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Sample records for post-suicide attempt case

  1. A very unusual case of attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Misiak, Piotr; Jabłoński, Sławomir; Dziwińska, Katarzyna; Terlecki, Artur

    2016-06-01

    We would like to present a case report of a very unusual suicide attempt. A 48-year-old female patient tried to commit suicide by stabbing herself with a kitchen knife into her neck. Suicide by self-stabbing is uncommon, constituting only 1-3% of suicide attempts. Patients with self-inflicted stab wounds may have a higher incidence of surgical interventions based on the stab location. Surprisingly, the mortality associated with this kind of wound is low. Most medical centers have very limited experience with this infrequent injury. There are only a few case reports and small series published in the literature of the subject.

  2. The post-suicide family and the family physician.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J V; Barnett, B L; Collins, J

    1976-06-01

    It is estimated that there are 750,000 people each year who are intimately affected by suicide. Prominent among these are the family survivors and their family physician. This paper offers a time frame which divides the period following the suicide into three phases: Immediate (the first ten days after the suicide); Intermediate (after the first ten days through the first year); and Extended (from the first year until restitution occurs). It identifies the chief emotional reactions which occur in each phase, explores their psychodynamic origins, and proposes suggestions for appropriate management during each of the three periods. The goal of this plan of management is to enable the family physician to function in a supportive emphatic, and restorative manner for the post-suicide family.

  3. Suicide attempt by hanging in preadolescent children: a case series.

    PubMed

    Omigbodun, O O; Adejumo, O A; Babalola, O O

    2008-10-01

    Suicide is now among the five top causes of death in youth worldwide. However, during the preadolescent period, suicidal behaviour is rare and difficult to define because the cognitive level of young children limits their ability to plan and understand the consequences or the finality of suicide. There is virtually no information about preadolescent suicidal behaviour in Nigeria. To illustrate the presentation and psychosocial issues associated with preadolescent suicidal attempt using the 'hanging' method in Nigeria. Three case scenarios of suicide attempt by hanging in preadolescents seen at the University College Hospital, Ibadan between 2005 and 2006 were interviewed in detail along with mental state and physical examination. Family and individual therapies were embarked upon. Types of psychopathology found in the preadolescents include depressive symptoms, conduct and oppositional defiant disorder and impulse control problems. Stressful life events such as family disruption, physical abuse, and bullying at school were factors associated with suicidal behaviour. The influence of the media in providing information about 'hanging' as a method of suicide was evident. Therapy yield varying results. High risk parameters for suicide in children should be known to all health professionals. The importance of intervention strategies particularly media education, monitoring systems and further research on suicidal behaviour in this environment is apparent.

  4. Eszopiclone-induced Parasomnia with Suicide Attempt: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Pennington, J Gibson; Guina, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Eszopiclone is a benzodiazepine-like hypnotic that is commonly prescribed to treat insomnia. However, eszopiclone's efficacy has been questionable in several clinical trials, and its pharmacologic profile makes its effects on sleep and behavior difficult to predict. We report a case demonstrating an instance of eszopiclone-induced parasomnia involving paranoia and a suicide attempt in a patient taking eszopiclone. We explore possible biochemical explanations examining the pharmacologic profile of eszopiclone and its potential for drug-drug interactions, especially with concomitant administration of monoaminergic medications such as antidepressants. Caution should be exercised when prescribing these medications, and evidence-based treatments for insomnia (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy, biofeedback, sedating antidepressants) should be considered prior to sedative-hypnotic administration.

  5. A case of aldicarb poisoning: a possible murder attempt.

    PubMed

    Covaci, A; Manirakiza, P; Coucke, V; Beckers, R; Jorens, P G; Schepens, P

    1999-01-01

    A couple showing signs of cholinergic crisis was admitted to the hospital. Analyses with high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry conducted on serum, urine, and stomach contents that were collected few hours after first symptoms showed the presence of aldicarb, which is the most potent carbamate insecticide on the market. A murder attempt was suspected because the patients showed the first signs some minutes after drinking coffee upon returning home and no commercial products containing aldicarb were found in the house. Because of the reversibility of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, the patients recovered after treatment with atropine and toxogonin. They left the hospital after 12 days. To our knowledge, the serum concentrations of aldicarb reported in this paper are the highest reported for a nonfatal case.

  6. Eszopiclone-induced Parasomnia with Suicide Attempt: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Guina, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Eszopiclone is a benzodiazepine-like hypnotic that is commonly prescribed to treat insomnia. However, eszopiclone’s efficacy has been questionable in several clinical trials, and its pharmacologic profile makes its effects on sleep and behavior difficult to predict. We report a case demonstrating an instance of eszopiclone-induced parasomnia involving paranoia and a suicide attempt in a patient taking eszopiclone. We explore possible biochemical explanations examining the pharmacologic profile of eszopiclone and its potential for drug-drug interactions, especially with concomitant administration of monoaminergic medications such as antidepressants. Caution should be exercised when prescribing these medications, and evidence-based treatments for insomnia (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy, biofeedback, sedating antidepressants) should be considered prior to sedative-hypnotic administration. PMID:27974999

  7. [Current Clinical Variables in Schizophrenia Cases with Suicide Attempt History].

    PubMed

    Sağlam Aykut, Demet; Civil Arslan, Filiz; Özkorumak Karagüzel, Evrim; Karakullukçu, Serdar; Tiryaki, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    High suicide risk was shown to be related with depression and low quality of life in studies investigating clinical variables related to suicidal behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a suicide attempt on clinical presentation by comparing sociodemographic variables, clinical signs, symptoms of depression, quality of life, social functionality, and reported adverse drug reactions in schizophrenic patients with and without suicide. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Calgary Depression Scale (CDS), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), Social Functioning Scale (SFS), and Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser Side Effect Rating Scale (UKU) were administered to 115 patients with schizophrenia. 44.3% of patients had at least one suicide attempt. Among sociodemographic variables, a family history of suicide, smoking, and total duration of disease were significantly higher in patients with suicide history than without. Scores of CDS and UKU subscores were significantly higher, and quality of life and social occupation in social functionality were significantly lower in patients with a history of suicide. In correlation analysis, CSD was negatively correlated with Q-LES-Q and independency/performance subscore of SFI, and positively correlated with UKU-Neurological subscore. In line with this data, suicidal behavior may be suggested to affect clinical presentation and course characteristic of schizophrenic patients. Additional treatments towards factors that may impact on the clinical course and social support programs might be suggested for these patients.

  8. Characteristics of suicide attempts in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Sébastien; Jaussent, Isabelle; Olié, Emilie; Genty, Catherine; Bringer, Jacques; Courtet, Philippe; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    Compared to other eating disorders, anorexia nervosa (AN) has the highest rates of completed suicide whereas suicide attempt rates are similar or lower than in bulimia nervosa (BN). Attempted suicide is a key predictor of suicide, thus this mismatch is intriguing. We sought to explore whether the clinical characteristics of suicidal acts differ between suicide attempters with AN, BN or without an eating disorders (ED). Case-control study in a cohort of suicide attempters (n = 1563). Forty-four patients with AN and 71 with BN were compared with 235 non-ED attempters matched for sex, age and education, using interview measures of suicidal intent and severity. AN patients were more likely to have made a serious attempt (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.4-7.9), with a higher expectation of dying (OR = 3.7,95% CI 1.1-13.5), and an increased risk of severity (OR = 3.4,95% CI 1.2-9.6). BN patients did not differ from the control group. Clinical markers of the severity of ED were associated with the seriousness of the attempt. There are distinct features of suicide attempts in AN. This may explain the higher suicide rates in AN. Higher completed suicide rates in AN may be partially explained by AN patients' higher desire to die and their more severe and lethal attempts.

  9. Sleep problems and suicide attempts among adolescents: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Koyawala, Neel; Stevens, Jack; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M; Cannon, Elizabeth A; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    This study used a case-control design to compare sleep disturbances in 40 adolescents who attempted suicide with 40 never-suicidal adolescents. Using hierarchical logistic regression analyses, we found that self-reported nighttime awakenings were significantly associated with attempted suicide, after controlling for antidepressant use, antipsychotic use, affective problems, and being bullied. In a separate regression analysis, the parent-reported total sleep problems score also predicted suicide attempt status, controlling for key covariates. No associations were found between suicide attempts and other distinct sleep problems, including falling asleep at bedtime, sleeping a lot during the day, trouble waking up in the morning, sleep duration, and parent-reported nightmares. Clinicians should be aware of sleep problems as potential risk factors for suicide attempts for adolescents.

  10. Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Attempt in Iran: A Case-Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Behrooz; Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Leo, Diego De; Saeed, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and its disorders are associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviors Research has shown that 6-8% of those who use alcohol have a history of suicide attempt. Given the prohibition of alcohol use legally, the increased alcohol consumption, and the lack of strong evidence in favor of its use associated with suicide in Iran, this study was conducted to determine the link between suicide attempt and alcohol abuse. The case-crossover method was used in this research. Out of 305 referrals to the emergency room due to a suicide attempt, 100 reported drinking alcohol up to six hours before their attempt. Paired Matching and Usual Frequency were employed to analyze the data with STATA 12.0. The probability of attempting suicide up to six hours after drinking alcohol appeared increased by 27 times (95% CI: 8.1-60.4). Separate analysis for each of these hours from the first to the sixth hour after alcohol use was also performed. Fifty percent of attempted suicides happened one hour after alcohol use. Relative risk for the first and second hour was 10% and 5% respectively. Alcohol use is a strong proximal risk factor for attempted suicide among Iranian subjects. Prevention of alcohol use should be considered in setting up of the national Suicide attempt prevention program. PMID:26925903

  11. Case-control association study of TGOLN2 in attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Pamela B; Stütz, Adrian M; Seifuddin, Fayaz; Huo, Yuqing; Goes, Fernando S; Jancic, Dubravka; Judy, Jennifer T; Depaulo, J Raymond; Gershon, Elliot S; McMahon, Francis J; Zandi, Peter P; Potash, James B; Willour, Virginia L

    2010-07-01

    Family, twin, and adoption studies provide convincing evidence for a genetic contribution to suicidal behavior. The heritability for suicidal behavior depends in part on the transmission of psychiatric disorders, such as mood disorders and substance use disorders, but is also partly independent of them. Three linkage studies using the attempted suicide phenotype in pedigrees with bipolar disorder, major depression, or alcoholism have provided consistent evidence that 2p11-12 harbors a susceptibility gene for attempted suicide. A microarray expression study using postmortem brain samples has implicated a gene from the 2p11-12 candidate region, the trans-Golgi network protein 2 (TGOLN2) gene, as being consistently up-regulated in suicide cases as compared to controls. Here, we present a TGOLN2 case-control association study using nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). These nine SNPs, which include seven tag SNPs and two coding SNPs, have been genotyped in 517 mood disorder subjects with a history of attempted suicide and 515 normal controls. Allelic and genotypic analyses of the case-control sample did not provide evidence for association with the attempted suicide phenotype. Eight of the nine SNPs provided supportive evidence for association (P-values ranging from 0.008 to 0.03) when we compared the attempted suicide cases with a history of alcoholism to the attempted suicide cases without a history of alcoholism. However, this association finding was not replicated in an independent sample. Taken together, these analyses do not provide support for the hypothesis that common genetic variation in TGOLN2 contributes significantly to the risk for attempted suicide in subjects with major mood disorders.

  12. [A report on attempted suicide cases involving patients accepted by public health care institutions].

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Tetsushi; Tsuji, Motohiro; Yamada, Naoto

    2011-01-01

    We investigated attempted suicide cases, both successful and failed involving patients, accepted by public health care institutions in Shiga Prefecture, whose population is about 1. 4 million, from the 12th January 2010 to 14th February 2010. Prefectural emergency hospitals, fire stations, and pathologists cooperated in the investigation, and the cases were reported with the age and sex as well as the means and results of the attempts. How these institutions cooperated in the cases was also reported. A total number of 104 people attempted suicide, in which 40 people (38.5%) succeeded, 54 people (51.9%) failed, and the outcome was unknown in 10 people (9.6%). Forty-one people (39.4%) were in their 30s, being the most common age group. Successful suicides were most prominent among elderly males, and failed attempts were most prominent among young females. Hanging and poisonous gassing were the common means of suicide among the successful cases, and overdose, drinking, and wrist -cutting were the common means among the failed attempts. Sixty-four people (61.5%) were admitted to public emergency hospitals, 51 people (49.0%) were rescued by fire workers, and 34 people (32.7%) were sent for autopsy following police reports on fatal cases as suicide. Successful suicides and males were mostly sent for pathological examination without any coordinated care from different medical institutions, whereas, failed cases and females were often taken care of by several institutions. Five people (4.8%) were referred for psychiatric help. Suicide intervention needs to take account of differences in the sex, age, means, and other characteristics of those who attempt suicide. Each institution plays an important role, and they need to cooperate in order to establish an effective intervention.

  13. Acute Substance Use as a Warning Sign for Suicide Attempts: A Case-Crossover Examination of the 48 Hours Prior to a Recent Suicide Attempt.

    PubMed

    Bagge, Courtney L; Borges, Guilherme

    2017-01-31

    The extent to which specific categories of acute substance use are short-term risk factors, or warning signs, for suicide attempts is unknown. The aim of the current study was to quantify the near-term effects of sole use and co-use of substances on medically attended suicide attempts. The current study used a case-crossover design, comparing substance use within the 24 hours prior to a suicide attempt (case day) to the control day, the matched 24 hours the day prior to the case day. Participants were 363 recent suicide attempters presenting to a Level 1 trauma hospital between October 2008 and April 2014. A timeline follow-back methodology was used to assess acute exposures within the 48 hours before the suicide attempt. Conditional logistic regression was used to report odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results indicated that patients were at increased odds of attempting suicide after drinking alcohol within a 24-hour period (OR = 4.40; 95% CI, 2.31-8.40) and using a drug from another class of substances with central nervous system (CNS) depressant characteristics (sedatives/anxiolytics and opioids; OR = 2.82; 95% CI, 1.13-7.01), after adjustment for other acute substance use. The acute use of cannabis and CNS stimulants (stimulants/amphetamines and cocaine) was not uniquely associated with suicide attempt. Co-use of alcohol synergized effects of other CNS depressants (OR = 8.76; 95% CI, 1.02-75.44). Findings suggest the importance of considering acute alcohol use and use of CNS depressants, and the concurrent use of both substances, when evaluating short-term risk for suicide attempts in clinical settings.

  14. Acute Substance Use as a Warning Sign for Suicide Attempts: A Case-Crossover Examination of the 48 Hours Prior to a Recent Suicide Attempt.

    PubMed

    Bagge, Courtney L; Borges, Guilherme

    2017-06-01

    The extent to which specific categories of acute substance use are short-term risk factors, or warning signs, for suicide attempts is unknown. The aim of the current study was to quantify the near-term effects of sole use and co-use of substances on medically attended suicide attempts. The current study used a case-crossover design, comparing substance use within the 24 hours prior to a suicide attempt (case day) to the control day, the matched 24 hours the day prior to the case day. Participants were 363 recent suicide attempters presenting to a Level 1 trauma hospital between October 2008 and April 2014. A timeline follow-back methodology was used to assess acute exposures within the 48 hours before the suicide attempt. Conditional logistic regression was used to report odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results indicated that patients were at increased odds of attempting suicide after drinking alcohol within a 24-hour period (OR = 4.40; 95% CI, 2.31-8.40) and using a drug from another class of substances with central nervous system (CNS) depressant characteristics (sedatives/anxiolytics and opioids; OR = 2.82; 95% CI, 1.13-7.01), after adjustment for other acute substance use. The acute use of cannabis and CNS stimulants (stimulants/amphetamines and cocaine) was not uniquely associated with suicide attempt. Co-use of alcohol synergized effects of other CNS depressants (OR = 8.76; 95% CI, 1.02-75.44). Findings suggest the importance of considering acute alcohol use and use of CNS depressants, and the concurrent use of both substances, when evaluating short-term risk for suicide attempts in clinical settings.

  15. Accidental subclavian artery catheterization during attempted internal jugular central venous catheter placement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Paliwal, Bharat; Kamal, Manoj; Purohit, Anamika; Rana, Kirti; Chouhan, Dilip Singh

    2015-01-01

    Central venous catheter placement has been routinely employed for anesthetic and intensive care management. Despite proper technique used and expertise complications do occur; some of which are related to catheter misplacements. We report a case in which subclavian artery was accidently catheterized during attempted internal jugular venous cannulation.

  16. A Case Control Study of Suicide and Attempted Suicide in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beautrais, Annette L.

    2002-01-01

    Risk factors for serious suicidal behavior among older adults were examined in a case control study of adults aged 55 and older who died by suicide or made suicide attempts and who were compared with randomly selected comparison subjects. Multivariate analyses suggested that mood disorders were the most significant risk factor for suicidal…

  17. A Case Control Study of Suicide and Attempted Suicide in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beautrais, Annette L.

    2002-01-01

    Risk factors for serious suicidal behavior among older adults were examined in a case control study of adults aged 55 and older who died by suicide or made suicide attempts and who were compared with randomly selected comparison subjects. Multivariate analyses suggested that mood disorders were the most significant risk factor for suicidal…

  18. Attempted Serial Neonaticides: Case Report and a Brief Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Barros, Alcina Juliana Soares; Rosa, Regis Goulart; Telles, Lisieux Elaine de Borba; Taborda, José Geraldo Vernet

    2016-01-01

    Neonaticide is an infant murder occurring on the day of birth. The case reports found in the literature are often focused on the mother as the agent in the context of pregnancy denial, dissociative symptoms, or psychosis. However, this report describes a rare case of attempted serial neonaticides, in which the acts were committed by a nurse at the nursery of a referral hospital in Brazil. The authors describe a forensic psychiatric evaluation for criminal responsibility and correlate the information from this particular case with relevant forensic themes, namely neonaticide, Munchausen by proxy syndrome, and serial healthcare killers.

  19. How Parental Reactions Change in Response to Adolescent Suicide Attempt.

    PubMed

    Greene-Palmer, Farrah N; Wagner, Barry M; Neely, Laura L; Cox, Daniel W; Kochanski, Kristen M; Perera, Kanchana U; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined parental reactions to adolescents' suicide attempts and the association of reactions with future suicidal self-directed violence. Participants were 81 mothers and 49 fathers of 85 psychiatric inpatient adolescents. Maternal hostility and paternal anger and arguing predicted future suicide attempts. From pre- to post-attempt, mothers reported feeling increased sadness, caring, anxiety, guilt, fear, and being overwhelmed; fathers reported increased sadness, anxiety, and fear. Findings have clinical implications; improving parent-child relationships post-suicide attempt may serve as a protective factor for suicide.

  20. An unusual case of suicide attempt using intravenous injection of kerosene.

    PubMed

    Jayaprasad, Sushmitha; Metikurke, Vijayashankar

    2013-01-01

    Kerosene is refined oil belonging to the hydrocarbon group of compounds, available for domestic use in developing countries. Poisoning is due to inhalation, ingestion. Kerosene. We report a rare case of attempted suicide by means of intravenous injection of kerosene. It has a devastating effect and it is important to initiate active and immediate surgical intervention. Psychotherapy should also be an integral part of the management.

  1. The effectiveness of control strategies for dementia-driven wandering, preventing escape attempts: a case report.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Daniel Valle; González, María Teresa Daza; Agis, Inmaculada Fernández; Strizzi, Jenna; Rodríguez, Raquel Alarcón

    2013-03-01

    One of the most complicated aspects of caring for patients with dementia is dementia-driven wandering due to its adverse ramifications. We report a case of an 80-year-old man who had been previously diagnosed with dementia (with a score of 6 on the Reisberg Global Deterioration Scale - GDS). The patient went to an Adult Day Care Center on a daily basis where he demonstrated wandering behavior with a high rate of escape attempts (the number of times the Center's glass exit door was approached). The objective of this study is to present effective non-pharmacological intervention strategies for dementia-driven wandering; assessed strategies included: environmental (subjective barriers), cognitive/behavioral (cognitive training with differential reinforcement), and combined (subjective barriers + cognitive/behavioral). The results showed that all of these three strategies significantly decreased the number of escape attempts.

  2. A Case of Attempted Suicide in Huntington's Disease: Ethical and Moral Considerations.

    PubMed

    Furfari, Kristin; Zehnder, Nichole; Abbott, Jean

    2016-01-01

    A 62-year-old female with Huntington's disease presented after a suicide attempt. Her advance directive stated that she did not want intubation or resuscitation, which her family acknowledged and supported. Despite these directives, she was resuscitated in the emergency department and continued to state that she would attempt suicide again. Her suicidality in the face of a chronic and advancing illness, and her prolonged consistency in her desire to take her own life, left careproviders wondering how to provide ethical, respectful care to this patient. Tension between the ethical principles of autonomy and beneficence is central in this case. The patient's narrative demonstrated that her suicide was an autonomous decision, free from coercion or disordered thinking from mental illness. Beneficence then would seem to necessitate care aligned with the patient's desire to end her life, which created ethical uneasiness for her family and careproviders. The case highlights several end-of-life ethical considerations that have received much recent attention. With ongoing discussions about the legalization of aid in dying across the country, caregivers are challenged to understand what beneficence means in people with terminal illnesses who want a say in their death. This case also highlights the profound moral distress of families and careproviders that arises in such ethically challenging scenarios. Copyright 2016 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  3. [Developing an attitude scale towards attempted suicide cases for evaluating emergency medical teams (ASETSA)].

    PubMed

    Er, Gülastan; Şimşek, Zeynep; Aker, Ahmet Tamer

    2013-01-01

    Suicide attempt is one of the most important risk factors for completed suicide, and generally, the first intervention is performed in the emergency department. The attitudes of health professionals towards suicide attempt cases affect their treatment and medical care. There is no related attitude assessment scale for health professionals in Turkey. The aim of this study was to develop a scale for assessing the attitudes of emergency medical teams towards cases of attempted suicide. In this methodological, epidemiological study, a pool of 140 items was compiled using a previously developed similar scale available in the literature, as well as, testimonies of health professionals. Two hundred and fifty-one doctors, nurses and emergency medical technicians from 14 local hospitals in Sanlıurfa were included in this study. Surface validity was determined using the Lawshe content validity index and ratio. Factor analysis (principal components) was used to evaluate structural validity and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), and test-retest reliability was analyzed. The mean age of the study cohort was 27.9 ± 5.15 years, and 50% of the participants were female. A 28-entry attitude scale, which explained 58.5% of the total variance, was developed, including subscales for prevention and protection, individual help, institutional help, triggers and psychopathology, casual attributions, and medical help. The Cronbach's alpha parameter of the scale was 0.84. In test-retest analysis; there is no significant difference between point averages of the first and last application of the scale. The psychometric features of the developed scale were determined to be acceptable.

  4. Accidental carotid artery catheterization during attempted central venous catheter placement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Maietta, Pauline Marie

    2012-08-01

    More than 2.1 million central venous catheters are placed annually. While carotid artery cannulation is rare, its effects can be devastating. Anesthesia providers frequently work with central venous catheters in the perioperative setting. Therefore, it is imperative that they be able to identify and react appropriately to carotid artery injury both in preexisting central lines and those that they have placed. This case report details a case of accidental carotid artery catheterization during attempted right internal jugular vein catheterization and the steps taken to treat the patient following its recognition. A discussion of technique for central venous catheterization, indications for suspicion of arterial puncture, methods for confirming venous or arterial placement, appropriate methods for management of carotid artery cannulation, and the benefit of ultrasound in central venous cannulation follow. Through the appropriate use of equipment, early detection and management of carotid artery injury, and proper training, patient outcomes may be improved.

  5. Ectopic abdominal pregnancy due to uterine perforation after an attempt to terminate pregnancy: a case presentation.

    PubMed

    Hernández Núñez, Jónathan; Abreu Díaz, Alexander; Michael Ndwambi, Ndivhuwo; Martínez, Fermín Luis

    2017-07-17

    Secondary abdominal ectopic pregnancy is rare in clinical practice, but may lead to an increased maternal mortality. We present the case of a patient with an abdominal pregnancy secondary to a uterine perforation caused by a voluntary attempt to interrupt pregnancy that presented with nine weeks of abdominal pain and minimal vaginal bleeding which was mistakenly diagnosed as acute pelvic inflammatory disease, urinary tract infection, and post-abortion products of conception. Finally, the abdominal ultrasound test found an abdominal ectopic pregnancy. An exploratory laparotomy was performed and the fetus and placenta were removed without difficulties with a favorable postoperative course. It was concluded that uterine perforation during curettage of the cavity went unnoticed, leading to secondary abdominal implantation of pregnancy with a inconclusive clinical presentation, where ultrasound plays a fundamental diagnostic role. Laparotomy is indicated in most of these cases.

  6. Case report: a rare case of attempted homicide with Gloriosa superba seeds.

    PubMed

    Kande Vidanalage, Chaminda J; Ekanayeka, Rohan; Wijewardane, Deepthi K

    2016-06-21

    Gloriosa superba, well known as the glory lily or superb lily, is a tropical climbing plant that features an exotic red flower. The plant is poisonous because of high concentrations of colchicine in all parts of the plant. It is commercially grown for use in Ayurveda medicine and as a cash crop for extracting colchicine in India and Africa. It is a wild plant in Sri Lanka and commercial cultivation is rare. Accidental and suicidal poisonings with Gloriosa tubers are well known and reported. There are no case reports of poisoning by Gloriosa seeds in Sri Lanka. Google and PubMed searches showed no reported cases of poisoning with seeds or their use with homicidal intent in other parts of the world. A 27-year-old man was brought to hospital with profuse vomiting and diarrhea after drinking coriander tea, which is a common traditional treatment for common cold. The family members suspected poisoning by Gloriosa because they had seeds at home and the victim's sister-in-law who had made the herbal tea went missing from home. They were able to identify Gloriosa seeds, which looked similar to coriander, in the pot. The patient developed shock and respiratory distress and needed ventilation and intensive care. He also developed mild renal impairment, and thrombocytopenia. He developed massive generalized alopecia while recovering from acute illness. Full recovery was achieved after 15 days of hospital care. There are many poisonous plants in Asian countries. This case highlights the possibility of accidental or intentional use of Gloriosa seeds or its extracts to cause potentially fatal poisoning. It would be difficult to identify Gloriosa as the cause of poisoning without any background information because of multiple complications that can mimic a systemic infection. This case is a good example of the use of plants as biological weapons.

  7. Penetrating Brain Injury after Suicide Attempt with Speargun: Case Study and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John R.; Aghion, Daniel M.; Doberstein, Curtis E.; Cosgrove, G. Rees; Asaad, Wael F.

    2014-01-01

    Penetrating cranial injury by mechanisms other than gunshots are exceedingly rare, and so strategies and guidelines for the management of PBI are largely informed by data from higher-velocity penetrating injuries. Here, we present a case of penetrating brain injury by the low-velocity mechanism of a harpoon from an underwater fishing speargun in an attempted suicide by a 56-year-old Caucasian male. The case raised a number of interesting points in management of low-velocity penetrating brain injury (LVPBI), including benefit in delaying foreign body removal to allow for tamponade; the importance of history-taking in establishing the social/legal significance of the events surrounding the injury; the use of cerebral angiogram in all cases of PBI; advantages of using dual-energy CT to reduce artifact when available; and antibiotic prophylaxis in the context of idiosyncratic histories of usage of penetrating objects before coming in contact with the intracranial environment. We present here the management of the case in full along with an extended discussion and review of existing literature regarding key points in management of LVPBI vs. higher-velocity forms of intracranial injury. PMID:25071701

  8. Juvenile perpetrators of homicides and attempted homicides--a case control study.

    PubMed

    Britvić, Dolores; Urlić, Ivan; Definis-Gojanović, Marija

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of certain aspects of family dynamics, as well as some behavior and psychological development disorders on the occurrence of homicides and attempted homicides among juveniles in the Split Dalmatian County over a period of 10 years (1989-1998). A retrospective case-control study was performed to compare juvenile murderers and attempted murderers with minors who committed other offences, i.e. property crimes. The subjects were paired according to demographic and socio-economic background. The data obtained from County Court's files included social anamnesis, specialists' observation and psychiatric expertise results. There was a significant difference between the study group and their controls in the frequency of physical violence and parental rejection during childhood. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological abnormalities were more frequent in the experimental than in the control group. Stealing occurred more often in the control group. No significant differences were found for other studied risk factors. There is no unique type of juvenile murderer. A juvenile homicide is committed under the influence of various developmental characteristics, family milieu, and constitution combined with environmental factors and perpetrator's perception of the victim.

  9. A case of suicide attempt with long-acting methylphenidate (Concerta).

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Esra; Karaman, Mehmet Goksin; Yurteri, Nihal; Erdogan, Ayten

    2010-11-01

    The prescribed use of methylphenidate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is widespread. The intranasal and parenteral abuse of methylphenidate (Ritalin) among teenagers is becoming increasingly more common, and deaths have been reported. Newer medical treatment options of long-acting stimulants offer effective treatment with a lower risk of abuse potential. We describe a case of a 17-year-old girl who had attempted suicide by ingesting 270 mg of Concerta. During the third years of treatment with Concerta, parents of patient reported that the patient had a depressive mood in the last week, and had attempted suicide with five tablets of Concerta 54 mg. She was sent to a local hospital with a diagnosis of long-acting methylphenidate overdose. All of vital and laboratory findings were normal except heart rate, which was 132 beats/min. Since more than 3 h have elapsed after the time of ingestion, activated charcoal administration was not carried out at the hospital. She was only observed for 12 h at the emergency department and later discharged from the hospital. While long-acting stimulants offer lower risk of abuse, their greater availability increases the likelihood of ingestion of this nature. Education of clinicians and families to be aware of this risk should reduce the frequency of this complication of treatment.

  10. Attempted suicide by massive insulin injection: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Thewjitcharoen, Yotsapon; Lekpittaya, Nampetch; Himathongkam, Thep

    2008-12-01

    The authors present a case of an 80-year-old man, non-diabetic, who attempted suicide by injecting himself subcutaneously with 10,000 units of Humulin R and 6000 units of Humulin N. Administration of dextrose intravenously was required for 13 days to maintain the capillary blood glucose within the range of 100-180 mg/dl. Hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, and elevated liver enzymes were also seen after massive insulin injection. Glucose requirement index was established to demonstrate the trend of glucose requirement during hospitalization. He recovered completely without any complication after monitoring blood glucose and titrating intravenous glucose carefully for two weeks. Current literature about how to manage insulin overdose was reviewed in the present article.

  11. [Unsuccessful suicidal attempt with use of self-prepared bullet -- case report].

    PubMed

    Malec, Katarzyna; Gasiński, Mateusz; Kuchta, Krzysztof; Kozok, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Gunshot injuries of the viscerocranium are rarely reported during times of peace in Europe. Penetrating wounds to the maxillofacial region pose a significant challenge for surgeons as they often comprise serious soft and bone tissue defects.We present a case report of 38-year-old male with gunshot wound to the viscerocranium after suicidal attempt. The patient's general condition was stable. The inlet wound was found in the submental region in the central line penetrating deep into the floor of the mouth, to the left, avoiding large vessels and hypoglossal nerve. No exit wound was identified. The ophthalmic examination revealed the limitation of motion in the left eyeball and diplopia in the whole field of vision. The revision was performed under general anesthesia. Control CT scan revealed the presence of one metallic fragment wedged in the hard palate. Second look of oral cavity with particular emphasis on the hard palate was performed. Shrapnel proved to be wedged in the bone of the hard palate very firmly and complete removal without damaging the function of the palate was impossible. The decision was made to withdraw from surgical removal of the remaining piece of the projectile. In most cases, it is recommended to remove all foreign material from human body. However, in the illustrated case we decided to leave small debris in the craniofacial skeleton. In our opinion, further surgical revision would result in greater tissue damage, disproportionate to the benefits of the removal of all fragments of the projectile.

  12. Petechial hemorrhages of the tympanic membrane in attempted suicide by hanging: A case report.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Eva Rye; Larsen, Per Leganger; Andersen, Kjeld; Larsen, Michael; Qvortrup, Klaus; Hougen, Hans Petter

    2013-02-01

    It is important to determine whether a person has been strangulated and the diagnosis is not always straightforward since ligature marks are not always present. In forensic medicine the physical examination recommended is careful inspection of the head and neck region, oral cavity, examination of the eyes including the conjunctiva on both the upper and lower eyelids and photo documentation. Petechial hemorrhages of the conjunctiva are considered marker of life threatening hanging or strangulation. Hemorrhage from ears, perforated tympanic membrane and haematotympanum are scarcely described in case reports of strangulated patients. To our knowledge we are the first to report petechial hemorrhages of the tympanic membrane in a patient following attempted suicide by hanging. We believe that the petechial hemorrhages develop from the capillaries located in lamina propria of the epidermal layer above the fibrous layer. This assumption is made on the basis of our assessment of a normal tympanic membrane with light microscopy. Petechial hemorrhages of the tympanic membrane might in fact be the only sign of life threatening pressure applied to the neck. This is a very important finding and prospective studies should be conducted for further clarification on the matter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Suicide attempt by complete self-removal of a 12-year-old permanent pacemaker system: case report.

    PubMed

    Norgaard, Mette Lykke; Melchior, Thomas; Wagner, Thomas; Haugan, Ketil

    2014-01-01

    Psychological adaption after pacemaker implantation can be challenging in patients with psychiatric disease. Suicide by self-removal of a permanent pacemaker system is a rare phenomenon described in a few cases in patients with psychiatric disorders. We describe a case of attempted suicide by complete self-removal of a 12-year-old permanent pacemaker system in a 70-year-old male patient with a bipolar disorder and a history of previous suicide attempts. Suicide attempt by self-removal of a permanent pacemaker system is very rare. In patients with a history of psychiatric disease and previous suicide attempts, careful information about the function of a pacemaker should be given. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Characteristics of Impulsive Suicide Attempts and Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Thomas R.; Swann, Alan C.; Powell, Kenneth E.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; O'Carroll, Patrick W.

    2002-01-01

    Examined impulsive suicide attempts within a population-based, case-control study of nearly lethal suicide attempts among adolescents and young adults. Impulsive attempts were more likely among those who had been in a physical fight and less likely among those who were depressed. Findings suggest inadequate control of aggressive impulses as a…

  15. A Cognitive Therapy Intervention for Suicide Attempters: An Overview of the Treatment and Case Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Michele S.; Henriques, Gregg R.; Warman, Debbie M.; Brown, Gregory K.; Beck, Aaron T.

    2004-01-01

    Although suicidal behavior is a serious public health problem, few effective treatments exist to treat this population. This article describes a new cognitive therapy intervention that has been developed for treating recent suicide attempters. The intervention is based on general principles of cognitive therapy and targets the automatic thoughts…

  16. An Unmatched Case-Control Study of Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts in Houston, Texas: Research Methods and Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Ikeda, Robin M.; Mercy, James A.; Powell, Kenneth E.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Simon, Thomas R.; Lee, Roberta K.; Frankowski, Ralph F.

    2002-01-01

    This article details the research methods and measurements used in conducting a population-based, case-control study of nearly lethal suicide attempts among persons aged 13-34 years. This study was designed to extend understanding of suicidal behavior and prevention activities beyond identification of mental illnesses. Overall strengths and…

  17. An Unmatched Case-Control Study of Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts in Houston, Texas: Research Methods and Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Ikeda, Robin M.; Mercy, James A.; Powell, Kenneth E.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Simon, Thomas R.; Lee, Roberta K.; Frankowski, Ralph F.

    2002-01-01

    This article details the research methods and measurements used in conducting a population-based, case-control study of nearly lethal suicide attempts among persons aged 13-34 years. This study was designed to extend understanding of suicidal behavior and prevention activities beyond identification of mental illnesses. Overall strengths and…

  18. Is religiosity a protective factor against attempted suicide: a cross-cultural case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sisask, Merike; Varnik, Airi; Kolves, Kairi; Bertolote, Jose M; Bolhari, Jafar; Botega, Neury J; Fleischmann, Alexandra; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    This cross-cultural study investigates whether religiosity assessed in three dimensions has a protective effect against attempted suicide. Community controls (n = 5484) were more likely than suicide attempters (n = 2819) to report religious denomination in Estonia (OR = 0.5) and subjective religiosity in four countries: Brazil (OR = 0.2), Estonia (OR = 0.5), Islamic Republic of Iran (OR = 0.6), and Sri Lanka (OR = 0.4). In South Africa, the effect was exceptional both for religious denomination (OR = 5.9) and subjective religiosity (OR = 2.7). No effects were found in India and Vietnam. Organizational religiosity gave controversial results. In particular, subjective religiosity (considering him/herself as religious person) may serve as a protective factor against non-fatal suicidal behavior in some cultures.

  19. An Unusual Case of Suicide Attempt Using Intravenous Injection of Kerosene.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M N; Sutradhar, S R; Ahmed, S M; Chowdhury, I H

    2016-07-01

    Kerosene belongs to the hydrocarbon group of compounds, used as a fuel for lamps, as well as heating and cooking in developing countries. Accidental kerosene poisoning and intoxication usually occur by inhalation or by occupational percutaneous absorption. Adults usually ingest kerosene for the purpose of self-harm, and children may ingest accidentally. Suicidal attempt using intravenous kerosene is an extra ordinary and very rare occurrence. A very few data are available regarding effects of intravenous administration of kerosene and its management.

  20. Mental pain, communication difficulties, and medically serious suicide attempts: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Levi-Belz, Yossi; Gvion, Yari; Horesh, Netta; Fischel, Tsvi; Treves, Ilan; Or, Evgenia; Stein-Reisner, Orit; Weiser, Mark; David, Haim Shem; Apter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Medical severe suicide attempts (MSSA) are epidemiologically very similar to individuals who complete suicide. Thus the investigation of individuals who have made MSSAs may add to our understanding of the risk factors for completed suicide. The aim of this study was to assess the role of mental pain and communication difficulties in MSSA. A total of 336 subjects were divided into 4 groups: 78 meeting criteria for MSSA compared with116 subjects who made a medically non-serious suicide attempt (MNSSA), 47 psychiatric controls with no history of suicidal behavior, and 95 healthy controls. Mental pain variants (e.g., hopelessness), facets of communication difficulties (e.g., self-disclosure), as well as socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were assessed. The MSSA had significantly higher communication difficulties than the other 3 groups. Moreover, the interaction between mental pain and communication difficulties explained some of the variance in suicide lethality, above and beyond the contribution of each component alone. This report underlines the importance of mental pain for suicide attempts in general while difficulties in communication abilities play a critical role in differentiating MSSA from MNSSA. The co-existence of unbearable mental pain with difficulties in communication significantly enhances the risk for more lethal forms of suicidal behavior.

  1. [Subcutaneous injection of insecticide for attempted suicide: a report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Aydin, Atakan; Aköz, Funda; Erer, Metin

    2004-01-01

    We present two patients (30-year-old female, and 20-year-old male) who attempted suicide by injecting commercially available insecticides into the forearm. No systemic signs of intoxication were observed during the acute and subacute periods. Since both patients had severe swelling, pain, and tension in the affected limb, suggesting acute atraumatic compartment syndrome, immediate fasciotomy and surgical debridement were performed. At surgery, extensive subcutaneous necrosis was observed. During long-term follow-ups, no motor and sensory deficits or contractures were seen.

  2. [Hyoid fracture and traumatic subcutaneous cervical emphysema from an attempted hanging. Apropos a case].

    PubMed

    Cañizares, M A; Arnau, A; Fortea, A; Zarzuela, V; Martínez-Vallina, P; Cantó, A

    2000-01-01

    We describe a patient with a history of psychiatric disorder who was brought to our hospital after attempted suicide by hanging. Severe subcutaneous facial, palpebral and cervical emphysema was present, with dysphonia, dysphagia and slight respiratory difficulty. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed upper airway obstruction due to edema in an intact airway. Successive CAT scans gave evidence of hyoid fracture and laryngocele, in addition to the corresponding emphysema of the subcutaneous area and pneumomediastinum. Given the persistence of dysphagia, we ordered esophageal tests, which showed functional alteration of the upper esophageal sphincter. Suprasternal cervicotomy to drain the pneumomediastinum and laryngeal microsurgery to treat the laryngocele resolved the problem.

  3. Suicide attempt by swallowing sponge or pica disorder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zganjer, Vlasta; Zganjer, Mirko; Cizmić, Ante; Pajid, Anto; Zupancić, Bozidar

    2011-01-01

    There are many ways how children with mental illness have actually tried to hurt themselves. Suicidal thinking or attempts always indicate that professional help is needed (2). Every object which can be potential dangerous should be removed but this is very difficult to do. Some of children with these symptoms had Pica diseases. Pica is a medical disorder characterized by an appetite for substances largely non-nutritive (e.g. metal, coal, soil, feces, paper, soap, gum, etc.) or an abnormal appetite for some things that may be considered foods. The patient swallow sponge from a pillow over a long period of time and she came into our hospital with abdominal pain. She was 16 years old and had abdominal distension, vomiting, abdominal cramping and failure to pass gas or stool. Immediately we suspected mechanical blockade of the intestine. Diagnosis was clinically confirmed by X-rays of the abdomen and with ultrasound. The operative treatment was indicated and we found the proximal bowel distended and the distal segment collapsed. The part of bowel necrosis was removed and anastomosis was done. When patients are determined to attempt suicide or have Pica disorder it is very difficult to prevent.

  4. [Antidepressant treatment and risk of suicidal attempts. A case series report].

    PubMed

    Henzen, Alexandre; Sentissi, Othman; Arnold, Myriam

    2013-12-04

    Scientific evidence that fluoxetine is one of the effective treatment of depression exists. Since 2000, a debate has been launched concerning the possibility of antidepressant drugs, especially, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor to induce suicidality in some depressive patients. Suicidal attempts of 3 of the outpatients taken into care in a crisis center in Geneva, following the introduction of fluoxetine in the usual dose of 20 mg per day, led us to investigate and to carry out a non-exhaustive comprehensive literature review of available randomized trials, meta-analyses and epidemiological studies. This work enabled us to highlight some points of interest, including medical attitudes and therapeutic guidelines that sometimes seem to be contradictory, especially regarding the use of antidepressants in children and adolescents.

  5. Clinical Characteristics of the Suicide Attempters Who Refused to Participate in a Suicide Prevention Case Management Program.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyoung; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Oh, Youngmin; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2015-10-01

    Case management interventions for suicide attempters aimed at helping adjust their social life to prevent reattempts have high nonparticipation and dropout rates. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of the group who refused to participate in the suicide prevention program in Korea. A total of 489 patients with a suicide attempt who visited Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, the Catholic University of Korea, from December 2009 to December 2013 were analyzed. All patients were divided into the participation group (n = 262) and the refusal group (n = 227) according to their participation in the case management program. Demographic and clinical characteristics of each group were examined. Results showed that the refusal group had low risks for suicide in terms of risk factors related with psychopathologies and presenting suicide behavior. That is, the refusal group had less patients with co-morbid medical illnesses and more patients with mild severity of depression compared to the participation group. However, the refusal group had more interpersonal conflict, more isolation of social integrity, and more impaired insight about suicide attempt. The results suggest that nonparticipation in the case management program may depend upon the patient's impaired insight about the riskiness of suicide and lack of social support.

  6. Experiment 2018, First Fracturing Attempt Below Casing Shoe in EE-2 (1982-7-19/20)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffers, Bernard

    1983-03-15

    The purpose of Experiment 2018 was to achieve a hydraulic connection between EE-2 and EE-3 in the region just below their respective casing shoes. To protect the cassing of EE-2, the fracturing fluid had to be pumped down a 3-1/2 inch drill string to an Otis casing packer set 240 ft above the casing shoe of EE-2. Pumping started at 16:23 of July 19, 1982, and was terminated at 2:02 on July 20, 1982, due to hardware failure, after some trouble with the setting of the casing packer had delayed the beginning of the experiment for approximately two days. Prior to the experiment, a sand plug in EE-2 had been set, with its top at 11,910 ft (all depths referenced her are cable depths). A total of 5,698 bbls had been pumped. No hydraulic connection appeared at the end of Experiment 2018.

  7. Analysis of hydrogen cyanide in air in a case of attempted cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, R; Nyholm, S; Åstot, C

    2012-10-10

    A 32-year-old man attempted to poison his ex-girlfriend with hydrogen cyanide by hiding the pesticide Uragan D2 in her car. During the police investigation, chemical analysis of the air inside the car was performed. Hydrogen cyanide was detected through on-site air analysis using a portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy gas analyzer and colorimetric gas detection tubes. Furthermore, impinger air-sampling was performed for off-site sample preparation and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All three independent techniques demonstrated the presence of hydrogen cyanide, at concentrations of 14-20 ppm. Owing to the high volatility of hydrogen cyanide, the temperature and the time since exposure have a substantial effect on the likelihood of detecting hydrogen cyanide at a crime scene. The prevailing conditions (closed space, low temperature) must have supported the preservation of HCN in the car thus enabling the identification even though the analysis was performed several days after the hydrogen cyanide source was removed. This paper demonstrates the applicability of combining on-site FTIR measurements and off-site GC-MS analysis of a crime scene in order to ensure fast detection as well as unambiguous identification for forensic purposes of hydrogen cyanide in air.

  8. Delayed high anion gap metabolic acidosis after a suicide attempt: case report.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Po-Jen; Chen, Tsu-Yi; Chiu, Chih-Chien; Wu, Tsung-Jui; Chan, Jenq-Shyong; Wu, Chia-Chao; Chen, Jin-Shuen

    2014-09-25

    Metabolic acidosis, especially when induced by multiple drug poisoning, often makes rapid and accurate differential diagnosis of the condition challenging. We closely followed anion and osmolal gaps to differentiate among the aetiologies of metabolic acidosis caused by poisoning with unknown drugs. The patient was admitted to our emergency department (ED) in an alert and consciousness state after attempting suicide by ingestion of an uncertain quantity of rodenticides combined with an unknown liquid. Initially, metabolic acidosis (pH7.23) with normal anion gap (12.8) was observed. However, a change in consciousness and hypotension subsequently developed 6h later, combined with severe metabolic acidosis (pH7.16), high anion gap (25.5), and high osmolal gap (83). A presumed diagnosis of methanol intoxication was suspected. After 4h of high-flux haemodialysis (HD), the serum bicarbonate returned to 23 mmol/l, and the patient regained consciousness. The serum level of methanol before HD was 193.8 mg/dl. The patient was discharged nine days later without sequelae. Delayed high anion gap metabolic acidosis may occur in the ED. Frequent monitoring of anion and osmolal gaps is a feasible method to perform a rapid differential diagnosis, particularly in response to drug poisoning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Suicide Attempt by Intravenous Potassium Self-Poisoning: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Battefort, Florent; Dehours, Emilie; Vallé, Baptiste; Hamdaoui, Ahmed; Bounes, Vincent; Ducassé, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Overdose of potassium is not as frequently encountered in clinical practice as hyperkalaemia due to acute or chronic renal disease. However, potassium overdoses leading to serious consequences do occur. Case Presentation. A 20-year-old nurse student presented with a cardiac arrest with asystole rhythm. Beside the patient were found four 50-mL syringes and empty vials of potassium chloride (20 mL, 10%). After initial resuscitation with epinephrine, 125 mL of a 4.2% intravenous solution of sodium bicarbonate were injected which resulted in the recovery of an effective cardiac activity. The patient recovered without sequelae. Conclusion. The difficulty in this case was to recognize the potassium poisoning. The advanced resuscitation with the use of a specific treatment helped to resuscitate the patient. PMID:23326708

  10. "Otis": A Case Study of an Online Attempt to Purchase Children for Sex.

    PubMed

    Litam, Stacey Diane A; Bach, Jesse

    2017-09-12

    The researchers analyzed court documents to develop a case study of an individual convicted of buying sexual services from exploited children. Findings indicate that the subject deviates from preexisting victim selection processes and demonstrates characteristics inconsistent with existing sexual offender typologies that likens offender behaviors to the hunting techniques and behaviors of predatory animals. As evidenced in the case study, the individual perceived the victims solely as a means of deviant sexual satiation and did not participate in traditionally established victim acquisition techniques. In addition, the researchers propose adopting terminology that adheres to the term consumer rather than buyer as it better represents some offenders' disconnect and lack of empathy in the victim acquisition process.

  11. [A case of bilateral lesions in the temporal convexity: attempt to define symptoms].

    PubMed

    Sabouraud, O; Gagnepain, J; Chatel, M; Menault, F

    1976-06-01

    The case is reported of a boy aged 15 who suffered a bilateral lesion of the temporal convexity after a brain traumatism; he died 5 years later and the symptoms during that period are described. The clinical picture is adequately described neither under the title of dementia, nor under that of aphasia. The concept of an abolition involving the systems of cultural mediation (linguistic, technical) is introduced. The status of echolalia and echo-praxia is discussed.

  12. Attempted suicide by ingestion of hair dye containing p-phenylenediamine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Beshir, Lamis; Kaballo, Babiker; Young, Donald

    2017-07-01

    Para-phenylenediamine is widely used as a chemical in hair dyes and in combination with henna. This dye is used to paint the body for decorative reasons, to speed the processing time of henna and to intensify the results. Para-phenylenediamine is widely used in the Middle East, North Africa and India. Several reports have been published of the fatal ingestion of hair dye containing para-phenylenediamine. Here, we describe the case of a 14-year-old girl who ingested the compound but whose prompt treatment prevented her death. Ingestion of para-phenylenediamine produces a typical triad of angioneurotic oedema, rhabdomyolysis and acute tubular necrosis. Awareness of signs of these associated conditions in our patient, together with a comprehensive history, facilitated appropriate treatment to be instituted. We document the steps we took to enable her complete physical recovery.

  13. Case study of attempts to enact self service tobacco display ordinances: a tale of three communities

    PubMed Central

    Bidell, M.; Furlong, M.; Dunn, D.; Koegler, J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine self service tobacco displays (SSTDs) and youth retail tobacco access by comparing longitudinal illegal tobacco sales rates in three communities in Santa Barbara County, California, that considered or implemented ordinances banning SSTDs. A confirmatory survey was also conducted to substantiate the longitudinal data.
DESIGN—A longitudinal case study design was utilised. Five undercover tobacco buys were conducted between 1994 and 1997 (n = 332). In addition, one confirmatory survey was conducted in a geographically separated area, which had no ordinances banning SSTDs (n = 57).
RESULTS—Decreases in youth buy rates were reported in all three communities. Most notably, the first city to enact a SSTD ban, Carpinteria, achieved a 0% sales rate, which was maintained throughout the study period. In contrast, Santa Barbara and Goleta experienced considerable drops in their illegal sales rates, but neither community obtained results as dramatic as those found in Carpinteria. The confirmatory survey showed that 32.1% of stores with SSTDs sold cigarettes to minors; this compares to a sales rate of 3.4% in stores without SSTDs (χ2 (1) = 8.11, p = 0.004).
CONCLUSIONS—Efforts to enact self service bans are likely to meet with retail and tobacco industry opposition, as was the case in this study's three communities. The process of community debate, resultant publicity surrounding the issue, and enactment of SSTD ordinances may serve to not only increase merchant awareness of youth tobacco laws and their penalties but also may contribute to reduced youth cigarette sales rates. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.


Keywords: self service tobacco displays; youth tobacco access; community tobacco control efforts PMID:10691760

  14. Repair of Penetrating Pericardial and Diaphragmatic Injury with Cormatrix® Patch in a Case of Suicide Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Jiritano, Federica; Garrasi, Carlo; Cristodoro, Lucia; Bevacqua, Egidio; Mastroroberto, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    The authors report the case of a suicide attempt. A 59-year-old man with self-inflicted penetrating chest trauma underwent emergency cardiothoracic surgery. Pre-operative computed tomography scan showed critical proximity between the blade and the right ventricle. Intraoperative findings showed a pericardial laceration and a huge diaphragmatic lesion with heart and abdominal organs integrity. The diaphragm muscle was repaired with a CorMatrix® patch, an acceptable alternative to the traditional synthetic mesh avoiding infection and repeated herniation.

