation show that strengthening of surveillance and emergency healthcare systems, enhancement of mental health literacy, and inter-sector collaboration for development of community empowerment programmes are of vital importance for prevention of attempted suicide. The low rate of psychiatric referrals for subsequent intervention represented a major gap in urgent

  2. [Fictitious ambush following an attempted "extended" suicide].

    PubMed

    Braun, Christian; Püschel, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    An unusual case of a 31-year-old-woman who was found near a forest road with self-inflicted injuries and burns is reported. The woman claimed to have been attacked by a man with a knife who then tried to burn her in her car. While she managed to escape, her cat died in the car. The examination of the wounds showed multiple superficial cuts in body regions easily accessible to her own hand. Gas chromatography of skin samples from the cat proved that it had been in in contact with a fire accelerant. On the basis of the examination findings, differential diagnostic aspects with regard to the motivation of the woman for simulating an offence are discussed. In all probability, the woman intended to commit suicide together with the cat through self-immolation, but did not complete the plan.

  3. Patterns of Comorbidity of Suicide Attempters: An Update.

    PubMed

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Rodrigo-Yanguas, Maria; Giner, Lucas; Lobato-Rodriguez, Maria Jose; de Leon, Jose

    2016-10-01

    Between 10 and 20 million people attempt suicide every year worldwide, and suicide attempts represent a major economic burden. Suicide attempters suffer from high rates of comorbidity, and comorbidity is the rule in suicide re-attempters. Comorbidity complicates treatment and prognosis and causes a more protracted course. In the present narrative review, we included these patterns of comorbidity: intra-Axis I disorders, intra-Axis II disorders, Axis I with Axis II disorders, and psychiatric with physical illnesses. We also briefly reviewed the patterns of comorbidity in suicide re-attempters. We concluded that comorbidity at different levels appears to be the rule in suicide attempters, particularly in those who re-attempt. However, several issues deserve further research regarding the patterns of comorbidity in suicide attempters. PMID:27595859

  4. Risk Factors for Suicidal Attempts Among Lower Socioeconomic Rural Population of Telangana Region

    PubMed Central

    Kosaraju, Sandeep Krishna Murthy; Vadlamani, Lakshmi Naresh; Mohammed Bashir, Mohammed Shakeel; Kalasapati, Lokesh Kumar; Rao, G. L. V. Chalapathi; Rao, G. Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suicide is an act of intentionally causing one's own death. Number of suicidal incidences is proportional to attempted suicide cases hence if attempt cases are reduced, number of suicidal death can also be decreased and for that purpose risk factors should be identified and reduced. Therefore, this study is planned to identify risk factors among lower socioeconomic rural population of surrounding areas of Hyderabad in India. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study in which all the suicide attempt cases reported at Bhaskar Medical College and General Hospital were included. The study period was from January 2013 to July 2013. They were undergone a detailed psychiatric interview, including their demographic details, and complete suicide risk assessment was done using Beck's suicide intent scale. Results: It was found that females in the age group of 20-30 years, uneducated, married and daily laborers by occupation had higher incidence of suicidal attempts. Depressive disorder is the most common associated psychiatric disorder in both the genders, followed by alcohol use related problems. Family disputes are the other major risk factors. Most common mode for attempt was organophosphorous poisoning followed by ingestion of calotropis. Conclusion: Risk of suicide attempt is almost equal in terms of medium and high category of suicide assessment scale in both genders. We suggest that all individuals with alcohol related disorders must be screened for suicidal ideation so that appropriate methods can be adopted to reduce the risk. PMID:25722509

  5. Repeat suicide attempts in Hong Kong community adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wong, Joy P S; Stewart, Sunita M; Claassen, Cindy; Lee, Peter W H; Rao, Uma; Lam, T H

    2008-01-01

    It has been well documented that a history of suicide attempts confers risk for subsequent attempts; however, efforts to explain how variables may change after a previous attempt and in turn relate to future suicide attempts are rare in the literature. This study presents longitudinal data on adolescent suicide attempts in Hong Kong, and examines whether the data support the "crescendo" model to explain repeat suicide attempts. One thousand and ninety-nine community adolescents aged 12-18 years were evaluated at two assessment points 12 months apart (T1 and T2). The study assessed (1) risk factors at T1 for a suicide attempt between T1 and T2, (2) whether a suicide attempt during the 12 months prior to T1 predicted an attempt between the two assessment points, and (3) whether the indicators of distress worsened from T1 to T2 if an attempt had taken place in the interim. The results indicated that: (1) depressive symptoms, substance use, and suicidal ideation measured at T1 were independent predictors of a suicide attempt between T1 and T2; (2) suicide attempt in the year prior to T1 predicted suicide attempt between T1 and T2 after controlling for other predictors; and (3) suicide attempt between T1 and T2 was a predictive factor for a negative change from T1 to T2 in substance use, suicidal ideation, family relationships, depression, anxiety, and life stress. These findings are consistent with the "crescendo" model proposing that the risk of repeat attempts is enhanced following a previous suicide attempt.

  6. Amnioinfusion among women attempting vaginal birth after cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Strong, T H; Vega, J S; O'Shaughnessy, M J; Feldman, D B; Koemptgen, J G

    1992-05-01

    Eighteen of 901 women (2%) attempting vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC) received amnioinfusion. No untoward effects occurred in the subjects or their fetuses. We conclude that, though amnioinfusion in the setting of a VBAC attempt is needed only infrequently, it appears to be a reasonable intrapartum management option. The usual safeguards for a VBAC attempt should be followed.

  7. CSF 5-HIAA Predicts Suicide Risk after Attempted Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstrom, Peter; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Studied suicide risk after attempted suicide, as predicted by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolite concentrations, in 92 psychiatric mood disorder inpatients admitted shortly after attempting suicide. Results revealed that low CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) predicted short-range suicide risk after attempted suicide in mood…

  8. Suicide Attempts among Depressed Adolescents in Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fordwood, Samantha R.; Asarnow, Joan R.; Huizar, Diana P.; Reise, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    Although depression is strongly associated with suicide attempts and suicide deaths, most depressed youth do not make an attempt, indicating the need to identify additional risk factors. We examined suicide attempts among 451 depressed primary care patients, 13 to 21 years of age. In bivariate analyses, youth classified as suicide attempters…

  9. 31 CFR 537.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 537... § 537.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction by a U.S. person or within the United... attempts to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited. (b) Any conspiracy...

  10. 31 CFR 598.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 598... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 598.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Except to the extent provided in... the effect of evading or avoiding, and any endeavor, attempt, or conspiracy to violate any of...

  11. 31 CFR 598.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 598... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 598.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Except to the extent provided in... the effect of evading or avoiding, and any endeavor, attempt, or conspiracy to violate any of...

  12. 31 CFR 598.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 598... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 598.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Except to the extent provided in... the effect of evading or avoiding, and any endeavor, attempt, or conspiracy to violate any of...

  13. 31 CFR 598.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 598... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 598.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Except to the extent provided in... the effect of evading or avoiding, and any endeavor, attempt, or conspiracy to violate any of...

  14. 31 CFR 537.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 537... § 537.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction by a U.S. person or within the United... attempts to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited. (b) Any conspiracy...

  15. 31 CFR 537.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 537... § 537.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction by a U.S. person or within the United... attempts to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited. (b) Any conspiracy...

  16. 31 CFR 598.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 598... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 598.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Except to the extent provided in... the effect of evading or avoiding, and any endeavor, attempt, or conspiracy to violate any of...

  17. Attempting to Unravel the Australian Megatsunami Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    some purported Australian megatsunami deposits. There are simpler and arguably more realistic explanations for the evidence. These results start to cast doubt upon the original interpretations for SE Australian megatsunamis. If this is the case and these deposits are not related to megastsunamis, what caused them?

  18. [Non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts: grounding of differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Nitkowski, D; Petermann, F

    2010-01-01

    Three criteria for differential diagnosis of non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts were validated by means of more recent empirical studies. Criteria concerning motives (functions), methods of self-injury (medical severity), lifetime frequency and lifetime number of episodes were investigated. Literature research showed only a few studies concentrated on a direct comparison of non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts. Therefore, studies examing the relationship of suicide intent to the relevant features, are considered, too. Empirical results concerning motives (functions), methods (medical severity), lifetime frequency and number of episodes were compared to the three criteria. Except for lifetime frequency, studies support the criteria. However, in the case of motives, a more differentiated examination is needed to distinguish between non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts. To optimize the assessment, guidelines should be slightly modified. Because of the phenomenological overlap of non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts, a dimensional assessment can be helpful.

  19. [Patients in intensive care after a suicide attempt with legal drugs - risk profile and course].

    PubMed

    Maier, R; Stieglitz, R-D; Marsch, S C; Riecher-Rössler, A

    2011-05-01

    Little is known about the risk profile and the further history of patients who attempted suicide by severe medicinal intoxication.All patients residing in Basel (n = 190) admitted to the intensive care unit between 01/01/1998 and 12/31/2001 because of a suicide attempt with legal drugs were investigated regarding psychopathology and sociodemographic features. Also, until the end of 2005, further suicide attempts as well as potential cases of death were followed up.All 190 patients had psychiatric disorders. Compared to the general population, female sex, single status, low educational level, unemployment and invalidity were found significantly more often. Until the end of 2005 almost half of 118 patients followed up in our outpatient department committed further suicide attempts. 28 patients died, 6 of these by suicide.These patients should preferably not be prescribed medication with a low therapeutic range and they should receive intensive follow-up care.

  20. Intact alternation performance in high lethality suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Keilp, John G; Wyatt, Gwinne; Gorlyn, Marianne; Oquendo, Maria A; Burke, Ainsley K; John Mann, J

    2014-09-30

    Suicide attempters often perform poorly on tasks linked to ventral prefrontal cortical (VPFC) function. Object Alternation (OA) - a VPFC probe - has not been used in these studies. In this study, currently depressed medication-free past suicide attempters whose most severe attempt was of high (n=31) vs. low (n=64) lethality, 114 medication-free depressed non-attempters, and 86 non-patients completed a computerized OA task. Participants also completed comparison tasks assessing the discriminant validity of OA (Wisconsin Card Sort), its concurrent validity relative to tasks associated with past attempt status (computerized Stroop task, Buschke Selective Reminding Test), and its construct validity as a VPFC measure (Go-No Go and Iowa Gambling Task). Against expectations, high lethality suicide attempters - the majority of whom used non-violent methods in their attempts with some planning - outperformed other depressed groups on OA, with no group differences observed on Wisconsin Card Sort. Despite intact performance on OA, past attempters exhibited deficits on the Stroop and Buschke. OA performance was associated with performance on Go-No Go and Iowa Gambling, confirming that OA measures a similar construct. VPFC dysfunction may not be a characteristic of all suicide attempters, especially those who make more carefully planned, non-violent - though potentially lethal - attempts. PMID:24878299

  1. Suicide attempts and ideation: adolescents evaluated on a pediatric ward.

    PubMed

    Paluszny, M; Davenport, C; Kim, W J

    1991-01-01

    This study compared psychological, familial, and demographic data for 42 suicidal, 16 suicide ideation, and 42 control pediatric patients. Chaotic families and behavior problems, as well as depression, constriction, and lack of insight, differentiated the suicide attempt group from the control group. The suicide ideation group was similar to both the control and suicide attempt groups and seen as "intermediate" between these two. In assessing lethality of the attempt, constriction was the only predictor differentiating the serious from less serious suicide attempt. PMID:2048475

  2. Attempted entrainment of circus movement tachycardias by ventricular stimulation.

    PubMed

    Saoudi, N C; Castellanos, A; Zaman, L; Portillo, B; Schwartz, A; Myerburg, R J

    1986-01-01

    Entrainment was attempted while pacing the right ventricle in 12 patients with circus movement tachycardias. At the onset of stimulation eight patients had short episodes of intraventricular and atrioventricular dissociation during which the paced impulses activated the various ventricular recording sites (right and left), but did not reach the atria. The latter occurred because the ventricular electrograms were recorded from parts of the ventricles which were not essential components of the reentry circuit. Relatively long (greater than 5 s) runs of entrainment were not possible in any case because of the relatively prompt termination of the tachycardias. Whereas in three patients this was due to the abrupt appearance of retrograde block in the accessory pathway, in nine patients it happened when the sequential, anterograde and retrograde, penetration of the AV node resulted in AV nodal block of the subsequent, reentering atrial impulse. The findings in this study showed that, with the methodology used, entrainment of circus movement tachycardias by ventricular stimulation had to be defined conceptually, by the fulfillment of requirements which did not include its occurrence for at least 5 seconds. Furthermore, the results also suggested that entrainment and tachycardia termination were best demonstrated by a technique which allowed the emission of the first stimulus in a constant (late) moment of the cycle, with deliverance of one additional stimulus at the same cycle length in successive pacing runs.

  3. Familial Pathways to Early-Onset Suicide Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Brent, David A.; Melhem, Nadine M.; Oquendo, Maria; Burke, Ainsley; Birmaher, Boris; Stanley, Barbara; Biernesser, Candice; Keilp, John; Kolko, David; Ellis, Steve; Porta, Giovanna; Zelazny, Jamie; Iyengar, Satish; Mann, J. John

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Suicide attempts are strong predictors of suicide, a leading cause of adolescent mortality. Suicide attempts are highly familial, although the mechanisms of familial transmission are not understood. Better delineation of these mechanisms could help frame potential targets for prevention. OBJECTIVE To examine the mechanisms and pathways by which suicidal behavior is transmitted from parent to child. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this prospective study conducted from July 15, 1997, through June 21, 2012, a total of 701 offspring aged 10 to 50 years (mean age, 17.7 years) of 334 clinically referred probands with mood disorders, 191 (57.2%) of whom had also made a suicide attempt, were followed up for a mean of 5.6 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was a suicide attempt. Variables were examined at baseline, intermediate time points, and the time point proximal to the attempt. Participants were assessed by structured psychiatric assessments and self-report and by interview measures of domains hypothesized to be related to familial transmission (eg, mood disorder and impulsive aggression). RESULTS Among the 701 offspring, 44 (6.3%) had made a suicide attempt before participating in the study, and 29 (4.1%) made an attempt during study follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that proband suicide attempt was a predictor of offspring suicide attempt (odds ratio [OR], 4.79; 95% CI, 1.75–13.07), even controlling for other salient offspring variables: baseline history of mood disorder (OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.37–12.86), baseline history of suicide attempt (OR, 5.69; 95% CI, 1.94–16.74), and mood disorder at the time point before the attempt (OR, 11.32; 95% CI, 2.29–56.00). Path analyses were consistent with these findings, revealing a direct effect of proband attempt on offspring suicide attempt, a strong effect of offspring mood disorder at each time point, and impulsive aggression as a precursor of mood disorder

  4. Characteristics and outcomes of self inflicted pediatric injuries: the role of method of suicide attempt.

    PubMed Central

    Li, G.; Ling, J.; DiScala, C.; Nordenholz, K.; Sterling, S.; Baker, S. P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical outcomes of self inflicted pediatric injuries in relation to the method of suicide attempt. METHODS: Using data from the National Pediatric Trauma Registry Phase II, a comparative analysis was conducted for children under 15 years of age who were admitted from 1 October 1988 through 30 April 1996 because of self inflicted injury by firearm (n = 28), hanging (n = 38), or jumping from heights (n = 21). RESULTS: Of the 87 cases under study, 90% occurred at home, and 86% occurred between noon and midnight, with a peak in early evening (between 6 pm and 7 pm)-More than one quarter (29%) had preexisting mental disorders, such as disturbance of conduct and depression. Toxicological tests were conducted on admission on 40 (46%) of the patients; 20% tested positive for alcohol or other illicit drugs. The method of suicide attempt was associated with gender and age of the patients: 75% of the firearm cases and 82% of the hanging cases were boys compared with 29% of the jumping cases (p < 0.01); 79% of the hanging cases were aged 13 years or younger compared with 39% of the firearm cases and 48% of the jumping cases (p < 0.01). The mean injury severity score was 18.6 for the firearm cases and 16.3 for the hanging cases, significantly greater than 8.5 for the jumping cases (p < 0.02). Reflecting the differences in injury severity, firearm cases and hanging cases were more likely than jumping cases to be sent to intensive care units or operating rooms from emergency departments, and to develop complications during hospitalization. The case fatality rate was 50% for the firearm cases, 32% for the hanging cases, and 5% for the jumping cases (p < 0.01). On average, these patients stayed in hospitals for 11 days and 52% of those who were alive at discharge had at least one impairment in communication, cognition, or self care functions. CONCLUSION: Boys and older children tend to use more lethal methods in suicide

  5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Suicide Attempt History among Veterans Receiving Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Lisa A.; Betthauser, Lisa M.; Homaifar, Beeta Y.; Villarreal, Edgar; Harwood, Jeri E. F.; Staves, Pamela J.; Huggins, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    History of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been found to increase risk of suicidal behavior. The association between suicide attempt history among veterans with PTSD and/or TBI was explored. Cases (N = 81) and 2:1 matched controls (N = 160) were randomly selected from a Veterans Affairs Medical Center…

  6. Contradiction and Paradox: Attempting to Change the Culture of Sexual Orientation at a Small Catholic College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Patrick G.

    1997-01-01

    A case study explored attempts to change the culture related to sexual orientation at a small, Catholic college. Focus was on the perceptions and experiences of gay, lesbian, and bisexual students, staff, faculty, and their allies. These participants experienced a culture filled with contradictions and paradoxes. The report delineates and…

  7. Psychological Distress Increases Perceived Stigma Toward Attempted Suicide Among Those With a History of Past Attempted Suicide.

    PubMed

    Scocco, Paolo; Toffol, Elena; Preti, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    People who suffer from mental illness have high self-stigmatizing attitudes. This study aims to test the effect of psychopathological distress on stigma toward attempted suicide in a population of suicide attempters. Data were collected through an interview and 2 questionnaires (90-item Symptom Checklist; Stigma of Suicide Attempt scale) administered to 67 patients hospitalized after an attempted suicide. Participants with a history of past attempted suicide had higher scores on the Stigma of Suicide Attempt scale (t58.9 = -2.51, p = 0.014). Higher levels of psychological distress were related to greater perceived stigma only in individuals with a history of past attempted suicide (standardized coefficient = 0.37; t = 2.36; p = 0.024; R2 = 14%; adjusted R2 = 11.5%). A previous experience of attempted suicide is related to greater self-stigmatizing attitudes toward suicidal behavior. Among those who have previously attempted suicide in particular, psychopathological distress may significantly contribute to increase the perception of stigma.

  8. Atmospheric pressure and suicide attempts in Helsinki, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Laura; Ruuhela, Reija; Ostamo, Aini; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suominen, Kirsi; Partonen, Timo

    2012-11-01

    The influence of weather on mood and mental health is commonly debated. Furthermore, studies concerning weather and suicidal behavior have given inconsistent results. Our aim was to see if daily weather changes associate with the number of suicide attempts in Finland. All suicide attempts treated in the hospitals in Helsinki, Finland, during two separate periods, 8 years apart, were included. Altogether, 3,945 suicide attempts were compared with daily weather parameters and analyzed with a Poisson regression. We found that daily atmospheric pressure correlated statistically significantly with the number of suicide attempts, and for men the correlation was negative. Taking into account the seasonal normal value during the period 1971-2000, daily temperature, global solar radiation and precipitation did not associate with the number of suicide attempts on a statistically significant level in our study. We concluded that daily atmospheric pressure may have an impact on suicidal behavior, especially on suicide attempts of men by violent methods ( P < 0.001), and may explain the clustering of suicide attempts. Men seem to be more vulnerable to attempt suicide under low atmospheric pressure and women under high atmospheric pressure. We show only statistical correlations, which leaves the exact mechanisms of interaction between weather and suicidal behavior open. However, suicidal behavior should be assessed from the point of view of weather in addition to psychiatric and social aspects.

  9. 31 CFR 575.211 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 575... § 575.211 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the effect... this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a...

  10. 31 CFR 587.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 587... MONTENEGRO) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 587.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a... date, any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a transaction prohibited by this part...

  11. 31 CFR 585.214 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 585... Prohibitions § 585.214 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the... this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a...

  12. 31 CFR 546.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 546... § 546.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  13. 31 CFR 595.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 595... § 595.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the effect... this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a...

  14. 31 CFR 541.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 541... § 541.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  15. 31 CFR 594.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 594... Prohibitions § 594.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for...

  16. 31 CFR 538.211 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 538... § 538.211 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States person or within the..., any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose...

  17. 31 CFR 547.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 547... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 547.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  18. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 542... § 542.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for the...

  19. 31 CFR 586.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 586... & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 586.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any... prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a transaction prohibited by this part...

  20. 31 CFR 543.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 543... Prohibitions § 543.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  1. Atmospheric pressure and suicide attempts in Helsinki, Finland.

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, Laura; Ruuhela, Reija; Ostamo, Aini; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suominen, Kirsi; Partonen, Timo

    2012-11-01

    The influence of weather on mood and mental health is commonly debated. Furthermore, studies concerning weather and suicidal behavior have given inconsistent results. Our aim was to see if daily weather changes associate with the number of suicide attempts in Finland. All suicide attempts treated in the hospitals in Helsinki, Finland, during two separate periods, 8 years apart, were included. Altogether, 3,945 suicide attempts were compared with daily weather parameters and analyzed with a Poisson regression. We found that daily atmospheric pressure correlated statistically significantly with the number of suicide attempts, and for men the correlation was negative. Taking into account the seasonal normal value during the period 1971-2000, daily temperature, global solar radiation and precipitation did not associate with the number of suicide attempts on a statistically significant level in our study. We concluded that daily atmospheric pressure may have an impact on suicidal behavior, especially on suicide attempts of men by violent methods (P < 0.001), and may explain the clustering of suicide attempts. Men seem to be more vulnerable to attempt suicide under low atmospheric pressure and women under high atmospheric pressure. We show only statistical correlations, which leaves the exact mechanisms of interaction between weather and suicidal behavior open. However, suicidal behavior should be assessed from the point of view of weather in addition to psychiatric and social aspects.

  2. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…

  3. Suicide Neurosis--A Study of Sixty Young Suicide Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinnian, R. Rawlin; Johnson, Shelonitda

    Suicide and deviance are related because loss in social interaction is a consequence of deviance and an antecedent to suicide. This study examined the cognitive and affective experiences of suicidal individuals for evidence of neurosis. Sixty young attempted suicides with a history of a serious suicidal attempts attending the suicide prevention…

  4. 31 CFR 560.203 - Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies. 560.203 Section 560.203 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 560.203 Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies. (a) Any...

  5. 31 CFR 539.203 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 539.203 Section 539.203 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 539.203 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United...

  6. 31 CFR 560.203 - Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies. 560.203 Section 560.203 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 560.203 Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies. (a) Any...

  7. 31 CFR 539.203 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 539.203 Section 539.203 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 539.203 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United...

  8. Predictors of Multiple Suicide Attempts among Suicidal Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Christopher; Kramer, Anne; Joe, Sean; Venkataraman, Sanjeev; King, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathology, social support, and interpersonal orientation were studied in relation to suicide attempt status in acutely suicidal, psychiatrically hospitalized Black adolescents and a matched sample of White adolescents. In the total sample, multiple attempters were differentiated by lower perceived support. Within the Black youth subsample,…

  9. The Prevalence, Lethality and Intent of Suicide Attempts among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Judy A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    Although suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents in the United States, little is known about the prevalence or characteristics of suicide attempts among adolescents. Data from 1,710 adolescents attending 9 high schools in 5 communities were examined to determine the prevalence of suicide attempts and the lethality and intent…

  10. Erroneous Memories Arising from Repeated Attempts to Remember

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkel, Linda A.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of repeated and prolonged attempts at remembering on false memory rates was assessed in three experiments. Participants saw and imagined pictures and then made repeated recall attempts before taking a source memory test. Although the number of items recalled increased with repeated tests, the net gains were associated with more source…

  11. Assessing African American Adolescents' Risk for Suicide Attempts: Attachment Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Maureen E.; Benoit, Marilyn; O'Donnell, Regina M.; Getson, Pamela R.; Silber, Tomas; Walsh, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates risk factors in African American adolescent suicide attempters (n=51) and nonsuicidal (n=124) adolescents. Results show that threat of separation from a parental figure, insomnia, neglect, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and failing grades were the strongest predictors of suicide attempt. Unexpected findings include high levels of…

  12. Familism, Family Environment, and Suicide Attempts among Latina Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Juan B.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Baumann, Ana A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n = 109) and nonattempters (n = 107) were recruited from the New York City area. Latent class analysis revealed three family…

  13. Suicide Ideation and Attempts in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Gorman, Angela A.; Hillwig-Garcia, Jolene; Syed, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Frequency of suicide ideation and attempts in 791 children with autism (1-16 years), 35 nonautistic depressed children, and 186 typical children and risk factors in autism were determined. Percent of children with autism for whom suicide ideation or attempts was rated as sometimes to very often a problem by mothers (14%) was 28 times greater than…

  14. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hyun Sil

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the rate of suicide attempts and relevant variables and identified risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. A total of 2,100 Korean adolescents, including 1,321 student adolescents and 779 delinquent adolescents, were…

  15. Reported Childhood Trauma and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2005-01-01

    Childhood traumas are associated with suicidal behavior but this aspect has not been examined in relation to schizophrenia. In this study, 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had attempted suicide were compared with 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had never attempted suicide for their scores on the 34-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire…

  16. 31 CFR 541.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 541... § 541.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  17. 31 CFR 549.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 549... § 549.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  18. 31 CFR 544.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 544... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 544.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  19. 31 CFR 595.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 595... § 595.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the effect... this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a...

  20. 31 CFR 594.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 594... Prohibitions § 594.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for...

  1. 31 CFR 547.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 547... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 547.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  2. 31 CFR 546.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 546... § 546.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  3. 31 CFR 541.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 541... § 541.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  4. 31 CFR 593.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 593... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 593.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  5. 31 CFR 595.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 595... § 595.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the effect... this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a...

  6. 31 CFR 547.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 547... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 547.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  7. 31 CFR 593.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 593... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 593.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  8. 31 CFR 538.211 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 538... § 538.211 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States person or within the..., any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose...

  9. 31 CFR 544.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 544... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 544.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  10. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 542... § 542.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for the...

  11. 31 CFR 541.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 541... § 541.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  12. 31 CFR 539.203 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 539... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 539.203 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States... prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a transaction prohibited by this part...

  13. 31 CFR 595.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 595... § 595.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the effect... this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a...

  14. 31 CFR 588.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 588... Prohibitions § 588.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  15. 31 CFR 549.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 549... § 549.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  16. 31 CFR 595.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 595... § 595.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the effect... this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a...

  17. 31 CFR 593.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 593... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 593.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  18. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 542... § 542.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for the...

  19. 31 CFR 544.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 544... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 544.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  20. 31 CFR 543.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 543... Prohibitions § 543.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  1. 31 CFR 547.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 547... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 547.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  2. 31 CFR 538.211 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 538... § 538.211 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States person or within the..., any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose...

  3. 31 CFR 593.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 593... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 593.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  4. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 542... § 542.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for the...

  5. 31 CFR 547.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 547... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 547.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  6. 31 CFR 544.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 544... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 544.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  7. 31 CFR 539.203 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 539... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 539.203 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States... prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a transaction prohibited by this part...

  8. 31 CFR 543.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 543... Prohibitions § 543.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  9. 31 CFR 549.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 549... § 549.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  10. 31 CFR 546.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 546... § 546.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  11. 31 CFR 588.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 588... Prohibitions § 588.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  12. 31 CFR 541.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 541... § 541.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  13. 31 CFR 543.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 543... Prohibitions § 543.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  14. 31 CFR 549.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 549... § 549.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  15. 31 CFR 588.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 588... Prohibitions § 588.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  16. 31 CFR 546.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 546... § 546.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  17. 31 CFR 543.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 543... Prohibitions § 543.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  18. 31 CFR 588.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 588... Prohibitions § 588.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  19. 31 CFR 546.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 546... § 546.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  20. 31 CFR 538.211 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 538... § 538.211 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States person or within the..., any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose...

