Uhlin, Michael; Wikell, Helena; Sundin, Mikael; Blennow, Ola; Maeurer, Markus; Ringden, Olle; Winiarski, Jacek; Ljungman, Per; Remberger, Mats; Mattsson, Jonas
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a successful treatment for hematologic malignancies and a variety of genetic and metabolic disorders. In the period following stem cell transplantation, the immune-compromised milieu allows opportunistic pathogens to thrive. Epstein-Barr virus-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease can be a life-threatening complication for transplanted patients because of suppressed T-cell-mediated immunity. We analyzed possible risk factors associated with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in a cohort of over 1,000 patients. The incidence of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease was 4%. Significant risk factors identified by multivariate analysis were: human leukocyte antigen-mismatch (P<0.001), serological Epstein-Barr virus mismatch recipient-/donor+ (P<0.001), use of reduced intensity conditioning (P=0.002), acute graft-versus-host disease grade II to IV (P=0.006), pre-transplant splenectomy (P=0.008) and infusion of mesenchymal stromal cells (P=0.015). The risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease has increased in more recent years, from less than 2% before 1998 to more than 6% after 2011. Additionally, we show that long-term survival of patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease is poor despite initial successful treatment. The 3-year survival rate among the 40 patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease was 20% as opposed to 62% among patients without post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (P<0.001). The study identifies patients at risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease after transplantation in need of pre-emptive measures.
Luo, Lan; Zhang, Lin; Cai, Bo; Li, Honghua; Huang, Wenrong; Jing, Yu; Zhu, Haiyan; Zhao, Yu; Bo, Jian; Wang, Quanshun; Han, Xiaoping; Yu, Li; Gao, Chunji
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a rare and serious complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) or solid organ transplantation. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the occurrence of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in allo-HSCT recipients over 12 years in a single center in China. A total of 343 patients received allo-HSCT. The conditioning therapy consisted of a busulfan/cyclophosphamide-based regimen, a fludarabine/cyclophosphamide-based regimen, or total-body irradiation and cyclophosphamide. In transplantations from unrelated donors and haplo-identical donors, patients also received antithymocyte globulin (ATG) or thymoglobulin as part of the conditioning. Five of the 343 patients (1.46%) were diagnosed with PTLD and all 5 were given ATG as part of conditioning. Among these 5 patients, 4 had lymphoid neoplasm before transplantation. EBV-positivity was confirmed in 4 patients. All 5 PTLD patients received reduction of immunosuppression (RI) as fundamental therapy. At follow-up on April 1, 2013, 1 patient had survived for 2 years and 1 had survived for 9 years. The correlation of PTLD with ATG and underlying diseases were examined by statistical analysis using the chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test (P=0.011 and 0.025, respectively). Although only 1.46% of patients progressed to PTLD associated with ATG and underlying diseases, the mortality was still high. Moreover, RI can be an effective therapy for PTLD patients, but other approaches should be further explored.
Dharnidharka, Vikas R; Webster, Angela C; Martinez, Olivia M; Preiksaitis, Jutta K; Leblond, Veronique; Choquet, Sylvain
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are a group of conditions that involve uncontrolled proliferation of lymphoid cells as a consequence of extrinsic immunosuppression after organ or haematopoietic stem cell transplant. PTLDs show some similarities to classic lymphomas in the non-immunosuppressed general population. The oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a key pathogenic driver in many early-onset cases, through multiple mechanisms. The incidence of PTLD varies with the type of transplant; a clear distinction should therefore be made between the conditions after solid organ transplant and after haematopoietic stem cell transplant. Recipient EBV seronegativity and the intensity of immunosuppression are among key risk factors. Symptoms and signs depend on the localization of the lymphoid masses. Diagnosis requires histopathology, although imaging techniques can provide additional supportive evidence. Pre-emptive intervention based on monitoring EBV levels in blood has emerged as the preferred strategy for PTLD prevention. Treatment of established disease includes reduction of immunosuppression and/or administration of rituximab (a B cell-specific antibody against CD20), chemotherapy and EBV-specific cytotoxic T cells. Despite these strategies, the mortality and morbidity remains considerable. Patient outcome is influenced by the severity of presentation, treatment-related complications and risk of allograft loss. New innovative treatment options hold promise for changing the outlook in the future.
Arbus, G S; Grisaru, S; Segal, O; Dosch, M; Pop, M; Lala, P; Nutikka, A; Lingwood, C A
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is an invasive, EBV expressing B lymphoma and a major cause of morbidity and mortality following organ transplantation. Presently there is limited therapy available; rather the patient often loses the allograft or succumbs to the malignancy. CD77 (or globotriaosyl ceramide -Gb(3)) is a germinal center B cell marker [Gregory et al. Int J Cancer 1998;42:213-20; Gregory et al., J Immunol 1987;139:313-8; Mangeney et al. Eur J Immunol 1991;21:1131-40], expressed on most EBV infected B cells and is the receptor for the E. coli derived verotoxin (VT) [Lingwood CA. Advances in Lipid Research 1993;25:189-212]. We present the basis of a possible novel approach to PTLD therapy utilizing the specific targeting of VT to the infiltrating lymphoma cells. Biopsies of adenoid, kidney or liver tissue of four PTLD patients were stained with verotoxin to determine expression of CD77. VT is a potent inducer of necrosis/apoptosis of receptor positive cells. In each PTLD case, the infiltrating EBV positive B lymphoma cells were strongly and selectively stained with VT, identifying CD77 as a new marker for these cells. For such individuals, VT might provide the basis of an approach to control their malignancy.
Kim, Manbok; Rahman, Masmudur M.; Cogle, Christopher R.
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with a variety of epithelial and hematologic malignancies, including B-, T- and NK cell-lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease (HD), post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs), nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinomas, smooth muscle tumors, and HIV-associated lymphomas. Currently, treatment options for EBV-associated malignancies are limited. We have previously shown that myxoma virus specifically targets various human solid tumors and leukemia cells in a variety of animal models, while sparing normal human or murine tissues. Since transplant recipients of bone marrow or solid organs often develop EBV-associated post-transplant LPDs and lymphoma, myxoma virus may be of utility to prevent EBV-associated malignancies in immunocompromised transplant patients where treatment options are frequently limited. In this report, we demonstrate the safety and efficacy of myxoma virus purging as a prophylactic strategy for preventing post-transplant EBV-transformed human lymphomas, using a highly immunosuppressed mouse xenotransplantation model. This provides support for developing myxoma virus as a potential oncolytic therapy for preventing EBV-associated LPDs following transplantation of bone marrow or solid organ allografts. - Highlights: • Myxoma virus effectively infects and purges EBV lymphoma cells in vivo. • Oncolytic myxoma virus effectively eradicates oncogenic EBV tumorigenesis. • Ex vivo pre-treatment of myxoma virus can be effective as a preventive treatment modality for post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases.
Mittal, Ruchi; Thumann, Gabrielle; Souteyrand, George; Kuerten, David; Coupland, Sarah E
Toxoplasmosis is a relatively rare complication in renal transplant patients and can pose diagnostic challenges, especially when it manifests as an ocular inflammation. Authors hereby report an unusual case of a 57-year-old male who developed retinochoroidal toxoplasmosis after 15 years of renal transplant, the diagnoses of which were challenging as the patient was also a known case of cerebral post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) of Hodgkin's type, which misled the ophthalmologists towards a clinical diagnosis of ocular PTLD. Histopathology examination of the enucleated eye revealed numerous toxoplasmosis cysts within the retina and choroid. No ocular PTLD was observed.
Bakanay, Şule Mine; Kaygusuz, Gülşah; Topçuoğlu, Pervin; Şengül, Şule; Tunçalı, Timur; Keven, Kenan; Kuzu, Işınsu; Uysal, Akın; Arat, Mutlu
Three cases of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease that occurred 6 to 8 years after renal transplantation are reported. The patients respectively had gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and atypical Burkitt lymphoma. Absence of EBV in the tissue samples was demonstrated by both in situ hybridization for EBV early RNA and polymerase chain reaction for EBV DNA. Patients were treated with reduction in immunosuppression and combined chemotherapy plus an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, rituximab. Despite the reduction in immunosuppression, patients had stable renal functions without loss of graft functions. The patient with atypical Burkitt lymphoma had an abnormal karyotype, did not respond to treatment completely, and died due to disease progression. The other patients are still alive and in remission 5 and 3 years after diagnosis, respectively. EBV-negative post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases are usually late-onset and are reported to have poor prognosis. Thus, reduction in immunosuppression is usually not sufficient for treatment and more aggressive approaches like rituximab with combined chemotherapy are required. PMID:24764734
Kwong, Y L; Lam, C C; Chan, T M
Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) occur after solid organ and bone marrow transplantation. They are predominantly of B-cell and occasionally of T-cell lineage. We report a case of PTLD of natural killer (NK) cell lineage. A renal allograft recipient developed progressive pancytopenia 1 year after transplantation. Serial bone marrow biopsies showed an increasing infiltration by large granular lymphoid cells. A subsequent leukaemic phase also developed with systemic infiltration of other organs. Immunophenotyping showed that these cells were CD2+, CD3-, CD3epsilon+, CD56+, CD94+, CD158a- and CD158b-. In situ hybridization showed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of the neoplastic cells. Genotypical analysis showed the T-cell receptor gene in germline configuration and clonal EBV episomal integration. The overall features were consistent with NK cell lymphoma/leukaemia. The patient did not respond to cessation of immunosuppression or anti-EBV treatment. Combination chemotherapy was given, but the patient died ultimately of disseminated fungal infection. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that NK cell lymphoma is another rare type of PTLD that appears to be highly aggressive and therefore may require early chemotherapy to improve treatment outcome.
Zambelli, Alberto; Lilleri, Daniele; Baldanti, Fausto; Scelsi, Mario; Villani, Laura; Da Prada, Gian Antonio
Background Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a complication of solid organ and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT); following autologous HSCT only rare cases of PTLD have been reported. Here, a case of Hodgkin's disease (HD), as unusual presentation of PTLD after autologous HSCT for malignant glioma is described. Case presentation 60-years old man affected by cerebral anaplastic astrocytoma underwent subtotal neurosurgical excision and subsequent high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous HSCT. During the post HSCT course, cranial irradiation and corticosteroids were administered as completion of therapeutic program. At day +105 after HSCT, the patient developed HD, nodular sclerosis type, with polymorphic HD-like skin infiltration. Conclusion The clinical and pathological findings were consistent with the diagnosis of PTLD. PMID:16117828
Piñana, José Luis; Sanz, Jaime; Esquirol, Albert; Martino, Rodrigo; Picardi, Alessandra; Barba, Pere; Parody, Rocio; Gayoso, Jorge; Montesinos, Pau; Guidi, Stefano; Terol, Maria José; Moscardó, Federico; Solano, Carlos; Arcese, William; Sanz, Miguel A; Sierra, Jorge; Sanz, Guillermo
We report the outcome of 30 consecutive patients with Hodgkin disease (HD) who underwent single-unit UCBT. Most (90%) patients had failed previous autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The conditioning regimens were based on combinations of thiotepa, busulfan, cyclophosphamide or fludarabine, and antithymocyte globulin. The cumulative incidence (CI) of myeloid engraftment was 90% [95% confidence interval (C.I.), 74-98%] with a median of 18 d (range, 10-48). CI of acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) grades II-IV was 30% (95% C.I., 17-44%), while the incidence of chronic GVHD was 42% (95% C.I., 23-77%). The non-relapse mortality (NRM) at 100 d and 4 yr was 30% (95% C.I., 13-46%) and 47% (95% C.I., 29-65%), respectively. EBV-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-PTLD) accounted for more than one-third of transplant-related death, with an estimate incidence of 26% (95% C.I., 9-44). The incidence of relapse at 4 yr was 25% (95% C.I., 9-42%). Four-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 28% and 30%, respectively. Despite a high NRM and an unexpected high incidence of EBV-PTLD, UCBT in heavily pretreated HD patients is an option for patients lacking a suitable adult donor, provided the disease is not in refractory relapse.
Giraldi, Eugenia; Provenzi, Massimo; Fiocchi, Roberto; Colledan, Michele; Cornelli, Pieremilio; Torre, Giuliano; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Conter, Valentino
Management of aggressive, usually late-occurring, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs), a life-threatening complication after solid organ transplants, remains controversial. Four children affected by aggressive CD20+ PTLDs received a chemo-immunotherapy regimen for remission induction based on fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and rituximab, associated with a rapid discontinuation of immunosuppression (IS). Subsequent consolidation chemotherapy consisted of Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster-modified blocks. All patients achieved a complete remission, which persisted for 25, 68+, 80+, and 103+ months after diagnosis. Therapy was well tolerated. No patients developed allograft rejection during PTLD treatment. Our experience suggests that this chemo-immunotherapeutic approach may be an effective treatment strategy while allowing for a concomitant discontinuation of IS.
Sanz, J; Arango, M; Senent, L; Jarque, I; Montesinos, P; Sempere, A; Lorenzo, I; Martín, G; Moscardó, F; Mayordomo, E; Salavert, M; Cañigral, C; Boluda, B; Salazar, C; López-Hontangas, J L; Sanz, M A; Sanz, G F
We analyzed the incidence, clinicopathological features, risk factors and prognosis of patients with EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV-PTLD) in 288 adults undergoing umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) at a single institution. Twelve patients developed proven EBV-PTLD at a median time of 73 days (range, 36-812). Three-year cumulative incidence (CI) of EBV-PTLD was 4.3% (95% CI: 1.9-6.7). All patients presented with extranodal involvement. Most frequently affected sites were the liver, spleen, central nervous system (CNS), Waldeyer's ring and BM in 7, 6, 4, 3 and 3 patients, respectively. One patient had polymorphic and 11 had monomorphic EBV-PTLD (7 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas not otherwise specified, 4 plasmablastic lymphomas). We confirmed donor origin and EBV infection in all histological samples. EBV-PTLD was the cause of death in 11 patients at a median time of 23 days (range, 1-84). The 3-year CI of EBV-PTLD was 12.9% (95% CI: 3.2-22.5) and 2.6% (95% CI: 0.5-4.7) for patients receiving reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and myeloablative conditioning, respectively (P<0.0001). In conclusion, adults with EBV-PTLD after UCBT showed frequent visceral and CNS involvement. The prognosis was poor despite routine viral monitoring and early intervention. An increased risk of EBV-PTLD was noted among recipients of RIC regimens.
Capello, Daniela; Gaidano, Gianluca
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a life-threatening complication of solid organ transplantation or, more rarely, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The majority of PTLD is of B-cell origin and associated with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection. PTLD generally display involvement of extranodal sites, aggressive histology and aggressive clinical behavior. The molecular pathogenesis of PTLD involves infection by oncogenic viruses, namely EBV, as well as genetic or epigenetic alterations of several cellular genes. At variance with lymphoma arising in immunocompetent hosts, whose genome is relatively stable, a fraction of PTLD are characterized by microsatellite instability as a consequence of defects in the DNA mismatch repair mechanism. Apart from microsatellite instability, molecular alterations of cellular genes recognized in PTLD include alterations of cMYC, BCL6, TP53, DNA hypermethylation, and aberrant somatic hypermutation of protooncogenes. The occurrence of IGV mutations in the overwhelming majority of PTLD documents that malignant transformation targets germinal centre (GC) B-cells and their descendants both in EBV–positive and EBV–negative cases. Analysis of phenotypic markers of B-cell histogenesis, namely BCL6, MUM1 and CD138, allows further distinction of PTLD histogenetic categories. PTLD expressing the BCL6+/MUM1+/-/CD138− profile reflect B-cells actively experiencing the GC reaction, and comprise diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) centroblastic and Burkitt lymphoma. PTLD expressing the BCL6−/MUM1+/CD138− phenotype putatively derive from B-cells that have concluded the GC reaction, and comprise the majority of polymorphic PTLD and a fraction of DLBCL immunoblastic. A third group of PTLD is reminiscent of post-GC and preterminally differentiated B-cells that show the BCL6−/MUM1+/CD138+ phenotype, and are morphologically represented by either polymorphic PTLD or DLBCL immunoblastic. PMID:21416004
Ojha, Junu; Islam, Nadim; Cohen, Donald M; Marshal, David; Reavis, Michael R; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are long-term complications of immunosuppression after solid organ/bone marrow transplantation. In most cases, PTLD arises as a result of primary or reactivated Epstein-Barr virus infection in a host with impaired cellular immunity. PTLD is most often seen in the gastrointestinal tract, although it has also been reported in other organ systems, including the central nervous system and, rarely, in the head and neck. It is characterized histologically by abnormal lymphoid cell proliferation. Although many forms of PTLD do not meet all of the histologic criteria of lymphoma, they often behave clinically in a malignant fashion if left untreated. We present 3 rare cases of PTLD manifesting in the oral cavity as mucosal masses after solid organ transplantation. There are only 8 published reports of PTLD in the literature presenting as oral lesions. The clinical, pathologic, and therapeutic spectra of PTLD are discussed.
Spinato, L; Brihaye, P; De Ganseman, A; Marquet, T; Mansbach, A L
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a potentially fatal complication after solid organ transplantation. The majority of cases are associated with Epstein Barr virus infection (EBV). The first manifestations of PTLD are frequently observed in the ENT area with adenoidal and/or tonsillar enlargement. We present the case of a 12-year old girl with a total nasal obstruction and tonsillitis five months after a kidney transplantation for bilateral congenital kidney hypoplasia. The EBV genome was detected by polymerase reaction three months after surgery. Fiberoptic examination revealed an obstructive necrotic mass in the naso-pharynx. The anatomic-pathologic analysis revealed necrotic adenoids. Necrotic tonsillitis is common. Necrosis of the adenoids, although rarer, can also occur and explains the important respiratory distress. Since two thirds of PTLD patients present with clinical symptoms in the ENT area, the otorhinolaryngologist should be aware of this complication.
Ishihara, Hiroki; Shimizu, Tomokazu; Unagami, Kohei; Hirai, Toshihito; Toki, Daisuke; Omoto, Kazuya; Okumi, Masayoshi; Imai, Yoichi; Ishida, Hideki; Tanabe, Kazunari
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder is a serious complication of solid organ transplantation; however, few large studies have been performed in Asian institutions. We review our single-center experience with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder patients in Japan. We retrospectively evaluated patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder following kidney transplantation between January 1985 and December 2013. The patients were divided into early-onset post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (<1 year) and late-onset post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (≥1 year) groups. Thirteen patients had the disorder, an incidence rate of 0.75% (13/1730). Early-onset post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (N = 3) had not occurred for the last two decades. In the late-onset group (N = 10), the median time of onset was 108.7 months. The Kaplan-Meier 10-year overall survival rates were 76.9% and 95.4% in patients with and without the disorder, respectively (P = 0.0001). Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder significantly affected transplant recipients' mortality. Late-onset occurred even > 10 years after transplantation; therefore, long-term monitoring of patients is needed. © 2016 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.
Caillard, Sophie; Cellot, Etienne; Dantal, Jacques; Thaunat, Olivier; Provot, François; Janbon, Bénédicte; Buchler, Matthias; Anglicheau, Dany; Merville, Pierre; Lang, Philippe; Frimat, Luc; Colosio, Charlotte; Alamartine, Eric; Kamar, Nassim; Heng, Anne Elisabeth; Durrbach, Antoine; Moal, Valérie; Rivalan, Joseph; Etienne, Isabelle; Peraldi, Marie Noelle; Moreau, Anne; Moulin, Bruno
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders arising after kidney transplantation portend an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Retransplantation of patients who had developed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder remains questionable owing to the potential risks of recurrence when immunosuppression is reintroduced. Here, we investigated the feasibility of kidney retransplantation after the development of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. We reviewed the data from all patients who underwent kidney retransplantation after post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in all adult kidney transplantation centers in France between 1998 and 2015. We identified a total of 52 patients with kidney transplants who underwent 55 retransplantations after post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. The delay from post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder to retransplantation was 100±44 months (28-224); 98% of patients were Epstein-Barr virus seropositive at the time of retransplantation. Induction therapy for retransplantation was used in 48 patients (i.e., 17 [31%] patients received thymoglobulin, and 31 [57%] patients received IL-2 receptor antagonists). Six patients were also treated with rituximab, and 53% of the patients received an antiviral drug. The association of calcineurin inhibitors, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids was the most common maintenance immunosuppression regimen. Nine patients were switched from a calcineurin inhibitor to a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor. One patient developed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder recurrence at 24 months after retransplantation, whereas post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder did not recur in 51 patients. The recurrence of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder among patients who underwent retransplantation in France is a rare event. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Piccin, Andrea; Morello, Enrico; Svaldi, Mirija; Haferlach, Torsten; Facchetti, Fabio; Negri, Giovanni; Vecchiato, Cinzia; Fisogni, Simona; Pusceddu, Irene; Cortelazzo, Sergio
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is an extremely rare condition that originates from dendritic cells. We report on the first case of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) of donor origin in a BPDC patient post-allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Flow cytometry study identified a cell population CD4+/CD56+/CD45RA+/CD123+/TCL1+ suggestive of BPDCN diagnosis, which was confirmed by a lymph node biopsy (cells positive for BCL11a, BDCA-2, CD2AP, CD123, TCL1 and S100). Cytogenetic analysis revealed a complex karyotype: (19 metaphase) 47,XX,t(1;6)(q21;q2?5),-13 + 2mar/47, XX, +21 /46,XX . The patient was started on acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) induction schedule, and subsequently an allogeneic HSCT was performed. On day +36 post-HSCT, bone marrow biopsy/aspirate showed complete morphological remission, and chimerism study showed 100% donor chimera. However, on day +37, the patient was found to have enlarged cervical and supraclavicular lymphoadenopathy, splenomegaly and raised lactic dehydrogenase. EBV-DNA copies in blood were elevated, consistent with a lytic cycle. A lymph node biopsy showed EBV encoded RNA and large atypical B cells (CD45dim-, CD4+/CD56+, monoclonal for k-chain, CD19+/CD20+/CD21+/CD22+/CD38+/CD43+/CD79β-/CD5-/CD10-), consistent with PTLD monomorphic type. Chimerism study showed that PTLD was of donor origin. This case together with the recent literature findings on BPDCN and PTLD are discussed.
Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia
Tang, Tzung-Chih; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Chang, Hung
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) can occur after solid organ transplantation (SOT) or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The majority of PTLDs are related to the reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the lymphoid organs. PLTDs in HSCT recipients tend to present with systemic involvement, and isolated PTLD in these patients is rare. Only 14 isolated cerebral PTLDs have been reported in HSCT recipients, and none have been reported in lymphoma patients. When diagnosing PTLD in a lymphoma patient, it is challenging to discriminate between a PTLD that originated from previous disease and a newly developed clone and to distinguish between donor and recipient origin. In this report, we present the first case of a B-cell lymphoma patient who developed isolated PTLD in the CNS, and we confirmed that the PTLD originated in a distinct clone and from a different origin. Furthermore, the role of EBV-DNA monitoring in such patients is discussed.
Malviya, Neeta; Wickless, Heather
We report a case of primary cutaneous CD30+ post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder with an uncommon finding of signet ring cell features in a heart transplant patient. The neoplastic cells were CD4 and CD30 positive, and negative for S-100, pancytokeratin, myeloperoxidase, and CD56. In situ hybridization for Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) was negative, even though the patient did have EBV viremia. PMID:27499836
Medlicott, S A C; Devlin, S; Helmersen, D S; Yilmaz, A; Mansoor, A
A 44-year-old woman, 3 years post-transplant for pulmonary sarcoidosis, developed abdominal pain and diarrhea 13 months subsequent to an eradicated diffuse large B-cell-type, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) of the cecal region. Endoscopic examination identified multiple pale tan 5-to-9 mm rubbery nodules of the transverse and right colon in an otherwise unremarkable mucosa. Histology was characterized by bland smooth muscle proliferations, focally pushing into the mucosa. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the sampled nodules confirmed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of neoplastic cells. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of EBV-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative and smooth muscle neoplasms (PTSN) having distinct tropism for the colon. Endoscopic features of early PTSN, which in this case presented as diminutive polypoid lesions, have not been described previously.
Evens, Andrew M; Roy, Rupali; Sterrenberg, Danielle; Moll, Michelle Z; Chadburn, Amy; Gordon, Leo I
Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a heterogenous group of abnormal lymphoid proliferations that occur after solid organ transplant (SOT) or hematopoietic transplantation. PTLDs consist of a disease spectrum ranging from hyperplasia to aggressive lymphomas with 60-70% being Epstein-Barr virus positive. The majority of cases are B-cell, although 10-15% are of T-cell origin or rarely Hodgkin lymphoma. Recent SOT series suggest PTLD occurs at a median of 36-40 months after transplant. Clinically, extra-nodal disease is common (up to 75-85%) including CNS involvement, which is seen in 10-15% of all cases. Since the first report over 40 years ago, PTLD has remained one of the most morbid complications associated with SOT. However, recent data suggests improved survival in the modern era, especially with the integration of early rituximab-based therapy. These studies utilized first line rituximab (+/- chemotherapy) together with reduced immune suppression (RI) for monomorphic and polymorphic PTLD. It will be critical in future studies to determine which PTLDs are most amenable to initial therapy with RI alone, versus RI/rituximab, versus RI/rituximab/chemotherapy. Additionally, novel therapeutics, such as adoptive immunotherapy, should continue to be explored.
Margolskee, Elizabeth; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Jain, Preti; Chen, Jinli; Ganapathi, Karthik; Nahum, Odelia; Levy, Brynn; Morscio, Julie; Murty, Vundavalli; Tousseyn, Thomas; Alobeid, Bachir
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders of T- or NK-cell origin (T/NK-PTLD) are rare entities and their genetic basis is unclear. We performed targeted sequencing of 465 cancer-related genes and high-resolution copy number analysis in 17 T-PTLD and 2 NK-PTLD cases. Overall, 377 variants were detected, with an average of 20 variants per case. Mutations of epigenetic modifier genes (TET2, KMT2C, KMT2D, DNMT3A, ARID1B, ARID2, KDM6B, n=11). and inactivation of TP53 by mutation and/or deletion(n=6) were the most frequent alterations, seen across disease subtypes, followed by mutations of JAK/STAT pathway genes (n=5). Novel variants, including mutations in TBX3 (n=3), MED12 (n=3) and MTOR (n=1), were observed as well. High-level microsatellite instability was seen in 1 of 14 (7%) cases, which had a heterozygous PMS2 mutation. Complex copy number changes were detected in 8 of 16 (50%) cases and disease subtype-specific aberrations were also identified. In contrast to B-cell PTLDs, the molecular and genomic alterations observed in T/NK-PTLD appear similar to those reported for peripheral T-cell lymphomas occurring in immunocompetent hosts, which may suggest common genetic mechanisms of lymphoma development. PMID:27203213
Current preventive strategies and management of Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in solid organ transplantation in Europe. Results of the ESGICH Questionnaire-based Cross-sectional Survey.
San-Juan, R; Manuel, O; Hirsch, H H; Fernández-Ruiz, M; López-Medrano, F; Comoli, P; Caillard, S; Grossi, P; Aguado, J M
There is limited clinical evidence on the utility of the monitoring of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNAemia in the pre-emptive management of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. We investigated current preventive measures against EBV-related PTLD through a web-based questionnaire sent to 669 SOT programmes in 35 European countries. This study was performed on behalf of the ESGICH study group from the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. A total of 71 SOT programmes from 15 European countries participated in the study. EBV serostatus of the recipient is routinely obtained in 69/71 centres (97%) and 64 (90%) have access to EBV DNAemia assays. EBV monitoring is routinely used in 85.9% of the programmes and 77.4% reported performing pre-emptive treatment for patients with significant EBV DNAemia levels. Pre-emptive treatment for EBV DNAemia included reduction of immunosuppression in 50.9%, switch to mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors in 30.9%, and use of rituximab in 14.5% of programmes. Imaging by whole-body 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is used in 60.9% of centres to rule out PTLD and complemented computer tomography is used in 50%. In 10.9% of centres, FDG-PET is included in the first-line diagnostic workup in patients with high-risk EBV DNAemia. Despite the lack of definitive evidence, EBV load measurements are frequently used in Europe to guide diagnostic workup and pre-emptive reduction of immunosuppression. We need prospective and controlled studies to define the impact of EBV monitoring in reducing the risk of PTLD in SOT recipients.