  15. Attempting to improve function and quality of life using the FTM Protocol: case report.

    PubMed

    Butler, Andrew; Blanton, Sarah; Rowe, Veronica; Wolf, Steven

    2006-09-01

    The Functional Tone Management (FTM) arm training program uses repetitive task practice, stretching, and electrical stimulation as patients with moderate upper extremity hemiparesis wear a dynamic hand orthosis to retrain grasp and release of objects. The case study quantitatively evaluates the extent to which FTM training improved function and quality of life in a patient who met criteria for which the device was intended. The participant, a 44-year-old male in the chronic stage of stroke recovery with moderate right upper extremity motor impairment, was trained for 10 days over a 2-week period by a licensed clinician with extensive experience in FTM training methods. Measurements were taken over 3 baseline visits, then immediately preintervention, postintervention, and at a 3-month follow-up. The outcome measures, following the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Model, included the: Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) (upper extremity portion), UE range of motion (ROM), Modified Ashworth scale, Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), and the Motor Activity Log (MAL). Health related quality of life was measured using the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS). The participant showed limited gains in upper extremity function immediately postintervention. Increases in AROM occurred in forearm supination and wrist flexion and extension, but no improvements were noted in finger ROM. A slight decrease in tone was found in forearm pronators (1 to 0) and wrist flexors (1+ to 1). WMFT values for the more affected upper extremity did not change immediately after training, but a 17% reduction in time occurred at follow-up, with improvements, most notably in the tasks of lifting a pencil and lifting a paper clip. No changes occurred in UE-FMA scores immediately following the intervention, however, a 17% improvement was measured at followup. A slight improvement in MAL scores was noted but not to a level of independent functional use of the impaired upper extremity

  16. Aripiprazole augmentation in managing comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and bipolar disorder: a case with suicidal attempts.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jianbo; Lu, Qiaoqiao; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Tingting; Xu, Yi; Hu, Shaohua

    2017-01-01

    Comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and bipolar disorder (BD) have long been an intractable problem in clinical practice. The increased risk of manic/hypomanic switch hinders the use of antidepressants for managing coexisting OCD symptoms in BD patients. We herein present a case of a patient with BD-OCD comorbidity, who was successfully treated with mood stabilizers and aripiprazole augmentation. The young female patient reported recurrent depressive episodes and aggravating compulsive behaviors before hospitalization. Of note, the patient repetitively attempted suicide and reported dangerous driving because of intolerable mental sufferings. The preexisting depressive episode and OCD symptoms prompted the use of paroxetine, which consequently triggered the manic switching. Her diagnosis was revised into bipolar I disorder. Minimal response with mood stabilizers prompted the addition of aripiprazole (a daily dose of 10 mg), which helped to achieve significant remission in emotional and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. This case highlights the appealing efficacy of a small dose of aripiprazole augmentation for treating BD-OCD comorbidity. Well-designed clinical trials are warranted to verify the current findings.

  17. Aripiprazole augmentation in managing comorbid obsessive–compulsive disorder and bipolar disorder: a case with suicidal attempts

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jianbo; Lu, Qiaoqiao; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Tingting; Xu, Yi; Hu, Shaohua

    2017-01-01

    Comorbid obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and bipolar disorder (BD) have long been an intractable problem in clinical practice. The increased risk of manic/hypomanic switch hinders the use of antidepressants for managing coexisting OCD symptoms in BD patients. We herein present a case of a patient with BD–OCD comorbidity, who was successfully treated with mood stabilizers and aripiprazole augmentation. The young female patient reported recurrent depressive episodes and aggravating compulsive behaviors before hospitalization. Of note, the patient repetitively attempted suicide and reported dangerous driving because of intolerable mental sufferings. The preexisting depressive episode and OCD symptoms prompted the use of paroxetine, which consequently triggered the manic switching. Her diagnosis was revised into bipolar I disorder. Minimal response with mood stabilizers prompted the addition of aripiprazole (a daily dose of 10 mg), which helped to achieve significant remission in emotional and obsessive–compulsive symptoms. This case highlights the appealing efficacy of a small dose of aripiprazole augmentation for treating BD–OCD comorbidity. Well-designed clinical trials are warranted to verify the current findings. PMID:28096676

  18. Young people's risk of suicide attempts after contact with a psychiatric department - a nested case-control design using Danish register data.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul

    2012-01-01

    There seems to be an increased risk of children and adolescents committing or attempting suicide after contact with a psychiatric department. Children and adolescents living in families with low socio-economic status (SES) might have an especially increased suicide attempt risk. A complete extraction of Danish register data for every individual born in the period 1983-1989 was made. Of these 403,431 individuals, 3,465 had attempted suicide. In order to control for confounder effects from gender, age and calendar-time, a nested case-control study was designed. A total population of 72,765 individuals was used to analyze the risk of suicide attempts after contact with a psychiatric department. The case-control data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. This study shows that a child/adolescent's risk of suicide attempt peaks immediately after discharge from last contact with a psychiatric department. The risk of suicide attempt is highest for children and adolescents suffering from personality disorders, depression and substance use disorders. Children and adolescents with previous contact with a psychiatric department and parental income in the lowest third have a significantly higher risk of suicide attempt. Suicide attempters were more likely to have been given several different diagnoses and several different psychopharmacological drugs prior to their attempted suicide. The findings in this study highlight the need for psychopathology assessment in every case of attempted suicide. This study also shows that well-known risk factors such as contact with a psychiatric department do not affect all individuals in the same way. Individuals from families with low SES had the highest risk. This suggests that the presence of factors influencing both vulnerability and resiliency, e.g., family level of SES, needs to be included in the assessment. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental

  19. Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders as Risk Factors for Attempted Suicide among Adolescents: A Case Control Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Thomas M.; Cornelius, Jack R.; Lynch, Kevin G.

    2002-01-01

    Tests substance-related and non-substance-related psychiatric disorders as predictors of attempted suicide among adolescents. Bipolar disorder, cocaine use disorders, and conduct disorder were found to be predictive of attempted suicide in univariate testing. Higher rates of cocaine use disorder/conduct disorder, hallucinogen use disorder/conduct…

  20. Retaining a Legacy while Avoiding Trademark Infringement: A Case Study of One University's Attempt to Develop a Consistent Athletic Brand Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alessandri, Sue Westcott

    2007-01-01

    This case study chronicles Syracuse University's athletic department's attempt to achieve consistency in its identity program by changing its identity during 2004, and then again in 2005. The changes were owing to high-level personnel changes on both the academic and athletic sides of the university. This case details the many issues arising from…

  1. Retaining a Legacy while Avoiding Trademark Infringement: A Case Study of One University's Attempt to Develop a Consistent Athletic Brand Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alessandri, Sue Westcott

    2007-01-01

    This case study chronicles Syracuse University's athletic department's attempt to achieve consistency in its identity program by changing its identity during 2004, and then again in 2005. The changes were owing to high-level personnel changes on both the academic and athletic sides of the university. This case details the many issues arising from…

  2. Relationship between Personality Profiles and Suicide Attempt via Medicine Poisoning among Hospitalized Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shafiee-Kandjani, Ali Reza; Amiri, Shahrokh; Arfaie, Asghar; Ahmadi, Azadeh; Farvareshi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Inflexible personality traits play an important role in the development of maladaptive behaviors among patients who attempt suicide. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between personality profiles and suicide attempt via medicine poisoning among the patients hospitalized in a public hospital. Materials and Methods. Fifty-nine patients who attempted suicide for the first time and hospitalized in the poisoning ward were selected as the experimental group. Sixty-three patients hospitalized in the other wards for a variety of reasons were selected as the adjusted control group. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Personality Inventory, 3rd version (MCMI-III) was used to assess the personality profiles. Results. The majority of the suicide attempters were low-level graduates (67.8% versus 47.1%, OR = 2.36). 79.7% of the suicide attempters were suffering from at least one maladaptive personality profile. The most common maladaptive personality profiles among the suicide attempters were depressive personality disorder (40.7%) and histrionic personality disorder (32.2%). Among the syndromes the most common ones were anxiety clinical syndrome (23.7%) and major depression (23.7%). Conclusion. Major depression clinical syndrome, histrionic personality disorder, anxiety clinical syndrome, and depressive personality disorder are among the predicators of first suicide attempts for the patients hospitalized in the public hospital due to the medicine poisoning. PMID:27433491

  3. Relationship between Personality Profiles and Suicide Attempt via Medicine Poisoning among Hospitalized Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Shafiee-Kandjani, Ali Reza; Amiri, Shahrokh; Arfaie, Asghar; Ahmadi, Azadeh; Farvareshi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Inflexible personality traits play an important role in the development of maladaptive behaviors among patients who attempt suicide. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between personality profiles and suicide attempt via medicine poisoning among the patients hospitalized in a public hospital. Materials and Methods. Fifty-nine patients who attempted suicide for the first time and hospitalized in the poisoning ward were selected as the experimental group. Sixty-three patients hospitalized in the other wards for a variety of reasons were selected as the adjusted control group. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Personality Inventory, 3rd version (MCMI-III) was used to assess the personality profiles. Results. The majority of the suicide attempters were low-level graduates (67.8% versus 47.1%, OR = 2.36). 79.7% of the suicide attempters were suffering from at least one maladaptive personality profile. The most common maladaptive personality profiles among the suicide attempters were depressive personality disorder (40.7%) and histrionic personality disorder (32.2%). Among the syndromes the most common ones were anxiety clinical syndrome (23.7%) and major depression (23.7%). Conclusion. Major depression clinical syndrome, histrionic personality disorder, anxiety clinical syndrome, and depressive personality disorder are among the predicators of first suicide attempts for the patients hospitalized in the public hospital due to the medicine poisoning.

  4. Risk for attempted suicide in children and youths after contact with somatic hospitals: a Danish register based nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, E; Stenager, E

    2012-03-01

    A range of studies have found an association between some somatic diseases and increased risk of suicide and attempted suicide. These studies are mostly analyses of adult populations and illnesses related to adulthood. To study the risk of attempted suicide in children and youths with a somatic diagnosis, and to assess a possible association from a somatic perspective. From a cohort of 403 431 individuals (born 1983-89), 3465 children and youths who had attempted suicide were identified. Each case was matched with 20 population controls. 72 765 children and youths constituted the case-control population. All data were obtained from national population registers and analysed in a nested case-control design. Contact of children and youths with a somatic hospital is correlated with increased risk of attempted suicide; the risk peaks in the time immediately after contact. Risk factors were treatment for injury caused by violence, epilepsy, asthma and malformation for males; and spontaneous and medical abortions, treatment for injury caused by violence, epilepsy, asthma, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and malformation for females. Not all the mentioned diagnoses were significant in the adjusted model. Based on the results of the study a strategy to minimise the risk of attempted suicide among children and youths must be implemented. The strategy should mainly focus on children at high risk-that is, children from families with low socioeconomic status, and children with a psychiatric history, a history of previous suicide attempts and with an unstable somatic disease subsequently causing many admissions.

  5. Antiepileptic drugs and risk of suicide attempts: a case-control study exploring the impact of underlying medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi-Bensouda, Lamiae; Nordon, Clementine; Rossignol, Michel; Jardon, Vincent; Boss, Virginie; Warembourg, Frédérique; Reynolds, Robert; Kurz, Xavier; Rouillon, Frédéric; Abenhaim, Lucien

    2017-03-01

    Randomized-controlled trials and claims databases suggest that antiepileptic drug (AED) use may increase the risk of suicide attempts (SA). The present case-control study explores the impact of underlying indications on this potential association. Physicians collected the medical history; prior 12-month drug use was obtained from standardized telephone interviews with patients. The association between AED use and SA was explored using multivariate conditional logistic regression. The analyses were replicated after stratification on depression and neurological disorders (epilepsy, migraine, and chronic neuropathic pain). Between 2008 and 2012, 506 adults with an incident SA were recruited in suicide treatment centers from across France and socio-demographically matched to 2829 controls from primary care settings. The association between AED use and odds of SA was not significant overall (odds ratio [OR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9-2.4). No association was observed for patients with neurological disorders (OR, 1.1; 95%CI, 0.5-2.4) as opposed to patients with depression (OR, 1.6; 95%CI, 1.0-2.5), but unmeasured confounding was suspected. Our results suggest that the association observed between AED use and increased odds of non-fatal SA in patients with either a lifetime history of depression or no neurological disorder may be explained by the presence of an underlying psychiatric disorder. Accounting for underlying indications is crucial in drug safety studies, as these can cause a reported association (or lack thereof) to be misleading. This may require the prospective collection of medical data at a patient level. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. ATTEMPTED SUICIDE IN LUDHIANA

    PubMed Central

    Narang, R.L.; Mishra, B.P.; Nitesh, Mohan

    2000-01-01

    This study assesses the various socio-demographic correlates, the method adopted and the psychiatric disorders in patients with attempted suicide. Out of 208 cases presented to the hospital, one hundred individuals with suicide attempt were included in the present study. They were evaluated for socio-demographic profile and psychiatric illness on the basis of ICD-10 criteria. Analysis of the results showed that single males outnumbered single females, whereas married females outnumbered married males in suicidal attempt. The prevalence of suicidal attempt was high among males with psychiatric illness, whereas more female suicide attempters were without psychiatric illness. The most common psychiatric illnesses were found to be mood disorders (35%) and adjustment disorders (13%) as per the ICD-10 criteria. Family type, economic status and education levels appears to be playing non significant role in suicide attempt in this part of the country Marital status and psychiatric illnesses are playing important role in suicide attempt. Other demographic variables, though, were statistically non significant, but, below 30 years of age group, low socio-economic status, low education and nuclear families were found to be more vulnerable factors for suicide. PMID:21407914

  7. Pre-Service Teachers' Attempts at Debating Contemporary Issues in Science Education: A Case Study from Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koosimile, Anthony T.; Suping, Shanah M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper constitutes an attempt to explore trends, issues and challenges that emerge when three different cohorts of pre-service teachers debate contemporary issues in science education at the University of Botswana. Apart from the author's experience of teaching the course, the impetus for this study also comes from a growing interest in the…

  8. Serum lithium levels and suicide attempts: a case-controlled comparison in lithium therapy-naive individuals.

    PubMed

    Kanehisa, Masayuki; Terao, Takeshi; Shiotsuki, Ippei; Kurosawa, Keiko; Takenaka, Ryuichi; Sakamoto, Teruo; Shigemitsu, Osamu; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Hatano, Koji; Hirakawa, Hirofumi

    2017-08-28

    Several epidemiological studies have shown the inverse association of lithium levels in drinking water and suicide rates; however, it is necessary to perform a clinical study dealing with individual patients. We analyzed 199 patients including 31 patients with suicide attempts, 21 patients with self-harm, and 147 control patients. All were transferred to a university emergency department suffering from intoxication or injury, were aged 20 or more years, and were alive at the start of the study. The exclusion criteria consisted of suffering from schizophrenia and a past or present history of lithium therapy. These exclusions were applied because it is difficult to determine whether their suicide attempt was induced by the intent to end their life or by psychotic symptoms such as auditory hallucinations, and if the patient had received lithium therapy, the association between the small amount of lithium taken from drinking water and food and serum lithium levels cannot be detected. There was a significant difference (p = 0.043) between the three groups whereby patients with suicide attempts had significantly lower lithium levels than control patients (p = 0.012) in males but not females. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age and gender revealed that patients with suicide attempts had significantly lower lithium levels than control patients (p = 0.032, odds ratio 0.228, 95% CI 0.059-0.883). The limitations of the present study are the nature of observational research which cannot reveal a causal relationship and the relatively small number of subjects. The present findings suggest that higher serum lithium levels may be protective against suicide attempts in lithium therapy-naive individuals.

  9. Rapid improvement of depressive symptoms in suicide attempters following treatment with milnacipran and tricyclic antidepressants - a case series.

    PubMed

    Kirino, Eiji; Gitoh, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is a serious social problem in many countries, including Japan. The majority of people who commit suicide suffer from depression. Suicide attempt patients suffering from serious physical injuries are initially treated in hospital emergency departments. The present post hoc analysis examined data from patients admitted to an emergency hospital for treatment of physical injuries, resulting from a suicide attempt, and initial psychiatric treatment for depression and prevention of future suicide attempts. The effects on depressive symptoms were studied in two groups of patients using the 17-item Hamilton depression scale (HAMD). One group (n = 6) had received intravenous tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) (amitriptyline or clomipramine) while the other group (n = 7) had been treated orally with milnacipran, a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepressant. Prior to treatment the four highest scoring items on the HAMD scale were the same in both groups namely, item 1 (depressed mood), item 3 (suicidality), item 7 (interest in work and activities), and item 10 (psychic anxiety). After 1 week of treatment, mean global HAMD scores were significantly reduced in both groups. Treatment resulted in a significant reduction of five HAMD items in the TCA group, whereas in the milnacipran group 12 HAMD items were significantly reduced. Suicidality (item 3) was significantly improved by 1 week treatment with milnacipran, but not by TCAs. Milnacipran rapidly improved a wide range of depressive symptoms, including suicidality within the first week. The improvement with milnacipran would appear to be, at least, equivalent to that achieved with TCAs, possibly affecting a wider range of symptoms. Since milnacipran has been shown in comparative studies to be better tolerated than TCAs, this antidepressant offers an interesting option for the treatment of suicidal patients in an emergency setting.

  10. Suicide Attempt Characteristics, Diagnoses, and Future Attempts: Comparing Multiple Attempters to Single Attempters and Ideators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Regina; Scott, Michelle; Hicks, Roger; Wilcox, Holly C.; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Shaffer, David

    2008-01-01

    The study compares psychiatric diagnoses and future suicide attempt outcomes of multiple attempters (MAs), single attempters (SAs) and ideators. The results conclude that MAs strongly predict later suicide attempts and diagnosis than SAs and ideators.

  11. Suicide Attempt Characteristics, Diagnoses, and Future Attempts: Comparing Multiple Attempters to Single Attempters and Ideators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Regina; Scott, Michelle; Hicks, Roger; Wilcox, Holly C.; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Shaffer, David

    2008-01-01

    The study compares psychiatric diagnoses and future suicide attempt outcomes of multiple attempters (MAs), single attempters (SAs) and ideators. The results conclude that MAs strongly predict later suicide attempts and diagnosis than SAs and ideators.

  12. Coping Card Usage can Further Reduce Suicide Reattempt in Suicide Attempter Case Management Within 3-Month Intervention.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Chuan; Hsieh, Ling-Yu; Wang, Ming-Yu; Chou, Cheng-Hsiang; Huang, Min-Wei; Ko, Huei-Chen

    2016-02-01

    This randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of using crisis coping cards (n = 32) in the case management of suicide prevention compared with case management without the use of coping cards (n = 32) over a 3-month intervention period. The generalized estimating equation was used to examine the interaction effect between treatments and time on suicide risk, depression, anxiety, and hopelessness. Results indicated that subsequent suicidal behaviors, severity of suicide risk, depression, anxiety, and hopelessness were reduced more in the coping card intervention group compared to the case management only group. Moreover, for the survival curves of time to suicide reattempt, the coping card group showed a significantly longer time to reattempt than the case management only group at 2-month and 3-month intervention periods.

  13. RESULTS OF A DATING ATTEMPT -CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS RELEVANT TO THE CASE OF THE CRETACEOUS TERTIARY EXTINCTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Asaro, Frank; Michel, Helen V.; Alvarez, Luis W.; Alvarez, Walter

    1980-09-01

    In Gubbio, Italy, a l em layer of clay between extensive limestone formations marks the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary Periods. This clay layer was known to have been deposited about 65 million years ago when many life forms became extinct, but the length of time associated with the deposition was not known. In an attempt to measure this time with normally deposited meteoritic material as a clock, extensive measurements of iridium abundances (and those of many other elements) were made on the Gubbio rocks. Neutron activation analysis was the principal tool used in these studies. About 50 elements are searched for in materials like the earth's crust, about 40 are detected and about 30 are measured with useful precision. We were not able to determine exactly how long the clay deposition took. Instead the laboratory studies on the chemical and physical nature of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary led to the theory that an asteroid collision with the earth was responsible for the extinction of many forms of life including the dinosaurs.

  14. Suicide attempt by an overdose of sitagliptin, an oral hypoglycemic agent: a case report and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Shinya; Kumagi, Teru; Miyake, Teruki; Ueda, Teruhisa; Niiya, Tetsuji; Nishino, Keiichiro; Murakami, Shigeto; Murakami, Masato; Matsuura, Bunzo; Onji, Morikazu

    2012-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a newer class of oral hypoglycemic agents for the management of diabetes that elevate the plasma concentration of active glucagon-like peptide-1 via inhibition of DPP-4. They effectively lower not only glycosylated hemoglobin levels, but also fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels. Patients with diabetes occasionally consume an overdose of oral hypoglycemic agents in suicide attempts: the prevalence of depression is high in patients with diabetes, and depression is a strong risk factor for suicide. We encountered an 86-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes and depression, who was transferred to the emergency room 4h after ingestion of 1,700 mg of the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin (1,700 mg is 17 times greater than the approved maximum dose). Upon arrival, she was fully conscious, plasma glucose was 124 mg/dL, and serum immunoreactive insulin level was 5.81 µU/mL. Thereafter, the plasma concentration of sitagliptin rose to 3,793 nM, which is 4.5 times higher than the value found under regular treatment with the maximum dose. The patient did not suffer from hypoglycemia, suggesting that a single oral overdose of sitagliptin is unlikely to cause hypoglycemia. A literature review of oral anti-diabetic agents revealed that overdose of biguanides is occasionally fatal when immediate intensive care is not provided. In summary, sitagliptin is a good treatment option for diabetic elderly patients or patients with psychiatric disorders who are suicidal and do not require insulin.

  15. Conservative management of iatrogenic superior vena cava (SVC) perforation after attempted dialysis catheter placement: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kabutey, Nii-Kabu; Rastogi, Neeraj; Kim, Ducksoo

    2013-01-01

    A 68-year-old male with end-stage renal disease, congestive heart failure, and facial and bilateral arm swelling was referred for placement of a tunneled dialysis catheter. Distal left subclavian vein access was obtained. The procedure was complicated by iatrogenic perforation of the superior vena cava (SVC). This resulted in rapid development of a right-sided hemothorax and hemodynamic instability. A right-sided thoracostomy tube was placed to drain the pleural cavity. Extrapericardial perforation of the SVC can be managed conservatively in select cases without endovascular balloon dilatation and/stent graft deployment or surgical repair provided the antegrade blood flow is maintained via patent collateral circulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-injection of household cleaning detergents into a ventriculoperitoneal shunt reservoir during a suicide attempt: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, Jason W; Osbun, Joshua W; Arias, Eric J; Reynolds, Lauren C; Chyatte, Douglas; Reynolds, Matthew R

    2016-09-01

    Self-injection of household cleaning detergents (more specifically, commercial toilet bowl cleaner) into the reservoir of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) has never been reported in the neurosurgical literature. A right-handed 41-year-old female with a past medical history significant for bipolar depression (with multiple prior hospital admissions for suicide attempts) and pseudotumor cerebri (status-post VPS placement from a right frontal approach) successfully injected ∼5 ml of toilet bowl cleaner into her ventricular shunt reservoir during a suicide attempt. She was found unresponsive by a family member 48 h after this event and presented to our hospital in moribund neurological condition (bilaterally fixed and dilated pupils with decerebrate posturing). Head computed tomography (CT) demonstrated marked ventriculomegaly. She was taken emergently to the operating room for placement of a left frontal ventriculostomy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampled intraoperatively showed numerous Gram-positive cocci (later determined to be Staphylococcus epidermidis). For this reason, her right-sided shunt system was also removed in its entirety. She was treated with broad-spectrum intravenous and intraventricular antibiotics for her bacterial ventriculitis and her CSF was aggressively drained to treat her hydrocephalus. Once her infection had resolved, the shunt was replaced (using a right parietal approach) and she went on to make an excellent neurological recovery. Here, the authors present the case of a patient who self-injected household cleaning detergents into her VPS reservoir-and, likely, the ventricular system-during a suicide attempt and subsequently developed hydrocephalus and ventriculitis. Following this infrequent clinical scenario, consideration should be given to temporary ventriculostomy placement and shunt removal. Moreover, in patients with a known history of psychiatric co-morbidities-and particularly those patients with prior suicide attempts

  17. The risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis and the protective effect of rectal indomethacin in cases of attempted but unsuccessful prophylactic pancreatic stent placement.

    PubMed

    Choksi, Neel S; Fogel, Evan L; Cote, Gregory A; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Elta, Grace H; Scheiman, James M; Chak, Amitabh; Mosler, Patrick; Higgins, Peter D R; Korsnes, Sheryl J; Schmidt, Suzette E; Sherman, Stuart; Lehman, Glen A; Elmunzer, B Joseph

    2015-01-01

    It is believed, based on limited observational data, that an unsuccessful attempt to place a prophylactic pancreatic stent substantially increases the risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). To better understand the risk of PEP in patients with failed pancreatic stent placement (FPS) and the impact of rectal indomethacin on this risk. Secondary analysis of randomized, controlled trial data. University of Michigan and Indiana University. A total of 577 clinical trial participants at elevated risk for PEP. Pancreatic stent placement. Within the placebo group, we compared PEP rates in patients with FPS, patients who underwent successful stent placement, and in those without a stent attempt. We also performed a regression analysis evaluating the association between FPS and PEP. To define the protective effect of indomethacin, we repeated these analyses in the indomethacin group and in the full study cohort. The incidence of PEP among patients in the placebo group who experienced FPS was 34.7%, significantly exceeding rates in patients who underwent successful stent placement (16.4%) and in those without a stent attempt (12.1%). After we adjusted for known PEP risk factors, FPS was found to be independently associated with PEP. Among the indomethacin group and in the full cohort, FPS was not associated with a higher risk of PEP. Low event rate, FPS not prospectively captured. FPS appears to confer an increased risk of PEP, which is attenuated by rectal indomethacin administration. These findings highlight the importance of adequate training and proficiency before endoscopists attempt pancreatic stent placement and the routine use of rectal indomethacin in high-risk ERCP cases. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Perinatal conditions and parental age at birth as risk markers for subsequent suicide attempt and suicide: a population based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Rasmussen, Finn; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2012-09-01

    Restricted fetal growth and young maternal age have been associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviour later in life. Research investigating the independent and interacting effects of these risk factors with parental mental health and socio-economic status is scarce. A case-control study was effected through record linkage between Swedish registers. Individuals born 1973-1983 who were hospitalized due to a suicide attempt (n = 17,159) or committed suicide (n = 1,407) were matched to ≤10 controls by sex, month and county of birth. Controlling for parental conditions, significantly increased odds ratios (OR) for suicide attempt were found for low birth weight (OR = 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01-1.25), short birth length (OR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.08-1.22), short and light for gestational age (OR = 1.23, 95 % CI: 1.10-1.38), short but not light for gestational age (OR = 1.18, 95 % CI: 1.09, 1.29), teenage motherhood (OR = 1.66, 95 % CI 1.53-1.80), young fatherhood (OR = 1.33, 95 % CI 1.27-1.39) and multiparity (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI 1.31-1.50). For completed suicide, increased odds ratios were found for low birth weight (OR = 1.65, 95 % CI 1.16-2.35), teenage motherhood (OR = 1.44, 95 % CI 1.09-1.90) and young fatherhood (OR = 1.20, 95 % CI 1.02-1.41). There was a synergy effect between teenage motherhood and parental psychiatric inpatient care with regard to suicide attempt in offspring [synergy index = 1.53 (95 % CI 1.27-1.84)]. Low birth weight and length, and short and light for gestational age may increase the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviour, and more research is needed to investigate underlying mechanisms. Public health implications from this study include measures to improve pre- and perinatal parental mental health, particularly in teenage pregnancies.

  19. An attempt at conservative treatment in selected cases of type I endometrial carcinoma (stage I a/G1) in young women.

    PubMed

    Stanosz, S

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate an attempt of conservative treatment in selected cases of endometrial carcinoma Stage I A/type I in young women. The study comprised five young nulliparous women aged 24-38 (30.8 +/- 4.2) with well-defined type I endometrial carcinoma Stage I A/G1. Diagnostic dilatation and curettage (D&C) in these women was performed. Biochemical hormonal studies comprised the assessment of estrone, estradiol, progesterone, prolactin in basal conditions, prolactin after a metoclopramide test and total testosterone. In the treatment phase estriol was given intravaginally. Additionally progesterone was applied for 12 days in the second phase of therapeutic cycles. Moreover the women were given ergocryptine and metformin. After six months of therapy and during two years of follow-up histopathological examinations of material obtained from D&C the endometrial pattern was normal and free of cancer cells. 1) In selected cases the conservative treatment of young women diagnosed with type I endometrial carcinoma Stage I A/G1 could be indicated. 2) Conservative pharmacological treatment of young women with well-defined endometrial carcinoma Stage I A/G1 type I should be monitored with followup histopathological examinations of material obtained from D&C of the endometrium and assessment of concentrations of sex hormones in the serum. 3) This kind of therapy requires frequent and thorough gynecological and clinical follow-up.

  20. Attempted Non-Family Abductions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelhor, David; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined cases of attempted nonfamily abductions, to determine child and family characteristics that may serve as risk factors for such incidents. The prevalence and risk-marker findings from this study reinforce the need to continue teaching "stranger danger" and suggest that children living in stressful or unstable family environments…

  1. How do cathartic drugs act? A case study on Gregor Horst (1578-1636) and his attempt to defend Galenist theory.

    PubMed

    Schweikardt, C

    1998-12-01

    This case study deals with the argument of the Galenist author Gregor Horst (1578-1636), Medical Professor at Giessen University, Germany, and later town phyusician in Ulm, in the discussion on how purgatives act. Horst tried to reconcile a number of different opinions within a Galenist framework. His vast erudition enabled him to compare several classical as well as contemporary opinions. He takes into account Galen (129-c.200/216), Erasistratos (c. 330-255 BC), Asclepiades (fl. 1st century BC), the Hippocratic Corpus and the Problemata Aristotelis from antiquity, Mesue and Mundinus (c. 1270-1326) from the Middle Ages, and Jean Fernel (c. 1497-1558), Girolamo Cardano (1501-c. 1576), Johannes Costaeus (d. 1603), Laurent Joubert (1529-1583), Francisco Valles (1524-1592), Tobias Dorncreilius (1571-1605) and Gavriele Falloppio (1523-1562) from contemporary authors. Horst also integrated some Paracelsian ideas from Joseph Duchesne alias Quercetanus (1549-1609). In his attempt to preserve fundamentals of Galenic thought, Horst created a complicated theory nearly breaking under its own weight. He shows a rising divergence within traditional views as well as the fragmentation of Renaissance Galenism which took place already before the discovery of the blood circulation.

  2. Multiple suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Tuckman, J; Youngman, W F; Kreizman, G

    1968-04-01

    A sample of 157 persons who attempted suicide from 2 to 6 times was compared with a sample of 1,045 single attempted suicides on a number of personal and social characteristics and other factors related to the act itself. Suicide death rates, obtained through a follow-up of both groups for a year following the last attempt, were also compared. It is concluded (1) that the two groups are essentially similar in their general characteristics and in their risk of suicide and (2) that, among multiples, little change occurs from first to second attempt. However, it is pointed out that both groups are at considerably higher risk of suicide than those who have not made attempts.

  3. Young People's Risk of Suicide Attempts after Contact with a Psychiatric Department--A Nested Case-Control Design Using Danish Register Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul

    2012-01-01

    Background: There seems to be an increased risk of children and adolescents committing or attempting suicide after contact with a psychiatric department. Children and adolescents living in families with low socio-economic status (SES) might have an especially increased suicide attempt risk. Methods: A complete extraction of Danish register data…

  4. Young People's Risk of Suicide Attempts after Contact with a Psychiatric Department--A Nested Case-Control Design Using Danish Register Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul

    2012-01-01

    Background: There seems to be an increased risk of children and adolescents committing or attempting suicide after contact with a psychiatric department. Children and adolescents living in families with low socio-economic status (SES) might have an especially increased suicide attempt risk. Methods: A complete extraction of Danish register data…

  5. Gabapentin and Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Robert D.; Hur, Kwan; Brown, C. Hendricks; Mann, J. John

    2010-01-01

    Purpose On December 16, 2008 FDA issued a class warning for antiepileptic drugs and suicidal thoughts and behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine if the antiepileptic drug gabapentin increases risk of suicide attempt in patients to which it was prescribed for various indications. Methods We conducted a pharmacoepidemiologic study in which suicide attempt rates were compared before and after gabapentin was prescribed. We used the PharMetrics medical claims database to study the relationship between gabapentin and suicide attempts in a cohort of 131,178 patients with a one-year window of information before and after initial prescription. Patients had diagnoses of epilepsy, pain disorders, bipolar illness, major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and other psychiatric disorders. Results Overall, there was no significant difference in suicide attempt rates before (3.48/1000 patient years - PY) versus after (3.45/1000 PY) gabapentin prescription. Pre-prescription suicide attempt rates were five times higher in psychiatric populations compared with non-psychiatric populations leading us to analyze the two groups separately. No drug effect was detected in the non-psychiatric populations. Significant reductions in suicide attempt rates were seen for bipolar disorder (47.85/1000 PY versus 31.46/1000 PY), major depressive disorder (17.30/1000 PY versus 12.66/1000 PY), and other psychiatric disorders (12.84/1000 PY versus 10.14/1000 PY). Person-time analysis revealed an overall significant reduction in suicide attempt rates (2.01/1000 PY on drug versus 2.30/1000 PY off drug). Conclusions This study finds that gabapentin does not increase risk of suicide attempts in non-psychiatric populations and is associated with a reduction in suicide attempt risk in patients with psychiatric disorders. PMID:20922708

  6. Socio-Demographic, Clinical and Behavioral Characteristics Associated with a History of Suicide Attempts among Psychiatric Outpatients: A Case Control Study in a Northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Arnaud-Gil, Carlos Alberto; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Molina-Espinoza, Luis Fernando; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the epidemiology of suicide attempts among psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. This study was aimed to determine the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients in two public hospitals in Durango, Mexico. Methods: Two hundred seventy six psychiatric outpatients (154 suicide attempters and 122 patients without suicide attempt history) attended the two public hospitals in Durango City, Mexico were included in this study. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics were obtained retrospectively from all outpatients and compared in relation to the presence or absence of suicide attempt history. Results: Increased prevalence of suicide attempts was associated with mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (F10-19) (P=0.01), schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (F20-29) (P=0.02), mood (affective) disorders (F30-39) (P<0.001), and disorders of adult personality and behavior (F60-69) (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that suicide attempts were associated with young age (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.06-1.39; P=0.003), female gender (OR=2.98, 95% CI: 1.55-5.73; P=0.001), urban residence (OR=2.31, 95% CI: 1.17-4.57; P=0.01), memory impairment (OR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.07-3.40; P=0.02), alcohol consumption (OR=2.39, 95% CI: 1.21-4.70; P=0.01), and sexual promiscuity (OR=3.90, 95% CI: 1.74-8.77; P<0.001). Conclusions: We report the association of suicide attempts with socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics in psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. Results may be useful for an optimal planning of preventive measures against suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients. PMID:24711751

  7. Repeated suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, S

    2000-12-01

    Attempted suicide is an act associated with childhood sexual abuse, depression, bipolar illness, substance abuse, and other diagnoses, as documented in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994). Three women, who attended a group to decrease their depression and increase their self-esteem and who had histories of multiple suicide attempts, agreed to participate in interviews designed to determine the common factors associated with their suicide attempts and to examine the assertion that their suicide attempts were an addiction, similar to their addictions to alcohol and drugs. The common factors found were depression, substance use disorders with early abuse and risky behaviors, history of sexual abuse, faulty relationships, alteration of mood with a suicide plan, and distorted and illogical thinking and motivation. The similarities to addiction also were described. Based on the complexity of factors that emerged and the addictive nature of the suicide attempts, treatment for similar patients needs to be multidimensional and ongoing to allow sufficient time to monitor progress and address the numerous factors involved.

  8. Alexithymia and low cooperativeness are associated with suicide attempts in male military personnel with adjustment disorder: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Na, Kyoung-Sae; Oh, Sei-Joong; Jung, Han-Yong; Irene Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Yong-Ku; Han, Changsu; Ko, Young-Hoon; Paik, Jong-Woo; Kim, Shin-Gyeom

    2013-02-28

    Subpopulations of patients with adjustment disorder are at increased risk for suicide. The current study investigated whether personality traits, including alexithymia, temperament, and character, are associated with an increased risk of suicide in individuals with adjustment disorder. Age- and sex-matched patients meeting the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for adjustment disorder with (n=92) and without (n=92) a history of suicide attempts were recruited for the present study. Ninety-two healthy individuals who did not meet diagnostic criteria for Axis I or II diagnoses were used as controls. The Toronto alexithymia scale-20 (TAS-20) and the temperament and character inventory (TCI) were used to assess personality traits. Significantly higher total and subscale scores on the TAS-20, including on the difficulty-identifying-feelings (DIF) and difficulty-describing-feelings (DDF) subscales, and lower scores on the TCI cooperativeness subscale were noted in adjustment-disorder patients with previous suicide attempts. In the multivariate regression analysis, high DDF and DIF and low cooperativeness increased the risk of suicide attempts in adjustment-disorder patients. A subsequent path analysis revealed that high DDF had a direct effect on suicide attempts, whereas high DIF had an indirect effect on suicide attempts via low cooperativeness.

  9. STS-130 Launch Attempt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-07

    NASA Associate Administrator for Space Operations Bill Gerstenmaier, center, reacts to an updated weather report during the countdown of the launch of the space shuttle Endeavour and the start of the STS-130 mission at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Sunday Feb. 7, 2010. Space shuttle Endeavour's launch attempt was scrubbed due to a low cloud ceiling over Kennedy Space Center. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Alcohol Consumption and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Kenneth E.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Swann, Alan C.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Lee, Roberta K.; Bayer, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a case-control study of the association between nearly lethal suicide attempts and facets of alcohol consumption; namely, drinking frequency, drinking quantity, binge drinking, alcoholism, drinking within 3 hours of suicide attempt, and age began drinking. In bivariate analyses, all measures were associated with nearly lethal suicide…

  11. Alcohol Consumption and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Kenneth E.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Swann, Alan C.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Lee, Roberta K.; Bayer, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a case-control study of the association between nearly lethal suicide attempts and facets of alcohol consumption; namely, drinking frequency, drinking quantity, binge drinking, alcoholism, drinking within 3 hours of suicide attempt, and age began drinking. In bivariate analyses, all measures were associated with nearly lethal suicide…

  12. Optimal race strategy for a 200-m flying sprint in a human-powered vehicle: A case study of a world-record attempt.

    PubMed

    de Koning, Jos J; van der Zweep, Cees-Jan; Cornelissen, Jesper; Kuiper, Bouke

    2013-03-01

    Optimal pacing strategy was determined for breaking the world speed record on a human-powered vehicle (HPV) using an energy-flow model in which the rider's physical capacities, the vehicle's properties, and the environmental conditions were included. Power data from world-record attempts were compared with data from the model, and race protocols were adjusted to the results from the model. HPV performance can be improved by using an energy-flow model for optimizing race strategy. A biphased in-run followed by a sprint gave best results.

  13. An attempt to extend the Habitat Harshness Hypothesis to tidal flats: A case study of Anomalocardia brasiliana (Bivalvia: Veneridae) reproductive biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corte, Guilherme Nascimento; Yokoyama, Leonardo Querobim; Amaral, A. Cecília Z.

    2014-10-01

    The Habitat Harshness Hypothesis (HHH) predicts that populations inhabiting the intertidal area of a dissipative beach should produce more gametes and have a longer reproductive cycle than those inhabiting an intermediate or reflective beach. This hypothesis was proposed for the exposed morphodynamic continuum between the reflective and dissipative states; however, no attempt has been made thus far to verify whether the HHH is valid for tidal flats. In this study, we analysed the reproductive cycle of Anomalocardia brasiliana in an intermediate beach and in a tidal flat and compared the results to determine whether the reproductive cycles of A. brasiliana were in agreement with the predictions of the HHH and to examine the possibility of extending this hypothesis to tidal flats. A continuous spawning season and synchrony between sexes were observed at both sites, although the reproductive effort was higher in the intermediate beach. The results of this first attempt did not support the extension of the HHH to tidal flats. It is possible that hypotheses that take into account only physical variables may not be the most adequate for describing environments with such a high species richness and high abundance as tidal flats. Nevertheless, other studies are necessary to confidently expand or refute the HHH with regard to tidal flats, and this topic should be considered as a priority in future investigations in sandy beach ecology.

  14. Dacryomeniscometry: an early attempt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Arthur; Papas, Eric B.; Keshavarzi, Kaykhosrow; Lum, Edward; Ehrmann, Klaus

    2000-06-01

    The pre-corneal tear layer provides an important optical as well as physiological function. Hence, the ability to assess the quality and behavior of tears, especially in dry-eye, marginal dry-eye and contact lens patients is important. While a large range of clinical tests exists for assessing tear quality, many are subjective and show poor repeatability. Since the tear meniscus is dependent on factors such as volume, viscosity and 'wettability,' we attempted to develop an optical system for imaging the tear meniscus. A basic prototype to test feasibility has been constructed. An algorithm for computing the profile of the meniscus was also developed. The methodology is described together with some examples of tear menisci imaged and analyzed.

  15. Attempted suicide and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Czeizel, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Background: The aim of the Budapest Monitoring System of Self-Poisoning Pregnant Women was to evaluate the potential congenital abnormality inducing effect of extremely large doses of drugs among pregnant women who attempted suicide. This system was appropriate to describe the characteristics of these pregnant women as a secondary finding from this model. Methods: All self-poisoned patients were cared for at a toxicological inpatient clinic in Budapest, between 1960 and 1993. Of a total of 1,044 pregnant women identified from the three different periods of the project, only 19 (1.8%) died. Women who survived were visited at home to reveal birth outcomes, and their exposed children were examined medically to identify congenital abnormalities and tested to estimate their cognitive-behavioral status. The previous or subsequent children of these pregnant women were used as controls with a similar examination protocol. Results: In general, self-poisoned pregnant women were young (peak age was between 18 and 20 years), 62% had their first pregnancy, 55% were unmarried, they had lower socioeconomic status, 46% were smokers and 22.5% drinkers, but depression/panic disorder occurred only among 17 pregnant women. Suicide attempts with drugs were most frequent in the fourth post-conceptional week and second month of pregnancy. In general they used smaller doses of drugs for suicide than non-pregnant age-matched women. Of 1,044 self-poisoned pregnant women, 926 had known pregnancy outcomes and 411 (44.4%) delivered live-born babies. Conclusions: The self-poisoning model appears to have several benefits (e.g., dose-response estimation of drugs) in comparison with other methods when evaluating teratogenic/fetotoxic effect of drugs. It is suggested that an international monitoring system of self-poisoned pregnant women should be established to provide a larger data base. PMID:21483214

  16. Suicide attempts and resuscitation dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Karlinsky, H; Taerk, G; Schwartz, K; Ennis, J; Rodin, G

    1988-11-01

    The conventional psychiatric opinion that suicide is a manifestation of psychiatric illness may not apply to circumstances in which suicide or the refusal of life-sustaining medical treatment results from the rational decisions of autonomous individuals. As medical technology advances, questions about the prolongation of life and the discontinuation of medical treatment have become commonplace in the medical setting. In this context, contradictions may exist between the principle of patient autonomy and that of physician responsibility. Dilemmas about treatment decisions that emerge from these conflicting perspectives are highlighted in this article. We report two cases of attempted suicide in the context, respectively, of (1) terminal illness and (2) advanced age. Some of the complex psychiatric, ethical, and legal issues related to the case reports are addressed.

  17. Palliative care after attempted suicide in the absence of premorbid terminal disease: a case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Peter; Le, Brian

    2013-02-01

    Palliative care involvement in the management of incomplete suicide in patients without terminal illness is rare. This paper documents two such cases and explores some of the clinical and ethical issues raised.

  18. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Maqbali, Mandhar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors) and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support). All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor. PMID:27602193

  19. Psychopathology Associated with Suicide Attempts among Rural Adolescents of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xianchen; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Zhao, Zhongtang

    2005-01-01

    This case control study examined the relationship between psychopathological profiles and self reported suicide attempts among rural adolescents of China. Cases consisted of 142 adolescents who reported a suicide attempt in the past 6 months in a questionnaire survey (n = 1,365). An equal number of adolescents without reporting a suicide attempt,…

  20. Psychopathology Associated with Suicide Attempts among Rural Adolescents of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xianchen; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Zhao, Zhongtang

    2005-01-01

    This case control study examined the relationship between psychopathological profiles and self reported suicide attempts among rural adolescents of China. Cases consisted of 142 adolescents who reported a suicide attempt in the past 6 months in a questionnaire survey (n = 1,365). An equal number of adolescents without reporting a suicide attempt,…

  1. Medical Conditions and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeda, Robin M.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Powell, Kenneth E.; Simon, Thomas R.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Durant, Tonji M.; Swahn, Monica H.

    2002-01-01

    This population-based, case-control study examined physical illness as a risk factor for suicidal behavior. Case patients were more likely than controls to report having any serious medical conditions. Results suggest that young men with medical conditions are at increased risk for nearly lethal suicide attempts. (Contains 33 references and 3…

  2. Medical Conditions and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeda, Robin M.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Powell, Kenneth E.; Simon, Thomas R.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Durant, Tonji M.; Swahn, Monica H.

    2002-01-01

    This population-based, case-control study examined physical illness as a risk factor for suicidal behavior. Case patients were more likely than controls to report having any serious medical conditions. Results suggest that young men with medical conditions are at increased risk for nearly lethal suicide attempts. (Contains 33 references and 3…

  3. Attempted Suicide among Iranian Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheikholeslami, Homayoun; Kani, Camellia; Ziaee, Amir

    2008-01-01

    Predictors of suicide attempts in Iran, to distinguish any similarities and differences of these predictors between suicide attempts in Iran and other developed and developing countries and to investigate the relation between general psychiatric symptoms and repetition of suicidal attempts were assessed. The validated Farsi version of the General…

  4. Defense Styles in Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholz, James A.

    1973-01-01

    Thirty-five serious suicide attempters, paired to neuropsychiatric controls on relevant variables, were tested within two weeks of their attempt with the Defense Mechanisms Inventory. Attempters revealed more turning-against-self defenses as hypothesized but showed no differences from controls in use of fantasized hostility. Implications for…

  5. Suicide Attempts among Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrsi, Rachel; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between substance abuse and suicide is indicated by high rate of attempted suicide among alcoholics and drug abusers, as well as increased likelihood of repeated attempts in these populations. This study reports on psychological characteristics of male drug suicide attempters who are in treatment for their addiction problem.…

  6. Attempted suicide among Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Sheikholeslami, Homayoun; Kani, Camellia; Ziaee, Amir

    2008-08-01

    Predictors of suicide attempts in Iran, to distinguish any similarities and differences of these predictors between suicide attempts in Iran and other developed and developing countries and to investigate the relation between general psychiatric symptoms and repetition of suicidal attempts were assessed. The validated Farsi version of the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used to assess multiple dimensions of quality of life of suicide attempters as depression, anxiety, social dysfunction, and somatic symptoms. Pivotal differences emerged in the clinical profiles of suicide attempters living in a developing country versus developed countries. In developing countries, those who attempt suicides are more likely to have no psychiatric disorder and are less likely to have used alcohol as part of the suicide attempt, but are more likely to have been assaulted physically or verbally. The results on the GHQ-28 indicate that the process through which individuals move from suicidal thought to action may decrease multiple dimensions of quality of life.

  7. Forest planning in an Oregon case study: Defining the problem and attempting to meet goals with a spatial-analysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettinger, Pete; Johnson, K. Norman; Sessions, John

    1996-07-01

    Five major management goals were identified for the upper Grande Ronde River Basin on the Wallowa-Whitman National Forest in northeastern Oregon: to produce high-quality fish habitat, to maintain elk habitat, to restore and maintain forest conditions within the natural range of viability, and to contribute to community economic stability. From the broad goals, specific goals for stream temperature, habitat effectiveness index (HEI), habitat corridors, maintenance of land in late or old seral stages, and a nondeclining even flow of timber were selected. A case study was undertaken in a small watershed that is under typical societal constraints to determine whether one decisionsupport tool, SNAP II+, could evaluate the selected goals in a single planning exercise. Three riparian management strategies and two forest road scenarios were used. The exclusion of harvest and road-building from riparian zones in order to increase habitat protection decreased harvest levels and net present value but maintained preactivity stream temperatures. Other resources were generally maintained within prescribed management levels. Although the technique has limitations (e.g., it does not account for riparian zones in calculations of forage and cover for HEI, and it can use the maximum but not minimum acreage goal for some resources), it shows promise for evaluating management tradeoffs in watershed analysis.

  8. Community response to low-level radioactive waste: A case study of an attempt to establish a waste reduction and incineration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bord, R.J.; Ponzurick, P.J.; Witzig, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Federal Low-Level Radioactive Wast Policy Act of 1980 specified a 1986 deadline for the establishment of state and regional low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. There is little optimism that the deadline will be met. Morris K. Udall has introduced Bill HR 1083 in Congress which proposes extending the deadline to 1993 and specifying a 40 percent reduction in the volume of wastes shipped. Waste volume can be reduced through incineration and compaction technologies. However, it may be as difficult to convince communities that a waste treatment facility is a good investment as it is to convince them that a disposal site is worth having. In other words, the waste volume reduction argument may ultimately depend on cutbacks in the nuclear industry. This research reports one community's response to the possibility of a local low-level radioactive waste compaction and incineration facility. The case is especially interesting because the community needs new industries and has a history of living with a nuclear materials facility. In spite of that the community's response was quite negative, fueled by a vocal local opposition group and anti-nuclear activists.

  9. MMP3 and TIMP2 gene variants as predisposing factors for Achilles tendon pathologies: Attempted replication study in a British case-control cohort.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Louis; Ribbans, William J; Raleigh, Stuart M

    2016-09-01

    Variants within the MMP3 (rs679620) and TIMP2 (rs4789932) genes have been associated with the risk of Achilles tendon pathology (ATP) in populations from South Africa and Australia. This study aimed to determine whether these variants were associated with the risk of ATP in British Caucasians. We recruited 118 cases with ATP, including a subset of 25 individuals with Achilles tendon rupture (RUP) and 131 controls. DNA samples were isolated from saliva and genotyped using qPCR. For the TIMP2 rs4789932 variant we found a significant (p = 0.038) difference in the genotype distribution frequency between males with ATP (CC, 39.4%; CT, 43.7%; TT, 16.9%) compared to male controls (CC, 20.7%; CT, 59.8%; TT, 19.5%). We also observed a difference in the TIMP2 rs4789932 genotype distribution between males with rupture compared to male controls (p = 0.038). The MMP3 rs679620 GG genotype was found to be overrepresented in the Achilles tendon rupture (RUP) group (AA, 24.0%; AG, 32.0%; GG, 44.0%) compared to controls (AA, 26.7%; AG, 54.2%; GG, 19.1%). In conclusion, the CT genotype of the TIMP2 rs4789932 variant was associated with lower risk of ATP in males. Furthermore, while we revealed differences for both variants in genotype distribution between the RUP and control groups, the sample size of the RUP group was small and confirmation would be required in additional cohorts. Finally, although both the TIMP2 rs4789932 and MMP3 rs679620 variants tentatively associated with ATP, there were differences in the direction of association compared to earlier work.

  10. Reasons for Attempted Suicide in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Wiktorsson, Stefan; Duberstein, Paul; Berg, Anne Ingeborg; Fässberg, Madeleine Mellqvist; Waern, Margda

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Using the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide as a guiding framework, we investigated older adults' causal attributions for suicidal behavior. We hypothesized that older adults who attributed their suicidal behavior to thwarted belongingness or perceived burdensomeness would be more likely to use more immediately lethal means and to re-attempt suicide during the 12-month follow-up. Design Prospective cohort study in western Sweden. Participants A total of 101 older adults who presented to medical emergency rooms for suicide attempts. Measurements Participants were asked why they attempted suicide. Results Attributions included: a desire to escape (n=29), reduced functioning and autonomy (n=24), psychological problems, including depression (n=24), somatic problems and physical pain (n=16), perceived burdensomeness (n=13), social problems that reflected either thwarted belongingness or family conflict (n=13) and lack of meaning in life (n=8); 41 participants provided more than one reason. No specific reason was given by 28 participants, 15 of whom reported not understanding or remembering why they attempted suicide and 13 reported simply wanting to die (or go to sleep and not wake up). As hypothesized, patients who attributed the attempt to thwarted belongingness were more likely to use more immediately lethal means for their index attempt and were more likely to re-attempt during follow-up. This was not the case for those reporting burdensomeness. Conclusions People who attribute suicide attempts to thwarted belongingness use more lethal methods and have a poorer prognosis. Replications across diverse cultural settings are needed to determine whether attributing suicide attempts to thwarted belongingness may warrant increased monitoring. PMID:25158916

  11. Reasons for attempted suicide in later life.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Kimberly A; Wiktorsson, Stefan; Duberstein, Paul; Berg, Anne Ingeborg; Fässberg, Madeleine Mellqvist; Waern, Margda

    2015-05-01

    Using the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide as a guiding framework, we investigated older adults' causal attributions for suicidal behavior. We hypothesized that older adults who attributed their suicidal behavior to thwarted belongingness or perceived burdensomeness would be more likely to use more immediately lethal means and to re-attempt suicide during the 12-month follow-up. Prospective cohort study in western Sweden. A total of 101 older adults who presented to medical emergency rooms for suicide attempts. Participants were asked why they attempted suicide. Attributions included: a desire to escape (N = 29), reduced functioning and autonomy (N = 24), psychological problems, including depression (N = 24), somatic problems and physical pain (N = 16), perceived burdensomeness (N = 13), social problems that reflected either thwarted belongingness or family conflict (N = 13), and lack of meaning in life (N = 8); 41 participants provided more than one reason. No specific reason was given by 28 participants, 15 of whom reported not understanding or remembering why they attempted suicide and 13 reported simply wanting to die (or go to sleep and not wake up). As hypothesized, patients who attributed the attempt to thwarted belongingness were more likely to use more immediately lethal means for their index attempt and were more likely to re-attempt during follow-up. This was not the case for those reporting burdensomeness. People who attribute suicide attempts to thwarted belongingness use more lethal methods and have a poorer prognosis. Replications across diverse cultural settings are needed to determine whether attributing suicide attempts to thwarted belongingness may warrant increased monitoring. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive Distortions and Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Jager-Hyman, Shari; Cunningham, Amy; Wenzel, Amy; Mattei, Stephanie; Brown, Gregory K.; Beck, Aaron T.