  1. The Meaning of Suicide Attempts by Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everall, Robin D.

    2000-01-01

    Describes study identifying themes that characterize experiences of young adults who made one suicide attempt between the ages of 20 and 24. Six major themes identified include: family experiences, adolescent interactions, emotional experiences, self-destructive behaviors, depression, and perception of control. Views suicide attempts as a…

  2. Characteristics of Chinese Suicide Attempters: An Emergency Room Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jie; Jia, Shuhua; Jiang, Chao; Sun, Jie

    2006-01-01

    Studying the characteristics of attempted suicide is helpful in knowing the background of some completed suicides and improving prevention or intervention strategies. This current study analyzed data of 74 suicide attempters and 92 accident injured patients admitted to 6 hospital emergency rooms in an area of Northeastern China and found both…

  3. (De-) criminalization of attempted suicide in India: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Kumar, Saurabh; Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Dhawan, Anju; Sagar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Attempted suicide is a serious problem requiring mental health interventions, but it continues to be treated as a criminal offence under the section 309 of Indian Penal Code. The article reviews the international legal perspective across various regions of the world, discusses the unintended consequences of section 309 IPC and highlights the need for decriminalization of attempted suicide in India. The Mental Health Care Bill, 2013, still under consideration in the Rajya Sabha (upper house), has proposed that attempted suicide should not be criminally prosecuted. Decriminalization of suicidal attempt will serve to cut down the undue stigma and avoid punishment in the aftermath of incident, and lead to a more accurate collection of suicide-related statistics. From a policy perspective, it will further emphasize the urgent need to develop a framework to deliver mental health services to all those who attempt suicide. PMID:25535437

  4. Repetition of Attempted Suicide Among Immigrants in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lipsicas, Cendrine Bursztein; Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik; Wasserman, Danuta; Apter, Alan; Kerkhof, Ad; Michel, Konrad; Renberg, Ellinor Salander; van Heeringen, Kees; Värnik, Airi; Schmidtke, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare frequencies of suicide attempt repetition in immigrants and local European populations, and the timing of repetition in these groups. Method: Data from 7 European countries, comprising 10 574 local and 3032 immigrant subjects, were taken from the World Health Organization European Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour and the ensuing Monitoring Suicidal Behaviour in Europe (commonly referred to as MONSUE) project. The relation between immigrant status and repetition of suicide attempt within 12-months following first registered attempt was analyzed with binary logistic regression, controlling for sex, age, and method of attempt. Timing of repetition was controlled for sex, age, and the recommended type of aftercare. Results: Lower odds of repeating a suicide attempt were found in Eastern European (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.61, P < 0.001) and non-European immigrants (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.90, P < 0.05), compared with the locals. Similar patterns were identified in the sex-specific analysis. Eastern European immigrants tended to repeat their attempt much later than locals (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.93, P < 0.05). In general, 32% of all repetition occurred within 30 days. Repetition tended to decrease with age and was more likely in females using harder methods in their index attempt (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.54, P < 0.01). Large variations in the general repetition frequency were identified between the collecting centres, thus influencing the results. Conclusions: The lower repetition frequencies in non-Western immigrants, compared with locals, in Europe stands in contrast to their markedly higher tendency to attempt suicide in general, possibly pointing to situational stress factors related to their suicidal crisis that are less persistent over time. Our findings also raise the possibility that suicide attempters and repeaters constitute only partially overlapping populations. PMID:25565687

  5. Incidence of near-death experiences following attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Greyson, B

    1986-01-01

    Near-death experiences (NDEs), profound subjective experiences occurring during a close brush with death and containing transcendental or mystical elements, have been reported to reduce suicidal ideation, despite their "romanticization" of death. Among 61 consecutive hospital admissions for attempted suicide, 16 patients (26.2%) reported NDEs precipitated by the attempt. NDEs were not significantly associated with any demographic factors. In light of the frequency of NDEs following attempted suicide, further studies are indicated in regard to the effect of those experiences on subsequent suicidal behavior.

  6. Psychiatric diagnoses in minority female adolescent suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Trautman, P D; Rotheram-Borus, M J; Dopkins, S; Lewin, N

    1991-07-01

    Psychiatric diagnoses were examined using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children semistructured interview among three groups of minority adolescent females aged 12 to 17:61 suicide attempters, 31 psychiatrically disturbed nonattempters, and 23 nonattempting, nondisturbed girls. Major or minor depressive disorder was found in 42% of the suicide attempters; conduct disorder in 46%; multiple diagnoses in 38%, no diagnosis in 13%. These rates were very similar to those found in disturbed nonattempters. Only one symptom, suicidal ideation, distinguished attempters from disturbed nonattempters, while many symptoms distinguished these two groups from nondisturbed nonattempters. PMID:1890096

  7. Temperament, hopelessness, and attempted suicide: direct and indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Rosellini, Anthony J; Bagge, Courtney L

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated whether hopelessness mediated the relations between temperament and recent suicide attempter status in a psychiatric sample. Negative temperament and positive temperament (particularly the positive emotionality subscale) uniquely predicted levels of hopelessness. Although these temperament constructs also demonstrated significant indirect effects on recent suicide attempter status, the effects were partially (for the broad temperament scales) or fully (for the positive emotionality subscale) mediated by the levels of hopelessness. These findings indicate that a tendency to experience excessive negative emotions as well as a paucity of positive emotions may lead individuals to experience hopelessness. Although temperament may also indirectly influence suicide attempter status, hopelessness mediates these relations.

  8. Grief and loss among Eskimos attempting suicide in western Alaska.

    PubMed

    Gregory, R J

    1994-12-01

    Data were collected prospectively from psychiatric evaluations performed on 53 consecutive Eskimos in the Bering Strait region who attempted suicide. Depressive diagnoses were common (N = 49). Thirty-seven (70%) of the attempts were preceded by a recent interpersonal loss. Sixty percent of the patients had lost a parent during childhood. Poor affective relatedness, especially around issues of loss, was noted in most of the patients. Thus, both multiple losses and limited grieving mechanisms may be important risk factors for attempted suicide in this population. PMID:7977892

  9. [Fatal air embolism during an attempt at criminal abortion].

    PubMed

    Srch, M

    1978-09-01

    Despite laws permitting legal abortions, death due to illegal procedures sometimes occurs. One such case is described. On Aug. 26, 1969, a 65 year old Mrs. B.K. reported the rapid death of a young woman in her home. The cause of death could not be determined by topical exam. Mrs. B.K. said the young woman had come to her requesting an abortion, but became ill during the ensuing conversation. She denied doing anything to the young woman other than attempting to revive her. She said she called for help when her efforts failed. Because Mrs. B.K. had a previous criminal record for performing illegal abortions, because spots of the victims blood were found on her clothing, because spots of blood were also found on the victim though external genitals were suspiciously clean (as was the kitchen floor on which the victim was lying), an autopsy was performed. During the autopsy, a massive air embolism in the lungs was found. The air entered the circulatory system during perforation of the cervix and part of the uterus. Damage to surrounding tissues was also found. It was determined that the damage was caused by a blunt instrument. The 4 month old fetus and anmiotic sac were not damaged. Bubbles of air and coagulated blood were found in the damaged tissues. Mrs. B.K. than admitted to trying to induce the abortion by inserting a rubber tube into the uterus through the cervix, and blowing air into and out of the uterus. She had admitted to using this method in 1943 and 1954, when she was criminally prosecuted. She began performing abortions during World War 2 and had performed a great many of them since then.

  10. Should Health Care Providers Uphold the DNR of a Terminally Ill Patient Who Attempts Suicide?

    PubMed

    Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Jankowski, Jane; Mullen, Marcy

    2016-06-01

    An individual's right to refuse life-sustaining treatment is a fundamental expression of patient autonomy; however, supporting this right poses ethical dilemmas for healthcare providers when the patient has attempted suicide. Emergency physicians encounter patients who have attempted suicide and are likely among the first medical providers to face the dilemma of honoring the patient's DNR or intervening to reverse the effects of potentially fatal actions. We illustrate this issue by introducing a case example in which the DNR of a terminally ill woman was not honored because the cause of her cardiac arrest was suicide. We argue that although a terminal diagnosis should change the way health care providers respond to a suicide attempt, many of the theoretical underpinnings for how one should treat suicide attempts-especially the criterion of external reasonability, that is the action to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining measures is reasonable independent of the precipitating event-are common to all situations (Brown et al. in Am J Bioeth 13(3):3-12, 2013). The presumption that patients who attempt suicide lack capacity due to acute mental illness is flawed because it fails to account for a competent individual's reasonable preference to not be forced to live in an unbearable, terminal condition. In states without legislation allowing physician aid in dying, patients and providers must grapple with these limitations on a case-by-case basis. In cases where the patient has a limited life expectancy and there is not concern for psychiatric illness as the primary cause of the suicidal action, we argue that the negative right to refuse life-sustaining treatment should prevail. PMID:26223360

  11. Factors influencing attempted and completed suicide in postnatal women: A population-based study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shu-Chuan; Chang, Jung-Chen; Yeh, Ming-Kung; Wang, Shun-Mu; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The aims of study were to investigate risk factors associated with attempted and completed suicide. This nested case–control study was conducted using the medical and death data of nearly all pregnant women for the period 2002–2012 in Taiwan. A total of 139 cases of attempted suicide and 95 cases of completed suicide were identified; for each case, 10 controls were randomly selected and matched to the cases according to age and year of delivery. A conditional logistic regression model was used. The mean attempted and completed suicide rates were 9.91 and 6.86 per 100,000 women with live births, respectively. Never having married and postpartum depression also increased the risk of attempted suicide (OR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.09–3.88 and OR = 2.51; 95% CI = 1.10–5.75, respectively) and completed suicide (OR = 20.27; 95% CI = 8.99–45.73 and OR = 21.72; 95% CI = 8.08–58.37, respectively). Other factors for attempted suicide included being widowed or divorced, and having a caesarean delivery or suicide history. Other factors for completed suicide included lower education level, low infant birth weight, and diagnosis of anxiety or mood disorder. These results suggest that people should appropriately assess potential risk factors and provide assistance for postnatal women to reduce the occurrence of suicide events. PMID:27173845

  12. When to say when: responding to a suicide attempt in the acute care setting.

    PubMed

    Venkat, Arvind; Drori, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Attempted suicide represents a personal tragedy for the patient and their loved ones and can be a challenge for acute care physicians. Medical professionals generally view it as their obligation to aggressively treat patients who are critically ill after a suicide attempt, on the presumption that a suicidal patient lacks decision making capacity from severe psychiatric impairment. However, physicians may be confronted by deliberative patient statements, advanced directives or surrogate decision makers who urge the withholding or withdrawal of life sustaining treatments based on the patient's underlying medical condition or life experience. How acute care providers weigh these expressions of patient wishes versus their own views of beneficence, non-maleficence and professional integrity poses a significant ethical challenge. This article presents a case that exemplifies the medical and ethical tensions that can arise in treating a patient following a suicide attempt and how to approach their resolution.

  13. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-05-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress. PMID:27247604

  14. [Attempted suicide during the financial crisis in Athens].

    PubMed

    Stavrianakos, K; Kontaxakis, V; Moussas, G; Paplos, K; Papaslanis, T; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Papadimitriou, Gn

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is considered as the result of complex cognitive and emotional processes and it is a timeless, global and multifactorial phenomenon. Periods of financial crises in the past, such as the Great Depression in the USA in 1929 and the economic crises of Asia, Russia and Argentina in the late 1990s, have been associated with impairment of mental health of the economically affected. Unemployment, job insecurity, debts, poverty and social exclusion seems to lead to higher incidence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and increased suicidality. Alcohol and substance use and the reduction of the state budget for health services reinforce the negative effects of the economic recession on mental health. The financial crisis which currently affects many European countries began in 2008 and its impact on the mental health of European citizens is in progress. Greece is probably the most affected country by the European financial crisis. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential impact of the crisis' consequences on the attempted suicide rates in the Athens population and the differentiation of suicide attempters on social, demographic and clinical-psychopathological parameters during the crisis. A retrospective study was conducted. The semi-structured records of 165 attempters who were hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Clinics of the "Sotiria" General Hospital in Athens, after attempted suicide in the years 2007 and 2011, before and during the financial crisis respectively, were studied. Among suicide attempters 95(57.6%) were suffering from mental disorders. Most often diagnoses were these of mood disorders (n=60, 63.2%). Demographic data, current psychiatric disorder, previous suicide attempt and severity of psychopathology at the time of suicide attempt were recorded for each patient. Furthermore, the severity of each suicide attempt was estimated. Suicide attempts were 70 in 2007, before the financial crisis (mean age 36.9 years, 71% women

  15. An Attempt to Validate a Measure of Structure in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabassol, David J.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty male adolescents were given a structure inventory (CASI) devised by the author, and also the Locus Of Control (I-E) instrument, and the Adjective Check List (ACL), in an attempt to validate the first-named inventory. (Editor)

  16. [Attempted suicide during the financial crisis in Athens].

    PubMed

    Stavrianakos, K; Kontaxakis, V; Moussas, G; Paplos, K; Papaslanis, T; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Papadimitriou, Gn

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is considered as the result of complex cognitive and emotional processes and it is a timeless, global and multifactorial phenomenon. Periods of financial crises in the past, such as the Great Depression in the USA in 1929 and the economic crises of Asia, Russia and Argentina in the late 1990s, have been associated with impairment of mental health of the economically affected. Unemployment, job insecurity, debts, poverty and social exclusion seems to lead to higher incidence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and increased suicidality. Alcohol and substance use and the reduction of the state budget for health services reinforce the negative effects of the economic recession on mental health. The financial crisis which currently affects many European countries began in 2008 and its impact on the mental health of European citizens is in progress. Greece is probably the most affected country by the European financial crisis. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential impact of the crisis' consequences on the attempted suicide rates in the Athens population and the differentiation of suicide attempters on social, demographic and clinical-psychopathological parameters during the crisis. A retrospective study was conducted. The semi-structured records of 165 attempters who were hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Clinics of the "Sotiria" General Hospital in Athens, after attempted suicide in the years 2007 and 2011, before and during the financial crisis respectively, were studied. Among suicide attempters 95(57.6%) were suffering from mental disorders. Most often diagnoses were these of mood disorders (n=60, 63.2%). Demographic data, current psychiatric disorder, previous suicide attempt and severity of psychopathology at the time of suicide attempt were recorded for each patient. Furthermore, the severity of each suicide attempt was estimated. Suicide attempts were 70 in 2007, before the financial crisis (mean age 36.9 years, 71% women

  17. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hokwang

    2016-01-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress. PMID:27247604

  18. Suicide and suicide attempts in adolescent-onset psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Jarbin, Håkan; Von Knorring, Anne-Liis

    2004-01-01

    Eighty-eight subjects with adolescent-onset psychotic disorders (mean age+/-standard deviation 15.7+/-1.5 years), mainly schizophrenia and affective disorders, were followed up 10.6+/-3.6 years later, rediagnosed (DSM-IV) and assessed with the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, abuse of drugs including nicotine, the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile and occurrence of suicide or suicide attempts. Four males (4.5% of subjects) had died from suicide while another 25% of the subjects had attempted suicide. Suicide attempts were associated to more depressive symptoms but fewer negative symptoms at first episode, and to number of admissions and to dependence on nicotine at follow-up in a logistic regression. Satisfaction with religion, health, family relations and safety at follow-up were inversely associated to attempting suicide but only satisfaction with religious belief remained after controlling for concurrent symptoms of anxiety and depression.

  19. Conducting Research on Adolescent Suicide Attempters: Dilemmas and Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Berk, Michele; Adrian, Molly; McCauley, Elizabeth; Asarnow, Joan; Avina, Claudia; Linehan, Marsha

    2014-01-01

    Research on effective treatments for adolescent suicide attempters is urgently needed. However, there has been a lack of research in this area. This is likely a result of the multiple challenges faced by investigators working with individuals at high risk of suicide. Based on our experiences conducting a large, randomized clinical trial with adolescent suicide attempters, in this article, we review ways to address these challenges in order to facilitate needed research on suicide prevention in adolescents. PMID:24954969

  20. Adolescent suicide and suicide attempts: a population study.

    PubMed

    Christoffel, K K; Marcus, D; Sagerman, S; Bennett, S

    1988-03-01

    To clarify the epidemiology of adolescent suicide, a retrospective study was undertaken of suicides (1978 to 1982) and hospitalized suicide attempts (1979 to 1983) by adolescents aged 10 to 19 years in an affluent suburban area. Data included date of injury, demography (for both suicides and suicide attempts), and recorded personal and social history (available for attempts only). There were 11 deaths due to suicide (definite or possible) in the five years reviewed: seven male, 10 aged 15 to 19 years. The mean annual rate for suicide deaths (definite and possible, based on ICD codes) was 10.3 per 100,000 15 to 19 year olds, with male rates exceeding female rates. Male rates were lower in the study area than in Chicago, Illinois or the United States, but female rates were higher. Suicides represented an unusually high proportion of all adolescent deaths. Atypically, there were no firearm suicide deaths. Two hundred ten suicide attempts were studied: 77% aged 15 to 19 years, 70% female, and 82% white; 83% involved ingestion of medications or poisons. The mean annual suicide attempt rate was approximately 140 per 100,000 for 15 to 19 year olds, and 45 per 100,000 for 10 to 14 year olds, with female rates exceeding male rates. There was an association between suicide attempt dates and occurrence of holidays, and there was a peak in attempts at the end of the school year. Detailed analysis of personal and social attributes associated with suicide attempts was prevented by poor recording of relevant factors in the medical record.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. The characteristics of suicide attempts based on the suicidal intent scale scores.

    PubMed

    Polewka, Andrzej; Mikołaszek-Boba, Magdalena; Chrostek Maj, Jan; Groszek, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the work was to present the characteristics of suicide attempts, distinguished on the basis of the scores in the Suicidal Intent Scale questionnaire (SIS), created by Aaron Beck, professor of psychiatry from Philadelphia. The group examined comprised 238 patients (63 males and 175 females) hospitalised in the Department of Clinical Toxicology CMUJ in Kraków in the years 2000-2001, after a suicidal self-intoxication with xenobiotics. The examination was conducted by means of the Suicidal Intent Scale (SIS)--a psychological test created by Aaron Beck. In the case of about 65% of the patients examined, their suicide attempts most frequently were acts of impulsive behaviour, rarely planned for longer than three hours before the realization and usually made in another person's presence or in a situation in which another person's intervention was highly probable. Such attempts had the character of "a cry for help", and were aimed at effecting some change or at manipulating the environment. Nevertheless, the patients acted in a conviction that their act was a serious attempt at ending life, and, most frequently, they maintained such opinions during the examination. On the other hand, they rarely expressed further suicidal intents, and more frequently accepted the fact that their lives had been saved. By contrast, the remaining 35% of the patients examined had attempted suicide with the evident intention to kill themselves; they had taken full precautions against being discovered and had planned suicide carefully to eliminate the smallest possibility of intervention. In the majority of cases, they still maintained the wish to die after the attempt. As the results of the examination indicate, the Suicidal Intent Scale, and, especially, the Precautions subscale, point at the important aspect of suicidal intentions, which, being of vital importance for the diagnostic purposes and suicide prevention, requires further investigation.

  2. Non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents: diagnostic correlates and relation to suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Nock, Matthew K; Joiner, Thomas E; Gordon, Kathryn H; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2006-09-30

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent behavioral problem, yet many fundamental aspects of NSSI remain unknown. This case series study reports on the diagnostic correlates of adolescents with a recent history of NSSI and examines the relation between NSSI and suicide attempts. Data are from clinical interviews with 89 adolescents admitted to an adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit who engaged in NSSI in the previous 12 months. Results revealed that 87.6% of adolescents engaging in NSSI met criteria for a DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis (M=3.0, S.D.=2.2, range=0 to 8 diagnoses), including externalizing (62.9%), internalizing (51.7%), and substance use (59.6%) disorders. Most adolescents assessed also met criteria for an Axis II personality disorder (67.3%). Overall, 70% of adolescents engaging in NSSI reported a lifetime suicide attempt and 55% reported multiple attempts. Characteristics of NSSI associated with making suicide attempts included a longer history of NSSI, use of a greater number of methods, and absence of physical pain during NSSI. These findings demonstrate the diagnostic heterogeneity of adolescents engaging in NSSI, highlight the significant overlap between NSSI and suicide attempts, and provide a point of departure for future research aimed at elucidating the relations between non-suicidal and suicidal self-injury.

  3. Children at Risk for Suicide Attempt and Attempt-related Injuries: Findings from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    PubMed Central

    West, Bethany A.; Swahn, Monica H.; McCarty, Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The current study examines the associations between a range of risk factors and reports of suicide attempts and attempts requiring medical care in a nationally representative study of high school students. The goal is to examine sex differences in the risk factors associated with suicide attempts and attempt-related injuries requiring treatment by a health-care provider. Methods: We used data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey for students in grades 9–12 to assess the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behavior, as well as differences in these for boys and girls. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine the most important risk factors for suicide attempts and for suicide attempts requiring medical care for the sample overall and also stratified for boys and for girls. Results: Overall, 6.9% of adolescents attempted suicide (9.3% of girls versus 4.6% of boys). Girls were more likely than boys to report a suicide attempt in the past year (Adj.OR=2.89). Among girls, sadness (Adj.OR=5.74), weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.48), dating violence (Adj.OR=1.60), forced sex (Adj.OR=1.72), and huffing glue (Adj.OR=2.04) were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Among boys, sadness (Adj.OR=10.96), weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.66), forced sex (Adj.OR=2.60), huffing glue (OR=1.63), hard drug use (Adj.OR=2.18), and sports involvement (Adj.OR=1.52) were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate similarities and differences in the modifiable risk factors that increase risk for suicide attempts among boys and girls. In terms of the differences between boys and girls, hard drug use and sports involvement may be important factors for suicide-prevention strategies directed specifically towards boys, while dating violence victimization may be an important risk factor to address for girls. Overall, these findings can help guide prevention, clinical practice, and intervention

  4. Non-psychotropic medication and risk of suicide or attempted suicide: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gorton, Hayley C; Webb, Roger T; Kapur, Navneet; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To establish which non-psychotropic medications have been assessed in relation to risk of suicide or attempted suicide in observational studies, document reported associations and consider study strengths and limitations. Design Systematic review. Methods Four databases (Embase, Medline, PsycINFO and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts) were searched from 1990 to June 2014, and reference lists of included articles were hand-searched. Case–control, cohort and case only studies which reported suicide or attempted suicide in association with any non-psychotropic medication were included. Outcome measures The outcomes eligible for inclusion were suicide and attempted suicide, as defined by the authors of the included study. Results Of 11 792 retrieved articles, 19 were eligible for inclusion. Five studies considered cardiovascular medication and antiepileptics; two considered leukotriene receptor antagonists, isotretinoin and corticosteroids; one assessed antibiotics and another assessed varenicline. An additional study compared multiple medications prescribed to suicide cases versus controls. There was marked heterogeneity in study design, outcome and exposure classification, and control for confounding factors; particularly comorbid mental and physical illness. No increased risk was associated with cardiovascular medications, but associations with other medications remained inconclusive and meta-analysis was inappropriate due to study heterogeneity. Conclusions Whether non-psychotropic medications are associated with increased risk of suicide or attempted suicide remains largely unknown. Robust identification of suicide outcomes and control of comorbidities could improve quantification of risk associated with non-psychotropic medication, beyond that conferred by underlying physical and mental illnesses. PMID:26769782

  5. Bullying and suicide attempts among adolescents kept in custody.

    PubMed

    Kiriakidis, Stavros P

    2008-01-01

    This contribution explores the associations between suicide attempts; bullying; and the familial, educational, legal, and institutional characteristics of young offenders in custody. The sample was 152 randomly selected male young offenders aged 16-21 years (M = 18.9, SD = 1.3) years from the largest young offenders' institution in Scotland, who completed structured personal interviews. Rates of reported suicide attempts were significantly higher in the population of young offenders than reported rates from general population samples. Being in residential care, the presence of a social worker for the family, family history of alcohol abuse, family history of suicide attempts, the experience of being bullied in custody, contact with a psychologist in the community, and being a violent offender were significantly related to increased risk of suicide attempts in custody. Compared to those who were not bullied, offenders who were bullied in custody were 9.22 times more likely to attempt suicide. The implications these findings for reducing bullying in penal settings are discussed.

  6. Abnormality of EEG alpha asymmetry in female adolescent suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Graae, F; Tenke, C; Bruder, G; Rotheram, M J; Piacentini, J; Castro-Blanco, D; Leite, P; Towey, J

    1996-10-15

    Abnormal electroencephalographic (EEG) activity has been associated with various psychiatric disorders and behaviors, including depression, suicide, and aggression. We examined quantitative resting EEG in Hispanic female adolescent suicide attempters and matched normal controls. Computerized EEG measures were recorded at 11 scalp sites during eyes open and eyes closed periods from 16 suicide attempters and 22 normal controls. Suicide attempters differed from normal controls in alpha asymmetry. Normal adolescents had greater alpha (less activation) over right than left hemisphere, whereas suicidal adolescents had a nonsignificant asymmetry in the opposite direction. Nondepressed attempters were distinguished from depressed attempters in that they accounted for the preponderance of abnormal asymmetry, particularly in posterior regions. Alpha asymmetry over posterior regions was related to ratings of suicidal intent, but not depression severity. The alpha asymmetry in suicidal adolescents resembled that seen for depressed adults in its abnormal direction, but not in its regional distribution. Findings for suicidal adolescents are discussed in terms of a hypothesis of reduced left posterior activation, which is not related to depression but to suicidal or aggressive behavior. PMID:8894062

  7. Cultural Concepts and Themes of Suicidal Attempt Among Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bazrafshan, Mohammad Rafi; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Molazem, Zahra; Mani, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suicide attempts are more common among adolescents than other age groups. Although suicide is considered a worldwide problem, but the related factors, to suicidal behavior are different in various cultures. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to identify themes that explain suicide attempt process among adolescents in Iran. Patients and Methods: This is a qualitative study carried out based on grounded theory. Key informants were 16 adolescents referred to two hospitals in Shiraz after suicide attempts. Also, 4 family members, a nurse, a psychologist, and a psychiatrist participated in this study. Sampling started with purposive sampling method and continued with theoretical sampling. Data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews. Data analysis was carried out using Strauss and Corbin approach and constant comparative method until the point of data saturation. Results: Five main categories, including personal factors and life experiences; family factors, social and educational factors, psychological-emotional problems, and stress control strategies were extracted from the data. The central concept in the data was to escape the painful psychological condition, which was in connection with other concepts describing the process of suicide attempts in adolescents. Conclusions: This study identified 5 categories of concepts as main themes that can be used to explain suicidal attempt process among Iranian adolescents. PMID:25883919

  8. Suicidal ideation and attempts among chemically dependent adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Deykin, E Y; Buka, S L

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Suicidal ideation and attempts were examined in a population of chemically dependent adolescents, a group at high risk of self-destructive behavior. METHODS. The prevalence and correlates of suicidality and of major depressive disorder were assessed by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and a structured family and social history interview with 300 addicts aged 15 through 19 years. RESULTS. Suicidal ideation was reported by 31% to 75% of the subjects and suicide attempts were reported by 28% to 61%, with females predominating. Thoughts of suicide combined with prolonged thoughts of death in general and a desire to be dead were highly associated with suicide attempts. Exposure to physical or sexual abuse was associated with a significantly increased risk of suicide attempts for males but not for females. CONCLUSIONS. The probability of a suicide attempt increases when thoughts of suicide coincide with morbid ideation of extended duration, suggesting that risk assessment should be based on duration as well as presence of morbid thoughts. Substance abuse treatment requires an assessment of suicidal potential and counseling for those whose potential is high, with special attention to males exposed to abuse. PMID:8154569

  9. An Exploratory Analysis of Personality Factors Contributed to Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. N. Suresh; Rajmohan, V.; Sushil, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: People who attempt suicide have certain individual predispositions, part of which is contributed by personality traits. Aims: The present study was conducted to identify the psycho-sociodemographic and personality related factors contributing to suicide attempts. Materials and Methods: 104 suicide attempters admitted in various departments and referred to the department of psychiatry of IQRAA Hospital formed the study sample. They were evaluated with a self designed socio-demographic proforma, Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire Revised, Albert Einstein College of Medicine-Impulsivity Coping Scale, and Past Feelings and Acts of Violence Scale. Statistics Analysis: The data was initially analyzed by percentage of frequencies. Association between socio-demographic and selected psychological factors was analyzed using t-test and Chi-square test. Intercorrelation among psychological factors was calculated by Pearson's correlation coefficient “r”. Results and Conclusion: Factors such as young age, being married, nuclear family, feeling lonely and burden to family, inability to solve the problems of day to day life, and presence of psychiatric diagnosis and personality traits such as neuroticism, impulsivity, and violence were contributed to suicide attempt. A significant positive relationship between these factors was also identified. Findings of the present study call the attention of mental health professionals to identify these high risk factors in susceptible individuals and to modify these factors to prevent them from attempting suicide. PMID:24379499

  10. [Psychological treatment of transsexualism and sexual identity disorders some recent attempts].

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, M

    1978-11-01

    Psychological treatments of transsexualism and sex gender Dysphoria syndroms. Recent data. There are generally two types of patients requesting sex change operations: one type is the classical but rare transsexual, the others belong to the larger more vague group of sex gender Dysphoria. These syndroms have been felt to be unresponsive to psychotherapy. We review here some recent attempts of psychological treatments which claim to improve satisfaction with biological sex gender identity and result in renonciation of the request of sex reassignment surgery (S.R.S.). These psychotherapies use various methods: Behavior therapy, psychoanalytically-oriented psychotherapy, religious exorcism and conversion. The reports reviewed suggest that sex gender identity may be more malleable than previously thought in transsexual syndrom, at least in relatively youthful subjects. Cases of recent onset of the syndrom which result from a crisis cases underline the necessity for careful evaluation and attempted psychological treatment before undertaking irreversible surgical procedures.