Rossi, Davide; Ramponi, Antonio; Franceschetti, Silvia; Stratta, Piero; Gaidano, Gianluca
Bone marrow necrosis is a rare cause of bone marrow failure. Malignancy is the most frequent cause of bone marrow necrosis. Among malignancies, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) accounts for 10% of cases of bone marrow necrosis. Virtually all reported cases of NHL-associated bone marrow necrosis have developed in immunocompetent hosts. We report on a case of bone marrow necrosis complicating post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) and resolving after rituximab monotherapy. This case report provides the first evidence of (i) bone marrow necrosis as a complication of PTLD; (ii) rapid resolution of NHL-associated bone marrow necrosis after rituximab treatment.
Maksten, Eva Futtrup; Vase, Maja Ølholm; Kampmann, Jan; d'Amore, Francesco; Møller, Michael Boe; Strandhave, Charlotte; Bendix, Knud; Bistrup, Claus; Thiesson, Helle Charlotte; Søndergaard, Esben; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen; Jespersen, Bente
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) incidence is difficult to determine, mainly because both early and other lesions may go unrecognized and unregistered. Few studies have included systematic pathology review to maximize case identification and decide more accurately PTLD frequency after long-term post-transplantation follow-up. A retrospective population-based cohort study including all kidney transplant recipients at two Danish centres (1990-2011; population covered 3.1 million; 2175 transplantations in 1906 patients). Pathology reports were reviewed for all patient biopsies to identify possible PTLDs. Candidate PTLDs underwent histopathological review and classification. Seventy PTLD cases were identified in 2175 transplantations (3.2%). The incidence rate (IR) after first transplantation was 5.4 cases per 1000 patient-years (95% CI: 4.0-7.3). Most PTLDs were monomorphic (58.5%), or early lesions (21.5%). Excluding early lesions and patients <18 years, IR was 3.7 (95% CI: 2.9-5.5). Ten patients with PTLD were retransplanted, 2 developing further PTLDs. Post-transplant patient survival was inferior in patients with PTLD, while death-censored graft survival was not. Using registry data together with extensive pathological review and long follow-up, a rather high incidence of PTLD was found.
Draoua, H Y; Tsao, Lawrence; Mancini, Donna M; Addonizio, Linda J; Bhagat, Govind; Alobeid, Bachir
Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are a well-recognized and potentially life-threatening complication of solid organ transplantation. While the vast majority of PTLDs are B-cell lymphoproliferations, T-cell PTLDs are rarely seen. Among 898 patients receiving cardiac transplants between 1990 and 2003, 34 patients (3.8%) developed PTLDs with two (0.2%) T-cell PTLDs, 31 (3.5%) B-cell PTLDs and one (0.1%) natural killer cell PTLD. An additional three cases of T-cell PTLD were identified among all cardiac transplant patients followed at our institution. These T-cell PTLDs comprised a heterogeneous group of Epstein-Barr virus negative lymphoproliferations that developed late after transplantation and followed an aggressive course.
Matar, Abraham J; Patil, Aarti R; Al-Musa, Ahmad; Hanekamp, Isabel; Sachs, David H; Huang, Christene A; Duran-Struuck, Raimon
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a major complication of clinical organ and cell transplantation. Conditioning and immunosuppressive regimens that significantly impair T cell immunity, including depleting antibodies and calcineurin inhibitors, increase the risk of PTLD after transplantation. Swine PTLD has been shown to closely resemble human PTLD in morphology, histology, and viral-driven reactivation of B cells. Previously, we reported high incidences of PTLD after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in miniature swine recipients conditioned with thymic irradiation (TI) in addition to T cell depletion and cyclosporine A monotherapy after transplantation. Replacement of TI with 100 cGy of total body irradiation resulted in similar numbers of B cells early post-transplantation, greater numbers of T cells at day 0, and markedly decreased incidence of PTLD, suggesting that a threshold number of T cells may be necessary to prevent subsequent B cell proliferation and development of overt PTLD. Results from this large cohort of animals provide insight into the important effect of irradiation and T cell immunity on the incidence of PTLD after HCT and reinforce the pig model as a valuable tool for the study of PTLD and HCT. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Ding-Bao; Song, Qiu-Jing; Chen, Yun-Xin; Chen, Yu-Hong; Shen, Dan-Hua
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are serious, life-threatening complications of solid-organ transplantation (SOT) and bone marrow transplantation, and are associated with high mortality. PTLDs represent a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative diseases, which show a spectrum of clinical, morphologic, and molecular genetic features ranging from reactive polyclonal lesions to frank lymphomas. We describe clinicopathologic features of 17 cases of PTLD after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), which were analyzed by in situ hybridization for EBV and a panel of antibodies directed against numerous antigens, including CD20, PAX5, CD3, bcl-6, CD10, MUM-1/IRF4, CD138, Kappa, Lambda, CD30, CD15, and Ki67. The cases included 13 males and 4 females with a median age of 31 years (range 9-49 years) and the PTLDs developed 1.5-19 months post-transplant (mean 4.7 months). The histological types indicated five cases of early lesions, two of plasmacytic hyperplasia and three of infectious mononucleosis-like PTLD. Eight cases were polymorphic PTLD, and four were monomorphic PTLD, including three of diffuse large B cell lymphoma, and one of plasmablastic lymphoma. Foci and sheets of necrosis were observed in five cases. The infected ratio of EBV was 88.2 %. Some cases were treated by reduction of immunosuppression, antiviral therapy, donor lymphocyte infusion, or anti-CD20 monoclonal rituximab. Eight cases died. The first half year after allo-HSCT is very important for the development of PTLD. The diagnosis of PTLD relies on morphology and immunohistochemistry, and EBV plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PTLD. The prognosis of PTLD is poor, and, notably, PTLD after allo-HSCT exhibits some features different from those of PTLD after SOT.
Sarkozy, Clémentine; Kaltenbach, Sophie; Faurie, Pierre; Canioni, Danielle; Berger, Françoise; Traverse-Glehen, Alexandra; Ghesquieres, Hervé; Salles, Gilles; Bachy, Emmanuel; Alyanakian, Marie-Alexandra; Hermine, Olivier; Neven, Bénédicte; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Romana, Serge; Molina, Thierry Jo; Suarez, Felipe; Asnafi, Vahid; Bruneau, Julie
Plasma-cell post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PC-PTLD) is a rare monomorphic PTLD entity divided into plasma cell myeloma (PCM) and plasmacytoma-like lesion (PLL) PTLD. To date, there are no exhaustive published cytogenetic data on PC-PTLD. We report array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) of 10 cases of PCM and PLL-PTLD. Patients had received kidney (n = 6), heart (n = 2), lung (n = 1) or bone marrow (n = 1) transplantation. There were six men and median age at time of PTLD was 56.5 years (3-74). We identified two different cytological features, plasmacytic and plasmablastic, among six PLL and three PCM PTLD. Eight cases were associated with EBV. First line treatment was heterogeneous: rituximab alone (n = 5), CHOP-like (n = 3) and multiple myeloma-like (n = 1). One patient died before any treatment. After a median follow-up of 19.5 months (0-150), five patients died (four from PTLD) and five were alive without evidence of disease. By aCGH, 5/10 demonstrated a complex profile. The most frequent abnormalities were +7q (5/10), +16q (5/10), +17q (5/10), +17p (4/10), +5q (4/10), t7 (4/10), t9 (3/10), del1p (3/10). No del17p13 (TP53) were observed. Del1p32.3 (CDKN2C) was observed in 2 cases. On univariate prognostic analysis, a complex aCGH was associated with a shorter OS. Thus, cytogenetic abnormalities seem to be closely related to those reported in multiple myeloma or diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Complex aCGH constitutes an unfavorable prognostic marker and aCGH should be integrated in the evaluation of patients with PLL/PCM-PTLD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Singh, A.; Das, C. J.; Gupta, A. K.; Bagchi, S.
Post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder include a spectrum of conditions occurring in immunosuppressed post transplant recipients, lymphoma being the most ominous. 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography CT) is the current imaging gold standard for lymphoma imaging as it allows both morphological and functional assessment. CT and/or conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used for morphological evaluation in transplant recipients. Integrating diffusion weighted imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient analysis in MRI protocol enhances its sensitivity and may prove invaluable in response assessment in transplant recipients. PMID:27194838
Peters, Anthea; Olateju, Tolu; Deschenes, Jean; Shankarnarayan, Santosh H; Chua, Neil; Shapiro, A M James; Senior, Peter
We report the first two cases of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in recipients of islet transplants worldwide. First, a 44-year old recipient of 3 islet infusions developed PTLD 80 months after his initial transplant, presenting with abdominal pain and diffuse terminal ileum thickening on imaging. He was treated with surgical excision, reduction of immunosuppression and rituximab. Seven months later he developed central nervous system PTLD, presenting with vertigo and diplopia; immunosuppression was discontinued, resulting in graft loss, and he was given high-dose methotrexate and consolidative autologous stem cell transplant. He remains in remission 37 months after initial diagnosis. Second, a 58-year old female recipient of 2 islet infusions developed PTLD 24 months after initial islet infusion, presenting with pancytopenia secondary to extensive bone marrow involvement. Immunosuppression was discontinued, resulting in graft loss, and she received rituximab and chemotherapy, achieving complete remission. Both cases were monomorphic B-cell PTLD subtype by histology and negative for EBV in tissue or blood. These cases document the first occurrences of this rare complication in islet transplant, likely secondary to prolonged, intensive immunosuppression, and highlight the variable clinical manifestations of PTLD. Further studies are needed to determine incidence rate and risk factors in islet transplantation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Fernando, Rodrigo C; Rizzatti, Edgar G; Braga, Walter M T; Santos, Melina G; de Oliveira, Mariana B; Pestana, José O M; Baiocchi, Otavio C G; Colleoni, Gisele W B
The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is an association between serum free light chains (sFLC) quantification and the development of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), using serum samples from a nested case-control cohort of patients with renal transplant. Ten new cases of PTLD and 46 controls were enrolled. Additional comparison groups consisted of five human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, five with untreated Hodgkin lymphoma and six normal individuals. Serum κ and λ FLC concentrations were measured by nephelometry and compared with reference ranges (normal and renal ranges). κ and/or λ were above the normal range in 90% of cases and in 65% of matched controls. There was no statistically significant difference between all groups, except for λ FLC concentrations between cases of PTLD and normal individuals (p = 0.016). The κ/λ sFLC ratios of cases and controls were within the renal range and normal range. Our results suggest that sFLC are not useful to predict PTLD development in renal transplant recipients.
Djokic, Miroslav; Le Beau, Michelle M; Swinnen, Lode J; Smith, Sonali M; Rubin, Charles M; Anastasi, John; Carlson, Katrin M
Although cytogenetic analysis advanced the understanding of the pathogenesis of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma and led to improved clinical management, there have been no large cytogenetic studies of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). We examined the karyotypes of 36 PTLD cases and correlated them with clinical, laboratory, and pathologic findings. The cases included 2 early lesions, 13 polymorphic PTLDs, and 21 monomorphic PTLDs (18 B-cell and 3 T-cell proliferations). Cytogenetic abnormalities were identified in 72% of monomorphic B-cell PTLDs and in all T-cell PTLDs, but in only 15% of polymorphic PTLDs and in no early lesions. The most frequent clonal abnormalities in monomorphic PTLD were trisomies 9 and/or 11 (5 cases), followed by rearrangements of 8q24.1 (4 cases), 3q27 (2 cases), and 14q32 (2 cases). MYC rearrangement (8q24.1) and T-cell-associated chromosomal abnormalities correlated with poor outcome and short survival. PTLD with trisomy 9 and/or 11 developed early after transplant, presenting as Epstein-Barr virus-positive large B-cell lymphoma with prolonged survival.
Vase, Maja Ølholm; Maksten, Eva Futtrup; Bendix, Knud; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen; Andersen, Claus; Møller, Michael Boe; Sørensen, Søren Schwartz; Jespersen, Bente; Kampmann, Jan; Søndergård, Esben; Nielsen, Patricia Switten; D'amore, Francesco
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are potentially fatal, often Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven neoplasias developing in immunocompromised hosts. Initial treatment usually consists of a reduction in immunosuppressive therapy and/or rituximab with or without chemotherapy. However, patients who relapse do poorly, and new treatment options are warranted. With the introduction of the immunoconjugate brentuximab vedotin, the CD30 antigen has become an effectively targetable molecule. Therefore, we investigated the frequency and level of CD30 expression in PTLDs. We identified 108 patients with PTLDs diagnosed during 1994-2011, of whom 62 had adequate paraffin-embedded tissue for tissue microarray construction. Immunohistochemical expression of CD30 was consistently detected in all types of PTLD (overall 85.25%), including the monomorphic subtypes, and was correlated with a more favorable outcome. For diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL)-type PTLD this was regardless of EBV status, and remained significant in multivariate analysis. Cell-of-origin had no independent prognostic value in our series of DLBCL PTLD.
Oton, Ana B; Wang, Hong; Leleu, Xavier; Melhem, Mona F; George, Diane; Lacasce, Ann; Foon, Kenneth; Ghobrial, Irene M
We sought to determine the clinical and immunohistopathological prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in adult patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs). Eighty-four patients diagnosed with PTLDs between 1980 and 2004 at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center were identified. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on tumor tissue at the time of diagnosis for the following proteins: Bcl-2, Bcl-6, c-myc and p53. The median survival for all patients was 20.8 months, 95% CI: (7.4-77.6). On univariate analysis for OS, the following poor prognostic factors were identified: age at transplant >60 years (p = 0.024), multiorgan transplant (p = 0.019), ECOG > 2 (p < 0.0001), grafted organ involvement (p < 0.0001), extranodal disease (p = 0.011), early (<1 year) PTLDs (p < 0.0001), stage IV (p = 0.0017), EBV positive (p = 0.012) and elevated white blood count (p = 0.010). Good prognostic factors included ECOG<2 (p < 0.0001), late (>1 year) PTLDs (p = 0.002), early stage at diagnosis (stages I and II, p = 0.005), nodal disease (p = 0.0053), monomorphic disease (0.0034), initial immunosuppression reduction (p = 0.0015) and use of rituximab (p = 0.045). Bcl-2 but not Bcl-6, c-myc, or p53 correlated with poor survival, p = 0.0036. This study identifies new clinical and pathological markers for poor survival in PTLDs.
Nelson, B P; Nalesnik, M A; Bahler, D W; Locker, J; Fung, J J; Swerdlow, S H
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are usually but not invariably associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The reported incidence, however, of EBV-negative PTLDs varies widely, and it is uncertain whether they should be considered analogous to EBV-positive PTLDs and whether they have any distinctive features. Therefore, the EBV status of 133 PTLDs from 80 patients was determined using EBV-encoded small ribonucleic acid (EBER) in situ hybridization stains with or without Southern blot EBV terminal repeat analysis. The morphologic, immunophenotypic, genotypic, and clinical features of the EBV-negative PTLDs were reviewed, and selected features were compared with EBV-positive cases. Twenty-one percent of patients had at least one EBV-negative PTLD (14% of biopsies). The initial EBV-negative PTLDs occurred a median of 50 months post-transplantation compared with 10 months for EBV-positive cases. Although only 2% of PTLDs from before 1991 were EBV negative, 23% of subsequent PTLDs were EBV negative (p <0.001). Of the EBV-negative PTLDs, 67% were of monomorphic type (M-PTLD) compared with 42% of EBV-positive cases (p <0.05). The other EBV-negative PTLDs were of infectious mononucleosis-like, plasma cell-rich (n = 2), small B-cell lymphoid neoplasm, large granular lymphocyte disorder (n = 4) and polymorphic (P) types. B-cell clonality was established in 14 specimens and T-cell clonality was established in three (two patients). None of the remaining specimens were studied with Southern blot analysis and some had no ancillary studies. Rearrangement of c-MYC was identified in two M-PTLDs with small noncleaved-like features, and rearrangement of BCL-2 was found in one large noncleaved-like M-PTLD. Ten patients were alive at 3 to 63 months (only three patients received chemotherapy). Seven patients, all with M-PTLDs, are dead at 0.3 to 6 months. Therefore, EBV-negative PTLDs have distinct features, but some do respond to decreased immunosuppression, similar
Jackson, K; Ruppert, K; Shapiro, R
There are not a great deal of data on post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) following pancreas transplantation. We analyzed the United Network for Organ Sharing national database of pancreas transplants to identify predictors of PTLD development. A univariate Cox model was generated for each potential predictor, and those at least marginally associated (p < 0.15) with PTLD were entered into a multivariable Cox model. PTLD developed in 43 patients (1.0%) of 4205 pancreas transplants. Mean follow-up time was 4.9 ± 2.2 yr. In the multivariable Cox model, recipient EBV seronegativity (HR 5.52, 95% CI: 2.99-10.19, p < 0.001), not having tacrolimus in the immunosuppressive regimen (HR 6.02, 95% CI: 2.74-13.19, p < 0.001), recipient age (HR 0.96, 95% CI: 0.92-0.99, p = 0.02), non-white ethnicity (HR 0.11, 95% CI: 0.02-0.84, p = 0.03), and HLA mismatching (HR 0.80, 95% CI: 0.67-0.97, p = 0.02) were significantly associated with the development of PTLD. Patient survival was significantly decreased in patients with PTLD, with a one-, three-, and five-yr survival of 91%, 76%, and 70%, compared with 97%, 93%, and 88% in patients without PTLD (p < 0.001). PTLD is an uncommon but potentially lethal complication following pancreas transplantation. Patients with the risk factors identified should be monitored closely for the development of PTLD.
Fellner, María Dolores; Durand, Karina A; Solernou, Veronica; Bosaleh, Andrea; Balbarrey, Ziomara; García de Dávila, María T; Rodríguez, Marcelo; Irazu, Lucía; Alonio, Lidia V; Picconi, María A
High levels of circulating EBV load are used as a marker of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD). There is no consensus regarding the threshold level indicative of an increase in peripheral EBV DNA. The aim of the study was to clinically validate a developed EBV quantification assay for early PTLD detection. Transversal study: paired peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), plasma and oropharyngeal lymphoid tissue (OLT) from children undergoing a solid organ transplant with (n=58) and without (n=47) PTLD. Retrospective follow-up: 71 paired PBMC and plasma from recipients with (n=6) and without (n=6) PTLD history. EBV load was determined by real-time PCR. The diagnostic ability to detect all PTLD (categories 1-4), advanced PTLD (categories 2-4) or neoplastic PTLD (categories 3 and 4) was estimated by analyzing the test performance at different cut-off values or with a load variation greater than 0.5log units. The higher diagnostic performance for identifying all, advanced or neoplastic PTLD, was achieved with cut-off values of 1.08; 1.60 and 2.47log EBVgEq/10(5) PBMC or 2.30; 2.60; 4.47loggEq/10(5) OLT cells, respectively. EBV DNA detection in plasma showed high specificity but low (all categories) or high (advanced/neoplastic categories) sensitivity for PTLD identification. Diagnostic performance was greater when: (1) a load variation in PBMC or plasma was identified; (2) combining the measure of EBV load in PBMC and plasma. The best diagnostic ability to identify early PTLD stages was achieved by monitoring EBV load in PBMC and plasma simultaneously; an algorithm was proposed. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Swinnen, L J
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) comprise a histologic spectrum, ranging from hyperplastic-appearing lesions to frank non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or multiple myeloma histology. Multiple clones may coexist, each representing a discrete lymphomagenic event, a situation that is unique to immunodeficiency states. The incidence varies from 1% in renal recipients to 5% in heart recipients, but can be markedly increased by the use of anti-T-cell therapies or by T-cell depletion in bone marrow transplantation. PTLD continues to arise, even many years after transplantation, and late T-cell lymphomas have recently been recognized. Pretransplant Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seronegativity increases risk to as high as 30%-50%. PTLD has a highly variable clinical picture; certain patterns are, however, seen. Reversibility of PTLD with reduction in immunosuppressives has long been recognized. Predicting reversibility has been difficult. The presence or absence of bcl-6 mutations has recently been identified as being of predictive value. Surgical resection can be curative. Cytotoxics, although problematic, can also be curative. Long-term remission has been achieved with anti CD21 and CD24 antibodies; efficacy has been reported for interferon alfa and for rituximab. In vitro expanded EBV-specific T cells have been effective as treatment and as prophylaxis in the setting of bone marrow transplantation. EBV viral load measured in blood appears to associate with the emergence of PTLD and may facilitate prophylactic studies. PTLD is a model of immunodeficiency-related EBV lymphomagenesis. Pathogenetic, therapeutic, and prophylactic insights gained from the study of PTLD are likely to be applicable to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome setting.
Oertel, S H K; Verschuuren, E; Reinke, P; Zeidler, K; Papp-Váry, M; Babel, N; Trappe, R U; Jonas, S; Hummel, M; Anagnostopoulos, I; Dörken, B; Riess, H B
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a life-threatening complication following solid organ transplantation. Treatment with rituximab, a humanized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, has proved to be a promising approach and shown a low toxicity profile. Between February 1999 and April 2002, we conducted a multicentre phase II trial investigating rituximab as single agent in 17 patients with PTLD. Transplanted organs were heart (n = 5), kidney (n = 4), lung (n = 4) and liver (n = 4). Patients were treated with four weekly doses of 375 mg/m(2) of rituximab. The mean follow-up time is 24.2 months. Histology was distributed in 10 diffuse large cell-, 2 marginal zone-, 1 Burkitt-like lymphoma, 1 Hodgkin-like PTLD and 3 polymorphic lymphoproliferations. Therapy was well tolerated and no severe adverse events were observed. The mean overall survival period is 37.0 months with 11 patients still living. In total, 9 patients (52.9%) achieved a complete remission, with a mean duration of 17.8 months. Partial remission was observed in 1 patient, minor remission in 2 patients, no change in 3 patients and 1 patient experienced progressive disease. Two patients relapsed, at intervals 3 and 5 months after obtaining complete remission. Rituximab proved to be well tolerated and effective in the treatment of PTLD.
Yoon, Sun Och; Yu, Eunsil; Cho, Yong Mee; Suh, Cheolwon; Kim, Kyung Mo; Han, Duck Jong; Lee, Seung Gyu; Huh, Jooryung
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are a heterogeneous set of complications of organ transplantation associated with poor patient prognosis. We analyzed the clinicopathological features of PTLDs in 43 adult and pediatric recipients of solid organ or bone marrow transplantation at a large transplant service in the Republic of Korea between 1990 and 2009. Of 4545 solid organ and 747 bone marrow transplant recipients, 37 (0.81%) and 6 (0.8%), respectively, developed heterogeneous types of PTLDs. The cumulative incidences of PTLDs during this period were 1.79% (4/223) for heart transplant recipients, 0.78% (17/2192) for kidney transplant recipients, and 0.77% (16/2067) for liver transplant recipients. The patterns of disease onset, histology, and patient survival were associated with the types of organs transplanted. There is a trend for shorter overall survival (OS) in recipients with early-onset PTLDs and monomorphic PTLD histology, while kidney transplant recipients showed favorable OS. This study may be the first comprehensive analysis of the characteristics of PTLDs in Korean patients.