    2014-01-01

    Although theorists have posited that suicidal individuals are more likely than non-suicidal individuals to experience cognitive distortions, little empirical work has examined whether those who recently attempted suicide are more likely to engage in cognitive distortions than those who have not recently attempted suicide. In the present study, 111 participants who attempted suicide in the 30 days prior to participation and 57 psychiatric control participants completed measures of cognitive distortions, depression, and hopelessness. Findings support the hypothesis that individuals who recently attempted suicide are more likely than psychiatric controls to experience cognitive distortions, even when controlling for depression and hopelessness. Fortune telling was the only cognitive distortion uniquely associated with suicide attempt status. However, fortune telling was no longer significantly associated with suicide attempt status when controlling for hopelessness. Findings underscore the importance of directly targeting cognitive distortions when treating individuals at risk for suicide. PMID:25294949

  13. The Influence of Geographic Mobility on Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lloyd B.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Powell, Kenneth E.; Simon, Thomas R.; Mercy, James A.; Lee, Roberta K.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Swann, Alan C.; Bayer, Timothy; O'Carroll, Patrick W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a population-based, case-control study of nearly lethal suicide attempts with 153 cases and 513 controls. Results indicate that moving in the past year is positively associated with a nearly lethal suicide attempt, as are specific characteristics of the move. Findings confirm and extend prior research by demonstrating a relationship…

  14. The Influence of Geographic Mobility on Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lloyd B.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Powell, Kenneth E.; Simon, Thomas R.; Mercy, James A.; Lee, Roberta K.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Swann, Alan C.; Bayer, Timothy; O'Carroll, Patrick W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a population-based, case-control study of nearly lethal suicide attempts with 153 cases and 513 controls. Results indicate that moving in the past year is positively associated with a nearly lethal suicide attempt, as are specific characteristics of the move. Findings confirm and extend prior research by demonstrating a relationship…

  15. Suicide Management Plan--Post Suicide Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhoff, Robert; Royster, Sharon

    This document contains a suicide management plan developed specifically for colleges. The suicide management plan described includes pre-planning, immediate response to the event, press releases, college staff jobs, college responses (such as memorials or scholarships), interaction with the family, and staff counseling. The plan is presented as a…

  16. Suicide Management Plan--Post Suicide Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhoff, Robert; Royster, Sharon

    This document contains a suicide management plan developed specifically for colleges. The suicide management plan described includes pre-planning, immediate response to the event, press releases, college staff jobs, college responses (such as memorials or scholarships), interaction with the family, and staff counseling. The plan is presented as a…

  17. Cecal Leiomyoma: Can We Attempt Endoscopic Resection?

    PubMed Central

    Badipatla, Kanthi Rekha; Kamireddy, Chandana; Niazi, Masooma; Nayudu, Suresh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal leiomyomas are smooth muscle tumors arising from the muscularis mucosae, muscularis propriae and possibly from smooth muscle of the vessel wall. Management depends on the size, location and the clinical scenario. Endoscopic snare cauterization with or without saline lift has been described in literature for tumors involving the left colon. To the best of our knowledge, endoscopic resection of right colon leiomyoma was never attempted in the past. We present a case of cecal leiomyoma which was resected endoscopically. PMID:28058080

  18. Teenage attempted suicide in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yip, P S; Chiu, L H

    1998-01-01

    We examined the epidemiological profiles and characteristics of suicide attempters admitted to the Accident and Emergency Department of a regional hospital in Hong Kong (Princess Margaret Hospital) in the period from January to December 1995. These consisted of 101 adolescents (16 males and 85 females) aged between 10 to 24 years. There were significantly more female attempters than males, especially in the group aged 10-19, which had a male-to-female ratio of suicide rates of 1:11. Most of the methods used were nonlethal; the attempters were not serious enough and had no real intention to die. The use of painkillers and sleeping pills was most common. The main precipitating factor was interpersonal problems, for example, relationships, spousal and parental problems, especially among teenage girls. More than 90% of the cases stayed at the hospital for further observation, the mean length of stay in the hospital being 3.3 days. The potential health cost to the hospital system was around HK $11.7 million. Underestimating the prevalence of attempted suicides in Hong Kong could be a serious matter.

  19. Suicide attempt with a mix of synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones: Case report of non-fatal intoxication with AB-CHMINACA, AB-FUBINACA, alpha-PHP, alpha-PVP and 4-CMC.

    PubMed

    Klavž, Janez; Gorenjak, Maksimiljan; Marinšek, Martin

    2016-08-01

    We report on a case of intoxication with a mix of new psychoactive substances. A 38-year-old male was brought to the emergency department (ED) following the ingestion of an unknown drug in a suicide attempt. During the transport, he became progressively more somnolent and unresponsive to painful stimuli. Urine and stomach content were collected on admission to be screened for drugs of abuse and medicinal drugs. After admission, the patient's next of kin presented five small grip seal plastic bags containing different powders/crystals, and they were sent for analysis along with urine and stomach content to the toxicology laboratory. An easy and rapid sample preparation technique was applied for the extraction of urine and stomach content. Samples were extracted with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) technique and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A small amount of powder material from the bags was diluted in methanol and injected directly into the GC-MS instrument. Obtained spectra (EI) were evaluated against SWGDRUG library. Five different designer drugs were identified in the powder material, including synthetic cannabinoids (AB-CHMINACA, AB-FUBINACA) and synthetic cathinones (alpha-PHP, alpha-PVP and 4-CMC). With the exception of 4-CMC, all of these substances were also detected in the stomach content along with the prescription drugs. This is the first time that a positive identification of these five drugs has been made by a clinical laboratory in Slovenia.

  20. [When a Suicide Attempt is Kid's Stuff].

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Rojas, Rafael; Quijano-Serrano, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Attempted suicide in children and adolescents is a disturbing and painful issue for patients, their families and physicians. Current medical literature provides little information about minors who attempt suicide, possibly because there is under-reporting of this condition as a diagnosis, or maybe because it is sometimes considered as a way for the child to draw attention. To present the experience of the Department of Psychiatry (Universidad Nacional de Colombia) at the Hospital Infantil de La Misericordia, from 2003 to 2013. An observational retrospective study was conducted by reviewing 213 cases of children and adolescents treated for attempted suicide at the Hospital Infantil de La Misericordia from January 1, 2003 to October 31, 2013, and who received hospital or outpatient care in Child Psychiatry. A review was performed of the diagnosis, the number of suicide attempts, the peak months of consultation for this reason, and the methods selected, as well as a detailed description of the group of patients under 12 years old, and those managed with outpatient follow-up. The average patient is a female teenager who becomes intoxicated with drugs. Most often, patients do not return to outpatient follow-up. Those with follow-up have multiple psychopathologies and a high level of suffering. The most common methods, other than poisoning by drugs, are hanging and jumping from heights. Patients under 12 years old generally have their first attempt by drug poisoning. There is a predominance of anxiety disorder and depression, with a strong association with cognitive dysfunction, as a vulnerability factor. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Negative Life Events and Attempted Suicide in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-Chao; Jia, Cun-Xian; Zhang, Ji-Yu; Wang, Lin-Lin; Liu, Xian-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the association between negative life events (NLEs) and attempted suicide in rural China. Methods Six rural counties were selected from disease surveillance points in Shandong province, China. A total of 409 suicide attempters in rural areas between October 1, 2009, and March 31, 2011, and an equal number of matched controls were interviewed. We compared negative life events experienced within 1 month, 1–3 months, 3–6months, and 6–2 months prior to attempted suicide for cases and prior to interview for controls. We used multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between NLEs and attempted suicide. Results Suicide attempters experienced more NLEs within the last year prior to suicide attempt than controls prior to interview (83.1% vs. 33.5%). There was a significant dose-response relationship between NLEs experienced within the last year and increased risk of attempted suicide. Timing of NLEs analysis showed that NLEs experienced in the last month and 6–12 months prior to suicide attempt were significantly associated with elevated risk of attempted suicide, even after adjusting for mental disorders and demographic factors. Of NLEs, quarrelling with spouse, quarrelling with other family members, conflicting with friends or neighbors, family financial difficulty, and serious illness were independently related to attempted suicide. Conclusion NLEs are significantly associated with increased risk for attempted suicide in rural China. Stress management and intervention may be important to prevent suicidal behavior in rural China. PMID:25611854

  2. Homicide attempt with a Japanese samurai sword.

    PubMed

    Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Berthelon, Laurent; Geraut, Annie; Tracqui, Antoine; Ludes, Bertrand

    2003-07-01

    The use of Japanese swords for homicidal attempts is rare. A Japanese samurai sword is a sharp and cutting object. When faced with the use of this weapon, one must distinguish between stabs and incised wounds. Incised wounds can rarely lead to death, but because of the size of the weapon, stabs usually cause much more serious injuries. Stabs also imply a penetrating movement, whereas incised wounds can be the consequence of protective circular blows. Therefore, it is important to distinguish clinically between these two kinds of wounds. We report a case where the perpetrator argued he had given a circular blow, unfortunately hitting the victim. The pieces of evidence are discussed.

  3. Are attempts to have impaired children justifiable?

    PubMed

    Anstey, K W

    2002-10-01

    In a recent case, artificial insemination was employed by a couple in an attempt to ensure the birth of a deaf child. In response to this, I argue that individuals should not be allowed to select for or against deafness. While I establish that preferences for deaf children can be inherently just, allowing individuals to secure these preferences may have unacceptable consequences for existing persons who are deaf. I show that these follow even granting this couple's contestable understanding of the deaf as a minority group.

  4. Unusual attempted suicide by shooting through heart.

    PubMed

    Kadis, P; Pogorevc, L; Sipek, M; Vidovic, D

    2005-01-17

    Gunshot wounds in the heart are frequent suicidal injuries, especially in men. Most of them are lethal, but some cases of survival due to immediate and proper surgical treatment are reported. However, survival without specific treatment is extremely rare. In our case, a 44-year man attempted suicide by home-made shooting device. A special 12 cm long and 2.5 mm wide needle-like missile entered his body at the left anterior part of his chest, passed through the heart and lower lobe of right lung and exited at the right side of his back. The patient was able to move normally and he also looked for medical help immediately after attempting suicide. We found large atypical-shaped entrance wound on the anterior part of the chest, which was surgically treated, and tiny pointed exit wound under the right scapula. The patient was stable from cardio-circulatory and respiratory aspects from the time of admission to discharge from the hospital. We found only minimal pericardial bleeding (up to 10 mm thick) and there was no need for surgical intervention. In the next 2 weeks the haematoma absorbed spontaneously. The gunshot injury healed without any complication. Paranoid psychosis was diagnosed by psychiatrist and this probably had been the cause of attempting suicide. We think that the favorable outcome of the proved heart gunshot injury in our patient was due to the needle-shaped low-energy missile, which caused only tiny gunshot (stab) hole in the heart. Such a heart injury caused only minimal bleeding into the pericardial sac without heart tamponade.

  5. Coping Strategies in Patients Who Had Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    KONKAN, Ramazan; ERKUŞ, Gizem Hanzade; GÜÇLÜ, Oya; ŞENORMANCI, Ömer; AYDIN, Erkan; ÜLGEN, Mine Cansu; SUNGUR, Mehmet Z.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate coping strategies suggested to be a determinant of suicide attempt and to compare them with coping strategies of healthy volunteers. Methods This study was conducted on 50 patients who had suicide attempts within the past two months and 52 healthy volunteers who did not have any suicide attempt. They were evaluated with the Turkish version of COPE inventory. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 for Windows. Results In the suicide attempt group, ‘active coping’, ‘planning’, ‘positive reinterpretation and growth’ scores were found to be lower than that in the control group. On the other hand, ‘restraint coping’, ‘acceptance’, ‘focus on and venting of emotions’, ‘behavioral disengagement’, ‘substance use’ and nonfunctional coping total points were significantly higher in the suicide attempt group. The patients with depression in the suicide group were found less of the ‘positive reinterpretation and growth’ but more of the ‘substance use’ compared to the healthy group. Subjects who attempted suicide more than once tended to ‘substance use’ rather than ‘active coping’. ‘Focus on and venting of emotions’ scores in suicide attempters were higher in women than in males. Conclusion We observed that individuals who attempted suicide have fewer functional coping strategies and more nonfunctional coping strategies than who do not attempt suicide. It was determined that under stressful situations, individuals with depression tended to alcohol and substance abuse instead of positive reinterpretation and growth. In subjects who had recurrent suicidal attempts, alcohol and substance abuse was more common than active coping. Women were using focusing on and venting of emotions techniques much more than men. We assume that to monitor, and in case of necessity, to change the coping strategies in suicide attempters are vitally important for preventing suicide

  6. [Suicide attempt, psychopathology and genetics].

    PubMed

    Fekete, Sándor; Zill, Peter; Bondy, Brigitta

    2005-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that suicidal behaviour has a heritable component and is associated with disturbances in serotonergic mechanisms. Thus genes coding for proteins of the serotonergic pathways are leading candidates for investigating possible associations. We studied three serotonergic gene polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR S/L, TPH A779C, 5-HT1B G861C) in a sample of 114 unrelated suicide attempters (mainly non-violent methods), in 112 patients, 23 siblings and 56 healthy controls. Genotyping was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assays. The primary analyses compared allele and genotype frequencies between patients and controls and to test for presence of linkage disequilibrium using the family based association test (FBAT). The genotypes were further related to clinical characteristics and to psychological traits. There was a trend towards an increase in the L-allele frequency of the 5-HTTLPR in suicidal patients (p=0.066, OR=1,57, 95%CI 0,96-2,52). No other polymorphisms were associated with suicidal behaviour and the FBAT showed no excess transmission of any allele from parents to the offsprings. We found a slight reduction in "Novelty Seeking Scores" in patients having at least one S-allele (one-way ANOVA F=3,90, p=0.024). All the other traits were not related to any of the genotypes. Our data extend the evidence that genetic factors do not play a major role in non-violent suicidal behaviour. The 5-HTTLPR S/L variants may have an impact on personality traits.

  7. When attempts at robbing prey turn fatal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M.

    2012-07-01

    Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases.

  8. Occurrence and Recurrence of Attempted Suicide Among People With Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hesdorffer, Dale C; Ishihara, Lianna; Webb, David J; Mynepalli, Lakshmi; Galwey, Nicholas W; Hauser, W Allen

    2016-01-01

    People with epilepsy have a 5-fold increased risk of suicide. Less is known about attempted suicide and whether psychiatric disorders and antiepileptic drugs modify the risk of attempted suicide. To estimate the magnitude of the association between attempted suicide and epilepsy by comparing a first suicide attempt and a second suicide attempt (hereafter referred to as a recurrent suicide attempt) among people before they received a diagnosis of epilepsy (case patients) with a first suicide attempt and a recurrent suicide attempt among people without epilepsy (control patients), and to evaluate the effect of comorbid psychiatric disorders and the exclusion of antiepileptic drug prescriptions on this association. Population-based retrospective cohort study in the United Kingdom of case patients with incident epilepsy and control patients without a history of epilepsy in a general practice setting using Clinical Practice Research Datalink. The case patients with incident epilepsy were identified between 1987 and 2013 and were 10 to 60 years of age. The control patients for each case patient were 4 randomly selected people who did not receive a diagnosis of epilepsy before the case patient's epilepsy was diagnosed (the index date), matched by year of birth, sex, and general practice for a control to case ratio of 4 to 1. Hazard ratio for incident and recurrent suicide attempts among case patients with epilepsy compared with control patients without. For 14,059 case patients (median age, 36 years [range, 10-60 years]) who later had an onset of epilepsy vs 56,184 control patients (median age, 36 years [range, 10-60 years]), the risk was increased 2.9-fold (95% CI, 2.5- to 3.4-fold) for a first suicide attempt during the time period before the case patients received a diagnosis of epilepsy. For 278 case patients (median age, 37 years [range, 10-61 years]) who later had an onset of epilepsy vs 434 control patients (median age, 35 years [range, 11-61 years]), the risk was

  9. 50 CFR 38.15 - Attempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.15 Attempt. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will attempt to commit any offense prohibited by this part....

  10. 50 CFR 38.15 - Attempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.15 Attempt. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will attempt to commit any offense prohibited by this part....

  11. 50 CFR 38.15 - Attempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.15 Attempt. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will attempt to commit any offense prohibited by this part....

  12. 50 CFR 38.15 - Attempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.15 Attempt. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will attempt to commit any offense prohibited by this part....

  13. 50 CFR 38.15 - Attempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.15 Attempt. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will attempt to commit any offense prohibited by this part....

  14. Alcohol use disorder in elderly suicide attempters: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Morin, Johanna; Wiktorsson, Stefan; Marlow, Thomas; Olesen, Pernille J; Skoog, Ingmar; Waern, Margda

    2013-02-01

    To compare lifetime prevalence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) in older adults who were hospitalized in connection with a suicide attempt and in a population comparison group, as well as to compare previous suicidal behavior in attempters with and without AUD. Case-comparison. Five hospitals in Western Sweden. Persons 70 years or older, who were treated in a hospital because of a suicide attempt during 2003-2006 were recruited. Of 133 eligible participants, 103 participants were enrolled (47 men, 56 women, mean age 80 years, response rate 77%). Four comparison subjects per case were randomly selected among participants in our late-life population studies. Lifetime history of AUD in accordance with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, was discerned on the basis of interview data, case record review, and the hospital discharge register. Depression symptoms were rated using the Montgomery-Åsberg Rating Scale. AUD was observed in 26% of the cases and in 4% of the comparison group (odds ratio [OR]: 10.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.9-22.5). Associations were noted in men (OR: 9.5; 95% CI: 4.0-22.8) and women (OR: 12.0; 95% CI: 2.4-59.5). More than half of the cases with AUD and a third of those without AUD had made at least one prior suicide attempt. In these, AUD was associated with a longer interval between the first attempt and the index attempt. A strong association between AUD and hospital-treated suicide attempts was noted in both sexes in this northern European setting. Given the high rates of suicide worldwide in this fast-growing and vulnerable group, comparison studies in other settings are needed. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarchiapone, Marco; Carli, Vladimir; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Roy, Alec

    2009-01-01

    We wished to examine determinants of suicidal behavior in prisoners. 903 male prisoners had a psychiatric interview which included various psychometric tests. Suicide attempters were compared with prisoners who had never attempted suicide. Significantly more of the attempters had a history of psychiatric disorder, substance abuse, a family history…

  16. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarchiapone, Marco; Carli, Vladimir; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Roy, Alec

    2009-01-01

    We wished to examine determinants of suicidal behavior in prisoners. 903 male prisoners had a psychiatric interview which included various psychometric tests. Suicide attempters were compared with prisoners who had never attempted suicide. Significantly more of the attempters had a history of psychiatric disorder, substance abuse, a family history…

  17. Cognitive Characteristics of Suicide Ideators and Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Thomas E.

    Comparisons between individuals who attempt suicide and those who complete suicide have shown that the two groups are not necessarily from the same population. Similar comparisons have not been reported between attempters and individuals who voice thoughts of suicide but make no overt attempt (ideators). Since therapists are commonly required to…

  18. Adolescent suicide attempts and adult adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Brière, Frédéric N.; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Klein, Daniel; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent suicide attempts are disproportionally prevalent and frequently of low severity, raising questions regarding their long-term prognostic implications. In this study, we examined whether adolescent attempts were associated with impairments related to suicidality, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in adulthood (objective 1) and whether these impairments were better accounted for by concurrent adolescent confounders (objective 2). Method 816 adolescents were assessed using interviews and questionnaires at four time points from adolescence to adulthood. We examined whether lifetime suicide attempts in adolescence (by T2, mean age 17) predicted adult outcomes (by T4, mean age 30) using linear and logistic regressions in unadjusted models (objective 1) and adjusting for sociodemographic background, adolescent psychopathology, and family risk factors (objective 2). Results In unadjusted analyses, adolescent suicide attempts predicted poorer adjustment on all outcomes, except those related to social role status. After adjustment, adolescent attempts remained predictive of axis I and II psychopathology (anxiety disorder, antisocial and borderline personality disorder symptoms), global and social adjustment, risky sex, and psychiatric treatment utilization. However, adolescent attempts no longer predicted most adult outcomes, notably suicide attempts and major depressive disorder. Secondary analyses indicated that associations did not differ by sex and attempt characteristics (intent, lethality, recurrence). Conclusions Adolescent suicide attempters are at high risk of protracted and wide-ranging impairments, regardless of the characteristics of their attempt. Although attempts specifically predict (and possibly influence) several outcomes, results suggest that most impairments reflect the confounding contributions of other individual and family problems or vulnerabilites in adolescent attempters. PMID:25421360

  19. Gender differences in suicide attempters in Hungary: retrospective epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Sandor; Voros, Viktor; Osvath, Peter

    2005-04-01

    To determine gender differences in suicidal behavior and investigate the factors associated with suicide attempts. In the framework of the WHO/Euro Multicenter Study on Suicidal Behavior, 1,158 suicide attempts have been registered and analyzed retrospectively in Pecs center, Hungary. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were performed to compare the characteristics of male and female suicide attempters. A "typical" female suicide attempter could be characterized as follows: retired or economically inactive (OR=2.38), widowed (OR=6.55), divorced (OR=1.64), or with depression in her personal history (OR=1.27). Female attempters were mainly repeaters, using the method of self-poisoning, mostly with benzodiazepines. Among men, unemployment, living alone, never having been married, and problems with addiction were the main risk factors, while violent methods characterized the typical attempt In the cases of self-poisoning, men were more likely to take meprobamate or carbamazepine. Significant differences were found in the risk factors for suicide attempts between men and women. Since suicide is a multi-causal phenomenon, its therapy and prevention should be complex and gender differences should be taken into consideration while building up our helping strategies.

  20. Causative factors for suicide attempts by overdose in epileptics.

    PubMed

    Mendez, M F; Lanska, D J; Manon-Espaillat, R; Burnstine, T H

    1989-10-01

    We investigated possible causative factors for the high epileptic suicide rate by reviewing the cases of 22 patients with idiopathic epilepsy found among 711 patients hospitalized for a suicide attempt by overdose. Suicide attempts occurred with increased seizure activity in one epileptic; otherwise, no relationships were found with seizure-related variables. When matched by age, sex, and race with 44 nonepileptic controls from the same population, the epileptics had more borderline personality disorders with multiple impulsive suicide attempts (45.5% vs 13.6%), more psychotic disturbances, including command hallucinations (31.8% vs 9.1%), fewer adjustment disorders (18.2% vs 45.5%), and a comparable frequency of depression (13.6% vs 25%). We conclude that suicide attempts in epileptics are primarily associated with interictal psychopathologic factors, such as borderline personality disorder and psychosis, rather than with specific psychosocial stressors, seizure variables, or anticonvulsant medications.

  1. Clusters of suicides and suicide attempts: detection, proximity and correlates.

    PubMed

    Too, L S; Pirkis, J; Milner, A; Spittal, M J

    2017-10-01

    A suicide cluster is defined as a higher number of observed cases occurring in space and/or time than would typically be expected. Previous research has largely focused on identifying clusters of suicides, while there has been comparatively limited research on clusters of suicide attempts. We sought to identify clusters of both types of behaviour, and having done that, identify the factors that distinguish suicide attempts inside a cluster from those that were outside a cluster. We used data from Western Australia from 2000 to 2011. We defined suicide attempts as admissions to hospital for deliberate self-harm and suicides as deaths due to deliberate self-harm. Using an analytic strategy that accounted for the repetition of attempted suicide within a cluster, we performed spatial-temporal analysis using Poisson discrete scan statistics to detect clusters of suicide attempts and clusters of suicides. Logistic regression was then used to compare clustered attempts with non-clustered attempts to identify risk factors for an attempt being in a cluster. We detected 350 (1%) suicide attempts occurring within seven spatial-temporal clusters and 12 (0.6%) suicides occurring within two spatial-temporal clusters. Both of the suicide clusters were located within a larger but later suicide attempt cluster. In multivariate analysis, suicide attempts by individuals who lived in areas of low socioeconomic status had higher odds of being in a cluster than those living in areas of high socioeconomic status [odds ratio (OR) = 29.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.3-135.5]. A one percentage-point increase in the proportion of people who had changed address in the last year was associated with a 60% increase in the odds of the attempt being within a cluster (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.29-1.98) and a one percentage-point increase in the proportion of Indigenous people in the area was associated with a 7% increase in the suicide being within a cluster (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.00-1.13). Age

  2. Comorbidity of Psychiatric and Personality Disorders in First Suicide Attempters

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K. Nagaraja; Kulkarni, Ranganath R.; Begum, Shamshad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Attempted suicide is a common clinical problem in a general hospital setting. It has a serious clinical and socio-economical impact too. Aims: To study the psychosocial, psychiatric, and personality profile of the first suicide attempters in a general hospital. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional, hospital-based, descriptive study. Materials and Methods: All the consecutive cases of first suicide attempt (n=100) treated in a general hospital were studied to know the clinical profile. Variables related to socio-demographic characteristics, family background, suicide characteristics, psychiatric morbidity, and comorbidity were analyzed. Risk-Rescue rating was applied to know the medical seriousness of the suicide attempt. Presumptive stressful life event scale was utilized to calculate life events score. Structured clinical interview (MINI Plus) and semi-structured clinical interview (IPDE) were used for axis-I and axis-II (personality) diagnoses. The results were analyzed using appropriate statistical measures. Results: Family history of psychiatric illnesses (31%) and suicide (11%) were noted. Insecticides and pesticides were the most common agents (71%) employed to attempt suicide. Interpersonal difficulties (46%) were the most frequent stressor. Overall medical seriousness of the suicide attempt was of moderate lethality. 93% of the suicide attempters had at least one axis-I and/or axis-II psychiatric disorder. Most common diagnostic categories were mood disorders, adjustment disorders, and substance-related disorders, with axis-I disorders (89%), personality disorders (52%), and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders (51.6%). Conclusion: Individuals who made first suicide attempt were young adults, had lower educational achievement; overall seriousness of the suicide attempt was of moderate lethality, high prevalence of psychiatric morbidity, personality disorders, and comorbidity, and had sought medical help from general practitioners. PMID:23833346

  3. "There is One Geometry and in Each Case There is a Different Formula" - Students' Conceptions and Strategies in an Attempt of Producing a Minkowskian Metric on Space-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizos, Ioannis; Patronis, Anastasios (Tasos); Lappas, Dionyssios

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze two episodes from an inquiry-based didactical research; the complete analysis of our research data is still ongoing. By taking into consideration various developments from the history of the geometry of space-time, our general aim is to explore high school students' conceptions about measurement of length and time in relatively moving systems, and lead the students to reconsider these conceptions in an attempt of constructing a new metric for space-time. The episodes are extracted from long (focused) interviews with two couples of students, based on a carefully designed fictional scenario. Two main strategies have been identified and are analyzed in the paper: one of them relies on imagination and intuition; the other one makes use of preexisting school mathematical knowledge, in arriving to a simplified formula of a Minkowskian metric.

  4. Natural history of attempts to stop smoking.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R; Solomon, Laura J; Naud, Shelly; Fingar, James R; Helzer, John E; Callas, Peter W

    2014-09-01

    This study provides a prospective fine-grain description of the incidence and pattern of intentions to quit, quit attempts, abstinence, and reduction in order to address several clinical questions about self-quitting. A total of 152 smokers who planned to quit in the next 3 months called nightly for 12 weeks to an Interactive Voice Response system to report cigarettes/day, quit attempts, intentions to smoke or not in the next day, and so forth. No treatment was provided. Most smokers (60%) made multiple transitions among smoking, reduction, and abstinence. Intention to not smoke or quit often did not result in a quit attempt but were still strong predictors of a quit attempt and eventual abstinence. Most quit attempts (79%) lasted less than 1 day; about one fifth (18%) of the participants were abstinent at 12 weeks. The majority of quit attempts (72%) were not preceded by an intention to quit. Such quit attempts were shorter than quit attempts preceded by an intention to quit (<1 day vs. 25 days). Most smokers (67%) used a treatment, and use of a treatment was nonsignificantly associated with greater abstinence (14 days vs. 3 days). Making a quit attempt and failing early predicted an increased probability of a later quit attempt compared to not making a quit attempt early (86% vs. 67%). Smokers often (17%) failed to report brief quit attempts on an end-of-study survey. Cessation is a more chronic, complex, and dynamic process than many theories or treatments assume. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Adolescent suicide attempts and adult adjustment.

    PubMed

    Brière, Frédéric N; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R; Klein, Daniel; Lewinsohn, Peter M

    2015-04-01

    Adolescent suicide attempts are disproportionally prevalent and frequently of low severity, raising questions regarding their long-term prognostic implications. In this study, we examined whether adolescent attempts were associated with impairments related to suicidality, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in adulthood (objective 1) and whether these impairments were better accounted for by concurrent adolescent confounders (objective 2). Eight hundred and sixteen adolescents were assessed using interviews and questionnaires at four time points from adolescence to adulthood. We examined whether lifetime suicide attempts in adolescence (by T2, mean age 17) predicted adult outcomes (by T4, mean age 30) using linear and logistic regressions in unadjusted models (objective 1) and adjusting for sociodemographic background, adolescent psychopathology, and family risk factors (objective 2). In unadjusted analyses, adolescent suicide attempts predicted poorer adjustment on all outcomes, except those related to social role status. After adjustment, adolescent attempts remained predictive of axis I and II psychopathology (anxiety disorder, antisocial and borderline personality disorder symptoms), global and social adjustment, risky sex, and psychiatric treatment utilization. However, adolescent attempts no longer predicted most adult outcomes, notably suicide attempts and major depressive disorder. Secondary analyses indicated that associations did not differ by sex and attempt characteristics (intent, lethality, recurrence). Adolescent suicide attempters are at high risk of protracted and wide-ranging impairments, regardless of the characteristics of their attempt. Although attempts specifically predict (and possibly influence) several outcomes, results suggest that most impairments reflect the confounding contributions of other individual and family problems or vulnerabilites in adolescent attempters. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Natural History of Attempts to Stop Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Laura J.; Naud, Shelly; Fingar, James R.; Helzer, John E.; Callas, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study provides a prospective fine-grain description of the incidence and pattern of intentions to quit, quit attempts, abstinence, and reduction in order to address several clinical questions about self-quitting. Methods: A total of 152 smokers who planned to quit in the next 3 months called nightly for 12 weeks to an Interactive Voice Response system to report cigarettes/day, quit attempts, intentions to smoke or not in the next day, and so forth. No treatment was provided. Results: Most smokers (60%) made multiple transitions among smoking, reduction, and abstinence. Intention to not smoke or quit often did not result in a quit attempt but were still strong predictors of a quit attempt and eventual abstinence. Most quit attempts (79%) lasted less than 1 day; about one fifth (18%) of the participants were abstinent at 12 weeks. The majority of quit attempts (72%) were not preceded by an intention to quit. Such quit attempts were shorter than quit attempts preceded by an intention to quit (<1 day vs. 25 days). Most smokers (67%) used a treatment, and use of a treatment was nonsignificantly associated with greater abstinence (14 days vs. 3 days). Making a quit attempt and failing early predicted an increased probability of a later quit attempt compared to not making a quit attempt early (86% vs. 67%). Smokers often (17%) failed to report brief quit attempts on an end-of-study survey. Conclusions: Cessation is a more chronic, complex, and dynamic process than many theories or treatments assume. PMID:24719491

  7. Suicide attempts among adults in Butajira, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Alem, A; Kebede, D; Jacobsson, L; Kullgren, G

    1999-01-01

    In a cross-sectional survey, 10,468 adults of a rural and semi-urban community were interviewed to determine lifetime suicide attempts. Among the study population, 58% were female, 74.4% were Muslim and 79.3% had had no formal education. The majority of the population were in the age group 25-59 years. Lifetime suicide attempt was reported by 3.2% (n = 332) of the study population. Of these, 63% (n = 208) were women. The most frequent age of attempt was between 15 and 24 years and the frequency of attempt decreased with increasing age. Hanging and poisoning were the most frequently reported methods of attempting suicide. Marital or family conflict was the most frequently reported cause for attempting suicide and most of those who reported this cause were women (Chi-square = 17.42; P < 0.001). Men were significantly more likely to use hanging to attempt suicide than women (Chi-square = 8.21; P < 0.001). Among Christians 3.9% had a lifetime suicide attempt compared to 2.9% among Muslims (Chi-square = 6.15; P < 0.05). People who currently had mental distress and problem drinking reported lifetime suicide attempt more often than others.

  8. Attempting to demystify law reports for the non-lawyer.

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, V A

    1988-01-01

    To a non-lawyer, references to law reports can appear confusing and complicated. This brief article attempts to explain how to decode such references and thus get to the reports. Those wishing to pursue the matter further are referred to more detailed explanations. This article deals primarily with English case law and is up to date as of December 1987. PMID:3351882

  9. The Teacher Leadership Process: Attempting Change within Embedded Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kristy S.; Stanulis, Randi N.; Brondyk, Susan K.; Hamilton, Erica R.; Macaluso, Michael; Meier, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    This embedded case study examines the leadership practices of eleven teacher leaders in three urban schools to identify how these teacher leaders attempt to change the teaching practice of their colleagues while working as professional learning community leaders and as mentors for new teachers. Using a theoretical framework integrating complex…

  10. The Teacher Leadership Process: Attempting Change within Embedded Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kristy S.; Stanulis, Randi N.; Brondyk, Susan K.; Hamilton, Erica R.; Macaluso, Michael; Meier, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    This embedded case study examines the leadership practices of eleven teacher leaders in three urban schools to identify how these teacher leaders attempt to change the teaching practice of their colleagues while working as professional learning community leaders and as mentors for new teachers. Using a theoretical framework integrating complex…

  11. Help-Seeking Behavior Prior to Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Lauren Seymour; Ikeda, Robin M.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo

    2002-01-01

    The association between help-seeking and nearly lethal suicide attempts was evaluated using data from a population-based, case-control study. Measures of help-seeking included type of consultant contacted, and whether suicide was discussed. Findings suggest efforts to better understand the role of help-seeking in suicide prevention deserves…

  12. Is attempted suicide different in adolescent and adults?

    PubMed

    Parellada, Mara; Saiz, Pilar; Moreno, Dolores; Vidal, Jorge; Llorente, Cloe; Alvarez, Mar; García-Portilla, Paz; Ruiz-Sancho, Ana; Arango, Celso; Bobes, Julio

    2008-01-15

    Attempted suicide may be a different phenomenon in adolescents than in adults. To our knowledge, direct comparisons between these two populations are very scarce. The aim of this study is to analyze the differences between adolescents and adults in methods of attempted suicide, accompanying certainty of death, and intentionality. All cases admitted to one adult (n=173) and one adolescent (n=104) inpatient unit who attempted suicide in the period from January 2003 through October 2005 were included in a prospective, common, national register, with data on methods, circumstances, and intentionality. The methodology followed that of the WHO/Euro Multicenter Study on Parasuicide. A stratified analysis was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel procedure in order to control for the effects of gender and diagnosis. Adolescents used significantly more over-the-counter medicines. Adults were significantly more certain of the possible fatal outcome of their attempt and had a significantly more severe intention when harming themselves. Individuals appear to use the methods that are available to them to attempt suicide. Adolescents may display more impulsive and less lethal directed behavior than adults or, alternatively, they are more frequently admitted for less severe attempts.

  13. Failure to report attempts to quit smoking.

    PubMed

    Berg, Carla J; An, Lawrence C; Kirch, Matthias; Guo, Hongfei; Thomas, Janet L; Patten, Christi A; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; West, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Accurately assessing quit attempt history is important to develop population estimates of cessation and to increase our understanding of smoking trajectories. Thus, the current study investigated failure to report quit attempts as a function of length of quit attempt by time since quit attempt over the past year. The present study used data from the Smoking Toolkit Study, a series of population-based surveys of smokers and recent ex-smokers in England aged 16 years and older. Among the 11,772 smokers identified at baseline (24.4% of the total sample), this study focused on the 4234 participants (36.0% of current smokers) who reported between one and three quit attempts in the past year. There was a strong trend for quit attempts that lasted for shorter periods of time to fail to be reported. After three months, 90.1% of those lasting less than one day, 63.7% of those lasting between a day a one week, and 38.9% of those lasting between one week and one month failed to be reported. A large proportion of unsuccessful quit attempts fail to be reported, particularly if they only last a short time or occurred longer ago. Therefore, population estimates of quit attempts based on retrospective data may be considerable underestimates and estimates of the success of quit attempts may be overestimates. Future research is needed to establish whether there is differential reporting of quit attempts as a function of features of attempts such as use of cessation aids. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Euthanasia - an attempt to organize issue].

    PubMed

    Kirmes, Tomasz; Wilk, Mateusz; Chowaniec, Czesław

    This article is an attempt to complete and holistically discuss problem of euthanasia, especially its ethical and legal aspects, comparing to Polish law. The subject of euthanasia arouse interest of the society because it touches one of the most important aspects of life, which is the death. Even bigger emotions are aroused amongst physicians. They are forced to put on the line the life as biggest value on the one side and autonomy of human being on the other. It also touches the empathy for suffering. The euthanasia was divided into three forms: active euthanasia, passive euthanasia and assisted suicide. Any form of euthanasia is illegal in Poland according to both the Penal Code and Code of Medical Ethics. Range of possible penal consequences perpetrator is very wide from waiver of punishment to life imprisonment and it comes from different penal qualification of the euthanasia. Qualification of the euthanasia is based on terms of intent of perpetrator's act, request of patient, strong empathy for suffering if the patient and decision based on up-to-date medical knowledge. It is valuable to mention "do-not-resuscitate" DNR procedure, which in case of medical futility is legally accepted in Poland, but in other form may be qualified as passive euthanasia.

  15. LPG Dependence after a Suicide Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Aldemir, Ebru; Akyel, Betül; Altıntoprak, A. Ender; Aydın, Rezzan; Coşkunol, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Inhalant abuse is a problem that is getting more common all around the world. The increase in prevalence of inhalant abuse escalates morbidity and mortality rates. About 22% of people using inhalant have died at their first attempt. Particularly propane, butane, or propane-butane mixture has highest mortality rates. Sudden sniffing death syndrome, cardiomyopathy, central nervous system toxicity, hematological abnormalities, kidney toxicity, and hepatocellular toxicities are the major complications of inhalant abuse. Herein we present a patient with inhalant use disorder. At the age of 19, after a stressful life event he had unsuccessfully tried to suicide by inhaling LPG (liquefied petroleum gas, a mixture of butane and propane gases). After he realized that he had hallucinations and felt better during the inhalation, he started to abuse it. He was addicted to LPG for 10 years at the time of admission. Besides being dangerous for the society security, this intense level of LPG inhalation (12 liters a day) not giving any physical harm makes this case interesting. PMID:25664196

  16. [Attempted suicide with barbiturates purchased online].

    PubMed

    Chavoushi, S F; Mesman, L; Noordzij, P G; Sikma, M A; van Maarseveen, E M

    2016-01-01

    Barbiturate intoxication is potentially lethal. With the availability of the newer anticonvulsants the use of barbiturates in treating epilepsy has decreased significantly, with a concurrent decrease in the incidence of overdose with these medications. There have, however, been recent alarm signals from governmental sources concerning the increase in the Internet purchase of illegal medications, including barbiturates, for use in attempted suicide. Here we describe two patient cases involving barbiturate intoxication with amobarbital and thiopental, respectively. They had both obtained the barbiturates via the Internet. Both patients were comatose and showed signs of respiratory depression; one of them was also haemodynamically unstable. Both patients recovered fully following intensive supportive therapy. In patients with coma, respiratory depression, absence of brainstem reflexes and shock with no evident cause one should be aware of the possibility of barbiturate intoxication, even when there is no indication that these have been prescribed or that the patient has direct or indirect access to barbiturates. Prompt, optimal supportive therapy will give a good chance of full somatic recovery.

  17. Secondary Prevention of Attempted Suicide in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotgrove, Andrew; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studies adolescents discharged from a hospital following suicide attempt who were randomly allocated to a treatment group receiving standard management plus a token allowing readmission to the hospital on demand, or a control group receiving standard management only. Results suggest lower rates of repeat suicide attempts in the group that received…

  18. Unsuccessful Retrieval Attempts Enhance Subsequent Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornell, Nate; Hays, Matthew Jensen; Bjork, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Taking tests enhances learning. But what happens when one cannot answer a test question--does an unsuccessful retrieval attempt impede future learning or enhance it? The authors examined this question using materials that ensured that retrieval attempts would be unsuccessful. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were asked fictional…

  19. Unsuccessful Retrieval Attempts Enhance Subsequent Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornell, Nate; Hays, Matthew Jensen; Bjork, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Taking tests enhances learning. But what happens when one cannot answer a test question--does an unsuccessful retrieval attempt impede future learning or enhance it? The authors examined this question using materials that ensured that retrieval attempts would be unsuccessful. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were asked fictional…

  20. Teen experiences following a suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Carrie; Vandermause, Roxanne

    2015-06-01

    Teen suicide is the third leading cause of death for 15-24year olds. A clear understanding of what the experience of being suicidal means to adolescents living the phenomenon has not been clearly addressed in the literature. The aim of this research was to generate a comprehensive interpretation of the experiences of six adolescents who visited the ED following a suicide attempt, using hermeneutic phenomenological methodology. Participants ranged in age from 15 to 19years old, and all had been hospitalized for their attempt. Two patterns emerged: attempting as communicating and attempting as transforming. Underlying themes are described in detail. The findings have implications for nursing practice including how to assess and intervene with adolescent suicide attempters.

  1. Association of Risk of Suicide Attempts With Methylphenidate Treatment.

    PubMed

    Man, Kenneth K C; Coghill, David; Chan, Esther W; Lau, Wallis C Y; Hollis, Chris; Liddle, Elizabeth; Banaschewski, Tobias; McCarthy, Suzanne; Neubert, Antje; Sayal, Kapil; Ip, Patrick; Schuemie, Martijn J; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Buitelaar, Jan; Carucci, Sara; Zuddas, Alessandro; Kovshoff, Hanna; Garas, Peter; Nagy, Peter; Inglis, Sarah K; Konrad, Kerstin; Häge, Alexander; Rosenthal, Eric; Wong, Ian C K

    2017-10-01

    Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at an increased risk of attempting suicide. Stimulants, such as methylphenidate hydrochloride, are the most common treatment for ADHD, but the association between their therapeutic use and suicide is unclear. To investigate the association between methylphenidate and the risk of suicide attempts. A population-based, electronic medical records database from the Hong Kong Clinical Data Analysis & Reporting System was used to identify 25 629 individuals aged 6 to 25 years who were treated with methylphenidate between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2015. Those who had attempted suicide were included in the analysis. A self-controlled case series design was used to control for time-invariant characteristics of the patients. Relative incidence of suicide attempt during periods when patients were exposed to methylphenidate compared with nonexposed periods. Among 25 629 patients with methylphenidate prescriptions, 154 had their first recorded suicide attempt within the study period; of these individuals, 111 (72.1%) were male; mean (SD) age at baseline was 7.15 (2.19) years. The overall incidence of suicide attempts during methylphenidate treatment was 9.27 per 10 000 patient-years. An increased risk of suicide attempts was detected during the 90-day period before methylphenidate was initiated, with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 6.55 (95% CI, 3.37-12.72). The IRR remained elevated during the first 90 days of treatment (IRR, 3.91; 95% CI, 1.62-9.42) before returning to baseline levels during ongoing treatment (IRR, 1.35; 95% CI, 0.77-2.38). When the risk during the first 90 days of treatment was compared with the 90 days preceding first treatment, the incidence of suicide attempts was not elevated (IRR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.26-2.35). The incidence of suicide attempts was higher in the period immediately before the start of methylphenidate treatment. The risk remained elevated immediately after the start of

  2. A Case Study of a Three-Year Pilot Program on One District's Attempt to Increase the Gifted Identification of Diverse Elementary School Students by Having a Talent Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Robin Kesterson

    2009-01-01

    This case study examined ways elementary school students from diverse populations (minorities and children from low socioeconomic status environments) were included in a talent development program, and determined if that inclusion proved to be beneficial for gifted identification. With intentional regard for the idea of talent development, this…

  3. Attempted suicide of an adolescent with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Katsunaka; Onishi, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Although the suicide risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been suggested to be higher than previously recognized, there are few case reports focusing on the process for preventing suicide reattempts. We reported that a 17-year-old male who had attempted suicide by jumping was admitted to our emergency department and hospitalized for lumbar spine fracture. In addition to the diagnosis of adjustment disorder, he was diagnosed as ASD according to his life history. This article presents the characteristics of the suicidal behaviors and the process for preventing a suicide reattempt associated with an adolescent with ASD who attempted suicide.

  4. Arthrogryposis associated with unsuccessful attempts at termination of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hall, J G

    1996-05-03

    We report three cases of failed termination of pregnancy in which the children were subsequently born with arthrogryposis (AMC) (multiple congenital contractures). Arthrogryposis is a sign with many causes. We suggest that the multiple congenital contractures seen in these children are due to vascular compromise during the attempted termination with secondary loss of functional neurons leading to fetal akinesia and subsequent contractures. Two of the children have additional evidence of intrauterine vascular compromise. Limitation of movement secondary to the rupture of the fetal membranes and continuous leakage of amniotic fluid after the attempted termination may have compounded the contractures in two of the children.

  5. Modal analysis of dislocation vibration and reaction attempt frequency

    DOE PAGES

    Sobie, Cameron; Capolungo, Laurent; McDowell, David L.; ...

    2017-02-04

    Transition state theory is a fundamental approach for temporal coarse-graining. It estimates the reaction rate for a transition processes by quantifying the activation free energy and attempt frequency for the unit process. To calculate the transition rate of a gliding dislocation, the attempt frequency is often obtained from line tension estimates of dislocation vibrations, a highly simplified model of dislocation behavior. This work revisits the calculation of attempt frequency for a dislocation bypassing an obstacle, in this case a self-interstitial atom (SIA) loop. First, a direct calculation of the vibrational characteristics of a finite pinned dislocation segment is compared tomore » line tension estimates before moving to the more complex case of dislocation-obstacle bypass. The entropic factor associated with the attempt frequency is calculated for a finite dislocation segment and for an infinite glide dislocation interacting with an SIA loop. Lastly, it is found to be dislocation length independent for three cases of dislocation-self interstitial atom (SIA) loop interactions.« less

  6. [Abnormal daytime drowsiness--attempt at typology].

    PubMed

    Meier-Ewert, K

    1991-11-01

    Abnormal drowsiness during the day is defined on the basis of three criteria: 1. subjective feeling of increased tiredness, 2. objective observation of attacks of falling asleep, 3. detection of premature falling asleep in the multiple sleep latency test. About 3 to 4% of the population of modern industrial countries complain of this symptom which very quickly leads to inability to work in numerous occupations (driving instructors, lorry drivers, airline pilots). In many cases, the symptoms can be eliminated by effective methods of treatment. Early diagnosis and therapy is hence an important task of physicians. Clinically suitable tools and methods of measurement for appraising the phenomena are at present: 1. the multiple sleep latency test (Richardson et al., 1978), 2. the multiple staying awake test (Mitler et al., 1982), 3. the vigilance test according to Quatember and Maly from the Vienna test system. In neurophysiological terms, an attempt is made to differentiate between: REM drowsiness, non-REM drowsiness, hypofunction of the arousal systems of the reticular formation, and hyperfunction and overstimulation of the arousal systems of the reticular formation (over-aroused tiredness). Approaches to a clinical typology of abnormal drowsiness are available from two points of departure: 1. Forms of permanent somnolence which are not alleviated but intensified by a brief restorative sleep and resemble the 'oversleeping syndrome' of the healthy individual. 2. Attacks of imperative falling asleep in narcoleptic patients. The characteristic of this form of abnormal drowsiness during the day is that in the interval between the attacks of falling asleep patients can take on any healthy person with regard to alertness, reaction capacity and ready wit. After a brief restorative sleep of less than 5 min., they immediately feel fresh, alert and fit again.

  7. Depressed suicide attempters with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Ramberg, Maria; Stanley, Barbara; Ystgaard, Mette; Mehlum, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder are well-established risk factors for suicidal behavior. This study compared depressed suicide attempters with and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder with respect to additional diagnoses, global functioning, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, history of traumatic exposure, and suicidal behavior. Adult patients consecutively admitted to a general hospital after a suicide attempt were interviewed and assessed for DSM-IV diagnosis and clinical correlates. Sixty-four patients (71%) were diagnosed with depression; of them, 21 patients (32%) had posttraumatic stress disorder. There were no group differences in social adjustment, depressive symptoms, or suicidal intent. However, the group with comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder had more additional Axis I diagnoses, a higher degree of childhood trauma exposure, and more often reported previous suicide attempts, non-suicidal self-harm, and vengeful suicidal motives. These findings underline the clinical importance of diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in suicide attempters.

  8. Completed Suicides and their Previous Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David; Beck, Aaron T.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the reliability of the findings of Ovenstone and Krietman (some completed suicides have attempted suicide previously, whereas other completed suicides have no such history) with a sample of completed suicides in the United States. (Author/RK)

  9. Suicidal Attempt and Psychiatric Disorders in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Rahgozart, Mehdi; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Malekafzali, Hossein; Davidian, Haratoun; Naghavi, Hamidreza; Soori, Hamid; Yazdi, Seyed Abbas Bagheri

    2005-01-01

    This study is part of broader research aimed to determine the lifetime prevalence and pattern of comorbidity on self-reported suicidal attempts in the general population of Iran. Overall, 25,180 subjects were interviewed, face-to-face, at home; the lifetime prevalence was 1.4% (0.9% males and 2% females). The majority of attempters were 26-55…

  10. Ecological correlates of adolescent attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1990-01-01

    Rates of adolescent attempted suicide were correlated with social indicators over the electoral wards of Edinburgh (Scotland). Rates were found to be higher in wards where child neglect and misbehavior were more common. Rates of attempted suicide in the total population also were related to the housing pattern/social class of the wards. The importance of identifying similarities and differences in the patterns of suicidal behavior of adolescents and adults was noted.

  11. Attempted suicide, by mail order: Abrus precatorius.

    PubMed

    Jang, David H; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S

    2010-12-01

    Abrus precatorius is cultivated in many subtropical areas. The seeds exist in a variety of colors such as black, orange, and most commonly, glossy red. A black band is found at the end of the seed. The plant contains multiple pods which typically contain three to five Abrus seeds. The seeds contain abrin, which inhibits ribosomal function, halting protein synthesis and leading to cellular death. A unique aspect of this case is the use of the internet to order a potentially lethal poison as well as transmission of a picture to identify the seed. A 20-year-old man presented to the emergency department complaining of vomiting and watery diarrhea for 6-8 h prior to arrival. He denied any medication use, recent illness, travel, or changes in his diet. Initial vital signs were normal. The patient was diagnosed with viral gastroenteritis. During his evaluation, the patient admitted to feeling suicidal. While awaiting psychiatry evaluation, the patient's father arrived with a box of small hard red seeds, which he believed that his son ingested in a suicide attempt. The seeds could not be identified by the staff. A picture of the seeds was transmitted by e-mail to the New York City Poison Control Center, allowing their identification as A. precatorius. The patient was reinterviewed and admitted to chewing and swallowing 10 seeds. Given the potential toxicity of abrin, the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit. He continued to have frequent episodes of emesis as well as diarrhea. He gradually improved over 2 days. He admitted to ordering a box of Abrus seeds online from Asia after reading on the Internet about their use in suicide. He was eventually discharged for outpatient follow-up with no permanent sequelae. Abrin has an estimated human fatal dose of 0.1-1 μg/kg. Most cases of Abrus seed ingestions are unintentional and occur in children. Ingesting the intact seeds typically results in no clinical findings, as they pass through the gastrointestinal tract

  12. Characteristics of drug addicts who attempt suicide.

    PubMed

    Roy, Alec

    2003-11-01

    The aim of the study was to further describe the characteristics of drug-dependent patients who attempt suicide. Thus, 449 drug-dependent patients were interviewed about whether or not they had ever attempted suicide and about their family history of suicidal behavior. Patients completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and were interviewed with the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). It was found that patients who had attempted suicide (N=175) were significantly younger than patients who had never attempted suicide (N=274). Significantly more of the patients who had attempted suicide were female; had a family history of suicide; and had a lifetime history of major depression, of having received antidepressant medication, and of alcoholism. Also, patients who had attempted suicide had significantly higher scores for childhood trauma, psychoticism, neuroticism and introversion, as well as higher ASI psychiatric composite scores. These results suggest that social, personality, family, developmental and psychiatric risk factors may predispose to suicidal behavior in drug-dependent individuals.