  11. Investigating the Co-Occurrence of Self-Mutilation and Suicide Attempts among Opioid-Dependent Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Elizabeth; Degenhardt, Louisa; Darke, Shane; Nelson, Elliot C.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence and risk factors associated with self-mutilation among opioid dependent cases and controls were determined, and the co-occurrence of self-mutilation and attempted suicide was examined. The prevalence of self-mutilation among cases and controls did not differ significantly (25% vs. 23%, respectively), with gender differences…

  12. Characteristics of Drug Overdose in Young Suicide Attempters

    PubMed Central

    Kweon, Yong-Sil; Hwang, Sunyoung; Yeon, Bora; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Oh, Youngmin; Lee, Hae-Kook; Lee, Chung Tai

    2012-01-01

    Objective Few studies have focused on the characteristic features of drug overdose in children and adolescents who have attempted suicide in Korea. The present study examined the characteristics of drug overdose in children and adolescents who visited the emergency room following drug ingestion for a suicide attempt. Methods The medical records of 28 patients who were treated in the emergency room following a drug overdose from January 2008 to March 2011 were analyzed. Demographic and clinical variables related to the suicide attempts were examined. Results The mean age of the patients was 16.6±1.7 years (range 11-19 years), and 20 of the patients (71.4%) were female. Most of the patients (n=23, 82.1%) overdosed on a single drug; acetaminophen-containing analgesics were the most common (n=12, 42.9%). Depression was the most common psychiatric disorder (n=22, 78.6%), and interpersonal conflict was the most common precipitating factor of the suicide attempts (n=11, 39.3%). This was the first suicide attempt for approximately 80% of the patients. About one fourth of the patients (n=7, 25%) had follow-up visits at the psychiatric outpatient clinic. Conclusion Early screening and psychiatric intervention for depression may be an important factor in preventing childhood and adolescent suicide attempts. Developing coping strategies to manage interpersonal conflicts may also be helpful. Moreover, policies restricting the amount and kind of drugs purchased by teenagers may be necessary to prevent drug overdose in this age group. PMID:23430317

  13. [The sense of coherence and risk of suicide attempt].

    PubMed

    Polewka, A; Chrostek-Maj, J; Kroch, S; Mikołaszek-Boba, M; Ryn, E; Datka, W; Rachel, W

    2001-01-01

    The analysis was based upon 79 patients hospitalized for suicide attempts (drug intoxication) in the Department of Clinical Toxicology CM UJ in Kraków from July to December 2000. The purpose of the study was to estimate the sense of coherence level (according to Antonovsky) as a potential suicide attempt predictor. The population of patients was divided into two groups: patients after first suicide attempt (I) and group after reattempting suicide (II). The examination was based on structure interview, analysis of medical documentation and a number of tests including SOC 29 (by Antonovsky), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), and Beck Hopelessness Scale (HS 20). The most important psychological and independent variable measured in the study was the sense of coherence, introduced first by Aaron Antonovsky as a significant predictor of mental health. The sense of coherence (measured by SOC 29 questionnaire) comprises comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness. Both in foreign and in polish studies the SOC 29 level was lower in clinical groups compared to healthy people. The norm in Polish population was 139 scores in SOC 29. In the present study the average total result (men and women) was 112 scores in the group of patients after first suicide attempt, and in the group of repeated suicide attempters the average total result was even lower--only 99 scores, which makes a statistically significant difference. We also observed a statistically significant dependence between the results of SOC 20 questionnaire, the level of depression measured by Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton Depression Scale, and the level of hopelessness measured by Beck Hopelessness Scale. The above results indicate that the sense of coherence level may make significant risk factor for repeated suicide attempt.

  14. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China✩

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. Methods The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation anal yses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking related variables affected making a quit attempt. Results An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15–24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Conclusion Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. PMID:26441296

  15. A genome-wide association study of attempted suicide

    PubMed Central

    Willour, Virginia L.; Seifuddin, Fayaz; Mahon, Pamela B.; Jancic, Dubravka; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Steele, Jo; Schweizer, Barbara; Goes, Fernando S.; Mondimore, Francis M.; MacKinnon, Dean F.; Perlis, Roy H.; Lee, Phil Hyoun; Huang, Jie; Kelsoe, John R.; Shilling, Paul D.; Rietschel, Marcella; Nöthen, Markus; Cichon, Sven; Gurling, Hugh; Purcell, Shaun; Smoller, Jordan W.; Craddock, Nicholas; DePaulo, J. Raymond; Schulze, Thomas G.; McMahon, Francis J.; Zandi, Peter P.; Potash, James B.

    2011-01-01

    The heritable component to attempted and completed suicide is partly related to psychiatric disorders and also partly independent of them. While attempted suicide linkage regions have been identified on 2p11–12 and 6q25–26, there are likely many more such loci, the discovery of which will require a much higher resolution approach, such as the genome-wide association study (GWAS). With this in mind, we conducted an attempted suicide GWAS that compared the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes of 1,201 bipolar (BP) subjects with a history of suicide attempts to the genotypes of 1,497 BP subjects without a history of suicide attempts. 2,507 SNPs with evidence for association at p<0.001 were identified. These associated SNPs were subsequently tested for association in a large and independent BP sample set. None of these SNPs were significantly associated in the replication sample after correcting for multiple testing, but the combined analysis of the two sample sets produced an association signal on 2p25 (rs300774) at the threshold of genome-wide significance (p= 5.07 × 10−8). The associated SNPs on 2p25 fall in a large linkage disequilibrium block containing the ACP1 gene, a gene whose expression is significantly elevated in BP subjects who have completed suicide. Furthermore, the ACP1 protein is a tyrosine phosphatase that influences Wnt signaling, a pathway regulated by lithium, making ACP1 a functional candidate for involvement in the phenotype. Larger GWAS sample sets will be required to confirm the signal on 2p25 and to identify additional genetic risk factors increasing susceptibility for attempted suicide. PMID:21423239

  16. A genome-wide association study of attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Willour, V L; Seifuddin, F; Mahon, P B; Jancic, D; Pirooznia, M; Steele, J; Schweizer, B; Goes, F S; Mondimore, F M; Mackinnon, D F; Perlis, R H; Lee, P H; Huang, J; Kelsoe, J R; Shilling, P D; Rietschel, M; Nöthen, M; Cichon, S; Gurling, H; Purcell, S; Smoller, J W; Craddock, N; DePaulo, J R; Schulze, T G; McMahon, F J; Zandi, P P; Potash, J B

    2012-04-01

    The heritable component to attempted and completed suicide is partly related to psychiatric disorders and also partly independent of them. Although attempted suicide linkage regions have been identified on 2p11-12 and 6q25-26, there are likely many more such loci, the discovery of which will require a much higher resolution approach, such as the genome-wide association study (GWAS). With this in mind, we conducted an attempted suicide GWAS that compared the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes of 1201 bipolar (BP) subjects with a history of suicide attempts to the genotypes of 1497 BP subjects without a history of suicide attempts. In all, 2507 SNPs with evidence for association at P<0.001 were identified. These associated SNPs were subsequently tested for association in a large and independent BP sample set. None of these SNPs were significantly associated in the replication sample after correcting for multiple testing, but the combined analysis of the two sample sets produced an association signal on 2p25 (rs300774) at the threshold of genome-wide significance (P=5.07 × 10(-8)). The associated SNPs on 2p25 fall in a large linkage disequilibrium block containing the ACP1 (acid phosphatase 1) gene, a gene whose expression is significantly elevated in BP subjects who have completed suicide. Furthermore, the ACP1 protein is a tyrosine phosphatase that influences Wnt signaling, a pathway regulated by lithium, making ACP1 a functional candidate for involvement in the phenotype. Larger GWAS sample sets will be required to confirm the signal on 2p25 and to identify additional genetic risk factors increasing susceptibility for attempted suicide. PMID:21423239

  17. Patterns of presentation for attempted suicide: analysis of a cohort of individuals who subsequently died by suicide.

    PubMed

    Mallon, Sharon; Rosato, Michael; Galway, Karen; Hughes, Lynette; Rondon-Sulbaran, Janeet; McConkey, Sam; Leavey, Gerard

    2015-06-01

    All suicides and related prior attempts occurring in Northern Ireland over two years were analyzed, focusing on number and timing of attempts, method, and mental health diagnoses. Cases were derived from coroner's records, with 90% subsequently linked to associated general practice records. Of those included, 45% recorded at least one prior attempt (with 59% switching from less to more lethal methods between attempt and suicide). Compared with those recording one attempt, those with 2+ attempts were more likely to have used less lethal methods at the suicide (OR = 2.77: 95% CI = 1.06, 7.23); and those using less lethal methods at the attempts were more likely to persist with these into the suicide (OR = 3.21: 0.79, 13.07). Finally, those with preexisting mental problems were more likely to use less lethal methods in the suicide: severe mental illness (OR = 7.88: 1.58, 39.43); common mental problems (OR = 3.68: 0.83, 16.30); and alcohol/drugs related (OR = 2.02: 0.41, 9.95). This analysis uses readily available data to highlight the persisting use of less lethal methods by visible and vulnerable attempters who eventually complete their suicide. Further analysis of such conditions could allow more effective prevention strategies to be developed.

  18. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  19. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  20. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  1. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  2. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  3. 31 CFR 588.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 588.204 Section 588.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WESTERN BALKANS STABILIZATION...

  4. Visual-Motor Problems of Adolescents Who Attempt Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Thomas J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Using the Canter Background Interference Procedure with the Bender Gestalt Test, a group of 18 adolescent suicide attempters earned test scores indicating they had significantly more problems with visual motor coordination than did a control group of 21 adolescents. (Author/SBH)

  5. 31 CFR 593.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 593.206 Section 593.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES...

  6. 31 CFR 596.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 596.202 Section 596.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS...

  7. 31 CFR 596.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 596.202 Section 596.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS...

  8. 31 CFR 596.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 596.202 Section 596.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS...

  9. 31 CFR 596.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 596.202 Section 596.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS...

  10. 31 CFR 596.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 596.202 Section 596.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS...

  11. EFL Teachers' Attempts at Feedback Innovation in the Writing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Icy; Mak, Pauline; Burns, Anne

    2016-01-01

    To date, research on feedback in second language (L2) writing has primarily focused on feedback per se, with little attention paid to the teachers' professional development with regard to feedback in writing. This study aims to explore the ways in which two secondary teachers in Hong Kong attempted to implement feedback innovation in their writing…

  12. Neighborhood Predictors of Hopelessness among Adolescent Suicide Attempters: Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Smith, Alina; Spirito, Anthony; Boergers, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Adolescents (N=48) who attempted suicide were administered measures of hopelessness and depression. Those living in neighborhoods with weak social networks reported higher levels of hopelessness, even after controlling for socioeconomic backgrounds and depression. Findings suggest that the environmental context may play a role in the emotional…

  13. A follow-up study of attempted railway suicides.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, I; Arthur, A J; Farmer, R D

    1994-02-01

    This paper reports the subsequent mortality of 94 persons who attempted suicide by jumping in front of London Underground trains between 1977 and 1979. The follow-up period was 10 yr. Despite the apparent seriousness of the method, completion of suicide was not found to be higher than in previous studies of attempted suicide by other methods. By the end of the follow-up period 18 persons had died, nine of natural causes. Coroners' inquests were held for the unnatural deaths. Seven verdicts of suicide and two of accidental death were recorded. Of the nine unnatural deaths four were from multiple injuries, three from drowning, one from asphyxia and one from acute narcotic poisoning. All four multiple injury deaths were women, three of these were from repeated incidents involving London Underground trains. The time interval between the index attempt and eventual death for the suicide/accident group ranged from 1 day to 43 months. For ethical reasons it was not possible to follow-up attempted suicides who were presumed to have remained alive. PMID:8153748

  14. Substance Use, Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Liu, Xinhua; Cohen, Patricia; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Shaffer, David

    2004-01-01

    Using data from a community sample of youth (N = 1,458; ages 9?17), this study assessed the association between adolescent substance use/abuse and suicidal behaviors. Suicide attempts were strongly associated with alcohol abuse and dependence, followed by frequent cigarette smoking. The associations remained significant even after controlling for…

  15. 101. ARAIII. View of control room with operators during attempted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. ARA-III. View of control room with operators during attempted 500-hour run of ML-1 reactor. April 21, 1964. Ineel photo no. 64-2185. Photographer: Benson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. 31 CFR 538.211 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 538.211 Section 538.211 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  17. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592.202 Section 592.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL...

  18. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592.202 Section 592.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL...

  19. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592.202 Section 592.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL...

  20. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592.202 Section 592.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL...

  1. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592.202 Section 592.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL...

  2. 31 CFR 537.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 537.206 Section 537.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  3. Spinal cord injury following an attempted thoracic epidural.

    PubMed

    Mayall, M F; Calder, I

    1999-10-01

    Unsuccessful attempts were made to insert a thoracic epidural in an anaesthetised patient. Signs of spinal cord damage were observed the following day. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a haematoma anterior to the spinal cord. Surgical exploration revealed an intradural haematoma and a needle puncture of the cord. The patient suffered a permanent paraparesis.

  4. Risk Factors of Attempted Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates of bipolar patients are among the highest of any psychiatric disorder, and improved identification of risk factors for attempted and completed suicide translates into improved clinical outcome. Factors that may be predictive of suicidality in an exclusively bipolar population are examined. White race, family suicide history, and…

  5. ATTEMPTS TO ESTABLISH EXPERIMENTAL CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSIS INFECTION IN LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attempts were made to develop an animal model for Cyclospora cayetanensis to identify a practical laboratory host for studying human cyclosporiasis. Oocysts collected from stool of infected humans in the United States, Haiti, Guatemala, Peru and Nepal were held in potassium dich...

  6. Beyond Randomized Controlled Trials in Attempted Suicide Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Simon; Sharon, Cynthia; Coggan, Carol

    2009-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence about what is the best treatment for people who present to hospital after self harm. Most treatment trials have been small and involved unrepresentative groups of patients which result in inconclusive findings. Here we note some of the characteristics of attempted suicide which make it a difficult subject to study. We…

  7. 31 CFR 597.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 597.204 Section 597.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS...

  8. 31 CFR 597.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 597.204 Section 597.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS...

  9. 31 CFR 597.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 597.204 Section 597.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS...

  10. 31 CFR 597.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 597.204 Section 597.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS...

  11. 31 CFR 597.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 597.204 Section 597.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS...

  12. Alcohol problems among suicide attempters in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A S; Bille-Brahe, U; Hjelmeland, H; Jensen, B; Ostamo, A; Salander-Renberg, E; Wasserman, D

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see whether and how the number of suicide attempters with alcohol problems and their drinking habits differ between the Nordic areas under study. Problem-drinkers were defined as persons who themselves felt that they had an alcohol problem. The analyses were based on data collected at five Nordic research centers participating in the WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide, namely: Helsinki (Finland); Umeå and Stockholm (Sweden); Słr-Trłndelag (Norway); and Odense (Denmark). The results showed that the frequency of problem-drinking among suicide attempters differed markedly between the areas under study; the Finnish male and the Danish female suicide attempters included the highest proportions of self-identified problem-drinkers. The pattern of drinking among the suicide attempters also differed between the areas. The analyses indicate that the point when alcohol becomes a problem to somebody, especially to a degree that it increases the risk of suicidal behavior, not only depends on how much and how often the person drinks alcohol; the prevailing drinking pattern, the attitudes towards drinking alcohol, and the level of social control are also important factors to take into consideration when relations between alcohol and suicidal behavior are under study. PMID:9018904

  13. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548.205 Section 548.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548.205 Section 548.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548.205 Section 548.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  16. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548.205 Section 548.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  17. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548.205 Section 548.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  18. Heroin Addicts Reporting Previous Heroin Overdoses Also Report Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradvik, Louise; Frank, Arne; Hulenvik, Per; Medvedeo, Alvaro; Berglund, Mats

    2007-01-01

    Nonfatal heroin overdoses and suicide attempts are both common among heroin addicts, but there is limited knowledge about the association between them. The sample in the present study consisted of 149 regular heroin users in Malmo, Sweden. Out of these 98 had taken an unintentional heroin overdose at some time and 51 had made at least one attempt…

  19. 31 CFR 545.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 545.206 Section 545.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS...

  20. Treatment Adherence among Latina Female Adolescent Suicide Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Piacentini, John; Van Rossem, Ronan; Graae, Flemming; Cantwell, Coleen; Castro-Blanco, David; Feldman, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Disenfranchised Latina adolescents (N=140) and their mothers presenting at a large urban emergency room after a suicide attempt by the adolescent were assessed to examine treatment adherence. Predictor variables for treatment adherence were established. Results are discussed in relation to treatment session attendance. Implications for the…

  1. 31 CFR 594.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 594.205 Section 594.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS...

  2. 31 CFR 594.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 594.205 Section 594.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS...

  3. 31 CFR 594.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 594.205 Section 594.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS...

  4. 31 CFR 544.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 544.205 Section 544.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION...

  5. 31 CFR 539.203 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 539.203 Section 539.203 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE...

  6. 31 CFR 576.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 576.205 Section 576.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY...

  7. 31 CFR 576.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 576.205 Section 576.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY...

  8. 31 CFR 576.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 576.205 Section 576.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY...

  9. 31 CFR 576.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 576.205 Section 576.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQ STABILIZATION AND INSURGENCY...

  10. 31 CFR 561.205 - Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; conspiracies. 561.205 Section 561.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 561.205 Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction.... (b) Any conspiracy formed to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited....

  11. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; conspiracies. 542.205 Section 542.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Prohibitions § 542.205 Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction by a U.S.... (b) Any conspiracy formed to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited....

  12. 31 CFR 537.206 - Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; conspiracies. 537.206 Section 537.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Prohibitions § 537.206 Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction by a U.S... forth in this part is prohibited. (b) Any conspiracy formed to violate any of the prohibitions set...

  13. 31 CFR 561.205 - Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; conspiracies. 561.205 Section 561.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 561.205 Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction.... (b) Any conspiracy formed to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited....

  14. The 24 Hours before Hospitalization: Factors Related to Suicide Attempting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, John A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Psychiatric inpatients (N=59) were interviewd concerning psychological and environmental events that occurred in the 24 hours prior to their hospitalization. Suicide attempters were more likely to have used alcohol or marijuana and less likely to have contacted a health care professional than suicide ideators, even when past history of suicide…

  15. Engagement and Retention of Suicide Attempters in Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Carly J.; Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Brown, Gregory K.; Beck, Aaron T.

    2010-01-01

    Background High attrition rates in longitudinal research can limit study generalizability, threaten internal validity, and decrease statistical power. Research has demonstrated that there can be significant differences between participants who complete a research study and those who drop out prematurely, and that treatment outcomes may be dependent on retention in a treatment protocol. Aims The current paper describes the challenges encountered when implementing a randomized controlled trial of cognitive therapy for the prevention of suicide attempts and the solutions developed to overcome these problems. Methods Problems unique to suicide attempters are discussed, and strategies successfully implemented to boost retention rates are provided. Results The methods implemented appeared to increase retention rates in the randomized controlled trial. Conclusions Many steps can be taken to work with this difficult population, and researchers are encouraged to be as involved and flexible with participants as possible. PMID:20418211

  16. Novel psychoactive substance intoxication resulting in attempted murder.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard; Tuddenham, Laurence

    2014-07-01

    A man in his twenties who had no previous history of violence, snorted large quantities of two substances he identified as 3-methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP), and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV); both are recognised as novel psychoactive substances, or commonly described in the media as "legal highs". He also inhaled butane gas. He experienced vivid hallucinations and developed bizarre ideas. During this state of mind he stabbed his father multiple times and was arrested and charged with attempted murder. He had a previous history of drug induced psychosis and although he had some slight residual symptoms before he consumed the substances, these were not considered relevant to his criminal liability at the time of the offence. The hallucinations caused by the use of these substances took six weeks to completely recede. He was convicted of attempted murder and sentenced to four years in prison.

  17. Attempts to create ball lightning with triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Jonathan D.; Uman, Martin A.; Stapleton, Michael; Jordan, Douglas M.; Chebaro, Alexander M.; Biagi, Christopher J.

    2010-08-01

    We describe attempts to create ball lightning by directing lightning, triggered from natural thunderclouds using the rocket-and-wire technique, through a variety of materials. Some of the observed phenomena have features in common with natural ball lightning or with laboratory attempts to create it: flame-like luminosity for up to 0.5 s above salt water; constant-luminosity silicon fragments falling for about 1 s under the influence of gravity; a 0.7 m region of stationary luminosity whose bottom was 0.3 m above a stainless steel surface to which arcing had occurred; and a glow for about 0.5 s above pine tree sections.

  18. An analysis of adolescent suicide attempts: the expendable child.

    PubMed

    Woznica, J G; Shapiro, J R

    1990-12-01

    Assessed the concept of the "expendable child" syndrome proposed by Sabbath (1969) as a contributing factor in adolescent suicide attempts. It was hypothesized that suicidal adolescents would be rated higher on a measure of "expendability" than would a psychiatric control group of adolescents with no known history of suicide attempts or ideation. Forty adolescents, ages 13-24, who had been seen in psychotherapy at a teen-age health clinic, were rated by their psychotherapists on suicidality and a 12-item scale of expendability (a sense of being unwanted and/or a burden on the family). As predicted, suicidal adolescents received significantly higher ratings on the expendability measure than nonsuicidal adolescents. Results support the concept that feeling expendable is a characteristic of suicidal adolescents. Implications for prevention and treatment of adolescent suicidality are discussed.

  19. Novel psychoactive substance intoxication resulting in attempted murder.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard; Tuddenham, Laurence

    2014-07-01

    A man in his twenties who had no previous history of violence, snorted large quantities of two substances he identified as 3-methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP), and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV); both are recognised as novel psychoactive substances, or commonly described in the media as "legal highs". He also inhaled butane gas. He experienced vivid hallucinations and developed bizarre ideas. During this state of mind he stabbed his father multiple times and was arrested and charged with attempted murder. He had a previous history of drug induced psychosis and although he had some slight residual symptoms before he consumed the substances, these were not considered relevant to his criminal liability at the time of the offence. The hallucinations caused by the use of these substances took six weeks to completely recede. He was convicted of attempted murder and sentenced to four years in prison. PMID:24931864

  20. Are predictors of future suicide attempts and the transition from suicidal ideation to suicide attempts shared or distinct: a 12-month prospective study among patients with depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai Fong; Shamsul, Azhar Shah; Maniam, Thambu

    2014-12-30

    Our study aimed to examine the interplay between clinical and social predictors of future suicide attempt and the transition from suicidal ideation to suicide attempt in depressive disorders. Sixty-six Malaysian inpatients with a depressive disorder were assessed at index admission and within 1 year for suicide attempt, suicidal ideation, depression severity, life event changes, treatment history and relevant clinical and socio-demographic factors. One-fifth of suicidal ideators transitioned to a future suicide attempt. All future attempters (12/66) had prior ideation and 83% of attempters had a prior attempt. The highest risk for transitioning from ideation to attempt was 5 months post-discharge. Single predictor models showed that previous psychiatric hospitalization and ideation severity were shared predictors of future attempt and ideation to attempt transition. Substance use disorders (especially alcohol) predicted future attempt and approached significance for the transition process. Low socio-economic status predicted the transition process while major personal injury/illness predicted future suicide attempt. Past suicide attempt, subjective depression severity and medication compliance predicted only future suicide attempt. The absence of prior suicide attempt did not eliminate the risk of future attempt. Given the limited sample, future larger studies on mechanisms underlying the interactions of such predictors are needed. PMID:25240940

  1. Are predictors of future suicide attempts and the transition from suicidal ideation to suicide attempts shared or distinct: a 12-month prospective study among patients with depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai Fong; Shamsul, Azhar Shah; Maniam, Thambu

    2014-12-30

    Our study aimed to examine the interplay between clinical and social predictors of future suicide attempt and the transition from suicidal ideation to suicide attempt in depressive disorders. Sixty-six Malaysian inpatients with a depressive disorder were assessed at index admission and within 1 year for suicide attempt, suicidal ideation, depression severity, life event changes, treatment history and relevant clinical and socio-demographic factors. One-fifth of suicidal ideators transitioned to a future suicide attempt. All future attempters (12/66) had prior ideation and 83% of attempters had a prior attempt. The highest risk for transitioning from ideation to attempt was 5 months post-discharge. Single predictor models showed that previous psychiatric hospitalization and ideation severity were shared predictors of future attempt and ideation to attempt transition. Substance use disorders (especially alcohol) predicted future attempt and approached significance for the transition process. Low socio-economic status predicted the transition process while major personal injury/illness predicted future suicide attempt. Past suicide attempt, subjective depression severity and medication compliance predicted only future suicide attempt. The absence of prior suicide attempt did not eliminate the risk of future attempt. Given the limited sample, future larger studies on mechanisms underlying the interactions of such predictors are needed.

  2. Sociological correlates of alienation among adolescent suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Wenz, F V

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to assess the relationship between adolescent alienation and a number of sociological factors in a sample adolescent suicide attempts from a northern metropolitan area. First, Dean's alienation scale is employed and the distribution of responses of the adolescent suicide attempts are analyzed. Second a number of sociological variables are examined by means of multiple regression procedures. In the regression analysis, eight variables were found to be statistically significant-in descending order: social contact with peers in the neighborhood, conflict with parents, broken romance, economic status of parents, communication blockage with parents, school performance, stepparents, and broken romance, These variables have been salient in previous research and theorizing about adolescent suicidal behavior. The fact that adolescence, by itself, seems to be a good predictor of whether or not a person will attempt suicide strongly suggests that there is something about the condition of adolescence which underlies this type of behavior. One possibility is that biological maturation is itself the crucial variable. Alternatively, the argument which follows concentrates on a major sociological aspect of adolescence-the adolescent's relative alienation from institutionalized social life. Alienation may be endemic to the period of adolescence.

  3. Collective efficacy, family attachment, and urban adolescent suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Maimon, David; Browning, Christopher R; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2010-09-01

    The suicide rate among American adolescents between the ages of 14-25 has dramatically increased during the last 50 years, and this fact has been the focus of extensive social-scientific investigation. To date, however, research focusing on the joint effects of mental health, family, and contextual-level predictors on adolescents' suicidal behaviors is scarce. Drawing on Durkheim's classic macro-level approach to suicide and collective efficacy theory, we use data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to examine the effect of informal social controls on adolescents' suicide attempts. Analyzing reports from 990 youth, we examine the hypothesis that neighborhood-level collective efficacy and family-level integration and social control independently affect suicide attempts. We also examine the extent to which they interact in their effects on suicidal behavior. Overall, results from multilevel logit models support the Durkheimian expectation that family attachment reduces the probability that adolescents will attempt suicide. The effect of collective efficacy is interactive in nature. Specifically, we find that collective efficacy significantly enhances the protective effect of family attachment and support on adolescent suicidal behaviors. We discuss findings within the context of social control theory.

  4. Collective Efficacy, Family Attachment, and Urban Adolescent Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Maimon, David; Browning, Christopher R.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    The suicide rate among American adolescents between the ages of 14–25 has dramatically increased during the last 50 years, and this fact has been the focus of extensive social-scientific investigation. To date, however, research focusing on the joint effects of mental health, family, and contextual-level predictors on adolescents’ suicidal behaviors is scarce. Drawing on Durkheim’s classic macro-level approach to suicide and collective efficacy theory, we use data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to examine the effect of informal social controls on adolescents’ suicide attempts. Analyzing reports from 990 youth, we examine the hypothesis that neighborhood-level collective efficacy and family-level integration and social control independently affect suicide attempts. We also examine the extent to which they interact in their effects on suicidal behavior. Overall, results from multilevel logit models support the Durkheimian expectation that family attachment reduces the probability that adolescents will attempt suicide. The effect of collective efficacy is interactive in nature. Specifically, we find that collective efficacy significantly enhances the protective effect of family attachment and support on adolescent suicidal behaviors. We discuss findings within the context of social control theory. PMID:20943592

  5. Diagnosis and attempted surgical repair of hemivertebrae in an African penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Bradford, Carol; Bronson, Ellen; Kintner, Leah; Schultz, Denise; McDonnell, John

    2008-12-01

    Spinal injuries and congenital or developmental spinal deformities have rarely been reported in pet birds, and treatment for these conditions is even less often described. In poultry, spinal and leg deformities have been well documented, but treatment of the individual is not considered, because affected individuals are typically culled. A 10-week-old male African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus) from the penguin exhibit at the Maryland Zoo in Baltimore was evaluated for ataxia, weakness, and motor deficits and was diagnosed with a spinal deformity. Further investigation by using magnetic resonance imaging was conducted, and the penguin subsequently underwent an attempted surgical repair of the malformation. The penguin never regained normal motor control and was found dead 4 weeks after the surgery. Necropsy results revealed hemivertebrae and compression of the spinal cord with associated myositis. Although attempted treatment was unsuccessful in this case, this report illustrates the diagnostic and treatment challenges of avian spinal disease.