Das, Bibhuti; Morrow, Robert; Huang, Rong; Fixler, David
AIM To examine the risk of late-onset post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in the presence of persisting high Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in EBV naïve pediatric heart transplant (HT) recipients. METHODS A retrospective review of the medical records of the 145 pediatric HT recipients who had serial EBV viral load monitoring at our center was performed. We defined EBV naive patients whose EBV serology either IgM or IgG in the blood were negative at the time of HT and excluded passive transmission from mother to child in subjects less than 6 mo of age. RESULTS PTLD was diagnosed in 8 out of 145 patients (5.5%); 6/91 (6.5%) in those who were EBV seropositive and 2/54 (3.7%) in the EBV naïve group at the time of HT (P = 0.71). We found 32/145 (22%) patients with persistently high EBV load during continuing follow-up; 20/91 (22%) in EBV seropositive group vs 12/54 (22%) in EBV naïve group (P = 0.97). There was no significant association between pre-HT serostatus and EBV load after transplant (P > 0.05). In the EBV seropositive group, PTLD was diagnosed in 15% (3/20) of patients with high EBV vs 4.2% (3/71) of patients with low or undetectable EBV load (P = 0.14) whereas in EBV naïve patients 8.3% (1/12) of those with high EBV load and 2.3% (1/42) with low or undetectable EBV load (P = 0.41). There was a highly significant association between occurrence of PTLD in those with high EBV load and duration of follow up (4.3 ± 3.9 years) after HT by Cochran-Armitage test for the entire cohort (P = 0.005). At least one episode of acute rejection occurred in 72% (23/32) of patients with high EBV vs 36% (41/113) patients with low or undetectable EBV after HT (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION There is an association between persistently high EBV load during post-HT follow up and the occurrence of late-onset PTLD in pediatric HT recipients irrespective of serostatus at the time of transplant. The occurrence of allograft rejection increased in patients with high EBV load
Nieto-Rios, John Fredy; Gómez de los Ríos, Sandra Milena; Ocampo-Kohn, Catalina; Aristizabal-Alzate, Arbey; Gálvez-Cárdenas, Kenny Mauricio; Zuluaga-Valencia, Gustavo Adolfo
Abstract Background: Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders are serious complications of organ transplantation which treatment is not yet standardized. Objective: To describe the clinical response, overall and graft survival of patients in our center with this complication after kidney transplantation, which received rituximab as part of their treatment as well as conversion to m-TOR. Methods: Retrospective study, which included patients, diagnosed with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders after kidney transplantation from January 2011 to July 2014. Results: Eight cases were found with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Most had monomorphic histology, 85% were associated with Epstein-Barr virus, 25% of patients had tumor involvement of the renal graft, and 12.5% had primary central nervous system lymphoma. All patients were managed with reduction of immunosuppression, conversion to m-TOR (except one who lost the graft at diagnosis) and rituximab-based therapy. The overall response rate was 87.5% (62.5% complete response, 25% partial response). Survival was 87.5% with a median follow-up of 34 months. An additional patient lost the graft, with chronic nephropathy already known. All the remaining patients had stable renal function. Conclusions: There are no standardized treatment regimens for lymphoproliferative disorders after kidney transplantation, but these patients can be managed successfully with reduction of immunosuppression, conversion to m-TOR and rituximab-based schemes. PMID:28293043
Deng, Zhaohui; Jiang, Lirong; Zhou, Tao; Shen, Conghuan; Chen, Qimin; Xia, Qiang
To summarize the clinical characteristics, early diagnosis, comprehensive treatment and prognosis of 6 cases of children with post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) after liver transplantation. Data of 6 cases with PTLD seen between January 2011 and December 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The anti-rejection drug dose adjustments, the effect of rituximab, antiviral therapy and comprehensive treatment program after surgery were explored. (1) The diagnosis of PTLD was confirmed by histologic findings. Six cases of PTLD including 3 males and 3 females were diagnosed as congenital biliary atresia and underwent split liver transplantation. The occurrence rate of PTLD was 2.9%. (2) The median time to the development of PTLD was less than 6 months. The initial symptom of PTLD in all patients was fever and clinical manifestations of PTLD were non-specific, depending on the involving organs. Five cases of PTLD developed gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, and abdominal distension. One case developed respiratory symptoms, including cough and tachypnea. Three cases had lymph node involvement. In 2 cases pathophysiology involved polymorphic lymphocyte proliferation and in 4 cases B lymphocyte proliferation. (3) Two cases died, in whom EBV DNA was not detected and were diagnosed as PTLD by surgical pathology before death. Four survived cases had high EBV-DNA load and then were diagnosed as PTLD by biopsy pathology. (4) Of the 6 cases of PTLD, 2 cases died and 4 cases survived. The overall mortality was 33%. The dead cases were only treated with laparotomy because of intestinal obstruction or perforation and the survived cases were treated with tacrolimus at reduced doses or discontinuation and rituximab. In 2 cases antiviral therapy (acyclovir) was continued, including 1 cases of intestinal obstruction treated with surgical repair. All the survived patients were followed up for 4 months to 1 year and no evidence has been found
Capello, Daniela; Rasi, Silvia; Oreste, Pierluigi; Veronese, Silvio; Cerri, Michaela; Ravelli, Erika; Rossi, Davide; Minola, Ernesto; Colosimo, Anna; Gambacorta, Marcello; Muti, Giuliana; Morra, Enrica; Gaidano, Gianluca
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) represent a frequent complication of solid organ transplantation. Although most PTLDs arise from recipient lymphoid cells, a considerable fraction of cases may arise from donor B-cells. In an attempt to clarify the histogenesis and pathogenesis of PTLDs derived from donor B-cells, monoclonal PTLDs occurring in liver transplant recipients were chosen as a model to compare donor (D-PTLDs) versus recipient PTLDs (R-PTLDs). The tumour panel included nine D-PTLDs and six R-PTLDs. D-PTLDs were early-onset, EBV-infected lymphoproliferations classified as polymorphic PTLD (P-PTLD; n = 7) or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL; n = 2) with tumour localization confined to the hepatic hilum. All R-PTLDs were late-onset DLBCLs and showed extrahepatic localization. A BCL-6(-)/MUM1(+)/CD138(+/-) phenotype, consistent with a post-germinal centre (GC) stage of pre-terminal B-cell differentiation, was observed in all D-PTLDs and in 2/6 R-PTLDs, whereas a BCL6(+)/MUM1(-)/CD138(-) profile, reminiscent of GC B-cells, was detected in 4/6 R-PTLDs. The presence of somatic IGHV hypermutation was observed in 6/9 D-PTLDs and in 4/6 R-PTLDs, suggesting derivation from antigen-experienced B-cells. IGHV4-39 was the IGHV gene most frequently encountered, being rearranged in 3/9 D-PTLDs. Among IGHV-mutated PTLDs, a mutational profile suggesting antigen stimulation and/or selection was observed in 4/6 D-s and in 2/4 R-PTLDs. The presence of ongoing IGHV mutations was detected in 2/4 D-PTLDs. Aberrant SHM was detected in 10/15 (66.7%) PTLDs, including 6/9 D-PTLDs and 4/6 R-PTLDs. Our findings suggest that (i) D-PTLDs show a clinical presentation distinct from R-PTLDs; (ii) immunophenotypic and genetic features of D-PTLDs are consistent with mature, GC-experienced B-cells; (iii) transformed donor-derived B-cells may experience antigen-driven stimulation and selection, and may acquire genetic lesions during neoplastic expansion in the recipient
Fang, Yanan; Pinkney, Kerice A; Lee, John C; Gindin, Tatyana; Weiner, Michael A; Alobeid, Bachir; Bhagat, Govind
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders of T-cell origin are quite uncommon, and the vast majority represent neoplasms of mature, post-thymic T- or natural killer cells. Here, we report a rare case of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL), which occurred in an 18-year-old man who had undergone three liver transplants, initially for biliary atresia and subsequently for graft failure due to chronic rejection. He had received immunosuppression with cyclosporine and tacrolimus, as well as short-term treatment with OKT3. The T-ALL occurred 16 years after the first liver transplant. This case highlights the challenge for classifying rare neoplasms occurring in recipients of solid organ transplants that are currently not recognized to lie within the spectrum of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders. Given the long interval between the liver transplants and the development of T-ALL, a coincidental occurrence of the leukaemia cannot be ruled out. However, the potential roles of immunosuppressive therapy and other co-morbid conditions of the individual as possible risk factors for the pathogenesis of T-ALL are discussed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Guerra-García, Pilar; Hirsch, Steffen; Levine, Daniel S; Taj, Mary M
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a well-known complication following prolonged immunosuppression. Contrary to other lymphomas, there is no standardized imaging approach to assess PTLD either at staging or for response to therapy. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an imaging modality that has proven to be useful in lymphoma. However, there is still limited data concerning its use in pediatric PTLD. Our study evaluates the use of PET/CT in pediatric PTLD at our institution. To assess the role of PET/CT in pediatric PTLD, we reviewed the pediatric patients with PTLD who had undergone PET/CT at our institution between 2000 and 2016. Nine patients were identified. Six had PET/CT at diagnosis. All lesions seen on CT were identified with PET/CT. Fourteen PET/CTs were done during treatment. Eight PET/CTs were negative, including three where CT showed areas of uncertain significance. In these cases, PET/CT helped us to stop treatment and the patients remain in remission after a long follow-up (mean 74.3 months; range 12.4-180.9 months). PET/CT revealed additional disease in two cases, therefore treatment was intensified. Six biopsies and close follow-up was done to confirm PET/CT results. In one case, PET/CT did not identify central nervous system involvement demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging. PET/CT may have an important role in the staging and follow-up of pediatric PTLD. In our cohort, PET/CT was helpful in staging and assessing treatment response and in clarifying equivocal findings on other imaging modalities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Law, Man Fai; Chan, Hay Nun; Lai, Ho Kei; Ha, Chung Yin; Ng, Celia; Yeung, Yiu Ming; Yip, Sze Fai
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is associated with a variety of clinical presentations, but rarely involves the skin. We herein report a case of PTLD presenting with skin ulceration in a renal transplant recipient. A biopsy of the ulcer confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The patient was initially treated with immunosuppression reduction, but the skin ulcer persisted. He was then treated with two courses of chemotherapy, but his condition was complicated with cryptococcal infection. Antifungal agents were administered to control the fungal infection. The patient later developed lymphoma recurrence and was successfully treated with single-agent rituximab. The patient remains well 6 years after treatment, with no evidence of disease relapse. Therefore, PTLD may manifest as skin lesions and physicians must be aware of this rare presentation. PMID:27900097
Eshraghian, Ahad; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi; Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Nikeghbalian, Saman; Shamsaeefar, Alireza; Barshans, Frouzan; Kazemi, Kourosh; Geramizadeh, Bita; Malek-Hosseini, Seyed Ali
AIM To investigate incidence and survival of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) patients after liver transplantation. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients who underwent liver transplantation at Shiraz Transplant Center (Shiraz, Iran) between August 2004 and March 2015. Clinical and laboratory data of patients were collected using a data gathering form. RESULTS There were 40 cases of PTLD in the pediatric age group and 13 cases in the adult group. The incidence of PTLD was 6.25% in pediatric patients and 1.18% in adult liver transplant recipients. The post-PTLD survival of patients at 6 mo was 75.1% ± 6%, at 1 year was 68.9% ± 6.5% and at 5 years was 39.2% ± 14.2%. Higher serum tacrolimus level was associated with lower post-PTLD survival in pediatric patients (OR = 1.07, 95%CI: 1.006-1.15, P = 0.032). A serum tacrolimus level over 11.1 ng/mL was predictive of post PTLD survival (sensitivity = 90%, specificity = 52%, area under the curve = 0.738, P = 0.035). CONCLUSION Incidence of PTLD in our liver transplant patients is comparable to other centers. Transplant physicians may consider adjustment of tacrolimus dose to maintain its serum level below this cutoff point. PMID:28275302
Keshtkari, A.; Dehghani, S. M.; Haghighat, M.; Imanieh, M. H.; Nasimfard, A.; Yousefi, G.; Javaherizadeh, H.
Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication of solid organ transplantation that occurs due to immunosuppression and other risk factors. PTLD may present with involvement of other organs and with unusual presentation. The presentation is often extranodal (e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract, lung, or the central nervous system). Herein, we report on a 1.5-year-old girl who underwent liver transplantation almost 5 months prior to admission. She was on medications such as tacrolimus and prednisolone. Her presentation was started with symptoms of the upper respiratory infection followed by croupy cough and respiratory distress with no response to usual treatments. She had respiratory arrest during broncoscopy. Therefore, emergency tracheostomy was done. Biopsy from the paratracheal mass revealed large B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PTLD, monomorphic and high grade). This case presentation shows that persistent upper airway symptoms, particularly stridor and croupy cough, in children who underwent liver transplant should be further evaluated; the physician needs to have a high degree of clinical suspicion for the diagnosis of PTLD in this situation. PMID:26889375
Olagne, J; Caillard, S; Gaub, M P; Chenard, M P; Moulin, B
Although in previous studies most post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) were reported to derive from recipient cells, some cases derived from donor lymphocytes have been reported. To provide a better description of the features and outcome of PTLD according to the origin of the lymphoma, we performed histologic and molecular studies of PTLD in kidney recipients. Forty-three specimens were analyzed by histochemistry, fluorescent hybridization of the Y chromosome and analysis of multiple short tandem repeat microsatellite loci. Sixteen tumors were shown to be of donor origin and 27 of recipient origin. Time to PTLD was shorter in donor-derived PTLDs (20 ± 27 vs. 69 ± 67 months, p = 0.013). Ten-year patient survival was similar among patients with recipient- and donor-derived PTLD, but when PTLD-related mortality was analyzed, there was a trend to better survival in patients with donor lymphomas. Among the 21 PTLDs localized in the allograft, 14 lymphomas were of donor origin and seven of recipient origin. No difference was found between the two groups. Our analysis of the origin of PTLDs in the largest cohort studied to date with a description of the clinical and histological characteristics of donor and recipient PTLDs should lead to a better understanding of lymphomagenesis.
Khedmat, Hossein; Ghamar-Chehreh, Mohammad Ebrahim; Amini, Mohsen; Agah, Shahram; Taheri, Saeed
Gastric localization of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) is very rare. In this study, we aimed to accumulate existing data in the current literature to reveal the clinical, histopathological and prognostic specificities associated with gastric PTLDs and to find the best treatment strategies in this patient population. A comprehensive search was conducted for the available data in the current literature using Pubmed and Google scholar search engines for reports on gastric PTLD in renal transplant recipients. Data of different studies were standardized and entered into a database and analyzed. No statistically significant difference was found between gastric and non-gastric PTLD. Gastric PTLD was relatively more prevalent in female patients (P = 0.08) and showed a trend toward better outcome (P = 0.1) and less metastasis (P = 0.07). Surgical intervention and rituximab therapy were associated with a more favorable outcome (17% mortality). Our study showed that organ transplant recipients having gastric PTLD develop metastasis less frequently and tend to have a relatively more favorable outcome. Prospective studies with larger patient populations are needed to confirm or modify our results.
Muti, Giuliana; Klersy, Catherine; Baldanti, Fausto; Granata, Simonetta; Oreste, Pierluigi; Pezzetti, Laura; Gatti, Marta; Gargantini, Livio; Caramella, Marianna; Mancini, Valentina; Gerna, Guiseppe; Morra, Enrica
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are heterogeneous severe complications occurring in 1-10% of transplanted patients. In most cases, PTLDs are associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection but, recently, some clinical studies have reported an increasing number of EBV-negative PTLDs. Several studies have emphasized the critical role of the early identification of patients at risk for PTLD, in prompting the adoption of either pre-emptive strategies or timely treatment. To this purpose, monitoring of EBV DNA load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is considered to be a useful test. Moreover, recently, the role of interleukin (IL)-10 in EBV-related diseases has been remarked, and high levels of IL-10 have been detected in PTLD patients. In this study, both EBV load and IL-10 were monitored in 38 PTLD patients at diagnosis and during follow-up, as well as in a control group, in order to establish the diagnostic role of the two tests, their relationship with the different PTLD subsets (EBV-positive and EBV-negative) and their behaviour during treatment. Results of our study suggest that the usefulness of IL-10 assay for early diagnosis of PTLD is similar to that of EBV load quantification, and its clinical diagnostic value is lower in EBV-negative than in EBV-positive PTLDs.
Haruki, Koichiro; Shiba, Hiroaki; Shimada, Junichi; Okui, Norimitsu; Iida, Tomonori; Yanaga, Katsuhiko
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a life-threatening complication of solid organ transplantation. We herein report a case of PTLD after living-donor liver re-transplantation (reLDLT) for recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), for which complete response was achieved by surgical resection and rituximab. A 47-year-old man, who had undergone living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) twice at age of 43 and 45 years for end-stage liver disease firstly for PSC and secondary for recurrent PSC, suffered liver dysfunction due to an acute cellular rejection (ACR) 17 months after reLDLT. At reLDLT, a right liver lobe was donated from his spouse. Although steroid was effective for ACR, PTLD developed in the ileocecal area. The patient received rituximab for treatment of PTLD, and ileocecal resection for hemorrhage from ileocecal PTLD. The patient achieved complete response by rituximab and surgical resection for PTLD, but PSC recurred and hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) developed with hyperbilirubinemia and elevated serum ferritin. The patient received steroid treatment for HPS, but thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy developed presumably due to thrombotic microangiopathy. Therefore, tacrolimus was switched to mycophenolate mofetil. Despite intensive treatment including plasmapheresis and platelet infusion, fungal infection of both lungs developed, and the patient died 22 months after reLDLT. Autopsy revealed complete response of PTLD, recurrence of PSC and persistance of HPS.
Hare, S S; Souza, C A; Bain, G; Seely, J M; Frcpc; Gomes, M M; Quigley, M
Pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) are characterised by abnormal proliferation of indigenous cell lines or infiltration of lung parenchyma by lymphoid cells. They encompass a wide spectrum of focal or diffuse abnormalities, which may be classified as reactive or neoplastic on the basis of cellular morphology and clonality. The spectrum of reactive disorders results primarily from antigenic stimulation of bronchial mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) and comprises three main entities: follicular bronchiolitis, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia and (more rarely) nodular lymphoid hyperplasia. Primary parenchymal neoplasms are most commonly extranodal marginal zone lymphomas of MALT origin (MALT lymphomas), followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) and lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG). Secondary lymphomatous parenchymal neoplasms (both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas) are far more prevalent than primary neoplasms. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphoma (ARL) and post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) may also primarily affect the lung parenchyma. Modern advances in treatments for AIDS and transplant medicine are associated with an increase in the incidence of LPD and have heightened the need to understand the range of imaging appearance of these diseases. The multidetector CT (MDCT) findings of LPD are heterogeneous, thereby reflecting the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations of these entities. Understanding the spectrum of LPD and the various imaging manifestations is crucial because the radiologist is often the first one to suggest the diagnosis and has a pivotal role in differentiating these diseases. The current concepts of LPD are discussed together with a demonstration of the breadth of MDCT patterns within this disease spectrum. PMID:22745203
Management of Epstein-Barr Virus infections and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Sixth European Conference on Infections in Leukemia (ECIL-6) guidelines
Styczynski, Jan; van der Velden, Walter; Fox, Christopher P.; Engelhard, Dan; de la Camara, Rafael; Cordonnier, Catherine; Ljungman, Per
Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders are recognized as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To better define current understanding of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders in stem cell transplant patients, and to improve its diagnosis and management, a working group of the Sixth European Conference on Infections in Leukemia 2015 reviewed the literature, graded the available quality of evidence, and developed evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis, prevention, prophylaxis and therapy of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders exclusively in the stem cell transplant setting. The key elements in diagnosis include non-invasive and invasive methods. The former are based on quantitative viral load measurement and imaging with positron emission tomography; the latter with tissue biopsy for histopathology and detection of Epstein-Barr virus. The diagnosis of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder can be established on a proven or probable level. Therapeutic strategies include prophylaxis, preemptive therapy and targeted therapy. Rituximab, reduction of immunosuppression and Epstein-Barr virus-specific cytotoxic T-cell therapy are recommended as first-line therapy, whilst unselected donor lymphocyte infusions or chemotherapy are options as second-line therapy; other methods including antiviral drugs are discouraged. PMID:27365460
Management of Epstein-Barr Virus infections and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Sixth European Conference on Infections in Leukemia (ECIL-6) guidelines.
Styczynski, Jan; van der Velden, Walter; Fox, Christopher P; Engelhard, Dan; de la Camara, Rafael; Cordonnier, Catherine; Ljungman, Per
Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders are recognized as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To better define current understanding of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders in stem cell transplant patients, and to improve its diagnosis and management, a working group of the Sixth European Conference on Infections in Leukemia 2015 reviewed the literature, graded the available quality of evidence, and developed evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis, prevention, prophylaxis and therapy of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders exclusively in the stem cell transplant setting. The key elements in diagnosis include non-invasive and invasive methods. The former are based on quantitative viral load measurement and imaging with positron emission tomography; the latter with tissue biopsy for histopathology and detection of Epstein-Barr virus. The diagnosis of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder can be established on a proven or probable level. Therapeutic strategies include prophylaxis, preemptive therapy and targeted therapy. Rituximab, reduction of immunosuppression and Epstein-Barr virus-specific cytotoxic T-cell therapy are recommended as first-line therapy, whilst unselected donor lymphocyte infusions or chemotherapy are options as second-line therapy; other methods including antiviral drugs are discouraged.
Quinlan, Scott C; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Morton, Lindsay M; Engels, Eric A
Solid-organ transplant recipients have an elevated risk for some malignancies because of the requirement for immunosuppression . In particular, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is common and comprises one end of a spectrum of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) ranging from benign hyperplasia to lymphoid malignancy . PTLD risk is influenced by the type of organ transplanted, the age and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serostatus of the transplant recipient, and the intensity of immunosuppression [3-9]. PTLD incidence is high immediately after transplantation, decreases subsequently, and then rises again 4-5 years from transplantation [10,11]. This incidence pattern suggests the presence of separate early-onset and late-onset PTLD subtypes. Early-onset PTLDs tend to be EBV-positive and, when extranodal, are more likely than late-onset PTLDs to be localized to the transplanted organ [12,13]. Late-onset PTLD is less likely to be associated with EBV and, overall, is more likely than early-onset PTLD to be extranodal [13,14]. The Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) includes data on a large number of solid-organ transplant recipients in the United States and information on malignancies diagnosed post-transplantation. We used these data to conduct a retrospective cohort study among kidney transplant recipients to examine differences in risk factors between early-onset PTLD and late-onset PTLD.
Crane, Genevieve M.; Powell, Helen; Kostadinov, Rumen; Rocafort, Patrick Tim; Rifkin, Dena E.; Burger, Peter C.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Swinnen, Lode J.; Borowitz, Michael J.; Duffield, Amy S.
Immunosuppression for solid organ transplantation increases lymphoproliferative disease risk. While central nervous system (CNS) involvement is more rare, we noticed an increase in primary CNS (PCNS) disease. To investigate a potential association with the immunosuppressive regimen we identified all post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) cases diagnosed over a 28-year period at our institution (174 total, 29 PCNS) and all similar cases recorded in a United Network for Organ Sharing-Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (UNOS-OPTN) data file. While no PCNS cases were diagnosed at our institution between 1986 and 1997, they comprised 37% of PTLD cases diagnosed from 2011–2014. PCNS disease was more often associated with renal vs. other organ transplant, Epstein-Barr virus, large B-cell morphology and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as compared to PTLD that did not involve the CNS. Calcineurin inhibitors were protective against PCNS disease when given alone or in combination with MMF. A multivariate analysis of a larger UNOS-OPTN dataset confirmed these findings, where both MMF and lack of calcineurin inhibitor usage were independently associated with risk for development of PCNS PTLD. These findings have significant implications for the transplant community, particularly given the introduction of new regimens lacking calcineurin inhibitors. Further investigation into these associations is warranted. PMID:26460822
Hoegh-Petersen, M; Goodyear, D; Geddes, M N; Liu, S; Ugarte-Torres, A; Liu, Y; Walker, J T; Fonseca, K; Daly, A; Duggan, P; Stewart, D; Russell, J A; Storek, J
The largest study on post-allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) epidemiology showed a cumulative incidence of 1.7% in patients receiving antithymocyte globulin (ATG). We had noted an apparently higher incidence in our transplant recipients whose conditioning included ATG. Therefore, we formally determined the incidence of PTLD through chart review. We also evaluated whether counts of EBV-specific T lymphocytes measured by cytokine flow cytometry could identify patients at risk of developing PTLD. Among 307 allogeneic transplant recipients, 25 (8.1%) developed PTLD. This was biopsy proven in 11 patients, and was fatal in seven patients. Patient age, EBV serostatus, donor type/match or GVHD did not influence PTLD risk significantly. Median onset of PTLD was 55 (range, 28-770) days post transplant. Day 28 EBV-specific T lymphocyte counts were not significantly different in 11 patients who developed PTLD and 31 non-PTLD patients matched for published risk factors for PTLD. In summary, when using conditioning with thymoglobulin 4.5 mg/kg, the incidence of PTLD is relatively high and cannot be predicted by day 28 cytokine flow cytometry-determined EBV-specific T lymphocyte counts. Thus, in this scenario PTLD prevention may be warranted, for example, using EBV DNAemia monitoring with preemptive therapy.
Detection of bone marrow involvement in newly diagnosed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder: (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography versus bone marrow biopsy.
Gheysens, Olivier; Thielemans, Sanne; Morscio, Julie; Boeckx, Nancy; Goffin, Karolien E; Deroose, Christophe M; Sagaert, Xavier; Wlodarska, Iwona; Verhoef, Gregor; Dierickx, Daan; Tousseyn, Thomas
Detecting bone marrow involvement (BMI) in lymphoma is important as it adversely affects stage. Bone marrow biopsy (BMB) remains the standard to detect BMI but is prone to sampling error. We retrospectively investigated whether (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT) could identify BMI in patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) with sufficient accuracy in comparison with staging BMB. Twenty-five patients diagnosed with PTLD who underwent (18)F-FDG-PET/CT and BMB within one month were evaluated. Based on our criteria, six patients (24%) were considered positive for BMI on (18)F-FDG-PET/CT compared to one by BMB. Although we cannot completely exclude false positive results on (18)F-FDG-PET/CT, our data indicate a significantly higher sensitivity of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT compared to BMB (100% vs 17%) but similar specificity. These data confirm the high diagnostic performance of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT for detecting BMI, but prospective studies are needed to determine whether (18)F-FDG-PET/CT could indeed replace staging BMB in PTLD.
Furuya, Aya; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Hodohara, Keiko; Yoshii, Miyuki; Okuno, Hiroko; Horinouchi, Akiko; Nakanishi, Ryota; Harada, Ayumi; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Yoshida, Takashi; Okabe, Hidetoshi
It is well established that Down's syndrome exhibits a predisposition to development of leukemia, however, association between aplastic anemia and Down's syndrome is exceptional. Herein, we describe a case of aplastic anemia occurring in Down's syndrome following post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). A 27-year-old Japanese male with Down's syndrome presented with a headache. Laboratory tests revealed severe pancytopenia, and bone marrow biopsy demonstrated hypocellular bone marrow with decrease of trilineage cells, which led to a diagnosis of aplastic anemia. One year after diagnosis, he was incidentally found to have an anterior mediastinal tumor, which was histopathologically diagnosed as seminoma. Subsequently, he received BMT from a female donor, and engraftment was observed. Three months after transplantation, he experienced cough and high fever. Biopsy specimen from the lung revealed diffuse proliferation of large-sized lymphoid cells expressing CD20 and EBER. These lymphoid cells had XY chromosomes. Thus, a diagnosis of EBV-associated PTLD was made. This is the seventh documented case of aplastic anemia occurring in Down's syndrome. Association between aplastic anemia and Down's syndrome has not been established, therefore, additional clinicopathological studies are needed. Moreover, this is the first case to undergo BMT for aplastic anemia in Down's syndrome. Although engraftment was observed, he developed EBV-positive PTLD. The neoplastic cells of the present case were considered to be of recipient origin, although the majority of PTLD cases with BMT are of donor origin.
Krasuska-Sławińska, Ewa; Minko-Chojnowska, Izabela; Pawłowska, Joanna; Dembowska-Bagińska, Bożenna; Pronicki, Maciej; Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota
BACKGROUND Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a potential complication of solid organ or bone marrow transplants. The main PTLD risk factors are: the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), transplant type, and use of immunosuppressants. It mainly consists of an uncontrolled growth of lymphocytes in transplant recipients under chronic immunosuppressive therapy. About 85% of PTLDs are EBV-containing B-cell proliferations; 14% are T-cell proliferations, of which only 40% contain EBV; and the remaining 1% is NK-cell or plasmocyte proliferations. PTLD may present various clinical manifestations, from non-specific mononucleosis-like syndrome to graft or other organ damage resulting from pathologic lymphocyte infiltration. PTLD may manifest in the oral cavity. CASE REPORT The objective of this study was to present the case of a 13-year-old female living-donor liver transplant recipient, resulting from biliary cirrhosis caused by congenital biliary atresia, with exophytic fibrous lesions on buccal mucosa and tongue. Exophytic and hyperplastic lesion of oral mucosa were removed and histopathological examination revealed polymorphic PTLD. The patient underwent 6 cycles of CHOP chemotherapy and all the oral lesions regressed completely. CONCLUSIONS All oral pathological lesions in organ transplant recipients need to be surgically removed and histopathologically examined because they present an increased risk of neoplastic transformations such as PTLD.
Linnerbauer, Stefanie; Behrends, Uta; Adhikary, Dinesh; Witter, Klaus; Bornkamm, Georg W.; Mautner, Josef
Polyclonal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B cell line (lymphoblastoid cell lines; LCL)-stimulated T-cell preparations have been successfully used to treat EBV-positive post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) in transplant recipients, but function and specificity of the CD4+ component are still poorly defined. Here, we assessed the tumor-protective potential of different CD4+ T-cell specificities in a PTLD-SCID mouse model. Injection of different virus-specific CD4+ T-cell clones showed that single specificities were capable of prolonging mouse survival and that the degree of tumor protection directly correlated with recognition of target cells in vitro. Surprisingly, some CD4+ T-cell clones promoted tumor development, suggesting that besides antigen recognition, still elusive functional differences exist among virus-specific T cells. Of several EBV-specific CD4+ T-cell clones tested, those directed against virion antigens proved most tumor-protective. However, enriching these specificities in LCL-stimulated preparations conferred no additional survival benefit. Instead, CD4+ T cells specific for unknown, probably self-antigens were identified as principal antitumoral effectors in LCL-stimulated T-cell lines. These results indicate that virion and still unidentified cellular antigens are crucial targets of the CD4+ T-cell response in this preclinical PTLD-model and that enriching the corresponding T-cell specificities in therapeutic preparations may enhance their clinical efficacy. Moreover, the expression in several EBV-negative B-cell lymphoma cell lines implies that these putative autoantigen(s) might also qualify as targets for T-cell-based immunotherapy of virus-negative B cell malignancies. PMID:24853673
Nakamine, Hirokazu; Masih, Aneal S.; Okano, Motohiko; Taguchi, Yuichi; Pirruccello, Samuel J.; Davis, Jack R.; Mahloch, Mark L.; Beisel, Kirk W.; Kleveland, Kimberly; Sanger, Warren G.; Purtilo, David T.