  13. Attempted suicide in manic-depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Goldring, N; Fieve, R R

    1984-07-01

    Structured interviews were used to study rates of past suicide attempts among 123 outpatients treated for affective disorders. Subjects met the Feighner criteria for major affective illness, and bipolar and unipolar groups were identified in accordance with the Fieve-Dunner criteria. Although a small group (N = 6), the women with a history of hospitalization for depression and outpatient treatment for hypomania (BP II) had the highest rate of past suicide attempts. (66 percent). This confirms previous findings. Women showed higher rates overall (39 percent vs. 28 percent for men). Suicide attempters were found to be significantly younger than nonattempters, which is in line with previous reports that suicide risk is high early in the course of bipolar illness. A trend for attempters to have received their first treatment at a younger age suggests that early onset may be a risk factor. No differences in marital status were found between attempters and nonattempters. Males and females did not differ in number, seriousness, or lethality of attempts.

  14. Poststroke suicide attempts and completed suicides

    PubMed Central

    Glader, Eva-Lotta; Norrving, Bo; Asplund, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined attempted and completed suicides after stroke to determine whether they were associated with socioeconomic status, other patient characteristics, or time after stroke. Methods: This nationwide cohort study included stroke patients from Riksstroke (the Swedish Stroke Register) from 2001 to 2012. We used personal identification numbers to link the Riksstroke data with other national registers. Suicide attempts were identified by a record of hospital admission for intentional self-harm (ICD-10: X60-X84), and completed suicides were identified in the national Cause of Death Register. We used multiple Cox regression to analyze time from stroke onset to first suicide attempt. Results: We observed 220,336 stroke patients with a total follow-up time of 860,713 person-years. During follow-up, there were 1,217 suicide attempts, of which 260 were fatal. This was approximately double the rate of the general Swedish population. Patients with lower education or income (hazard ratio [HR] 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–1.68) for primary vs university and patients living alone (HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.52–1.97) had an increased risk of attempted suicide, and patients born outside of Europe had a lower risk compared to patients of European origin. Male sex, young age, severe stroke, and poststroke depression were other factors associated with an increased risk of attempted suicide after stroke. The risk was highest during the first 2 years after stroke. Conclusions: Both clinical and socioeconomic factors increase the risk of poststroke suicide attempts. This suggests a need for psychosocial support and suicide preventive interventions in high-risk groups of stroke patients. PMID:25832661

  15. Attempted suicide in patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Portzky, Gwendolyn; van Heeringen, Kees; Vervaet, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of mortality for patients with eating disorders (ED), especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Attempted suicide is also relatively common in patients with anorexia or bulimia nervosa. This study aimed at examining associations between attempted suicide and trait- and state-dependent characteristics in a large clinical population of ED patients. The sample consisted of 1,436 in- and outpatients of the Centre for Eating Disorders of the Ghent University Hospital. Measures of ED symptoms, psychopathology, and personality traits were compared between ED patients with and ED patients without a history of attempted suicide. A history of attempted suicide was found in 11.8% of the ED patients and lifetime suicidal ideation was reported by 43.3%. Multivariate analyses showed that a history of attempted suicide was associated with higher scores on depression, purging symptomatology, early-developed cognitive schemes (impaired autonomy and increased inhibition), and social insecurity. These findings support the increased risk of suicidal behavior in ED. The presence of particular personality traits, of cognitive schemes, and of purging and depressive symptoms should increase vigilance for suicidal behavior.

  16. Recent criminal offending and suicide attempts: a national sample.

    PubMed

    Cook, Thomas Bradley

    2013-05-01

    Few studies have assessed the risk of suicide and suicidal behavior among the community-residing population with recent criminal justice involvement despite evidence of high rates of suicide in jails and prisons. This study assessed the association between recent arrest history and a suicide attempt in the previous year including multiple arrests and specific offense categories using a national representative sample of adults. Data were derived from 2 years of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2008 and 2010), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of non-institutionalized US adults. Suicide attempts in the previous year based on self-report were assessed in relation to recent arrest history while accounting for socio-demographic factors, mental and physical health status and substance use. Suicide attempts in the previous year are relatively common among those with recent arrests (2.3 %) compared to the general US population (0.4 %), with much higher prevalence among those with multiple recent arrests or charges (4.5 %). The prevalence of recent suicide attempts among those with multiple recent arrests was highest among adults aged 25-34 (5.7 %), with similar risks between men and women, and across racial and ethnic subgroups. There was no association between arrests prior to the most recent year and recent suicide attempts. Suicide attempts are common among the non-institutionalized population of US adults with recent criminal justice involvement. Suicide prevention efforts in the criminal justice system should extend to clients who remain in the community both during and immediately following periods of court-processing. Future research is needed to better identify case and client characteristics indicating the highest suicide risk.

  17. Discovering the truth in attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Michel, Konrad; Maltsberger, John T; Jobes, David A; Leenaars, Antoon A; Orbach, Israel; Stadler, Kathrin; Dey, Pascal; Young, Richard A; Valach, Ladislav

    2002-01-01

    The findings of an international workshop on improving clinical interactions between mental health workers and suicidal patients are reported. Expert clinician-researchers identified common contemporary problems in interviews of suicide attempters. Various videotaped interviews of suicide attempters were critically discussed in relation to expert experience and the existing literature in this area. The working group agreed that current mental health practice often does not take into account the subjective experience of patients attempting suicide, and that contemporary clinical assessments of suicidal behavior are more clinician-centered than patient-centered. The group concluded that clinicians should strive for a shared understanding of the patient's suicidality; and that interviewers should be more aware of the suicidal patient's inner experience of mental pain and loss of self-respect. Collaborative and narrative approaches to the suicidal patient are more promising, enhancing the clinician's ability to empathize and help the patient begin to reestablish a sense of mastery, thereby strengthening the clinical alliance.

  18. Factors Associated With Suicidal Attempts in Iran: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hakim Shooshtari, Mitra; Malakouti, Seyyed Kazem; Panaghi, Leili; Mohseni, Shohreh; Mansouri, Naghmeh; Rahimi Movaghar, Afarin

    2016-01-01

    Context: Suicide prevention is a health service priority. Some surveys have assessed suicidal behaviors and potential risk factors. Objectives: The current paper aimed to gather information about etiology of suicide attempts in Iran. Data Sources: Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc as well as gray literature were searched. Study Selection: By electronic and gray literature search, 128 articles were enrolled in this paper. Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc were searched for electronic search. After reading the abstracts, 84 studies were excluded and full texts of 44 articles were reviewed critically. Data Extraction: Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc as well as gray literature were searched to find any study about etiologic factors of suicide attempt in Iran. Results: Depressive disorder was the most common diagnosis in suicide attempters that is 45% of the evaluated cases had depression. One study that had used Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) found that Histrionics in females and Schizophrenia and Paranoia in males were significantly influential. Family conflicts with 50.7% and conflict with parents with 44% were two effective psychosocial factors in suicidal attempts. In around one fourth (28.7%) of the cases, conflict with spouse was the main etiologic factor. Conclusions: According to the methodological limitations, outcomes should be generalized cautiously. Further studies will help to plan preventive strategies for suicidal attempts; therefore, continued researches should be conducted to fill the data gaps. PMID:27284284

  19. Attempted suicide in the elderly: characteristics of suicide attempters 70 years and older and a general population comparison group.

    PubMed

    Wiktorsson, Stefan; Runeson, Bo; Skoog, Ingmar; Ostling, Svante; Waern, Margda

    2010-01-01

    To identify factors associated with attempted suicide in the elderly. Social, psychological, and psychiatric characteristics were compared in suicide attempters (70 years and older) and a representative population sample. Emergency departments at five hospitals in western Sweden and a representative sample of the elderly population. Persons with Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score <15 were excluded. One hundred forty persons who sought hospital treatment after a suicide attempt were eligible and 103 participated (57 women, 46 men, and mean age 80 years). Comparison subjects matched for gender and age group (N = 408) were randomly selected among participants in our general population studies. Symptoms were rated with identical instruments in cases and comparison subjects. The examination included the MMSE and tests of short- and long-term memory, abstract thinking, aphasia, apraxia, and agnosia. Depressive symptomatology was measured using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and major and minor depressions were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, using symptom algorithms. Factors associated with attempted suicide included being unmarried, living alone, low education level, history of psychiatric treatment, and previous suicide attempt. There was no association with dementia. Odds ratios were increased for both major (odds ratio [OR]: 47.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.1-117.7) and minor (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.5-4.7) depressions. An association was observed between perceived loneliness and attempted suicide; this relationship was independent of depression (OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3-6.1). Observed associations mirrored those previously shown for completed suicide. Results may help to inform clinical decisions regarding suicide risk evaluation in this vulnerable and growing age group.

  20. Sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters among the rural agrarian community of central India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Kshirod Kumar; Gupta, Neha; Bhabulkar, Sneha

    2015-01-01

    Suicides, attempted suicides and different form of suicidal behaviors are on the rise in most part of the world. It is generally assumed that official suicidal rate are underestimated from the true rate by 20-100 % due to prevailing socio-cultural issues, religious attitude, stigma attached, and legal process involved. Attempted suicides occur 8-20 times more frequently than complete suicide. Statistics on attempted suicide or deliberate self harm are not usually available officially. All the cases of attempted suicide who were admitted and referred for psychiatric evaluation and management to a rural medical college of central India during a period of one Year (April 13-March-14), following initial recovery they were evaluated on a semi-structured performa on socio demographic profile, mode of attempt and reason for attempt. Data collected was analyzed using suitable statistical methods. Total 68 cases were evaluated during the study period. 43% of the cases were involved in farming. Among 85% of the study population pesticide consumption was the common mode of attempt, which is easily available among the agrarian community of rural India. Interpersonal conflict in the family due to indebtedness, financial loss due to crop failure was the commonest reason for attempt. Though there is reduced reporting in the incidents of suicide cases in media from this region, still quite a number of people attempt suicide due to financial constraint from crop failure, ongoing indebtedness, and poor socioeconomic condition culminating into poor mental health among the rural agrarian community of central Maharashtra.

  1. Carboxyhaemoglobin dissociation in the cadaver following attempted resuscitation.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, H M

    1976-01-01

    A series of 300 cases of fatal carbon-monoxide poisoning showed wide variations in carboxyhaemoglobin saturation. Levels below 50% in 24 subjects under the age of 70 were probably falsely low following attempted resuscitation on the way to hospital. Artificial respiration, especially with oxygen-rich gas, causes dissociation of carboxyhaemoglobin in the lungs of the cadaver while movement of blood into and out of the lungs, with mixing, lowers the saturation levels in the neighbouring large veins. In four cases subclavian blood showed saturation levels much lower than blood from sites further from the lungs. Blood should be taken from the femoral vein to get true readings. PMID:1249248

  2. Impaired Decision Making in Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Cannon, Elizabeth A.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Reynolds, Brady; Campo, John V.; Pajer, Kathleen A.; Barbe, Remy P.; Brent, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Decision-making deficits have been linked to suicidal behavior in adults. However, it remains unclear whether impaired decision making plays a role in the etiopathogenesis of youth suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine decision-making processes in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison…

  3. Autobiographical Memory and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettersen, Kenneth; Rydningen, Nora Nord; Christensen, Tore Buer; Walby, Fredrik A.

    2010-01-01

    According to the cry of pain model of suicidal behavior, an over-general autobiographical memory function is often found in suicide attempters. The model has received empirical support in several studies, mainly of depressed patients. The present study investigated whether deficits in autobiographical memory may be associated with an increased…

  4. First Attempts at Asteroid Shape Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Maurice

    2012-05-01

    Results are presented from initial attempts at asteroid shape-modeling. Three asteroids were chosen in this study: 1708 Polit, 2036 Sheragul and 3015 Candy. Observations used in this study were made by the author, at a variety of locations, most recently at the Preston Gott Observatory at Texas Tech University.

  5. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the…

  6. Impaired Decision Making in Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Cannon, Elizabeth A.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Reynolds, Brady; Campo, John V.; Pajer, Kathleen A.; Barbe, Remy P.; Brent, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Decision-making deficits have been linked to suicidal behavior in adults. However, it remains unclear whether impaired decision making plays a role in the etiopathogenesis of youth suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine decision-making processes in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison…

  7. Suicide, Suicide Attempts, and Suicidal Ideation.

    PubMed

    Klonsky, E David; May, Alexis M; Saffer, Boaz Y

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Fortunately, recent developments in suicide theory and research promise to meaningfully advance knowledge and prevention. One key development is the ideation-to-action framework, which stipulates that (a) the development of suicidal ideation and (b) the progression from ideation to suicide attempts are distinct phenomena with distinct explanations and predictors. A second key development is a growing body of research distinguishing factors that predict ideation from those that predict suicide attempts. For example, it is becoming clear that depression, hopelessness, most mental disorders, and even impulsivity predict ideation, but these factors struggle to distinguish those who have attempted suicide from those who have only considered suicide. Means restriction is also emerging as a highly effective way to block progression from ideation to attempt. A third key development is the proliferation of theories of suicide that are positioned within the ideation-to-action framework. These include the interpersonal theory, the integrated motivational-volitional model, and the three-step theory. These perspectives can and should inform the next generation of suicide research and prevention.

  8. Autobiographical Memory and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettersen, Kenneth; Rydningen, Nora Nord; Christensen, Tore Buer; Walby, Fredrik A.

    2010-01-01

    According to the cry of pain model of suicidal behavior, an over-general autobiographical memory function is often found in suicide attempters. The model has received empirical support in several studies, mainly of depressed patients. The present study investigated whether deficits in autobiographical memory may be associated with an increased…

  9. Coping Strategies in People Attempting Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Bazrafshan, Mohammad-Rafi; Jahangir, Fereidun; Mansouri, Amir; Kashfi, Seyyed Hannan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Having a set of effective coping skills can prevent suicidal behavior by increasing self-control and self-direction. This study examines coping styles used by suicidal patients. Objectives: The researchers in this study try to identify coping strategies used by suicide attempters admitted to Shiraz Shahid Faghihi Hospital emergency room. Materials and Methods: This is a analytical cross-sectional study. Participants consisted of 50 suicide-attempted people admitted to Shiraz Faghihi Hospital. Instruments for data collections were a demographic checklist and the coping styles scale of Carver, Schier and Wintrope. Data were collected conveniently and analyzed using descriptive and analytic (Pearson Correlation, Student’s t-tests, and ANOVA) statistical methods. Results: Suicide attempted people used less useful coping strategies (Mean = 49.32) more than the other strategies (respectively mean of problem focused and emotion focused strategies were 30.27 and 27.83). Using ANOVA, in different educational level, problem focused and less effective coping skills of samples differed significantly (P = 0.009, P = 0.006, respectively). People with low educational level used less effective coping skills. There was a significant difference between men and women scores in use of less effective coping skills (P = 0.029). Conclusions: Teaching effective coping skills by psychological consultants in suicide attempted people, especially for women and people with low educational level, is important PMID:24971300

  10. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the…

  11. Mermithid Nematodes: In Vitro Culture Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Finney, Jean R.

    1981-01-01

    Few attempts at in vitro culture of mermithids have been undertaken. The various methods used to initiate cultures are described. The capacity of a range of media to promote growth and development of the nematodes has been evaluated and current approaches to in vitro outlined. PMID:19300762

  12. Attempting to Balance Wiki-Feminism: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Walter

    2013-01-01

    There has been a long culture war over the validity of "Wikipedia" for research. Many university departments banned it as a primary source starting around 2007, but many others still allow it as a heuristic prompt. Certainly, one knows that students are still going to "Wikipedia" and dabbling in it. This reflects a recent gain in "Wikipedia"…

  13. Attempting to Balance Wiki-Feminism: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Walter

    2013-01-01

    There has been a long culture war over the validity of "Wikipedia" for research. Many university departments banned it as a primary source starting around 2007, but many others still allow it as a heuristic prompt. Certainly, one knows that students are still going to "Wikipedia" and dabbling in it. This reflects a recent gain in "Wikipedia"…

  14. Lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis following attempted epidural anesthesia--case report.

    PubMed

    Haisa, T; Todo, T; Mitsui, I; Kondo, T

    1995-02-01

    A 30-year-old female experienced a sudden sharp pain radiating down to the left leg from the lower back at epidural intubation for anesthesia at childbirth. She continued to complain of pain in the left leg afterwards. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated a conglomeration of adherent nerve roots due to lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis. Microsurgical dissection of adherent nerve roots was performed. Her symptoms disappeared after surgery, but soon recurred, being less severe and responsive to anti-inflammatory agents. Lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis should be considered for differential diagnosis in patients presenting with back and leg pain syndrome.

  15. The Iranian Hostage Rescue Attempt, A Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    tactically feasible, operationally vacant, and strategically risky. Tactically, had it not been for the failure to forecast and identify the dust storm...experienced the first elements of suspended dust known as haboobs .140 Through use of the aircraft FLIR, the C-130 crew was able to maintain contact...desert and failure to forecast the dust phenomena resulted in the in- flight abort of the number 5 helicopter and introduced a factor that burdened

  16. Active and passive problem solving as moderators of the relation between negative life event stress and suicidal ideation among suicide attempters and non-attempters.

    PubMed

    Linda, Wendy P; Marroquín, Brett; Miranda, Regina

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether active problem solving would buffer against, whereas passive problem solving would exacerbate, the association of negative life stress with suicidal ideation. Young adult college students (73 females, M(age) = 19.0) from a diverse urban public university, with (n = 37) and without (n = 59) a suicide attempt history completed measures of life stress, problem solving, hopelessness, depression, and suicidal ideation. Hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to test moderating roles of active and passive problem solving, along with suicide attempt history, on the relation between negative life event stress and suicidal ideation. There was a weaker relation between life stress and suicidal ideation at high and average levels of relevant problem solving than at low levels, and this was the case primarily for suicide attempters but not for non-attempters. Individuals with a past attempt produced more passive solutions than non-attempters, but among attempters, even passive problem solving buffered the association of life stress with suicidal ideation. Relevant problem solving in the face of life stress may be especially important for individuals vulnerable to suicidal ideation due to an attempt history. Among such at-risk individuals, generating even passive solutions in the face of life stress may be more adaptive than generating few solutions. Thus, clinical interventions with suicide attempters that focus on generating solutions to problems, even if these are initially passive, may help mitigate the effect of life stress on suicidal ideation.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus in Antarctica: carriage and attempted eradication.

    PubMed Central

    Krikler, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    The carriage of Staphylococcus aureus was studied in a group of 28 men living in a totally isolated environment for a year. Initially, nasal, axillary and perineal swabs were taken at weekly intervals, but from week 24 throat swabs were taken from known nasal carriers. Several attempts were made during the study to eradicate S. aureus. Eight subjects consistently carried their own phage type throughout the study, despite the application of antibacterial agents. In three subjects strains were isolated late in the study of a phage type which had either not been isolated before in this study, or had not been found for a prolonged period. Nine of the 12 nasal carriers also yielded S. aureus from the throat. It is apparent that following attempted eradication, S. aureus may seem to disappear, only to reappear some time later; 'eradication' in this case would be an erroneous appellation. PMID:3794322

  18. Drug Addiction as Risk for Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Dragisic, Tatjana; Dickov, Aleksandra; Dickov, Veselin; Mijatovic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Suicide is closely linked to the substances use. Therefore it is very important to confirm the factors that affect the possibility of suicidal behavior. Methodology: The survey included 200 respondents; 100 heroin addicts on the substitution program that attempted suicide and 100 opiate addicts who have not attempted suicide. The evaluation included a questionnaire with socio-demographic, hereditary and addiction data, legal problems and then the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–MMPI-2. Results: The results showed a statistically significant difference compared to the personality structure, especially pronounced in hypersensitive structures, in relation to the duration of addictive experience and duration of heroin by intravenous route, as well as in relation to the presence of psychotic disorders, drug abuse and suicidal behavior in the family. Conclusion: As risk factors among opiate addicts are indentified interfered biological and psychological factors and the effects of the substances themselves. PMID:26236166

  19. Drug Addiction as Risk for Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Dragisic, Tatjana; Dickov, Aleksandra; Dickov, Veselin; Mijatovic, Vesna

    2015-06-01

    Suicide is closely linked to the substances use. Therefore it is very important to confirm the factors that affect the possibility of suicidal behavior. The survey included 200 respondents; 100 heroin addicts on the substitution program that attempted suicide and 100 opiate addicts who have not attempted suicide. The evaluation included a questionnaire with socio-demographic, hereditary and addiction data, legal problems and then the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-MMPI-2. The results showed a statistically significant difference compared to the personality structure, especially pronounced in hypersensitive structures, in relation to the duration of addictive experience and duration of heroin by intravenous route, as well as in relation to the presence of psychotic disorders, drug abuse and suicidal behavior in the family. As risk factors among opiate addicts are indentified interfered biological and psychological factors and the effects of the substances themselves.

  20. Association between terror attacks and suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-08-01

    Based on Durkheim's 'Control theory,' we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the variables, with the exception of one 11-month segment within it (December 2000-October 2001) that did show a statistically significant positive correlation, and in opposition to Durkeim's hypothesis. It is suggested that suicide attempts as a phenomena should be seen as a product of a multivariate model, in which the social context plays a role as well.

  1. Attempting to model dissociations of memory.

    PubMed

    Reber, Paul J.

    2002-05-01

    Kinder and Shanks report simulations aimed at describing a single-system model of the dissociation between declarative and non-declarative memory. This model attempts to capture both Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL) and recognition memory with a single underlying representation. However, the model fails to reflect an essential feature of recognition memory - that it occurs after a single exposure - and the simulations may instead describe a potentially interesting property of over-training non-declarative memory.

  2. First Attempts at Antihydrogen Trapping in ALPHA

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Humphries, A. J.; Jenkins, M. J.; Joergensen, L. V.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Bray, C. C.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; Wurtele, J. S.; Cesar, C. L.; Lambo, R.; Silveira, D. M.; Fujiwara, M. C.

    2008-08-08

    The ALPHA apparatus is designed to produce and trap antihydrogen atoms. The device comprises a multifunction Penning trap and a superconducting, neutral atom trap having a minimum-B configuration. The atom trap features an octupole magnet for transverse confinement and solenoidal mirror coils for longitudinal confinement. The magnetic trap employs a fast shutdown system to maximize the probability of detecting the annihilation of released antihydrogen. In this article we describe the first attempts to observe antihydrogen trapping.

  3. First Attempts at Antihydrogen Trapping in ALPHA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, G. B.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Bray, C. C.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Funakoshi, R.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jenkins, M. J.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kurchaninov, L.; Lambo, R.; Madsen, N.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Page, R. D.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; El Nasr, S. Seif; Silveira, D. M.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2008-08-01

    The ALPHA apparatus is designed to produce and trap antihydrogen atoms. The device comprises a multifunction Penning trap and a superconducting, neutral atom trap having a minimum-B configuration. The atom trap features an octupole magnet for transverse confinement and solenoidal mirror coils for longitudinal confinement. The magnetic trap employs a fast shutdown system to maximize the probability of detecting the annihilation of released antihydrogen. In this article we describe the first attempts to observe antihydrogen trapping.

  4. Genomewide association studies of suicide attempts in US soldiers.

    PubMed

    Stein, Murray B; Ware, Erin B; Mitchell, Colter; Chen, Chia-Yen; Borja, Susan; Cai, Tianxi; Dempsey, Catherine L; Fullerton, Carol S; Gelernter, Joel; Heeringa, Steven G; Jain, Sonia; Kessler, Ronald C; Naifeh, James A; Nock, Matthew K; Ripke, Stephan; Sun, Xiaoying; Beckham, Jean C; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Ursano, Robert J; Smoller, Jordan W

    2017-09-13

    Suicide is a global public health problem with particular resonance for the US military. Genetic risk factors for suicidality are of interest as indicators of susceptibility and potential targets for intervention. We utilized population-based nonclinical cohorts of US military personnel (discovery: N = 473 cases and N = 9778 control subjects; replication: N = 135 cases and N = 6879 control subjects) and a clinical case-control sample of recent suicide attempters (N = 51 cases and N = 112 control subjects) to conduct GWAS of suicide attempts (SA). Genomewide association was evaluated within each ancestral group (European-, African-, Latino-American) and study using logistic regression models. Meta-analysis of the European ancestry discovery samples revealed a genomewide significant locus in association with SA near MRAP2 (melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein 2) and CEP162 (centrosomal protein 162); 12 genomewide significant SNPs in the region; peak SNP rs12524136-T, OR = 2.88, p = 5.24E-10. These findings were not replicated in the European ancestry subsamples of the replication or suicide attempters samples. However, the association of the peak SNP remained significant in a meta-analysis of all studies and ancestral subgroups (OR = 2.18, 95%CI 1.70, 2.80). Polygenic risk score (PRS) analyses showed some association of SA with bipolar disorder. The association with SNPs encompassing MRAP2, a gene expressed in brain and adrenal cortex and involved in neural control of energy homeostasis, points to this locus as a plausible susceptibility gene for suicidality that should be further studied. Larger sample sizes will be needed to confirm and extend these findings. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Modifiable Risk Factors for Attempted Suicide in Australian Clinical and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gregory L.; Page, Andrew; Clover, Kerrie; Taylor, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Modifiable risk factors for suicide attempt require identification in clinical and community samples. The aim of this study was to determine if similar social and psychiatric factors are associated with suicide attempts in community and clinical settings and whether the magnitude of effect is greater in clinical populations. Two case-control…

  6. Modifiable Risk Factors for Attempted Suicide in Australian Clinical and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gregory L.; Page, Andrew; Clover, Kerrie; Taylor, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Modifiable risk factors for suicide attempt require identification in clinical and community samples. The aim of this study was to determine if similar social and psychiatric factors are associated with suicide attempts in community and clinical settings and whether the magnitude of effect is greater in clinical populations. Two case-control…

  7. Social Risk and Protective Factors for Suicide Attempts in Low Income African American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Sherry, Alissa; Bethea, Kafi; Wyckoff, Sarah; Compton, Michael T.; Grall, Marnette Bender; Scholl, Larry; Price, Ann Webb; Kellermann, Arthur; Thompson, Nancy; Parker, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine a broad array of potential social risk and protective factors for suicide attempt among 200 African American men and women receiving care at a large, public, urban hospital. Specifically, we examined the effect of the following potential risk factors for suicide attempt: life hassles, partner abuse,…

  8. Social Risk and Protective Factors for Suicide Attempts in Low Income African American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Sherry, Alissa; Bethea, Kafi; Wyckoff, Sarah; Compton, Michael T.; Grall, Marnette Bender; Scholl, Larry; Price, Ann Webb; Kellermann, Arthur; Thompson, Nancy; Parker, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine a broad array of potential social risk and protective factors for suicide attempt among 200 African American men and women receiving care at a large, public, urban hospital. Specifically, we examined the effect of the following potential risk factors for suicide attempt: life hassles, partner abuse,…

  9. [Acute spinal subdural hematoma after attempted spinal anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Likar, R; Mathiaschitz, K; Spendel, M; Krumpholz, R; Martin, E

    1996-01-01

    This is a report of a case of a subdural haematoma with resulting paraplegia after attempted spinal anaesthesia. Epidural and subdural haematomas are rare complications after central neural blockade. The complication described here was the result of an unsuccessful attempt to puncture the spinal channel. The patient was a 72-year-old woman with a fracture of the left femoral neck, which it was intended to stabilize operatively. Findings that made lumbar spinal puncture difficult were severe overweight, and lordosis and scoliosis of the lumbar spine resulting from degenerative changes. Spinal anaesthesia was suggested because the patient had eaten shortly before and because she suffered from asthma. From the aspect of haemostasis no contraindications were present, and the anaesthesist was experienced in spinal anaesthesia even under difficult anatomical conditions. Several unsuccessful attempts were made to puncture the lumbar spinal channel while the patient was lying on her right side. It was also impossible to reach the spinal channel from a median or left paramedian approach. We used atraumatic pencil-point needles (Sprotte gauge 24, 90 mm). No blood was aspirated during any of the attempts. The surgical intervention was finally performed under a general anaesthetic in view of the urgency. No significant complications occurred during the operation, and no neurological abnormalities were observed immediately after or in the next 8 h after the operation. At 12 h after the operation a paraparesis was found caudal to L3. After this had been verified by radiological and neurological tests, neurosurgical decompression was carried out as quickly as possible. During the operation a distinct subdural haematoma without any detectable source of bleeding was discovered. Even after surgical revision and evacuation of the remaining haematoma it was not possible to reverse the paraplegia, in spite of rehabilitation measures. Despite a certain fragility of the vessel and

  10. Depressed Multiple-Suicide-Attempters - A High-Risk Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo; Grunebaum, Michael F; Burke, Ainsley K; Chaudhury, Sadia; Mann, J John; Oquendo, Maria A

    2017-09-15

    There is compelling evidence that suicide attempts are among the strongest predictors of suicide and future suicide attempts. This study aimed to examine psychopathology in multiple-suicide attempters. We compared the demographic and clinical features of three groups: depressed patients without a history of suicide attempts (non-attempters), depressed patients with a history of one to three suicide attempts (attempters), and depressed patients with a history of four or more suicide attempts (multiple attempters). We found that attempters and multiple attempters had higher levels of depression, hopelessness, aggression, hostility, and impulsivity and were more likely to have borderline personality disorder and family history of major depression or alcohol use disorder compared with non-attempters, but did not differ between each other on these measures. Multiple attempters had greater suicidal ideation at study entry and were more likely to have family history of suicide attempt compared with attempters. Importantly, multiple attempters had greater suicide intent at the time of the most medically serious suicide attempt and more serious medical consequences during their most medically serious suicide attempt compared with attempters. The cross-sectional design of the study. Our data suggest that multiple-suicide attempters require careful evaluation as their behavior can have serious medical consequences.

  11. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Future Adolescent Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewinsohn, Peter M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined psychosocial risk factors for attempting suicide in 1,508 high school students, 26 of whom attempted suicide during year following entry into study. Strongest predictors of future suicide attempt were history of past attempt, current suicidal ideation and depression, recent attempt by friend, low self-esteem, and having been born to…

  12. An attempt to diagnose cancer by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uda, M.; Maeda, K.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Yokode, Y.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE is suitable especially for trace elemental analysis for atoms with high atomic numbers, which are contained in matrices composed mainly of light elements such as biological materials. An attempt has been made to distinguish elemental concentrations of cancer tissues from those of normal ones. Kidney, testis and urinary bladder cancer tissues were examined by PIXE. Key elements to diagnose these cancers were Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe and Zn. Enrichment of Fe and Ti, and deficiency of Zn could be seen in the kidney cancer. An opposite tendency was observed in the testicular cancer. Imbalance of these elemental concentrations in characteristic organs might give us a possibility for cancer diagnosis.

  13. Intrapersonal positive future thinking predicts repeat suicide attempts in hospital-treated suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Rory C; Smyth, Roger; Williams, J Mark G

    2015-02-01

    Although there is clear evidence that low levels of positive future thinking (anticipation of positive experiences in the future) and hopelessness are associated with suicide risk, the relationship between the content of positive future thinking and suicidal behavior has yet to be investigated. This is the first study to determine whether the positive future thinking-suicide attempt relationship varies as a function of the content of the thoughts and whether positive future thinking predicts suicide attempts over time. A total of 388 patients hospitalized following a suicide attempt completed a range of clinical and psychological measures (depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, suicidal intent and positive future thinking). Fifteen months later, a nationally linked database was used to determine who had been hospitalized again after a suicide attempt. During follow-up, 25.6% of linked participants were readmitted to hospital following a suicide attempt. In univariate logistic regression analyses, previous suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression-as well as low levels of achievement, low levels of financial positive future thoughts, and high levels of intrapersonal (thoughts about the individual and no one else) positive future thoughts predicted repeat suicide attempts. However, only previous suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, and high levels of intrapersonal positive future thinking were significant predictors in multivariate analyses. Positive future thinking has predictive utility over time; however, the content of the thinking affects the direction and strength of the positive future thinking-suicidal behavior relationship. Future research is required to understand the mechanisms that link high levels of intrapersonal positive future thinking to suicide risk and how intrapersonal thinking should be targeted in treatment interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Intrapersonal Positive Future Thinking Predicts Repeat Suicide Attempts in Hospital-Treated Suicide Attempters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Although there is clear evidence that low levels of positive future thinking (anticipation of positive experiences in the future) and hopelessness are associated with suicide risk, the relationship between the content of positive future thinking and suicidal behavior has yet to be investigated. This is the first study to determine whether the positive future thinking–suicide attempt relationship varies as a function of the content of the thoughts and whether positive future thinking predicts suicide attempts over time. Method: A total of 388 patients hospitalized following a suicide attempt completed a range of clinical and psychological measures (depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, suicidal intent and positive future thinking). Fifteen months later, a nationally linked database was used to determine who had been hospitalized again after a suicide attempt. Results: During follow-up, 25.6% of linked participants were readmitted to hospital following a suicide attempt. In univariate logistic regression analyses, previous suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression—as well as low levels of achievement, low levels of financial positive future thoughts, and high levels of intrapersonal (thoughts about the individual and no one else) positive future thoughts predicted repeat suicide attempts. However, only previous suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, and high levels of intrapersonal positive future thinking were significant predictors in multivariate analyses. Discussion: Positive future thinking has predictive utility over time; however, the content of the thinking affects the direction and strength of the positive future thinking–suicidal behavior relationship. Future research is required to understand the mechanisms that link high levels of intrapersonal positive future thinking to suicide risk and how intrapersonal thinking should be targeted in treatment interventions. PMID:25181026

  15. Withdrawal of nonfutile life support after attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Brown, Samuel M; Elliott, C Gregory; Paine, Robert

    2013-01-01

    End-of-life decision making is fraught with ethical challenges. Withholding or withdrawing life support therapy is widely considered ethical in patients with high treatment burden, poor premorbid status, or significant projected disability even when such treatment is not "futile." Whether such withdrawal of therapy in the aftermath of attempted suicide is ethical is not well established in the literature. We provide a clinical vignette and propose criteria under which such withdrawal would be ethical. We suggest that it is appropriate to withdraw life support, regardless of the cause of the critical illness or disability, when the following criteria are met: (1) Surrogates request withdrawal of care and the adequacy of surrogates is confirmed, (2) an external reasonability standard is met, (3) passage of time, perhaps 72 hours, to allow certainty regarding the patient's wishes, and (4) psychiatric morbidity should be considered as grounds for withdrawal only in truly treatment-refractory cases. Fundamentally, we believe the question to ask is, "If this were not an attempted suicide, would a request to withdraw care be reasonable?" We believe that under these circumstances, such withdrawal of life support, even in an individual who has attempted suicide, does not constitute physician assistance with suicide and is distinct from physician aid-in-dying in several important respects.

  16. Complete tracheal rupture after a failed suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Costache, Victor S; Renaud, Claire; Brouchet, Laurent; Toma, Tudor; Le Balle, François; Berjaud, Jean; Dahan, Marcel

    2004-04-01

    Tracheal rupture is life-threatening and its management poses a considerable challenge to both anesthesiologists and surgeons. We report the case of a 44-year-old patient with a complete tracheal rupture after a failed suicide attempt by hanging. A rare bilateral injury of the laryngeal nerves was associated. An original tracheal intubation was performed using the video unit for thoracoscopy. The severity of the lesions required the placement of a tracheostomy cannula after the tracheal repair. The postoperative course was uneventful. The patient was discharged on the 12th day, with a remaining moderate dysphonia.

  17. Suicides and medically serious attempters are of the same population in Chinese rural young adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Sun, Long; Conwell, Yeates; Qin, Ping; Jia, Cun-Xian; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Tu, Xin-Ming

    2015-05-01

    Suicide rates in China are among the highest in the world, although there has been a decreasing trend in the past few years. One practical approach to study the characteristics and risk factors of suicide is to interview the suicide attempters. It was to compare completed suicides with serious attempters that may shed lights on suicide prevention strategies. This is a combination of two case control studies for suicide completers and suicide attempters respectively. After a sample of suicides (n=392) and community living controls (n=416) were obtained and studied in rural China, we collected in the same rural areas data of suicide attempt and studied 507 medically serious attempters and 503 community counterparts. Characteristics and previously observed risk factors were compared between the suicides and the attempters, and we found that the demographic characteristics and risk factors for the suicides were also for the medically serious attempters but at some lesser degrees for the attempters than for the suicides. It was especially true of suicide intent, deficient coping, negative life events, and impulsivity. While most of the demographic characteristics were not significantly different between the suicides and the attempters, most of the clinical variables could distinguish the two groups. The suicide victims and the serious attempters could be of the same group of people who were at the edge of fatal self-injury, and the same clinical risk factors but of different degrees have divided them into the life and death groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Suicides and Medically Serious Attempters Are of the Same Population in Chinese Rural Young Adults1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Sun, Long; Conwell, Yeates; Qin, Ping; Jia, Cun-Xian; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Tu, Xin-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide rates in China are among the highest in the world, although there has been a decreasing trend in the past few years. One practical approach to study the characteristics and risk factors of suicide is to interview the suicide attempters. Aims It was to compare completed suicides with serious attempters that may shed lights on suicide prevention strategies. Method This is a combination of two case control studies for suicide completers and suicide attempters respectively. After a sample of suicides (n=392) and community living controls (n=416) were obtained and studied in rural China, we collected in the same rural areas data of suicide attempt and studied 507 medically serious attempters and 503 community counterparts. Results Characteristics and previously observed risk factors were compared between the suicides and the attempters, and we found that the demographic characteristics and risk factors for the suicides were also for the medically serious attempters but at some lesser degrees for the attempters than for the suicides. It was especially true of suicide intent, deficient coping, negative life events, and impulsivity. While most of the demographic characteristics were not significantly different between the suicides and the attempters, most of the clinical variables could distinguish the two groups. Conclusions The suicide victims and the serious attempters could be of the same group of people who were at the edge of fatal self-injury, and the same clinical risk factors but of different degrees have divided them into the life and death groups. PMID:25723561

  19. After Sample-Delivery Attempt, Sol 62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander collected a soil sample and attempted to deliver some of it to a laboratory oven on the deck during the mission's 62nd Martian day, or sol, (July 28, 2008). The sample came from a hard layer at the bottom of the 'Snow White' trench and might have contained water ice mixed with the soil. This image taken after the attempt to deliver the sample through the open doors to cell number zero on the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer shows that very little of the soil fell onto the screened opening.

    Not enough material reached the oven, through a funnel under the screen, to proceed with analysis of the sample material.

    Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera took this image at 7:54 a.m. local solar time on Sol 62. The size of the screened opening is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) long by 4 centimeters (1.5 inches) wide.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Epidemiological aspects of suicide attempts among Moroccan children.

    PubMed

    Mekaoui, Nour; Karboubi, Lamiae; Ouadghiri, Fatima Zahra; Dakhama, Badr Sououd Benjelloun

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior among children has significantly increased in Morocco. We conducted a study on the epidemiological aspect to propose a treatment strategy. Descriptive retrospective study over a period of 3 years (April 2012-April 2015) involving children who visited pediatric medical emergencies of the Children Hospital of Rabat after an autolysis attempt. We observed epidemiological parameters, history, social and family context, the means used, the presumed cause, clinical manifestation, and the management. 66 patients were identified. A female predominance was found (sex =15). The average age was 13 years old. This was a first episode in 97% of cases. Psychiatric history was found in 6 patients. The causes of suicide attempt were unidentified in 65%. The most frequent cause was family conflict (35%). The most frequent method was pharmaceutical drug ingestion (54.4%). Children were asymptomatic (57.6%). Neurological manifestations (30%) were most frequent. Digestive symptoms (12%) and hemodynamic (3%) were also discovered. Patients were hospitalized in a general pediatric service 92.4% of the times, admitted to intensive care 4.5% of the times, and two patients refused to be hospitalized. The treatment consisted of gastric lavage (18%) supplemented by symptomatic measures. The outcome was favorable in 95.4% of cases. We recorded 2 deaths by rat poison poisoning. All patients were advised in writing after leaving to follow up with a psychological treatment. Suicide attempts are the result of an ill being, mostly among children living in a family with conflict. Upstream treatment is essential to identify children at risk. Additionally, a psychiatric care in hospital is essential to avoid recurrences.

  1. Epidemiological aspects of suicide attempts among Moroccan children

    PubMed Central

    Mekaoui, Nour; Karboubi, Lamiae; Ouadghiri, Fatima Zahra; Dakhama, Badr Sououd Benjelloun

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior among children has significantly increased in Morocco. We conducted a study on the epidemiological aspect to propose a treatment strategy. Descriptive retrospective study over a period of 3 years (April 2012-April 2015) involving children who visited pediatric medical emergencies of the Children Hospital of Rabat after an autolysis attempt. We observed epidemiological parameters, history, social and family context, the means used, the presumed cause, clinical manifestation, and the management. 66 patients were identified. A female predominance was found (sex =15). The average age was 13 years old. This was a first episode in 97% of cases. Psychiatric history was found in 6 patients. The causes of suicide attempt were unidentified in 65%. The most frequent cause was family conflict (35%). The most frequent method was pharmaceutical drug ingestion (54.4%). Children were asymptomatic (57.6%). Neurological manifestations (30%) were most frequent. Digestive symptoms (12%) and hemodynamic (3%) were also discovered. Patients were hospitalized in a general pediatric service 92.4% of the times, admitted to intensive care 4.5% of the times, and two patients refused to be hospitalized. The treatment consisted of gastric lavage (18%) supplemented by symptomatic measures. The outcome was favorable in 95.4% of cases. We recorded 2 deaths by rat poison poisoning. All patients were advised in writing after leaving to follow up with a psychological treatment. Suicide attempts are the result of an ill being, mostly among children living in a family with conflict. Upstream treatment is essential to identify children at risk. Additionally, a psychiatric care in hospital is essential to avoid recurrences. PMID:27642451

  2. Aspirations of Latina adolescent suicide attempters

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    Parents’ aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents’ aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes in youths’ behavior can be deleterious, such as when adolescents manifest suicidal behaviors. We examined aspirations expressed by 12 Latina adolescent suicide attempters and their parents and compared them to 12 non-suicidal Latinas and parents. Qualitative analyses revealed that incongruence of aspirations between girls and their parents were greater among suicidal teens. Suicidal and non-suicidal Latinas presented contrasting aspirations: the former on gaining independence and the latter on completing their education and pursuing careers. Findings may inform developmental research and ways in which clinicians and policymakers can help Latinas achieve their own and their parents’ aspirations. PMID:24013464

  3. Fatal Phenol Toxicity Following Attempted Tattoo Removal.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Huang; Li, Shu-Hua; Byard, Roger W

    2016-07-01

    Tattoo removal is increasingly required as the number of, particularly young, people acquiring tattoos is increasing. A 21-year-old man is reported who underwent attempted removal of large dragon tattoo utilizing a tattoo machine that injected a phenol-containing solution. At the end of the 3-h procedure, he collapsed and died. At autopsy, large areas of white skin discoloration with focal necrosis and sloughing were present overlying areas of previous tattooing. Histological examination showed collections of eosinophilic fluid with a minimal chronic inflammatory infiltrate in better preserved areas, with focal areas of dermal necrosis. Toxicology was positive for phenol in cardiac blood and liver tissue. There were no underlying organic disease or injuries present which could have caused or contributed to death. This idiosyncratic method of tattoo removal involving subcutaneous injection of phenol had resulted in death most likely from cardiotoxicity. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Flavonoid Bioavailability and Attempts for Bioavailability Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Thilakarathna, Surangi H.; Rupasinghe, H. P. Vasantha

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of phytochemicals that have shown numerous health effects and have therefore been studied extensively. Of the six common food flavonoid classes, flavonols are distributed ubiquitously among different plant foods whereas appreciable amounts of isoflavones are found in leguminous plant-based foods. Flavonoids have shown promising health promoting effects in human cell culture, experimental animal and human clinical studies. They have shown antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory effects as well as ability to modulate cell signaling and gene expression related disease development. Low bioavailability of flavonoids has been a concern as it can limit or even hinder their health effects. Therefore, attempts to improve their bioavailability in order to improve the efficacy of flavonoids are being studied. Further investigations on bioavailability are warranted as it is a determining factor for flavonoid biological activity. PMID:23989753

  5. Psychiatric symptoms following attempted natural childbirth.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    As natural childbirth has become more popular, new prenatal training groups have developed, some of which are committed to only one method of dealing with labour and delivery. This paper describes five women and four men who sought psychiatric treatment within 6 months of attempted natural childbirth that did not proceed as planned. Their symptoms included depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive behaviour, phobic symptoms, and marital and sexual problems. Thus, natural childbirth, although undoubtedly beneficial in most instances, is not suitable for all deliveries and may occasionally have adverse effects. Prenatal programs should emphasize an individual, flexible approach to labour and delivery and should present the possibility of the need for analgesia, anesthesia or obstetric intervention in a positive light. PMID:7139485

  6. Pegasus XL CYGNSS First Launch Attempt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-12

    Photographed from the F-18 pathfinder aircraft, the Orbital ATK L-1011 Stargazer aircraft is seen flying over the Atlantic Ocean offshore from Daytona Beach, Florida. Attached beneath the aircraft is the Pegasus XL rocket with eight Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System, or CYGNSS, spacecraft. The CYGNSS satellites will make frequent and accurate measurements of ocean surface winds throughout the life cycle of tropical storms and hurricanes. The data that CYGNSS provides will enable scientists to probe key air-sea interaction processes that take place near the core of storms, which are rapidly changing and play a crucial role in the beginning and intensification of hurricanes. NOTE: The Dec. 12, 2016 launch attempt was postponed due to a hydraulic pump aboard the Orbital ATK L-1011 aircraft which is required to release the latches holding Pegasus in place, is not receiving power.

  7. Thyroid storm following suicide attempt by hanging

    PubMed Central

    Shrum, J M; Byers, B; Parhar, K

    2014-01-01

    Summary A 19-year-old woman with asphyxiation complicated by cardiac arrest, following an unsuccessful suicide attempt by hanging, developed an uncommon complication of trauma-induced thyroid storm. She was initially admitted to the intensive care unit intubated and mechanically ventilated for postcardiac arrest management. Investigation of thyroid storm was pursued after the patient was noted to be persistently hypertensive, tachycardic and agitated despite high levels of sedation. Thyroid function tests confirmed the clinical suspicion of progressive thyrotoxicosis, with associated imaging consistent with thyroid inflammation secondary to band-like traumatic pressure to the lower half of the thyroid gland. Treatment with β-blockers and a thionamide resulted in the eventual resolution of her thyroid storm state and normalisation of her thyroid function. We conclude that traumatically induced thyroid storm should be considered in all hypermetabolic patients following blunt neck injuries including hanging, and that traditional treatment of hyperthyroidism can be successfully applied. PMID:25008337

  8. Thyroid storm following suicide attempt by hanging.

    PubMed

    Shrum, J M; Byers, B; Parhar, K

    2014-07-09

    Summary A 19-year-old woman with asphyxiation complicated by cardiac arrest, following an unsuccessful suicide attempt by hanging, developed an uncommon complication of trauma-induced thyroid storm. She was initially admitted to the intensive care unit intubated and mechanically ventilated for postcardiac arrest management. Investigation of thyroid storm was pursued after the patient was noted to be persistently hypertensive, tachycardic and agitated despite high levels of sedation. Thyroid function tests confirmed the clinical suspicion of progressive thyrotoxicosis, with associated imaging consistent with thyroid inflammation secondary to band-like traumatic pressure to the lower half of the thyroid gland. Treatment with β-blockers and a thionamide resulted in the eventual resolution of her thyroid storm state and normalisation of her thyroid function. We conclude that traumatically induced thyroid storm should be considered in all hypermetabolic patients following blunt neck injuries including hanging, and that traditional treatment of hyperthyroidism can be successfully applied. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Associations between Korean Adolescents’ Sexual Orientation and Suicidal Ideation, Plans, Attempts, and Medically Serious Attempts

    PubMed Central

    KWAK, Yeunhee; KIM, Ji-Su

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite growing interest in the public health of sexual minority, youth around the world due to the high rates of suicidal ideation and attempts in this population, few studies on the sexual orientation of Korean adolescents have been conducted. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between the sexual orientation of Korean adolescents and their suicide-related behavior. Methods: Raw data from the tenth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The sample consisted of 3603 adolescents who provided selected demographic variables and reported on their experience of sexual intercourse with the same or the opposite sex, along with lifestyle and suicide-related behaviors. Results: Rates of suicidal ideation, plans, attempts, and medically serious attempts were higher in both homosexual and bisexual than heterosexual groups. Suicidal ideation (odds ratio 95% confidence interval: 1.09–2.08), suicidal plans (odds ratio 95% confidence interval: 1.01–2.09), and suicide attempts (odds ratio 95% confidence interval: 1.28–2.88) had the strongest associations with homosexuality after multivariate adjustment. In contrast, bisexuality was only significantly associated with suicidal attempts (odds ratio 95% confidence interval: 1.01–2.97) after multivariate adjustment. Conclusion: Effective suicide prevention interventions are required for homosexual and bisexual adolescents, in the form of targeted programs to improve their mental health status and ability to cope with stress. PMID:28540263

  10. Suicide attempts in schizophrenic patients: clinical variables.

    PubMed

    Mauri, M C; Paletta, S; Maffini, M; Moliterno, D; Altamura, A C

    2013-10-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with a significant risk of suicide: 40-50% of schizophrenic patients report suicidal ideation at some point in their lives, and 4-13% eventually commit suicide. In order to be able to predict and prevent suicide in schizophrenic patients, it is necessary to investigate and characterise suicide victims who meet the criteria for psychotic disorders and risk factors. The aim of this retrospective study was to verify the associations between suicide attempts (SAs) and the demographic and clinical variables of 106 patients who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia. The patients were divided into two groups on the basis of the presence/absence of lifetime suicide attempts, and their main demographic and clinical characteristics were analysed and compared. The patients with a history of SAs frequently had a duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) of ≥1 year (chi-squared test=9.984, df=1, p=0.0016). They also showed significant associations with the presence of a depressive dimension (chi-squared test=4.439, df=1, p=0.0351), hospitalisations before SAs (chi-squared test=25.515, df=1, p <0.001), and a family history of psychiatric disorders (chi-squared test=12.668, df=2, p=0.0018) or suicidal behaviours (chi-squared test=18.241, df=2, p=0.0001). Finally, they were more frequently prescribed typical antipsychotic agents. The severity of psychiatric symptoms indicates a high risk of suicide in schizophrenic patients. Further prospective studies of larger samples should investigate the role of early interventions and atypical antipsychotic treatment in reducing the risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Severe Mental Illness, Somatic Delusions, and Attempted Mass Murder.

    PubMed

    Sarteschi, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    A case of an attempted mass shooting at a large psychiatric hospital in the United States by a 30-year-old male with severe mental illness, somatic delusions, and exceptional access to healthcare professionals is reported. Six persons were shot, one died at the scene, and the shooter was then killed by the police. Data were gathered from court documents and media accounts. An analysis of the shooter's psychiatric history, his interactions with healthcare professionals, and communications prior to the shooting suggest a rare form of mass murder, a random attack by a documented psychotic and delusional individual suffering with somatic delusions. Despite his being psychotic, the killer planned the attack and made a direct threat 1 month prior to the shootings. This case highlights problems with the healthcare system, indicating that it might be ill equipped to appropriately deal with severe mental illness.