  6. Diagnosis and attempted surgical repair of hemivertebrae in an African penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Bradford, Carol; Bronson, Ellen; Kintner, Leah; Schultz, Denise; McDonnell, John

    2008-12-01

    Spinal injuries and congenital or developmental spinal deformities have rarely been reported in pet birds, and treatment for these conditions is even less often described. In poultry, spinal and leg deformities have been well documented, but treatment of the individual is not considered, because affected individuals are typically culled. A 10-week-old male African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus) from the penguin exhibit at the Maryland Zoo in Baltimore was evaluated for ataxia, weakness, and motor deficits and was diagnosed with a spinal deformity. Further investigation by using magnetic resonance imaging was conducted, and the penguin subsequently underwent an attempted surgical repair of the malformation. The penguin never regained normal motor control and was found dead 4 weeks after the surgery. Necropsy results revealed hemivertebrae and compression of the spinal cord with associated myositis. Although attempted treatment was unsuccessful in this case, this report illustrates the diagnostic and treatment challenges of avian spinal disease. PMID:19216262

  7. Aspartame and dizziness: preliminary results of a prospective, nonblinded, prevalence and attempted cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Gulya, A J; Sessions, R B; Troost, T R

    1992-09-01

    Aspartame is a low-calorie food sweetener recently approved by the FDA for general human consumption. One of us (AJG) treated a patient whose symptoms of episodic vertigo and continuous unsteadiness resolved upon ceasing aspartame intake. A literature review revealed that although dizziness has been associated with aspartame intake, no systematic study of the problem exists. As an initial attempt to ascertain the prevalence of aspartame-related dizziness in an otolaryngologic clinic, we elected to study prospectively all patients entering with the complaint of vertigo by means of a standardized questionnaire. Those patients determined to consume aspartame were further studied in a nonblinded manner to see if aspartame intake could be correlated to symptomatology. A cross-over limb was also attempted, but no patient would participate. This presentation details the case history of the propositus patient and the preliminary results of the currently ongoing prospective study.

  8. Are high-lethality suicide attempters with bipolar disorder a distinct phenotype?

    PubMed

    Oquendo, Maria A; Carballo, Juan Jose; Rajouria, Namita; Currier, Dianne; Tin, Adrienne; Merville, Jessica; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Sher, Leo; Grunebaum, Michael F; Burke, Ainsley K; Mann, J John

    2009-01-01

    Because Bipolar Disorder (BD) individuals making highly lethal suicide attempts have greater injury burden and risk for suicide, early identification is critical. BD patients were classified as high- or low-lethality attempters. High-lethality attempts required inpatient medical treatment. Mixed effects logistic regression models and permutation analyses examined correlations between lethality, number, and order of attempts. High-lethality attempters reported greater suicidal intent and more previous attempts. Multiple attempters showed no pattern of incremental lethality increase with subsequent attempts, but individuals with early high-lethality attempts more often made high-lethality attempts later. A subset of high-lethality attempters make only high-lethality attempts. However, presence of previous low-lethality attempts does not indicate that risk for more lethal, possibly successful, attempts is reduced.

  9. Onset of addiction: a first attempt at prediction.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, P H

    1978-11-01

    This study attempts to identify predictors of early heroin addiction. Natives of low social class origins are, as predicted by "social structure and anomie theory," more likely to be addicted when young. However, social class has little impact on age of addiction among migrants. Blue-collar migrants are strikingly less likely than blue-collar natives to be addicted when young; a nonsignificant trend in the same direction is found for white-collar respondents. Findings are interpreted in terms of commitment to traditional values. Contrary to expectations based on Moynihan, family intactness is unrelated to age of addiction.

  10. [Patient satisfaction regarding further telephone contact following attempted suicide].

    PubMed

    Gruat, G; Cottencin, O; Ducrocq, F; Duhem, S; Vaiva, G

    2010-06-01

    At a time when increasing importance is given to providing satisfaction to the users of health services, it is surprising that this concept has hardly ever been examined in the field of suicide. Although suicide (prevention and management) is an important part of public health, there seems to be little interest in finding out patients' opinions about the healthcare services which are offered to them. Back in 1976, some authors found a link between the risk of suicide and a low level of satisfaction of healthcare. To date, only two studies looking at management of suicidal patients have included an assessment of patient satisfaction (a strong link between dissatisfaction and suicidal risk was found). During the SYSCALL study, which measured the impact of systematic recontacting by telephone on recurrence of suicide, in the weeks following a suicide attempt, we aimed to find out if this procedure and its methods were well-accepted by the patients. When the patients were first recontacted, 13 months after the suicide attempt, and included in our study, we assessed by means of a questionnaire, their experience of being faced with this intervention, and its impact on their future. Of the 605 patients included, 312 were put into the control group, 147 were recontacted at the end of the first month, and 146 at the end of the third month. The rate of repeat suicide attempts in the year following the initial attempt, was significantly lower in the group that was recontacted after one month, than in the control group [12% against 22%; P=0.03]. It would therefore seem that systematic recontacting by telephone one month after attempted suicide may have contributed in reducing the risk of an early repeat suicide attempt. Of the 482 patients whom we managed to contact by 13 months, 254 had filled out the questionnaire about their subjective experience, in writing or by telephone, this making a response rate of 52.7%. Amongst the patients who replied, female patients are over

  11. Otologic features and teachings of a bombing attempt.

    PubMed

    Cudennec, Y F; Buffe, P; Poncet, J L

    1995-09-01

    The authors present 13 casualties observed after the bombing attempt in Djibouti (March 1987). All of them suffered blast injury to the ear. The scene and the circumstances of the explosion are described. A correlation is sought between the location and position of each casualty and the lesions he presented, with reference to animal experiment data, namely the shock waves propagation conditions. The otologic lesions are commented on with reference to acute acoustic trauma, and the need for a special study of vestibular outcome of blast injuries is emphasized. PMID:7478034

  12. [Suicide attempts in children under 12 years of age].

    PubMed

    Stordeur, C; Acquaviva, E; Galdon, L; Mercier, J-C; Titomanlio, L; Delorme, R

    2015-03-01

    Suicide attempts (SA) in children are often considered rare and poorly studied. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical characteristics of SA in children under 12 years of age. A retrospective assessment was conducted in 30 consecutive SAs reported in children under 12 years of age admitted to the emergency department at the Robert-Debré University Hospital (Paris, France) from 2007 to 2010 and the Regional University Hospital (Besançon, France) from 2000 to 2008. All suicide attempters were directly assessed at the somatic and psychiatric level. Patients were 8-11 years old (mean, 10.2±0.8). The sex ratio was 0.9 boys for 1 girl. The leading SA methods were poisoning by medication (53.3%), hanging or strangulation (23.3%), jumping from a height (16.7%), poisoning by chemicals (3.3%), and lesions inflicted by sharp objects (3.3%). In addition, SAs were characterized by high lethality (43.7%) contrasting with their low to moderate suicidal intentionality (43.8% and 56.2%, respectively). In conclusion, we reported that SA in children differs from those of adolescents by their greater lethality related to the methods used, but contrasting with the low intentionality mentioned by these patients.

  13. Menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation during an aided quit attempt.

    PubMed

    Fu, Steven S; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Partin, Melissa R; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Nelson, David B; Clothier, Barbara A; Joseph, Anne M

    2008-03-01

    Menthol may make cigarettes more addictive and rates of menthol cigarette smoking are disproportionately higher among Black. However, few studies have examined the association between menthol cigarette smoking and cessation, and the studies to date have produced conflicting findings. The present study examines the effect of menthol cigarette smoking on cessation among a multi-ethnic sample of smokers making a pharmacotherapy-aided quit attempt. We hypothesized that menthol cigarette smoking would be associated with lower smoking abstinence rates and conducted a secondary analysis of data from a multi-site randomized controlled trial of an intervention designed to facilitate repeat tobacco cessation treatment (N = 1,343). The intervention consisted of a patient phone call and a computerized provider prompt. The primary outcome for this analysis was 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence. The average age of the sample was 56 years old. Overall, 25% of the sample smoked menthol cigarettes: 19% of Whites, 62% of Blacks, and 25% of other ethnicity (p<.001). We observed no significant effects for menthol cigarette smoking or ethnicity on smoking abstinence rates. In conclusion, combined with findings from previous research, this study suggests that smoking menthol cigarettes does not decrease smoking cessation among older smokers during a quit attempt aided with pharmacotherapy.

  14. Attempts to prepare an all-carbon indigoid system

    PubMed Central

    Yildizhan, Şeref; Jones, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    Summary First attempts are described to prepare a precursor for an all-carbon analog of indigo, the tetracyclic triene 4. Starting from indan-2-one (9) the α-methylene ketone 13 was prepared. Upon subjecting this compound to a McMurry coupling reaction, it dimerized to the bis-indene derivative 17, rather than providing the tetramethyl derivative of 4, the hydrocarbon 14. In a second approach, indan-1-one (18) was dimerized to the conjugated enedione 21 through the bis-1-indene dimer 19. All attempts to methylenate 21 failed, however. When 19 was treated with the Tebbe reagent, the dimer 23 was produced, presumably through a Cope reaction of the intermediately generated isomer 22. The bis-indene derivative 23 can be alkylated with 1,2-dibromoethane to produce a 1:1 mixture of the spiro compounds 24 and 25. Although 9 could be reductively dimerized to 30, the conversion of this olefin to 14 failed. PMID:25977710

  15. Suicide attempts among people living with HIV in France.

    PubMed

    Préau, M; Bouhnik, A-D; Peretti-Watel, P; Obadia, Y; Spire, B

    2008-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence and characteristics of attempted suicide among a representative sample of French Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals. In 2003, a face-to-face survey was conducted among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) selected in a random, stratified sample of French hospital departments. Among solicited individuals, 2,932 agreed to participate and were asked if they had ever AS. Among the respondents, 23% had AS. Female gender, younger age, native French citizenship, reporting household financial difficulties, having been HIV-contaminated through homosexual contact or through injection drug use and suffering from lipodystrophy-related symptoms were all independently associated with AS. HIV-discrimination and the lack of social support from family remained independently associated with AS. Our findings indicate a high level of AS among PLWHA and emphasize the multiple roles of factors associated with living with HIV, together with sociodemographic factors. The results enable the possibility for vulnerable groups to be targeted for specific future interventions in order to prevent attempted suicide.

  16. Neocortical Expansion: An Attempt toward Relating Phylogeny and Ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Killackey, H P

    1990-01-01

    The neocortex is the most characteristic feature of the human brain. On gross inspection, its convoluted surfaces can be seen to have overgrown and covered most other brain structures. In the functional sphere, it is to the neocortex that we attribute those behaviors assumed to be most uniquely human such as cognition and linguistic behavior. This essay is an attempt to understand how this structure expanded during the course of mammalian evolution. At present, any attempt must be more speculative than definitive, but it is offered in the hope that it will generate more discussion on a topic that is central to all neurobiology, as well as a number of allied disciplines. I will proceed by outlining current views on the evolution of the brain, briefly review the organization of the somatosensory cortex in several mammalian forms, and then discuss in some detail ontogenetic mechanisms that may have some bearing on neocortical phylogeny. The primary proposition put forth is that the mammalian neocortex is relatively unspecified by strict genetic means, and that this allowed the neocortex to expand and adapt to a variety of circumstances during the course of phylogeny. PMID:23964719

  17. Attempts to characterize microballoon sensors for shock velocity and material motion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, H.W.; Looney, L.D.; Taylor, R.C.; Medina, R.S.; Baumgart, J.S.; Baca, G.T.; Dominguez, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Optimization of performance of gas filled microballoons mounted on optical fibers as sensors for shock and material motion studies, was attempted by variation of several parameters. In some cases, results were not predictable and, in general, results were not as reproductible as desired. Change of some parameters caused little effect but effects of the sleeve size and sleeve material seem to be significant. Recorded shape of optical spectra match black-body temperature of 8000/sup 0/K when argon filled balloons were impacted with projectiles with velocity of 1 km/s, in close agreement with expected values based on ideal gas calculations. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Does Household Gun Access Increase the Risk of Attempted Suicide?: Evidence from a National Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Adam M.; Lizotte, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to assess if home firearm access increases the risk of nonfatal suicidal attempts among adolescents. Such a gun focus has largely been limited to case-control studies on completed suicides. This line of research has found that household gun access increases the risk of suicide due to features of available firearms…

  19. Frequency of suicide attempts by ingestion of drugs seen at a tertiary care pediatric hospital in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Olguin, Hugo Juárez; Garduño, Lina Barrañco; Pérez, Janett Flores; Bastida, Mario Acosta; Flores-Pérez, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is a complex behavior with biological, psychological and social causes. It has predisposing family factors such as domestic violence, psychiatric disorders and parents' alcohol abuse. Suicides have increased in children and adolescents in the last decades and it is now the third leading cause of death. Mexico has the second place in mortality in adolescents between 10-14 years old, of which 21.9 % are suicides. This study aimed to determine the frequency of suicide attempts using drugs in children and adolescents in a tertiary care hospital and to identify the causes. A retrospective and descriptive study was performed considering socioeconomic, cultural and biological issues related to suicide attempts using drugs in children and adolescents who were attended at the National Institute of Pediatrics from January 1995 to March 2005. A total of 141 drug intoxication cases were detected including 47 suicide attempts; 25 girls and 22 boys, with a median of 13 years of age. The most frequently drug classes used were analgesics 21 of 47 cases and antidepressants 11 of 47 cases. Risk factors were parents' divorce and family dysfunction in 16 of 47 cases of the population. Suicidal behavior in children and adolescents can be a way to attract attention, as well as an alarm signal asking for help. Analgesics and antidepressants are drugs commonly used in suicide attempts. PMID:21471607

  20. Young People's Risk of Suicide Attempts in Relation to Parental Death: A Population-Based Register Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Christiansen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to examine the association between the death of a biological parent and subsequent suicide attempts by young people (aged 10-22 years), and to explore sociodemographic factors as modifying factors in the process. Methods: The study used a nested case-control design. The full study population was obtained…

  1. Detection of attempted movement from the EEG during neuromuscular block: proof of principle study in awake volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Blokland, Yvonne; Spyrou, Loukianos; Lerou, Jos; Mourisse, Jo; Jan Scheffer, Gert; Geffen, Geert-Jan van; Farquhar, Jason; Bruhn, Jörgen

    2015-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have the potential to detect intraoperative awareness during general anaesthesia. Traditionally, BCI research is aimed at establishing or improving communication and control for patients with permanent paralysis. Patients experiencing intraoperative awareness also lack the means to communicate after administration of a neuromuscular blocker, but may attempt to move. This study evaluates the principle of detecting attempted movements from the electroencephalogram (EEG) during local temporary neuromuscular blockade. EEG was obtained from four healthy volunteers making 3-second hand movements, both before and after local administration of rocuronium in one isolated forearm. Using offline classification analysis we investigated whether the attempted movements the participants made during paralysis could be distinguished from the periods when they did not move or attempt to move. Attempted movement trials were correctly identified in 81 (68–94)% (mean (95% CI)) and 84 (74–93)% of the cases using 30 and 9 EEG channels, respectively. Similar accuracies were obtained when training the classifier on the participants’ actual movements. These results provide proof of the principle that a BCI can detect movement attempts during neuromuscular blockade. Based on this, in the future a BCI may serve as a communication channel between a patient under general anaesthesia and the anaesthesiologist. PMID:26248679

  2. Attitudes towards suicide attempts broadcast on social media: an exploratory study of Chinese microblogs.

    PubMed

    Li, Ang; Huang, Xiaoxiao; Hao, Bibo; O'Dea, Bridianne; Christensen, Helen; Zhu, Tingshao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Broadcasting a suicide attempt on social media has become a public health concern in many countries, particularly in China. In these cases, social media users are likely to be the first to witness the suicide attempt, and their attitudes may determine their likelihood of joining rescue efforts. This paper examines Chinese social media (Weibo) users' attitudes towards suicide attempts broadcast on Weibo. Methods. A total of 4,969 Weibo posts were selected from a customised Weibo User Pool which consisted of 1.06 million active users. The selected posts were then independently coded by two researchers using a coding framework that assessed: (a) Themes, (b) General attitudes, (c) Stigmatising attitudes, (d) Perceived motivations, and (e) Desired responses. Results and Discussion. More than one third of Weibo posts were coded as "stigmatising" (35%). Among these, 22%, 16%, and 15% of posts were coded as "deceitful," "pathetic," and "stupid," respectively. Among the posts which reflected different types of perceived motivations, 57% of posts were coded as "seeking attention." Among the posts which reflected desired responses, 37% were "not saving" and 28% were "encouraging suicide." Furthermore, among the posts with negative desired responses (i.e., "not saving" and "encouraging suicide"), 57% and 17% of them were related to different types of stigmatising attitudes and perceived motivations, respectively. Specifically, 29% and 26% of posts reflecting both stigmatising attitudes and negative desired responses were coded as "deceitful" and "pathetic," respectively, while 66% of posts reflecting both perceived motivations, and negative desired responses were coded as "seeking attention." Very few posts "promoted literacy" (2%) or "provided resources" (8%). Gender differences existed in multiple categories. Conclusions. This paper confirms the need for stigma reduction campaigns for Chinese social media users to improve their attitudes towards those who

  3. Should Colleges Withdraw Students Who Threaten or Attempt Suicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavela, Gary

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the pros and cons of "involuntary withdrawals" in cases of students who are at risk of suicide. A June, 2005, Massachusetts Superior Court summary judgment ruling in the case of "Shin v. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)" concluded that MIT administrators owed a duty of care to suicide victim, Elizabeth Shin, who…

  4. The Impact of Non-attempted and Dually-Attempted Items on Person Abilities Using Item Response Theory

    PubMed Central

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Tsaousis, Ioannis; Al Harbi, Khaleel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate response strategy with person ability estimates. Two behavioral strategies were examined: (a) the strategy to skip items in order to save time on timed tests, and, (b) the strategy to select two responses on an item, with the hope that one of them may be considered correct. Participants were 4,422 individuals who were administered a standardized achievement measure related to math, biology, chemistry, and physics. In the present evaluation, only the physics subscale was employed. Two analyses were conducted: (a) a person-based one to identify differences between groups and potential correlates of those differences, and, (b) a measure-based analysis in order to identify the parts of the measure that were responsible for potential group differentiation. For (a) person abilities the 2-PL model was employed and later the 3-PL and 4-PL models in order to estimate upper and lower asymptotes of person abilities. For (b) differential item functioning, differential test functioning, and differential distractor functioning were investigated. Results indicated that there were significant differences between groups with completers having the highest ability compared to both non-attempters and dual responders. There were no significant differences between no-attempters and dual responders. The present findings have implications for response strategy efficacy and measure evaluation, revision, and construction. PMID:27790174

  5. Assessing motivations for suicide attempts: development and psychometric properties of the inventory of motivations for suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    May, Alexis M; Klonsky, E David

    2013-10-01

    This study describes the psychometric properties of the Inventory of Motivations for Suicide Attempts (IMSA). The IMSA was designed to comprehensively assess motivations for suicide emphasized by major theories of suicidality. The IMSA was administered to two samples of recent suicide attempters, undergraduates (n = 66) and outpatients (n = 53). The IMSA exhibited a reliable two-factor structure in which one factor represented Intrapersonal motivations related to ending emotional pain, and the second represented Interpersonal motivations related to communication or help-seeking. Convergent validity and divergent validity of IMSA scales were supported by expected patterns of correlations with another measure of suicide motivations. In addition, the IMSA scales displayed clinical utility, in which greater endorsement of intrapersonal motivations was associated with greater intent to die, whereas greater endorsement of interpersonal motivations was associated with less lethal intent and greater likelihood of rescue. Findings suggest the IMSA can be of use for both research and clinical purposes when a comprehensive assessment of suicide motivations is desired.

  6. STS-101 Pilot Horowitz suits up for second launch attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-101 Pilot Scott J. Horowitz smiles while he finishes suiting up before heading a second time to Launch Pad 39A for launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis. The previous day's launch attempt was scrubbed due to high cross winds at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The mission will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies and to prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. Also, the crew will conduct one space walk. This will be the third assembly flight to the Space Station. Liftoff is targeted for 3:52 p.m. EDT. The mission is expected to last about 10 days, with Atlantis landing at KSC Saturday, May 6, about 11:53 a.m. EDT.

  7. STS-101 Commander Halsell suits up for third launch attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-101 Commander James D. Halsell Jr. smiles while he finishes suiting up before heading a third time to Launch Pad 39A and launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis. The previous two launch attempts were scrubbed due to high cross winds at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The mission will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies and to prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. Also, the crew will conduct one space walk. This is the third assembly flight to the Space Station. After the 10-day mission, Atlantis is expected to land at KSC May 6 at about 12:03 p.m. EDT

  8. Early Attempts to Detect the Neutrino at the Cavendish Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Jaume

    2006-03-01

    In the 1920s and early 1930s the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge was preeminent in experimental research on radioactivity and nuclear physics, with theoretical physics playing a subsidiary role in guiding, but not determining the course of experimental research. Soon after Wolfgang Pauli (1900 1958) proposed his neutrino hypothesis in 1930 to preserve conservation of energy and momentum in beta decay, experiments the first of their kind were carried out in the Cavendish Laboratory to detect Pauli’s elusive particle, but they were abandoned in 1936. I trace these early attempts and suggest reasons for their abandonment, which may contribute to an understanding of the complex way in which theoretical entities are accepted by physicists.

  9. Decametric radio emission from comets - an attempt at detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gergely, T.E.; Mahoney, M.J.

    1986-06-01

    In a brief discussion of radio emission of comets, it is pointed out that an occurrence of nonthermal radio emissions would be expected only at decametric or longer wavelengths. An attempt is reported to detect emission at decameter wavelengths during the International Halley Watch trial run on Comet P/Crommelin in March 1984. No plasma effects in the tail were observed either at visible or at radio wavelengths. Assuming free-free emission from an optically thin gas, the observations make it possible to place an upper limit in the range from 560 to 8900 electrons per cu cm on the electron density in the tail. The Teepee Tee array employed in the investigations has a frequency coverage of 15-125 MHz, and a sensitivity of approximately 1 Jy, (the highest currently available from the ground at low frequencies). 10 references.

  10. Results of an attempt to reproduce the STAP phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Aizawa, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, Obokata and colleagues reported their observation of a novel cell reprogramming phenomenon they named ‘stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency’ (STAP). The most conclusive evidence for the pluripotency of so-called STAP cells was the purported ability of such cells to contribute to chimera formation. Here, I report the results of an attempt by Haruko Obokata to replicate the phenomenon under the supervision of the Scientific Validity Examination Team of RIKEN. In this follow-up study, putative STAP cells prepared by Haruko Obokata were injected into 1051 embryos, of which 591 were recovered. However, the injected cells made no significant contribution in any tissue in any of the embryos that developed. PMID:27610221

  11. Results of an attempt to reproduce the STAP phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, Obokata and colleagues reported their observation of a novel cell reprogramming phenomenon they named 'stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency' (STAP). The most conclusive evidence for the pluripotency of so-called STAP cells was the purported ability of such cells to contribute to chimera formation. Here, I report the results of an attempt by Haruko Obokata to replicate the phenomenon under the supervision of the Scientific Validity Examination Team of RIKEN. In this follow-up study, putative STAP cells prepared by Haruko Obokata were injected into 1051 embryos, of which 591 were recovered. However, the injected cells made no significant contribution in any tissue in any of the embryos that developed. PMID:27610221

  12. Behavior of Puerto Rican parrots during failed nesting attempts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.A.; Wilson, M.H.; Field, R.

    1997-01-01

    We compared patterns of nesting behavior of four pairs of Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) that experienced failed nesting attempts to behavior of four pairs of parrots that experienced no substantial nest problems and successfully fledged young without management intervention. Only changes in female parrots' behavior were clearly associated with nest failure. During incubation, decreases in nest attendance, increases in duration of recesses, and increases in frequency of nest entries by female parrots were associated with imminent abandonment of nests. During early chick rearing, similar behavior was associated with the loss of broods. Low nest attendance and long recesses by female parrots during incubation were also associated with successful hatching of eggs followed by death of young several days later. The behavior patterns and changes in Puerto Rican Parrot nesting behavior described in this paper may alert biologists to nest problems that might be mitigated by management intervention.

  13. Results of an attempt to reproduce the STAP phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Aizawa, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, Obokata and colleagues reported their observation of a novel cell reprogramming phenomenon they named ‘stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency’ (STAP). The most conclusive evidence for the pluripotency of so-called STAP cells was the purported ability of such cells to contribute to chimera formation. Here, I report the results of an attempt by Haruko Obokata to replicate the phenomenon under the supervision of the Scientific Validity Examination Team of RIKEN. In this follow-up study, putative STAP cells prepared by Haruko Obokata were injected into 1051 embryos, of which 591 were recovered. However, the injected cells made no significant contribution in any of the embryos that developed. PMID:27610221

  14. An aeronautic suicide attempt (2). The psychiatrist's comments.

    PubMed

    Spengler, A

    1993-01-01

    A man without previous flying experience stole an aircraft and took off in order to commit suicide. An air traffic controller managed to convince him to land the plane. This article reports the psychiatrist's investigation into the case.

  15. Reward signals, attempted suicide, and impulsivity in late-life depression.

    PubMed

    Dombrovski, Alexandre Y; Szanto, Katalin; Clark, Luke; Reynolds, Charles F; Siegle, Greg J

    2013-10-01

    IMPORTANCE—Suicide can be viewed as an escape from unendurable punishment at the cost of any future rewards. Could faulty estimation of these outcomes predispose to suicidal behavior? In behavioral studies, many of those who have attempted suicide misestimate expected rewards on gambling and probabilistic learning tasks.OBJECTIVES—To describe the neural circuit abnormalities that underlie disadvantageous choices in people at risk for suicide and to relate these abnormalities to impulsivity, which is one of the components of vulnerability to suicide.DESIGN—Case-control functional magnetic resonance imaging study of reward learning using are inforcement learning model.SETTING—University hospital and outpatient clinic.PATIENTS—Fifty-three participants 60 years or older, including 15 depressed patients who had attempted suicide, 18 depressed patients who had never attempted suicide (depressed control subjects), and 20 psychiatrically healthy controls.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES—Components of the cortical blood oxygenation level–dependent response tracking expected and unpredicted rewards.RESULTS—Depressed elderly participants displayed 2 distinct disruptions of control over reward-guided behavior. First, impulsivity and a history of suicide attempts (particularly poorly planned ones) were associated with a weakened expected reward signal in the paralimbic cortex,which in turn predicted the behavioral insensitivity to contingency change. Second, depression was associated with disrupted corticostriatothalamic encoding of unpredicted rewards, which in turn predicted the behavioral over sensitivity to punishment. These results were robust to the effects of possible brain damage from suicide attempts, depressive severity, co-occurring substance use and anxiety disorders, antidepressant and anticholinergic exposure, lifetime exposure to electroconvulsive therapy, vascular illness, and incipient dementia.CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE—Altered paralimbic reward

  16. Single and Multiple Suicide Attempts and Associated Health Risk Factors in New Hampshire Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Harriet J.; Jankowski, Mary K.; Sengupta, Anjana; Wolfe, Rosemarie S.; Wolford, George L., II; Rosenberg, Stanley D.

    2005-01-01

    In this study we examined self-reported suicide attempts and their relationship to other health risk factors in a community sample of 16,644 adolescents. Fifteen percent endorsed suicide attempts (10% single; 5% multiple attempts). We hypothesized that multiple attempters would show higher prevalence of comorbid health risks than single or…

  17. Factors Associated with the Medical Severity of Suicide Attempts in Youths and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swahn, Monica H.; Potter, Lloyd B.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with the medical severity of suicide attempts focusing on demographic characteristics, and circumstances of the suicide attempt. Results show that young age was significantly associated with a nearly lethal suicide attempt. Prior attempts, hopelessness, depression, and help-seeking were significantly and…

  18. STS-108 Crew Breakfast for second launch attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    STS-108 Crew Breakfast for second launch attempt KSC-01PD-1775 KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Gathered for a second day after a scrub due to weather conditions, the STS-108 crew again enjoy a pre-launch snack featuring a cake with the mission patch. Seated left to right are Mission Specialists Daniel M. Tani and Linda A. Godwin, Pilot Mark E. Kelly and Commander Dominic L. Gorie; the Expedition 4 crew Commander Yuri Onufrienko and astronauts Carl E. Walz and Daniel W. Bursch. Top priorities for the STS-108 (UF-1) mission of Endeavour are rotation of the International Space Station Expedition 3 and Expedition 4 crews; bringing water, equipment and supplies to the station in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello; and the crew's completion of robotics tasks and a spacewalk to install thermal blankets over two pieces of equipment at the bases of the Space Station's solar wings. Launch is scheduled for 5:19 p.m. EST Dec .5, 2001, from Launch Pad 39B.