To improve the diagnostic accuracy and understanding of the pathogenesis of lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs) occurring in immunosuppressed transplant recipients (post-transplantation LPD), clonality of Epstein-Barr virus-induced human LPDs in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency was examined by analyzing: 1) human immunoglobulin genes and their products, 2) the clonality of Epstein-Barr virus DNA, and 3) genetic alteration of c-myc or bcl-2 genes. A spectrum of clonality was found in the LPDs comparable with that reported for post-transplantation LPDs, although rearrangements of c-myc or bcl-2 genes were not detected. It is confirmed that this system is useful in terms of clonality for understanding the early phases in the pathogenesis of post-transplantation LPD or LPD in immune deficient patients. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:8380952
Checking whether there is an increased risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and other cancers with specific modern immunosuppression regimens in renal transplantation: Protocol for a network meta-analysis of randomized and observational studies
Background Patients undergoing renal transplant procedures require multi-agent immunosuppressive regimens both short term (induction phase) and long term (maintenance phase) to minimize the risk of organ rejection. There are several drug classes and agents for immunosuppression. Use of these agents may increase the risk of different harms including not only infections, but also malignancies including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. There is a need to identify which regimens minimize the risk of such outcomes. The objective of this systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized and observational studies is to explore whether certain modern regimens of immunosuppression used to prevent organ rejection in renal transplant patients are associated with an increased risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and other malignancies. Methods/design ‘Modern’ regimens were defined to be those evaluated in controlled studies beginning in 1990 or later. An electronic literature search of Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials has been designed by an experienced information specialist and peer reviewed by a second information specialist. Study selection and data collection will be performed by two reviewers. The outcomes of interest will include post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and other incident forms of malignancy occurring in adult renal transplant patients. Network meta-analyses of data from randomized and observational studies will be performed where judged appropriate based on a review of the clinical and methodological features of included studies. A sequential approach to meta-analysis will be used to combine data from different designs. Discussion Our systematic review will include both single-agent and multi-agent modern pharmacotherapy regimens in patients undergoing renal transplantation. It will synthesize malignancy outcomes. Our work will also add to the development of methods for
Lam, Grace Y; Halloran, Brendan P; Peters, Anthea C; Fedorak, Richard N
Immunosuppressive agents, such as thiopurines, methotrexate, and biologics, have revolutionized the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, a number of case reports, case control studies and retrospective studies over the last decade have identified a concerning link between immunosuppression and lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), the oncological phenomenon whereby lymphocytes divide uncontrollably. These LPDs have been associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in which the virus provides the impetus for malignant transformation while immunosuppression hampers the immune system’s ability to detect and clear these malignant cells. As such, the use of immunosuppressive agents may come at the cost of increased risk of developing LPD. While little is known about the LPD risk in IBD, more is known about immunosuppression in the post-transplantation setting and the development of EBV associated post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD). In review of the PTLD literature, evidence is available to demonstrate that certain immune suppressants such as cyclosporine and T-lymphocyte modulators in particular are associated with an increased risk of PTLD development. As well, high doses of immunosuppressive agents and multiple immunosuppressive agent use are also linked to increased PTLD development. Here, we discuss these findings in context of IBD and what future studies can be taken to understand and reduce the risk of EBV-associated LPD development from immunosuppression use in IBD. PMID:26600976
Ruggeri, Annalisa; Sun, Yuqian; Labopin, Myriam; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Lorentino, Francesca; Arcese, William; Santarone, Stella; Gülbas, Zafer; Blaise, Didier; Messina, Giuseppe; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshi; Malard, Florent; Bruno, Benedetto; Diez-Martin, Jose Luis; Koc, Yener; Ciceri, Fabio; Mohty, Mohamad; Nagler, Arnon
Severe graft-versus-host disease is a major barrier for non-T-cell-depleted haploidentical stem cell transplantation. There is no consensus on the optimal graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. This study compared the two most commonly used graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis regimens (post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based vs. the anti-thymocyte globulin-based) in adults with acute myeloid leukemia reported to the European Society for Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation. A total of 308 patients were analyzed; 193 received post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based regimen and 115 anti-thymocyte globulin-based regimen as anti-graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. The post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based regimen was more likely to be associated to bone marrow as graft source (60% vs. 40%; P=0.01). Patients in the post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based regimen group had significantly less grade 3–4 acute graft-versus-host disease than those in the anti-thymocyte globulin-based group (5% vs. 12%, respectively; P=0.01), comparable to chronic graft-versus-host disease. Multivariate analysis showed that non-relapse mortality was lower in the post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based regimen group [22% vs. 30%, Hazard ratio (HR) 1.77(95%CI: 1.09–2.86); P=0.02] with no difference in relapse incidence. Patients receiving post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based regimen had better graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival [HR 1.45 (95%CI: 1.04–2.02); P=0.03] and leukemia-free survival [HR 1.48 (95%CI: 1.03–2.12); P=0.03] than those in the anti-thymocyte globulin-based group. In the multivariate analysis, there was also a trend for a higher overall survival [HR 1.43 (95%CI: 0.98–2.09); P=0.06] for post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based regimen versus the anti-thymocyte globulin-based group. Notably, center experience was also associated with non-relapse mortality and graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival. Haplo-SCT using a post-transplant
Beaugerie, Laurent; Brousse, Nicole; Bouvier, Anne Marie; Colombel, Jean Frédéric; Lémann, Marc; Cosnes, Jacques; Hébuterne, Xavier; Cortot, Antoine; Bouhnik, Yoram; Gendre, Jean Pierre; Simon, Tabassome; Maynadié, Marc; Hermine, Olivier; Faivre, Jean; Carrat, Fabrice
Reports of an increased risk of lymphoproliferative disorders in patients receiving thiopurines for inflammatory bowel disease are controversial. We assessed this risk in a prospective observational cohort study. 19,486 patients with inflammatory bowel disease, of whom 11,759 (60.3%) had Crohn's disease and 7727 (39.7%) had ulcerative colitis or unclassified inflammatory bowel disease, were enrolled in a nationwide French cohort by 680 gastroenterologists, who reported details of immunosuppressive therapy during the observation period, cases of cancer, and deaths. The risk of lymphoproliferative disorder was assessed according to thiopurine exposure. Median follow-up was 35 months (IQR 29-40). At baseline, 5867 (30.1%) of patients were receiving, 2809 (14.4%) had discontinued, and 10,810 (55.5%) had never received thiopurines. 23 new cases of lymphoproliferative disorder were diagnosed, consisting of one case of Hodgkin's lymphoma and 22 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoproliferative disorder. The incidence rates of lymphoproliferative disorder were 0.90 per 1000 (95% CI 0.50-1.49) patient-years in those receiving, 0.20/1000 (0.02-0.72) patient-years in those who had discontinued, and 0.26/1000 (0.10-0.57) patient-years in those who had never received thiopurines (p=0.0054). The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of lymphoproliferative disorder between patients receiving thiopurines and those who had never received the drugs was 5.28 (2.01-13.9, p=0.0007). Most cases associated with thiopurine exposure matched the pathological range of post-transplant disease. Patients receiving thiopurines for inflammatory bowel disease have an increased risk of developing lymphoproliferative disorders. Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique National (AOM05157), Association François Aupetit, Délégation Inter-régionale de la Recherche clinique Ile de France-Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Ligue contre le Cancer, and Fonds de Recherche de la Société Nationale
Teachey, David T; Obzut, Dana A; Axsom, Kelly; Choi, John K; Goldsmith, Kelly C; Hall, Junior; Hulitt, Jessica; Manno, Catherine S; Maris, John M; Rhodin, Nicholas; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Brown, Valerie I; Grupp, Stephan A
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of abnormal lymphocyte survival caused by defective Fas-mediated apoptosis, leading to lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and an increased number of double-negative T cells (DNTs). Treatment options for patients with ALPS are limited. Rapamycin has been shown to induce apoptosis in normal and malignant lymphocytes. Since ALPS is caused by defective lymphocyte apoptosis, we hypothesized that rapamycin would be effective in treating ALPS. We tested this hypothesis using rapamycin in murine models of ALPS. We followed treatment response with serial assessment of DNTs by flow cytometry in blood and lymphoid tissue, by serial monitoring of lymph node and spleen size with ultrasonography, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies. Three-dimensional ultrasound measurements in the mice correlated to actual tissue measurements at death (r = .9648). We found a dramatic and statistically significant decrease in DNTs, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and autoantibodies after only 4 weeks when comparing rapamycin-treated mice with controls. Rapamycin induced apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. We compared rapamycin to mycophenolate mofetil, a second-line agent used to treat ALPS, and found rapamycin's control of lymphoproliferation was superior. We conclude that rapamycin is an effective treatment for murine ALPS and should be explored as treatment for affected humans.
Hartmann, Christina; Schuchmann, Marcus; Zimmermann, Tim
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a life-threatening complication following solid organ transplantation. Many posttransplant lymphomas develop from the uncontrolled proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B-cells, whereas EBV-negative PTLDs were increasingly recognized within the past decade. Major risk factors for the development of PTLDs after liver transplantation are immunosuppressive therapy and the type of underlying disease: viral hepatitis, autoimmune liver disease, or alcoholic liver cirrhosis contribute to an increased risk for PTLD. Therapeutic regimens include reduction of immunosuppression, the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab, and chemotherapy, as well as new approaches using interferon-α and anti-interleukin-6 antibodies. Despite the different therapeutic regimens, mortality from PTLD remains high. Therefore, it is of major importance to identify patients at risk at an early stage of the disease. In this review, risk factors for PTLD development after liver transplantation, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and therapy are discussed.
Pochon, Cécile; Oger, Emmanuel; Michel, Gérard; Dalle, Jean-Hugues; Salmon, Alexandra; Nelken, Brigitte; Bertrand, Yves; Cavé, Hélène; Cayuela, Jean-Michel; Grardel, Nathalie; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Margueritte, Geneviève; Méchinaud, Françoise; Rohrlich, Pierre; Paillard, Catherine; Demeocq, François; Schneider, Pascale; Plantaz, Dominique; Poirée, Marilyne; Eliaou, Jean-François; Semana, Gilbert; Drunat, Séverine; Jonveaux, Philippe; Bordigoni, Pierre; Gandemer, Virginie
Relapse after transplantation is a major cause of treatment failure in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Here, we report the findings of a prospective national study designed to investigate the feasibility of immune intervention in children in first or subsequent remission following myeloablative conditioning. This study included 133 children who received a transplant for ALL between 2005 and 2008. Minimal Residual Disease (MRD) based on T cell receptor/immunoglobulin gene rearrangements was measured on days -30, 30, 90 and 150 post-transplantation. Ciclosporin treatment was rapidly discontinued and donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) were programmed for patients with a pre- or post-transplant MRD status ≥10(-3) . Only nine patients received DLI. Pre- and post-transplant MRD status, and the duration of ciclosporin were independently associated with 5-year overall survival (OS), which was 62·07% for the whole cohort. OS was substantially higher in patients cleared of MRD than in those with persistent MRD (52·3% vs. 14·3%, respectively). Only pre-transplant MRD status (Hazard Ratio 2·57, P = 0·04) and duration of ciclosporin treatment (P < 0·001) were independently associated with relapse. The kinetics of chimerism were not useful for predicting relapse, whereas MRD monitoring up to 90 d post-transplantation was a valuable prognostic tool to guide therapeutic intervention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Navari, Mohsen; Fuligni, Fabio; Laginestra, Maria A.; Etebari, Maryam; Ambrosio, Maria R.; Sapienza, Maria R.; Rossi, Maura; De Falco, Giulia; Gibellini, Davide; Tripodo, Claudio; Pileri, Stefano A.; Leoncini, Lorenzo; Piccaluga, Pier P.
Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection is commonly associated with human cancer and, in particular, with lymphoid malignancies. Although the precise role of the virus in the pathogenesis of different lymphomas is largely unknown, it is well recognized that the expression of viral latent proteins and miRNA can contribute to its pathogenetic role. In this study, we compared the gene and miRNA expression profile of two EBV-associated aggressive B non-Hodgkin lymphomas known to be characterized by differential expression of the viral latent proteins aiming to dissect the possible different contribution of such proteins and EBV-encoded miRNAs. By applying extensive bioinformatic inferring and an experimental model, we found that EBV+ Burkitt lymphoma presented with significant over-expression of EBV-encoded miRNAs that were likely to contribute to its global molecular profile. On the other hand, EBV+ post-transplant diffuse large B-cell lymphomas presented a significant enrichment in genes regulated by the viral latent proteins. Based on these different viral and cellular gene expression patterns, a clear distinction between EBV+ Burkitt lymphoma and post-transplant diffuse large B-cell lymphomas was made. In this regard, the different viral and cellular expression patterns seemed to depend on each other, at least partially, and the latency type most probably played a significant role in their regulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that EBV influence over B-cell malignant clones may act through different mechanisms of transcriptional regulation and suggest that potentially different pathogenetic mechanisms may depend upon the conditions of the interaction between EBV and the host that finally determine the latency pattern. PMID:25566237
Tse, Eric; Kwong, Yok-Lam
Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs) express all EBV latent antigens (type III latency) in immunodeficient patients and limited antigens (type I and II latencies) in immunocompetent patients. Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is the prototype exhibiting type III EBV latency. Although EBV antigens are highly immunogenic, PTLD cell proliferation remains unchecked because of the underlying immunosuppression. The restoration of anti-EBV immunity by EBV-specific T cells of either autologous or allogeneic origin has been shown to be safe and effective in PTLDs. Cellular therapy can be improved by establishing a bank of human leukocyte antigen-characterized allogeneic EBV-specific T cells. In EBV+ LPDs exhibiting type I and II latencies, the use of EBV-specific T cells is more limited, although the safety and efficacy of this therapy have also been demonstrated. The therapeutic role of EBV-specific T cells in EBV+ LPDs needs to be critically reappraised with the advent of monoclonal antibodies and other targeted therapy. Another strategy involves the use of epigenetic approaches to induce EBV to undergo lytic proliferation when expression of the viral thymidine kinase renders host tumor cells susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of ganciclovir. Finally, the prophylactic use of antiviral drugs to prevent EBV reactivation may decrease the occurrence of EBV+ LPDs. PMID:25613733
Marqués, E; Jiménez, C; Manrique, A; Vallejo, G H; Clemares, M; Ortega, P; Moreno, E
Malignancies are a serious long-term complication among liver transplant recipients, with an overall incidence of 4.5%-15%. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is one of the leading causes of late death. Its development is related to complex interactions between immunosuppressive drugs and environmental agents. The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors for PTLD and survival after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) compared with solid tumors. We undertook a retrospective review of the clinical histories of adult patients who underwent OLT between July 1986 and February 2001, and who had been followed until 2005. This study comprised 528 adult recipients who survived more than 2 months after OLT. We excluded pediatric, partial-organ, and multiorgan recipients. No differences were observed concerning gender, viral etiology of hepatitis, calcineurin inhibitor regimen, or steroid maintenance period. Treated acute rejection episodes accounted for 53.3% of patients who developed PTLD compared with 47.3% in the control group (P = .787). Patients with solid tumors were older at the time of diagnosis than those with PTLD (57.5 +/- 8.13 years vs 48.8 +/- 13.9; P = .002). The overall mortality rate for PTLD was 55.5%, which did not differ significantly from solid tumors. PTLD develops in younger patients after OLT. Various immunosuppressive regimens do not seem to influence the incidence of PTLD or other solid tumors.
Martínez-Calle, Nicolás; Alfonso, Ana; Rifón, José; Herrero, Ignacio; Errasti, Pedro; Rábago, Gregorio; Merino, Juana; Panizo, Ángel; Pardo, Javier; Prósper, Felipe; García-Muñoz, Ricardo; Lecumberri, Ramón; Panizo, Carlos
This retrospective study evaluates the impact of rituximab on PTLD response and survival in a single-centre cohort. PTLD cases between 1984 and 2009, including heart, kidney, liver and lung transplant recipients, were included. Survival was analysed taking into account the type of PTLD (monomorphic vs. polymorphic), EBV infection status, IPI score, Ann Arbor stage and use of rituximab. Among 1335 transplanted patients, 24 developed PTLD. Median age was 54 yr (range 29-69), median time to diagnosis 50 months (range 0-100). PTLD type was predominantly late/monomorphic (79% and 75%), mostly diffuse large B-cell type. Overall response rate (ORR) was 62% (66% rituximab vs. 50% non-rituximab; P = 0.5). R-CHOP-like regimens were used most frequently (72% of patients treated with rituximab). Median overall survival was 64 months (CI 95% 31-96). OS was significantly increased in patients treated with rituximab (P = 0.01; CI 95% rituximab 58-79 months; non-rituximab 1-30 months). Post-transplant immunosuppression regimen had no effect on survival or time to PTLD, except for cyclosporine A (CyA), which associated with increased time to PTLD (P = 0.02). Rituximab was associated with increased survival in our single-centre series, and it should be considered as first-line therapy for PTLD patients. The possible protective effect of CyA for development of PTLD should be prospectively evaluated. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gray, Paul E; O'Brien, Tracey A; Wagle, Mayura; Tangye, Stuart G; Palendira, Umaimainthan; Roscioli, Tony; Choo, Sharon; Sutton, Rosemary; Ziegler, John B; Frith, Katie
Vasculitis occurs rarely in association with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP). There are four published cases of non-EBV XLP-associated cerebral vasculitis reported, none of whom have survived without major cognitive impairment. A 9-year old boy initially presented aged 5 years with a restrictive joint disease. He subsequently developed dysgammaglobulinemia, episodic severe pneumonitis, aplastic anaemia, gastritis and cerebral vasculitis. A diagnosis of XLP was made, based on flow cytometric analysis and the identification of a novel mutation in SH2D1A, c.96G>C. No peripheral blood lymphocyte clonal proliferation was identified and he was EBV negative, although human herpes virus-7 (HHV7) was detected repeatedly in his cerebrospinal fluid. He underwent a reduced intensity unrelated umbilical cord blood transplant, but failed to engraft. A second 5/6 matched cord gave 100 % donor engraftment. Complications included BK virus-associated haemorrhagic cystitis, a possible NK-cell mediated immune reconstitution syndrome and post-transplant anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, the latter treated with cyclophosphamide and rituximab. At +450 days post-transplant he is in remission from his vasculitis and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, and HHV-7 has remained undetectable. This is the second published description of joint disease in XLP, and only the fourth case of non-EBV associated cerebral vasculitis in XLP, as well as being the first to be successfully treated for this manifestation. This case raises specific questions about vasculitis in XLP, in particular the potential relevance of HHV-7 to the pathogenesis.
Viral-associated lymphoproliferative neoplasia in domestic poultry is caused by infection with a herpesvirus (Marek’s disease virus) or three species of retroviruses [Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), Avian leukosis/sarcoma virus, lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV)]. Previously, retroviral n...
Bartels, Anne K; Banks, Taylor A; Bay, Jeannie L
A case of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) was presented, followed by a discussion of the clinical characteristics, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of this disease. Clinical pearls and pitfalls are emphasized for the use of the practicing allergist and the fellow in-training. The diagnosis of ALPS was guided by published criteria. A careful history and workup were needed to exclude other possible etiologies for the patient's symptoms and physical findings. ALPS often carries significant morbidity and is best managed through a multidisciplinary approach.
Meriden, Zina; Bullock, Grant C; Bagg, Adam; Bonatti, Hugo; Cousar, John B; Lopes, M Beatriz; Robbins, Mark K; Cathro, Helen P
Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are heterogeneous lesions with variable morphology, immunophenotype, and molecular characteristics. Multiple distinct primary lesions can occur in PTLD, rarely with both B-cell and T-cell characteristics. Lesions can involve both grafted organs and other sites; however, PTLD involving the pituitary gland has not been previously reported. We describe a patient who developed Epstein-Barr virus-negative PTLD 13 years posttransplantation involving the terminal ileum and pituitary, which was simultaneously involved by a pituitary adenoma. Immunohistochemistry of the pituitary lesion showed expression of CD79a, CD3, and CD7 with clonal rearrangements of both T-cell receptor gamma chain (TRG@) and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH@) genes. The terminal ileal lesion was immunophenotypically and molecularly distinct. This is the first report of pituitary PTLD and illustrates the potentially complex nature of PTLD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ghosh, Nilanjan; Ye, Xiaobu; Tsai, Hua-Ling; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Fuchs, Ephraim J; Luznik, Leo; Swinnen, Lode J; Gladstone, Douglas E; Ambinder, Richard F; Varadhan, Ravi; Shanbhag, Satish; Brodsky, Robert A; Borrello, Ivan M; Jones, Richard J; Matsui, William; Huff, Carol Ann
Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT) may lead to long-term disease control in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, historically, the use of alloBMT in MM has been limited by its high nonrelapse mortality (NRM) rates, primarily from graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We previously demonstrated that post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) decreases the toxicities of both acute and chronic GVHD after alloBMT. Here, we examine the impact of PTCy in patients with MM undergoing alloBMT at Johns Hopkins Hospital. From 2003 to 2011, 39 patients with MM underwent bone marrow or peripheral blood alloBMT from HLA-matched related/unrelated or haploidentical related donors after either myeloablative or nonmyeloablative conditioning. Post-transplantation GVHD prophylaxis consisted of cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg) on days +3 and +4 with or without mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus. Engraftment was detected in 95% of patients, with neutrophil and platelet recovery at a median of 15 and 16 days, respectively. The cumulative incidences of acute grades 2 to 4 and grades 3 and 4 GVHD were .41 and .08, respectively, and no cases of grade 4 acute GVHD were observed. The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was .13. One patient succumbed to NRM. All cases of chronic GVHD involved extensive disease and 60% of these patients received systemic therapy with complete resolution. After alloBMT, the overall response rate was 62% with complete, very good partial, and partial response rates of 26%, 21%, and 15%, respectively. The median progression-free survival was 12 months and was associated with the depth of response but not cytogenetic risk. The estimated cumulative incidence of relapse was .46 (95% confidence interval [CI], .3 to .62) at 1 year and .56 (95% CI, .41 to .72) at 2 years. At last follow-up, 23% of patients remain without evidence of disease at a median follow-up of 10.3 years after alloBMT. The median overall survival was 4.4 years and the
Post transplant urinary tract infection in Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease a perpetual diagnostic dilema - 18-fluorodeoxyglucose - Positron emission computerized tomography - A valuable tool.
Sainaresh, Vv; Jain, Sh; Patel, Hv; Shah, Pr; Vanikar, Av; Trivedi, Hl
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection contracted by renal allograft recipients. In patients of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), cyst infection presents a complex diagnostic and therapeutic challenge especially in the post transplant period. Accurate diagnosis forms the cornerstone in salvaging the graft from potentially catastrophic outcome. We describe a case of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XPN) in the native kidney in a patient of post transplant ADPKD which presented as frequently relapsing UTI with graft dysfunction where in accurate diagnosis was made possible with the aid of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) - Positron emission computerized tomography (PET/CT).
Takagi, Masatoshi; Shinoda, Kunihiro; Piao, Jinhua; Mitsuiki, Noriko; Takagi, Mari; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Muramatsu, Hideki; Doisaki, Sayoko; Nagasawa, Masayuki; Morio, Tomohiro; Kasahara, Yoshihito; Koike, Kenichi; Kojima, Seiji; Takao, Akira; Mizutani, Shuki
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is classically defined as a disease with defective FAS-mediated apoptosis (type I-III). Germline NRAS mutation was recently identified in type IV ALPS. We report 2 cases with ALPS-like disease with somatic KRAS mutation. Both cases were characterized by prominent autoimmune cytopenia and lymphoadenopathy/splenomegaly. These patients did not satisfy the diagnostic criteria for ALPS or juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and are probably defined as a new disease entity of RAS-associated ALPS-like disease (RALD).
Natzke, Amanda Martinelli; Shaw, Joanne L; McKeller, Morgan R; Emo, Kris Lambert; Mullen, Craig A
The immune environment present after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) contributes to the control of leukemia. Our laboratory has demonstrated in a murine model that vaccination of recipients after transplantation with recipient tumor vaccines does not exacerbate graft-versus-host disease but does induce meaningful graft-versus-tumor effects. We previously demonstrated that part of the reason for the lack of graft-versus-host disease from post-transplantation vaccination is due to gradual acquisition of tolerance or unresponsiveness to recipient immunodominant minor histocompatibility antigens that are ubiquitously expressed in the recipient. However, our prior studies have not critically addressed the question of whether a similar process of acquisition of unresponsiveness to or tolerance of antigens present on minimal residual disease also occurs. The present study tested the hypothesis that unresponsiveness to antigens present on minimal residual disease present at the time of HSCT would also occur. The answer to this question would have a significant effect on the potential efficacy of post-transplantation tumor vaccines. In a murine model of major histocompatibility complex matched, minor histocompatibility antigen mismatched HSCT (C3.SW female donors and C57BL/6 female recipients), we tested whether transplant recipients would acquire unresponsiveness to antigens present on small numbers of residual leukemia/lymphoma cells. We employed a male C57BL/6 lymphoid malignancy with an immunoglobulin/c-myc oncogene in these studies using as a model of tumor-restricted antigen the well-characterized male (HY) antigen system present only on the tumor but not present as ubiquitous minor antigens in the recipient. After HSCT, recipients did not mount immune responses to the ubiquitously distributed immunodominant recipient strain H7 minor histocompatibility antigen, but did retain the capacity to mount significant T cell responses to HY antigens
Díez-Campelo, María; Pérez-Simón, José Antonio; Pérez, Jose; Alcoceba, Miguel; Richtmon, Juan; Vidriales, Belén; San Miguel, Jesús
This study evaluates the prognostic value of minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring by multiparametric flow cytometry in 41 patients with acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing allogeneic transplantation. MRD assessment after transplant (day +100) allowed to discriminate different risk populations, being the most significant cut-off value for outcome level of MRD < or > or = 10(-3). Outcome was significantly better among patients with low (<10(-3)) versus high (> or = 10(-3)) MRD at day +100 after transplant. Thus, overall survival was 73% versus 25% at 4 years among patients with low versus high MRD at day +100 after transplant (P = 0.002); 74% of patients with low MRD were event free at 4 years as compared to 17% among patients with high MRD (P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, MRD value as well as chronic GVHD significantly influenced outcome. In conclusion, MRD monitoring early post-transplant is an important tool for outcome prediction and should be considered in decision making after allogeneic transplantation.
Mehta, Rohtesh S.; Saliba, Rima M.; Chen, Julianne; Rondon, Gabriela; Hammerstrom, Aimee E.; Alousi, Amin; Qazilbash, Muzaffar; Bashir, Qaiser; Ahmed, Sairah; Popat, Uday; Hosing, Chitra; Khouri, Issa; Shpall, Elizabeth J.; Champlin, Richard E.; Ciurea, Stefan O.
Summary Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is an effective strategy to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after haploidentical haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We determined the efficacy of PTCy-based GVHD prophylaxis in human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) HCT. We analysed 113 adult patients with high-risk haematological malignancies who underwent one-antigen MMUD transplantation between 2009 and 2013. Of these, 41 patients received PTCy, tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for GVHD prophylaxis; 72 patients received conventional prophylaxis with anti-thymocyte globulin, tacrolimus and methotrexate. Graft source was primarily bone marrow (83% PTCy vs. 63% conventional group). Incidence of grade II–IV (37% vs. 36%, P = 0.8) and grade III–IV (17% vs. 12%, P = 0.5) acute GVHD was similar at day 100. However, the incidence of grade II–IV acute GVHD by day 30 was significantly lower in the PTCy group (0% vs. 15%, P = 0.01). Median time to neutrophil (18 days vs. 12 days, P < 0.001) and platelet (25.5 days vs. 18 days, P = 0.05) engraftment was prolonged in PTCy group. Rates of graft failure, chronic GVHD, 2-year non-relapse mortality, relapse, progression-free survival or overall survival were similar. Our results demonstrate that PTCy, tacrolimus and MMF for GVHD prophylaxis is safe and produced similar results as conventional prophylaxis in patients with one antigen HLA-MMUD HCT. PMID:26947769
Tse, Teresa P K; Chan, Allan N L; Chan, Tony K T; Po, Y C
Post-transplantation primary central nervous system lymphoma is an uncommon and fatal post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Such lymphomas have been described in only a few case series in the literature. The incidence of this condition is rising with improved survival after organ transplantation. A case of post-transplantation primary central nervous system lymphoma in a young Chinese woman with systemic lupus erythematosus is described here. She presented with right-sided weakness and memory loss after tooth extraction 2 weeks before admission. Contrast computed tomography of the brain demonstrated a contrast rim-enhancing lesion over the left frontal lobe. With a history of recent dental procedure, long-term immunosuppressive therapy and computed tomography findings, cerebral abscess was highly suspected. Emergency operation was performed. Histopathology showed post-transplantation primary central nervous system lymphoma, with cells positive for B-cell marker CD20. Immunosuppressant was stopped and she was treated with radiotherapy and rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody). She remained disease-free at 16 months. Post-transplantation primary central nervous system lymphoma is rare with variable presentation and radiological features. We believe rituximab may have a role in the treatment of such lymphomas.
Deligezer, Ugur; Akisik, Ebru E; Yaman, Fulya; Erten, Nilgün; Dalay, Nejat
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a key enzyme in folate metabolism, has been implicated in cancer risk. In the present study we used a melting curve analysis to investigate the association of the common MTHFR C677 T polymorphism with lymphoproliferative diseases. Patients (n=117) were compared with age- and sex-matched control subjects (n=154). Our results indicate that the 677 T variant occurred less frequently in patients (26%) than in the control group (33.7%; P=0.05). Investigation of the variant allele (677 T) frequency in the subgroups with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and B-cell neoplasms (BCNs) revealed that this difference was a result of the significantly lower distribution of the variant allele in patients with HL (20.5%; P=0.01). This was accompanied by a significantly higher frequency of the homozygote normal genotype (677CC) among the patients with HL. In patients with BCNs the distribution of the variant allele (30.3%) was comparable to that in the control group (P=0.47). However, the difference between HL (20.5%) and BCNs (30.3%) did not reach statistical significance (P=0.09). Our results suggest that the distribution of the C677 T polymorphism may vary among lymphoproliferative diseases.