  12. A Content Analysis of Online Suicide Notes: Attempted Suicide Versus Attempt Resulting in Suicide.

    PubMed

    Synnott, John; Ioannou, Maria; Coyne, Angela; Hemingway, Siobhan

    2017-09-28

    Fifty suicide notes of those who died by suicide and 50 suicide notes of those who survived their suicide attempt were analyzed using Smallest Space Analysis. The core of all suicide notes was discovered to be constructed with the use of four variables: saying goodbye to their audience, feelings of loneliness, method used to attempt suicide, and negative self-image. Furthermore, three different suicide note themes of those who died and three suicide note themes from those who survived were also identified. The analysis revealed that suicide note writers who died by their attempt were more likely to combine a dislike of themselves and a concern for loved ones. The implications of the work in terms of suicide prevention are discussed. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  13. Adolescent Suicide Attempters: What Predicts Future Suicidal Acts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind; Haldorsen, Tor

    2006-01-01

    Predictors for repetition of suicide attempts were evaluated among 92 adolescent suicide attempters 9 years after an index suicide attempt (90% females). Five were dead, two by suicide. Thirty-one (42%) of 73 had repeated a suicide attempt. In multiple Cox regression analysis, four factors had an independent predictive effect: comorbid disorders,…

  14. Adolescent Suicide Attempters: What Predicts Future Suicidal Acts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind; Haldorsen, Tor

    2006-01-01

    Predictors for repetition of suicide attempts were evaluated among 92 adolescent suicide attempters 9 years after an index suicide attempt (90% females). Five were dead, two by suicide. Thirty-one (42%) of 73 had repeated a suicide attempt. In multiple Cox regression analysis, four factors had an independent predictive effect: comorbid disorders,…

  15. Age-Specific Characteristics of Serious Suicide Attempters in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Pengcheng; Yang, Rong; Phillips, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics of four age groups of patients with medically serious suicide attempts from nine general hospitals in China (N = 617) were compared. There were no significant age-group differences by residence (rural vs. urban), method of attempt, proportion with prior attempts, or level of family functioning. Attempters [less than or equal to]20…

  16. Age-Specific Characteristics of Serious Suicide Attempters in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Pengcheng; Yang, Rong; Phillips, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics of four age groups of patients with medically serious suicide attempts from nine general hospitals in China (N = 617) were compared. There were no significant age-group differences by residence (rural vs. urban), method of attempt, proportion with prior attempts, or level of family functioning. Attempters [less than or equal to]20…

  17. Predicting the Suicide Attempts of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Augelli, Anthony R.; Grossman, Arnold H.; Salter, Nicholas P.; Vasey, Joseph J.; Starks, Michael T.; Sinclair, Katerina O.

    2006-01-01

    In this study predictors of serious suicide attempts among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth were examined. Three groups were compared: youth who reported no attempts, youth who reported attempts unrelated to their sexual orientation, and youth whose attempts were considered related to their sexual orientation. About one third of respondents…

  18. Attempted suicide in Podgorica, Montenegro: higher rates in females and unemployed males.

    PubMed

    Stevovic, Lidija Injac; Vodopic, Sanja

    2017-01-01

    A change in suicide attempts is associated with comprehensive changes in mental and physical health and social environment. Attempted suicide and suicide are one of the biggest problems nowadays worldwide, not only in the field of mental health but also in the field of public health. The aim of the research was to determine the number of attempted suicides as well as the influence of clinical and demographic variables on the attempted suicide rate. The data on the attempted suicide were analysed in the period 2012-2016 based on the data from the Emergency Ward of the Clinical Centre of Montenegro in Podgorica. The rate of attempted suicides as well as the unemployment rate was calculated. The statistical analysis included descriptive statistics of the raw data and relative numbers, Chi-squared test, Fisher's test and Spearman coefficient. The average age of males who attempted suicide was 38.35 ± 14.11, min 15 and max 88 years of age, and the age of women was 38.97 ± 16.81, min 16 and max 93 years of age. Women attempted suicide more frequently (p < 0.05). Female/male ratio during the investigation period slightly declined (1.93 in 2012 vs. 1.29 in 2016). The attempted suicide rates ranged from 103 per 100,000 residents in 2016 to 142 per 100,000 residents in 2015. Crude attempt rate was the highest in women in 2012 (102.42 per 100,000 residents) and for men in 2014 and 2015 (84.48 vs. 83.06 per 100,000 residents). Poisoning with psychotropic drugs was the dominant manner of attempt (93.2%), while the largest number of attempts was in the late spring and summer (May, June and July). Attempted suicide rate in man was associated with higher unemployment rate. Although women make the majority of attempted suicide cases, there has been a decline in the value of the rate for women and a rise for men. The attempted suicide rates in Podgorica belong to lower rates compared to the WHO European multicentre study on parasuicide. Poisoning with psychotropic drugs

  19. After the Attempt: Maintaining the Therapeutic Alliance Following a Patient's Suicide Attempt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, J. Russell; Newman, Cory F.

    2005-01-01

    The risk of a patient's suicide is a prominent occupational hazard for psychotherapists. The precise number of patients who attempt suicide while in treatment and then resume therapy with the same therapist is not known, but this situation is a relatively common occurrence in clinical practice. Such scenarios can pose significant challenges to the…

  20. After the Attempt: Maintaining the Therapeutic Alliance Following a Patient's Suicide Attempt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, J. Russell; Newman, Cory F.

    2005-01-01

    The risk of a patient's suicide is a prominent occupational hazard for psychotherapists. The precise number of patients who attempt suicide while in treatment and then resume therapy with the same therapist is not known, but this situation is a relatively common occurrence in clinical practice. Such scenarios can pose significant challenges to the…

  1. Hydraulic fracturing - an attempt of DEM simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmala, Alicja; Foltyn, Natalia; Klejment, Piotr; Dębski, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a technique widely used in oil, gas and unconventional reservoirs exploitation in order to enable the oil/gas to flow more easily and enhance the production. It relays on pumping into a rock a special fluid under a high pressure which creates a set of microcracks which enhance porosity of the reservoir rock. In this research, attempt of simulation of such hydrofracturing process using the Discrete Element Method approach is presented. The basic assumption of this approach is that the rock can be represented as an assembly of discrete particles cemented into a rigid sample (Potyondy 2004). An existence of voids among particles simulates then a pore system which can be filled out by fracturing fluid, numerically represented by much smaller particles. Following this microscopic point of view and its numerical representation by DEM method we present primary results of numerical analysis of hydrofracturing phenomena, using the ESyS-Particle Software. In particular, we consider what is happening in distinct vicinity of the border between rock sample and fracking particles, how cracks are creating and evolving by breaking bonds between particles, how acoustic/seismic energy is releasing and so on. D.O. Potyondy, P.A. Cundall. A bonded-particle model for rock. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 41 (2004), pp. 1329-1364.

  2. History of attempts to quantify environmental mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hollaender, A.

    1981-01-01

    It became obvious in the early 1960's that the ready recognition of mutations produced by chemicals could have a profound influence on the refinement of methods to detect environmental mutagens. The experience derived over the previous 30 years in characterizing the effects of ionizing and ultraviolet radiation on the genetic mechanism came to serve us in good stead. Although the effects of chemicals are considerably more complicated and often require the analysis of individual substances, nonetheless, the area has developed rapidly in recent decades. The establishment and historical background of the International Association of Environmental Mutagen Societies (IAEMS) will be discussed. An attempt at the quantitation of chemical effects has been developed in comparison with radiation mutagenesis. As a first step, a definition of the Mutagen Burden or unavoidable exposure to chemicals will be discussed. A mathematical approach (Haynes/Eckhardt) will be considered and finally an outline for the comprehensive investigation of detailed interscience study will be made of less than six chemicals.

  3. Psychiatric genocide: Nazi attempts to eradicate schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Torrey, E Fuller; Yolken, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    Although the Nazi genocide of Jews during World War II is well known, the concurrent Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients is much less widely known. An attempt was made to estimate the number of individuals with schizophrenia who were sterilized and murdered by the Nazis and to assess the effect on the subsequent prevalence and incidence of this disease. It is estimated that between 220,000 and 269,500 individuals with schizophrenia were sterilized or killed. This total represents between 73% and 100% of all individuals with schizophrenia living in Germany between 1939 and 1945. Postwar studies of the prevalence of schizophrenia in Germany reported low rates, as expected. However, postwar rates of the incidence of schizophrenia in Germany were unexpectedly high. The Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients was the greatest criminal act in the history of psychiatry. It was also based on what are now known to be erroneous genetic theories and had no apparent long-term effect on the subsequent incidence of schizophrenia.

  4. Psychiatric Genocide: Nazi Attempts to Eradicate Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Torrey, E. Fuller; Yolken, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Although the Nazi genocide of Jews during World War II is well known, the concurrent Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients is much less widely known. An attempt was made to estimate the number of individuals with schizophrenia who were sterilized and murdered by the Nazis and to assess the effect on the subsequent prevalence and incidence of this disease. It is estimated that between 220 000 and 269 500 individuals with schizophrenia were sterilized or killed. This total represents between 73% and 100% of all individuals with schizophrenia living in Germany between 1939 and 1945. Postwar studies of the prevalence of schizophrenia in Germany reported low rates, as expected. However, postwar rates of the incidence of schizophrenia in Germany were unexpectedly high. The Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients was the greatest criminal act in the history of psychiatry. It was also based on what are now known to be erroneous genetic theories and had no apparent long-term effect on the subsequent incidence of schizophrenia. PMID:19759092

  5. Pediatric Emergency Department Suicidal Patients: Two-Site Evaluation of Suicide Ideators, Single Attempters, and Repeat Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Baraff, Larry J.; Berk, Michele; Grob, Charles; Devich-Navarro, Mona; Suddath, Robert; Piacentini, John; Tang, Lingqi

    2008-01-01

    The study examines ideators, single attempters, and repeats attempters of suicide to clarify optimal strategies for emergency department management and risk assessment to help them in reducing youth suicide and suicide attempts. Depression was found to be a strong predictor of suicide/suicide attempts along with substance use, externalizing…

  6. Pediatric Emergency Department Suicidal Patients: Two-Site Evaluation of Suicide Ideators, Single Attempters, and Repeat Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Baraff, Larry J.; Berk, Michele; Grob, Charles; Devich-Navarro, Mona; Suddath, Robert; Piacentini, John; Tang, Lingqi

    2008-01-01

    The study examines ideators, single attempters, and repeats attempters of suicide to clarify optimal strategies for emergency department management and risk assessment to help them in reducing youth suicide and suicide attempts. Depression was found to be a strong predictor of suicide/suicide attempts along with substance use, externalizing…

  7. Suicide attempt characteristics may orientate toward a bipolar disorder in attempters with recurrent depression.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Sébastien; Jaussent, Isabelle; Jollant, Fabrice; Rihmer, Zoltán; Malafosse, Alain; Courtet, Philippe

    2010-04-01

    Identification of patients with a bipolar disorder (BPD) among those presenting a major depressive episode is often difficult, resulting in common misdiagnosis and mistreatment. Our aim was to identify clinical variables unrelated to current depressive episode and relevant to suicidal behavior that may help to improve the detection of BPD in suicide attempters presenting with recurrent major depressive disorder. 211 patients suffering from recurrent major depressive disorder or BPD, hospitalized after a suicide attempt (SA), were interviewed by semi-structured interview and validated questionnaires about DSM-IV axis I disorders, SA characteristics and a wide range of personality traits relevant to suicidal vulnerability. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine differences between RMDD and BPD attempters. Logistic regression analysis showed that serious SA and family history of suicide are closely associated with a diagnosis of BPD [respectively OR=2.28, p=0.0195; OR=2.98, p=0.0081]. The presence of both characteristics increase the association with BDP [OR=4.78, p=0.005]. Conversely, when looking for the features associated with a serious SA, BPD was the only associated diagnosis [OR=2.03, p=0.004]. Lastly, affect intensity was higher in BPD samples [OR=2.08, p=0.041]. Retrospective nature of the study, lack of the separate analysis of bipolar subtypes. Serious suicide attempt and a familial history of completed suicide in patients with major depression seem to be a clinical marker of bipolarity. Facing suicide attempters with recurrent depression, clinician should be awareness to these characteristics to detect BPD. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimating the rates of deaths by suicide among adults who attempt suicide in the United States.

    PubMed

    Han, Beth; Kott, Phillip S; Hughes, Art; McKeon, Richard; Blanco, Carlos; Compton, Wilson M

    2016-06-01

    In 2012, over 1.3 million U.S. adults reported that they attempted suicide in the past year, and 39,426 adults died by suicide. This study estimated national suicide case fatality rates among adult suicide attempters (fatal and nonfatal cases) and examined how they varied by sociodemographic characteristics. We pooled data on deaths by suicide (n = 147,427, fatal cases in the U.S.) from the 2008-2011 U S. mortality files and data on suicide attempters who survived (n = 2000 nonfatal cases) from the 2008-2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Descriptive analyses and multivariable logistic regression models were applied. Among adult suicide attempters in the U.S., the overall 12-month suicide case fatality rate was 3.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.9%-3.5%). It varied significantly by sociodemographic factors. For those aged 45 or older, the adjusted suicide case fatality rate was higher among men (7.6%) than among women (2.6%) (suicide case fatality rate ratio (SCFRR) = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.83-4.79), was higher among non-Hispanic whites (7.9%) than among non-white minorities (0.8-2.5%) (SCFRRs = 3.2-9.9), and was higher among those with less than high school education (16.0%) than among college graduates (1.8%) (SCFRR = 8.8, 95% CI = 3.83-20.16). Across male and female attempters, being aged 45 or older and non-Hispanic white and having less than secondary school were at a higher risk for death by suicide. Focusing on these demographic characteristics can help identify suicide attempters at higher risk for death by suicide, inform clinical assessments, and improve suicide prevention and intervention efforts by increasing high-risk suicide attempters' access to mental health treatment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Do resuscitation attempts in children who die, cause injury?

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P; Young, S J; Wells, D L

    2003-01-01

    To determine the incidence, type, and pattern of injury related to resuscitation attempts in children who die. Retrospective review of ambulance, hospital, and necropsy case records. All children who died aged 0-14 years between 1994 and 1996, and underwent a full necropsy at the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine (Melbourne, Australia) were identified. Children who were subject to recognised trauma before resuscitation or died because of a congenital abnormality were excluded. The records of all remaining children were reviewed. Children were grouped according to whether resuscitation was attempted or not. From a total of 346 children who died, 204 (58.6%) were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. Resuscitation was performed in 153 (75%) children and was started before ambulance arrival in 123 (60.3%) children. Injuries were detected at necropsy in 65 (42.5%) of children who had resuscitation compared with six (11.7%) of children who had no resuscitation (p<0.0001) chi(2) test. All but two of these injuries were of a minor nature consisting principally of bruises or abrasions. Two significant injuries were identified both occurring as a result of readily identifiable resuscitation procedures. The likelihood of injury increased with the length of resuscitation. In children resuscitated for less than 60 minutes the incidence of injury was 27% compared with 62% for children resuscitated for longer ( p<0.0001). This study has shown that cardiopulmonary resuscitation commonly causes minor injuries such as superficial bruises and abrasions and the likelihood of such injury increases with the duration of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This information should reassure parents and caregivers that basic life support may be instituted without fear of causing significant injury or adversely affecting outcome in the child with cardiorespiratory arrest. Caution must be exercised when attributing significant injuries to resuscitation attempts and alternative

  10. Psychiatric diagnosis in late adolescence and long-term risk of suicide and suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Lundin, A; Lundberg, I; Allebeck, P; Hemmingsson, T

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the associations between psychiatric diagnosis in late adolescence in an unselected population and subsequent suicide attempt and suicide during 36-year follow-up. A total of 49,321 Swedish men conscripted for compulsory military training in 1969/1970, born 1949-1951, were screened for psychiatric disorder and, if detected, diagnosed by a psychiatrist according to ICD-8. Data on suicides and suicide attempts 1971-2006 were collected in national registers. At conscription examination, 11.7% of the cohort received a psychiatric diagnosis. Among those, increased risks of suicide 1971-2006 [HR = 2.7 (2.2-3.2), 624 cases] and suicide attempt 1973-2006 [HR = 3.5 (3.1-4.0), 1170 cases] were found. The increased relative risks persisted during the follow-up period 19-36 years after examination [1989-2006 suicide HR = 2.1 (1.6-2.7), 308 cases, and 1989-2006 suicide attempt HR = 2.6 (2.1-3.1), 484 cases]. The dominant diagnostic groups, neurosis and personality disorder, were significantly associated with suicide and suicide attempt in the early as well as the late follow-up period. Psychiatric diagnoses made in late adolescence predicted subsequent suicide and suicide attempt over a 36-year follow-up period. The increased relative risks were not limited to young adulthood but were also evident 18-36 years after conscription examination. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Suicide attempt with a kitchen knife.

    PubMed

    Rishi, Muhammad Tipu; Rishi, Abdul; Palesty, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    Penetrating trauma to the abdomen can be a potential diagnostic dilemma for the trauma surgeon, and a formal exploratory laparotomy may result in the detection of occult injuries. We report a very unusual case of penetrating trauma to the abdomen resulting in pericardio-diagphragmatic rupture. We have also highlighted the technical aspects of clinical care in this specific scenario.

  12. [The epidemiology of suicide and attempted suicide].

    PubMed

    Häfner, H

    1989-08-01

    Since more than one century suicides have been registered in national statistics of death causes. They thus furnish one of the few parameters of psychiatrically relevant behaviour by means of which trends, cohort, age-group and period effects can be studied over longer periods. Since the second half of last century, the suicide rates for Swiss males--similar to those found in England and Wales--show a decrease in consecutive birth cohorts up to males born in the decade 1930-1940, and a continued decline in the total trend until about World War II. From then on the suicide rates of males in consecutive birth cohorts have been slowly increasing in the majority of European and North American countries--but not so in Sweden. Opposite to this, the predominantly low rates for females display little change. Further to the considerable differences between nations and the predominance of suicides committed by females in some Asian countries and Cuba, the changes indicate the significance of cultural and economic environmental factors. Typical period effects are mainly the result of changes in conception and conditions of life. In attempted suicide they proceed in a more sensitive and more rapid way and are about ten times higher. Such a period effect showing increases by about 300% in younger age-groups followed by a decline, attaining its peak about 1976, was ascertained in large cities of the Federal Republic of Germany. By the example of the effects of a television serial, the study of causal processes turning collective environmental factors into individual suicidal behaviour, proved that regularities are effective in learning by a process of modelling. Besides, the epidemiological data give essential hints how to treat suicidal behaviour.

  13. Attempts to develop radioactive anticancer drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.S.; Brown, I.; Chir, B.; Carpenter, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1953, attempts have been made to develop radioactive drugs. Preparations of tritiated menadiol sodium diphosphate (T-MNDP) of high specific activity showed a definite, though limited, but sometimes useful effect in the treatment of certain patients with advanced tumors, especially adenocarcinoma of the colon and of the pancreas and malignant melanoma of the skin. The next step was to use a much more effective isotope. 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinol bis (diammonium phosphate) - abbreviated 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-MNDP - has been synthesized, and in laboratory studies appears more promising. /sup 125/I provides radiations which behave predominately like high LET radiation, despite the accompanying X and gamma radiations. The astatine analogue, 6-/sup 211/At-astato-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinol bis (disodium phosphate) has also been synthesized. Confirming and greatly extending the earlier findings with T-MNDP, in vitro experiments showed that 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-MNDP is concentrated selectively in the cells of some human malignant tumors by a factor of about 15 to 20 or more in relation to the cells of normal origin that were studied. Macrodosimetric considerations and comparison with clinical treatments with T-MNDP suggest practical dosage. A typical treatment for a patient of body weight 70 kg with localized inoperable carcinoma of the colon could be 8 intravenous injections each of approximately 120mCi of 6-/sup 125/I-iodo-MNDP to a toal of 0.97 Ci in 25 days. Risks of late carcinogenesis and leukemogenesis are calculated to be less than 1%. Clinical indications are discussed briefly. Animal experiments are in progress and further preclinical studies are required.

  14. [Attempts to overcome the stigma of schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Meise, U; Sulzenbacher, H; Hinterhuber, H

    2001-09-01

    The results of research into attitudes show clearly that the knowledge, the attitudes and views of our society towards psychiatric topics strongly influence practical psychiatric services. Those affected report that they are confronted with a high degree of prejudice and exclusion which considerably inhibits their recovery, their integration and their quality of life even today. Especially people with schizophrenic illnesses are affected by stigmatisation and exclusion. These are not just caused by a lack of information. Prejudices and misconceptions are deeply rooted in our cultural tradition. The negative consequences for the treatment and way of life of those affected are such that Asmus Finzen spoke of a "second illness" which may be caused by stigmatisation.Set against the background of the vulnerability-stress-paradigm, the social consequences can result in stressors. Disadvantages in terms of societal participation, negative assessments and humiliating discrimination can undermine self-esteem, ability to cope and compliance and thereby hinder the recovery process and strengthen remaining marks of the illness. Since there is extensive informed understanding about these problems, the discussion focuses increasinlgy on questions about what psychiatry and those working in psychiatry can contribute to reverse this negative attitude. This is the aim, for example, of the World Psychiatric Association's international awareness campaign, which uses modern communication techniques to try to counter the myths and misunderstandings surrounding the schizophrenic illness and its name. The study being introduced here was carried out in conjunction with the Society for Mental Health Tyrol. It was attempted to discover how information should be conveyed in order to change the attitudes of school pupils. On the basis of these results, we have begun to offer information sessions in schools throughout the Tyrol.

  15. Clinical Correlates of Planned and Unplanned Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Sadia R; Singh, Tanya; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J John; Grunebaum, Michael; Sublette, M Elizabeth; Oquendo, Maria A

    2016-11-01

    Suicide attempters differ in the degree of planning for their suicide attempts. The purpose of this study was to identify differences between individuals who make planned (≥3 hours of planning) and unplanned (<3 hours of planning) suicide attempts. Depressed suicide attempters (n = 110) were compared based on degree of planning of their most recent suicide attempt on demographic and clinical variables. Participants who made planned suicide attempts were more likely to have family history of completed suicide, more severe and frequent suicidal ideation, greater trait impulsivity, and greater suicidal intent and more severe medical consequences for both their most recent and most serious suicide attempts. These results suggest clear clinical differences based on the degree of suicide attempt planning. Severe suicidal ideation, high suicide intent, family history of suicide completion, and high levels of motor impulsivity contribute to a phenotype that is at greater risk of planned, highly lethal suicide attempts.

  16. ['Broken hearted teenagers': adolescents that had gone through suicide attempt].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Freitas, Mary Landy Vasconcelos; Pordeus, Augediva Maria Jucá; Lira, Samira Valentim Gama; Silva, Juliana Guimarães E

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the reasons of the suicidal behavior in adolescents, taking in this anthropologic analysis, the impact in the familiar and social context. The study was conducted during the period of March to August, 2005 using a qualitative approach and ethnography as methods. The participants of this study were 12 teenagers, assisted in an emergency hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil, for suicide attempt using any kind of mechanisms. As shown in the experiment's result, the main reason of the attempts was a broken heart, this as a reason of dating someone and others love relationship established between two persons. Not only broken heart was mentioned, there were also cases of problems with family bonds, the affection and the lack of attention to the individual adolescent. In this context, the inability of the health professional was very clear. Under the presented circumstances, the professional must come up with a new praxis approach. The suicide is a real fact present at the teenagers' life and it is necessary to redirect the Brazilian Unified Health System s philosophy and operational principles of the way health professionals cope with this demanding the society to embrace the politics that cares for the human being life and wellness.

  17. Penetrating craniocerebral injury caused by a pneumatic nail gun: an unsuccessful attempt of suicide.

    PubMed

    Panourias, I G; Slatinopoulos, V K; Arvanitis, D L

    2006-07-01

    Nail guns are powerful tools commonly used in the building industry. As a result of their improper use, many accidents of bodily injury, including death, have already been reported over the last 50 years; their use in suicide attempts, however, is rare. In this paper, an unusual case of unsuccessful suicidal craniocerebral penetrating injury committed with a pneumatic nail gun by a 23-year-old man is presented. The particular findings that suggest a suicidal attempt are also discussed.

  18. Factitious Disorder Presenting with Attempted Simulation of Fournier's Gangrene.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Joseph; Poullos, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a severe polymicrobial necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, genital, or perianal regions. The classic presentation is severe pain and swelling with systemic signs. Crepitus and cutaneous necrosis are often seen. Characteristic CT findings include subcutaneous gas and inflammatory stranding. Unless treated aggressively, patients can rapidly become septic and die. Factitious Disorder is the falsification of one's own of medical or psychological signs and symptoms. Many deceptive methods have been described, from falsely reporting physical or psychological symptoms, to manipulating lab tests, or even injecting or ingesting foreign substances in order to induce illness. We present a case of a 35-year-old man with factitious disorder who attempted to simulate Fournier's gangrene by injecting his scrotum with air and fluid. We will review the clinical presentation and diagnosis of Factitious Disorder, as well as Fournier's gangrene.

  19. Attempted Suicide by Massive Warfarin Ingestion Conservatively Managed Using Phytonadione

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kruti S.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment strategies for acute toxicity following massive ingestion of warfarin are not well described in the literature. Warfarin is the primary oral anticoagulation agent used in the treatment of thromboembolic disease, and patients with acute toxicity are at risk for life-threatening hemorrhages. Treatment options include phytonadione (vitamin K1), fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) used alone or in combination. FFP and PCC can be associated with volume complications, undesirable thromboembolic events, and increased costs. We describe the case of a 63-year-old female with acute warfarin toxicity following a massive ingestion of warfarin (420 mg–450 mg) in an attempt to commit suicide. Upon arrival to the emergency department, serial INR checks were initiated to help guide dosing strategy and later adjusted based on INR response to treatment using only phytonadione. PMID:28044113

  20. Predictors of Suicide Attempts in Clinically Depressed Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ahye; Song, Jungeun; Yook, Ki-Hwan; Jon, Duk-In; Jung, Myung Hun; Hong, Narei; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2016-01-01

    We examined predictors of suicide attempts in clinically depressed adolescents in Korea and gender differences in suicidal behavior. In total, 106 adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorder were recruited in South Korea. We assessed various variables that might affect suicide attempts, and used a structured interview for the diagnosis of depression and comorbidities and to evaluate suicidality. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were compared between suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt groups and we examined significant predictors of suicide attempts. Gender differences in suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were also analyzed. Among 106 depressed participants, 50 (47.2%) adolescents were classified in the suicide attempt group. Generally, the suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt group shared similar clinical characteristics. The suicide attempt group had more females, more major depressive disorder diagnoses, more depressive episodes, and higher suicidal ideation than the non-suicide attempt group. Suicidal ideation was the only significant predictor of suicidal attempt, regardless of gender. Higher suicidal ideation frequency scores and more non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors were shown in the female suicide attempt group than the male suicide attempt group. It is recommended that suicidal ideation be assessed regularly and managed rigorously to decrease suicide risks in depressive adolescents. PMID:27776392

  1. Anticonvulsants and suicide attempts in bipolar I disorders.

    PubMed

    Bellivier, F; Belzeaux, R; Scott, J; Courtet, P; Golmard, J-L; Azorin, J-M

    2017-05-01

    To identify risk factors for suicide attempts (SA) in individuals commencing treatment for a manic or mixed episode. A total of 3390 manic or mixed cases with bipolar disorder (BD) type I recruited from 14 European countries were included in a prospective, 2-year observational study. Poisson regression models were used to identify individual and treatment factors associated with new SA events. Two multivariate models were built, stratified for the presence or absence of prior SA. A total of 302 SA were recorded prospectively; the peak incidence was 0-12 weeks after commencing treatment. In cases with a prior history of SA, risk of SA repetition was associated with younger age of first manic episode (P = 0.03), rapid cycling (P < 0.001), history of alcohol and/or substance use disorder (P < 0.001), number of psychotropic drugs prescribed (P < 0.001) and initiation of an anticonvulsant at study entry (P < 0.001). In cases with no previous SA, the first SA event was associated with rapid cycling (P = 0.02), lifetime history of alcohol use disorder (P = 0.02) and initiation of an anticonvulsant at study entry (P = 0.002). The introduction of anticonvulsants for a recent-onset manic or mixed episode may be associated with an increased risk of SA. Further BD studies must determine whether this link is causal. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Penetrating thoracic injuries - treatment of two patients after suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Greberski, Krzysztof; Bugajski, Paweł; Rzymski, Stanisław; Jarząbek, Radosław; Olczak, Bogumił; Kalawski, Ryszard

    2015-03-01

    Thoracic injuries are usually caused by penetrating or blunt trauma. The primary method of treatment is surgery. This study describes two cases of male patients with stab wounds of the chest resulting from suicide attempts. The first case involved a 29-year-old patient transported and admitted to the hospital with a knife still in his chest; its blade extended from the jugular notch to the 5(th) thoracic vertebra but did not damage any important structures. The applied treatment, limited to evacuating the knife, resulted in a satisfactory outcome, and the patient was discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU) in good condition. The second patient reached the hospital on his own. On admission, he did not reveal the real cause of the wound; however, in view of his deteriorating condition, he admitted that the knife penetrated deeply into the mediastinum. In this case, sternotomy was necessary to stop the bleeding of the pulmonary trunk and internal thoracic artery. After completion of treatment, the patient was discharged in good condition. The described management of life-threatening situations conducted by a multidisciplinary team of consultants enabled the choice of optimal treatment methods and resulted in successful outcomes.

  3. [Morbidity-mortality review in psychiatry: suicide or suicide attempts].

    PubMed

    Thomas, A; Combalbert, N; Fay, J; Paquis, J

    2010-06-01

    Further to the occurrence of three cases of suicide attempts or suicides within a few months, a psychiatric team introduced a method of evaluation of the professional practices on this subject. The objective aimed by the team was to collectively identify the risk factors of the acting out and the strategies to prevent it. The analysis and the treatment of unwanted events require an approach per problem. Because of the obligation for the doctors to perform an evaluation of their professional practices, a proposition to use a method presented by the High Authority of Health was looked for. Considering the necessity of favoring the exchanges between team members, the articulation of two methods was proposed: a morbidity mortality review (MMR) and an analysis of the detailed causes. The objective of the MMR is to analyze the deaths of certain predetermined morbid accidents within a service. The aim of the MMR is to highlight actions for improvement. The analysis of the causes allows the professionals to list all the causes of the problem identified, without limiting themselves to the immediate causes. In this case, a simple method was chosen: the Ishikawa diagram (or fishbone diagram, or also cause-and-effect diagram). A specific Ishikawa diagram for suicide was created by the coordinating physician and was proposed to the team. In the term of the first MMR, the tool was improved by the collective clinical experience and served as support of analysis for the studied events. Three cases related to the evaluation were prepared beforehand by the referent doctor and later presented by him in MMR sessions. For each case, approximately a dozen of professionals were invited to fill in the biography of the patient. A discussion was then engaged by the external doctor on the circumstances of self injuries or suicide attempts. The three detailed analyses of cases were transcribed into a virgin Ishikawa diagram. Furthermore, several points were discussed on the safety aspects

  4. Suicide attempts in 107 adolescents and adults with kleptomania.

    PubMed

    Odlaug, Brian L; Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won

    2012-01-01

    Suicide attempts in kleptomania have received little investigation. This study examined rates, correlates, and predictors of suicide attempts in kleptomania. A total of 107 adolescent and adult subjects (n = 32 [29.9%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed with standard measures of symptom severity, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment. Subjects had high rates of suicide attempts (24.3%). The suicide attempt in 92.3% of those who attempted suicide was attributed specifically to kleptomania. Suicide attempts were associated with current and life-time bipolar disorder (p = .047) and lifetime personality disorder (p = .049). Individuals with kleptomania have high rates of suicide attempts. Bipolar disorder is associated with suicide attempts in individuals with kleptomania and underscores the importance of carefully assessing and monitoring suicidality in patients with kleptomania.

  5. Attempted Suicide Rates in U.S. Remain Unchanged

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. Remain Unchanged Men more often resorted to violent means, while women turned to poisoning, drowning, study ... likely to attempt suicide, but males used more violent methods. And all attempts were most common in ...

  6. Suicide attempts among depressed adolescents in primary care.

    PubMed

    Fordwood, Samantha R; Asarnow, Joan R; Huizar, Diana P; Reise, Steven P

    2007-01-01

    Although depression is strongly associated with suicide attempts and suicide deaths, most depressed youth do not make an attempt, indicating the need to identify additional risk factors. We examined suicide attempts among 451 depressed primary care patients, 13 to 21 years of age. In bivariate analyses, youth classified as suicide attempters showed elevated levels of psychopathology, specifically depressive symptoms, externalizing behaviors, anxiety, substance use, mania, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Externalizing behaviors and depression severity uniquely contributed to the prediction of suicide attempts in multivariate analyses. High levels of environmental stress as well as a few key stressful events were associated with suicide attempts; a recent romantic breakup or being assaulted added to suicide attempt risk, beyond the effects of psychopathology. Implications of results for primary care preventive services and suicide attempt prevention are discussed.

  7. Lidocaine Toxicity During Attempted Epistaxis Cautery.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Elizabeth; Thornton, Matthew D

    2016-09-01

    Epistaxis is a common problem that occurs in up to 60% of the general population, and is a common emergency department (ED) complaint. The use of lidocaine for analgesia is common when cauterization is required for bleeds that are refractory to manual compression. Although the use of lidocaine is generally thought of as a benign intervention, it is not completely without risk. We present the case of a 19-year-old man who presented to the ED with persistent anterior epistaxis. He developed severe lidocaine toxicity resulting from topical anesthesia applied prior to intranasal cautery for the epistaxis. This toxicity, which manifested as seizures, bradycardia, hypotension, nausea, and emesis, was rapidly recognized and appropriately treated, with a good clinical outcome for the patient. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: We present this case to increase awareness among emergency physicians of the potential complications of the intranasal use of topical lidocaine, something that is generally considered a benign intervention. We also discuss the pathophysiology and management of lidocaine toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Laboratory Measured Behavioral Impulsivity Relates to Suicide Attempt History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Mathias, Charles W.; Marsh, Dawn M.; Papageorgiou, T. Dorina; Swann, Alan C.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between laboratory behavioral measured impulsivity (using the Immediate and Delayed Memory Tasks) and suicidal attempt histories. Three groups of adults were recruited, those with either: no previous suicide attempts (Control, n = 20), only a single suicide attempt (Single, n = 20), or…

  9. CSF 5-HIAA Predicts Suicide Risk after Attempted Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstrom, Peter; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Studied suicide risk after attempted suicide, as predicted by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolite concentrations, in 92 psychiatric mood disorder inpatients admitted shortly after attempting suicide. Results revealed that low CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) predicted short-range suicide risk after attempted suicide in mood…

  10. Suicide Attempts among Depressed Adolescents in Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fordwood, Samantha R.; Asarnow, Joan R.; Huizar, Diana P.; Reise, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    Although depression is strongly associated with suicide attempts and suicide deaths, most depressed youth do not make an attempt, indicating the need to identify additional risk factors. We examined suicide attempts among 451 depressed primary care patients, 13 to 21 years of age. In bivariate analyses, youth classified as suicide attempters…

  11. Predicting the suicide attempts of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth.

    PubMed

    D'Augelli, Anthony R; Grossman, Arnold H; Salter, Nicholas P; Vasey, Joseph J; Starks, Michael T; Sinclair, Katerina O

    2005-12-01

    In this study predictors of serious suicide attempts among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth were examined. Three groups were compared: youth who reported no attempts, youth who reported attempts unrelated to their sexual orientation, and youth whose attempts were considered related to their sexual orientation. About one third of respondents reported at least one suicide attempt; however, only half of the attempts were judged serious based on potential lethality. About half of all attempts were related to youths' sexual orientation. Factors that differentiated youth reporting suicide attempts and those not reporting attempts were greater childhood parental psychological abuse and more childhood gender-atypical behavior. Gay-related suicide attempts were associated with identifiability as LGB, especially by parents. Early openness about sexual orientation, being considered gender atypical in childhood by parents, and parental efforts to discourage gender atypical behavior were associated with gay-related suicide attempts, especially for males. Assessment of past parental psychological abuse, parental reactions to childhood gender atypical behavior, youths' openness about sexual orientation with family members, and lifetime gay-related verbal abuse can assist in the prediction of suicide attempts in this population.

  12. Surgical reconstruction of attempted suicide charcoal burns.

    PubMed

    Burd, Andrew; Ahmed, Kawser; Noronha, Frederick V; Chan, Jimmy Y W; Pang, Peter C W

    2006-01-01

    Burning charcoal in an enclosed space is now the second most-common method of committing suicide in Hong Kong. When the suicide is unsuccessful, the patients can still sustain extensive tissue destruction from both direct and indirect thermal burns. We report a series of three patients who sustained deep injuries that, after débridement, left exposed bones and joints needing acute coverage. Free tissue transfer was required in each case to close the wounds. This short series illustrates the extensive destruction that can occur from both contact burns and radiant heat injury and the reconstructive challenges that can result. Of particular note was that serial débridment was necessary in the radiant heat injury because of the evolving and more extensive nature of the wound.

  13. Reported childhood trauma and suicide attempts in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Roy, Alec

    2005-12-01

    Childhood traumas are associated with suicidal behavior but this aspect has not been examined in relation to schizophrenia. In this study, 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had attempted suicide were compared with 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had never attempted suicide for their scores on the 34-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). It was found that schizophrenics who had attempted suicide reported significantly higher CTQ scores for emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect than schizophrenics who had never attempted suicide. Therefore, childhood trauma may be a risk factor predisposing schizophrenic patients to attempt suicide.

  14. An examination of suicide attempts among incarcerated sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Jeglic, Elizabeth L; Spada, Ashley; Mercado, Cynthia Calkins

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about suicide attempts among sex offenders. This study examines the rates of nonfatal suicide attempts among a sample (N = 3,030) of incarcerated male sex offenders. Overall, the authors found that 14% of sex offenders in the study sample had made a suicide attempt at some point in their lives. Of those, 11% had reported a suicide attempt prior to incarceration, 0.5% had made a suicide attempt while incarcerated, and 2.5% made suicide attempts both prior to and during incarceration. Sex offenders who made suicide attempts were significantly more likely than those who did not make suicide attempts to have had an abusive childhood, a history of psychiatric problems, intellectual impairment, male victims, and related victims. Suicide attempters also scored higher on actuarial risk measures than nonattempters. No differences were found in attempter status between sex offenders who committed sex offenses against children and those who committed sex offenses against adults. A history of psychiatric problems and treatment as well as childhood abuse/neglect and perpetration against male victims predicted suicide attempter status. These findings are discussed as they pertain to suicide prevention, risk assessment, and the collateral consequences of sex offender legislation.

  15. Change of suicidal ideation induced by suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Matsuishi, Kunitaka; Kitamura, Noboru; Sato, Mayumi; Nagai, Kazuyuki; Huh, Seung-Young; Ariyoshi, Kouichi; Sato, Shinichi; Mita, Tatsuo

    2005-10-01

    Some studies have reported that a suicide attempt has a cathartic effect. We studied a change of suicidal ideation just before and after a suicide attempt to test whether a cathartic effect exists and, if a cathartic effect does exist, to identify factors that may affect it. Subjects consisted of 88 suicide attempters (29 males, 59 females, mean age=35.5 years) who attended the emergency medical center of Kobe City General Hospital, Kobe, Japan. Strength of suicidal ideation just before and after a suicide attempt was evaluated by 11 steps from 0 to 10, where 0 indicates no suicidal ideation and 10 indicates the strongest suicidal ideation. Subjects were also interviewed about any clinical backgrounds related to suicide attempts. Diagnoses were made by psychiatrists based on ICD-10. Scores of suicidal ideation decreased significantly after the suicide attempt in comparison with those just before the suicide attempt (P<0.0001). In suicide attempters of each generation under 60 years of age, there were significant decreases in scores of suicidal ideation after the suicide attempt, but not in those of over 60 years of age. Scores of suicidal ideation after the suicide attempt were significantly higher in the group of F4 classified by ICD-10 than that of F2. Our results indicate that the cathartic effect induced by suicide attempt is different among generations and psychiatric disorders.

  16. A diffusion tensor imaging study of suicide attempters

    PubMed Central

    Thapa-Chhetry, Binod; Sublette, M. Elizabeth; Sullivan, Gregory M.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John; Parsey, Ramin V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined white matter abnormalities in suicide attempters using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This study sought to identify white matter regions altered in individuals with a prior suicide attempt. Methods DTI scans were acquired in 13 suicide attempters with major depressive disorder (MDD), 39 non-attempters with MDD, and 46 healthy participants (HP). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was determined in the brain using two methods: region of interest (ROI) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). ROIs were limited a priori to white matter adjacent to the caudal anterior cingulate cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Results Using the ROI approach, suicide attempters had lower FA than MDD non-attempters and HP in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Uncorrected TBSS results confirmed a significant cluster within the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex indicating lower FA in suicide attempters compared to non-attempters. There were no differences in ADC when comparing suicide attempters, non-attempters and HP groups using ROI or TBSS methods. Conclusions Low FA in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex was associated with a suicide attempt history. Converging findings from other imaging modalities support this finding, making this region of potential interest in determining the diathesis for suicidal behavior. PMID:24462041

  17. Childhood physical abuse, aggression, and suicide attempts among criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Swogger, Marc T; You, Sungeun; Cashman-Brown, Sarah; Conner, Kenneth R

    2011-02-28

    Childhood physical abuse (CPA) has numerous short and long-term negative effects. One of the most serious consequences of CPA is an increased risk for suicide attempts. Clarifying the mechanisms by which CPA increases risk for suicidal behavior may enhance preventive interventions. One potential mechanism is a tendency toward aggression. In a sample of 266 criminal offenders, ages 18-62, we examined the relationships among CPA, lifetime aggression, and suicide attempts and tested lifetime history of aggression as a mediator of the relationship between CPA and suicide attempts. Results indicated that CPA and aggression were associated with suicide attempts. Consistent with our hypothesis, lifetime aggression mediated the CPA and suicide attempts relationship. Findings suggest that aggression may be an important mediator of the relationship between CPA and suicide attempts among criminal offenders, and are consistent with the possibility that treating aggression may reduce risk for suicide attempts.

  18. The relation between sexual orientation and suicide attempts in Austria.

    PubMed

    Plöderl, Martin; Kralovec, Karl; Fartacek, Reinhold

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies indicate that homosexual or bisexual individuals are at a higher risk of attempting suicide compared to heterosexuals. To overcome biases in these studies, more rigorous definitions of "suicide attempts" and the assessment of multiple dimensions of sexual orientation are needed. In addition, studies from the German speaking region are sparse, especially those not recruiting participants from the gay or lesbian communities. We solicited self-reported suicide attempts among 1,382 Austrian adults recruited through structured snowball sampling from students' social networks. Suicide attempts were more frequently reported by those participants with homosexual or bisexual fantasies, partner preference, behavior, and self-identification, compared to their heterosexually classified counterparts. This was true for any dimension of sexual orientation and for suicide attempts with intent to die or suicide attempts that required medical treatment. Our Austrian study confirmed existing evidence that homosexual and bisexual individuals are at an increased risk for attempting suicide. This should be considered in suicide preventive efforts.

  19. Various factors of attempted suicide in a selected area of Naogaon district.

    PubMed

    Halim, K S; Khondker, L; Wahab, M A; Nargis, F; Khan, S I

    2010-04-01

    This descriptive type of study was carried out to determine the various factors of attempted suicide in a selected area at Patnitala and Dhamuirhat upazilla health complex of Naogaon district. All reported alive cases of attempted suicide (self poisoning, hanging, self burning or immolation, drowning etc) during the period from March to June 2003 were interviewed purposely. Data were collected by face to face interview and also from hospital records. Of the interviewed cases, the mean age was 21.4 years. Household workers, day labours, students and agricultural workers (42.6%, 23.9%, 15.5% and 11.3% respectively) were the major victims and nearly 60% had nuclear family. The highest number (77.5%) used organophosphorus compound. Highest number (25.4%) mentioned that husband mainly provoked for suicidal attempt, followed by mother and father. It was evident that 71.8% of suicidal attempt was due to their emotional stress, followed by family violence, disturbed family, social deprivation, stressful events and health problems (50.7%, 49.3%, 36.6%, 25.4%, and 8.5% respectively). It was evident that attempted suicide is proportionately higher among adolescents of unmarried, with early age at marriage, with higher income and with nuclear family compared with adult. Emotional stress, disturbed family, social deprivation, health related problems are appeared to be important reasons for attempted suicide among adolescents whereas family violence in adults.

  20. An attempt to model rift propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwaan, Frank; Schreurs, Guido

    2017-04-01

    .5 cm) or a somewhat longer seed (up to 35 cm). Boundary effects dominate in every case. The only remedy seems to be the application of a continuous seed from one end of the model to the other. In this case however, the standard set-up does not produce a propagating rift, but immediately forms a continuous and symmetrical rift structure along the entire length of the seed. In contrast, the scissor set-up does develop a propagating rift along the continuous seed. The latter is a positive result, although the set-up is more controlled by the initial conditions as hoped for. REFERENCES Zwaan, Naliboff, Schreurs and Buiter, 2016, Insights into the effects of oblique extension on continental rift interaction from 3D analogue and numerical models. Tectonophysics 693, Part B, 239-260

  1. Assessment of maximal handgrip strength: how many attempts are needed?

    PubMed Central

    Reijnierse, Esmee M.; de Jong, Nynke; Trappenburg, Marijke C.; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Butler‐Browne, Gillian; Gapeyeva, Helena; Hogrel, Jean‐Yves; McPhee, Jamie S.; Narici, Marco V.; Sipilä, Sarianna; Stenroth, Lauri; van Lummel, Rob C.; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Meskers, Carel G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Handgrip strength (HGS) is used to identify individuals with low muscle strength (dynapenia). The influence of the number of attempts on maximal HGS is not yet known and may differ depending on age and health status. This study aimed to assess how many attempts of HGS are required to obtain maximal HGS. Methods Three cohorts (939 individuals) differing in age and health status were included. HGS was assessed three times and explored as continuous and dichotomous variable. Paired t‐test, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland–Altman analysis were used to test reproducibility of HGS. The number of individuals with misclassified dynapenia at attempts 1 and 2 with respect to attempt 3 were assessed. Results Results showed the same pattern in all three cohorts. Maximal HGS at attempts 1 and 2 was higher than at attempt 3 on population level (P < 0.001 for all three cohorts). ICC values between all attempts were above 0.8, indicating moderate to high reproducibility. Bland–Altman analysis showed that 41.0 to 58.9% of individuals had the highest HGS at attempt 2 and 12.4 to 37.2% at attempt 3. The percentage of individuals with a maximal HGS above the gender‐specific cut‐off value at attempt 3 compared with attempts 1 and 2 ranged from 0 to 50.0%, with a higher percentage of misclassification in middle‐aged and older populations. Conclusions Maximal HGS is dependent on the number of attempts, independent of age and health status. To assess maximal HGS, at least three attempts are needed if HGS is considered to be a continuous variable. If HGS is considered as a discrete variable to assess dynapenia, two attempts are sufficient to assess dynapenia in younger populations. Misclassification should be taken into account in middle‐aged and older populations. PMID:28150387

  2. A Non-Fatal Self-Poisoning Attempt with Sildenafil.

    PubMed

    Matheeussen, Veerle; Maudens, Kristof E; Anseeuw, Kurt; Neels, Hugo

    2015-09-01

    The phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, sildenafil, is not generally known for its use as a self-poisoning drug. However, intoxication cases with lethal outcome have been described. The case presented here is of a 56-year-old man who claimed to have undertaken an unsuccessful suicide attempt by mono-ingestion of 65 tablets of 100 mg sildenafil. He arrived at the emergency department 24 h after intake with severe vomiting and symptoms of blurred vision. Clinical examination revealed no priapism. Of note was a sinus tachycardia of 100 bpm without signs of hypotension. To quantify the sildenafil concentration in serum, an high-performance liquid chromatography photo-diode array method was developed and validated according to European Medicines Agency guidelines. The intoxicated patient had a serum concentration of 22.2 µg/mL sildenafil, at the time of presentation, which is far above the therapeutic peak concentration. The serum concentration further declined to 9.2 and 2.3 µg/mL, respectively, 5 and 14 h later, revealing a biological half-life of 4.2 h. To the best of our knowledge, this patient took the highest sildenafil dose, which resulted in the highest serum concentration, ever reported. In this subject, sildenafil showed good tolerability because few symptoms occurred and only moderate supportive therapy was needed for full recovery without sequelae. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Unintentional strangulation by a cervical collar after attempted suicide by hanging.

    PubMed

    Lemyze, Malcolm; Palud, Aurore; Favory, Raphael; Mathieu, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    We report the case of a young man who attempted suicide by hanging and whose neurological status deteriorated until the cervical collar, that had been correctly placed by the prehospital team, was removed. We discuss the physiopathological mechanisms leading to death in hanging that is, a blockage of the blood stream to the brain leading to vasogenic and cytotoxic cerebral edema rather than asphyxia or spinal fracture. Our case supports the early removal of neck stabilization devices that can dangerously harm the patient after an attempted suicide by hanging, by increasing intracerebral pressure.

  4. [Non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts: grounding of differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Nitkowski, D; Petermann, F

    2010-01-01

    Three criteria for differential diagnosis of non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts were validated by means of more recent empirical studies. Criteria concerning motives (functions), methods of self-injury (medical severity), lifetime frequency and lifetime number of episodes were investigated. Literature research showed only a few studies concentrated on a direct comparison of non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts. Therefore, studies examing the relationship of suicide intent to the relevant features, are considered, too. Empirical results concerning motives (functions), methods (medical severity), lifetime frequency and number of episodes were compared to the three criteria. Except for lifetime frequency, studies support the criteria. However, in the case of motives, a more differentiated examination is needed to distinguish between non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts. To optimize the assessment, guidelines should be slightly modified. Because of the phenomenological overlap of non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts, a dimensional assessment can be helpful.

  5. Attempting to Unravel the Australian Megatsunami Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    some purported Australian megatsunami deposits. There are simpler and arguably more realistic explanations for the evidence. These results start to cast doubt upon the original interpretations for SE Australian megatsunamis. If this is the case and these deposits are not related to megastsunamis, what caused them?

  6. The experiences of attempt survivor families and how they cope after a suicide attempt in Ghana: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Asare-Doku, Winifred; Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity S

    2017-05-11

    Ghana's socio-cultural landscape proscribes suicidal behaviour, and this has serious ramifications for attempt survivors and their families. The objective of this qualitative study was to understand the experiences of the families of attempt survivors and how they cope with the aftermath of the attempt. Ten families with attempted suicides agreed to participate in the study, hence they were interviewed. The information gathered was manually analyzed according to Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) resulting in three major thematic areas. Three major themes emerged two of which addressed negative experiences and reactions towards the attempts: Experiencing shame and stigma, and Reactive affect. The third theme addressed the coping resources of these informants under the theme: Surviving the stress of attempt. The specific coping resources included personalized spiritual coping, social support, and avoidance. Family systems theory is used to explain some of the findings of this study, and the implication for clinical practice and designing postvention programs for families after a suicide attempt are addressed.

  7. Indepth interviews with 244 female suicide attempters and their associates in northern China: understanding the process and causes of the attempt.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianyun; Phillips, Michael R; Cohen, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Attempted suicide, a deliberate self-directed behavior situated within the unique social world of an individual, is a major risk factor for suicide. Efforts aimed at addressing female suicide must be based on understanding their perceived causes and the meaning of this behavior. This study describes the perceived causes of suicidal behaviors to determine preventive measures of female suicide in China. An in-depth interview about the process and causes of suicidal behavior as well as a detailed structured and a standardized diagnostic interview were administered to 244 female attempters treated at general hospitals and, separately, to their relatives. The perceived three most frequent causes of the attempts were interpersonal conflict (87%), psychological problems (33%), and conflict between others that affected the subject (27%). On average 2.2 causes were identified for each case. The identification in the in-depth interviews of psychological problems as a cause of the attempt was concordant with the results of the independent psychiatric exam identifying a current DSM-IV mental disorder in 38% of cases (Kappa=0.64). Preventive measures of improving interpersonal and problem-solving skills should be developed and assessed for addressing female suicide in China besides expansion of psychiatric services.

  8. Suicide Attempts in Malaysia from the Year 1969 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Maniam, T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the literature on suicide attempts in Malaysia. PsycINFO, PubMed, and Medline databases from 1845 to 2012 and detailed manual search of local official reports from the Ministry of Health and the Malaysian Psychiatric Association and unpublished dissertations from 3 local universities providing postgraduate psychiatric training were included in the current review. A total of 38 studies on suicide attempts in Malaysia were found and reviewed. Twenty-seven (76%) of the studies on suicide attempts were descriptive studies looking at sociodemographic data, psychiatric illnesses, and methods and reasons for suicide attempts. No study has been conducted on treatment and interventions for suicide attempts and the impact of culture was rarely considered. The review showed that in order for researchers, clinicians, and public health policy makers to obtain a better understanding of suicide attempts in Malaysia, more systematic and empirically stringent methodologies and research frameworks need to be used. PMID:24672358

  9. Suicide attempts in Malaysia from the year 1969 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, Aishvarya; Maniam, T; Oei, Tian Po; Subramaniam, Ponnusamy

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the literature on suicide attempts in Malaysia. PsycINFO, PubMed, and Medline databases from 1845 to 2012 and detailed manual search of local official reports from the Ministry of Health and the Malaysian Psychiatric Association and unpublished dissertations from 3 local universities providing postgraduate psychiatric training were included in the current review. A total of 38 studies on suicide attempts in Malaysia were found and reviewed. Twenty-seven (76%) of the studies on suicide attempts were descriptive studies looking at sociodemographic data, psychiatric illnesses, and methods and reasons for suicide attempts. No study has been conducted on treatment and interventions for suicide attempts and the impact of culture was rarely considered. The review showed that in order for researchers, clinicians, and public health policy makers to obtain a better understanding of suicide attempts in Malaysia, more systematic and empirically stringent methodologies and research frameworks need to be used.