  19. The narratives of abused children who have survived attempted filicide.

    PubMed

    Katz, Carmit

    2013-10-01

    Child abuse is a social problem that receives much attention from policy makers, practitioners, and researchers. This alarming phenomenon generates many consequences for children, their families, and society as a whole; one tragic consequence of child abuse is filicide. Because of the unfortunate circumstances surrounding such events, children are hushed by their perpetrators, whether abusers or killers, and we are thus denied the opportunity to hear their voices and to promote understanding of the phenomenon. The aim of the current study is to explore in depth the patterns and themes that can be found in the narratives of children who survived a murder attempt by one of their parents. Content analysis was performed on seven investigative interviews with children using thematic analysis. Five key categories were determined based on the children's narratives: (a) many bad things have happened to me, (b) this was not the first time I was abused by my parent, (c) I am concerned about my parent, (d) I am alive thanks to my siblings, and (e) it is hard to remember what exactly happened. This study contributes to the understanding of child physical abuse and filicide. The discussion integrated conclusions for policy makers and practitioners who seek methods of addressing child abuse as well as determining whether and how filicide can be prevented. PMID:23735872

  20. STS-113 crew breakfast before second launch attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On the second launch attempt, the STS-113 crew enjoys a snack before suiting up for launch. The launch was scrubbed on Nov. 22 because of poor weather in the Transoceanic Abort Landing sites. Seated left to right are Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington, Pilot Paul Lockhart and Commander James Wetherbee; Expedition 6 flight engineer Nikolai Budarin, Commander Ken Bowersox and flight engineer Donald Pettit. STS-113 is the 16th American assembly flight to the International Space Station. The launch will carry the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is now scheduled for Nov. 23 at 7:50 p.m. EST.

  1. STS-105 Commander Horowitz suits up for another launch attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- STS-105 Commander Scott Horowitz is helped with his launch and entry suit for the second launch attempt after a 24-hour weather delay. Launch countdown activities for the 12-day mission were called off at about 5:12 p.m. Aug. 9 during the T-9 minute hold due to the high potential for lightning, a thick cloud cover and the potential for showers. Launch is currently scheduled for 5:15 p.m. EDT Aug. 10. Highlighting the mission will be the rotation of the International Space Station crew, the third flight of an Italian-built Multi-Purpose Logistics Module delivering additional scientific racks, equipment and supplies for the Space Station, and two spacewalks. Included in the payload is the Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS) tank, which will be attached to the Station during the spacewalks. The EAS will be installed on the P6 truss, which holds the Station'''s giant U.S. solar arrays, batteries and the cooling radiators. The EAS contains spare ammonia for the Station'''s cooling system. The three-member Expedition Two crew will be returning to Earth aboard Discovery after a five-month stay on the Station.

  2. Global fitting of single spin asymmetry: An attempt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Prokudin, Alexei

    2012-04-01

    We present an attempt of global analysis of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering ℓp↑→ℓ'πX data on single spin asymmetries and data on left-right asymmetry AN in p↑p→πX in order to simultaneously extract information on the Sivers function and the twist-three quark-gluon Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman function. We explore different possibilities such as the node of the Sivers function in x or k⊥ in order to explain “sign mismatch” between these functions. We show that π± semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering data and π0 STAR data can be well described in a combined fit based on both the transverse momentum dependent and collinear twist-three factorization formalisms; however, π± BRAHMS data are not described in a satisfactory way. This leaves the question open of a solution to the “sign mismatch.” Possible explanations are then discussed.

  3. An attempt to decrease anisotropic emissions of neutrons from a cylindrical 241Am-Be-encapsulation source.

    PubMed

    Kowatari, M; Tanimura, Y; Yoshizawa, M

    2014-10-01

    An attempt to decrease the anisotropic emissions of neutrons from a cylindrical (241)Am-Be-encapsulated X3 source was conducted with Monte Carlo calculations and experiments. The influence of metal materials and shapes of the external casing to the anisotropy factor were focussed on. Results obtained by calculations using MCNP4C implied that a light and spherical-shaped external casing decreases the anisotropic emission of neutrons. Experimental results using the spherical-shaped aluminium protection case also revealed that the anisotropy factor was close to 1.0 with wide zenith angle ranges.

  4. Oleander Poisoning as an Example of Self-Medication Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Bavunoğlu, Işıl; Balta, Musa; Türkmen, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is an increasing interest in herbal products as a self-medication method in recent years. Some plant extracts either turn into drugs over time or are consumed directly without treatment. One of these plants is Nerium oleander L., which is a potentially lethal plant, since it has cardiac glycosides. However, numerous researches of its extracts have been performed against cancer cell lines in recent literature. This contradiction leads to misinterpretation and induces the prevalence of intoxication or fatal cases. Case Report: This case is associated with an oleander-poisoned patient, who was admitted to the Emergency unit 20 hours after the first dose, and 8 hours after the second dose. Although she lives in a metropolis and has a higher level of education and numerous hospital facilities available, she had decided to take self-medication for her Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and malignant thyroid disease which was caused by her apprehensive thoughts. Oleandrin was detected in the urine at a concentration of 3.2 ng/mL and in the serum at a concentration of 8.4 ng/mL by chromatographic analysis at the time of admission. Conclusion: This case represents the misunderstanding of herbal treatments by the community. Promoting awareness of the potential toxicity of this plant among the public may help to reduce the incidence of poisoning due to Nerium species. PMID:27761287

  5. Second Attempt of Cabergoline Withdrawal in Patients with Prolactinomas after a Failed First Attempt: Is it Worthwhile?

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Lucio; Albuquerque, José Luciano; Gadelha, Patrícia Sampaio; Rangel Filho, Frederico; Siqueira, Aline Maria C.; da Fonseca, Maíra Melo; Viana, Karoline Frazão; Gomes, Barbara Sales; Lyra, Ruy

    2015-01-01

    Successful discontinuation of cabergoline (CAB) treatment has been reported in 31–75% of prolactinomas patients treated for at least 2 years. In contrast, it is not well established whether CAB therapy can be successfully withdrawn after a failed first attempt. This prospective open trial was designed to address this topic and to try to identify possible predictor factors. Among 180 patients with prolactinomas on CAB therapy, the authors selected those who fulfilled very strict criteria, particularly additional CAB therapy for at least 2 years, normalization of serum prolactin (PRL) levels following CAB restart, no tumor remnant >10 mm, no previous pituitary radiotherapy or surgery; and current CAB dose ≤1.0 mg/week. Recurrence was defined as an increase of PRL levels above the upper limit of normal. A total of 34 patients (70.6% female) treated with CAB for 24–30 months were recruited. Ten patients (29.4%) remained without evidence of recurrence after 24–26 months of follow-up. Twenty-four patients (70.6%) recurred within 15 months (75% within 12 months) after drug withdrawal and ~80% were restarted CAB. Median time to recurrence was 10.5 months (range, 3–15). Despite overlapping values, non-recurring patients had significantly lower mean PRL levels before withdrawal. Moreover, the recurrence rate was lower in subjects without visible tumor on pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) than in those with small remnant tumor (60 vs. 79%), though the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.20). No other characteristic could be identified as a predictor of successful CAB discontinuation. In conclusion, a second attempt of CAB withdrawal after two additional years of therapy may be successful, particularly in patients with lower PRL levels and no visible tumor on pituitary MRI. Close monitoring of PRL level is mandatory, especially within the first year after withdrawal, where most recurrences are detected. PMID:25699020

  6. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Player, Michael J.; Proudfoot, Judy; Fogarty, Andrea; Whittle, Erin; Spurrier, Michael; Shand, Fiona; Christensen, Helen; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Wilhelm, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men’s specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1) development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors), (2) men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3) understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4) distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5) suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals’ preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk. PMID:26090794

  7. Microbiology: lessons from a first attempt at Lake Ellsworth.

    PubMed

    Pearce, D A; Magiopoulos, I; Mowlem, M; Tranter, M; Holt, G; Woodward, J; Siegert, M J

    2016-01-28

    During the attempt to directly access, measure and sample Subglacial Lake Ellsworth in 2012-2013, we conducted microbiological analyses of the drilling equipment, scientific instrumentation, field camp and natural surroundings. From these studies, a number of lessons can be learned about the cleanliness of deep Antarctic subglacial lake access leading to, in particular, knowledge of the limitations of some of the most basic relevant microbiological principles. Here, we focus on five of the core challenges faced and describe how cleanliness and sterilization were implemented in the field. In the light of our field experiences, we consider how effective these actions were, and what can be learnt for future subglacial exploration missions. The five areas covered are: (i) field camp environment and activities, (ii) the engineering processes surrounding the hot water drilling, (iii) sample handling, including recovery, stability and preservation, (iv) clean access methodologies and removal of sample material, and (v) the biodiversity and distribution of bacteria around the Antarctic. Comparisons are made between the microbiology of the Lake Ellsworth field site and other Antarctic systems, including the lakes on Signy Island, and on the Antarctic Peninsula at Lake Hodgson. Ongoing research to better define and characterize the behaviour of natural and introduced microbial populations in response to deep-ice drilling is also discussed. We recommend that future access programmes: (i) assess each specific local environment in enhanced detail due to the potential for local contamination, (ii) consider the sterility of the access in more detail, specifically focusing on single cell colonization and the introduction of new species through contamination of pre-existing microbial communities, (iii) consider experimental bias in methodological approaches, (iv) undertake in situ biodiversity detection to mitigate risk of non-sample return and post-sample contamination, and (v

  8. Microbiology: lessons from a first attempt at Lake Ellsworth.

    PubMed

    Pearce, D A; Magiopoulos, I; Mowlem, M; Tranter, M; Holt, G; Woodward, J; Siegert, M J

    2016-01-28

    During the attempt to directly access, measure and sample Subglacial Lake Ellsworth in 2012-2013, we conducted microbiological analyses of the drilling equipment, scientific instrumentation, field camp and natural surroundings. From these studies, a number of lessons can be learned about the cleanliness of deep Antarctic subglacial lake access leading to, in particular, knowledge of the limitations of some of the most basic relevant microbiological principles. Here, we focus on five of the core challenges faced and describe how cleanliness and sterilization were implemented in the field. In the light of our field experiences, we consider how effective these actions were, and what can be learnt for future subglacial exploration missions. The five areas covered are: (i) field camp environment and activities, (ii) the engineering processes surrounding the hot water drilling, (iii) sample handling, including recovery, stability and preservation, (iv) clean access methodologies and removal of sample material, and (v) the biodiversity and distribution of bacteria around the Antarctic. Comparisons are made between the microbiology of the Lake Ellsworth field site and other Antarctic systems, including the lakes on Signy Island, and on the Antarctic Peninsula at Lake Hodgson. Ongoing research to better define and characterize the behaviour of natural and introduced microbial populations in response to deep-ice drilling is also discussed. We recommend that future access programmes: (i) assess each specific local environment in enhanced detail due to the potential for local contamination, (ii) consider the sterility of the access in more detail, specifically focusing on single cell colonization and the introduction of new species through contamination of pre-existing microbial communities, (iii) consider experimental bias in methodological approaches, (iv) undertake in situ biodiversity detection to mitigate risk of non-sample return and post-sample contamination, and (v

  9. [The analysis of physicians' work: announcing the end of attempts at in vitro fertilization].

    PubMed

    Santiago-Delefosse, M; Cahen, F; Coeffin-Driol, C

    2003-01-01

    private medical practice increases self-esteem in cases of success but weakens it when IVF attempts fail. In addition, it goes against collective involvement in the work situation, yet such involvement may act as a strong moderating factor for the experience of distress. The second area contrasts work that is well done with recognition by peers. Indeed, in the hierarchy of medical values, recognition by peers that work has been well performed is anchored in successful healing (in the broad sense of the term), whereas in situations of abandonment of IVF attempts, ending the attempt is considered by everyone to be a failure, even if it has been well conducted . The third area opposes objective medical practice to a necessarily subjective medical involvement. The scientific and ideal values which characterise medicine reflect its objective and scientific orientation, but IVF situations are a reminder that medicine is not an exact science and that it can make mistakes. There are numerous special individual cases which reduce certainty that a decision to terminate IVF is well-founded. The fourth area distinguishes between work that is considered to be well done and work considered to be well conducted . Personal estimation of work that is well done is based on the impression that the maximum feasible has been done . But in IVF situations, constant uncertainty leads to professional over-involvement (examinations, verifications, changes of protocols). Work that is poorly done is work that does not cure or that brings no relief. As a result, work that consists in ending IVF attempts, even if it is well conducted , remains a subjective failure for everyone since it does not bring a cure (pregnancy). 2. Areas of tension in the physician-patient relationship. The first area contrasts women's irrational desire with possible support from their husbands, when the time has come to announce the end of the attempts. But this voice/presence of husbands is consi-dered desirable and

  10. A Case Study of Two Teachers Attempting to Create Active Mathematics Discourse Communities with Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Craig Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This is a qualitative study of two English-dominant mathematics teachers, who I refer to as "monolingual" because they speak only English and do not speak competently or extensively the cultural language of their students. This study explores how these teachers plan, implement, and reflect upon lessons with respect to their bilingual,…

  11. A. Philip Randolph's Attempt at Equal Economic Opportunity: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Joel

    2013-01-01

    A. Philip Randolph, the national president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters was one of the driving forces behind the March on Washington Movement in 1941. In frustration over the federal government's lack of support for opportunities in the booming war industries and equality in the military, Randolph had begun to organize the March…

  12. Recurrent hospitalization for self-injuries and suicide attempts: case study of a super-utilizer

    PubMed Central

    Roden-Foreman, Jacob W.; Warren, Ann Marie; Reynolds, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Super-utilizers, patients who amass disproportionately large occurrences of emergency department visits and hospital admissions, are increasingly recognized as a significant and potentially preventable resource consumer. A comprehensive understanding of these individuals and their situations may prove useful in preventing unnecessary admissions and improving patient care and outcomes. While most super-utilizers suffer from chronic medical issues, this patient is an unusual variant, as his super-utilization stemmed from mental health problems leading to serial self-injury. Between January 2010 and October 2014, the patient performed 49 acts of self-harm resulting in 27 acute hospital admissions and 17 additional admissions secondary to complications. In addition to documented injuries, he and his family reported up to 50 additional self-injuries since his first episode 34 years earlier. It was concluded that the patient's pattern of self-injury resulted from a combination of factors, including underlying psychiatric conditions, chronic noncompliance with medications, and potentially unavoidable behavioral reinforcement from health care professionals. PMID:26130879

  13. Turbulent MHD transport coefficients - An attempt at self-consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, H.; Montgomery, D.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, some multiple scale perturbation calculations of turbulent MHD transport coefficients begun in earlier papers are first completed. These generalize 'alpha effect' calculations by treating the velocity field and magnetic field on the same footing. Then the problem of rendering such calculations self-consistent is addressed, generalizing an eddy-viscosity hypothesis similar to that of Heisenberg for the Navier-Stokes case. The method also borrows from Kraichnan's direct interaction approximation. The output is a set of integral equations relating the spectra and the turbulent transport coefficients. Previous 'alpha effect' and 'beta effect' coefficients emerge as limiting cases. A treatment of the inertial range can also be given, consistent with a -5/3 energy spectrum power law. In the Navier-Stokes limit, a value of 1.72 is extracted for the Kolmogorov constant. Further applications to MHD are possible.

  14. Non-traumatic Bilateral Orbital Subperiosteal Hematoma in a Person Who Attempted Suicide by Hanging.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Keiji; Morita, Seiji; Otsuka, Hiroyuki; Sugita, Mariko; Taira, Takayuki; Nakagawa, Yoshihide; Inokuchi, Sadaki

    2014-09-01

    Orbital subperiosteal hematomas are rare and most often result from facial trauma; however, occurrence of these hematomas due to non-traumatic causes is extremely rare. Herein, we present the case of a 38-year-old man who was transferred to our emergency department because he became comatose after attempting suicide by hanging. He underwent computed tomography (CT) of the head and neck. CT findings revealed a bilateral orbital subperiosteal hematoma. We then performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head for definite diagnosis of hematoma. There is no consensus regarding if this condition should be treated conservatively or surgically. Conservative management was selected for this patient because he was in deep coma. Some non-traumatic causes of orbital subperiosteal hematoma include weight lifting, coughing, vomiting, Valsalva maneuver, labor, and scuba diving. Sudden elevations in cranial pressure may be the mechanism underlying this condition. Although suicide attempt by hanging could have caused a sudden elevation in cranial pressure, this is the first report of the occurrence of this condition. Patients with orbital subperiosteal hematomas generally complain of blurred vision, eye pain, or exophthalmos. However, identifying this sign may be difficult in patients with disturbed consciousness. PMID:25248423

  15. Non-traumatic Bilateral Orbital Subperiosteal Hematoma in a Person Who Attempted Suicide by Hanging.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Keiji; Morita, Seiji; Otsuka, Hiroyuki; Sugita, Mariko; Taira, Takayuki; Nakagawa, Yoshihide; Inokuchi, Sadaki

    2014-09-01

    Orbital subperiosteal hematomas are rare and most often result from facial trauma; however, occurrence of these hematomas due to non-traumatic causes is extremely rare. Herein, we present the case of a 38-year-old man who was transferred to our emergency department because he became comatose after attempting suicide by hanging. He underwent computed tomography (CT) of the head and neck. CT findings revealed a bilateral orbital subperiosteal hematoma. We then performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head for definite diagnosis of hematoma. There is no consensus regarding if this condition should be treated conservatively or surgically. Conservative management was selected for this patient because he was in deep coma. Some non-traumatic causes of orbital subperiosteal hematoma include weight lifting, coughing, vomiting, Valsalva maneuver, labor, and scuba diving. Sudden elevations in cranial pressure may be the mechanism underlying this condition. Although suicide attempt by hanging could have caused a sudden elevation in cranial pressure, this is the first report of the occurrence of this condition. Patients with orbital subperiosteal hematomas generally complain of blurred vision, eye pain, or exophthalmos. However, identifying this sign may be difficult in patients with disturbed consciousness.

  16. Attempts to Automate the Process of Generation of Orthoimages of Objects of Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markiewicz, J. S.; Podlasiak, P.; Zawieska, D.

    2015-02-01

    At present, digital documentation recorded in the form of raster or vector files is the obligatory way of inventorying historical objects. The orthoimage is a cartometric form of photographic presentation of information in the two-dimensional reference system. The paper will discuss the issue of automation of the orthoimage generation basing on the TLS data and digital images. At present attempts are made to apply modern technologies not only for the needs of surveys, but also during the data processing. This paper will present attempts aiming at utilisation of appropriate algorithms and the author's application for automatic generation of the projection plane, for the needs of acquisition of intensity orthoimages from the TLS data. Such planes are defined manually in the majority of popular TLS data processing applications. A separate issue related to the RGB image generation is the orientation of digital images in relation to scans. It is important, in particular in such cases when scans and photographs are not taken simultaneously. This paper will present experiments concerning the utilisation of the SIFT algorithm for automatic matching of intensity orthoimages of the intensity and digital (RGB) photographs. Satisfactory results of the process of automation, as well as in relation to the quality of resulting orthoimages have been obtained.

  17. Tobacco Use and Suicide Attempt: Longitudinal Analysis with Retrospective Reports

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Ivan; Hakes, Jahn K.; Hu, Mei-Chen; Covey, Lirio S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide has been associated with smoking/tobacco use but its association of and change in smoking/tobacco use status with suicide attempt (SA) is not well established. Methods We investigated whether persistent, former tobacco use, initiation, quitting tobacco use, relapse to tobacco use, and DSM-IV nicotine dependence predict independently SA using Wave 1 and 2 data of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. Data from 34,653 US adults interviewed at Wave 1 (2001-02) and Wave 2 (2004-05) were analyzed. The main outcome measure was SA between Wave 1 and Wave 2 as reported at Wave 2. Results Among the 1,673 respondents reporting lifetime SA at Wave 2, 328 individuals reported SA between Wave 1 and Wave 2. Current and former tobacco use at Wave 1 predicted Wave 2 SA independently of socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric history, and prior SA (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.49; 95% CI: 1.13-1.95, AOR: 1.31; 95% CI:1.01-1.69, respectively versus never tobacco users). The strongest association with SA was observed among former tobacco users who relapsed after Wave 1 (AOR: 4.66; 95% CI: 3.49-6.24) and among tobacco use initiators after Wave 1 (AOR: 3.16; 95% CI: 2.23-4.49). Persistent tobacco use (current tobacco use at both Wave 1 and Wave 2) also had an increased risk of SA (AOR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.47-2.42). However, former tobacco users in both Waves 1 and 2 did not show a significantly elevated risk for SA in Wave 2 (AOR:1.09, 95% CI: 0.78-1.52) suggesting that the risk resided mainly in Wave 1 former tobacco users who relapsed to tobacco use by Wave 2. DSM-IV nicotine dependence did not predict SA at Wave 2. Conclusion In a representative sample of US adults, relapse, tobacco use initiation, and persistent tobacco use, which are amenable to intervention, were associated with risk of SA. PMID:25849514

  18. Attitudes towards suicide attempts broadcast on social media: an exploratory study of Chinese microblogs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoxiao; Hao, Bibo; O’Dea, Bridianne; Christensen, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Broadcasting a suicide attempt on social media has become a public health concern in many countries, particularly in China. In these cases, social media users are likely to be the first to witness the suicide attempt, and their attitudes may determine their likelihood of joining rescue efforts. This paper examines Chinese social media (Weibo) users’ attitudes towards suicide attempts broadcast on Weibo. Methods. A total of 4,969 Weibo posts were selected from a customised Weibo User Pool which consisted of 1.06 million active users. The selected posts were then independently coded by two researchers using a coding framework that assessed: (a) Themes, (b) General attitudes, (c) Stigmatising attitudes, (d) Perceived motivations, and (e) Desired responses. Results and Discussion. More than one third of Weibo posts were coded as “stigmatising” (35%). Among these, 22%, 16%, and 15% of posts were coded as “deceitful,” “pathetic,” and “stupid,” respectively. Among the posts which reflected different types of perceived motivations, 57% of posts were coded as “seeking attention.” Among the posts which reflected desired responses, 37% were “not saving” and 28% were “encouraging suicide.” Furthermore, among the posts with negative desired responses (i.e., “not saving” and “encouraging suicide”), 57% and 17% of them were related to different types of stigmatising attitudes and perceived motivations, respectively. Specifically, 29% and 26% of posts reflecting both stigmatising attitudes and negative desired responses were coded as “deceitful” and “pathetic,” respectively, while 66% of posts reflecting both perceived motivations, and negative desired responses were coded as “seeking attention.” Very few posts “promoted literacy” (2%) or “provided resources” (8%). Gender differences existed in multiple categories. Conclusions. This paper confirms the need for stigma reduction campaigns for Chinese social

  19. Superior mesenteric artery dissection as a complication of an endovascular attempt to treat aneurysms of the pancreaticoduodenal arteries.

    PubMed

    Dzieciuchowicz, Łukasz; Snoch-Ziółkiewicz, Magdalena; Oszkinis, Grzegorz; Frankiewicz, Maciej

    2015-10-01

    A case of iatrogenic dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) in a 42-year old woman during an attempt of endovascular treatment of aneurysms of the pancreaticoduodenal arteries coexisting with a stenosis of the coeliac trunk is presented. The dissection occurred most probably during insertion of an introducer sheath into the SMA. The patient at that moment reported a short-lasting abdominal pain and after that remained asymptomatic. Due to technical difficulties, the attempt of endovascular management of pancreaticoduodenal aneurysms was abandoned. The completion angiography revealed the occlusion of the SMA. The patient underwent an emergency laparotomy; pancreaticoduodenal aneurysms were excised and SMA dissection was repaired with endarterectomy and a patch closure. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and the patient remained asymptomatic during a 30-month follow-up. The case underscores the importance of completion angiography after endovascular interventions in the SMA since the early period of its occlusion may be asymptomatic.

  20. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Interpersonal Violence in Suicide Attempters.

    PubMed

    Sahlin, Hanna; Moberg, Tomas; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Jokinen, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    The current study compared characteristics of suicidal behavior and interpersonal violence in suicide attempters with and without a history of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). A total of 100 suicide attempters were assessed with Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) and Karolinska Suicide History Interview concerning interpersonal violence and NSSI. There was a high degree of comorbid NSSI in suicide attempters (44%). Suicide attempters with NSSI-history reported more interpersonal violence as adults and more severe suicidal behavior compared to suicide attempters without NSSI. Comorbid NSSI was related to severity of suicidal behavior in a gender specific manner. Comorbid NSSI in suicide attempters may increase suicide and violence risk.

  1. High Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis after a Suicide Attempt with Cyanide: The Rebirth of Cyanide Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Po-Jen; Chang, Che-Fu; Chiu, Chih-Chien; Chan, Jenq-Shyong; Chiang, Wen-Fang; Wu, Chia-Chao; Lin, Shih-Hua; Chen, Jin-Shuen

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman was admitted to our emergency department in a state of unconsciousness after attempting suicide with unknown substances. Severe metabolic acidosis (pH: 6.81), with a high anion gap (36.2) and high lactate level (20.2 mmol/L), was observed. After four hours of intensive medical treatment, the patient regained consciousness, with a return of the arterial pH to 7.42. Finally, cyanide intoxication was diagnosed based on the detection of a serum cyanide level of 3.5 mg/L. The presence of a high anion gap associated with severe lactic acidosis is a clue for making a rapid differential diagnosis of acute cyanide intoxication. Providing intensive and immediate supportive management is also crucial, even in cases without obtainable specific antidotes.

  2. Unsuccessful suicide attempt of a 15 year old adolescent with ingestion of 5000 mg modafinil.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Gal; Shehadeh, Naim; Pillar, Giora

    2009-08-15

    Modafinil (Provigil) is a wake-promoting drug approved for patients with narcolepsy or other causes of excessive daytime sleepiness. Each pill is 100 to 200 mg; maximal daily dose of modafinil in adults is 400 mg (the medication is not approved by the FDA for children younger than 16 years of age). We report the case of an adolescent who attempted to commit suicide by ingesting 50 pills of modafinil. The medication was prescribed for her mother to treat symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis. Approximately 2 hours following ingestion the patient complained of headache, nausea and abdominal pain. Her ECG demonstrated prolonged QTc interval. Observation for 72 hours revealed 24 hours of inability to sleep, tachycardia, and dyskinesia. There was no deterioration of kidney or liver functions, and no change in complete blood count or blood pressure. PMID:19968017

  3. “My Friend Said it was Good LSD”: A Suicide Attempt Following Analytically Confirmed 25I-NBOMe Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Joji; Poklis, Justin L.; Poklis, Alphonse

    2014-01-01

    A new class of synthetic hallucinogens called NBOMe has emerged, and reports of adverse effects are beginning to appear. We report on a case of a suicide attempt after LSD ingestion which was analytically determined to be 25I-NBOMe instead. Clinicians need to have a high index of suspicion for possible NBOMe ingestion in patients reporting the recent use of LSD or other hallucinogens. PMID:25364988

  4. "My friend said it was good LSD": a suicide attempt following analytically confirmed 25I-NBOMe ingestion.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Joji; Poklis, Justin L; Poklis, Alphonse

    2014-01-01

    A new class of synthetic hallucinogens called NBOMe has emerged, and reports of adverse effects are beginning to appear. We report on a case of a suicide attempt after LSD ingestion which was analytically determined to be 25I-NBOMe instead. Clinicians need to have a high index of suspicion for possible NBOMe ingestion in patients reporting the recent use of LSD or other hallucinogens. PMID:25364988

  5. "My friend said it was good LSD": a suicide attempt following analytically confirmed 25I-NBOMe ingestion.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Joji; Poklis, Justin L; Poklis, Alphonse

    2014-01-01

    A new class of synthetic hallucinogens called NBOMe has emerged, and reports of adverse effects are beginning to appear. We report on a case of a suicide attempt after LSD ingestion which was analytically determined to be 25I-NBOMe instead. Clinicians need to have a high index of suspicion for possible NBOMe ingestion in patients reporting the recent use of LSD or other hallucinogens.

  6. Suicide Mortality of Suicide Attempt Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Admitted Suicide Attempt Patients, and Admitted Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jae W.; Park, Subin; Yi, Ki K.; Hong, Jin P.

    2012-01-01

    The suicide mortality rate and risk factors for suicide completion of patients who presented to an emergency room (ER) for suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, patients who presented to an ER for psychiatric problems other than suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, psychiatric inpatients…

  7. Suicide Attempts Among Gay and Bisexual Men: Lifetime Prevalence and Antecedents

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Jay P.; Catania, Joseph; Pollack, Lance; Moskowitz, Judith; Canchola, Jesse; Mills, Thomas; Binson, Diane; Stall, Ron

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. We examined lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts and psychosocial correlates in a large population-based sample of men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. A telephone probability sample of US urban MSM (n = 2881) were interviewed between November 1996 and February 1998. Results. Twenty-one percent had made a suicide plan; 12% had attempted suicide (almost half of those 12% were multiple attempters). Most who attempted suicide made their first attempt before age 25. Although prevalence of parasuicide (i.e., attempted suicide) has remained constant across birth cohorts, mean age at initial attempts has declined. Conclusions. MSM are at elevated risk for suicide attempts, with such risk clustered earlier in life. Some risk factors were specific to being gay or bisexual in a hostile environment. PMID:12144994

  8. [Attempts at inter-specific hybridization in Sphaeroma (Crustacea Isopoda Flabellifera)].

    PubMed

    Rezig, M

    1978-01-01

    An interspecific hybridization between five tunisian species of the genus Sphaeroma has been attempted. All the trials failed whatever the crossing attempted. The lack of natural hybrids between forms living together constitutes a fundamental criterium for specific discrimination.