Arze, S; Arze, L; Abecia, C
Over 26 years, we found 46 infectious episodes in 350 kidney transplant recipients. Fifteen were urinary tract infections, recurrent in 4 patients. There were 8 cytomegalovirus infections, three of them fatal when intravenous (IV) ganciclovir was not available. Seven patients had a reactivation of tuberculosis (TB) in the pleura, cervical spine, lumbar spine, knee, ankle, skin and peritoneum, respectively, and were all resolved satisfactorily with conventional anti-TB therapy. Three patients transplanted before routine prophylaxis with the use of acyclovir developed an extensive herpes zoster infection in the 1st 6 months after transplantation, which was resolved with the use of oral acyclovir, and 1 had a disseminated herpes simplex infection resolved with the use of IV acyclovir. Three patients transplanted before routine prophylaxis with trimethoprim sulfa developed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the 1st 6 months after transplantation, which was fatal in one of them. In 2 patients, we found a Nocardia infection, confined to the lung, which was cured in one of the cases and systemic and fatal in the other. Two patients transplanted before routine prophylaxis with the use of nystatin developed esophageal candidiasis in the 1st 6 months after transplantation. One patient developed infective endocarditis in a stenotic bicuspid aortic valve and died 10 years later after another incident of infective endocarditis at the prosthetic aortic valve. Two patients developed an extensive condyloma at the penis, perianal region, and perineum owing to human papillomavirus, requiring extensive surgical resection and podophyllin applications. Another patient developed fatal post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease due to Epstein-Barr virus infection 15 years after transplantation. One patient developed a severe and fatal mucocutaneous leishmaniasis with no response to conventional antimonial therapy. It is interesting to note that despite Chagas disease being endemic
Chen, Ping; Sun, Qianmei; Huang, Yanfei; Atta, Mohamed G; Turban, Sharon; Segev, Dorry L; Marr, Kieren A; Naqvi, Fizza F; Alachkar, Nada; Kraus, Edward S; Womer, Karl L
Reduced pretransplant blood myeloid dendritic cell (mDC) levels are associated with post-transplant BK viremia and cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease after kidney transplantation. To elucidate potential mechanisms by which mDC levels might influence these outcomes, we studied the association of mDC levels with mDC IL-12 production and T-cell level/function. Peripheral blood (PB) was studied in three groups: (i) end stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis (HD; n = 81); (ii) chronic kidney disease stage IV-V patients presenting for kidney transplant evaluation or the day of transplantation (Eval/Tx; n = 323); and (iii) healthy controls (HC; n = 22). Along with a statistically significant reduction in mDC levels, reduced CD8(+) T-cell levels were also demonstrated in the kidney disease groups compared with HC. Reduced PB mDC and monocyte-derived DC (MoDC) IL-12 production was observed after in vitro LPS stimulation in the HD versus HC groups. Finally, ELISpot assays demonstrated less robust CD3(+) INF-γ responses by MoDCs pulsed with CMV pp65 peptide from HD patients compared with HC. PB mDC level deficiency in patients with kidney disease is associated with deficient IL-12 production and T-cell level/function, which may explain the known correlation of CD8(+) T-cell lymphopenia with deficient post-transplant antiviral responses. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.
Rouce, Rayne H; Louis, Chrystal U; Heslop, Helen E
PURPOSE OF REVIEW EBV reactivation can cause significant morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (SCT). Delays in reconstitution of EBV-specific T lymphocyte activity can lead to life-threatening EBV lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-PTLD). This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and management of EBV viremia and PTLD. RECENT FINDINGS During the past decade, early detection strategies, such as serial measurement of EBV-DNA load, have helped to identify high-risk patients and to diagnose early lymphoproliferation. The most significant advances have come in the form of innovative treatment options, including manipulation of the balance between outgrowing EBV-infected B cells and the EBV cytotoxic T lymphocyte (EBV-CTL) response, and targeting infected B cells with monoclonal antibodies, chemotherapy, unmanipulated donor lymphocytes, and donor or more recently third party EBV-CTLs. Defining criteria for preemptive therapy and remains a challenge. SUMMARY EBV reactivation is a significant complication after SCT. Continued improvements in risk-stratification and treatment options are required to improve the morbidity and mortality caused by EBV associated diseases. Current approaches use Rituximab to deplete B cells or adoptive transfer of EBV-CTL to reconstitute immunity. The availability of rapid EBV specific T cell products offers the possibility of improved outcomes. PMID:25159713
Sivkovich, S O; Kysel'ova, O A
Data are presented about modern histomorphological, cytological, radiological methods of diagnostics of malignant lymphoproliferative diseases (illness of Hodgkin). Principles and methods of treatment are presented are charts of polychimiotherapy their quality and amount, sequence of realization of radial therapy. Onkomarker being most perspective and studied presently is described, factors of prognosis at non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphadenomas, illness of Hodgkin, - galectin-1, galectin-3.
Nichols, Kim E; Ma, Cindy S; Cannons, Jennifer L; Schwartzberg, Pamela L; Tangye, Stuart G
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is an inherited immune defect caused by mutations in the Src homology 2 domain-containing gene 1A, which encodes the adapter protein, signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP). SAP is expressed in T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and NKT cells, where it binds to the cytoplasmic domain of the surface receptor SLAM (CD150) and the related receptors, 2B4 (CD244), CD84, Ly9 (CD229), NK-T-B-antigen, and CD2-like receptor-activating cytotoxic T cells. SAP also binds to the Src family tyrosine kinase Fyn and recruits it to SLAM, which leads to the generation of downstream phosphotyrosine signals. While the roles of the SLAM family receptors are only beginning to be understood, experiments suggest that these molecules regulate important aspects of lymphocyte function, such as proliferation, cytokine secretion, cytotoxicity, and antibody production. Thus, in XLP patients who lack functional SAP, the SLAM family receptors may not signal properly. This property likely contributes to the phenotypes of XLP, including fulminant infectious mononucleosis, lymphoma, and hypogammaglobulinemia. Further studies of SAP and the SLAM family receptors will provide insights into XLP and elucidate the signaling events regulating lymphocyte ontogeny and function.
Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide and Tacrolimus-Mycophenolate Mofetil Combination Prevents Graft-versus-Host Disease in Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation from HLA-Matched Donors.
Carnevale-Schianca, Fabrizio; Caravelli, Daniela; Gallo, Susanna; Coha, Valentina; D'Ambrosio, Lorenzo; Vassallo, Elena; Fizzotti, Marco; Nesi, Francesca; Gioeni, Luisa; Berger, Massimo; Polo, Alessandra; Gammaitoni, Loretta; Becco, Paolo; Giraudo, Lidia; Mangioni, Monica; Sangiolo, Dario; Grignani, Giovanni; Rota-Scalabrini, Delia; Sottile, Antonino; Fagioli, Franca; Aglietta, Massimo
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) remains the only curative therapy for many hematologic malignancies but it is limited by high nonrelapse mortality (NRM), primarily from unpredictable control of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Recently, post-transplant cyclophosphamide demonstrated improved GVHD control in allogeneic bone marrow HCT. Here we explore cyclophosphamide in allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (alloPBSCT). Patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies received alloPBSCT from HLA-matched unrelated/related donors. GVHD prophylaxis included combination post-HCT cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg (days +3 and +4) and tacrolimus/mofetil mycophenolate (T/MMF) (day +5 forward). The primary objective was the cumulative incidence of acute and chronic GVHD. Between March 2011 and May 2015, 35 consecutive patients received the proposed regimen. MMF was stopped in all patients at day +28; the median discontinuation of tacrolimus was day +113. Acute and chronic GVHD cumulative incidences were 17% and 7%, respectively, with no grade IV GVHD events, only 2 patients requiring chronic GVHD immunosuppression control, and no deaths from GVHD. Two-year NRM, overall survival, event-free survival, and chronic GVHD event-free survival rates were 3%, 77%, 54%, and 49%, respectively. The graft-versus-tumor effect was maintained as 5 of 15 patients (33%) who received HCT with evidence of disease experienced further disease response. A post-transplant cyclophosphamide + T/MMF combination strategy effectively prevented acute and chronic GVHD after alloPBSCT from HLA-matched donors and achieved an unprecedented low NRM without losing efficacy in disease control or impaired development of the graft-versus-tumor effect. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02300571.
Lebwohl, Benjamin; Granath, Fredrik; Ekbom, Anders; Smedby, Karin Ekström; Murray, Joseph A.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Green, Peter HR; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
Background Celiac disease (CD) is associated with an increased risk of lymphoproliferative malignancy (LPM). It is unknown whether this risk is affected by the results of the follow-up intestinal biopsy, performed to document mucosal healing. Objective To examine the association between mucosal healing in CD and later LPM. Design Population-based cohort study Setting We identified patients with CD from all of Sweden’s 28 pathology departments. Patients Individuals with CD who had a follow-up biopsy after initial diagnosis. Measurements We compared the risk of LPM to that of the general population using expected rates; and through Cox regression we compared the rate of LPM in those with persistent villous atrophy to those with mucosal healing. Results Among 7,625 patients with CD and a follow-up biopsy, persistent villous atrophy was present in 3,308 (43%). The overall risk of LPM was increased compared to the general population (Standardized incidence ratio, SIR 2.81; 95%CI 2.10–3.67), but this increase was greater among those with persistent villous atrophy (SIR 3.78; 95%CI 2.71–5.12) as compared to those with mucosal healing (SIR 1.50; 95%CI 0.77–2.62). Persistent villous atrophy compared to mucosal healing was associated with an increased risk of LPM (Hazard ratio, HR 2.26; 95%CI 1.18–4.34). We found an increased risk of T cell lymphoma (HR 3.51; 95%CI 0.75–16.34), but no excess risk of B cell lymphoma (HR 0.97; 95%CI 0.21–4.49). Limitation We had no data on dietary compliance. Conclusions The increased LPM risk in CD is associated with the results of the follow-up biopsy, with a higher risk among those with persistent villous atrophy. Follow-up biopsy may be a means to effectively stratify CD patients regarding subsequent LPM risk. Primary funding source the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, The American Scandinavian Foundation, the Celiac Sprue Association, Örebro University Hospital, Karolinska
Saigal, Sanjiv; Choudhary, Narendra Singh; Yadav, Sanjay Kumar; Saraf, Neeraj; Kumar, Naveen; Rai, Rahul; Mehrotra, Saurabh; Rastogi, Vipul; Rastogi, Amit; Goja, Sanjay; Bhangui, Prashant; Ramachandra, Sumana K; Raut, Vikram; Gautam, Dheeraj; Soin, Arvinder Singh
Post-transplant relapse is a major factor influencing the long-term outcome in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relapse rates following living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in patients with ALD in the Indian context with strong family support. Of 458 patients who underwent LDLT for ALD, 408 were included in the study. Post-transplant relapse was determined by information provided by the patient and/or family by means of outpatient and e-mail questionnaire, supported by clinical/biochemical parameters/liver histopathology. All except one were males, with a mean age of 46.9 ± 8.5 years. The overall rate of relapse was 9.5 % at 34.7 months (interquartile range (IQR) 15-57.6), lower than that reported in the literature from the West. The relapse rate was higher in patients with a shorter duration of pre-transplant abstinence (17.4 % and 15.4 % for recipients with pre-transplant abstinence of <3 and <6 months, respectively, p < 0.05). The overall survival was 88.5 % at 3 years. Of 39 patients with relapse, 16 (41 %) were occasional drinkers, 14 (35.8 %) were moderate drinkers, and 9 (23 %) were heavy drinkers. All the heavy drinkers presented with features of graft dysfunction. Good results can be obtained following LDLT for ALD, with significantly lower relapse rates in our setup as compared to the West.
Sharif, Adnan; Cohney, Solomon
With increasing success in overcoming the immunological and infectious challenges accompanying solid organ transplantation, susceptibility to post-transplant diabetes and cardiovascular disease has assumed increasing importance. Although some guidance is available from diabetes-related literature pertaining to the general population, some aspects are unique to solid organ allograft recipients. Both insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction are generally agreed to contribute to development and manifestation of post-transplant diabetes, but controversy continues about which is most important and to what extent post-transplant diabetes is a distinct entity or simply a variant of type 2 diabetes with transplant-specific components. The optimum method and timing for detection and diagnosis of post-transplant diabetes remains an area of uncertainty. However, the greatest needs are to: address the absence of contemporary data for incidence and clinical outcomes associated with post-transplant diabetes; establish the role of glycaemic control; and assess the role of new diabetic therapies in prevention and management of post-transplant diabetes. We place the present knowledge base in the context of other advances in transplantation, challenge some existing ideas, and examine the potential role of emerging diabetes therapies. In highlighting existing deficiencies, we hope to provide direction for future research that will ultimately reduce incidence and improve management of post-transplant diabetes.
Suvajdzic, Nada; Djurdjevic, Predrag; Todorovic, Milena; Perunicic, Maja; Stojanović, Roksanda; Novkovic, Aleksandra; Mihaljevic, Biljana
Clinical features of 40 lymphoproliferative neoplasm patients in the setting of systemic autoimmune diseases managed in the Clinic of Hematology during 1994-2006 were analyzed retrospectively. The classification of systemic autoimmune disease patients was as follows: 15 systemic lupus erythematosus--SLE, 11 rheumatoid arthritis--RA, 12 Sjögren's syndrome--SS, 1 scleroderma, and 1 dermatomyositis. Patients comprised 31 women and 9 men of mean age 55 years (range 33-76). Systemic autoimmune diseases preceeded the development of lymphoproliferative neoplasms in 37/40 (92.5%) patients. Mean latency period between the onset of systemic autoimmune diseases and lymphoproliferative neoplasms occurrence was significantly longer in RA (113 months) than in SLE (75 months) and SS patients (65 months)--P < 0.05. The most frequent lymphoproliferative neoplasms were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma--NHL (35/40; 88%), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DBCL)--12 (34%), follicular lymphoma (FC)--7 (20%), small lymphocytic (SL), and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL)--5 (14%) each. The primary site of NHL was extranodal in 18/35 (51.5%) cases. Advanced disease on diagnosis (III + IV clinical stages), constitutional symptoms, and bulky disease were diagnosed in 27/35 (77%), 26/35 (74%), and 3/35 (8.5%) patients, respectively. The overall survival (OS) was as follows (months): DBCL-12, FC-63, SLL-60, and MZL-48. There was no association between the lymphoproliferative neoplasm histological subtype and the systemic autoimmune diseases type or antirheumatic treatment P > 0.05. Our findings are in line with earlier reports showing a high proportion of patients with advanced disease, constitutional symptoms, extranodal manifestations, high grade histology, and low OS in the systemic autoimmune diseases setting.
Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is an exogenous oncogenic retrovirus that induces lymphoid tumors in some galliform species of birds. Historically, outbreaks of LPDV have been reported from Europe and Israel. Although the virus has previously never been detected in North America, herein we ...
Geramizadeh, Bita; Motevalli, Dorna; Nikeghbalian, Saman; Malek Hosseini, Seyed Ali
Evaluation of a transplanted liver by Imaging techniques and enzyme changes is sensitive to hepatocellular or biliary problems, but in most instances liver allograft biopsies are performed in order to find out the final reason for these changes. It's been about 17 years (with more than 1326 cases) since the first liver transplantation in the Namazi Hospital of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences while during the last five years the number of post liver transplant biopsies have increased. Until now there has been no report of the pathological results of post liver transplant needle biopsies from Iran. During the last 5 years, there have been 382 post liver transplant biopsies. We studied the clinical charts and pathological results of all needle biopsies. A total of 382 needle biopsies were performed on 287 patients aged between 1 and 64 years old. The earliest specimen was obtained within the first few hours following transplantation, and the last was gathered 3209 days (261 ± 523) post-transplantation. Acute rejection was the most common diagnosis, which occurred in 180 (47%) of specimens. Among other complications were vascular problems (8.6%), preservation/reperfusion (I/R) injury (7%), chronic rejection (5.2%), biliary injury/obstruction (3.4%), recurrence of primary disease (2.6%), drug-induced hepatic injury (1.8%), cirrhosis (1.6%), sepsis (1.4%), cytomegalovirus hepatitis (1.4%), post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease (1%) and Venous outflow obstruction (0.5%). The most common pathological diagnosis of post-transplant liver needle biopsies has been acute rejection, followed by ischemia due to hepatic artery thrombosis, preservation/reperfusion injury, and chronic rejection.
Nabhani, Schafiq; Ginzel, Sebastian; Miskin, Hagit; Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Harlev, Dan; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Hönscheid, Andrea; Oommen, Prasad T; Kuhlen, Michaela; Thiele, Ralf; Laws, Hans-Jürgen; Borkhardt, Arndt; Stepensky, Polina; Fischer, Ute
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome is frequently caused by mutations in genes involved in the Fas death receptor pathway, but for 20-30% of patients the genetic defect is unknown. We observed that treatment of healthy T cells with interleukin-12 induces upregulation of Fas ligand and Fas ligand-dependent apoptosis. Consistently, interleukin-12 could not induce apoptosis in Fas ligand-deficient T cells from patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. We hypothesized that defects in the interleukin-12 signaling pathway may cause a similar phenotype as that caused by mutations of the Fas ligand gene. To test this, we analyzed 20 patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome of unknown cause by whole-exome sequencing. We identified a homozygous nonsense mutation (c.698G>A, p.R212*) in the interleukin-12/interleukin-23 receptor-component IL12RB1 in one of these patients. The mutation led to IL12RB1 protein truncation and loss of cell surface expression. Interleukin-12 and -23 signaling was completely abrogated as demonstrated by deficient STAT4 phosphorylation and interferon γ production. Interleukin-12-mediated expression of membrane-bound and soluble Fas ligand was lacking and basal expression was much lower than in healthy controls. The patient presented with the classical symptoms of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome: chronic non-malignant, non-infectious lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, elevated numbers of double-negative T cells, autoimmune cytopenias, and increased levels of vitamin B12 and interleukin-10. Sanger sequencing and whole-exome sequencing excluded the presence of germline or somatic mutations in genes known to be associated with the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. Our data suggest that deficient regulation of Fas ligand expression by regulators such as the interleukin-12 signaling pathway may be an alternative cause of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-like disease.
Aberdein, D; Munday, J S; Fairley, R A; Vernau, W; Thompson, K G
An unusual lymphoproliferative disease was identified in multiple closely related British Shorthair (BSH) kittens, suggesting an inherited predisposition to disease. Affected kittens typically developed rapidly progressive and marked generalized lymphadenopathy, moderate splenomegaly, and regenerative and likely hemolytic anemia from 6 weeks of age. Microscopic findings were suggestive of multicentric T-cell lymphoma, but additional testing revealed a polyclonal population of CD3+/CD4-/CD8- "double negative" T cells (DNT cells). This is a novel disease presentation with similarities to the human disorder autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), a rare inherited disease causing lymphoproliferation and variable manifestations of autoimmunity. The human disease is most commonly due to the presence of Fas gene mutations causing defective lymphocyte apoptosis, and further investigations of both the mode of inheritance and genetic basis for disease in affected cats are currently in progress.
Valavoor, Shahul H; Ashraf, Zubair; Narwal, Rawan; Ratnam, Shobha
Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare B cell variant non-Hodgkins lymphoma that is confined to the brain, leptomeninges, spinal cord and eyes. Its incidence is increasing, primarily due to increase in the number of organ transplantations being undertaken. The majority of the PTLD (post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder) is seen in kidney transplant recipients simply because they constitute a larger group of transplant recipients each year as compared to other solid organ transplantations. Primary infection of previously infected EBV seronegative patients and immunosuppression are found to be the main etiologic factors in the development of PTLD-PCNSL. There are no clear guidelines on treatment regimens, and it should be individualized according to patient comorbidities. We report a case of PCNS lymphoproliferative disorder in a kidney transplant recipient, which underwent complete remission with decreasing immunosuppression. The patient could not undergo chemotherapy/radiotherapy due to underlying comorbidities. We highlight the available treatment modalities for PTLD-PCNSL.
Shimakage, Misuzu; Sakamoto, Haruhiko; Harada, Shizuko; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Ken
There have been few studies regarding the etiology of lymphoproliferative disorders of the lung. To examine the possible involvement of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in these diseases, EBV mRNAs, proteins and DNA, were detected. Two non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) originating in the lung, 5 mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas (MALT lymphoma) of the lung, 1 lymphoid hyperplasia of the lung and 1 lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP), were subjected to mRNA in situ hybridization, indirect immunofluorescence staining and PCR. mRNA in situ hybridization using BamHIW, BamHIY1Y2, the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA) and the EBV encoded small non-polyadenylated RNA (EBER1) probe revealed signals in all the examined samples, although some samples showed weak signals by using the EBER1 probe. Indirect immunofluorescence staining using the anti-leader protein, anti-EBNA2, the anti-latent member protein-1 and anti-BamHIZ coding leftward reading frame-1 antibodies showed definitive fluorescence. PCR also revealed EBV DNA in these specimens. EBV infected all the lymphoproliferative diseases of the lung irrespective of the histological or clinical stages. Furthermore, EBV infected not only the atypical lymphocytes but also the macrophages in the tissues of these diseases. These results suggest that the expression of EBV could be involved in the pathogenesis of many lymphoproliferative diseases of the lung.
Establishment and operation of a Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant allogeneic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic cell bank for the treatment of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease.
Vickers, Mark A; Wilkie, Gwen M; Robinson, Nicolas; Rivera, Nadja; Haque, Tanzina; Crawford, Dorothy H; Barry, Jacqueline; Fraser, Neil; Turner, David M; Robertson, Victoria; Dyer, Phil; Flanagan, Peter; Newlands, Helen R; Campbell, John; Turner, Marc L
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several malignancies, including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Conventional treatments for PTLD are often successful, but risk organ rejection and cause significant side effects. EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) generated in vitro from peripheral blood lymphocytes provide an alternative treatment modality with few side effects, but autologous CTLs are difficult to use in clinical practice. Here we report the establishment and operation of a bank of EBV-specific CTLs derived from 25 blood donors with human leucocyte antigen (HLA) types found at high frequency in European populations. Since licensure, there have been enquiries about 37 patients, who shared a median of three class I and two class II HLA types with these donors. Cells have been infused into ten patients with lymphoproliferative disease, eight of whom achieved complete remission. Neither patient with refractory disease was matched for HLA class II. Both cases of EBV-associated non-haematopoietic sarcoma receiving cells failed to achieve complete remission. Thirteen patients died before any cells could be issued, emphasizing that the bank should be contacted before patients become pre-terminal. Thus, this third party donor-derived EBV-specific CTL cell bank can supply most patients with appropriately matched cells and most recipients have good outcomes. © 2014 The Authors. British Journal of Haematology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vickers, Mark A; Wilkie, Gwen M; Robinson, Nicolas; Rivera, Nadja; Haque, Tanzina; Crawford, Dorothy H; Barry, Jacqueline; Fraser, Neil; Turner, David M; Robertson, Victoria; Dyer, Phil; Flanagan, Peter; Newlands, Helen R; Campbell, John; Turner, Marc L
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several malignancies, including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Conventional treatments for PTLD are often successful, but risk organ rejection and cause significant side effects. EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) generated in vitro from peripheral blood lymphocytes provide an alternative treatment modality with few side effects, but autologous CTLs are difficult to use in clinical practice. Here we report the establishment and operation of a bank of EBV-specific CTLs derived from 25 blood donors with human leucocyte antigen (HLA) types found at high frequency in European populations. Since licensure, there have been enquiries about 37 patients, who shared a median of three class I and two class II HLA types with these donors. Cells have been infused into ten patients with lymphoproliferative disease, eight of whom achieved complete remission. Neither patient with refractory disease was matched for HLA class II. Both cases of EBV-associated non-haematopoietic sarcoma receiving cells failed to achieve complete remission. Thirteen patients died before any cells could be issued, emphasizing that the bank should be contacted before patients become pre-terminal. Thus, this third party donor-derived EBV-specific CTL cell bank can supply most patients with appropriately matched cells and most recipients have good outcomes. PMID:25066775
Rolla, Davide; Fontana, Iris; Ravetti, Jean Louis; Marsano, Luigina; Bellino, Diego; Panaro, Laura; Ansaldo, Francesca; Mathiasen, Lisa; Storace, Giulia; Trezzi, Matteo
Introduction: Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a serious complication of renal transplantation and is mostly related to the prothrombotic effect of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). A subset of TMA (29%-38%) is localized only to the graft. Case 1: A young woman suffering from autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) underwent kidney transplant. After 2 months, she showed slow renal deterioration (serum creatinine from 1.9 to 3.1 mg/dl), without hematological signs of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS); only LDH enzyme transient increase was detected. Renal biopsy showed TMA: temporary withdraw of tacrolimus and plasmapheresis was performed. The renal function recovered (serum creatinine 1.9 mg/dl). From screening for thrombophilia, we found a mutation of the Leiden factor V gene. Case 2: A man affected by ADPKD underwent kidney transplantation, with delay graft function; first biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis, but a second biopsy revealed TMA, while no altered hematological parameters of HUS was detected. We observed only a slight increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. The tacrolimus was halved and plasmapheresis was performed: LDH levels normalized within 10 days and renal function improved (serum creatinine from 9 to 2.9 mg/dl). We found a mutation of the prothrombin gene. Only a renal biopsy clarifies the diagnosis of TMA, but it is necessary to pay attention to light increasing level of LDH. Conclusion: Prothrombotic effect of CNIs and mTOR inhibitor, mutation of genes encoding factor H or I, anticardiolipin antibodies, vascular rejection, cytomegalovirus infection are proposed to trigger TMA; we detected mutations of factor II and Leiden factor V, as facilitating conditions for TMA in patients affected by ADPKD. PMID:26693501
Lahav, M; Epstein, O; Schoenfeld, N; Nemesh, L; Shaklai, M; Atsmon, A
Patients with active lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD) were shown to have high activity of lymphocyte uroporphyrinogen synthase (L-UROS), the enzyme which converts porphobilinogen to uroporphyrinogen. The mean L-UROS activity of 64 first-degree relatives of patients with LPD was significantly higher than that of a control group and 45% of these relatives had pathological values of L-UROS. L-UROS activity was also determined in the spouses of 2 patients and was pathologically elevated in both. The pattern of pathological values among family members may indicate the presence of a communicable agent.
Borghi Torzillo, María Florencia; Bavcar, Paula; Lutfi, Rubén; Díaz, Alberto C
The post-transplant distal limb syndrome is a not well known entity, with a prevalence of 5% in patients with renal transplant. Its diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, bone scintigraphy and MRI, it has a benign course and the patient recovers without sequel. We present the case of a 37-year-old male, with medical history of hypertension, Berger's disease in 1999 that required dialysis three times a week for four years (2009-2013) and renal transplant in 2013. The patient consults on January 2014 referring severe pain in both feet, with sudden onset; he remembers the exact date of the beginning of the pain and denies trauma, pain prevents ambulation. The bone scintigraphy shows pathological uptake in both feet with no difference between the two. Although there is no treatment for this disease, it has a benign course.
GOMPELS, M M; HODGES, E; LOCK, R J; ANGUS, B; WHITE, H; LARKIN, A; CHAPEL, H M; SPICKETT, G P; MISBAH, S A; SMITH, J L
We have undertaken a retrospective study of antibody deficient patients, with and without lymphoma, and assessed the ability of specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers to determine if the detection of clonal lymphocyte populations correlates with clinical and immunohistochemical diagnosis of lymphoma. We identified 158 cases with antibody deficiency presenting during the past 20 years. Paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens or slides were available for analysis in a cohort of 34 patients. Of these patients, 29 had common variable immunodeficiency, one X-linked agammaglobulinaemia, one X-linked immunoglobulin deficiency of uncertain cause and three isolated IgG subclass deficiency. We have confirmed that lymphoma in antibody deficiency is predominantly B cell in origin. Clonal lymphocyte populations were demonstrated in biopsies irrespective of histology (16/19 with lymphoma and 11/15 without). Isolated evidence of clonality in biopsy material is therefore an insufficient diagnostic criterion to determine malignancy. Furthermore, our data suggest that clonal expansions are rarely the result of Epstein–Barr virus-driven disease. PMID:14616793
Tompkins, V S; Sompallae, R; Rosean, T R; Walsh, S; Acevedo, M; Kovalchuk, A L; Han, S-S; Jing, X; Holman, C; Rehg, J E; Herms, S; Sunderland, J S; Morse, H C; Janz, S
Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a low-grade incurable immunoglobulin M(+) (IgM(+)) lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma for which a genetically engineered mouse model of de novo tumor development is lacking. On the basis of evidence that the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 6 (IL6), and the survival-enhancing oncoprotein, B cell leukemia 2 (BCL2), have critical roles in the natural history of WM, we hypothesized that the enforced expression of IL6 and BCL2 in mice unable to perform immunoglobulin class switch recombination may result in a lymphoproliferative disease that mimics WM. To evaluate this possibility, we generated compound transgenic BALB/c mice that harbored the human BCL2 and IL6 transgenes, EμSV-BCL2-22 and H2-L(d)-hIL6, on the genetic background of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) deficiency. We designated these mice BCL2(+)IL6(+)AID(-) and found that they developed-with full genetic penetrance (100% incidence) and suitably short latency (93 days median survival)-a severe IgM(+) lymphoproliferative disorder that recapitulated important features of human WM. However, the BCL2(+)IL6(+)AID(-) model also exhibited shortcomings, such as low serum IgM levels and histopathological changes not seen in patients with WM, collectively indicating that further refinements of the model are required to achieve better correlations with disease characteristics of WM.