  10. Cognitive inhibition in older high-lethality suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Szanto, Katalin; Butters, Meryl A; Kalkus, Jan; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y

    2015-03-01

    People who attempt suicide often display cognitive impairments, particularly poor cognitive control. Could poor cognitive control contribute to high suicide rates in old age? A component of cognitive control, cognitive inhibition-active suppression of task-irrelevant processing-is very sensitive to aging and has been linked to attempted suicide. We investigated cognitive inhibition in older high-lethality suicide attempters, closely resembling suicide victims, as well as low-lethality attempters, and control groups with and without depression and suicidal ideation. A total of 102 participants aged 60 years and older (17 psychiatrically healthy control subjects, 38 depressed control subjects, 16 suicide ideators, 14 low-lethality suicide attempters, and 17 high-lethality suicide attempters) underwent comprehensive clinical and cognitive assessments. They completed the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Color-Word Interference Test, a validated modification of the Stroop test. High-lethality suicide attempters demonstrated a distinct pattern of cognitive inhibition deficits. Compared with psychiatrically healthy control subjects and suicide ideators, high-lethality attempters took longer to complete inhibition trials, even after accounting for potential confounding factors (age, education, Mini mental state examination score, information processing speed, and accuracy). Compared with non-suicidal depressed and healthy control subjects, low-lethality suicide attempters committed more uncorrected errors; however, this difference was not specific to the inhibition condition. Older suicide attempters are a cognitively heterogeneous group. Poor cognitive control in high-lethality attempters may undermine their ability to solve real-life problems, precipitating a catastrophic accumulation of stressors. Meanwhile, low-lethality attempters' poor performance may reflect a careless approach to the task or faulty monitoring. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Cognitive Inhibition in Elderly High-Lethality Suicide Attempters

    PubMed Central

    Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Szanto, Katalin; Butters, Meryl A.; Kalkus, Jan; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background People who attempt suicide often display cognitive impairments, particularly poor cognitive control. Could poor cognitive control contribute to high suicide rates in old age? A component of cognitive control, cognitive inhibition – active suppression of task-irrelevant processing – is very sensitive to aging and has been linked to attempted suicide. We investigated cognitive inhibition in older high-lethality suicide attempters, closely resembling suicide victims, as well as low-lethality attempters, and control groups with and without depression and suicidal ideation. Methods 102 participants aged 60+ (17 psychiatrically healthy control subjects, 38 depressed control subjects, 16 suicide ideators, 14 low-lethality suicide attempters, and 17 high-lethality suicide attempters) underwent comprehensive clinical and cognitive assessments. They completed the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System Color-Word Interference Test, a validated modification of the Stroop test. Results High-lethality suicide attempters demonstrated a distinct pattern of cognitive inhibition deficits. Compared to psychiatrically healthy control subjects and suicide ideators, high-lethality attempters took longer to complete inhibition trials, even after accounting for potential confounding factors (age, education, MMSE score, information processing speed, and accuracy). Compared to non-suicidal depressed and healthy control subjects, low-lethality suicide attempters committed more uncorrected errors; however, this difference was not specific to the inhibition condition. Conclusions Older suicide attempters are a cognitively heterogeneous group. Poor cognitive control in high-lethality attempters may undermine their ability to solve real-life problems, precipitating a catastrophic accumulation of stressors. Meanwhile, low-lethality attempters' poor performance may reflect a careless approach to the task or faulty monitoring. PMID:24816626

  12. Characteristics of Spirituality and Religion Among Suicide Attempters.

    PubMed

    Mandhouj, Olfa; Perroud, Nader; Hasler, Roland; Younes, Nadia; Huguelet, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    Spirituality and religiousness are associated with a lower risk of suicide. A detailed assessment of spirituality among 88 suicide attempters hospitalized after a suicide attempt was performed. Factors associated with the recurrence of suicide attempts over 18 months were looked into. Spirituality was low among most suicide attempters in comparison with the general population. Two groups were identified: those with a high score of depression who featured "low" in spirituality and those with a more heterogeneous profile, for example, involving personality disorders, characterized by a "high" spirituality. At the follow-up, the "meaning in life" score appeared to correlate with recurrence of suicide. Clinical implications are discussed herein.

  13. Lifetime suicide attempts in juvenile assessment center youth.

    PubMed

    Nolen, Scott; McReynolds, Larkin S; DeComo, Robert E; John, Reni; Keating, Joseph M; Wasserman, Gail A

    2008-01-01

    To describe suicide risk in youth seen at a Juvenile Assessment Center (JAC), we examined relationships among self-reported lifetime attempts and demographic, justice, and psychiatric data via logistic regression. Similar to other settings, youth reporting lifetime attempts were more likely to be older, female, not living with both parents and currently arrested for a violent or felony crime. Mood, substance use, and behavior disorder each increased prediction substantially. Anxiety Disorder was associated with elevated attempt rates for boys only. JACs need to develop protocols for identifying suicide risk; further, since suicide history predicts future attempts, Anxiety Disordered boys may be at particular risk.

  14. Vallecular rupture with cervical spine fracture after a failed hanging suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Joong Keun; Lee, Seong Rok; Lee, Ho Min; Lee, Jung Min; Lee, Jong Cheol

    2013-09-01

    Hanging is a common method of suicide. We present a case of vallecular rupture and cervical spine fracture without an external wound after a failed hanging suicide attempt. Surgical treatment involved posterior fusion of C2 to 3, followed by repair of the vallecular rupture via an external approach. The patient recovered with no residual physical or mental sequelae.

  15. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Suicide Attempt History among Veterans Receiving Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Lisa A.; Betthauser, Lisa M.; Homaifar, Beeta Y.; Villarreal, Edgar; Harwood, Jeri E. F.; Staves, Pamela J.; Huggins, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    History of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been found to increase risk of suicidal behavior. The association between suicide attempt history among veterans with PTSD and/or TBI was explored. Cases (N = 81) and 2:1 matched controls (N = 160) were randomly selected from a Veterans Affairs Medical Center…

  16. The Association between Bankruptcy and Hospital-Presenting Attempted Suicide: A Record Linkage Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidger, Judi; Gunnell, David; Jarvik, Jeffrey G.; Overstreet, Karen A.; Hollingworth, William

    2011-01-01

    The associations between admissions to an emergency department following attempted suicide and personal bankruptcy in the preceding and subsequent 2 years were evaluated. Records from a level 1 trauma center (June 1993-December 2002) in Seattle, WA, were linked with case files from the local U.S. District Bankruptcy Court (June 1991 onward).…

  17. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Suicide Attempt History among Veterans Receiving Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Lisa A.; Betthauser, Lisa M.; Homaifar, Beeta Y.; Villarreal, Edgar; Harwood, Jeri E. F.; Staves, Pamela J.; Huggins, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    History of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been found to increase risk of suicidal behavior. The association between suicide attempt history among veterans with PTSD and/or TBI was explored. Cases (N = 81) and 2:1 matched controls (N = 160) were randomly selected from a Veterans Affairs Medical Center…

  18. Suicide Attempt, Clinical Correlates, and BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism in Chronic Patients With Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Xia, Haisen; Zhang, Guangya; Du, Xiangdong; Zhang, Yingyang; Yin, Guangzhong; Dai, Jing; He, Man-Xi; Soares, Jair C; Li, Xiaosi; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2017-08-31

    Recent evidence suggests the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior. Because schizophrenia patients usually have high suicide rates and numerous studies have suggested that BDNF may contribute to the psychopathology of schizophrenia, we hypothesized that the functional polymorphism of BDNF (Val66Met) was associated with suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia in a Chinese Han population. This polymorphism was genotyped in 825 chronic schizophrenia patients with (n = 123) and without (n = 702) suicide attempts and 445 healthy controls without a history of suicide attempts using a case-control design. The schizophrenia symptoms were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. There were no significant differences in BDNF Val66Met genotype and allele distributions between the patients and healthy controls. However, we found the Val allele (p = .023) and the Val/Val genotypes (p = .058) to be associated with a history of suicide attempts. Moreover, some clinical characteristics, including age and cigarettes smoked each day, interacted with the BDNF gene variant and appeared to play an important role in suicide attempts among schizophrenia patients. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism itself and its interaction with some clinical variables may influence suicide attempts among schizophrenia patients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Characteristics and outcomes of self inflicted pediatric injuries: the role of method of suicide attempt.

    PubMed Central

    Li, G.; Ling, J.; DiScala, C.; Nordenholz, K.; Sterling, S.; Baker, S. P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical outcomes of self inflicted pediatric injuries in relation to the method of suicide attempt. METHODS: Using data from the National Pediatric Trauma Registry Phase II, a comparative analysis was conducted for children under 15 years of age who were admitted from 1 October 1988 through 30 April 1996 because of self inflicted injury by firearm (n = 28), hanging (n = 38), or jumping from heights (n = 21). RESULTS: Of the 87 cases under study, 90% occurred at home, and 86% occurred between noon and midnight, with a peak in early evening (between 6 pm and 7 pm)-More than one quarter (29%) had preexisting mental disorders, such as disturbance of conduct and depression. Toxicological tests were conducted on admission on 40 (46%) of the patients; 20% tested positive for alcohol or other illicit drugs. The method of suicide attempt was associated with gender and age of the patients: 75% of the firearm cases and 82% of the hanging cases were boys compared with 29% of the jumping cases (p < 0.01); 79% of the hanging cases were aged 13 years or younger compared with 39% of the firearm cases and 48% of the jumping cases (p < 0.01). The mean injury severity score was 18.6 for the firearm cases and 16.3 for the hanging cases, significantly greater than 8.5 for the jumping cases (p < 0.02). Reflecting the differences in injury severity, firearm cases and hanging cases were more likely than jumping cases to be sent to intensive care units or operating rooms from emergency departments, and to develop complications during hospitalization. The case fatality rate was 50% for the firearm cases, 32% for the hanging cases, and 5% for the jumping cases (p < 0.01). On average, these patients stayed in hospitals for 11 days and 52% of those who were alive at discharge had at least one impairment in communication, cognition, or self care functions. CONCLUSION: Boys and older children tend to use more lethal methods in suicide

  20. A woman's attempt at a perverse solution and its failure.

    PubMed

    Chasseguet-Smirgel, J

    1988-01-01

    The Programme Committee of the Montreal Congress asked the author to present a case of perversion connected with traumas. Rather than speak about erotization of the effects of the trauma (death or castration anxiety transformed into a source of pleasure) the author relates the first 18 months of analysis of a young woman whose important narcissistic trauma, the result of an inadequate early relationship with her mother, is camouflaged by an avidity for sexual excitations. The aim is to transform narcissistic pain which cannot be worked through into sexuality for which release is possible. Sexuality becomes a means of expressing feelings of hate, revenge and triumph over the primary object. The ensuing perverse solution--an attempt to slip into the primal scene by identification with the sadistic penis--does not succeed. The author advances certain hypotheses concerning the mother-daughter relationship which seem to explain this failure and to explain too the absence of a stable perverse organization in women. There follows a longing to return to the womb, in the shape of the fantasied destruction of the contents of the mother's belly, expressed as the fantasy of the end of the world, and which the author labels as 'the archaic matrix of the Oedipus complex'.

  1. Do not attempt resuscitation: the importance of consensual decisions.

    PubMed

    Imhof, Lorenz; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy; Janisch, Christine; Kesselring, Annemarie; Zuercher Zenklusend, Regula

    2011-02-03

    To describe the involvement and input of physicians and nurses in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR / do not attempt resuscitation (DNAR) decisions; to analyse decision patterns; and understand the practical implications. A Qualitative Grounded Theory study using one-time open-ended interviews with 40 volunteer physicians and 52 nurses drawn from acute care wards with mixes of heterogeneous cases in seven different hospitals in German-speaking Switzerland. Establishing DNAR orders in the best interests of patients was described as a challenging task requiring the leadership of senior physicians and nurses. Implicit decisions in favour of CPR predominated at the beginning of hospitalisation; depending on the context, they were relieved/superseded by explicit DNAR decisions. Explicit decisions were the result of hierarchical medical expertise, of multilateral interdisciplinary expertise, of patient autonomy and/or of negotiated patient autonomy. Each type of decision, implicit or explicit, potentially represented a team consensus. Non-consensual decisions were prone to precipitate personal or team conflicts, and, occasionally, led to non-compliance. Establishing DNAR orders is a demanding task. Reaching a consensus is of crucial importance in guaranteeing teamwork and good patient care. Communication and negotiation skills, professional and personal life experience and empathy for patients and colleagues are pivotal. Therefore, leadership by experienced senior physicians and nurses is needed and great efforts should be made with regard to multidisciplinary education.

  2. Psychological Distress Increases Perceived Stigma Toward Attempted Suicide Among Those With a History of Past Attempted Suicide.

    PubMed

    Scocco, Paolo; Toffol, Elena; Preti, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    People who suffer from mental illness have high self-stigmatizing attitudes. This study aims to test the effect of psychopathological distress on stigma toward attempted suicide in a population of suicide attempters. Data were collected through an interview and 2 questionnaires (90-item Symptom Checklist; Stigma of Suicide Attempt scale) administered to 67 patients hospitalized after an attempted suicide. Participants with a history of past attempted suicide had higher scores on the Stigma of Suicide Attempt scale (t58.9 = -2.51, p = 0.014). Higher levels of psychological distress were related to greater perceived stigma only in individuals with a history of past attempted suicide (standardized coefficient = 0.37; t = 2.36; p = 0.024; R2 = 14%; adjusted R2 = 11.5%). A previous experience of attempted suicide is related to greater self-stigmatizing attitudes toward suicidal behavior. Among those who have previously attempted suicide in particular, psychopathological distress may significantly contribute to increase the perception of stigma.

  3. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hyun Sil

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the rate of suicide attempts and relevant variables and identified risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. A total of 2,100 Korean adolescents, including 1,321 student adolescents and 779 delinquent adolescents, were…

  4. Predictors of Multiple Suicide Attempts among Suicidal Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Christopher; Kramer, Anne; Joe, Sean; Venkataraman, Sanjeev; King, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathology, social support, and interpersonal orientation were studied in relation to suicide attempt status in acutely suicidal, psychiatrically hospitalized Black adolescents and a matched sample of White adolescents. In the total sample, multiple attempters were differentiated by lower perceived support. Within the Black youth subsample,…

  5. Erroneous Memories Arising from Repeated Attempts to Remember

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkel, Linda A.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of repeated and prolonged attempts at remembering on false memory rates was assessed in three experiments. Participants saw and imagined pictures and then made repeated recall attempts before taking a source memory test. Although the number of items recalled increased with repeated tests, the net gains were associated with more source…

  6. Familism, Family Environment, and Suicide Attempts among Latina Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Juan B.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Baumann, Ana A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n = 109) and nonattempters (n = 107) were recruited from the New York City area. Latent class analysis revealed three family…

  7. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…

  8. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hyun Sil

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the rate of suicide attempts and relevant variables and identified risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. A total of 2,100 Korean adolescents, including 1,321 student adolescents and 779 delinquent adolescents, were…

  9. Erroneous Memories Arising from Repeated Attempts to Remember

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkel, Linda A.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of repeated and prolonged attempts at remembering on false memory rates was assessed in three experiments. Participants saw and imagined pictures and then made repeated recall attempts before taking a source memory test. Although the number of items recalled increased with repeated tests, the net gains were associated with more source…

  10. Suicide Neurosis--A Study of Sixty Young Suicide Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinnian, R. Rawlin; Johnson, Shelonitda

    Suicide and deviance are related because loss in social interaction is a consequence of deviance and an antecedent to suicide. This study examined the cognitive and affective experiences of suicidal individuals for evidence of neurosis. Sixty young attempted suicides with a history of a serious suicidal attempts attending the suicide prevention…

  11. Suicide Ideation and Attempts in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Gorman, Angela A.; Hillwig-Garcia, Jolene; Syed, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Frequency of suicide ideation and attempts in 791 children with autism (1-16 years), 35 nonautistic depressed children, and 186 typical children and risk factors in autism were determined. Percent of children with autism for whom suicide ideation or attempts was rated as sometimes to very often a problem by mothers (14%) was 28 times greater than…

  12. Depression and exposure to suicide predict suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Nanayakkara, Sonali; Misch, Diane; Chang, Laura; Henry, David

    2013-10-01

    To examine the role of depression and exposure to peer or family suicide and their interaction as risk factors for adolescent suicide attempts. The study used the public-use data set of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), which is a nationally representative stratified sample of U.S. high school students. Sample size was 4,719. Analyses predicted suicide attempts from preexisting depression and exposure to suicide of a friend or family member, controlling for previous suicide attempts, exposure, and depression. The greatest risk for future suicide attempts (relative risk = 3.3), was attributable to an attempt in the preceding year, controlling for preexisting and current depression and exposure. There was a main effect of exposure with the next highest relative risk of 3.2. A similar risk ratio, 3.2, was found for the difference between no depression and current severe depression, controlling for past depression and attempts. There was no evidence of an interaction between exposure to a peer or family member suicide attempt and depression. Supplementary analyses found that exposure to a friend or family member suicide attempt or completed suicide each added significantly to risk for adolescents regardless of depression levels. Exposure to suicidal behavior in a friend or family member poses risk equivalent to the risk posed by becoming severely depressed. Attending to such risks could benefit clinical practice with adolescence and public health suicide prevention efforts. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Meaning of Suicide Attempts by Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everall, Robin D.

    2000-01-01

    Describes study identifying themes that characterize experiences of young adults who made one suicide attempt between the ages of 20 and 24. Six major themes identified include: family experiences, adolescent interactions, emotional experiences, self-destructive behaviors, depression, and perception of control. Views suicide attempts as a…

  14. Attempted kleptoparasitism of osprey by great blue herons

    Treesearch

    John R. Squires

    1998-01-01

    Two attempts of kleptoparisitism of Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) by Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) were observed in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. Two herons vocalized and bill thrusted at Ospreys as they emerged from the water following dives for fish. Although both attempts were unsuccessful (the Ospreys failed to capture a fish), the intensity of...

  15. Reported Childhood Trauma and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2005-01-01

    Childhood traumas are associated with suicidal behavior but this aspect has not been examined in relation to schizophrenia. In this study, 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had attempted suicide were compared with 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had never attempted suicide for their scores on the 34-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire…

  16. Suicide Ideation and Attempts in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Gorman, Angela A.; Hillwig-Garcia, Jolene; Syed, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Frequency of suicide ideation and attempts in 791 children with autism (1-16 years), 35 nonautistic depressed children, and 186 typical children and risk factors in autism were determined. Percent of children with autism for whom suicide ideation or attempts was rated as sometimes to very often a problem by mothers (14%) was 28 times greater than…

  17. MRI correlates of suicide attempt history in unipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, E P; Jamison, K R; Steffens, D C; Cassidy, F; Provenzale, J M; Lehman, A; Weisler, R H; Carroll, B J; Krishnan, K R

    2001-08-15

    Suicide represents a major health problem in the United States, and prediction of suicide attempts is difficult. No structural neuroimaging studies have been done to specifically examine findings in patients who have attempted suicide. The objective of this study was to compare MRI findings in unipolar patients with and without a history of a suicide attempt. In this post hoc analysis, 20 unipolar subjects with a history of a suicide attempt were matched by age and gender to unipolar subjects without a history of an attempt. Subjects were also matched on parameters such as cardiovascular history, electroconvulsive treatment history, and history of psychosis. Subjects with a history of any neurologic condition were excluded. There were no significant differences in age of onset of depression, number of episodes of depression, and Hamilton Depression scores between the two groups. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were rated using the Coffey and Boyko rating scales. Unipolar patients with a history of a suicide attempt demonstrated significantly more subcortical gray matter hyperintensities compared with patients without such a history. Patients with abnormal MRI findings may be at higher risk for mood disorders and suicide attempts because of disruption of critical neuroanatomic pathways. Gray matter hyperintensities in the basal ganglia may be especially associated with risk for suicide attempts.

  18. Childhood Diagnoses and Later Risk for Multiple Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, M. David; Joiner, Thomas E.; Rumzek, Harold

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between childhood diagnosis, personality psychopathology and suicidal behavior in young adulthood was explored in a sample of 327 suicide ideators, single attempters, and multiple attempters. Of the total sample, 174 received at least one childhood diagnosis; the 153 without a diagnosis provided a comparison group. Results suggest…

  19. Assessing African American Adolescents' Risk for Suicide Attempts: Attachment Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Maureen E.; Benoit, Marilyn; O'Donnell, Regina M.; Getson, Pamela R.; Silber, Tomas; Walsh, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates risk factors in African American adolescent suicide attempters (n=51) and nonsuicidal (n=124) adolescents. Results show that threat of separation from a parental figure, insomnia, neglect, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and failing grades were the strongest predictors of suicide attempt. Unexpected findings include high levels of…

  20. [Caring for suicide attempters in twelve healthcare institutions in Picardie].

    PubMed

    Bernardy-Prud'homme, Aurore; Delgrange, Didier; Podik, Jean Etienne; Dubois, Gérard; Braillon, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Simple tools to help in caring for people having attempted to commit suicide are often lacking or are unsuitable. Faced with this situation, a standardised questionnaire was sent to practitioners in all public institutions in Picardie which care for suicide attempters. A real effort must be made by healthcare professionals in order to improve the care provided to these patients.

  1. Recent advances in differentiating suicide attempters from suicide ideators.

    PubMed

    Klonsky, E David; Qiu, Tianyou; Saffer, Boaz Y

    2017-01-01

    This article summarizes findings from recent studies (published since 2015) examining differences between suicide attempters and suicide ideators. Converging evidence suggests that the capability to attempt suicide (e.g., acquired capability, painful and provocative experiences, high tolerance for pain and distress) is higher in suicide attempters than suicide ideators. Other psychosocial and biological differences have also been identified but require replication. Recent literature reviews find that traditional risk factors for suicide - such as depression, hopelessness, most psychiatric disorders, and even impulsivity - robustly predict suicide ideation but poorly predict suicide attempts among ideators. To address this knowledge gap, studies are increasingly employing an ideation-to-action framework. This framework views the development of suicide ideation and the progression from ideation to potentially lethal attempts as distinct processes with distinct explanations and predictors. Converging evidence suggests that factors associated with diminished fear of pain, injury, and death can increase one's capability to attempt suicide and facilitate the progression from suicidal thoughts to suicidal acts. Recent studies have also identified other variables that may differentiate attempters from ideators, but these require replication. Theories of suicide positioned within the ideation-to-action framework provide testable and promising hypotheses about the progression from ideation to attempts. These include the Interpersonal Theory, Integrated Motivational-Volitional Model, and Three-Step Theory.

  2. Atmospheric pressure and suicide attempts in Helsinki, Finland.

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, Laura; Ruuhela, Reija; Ostamo, Aini; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suominen, Kirsi; Partonen, Timo

    2012-11-01

    The influence of weather on mood and mental health is commonly debated. Furthermore, studies concerning weather and suicidal behavior have given inconsistent results. Our aim was to see if daily weather changes associate with the number of suicide attempts in Finland. All suicide attempts treated in the hospitals in Helsinki, Finland, during two separate periods, 8 years apart, were included. Altogether, 3,945 suicide attempts were compared with daily weather parameters and analyzed with a Poisson regression. We found that daily atmospheric pressure correlated statistically significantly with the number of suicide attempts, and for men the correlation was negative. Taking into account the seasonal normal value during the period 1971-2000, daily temperature, global solar radiation and precipitation did not associate with the number of suicide attempts on a statistically significant level in our study. We concluded that daily atmospheric pressure may have an impact on suicidal behavior, especially on suicide attempts of men by violent methods (P < 0.001), and may explain the clustering of suicide attempts. Men seem to be more vulnerable to attempt suicide under low atmospheric pressure and women under high atmospheric pressure. We show only statistical correlations, which leaves the exact mechanisms of interaction between weather and suicidal behavior open. However, suicidal behavior should be assessed from the point of view of weather in addition to psychiatric and social aspects.

  3. Interpersonal Precipitants and Suicide Attempts in Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodsky, Beth S.; Groves, Shelly A.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John; Stanley, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is often characterized by multiple low lethality suicide attempts triggered by seemingly minor incidents, and less commonly by high lethality attempts that are attributed to impulsiveness or comorbid major depression. The relationships among life events, impulsiveness, and type of suicidal behavior has hardly…

  4. Childhood Diagnoses and Later Risk for Multiple Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, M. David; Joiner, Thomas E.; Rumzek, Harold

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between childhood diagnosis, personality psychopathology and suicidal behavior in young adulthood was explored in a sample of 327 suicide ideators, single attempters, and multiple attempters. Of the total sample, 174 received at least one childhood diagnosis; the 153 without a diagnosis provided a comparison group. Results suggest…

  5. Familism, Family Environment, and Suicide Attempts among Latina Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Juan B.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Baumann, Ana A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n = 109) and nonattempters (n = 107) were recruited from the New York City area. Latent class analysis revealed three family…

  6. Characteristics of Chinese Suicide Attempters: An Emergency Room Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jie; Jia, Shuhua; Jiang, Chao; Sun, Jie

    2006-01-01

    Studying the characteristics of attempted suicide is helpful in knowing the background of some completed suicides and improving prevention or intervention strategies. This current study analyzed data of 74 suicide attempters and 92 accident injured patients admitted to 6 hospital emergency rooms in an area of Northeastern China and found both…

  7. Characteristics of Chinese Suicide Attempters: An Emergency Room Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jie; Jia, Shuhua; Jiang, Chao; Sun, Jie

    2006-01-01

    Studying the characteristics of attempted suicide is helpful in knowing the background of some completed suicides and improving prevention or intervention strategies. This current study analyzed data of 74 suicide attempters and 92 accident injured patients admitted to 6 hospital emergency rooms in an area of Northeastern China and found both…

  8. Interpersonal Precipitants and Suicide Attempts in Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodsky, Beth S.; Groves, Shelly A.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John; Stanley, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is often characterized by multiple low lethality suicide attempts triggered by seemingly minor incidents, and less commonly by high lethality attempts that are attributed to impulsiveness or comorbid major depression. The relationships among life events, impulsiveness, and type of suicidal behavior has hardly…

  9. 7 CFR 400.122 - Attempts to locate debtor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attempts to locate debtor. 400.122 Section 400.122... Succeeding Crop Years § 400.122 Attempts to locate debtor. Before disclosing delinquent debt information to a credit reporting agency, FCIC shall take reasonable action to locate a debtor for whom FCIC does not...

  10. 7 CFR 400.122 - Attempts to locate debtor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attempts to locate debtor. 400.122 Section 400.122... Succeeding Crop Years § 400.122 Attempts to locate debtor. Before disclosing delinquent debt information to a credit reporting agency, FCIC shall take reasonable action to locate a debtor for whom FCIC does not...

  11. Atmospheric pressure and suicide attempts in Helsinki, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Laura; Ruuhela, Reija; Ostamo, Aini; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suominen, Kirsi; Partonen, Timo

    2012-11-01

    The influence of weather on mood and mental health is commonly debated. Furthermore, studies concerning weather and suicidal behavior have given inconsistent results. Our aim was to see if daily weather changes associate with the number of suicide attempts in Finland. All suicide attempts treated in the hospitals in Helsinki, Finland, during two separate periods, 8 years apart, were included. Altogether, 3,945 suicide attempts were compared with daily weather parameters and analyzed with a Poisson regression. We found that daily atmospheric pressure correlated statistically significantly with the number of suicide attempts, and for men the correlation was negative. Taking into account the seasonal normal value during the period 1971-2000, daily temperature, global solar radiation and precipitation did not associate with the number of suicide attempts on a statistically significant level in our study. We concluded that daily atmospheric pressure may have an impact on suicidal behavior, especially on suicide attempts of men by violent methods ( P < 0.001), and may explain the clustering of suicide attempts. Men seem to be more vulnerable to attempt suicide under low atmospheric pressure and women under high atmospheric pressure. We show only statistical correlations, which leaves the exact mechanisms of interaction between weather and suicidal behavior open. However, suicidal behavior should be assessed from the point of view of weather in addition to psychiatric and social aspects.

  12. Suicide attempts and clinical features of bipolar patients.

    PubMed

    Berkol, Tonguç D; İslam, Serkan; Kırlı, Ebru; Pınarbaşı, Rasim; Özyıldırım, İlker

    2016-06-01

    To identify clinical predictors of suicide attempts in patients with bipolar disorder. This study included bipolar patients who were treated in the Psychiatry Department, Haseki Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, between 2013 and 2014; an informed consent was obtained from the participants. Two  hundred and eighteen bipolar patients were assessed by using the structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) Axis-I (SCID-I) in order to detect all possible psychiatric comorbid diagnoses. Clinical predictors of suicide attempts were examined in attempters and non-attempters. The study design was retrospective. The lifetime suicide attempt rate for the entire sample was 19.2%. Suicide attempters with bipolar disorder had more lifetime comorbidity of eating disorder. Female gender and family history of mood disorder were significant predictors for suicide attempts. There was no difference between groups in terms of bipolar disorder subtype, onset age of bipolar disorder, total number of episodes, first and predominant episode type, suicide history in first degree relatives, severity of episodes, and hospitalization and being psychotic. Our study revealed that female gender, family history of mood disorder, and eating disorder are more frequent in bipolar patients with at least one suicide attempt.

  13. The Prevalence, Lethality and Intent of Suicide Attempts among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Judy A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    Although suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents in the United States, little is known about the prevalence or characteristics of suicide attempts among adolescents. Data from 1,710 adolescents attending 9 high schools in 5 communities were examined to determine the prevalence of suicide attempts and the lethality and intent…

  14. History of suicide attempts in adults with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Paquette-Smith, Melissa; Weiss, Jonathan; Lunsky, Yona

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) may be at higher risk for attempting suicide compared to the general population. This study examines the issue of suicidality in adults with AS. An online survey was completed by 50 adults from across Ontario. The sample was dichotomized into individuals who had attempted suicide (n = 18) and those who had not (n = 32). We examined the relationship between predictor variables and previous attempts, and compared the services that both groups are currently receiving. Over 35% of individuals with AS reported that they had attempted suicide in the past. Individuals who attempted suicide were more likely to have a history of depression and self-reported more severe autism symptomatology. Those with and without a suicidal history did not differ in terms of the services they were currently receiving. This study looks at predictors retrospectively and cannot ascertain how long ago the attempt was made. Although efforts were made to obtain a representative sample, there is the possibility that the individuals surveyed may be more or less distressed than the general population with AS. The suicide attempt rate in our sample is much higher than the 4.6% lifetime prevalence seen in the general population. These findings highlight a need for more specialized services to help prevent future attempts and to support this vulnerable group.

  15. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…

  16. Cognitive Style and Pleasant Activities among Female Adolescent Suicide Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared cognitive style and pleasant activities of 77 suicide-attempting female minority adolescents with those of 39 psychiatrically disturbed and 23 nondisturbed female adolescents. Suicide attempters reported significantly fewer alternatives for solving interpersonal problems, were significantly more focused on problems, and were more likely…

  17. Assessing African American Adolescents' Risk for Suicide Attempts: Attachment Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Maureen E.; Benoit, Marilyn; O'Donnell, Regina M.; Getson, Pamela R.; Silber, Tomas; Walsh, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates risk factors in African American adolescent suicide attempters (n=51) and nonsuicidal (n=124) adolescents. Results show that threat of separation from a parental figure, insomnia, neglect, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and failing grades were the strongest predictors of suicide attempt. Unexpected findings include high levels of…

  18. 29 CFR 1614.603 - Voluntary settlement attempts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary settlement attempts. 1614.603 Section 1614.603 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Matters of General Applicability § 1614.603 Voluntary settlement attempts...

  19. 31 CFR 547.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 547.205 Section 547.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 547.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and...

  20. Quit Attempt Correlates among Smokers by Race/Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Kahende, Jennifer W.; Malarcher, Ann M.; Teplinskaya, Anna; Asman, Kat J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature deaths in the U.S., accounting for approximately 443,000 deaths annually. Although smoking prevalence in recent decades has declined substantially among all racial/ethnic groups, disparities in smoking-related behaviors among racial/ethnic groups continue to exist. Two of the goals of Healthy People 2020 are to reduce smoking prevalence among adults to 12% or less and to increase smoking cessation attempts by adult smokers from 41% to 80%. Our study assesses whether correlates of quit attempts vary by race/ethnicity among adult (≥18 years) smokers in the U.S. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in how both internal and external factors affect quit attempts is important for targeting smoking-cessation interventions to decrease tobacco-use disparities. Methods We used 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS) data from 16,213 adults to examine whether the relationship between demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors, smoking policies and having made a quit attempt in the past year varied by race/ethnicity. Results Hispanics and persons of multiple races were more likely to have made a quit attempt than whites. Overall, younger individuals and those with >high school education, who smoked fewer cigarettes per day and had smoked for fewer years were more likely to have made a quit attempt. Having a smoke-free home, receiving a doctor’s advice to quit, smoking menthol cigarettes and having a greater time to when you smoked your first cigarette of the day were also associated with having made a quit attempt. The relationship between these four variables and quit attempts varied by race/ethnicity; most notably receiving a doctor’s advice was not related to quit attempts among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and menthol use among whites was associated with a lower prevalence of quit attempts while black menthol users were more likely to have made a quit

  1. Assessment of maximal handgrip strength: how many attempts are needed?

    PubMed

    Reijnierse, Esmee M; de Jong, Nynke; Trappenburg, Marijke C; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Gapeyeva, Helena; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; McPhee, Jamie S; Narici, Marco V; Sipilä, Sarianna; Stenroth, Lauri; van Lummel, Rob C; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Meskers, Carel G M; Maier, Andrea B

    2017-06-01

    Handgrip strength (HGS) is used to identify individuals with low muscle strength (dynapenia). The influence of the number of attempts on maximal HGS is not yet known and may differ depending on age and health status. This study aimed to assess how many attempts of HGS are required to obtain maximal HGS. Three cohorts (939 individuals) differing in age and health status were included. HGS was assessed three times and explored as continuous and dichotomous variable. Paired t-test, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis were used to test reproducibility of HGS. The number of individuals with misclassified dynapenia at attempts 1 and 2 with respect to attempt 3 were assessed. Results showed the same pattern in all three cohorts. Maximal HGS at attempts 1 and 2 was higher than at attempt 3 on population level (P < 0.001 for all three cohorts). ICC values between all attempts were above 0.8, indicating moderate to high reproducibility. Bland-Altman analysis showed that 41.0 to 58.9% of individuals had the highest HGS at attempt 2 and 12.4 to 37.2% at attempt 3. The percentage of individuals with a maximal HGS above the gender-specific cut-off value at attempt 3 compared with attempts 1 and 2 ranged from 0 to 50.0%, with a higher percentage of misclassification in middle-aged and older populations. Maximal HGS is dependent on the number of attempts, independent of age and health status. To assess maximal HGS, at least three attempts are needed if HGS is considered to be a continuous variable. If HGS is considered as a discrete variable to assess dynapenia, two attempts are sufficient to assess dynapenia in younger populations. Misclassification should be taken into account in middle-aged and older populations. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf on the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  2. Trait aggression in suicide attempters: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Doihara, Chiho; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Yamada, Tomoki; Sato, Ryoko; Hasegawa, Hana; Furuno, Taku; Nakagawa, Makiko; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2008-06-01

    Suicide attempt is a potent risk factor of subsequent suicide. Understanding the characteristics of suicide attempters is important for preventing suicide. The authors investigated aggression in medically serious suicide attempters at an emergency department. Trait aggression was evaluated in 55 suicide attempters and 71 healthy individuals as a control group using the Japanese version of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ). Total BAQ scores (t = 2.782, P = 0.006) and the hostility scores (t = 3.735, P < 0.001) were significantly higher in the suicide attempters than the controls. It suggested that to focus on aggression and its management is one of the key components for preventing suicide.

  3. (De-) criminalization of attempted suicide in India: A review.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Kumar, Saurabh; Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Dhawan, Anju; Sagar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Attempted suicide is a serious problem requiring mental health interventions, but it continues to be treated as a criminal offence under the section 309 of Indian Penal Code. The article reviews the international legal perspective across various regions of the world, discusses the unintended consequences of section 309 IPC and highlights the need for decriminalization of attempted suicide in India. The Mental Health Care Bill, 2013, still under consideration in the Rajya Sabha (upper house), has proposed that attempted suicide should not be criminally prosecuted. Decriminalization of suicidal attempt will serve to cut down the undue stigma and avoid punishment in the aftermath of incident, and lead to a more accurate collection of suicide-related statistics. From a policy perspective, it will further emphasize the urgent need to develop a framework to deliver mental health services to all those who attempt suicide.

  4. (De-) criminalization of attempted suicide in India: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Kumar, Saurabh; Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Dhawan, Anju; Sagar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Attempted suicide is a serious problem requiring mental health interventions, but it continues to be treated as a criminal offence under the section 309 of Indian Penal Code. The article reviews the international legal perspective across various regions of the world, discusses the unintended consequences of section 309 IPC and highlights the need for decriminalization of attempted suicide in India. The Mental Health Care Bill, 2013, still under consideration in the Rajya Sabha (upper house), has proposed that attempted suicide should not be criminally prosecuted. Decriminalization of suicidal attempt will serve to cut down the undue stigma and avoid punishment in the aftermath of incident, and lead to a more accurate collection of suicide-related statistics. From a policy perspective, it will further emphasize the urgent need to develop a framework to deliver mental health services to all those who attempt suicide. PMID:25535437

  5. Anxious temperament as a risk factor of suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Sanshi; Terao, Takeshi; Shiotsuki, Ippei; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Ishii, Keisuke; Shigemitsu, Osamu; Fujiki, Minoru; Hoaki, Nobuhiko

    2016-07-01

    Suicide has been reported to be associated with cyclothymic, irritable, depressive and anxious temperaments. In contrast, hyperthymic temperament has been reported to be protective against suicide. In the present study, we hypothesized that Japanese patients with suicide attempt may have higher scores of cyclothymic, irritable, depressive, and anxious temperaments but lower scores of hyperthymic temperament than non-suicidal patients. In order to examine this hypothesis, we investigated Japanese patients of a university emergency center. The association of temperament and suicide attempt was investigated in 116 patients referred to a university emergency center for intoxication or injury. Of them, 35 patients of suspected suicide attempt were categorized as 18 patients who intended to die with attempted suicide and suffered from self-inflicted but not fatal injury (Suicide Attempt II), 4 patients whose intention to die were undetermined although they suffered from self-inflicted injury (Undetermined Suicide-Related Behavior II), and 13 patients who had no intention to die although they suffered from self-inflicted injury (Self-Harm II). Logistic regression analyses and multiple regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with the present suicide attempt and the number of suicide attempts, respectively. Anxious temperament scores were significantly and directly associated with Suicide Attempt II group whereas irritable temperament scores were associated with Self-Harm II group. The present findings suggest that those with anxious temperament may have more suicide attempts than those with other temperaments, indicating anxious temperament as a risk factor of suicide attempt. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Immigration and recommended care after a suicide attempt in Europe: equity or bias?

    PubMed

    Bursztein Lipsicas, Cendrine; Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik; Wasserman, Danuta; Apter, Alan; Bobes, Julio; Kerkhof, Ad; Michel, Konrad; Renberg, Ellinor Salander; van Heeringen, Kees; Värnik, Airi; Schmidtke, Armin

    2014-02-01

    This report describes the investigation of care recommendations in the medical system across European countries to immigrants who attempted suicide. Data from seven European countries with 8865 local and 2921 immigrant person-cases were derived from the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour and ensuing MONSUE (Monitoring Suicidal Behaviour in Europe) project. The relationship between immigrant status and type of aftercare recommended was analysed with binary logistic regression, adjusting for gender, age, method of attempt and the Centre collecting the data. Clear disparities were identified in the care recommendation practices toward immigrants, compared with hosts, over and above differing policies by the European Centres.

  7. Posttraumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and suicide attempt history among veterans receiving mental health services.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Lisa A; Betthauser, Lisa M; Homaifar, Beeta Y; Villarreal, Edgar; Harwood, Jeri E F; Staves, Pamela J; Huggins, Joseph A

    2011-08-01

    History of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been found to increase risk of suicidal behavior. The association between suicide attempt history among veterans with PTSD and/or TBI was explored. Cases (N = 81) and 2:1 matched controls (N = 160) were randomly selected from a Veterans Affairs Medical Center clinical database. PTSD history was associated with an increased risk for a suicide attempt (OR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.5, 5.1). This increased risk was present for those with and without a history of TBI. Results support incorporating PTSD history when assessing suicide risk among veterans with and without TBI.

  8. A Novel Therapy for People Who Attempt Suicide and Why We Need New Models of Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Konrad; Valach, Ladislav; Gysin-Maillart, Anja

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model of suicidal behaviour based on suicide as a goal-directed action, and its implications. An action theoretical model has guided the authors in the development of a brief therapy for individuals who attempt suicide (ASSIP—Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program). Key elements are an early therapeutic alliance, narrative interviewing, psychoeducation, a joint case conceptualization, safety planning, and regular letters over 24 months. In a randomized controlled trial, ASSIP was highly effective in reducing the risk of suicide reattempts. The therapeutic elements in this treatment are described and possible implications for future directions in clinical suicide prevention discussed. PMID:28257071

  9. A Novel Therapy for People Who Attempt Suicide and Why We Need New Models of Suicide.

    PubMed

    Michel, Konrad; Valach, Ladislav; Gysin-Maillart, Anja

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a model of suicidal behaviour based on suicide as a goal-directed action, and its implications. An action theoretical model has guided the authors in the development of a brief therapy for individuals who attempt suicide (ASSIP-Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program). Key elements are an early therapeutic alliance, narrative interviewing, psychoeducation, a joint case conceptualization, safety planning, and regular letters over 24 months. In a randomized controlled trial, ASSIP was highly effective in reducing the risk of suicide reattempts. The therapeutic elements in this treatment are described and possible implications for future directions in clinical suicide prevention discussed.

  10. Association of Toxoplasma gondii infection with schizophrenia and its relationship with suicide attempts in these patients.

    PubMed

    Ansari-Lari, Maryam; Farashbandi, Hassan; Mohammadi, Fahimeh

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between schizophrenia and Toxoplasma gondii, and to assess the association of infection with suicide attempts and age of onset of schizophrenia in these patients. Case-control study Fars Province, southern Iran. Cases were individuals with psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria. Controls were healthy blood donors, frequency-matched with patients according to age and sex. For the detection of IgG antibodies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used. Data about demographic information in all subjects and duration of illness and history of suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia were collected using a brief questionnaire and hospital records. Chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression were used for statistical analyses. Among 99 cases, 42 individuals (42%) were positive for T. gondii antibody, vs. 41 (27%) among 152 controls (OR = 2, 95% CI: 1.2-3.4, P = 0.012). We compared the suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia based on their T. gondii serologic status. There was a lower rate of suicide attempts in seropositive male patients than seronegative ones (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.97, P = 0.04). Age of onset of schizophrenia did not differ between T. gondii-infected and non-infected patients. These findings may have implications for schizophrenia and suicide prevention programmes. However, clearly further studies are required to confirm them. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Peer relationships and suicide ideation and attempts among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cui, S; Cheng, Y; Xu, Z; Chen, D; Wang, Y

    2011-09-01

    Suicide is a global health concern. Therefore, studying suicide behaviour and identifying the early roots of suicide are critical. To address these issues, the present study examined (i) the association between peer relationships and suicide ideation and attempts among Chinese adolescents; and (ii) whether such associations were moderated or mediated by feeling of loneliness. We hypothesized that problems in peer relationships were positively associated with suicide ideation and attempts, and that feeling of loneliness would moderate and mediate such associations. The sample included 8778 Chinese adolescents from a large survey. Measures of peer relationships, suicide ideation and attempts, and feeling of loneliness were obtained through adolescents' self-reports. Results from multivariate logistic regressions suggested that specific problems in peer relationships, such as lack of peer association and being victimized by bullying, were significantly related to suicide ideation and attempts. In addition, the moderating effects of feeling of loneliness on the association between peer relationships and suicide ideation and attempts were found. Finally, some gender effects were also found. The present study provided strong evidence that suicide ideation and attempts were serious problems among adolescents in China, to which peer relationships played an important role. Further, feeling of loneliness acted as a moderator affecting the association between peer relationships and suicide ideation and attempts. Finally, there were some gender differences that have important implications. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Gene expression associated with suicide attempts in US veterans.

    PubMed

    Flory, J D; Donohue, D; Muhie, S; Yang, R; Miller, S A; Hammamieh, R; Ryberg, K; Yehuda, R

    2017-09-05

    According to a recent report from the Office of Suicide Prevention in the US Department of Veterans Affairs, veterans represent 8.5% of the US population, but account for 18% of all deaths from suicide. The aim of this study of psychiatric patients (n=39; 87% male) was to compare blood gene expression data from veterans with a history of one or more suicide attempts to veterans who had never attempted suicide. The attempter and non-attempter groups were matched for age and race/ethnicity, and both groups included veterans with a diverse psychiatric history that included posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance-use disorders. Veterans were interviewed for lifetime psychiatric history, including a detailed assessment of prior suicide attempts and provided a blood sample. Results of Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) identified several pathways associated with suicide attempts, including the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and WNT signaling pathways. These pathways are of particular interest, given their role in explaining pharmacological treatments for suicidal behavior, including the use of ketamine and lithium. These results suggest that findings observed in civilians are also relevant for veterans and provide a context for interpreting results observed in post-mortem samples. In conclusion, an emerging body of work that shows consistency in findings across blood and brain samples suggests that it might be possible to identify molecular predictors of suicide attempts.

  13. Low CSF leptin in female suicide attempters with major depression.

    PubMed

    Westling, Sofie; Ahrén, Bo; Träskman-Bendz, Lil; Westrin, Asa

    2004-07-01

    Leptin is a hormone known to participate in the regulation of weight and appetite and is therefore of interest to examine in the context of major depressive disorder (MDD). Studies of circulating leptin have yielded variable results. We therefore decided to study leptin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We measured leptin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 72 patients admitted after a suicide attempt. They were divided in two groups: patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and patients with other diagnoses (non-MDD). They were also subgrouped according to the number of suicide attempts (one or repeated) and whether the suicide attempt method was classified as violent or nonviolent. Since CSF leptin was considerably lower in men than in women, statistical calculations were made for men and women separately. We found that in spite of having similar body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.1), women in the MDD group had lower CSF leptin than those in the non-MDD group (P < 0.01). In contrast, no such difference was found among men. No significant differences were found between women with a first suicide attempt compared to those with a repeated one, or between women with a violent attempt compared to those with a nonviolent attempt. The heterogeneity of the non-MDD group including patients with various diagnoses is the most important limitation of our study. CSF leptin is involved in the neuroendocrine dysfunction in women with suicide attempt and MDD. This finding contributes to the understanding of the metabolic symptoms in MDD.

  14. Patient-Identified Priorities Leading to Attempted Suicide.

    PubMed

    Stulz, Niklaus; Hepp, Urs; Gosoniu, Dominic G; Grize, Leticia; Muheim, Flavio; Weiss, Mitchell G; Riecher-Rössler, Anita

    2017-08-10

    Attempted suicide is a major public health problem. The aim of this study was to identify patient-identified problems and triggers typically leading to attempted suicide. A representative sample of 66 adult patients was recruited from all clinical sites and psychiatrists who treat patients after attempted suicide in the Canton of Basel-City (Switzerland). Patients were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and interviewed with a local adaptation of the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) to study underlying problems and triggers of attempted suicide. Of the patients, 92.4% had at least one DSM-IV disorder, with depressive disorders being the most prevalent disorder. Although half (50.0%) of the patients identified a health problem, 71.2% identified an interpersonal conflict as underlying problem leading to the suicide attempt. Furthermore, an interpersonal conflict was identified as the trigger of the suicide attempt by more than half of the patients (54.5%). The study included German-speaking patients only. According to patients, interpersonal problems often amplify underlying psychiatric problems, leading to suicide attempts. Social and interpersonal stressors should be acknowledged with integrated clinical and social interventions to prevent suicidal behavior in patients and populations.

  15. Suicide attempts in Brazil, 1998-2014: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Martins Junior, Davi Félix; Felzemburgh, Ridalva Martins; Dias, Acácia Batista; Caribé, André C; Bezerra-Filho, S; Miranda-Scippa, Ângela

    2016-09-15

    Attempted suicide is the main predictor of suicide constituting a major public health issue worldwide. It is estimated that for every completed suicide, 10 to 20 suicide attempts occur. Important part of the occurrences of suicide attempts in Brazil are registered in the hospital information system for coverage of more than 70 % allows to evaluate the extent of this problem in the country. The scope of this article is to analyse hospitalizations resulting from suicide attempts at public hospitals or services contracted out by the public health system (SUS) in Brazil from 1998 to 2014. This is an ecological study of secondary morbidity data obtained from the Hospital Information System. The overall rate of suicide attempts per 100 000 (10(5)) individuals and rates stratified by age group and sex were calculated. To measure trends, simple linear regression coefficients were calculated. The hospital mortality rate was calculated per 100 individuals. The overall rate of hospitalization decreased from 1998 to 2014. The young and adult age groups had the highest hospitalization rates. Men were admitted more and the elderly had higher hospital mortality rates. The main cause of hospitalization was poisoning, accounting for 70.4 % of hospitalizations. Among the people who used poisoning by non-medical drugs as the method of attempted suicide, 58 178 (69.6 %) were men and 49 585 people who are poisoned by medical drugs (60.1 %) were women. Although hospitalization rates for attempted suicide have declined in Brazil, it remains a serious public health problem. Because a suicide attempt is the main predictor of suicide, studies to identify those most vulnerable to attempted suicide will help in the development of prevention strategies for mental health.

  16. Repetition of Attempted Suicide Among Immigrants in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lipsicas, Cendrine Bursztein; Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik; Wasserman, Danuta; Apter, Alan; Kerkhof, Ad; Michel, Konrad; Renberg, Ellinor Salander; van Heeringen, Kees; Värnik, Airi; Schmidtke, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare frequencies of suicide attempt repetition in immigrants and local European populations, and the timing of repetition in these groups. Method: Data from 7 European countries, comprising 10 574 local and 3032 immigrant subjects, were taken from the World Health Organization European Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour and the ensuing Monitoring Suicidal Behaviour in Europe (commonly referred to as MONSUE) project. The relation between immigrant status and repetition of suicide attempt within 12-months following first registered attempt was analyzed with binary logistic regression, controlling for sex, age, and method of attempt. Timing of repetition was controlled for sex, age, and the recommended type of aftercare. Results: Lower odds of repeating a suicide attempt were found in Eastern European (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.61, P < 0.001) and non-European immigrants (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.90, P < 0.05), compared with the locals. Similar patterns were identified in the sex-specific analysis. Eastern European immigrants tended to repeat their attempt much later than locals (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.93, P < 0.05). In general, 32% of all repetition occurred within 30 days. Repetition tended to decrease with age and was more likely in females using harder methods in their index attempt (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.54, P < 0.01). Large variations in the general repetition frequency were identified between the collecting centres, thus influencing the results. Conclusions: The lower repetition frequencies in non-Western immigrants, compared with locals, in Europe stands in contrast to their markedly higher tendency to attempt suicide in general, possibly pointing to situational stress factors related to their suicidal crisis that are less persistent over time. Our findings also raise the possibility that suicide attempters and repeaters constitute only partially overlapping populations. PMID:25565687

  17. Cognitive Control Deficits Differentiate Adolescent Suicide Ideators From Attempters.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jeremy G; Glenn, Catherine R; Esposito, Erika C; Cha, Christine B; Nock, Matthew K; Auerbach, Randy P

    2017-06-01

    Mental illness and suicidal ideation are among the strongest correlates of suicidal behaviors, but few adolescents with these risk factors make a suicide attempt. Therefore, it is critical to identify factors associated with the transition from suicide ideation to attempts. The present study tested whether deficits in cognitive control in the context of suicide-relevant stimuli (ie, suicide interference) reliably differentiated adolescent ideators and attempters. Adolescents (n = 99; 71 girls) aged 13-18 years (mean = 15.53, SD = 1.34) with recent suicide ideation (n = 60) or a recent suicide attempt (n = 39) were recruited from an acute residential treatment facility between August 2012 and December 2013. We measured interference to suicide-related, negative, and positive words using the Suicide Stroop Task (SST). When stimuli were analyzed separately, suicide attempters showed greater interference for suicide (t₉₇ = 2.04, P = .044, d = 0.41) and positive (t₉₇ = 2.63, P = .010, d = 0.53) stimuli compared to suicide ideators. An additional omnibus interference (suicide, negative, positive) x group (suicide ideator, suicide attempter) analysis of variance revealed a main effect of group (F₁,₉₇ = 4.31, P = .041, ηp² = 0.04) but no interaction (P = .166), indicating that attempters showed greater interference for emotional stimuli, regardless of valence. Multiple attempters drove this effect; single attempters and ideators did not differ in SST performance (P = .608). General deficits in cognitive control in the context of emotional stimuli may be a marker of adolescent suicide risk.