  9. Psychosocial Determinants of Suicide Attempts among Black South African Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shilubane, Hilda N.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Bos, Arjan E. R..; van den Borne, Bart; James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Priscilla S.

    2012-01-01

    In South Africa, one in five adolescents attempt suicide. Suicide attempts continue to rise. We aimed to identify psychosocial target points for future educational interventions. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore psychosocial factors associated with past suicide attempts among suicide survivors in Limpopo province,…

  10. Self-Injurious Behavior and Suicide Attempts among Indonesian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tresno, Fiona; Ito, Yoshimi; Mearns, Jack

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the prevalence of self-injurious behavior and suicide attempts among college students in Indonesia and examines risk factors distinguishing between 3 groups: self-injury with suicide attempt, non-suicidal self-injury, and non-self-injury. Self-report questionnaires measuring self-injury and suicide attempts, negative mood…

  11. Attempted Suicide, Self-Harm, and Violent Victimization among Regular Illicit Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darke, Shane; McCrim, Michelle Torok; Kaye, Sharlene; Ross, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Relationships among attempted suicide, nonsuicidal self-harm, and physical assault were examined in 400 regular users of heroin and/or psychostimulants. Twenty-eight percent had episodes of nonsuicidal self-harm, 32% had attempted suicide, and 95% had been violently assaulted. The number of suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-harm incidents were…

  12. Circadian Variation in Suicide Attempts in Tokyo from 1978 to 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motohashi, Yutaka

    1990-01-01

    Analyzed circadian variations in suicide attempts in Tokyo from 1978 to 1985 from records of Ambulance Service of Tokyo. Findings showed significant circadian variation in suicide attempts which seemed to be associated with endogenous rhythms, such as mood, and daily variation in social activities. Established peak time for suicide attempts as…

  13. Variables Associated with Repeated Suicide Attempt in a Criminal Justice Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakansson, Anders; Bradvik, Louise; Schlyter, Frans; Berglund, Mats

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with repeated suicide attempts among criminal justice clients examined for substance abuse using the Addiction Severity Index. Among suicide attempters (n = 1,404), repeaters (two or more attempts, n = 770) were compared to nonrepeaters. In logistic regression, repetition was associated with…

  14. Suicide Attempts in Israel: Age by Gender Analysis of a National Emergency Departments Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Daphna; Haklai, Ziona; Stein, Nechama; Gordon, Ethel-Sherry

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of all emergency department admissions in Israel classified as an attempted suicide in the years 1996-2002 was done to examine attempted suicide rates by age and gender with particular attention to adolescents and young adults. Gender differences in attempted suicide rates were significant only during adolescence and young adulthood,…

  15. Attempting to Answer a Meaningful Question Enhances Subsequent Learning Even When Feedback Is Delayed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornell, Nate

    2014-01-01

    Attempting to retrieve information from memory enhances subsequent learning even if the retrieval attempt is unsuccessful. Recent evidence suggests that this benefit materializes only if subsequent study occurs immediately after the retrieval attempt. Previous studies have prompted retrieval using a cue (e.g., "whale-???") that has no…

  16. Individual and environmental contingencies associated with multiple suicide attempts among U.S. military personnel.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; Rudd, M David; Wertenberger, Evelyn

    2016-08-30

    Suicidal behavior among U.S. military personnel persists as a significant public health issue. Previous research indicates the primary motive for suicide attempts among military personnel is the desire to reduce or alleviate emotional distress, a finding that converges with studies in nonmilitary samples. Much less is understood about the consequences of a first suicide attempt that could influence the occurrence of additional suicide attempts. In order to identify these contingencies, 134 active duty Soldiers who had attempted suicide (n=69 first-time attempters, n=65 multiple attempters) participated in structured interviews focused on their experiences immediately following their first attempt. Soldiers were more likely to have made multiple suicide attempts if they were younger at the time of their first attempt, were not admitted to a hospital or treatment program after their first attempt, or experienced emotional and psychological relief immediately afterwards. Results suggest that Soldiers who experience emotional and/or psychological relief immediately after their first suicide attempt or do not receive treatment are more likely to make additional suicide attempts. PMID:27262267

  17. Suicide Attempts as Social Goal-Directed Systems of Joint Careers, Projects, and Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valach, Ladislav; Michel, Konrad; Young, R. A.; Dey, P.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study we examined to what extent persons who attempt suicide describe their attempt in terms of social, joint processes. Psychotherapists interviewed 40 patients hospitalized in a general hospital for a few days after an attempted suicide. The content of the interviews was analyzed for the level of systemic processes the patients…

  18. Examining the Impact of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Comorbidity on the Medical Lethality of Adolescent "Suicide Attempts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Manama O'Brien, Kimberly H.; Berzin, Stephanie C.

    2012-01-01

    Specific psychiatric diagnoses and comorbidity patterns were examined to determine if they were related to the medical lethality of "suicide attempts" among adolescents presenting to an urban general hospital (N = 375). Bivariate analysis showed that attempters with substance abuse disorders had higher levels of lethality than attempters without…

  19. An Attempt to Observe Stellar Convection via Power Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez Ramio, Hector; Roca Cortes, Teodoro; Regulo, Clara

    It is known that the convective motions at solar photosphere level are visible in the frequency domain through the so called ""solar noise"". Time-resolved differential CCD photometry time series form 2 to 4 days long obtained at the Observatorio del Teide Izaña (Tenerife) using the 1m telescope of the Optical Ground Station (OGS) have been taken of five different stellar fields containing late type stars (spectral types F G and K) using de-focusing technique. It is expected they present convective activity at stellar surface and hence its signature must appear in their power spectra. By analogy with the solar case information about time scales of the possible stellar convective structures may be inferred. One of the observed stellar fields contained Uranus which reflects the light coming from the Sun and may be used to calibrate the stellar power spectra of the surrounding stars in the field since solar one is known from space observations carried out by Variability of the solar IRradiance and Gravity Oscillations (VIRGO) instrument.

  20. Suicide Attempts in a Longitudinal Sample of Adolescents Followed Through Adulthood: Evidence of Escalation

    PubMed Central

    Goldston, David B.; Daniel, Stephanie S.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Heilbron, Nicole; Doyle, Otima; Weller, Bridget; Sapyta, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to examine escalation in repeat suicide attempts from adolescence through adulthood, as predicted by sensitization models (and reflected in increasing intent and lethality with repeat attempts, decreasing amount of time between attempts, and decreasing stress to trigger attempts) Method In a prospective study of 180 adolescents followed through adulthood after a psychiatric hospitalization, suicide attempts and antecedent life events were repeatedly assessed (M = 12.6 assessments, SD = 5.1) over an average of 13 years, 6 months (SD = 4 years, 5 months). Multivariate logistic, multiple linear, and negative binomial regression models were used to examine patterns over time. Results After age 17-18, the majority of suicide attempts were repeat attempts (i.e., made by individuals with prior suicidal behavior). Intent increased both with increasing age, and with number of prior attempts. Medical lethality increased as a function of age but not recurrent attempts. The time between successive suicide attempts decreased as a function of number of attempts. The amount of precipitating life stress was not related to attempts. Conclusions Adolescents and young adults show evidence of escalation of recurrent suicidal behavior, with increasing suicidal intent and decreasing time between successive attempts. However, evidence that sensitization processes account for this escalation was inconclusive. Effective prevention programs that reduce the likelihood of individuals attempting suicide for the first time (and entering this cycle of escalation), and relapse prevention interventions that interrupt the cycle of escalating suicidal behavior among individuals who already have made attempts are critically needed. PMID:25622200

  1. Analysis of the phenomenon of attempted suicides in 1978-2010 in Poland, with particular emphasis on rural areas of Lublin Province.

    PubMed

    Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian; Goździewska, Małgorzata; Zubilewicz, Jadwiga; Kryś-Noszczyk, Karolina

    2012-01-01

    The increasing quality of life of modern man should go hand-in-hand with reducing the scale of the problem of attempted suicides. During the last 55 years, the World Health Organization has recorded an increase in the number of suicides by about 60% in the developed and developing countries. In Poland, the highest rate of suicides have been committed by males, and the circumstances depended on gender, age and socio-economic factors. The aim of the presented study is to present the scale of the problem and present results of the analysis of the phenomenon of attempted suicides in 1978-2010, with particular emphasis on a Polish agricultural region - the Lublin Province in eastern Poland. 167,557 attempted suicides were analyzed across the country, included suicide attempts that resulted in death. Brief description of the state of knowledge and summary: Between 1978-2010 in Poland, the number of attempted suicides was higher in urban than in rural areas, especially among men aged between 31-50 years, while the tendency to commit suicide increased in rural areas in comparison to urban areas. Women usually represented a quarter of the people who attempted or committed suicide, with the majority cases reported in 2002. Most attempted suicides were carried out in the cities, but since 1990, the number of attempted suicides in the country is growing by an average of 8 per annum. In the Lublin Province, far more people are attempting to commit suicide in the rural areas. Despite the trend of increasing numbers of attempted suicides (about 4.36 suicides per year), the number of fatal suicides is decreasing, and the number of suicides committed by teenagers under 14 years of age is decreasing more dynamically.

  2. Effect of acute alcohol use on the lethality of suicide attempts in patients with mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo; Oquendo, Maria A; Richardson-Vejlgaard, Randall; Makhija, Nita M; Posner, Kelly; Mann, J John; Stanley, Barbara H

    2009-07-01

    Acute alcohol use is an important risk factor for attempted and completed suicide. We evaluated the effect of acute alcohol intake on the lethality of suicide attempts to test the hypothesis that acute alcohol intoxication is associated with more lethal suicide attempts. This retrospective study included 317 suicide attempters enrolled in mood disorders protocols. Demographic and clinical parameters were assessed. The use of alcohol at the time of the most lethal suicide attempt was determined. On the basis of their responses participants were classified into three groups: participants who reported "Enough alcohol intake to impair judgment, reality testing and diminish responsibility" or "Intentional intake of alcohol in order to facilitate implementation of attempt" were included in the group "Alcohol" (A); participants who reported "Some alcohol intake prior to but not related to attempt, reportedly not enough to impair judgment, reality testing" were included in the group "Some Alcohol" (SA); and participants who reported "No alcohol intake immediately prior to attempt" were included in the group "No Alcohol" (NA). Lethality of the most lethal suicide attempts was higher in the A group compared to the SA and NA groups. Prevalence of patients with alcohol use disorders was higher in the A group compared to the SA and NA groups. SA participants reported more reasons for living and lower suicide intent scores at the time of their most lethal suicide attempt compared to the A and NA groups. Acute alcohol use increases the lethality of suicide attempts in individuals with mood disorders.

  3. Suicide Attempts During Heavy Drinking Episodes Among Individuals Entering Alcohol Treatment in Warsaw, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Klimkiewicz, Anna; Ilgen, Mark A.; Bohnert, Amy S.B.; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wojnar, Marcin; Brower, Kirk J.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Acute alcohol intoxication itself may act as a trigger for suicidal thoughts and attempts among individuals at risk and may influence the potential lethality of the suicide attempt. This study in alcohol-dependent patients compared the correlates of suicide attempts during a heavy drinking episode with those of suicide attempts during relative sobriety. Methods: In two outpatient and two residential alcohol treatment programs in Warsaw, Poland, 113 patients who reported a suicide attempt during their lifetime were interviewed. The analyses focused on the patients’ most serious suicide attempts and on whether these occurred during a heavy drinking episode. Results: Over two-thirds of the patients reported that their most serious suicide attempt occurred during a period of heavy drinking. A multivariable logistic model indicated that the following factors significantly distinguished those patients whose most serious suicide attempt occurred during a heavy drinking episode: male gender, younger current age, greater severity of alcohol dependence and the attempt being unplanned. Conclusion: Among the patients in treatment for alcohol dependence who made a suicide attempt, the most serious attempt was likely to have been unplanned and committed by men when it occurred during a heavy drinking episode. PMID:22691386

  4. Are suicide attempts by young Latinas a cultural idiom of distress?

    PubMed Central

    Zayas, Luis H.; Gulbas, Lauren E.

    2015-01-01

    The high rates of suicide attempts among adolescent Hispanic females in the United States have been well established by epidemiological and clinical studies. In this paper, we review the research history of Latina suicide attempts and their characteristics. Then we apply multifaceted conceptual and empirical criteria found in the anthropological and psychiatric literature about cultural idioms of distress to the suicide attempts of young Latinas. We contrast the suicide-attempt phenomenon to the well-known ataque de nervios and propose that the phenomenon may reflect a developmental or cultural variant of the ataque. The attempt-as-idiom proposition is intended to invite discussion that can deepen our understanding of the cultural roots of the suicide attempts and their possible designation as cultural idiom. Establishing the meaning of suicide attempts within a cultural perspective can assist psychological and psychiatric research and clinical interventions. PMID:23075802

  5. Dr. Harvey Cushing's attempts to cure migraine based on theories of pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Latimer, Katherine; Pendleton, Courtney; Rosenberg, Jason; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2011-11-01

    A multitude of theories characterized medical thought on migraine in the early 20th century. Newly discovered historical case files revealed Dr. Harvey Cushing's previously unpublished early attempts at surgical cure of migraine. Following institutional review board approval, and through the courtesy of the Alan Mason Chesney Archives, the authors reviewed the microfilm surgical records for The Johns Hopkins Hospital from 1896 to 1912. Patients undergoing surgical intervention by Dr. Harvey Cushing for the treatment of migraine were selected for further review. All 4 patients in the series were women and ranged in age from 29 to 41 years old. The women were admitted and observed in the hospital until a migraine occurred. Surgeries were performed while the women were in the midst of an attack. Cushing used surgical strategies including decompression, temporal artery ligation, and removal of the spine of the second vertebra. In each case, the patients' headaches eventually returned following surgery. Cushing relied on a combination of contemporary theories on migraine including humeral science, vasospastic theory, organic cause, and increased intracranial pressure. His unpublished efforts foreshadowed future surgical efforts at curing migraines. PMID:21682563

  6. Effect of assertive outreach after suicide attempt in the AID (assertive intervention for deliberate self harm) trial: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Krogh, Jesper; Erlangsen, Annette; Alberdi, Francisco; Nordentoft, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess whether an assertive outreach intervention after suicide attempt could reduce the frequency of subsequent suicidal acts, compared with standard treatment. Design Randomised, parallel group, superiority trial with blinded outcome assessment. Setting Outpatient intervention at one location at Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. Participants Patients older than 12 years admitted to regional hospitals in Copenhagen with a suicide attempt within the past 14 days. We excluded patients diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and patients living in institutions. Intervention Case management through assertive outreach that provided crisis intervention and flexible problem solving. This approach incorporated motivational support and actively assisted patients to scheduled appointments to improve adherence with after-treatment as an add on to standard treatment. Main outcome Repeated suicide attempt and death by suicide, recorded in medical records and death register at 1-year follow-up. Results 243 patients were included. During 12 months of follow-up, 20/123 (16%) patients in the intervention group had been registered in hospital records with subsequent suicide attempt, compared with 13/120 (11%) in the control group (odds ratio 1.60, 95% confidence interval 0.76 to 3.38; P=0.22). By contrast, self reported data on new events showed 11/95 (12%) in the intervention group versus 13/74 (18%) in the control group (0.61, 0.26 to 1.46; P=0.27). By imputing missing data on the selfreported outcomes, we estimated 15/123 (12%) events in the intervention group and 23/120 (19%) in the control group (0.69, 0.34 to 1.43; P=0.32). Conclusion Assertive outreach showed no significant effect on subsequent suicide attempt. The difference in rates of events between register data and self reported data could indicate detection bias. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00700089. PMID:22915730

  7. Attempted Suicide Among Students and Young Adults in Montreal, Quebec, Canada: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study of Hospitalized and Nonhospitalized Suicide Attempts Based on Chart Review

    PubMed Central

    Rahme, Elham; Low, Nancy C. P.; Lamarre, Suzanne; Turecki, Gustavo; Bonin, Jean-Pierre; Daneau, Diane; Habel, Youssef; Yung, Emily C. C.; Morin, Suzanne; Szkrumelak, Nadia; Singh, Santokh; Renaud, Johanne; Lesage, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Objective We conducted a chart review to identify postsecondary students and nonstudents in the same age range who presented to the emergency department following a suicide attempt to (1) compare demographic characteristics and suicide risk factors and (2) determine factors associated with more serious attempts requiring hospitalizations. Method The study was conducted in 1 tertiary trauma hospital and 1 community hospital affiliated with McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, between January 1, 2009, and March 31, 2010. Charts of patients with potential suicide attempts were identified from medical records using ICD-10 codes that indicated traumatic injury, intentional self-harm, poisoning, and psychiatric or perception/cognition disorders and from the emergency department triage file using keywords that indicated suicidality or self-harm at presentation. Results In multivariable logistic regression models (odds ratio, 95% CI), students were younger (per 5-year increase: 0.22, 0.12–0.41), less likely to be born in Canada (0.17, 0.06–0.44), and more likely to use less violent methods (laceration, poisoning, other, multiple methods) versus more violent methods (collision, jump, fire burns, firearm, hanging) in their attempt. Fewer students had a history of substance abuse (0.12, 0.02–0.94) but were not different from nonstudents on history of other mental disorders. Less students attempted suicide in the winter/spring (January–April) versus fall (September–December) semester (0.32, 0.11–0.91). Students who attempted suicide were more likely to have family/social support. Those who attempted suicide in the previous year were more likely to require hospitalization for their current suicide attempt. Conclusions Knowledge of specific factors associated with suicide attempts in young people can help inform and guide suicide prevention efforts in both academic and community settings. Specific to the findings of this study regarding the method of suicide

  8. [Suicidal behavior and suicide attempts in adolescents and young adults--epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment].

    PubMed

    Polewka, Andrzej; Kroch, Stanisław; Chrostek Maj, Jan

    2004-01-01

    According to WHO, every year, suicide is committed by at least 1 mln people in the world. In Europe, suicide is committed by about 43 thousand people a year, most frequently by middle-aged and elderly males, and attempted by 700 thousand people. In Poland, in 2002, 5100 people committed suicide. The number of suicide attempts is probably ten times higher. The aim of the study is to investigate the current state of knowledge concerning suicidal behaviour and attempted suicide in adolescents and young adults. The literature on the subject is analysed, and special attention is paid to the issue of suicide epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. Definitions of suicidal behaviour and presuicidal syndrome are debated. In the chapter concerning treatment, Bohme's model of crisis intervention in the case of suicidal patients is discussed, and detailed indications for treatment are presented. Suicide attempts are undertaken most frequently by young people, especially by teenage girls and young women. The ratio of suicide in this age group increased significantly in the last few years. Phenomena which are of special importance for the prevention of suicide among adolescents include suicidal thoughts, attempted suicide, and completed suicide. Multicentre study into suicidal behaviour conducted by WHO indicate that the highest average yearly European coefficients of suicide attempts have been detected in young females ranging in age from 15 to 24 years. Polish and foreign literature on the subject is dominated by publications regarding completed suicide. The issue of attempted suicide is treated rather marginally, which may be due to the scantiness of reliable data concerning large populations. The past few years, however, brought a significant advancement of the research into the epidemiology, etiology, and treatment of suicidal behaviour in adolescents. It is difficult to establish linear correspondence between risk factors and suicidal behaviour. The cause is

  9. Clinical variables associated with suicide attempts in schizophrenia before and after the first episode.

    PubMed

    Togay, Bilge; Noyan, Handan; Tasdelen, Rumeysa; Ucok, Alp

    2015-09-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate variables associated with suicide attempts in schizophrenia before and after the first episode. We evaluated history of past sucide attempts, clinical symptoms, level of functioning and cognitive performances of 172 patients with first-episode schizophrenia at first admission. Information was collected regarding clinical symptom severity, treatment compliance, and suicide attempts during the follow-up. We found that 16.5% of the patients attempted suicide before admission, and 6.2% of them attempted suicide during the follow-up. The patients who had attempted suicide before admission were mostly women, and more likely to be hospitalized in first year of follow up. BPRS-depression subscale score at admission and alcohol/substance use appeared as independent variables that found associated with suicide attempts prior to admission in logistic regression analysis. The patients who attempted suicide during the follow-up had significantly higher BPRS-depression subcale scores at sixth months of follow-up. Treatment compliance during the first 6 months and duration of remission was lower in this group. Our findings suggest that longer duration of first hospital treatment, the presence of depressive symptoms, and nonadherence to treatment in early phases of follow up after FES are predictors of suicide attempts. On the other hand, keeping remission during the follow-up protects against suicide attempts. PMID:26210651

  10. The epidemiology of attempted suicide in the Oxford area, England (1989-1992).

    PubMed

    Hawton, K; Fagg, J; Simkin, S; Mills, J

    1994-01-01

    The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of attempted suicide in Oxford, United Kingdom, between 1989 and 1992 are reported on the basis of data collected as part of the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study of Parasuicide in Europe. Some further findings for the period 1976-1992 are also described. Rates of attempted suicide were particularly high among females aged 15-19 years. There was a very marked association in males and females between attempted suicide and both lower socioeconomic status and unemployment. The percentage of first-time attempters entering the attempted suicide population remained steady between 1976 and 1992, with approximately two-thirds of attempters each year making their first attempts. There was a great increase in the use of paracetamol (acetominophen) for self-poisoning between 1976 and 1992, this being involved in 14.3% of overdoses in 1976 and 43.2% in 1992. On the basis of the Oxford rates, there are approximately 100,000 general hospital admissions for attempted suicide each year in England and Wales, approximately 19,000 involving teenagers (mostly girls). Oxford has a similar pattern of attempted suicide to that in the rest of the UK. The findings indicate that the UK has one of the highest rates of attempted suicide in Europe. PMID:7859480

  11. Reasons for attempting suicide among men who use alcohol and other drugs.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Danilo Bertasso; Terra, Marlene Gomes; Soccol, Keity Laís Siepmann; Schneider, Jacó Fernando; Camillo, Lucia Amabile; Plein, Fátima Aparecida Dos Santos

    2016-03-01

    Objective To understand the reasons that lead men who use alcohol and other drugs to attempt suicide. Methods Qualitative research at an alcohol and psychosocial drugs support centre (CAPSad) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in December of 2011, with 11 men who use alcohol and other drugs and who attempted suicide. Data were collected by means of phenomenological interviewing. The phenomenological sociology of Alfred Schütz was used to analyse and interpret the interview statements. Results The results led to three categories: attempted suicide triggered by alcohol and drug use; attempted suicide triggered by the family lifeworld; and attempted suicide triggered by everyday feelings. Conclusion We found that alcohol and drug abuse and the different life circumstances of men in their families and social relationships contributed to the suicide attempt. PMID:27074308

  12. The Role of Help-Seeking in Preventing Suicide Attempts among Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexuals

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Ilan H.; Teylan, Merilee; Schwartz, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    One possible approach to prevention of suicide attempts is to encourage help-seeking among individuals at risk. We assessed whether different forms of treatment were associated with lower odds of a suicide attempt in a diverse group of 388 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults aged 18–59, sampled from New York City venues. Of individuals who attempted suicide, 23% sought mental health or medical treatment and 14% sought religious or spiritual treatment prior to the suicide attempt. Black and Latino LGBs were underrepresented in mental health or medical treatment and Black LGBs were overrepresented in religious or spiritual treatment. Seeking mental health or medical treatment was not associated with lower odds of a suicide attempt; seeking religious or spiritual treatment was associated with higher odds of a suicide attempt. We discuss these results and posit hypotheses for further research of this understudied topic. PMID:24825437

  13. A Novel Brief Therapy for Patients Who Attempt Suicide: A 24-months Follow-Up Randomized Controlled Study of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP)

    PubMed Central

    Gysin-Maillart, Anja; Schwab, Simon; Soravia, Leila; Megert, Millie; Michel, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Background Attempted suicide is the main risk factor for suicide and repeated suicide attempts. However, the evidence for follow-up treatments reducing suicidal behavior in these patients is limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP) in reducing suicidal behavior. ASSIP is a novel brief therapy based on a patient-centered model of suicidal behavior, with an emphasis on early therapeutic alliance. Methods and Findings Patients who had recently attempted suicide were randomly allocated to treatment as usual (n = 60) or treatment as usual plus ASSIP (n = 60). ASSIP participants received three therapy sessions followed by regular contact through personalized letters over 24 months. Participants considered to be at high risk of suicide were included, 63% were diagnosed with an affective disorder, and 50% had a history of prior suicide attempts. Clinical exclusion criteria were habitual self-harm, serious cognitive impairment, and psychotic disorder. Study participants completed a set of psychosocial and clinical questionnaires every 6 months over a 24-month follow-up period. The study represents a real-world clinical setting at an outpatient clinic of a university hospital of psychiatry. The primary outcome measure was repeat suicide attempts during the 24-month follow-up period. Secondary outcome measures were suicidal ideation, depression, and health-care utilization. Furthermore, effects of prior suicide attempts, depression at baseline, diagnosis, and therapeutic alliance on outcome were investigated. During the 24-month follow-up period, five repeat suicide attempts were recorded in the ASSIP group and 41 attempts in the control group. The rates of participants reattempting suicide at least once were 8.3% (n = 5) and 26.7% (n = 16). ASSIP was associated with an approximately 80% reduced risk of participants making at least one repeat suicide attempt (Wald χ21 = 13.1, 95% CI

  14. [Characteristics of murder and attempted murder in Cameroon. Study based on expert psychiatric court reports].

    PubMed

    Mbassa Menick, D

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the sociodemographic, psychopathologic and criminological features associated with homicide based on review of expert psychiatric court reports describing murder and attempted murder perpetrators examined at Jamot Hospital in Yaoundé, Cameroon. The study cohort comprised reports describing 12 offenders who were examined at the request of ajudge or public prosecutor from March 1, 2002 to July 31, 2006. There were 8 men (66.7%) and 4 women (33.3%) with a mean age of 18.3 years (range, 17 to 43 years). In 8 cases the criminal act coincided with a difficult period in the offender's life. In the remaining 4 cases the act could not be linked to a specific life event. Assaults were carried out by strangulation, battery, or stabbing (knifes or machetes) in 87.5% of cases and occurred at the victim's home in 68.8% of cases. The main mental disorders diagnosed using the ICD-10 classification were schizophrenia in 41.7% of cases (n = 5), chronic delirium in 25.0% (n = 3), and personality disorder in 8.3 % (n = 1). Nine offenders (75.0%) had a history of mental disorder including 8 within at least six months preceding the assault. Four offenders had already received psychiatric treatment including 2 who required hospitalization following one or more episodes of psychotic decompensation. There were a total of 16 victims including 14 that died and 2 that were seriously wounded but survived thanks to prompt medical attention. The victims included 8 males and 8 females with 11 children (68.7%) and 5 adults (31.3%). In the child group 9 victims died (81.8%) and 2 survived (18.2%). Except one 17-year-old teenager, the 6 female and 3 male child victims were between the ages of 18 months and 8 years. The adult victims included 1 female and 4 males. The main findings of this study were the high incidence of mental disease, especially schizophrenics (66.7%), associated with homicide and the high number of child victims (62.5%). The first

  15. Victimization of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual People in Childhood: Associations with Attempted Suicide.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Anna B; Johnson, Renee M; Bolton, Shay-Lee; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2016-08-01

    Higher rates of attempted suicide have been documented among people who identify themselves as gay, lesbian, and bisexual (LGB) compared with heterosexuals. This study sought to ascertain the association between childhood abuse and neglect and attempted suicide, comparing LGBs and heterosexuals. Childhood sexual abuse among men and childhood sexual and physical abuse among women were found to mediate the association between LGB identity and attempted suicide. The experience of childhood abuse likely plays a significant role in the relationship between LGB identity and attempted suicide, but other factors such as experience of discrimination are also important. PMID:27484047

  16. Effects of sentencing options and strict / lenient instructions on convicting suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Range, Lillian M; Berman, Mitchell; Embry, Tippins

    2003-11-01

    Sentence and strictness of instructions influence juries' willingness to convict. To see whether this result holds for suicide attempters, 240 undergraduates read jury instructions for a suicide attempt that varied sentence (jail term, fine, community service, or mandatory counseling) and instructions, voted guilty / not guilty, and rated their certainty and effectiveness. With sentences of 25 hours mandatory counseling, or strict instructions, more respondents voted guilty. Sentence did not impact certainty or effectiveness, but strictness enhanced certainty. Overall, respondents were neutral that convicting a suicide attempter would reduce future attempts. Consistent with terror management theory, present students were willing to punish regardless of whether they thought that the punishment was preventive.