Tompkins, V S; Sompallae, R; Rosean, T R; Walsh, S; Acevedo, M; Kovalchuk, A L; Han, S-S; Jing, X; Holman, C; Rehg, J E; Herms, S; Sunderland, J S; Morse, H C; Janz, S
Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a low-grade incurable immunoglobulin M+ (IgM+) lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma for which a genetically engineered mouse model of de novo tumor development is lacking. On the basis of evidence that the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 6 (IL6), and the survival-enhancing oncoprotein, B cell leukemia 2 (BCL2), have critical roles in the natural history of WM, we hypothesized that the enforced expression of IL6 and BCL2 in mice unable to perform immunoglobulin class switch recombination may result in a lymphoproliferative disease that mimics WM. To evaluate this possibility, we generated compound transgenic BALB/c mice that harbored the human BCL2 and IL6 transgenes, EμSV-BCL2-22 and H2-Ld-hIL6, on the genetic background of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) deficiency. We designated these mice BCL2+IL6+AID− and found that they developed—with full genetic penetrance (100% incidence) and suitably short latency (93 days median survival)—a severe IgM+ lymphoproliferative disorder that recapitulated important features of human WM. However, the BCL2+IL6+AID− model also exhibited shortcomings, such as low serum IgM levels and histopathological changes not seen in patients with WM, collectively indicating that further refinements of the model are required to achieve better correlations with disease characteristics of WM. PMID:27813533
Allison, Andrew B.; Keel, M. Kevin; Philips, Jamie E.; Cartoceti, Andrew N.; Munk, Brandon A.; Nemeth, Nicole M.; Welsh, Trista I.; Thomas, Jesse M.; Crum, James M.; Lichtenwalner, Anne B.; Fadly, Aly M.; Zavala, Guillermo; Holmes, Edward C.; Brown, Justin D.
Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is an exogenous oncogenic retrovirus that induces lymphoid tumors in some galliform species of birds. Historically, outbreaks of LPDV have been reported from Europe and Israel. Although the virus has previously never been detected in North America, herein we describe the widespread distribution, genetic diversity, pathogenesis, and evolution of LPDV in the United States. Characterization of the provirus genome of the index LPDV case from North America demonstrated an 88% nucleotide identity to the Israeli prototype strain. Although phylogenetic analysis indicated that the majority of viruses fell into a single North American lineage, a small subset of viruses from South Carolina were most closely related to the Israeli prototype. These results suggest that LPDV was transferred between continents to initiate outbreaks of disease. However, the direction (New World to Old World or vice versa), mechanism, and time frame of the transcontinental spread currently remain unknown. PMID:24503062
Allison, Andrew B; Kevin Keel, M; Philips, Jamie E; Cartoceti, Andrew N; Munk, Brandon A; Nemeth, Nicole M; Welsh, Trista I; Thomas, Jesse M; Crum, James M; Lichtenwalner, Anne B; Fadly, Aly M; Zavala, Guillermo; Holmes, Edward C; Brown, Justin D
Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is an exogenous oncogenic retrovirus that induces lymphoid tumors in some galliform species of birds. Historically, outbreaks of LPDV have been reported from Europe and Israel. Although the virus has previously never been detected in North America, herein we describe the widespread distribution, genetic diversity, pathogenesis, and evolution of LPDV in the United States. Characterization of the provirus genome of the index LPDV case from North America demonstrated an 88% nucleotide identity to the Israeli prototype strain. Although phylogenetic analysis indicated that the majority of viruses fell into a single North American lineage, a small subset of viruses from South Carolina were most closely related to the Israeli prototype. These results suggest that LPDV was transferred between continents to initiate outbreaks of disease. However, the direction (New World to Old World or vice versa), mechanism, and time frame of the transcontinental spread currently remain unknown.
Ducloux, Didier; Bamoulid, Jamal; Crepin, Thomas; Rebibou, Jean-Michel; Courivaud, Cecile; Saas, Philippe
Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity, disability, and mortality in kidney transplant patients. Cumulative reports indicate that the excessive risk of cardiovascular events is not entirely explained by the increased prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease and it has been postulated that post-transplant immune disturbances may explain the gap between the predicted and observed risks of cardiovascular events. However, whereas concordant data suggest that innate immunity contributes to the posttransplant accelerated atherosclerosis, only few arguments plead for a role of adaptive immunity. We report and discuss here consistent data demonstrating that CD8(+) T cell activation is a frequent post-transplant immune feature that may have pro-atherogenic effects. Expansion of exhausted/activated CD8(+) T cells in kidney transplant recipients is stimulated by several factors including: cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, lymphodepletive therapy (e.g., anti-thymocyte globulins), chronic allogeneic stimulation and a past of renal insufficiency. This is observed in the setting of a decreased thymic activity, a process also found in elderly individuals and reflecting accelerated immune senescence.
Chloraki-Bobota, A; Megalakaki, C; Repousis, P; Chalkiopoulou, Ir; Lalaki, I; Trafalis, D T; Athanassiou, A E; Mitsouli-Mentzikof, Chr
In the development of rheumatic syndromes as well as of lymphoproliferative disorders it is probable that there are common genetic, environmental and immunoregulatory pathogenetic mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of simultaneous presentation of both lymphoma or other lymphoproliferative diseases, and rheumatic syndromes. In this study included were all patients with lymphoproliferative diseases (1920 patients) followed at our hospital during the last 5 years. 312/1920 (16.2%) patients presented with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), 645/1920 (33.5%) had myeloma, 558/1920 (29%) had leukemia and miscellaneous other hematological malignancies (Hodgkin's lymphoma, cryoglogulinaemia etc) had 405/1920 patients (21%). Antinuclear antibodies (ANA), ribosome P and intermediate filament antibodies (IMF) were measured by immunofluorescence (IF). Anti-double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) antibodies and extractable nuclear antigens (ENA: Sm, RNP, SSA, SSB, Scl70) were measured by ELISA and the rheumatoid factor (RF) by nephelometry. 388/1920 (4.6%) patients were ANA positive (antibody titres>1/160). On the other hand, clinical symptoms attributed autoimmune diseases (arthralgias, morning stiffness etc) plus autoantibodies other than ANA were present only in 8/312 (2.56%) patients with NHL, among them one with anti-cardiolipin antibodies. It is interesting that from these 8 patients, 3 had MALT lymphoma and 3 diffuse B-cell large cell lymphoma. Also, we detected anti-IMF and IgM and lgG anti-CMV antibodies in 2/312 (0.42%) patients with NHL. We conclude that the simultaneous presence of lymphoproliferative diseases and rheumatic syndromes are more frequent among lymphoma patients than in other lymphoproliferative diseases. Therefore, the screening of antibodies in NHL patients may be useful for the discovery and the treatment of an underlying autoimmune disease.
Katewa, Arna; Pettersen, Ann K.; Osvath, Sarah R.; Farrell, Geoff C.; Stewart, Graeme J.; Bendall, Linda J.; Alexander, Stephen I.
To delineate the relative roles of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Fas ligand in lymphocyte biology and lymphoproliferative disease, we generated mice defective in both molecules. B6.GT mice develop severe polyclonal lymphoproliferative disease because of accumulating CD3+CD4−CD8−B220+ T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and follicular B cells, and mice die prematurely from extreme lymphocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and hemorrhage. Accumulating lymphocytes resembled antigen-experienced lymphocytes, consistent with the maximal resistance of B6.GT CD4+ and CD8+ T cell to activation-induced cell death. More specifically, we show that TRAIL contributes to Fas ligand-mediated activation-induced cell death and controls lymphocyte apoptosis in the presence of interferon-γ once antigen stimulation is removed. Furthermore, dysregulated lymphocyte homeostasis results in the production of anti-DNA and rheumatoid factor autoantibodies, as well as antiplatelet IgM and IgG causing thrombocytopenia. Thus, B6.GT mice reveal new roles for TRAIL in lymphocyte homeostasis and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndromes and are a model of spontaneous idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura secondary to lymphoproliferative disease. PMID:20185587
Sedger, Lisa M; Katewa, Arna; Pettersen, Ann K; Osvath, Sarah R; Farrell, Geoff C; Stewart, Graeme J; Bendall, Linda J; Alexander, Stephen I
To delineate the relative roles of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Fas ligand in lymphocyte biology and lymphoproliferative disease, we generated mice defective in both molecules. B6.GT mice develop severe polyclonal lymphoproliferative disease because of accumulating CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-)B220(+) T cells, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and follicular B cells, and mice die prematurely from extreme lymphocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and hemorrhage. Accumulating lymphocytes resembled antigen-experienced lymphocytes, consistent with the maximal resistance of B6.GT CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell to activation-induced cell death. More specifically, we show that TRAIL contributes to Fas ligand-mediated activation-induced cell death and controls lymphocyte apoptosis in the presence of interferon-gamma once antigen stimulation is removed. Furthermore, dysregulated lymphocyte homeostasis results in the production of anti-DNA and rheumatoid factor autoantibodies, as well as antiplatelet IgM and IgG causing thrombocytopenia. Thus, B6.GT mice reveal new roles for TRAIL in lymphocyte homeostasis and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndromes and are a model of spontaneous idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura secondary to lymphoproliferative disease.
Hashimoto, Sawako; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Miyagi, Michiko; Onishi, Yoko; Ohga, Saiji; Asai, Kaori; Ishibashi, Tatsuro
To investigate the interval between low-dose radiotherapy and radiation-induced cataracts, and the factors affecting this interval, in patients with lymphoproliferative disease of the ocular adnexa. A retrospective case series of 73 eyes of 59 patients who underwent radiotherapy from 1996 to 2005 with total doses ranging from 24 to 30 Gy was conducted. We investigated the relationships between the radiation-associated cataract formation intervals and age, gender, diabetes, and the use of corticosteroids. The mean interval was 36 months. None of the patients with lens shield developed cataracts. Age was inversely and significantly and gender was not significantly associated with the interval from first radiotherapy to cataract occurrence. The intervals did not differ significantly according to the presence of diabetes and corticosteroid therapy. The mean interval from the start of radiation therapy to radiation-related cataract formation was 36 months and age was a significant factor affecting this interval.
Seif, Alix E.; Reid, Gregor S. D.; Teachey, David T.; Grupp, Stephan A.
While the outcome for pediatric patients with lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) or lymphoid malignancies, such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), has improved dramatically, patients often suffer from therapeutic sequelae. Additionally, despite intensified treatment, the prognosis remains dismal for patients with refractory or relapsed disease. Thus, novel biologically targeted treatment approaches are needed. These targets can be identified by understanding how a loss of lymphocyte homeostasis can result in LPD or ALL. Herein, we review potential molecular and cellular therapeutic strategies that (i) target key signaling networks (e.g., PI3K/AKT/mTOR, JAK/STAT, Notch1, and SRC kinase family-containing pathways) which regulate lymphocyte growth, survival, and function; (ii) block the interaction of ALL cells with stromal cells or lymphoid growth factors secreted by the bone marrow microenvironment; or (iii) stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:18716718
Turner, A M; Berdoukas, V A; Tobias, V H; Ziegler, J B; Toogood, I R; Mulley, J C; Skare, J; Purtilo, D T
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease is characterized by immune deficiency, particularly to the Epstein-Barr virus and by a tendency to develop fatal infectious mononucleosis, acquired hypogammaglobulinaemia or malignant lymphoma. This disorder has been diagnosed in three boys, two brothers and a maternally related cousin, residing in Australia. The proband presented at 6 years of age with fulminating infectious mononucleosis. His 9 year old male cousin had developed an ileal Burkitt lymphoma one year earlier. Immunological and molecular genetic evidence is presented to support our view that his younger sibling is also affected with this condition. DNA linkage studies using probes to DXS10 and DXS37 provide confirmatory evidence for the diagnosis in the proband's brother and information on carrier status in female family members.
Yaniv, A; Gazit, A; Ianconescu, M; Perk, K; Aizenberg, B; Zimber, A
Turkeys inoculated with spleen extracts from lymphoproliferative disease (LPD)-affected birds developed viremia, followed by typical LPD lesions. Electron microscopy and biochemical characterization established that the virus present in the blood of infected turkeys is a type C retrovirus. The viral particles possess a buoyant density of 1.17 g/ml in sucrose gradients; they contain high-molecular-weight RNA and an RNA-instructed DNA polymerase with efficient exogenous and endogenous activity. The LPD virus polymerase is preferentially activated by magnesium ions. Cross nucleic acid hybridization assays revealed no sequence homology between the viral genome of LPD and avian myeloblastosis virus or reticuloendotheliosis virus, thus indicating that the LPD virus belongs to a distinct group unrelated to the avian leukosis-sarcoma virus complex or to the reticuloendotheliosis virus group. Images PMID:90160
Yaniv, A; Gazit, A; Ianconescu, M; Perk, K; Aizenberg, B; Zimber, A
Turkeys inoculated with spleen extracts from lymphoproliferative disease (LPD)-affected birds developed viremia, followed by typical LPD lesions. Electron microscopy and biochemical characterization established that the virus present in the blood of infected turkeys is a type C retrovirus. The viral particles possess a buoyant density of 1.17 g/ml in sucrose gradients; they contain high-molecular-weight RNA and an RNA-instructed DNA polymerase with efficient exogenous and endogenous activity. The LPD virus polymerase is preferentially activated by magnesium ions. Cross nucleic acid hybridization assays revealed no sequence homology between the viral genome of LPD and avian myeloblastosis virus or reticuloendotheliosis virus, thus indicating that the LPD virus belongs to a distinct group unrelated to the avian leukosis-sarcoma virus complex or to the reticuloendotheliosis virus group.
Keyvani, Hossein; Karbalaie Niya, Mohammad Hadi; Esghaei, Maryam; Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Monavari, Seyed Hamid Reza
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), but it has also been associated with different hematologic malignancies, including plasmablastic lymphoma, Multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and various atypical lymphoproliferative disorders. Patients with underlying lymphoproliferative diseases and chronic blood disorders who become infected with this virus are at risk for human malignancies. This small study reported the frequency of human herpesvirus 8 in 81 Iranian patients with lymphoproliferative disorders for estimation of possible factors affecting malignancy. The laboratory records of 81 patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)samples, which were tested for detection of HHV-8 open reading frame (ORF) 26 DNA by nested PCR amplification during the period from Sept. 2014 to Sept. 2015, were reviewed retrospectively at the Firouzgar Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Of 81 subjects, 28 were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), 19 were Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), 20 were acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), 11 were chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and 2 were multiple myeloma (MM). HHV-8 was detected in 16 (19.8%) of the 81 patients. Five out of the sixteen positive patients had CLL followed by 4 NHL, 4 HL and 3ALL. We conclude that HHV-8 can be considered as one of the predisposing factors of malignancy in patients with lymphoproliferative and chronic blood disorders. Furthermore, it does not rule out the possibility that other immunological triggers and environmental risk factors may account for their etiopathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Single-Agent Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide as Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis after Human Leukocyte Antigen-Matched Related Bone Marrow Transplantation for Pediatric and Young Adult Patients with Hematologic Malignancies.
Jacoby, Elad; Chen, Allen; Loeb, David M; Gamper, Christopher J; Zambidis, Elias; Llosa, Nicolas J; Huo, Jeffrey; Cooke, Kenneth R; Jones, Rick; Fuchs, Ephraim; Luznik, Leo; Symons, Heather J
High-dose cyclophosphamide given after HLA-matched related and unrelated allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for patients with hematologic malignancies is effective single-agent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis in adults. Data describing outcomes for pediatric and young adult patients have not been reported. Between the years 2007 and 2013, 29 pediatric and young adult patients ages ≤21 years of age treated at our institution for high-risk hematologic malignancies underwent myeloablative HLA-matched related T cell-replete BMT. Eleven patients received post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) as single-agent GVHD prophylaxis and were followed prospectively. Eighteen patients received calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based standard GVHD prophylaxis and were studied retrospectively as a control group. No acute GVHD (aGVHD) developed in patients receiving PTCy, whereas patients receiving CNI-based GVHD prophylaxis had cumulative incidences of grades II to IV and grades III and IV aGVHD of 27% and 5%, respectively. No patients receiving PTCy developed chronic GHVD, compared to 1 in the control group. Two-year overall survival was similar between the 2 groups (54% PTCy versus 58% CNI-based prophylaxis), as was event-free survival (42% PTCy versus 47% CNI-based). The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 58% for PTCy and 42% for CNI-based GVHD prophylaxis (P = .45). These results suggest that PTCy is a safe and efficacious method of GVHD prophylaxis after an HLA-matched related BMT in the pediatric and young adult population that affords patients to be off all post-transplantation immunosuppression on day +5. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. All rights reserved.
Zambello, Renato; Teramo, Antonella; Gattazzo, Cristina; Semenzato, Gianpietro
Mature Large Granular lymphocytes (LGL) disorders include a spectrum of conditions, ranging from polyclonal to clonal indolent and/or overt leukemic LGL proliferations. Most cases are represented by clonal expansions of TCRα/β+ LGL displaying a CD8+ phenotype with expression of cytotoxic T-cell antigens (CD57, CD16, TIA-1, perforin and granzyme B). Proliferations of CD3-CD16+ NK cells with a restricted patter of NK receptors are less common, usually comprising 15% of the cases. Main features are cytopenias, splenomegaly and autoimmune phenomena. Morphology, immunophenotyping and molecular analyses are crucial to establish a correct diagnosis of disease. According to the 2008 WHO classification, two separate entities account for the majority of cases, T-LGL leukemia and Chronic Lymphoproliferative Disease of NK cell (this latter still provisional). Although these disorders are characterized by the expansion of different cells types i.e. T and NK cells, with specific genetic features and abnormalities, compelling evidence supports the hypothesis that a common pathogenic mechanism would be involved in both disorders. As a matter of fact, a foreign antigen driven clonal selection is considered the initial step in the mechanism ultimately leading to generation of both conditions. In this chapter we will discuss recent advances on the pathogenesis of chronic T and NK disorders of granular lymphocytes, challenging the current WHO classification on the opportunity to separate T and NK disorders, which are likely to represent two sides of the same coin. PMID:24778993
Kuehn, Hye Sun; Caminha, Iusta; Niemela, Julie E; Rao, V Koneti; Davis, Joie; Fleisher, Thomas A; Oliveira, João B
The autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is characterized by early-onset lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, immune cytopenias, and an increased risk for B cell lymphomas. Most ALPS patients harbor mutations in the FAS gene, which regulates lymphocyte apoptosis. These are commonly missense mutations affecting the intracellular region of the protein and have a dominant-negative effect on the signaling pathway. However, analysis of a large cohort of ALPS patients revealed that ∼30% have mutations affecting the extracellular region of FAS, and among these, 70% are nonsense, splice site, or insertions/deletions with frameshift for which no dominant-negative effect would be expected. We evaluated the latter patients to understand the mechanism(s) by which these mutations disrupted the FAS pathway and resulted in clinical disease. We demonstrated that most extracellular-region FAS mutations induce low FAS expression due to nonsense-mediated RNA decay or protein instability, resulting in defective death-inducing signaling complex formation and impaired apoptosis, although to a lesser extent as compared with intracellular mutations. The apoptosis defect could be corrected by FAS overexpression in vitro. Our findings define haploinsufficiency as a common disease mechanism in ALPS patients with extracellular FAS mutations.
Thomas, Jesse M.; Allison, Andrew B.; Holmes, Edward C.; Phillips, Jamie E.; Bunting, Elizabeth M.; Yabsley, Michael J.; Brown, Justin D.
Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is a poorly understood, oncogenic avian retrovirus of domestic turkeys that has historically been restricted to Europe and Israel. However, a recent study reported LPDV in multiple wild turkey diagnostic cases from throughout the eastern United States of America (USA). To better understand the distribution of LPDV in the eastern USA, we surveyed 1,164 reportedly asymptomatic hunter-harvested wild turkeys from 17 states for the presence of LPDV proviral DNA by PCR. In total, 564/1,164 (47%) turkeys were positive for LPDV. Wild turkeys from each state had a relatively high prevalence of LPDV, although statewide prevalence varied from 26 to 83%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major clades of LPDV in the USA, although one was at a low frequency suggesting restricted transmission, as well as significant clustering by state of isolation. To determine the best tissue to target for diagnostic purposes, liver, spleen, and bone marrow were tested from a subset of 15 hunter-harvested wild turkeys and 20 wild turkey diagnostic cases. Overall, bone marrow provided the highest level of detection for both hunter-harvested turkeys and diagnostic cases. The sensitivity of LPDV detection between tissues was not significantly different for diagnostic cases, but was for hunter-harvested birds. These results indicate that LPDV infection is common and widespread in wild turkey populations throughout the eastern USA, even without overt signs of disease. PMID:25897755
Wang, P-Y; Currier, M A; Hansford, L; Kaplan, D; Chiocca, E A; Uchida, H; Goins, W F; Cohen, J B; Glorioso, J C; van Kuppevelt, T H; Mo, X; Cripe, T P
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) after hematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation remains a life-threatening complication. Expression of the virus-encoded gene product, EBER, has been shown to prevent apoptosis via blockade of PKR activation. As PKR is a major cellular defense against Herpes simplex virus (HSV), and oncolytic HSV-1 (oHSV) mutants have shown promising antitumor efficacy in preclinical models, we sought to determine whether EBV-LPD cells are susceptible to infection by oHSVs. We tested three primary EBV-infected lymphocyte cell cultures from neuroblastoma (NB) patients as models of naturally acquired EBV-LPD. NB12 was the most susceptible, NB122R was intermediate and NB88R2 was essentially resistant. Despite EBER expression, PKR was activated by oHSV infection. Susceptibility to oHSV correlated with the expression of the HSV receptor, nectin-1. The resistance of NB88R2 was reversed by exogenous nectin-1 expression, whereas downregulation of nectin-1 on NB12 decreased viral entry. Xenografts derived from the EBV-LPDs exhibited only mild (NB12) or no (NB88R2) response to oHSV injection, compared with a NB cell line that showed a significant response. We conclude that EBV-LPDs are relatively resistant to oHSV virotherapy, in some cases, due to low virus receptor expression but also due to intact antiviral PKR signaling.
Chen, Guoshu; Chen, Li; Qin, Xiaohua; Huang, Zhuoya; Xie, Xiaoling; Li, Guowei; Xu, Bing
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) are commonly derived from B-cells, however, it is becoming more and more apparently that EBV can also infect T-lymphocytes. Systemic EBV positive T-cell LPD of childhood is rare and characterized by an extremely aggressive course and poor prognosis. Here, we report a 22-year-old female of systemic EBV positive TLPD with acute EBV infection and review the clinical features of this disorder. A 22-year-old previously healthy female without immunocompromised status presented with persisting coach and fever resistant to conventional therapies. Physical examination showed hemorrhage and hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory examinations revealed severe pancytopenia, disseminated intra-vascular coagulopathy (DIC), and anti-EBV-IgM positivity. Peripheral blood smears and bone marrow investigation identified a number of atypical lymphocytes. Flow cytometry (FCM) did not show any significant evidence of leukemia or lymphoma. The lymph node biopsy showed apparent infiltration of lymphocytes, which expressed CD2+, CD3+, CD7+ and TIA1+. There was no CD20+ or CD56+ cells. EBV early RNA (EBER) was positive. Cytogenetic analysis showed a normal karyotype. T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement revealed a polyclonal pattern. The patient received prednisolone and IVIG therapy with a transient good condition, and then died of multiorgan failure one week after diagnosis.
Patel, J. R.; Shilleto, R. W.
Hitherto, detection of lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV), a C-type retrovirus of turkeys, has proved difficult since no tissue culture or serological assay has been available. Development of serological tests has been hampered by the problems of raising virus-specific antisera. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is reported, using a viral antiserum raised with bromelain-digested virus. The assay specifically detected purified virus at a concentration of 250 ng/ml or greater. In an experiment to detect virus in plasma from turkeys over a period of 4 weeks following LPDV infection, ELISA results correlated closely with the viral reverse transcriptase activity. Both assays were of similar sensitivity and detected small amounts of virus in high-speed pellets of turkey plasma. Evidence is presented indicating that LPDV-infected or hyperimmunized turkeys do not produce readily detectable circulating viral antibodies. In reciprocal ELISA tests, using antibodies to group-specific antigens of other avian retrovirus groups (avian sarcoma-leukosis (ASLV) and reticuloendotheliosis (REV] no antigenic cross-reaction was found between LPDV, ASLV and REV. PMID:2448156
Gilmour, K C; Cranston, T; Jones, A; Davies, E G; Goldblatt, D; Thrasher, A; Kinnon, C; Nichols, K E; Gaspar, H B
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is an inherited immunodeficiency in which affected boys show abnormal responses to Epstein-Barr virus infection. The gene defective in XLP has been identified and designated SH2D1A and encodes a protein termed SLAM-associated protein (SAP). Mutation analysis in individuals with typical XLP presentations and family histories has only detected abnormalities in approximately 60% of patients. Thus, genetic analysis alone cannot confirm a diagnosis of XLP We have developed a SAP expression assay that can be used as a diagnostic indicator of XLP We show that SAP is constitutively expressed in normal individuals, in patients with severe sepsis and in patients with other primary immunodeficiencies. In six XLP patients, four with classical and two with atypical presentations, SAP expression was absent. In the latter two, who were previously assigned as having common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the diagnosis of XLP was initially made using the protein expression assay. In two further patients in whom no mutation could be detected by genetic analysis, lack of SAP expression strongly suggests that these individuals have XLP. We therefore suggest that XLP should be suspected in certain boys previously diagnosed as having CVID and recommend that patients are investigated both by genetic analysis of SH2D1A and by expression of SAP protein.