  18. Substance Use Disorders and Suicide Attempts in Bipolar Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Sublette, M. Elizabeth; Carballo, Juan J.; Moreno, Carmen; Galfalvy, Hanga C.; Brent, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Mann, J. John; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2009-01-01

    1. Abstract Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with high rates of suicide attempt and completion. Substance use disorders (SUD) have been identified as potent risk factors for suicidal behavior in BD. However, little is known concerning differences between BD subtypes with regard to SUD as a risk factor for suicidal behavior. We studied previous suicidal behavior in adults with a major depressive episode in context of BD type I (BD-I; N=96) or BD type II (BD-II; N=42), with and without history of SUD. Logistic regressions assessed the association between SUD and suicide attempt history by BD type, and exploratory analyses examined the effects of other clinical characteristics on these relationships. SUD were associated with suicide attempt in BD-I but not BD-II, an effect not attributable to sample size differences. The higher suicide attempt rate associated with alcoholism in BD-I was mostly explained by higher aggression scores, and earlier age of BD onset increased the likelihood that alcohol use disorder would be associated with suicide attempt(s). The higher suicide attempt rate associated with other drug use disorders in BD-I was collectively explained by higher impulsivity, hostility, and aggression scores. The presence of both alcohol and drug use disorders increased odds of a history of suicide attempt in a multiplicative fashion: 97% of BD-I who had both comorbid drug and alcohol use disorders had made a suicide attempt. A critical next question is how to target SUD and aggressive traits for prevention of suicidal behavior in BD-I. PMID:18590916

  19. Factors influencing attempted and completed suicide in postnatal women: A population-based study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shu-Chuan; Chang, Jung-Chen; Yeh, Ming-Kung; Wang, Shun-Mu; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The aims of study were to investigate risk factors associated with attempted and completed suicide. This nested case–control study was conducted using the medical and death data of nearly all pregnant women for the period 2002–2012 in Taiwan. A total of 139 cases of attempted suicide and 95 cases of completed suicide were identified; for each case, 10 controls were randomly selected and matched to the cases according to age and year of delivery. A conditional logistic regression model was used. The mean attempted and completed suicide rates were 9.91 and 6.86 per 100,000 women with live births, respectively. Never having married and postpartum depression also increased the risk of attempted suicide (OR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.09–3.88 and OR = 2.51; 95% CI = 1.10–5.75, respectively) and completed suicide (OR = 20.27; 95% CI = 8.99–45.73 and OR = 21.72; 95% CI = 8.08–58.37, respectively). Other factors for attempted suicide included being widowed or divorced, and having a caesarean delivery or suicide history. Other factors for completed suicide included lower education level, low infant birth weight, and diagnosis of anxiety or mood disorder. These results suggest that people should appropriately assess potential risk factors and provide assistance for postnatal women to reduce the occurrence of suicide events. PMID:27173845

  20. [Risk factors for suicide attempts in elderly and old elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Polewka, Andrzej; Chrostek Maj, Jan; Kroch, Stanisław; Szkolnicka, Beata; Mikołaszek-Boba, Magdalena; Groszek, Barbara; Zieba, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the phenomenon of suicide attempt in the elderly inhabitants of Kraków. Special attention has been paid to the group of "seniors"--aged 75 years or over. The authors have analyzed all the 136 cases of suicide attempts by individuals aged over 60 years, selected from the cases of suicide attempts by self-intoxications by patients hospitalized in the Department of Clinical Toxicology, CMUJ in Kraków in the years 2000-2002. The group concerned included 45 males and 91 females. A large number of subjects (over a half of the total) ranged in age from 60 to 65 years. The group of seniors comprised 35 individuals (aged 75 years or over), including 7 males and 28 females. On the basis of the data from medical documentation, the subjects were analysed from the point of view of their health condition and in the psycho-social context. In the majority of cases the subjects are pensioners residing in Kraków, often living alone. In the case of 98% of the subjects, it was their first suicide attempt. Pharmaceuticals used for self-poisoning were most frequently psychotropic, or mixed-type drugs. The assessment of the severity of poisoning indicates that in about 20% patients poisoning was severe. 70% of the subjects suffered from depressive, reactive, or situational disorders, affective depression or organic brain disorders, often with dementive signs. A significant number of subjects suffered from hypertension, coronary artery disease, arteriosclerosis, or alimentary tract diseases. In the group of the seniors, the most conspicuous problems included serious somatic diseases (malignant diseases and chronic respiratory system diseases), depression, organic dementia, loneliness, and bad family situation. Taking into consideration the scantiness of research into attempted and completed suicide in the elderly and in the old elderly, the present authors stress the importance of the continuation of the research to prevent suicide in the aforesaid

  1. Temperament, hopelessness, and attempted suicide: direct and indirect effects.

    PubMed

    Rosellini, Anthony J; Bagge, Courtney L

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated whether hopelessness mediated the relations between temperament and recent suicide attempter status in a psychiatric sample. Negative temperament and positive temperament (particularly the positive emotionality subscale) uniquely predicted levels of hopelessness. Although these temperament constructs also demonstrated significant indirect effects on recent suicide attempter status, the effects were partially (for the broad temperament scales) or fully (for the positive emotionality subscale) mediated by the levels of hopelessness. These findings indicate that a tendency to experience excessive negative emotions as well as a paucity of positive emotions may lead individuals to experience hopelessness. Although temperament may also indirectly influence suicide attempter status, hopelessness mediates these relations.

  2. [Psychiatric and social characterisation of suicide attempts treated at a children's clinic, 2003-2005].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Olmos, Isabel; Rodríguez-Sandoval, Esther; Dussán-Buitrago, Mónica M; Ayala-Aguilera, Juan P

    2007-01-01

    Psychiatrically and socially characterising suicide attempts treated at a children's clinic in Bogotá, 2003-2005. A retrospective series of 96 cases aged 11-18, using univariate and bivariate statistical analysis. 81,4 % of the cases were female. Mean age was 15,3 years and 70,9 % were aged 16 or younger. Low family income was found in 63,1 %. Poisoning was the suicide method in 96,9 % cases. Ambulatory care for two months or less was continued in 38 % cases. Only 13,2 % required anti-depressive or mood-modulator medicine. 87,9 % suffered family or scholastic stress. 83,5 % had a problematic relationship with parents and in 72,3 % of cases the parents had a conflictive relationship. 46,5 % were first-born children. Forty abuse situations were found. 27,2 % had attempted suicide previously. Adjustment disorders, family dysfunction and mood disorders were the main psychiatric diagnostics. 37,6 % had scholastic problems, suffered academic failure or had conflict with their teachers. Males were associated with aggressiveness, substance use, academic failure or romantic loss and females were associated with predominant anxiety and physical abuse. Being young, the overrepresentation of females and suffering scholastic and family conflict were noteworthy. Gender association with socio-cultural, behavioural and emotional profile is also worth noting. Socio-family and scholastic conflict is frequent in youth people's suicide attempts. The child-youth suicide problem must be made socially visible to prevent it.

  3. Maoa and Maob polymorphisms and personality traits in suicide attempters and healthy controls: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Balestri, Martina; Calati, Raffaella; Serretti, Alessandro; Hartmann, Annette M; Konte, Bettina; Friedl, Marion; Giegling, Ina; Rujescu, Dan

    2017-03-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission dysfunctions have been well documented in patients with suicidal behaviour. We investigated monoamine oxidase A (MAOA: rs2064070, rs6323, rs909525) and B (MAOB: rs1799836, rs2311013, rs2205655) genetic modulation of personality traits (Temperament and Character Inventory, TCI) as endophenotype for suicidal behaviour. 108 suicide attempters and 286 healthy controls of German origin were screened. Among females, allelic analyses revealed associations between MAOA rs6323 A allele and higher Harm Avoidance in suicide attempters and MAOB rs2205655 A allele and higher Cooperativeness scores in healthy controls. Among males, MAOA rs909525 A allele was associated with higher Reward Dependence in suicide attempters. Multivariate analyses controlling for age and educational level mainly confirmed results. Case-control analyses in this subsample do not differ from our previously reported one. Despite of the small sample size, a possible involvement of these genes in the modulation of personality traits closely related to suicidal behaviour cannot be excluded.

  4. Reasons for desiring death: examining causative factors of suicide attempters treated in emergency rooms in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Meerae; Kim, Sung-Wan; Nam, Yoon-Young; Moon, Eunsoo; Yu, Jechun; Lee, Soojung; Chang, Jae Seung; Jhoo, Jin-Hyeong; Cha, Boseok; Choi, Jung-Seok; Ahn, Yong Min; Ha, Kyooseob; Kim, Jayoun; Jeon, Hong Jin; Park, Jong-Ik

    2014-10-01

    Suicide attempters treated in emergency rooms were studied in order to understand the motives behind this behavior. Disparities between the etiological contributions to suicidal ideation, intention, and action were examined in order to characterize motives in these categories. Suicide attempters who visited the emergency departments of seven university hospitals were analyzed. Attempts leading to mortality were excluded from the analysis. Participants were assessed using semi-structured questionnaires, the results of which were noted on their medical records. These were analyzed retrospectively. Attempter self-report assessment revealed that participants chose external sources of stress (75.4%) and psychiatric symptoms (19.1%) as their main reasons for attempting suicide. However, assessments by interviewers indicated that stressors contributed to suicide attempts to a lesser degree (52.8%) while psychiatric symptoms were more etiologically relevant (36.6%). Compared to those with stressors that was identified as causal in both self-report and clinician assessed evaluation, the participants-regardless of their self-report evaluation-who identified with causal psychiatric symptoms by psychiatrist had more severe and intense suicidal ideation and more determined suicidal intention. We collected samples from only university hospitals, resulting in selection bias. In addition, we did not use psychiatric scales to evaluate the participants׳ symptoms. Stress was the greatest motive for attempting suicide, affirmed in both self-report and clinician assessed evaluation. A fair proportion of people were objectively identified as being motivated by psychiatric symptoms, yet were unaware of what they suffered from. Furthermore, suicide severity, intensity, and suicidal intention were stronger in psychiatrically driven cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The characteristics of suicide attempts based on the suicidal intent scale scores.

    PubMed

    Polewka, Andrzej; Mikołaszek-Boba, Magdalena; Chrostek Maj, Jan; Groszek, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the work was to present the characteristics of suicide attempts, distinguished on the basis of the scores in the Suicidal Intent Scale questionnaire (SIS), created by Aaron Beck, professor of psychiatry from Philadelphia. The group examined comprised 238 patients (63 males and 175 females) hospitalised in the Department of Clinical Toxicology CMUJ in Kraków in the years 2000-2001, after a suicidal self-intoxication with xenobiotics. The examination was conducted by means of the Suicidal Intent Scale (SIS)--a psychological test created by Aaron Beck. In the case of about 65% of the patients examined, their suicide attempts most frequently were acts of impulsive behaviour, rarely planned for longer than three hours before the realization and usually made in another person's presence or in a situation in which another person's intervention was highly probable. Such attempts had the character of "a cry for help", and were aimed at effecting some change or at manipulating the environment. Nevertheless, the patients acted in a conviction that their act was a serious attempt at ending life, and, most frequently, they maintained such opinions during the examination. On the other hand, they rarely expressed further suicidal intents, and more frequently accepted the fact that their lives had been saved. By contrast, the remaining 35% of the patients examined had attempted suicide with the evident intention to kill themselves; they had taken full precautions against being discovered and had planned suicide carefully to eliminate the smallest possibility of intervention. In the majority of cases, they still maintained the wish to die after the attempt. As the results of the examination indicate, the Suicidal Intent Scale, and, especially, the Precautions subscale, point at the important aspect of suicidal intentions, which, being of vital importance for the diagnostic purposes and suicide prevention, requires further investigation.

  6. Predicting significant maternal morbidity in women attempting vaginal birth after cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Scifres, Christina M; Rohn, Amanda; Odibo, Anthony; Stamilio, David; Macones, George A

    2011-03-01

    Attempting vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) places women at an increased risk for complications. We set out to identify factors that are predictive of major morbidity in women who attempt VBAC. A nested case-control study was performed within a large retrospective cohort study of women with a history of at least one cesarean. Women who attempted VBAC were identified and those who experienced at least one complication of a composite adverse outcome consisting of uterine rupture, bladder injury, and bowel injury (cases) were compared with those who did not experience one of these adverse outcomes (controls). We analyzed risk factors for major maternal morbidity using univariable and multivariable methods. The accuracy of the multivariable prediction model was assessed with receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Of 25,005 women with a history of previous cesarean, 13,706 (54.9%) attempted VBAC. The composite outcome occurred in 300 (2.1%) women attempting VBAC. Using logistic regression analysis, prior abdominal surgery (odds ratio [OR] 1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 2.1), augmented labor (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.46), and induction of labor (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.48 to 2.76) were associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome. Prior vaginal delivery (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.54) was associated with decreased risk for the composite outcome. The ROC curve generated from the regression model has an area under the curve of 0.65 and an unfavorable tradeoff between sensitivity and specificity. Women attempting VBAC with a history of abdominal surgery or those who undergo augmentation or induction of labor are at an increased risk for major maternal morbidity, and women with a prior vaginal delivery have a decreased risk of major morbidity. The multivariable model developed cannot accurately predict major maternal morbidity.

  7. An Attempt to Validate a Measure of Structure in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabassol, David J.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty male adolescents were given a structure inventory (CASI) devised by the author, and also the Locus Of Control (I-E) instrument, and the Adjective Check List (ACL), in an attempt to validate the first-named inventory. (Editor)

  8. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-05-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress.

  9. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hokwang

    2016-01-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress. PMID:27247604

  10. Risky behaviors and factors associated with suicide attempt in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sejong; Ye, Rong; Chen, Shande; Rivers, Patrick A; Singh, Karan P

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the behavior risk factors associated with suicide attempt in adolescents and to determine gender-specific patterns of risk factors. In 2001, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted National Youth Risk Behavior Survey for 13,601 high school students in the U.S. Data were analyzed with logistic regressions to identify the risk behaviors. New significant risk factors (being offered illegal drugs at school, being abused by a boyfriend/girlfriend, gender, and ethnicity) were identified for suicidal attempt in adolescents. Patterns of risk behaviors differed among male and female groups. Several new risk behaviors associated with suicide attempt in adolescents were identified. There were notable differences in risk behaviors between two gender groups, especially in the area of depression. These findings could have potentially important implications for preventing adolescent suicide attempts.

  11. Ethnicity and suicide attempt: analysis in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bani-Fatemi, Ali; Polsinelli, Gina; Kennedy, James L; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2013-10-08

    Evidence is mixed as to whether White Europeans are at a higher risk for suicide attempts or completions compared to other ethnic groups. The present analysis assessed whether risk for suicide attempt was associated with White European ethnicity in 907 subjects with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Subjects were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and ethnicity was determined by self-report. Subjects were recruited from psychiatric care centers in Toronto, Canada. Logistic regression correcting for clinical covariates like age, gender and diagnosis, was used in this study. We found no difference in suicide attempter status in white and non-white subjects who were diagnosed with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Our study does not support the evidence that White-European patients in North America are at higher risk for suicide attempt compared to non-European descent subjects. However, this result has to be replicated in larger studies in patients with these disorders.

  12. An Attempt to Validate a Measure of Structure in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabassol, David J.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty male adolescents were given a structure inventory (CASI) devised by the author, and also the Locus Of Control (I-E) instrument, and the Adjective Check List (ACL), in an attempt to validate the first-named inventory. (Editor)

  13. [Attempted suicide during the financial crisis in Athens].

    PubMed

    Stavrianakos, K; Kontaxakis, V; Moussas, G; Paplos, K; Papaslanis, T; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Papadimitriou, Gn

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is considered as the result of complex cognitive and emotional processes and it is a timeless, global and multifactorial phenomenon. Periods of financial crises in the past, such as the Great Depression in the USA in 1929 and the economic crises of Asia, Russia and Argentina in the late 1990s, have been associated with impairment of mental health of the economically affected. Unemployment, job insecurity, debts, poverty and social exclusion seems to lead to higher incidence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and increased suicidality. Alcohol and substance use and the reduction of the state budget for health services reinforce the negative effects of the economic recession on mental health. The financial crisis which currently affects many European countries began in 2008 and its impact on the mental health of European citizens is in progress. Greece is probably the most affected country by the European financial crisis. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential impact of the crisis' consequences on the attempted suicide rates in the Athens population and the differentiation of suicide attempters on social, demographic and clinical-psychopathological parameters during the crisis. A retrospective study was conducted. The semi-structured records of 165 attempters who were hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Clinics of the "Sotiria" General Hospital in Athens, after attempted suicide in the years 2007 and 2011, before and during the financial crisis respectively, were studied. Among suicide attempters 95(57.6%) were suffering from mental disorders. Most often diagnoses were these of mood disorders (n=60, 63.2%). Demographic data, current psychiatric disorder, previous suicide attempt and severity of psychopathology at the time of suicide attempt were recorded for each patient. Furthermore, the severity of each suicide attempt was estimated. Suicide attempts were 70 in 2007, before the financial crisis (mean age 36.9 years, 71% women

  14. Alcohol and substance abuse, depression and suicide attempts after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Backman, O; Stockeld, D; Rasmussen, F; Näslund, E; Marsk, R

    2016-09-01

    Small studies suggest that subjects who have undergone bariatric surgery are at increased risk of suicide, alcohol and substance use disorders. This population-based cohort study aimed to assess the incidence of treatment for alcohol and substance use disorders, depression and attempted suicide after primary Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). All patients who underwent primary RYGB in Sweden between 2001 and 2010 were included. Incidence of hospital admission for alcohol and substance use disorders, depression and suicide attempt was measured, along with the number of drugs prescribed. This cohort was compared with a large age-matched, non-obese reference cohort based on the Swedish population. Inpatient care and prescribed drugs registers were used. Before RYGB surgery, women, but not men, were at higher risk of being diagnosed with alcohol and substance use disorder compared with the reference cohort. After surgery, this was the case for both sexes. The risk of being diagnosed and treated for depression remained raised after surgery. Suicide attempts were significantly increased after RYGB. The adjusted hazard ratio for attempted suicide in the RYGB cohort after surgery compared with the general non-obese population was 2·85 (95 per cent c.i. 2·40 to 3·39). Patients who have undergone RYGB are at an increased risk of being diagnosed with alcohol and substance use, with an increased rate of attempted suicide compared with a non-obese general population cohort. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Conducting Research on Adolescent Suicide Attempters: Dilemmas and Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Berk, Michele; Adrian, Molly; McCauley, Elizabeth; Asarnow, Joan; Avina, Claudia; Linehan, Marsha

    2014-01-01

    Research on effective treatments for adolescent suicide attempters is urgently needed. However, there has been a lack of research in this area. This is likely a result of the multiple challenges faced by investigators working with individuals at high risk of suicide. Based on our experiences conducting a large, randomized clinical trial with adolescent suicide attempters, in this article, we review ways to address these challenges in order to facilitate needed research on suicide prevention in adolescents. PMID:24954969

  16. Attempted suicide in Oxford University students, 1976-1990.

    PubMed

    Hawton, K; Haigh, R; Simkin, S; Fagg, J

    1995-01-01

    During the 14 years between the beginning of academic year 1976-7 and the end of academic year 1989-90, 216 Oxford University students (119 females and 97 males) were referred to the general hospital in Oxford because of suicide attempts (254 in all). The rate of attempted suicide during university term-time (106/100,000) was lower than in other young people of similar age in Oxford City (164/100,000). The difference was particularly marked in females (178/100,000 v. 269/100,000). The lower rate in the students may in part reflect their generally higher socio-economic status. Very few of the attempts by the students appeared to be failed suicides. The most frequent problems faced by the students at the time of their attempts were interpersonal, especially difficulties regarding partners, followed by academic problems. The latter were usually problems with ongoing course work rather than with the Finals examinations. Approximately a quarter of the students had psychiatric problems, with personality disorders and depression being most common. At least 30% had a history of previous attempts. Suggestions are made concerning measures for improving the management and prevention of attempted suicide by students.

  17. Characteristic Risk Factors Associated with Planned versus Impulsive Suicide Attempters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaeha; Lee, Kang-Sook; Kim, Dai Jin; Hong, Seung-Chul; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Oh, Youngmin; Wang, Sheng-Min; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to investigate predictors for planned suicide attempters. Methods This study included 1,003 patients who attempted suicide and visited emergency department. They were divided into two groups, planned suicide attempters (SAs; n=133 [13.3%]) and impulsive SAs (n=870, [86.7%]), and the demographic variables, clinical characteristics, factors related to suicide, and psychiatric resources of the groups were compared. Results Major depressive disorder and substance use disorders were more common among planned SAs than among impulsive SAs. Additionally, the planned SAs were older, more likely to be divorced, separated or widowed, and more likely to have comorbid medical illnesses, severe depression, higher suicidality, and self-blaming tendencies than the impulsive SAs. Financial problems and physical illnesses were more common in planned SAs but interpersonal conflicts were more frequent in impulsive SAs. Planned SAs had fewer previous suicide attempts but these were more serious suicide attempts. The presence of the hope to die, a written will, and suicidal ideation of a repetitive, intense, and continuous nature were predictive of planned SAs. Conclusion The present findings demonstrated that planned SAs had more severe psychopathology and medical illnesses than impulsive SAs. Therefore, screening for depression, substance use disorders, and suicidal plans among old and medically ill patients may be important for preventing suicide attempts. PMID:26598591

  18. Non-psychotropic medication and risk of suicide or attempted suicide: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gorton, Hayley C; Webb, Roger T; Kapur, Navneet; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To establish which non-psychotropic medications have been assessed in relation to risk of suicide or attempted suicide in observational studies, document reported associations and consider study strengths and limitations. Design Systematic review. Methods Four databases (Embase, Medline, PsycINFO and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts) were searched from 1990 to June 2014, and reference lists of included articles were hand-searched. Case–control, cohort and case only studies which reported suicide or attempted suicide in association with any non-psychotropic medication were included. Outcome measures The outcomes eligible for inclusion were suicide and attempted suicide, as defined by the authors of the included study. Results Of 11 792 retrieved articles, 19 were eligible for inclusion. Five studies considered cardiovascular medication and antiepileptics; two considered leukotriene receptor antagonists, isotretinoin and corticosteroids; one assessed antibiotics and another assessed varenicline. An additional study compared multiple medications prescribed to suicide cases versus controls. There was marked heterogeneity in study design, outcome and exposure classification, and control for confounding factors; particularly comorbid mental and physical illness. No increased risk was associated with cardiovascular medications, but associations with other medications remained inconclusive and meta-analysis was inappropriate due to study heterogeneity. Conclusions Whether non-psychotropic medications are associated with increased risk of suicide or attempted suicide remains largely unknown. Robust identification of suicide outcomes and control of comorbidities could improve quantification of risk associated with non-psychotropic medication, beyond that conferred by underlying physical and mental illnesses. PMID:26769782

  19. Decision making under risk and under ambiguity in depressed suicide attempters, depressed non-attempters and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Deisenhammer, Eberhard A; Schmid, Steffen K; Kemmler, Georg; Moser, Bernadette; Delazer, Margarete

    2017-10-03

    A number of neuropsychological alterations have been found in patients who have attempted suicide. Most studies investigating decision making (DM) abilities in suicide attempters so far have used one single DM task and included patients with a lifetime history of suicide attempts. These studies have yielded conflicting results. In this study, currently depressed in-patients who had a recent suicide attempt (within the last six months) (n = 21), depressed in-patients without a lifetime history of suicide attempts (n = 31) and a healthy control group (n = 26) were assessed with two tasks for the assessment of DM. The Game of Dice Task (GDT) measures DM under risk and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) DM under ambiguity. Further, depression severity, impulsiveness and suicidal intent of the current suicide attempt were assessed. Both depressed groups differed from controls with respect to marital and partnership status, smoking, impulsiveness and psychiatric family history. In terms of DM, IGT scores did not differ significantly between groups. However, suicide attempters made significantly more risky decisions as assessed with the GDT than both control groups (p < 0.05 for pairwise comparisons, p = 0.065 for overall comparison of the 3 groups). The available tasks assess DM under laboratory conditions which may not reflect the emotional status of suicidal individuals. No general cognitive assessment was included. Depressed suicide attempters differed with regard to DM under risk but not DM under ambiguity. When studying DM it appears crucial to take varying aspects of DM into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Identifying Differences between Depressed Adolescent Suicide Ideators and Attempters

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Millner, Alexander J.; Stewart, Jeremy G.; Esposito, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent depression and suicide are pressing public health concerns, and identifying key differences among suicide ideators and attempters is critical. The goal of the current study is to test whether depressed adolescent suicide attempters report greater anhedonia severity and exhibit aberrant effort-cost computations in the face of uncertainty. Methods Depressed adolescents (n = 101) ages 13–19 years were administered structured clinical interviews to assess current mental health disorders and a history of suicidality (suicide ideators = 55, suicide attempters = 46). Then, participants completed self-report instruments assessing symptoms of suicidal ideation, depression, anhedonia, and anxiety as well as a computerized effort-cost computation task. Results Compared with depressed adolescent suicide ideators, attempters report greater anhedonia severity, even after concurrently controlling for symptoms of suicidal ideation, depression, and anxiety. Additionally, when completing the effort-cost computation task, suicide attempters are less likely to pursue the difficult, high value option when outcomes are uncertain. Follow-up, trial-level analyses of effort-cost computations suggest that receipt of reward does not influence future decision-making among suicide attempters, however, suicide ideators exhibit a win-stay approach when receiving rewards on previous trials. Limitations Findings should be considered in light of limitations including a modest sample size, which limits generalizability, and the cross-sectional design. Conclusions Depressed adolescent suicide attempters are characterized by greater anhedonia severity, which may impair the ability to integrate previous rewarding experiences to inform future decisions. Taken together, this may generate a feeling of powerlessness that contributes to increased suicidality and a needless loss of life. PMID:26233323

  1. Identifying differences between depressed adolescent suicide ideators and attempters.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Randy P; Millner, Alexander J; Stewart, Jeremy G; Esposito, Erika C

    2015-11-01

    Adolescent depression and suicide are pressing public health concerns, and identifying key differences among suicide ideators and attempters is critical. The goal of the current study is to test whether depressed adolescent suicide attempters report greater anhedonia severity and exhibit aberrant effort-cost computations in the face of uncertainty. Depressed adolescents (n=101) ages 13-19 years were administered structured clinical interviews to assess current mental health disorders and a history of suicidality (suicide ideators=55, suicide attempters=46). Then, participants completed self-report instruments assessing symptoms of suicidal ideation, depression, anhedonia, and anxiety as well as a computerized effort-cost computation task. Compared with depressed adolescent suicide ideators, attempters report greater anhedonia severity, even after concurrently controlling for symptoms of suicidal ideation, depression, and anxiety. Additionally, when completing the effort-cost computation task, suicide attempters are less likely to pursue the difficult, high value option when outcomes are uncertain. Follow-up, trial-level analyses of effort-cost computations suggest that receipt of reward does not influence future decision-making among suicide attempters, however, suicide ideators exhibit a win-stay approach when receiving rewards on previous trials. Findings should be considered in light of limitations including a modest sample size, which limits generalizability, and the cross-sectional design. Depressed adolescent suicide attempters are characterized by greater anhedonia severity, which may impair the ability to integrate previous rewarding experiences to inform future decisions. Taken together, this may generate a feeling of powerlessness that contributes to increased suicidality and a needless loss of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. CSF 5-HIAA, cortisol and DHEAS levels in suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Chatzittofis, Andreas; Nordström, Peter; Hellström, Christer; Arver, Stefan; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2013-10-01

    The serotonin system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are involved in the biological vulnerability to suicidal behaviour. Altered levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate ester DHEAS have been reported in neuropsychiatric conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate CSF levels of 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and CSF and plasma levels of cortisol and DHEAS in 28 medication free suicide attempters and 19 healthy volunteers. Another aim was to investigate the relationship between neuroendocrine measures and childhood trauma in suicide attempters. As the study design includes a longitudinal part, we investigated whether CSF cortisol, 5-HIAA or DHEAS would predict subsequent suicide. We hypothesized higher cortisol levels in suicide attempters and lower CSF 5-HIAA levels and higher cortisol levels in suicide victims. Suicide attempters had higher CSF and plasma cortisol levels compared to healthy volunteers. Male suicide attempters had higher CSF DHEAS levels and female suicide attempters had lower CSF 5-HIAA levels compared to male and female healthy volunteers respectively. Exposure to interpersonal violence as a child showed a negative correlation with CSF cortisol/DHEAS ratio adjusted for age, gender and depression severity in a regression analysis. Suicide victims tended to have low CSF 5-HIAA and high CSF cortisol. Abused suicide victims had higher CSF cortisol compared to suicide victims with low exposure to interpersonal violence as a child. The results underlie the important role of the serotonergic system and HPA axis in suicidal behaviour and suggest that CSF DHEAS may be elevated in male suicide attempters.

  3. [Study on suicide attempts among drug addicts--prevalence of suicide attempts and investigation of related risk factors].

    PubMed

    Okasaka, Yoshiko; Morita, Nobuaki; Nakatani, Yoji

    2006-02-01

    While the relationship between substance use disorder and suicidal behavior is well known, few studies have been conducted on this issue in Japan to date. The present study aimed to investigate the profiles of drug-dependent individuals with a history of suicide attempts not including completed suicides. A survey was conducted on 101 drug-dependent patients in 8 drug rehabilitation institutions. The survey included a questionnaire that assessed various items regarding personal profiles, such as history of suicide attempts and drug abuse, physical and mental problems. In addition, the survey included the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The results indicated that 50 patients (49.5%) had attempted suicide, and that subjects with a history of suicide attempts were significantly younger than those without suicide attempts. It was also revealed that subjects with a history of suicide attempts had started abusing drugs at an earlier age, had more psychiatric problems, and scored higher on the CES-D and lower on both the parental and maternal care scores of the PBI. These findings suggest that early-age drug abuse, psychiatric problems, depressive symptoms, and parental rearing behaviors perceived as cold and rejecting may predispose drug-dependent individuals to suicidal behavior.

  4. The Relationship of Childhood Abuse and Neglect with Suicide Attempts in an Adult Unipolar Depression Sample

    PubMed Central

    YILDIRIM, Feride; KÜÇÜKGÖNCÜ, Suat; BEŞTEPE, Engin Emrem; YILDIRIM, Murat Serkan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Unipolar depression is an important psychiatric disorder that leads to an increased risk of suicide. However, not all depression patients attempt suicide. This reflects the presence of other factors that may be related to suicide other than the sole presence of psychopathology. Drawing upon the clinical evidence linking childhood abuse and neglect experiences with suicide; this study aimed at investigating the relationship of childhood abuse and neglect experiences with suicide attempts in patients with unipolar depression. Method One hundred six unipolar depressed patients between the ages of 18 and 65 were included in the study. Patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders, neurological disorders, alcohol-substance abuse problems, and a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score of <17 were excluded from the study. The BDI, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), and the Suicide Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ) were administered to all patients. Suicidal and non-suicidal cases were determined according to clinic interviews and the patients’ responses in the SBQ. Results Sixty-four patients have previously attempted suicide. Although there was no significant difference between unipolar depression patients with a history of suicide attempts and patients with no history of suicide attempts in terms of average age, education and marital status, however, female/male ratio in the former group was determined to be significantly higher. BDI, STAXI continuous anger and outward anger average scores, and average CTQ-28 emotional abuse, physical abuse and total scores were significantly higher in the group with a history of suicide attempts. The predictors of suicide attempts were higher BDI and CTQ-28 physical abuse scores and female gender. The predictors for average SBQ scores were determined as higher BDI, CTQ-28 sexual abuse, and STAXI outward anger and continuous anger scores. Conclusion Childhood physical and

  5. Risk factors for adult interpersonal violence in suicide attempters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicidal and violent behaviours are interlinked and share common biological underpinnings. In the present study we analysed the association between violent behaviour as a child, childhood trauma, adult psychiatric illness, and substance abuse in relation to interpersonal violence as an adult in suicide attempters with mood disorders. Methods A total of 161 suicide attempters were diagnosed with Structured Clinical Interviews and assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) measuring exposure to violence and expressed violent behaviour in childhood (between 6-14 years of age) and during adult life (15 years or older). Ninety five healthy volunteers were used as a comparison group. A logistic regression analysis was conducted with the two KIVS subscales, expressed violent behaviour as a child and exposure to violence in childhood together with substance abuse, personality disorder diagnoses and age as possible predictors of adult interpersonal violence in suicide attempters. Results Violent behaviour as a child, age and substance abuse were significant predictors of adult interpersonal violence. ROC analysis for the prediction model for adult violence with the KIVS subscale expressed violence as a child gave an AUC of 0.79. Using two predictors: violent behaviour as a child and substance abuse diagnosis gave an AUC of 0.84. The optimal cut-off for the KIVS subscale expressed violence as a child was higher for male suicide attempters. Conclusions Violent behaviour in childhood and substance abuse are important risk factors for adult interpersonal violent behaviour in suicide attempters. PMID:25001499

  6. Adolescent Attachment Security, Family Functioning, and Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Sheftall, Arielle H.; Mathias, Charles W.; Furr, R. Michael; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    Theories of suicidal behavior suggest that the desire to die can arise from disruption of interpersonal relationships. Suicide research has typically studied this from the individual's perspective of the quality/frequency of their social interactions; however, the field of attachment may offer another perspective on understanding an individual’s social patterns and suicide risk. This study examined attachment along with broader family functioning (family adaptability and cohesion) among 236 adolescent psychiatric inpatients with (n = 111) and without (n = 125) histories of suicide attempts. On average, adolescents were 14 years of age and Hispanic (69%). Compared to those without suicide attempts, adolescent attempters had lower self-reported maternal and paternal attachment and lower familial adaptability and cohesion. When comparing all 3 types of attachment simultaneously in the logistic regression model predicting suicide attempt status, paternal attachment was the only significant predictor. Suicide attempt group was also significantly predicted by self-rated Cohesion and Adaptability; neither of the parent ratings of family functioning were significant predictors. These findings are consistent with the predictions of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide about social functioning and support the efforts to develop attachment-based interventions as a novel route towards suicide prevention. PMID:23560608

  7. Adolescent attachment security, family functioning, and suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Sheftall, Arielle H; Mathias, Charles W; Furr, R Michael; Dougherty, Donald M

    2013-01-01

    Theories of suicidal behavior suggest that the desire to die can arise from disruption of interpersonal relationships. Suicide research has typically studied this from the individual's perspective of the quality/frequency of their social interactions; however, the field of attachment may offer another perspective on understanding an individual's social patterns and suicide risk. This study examined attachment along with broader family functioning (family adaptability and cohesion) among 236 adolescent psychiatric inpatients with (n = 111) and without (n = 125) histories of suicide attempts. On average, adolescents were 14 years of age and Hispanic (69%). Compared to those without suicide attempts, adolescent attempters had lower self-reported maternal and paternal attachment and lower familial adaptability and cohesion. When comparing all three types of attachment simultaneously in the logistic regression model predicting suicide attempt status, paternal attachment was the only significant predictor. Suicide attempt group was also significantly predicted by self-rated Cohesion and Adaptability; neither of the parent ratings of family functioning were significant predictors. These findings are consistent with the predictions of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide about social functioning and support the efforts to develop attachment-based interventions as a novel route towards suicide prevention.

  8. Characteristics of Chinese suicide attempters: an emergency room study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Jia, Shuhua; Jiang, Chao; Sun, Jie

    2006-04-01

    Studying the characteristics of attempted suicide is helpful in knowing the background of some completed suicides and improving prevention or intervention strategies. This current study analyzed data of 74 suicide attempters and 92 accident injured patients admitted to 6 hospital emergency rooms in an area of Northeastern China and found both similarities and differences between Chinese and Western suicide attempters. The data show that more women than men attempted suicide. Perhaps because of the unavailability of firearms to Chinese civilians, pesticide was the most lethal means of suicidal behavior. The stressful life events that account for the majority of suicidal incidents were mostly familial or marital problems. Compared with accident victims, these Chinese suicide attempters were younger, poorer, more likely to believe in a religion/superstition, more likely to perceive gender inequality, and less likely to experience support from either family or community. The traditional culture downplaying the status of women coupled with a belief in the transmigration of life may play an important role in the suicide of Chinese young women.

  9. Bullying and suicide attempts among adolescents kept in custody.

    PubMed

    Kiriakidis, Stavros P

    2008-01-01

    This contribution explores the associations between suicide attempts; bullying; and the familial, educational, legal, and institutional characteristics of young offenders in custody. The sample was 152 randomly selected male young offenders aged 16-21 years (M = 18.9, SD = 1.3) years from the largest young offenders' institution in Scotland, who completed structured personal interviews. Rates of reported suicide attempts were significantly higher in the population of young offenders than reported rates from general population samples. Being in residential care, the presence of a social worker for the family, family history of alcohol abuse, family history of suicide attempts, the experience of being bullied in custody, contact with a psychologist in the community, and being a violent offender were significantly related to increased risk of suicide attempts in custody. Compared to those who were not bullied, offenders who were bullied in custody were 9.22 times more likely to attempt suicide. The implications these findings for reducing bullying in penal settings are discussed.

  10. Family history of suicide and interpersonal functioning in suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Rajalin, Mia; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Salander Renberg, Ellinor; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in interpersonal relationships are associated with a wide range of psychiatric diagnoses and have been reported as a trigger for suicidal behavior, too. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal problems and family history of suicide in suicide attempters and to describe relevant patterns of interpersonal problems in this patient group. The study involves 181 patients having their clinical follow-up after a suicide attempt. Family history of suicide was assessed by using the Karolinska Self Harm History Interview or retrieved in patient records. The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems was used to assess personal style in an interpersonal context. Suicide attempters with a family history of suicide had significantly more often an intrusive personal style. The results remained significant after adjustment for personality disorder. The specific interpersonal patterns associated with family history of suicide may interfere with the ability to create stable, long-lasting relationships. In regards to treatment, these personal qualities could cause difficulties in the alliance with health care personnel and make it harder for suicide attempters to accept or benefit from treatment. Attention to suicide attempters' interpersonal problems is of importance to lower their distress.

  11. Investigating the Co-Occurrence of Self-Mutilation and Suicide Attempts among Opioid-Dependent Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Elizabeth; Degenhardt, Louisa; Darke, Shane; Nelson, Elliot C.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence and risk factors associated with self-mutilation among opioid dependent cases and controls were determined, and the co-occurrence of self-mutilation and attempted suicide was examined. The prevalence of self-mutilation among cases and controls did not differ significantly (25% vs. 23%, respectively), with gender differences…

  12. Investigating the Co-Occurrence of Self-Mutilation and Suicide Attempts among Opioid-Dependent Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Elizabeth; Degenhardt, Louisa; Darke, Shane; Nelson, Elliot C.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence and risk factors associated with self-mutilation among opioid dependent cases and controls were determined, and the co-occurrence of self-mutilation and attempted suicide was examined. The prevalence of self-mutilation among cases and controls did not differ significantly (25% vs. 23%, respectively), with gender differences…

  13. Discerning reported suicide attempts within a youthful offender population.

    PubMed

    Mallett, Christopher; De Rigne, Lea A; Quinn, Linda; Stoddard-Dare, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    With suicide being the third leading cause of death among young people, early identification of risk is critical, particularly for those involved with the juvenile courts. In this study of court-involved youth (N = 433) in two Midwest counties, logistic regression analysis identified some expected and unexpected findings of important demographic, educational, mental health, child welfare, and juvenile court-related variables that were linked to reported suicide attempts. Some of the expected suicide attempt risk factors for these youth included prior psychiatric hospitalization and related mental health services, residential placement, and diagnoses of depression and alcohol dependence. However, the most unexpected finding was that a court disposition to shelter care (group home) was related to a nearly tenfold increased risk in reported suicide attempt. These findings are of importance to families, mental health professionals, and juvenile court personnel to identify those youth who are most at risk and subsequently provide appropriate interventions to prevent such outcomes.

  14. Familism, family environment, and suicide attempts among Latina youth.

    PubMed

    Peña, Juan B; Kuhlberg, Jill A; Zayas, Luis H; Baumann, Ana A; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n = 109) and nonattempters (n = 107) were recruited from the New York City area. Latent class analysis revealed three family environment types: tight-knit, intermediate-knit, and loose-knit. Tight-knit families (high cohesion and low conflict) were significantly less likely to have teens who attempted suicide as compared with intermediate-knit families or loose-knit families. Moreover, familism increased the odds of being in a tight-knit family versus a loose-knit family and the odds of being in a tight-knit family versus a intermediate-knit. The results suggest that familism may protect against suicide behavior among Latinas via its influence on family environment.

  15. Impaired Decision-Making in Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Cannon, Elizabeth A.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Reynolds, Brady; Campo, John V.; Pajer, Kathleen A.; Barbe, Rémy P.; Brent, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Decision-making deficits have been linked to suicidal behavior in adults. However, it remains unclear whether impaired decision-making plays a role in the etiopathogenesis of youth suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine decision-making processes in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison subjects. Method Using the Iowa Gambling Task, the authors examined decision-making in 40 adolescent suicide attempters, ages 13–18, and 40 never-suicidal, demographically-matched psychiatric comparison subjects. Results Overall, suicide attempters performed significantly worse on the Iowa Gambling Task than comparison subjects. This difference in overall task performance between the groups persisted in an exact conditional logistic regression analysis that controlled for affective disorder, current psychotropic medication use, impulsivity, and hostility (adjusted odds ratio=0.96, 95% confidence interval=0.90–0.99, p<.05). A two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant group-by-block interaction, demonstrating that attempters failed to learn during the task, picking approximately the same proportion of disadvantageous cards in the first and final blocks of the task. In contrast, comparison subjects picked proportionately fewer cards from the disadvantageous decks as the task progressed. Within the attempter group, overall task performance did not correlate with any characteristic of the index attempt or with the personality dimensions of impulsivity, hostility, and emotional lability. Conclusions Similar to findings in adults, impaired decision-making is associated with suicidal behavior in adolescents. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the temporal relationship between decision-making processes and suicidal behavior and help frame potential targets for early identification and preventive interventions to reduce youth suicide and suicidal behavior. PMID:22449645

  16. A genome-wide association study of attempted suicide

    PubMed Central

    Willour, Virginia L.; Seifuddin, Fayaz; Mahon, Pamela B.; Jancic, Dubravka; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Steele, Jo; Schweizer, Barbara; Goes, Fernando S.; Mondimore, Francis M.; MacKinnon, Dean F.; Perlis, Roy H.; Lee, Phil Hyoun; Huang, Jie; Kelsoe, John R.; Shilling, Paul D.; Rietschel, Marcella; Nöthen, Markus; Cichon, Sven; Gurling, Hugh; Purcell, Shaun; Smoller, Jordan W.; Craddock, Nicholas; DePaulo, J. Raymond; Schulze, Thomas G.; McMahon, Francis J.; Zandi, Peter P.; Potash, James B.

    2011-01-01

    The heritable component to attempted and completed suicide is partly related to psychiatric disorders and also partly independent of them. While attempted suicide linkage regions have been identified on 2p11–12 and 6q25–26, there are likely many more such loci, the discovery of which will require a much higher resolution approach, such as the genome-wide association study (GWAS). With this in mind, we conducted an attempted suicide GWAS that compared the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes of 1,201 bipolar (BP) subjects with a history of suicide attempts to the genotypes of 1,497 BP subjects without a history of suicide attempts. 2,507 SNPs with evidence for association at p<0.001 were identified. These associated SNPs were subsequently tested for association in a large and independent BP sample set. None of these SNPs were significantly associated in the replication sample after correcting for multiple testing, but the combined analysis of the two sample sets produced an association signal on 2p25 (rs300774) at the threshold of genome-wide significance (p= 5.07 × 10−8). The associated SNPs on 2p25 fall in a large linkage disequilibrium block containing the ACP1 gene, a gene whose expression is significantly elevated in BP subjects who have completed suicide. Furthermore, the ACP1 protein is a tyrosine phosphatase that influences Wnt signaling, a pathway regulated by lithium, making ACP1 a functional candidate for involvement in the phenotype. Larger GWAS sample sets will be required to confirm the signal on 2p25 and to identify additional genetic risk factors increasing susceptibility for attempted suicide. PMID:21423239

  17. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China✩

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. Methods The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation anal yses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking related variables affected making a quit attempt. Results An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15–24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Conclusion Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. PMID:26441296

  18. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-01

    China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation analyses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking-related variables affected making a quit attempt. An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15-24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [The sense of coherence and risk of suicide attempt].

    PubMed

    Polewka, A; Chrostek-Maj, J; Kroch, S; Mikołaszek-Boba, M; Ryn, E; Datka, W; Rachel, W

    2001-01-01

    The analysis was based upon 79 patients hospitalized for suicide attempts (drug intoxication) in the Department of Clinical Toxicology CM UJ in Kraków from July to December 2000. The purpose of the study was to estimate the sense of coherence level (according to Antonovsky) as a potential suicide attempt predictor. The population of patients was divided into two groups: patients after first suicide attempt (I) and group after reattempting suicide (II). The examination was based on structure interview, analysis of medical documentation and a number of tests including SOC 29 (by Antonovsky), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), and Beck Hopelessness Scale (HS 20). The most important psychological and independent variable measured in the study was the sense of coherence, introduced first by Aaron Antonovsky as a significant predictor of mental health. The sense of coherence (measured by SOC 29 questionnaire) comprises comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness. Both in foreign and in polish studies the SOC 29 level was lower in clinical groups compared to healthy people. The norm in Polish population was 139 scores in SOC 29. In the present study the average total result (men and women) was 112 scores in the group of patients after first suicide attempt, and in the group of repeated suicide attempters the average total result was even lower--only 99 scores, which makes a statistically significant difference. We also observed a statistically significant dependence between the results of SOC 20 questionnaire, the level of depression measured by Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton Depression Scale, and the level of hopelessness measured by Beck Hopelessness Scale. The above results indicate that the sense of coherence level may make significant risk factor for repeated suicide attempt.

  20. Low CSF oxytocin reflects high intent in suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, Jussi; Chatzittofis, Andreas; Hellström, Christer; Nordström, Peter; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin; Asberg, Marie

    2012-04-01

    Data from animal studies suggest that oxytocin is an important modulating neuropeptide in regulation of social interaction. One human study has reported a negative correlation between CSF oxytocin levels, life history of aggression and suicidal behaviour. We hypothesized that CSF oxytocin levels would be related to suicidal behaviour, suicide intent, lifetime interpersonal violence and suicide risk. 28 medication free suicide attempters and 19 healthy volunteers participated in this cross sectional and longitudinal study. CSF and plasma morning basal levels of oxytocin were assessed with specific radio-immunoassays. The Beck Suicide Intent Scale (SIS), the Freeman scale and the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) were used to assess suicide intent and lifetime violent behaviour. All patients were followed up for cause of death. The mean follow-up was 21 years. Suicide attempters had lower CSF oxytocin levels compared to healthy volunteers p=0.077. In suicide attempters CSF oxytocin showed a significant negative correlation with the planning subscale of SIS. CSF oxytocin showed a significant negative correlation with suicide intent, the planning subscale of SIS and Freeman interruption probability in male suicide attempters. Correlations between plasma oxytocin levels and the planning subscale of SIS and Freeman interruption probability were significant in male suicide attempters. Lifetime violent behaviour showed a trend to negative correlation with CSF oxytocin. In the regression analysis suicide intent remained a significant predictor of CSF oxytocin corrected for age and gender whereas lifetime violent behaviour showed a trend to be a predictor of CSF oxytocin. Oxytocin levels did not differ significantly in suicide victims compared to survivors. CSF oxytocin may be an important modulator of suicide intent and interpersonal violence in suicide attempters.

  1. [Suicide attempts of 48 children aged 6-12 years].

    PubMed

    Berthod, C; Giraud, C; Gansel, Y; Fourneret, P; Desombre, H

    2013-12-01

    Research is limited on suicide attempts in children under 13 years of age. The objective of this study was to provide an in-depth description of this population. The present study is both retrospective and descriptive. Data were collected retrospectively from a file containing the causes for hospitalization of each child admitted into the Department of Child Psychiatry at the hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant (hospices civils de Lyon). We included all patients under 13 years of age who were hospitalized for a suicide attempt between 2008 and 2011. The methods used to collect the medical records consisted in using a form made up of four major parts: suicide attempts, social environment, medical history, and therapy. The 26 girls and 22 boys included had a mean age of 11.52 years. The boys were younger than the girls (P=0.047) and their parents were usually separated (P=0.034). The boys used more violent means to commit suicide in comparison to the girls (P=0.048). On average, children using violent means were younger (P=0.013). Boys underwent more psychotherapy (P=0.027) and were prescribed more psychotropic medication in comparison to girls (P=0.051). Adjustment disorders (37.5%) and depression (27%) were the two main diagnoses for hospitalization. They were hospitalized on average (±standard deviation) 9.6 days (±10 days). Psychotherapy was organized when leaving the hospital (98%) with legal measures (8.3%), change of residence (12.5%), and prescription of psychotropic drugs (37.5%). None had physical complications. In children under 13 years of age, attempted suicide was more frequent in girls than boys. However, the sample included 18 girls and nine boys who were 12 years old (sex ratio of 12-year-olds, 0.5). There were more boys (16 boys/eight girls) in the children under 12 (sex ratio of 8- to 11-year-olds, 1.6). Children under 11 used more violent means (P=0.01). The literature also reports that more violent means lead to a greater risk of death by suicide

  2. Adoption as a risk factor for attempted suicide during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Slap, G; Goodman, E; Huang, B

    2001-08-01

    Depression, impulsivity, and aggression during adolescence have been associated with both adoption and suicidal behavior. Studies of adopted adults suggest that impulsivity, even more than depression, may be an inherited factor that mediates suicidal behavior. However, the association between adoption and adolescent suicide attempts and the mechanisms that might explain it remain unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the following: 1) whether suicide attempts are more common among adolescents who live with adoptive parents rather than biological parents; 2) whether the association is mediated by impulsivity, and 3) whether family connectedness decreases the risk of suicide attempt regardless of adoptive or biological status. A secondary analysis of Wave I data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health was conducted, which used a school-based, clustered sampling design to identify a nationally representative sample of 7th- to 12th-grade students, with oversampling of underrepresented groups. Of the 90 118 adolescents who completed the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in-school survey, 17 125 completed the in-home interview and had parents of identified gender who completed separate in-home questionnaire. The subset of adolescents for this study was drawn from the in-home sampling according to the following criteria: 1) adolescent living with adoptive or biological mother at the time of the interview, 2) adolescent had never been separated from mother for more than 6 months, 3) mother was in first marriage at the time of the interview, and 4) the adoptive mother had never been married to the adolescent's biological father. Of the 6577 adolescents in the final study sample, 214 (3.3%) were living with adoptive mothers and 6363 (96.7%) were living with biological mothers. Variables. The primary outcome measured was adolescent report of suicide attempt(s) in the past year. Other variables included in the analyses were

  3. A multidimensional risk factor model for suicide attempts in later life.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sau Man Sandra; Chiu, Fung Kum Helen; Lam, Chiu Wa Linda; Wong, Sau Man Corine; Conwell, Yeates

    2014-01-01

    Elderly suicide is a public health problem worldwide, and the risk factors are multidimensional. Chronic mental health problems, personality traits, stressful life events, comorbid medical conditions, social isolation, unemployment, and poverty are associated with higher risk for suicide in later life. There was a relative paucity of data on the neurobiological markers of elderly suicide. This study examines the conjoint roles of cerebrovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and other established biopsychosocial risk factors in older adults who had made a recent suicide attempt. A cross-sectional, case-controlled study. A tertiary care setting in a public sector and a community setting. Cases (N=77) were nondemented Chinese adults aged ≥65 years, enrolled in a regional psychogeriatric service following a suicide attempt; comparison subjects (N=99) were community-dwelling nondemented older adults with no lifetime history of suicide. Measures of sociodemographic profile, life events, suicidal behavior, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) Axis I psychopathology, personality traits, functional status, physical health, CVRFs, and executive cognitive functions were administered. WEIGHTED SUM OF CVRF SCORE WAS SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER IN OLDER WOMEN WHO HAD MADE A RECENT SUICIDE ATTEMPT (MEAN: 10.56; standard deviation [SD]: 5.46) than comparison subjects (mean: 7.24; SD: 4.04) (t=3.52, P=0.001; df=99). Logistic regression showed that CVRF score (Exp[B]: 1.289, P=0.033), DSM-IV depressive disorders (current) (Exp[B]: 348, P<0.001), number of life events in the past 12 weeks (Exp[B]: 10.4; P<0.001), and being married (Exp[B]: 12.2, P<0.048) significantly increased odds for suicide attempt status in older women (Nagelkerke R (2): 0.844). Association of CVRF score and suicide attempt status was not observed in older men for whom number of life events in the past 12 weeks (Exp[B]: 9.164; P<0.001), higher neuroticism (Exp[B]: 1.028; P=0

  4. Tubal Pregnancy Associated with Endometrial Carcinoma after In Vitro Fertilization Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Bayoglu Tekin, Yesim; Guvendag Guven, Emine Seda; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Guven, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is rarely seen during reproductive ages and commonly related to infertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), and obesity. Pregnancy associated endometrial carcinoma is even rarer and this is the second case reported in the literature concerning tubal pregnancy associated endometrial carcinoma. We present a case of a 36-year-old woman with a history of PCOS, infertility, and several attempts of ovulation induction and in vitro fertilization, who was diagnosed with tubal pregnancy and a well differentiated endometrial carcinoma. We also review the literature about pregnancy associated endometrial carcinoma in the first trimester. PMID:25614844

  5. Patient characteristics and behaviours associated with self-harm and attempted suicide in acute psychiatric wards.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Duncan; Ross, Jamie; Watson, Charlotte; James, Karen; Bowers, Len

    2012-04-01

    The study examined events before and after incidents of self-harm and attempted suicide and the characteristics of patients who engage in these behaviours. Psychiatric inpatient populations have an elevated risk of self-harm and suicide, but relatively little is known about the circumstances of these events during an admission. Retrospective case note analysis. Data were collected on conflict (aggression, rule breaking, etc.) and containment (coerced medication, restraint, etc.) during the first two weeks of admission for a sample of 522 acute psychiatric inpatients. One in 10 patients self-harmed, and 4% attempted suicide. Aggression, attempting to leave the ward without permission and medication refusal were frequent precursors to incidents. Pro re nata medication and de-escalation were the most frequent interventions to follow an incident. Self-harm and attempted suicides during the current admission were significantly associated with younger age and a history of self-harm. A minority of the sample were involved in these behaviours, but incidents occurred soon after admission and sometimes repeatedly during the course of a day. Assessment of risk should be completed as early as possible. At-risk patients should be monitored for signs of withdrawal from ward activity, wanting to leave the ward without permission or non-compliance with medication to enable early intervention.