  17. Predicting future suicide attempts among depressed suicide ideators: a 10-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    May, Alexis M; Klonsky, E David; Klein, Daniel N

    2012-07-01

    Suicidal ideation and attempts are a major public health problem. Research has identified many risk factors for suicidality; however, most fail to identify which suicide ideators are at greatest risk of progressing to a suicide attempt. Thus, the present study identified predictors of future suicide attempts in a sample of psychiatric patients reporting suicidal ideation. The sample comprised 49 individuals who met full DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder and/or dysthymic disorder and reported suicidal ideation at baseline. Participants were followed for 10 years. Demographic, psychological, personality, and psychosocial risk factors were assessed using validated questionnaires and structured interviews. Phi coefficients and point-biserial correlations were used to identify prospective predictors of attempts, and logistic regressions were used to identify which variables predicted future attempts over and above past suicide attempts. Six significant predictors of future suicide attempts were identified - cluster A personality disorder, cluster B personality disorder, lifetime substance abuse, baseline anxiety disorder, poor maternal relationship, and poor social adjustment. Finally, exploratory logistic regressions were used to examine the unique contribution of each significant predictor controlling for the others. Comorbid cluster B personality disorder emerged as the only robust, unique predictor of future suicide attempts among depressed suicide ideators. Future research should continue to identify variables that predict transition from suicidal thoughts to suicide attempts, as such work will enhance clinical assessment of suicide risk as well as theoretical models of suicide. PMID:22575331

  18. Suicide intent and accurate expectations of lethality: predictors of medical lethality of suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gregory K; Henriques, Gregg R; Sosdjan, Daniella; Beck, Aaron T

    2004-12-01

    The degree of intent to commit suicide and the severity of self-injury were examined in individuals (N = 180) who had recently attempted suicide. Although a minimal association was found between the degree of suicide intent and the degree of lethality of the attempt, the accuracy of expectations about the likelihood of dying was found to moderate the relationship between suicide intent and lethality. Specifically, higher levels of suicide intent were associated with more lethal attempts but only for those individuals who had more accurate expectations about the likelihood of dying from their attempts.

  19. Quantifying the combined effects of attempt rate and swimming capacity on passage through velocity barriers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, T.

    2004-01-01

    The ability of fish to migrate past velocity barriers results from both attempt rate and swimming capacity. Here, I formalize this relationship, providing equations for estimating the proportion of a population successfully passing a barrier over a range of distances and times. These equations take into account the cumulative effect of multiple attempts, the time required to stage those attempts, and both the distance traversed on each attempt and its variability. I apply these equations to models of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) ascending a 23-m-long flume against flows ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 m??s-1. Attempt rate varied between species, attempts, and over time and was influenced by hydraulic variables (velocity of flow and discharge). Distance of ascent was primarily influenced by flow velocity. Although swimming capacity was similar, white sucker had greater attempt rates, and consequently better passage success, than walleye. Over short distances, models for both species predict greater passage success against higher velocities owing to the associated increased attempt rate. These results highlight the importance of attraction to fish passage and the need for further investigation into the hydraulic and other environmental conditions required to simultaneously optimize both attempt rate and passage success.

  20. Personality disorder risk factors for suicide attempts over 10 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ansell, Emily B; Wright, Aidan G C; Markowitz, John C; Sanislow, Charles A; Hopwood, Christopher J; Zanarini, Mary C; Yen, Shirley; Pinto, Anthony; McGlashan, Thomas H; Grilo, Carlos M

    2015-04-01

    Identifying personality disorder (PD) risk factors for suicide attempts is an important consideration for research and clinical care alike. However, most prior research has focused on single PDs or categorical PD diagnoses without considering unique influences of different PDs or of severity (sum) of PD criteria on the risk for suicide-related outcomes. This has usually been done with cross-sectional or retrospective assessment methods. Rarely are dimensional models of PDs examined in longitudinal, naturalistic prospective designs. In addition, it is important to consider divergent risk factors in predicting the risk of ever making a suicide attempt versus the risk of making an increasing number of attempts within the same model. This study examined 431 participants who were followed for 10 years in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study. Baseline assessments of personality disorder criteria were summed as dimensional counts of personality pathology and examined as predictors of suicide attempts reported at annual interviews throughout the 10-year follow-up period. We used univariate and multivariate zero-inflated Poisson regression models to simultaneously evaluate PD risk factors for ever attempting suicide and for increasing numbers of attempts among attempters. Consistent with prior research, borderline PD was uniquely associated with ever attempting. However, only narcissistic PD was uniquely associated with an increasing number of attempts. These findings highlight the relevance of both borderline and narcissistic personality pathology as unique contributors to suicide-related outcomes. PMID:25705977

  1. Relooking `Look Back': a student's attempt at problem solving using Polya's model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoong Leong, Yew; Toh, Tin Lam; Guan Tay, Eng; Quek, Khiok Seng; Dindyal, Jaguthsing

    2012-04-01

    Against the backdrop of half a century of research in mathematics problem solving, Pólya's last stage is especially conspicuous - by the scarcity of research on it! Much of the research focused on the first three stages (J.M. Francisco and C.A. Maher, Conditions for promoting reasoning in problem solving: Insights from a longitudinal study, J. Math. Behav. 24 (2005), pp. 361-372; J.A. Taylor and C. Mcdonald, Writing in groups as a tool for non-routine problem solving in first year university mathematics, Int. J. Math. Educ. Sci. Technol. 38(5) (2007), pp. 639-655.), with little or no successful attempts at following through with the subjects. In this article, we describe a case study of how the innovation of a 'Practical Worksheet' within a new paradigm of a 'Mathematics Practical' enabled a high-achieving student to push beyond getting a solution for a problem to extending, adapting and generalizing his solution. The findings from this study indicate promise in achieving the learning of Polya's model with notable success in the fourth stage, Look Back.

  2. An attempt to reconstruct the lithotriptor shock wave pulse in kidney: possible temperature effects.

    PubMed

    Filipczyński, L; Etienne, J; Piechocki, M

    1992-01-01

    Based on measurements carried out in water in two lithotriptor systems, the authors have made an attempt to reconstruct numerically amplitudes and shapes of shock wave pulses penetrating into kidney which differ from those in water. The difference between these pulses and those observed in water was analyzed and was also demonstrated experimentally. The amplitude and the steepness of the reconstructed pulse front were shown to be much lower than in water depending on the distance of the kidney stone from the patient's body surface. For a distance equal to 4 cm, the shock wave pulse amplitude of 40 MPa in water was estimated to decrease in the kidney by a factor of about two and the steepness of the positive shock pulse front to decrease several times. The analysis was carried out by considering the possible changes of absorption and attenuation in tissues which increase in an unknown way with the wave amplitude. It was shown that the temperature elevation caused by the increase of nonlinear high amplitude absorption is limited due to a corresponding increase in attenuation of the shock wave penetrating soft tissues. The temperature elevation was estimated on the basis of this work to be at most 1.8 times that one estimated in the case of two considered lithotripsy systems when assuming small amplitude absorption and attenuation coefficients.

  3. Reversal of innate aversions: attempts to induce a preference for chili peppers in rats.

    PubMed

    Rozin, P; Gruss, L; Berk, G

    1979-12-01

    Although humans frequently develop preferences for innately unpalatable bitter or irritant substances, such preferences are extremely rare in animals. An attempt was made to understand the nature of this difference by systematic experiments with laboratory rats, with chili pepper as the unpalatable substance. In parallel with major aspects of the human experience with chili pepper, rats were exposed to it as a flavoring in all their food for periods up to 11 mo from birth, without significant preference enhancement. Gradual introduction of chili into the diet also had no effect, nor did a series of poisoning and safety experiences designed to teach the rats that only chili-flavored foods were safe to eat. A sequence of seven pairings of chili-flavored diet with prompt recovery from thiamine deficiency did significantly attenuate the innate aversion and may have induced a chili preference in at least one case. Extensive experience with chili did not reliably make rats much less sensitive to its oral effects. The only reliable way to eliminate chili aversion in rats is to destroy their chemical irritant sense, which was accomplished in one group of rats. It is concluded that in contrast to humans, it is extremely difficult to reverse innate aversions in rats.

  4. Subcellular compartmentalization in protoplasts from Artemisia annua cell cultures: engineering attempts using a modified SNARE protein.

    PubMed

    Di Sansebastiano, Gian Pietro; Rizzello, Francesca; Durante, Miriana; Caretto, Sofia; Nisi, Rossella; De Paolis, Angelo; Faraco, Marianna; Montefusco, Anna; Piro, Gabriella; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-05-20

    Plants are ideal bioreactors for the production of macromolecules but transport mechanisms are not fully understood and cannot be easily manipulated. Several attempts to overproduce recombinant proteins or secondary metabolites failed. Because of an independent regulation of the storage compartment, the product may be rapidly degraded or cause self-intoxication. The case of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin produced by Artemisia annua plants is emblematic. The accumulation of artemisinin naturally occurs in the apoplast of glandular trichomes probably involving autophagy and unconventional secretion thus its production by undifferentiated tissues such as cell suspension cultures can be challenging. Here we characterize the subcellular compartmentalization of several known fluorescent markers in protoplasts derived from Artemisia suspension cultures and explore the possibility to modify compartmentalization using a modified SNARE protein as molecular tool to be used in future biotechnological applications. We focused on the observation of the vacuolar organization in vivo and the truncated form of AtSYP51, 51H3, was used to induce a compartment generated by the contribution of membrane from endocytosis and from endoplasmic reticulum to vacuole trafficking. The artificial compartment crossing exocytosis and endocytosis may trap artemisinin stabilizing it until extraction; indeed, it is able to increase total enzymatic activity of a vacuolar marker (RGUSChi), probably increasing its stability. Exploring the 51H3-induced compartment we gained new insights on the function of the SNARE SYP51, recently shown to be an interfering-SNARE, and new hints to engineer eukaryote endomembranes for future biotechnological applications.

  5. An attempt to use sweeteners as a material for accident dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; José, Flávio A; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2010-02-01

    In case of a radiological accident, it is important to determine the exposure to radiation of the general population. Several materials can be used to reconstruct the exposed dose. Tooth enamel has been studied for a long time, and now the procedures to determine the dose are well established for in vitro measurements. Many materials have been investigated by different techniques: sugar, wall bricks, roof tiles, plastics, watch glass, ruby present in watches, medicines carried by persons and shell button, among others. In this work an attempt is made to use sweeteners as a possible accident dosimeter material because they are becoming increasingly common. Sweeteners based on saccharine, cyclamate, stevia, and aspartame were acquired in local stores, and ESR spectrum was recorded before and after gamma irradiation. Spectrum simulation demonstrated that there are two main radicals with g = 2.0063, A = 1.6 mT, and g = 2.0048, A = 5 mT due to lactose. For the better characterization of spectroscopic and dosimetric properties of these materials, higher microwave frequency (K-band, nu approximately 24 GHz) was also employed. Experiments in X-band (nu approximately 9 GHz) showed that low dose levels of 500 mGy can be measured with this material, demonstrating the potential use of sweeteners for retrospective dosimetry.

  6. Suicide attempt in young people: A signal for long-term healthcare and social needs

    PubMed Central

    Goldman-Mellor, Sidra J.; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Importance Suicidal behavior has increased since the onset of the global recession, a trend that may have long-term health and social implications. Objective To test whether suicide attempts among young people signal increased risk for later poor health and social functioning, above and beyond pre-existing psychiatric disorder. Design We followed a cohort of young people and assessed multiple aspects of their health and social functioning as they approached midlife. Outcomes among individuals who had self-reported a suicide attempt up through age 24 (young suicide attempters) were compared to those who reported no attempt through age 24 (non-attempters). Psychiatric history and social class were controlled. Setting The population-representative Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Participants A total of 1,037 birth cohort members, comprising 91 young suicide attempters and 946 non-attempters, 95% of whom were followed to age 38. Main Outcome Measures Outcomes were selected to represent significant individual and societal costs: mental health, physical health, harm towards others, and need for support. Results As adults approaching midlife, young suicide attempters were significantly more likely to have persistent mental health problems (e.g., depression, substance dependence, additional suicide attempts) when compared to non-attempters. They were also more likely to have physical health problems (e.g., metabolic syndrome, elevated inflammation). They engaged in more violence (e.g., violent crime, intimate partner abuse) and needed more social support (e.g., long-term welfare receipt, unemployment). Furthermore, they reported being lonelier and less satisfied with their lives. These associations remained after adjustment for youth psychiatric diagnoses and social class. Conclusions Many young suicide attempters remain vulnerable to costly health and social problems into midlife. As rates of suicidal behavior rise with the continuing global

  7. A longitudinal study of predictors of suicide attempts among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth.

    PubMed

    Mustanski, Brian; Liu, Richard T

    2013-04-01

    This short-term prospective study examined general and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-specific risk and protective factors for suicide attempts in an ethnically diverse sample of LGBT youth (N = 237, 47.7 % male). A structured psychiatric interview assessed clinical depression and conduct disorder symptoms, as well as past and prospective suicide attempts over a 1-year follow-up period (91 % retention). Participants completed questionnaires measuring general risk factors for suicide attempts, including hopelessness, impulsiveness, and perceived social support. They also completed measures of LGBT-specific suicide risk factors, including gender nonconformity, age of first same-sex attraction, and LGBT victimization. Correlation and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to examine the relations between predictors and suicide attempt, and to identify mediators. Of nine variables examined, seven were related to lifetime history of attempted suicide: hopelessness, depression symptoms, conduct disorder symptoms, impulsivity, victimization, age of first same-sex attraction, and low family support. Depressive symptoms and hopelessness mediated the relation between multiple risk and resilience factors and suicide attempts. Suicide attempt history was the strongest predictor of prospective suicide attempts. Participants who previously attempted suicide (31.6 % of the sample) had more than 10 times greater odds of making another attempt in the 1-year follow-up period than were those who had made no previous attempt. These results highlight the need for suicide prevention programs for LGBT youth and suggest the importance of addressing depression and hopelessness as proximal determinants and family support and victimization, which have more distal effects.

  8. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups.

    PubMed

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-11-01

    The suicide rates in Denmark have been declining during the last two decades. The decline was relatively larger among women than among men. All age groups experienced a decline except the very young with stable rates and the very old with increasing rates. The Universal, Selective, Indicated (USI) model recommended by Institute of Medicine was used as a framework for the thesis. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward the entire population; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. At the universal level, a review was carried out to highlight the association between availability of methods for suicide and suicide rate. There were mostly studies of firearms, and the conclusion of the review was that there was clear indication of restricted access to lethal means was associated with decline in suicide with that specific method, and in many cases also with overall suicide mortality. Restricting access is especially important for methods with high case fatality rate. Our own study indicated a beneficial effect on suicide rates of restrictions in access to barbiturates, dextropropoxyphen, domestic gas and car exhaust with high content of carbon monoxide. Although a range of other factors in the society might also be of importance, it was concluded that restrictions in access to dangerous means for suicide were likely to play an important role in reducing suicide rates in Denmark, especially for women. At the selective level, there are several important risk groups such as psychiatric patients, persons with alcohol and drug abuse, persons with newly diagnosed severe physical illness, all who previously attempted suicide, and groups of homeless, institutionalized, prisoners and other socially excluded persons. The thesis focused on homeless persons and psychiatric patients, especially patients

  9. Attempts to stop or reduce daily cannabis use: An intensive natural history study.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R; Naud, Shelly; Budney, Alan J; Fingar, James R; Callas, Peter W

    2016-05-01

    We attempted to replicate and add to our prior study of attempts to stop or reduce cannabis use among daily cannabis users trying to change on their own, by observing a larger sample and adding further clinically relevant outcomes. Daily users (n = 193) who intended to stop or reduce sometime in the next 3 months called an Interactive Voice Response system each morning for 3 months to report on cannabis use, attempts to stop or reduce, withdrawal symptoms, and so forth, on the prior day. This study replicated our prior findings that (a) cannabis users trying to change make many, and often rapid, transitions among use as usual, reduction, and abstinence; (b) reduction attempts are more common than abstinence attempts; (c) quit and reduction attempts are short-lived and few participants achieve long-term abstinence; (d) alcohol and drug use are not greater on abstinence days; and (e) few users seek treatment. Novel findings included (f) a greater number of days of abstinence or intentional reduction predicted a greater decline in cannabis dependence, (g) most users do not prepare before their quit attempt, (h) coping outcomes during abstinence predict increased duration of abstinence, (i) tobacco use is less common on days of abstinence, and (j) withdrawal symptoms occur even with short quit attempts. Replication tests in more generalizable samples and of longer duration are indicated. Further natural history studies are likely to provide information to help improve the content of psychological treatments for cannabis use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in Depressed Patients with Single and Multiple Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andover, Margaret S.; Zlotnick, Caron; Miller, Ivan W.

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown both childhood physical and sexual abuse to be associated with later suicide attempts, although some studies have not supported these findings. However, few studies have investigated differences in physical and sexual abuse histories among single and multiple suicide attempters. The goals of the current study were two-fold: (a)…

  11. Factors Associated with Recent Suicide Attempts in Clients Presenting for Addiction Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Alexander; Mazmanian, Dwight; Jamieson, John; Black, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Factors associated with recent suicide attempts were examined in clients who sought treatment at an addictions facility between 2001 and 2008. Clients who reported being hospitalized for attempting suicide in the past year (n = 76) were compared to all other clients (n = 5914) on demographic, mental health, substance use, and problem gambling…

  12. Attempts to Stop or Reduce Daily Cannabis Use: An Intensive Natural History Study

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, John R.; Naud, Shelly; Budney, Alan J.; Fingar, James R.; Callas, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    We attempted to replicate and add to our prior study of attempts to stop or reduce cannabis use among daily cannabis users trying to change on their own, by observing a larger sample and adding further clinically-relevant outcomes. Daily users (n = 193) who intended to stop or reduce sometime in the next 3 months called an Interactive Voice Response system each morning for 3 months to report on cannabis use, attempts to stop or reduce, withdrawal symptoms, etc., on the prior day. This study replicated our prior findings that a) cannabis users trying to change make many, and often rapid, transitions among use as usual, reduction and abstinence; b) reduction attempts are more common than abstinence attempts; c) quit and reduction attempts are short-lived and few participants achieve long-term abstinence; d) alcohol and drug use are not greater on abstinence days; and e) few users seek treatment. Novel findings included f) a greater number of days of abstinence or intentional reduction predicted a greater decline in cannabis dependence; g) most users do not prepare before their quit attempt; h) coping outcomes during abstinence predict increased duration of abstinence; i) tobacco use is less common on days of abstinence; and j) withdrawal symptoms occur even with short quit attempts. Replication tests in more generalizable samples and of longer duration are indicated. Further natural history studies are likely to provide information to help improve the content of psychological treatments for cannabis use. PMID:26828641

  13. Medically treated suicide attempts: a four year monitoring study of the epidemiology in The Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    Arensman, E; Kerkhof, A J; Hengeveld, M W; Mulder, J D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The incidence of medically treated attempted suicides was investigated in a defined area in the western part of The Netherlands, and demographic groups at risk were identified. DATA AND METHODS--Suicide attempts treated at general hospitals, psychiatric hospitals, and in general practice were monitored between 1 January 1989 and 1 January 1993. Information on demographic characteristics of the subjects who attempted suicide and characteristics of the attempts was registered through a monitoring system and there was maximum coverage. Data on the general population in the catchment area were derived from national, regional, and municipal bureaux of statistics. RESULTS--The mean annual incidences of medically treated suicide attempts (events) were 95/100,000 for males and 155/100,000 for females. At risk groups for attempted suicide were the young (< 40 years); females; people who were divorced, unemployed, or disabled; or those who had low levels of education. CONCLUSIONS--Apart from general hospitals and psychiatric hospitals, 28% of all reported suicide attempts were reported exclusively by general practitioners, which supports the conclusion that they are an important source of information. There were indications that the number of medically treated suicide attempts in this area is stabilising. PMID:7629465

  14. Gender in Suicide Attempt Rates and Childhood Sexual Abuse Rates: Is There an Interaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec; Janal, Malvin

    2006-01-01

    Two competing explanations for higher rates of attempted suicide in women than men were compared. Because childhood sexual abuse is more prevalent in girls than boys, one explanation of higher rates of suicide attempts in women is that it is a direct result of the higher incidence of sexual abuse in girls. Alternatively, higher rates of suicide…

  15. Developmental Differences in Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts between Ninth and Eleventh Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacker, Karen A.; Suglia, Shakira F.; Fried, Lise E.; Rappaport, Nancy; Cabral, Howard

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify differences in risk factors for suicide attempts throughout adolescence, this study utilized a school-based survey of ninth (n = 1,192) and eleventh graders (N = 1,055). Suicide attempts were associated with cigarette and alcohol use, family violence, and depression for ninth graders and with illicit drug use, school violence,…

  16. Factors in Suicide Completions and Suicide Attempts among Schizophrenic, Other Psychotic and Nonpsychotic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Kalman J.; And Others

    Some researchers have attempted to connect suicide to a general history of mental illness; others have searched for diagnosis-free suicide risk factors; and still others have argued that different risk profiles may emerge for different diagnoses. In addition to these issues, it appears that suicide completers and suicide attempters show somewhat…

  17. Attempts to stop or reduce daily cannabis use: An intensive natural history study.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R; Naud, Shelly; Budney, Alan J; Fingar, James R; Callas, Peter W

    2016-05-01

    We attempted to replicate and add to our prior study of attempts to stop or reduce cannabis use among daily cannabis users trying to change on their own, by observing a larger sample and adding further clinically relevant outcomes. Daily users (n = 193) who intended to stop or reduce sometime in the next 3 months called an Interactive Voice Response system each morning for 3 months to report on cannabis use, attempts to stop or reduce, withdrawal symptoms, and so forth, on the prior day. This study replicated our prior findings that (a) cannabis users trying to change make many, and often rapid, transitions among use as usual, reduction, and abstinence; (b) reduction attempts are more common than abstinence attempts; (c) quit and reduction attempts are short-lived and few participants achieve long-term abstinence; (d) alcohol and drug use are not greater on abstinence days; and (e) few users seek treatment. Novel findings included (f) a greater number of days of abstinence or intentional reduction predicted a greater decline in cannabis dependence, (g) most users do not prepare before their quit attempt, (h) coping outcomes during abstinence predict increased duration of abstinence, (i) tobacco use is less common on days of abstinence, and (j) withdrawal symptoms occur even with short quit attempts. Replication tests in more generalizable samples and of longer duration are indicated. Further natural history studies are likely to provide information to help improve the content of psychological treatments for cannabis use. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26828641

  18. Predicting Future Suicide Attempts Among Adolescent and Emerging Adult Psychiatric Emergency Patients.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Adam G; Czyz, Ewa K; King, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine specific characteristics of suicidal ideation in combination with histories of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) to best evaluate risk for a future attempt among high-risk adolescents and emerging adults. Participants in this retrospective medical record review study were 473 (53% female; 69% Caucasian) consecutive patients, ages 15 to 24 years (M=19.4 years) who presented for psychiatric emergency services during a 9-month period. These patients' medical records, including a clinician-administered Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, were coded at the index visit and at future visits occurring within the next 18 months. Logistic regression models were used to predict suicide attempts during this period. Socioeconomic status, suicidal ideation severity (i.e., intent, method), suicidal ideation intensity (i.e., frequency, controllability), a lifetime history of suicide attempt, and a lifetime history of NSSI were significant independent predictors of a future suicide attempt. Suicidal ideation added incremental validity to the prediction of future suicide attempts above and beyond the influence of a past suicide attempt, whereas a lifetime history of NSSI did not. Sex moderated the relationship between the duration of suicidal thoughts and future attempts (predictive for male patients but not female). Results suggest value in incorporating both past behaviors and current thoughts into suicide risk formulation. Furthermore, suicidal ideation duration warrants additional examination as a potential critical factor for screening assessments evaluating suicide risk among high-risk samples, particularly for male patients.

  19. Multisystemic Therapy Effects on Attempted Suicide by Youths Presenting Psychiatric Emergencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huey, Stanley J.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Rowland, Melisa D.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Pickrel, Susan G.; Edwards, James

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of multisystemic therapy (MST) in reducing attempted suicide among predominantly African American youths referred for emergency psychiatric hospitalization. Method: Youths presenting psychiatric emergencies were randomly assigned to MST or hospitalization. Indices of attempted suicide, suicidal ideation,…

  20. A Closer Look at Self-Reported Suicide Attempts: False Positives and False Negatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploderl, Martin; Kralovec, Karl; Yazdi, Kurosch; Fartacek, Reinhold

    2011-01-01

    The validity of self-reported suicide attempt information is undermined by false positives (e.g., incidences without intent to die), or by unreported suicide attempts, referred to as false negatives. In a sample of 1,385 Austrian adults, we explored the occurrence of false positives and false negatives with detailed, probing questions. Removing…

  1. Treatment for Adolescents Following a Suicide Attempt: Results of a Pilot Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Deidre; Spirito, Anthony; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of a skills-based treatment protocol to a supportive relationship therapy for adolescents after a suicide attempt. Method: Thirty-nine adolescents (12-17 years old) and parents who presented to a general pediatric emergency department or inpatient unit of a child psychiatric hospital after a suicide attempt were…

  2. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  3. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  4. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  5. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  6. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  7. A Brief History of Attempts To Monitor Testing. NBETPP Statements, Volume 2, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madaus, George F.

    This paper provides a brief history of attempts to monitor testing in the United States. It describes proposals for monitoring from the first attempts in the 1920s to similar proposals in the 1990s. The discussion focuses on: (1) Giles Ruche's proposal for a consumer research bureau on tests; (2) Oscar K. Burros' reviews of tests and efforts to…

  8. Non-suicidal self-injury, attempted suicide, and suicidal intent among psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Andover, Margaret S; Gibb, Brandon E

    2010-06-30

    Although attempted suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) differ in several important ways, a significant number of individuals report histories of both behaviors. The current study further examined the relations between NSSI and attempted suicide among psychiatric inpatients. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 117 psychiatric inpatients at a general hospital (M=39.45 years old, S.D.=12.84 years, range=17-73 years). We found that presence and number of NSSI episodes were significantly related to presence and number of suicide attempts. Supporting the importance of NSSI assessment, patients' history of NSSI (presence and frequency) was more strongly associated with history of suicide attempts than were patients' depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and symptoms of borderline personality disorder, and as strongly associated with suicide attempt history as current levels of suicidal ideation. Finally, among patients with a history of suicide attempts, those with an NSSI history reported significantly greater lethal intent for their most severe attempt, and patients' number of prior NSSI episodes was positively correlated with the level of lethal intent associated with their most severe suicide attempt.

  9. Suicide Intent and Accurate Expectations of Lethality: Predictors of Medical Lethality of Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gregory K.; Henriques, Gregg R.; Sosdjan, Daniella; Beck, Aaron T.

    2004-01-01

    The degree of intent to commit suicide and the severity of self-injury were examined in individuals (N = 180) who had recently attempted suicide. Although a minimal association was found between the degree of suicide intent and the degree of lethality of the attempt, the accuracy of expectations about the likelihood of dying was found to moderate…

  10. Characteristics of Suicide Attempters and Nonattempters with Schizophrenia in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Xiang, Meng-Ze; Mao, Wen-Jun; Hou, Zai-Jin; Tang, Mu-Ni; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan; Yip, Paul S. F.; Conwell, Yeates

    2006-01-01

    In this study, demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals with schizophrenia in a Chinese rural community who had attempted suicide at some time in their lives and those who had not made a suicide attempt were compared. Among individuals with schizophrenia, subjects with (n = 38) and without (n = 472) a lifetime history of suicide…

  11. Impulsive and non-impulsive suicide attempts in patients treated for alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Wojnar, Marcin; Ilgen, Mark A.; Czyz, Ewa; Strobbe, Stephen; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Glass, Jennifer; Brower, Kirk J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Suicidal behavior has been recognized as an increasing problem among alcohol-dependent subjects. The aim of the study was to identify correlates of impulsive and non-impulsive suicide attempts among a treated population of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods A total of 154 patients with alcohol dependence consecutively admitted for addiction treatment participated in the study. Suicidal behavior was assessed together with severity of alcohol dependence, childhood abuse, impulsivity, and family history. A stop-signal procedure was used as a behavioral measure of impulsivity. Results and conclusions Lifetime suicide attempts were reported by 43% of patients in alcohol treatment; of which 62% were impulsive. Compared to patients without a suicide attempt, those with a non-impulsive attempt were more likely to have a history of sexual abuse (OR = 7.17), a family history of suicide (OR = 4.09), and higher scores on a personality measure of impulsiveness (OR = 2.27). The only significant factor that distinguished patients with impulsive suicide attempts from patients without a suicide attempt and from patients with a non-impulsive suicide attempt was a higher level of behavioral impulsivity (OR = 1.84 – 2.42). Limitations Retrospective self-report of suicide attempts and family history. Lack of diagnostic measure. PMID:18835498

  12. A Life History of a Korean Adolescent Girl Who Attempted Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Sungeun

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores the life history of a South Korean adolescent girl who attempted suicide. The study focuses on how sociocultural values affected her suicide attempt and how she made meaning out of the experience. The results revealed that her life history was a process of seeking independence and autonomy, and freeing herself from…

  13. Gratitude and Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts among Chinese Adolescents: Direct, Mediated, and Moderated Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xian; Li, Nini; Ye, Baojuan

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 1252 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.00 years), this study examined the direct relations between gratitude and adolescents' suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. This study also examined indirect relations between gratitude and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts via two self-system beliefs--coping efficacy and self-esteem.…

  14. Alcohol Use Disorders and Risk Factor Interactions for Adolescent Suicidal Ideation and Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Thomas M.; Lynch, Kevin G.; Donovan, John E.; Clark, Duncan B.