Wang, Pin-Yi; Currier, Mark A; Hansford, Loen; Kaplan, David; Chiocca, E. Antonio; Uchida, Hiroaki; Goins, William F.; Cohen, Justus B.; Glorioso, Joseph C.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Mo, Xiaokui; Cripe, Timothy P
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) after hematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation remains a life-threatening complication. Expression of the virus-encoded gene product, EBER, has been shown to prevent apoptosis via blockade of PKR activation. Because PKR is a major cellular defense against Herpes simplex virus, and oncolytic HSV-1 (oHSV) mutants have shown promising anti-tumor efficacy in preclinical models, we sought to determine whether EBV-LPD cells are susceptible to infection by oHSVs. We tested three primary EBV-infected lymphocyte cell cultures from neuroblastoma (NB) patients as models of naturally acquired EBV-LPD. NB12 was most susceptible, NB122R was intermediate, and NB88R2 was essentially resistant. Despite EBER expression, PKR was activated by oHSV infection. Susceptibility to oHSV correlated with the expression of the HSV receptor, nectin-1. The resistance of NB88R2 was reversed by exogenous nectin-1 expression, whereas down-regulation of nectin-1 on NB12 decreased viral entry. Xenografts derived from the EBV-LPDs exhibited only mild (NB12) or no (NB88R2) response to oHSV injection, compared with a neuroblastoma cell line that showed a significant response. We conclude that EBV-LPDs are relatively resistant to oHSV virotherapy, in some cases due to low virus receptor expression but also due to intact anti-viral PKR signaling. PMID:23254370
Chen, Guoshu; Chen, Li; Qin, Xiaohua; Huang, Zhuoya; Xie, Xiaoling; Li, Guowei; Xu, Bing
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) are commonly derived from B-cells, however, it is becoming more and more apparently that EBV can also infect T-lymphocytes. Systemic EBV positive T-cell LPD of childhood is rare and characterized by an extremely aggressive course and poor prognosis. Here, we report a 22-year-old female of systemic EBV positive TLPD with acute EBV infection and review the clinical features of this disorder. A 22-year-old previously healthy female without immunocompromised status presented with persisting coach and fever resistant to conventional therapies. Physical examination showed hemorrhage and hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory examinations revealed severe pancytopenia, disseminated intra-vascular coagulopathy (DIC), and anti-EBV-IgM positivity. Peripheral blood smears and bone marrow investigation identified a number of atypical lymphocytes. Flow cytometry (FCM) did not show any significant evidence of leukemia or lymphoma. The lymph node biopsy showed apparent infiltration of lymphocytes, which expressed CD2+, CD3+, CD7+ and TIA1+. There was no CD20+ or CD56+ cells. EBV early RNA (EBER) was positive. Cytogenetic analysis showed a normal karyotype. T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement revealed a polyclonal pattern. The patient received prednisolone and IVIG therapy with a transient good condition, and then died of multiorgan failure one week after diagnosis. PMID:25400806
Bodeutsch, C; de Wilde, P C; Kater, L; van den Hoogen, F H; Hené, R J; van Houwelingen, J C; van de Putte, L B; Vooijs, G P
AIMS: To determine the prevalence of plasma cell monotypia in labial salivary gland tissue of patients with and without Sjögren's syndrome, and to evaluate its relation to the development of systemic monoclonal lymphoproliferative disorders. METHODS: A quantitative immunohistological study was performed on labial salivary gland tissue of 45 patients with Sjögren's syndrome, 18 with rheumatoid arthritis without Sjögren's syndrome, and 80 healthy controls. In none of the patients with Sjögren's syndrome was there evidence of systemic monoclonal lymphoproliferative disease at the time of biopsy. RESULTS: Monotypic plasma cell populations, defined by a kappa:lambda ratio of > or = 3, were only observed in older patients (above 43 years) with Sjögren's syndrome. In almost all these patients monotypic plasma cell populations were present in multiple labial salivary gland tissues and the IgM/kappa monotypia was observed most frequently. The prevalence of monotypic plasma cell populations in the group with Sjögren's syndrome was 22% (10/45) and there was no significant predilection for primary Sjögren's syndrome. Of special clinical interest was the observation that progression to systemic monoclonal lymphoproliferative disease had occurred exclusively in this subgroup of patients with Sjögren's syndrome, with a prevalence of 30% (3/10). CONCLUSION: Quantitative immunohistological examination of labial salivary gland tissues provides pathologists with a simple method to select those patients with Sjögren's syndrome who have an increased relative risk at the time of biopsy to develop benign or malignant lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:8459032
De Re, Valli; De Zorzi, Mariangela; Caggiari, Laura; Lauletta, Gianfranco; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Fognani, Elisa; Miorin, Marta; Racanelli, Vito; Quartuccio, Luca; Gragnani, Laura; Russi, Sabino; Pavone, Fabio; Ghersetti, Michela; Costa, Elena Garlatti; Casarin, Pietro; Bomben, Riccardo; Mazzaro, Cesare; Basaglia, Giancarlo; Berretta, Massimiliano; Vaccher, Emanuela; Izzo, Francesco; Buonaguro, Franco Maria; De Vita, Salvatore; Zignego, Anna Linda; De Paoli, Paolo; Dolcetti, Riccardo
To explore the relationship between innate immunity and hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in determining the risk of cirrhosis (CIR), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mixed cryoglobulinemia syndrome (MCS) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), we investigated the impact of the toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) and interleukin-28B (IL28B) genetic variants. TLR2 -174 del variant was associated with TLR2 expression and with specific downstream molecules that drive the expression of different interleukins; rs12979860 Il28B was important in response to interferon-treatment and in spontaneous clearance of HCV. The risk for liver and lymphoproliferative diseases in HCV progression was clarified by stratifying 862 HCV-positive patients into groups based on liver (CIR, HCC) and lymphoproliferative HCV-related diseases (MCS, NHL) and compared with chronic HCV (CHC) infection. Analysis of TLR2-IL28B haplotypes showed an association of wild type haplotype with the lymphoproliferative diseases (OR 1.77, p = 0.029) and a slight increase in HCV viral load (HR 1.38, p = 0.054). Wild type haplotype (TLR2 ins/ins- IL28B C/C) was also found associated with older age in patients with an hepatic diseases (in CIR and in HCC p = 0.038 and p = 0.020, respectively) supporting an effect of innate immunity in the liver disease progression. TLR2 and IL28B polymorphisms in combination showed a role in the control of HCV viral load and different HCV disease progression.
Sokol, Harry; Beaugerie, Laurent; Maynadié, Marc; Laharie, David; Dupas, Jean-Louis; Flourié, Bernard; Lerebours, Eric; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Allez, Matthieu; Simon, Tabassome; Carrat, Fabrice; Brousse, Nicole
It remains to be shown whether inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with an increased risk of primary intestinal lymphoproliferative disorders (PILD). We assessed this risk in the CESAME French nationwide prospective observational cohort. In all, 680 gastroenterologists enrolled 19,486 patients with IBD (Crohn's disease in 60.3%) from May 2004 to June 2005. Follow-up ended on 31 December 2007. Available biopsy samples and surgical specimens from patients with PILD (n = 14) were centralized for review. The reference incidence of PILD in the general population was obtained from the Côte d'Or registry and was used as a comparator to assess the standardized incidence ratio (SIR). The influence of thiopurine exposure was explored in a nested case-control study. In the CESAME population the crude incidence of PILD was 0.12/1000 patient-years, with a corresponding SIR of 17.51 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.43-38.11; P < 0.0001). The risk was highest in patients exposed to thiopurines (SIR 49.52, 95% CI 13.49-126.8; P < 0.0001), while it did not reach statistical significance in patients naïve to thiopurines (SIR 4.83, 95% CI, 0.12-26.91; P = 0.37). The odds ratio associated with ongoing thiopurine exposure (vs. naïve) was 2.97 (95% CI, 0.30-infinity; P = 0.38). All 14 cases of PILD were non-Hodgkin's B-cell LD, 78.6% occurred in males, 85.7% arose in IBD lesions, and 45.5% were Epstein-Barr virus-positive. Eleven cases occurred in patients with Crohn's disease. Mean (SD) age at PILD diagnosis was 55.1 (5.6) years and the median time since IBD onset was 8.0 years (interquartile range, 3.0-15.8). Patients with IBD have an increased risk of developing PILD. Copyright © 2012 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.
Chemotherapy, Total Body Irradiation, and Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide in Reducing Rates of Graft Versus Host Disease in Patients With Hematologic Malignancies Undergoing Donor Stem Cell Transplant
Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Complete Remission; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive in Remission; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia in Remission; Graft Versus Host Disease; Hodgkin Lymphoma; Minimal Residual Disease; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Myeloproliferative Neoplasm; Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Plasma Cell Myeloma; Severe Aplastic Anemia; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia
Chung, Mu-Chi; Wu, Ming-Ju; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Yu, Tung-Min; Ho, Hao-Chung; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Chung, Chi-Jung
Abstract Information on post-transplant malignancy and mortality risk in kidney transplant tourists remains controversial and is an important concern. The present study aimed to evaluate the incidence of post-transplant malignancy and mortality risk between tourists and domestic transplant recipients using the claims data from Taiwan's universal health insurance. A retrospective study was performed on 2394 tourists and 1956 domestic recipients. Post-transplant malignancy and mortality were defined from the catastrophic illness patient registry by using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision. Cox proportional hazard regression and Kaplan–Meier curves were used for the analyses. The incidence for post-transplant de novo malignancy in the tourist group was 1.8-fold higher than that of the domestic group (21.8 vs 12.1 per 1000 person-years). The overall cancer recurrence rate was approximately 11%. The top 3 post-transplant malignancies, in decreasing order, were urinary tract, kidney, and liver cancers, regardless of the recipient type. Compared with domestic recipients, there was significant higher mortality risk in transplant tourists (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.0–1.5). In addition, those with either pre-transplant or post-transplant malignancies were associated with increased mortality risk. We suggest that a sufficient waiting period for patients with pre-transplant malignancies should be better emphasized to eliminate recurrence, and transplant tourists should be discouraged because of the possibility of higher post-transplant de novo malignancy occurrence and mortality. PMID:25546686
Gamez, Luisa; Yamazaki, Marco Antonio; Espinosa, Sara; Lugo-Reyes, Saul; Hernandez, Victor
Background X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a primary immunodeficiency presenting with a variety of clinical manifestations, the most common being dysgammaglobulinemia and B-cell lymphoma. The first gene causing XLP, when defective, was termed SH2D1A or SAP for signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein. The absence of SH2D1A leads to an overwhelming and uncontrolled TH1- shifted cytotoxic immune response, which might, at least in part, explain the severe clinical picture. A second gene, XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis), was later identified. Methods An 8 year old Mexican boy was admitted in June 2008 for bronchopneumonia, with no previous history of recurrent or severe infections. He had a family history of a brother deceased at 7 years from fulminate hepatitis, who was diagnosed with agammaglobulinemia. A laboratory evaluation for primary immunodeficiency was made, including serum immunoglobulins: IgG 30 mg/dL, IgA <5 mg/dL IgM 8.6 mg/dL; and flow citometry for lymphocyte subpopulations: CD3+ 2590 mm3 (56%) CD4+ 1004 mm3 (42%), CD8+ 1267 mm3(53%) CD16/56 171mm3 (41%) CD19+ 1493 mm3 (35%). The patient was started on monthly intravenous gammaglobulin (IVIG) therapy. He was admitted in December 2008 with fever and severe abdominal pain; an exploratory laparotomy revealed a rectal-sigmoid tumor. The biopsy reported an atypical Burkitt lymphoma (Immunophenotype “B”: Bcl 2+, CD10+) with surgical margins negative for malignancy. Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy were negative for malignancy. In February 2009, management with chemotherapy was started with the diagnosis of Burkitt's lymphoma stage III. Patient received 6 courses of chemotherapy with complete response to induction; for consolidation, 4 doses of rituximab were given. PCR amplification and direct automated sequencing by the Sanger method was performed in both genes known to be responsible for XLP in chromosome X. Results A hemizygous splice-site deletion in SAP
Morscio, Julie; Finalet Ferreiro, Julio; Vander Borght, Sara; Bittoun, Emilie; Gheysens, Olivier; Dierickx, Daan; Verhoef, Gregor; Wlodarska, Iwona; Tousseyn, Thomas
Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder is an aggressive complication of transplantation, most frequently of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma morphology and associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection/reactivation. In this study the microenvironment of EBV(+) (n=23) and EBV(-) (n=9) post-transplant non-germinal center B-cell diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was characterized. Of EBV(+) cases somatic hypermutation analysis, gene expression profiling, and extensive phenotyping were performed. Our results demonstrated variable cytotoxic T-cell infiltration and significantly increased CD163(+) M2 macrophage infiltration in EBV(+) compared with EBV(-) post-transplant diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. On the basis of IgM staining and hypermutation analysis, two EBV(+) post-transplant diffuse large B-cell lymphoma subgroups were identified: IgM(+) tumors lacking somatic hypermutations and IgM(-) tumors harboring somatic hypermutations. IgM(-) tumors arose late following transplantation (median interval: 16 months), mainly in kidney recipients. IgM(+) tumors on the other hand arose early (median interval: 3 months, P-value=0.0032), almost exclusively following stem cell transplantation and were associated with worse outcome (median survival 1 month for IgM(+) versus 41 months for IgM(-) tumors, log-rank/Wilcoxon P-value 0.07/0.04). Notably, IgM(+) tumors were characterized by plasma cell features (monotypic kappa/lambda expression, high MUM1 expression, and partial CD138 expression) and a high proliferation index. Consistent with the plasma cell phenotype, unfolded protein response signaling was upregulated. In contrast, IgM(-) EBV(+) post-transplant diffuse large B-cell lymphoma did not express kappa, lambda, IgD, or CD138 and expressed limited MUM1. In these tumors T-cell signaling was enhanced associated with increased T-cell infiltration compared with IgM(+) cases. Overall, our results allow further molecular classification of EBV(+) post-transplant diffuse
Xiao, Changchun; Srinivasan, Lakshmi; Calado, Dinis Pedro; Patterson, Heide Christine; Zhang, Baochun; Wang, Jing; Henderson, Joel M; Kutok, Jeffrey L; Rajewsky, Klaus
The genomic region encoding the miR-17−92 microRNA (miRNA) cluster is often amplified in lymphoma and other cancers, and miRNAs within this cluster are expressed in high amounts in cancer cells carrying this amplification. Retroviral expression of miR-17−92 accelerates cMyc-induced lymphoma development, but precisely how elevated miR-17−92 expression promotes lymphomagenesis remains unclear. Here we generated mice with elevated miR-17−92 expression in lymphocytes. These mice developed lymphoproliferative disease and autoimmunity, and died prematurely. Lymphocytes from these mice showed increased proliferation and reduced activation-induced cell death. miR-17−92 miRNAs suppressed expression of the tumor suppressor Pten and the pro-apoptotic protein Bim. This mechanism likely contributed to the lymphoproliferative disease and autoimmunity observed in miR-17−92 transgenic mice, and to lymphoma development in patients carrying amplifications of the miR-17−92 coding region. PMID:18327259
Graft-versus-host disease, or GVHD, is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Here, we describe a novel method for preventing GVHD after alloHSCT using high-dose, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (Cy). Post-transplantation Cy promotes tolerance in alloreactive host and donor T cells, leading to suppression of both graft rejection and GVHD after alloHSCT. High-dose, post-transplantation Cy facilitates partially HLA-mismatched HSCT without severe GVHD and is effective as sole prophylaxis of GVHD after HLA-matched alloHSCT. By reducing the morbidity and mortality of alloHSCT, post-transplantation Cy may expand the applications of this therapy to the treatment of autoimmune diseases and non-malignant hematologic disorders such as sickle cell disease. PMID:20066512
Zhou, Yi; Othus, Megan; Araki, Daisuke; Wood, Brent L.; Radich, Jerald P.; Halpern, Anna B.; Mielcarek, Marco; Estey, Elihu H.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Walter, Roland B.
Measurable (“minimal”) residual disease (MRD) before or after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) identifies adults with AML at risk of poor outcomes. Here, we studied whether peri-transplant MRD dynamics can refine risk assessment. We analyzed 279 adults receiving myeloablative allogeneic HCT in first or second remission who survived at least 35 days and underwent 10-color multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) analyses of marrow aspirates before and 28±7 days after transplantation. MFC-detectable MRD before (n=63) or after (n=16) transplantation identified patients with high relapse risk and poor survival. Forty-nine patients cleared MRD with HCT conditioning, whereas 2 patients developed new evidence of disease. The 214 MRDneg/MRDneg patients had excellent outcomes, whereas both MRDneg/MRDpos patients died within 100 days following transplantation. For patients with pre-HCT MRD, outcomes were poor regardless of post-HCT MRD status, although survival beyond 3 years was observed among the 58 patients with decreasing but not the 7 patients with increasing peri-HCT MRD levels. In multivariable models, pre-HCT but not post-HCT MRD was independently associated with OS and RR. These data indicate that MRDpos patients before transplantation have a high relapse risk regardless of whether or not they clear MFC-detectable disease with conditioning and should be considered for pre-emptive therapeutic strategies. PMID:27012865
Logan, Aaron C.; Vashi, Nikita; Faham, Malek; Carlton, Victoria; Kong, Katherine; Buno, Ismael; Zheng, Jianbiao; Moorhead, Martin; Klinger, Mark; Zhang, Bing; Waqar, Amna; Zehnder, James L.; Miklos, David B.
Minimal residual disease (MRD) quantification is an important predictor of outcome after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Bone marrow ALL burden ≥ 10−4 after induction predicts subsequent relapse. Likewise, MRD ≥ 10−4 in bone marrow prior to the initiation of conditioning for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) predicts transplant failure. Current methods for MRD quantification in ALL are not sufficiently sensitive for use with peripheral blood specimens and have not been broadly implemented in the management of adults with ALL. Consensus primed immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TCR) amplification and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) permits use of a standardized algorithm for all patients and can detect leukemia at 10−6 or lower. We applied the Sequenta LymphoSIGHT™ HTS platform to quantification of MRD in 237 samples from 29 adult B-ALL patients before and after allo-HCT. Using primers for the IGH-VDJ, IGH-DJ, IGK, TCRB, TCRD, and TCRG loci, MRD could be quantified in 93% of patients. Leukemia-associated clonotypes at these loci were identified in 52%, 28%, 10%, 35%, 28%, and 41% of patients, respectively. MRD ≥ 10−4 before HCT conditioning predicted post-HCT relapse (HR 7.7, 95% CI 2.0–30, p=0.003). In post-HCT blood samples, MRD ≥ 10−6 had 100% positive predictive value for relapse with median lead-time of 89 days (HR 14; 95% CI 4.7–44, p<0.0001). The use of HTS-based MRD quantification in adults with ALL offers a standardized approach with sufficient sensitivity to quantify leukemia MRD in peripheral blood. Use of this approach may identify a window for clinical intervention prior to overt relapse. PMID:24769317
Logan, Aaron C; Vashi, Nikita; Faham, Malek; Carlton, Victoria; Kong, Katherine; Buño, Ismael; Zheng, Jianbiao; Moorhead, Martin; Klinger, Mark; Zhang, Bing; Waqar, Amna; Zehnder, James L; Miklos, David B
Minimal residual disease (MRD) quantification is an important predictor of outcome after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Bone marrow ALL burden ≥ 10(-4) after induction predicts subsequent relapse. Likewise, MRD ≥ 10(-4) in bone marrow before initiation of conditioning for allogeneic (allo) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) predicts transplantation failure. Current methods for MRD quantification in ALL are not sufficiently sensitive for use with peripheral blood specimens and have not been broadly implemented in the management of adults with ALL. Consensus-primed immunoglobulin (Ig), T cell receptor (TCR) amplification and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) permit use of a standardized algorithm for all patients and can detect leukemia at 10(-6) or lower. We applied the LymphoSIGHT HTS platform (Sequenta Inc., South San Francisco, CA) to quantification of MRD in 237 samples from 29 adult B cell ALL patients before and after allo-HCT. Using primers for the IGH-VDJ, IGH-DJ, IGK, TCRB, TCRD, and TCRG loci, MRD could be quantified in 93% of patients. Leukemia-associated clonotypes at these loci were identified in 52%, 28%, 10%, 35%, 28%, and 41% of patients, respectively. MRD ≥ 10(-4) before HCT conditioning predicted post-HCT relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 7.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0 to 30; P = .003). In post-HCT blood samples, MRD ≥10(-6) had 100% positive predictive value for relapse with median lead time of 89 days (HR, 14; 95% CI, 4.7 to 44, P < .0001). The use of HTS-based MRD quantification in adults with ALL offers a standardized approach with sufficient sensitivity to quantify leukemia MRD in peripheral blood. Use of this approach may identify a window for clinical intervention before overt relapse. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bader, P; Hancock, J; Kreyenberg, H; Goulden, N J; Niethammer, D; Oakhill, A; Steward, C G; Handgretinger, R; Beck, J F; Klingebiel, T
We have retrospectively investigated the relationship between the level of minimal residual disease (MRD) detected in bone marrow taken prior to conditioning therapy and outcome following stem cell transplantation for high risk childhood ALL. Forty-one patients, in whom both a molecular marker of MRD and sufficient archival material was available, were included in the study. All were in remission at BMT: eight in CR1, 32 in CR2 and five in greater than CR2. MRD was measured by PCR amplification of antigen receptor gene rearrangements and clone-specific oligoprobing, the median sensitivity of detection being one leukaemic cell in 10000 normals. Results were classified as high-level positive (if a clonal band was evident after electrophoresis), low-level positive (if MRD was detected only after oligoprobing) and negative. MRD was detected at high levels in 17 patients, at low levels in 10 patients and 14 patients were MRD negative at the time of transplant. The 5-year event-free survival for these groups was 23%, 48% and 78%, respectively (P = 0.022). Limited multivariate analysis confirmed the significance of MRD (P = 0.0095) vs CR status, donor type, sex, immunophenotype and acute GvHD. This study confirms the strong relationship between MRD level and outcome following allogeneic transplantation. In contrast to a previous study we observed that a minority of children with high-level pre-BMT MRD can enter long lasting remission. The possible role for acute GVHD coupled with a graft-versus-leukaemia effect in the clearance of high level MRD in patients with ALL is discussed.
Morales, P; Torres, J; Pérez-Enguix, D; Solé, A; Pastor, A; Segura, A; Zurbano, F
Lymphoproliferative syndromes are the most common tumors in transplant recipients. More than 90% of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative syndromes (PTLS) are considered to be associated with Epstein-Barr virus, and 86% are of the B-cell line. Histopathology ranges from polymorphic-reactive to monomorphic forms. Clonality should be studied using molecular biology techniques. Clinically, a differentiation is usually made between early PTLS (occurring within 1 year after transplantation) and late PTLS, which occur as localized or disseminated nodal lymphomas. In localized forms, immunosuppression should be discontinued or decreased, and the involved area should be subsequently resected or irradiated. In disseminated cases, immunosuppression should be decreased and administration of acyclovir/ganciclovir should be considered. If this is not effective, treatment should be started with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (rituximab). If no response occurs, use of chemotherapy, possibly with interferon, should be considered. Our aim was to report the incidence, clinical signs, and treatment in a series of patients undergoing lung transplantation (LTx).
Seiler, Annina; Jenewein, Josef; Martin-Soelch, Chantal; Goetzmann, Lutz; Inci, Ilhan; Weder, Walter; Schuurmans, Macé M; Benden, Christian; Brucher, Angela; Klaghofer, Richard
To (1) assess distinct clusters of psychological distress and health-related quality of life during the first 6 months following lung transplantation; (2) identify patients with poor psychosocial outcomes; and (3) determine potential predictors regarding psychological distress and health-related quality (HRQoL) of life at 6 months post-transplant. A total of 40 patients were examined for psychological distress (Symptom Checklist short version-9) and quality of life (EuroQOL five-dimension health-related quality of life questionnaire) during their first 6 months post-transplant. Hierarchical cluster analyses were performed to identify specific types of post-transplant outcomes in terms of psychological distress and HRQoL over the first six post-transplant months. Correlational analyses examined medical and psychosocial predictors of the outcome at 6 months post-transplant. Three distinctive clusters were identified, summarizing either groups of patients with (1) optimal (35%), (2) good (42%), and (3) poor outcome-clusters (23%). The latter tended to be older, to suffer from more severe disease, to have more co-morbidities, to have had a prolonged intensive care unit and/or hospital stay, to have more hospital admissions and were more frequently treated with antidepressants post-transplant. Disease severity, length of stay, quality of life two weeks post-transplant, hospital admissions and use of antidepressants were strong predictors of psychological distress and impaired health-related quality of life at six months of follow-up. Almost a quarter of the investigated patients suffered from elevated distress and substantially impaired HRQoL, with no improvements over time. Results underscore the psychosocial needs of patients with poor post-transplant outcomes.
Patti, Simona; Perrone, Giuseppina; De Pratti, Valentina; Quinti, Isabella; Milito, Cinzia; Brunelli, Roberto
The autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of abnormal lymphocyte survival caused by the dysregulation of the Fas apoptotic pathway. The Fas gene is expressed at the maternal-fetal interface and is involved in the regulation of immune response and implantation. Altered Fas expression may result in altered apoptosis and, ultimately, affect both the immune response and implantation; it is in fact associated with recurrent pregnancy loss, preterm premature rupture of membranes and pre-eclampsia. Currently, there are over 500 cases of ALPS reported worldwide from various racial and ethnic backgrounds. Up to date, the published work contains no specific reports on pregnancy outcome in women affected by ALPS. We present a case of full-term uneventful pregnancy in a patient affected by ALPS. A specific clinical follow-up in a pregnant woman with primary immunologic disease is suggested.
Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Fischer, Ute; Keller, Bärbel; Nabhani, Schafiq; Gámez-Díaz, Laura; Rensing-Ehl, Anne; Gombert, Michael; Hönscheid, Andrea; Saleh, Hani; Shaag, Avraham; Borkhardt, Arndt; Grimbacher, Bodo; Warnatz, Klaus; Elpeleg, Orly; Stepensky, Polina
Mutations in LPS-responsive and beige-like anchor (LRBA) gene were recently described in patients with combined immunodeficiency, enteropathy and autoimmune cytopenia. Here, we extend the clinical and immunological phenotypic spectrum of LRBA associated disorders by reporting on three patients from two unrelated families who presented with splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, cytopenia, elevated double negative T cells and raised serum Fas ligand levels resembling autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) and one asymptomatic patient. Homozygous loss of function mutations in LRBA were identified by whole exome analysis. Similar to ALPS patients, Fas mediated apoptosis was impaired in LRBA deficient patients, while apoptosis in response to stimuli of the intrinsic mitochondria mediated apoptotic pathway was even enhanced. This manuscript illustrates the phenotypic overlap of other primary immunodeficiencies with ALPS-like disorders and strongly underlines the necessity of genetic diagnosis in order to provide early correct diagnosis and subsequent care.
Aqui, Nicole A.; June, Carl H.
Immune reconstitution following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is an often slow and incomplete process that leads to increased risk of infection and malignant disease. Immunization in SCT is frequently unsuccessful due to the prolonged lymphopenia, especially of CD4 T cells, seen following transplant. The transfusion of T cells, also called ‘adoptive T-cell therapy’, has the potential to enhance anti-tumour and overall immunity, and augment vaccine efficacy in the post-transplant setting. Recent advances in tissue culture, cellular immunology and tumour biology are guiding new approaches to adoptive T-cell therapy. This chapter will discuss the challenges that face the field before adoptive T-cell therapy can be translated into routine clinical practice. PMID:18790452
Gil, Veronica S.; Howell, Louise; Zhang, Jiyuan; Kim, Chae H.; Stengel, Sven; Vega, Francisco; Zelent, Arthur
ABSTRACT Histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) is expressed in B cells, and its overexpression has been observed in B-lymphoproliferative disorders, including B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). We examined HDAC9 protein expression and copy number alterations in primary B-NHL samples, identifying high HDAC9 expression among various lymphoma entities and HDAC9 copy number gains in 50% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). To study the role of HDAC9 in lymphomagenesis, we generated a genetically engineered mouse (GEM) model that constitutively expressed an HDAC9 transgene throughout B-cell development under the control of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) enhancer (Eμ). Here, we report that the Eμ-HDAC9 GEM model develops splenic marginal zone lymphoma and lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) with progression towards aggressive DLBCL, with gene expression profiling supporting a germinal center cell origin, as is also seen in human B-NHL tumors. Analysis of Eμ-HDAC9 tumors suggested that HDAC9 might contribute to lymphomagenesis by altering pathways involved in growth and survival, as well as modulating BCL6 activity and p53 tumor suppressor function. Epigenetic modifications play an important role in the germinal center response, and deregulation of the B-cell epigenome as a consequence of mutations and other genomic aberrations are being increasingly recognized as important steps in the pathogenesis of a variety of B-cell lymphomas. A thorough mechanistic understanding of these alterations will inform the use of targeted therapies for these malignancies. These findings strongly suggest a role for HDAC9 in B-NHL and establish a novel GEM model for the study of lymphomagenesis and, potentially, preclinical testing of therapeutic approaches based on histone deacetylase inhibitors. PMID:27799148
Castellarin, P.; Pozzato, G.; Tirelli, G.; Di Lenarda, R.; Biasotto, M.
Lymphoproliferative disorders are heterogeneous malignancy characterized by the expansion of a lymphoid clone more or less differentiated. At the level of the oral cavity, the lymphoproliferative disorder can occur in various ways, most commonly as lymphoid lesions with extranodal externalization, but sometimes, oral lesions may represent a localization of a disease spread. With regard to the primary localizations of lymphoproliferative disorders, a careful examination of the head and neck, oral, and oropharyngeal area is necessary in order to identify suspicious lesions, and their early detection results in a better prognosis for the patient. Numerous complications have been described and frequently found at oral level, due to pathology or different therapeutic strategies. These complications require precise diagnosis and measures to oral health care. In all this, oral pathologists, as well as dental practitioners, have a central role in the treatment and long-term monitoring of these patients. PMID:20871659
Edison, Natalia; Belhanes-Peled, Hila; Eitan, Yuval; Guthmann, Yifat; Yeremenko, Yelena; Raffeld, Mark; Elmalah, Irit; Trougouboff, Philippe
We report a case of intestinal indolent T-cell lymphoproliferative disease (TCLPD) occurring after the initiation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitor therapy for resistant Crohn's disease. A prominent T-cell infiltrate positive for CD8, TIA-1, and T-cell receptor-βF1 was associated with the foci of active inflammation. T-cell receptor gene clonality studies (BIOMED-2) demonstrated monoclonality. After the TNF-α inhibitor treatment was withdrawn, the T-cell infiltrates regressed, but 2 years later, the same monoclonal T-cell infiltrate reappeared at the only site of active inflammation. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to show a link between active inflammation and the TCLPD. In addition, it suggests a possible influence of the TNF-α inhibitor treatment on the evolution of the TCLPD. A high degree of suspicion is required in the presence of any unusual lymphoid infiltrate in inflammatory bowel disease to avoid overlooking an indolent TCLPD or misdiagnose an aggressive lymphoma.