  6. Prophylactic attempt at manual rotation in brow presentation at full dilatation.

    PubMed

    Verspyck, Eric; Bisson, Violene; Gromez, Alexis; Resch, Benoit; Diguet, Alain; Marpeau, Loïc

    2012-11-01

    We report our management of brow presentation at full dilatation by a prophylactic attempt at manual rotation or immediate cesarean delivery, depending on practitioner training. During the study period, 49 women with brow presentation were collected for an overall 30 452 deliveries (1/621) and 22 (44.9%) of them were diagnosed at full dilatation. For the latter, an attempt at manual rotation was performed in 13 cases (59.1%) with no particular maternal or neonatal complications reported and vaginal delivery occurred in 10 (76.9%). Maternal and neonatal outcomes were similar between women with immediate cesarean section or prophylactic manual rotation, except for a shorter duration of hospitalization in the group with attempted manual rotation (p < 0.01). Prophylactic attempted manual rotation in brow presentation diagnosed at full dilatation may be associated with a high rate of vaginal delivery with no specific maternal or neonatal complications. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. [Large atrial septal defects in adults: results of attempted systematic percutaneous closure].

    PubMed

    Petit, J; Losay, J; Lambert, V; Piot, J D; Bertaux, X

    2006-05-01

    Percutaneous closure of ostium secundum atrial septal defects became routine practice from 1998 but remained limited by the size of their diameter at balloon calibration. In March 2004, after an experience of 551 patients, the maximum admissible diameter (40 mm), the biggest size available of the Amplatzer prosthesis, could often be exceeded. The essential anatomical condition was the presence of a circumferential edge--even minimal--except adjacent to the aorta where its absence was not a problem. From 31/03/04 to 31/12/05, 17 patients, 17 to 58 years of age, were included and underwent attempted percutaneous closure by the usual protocol. The insertion of the prosthesis was difficult in every case. It required the use of several techniques to orientate the prosthesis in a satisfactory plane without risking tearing part of the residual atrial septum. The attempt was successful in 16 of the 17 patients. The one failure occurred in a patient with complete absence of a posterior edge. The postoperative course was uncomplicated without residual shunt or displacement of the occluder in the follow-up studies. The authors conclude that very big atrial septal defects with diameters of over 40 mm may be closed percutaneously with the Amplatzer device with a reasonable chance of success. These attempts do not expose the patient to any particular risk and the results, in successful attempts, are comparable to those observed in smaller atrial septal defects.

  8. Recent medical service utilization and health conditions associated with a history of suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Elizabeth D; Cwik, Mary; Storr, Carla L; Goldstein, Mitchell; Eaton, William W; Wilcox, Holly C

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death; unfortunately most individuals at risk for suicide are not identified, assessed or treated by the mental health system. Investigating medical healthcare utilization among individuals with a history of suicide attempt may identify alternative settings for case finding and brief intervention. The study sample (n=1422, 58% female, 72% African-American) is from a prospective cohort of adults (27-31 years) who participated in a randomized trial of school-based interventions. Logistic regression evaluated the relationship between lifetime history of suicide attempt with past year medical service utilization and selected self- reported health conditions, controlling for lifetime Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), demographic factors, health insurance status and employment. A suicide attempt history was associated with past year emergency department medical visits [aOR 1.51, 95% CI 1.04-2.18, P=.03], but not primary care visits or inpatient hospitalization, when controlling for MDD and other covariates. Severe headaches and chronic gastrointestinal conditions were also associated with lifetime suicide attempt [aOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.03-2.17 and aOR 1.67, 95% CI 1.06-2.63, respectively]. Suicide prevention, including universal screening and brief intervention, is indicated in emergency department settings. Restricting screening to subgroups, such as those individuals presenting with depression, may miss at-risk individuals with somatic concerns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 31 CFR 593.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 593.206 Section 593.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR...

  10. Criminal prosecution of suicide attempt survivors in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2013-12-01

    Recently, there have been calls for the decriminalization (or depenalization) of nonfatal suicidal behavior (attempted suicide) in Ghana, India, Uganda, and other societies that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. Despite this, there is a dearth of systematic studies that examine the extent, nature, and characteristics of attempted suicide prosecutions in countries that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. The current study, therefore, explores the phenomenon of criminal prosecution and punishment for suicide attempters in Ghana, one among several countries where nonfatal suicidal behavior is a crime. Drawing from data extracted from local Ghanaian print and electronic news media articles, the study examines the sociodemographic characteristics of suicide attempt survivors, the patterns of nonfatal suicidal behavior, as well as the criminal justice outcomes of the criminal prosecutions. The findings indicate that the majority of defendants pled guilty to or were found guilty of the charge and sentenced to penalties ranging from monetary fines to incarceration. The results are discussed with regard to their implications for reducing nonfatal suicidal behavior in Ghana.

  11. Heroin Addicts Reporting Previous Heroin Overdoses Also Report Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradvik, Louise; Frank, Arne; Hulenvik, Per; Medvedeo, Alvaro; Berglund, Mats

    2007-01-01

    Nonfatal heroin overdoses and suicide attempts are both common among heroin addicts, but there is limited knowledge about the association between them. The sample in the present study consisted of 149 regular heroin users in Malmo, Sweden. Out of these 98 had taken an unintentional heroin overdose at some time and 51 had made at least one attempt…

  12. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies. 542.205 Section 542.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS...

  13. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 542.205 Section 542.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 542.205 Section 542.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 542.205 Section 542.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  16. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 542.205 Section 542.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  17. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548.205 Section 548.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  18. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548.205 Section 548.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  19. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548.205 Section 548.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  20. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548.205 Section 548.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  1. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548.205 Section 548.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  2. Neighborhood Predictors of Hopelessness among Adolescent Suicide Attempters: Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Smith, Alina; Spirito, Anthony; Boergers, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Adolescents (N=48) who attempted suicide were administered measures of hopelessness and depression. Those living in neighborhoods with weak social networks reported higher levels of hopelessness, even after controlling for socioeconomic backgrounds and depression. Findings suggest that the environmental context may play a role in the emotional…

  3. 31 CFR 593.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 593.206 Section 593.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES...

  4. Polywater: an attempt at synthesis in a gas discharge.

    PubMed

    Leiga, A G; Vance, D W; Ward, A T

    1970-04-03

    An attempt to produce polywater in a corona discharge in moist air was unsuccessful. However, the major product produced, nitric acid, has a midrange infrared spectrum which is strikingly similar to that reported for polywater. The Raman spectrum offers a better means of distinguishing between nitric acid and polywater than the infrared spectrum does.

  5. 31 CFR 587.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 587.204 Section 587.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA...

  6. 31 CFR 586.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 586.205 Section 586.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA...

  7. SpaceX CRS-11 Scrubbed Launch Attempt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-02

    At NASA's Kenney Space Center's Launch Complex 39A, liquid oxygen vapor vents from a Falcon 9 rocket during propellant loading for the June 1, 2017, launch attempt. The rocket is scheduled to boost a Dragon capsule on its 11th commercial resupply services mission to the International Space Station.

  8. Risk Factors of Attempted Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates of bipolar patients are among the highest of any psychiatric disorder, and improved identification of risk factors for attempted and completed suicide translates into improved clinical outcome. Factors that may be predictive of suicidality in an exclusively bipolar population are examined. White race, family suicide history, and…

  9. The 24 Hours before Hospitalization: Factors Related to Suicide Attempting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, John A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Psychiatric inpatients (N=59) were interviewd concerning psychological and environmental events that occurred in the 24 hours prior to their hospitalization. Suicide attempters were more likely to have used alcohol or marijuana and less likely to have contacted a health care professional than suicide ideators, even when past history of suicide…

  10. A follow-up study of attempted railway suicides.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, I; Arthur, A J; Farmer, R D

    1994-02-01

    This paper reports the subsequent mortality of 94 persons who attempted suicide by jumping in front of London Underground trains between 1977 and 1979. The follow-up period was 10 yr. Despite the apparent seriousness of the method, completion of suicide was not found to be higher than in previous studies of attempted suicide by other methods. By the end of the follow-up period 18 persons had died, nine of natural causes. Coroners' inquests were held for the unnatural deaths. Seven verdicts of suicide and two of accidental death were recorded. Of the nine unnatural deaths four were from multiple injuries, three from drowning, one from asphyxia and one from acute narcotic poisoning. All four multiple injury deaths were women, three of these were from repeated incidents involving London Underground trains. The time interval between the index attempt and eventual death for the suicide/accident group ranged from 1 day to 43 months. For ethical reasons it was not possible to follow-up attempted suicides who were presumed to have remained alive.

  11. 31 CFR 549.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 549.205 Section 549.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEBANON SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions...

  12. 31 CFR 537.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 537.206 Section 537.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  13. 31 CFR 537.206 - Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies. 537.206 Section 537.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 537.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 537.206 Section 537.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592.202 Section 592.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL...

  16. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592.202 Section 592.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL...

  17. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592.202 Section 592.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL...

  18. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592.202 Section 592.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL...

  19. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592.202 Section 592.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL...

  20. Risk Factors of Attempted Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates of bipolar patients are among the highest of any psychiatric disorder, and improved identification of risk factors for attempted and completed suicide translates into improved clinical outcome. Factors that may be predictive of suicidality in an exclusively bipolar population are examined. White race, family suicide history, and…

  1. Beyond Randomized Controlled Trials in Attempted Suicide Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Simon; Sharon, Cynthia; Coggan, Carol

    2009-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence about what is the best treatment for people who present to hospital after self harm. Most treatment trials have been small and involved unrepresentative groups of patients which result in inconclusive findings. Here we note some of the characteristics of attempted suicide which make it a difficult subject to study. We…

  2. 31 CFR 543.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 543.205 Section 543.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CôTE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS...

  3. Heroin Addicts Reporting Previous Heroin Overdoses Also Report Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradvik, Louise; Frank, Arne; Hulenvik, Per; Medvedeo, Alvaro; Berglund, Mats

    2007-01-01

    Nonfatal heroin overdoses and suicide attempts are both common among heroin addicts, but there is limited knowledge about the association between them. The sample in the present study consisted of 149 regular heroin users in Malmo, Sweden. Out of these 98 had taken an unintentional heroin overdose at some time and 51 had made at least one attempt…

  4. Beyond Randomized Controlled Trials in Attempted Suicide Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Simon; Sharon, Cynthia; Coggan, Carol

    2009-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence about what is the best treatment for people who present to hospital after self harm. Most treatment trials have been small and involved unrepresentative groups of patients which result in inconclusive findings. Here we note some of the characteristics of attempted suicide which make it a difficult subject to study. We…

  5. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  6. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  7. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  8. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  9. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  10. High CSF-insulin in violent suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Westling, Sofie; Ahrén, Bo; Träskman-Bendz, Lil; Westrin, Asa

    2004-12-30

    Several studies have investigated a connection between diabetes and major depressive disorder (MDD). Whether these associations are mediated by changes in insulin is not known. Insulin seems to play a role in violent behaviour. To further elucidate the role of insulin in MDD and violent, aggressive, or impulsive behaviour, we measured insulin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 74 patients with a recent suicide attempt. Patients were divided into those with and without MDD, and they were also subgrouped by whether the suicide attempt was considered to be violent or not. It was found that patients with a violent suicide attempt had significantly higher CSF-insulin (5.9+/-1.0 pmol/l) than those with a nonviolent attempt (5.3+/-0.7 pmol/l). In contrast, there were no significant differences in CSF-insulin between patients with MDD and patients without. Our findings support the hypothesis that CSF-insulin is involved in violent behaviour, but not connected to MDD as such.

  11. ATTEMPTS TO ESTABLISH EXPERIMENTAL CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSIS INFECTION IN LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attempts were made to develop an animal model for Cyclospora cayetanensis to identify a practical laboratory host for studying human cyclosporiasis. Oocysts collected from stool of infected humans in the United States, Haiti, Guatemala, Peru and Nepal were held in potassium dich...

  12. Factors associated with the history of attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Hakansson, A; Bradvik, L; Schlyter, F; Berglund, M

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines a population of criminal justice clients for suspected substance-related problems. It aims to identify variables associated with a history of suicide attempt (SA). 6,836 clients were interviewed with the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). Attempters were compared to nonattempters regarding substance use, medical/psychiatric status, family history, and social relationships in a stepwise forward logistic regression. Attempters (21%) were more likely to report binge drinking, intake of illicit drugs, injection of drugs, physical and mental illness, problematic family history, and history of being abused. After logistic regression, SA was independently associated with older age, female gender, binge drinking, delirium tremens, injection, overdose, medical problems, psychiatric symptoms, family history of alcohol or psychiatric problems, and sexual, physical, and emotional abuse. The psychiatric and family/social domains (including being abused) most strongly separated attempters from nonattempters. Family background factors, psychiatric symptoms, severity of substance use, and sexual, physical, and emotional abuse appear to be factors associated with SA among criminal justice clients.

  13. 31 CFR 596.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 596.202 Section 596.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS...

  14. 31 CFR 594.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 594.205 Section 594.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 594.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 594.205 Section 594.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  16. Intolerance to Delayed Reward in Girls with Multiple Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Charles W.; Dougherty, Donald M.; James, Lisa M.; Richard, Dawn M.; Dawes, Michael A.; Acheson, Ashley; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Impulsivity has been conceptualized as influencing the expression of suicidal behavior. Adolescence is a developmental period characterized both by a relatively high rate of suicide attempts and a high level of impulsivity. The current study examined two behavioral measures (delay reward and disinhibition) and one self-report measure of…

  17. ATTEMPTS TO ESTABLISH EXPERIMENTAL CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSIS INFECTION IN LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attempts were made to develop an animal model for Cyclospora cayetanensis to identify a practical laboratory host for studying human cyclosporiasis. Oocysts collected from stool of infected humans in the United States, Haiti, Guatemala, Peru and Nepal were held in potassium dich...

  18. Suicidal ideation and attempted suicide in elderly people - subjective experiences.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Denise Machado Duran; Sousa, Amandia Braga Lima; Grubits, Sonia

    2015-06-01

    We discuss the subjective experiences of elderly people who show suicidal ideation and/or attempts at suicide, based on their own reports. We understand the concept of 'subjective' as referring to intra-psychic experience resulting from social, economic, relationship or biographical conditions. Although the subject is sparsely covered in the literature, it is important, because it is in the field of subjectivity that ideations of, and attempts at, suicide develop and occur until they become a concrete act. Empirical data were collected through semi-structured interviews focusing on: social characterization, portrayal and mode of life, previous mental state, atmosphere of the attempt, effects on the health of the elderly person and family. Based on the analysis of the meanings that emerge, five empirical categories were generated: (1) subject's feeling of being in a non-place; (2) absence of acceptance of losses; (3) suffering due to ingratitude of family members; (4) feeling of uselessness of, and in, life; (5) re-signification of the situations that generate suicide-related conduct. The results point to a fundamental need to incorporate knowledge about the subjective processes into programs for prevention of suicide among the elderly who have ideation of, or attempts at, suicide.

  19. Identifying the ERP correlate of a recognition memory search attempt

    PubMed Central

    Diana, Rachel A.; Vilberg, Kaia L.; Reder, Lynne M.

    2008-01-01

    Previous recognition memory studies have looked for differences in brain activity during recollection- and familiarity-based responding. Although an ERP component correlated with recollection success has been reported, no analogous component related to search initiation has been found. We argue that such a component has not been discovered because studies have compared trials in which participants have made a search attempt and failed (such as Know responses) with those in which the search attempt is successful (such as Remember responses). In the current study, we compared a task that required judgments of lifetime familiarity (differentiating famous from nonfamous names) with one that required judgments of episodic information (deciding whether a name was seen previously in the experiment). By comparing a task on which familiarity judgments were made with no search attempt to a second task in which a search attempt was likely to occur, we identified a component that may reflect the initiation of a memory search. This effect, maximal between 190 and 235 ms, is correlated with Old judgments in the episodic task. Previous ERP findings (e.g., FN400, parietal old/new effect) were also replicated in the present study. PMID:15885990

  20. Treatment Adherence among Latina Female Adolescent Suicide Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Piacentini, John; Van Rossem, Ronan; Graae, Flemming; Cantwell, Coleen; Castro-Blanco, David; Feldman, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Disenfranchised Latina adolescents (N=140) and their mothers presenting at a large urban emergency room after a suicide attempt by the adolescent were assessed to examine treatment adherence. Predictor variables for treatment adherence were established. Results are discussed in relation to treatment session attendance. Implications for the…

  1. Characteristics of Suicide Attempters in a Slovenian High School Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomori, Martina; Zalar, Bojan

    2000-01-01

    In a study of Slovenian high school students (N=3,687) results show that those who had attempted suicide and those who had not differed in levels of self-esteem, emotional reaction to family problems, running away from home, and substance abuse. Differences in depression, suicide ideation, family suicide ideation, family suicide occurrence,…

  2. Intolerance to Delayed Reward in Girls with Multiple Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Charles W.; Dougherty, Donald M.; James, Lisa M.; Richard, Dawn M.; Dawes, Michael A.; Acheson, Ashley; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Impulsivity has been conceptualized as influencing the expression of suicidal behavior. Adolescence is a developmental period characterized both by a relatively high rate of suicide attempts and a high level of impulsivity. The current study examined two behavioral measures (delay reward and disinhibition) and one self-report measure of…

  3. Life Situations and Lifestyles of Persons Who Attempt Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakinofsky, Isaac

    A Sample of 228 suicide attempters admitted in the emergency rooms of four general hospitals in an industrial city was studied as part of an ongoing follow-up investigation of the interaction of life situations and stresses and coping skills. Approximately 60% of the sample came from chaotic homes torn apart by family conflict. An assortative…

  4. 31 CFR 595.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 595.205 Section 595.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  5. Visual-Motor Problems of Adolescents Who Attempt Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Thomas J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Using the Canter Background Interference Procedure with the Bender Gestalt Test, a group of 18 adolescent suicide attempters earned test scores indicating they had significantly more problems with visual motor coordination than did a control group of 21 adolescents. (Author/SBH)

  6. EFL Teachers' Attempts at Feedback Innovation in the Writing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Icy; Mak, Pauline; Burns, Anne

    2016-01-01

    To date, research on feedback in second language (L2) writing has primarily focused on feedback per se, with little attention paid to the teachers' professional development with regard to feedback in writing. This study aims to explore the ways in which two secondary teachers in Hong Kong attempted to implement feedback innovation in their writing…

  7. EFL Teachers' Attempts at Feedback Innovation in the Writing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Icy; Mak, Pauline; Burns, Anne

    2016-01-01

    To date, research on feedback in second language (L2) writing has primarily focused on feedback per se, with little attention paid to the teachers' professional development with regard to feedback in writing. This study aims to explore the ways in which two secondary teachers in Hong Kong attempted to implement feedback innovation in their writing…

  8. Suicide attempts among sexual-minority male youth.

    PubMed

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C; Ream, Geoffrey L

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide data addressing Diamond's (this issue) 4 problem areas in sexual orientation research by comparing gay, bisexual, and questioning male youth who report attempting suicide with those who do not. Secondary analyses were conducted with 2 datasets, 1 with a gay support group (n = 51) and the other with online youth (n = 681). Reported suicide attempts ranged from 39% among support-group youth, to 25% among Internet gay support group youth, to 9% among Internet non-support group youth. Sexual orientation, behavior, and identity did not predict suicidal attempt status, but suicide attempters experienced higher levels of both generic life stressors (low self-esteem, substance use, victimization) and gay-related stressors, particularly those directly related to visible (femininity) and behavioral (gay sex) aspects of their sexual identity. Support-group attendance was related to higher levels of suicidality and life stressors, as well as certain resiliency factors. Results suggest that there exists a minority of sexual-minority youth who are at risk but that it would be inappropriate to characterize the entire population as such.

  9. Visual-Motor Problems of Adolescents Who Attempt Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Thomas J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Using the Canter Background Interference Procedure with the Bender Gestalt Test, a group of 18 adolescent suicide attempters earned test scores indicating they had significantly more problems with visual motor coordination than did a control group of 21 adolescents. (Author/SBH)

  10. 101. ARAIII. View of control room with operators during attempted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. ARA-III. View of control room with operators during attempted 500-hour run of ML-1 reactor. April 21, 1964. Ineel photo no. 64-2185. Photographer: Benson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Treatment Adherence among Latina Female Adolescent Suicide Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Piacentini, John; Van Rossem, Ronan; Graae, Flemming; Cantwell, Coleen; Castro-Blanco, David; Feldman, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Disenfranchised Latina adolescents (N=140) and their mothers presenting at a large urban emergency room after a suicide attempt by the adolescent were assessed to examine treatment adherence. Predictor variables for treatment adherence were established. Results are discussed in relation to treatment session attendance. Implications for the…

  12. 31 CFR 545.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 545.206 Section 545.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS...

  13. DST non-suppression predicts suicide after attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, Jussi; Carlborg, Andreas; Mårtensson, Björn; Forslund, Kaj; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Nordström, Peter

    2007-04-15

    Most prospective studies of HPA axis have found that non-suppressors in the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) are more likely to commit suicide during the follow-up. Attempted suicide is a strong clinical predictor of suicide. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of DST for suicide in a group of depressed inpatients with and without an index suicide attempt. Historical cohort of 382 psychiatric inpatients with mood disorder admitted to the department of Psychiatry at the Karolinska University Hospital between 1980 and 2000 were submitted to the DST and followed up for causes of death. During the follow-up (mean 18 years), 36 suicides (9.4%) occurred, 20 of these were non-suppressors and 16 were suppressors. There was no statistically significant difference in suicide risk between the suppressors and non-suppressors for the sample as a whole. An index suicide attempt predicted suicide. In suicide attempters with mood disorder, the non-suppressor status was significantly associated with suicide indicating that HPA axis hyperactivity is a risk factor for suicide in this group. The dexamethasone suppression test may be a useful predictor within this population.

  14. 31 CFR 538.211 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 538.211 Section 538.211 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 537.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 537.206 Section 537.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  16. Personality differences in early versus late suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Lewitzka, Ute; Denzin, Sebastian; Sauer, Cathrin; Bauer, Michael; Jabs, Burkhard

    2016-08-09

    Suicidality is an individual behaviour caused by a complex framework of internal and external factors. The predictive values of personality traits for a suicide attempt have been demonstrated, especially in conjunction with Cloninger's TCI and impulsivity. Two issues remain unsolved, namely whether these traits alter over time after a suicide attempt, and how they may be influenced by depressive symptoms. We studied two patient cohorts: one sample of 81 patients after a suicide attempt no longer than 3 months previously (SA early) and another sample of 32 patients whose attempt had taken place more than 6 months previously (SA late). We carried out structured interviews with these subjects addressing diagnosis (MINI), suicidality (Scale for suicide ideation), depression (HAMD-17), temperament and character inventory (TCI), and impulsivity (BIS-10). Data analysis was done using SPSS 16.0. Our two groups did not differ significantly in sociodemographics or suicidality. However, patients in the SA early group were significantly more depressed (p < 0.001), and scored lower in reward dependence (p < 0.001) and persistence (p = 0.005) but higher in harm avoidance (p < 0.001); they did not differ significantly in impulsivity (p < 0.01). Reward dependence, persistence, and harm avoidance remained significantly different between the two groups after controlling for depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that some personality traits vary after a suicide attempt. Further investigations are necessary to verify our results, ideally in longitudinal studies with larger, carefully-described cohorts. It would be also clinically important to investigate the influence of therapeutic strategies on the variability of personality traits and their impact on suicidal behavior.

  17. Indigenous Knowledge Approach to Successful Psychotherapies with Aboriginal Suicide Attempters.

    PubMed

    Mehl-Madrona, Lewis

    2016-11-01

    Suicide is disproportionately common among Aboriginal people in Canada. Life stories were collected from 54 Aboriginal suicide attempters in northern Saskatchewan. Constant comparison techniques and modified grounded theory identified common themes expressed. Three common plots/themes preceded suicide attempts: 1) relationship breakup, usually sudden, unanticipated, involving a third person; 2) being publicly humiliated by another person(s), accompanied by high levels of shame; and 3) high levels of unremitting, chronic life stress (including poverty) with relative isolation. We found 5 common purposes for suicide attempts: 1) to "show" someone how badly they had hurt the attempter, 2) to stop the pain, 3) to save face in a difficult social situation, 4) to get revenge, and 5) don't know/don't remember/made sense at the time, all stated by people who were under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs at the time of their suicide attempt. We found 5 common beliefs about death: 1) you just cease to exist, and everything just disappears; 2) you go into the spirit world and can see and hear everything that is happening in this world; 3) you go to heaven or hell; 4) you go to a better place; and 5) don't know/didn't think about it. The idea of personal and cultural continuity is essential to understanding suicide among First Nations youth. Interventions targeted to the individual's beliefs about death, purpose for suicide, and consistent with the life story (plot) in which they find themselves may be more successful than one-size-fits-all programs developed outside of aboriginal communities. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. High Prevalence of Psychotropics Overdose among Suicide Attempters in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinyoung; Kim, Minseob; Kim, Yoo-ra; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Objective The availability of suicide methods affects the risk of suicide attempts. This study examined the patterns of substances ingested by suicide attempters (SAs) and the characteristics of SAs using psychotropic overdoses. Methods Data for 384 of the 462 eligible SAs who used self-poisoning were analyzed. Demographic variables, clinical characteristics, and factors related to the suicide attempts were examined. Results There were 256 (66.7%) females and 128 (33.3%) males. Roughly half the SAs ingested psychotropics (n=179, 46.6%). Agricultural chemicals (n=84, 21.9%) were the second most frequently ingested substances, followed by analgesics (n=62, 16.1%), household products (n=27, 7.0%), and other prescribed medications (n=23, 6.0%). Among psychotropics, the most frequently overdosed drugs were sedative-hypnotics, including hypnotics (n=104) and benzodiazepines (n=78). SAs favored Z-drugs and alprazolam. When compared with SAs with non-psychotropic overdoses, significantly more SAs with psychotropic overdoses were female (76% vs. 58.5%, p<0.001) and had a psychiatric history (59.8% vs. 29.8%, p<0.001). They had significantly more previous suicide attempts (0.52±1.02 vs. 0.32±0.80, p<0.05) and lower risk (7.96±1.49 vs. 8.44±1.99, p<0.01) and medical severity (3.06±0.81 vs. 3.37±0.93, p<0.005) scores. Conclusion Psychotropic overdose, especially with sedative-hypnotics, was a major method in suicide attempts. It is important that psychiatric patients are carefully evaluated and monitored for suicidality when prescribing psychotropics. PMID:26598590

  19. Qualitative study on suicide attempts and ideations with 60 elderly in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Fátima Gonçalves; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Sixty cases of suicidal attempts and ideations among elderly people from thirteen Brazilian municipalities were studied, with the objective of discovering, from what they had to say, their reasons and interpretations for attempting to take their own life. The study, with a hermeneutic and dialectic basis, was based on an interview guide, to steer the conversation with these individuals. It starts with a sociodemographic classification and looks in depth at the person's situation according to their social, community and family circumstances and their physical and mental health, functional capacity, and the reasons given for the suicidal ideations and attempts. This field information was first analysed locally and then cross-categorized according to the method used, severity of the events and reasons given by the elderly people, by sex, age, socioeconomic profile and risk and protection factors. A comprehensive, critical and interpretative summary was made of the material. The results show that failure to listen to and the isolation of elderly people, lack of awareness of the risks on the part of family, the association with physical and mental, functional, social and family losses and violence are predisposing factors, and concurrent in many cases. The conclusion is that vulnerability and self-neglect are reduced where there is family support, care and bonds of unity.

  20. Characteristics of patients who die in hospital with no attempt at resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Aune, Solveig; Herlitz, Johan; Bång, Angela

    2005-06-01

    To describe the characteristics, cause of hospitalisation and symptoms prior to death in patients dying in hospital without resuscitation being started and the extent to which these decisions were documented. All patients who died at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Goteborg, Sweden, in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was not attempted during a period of one year. Among 674 patients, 71% suffered respiratory insufficiency, 43% were unconscious and 32% had congestive heart failure during the 24h before death. In the vast majority of patients, the diagnosis on admission to hospital was the same as the primary cause of death. The cause of death was life-threatening organ failure, including malignancy (44%), cerebral lesion (10%) and acute coronary syndrome (10%). The prior decision of 'do not attempt resuscitation' (DNAR) was documented in the medical notes in 82%. In the remaining 119 patients (18%), only 16 died unexpectedly. In all these 16 cases, it was regarded retrospectively as ethically justifiable not to start CPR. In patients who died at a Swedish University Hospital, we did not find a single case in which it was regarded as unethical not to start CPR. The patient group studied here had a poor prognosis due to a severe deterioration in their condition. To support this, we also found a high degree of documentation of DNAR. The low rate of CPR attempts after in-hospital cardiac arrest appears to be justified.

  1. Reduced left precentral regional responses in patients with major depressive disorder and history of suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Tsujii, Noa; Mikawa, Wakako; Tsujimoto, Emi; Adachi, Toru; Niwa, Atsushi; Ono, Hisae; Shirakawa, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed frontal and temporal functional abnormalities in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and a history of suicidal behavior. However, it is unknown whether multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signal changes among individuals with MDD are associated with a history of suicide attempts and a diathesis for suicidal behavior (impulsivity, hopelessness, and aggression). Therefore, we aimed to explore frontotemporal hemodynamic responses in depressed patients with a history of suicide attempts using 52-channel NIRS. We recruited 30 patients with MDD and a history of suicidal behavior (suicide attempters; SAs), 38 patient controls without suicidal behavior (non-attempters; NAs), and 40 healthy controls (HCs) matched by age, gender ratio, and estimated IQ. Regional hemodynamic responses during a verbal fluency task (VFT) were monitored using NIRS. Our results showed that severities of depression, impulsivity, aggression, and hopelessness were similar between SAs and NAs. Both patient groups had significantly reduced activation compared with HCs in the bilateral frontotemporal regions. Post hoc analyses revealed that SAs exhibited a smaller hemodynamic response in the left precentral gyrus than NAs and HCs. Furthermore, the reduced response in the left inferior frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with impulsivity level and hemodynamic responses in the right middle frontal gyrus were negatively associated with hopelessness and aggression in SAs but not in NAs and HCs. Our findings suggest that MDD patients with a history of suicide attempts demonstrate patterns of VFT-induced NIRS signal changes different from those demonstrated by individuals without a history of suicidal behaviors, even in cases where clinical symptoms are similar. NIRS has a relatively high time resolution, which may help visually differentiate SAs from NAs.

  2. Intra-operative femoral neck fracture during attempted dislocation of a reduced hemi-arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ling, Samuel Ka Kin; Ma, Chun Man; Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-05-01

    Fragility hip fractures are increasingly common and hemiarthroplasty is one of the standard treatments. Although a common surgery, it should be performed with great caution because of the poor premorbid and bone quality in this demographic. Intra-operative fractures can occur while attempting press fit of the femoral implant. However; vigilance often steps down once the implant is secured and the hip reduced. This case report reminds surgeons that a large amount of torque can be transmitted during intra-operative positioning, such as during an attempt of hip dislocation. This torque, in addition to the risk factor of osteoporotic bone, can result in iatrogenic fractures. Published literature regarding management of an intra-operative fracture while the prosthetic hip is still reduced is lacking. The authors propose that temporary prophylactic cerclage wiring is a prudent and safe procedure prior to hip dislocation.

  3. Engagement and Retention of Suicide Attempters in Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Carly J.; Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Brown, Gregory K.; Beck, Aaron T.

    2010-01-01

    Background High attrition rates in longitudinal research can limit study generalizability, threaten internal validity, and decrease statistical power. Research has demonstrated that there can be significant differences between participants who complete a research study and those who drop out prematurely, and that treatment outcomes may be dependent on retention in a treatment protocol. Aims The current paper describes the challenges encountered when implementing a randomized controlled trial of cognitive therapy for the prevention of suicide attempts and the solutions developed to overcome these problems. Methods Problems unique to suicide attempters are discussed, and strategies successfully implemented to boost retention rates are provided. Results The methods implemented appeared to increase retention rates in the randomized controlled trial. Conclusions Many steps can be taken to work with this difficult population, and researchers are encouraged to be as involved and flexible with participants as possible. PMID:20418211

  4. Exploring Smoking Stigma, Alternative Tobacco Product Use, & Quit Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Johnson, Cati G.; Popova, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Investigate smoking stigma among different tobacco user types. Methods US adults (N=1,812) responded to an online survey, including non-smokers, smokeless tobacco users, exclusive smokers, and smokeless and cigarette “dual users”. Results Dual users perceived the highest smoking stigma. Stigma was higher for smokers open to quitting by switching to smokeless. E-cigarette users (smokers) reported higher stigma than non-users. Making a past-year quit attempt was predicted by smoking stigma, and smokeless and/or e-cigarette use. Conclusions Smoking stigma and dual use of smokeless tobacco and/or e-cigarettes with cigarettes predict quit attempts. However, smoking stigma might prevent smokers from consulting doctors and induce use of alternative tobacco products as cessation aids. PMID:27088103

  5. Panic symptom clusters differentially predict suicide ideation and attempt.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Lance M; Moskowitz, D S; Galynker, Igor; Yaseen, Zimri S

    2014-05-01

    Increasingly strong evidence links anxiety disorders in general and panic attacks in particular to suicidality. The underlying causes and specifics of this relation, however, remain unclear. The present article sought to begin addressing this question by clarifying the association between panic symptoms and suicidality. Data were sampled from the NESARC epidemiological data set from the US and analyzed as four independently, randomly selected subsets of 1000 individuals using structural equation modeling analyses and replicating results across samples. Evidence is presented for four symptom clusters (cognitive symptoms, respiratory distress, symptoms of alpha and beta adrenergic activation) and the differential association of each with suicidal ideation and attempts. Symptoms of alpha adrenergic activation predicted prior suicide attempt whereas cognitive symptoms predicted prior suicidal ideation. These findings were independent of comorbid major depressive disorder. It is suggested that assessment of suicide risk in the community includes the presentation of cognitive symptoms and symptoms related to alpha adrenergic activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel psychoactive substance intoxication resulting in attempted murder.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard; Tuddenham, Laurence

    2014-07-01

    A man in his twenties who had no previous history of violence, snorted large quantities of two substances he identified as 3-methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP), and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV); both are recognised as novel psychoactive substances, or commonly described in the media as "legal highs". He also inhaled butane gas. He experienced vivid hallucinations and developed bizarre ideas. During this state of mind he stabbed his father multiple times and was arrested and charged with attempted murder. He had a previous history of drug induced psychosis and although he had some slight residual symptoms before he consumed the substances, these were not considered relevant to his criminal liability at the time of the offence. The hallucinations caused by the use of these substances took six weeks to completely recede. He was convicted of attempted murder and sentenced to four years in prison.

  7. Revisiting mental simulation in language comprehension: six replication attempts.

    PubMed

    Zwaan, Rolf A; Pecher, Diane

    2012-01-01

    The notion of language comprehension as mental simulation has become popular in cognitive science. We revisit some of the original empirical evidence for this. Specifically, we attempted to replicate the findings from earlier studies that examined the mental simulation of object orientation, shape, and color, respectively, in sentence-picture verification. For each of these sets of findings, we conducted two web-based replication attempts using Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Our results are mixed. Participants responded faster to pictures that matched the orientation or shape implied by the sentence, replicating the original findings. The effect was larger and stronger for shape than orientation. Participants also responded faster to pictures that matched the color implied by the sentence, whereas the original studies obtained mismatch advantages. We argue that these results support mental simulation theory, show the importance of replication studies, and show the viability of web-based data collection.

  8. [Suicidal attempts in child and adolescent and bipolar disorders].

    PubMed

    Dugand, N; Thümmler, S; Pradier, C; Askenazy, F

    2017-03-02

    Child and adolescent psychiatrists are frequently confronted with suicide attempts and comorbid mood disorders. Diagnoses of juvenile bipolar disorders (BD) are rare and controversial and standardized assessment is helpful for a reliable diagnosis. The main objective of this study was to identify the number of juvenile bipolar disorder diagnoses according to DSM-5 criteria in a population of children and adolescents hospitalized for suicide attempts. Secondary objectives were the assessment of a patient's characteristics and the comparison of suicide attempt recurrence during 12 months of follow-up. This current practice study consecutively included children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years and hospitalized for a suicide attempt in a French University Pediatric Hospital over a 4-month period. Patients were assessed at baseline, at 3 months and at 12 months. The standardized assessment was realized by the investigator using semi-structured interview K-SADS-PL (2013) to diagnose juvenile bipolar disorders based on DSM-5 criteria. Clinical diagnoses based on medical charts and according to ICD-10 criteria were also collected at 12-month follow-up. Standardized assessment was completed by the French validated K-SADS-PL (2004) for comorbidities (DSM-IV), dimensional assessment by MADRS-YMRS-ARI-C-SSR, and C-GAS at inclusion. Patients were divided into two groups: (1) those presenting juvenile bipolar disorder according to DSM 5 (BD+) and (2) those without criteria for bipolar disorder (BD-). Suicide risk factors and suicide attempt relapse were assessed at 3 and 12 months of follow-up. Twenty-six inpatients (22 female and 4 male) aged 14.5 years (SD 1,5) were consecutively included. Twenty patients were followed up during the 12-month period. At baseline, 5 patients (19.2 %) presented a diagnosis of BD (DSM-5): 1 BD type 2, 2 non specified BD, 2 cyclothymic disorders. According to the medical charts (ICD-10), none of the patients had been diagnosed

  9. [Suicide and attempted suicide in the armed forces in 1998].

    PubMed

    Desjeux, G; Lemardeley, P; Vallet, D; Pascal, B; Labarère, J

    2001-01-01

    Little data exists concerning suicides and attempted suicides on professional duty. Now that the French Army is becoming professional, it is necessary to describe methods of self-destruction, in order to facilitate preventive measures. The French Army operated a surveillance system to record all instances of suicide and attempted suicide. Under this surveillance system, all suicidal acts and attempts must be reported through an anonymous standard form completed by a military physician. This form records demographic data, the circumstances and known motives. For the epidemiological analysis, we used the chi square test and the Student test. A method of indirect standardization was employed to enable comparisons between military suicides and those within the general French population in 1996. We chose a risk of error of 5%. During the course of 1998, 145 forms were gathered for professional armed forces. Of these, 40 were recorded as actual suicides and 105 as attempted suicides. The suicide rate corresponded to 14p 100,000. Suicides were limited exclusively to males, the average age at death was 36. Comparisons with the French male population at large (using the indirect method of standardization) showed a standardized mortality rate of 0.43 (p > 0.05). Methods of self-destruction employed were mostly hanging and using firearms. Attempted suicide rate was 31.5 p 100,000, with a relatively even balance between males and females. The average age was 30. Methods of self-destruction employed were mostly drug ingestion and laceration. Difficulties with personal relationships were the principal motive recorded, whilst instances of psychiatric diseases were rare. Previous suicide attempts were known in 21% of recorded suicide attempts in 1998 and in 10% of actual suicide. There was no suicidal act during or linked to an outside army operation. The ratio suicide-attempted suicide was 0.38. The fact that the rate of suicide in the French Army is lower than the national

  10. Suicide attempts and suicide ideation among the elderly in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Fachola, María Cristina Heuguerot; Lucero, Rossana; Porto, Viviana; Díaz, Elizabeth; París, María de Los Angeles

    2015-06-01

    An investigation is presented into Suicide Attempts (SA) among the Elderly in Uruguay conducted in 2014 in a Public Health institution in Montevideo linked to a Claves/Fiocruz project. Starting with an initial project, semi-structured interviews were conducted with institutionalized individuals with a history of suicide attempts, as well as a review of the literature and research into preventive norms and actions by public health authorities in the country. The results reveal difficulties of individuals in talking about SA as well as shame associated with aging. There was also a major difficulty talking about family ties, confirming gender differences in the method of SA and greater suicide ideation among women, although the possibility of SA repetition does not appear to be a concern. The study elicits reflection on the importance of attention, care, quality of life and the effects of institutionalized life upon the elderly.

  11. First Attempts at using Active Halo Control at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Joschka; Bruce, Roderik; Garcia Morales, Hector; Höfle, Wolfgang; Kotzian, Gerd; Kwee-Hinzmann, Regina; Langner, Andy; Mereghetti, Alessio; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Adriana; Salvachua, Belen; Stancari, Giulio; Tomás, Rogelio; Valentino, Gianluca; Valuch, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    The beam halo population is a non-negligible factor for the performance of the LHC collimation system and the machine protection. In particular this could become crucial for aiming at stored beam energies of 700 MJ in the High Luminosity (HL-LHC) project, in order to avoid beam dumps caused by orbit jitter and to ensure safety during a crab cavity failure. Therefore several techniques to safely deplete the halo, i.e. active halo control, are under development. In a first attempt a novel way for safe halo depletion was tested with particle narrow-band excitation employing the LHC Transverse Damper (ADT). At an energy of 450 GeV a bunch selective beam tail scraping without affecting the core distribution was attempted. This paper presents the first measurement results, as well as a simple simulation to model the underlying dynamics.

  12. Revisiting Mental Simulation in Language Comprehension: Six Replication Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Zwaan, Rolf A.; Pecher, Diane

    2012-01-01

    The notion of language comprehension as mental simulation has become popular in cognitive science. We revisit some of the original empirical evidence for this. Specifically, we attempted to replicate the findings from earlier studies that examined the mental simulation of object orientation, shape, and color, respectively, in sentence-picture verification. For each of these sets of findings, we conducted two web-based replication attempts using Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Our results are mixed. Participants responded faster to pictures that matched the orientation or shape implied by the sentence, replicating the original findings. The effect was larger and stronger for shape than orientation. Participants also responded faster to pictures that matched the color implied by the sentence, whereas the original studies obtained mismatch advantages. We argue that these results support mental simulation theory, show the importance of replication studies, and show the viability of web-based data collection. PMID:23300547

  13. Changes in smokers' attitudes toward intended cessation attempts in Japan.

    PubMed

    Goto, Rei; Takahashi, Yuko; Ida, Takanori

    2011-01-01

    Japan has the highest smoking prevalence among the G7 countries, and the Japanese government is expanding tobacco control measures, such as financial support for nicotine replacement therapy and cigarette price increases, to reduce smoking. In 2006, we examined intended quit attempts using hypothetical questions. Since then, a price increase for cigarettes has been proposed and has come closer to being realized. To examine attitude changes in intending to quit attempts according to the reinforcement of tobacco control policies and to clarify the attitudes toward the smoking policies under debate. In July 2006, a discrete choice experiment was performed in 616 current smokers. In January 2010, we conducted the same discrete choice experiment in 600 current smokers. In addition, we investigated attitudes toward increased cigarette price and amendments to the laws regulating the tobacco industry. In general, between 2006 and 2010, the discrete choice experiment indicated that the smoking continuation rate decreased for highly dependent smokers and increased for low and moderately dependent smokers. Regarding individual measures, increases in tobacco price consistently persuaded smokers of all dependence levels to attempt to quit smoking, whereas factors such as risk information and a smoking ban were effective only for low-dependence smokers. Current smokers show less support for a price increase and legislation of health promotion than nonsmokers. Of current smokers, those with greater nicotine dependence support these policies less. The shift of preference for intended attempts to quit is diverse according to nicotine dependence. These differences may be derived from the variations of their time and risk preference and their trust in the tobacco price policies. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Soil Still in Scoop After Sample-Delivery Attempt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows that soil remained inside the arm's scoop after an attempt to deliver a soil sample to a laboratory oven during the lander's 60th Martian day, or sol (July 26, 2008).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Suicidal Plans and Attempts Among Adolescents in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Davaasambuu, Sarantsetseg; Batbaatar, Suvd; Witte, Susan; Hamid, Phillip; Oquendo, Maria A; Kleinman, Marjorie; Olivares, Michael; Gould, Madelyn

    2017-02-23

    Although 75% of suicides occur in low- and middle-income countries, few studies have examined suicidal behaviors among young people in these countries. This study aimed to examine what individual characteristics were associated with suicidal plans and attempts among Mongolian youth and whether suicidal risks and behaviors varied by urban and rural locations. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to investigate suicidal plans and attempts among 5,393 adolescents using the Global Student Health Survey - 2013. Adolescents who lived in urban areas were at higher risk for suicidal plans and behaviors than those who lived in rural areas; however, the patterns of suicidal risks were similar. Specifically, individual characteristics, such as being female, feeling lonely and worried, smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, and having fights at school, were associated with suicidal plans and behaviors regardless of the residential places. A number of important variables have not been included in the questionnaire such as depression, family and parental support, household income, family constructs etc. Given the comparable patterns of risk between urban and rural adolescents and the relatively high rates of suicidal plans and attempts, similar mental health services and interventions are necessitated for both urban and rural areas.

  16. Stakeholder Perspectives on the Stigma of Suicide Attempt Survivors.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Lindsay L; Corrigan, Patrick W; Al-Khouja, Maya A

    2017-03-01

    Past scholarly efforts to describe and measure the stigma surrounding suicide have largely viewed suicide stigma from the perspective of the general public. In the spirit of community-based participatory research (CBPR), the current study brought together a diverse stakeholder team to qualitatively investigate the suicide stigma as experienced by those most intimately affected by suicide. Seven focus groups (n = 62) were conducted with suicide attempt survivors, family members of those who died by suicide, and suicide loss therapists. Themes were derived for stereotypes (n = 30), prejudice (n = 3), and discrimination (n = 4). People who attempted suicide were seen as attention-seeking, selfish, incompetent, emotionally weak, and immoral. Participants described personal experiences of prejudice and discrimination, including those with health professionals. Participants experienced public stigma, self-stigma, and label avoidance. Analyses reveal that the stigma of suicide shares similarities with stereotypes of mental illness, but also includes some important differences. Attempt survivors may be subject to double stigma, which impedes recovery and access to care.

  17. A biomechanical comparison of successful and unsuccessful power clean attempts.

    PubMed

    Kipp, Kristof; Meinerz, Carolyn

    2017-06-01

    Although the power clean is an almost ubiquitous exercise in the strength and conditioning setting, relatively little is known about the biomechanics of successful and unsuccessful power clean lift attempts. The purpose of this study was to determine biomechanical differences between successful and unsuccessful power clean lift attempts in male collegiate athletes. Fifteen male lacrosse players (Age: 20.1 ± 1.2; Height: 1.78 ± 0.07 m; Body mass: 80.4 ± 8.1 kg; Relative one-repetition maximum power clean: 1.25 ± 0.13 kg/kg) were videotaped during a lifting session that required the completion of maximal effort power cleans to establish a one-repetition maximum. The position of the barbell was digitised and used to calculate the displacement, velocity, acceleration, and acceleration vector of the barbell. The results revealed that unsuccessful attempts were characterised by differences during the second pull phase. Unsuccessful lifts exhibited greater peak forward barbell displacement, lower backward barbell velocities, and lower resultant acceleration angles during the second pull. Strength and conditioning coaches should therefore emphasise limited forward motion of the barbell during the second pull and instruct athletes to generate a more backward-directed force during the second pull in order to lift greater loads during testing and subsequent lifting sessions.

  18. Collective efficacy, family attachment, and urban adolescent suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Maimon, David; Browning, Christopher R; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2010-09-01

    The suicide rate among American adolescents between the ages of 14-25 has dramatically increased during the last 50 years, and this fact has been the focus of extensive social-scientific investigation. To date, however, research focusing on the joint effects of mental health, family, and contextual-level predictors on adolescents' suicidal behaviors is scarce. Drawing on Durkheim's classic macro-level approach to suicide and collective efficacy theory, we use data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to examine the effect of informal social controls on adolescents' suicide attempts. Analyzing reports from 990 youth, we examine the hypothesis that neighborhood-level collective efficacy and family-level integration and social control independently affect suicide attempts. We also examine the extent to which they interact in their effects on suicidal behavior. Overall, results from multilevel logit models support the Durkheimian expectation that family attachment reduces the probability that adolescents will attempt suicide. The effect of collective efficacy is interactive in nature. Specifically, we find that collective efficacy significantly enhances the protective effect of family attachment and support on adolescent suicidal behaviors. We discuss findings within the context of social control theory.

  19. Clinical characterization of Italian suicide attempters with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Vismara, Matteo; Dobrea, Cristina; Cremaschi, Laura; Grancini, Benedetta; Arici, Chiara; Benatti, Beatrice; Buoli, Massimiliano; Ketter, Terence A; Altamura, A Carlo

    2017-06-20

    Introduction Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic, highly disabling condition associated with psychiatric/medical comorbidity and substantive morbidity, mortality, and suicide risks. In prior reports, varying parameters have been associated with suicide risk. To evaluate sociodemographic and clinical variables characterizing Italian individuals with BD with versus without prior suicide attempt (PSA). A sample of 362 Italian patients categorized as BD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM IV-TR) was assessed and divided in 2 subgroups: with and without PSA. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were compared between prior attempters and non-attempters using corrected multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). More than one-fourth of BD patients (26.2%) had a PSA, with approximately one-third (31%) of these having>1 PSA. Depressive polarity at onset, higher number of psychiatric hospitalizations, comorbid alcohol abuse, comorbid eating disorders, and psychiatric poly-comorbidity were significantly more frequent (p<.05) in patients with versus without PSA. Additionally, treatment with lithium, polypharmacotherapy (≥4 current drugs) and previous psychosocial rehabilitation were significantly more often present in patients with versus without PSA. We found several clinical variables associated with PSA in BD patients. Even though these retrospective findings did not address causality, they could be clinically relevant to better understanding suicidal behavior in BD and adopting proper strategies to prevent suicide in higher risk patients.

  20. Sociological correlates of alienation among adolescent suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Wenz, F V

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to assess the relationship between adolescent alienation and a number of sociological factors in a sample adolescent suicide attempts from a northern metropolitan area. First, Dean's alienation scale is employed and the distribution of responses of the adolescent suicide attempts are analyzed. Second a number of sociological variables are examined by means of multiple regression procedures. In the regression analysis, eight variables were found to be statistically significant-in descending order: social contact with peers in the neighborhood, conflict with parents, broken romance, economic status of parents, communication blockage with parents, school performance, stepparents, and broken romance, These variables have been salient in previous research and theorizing about adolescent suicidal behavior. The fact that adolescence, by itself, seems to be a good predictor of whether or not a person will attempt suicide strongly suggests that there is something about the condition of adolescence which underlies this type of behavior. One possibility is that biological maturation is itself the crucial variable. Alternatively, the argument which follows concentrates on a major sociological aspect of adolescence-the adolescent's relative alienation from institutionalized social life. Alienation may be endemic to the period of adolescence.