    2001-01-01

    Adolescents diagnosed with at least one mental disorder were studied to determine predictors of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Major depression was predictive of suicidal ideation and attempts for both genders. Chronic stress was found predictive of male suicidal ideations, while low self esteem and family dysfunction were predictive in…

  15. Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Status during the Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters (TASA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Brent, David A.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Emslie, Graham; Wells, Karen; Walkup, John T.; Stanley, Barbara; Bukstein, Oscar; Kennard, Betsy D.; Compton, Scott; Coffey, Barbara; Cwik, Mary F.; Posner, Kelly; Wagner, Ann; March, John S.; Riddle, Mark; Goldstein, Tina; Curry, John; Capasso, Lisa; Mayes, Taryn; Shen, Sa; Gugga, S. Sonia; Turner, J. Blake; Barnett, Shannon; Zelazny, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the course of depression during the treatment of adolescents with depression who had recently attempted suicide. Method: Adolescents (N = 124), ages 12 to 18 years, with a 90-day history of suicide attempt, a current diagnosis of depressive disorder (96.0% had major depressive disorder), and a Children's Depression Rating…

  16. “Patterns of Distress, Precipitating Events, and Reflections on Suicide Attempts by Young Latinas”

    PubMed Central

    Zayas, Luis H.; Gulbas, Lauren E; Fedoravicius, Nicole; Cabassa, Leopoldo J

    2010-01-01

    By most epidemiological accounts, young US Latinas attempt suicide more often than other youth. Little is known, however, about the circumstance and internal experiences of the attempts. To understand this phenomenon, we conducted thematic analyses of twenty-seven qualitative interviews with teenage Latinas (aged 11-19) living in New York City who had attempted suicide. Collected between July 2005 and July 2009, the interviews explored the emotional, cognitive and physical experiences of the attempts and the social situations in which they took place. Results show that the girls were divisible nearly equally into a group with a stated intent of death and a group that did not intend death. The pathways to the suicidal event consisted of a pattern of continuous, escalating stress (primarily at home) that created the emotionally combustible conditions for the attempt. A trigger event that either reminded them of past stress or revived feelings of that stress catalyzed the attempt. Guilt and remorse were common responses to the suicide attempts, and on reflection the girls demonstrated some broader perspectives. Results of the analysis clarify the sociocultural context of the suicide attempts, underscoring the cultural discontinuity experienced by adolescent Latinas, who struggle to reconcile traditional Hispanic gender socialization with their own insertion in a modern Western society. PMID:20347199

  17. Post-Admission Cognitive Therapy: A Brief Intervention for Psychiatric Inpatients Admitted After a Suicide Attempt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Cox, Daniel W.; Greene, Farrah N.

    2012-01-01

    To date, no empirically based inpatient intervention for individuals who have attempted suicide exists. We present an overview of a novel psychotherapeutic approach, Post-Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT), currently under development and empirical testing for inpatients who have been admitted for a recent suicide attempt. PACT is adapted from an…

  18. 14 CFR 417.415 - Post-launch and post-flight-attempt hazard controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Post-launch and post-flight-attempt hazard controls. 417.415 Section 417.415 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.415 Post-launch and post-flight-attempt hazard...

  19. Dimensions of Perfectionism, Hopelessness, and Attempted Suicide in a Sample of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul L.; Norton, G. Ron; Flett, Gordon L.; Callander, Lois; Cowan, Tim

    1998-01-01

    Compares assessment results of inpatients with alcoholism who have made a serious suicide attempt and a matched sample of inpatients with alcoholism who have no history of suicide attempts. Discriminant function analysis reveals that depression, social hopelessness, and socially prescribed perfectionism are unique discriminators of suicide groups.…

  20. The temptation of suicide: striatal gray matter, discounting of delayed rewards, and suicide attempts in late-life depression

    PubMed Central

    Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.; Siegle, Greg J.; Szanto, Katalin; Clark, Luke; Reynolds, Charles F.; Aizenstein, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Background Converging evidence implicates basal ganglia alterations in impulsivity and suicidal behavior. For example, D2/D3 agonists and subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson’s disease trigger impulse control disorders and possibly suicidal behavior. Further, suicidal behavior has been associated with structural basal ganglia abnormalities. Finally, low-lethality, unplanned suicide attempts are associated with increased discounting of delayed rewards, a behavior dependent upon the striatum. Thus, we tested whether, in late-life depression, changes in the basal ganglia were associated with suicide attempts and with increased delay discounting. Methods Fifty-two persons aged ≥60 underwent extensive clinical and cognitive characterization: 33 with major depression (13 suicide attempters [SA], 20 non-suicidal depressed elderly), and 19 non-depressed controls. Participants had high-resolution T1-weighted MPRAGE MRI scans. Basal ganglia gray matter voxel counts were estimated using atlas-based segmentation, with a highly-deformable automated algorithm. Discounting of delayed rewards was assessed using the Monetary Choice Questionnaire, and delay aversion with the Cambridge Gamble Task. Results SA had lower putamen but not caudate or pallidum gray matter voxel counts, compared to the control groups. This difference persisted after accounting for substance use disorders and possible brain injury from suicide attempts. SA with lower putamen gray matter voxel counts displayed higher delay discounting on the MCQ, but not delay aversion on the CGT. Secondary analyses revealed that SA had lower voxel counts in associative and possibly ventral, but not sensorimotor striatum. Conclusions Our findings, while limited by small sample size and case-control design, suggest that striatal lesions could contribute to suicidal behavior by increasing impulsivity. PMID:21999930

  1. Prediction by data mining, of suicide attempts in Korean adolescents: a national study

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sung Man; Lee, Seung A; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to develop a prediction model for suicide attempts in Korean adolescents. Methods We conducted a decision tree analysis of 2,754 middle and high school students nationwide. We fixed suicide attempt as the dependent variable and eleven sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and extrapersonal variables as independent variables. Results The rate of suicide attempts of the total sample was 9.5%, and severity of depression was the strongest variable to predict suicide attempt. The rates of suicide attempts in the depression and potential depression groups were 5.4 and 2.8 times higher than that of the non-depression group. In the depression group, the most powerful factor to predict a suicide attempt was delinquency, and the rate of suicide attempts in those in the depression group with higher delinquency was two times higher than in those in the depression group with lower delinquency. Of special note, the rate of suicide attempts in the depressed females with higher delinquency was the highest. Interestingly, in the potential depression group, the most impactful factor to predict a suicide attempt was intimacy with family, and the rate of suicide attempts of those in the potential depression group with lower intimacy with family was 2.4 times higher than that of those in the potential depression group with higher intimacy with family. And, among the potential depression group, middle school students with lower intimacy with family had a 2.5-times higher rate of suicide attempts than high school students with lower intimacy with family. Finally, in the non-depression group, stress level was the most powerful factor to predict a suicide attempt. Among the non-depression group, students who reported high levels of stress showed an 8.3-times higher rate of suicide attempts than students who reported average levels of stress. Discussion Based on the results, we especially need to pay attention to depressed females with higher delinquency and those with

  2. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Bipolar Disorder Patients With and Without Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Kristine Kahr

    2016-03-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) are at an increased risk of attempted and completed suicide. To elucidate the beliefs and assumptions associated with suicidality in BD, the present study compared BD patients with and without a history of suicide attempt in terms of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs). The sample consisted of 49 remitted BD patients who completed the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Version. Information on suicide attempts was obtained through interviews combined with medical records. Compared with BD patients without suicide attempts, the BD patients with suicide attempts scored significantly higher on 3 EMSs: social isolation, practical incompetence, and entitlement. The findings suggest that specific EMSs may be implicated in suicidal behaviors in BD. These results have implications for the assessment and treatment of suicidality in BD. PMID:26919302

  3. Family Relationships and Latina Teen Suicide Attempts: Reciprocity, Asymmetry, and Detachment

    PubMed Central

    Gulbas, Lauren E.; Zayas, Luis H.; Nolle, Allyson P.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Baumann, Ana A.; Pena, Juan B.

    2016-01-01

    Using qualitative data collected from adolescent Latinas and their parents, this article describes ways in which family relationships are organized within low-income Latino families (n = 24) with and without a daughter who attempted suicide. Based on a family-level analysis approach, we present a framework that categorizes relationships as reciprocal, asymmetrical, or detached. Clear differences are identified: Families of non-attempters primarily cluster in reciprocal families, whereas families with an adolescent suicide attempter exhibit characteristics of asymmetrical or detached families. Our results highlight the need for detailed clinical attention to family communication patterns, especially in Latino families. Clinicians may reduce the likelihood of an attempt or repeated attempts by raising mutual, reciprocal exchanges of words and support between parents and daughter. PMID:27330263

  4. Suicide Disclosure in Suicide Attempt Survivors: Does Family Reaction Moderate or Mediate Disclosure's Effect on Depression?

    PubMed

    Frey, Laura M; Hans, Jason D; Cerel, Julie

    2016-02-01

    Existing literature has found a link between disclosure of a stigmatized identity and improved mental health; however, research on the impact of suicide disclosure to family members is scarce. Suicide attempt survivors (n = 74) in the United States were examined to assess whether family reaction moderates or mediates the relationship between suicide disclosure and subsequent depression symptoms. Family reaction did not moderate but did mediate the relationship between disclosure and depression symptoms while controlling for time since most recent attempt. Higher rates of disclosure predicted more positive family reactions, which in turn predicted less severe depression symptoms. Findings indicate that family members can play an essential role in the recovery process after an attempt occurs, which has important implications for both researchers and clinicians who seek to decrease stigma for attempt survivors while simultaneously decreasing the likelihood of future attempts.

  5. Attempted suicide, self-harm, and violent victimization among regular illicit drug users.

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane; Torok, Michelle; Kaye, Sharlene; Ross, Joanne

    2010-12-01

    Relationships among attempted suicide, nonsuicidal self-harm, and physical assault were examined in 400 regular users of heroin and/or psychostimulants. Twenty-eight percent had episodes of nonsuicidal self-harm, 32% had attempted suicide, and 95% had been violently assaulted. The number of suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-harm incidents were correlated (ρ = 0.44). There were also significant correlations between the number of assaults and nonsuicidal self-harm incidents (ρ = 0.17), and suicide attempts (ρ = 0.27). The mean age onset for non-suicidal self-harm (18.9 yrs) was significantly younger than that of initial suicide (22.3 yrs). The age at initial physical assault (16.0yrs) was significantly younger than that of nonsuicidal self-harm and initial suicide attempt. Screening for all forms of violence appears warranted when determining suicide risk for this population.

  6. Schizophrenia and Suicide Attempts: Findings from a Representative Community-Based Canadian Sample

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with suicide attempts among those with schizophrenia (n = 101) versus those without (n = 21,643) in a representative sample of noninstitutionalized Canadians. The lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts among persons with schizophrenia was 39.2% versus 2.8% of nonafflicted individuals. After adjusting for sociodemographics, childhood adversities, substance abuse/dependence, depression/anxiety, and chronic pain, those with schizophrenia had 6 times the odds (OR = 6.47) of attempting suicide. Among persons with schizophrenia, suicide attempts were associated with female gender (OR = 4.59), substance abuse/dependence (OR = 6.31), depression (OR = 4.93), and childhood physical abuse (OR = 5.75). Community-dwelling persons with schizophrenia appear to be at high risk for suicide attempts. PMID:26977319

  7. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Suicide Re-attempts in Persons with Chronic Mental Disabilities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sun-Jin; Ko, Jung-A; Park, Jung-Suk; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Kyung-Min; Lee, Myung-Soo

    2016-07-01

    Suicide re-attempters are clinically different from single-episode attempters and are at higher risk of completed suicide. This study explored psychosocial risk factors and modifiable factors related to suicide re-attempt in a representative sample of 441 chronic mentally disabled individuals in Seoul, Korea. The participants were listed on the public sector registry based on the Act for the Welfare of Disabled Persons. Individualized interviews were conducted, and the authors analyzed the data via multiple logistic regression analysis. The results showed that physical illness (under treatment OR 1.7; left untreated OR 4.2) and no leisure activities (OR 1.9) were factors related to a higher risk of re-attempted suicide. Unmet and modifiable needs in addition to mental health services should be considered to prevent suicide re-attempts in the chronic mentally disabled. PMID:27154333

  8. History of sexual abuse and suicide attempts in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, A; Klimkiewicz, A; Krasowska, A; Kopera, M; Sławińska-Ceran, A; Brower, K J; Wojnar, M

    2014-09-01

    History of child abuse is considered one of the important risk factors of suicide attempt in general population. At the same time it has been shown that suicide attempts appear significantly more frequently in alcoholics than in healthy individuals. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between history of childhood sexual abuse and suicide attempts in a sample of Polish alcohol dependent patients. A sample of 364 alcohol-dependent subjects was recruited in alcohol treatment centers in Warsaw, Poland. Information was obtained about demographics, family history of psychiatric problems, history of suicide attempts, sexual and physical abuse during childhood and adulthood and severity of alcohol problems. When analyzed by gender, 7.4% of male and 39.2% of female patients had a lifetime history of sexual abuse; 31.9% of the study group reported at least one suicide attempt during their lifetime. Patients who reported suicide attempts were significantly younger (p=0.0008), had greater severity of alcohol dependence (p=0.0002), lower social support (p=0.003), and worse economic status (p=0.002). Moreover, there was a significant association between history of suicide attempts and family history of psychiatric problems (p=0.00025), suicide attempts in the family (p=0.0073), childhood history of sexual abuse (p=0.009) as well as childhood history of physical abuse (p=0.002). When entered into linear regression analysis with other dependent variables history of childhood sexual abuse remained a significant predictor of suicide attempt (OR=2.52; p=0.035). Lifetime experience of sexual abuse is a significant and independent risk factor of suicide attempts in alcohol-dependent individuals.

  9. IMPULSIVE SUICIDE ATTEMPTS PREDICT POST-TREATMENT RELAPSE IN ALCOHOL DEPENDENT PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Wojnar, Marcin; Ilgen, Mark A.; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wnorowska, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to examine the influence of suicidality on relapse in alcohol-dependent patients. Specifically, a lifetime suicide attempt at baseline was used to predict relapse in the year after treatment. Also, the unique contribution of impulsive suicide attempts was examined. Methods A total of 154 patients with alcohol dependence, consecutively admitted to four addiction treatment facilities in Warsaw, Poland participated in the study. Of the 154 eligible patients, 118 (76.6%) completed a standardized follow-up assessment at 12 months. Results Previous suicide attempts were common in adults treated for alcohol dependence with 43% patients in the present sample reporting an attempt at some point during their lifetime. Additionally, more than 62% of those with a lifetime suicide attempt reported making an impulsive attempt. Lifetime suicide attempts were not associated with post-treatment relapse (chi-square=2.37, df=1, p=0.124). However, impulsive suicide attempts strongly predicted relapse (OR=2.81, 95%C.I. = 1.13–6.95, p=0.026) and time to relapse (OR=2.10, 95% C.I. = 1.18–3.74, p=0.012) even after adjusting for other measures of baseline psychopathology, depression, impulsivity, hopelessness and alcohol use severity. Conclusions This study is the first to document the relationship between pre-treatment impulsive suicide attempts and higher likelihood of post-treatment relapse in alcohol-dependent patents. Clinicians should routinely conduct an assessment for previous suicide attempts in patients with alcohol use disorders, and when impulsive suicidality is reported, they should recognize the increased risk for relapse and formulate their patients' treatment plans accordingly with the goals of reducing both alcoholic relapse and suicide rates. PMID:18556146

  10. History of sexual abuse and suicide attempts in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, A; Klimkiewicz, A; Krasowska, A; Kopera, M; Sławińska-Ceran, A; Brower, K J; Wojnar, M

    2014-09-01

    History of child abuse is considered one of the important risk factors of suicide attempt in general population. At the same time it has been shown that suicide attempts appear significantly more frequently in alcoholics than in healthy individuals. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between history of childhood sexual abuse and suicide attempts in a sample of Polish alcohol dependent patients. A sample of 364 alcohol-dependent subjects was recruited in alcohol treatment centers in Warsaw, Poland. Information was obtained about demographics, family history of psychiatric problems, history of suicide attempts, sexual and physical abuse during childhood and adulthood and severity of alcohol problems. When analyzed by gender, 7.4% of male and 39.2% of female patients had a lifetime history of sexual abuse; 31.9% of the study group reported at least one suicide attempt during their lifetime. Patients who reported suicide attempts were significantly younger (p=0.0008), had greater severity of alcohol dependence (p=0.0002), lower social support (p=0.003), and worse economic status (p=0.002). Moreover, there was a significant association between history of suicide attempts and family history of psychiatric problems (p=0.00025), suicide attempts in the family (p=0.0073), childhood history of sexual abuse (p=0.009) as well as childhood history of physical abuse (p=0.002). When entered into linear regression analysis with other dependent variables history of childhood sexual abuse remained a significant predictor of suicide attempt (OR=2.52; p=0.035). Lifetime experience of sexual abuse is a significant and independent risk factor of suicide attempts in alcohol-dependent individuals. PMID:24997776

  11. Prognosis after Adolescent Suicide Attempt: Mental Health, Psychiatric Treatment, and Suicide Attempts in a Nine-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health and suicidal behavior was examined 8 to 10 years after an adolescent suicide attempt. Of 71 persons, 79% had at least one psychiatric disorder (mean 1.7) at follow-up, most commonly depression (46%), personality disorder (46%), and anxiety disorder (42%). The stability of diagnoses was moderate. The suicide…

  12. The Association between Inappropriate Weight Control Behaviors and Suicide Ideation and Attempt among Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Ah; Jang, Suk Yong; Shin, Jaeyong; Ju, Yeong Jun; Nam, Jin Young; Park, Eun Cheol

    2016-10-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents globally, and body weight is also a recognized reason for adolescent suicide. Therefore, we investigated the association between weight control behaviors (WCB) and suicide ideation and attempt, focusing on inappropriate weight control measures. We used data from the 2014 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, representing a total of 35,224 boys and 34,361 girls aged 12 to 18 years. Adolescents were classified into groups based on WCB: appropriate WCB, inappropriate WCB, and no WCB. We performed logistic regression models to examine associations between WCB and suicide ideation and attempt, controlling for covariates. Both boys and girls with inappropriate WCB were more likely to report suicide ideation and attempt. Underweight and normal weight boys with inappropriate WCB were more likely to think or attempt suicide, and underweight girls with inappropriate WCB were also more likely to attempt suicide. Among five common WCB combinations, the combination of "regular exercise, fasting, eating less" was highly associated with suicide ideation and attempt. We confirmed that inappropriate WCB is associated with suicide ideation and attempt among Korean adolescents. Given the high incidence rate of suicide among adolescents and the adverse effect of inappropriate WCB, encouraging adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is imperative. PMID:27550479

  13. Cross-Sectional Survey on Quitting Attempts among Adolescent Smokers in Dharan, Eastern Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Marahatta, Kedar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Adolescents frequently attempt smoking cessation but are unable to maintain long term abstinence because they are dependent on nicotine and experience withdrawal symptoms. Objectives. This study aimed to explore the quitting attempts among adolescent smokers in Dharan Municipality of Eastern Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using pretested self-administered questionnaire adapted from Global Youth Tobacco Survey to assess current smokers and quitting attempts among 1312 adolescent students in middle (14-15 years) and late adolescence (16–19 years). Chi square test was used for association of various factors with quitting attempts. Results. The prevalence of current smoking was 13.7%. Among the current smokers, 66.5% had attempted to quit in the past because they believed smoking was harmful to health (35.5%). The median duration of quitting was 150 days. Nearly 8% of the current smokers were unwilling to quit in the future because they thought it is already a habit (60%). Smokers who are willing to quit smoking in the future were more likely to have made quitting attempts (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.40–4.45). Conclusion. Relapse often occurs even after multiple quitting attempts. Tobacco focused interventions to support abstinence are important during adolescence to prevent habituation. PMID:27747130

  14. The Use of Cannabis as a Predictor of Early Onset of Bipolar Disorder and Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Leite, Rafaela Torres Portugal; Nogueira, Sarah de Oliveira; do Nascimento, João Paulo Rodrigues; de Lima, Laisa Soares; da Nóbrega, Taís Bastos; Virgínio, Mariana da Silva; Moreno, Lucas Monte da Costa; Sampaio, Bruno Henrique Barbosa; de Matos E Souza, Fábio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Bipolar disorder (BD) implies risk of suicide. The age at onset (AAO) of BD carries prognostic significance. Substance abuse may precede the onset of BD and cannabis is the most common illicit drug used. The main goal of this study is to review the association of cannabis use as a risk factor for early onset of BD and for suicide attempts. Materials and Methods. PubMed database was searched for articles using key words "bipolar disorder," "suicide attempts," "cannabis," "marijuana," "early age at onset," and "early onset." Results. The following percentages in bipolar patients were found: suicide attempts 3.6-42%; suicide attempts and substance use 5-60%; suicide attempts and cannabis use 15-42%. An early AAO was associated with cannabis misuse. The mean age of the first manic episode in individuals with and without BD and cannabis use disorder (CUD) was 19.5 and 25.1 years, respectively. The first depressive episode was at 18.5 and 24.4 years, respectively. Individuals misusing cannabis showed increased risk of suicide. Discussion. Cannabis use is associated with increased risk of suicide attempts and with early AAO. However, the effect of cannabis at the AAO and suicide attempts is not clear. PMID:26097750

  15. The Association between Inappropriate Weight Control Behaviors and Suicide Ideation and Attempt among Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents globally, and body weight is also a recognized reason for adolescent suicide. Therefore, we investigated the association between weight control behaviors (WCB) and suicide ideation and attempt, focusing on inappropriate weight control measures. We used data from the 2014 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, representing a total of 35,224 boys and 34,361 girls aged 12 to 18 years. Adolescents were classified into groups based on WCB: appropriate WCB, inappropriate WCB, and no WCB. We performed logistic regression models to examine associations between WCB and suicide ideation and attempt, controlling for covariates. Both boys and girls with inappropriate WCB were more likely to report suicide ideation and attempt. Underweight and normal weight boys with inappropriate WCB were more likely to think or attempt suicide, and underweight girls with inappropriate WCB were also more likely to attempt suicide. Among five common WCB combinations, the combination of "regular exercise, fasting, eating less" was highly associated with suicide ideation and attempt. We confirmed that inappropriate WCB is associated with suicide ideation and attempt among Korean adolescents. Given the high incidence rate of suicide among adolescents and the adverse effect of inappropriate WCB, encouraging adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is imperative. PMID:27550479

  16. The Association between Inappropriate Weight Control Behaviors and Suicide Ideation and Attempt among Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Ah; Jang, Suk Yong; Shin, Jaeyong; Ju, Yeong Jun; Nam, Jin Young; Park, Eun Cheol

    2016-10-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents globally, and body weight is also a recognized reason for adolescent suicide. Therefore, we investigated the association between weight control behaviors (WCB) and suicide ideation and attempt, focusing on inappropriate weight control measures. We used data from the 2014 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, representing a total of 35,224 boys and 34,361 girls aged 12 to 18 years. Adolescents were classified into groups based on WCB: appropriate WCB, inappropriate WCB, and no WCB. We performed logistic regression models to examine associations between WCB and suicide ideation and attempt, controlling for covariates. Both boys and girls with inappropriate WCB were more likely to report suicide ideation and attempt. Underweight and normal weight boys with inappropriate WCB were more likely to think or attempt suicide, and underweight girls with inappropriate WCB were also more likely to attempt suicide. Among five common WCB combinations, the combination of "regular exercise, fasting, eating less" was highly associated with suicide ideation and attempt. We confirmed that inappropriate WCB is associated with suicide ideation and attempt among Korean adolescents. Given the high incidence rate of suicide among adolescents and the adverse effect of inappropriate WCB, encouraging adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is imperative.

  17. Declines in the Lethality of Suicide Attempts Explain the Decline in Suicide Deaths in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Spittal, Matthew J.; Pirkis, Jane; Miller, Matthew; Studdert, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Background To investigate the epidemiology of a steep decrease in the incidence of suicide deaths in Australia. Methods National data on suicide deaths and deliberate self-harm for the period 1994–2007 were obtained from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. We calculated attempt and death rates for five major methods and the lethality of these methods. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate the size and significance of method-specific time-trends in attempts and lethality. Results Hanging, motor vehicle exhaust and firearms were the most lethal methods, and together accounted for 72% of all deaths. The lethality of motor vehicle exhaust attempts decreased sharply (RR = 0.94 per year, 95% CI 0.93–0.95) while the motor vehicle exhaust attempt rate changed little; this combination of motor vehicle exhaust trends explained nearly half of the overall decline in suicide deaths. Hanging lethality also decreased sharply (RR = 0.96 per year, 95% CI 0.956–0.965) but large increases in hanging attempts negated the effect on death rates. Firearm lethality changed little while attempts decreased. Conclusion Declines in the lethality of suicide attempts–especially attempts by motor vehicle exhaust and hanging–explain the remarkable decline in deaths by suicide in Australia since 1997. PMID:22957084

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Lifetime Suicide Attempts Among Transgender Persons in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Brandon D L; Socías, María Eugenia; Kerr, Thomas; Zalazar, Virginia; Sued, Omar; Arístegui, Inés

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the lifetime prevalence and correlates of attempted suicide among transgender persons in Argentina. Data were derived from a nation-wide, cross-sectional survey conducted in 2013. We assessed individual, social, and structural correlates of reporting a history of attempting suicide using logistic regression. Among 482 participants, the median age was 30, 91% identified as transwomen, and 32% resided in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. A lifetime suicide attempt was reported by 159 (33%), among whom the median age at first attempt was 17. In a multivariate model, internalized stigma was positively associated with a history of suicidal behavior, while participants with stable housing had reduced odds of prior suicide attempt(s). These findings suggest that reducing stigma and mitigating structural vulnerabilities (through, for example, the enactment and enforcement of laws that prohibit discrimination based on gender identity to ensure equitable access to housing) could be effective targets for intervention to reduce suicide attempts among transgender individuals in Argentina.

  19. Multiple substance use and self-reported suicide attempts by adolescents in 16 European countries.

    PubMed

    Kokkevi, Anna; Richardson, Clive; Olszewski, Deborah; Matias, João; Monshouwer, Karin; Bjarnason, Thoroddur

    2012-08-01

    Substance use and suicide attempts are high-risk behaviors in adolescents, with serious impacts on health and well-being. Although multiple substance use among young people has become a common phenomenon, studies of its association with suicide attempts are scarce. The present study examines the association between multiple substance use and self-reported suicide attempts in a large multinational sample of adolescent students in Europe. Data on multiple substance use (tobacco, alcohol, tranquillizers/sedatives, cannabis, other illegal drugs) and self-reported suicide attempts were drawn from the 2007 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). The ESPAD survey follows a standardized methodology in all participating countries. The present study is based on 45,086 16-year-old adolescents from 16 countries that had used the optional "psychosocial module" of the questionnaire, thereby including the question on suicide attempts. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of any self-reported suicide attempt (dependent variable) with substance use controlling for country and gender. The strongest association with self-reported suicide attempts was for any lifetime tranquillizer or sedative use (odds ratio 3.34, 95 % confidence interval 3.00-3.71) followed by any lifetime use of illegal drugs other than cannabis (2.41, 2.14-2.70), 30-day regular tobacco use (2.02, 1.84-2.21), 30-day frequent alcohol use (1.47, 1.32-1.63) and any 30-day cannabis use (1.37, 1.18-1.58). The odds ratio of reporting a suicide attempt approximately doubled for every additional substance used. These findings on the association between multiple substance use, including legal drugs (tranquillizers or sedatives and tobacco), and the life-threatening behavior of suicide attempts provide important cues for shaping prevention policies.

  20. The role of tyrosine hydroxylase gene variants in suicide attempt in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiayi; Chan, Lai Fong; Souza, Renan P; Tampakeras, Maria; Kennedy, James L; Zai, Clement; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2014-01-24

    Evidence has shown that attempted suicide in psychiatric disorders is a complex interplay of genes and environment. Noradrenergic dysfunction due to abnormalities in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of suicidal behavior in mood disorders. However, suicide is a leading cause of mortality in schizophrenia too. Recent evidence suggests that TH gene variants may also increase the risk of suicide attempts in schizophrenia patients, although the interaction with established clinical risk factors is unclear. This study aimed to identify TH gene variants conferring risk for suicide attempt in schizophrenia while accounting for the interaction between this gene and clinical risk factors. We performed analysis on four TH SNPs (rs11564717, rs11042950, rs2070762, rs689) and the common TCAT repeat (UniSTS:240639) for 234 schizophrenia patients (51 suicide attempters and 183 non-attempters). Clinical risk factors and ethnic stratification were included as covariates. Single marker analysis identified the SNP rs11564717 (p=0.042) and the TCAT(6) (p=0.004) as risk variants for suicide attempt. We also identified the haplotype A-A-A-G as a risk factor for suicide attempt (p=0.0025). In conclusion, our findings suggest that TH polymorphisms may contribute to the risk of attempted suicide in schizophrenia even after accounting for established clinical risk factors and ethnic stratification. Further larger scale studies are needed to confirm these findings and to understand the mechanisms underlying the role of TH gene variants in suicide attempt in schizophrenia. PMID:24275212