Hope, Christopher Martin; Coates, Patrick Toby H; Carroll, Robert Peter
Half of all long-term (> 10 year) australian kidney transplant recipients (KTR) will develop squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or solid organ cancer (SOC), making cancer the leading cause of death with a functioning graft. At least 30% of KTR with a history of SCC or SOC will develop a subsequent SCC or SOC lesion. Pharmacological immunosuppression is a major contributor of the increased risk of cancer for KTR, with the cancer lesions themselves further adding to systemic immunosuppression and could explain, in part, these phenomena. Immune profiling includes; measuring immunosuppressive drug levels and pharmacokinetics, enumerating leucocytes and leucocyte subsets as well as testing leucocyte function in either an antigen specific or non-specific manner. Outputs can vary from assay to assay according to methods used. In this review we define the rationale behind post-transplant immune monitoring assays and focus on assays that associate and/or have the ability to predict cancer and rejection in the KTR. We find that immune monitoring can identify those KTR of developing multiple SCC lesions and provide evidence they may benefit from pharmacological immunosuppressive drug dose reductions. In these KTR risk of rejection needs to be assessed to determine if reduction of immunosuppression will not harm the graft. PMID:25664246
Zheng, Xiaodan; Xie, Jianlan; Zhou, Xiaoge
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) is not uncommon in China, but gastrointestinal involvement is very rare. We report on an immunocompetent patient with EBV-associated T-cell LPD of the colon. The 26-year-old man was initially misdiagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC). A colon biopsy revealed the presence of small to medium-sized lymphoid cells infiltrating the intestinal wall. The neoplastic cells expressed CD3, CD5, and granzyme B, not CD56. EBV-encoded small ribonucleic acid was detected in the tumor cells of the colon as well as the lymph node, and the T-cell receptor gene rearrangement result displayed δ gene monoclonal rearrangement. The patient died 2 moths after the diagnosis. The clinical course of EBV-associated T-cell LPD is aggressive and the prognosis is poor, the wrong diagnosis may delay treatment. Therefore, we should be very careful to prevent misdiagnosis. When patients have multiple intestinal ulcers that are not typical of UC and the clinical course is unusual, although morphology looks like inflammatory change, pathologist should consider the possibility of EBV-associated LPD. The treatment strategy and prognosis of these two diseases are different.
Zheng, Xiaodan; Xie, Jianlan; Zhou, Xiaoge
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) is not uncommon in China, but gastrointestinal involvement is very rare. We report on an immunocompetent patient with EBV-associated T-cell LPD of the colon. The 26-year-old man was initially misdiagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC). A colon biopsy revealed the presence of small to medium-sized lymphoid cells infiltrating the intestinal wall. The neoplastic cells expressed CD3, CD5, and granzyme B, not CD56. EBV-encoded small ribonucleic acid was detected in the tumor cells of the colon as well as the lymph node, and the T-cell receptor gene rearrangement result displayed δ gene monoclonal rearrangement. The patient died 2 moths after the diagnosis. The clinical course of EBV-associated T-cell LPD is aggressive and the prognosis is poor, the wrong diagnosis may delay treatment. Therefore, we should be very careful to prevent misdiagnosis. When patients have multiple intestinal ulcers that are not typical of UC and the clinical course is unusual, although morphology looks like inflammatory change, pathologist should consider the possibility of EBV-associated LPD. The treatment strategy and prognosis of these two diseases are different. PMID:26339440
Venkataraman, Girish; McClain, Kenneth L; Pittaluga, Stefania; Rao, V Koneti; Jaffe, Elaine S
Patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) have defective lymphocyte apoptosis with increased risk for lymphoid malignancies. Herein, we report a patient with ALPS who developed histiocytic sarcoma in a background of sinus histiocytosis and massive lymphadenopathy or Rosai- Dorfman disease. This patient had documented ALPS type Ia with a germline missense mutation in exon 9 of the TNFRSF6 gene (973 A>T, D244V) encoding Fas (CD95/Apo-1). He presented at 10 months with hepatosplenomegaly and autoimmune hemolytic anemia and was diagnosed with ALPS. At the age of 6 (1/2) years, he developed classic Hodgkin lymphoma which was treated using standard chemotherapy. Two years later, a biopsy of a positron emission tomography-positive axillary node showed features of ALPS and focal involvement by sinus histiocytosis and massive lymphadenopathy. Thereafter, the patient continued to have continued lymphadenopathy and progressive splenomegaly, leading to exploratory surgery at the age of 13 years for suspicion of lymphoma. Para-abdominal nodes revealed sheets of malignant- looking histiocytes with increased mitotic activity and areas of necrosis, indicative of histiocytic sarcoma. Spleen and lymph nodes also showed involvement by Rosai-Dorfman disease. Both components had an identical phenotype of S-100+/CD68+/ CD163+. The occurrence of malignancies involving 2 separate hematopoietic lineages in ALPS has not been reported earlier. Given the central role of defective Fas signaling in ALPS, histiocytes may be yet another lineage at risk for neoplastic transformation secondary to a block in apoptosis.
Harris, A; Collins, J; Vetrie, D; Cole, C; Bobrow, M
Thirty-one females with incontinentia pigmenti (IP), 42 controls, and 11 females from four families segregating for X linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) were studied for evidence of skewed X inactivation by analysis of methylation at sites in the HPRT, PGK, and M27 beta (DXS255) regions of the X chromosome. Extensive skewing of X inactivation was present in blood from 4/42 (9.5%) control females and 11/31 (35%) of those with IP. This frequency of skewed inactivation was seen in both familial and sporadic cases of IP. Analysis of inactivation in mother/daughter pairs, both affected and control subjects, showed no familial consistency of pattern, arguing against specific mutations being associated with particular patterns of inactivation. In the only informative family where both mother and daughter were affected by IP and showed skewed inactivation, the IP mutation was on the active X chromosome. This argues against cell selection during early embryogenesis being the explanation for the skewed inactivation observed. These data confirm that skewed inactivation of one X is observed in lymphocytes from a significant minority of normal females, and is seen with raised frequency in IP heterozygotes. It is not, however, a universally observed phenomenon, and the relationship of X inactivity to the IP mutation appears to be complex. In the case of XLP, though skewed X inactivation patterns are seen in most disease carriers, the frequency with which this phenomenon occurs in normal females renders it an unreliable diagnostic marker for XLP carriers. Images PMID:1404291
Freiberg, Mónica; Chiurchiu, Carlos; Capra, Raúl; Eckhardt, Andrea; De La Fuente, Jorge; Douthat, Walter; De Arteaga, Javier; Massari, Pablo U
A considerable percentage of patients exhibit anemia post kidney transplant. Its origin is multifactorial and the main causes involved depend on the post transplant period considered. We studied in a group of 134 consecutive patients the associated factors and the clinical implications of "late anemia" (6 months post transplant). Multiple regression analysis showed that post transplant oliguria and acute rejection episodes were significantly associated with anemia. Graft survival at 36 months was significantly reduced in the anemic group (83 % versus 96%, p < 0.01). No differences in patients survival or rate of cardiovascular events were observed. We concluded that anemia at 6 months post transplant is independently and significantly associated with events that reduced functioning renal mass and kidney survival.
Ibrahim, Hazem A H; Naresh, Kikkeri N
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are a group of diseases that range from benign polyclonal to malignant monoclonal lymphoid proliferations. They arise secondary to treatment with immunosuppressive drugs given to prevent transplant rejection. Three main pathologic subsets/stages of evolution are recognised: early, polymorphic, and monomorphic lesions. The pathogenesis of PTLDs seems to be multifactorial. Among possible infective aetiologies, the role of EBV has been studied in depth, and the virus is thought to play a central role in driving the proliferation of EBV-infected B cells that leads to subsequent development of the lymphoproliferative disorder. It is apparent, however, that EBV is not solely responsible for the "neoplastic" state. Accumulated genetic alterations of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes (deletions, mutations, rearrangements, and amplifications) and epigenetic changes (aberrant hypermethylation) that involve tumour suppressor genes are integral to the pathogenesis. Antigenic stimulation also plays an evident role in the pathogenesis of PTLDs. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) that are critical to fight viral infections have been thought to play a pathogenetically relevant role in PTLDs. Furthermore, regulatory T cells (Treg cells), which are modulators of immune reactions once incited, seem to have an important role in PTLDs where antigenic stimulation is key for the pathogenesis.
Rojo, J; Ferrer Argote, V E; Klueppelberg, U; Krueger, G R; Eidt, E; Ablashi, D V; Luka, J; Tesch, H
Fifty patients with various hyperplastic and malignant lymphoproliferative diseases were investigated for evidence of human herpesvirus-6 infection. Virus DNA and antigen expression was investigated in lymph node biopsies by in situ hybridization and immunohistology and was correlated with data of immunophenotyping. Supplemental immunoglobulin- and T cell receptor gene rearrangement studies were used to support the classification of the proliferative lymphoid lesion. Elevated numbers of cells carrying HHV-6 DNA and/or antigens were found in cases of Hodgkin's lymphoma and follicular center cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma as well as atypical polyclonal lymphoproliferation (APL), yet not in reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and in most other lymphomas. Immunophenotyping showed that virus -infected cells were primarily lympho-histiocytic elements, less frequently Hodgkin's- and Reed-Sternberg cells, and not malignant B lymphocytes as in follicular center cell lymphomas. This suggests that the virus is rather not the causative oncogen in these cases, yet does not exclude a cocarcinogenic effect of it during the development and ths course of uncontrolled lymphoproliferation.
Rivat, Christine; Booth, Claire; Alonso-Ferrero, Maria; Blundell, Michael; Sebire, Neil J; Thrasher, Adrian J; Gaspar, H Bobby
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP1) arises from mutations in the gene encoding SLAM-associated protein (SAP) and leads to abnormalities of NKT-cell development, NK-cell cytotoxicity, and T-dependent humoral function. Curative treatment is limited to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation. We tested whether HSC gene therapy could correct the multilineage defects seen in SAP(-/-) mice. SAP(-/-) murine HSCs were transduced with lentiviral vectors containing either SAP or reporter gene before transplantation into irradiated recipients. NKT-cell development was significantly higher and NK-cell cytotoxicity restored to wild-type levels in mice receiving the SAP vector in comparison to control mice. Baseline immunoglobulin levels were significantly increased and T-dependent humoral responses to NP-CGG, including germinal center formation, were restored in SAP-transduced mice.We demonstrate for the first time that HSC gene transfer corrects the cellular and humoral defects in SAP(-/-) mice providing proof of concept for gene therapy in XLP1.
Wu, C; Sayos, J; Wang, N; Howie, D; Coyle, A; Terhorst, C
X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) disease is a fatal immunological disorder that renders the immune system unable to respond effectively to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The gene that encodes a protein termed SAP or SH2D1A is either deleted or mutated in XLP patients, resulting in uncontrolled B- and T-cell proliferation upon EBV infection. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of the mouse SAP gene. It is localized on the mouse X chromosome and comprises four exons spanning approximately 25 kb. Its expression appears to be restricted to T lymphocytes. Whereas a high level of SAP expression is observed in Thl cells, only small amounts are detectable in Th2 cells. Moreover, SAP expression is down-regulated upon in vitro activation of T cells, including CD4+, CD8+ single-positive T cells, and Thl and Th2 cells. This study provides valuable information for in-depth genetic and biochemical analysis of the function of SAP in the immune system.
Hatton, Olivia; Martinez, Olivia M; Esquivel, Carlos O
De novo malignancies represent an increasing concern in the transplant population, particularly as long-term graft and patient survival improves. EBV-associated B-cell lymphoma in the setting of PTLD is the leading malignancy in children following solid organ transplantation. Therapeutic strategies can be categorized as pharmacologic, biologic, and cell-based but the variable efficacy of these approaches and the complexity of PTLD suggest that new treatment options are warranted. Here, we review current therapeutic strategies for treatment of PTLD. We also describe the life cycle of EBV, addressing the viral mechanisms that contribute to the genesis and persistence of EBV+ B-cell lymphomas. Specifically, we focus on the oncogenic signaling pathways activated by the EBV LMP1 and LMP2a to understand the underlying mechanisms and mediators of lymphomagenesis with the goal of identifying novel, rational therapeutic targets for the treatment of EBV-associated malignancies.
Chen, C; Akanay-Diesel, S; Schuster, F R; Klee, D; Schmidt, K G; Donner, B C
PTLD is a serious and frequently observed complication after solid organ transplantation. We present a six-yr-old girl with a rapidly growing, solid tumor of the lip four yr after orthotopic heart transplantation, which was classified as monomorphic PTLD with the characteristics of a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Treatment with reduction in immunosuppression, ganciclovir, and anti B-cell monoclonal antibody (rituximab) resulted in full remission since 12 months. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first description of PTLD in the lip in a pediatric patient after heart transplantation in the English literature.
Chung, Mu-Chi; Wu, Ming-Ju; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Yu, Tung-Min; Ho, Hao-Chung; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Chung, Chi-Jung
Information on post-transplant malignancy and mortality risk in kidney transplant tourists remains controversial and is an important concern. The present study aimed to evaluate the incidence of post-transplant malignancy and mortality risk between tourists and domestic transplant recipients using the claims data from Taiwan's universal health insurance. A retrospective study was performed on 2394 tourists and 1956 domestic recipients. Post-transplant malignancy and mortality were defined from the catastrophic illness patient registry by using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision. Cox proportional hazard regression and Kaplan-Meier curves were used for the analyses. The incidence for post-transplant de novo malignancy in the tourist group was 1.8-fold higher than that of the domestic group (21.8 vs 12.1 per 1000 person-years). The overall cancer recurrence rate was approximately 11%. The top 3 post-transplant malignancies, in decreasing order, were urinary tract, kidney, and liver cancers, regardless of the recipient type. Compared with domestic recipients, there was significant higher mortality risk in transplant tourists (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.0-1.5). In addition, those with either pre-transplant or post-transplant malignancies were associated with increased mortality risk. We suggest that a sufficient waiting period for patients with pre-transplant malignancies should be better emphasized to eliminate recurrence, and transplant tourists should be discouraged because of the possibility of higher post-transplant de novo malignancy occurrence and mortality.
Morra, M; Simarro-Grande, M; Martin, M; Chen, A S; Lanyi, A; Silander, O; Calpe, S; Davis, J; Pawson, T; Eck, M J; Sumegi, J; Engel, P; Li, S C; Terhorst, C
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by extreme susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus. The XLP disease gene product SH2D1A (SAP) interacts via its SH2 domain with a motif (TIYXXV) present in the cytoplasmic tail of the cell-surface receptors CD150/SLAM, CD84, CD229/Ly-9, and CD244/2B4. Characteristically, the SH2D1A three-pronged interaction with Tyr(281) of CD150 can occur in absence of phosphorylation. Here we analyze the effect of SH2D1A protein missense mutations identified in 10 XLP families. Two sets of mutants were found: (i) mutants with a marked decreased protein half-life (e.g. Y7C, S28R, Q99P, P101L, V102G, and X129R) and (ii) mutants with structural changes that differently affect the interaction with the four receptors. In the second group, mutations that disrupt the interaction between the SH2D1A hydrophobic cleft and Val +3 of its binding motif (e.g. T68I) and mutations that interfere with the SH2D1A phosphotyrosine-binding pocket (e.g. C42W) abrogated SH2D1A binding to all four receptors. Surprisingly, a mutation in SH2D1A able to interfere with Thr -2 of the CD150 binding motif (mutant T53I) severely impaired non-phosphotyrosine interactions while preserving unaffected the binding of SH2D1A to phosphorylated CD150. Mutant T53I, however, did not bind to CD229 and CD224, suggesting that SH2D1A controls several critical signaling pathways in T and natural killer cells. Because no correlation is present between identified types of mutations and XLP patient clinical presentation, additional unidentified genetic or environmental factors must play a strong role in XLP disease manifestations.
Shitrit, David; Shitrit, Ariella Bar-Gil; Dickman, Ram; Sahar, Gidon; Saute, Milton; Kramer, Mordechai R
Lymphoproliferative disorder is a well-recognized complication of lung transplantation. Risk factors include Epstein-Barr virus infection and immunosuppression. The gastrointestinal manifestations of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in lung transplant recipients have not been fully characterized. Case presentation and 16 previously reported cases of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder with gastrointestinal involvement are reviewed. Patient ages ranged from 25 to 65 (median, 52) years. Median time from lung transplantation to onset of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder was 36 (range, 1-109) months; 35 percent of cases (6/17) occurred within 18 months; Eighty-eight percent of patients (15/17) had positive Epstein-Barr virus serology before transplantation. In five patients (29 percent), the posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder also involved sites other than the gastrointestinal tract. The most common gastrointestinal site of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder was the colon, followed by the small intestine and stomach. Clinical features included abdominal pain, nausea, and bloody diarrhea. Diagnosis was based on typical pathologic changes on gastrointestinal tract biopsy obtained mainly by colonoscopy. Treatment included a reduction in the immunosuppressive regimen in 15 of 17 cases (88 percent) and surgical resection in 10 (59 percent). One patient was untreated. Seven of 16 patients (44 percent) responded to treatment and 9 patients died. Median time from onset of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder to death was 70 (range, 10-85) days. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder with gastrointestinal involvement is a unique entity that should be considered in all Epstein-Barr-Virus-positive lung transplant recipients who present with abdominal symptoms. Although immunosuppressive modulation and resection can lead to remission, the risk of death is 50 percent.
Windebank, Kevin; Walwyn, Tom; Kirk, Richard; Parry, Gareth; Hasan, Asif; Bown, Nick; Wilkins, Bridget
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) occasionally presents as Burkitt lymphoma/L3 leukaemia (BLL). We reviewed records of cases of PTLD post-cardiac transplantation (1990-2007) occurring in our unit. There were 15 episodes in 13 patients including four cases of EBV-driven Burkitt-type disease with t(8;14) translocations presenting with advanced stage disease. The first case was treated with a variety of low dose chemotherapy combinations. Despite problems during therapy he obtained complete remission, but died from complications of pre-existing cardiac allograft vasculopathy 7 months later. The subsequent three cases were treated with a UKCCSG low stage lymphoma protocol, NHL 9001 and Rituximab. They remain in complete remission. In the context of PTLD the prognostic significance of advanced stage EBV-driven BLL with the t(8;14) translocation may be different to that in immunocompetent children. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Jamali, Faek R; Otrock, Zaher K; Soweid, Assaad M; Al-Awar, Ghassan N; Mahfouz, Rami A; Haidar, Ghassan R; Bazarbachi, Ali
Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are well recognized complications of solid organ transplantation. The vast majority of early PTLDs are B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. PTLDs of T-cell origin occur much less frequently and account for only a minority of cases. T-cell PTLDs have been reported to occur primarily at extranodal sites, commonly affecting bone marrow or splenic tissues. The small bowel is an uncommon site of origin of these tumors with only seven cases of primary intestinal post-transplant T-cell lymphomas reported in the literature. We hereby report a new case of primary intestinal post-transplant T-cell lymphoma, arising 18 years following renal transplantation, along with a literature review of all published cases.
Kongtim, Piyanuch; Lee, Dean A.; Cooper, Laurence J. N.; Kebriaei, Partow; Champlin, Richard E.; Ciurea, Stefan O.
Haploidentical transplantation can extend the opportunity for transplantation to almost all patients who lack an HLA-matched donor. Advances in the field of haploidentical transplantation have led to a marked decrease in treatment-related mortality, allowing investigators to focus on developing rationale pre- and peri-remission therapies aimed at preventing disease relapse post-transplant. Due to widespread availability, low treatment-related mortality and cost, haploidentical donors may become the preferred “alternative” donors for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. One of the major advantages of using a related donor is the possibility to collect or generate additional cellular products from the same immediate available donor, which will not be rejected. Infusion of these cells in the peri-transplant period, derived from the same immune system, is opening the possibility to markedly enhance the anti-tumor effects of the graft and hasten immunologic reconstitution post-transplant. PMID:26172479
Rühl, H; Vogt, W; Bochert, G; Schmidt, S; Moelle, R; Schaoua, H
Lymphocyte reactivity in vitro was studied in patients with Hodgkin's disease, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and lymphosarcoma. The responding capacity to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) was markedly depressed and delayed in all three groups of patients compared with the PHA response observed in lymphocyte cultures from normal individuals. In one-way mixed lymphocyte culture experiments a significant decrease in responding capacity of the patients' lymphocytes to lymphocytes from normal donors could be demonstrated. In contrast, the stimulatory capacity of the patients' lymphocytes was found to be intact, or only slightly reduced. PMID:128426
Wester, Hans Jürgen; Keller, Ulrich; Schottelius, Margret; Beer, Ambros; Philipp-Abbrederis, Kathrin; Hoffmann, Frauke; Šimeček, Jakub; Gerngross, Carlos; Lassmann, Michael; Herrmann, Ken; Pellegata, Natalia; Rudelius, Martina; Kessler, Horst; Schwaiger, Markus
Chemokine ligand-receptor interactions play a pivotal role in cell attraction and cellular trafficking, both in normal tissue homeostasis and in disease. In cancer, chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) expression is an adverse prognostic factor. Early clinical studies suggest that targeting CXCR4 with suitable high-affinity antagonists might be a novel means for therapy. In addition to the preclinical evaluation of [(68)Ga]Pentixafor in mice bearing human lymphoma xenografts as an exemplary CXCR4-expressing tumor entity, we report on the first clinical applications of [(68)Ga]Pentixafor-Positron Emission Tomography as a powerful method for CXCR4 imaging in cancer patients. [(68)Ga]Pentixafor binds with high affinity and selectivity to human CXCR4 and exhibits a favorable dosimetry. [(68)Ga]Pentixafor-PET provides images with excellent specificity and contrast. This non-invasive imaging technology for quantitative assessment of CXCR4 expression allows to further elucidate the role of CXCR4/CXCL12 ligand interaction in the pathogenesis and treatment of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and autoimmune and inflammatory disorders.
Wester, Hans Jürgen; Keller, Ulrich; Schottelius, Margret; Beer, Ambros; Philipp-Abbrederis, Kathrin; Hoffmann, Frauke; Šimeček, Jakub; Gerngross, Carlos; Lassmann, Michael; Herrmann, Ken; Pellegata, Natalia; Rudelius, Martina; Kessler, Horst; Schwaiger, Markus
Chemokine ligand-receptor interactions play a pivotal role in cell attraction and cellular trafficking, both in normal tissue homeostasis and in disease. In cancer, chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) expression is an adverse prognostic factor. Early clinical studies suggest that targeting CXCR4 with suitable high-affinity antagonists might be a novel means for therapy. In addition to the preclinical evaluation of [68Ga]Pentixafor in mice bearing human lymphoma xenografts as an exemplary CXCR4-expressing tumor entity, we report on the first clinical applications of [68Ga]Pentixafor-Positron Emission Tomography as a powerful method for CXCR4 imaging in cancer patients. [68Ga]Pentixafor binds with high affinity and selectivity to human CXCR4 and exhibits a favorable dosimetry. [68Ga]Pentixafor-PET provides images with excellent specificity and contrast. This non-invasive imaging technology for quantitative assessment of CXCR4 expression allows to further elucidate the role of CXCR4/CXCL12 ligand interaction in the pathogenesis and treatment of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. PMID:25825601
Heslop, Helen E; Slobod, Karen S; Pule, Martin A; Hale, Gregory A; Rousseau, Alexandra; Smith, Colton A; Bollard, Catherine M; Liu, Hao; Wu, Meng-Fen; Rochester, Richard J; Amrolia, Persis J; Hurwitz, Julia L; Brenner, Malcolm K; Rooney, Cliona M
T-cell immunotherapy that takes advantage of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-stimulated immunity has the potential to fill an important niche in targeted therapy for EBV-related cancers. To address questions of long-term efficacy, safety, and practicality, we studied 114 patients who had received infusions of EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) at 3 different centers to prevent or treat EBV(+) lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) arising after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Toxicity was minimal, consisting mainly of localized swelling at sites of responsive disease. None of the 101 patients who received CTL prophylaxis developed EBV(+) LPD, whereas 11 of 13 patients treated with CTLs for biopsy-proven or probable LPD achieved sustained complete remissions. The gene-marking component of this study enabled us to demonstrate the persistence of functional CTLs for up to 9 years. A preliminary analysis indicated that a patient-specific CTL line can be manufactured, tested, and infused for $6095, a cost that compares favorably with other modalities used in the treatment of LPD. We conclude that the CTL lines described here provide safe and effective prophylaxis or treatment for lymphoproliferative disease in transplantation recipients, and the manufacturing methodology is robust and can be transferred readily from one institution to another without loss of reproducibility.
Drudi, F.M.; Pagliara, E.; Cantisani, V.; Arduini, F.; D'Ambrosio, U.; Alfano, G.
Transplantation is considered definitive therapy for acute or chronic irreversible pathologies of the liver, and the increased survival rates are mainly due to improved immunosuppressive therapies and surgical techniques. However, early diagnosis of possible graft dysfunction is crucial to liver graft survival. Diagnostic imaging plays an important role in the evaluation of the liver before and after transplant and in the detection of complications such as vascular and biliary diseases, acute and chronic rejection and neoplastic recurrence. Integrated imaging using color-Doppler, CT, MRI and traditional x-ray reach a high level of sensitivity and specificity in the management of transplanted patients. PMID:23395917
Carbone, Antonino; Gloghini, Annunziata; Dotti, Giampietro
Since its discovery as the first human tumor virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in the development of a wide range of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, including Burkitt's lymphoma, classic Hodgkin's lymphoma, and lymphomas arising in immunocompromised individuals (post-transplant and HIV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders). T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders that have been reported to be EBV associated include a subset of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, extranodal nasal type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, and other rare histotypes. EBV encodes a series of products interacting with or exhibiting homology to a wide variety of antiapoptotic molecules, cytokines, and signal transducers, hence promoting EBV infection, immortalization, and transformation. However, the exact mechanism by which EBV promotes oncogenesis is an area of active debate. The focus of this review is on the pathology, diagnosis, classification, and pathogenesis of EBV-associated lymphomas. Recent advances in EBV cell-based immunotherapy, which is beginning to show promise in the treatment of EBV-related disorders, are discussed.
Agarwal, Arnav; Prasad, G V Ramesh
Post-transplant dyslipidemia is highly prevalent and presents unique management challenges to the clinician. The two major outcomes to consider with post-transplant therapies for dyslipidemia are preserving or improving allograft function, and reducing cardiovascular risk. Although there are other cardiovascular risk factors such as graft dysfunction, hypertension, and diabetes, attention to dyslipidemia is warranted because interventions for dyslipidemia have an impact on reducing cardiac events in clinical trials specific to the transplant population. Dyslipidemia is not synonymous with hyperlipidemia. Numerous mechanisms exist for the occurrence of post-transplant dyslipidemia, including those mediated by immunosuppressive drug therapy. Statin therapy has received the most attention in all solid organ transplant recipient populations, although the effect of proper dietary advice and adjuvant pharmacological and non-pharmacological agents should not be dismissed. At all stages of treatment appropriate monitoring strategies for side effects should be implemented so that the benefits from these therapies can be achieved. Clinicians have a choice when there is a conflict between various transplant society and lipid society guidelines for therapy and targets. PMID:27011910
Treatment options for management of post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) are limited with regards to the availability of strong clinical evidence base. This is a concern as PTDM is common after solid organ transplantation and associated with poor clinical outcomes. PTDM and type 2 diabetes mellitus are distinct pathophysiological entities that have important differences with regards to aetiology, clinical course and management. Therefore, any clinical evidence of treatment benefit from the general population with type 2 diabetes mellitus may not be directly translated to the solid organ transplant recipient. In addition, the potential risk and benefit of using many of these therapeutic agents must take account of the complicated post-transplantation milieu of immunosuppression. While there is reasonable evidence base for treatment of diabetes mellitus in the general population, the same is not true in a post-transplantation setting. In this article the treatment options available for PTDM will be discussed, with a transplant-specific focus on the pros and cons of each particular component of the glucose lowering therapy armoury.
Pradhan, Madhura; Petro, Julie; Palmer, Joanne; Meyers, Kevin; Baluarte, H Jorge
Recurrence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in an allograft is a challenging clinical situation because it frequently results in graft loss. We report our experience with early use of plasmapheresis in recurrent FSGS. Of the 18 (33%) children with biopsy-proven FSGS (in their native kidneys) transplanted at our institution, 6 had recurrence (elevated urine protein/creatinine ratios) post transplant and were treated with plasmapheresis. Patients who received treatment within 1 day of the recurrence (4/6) went into remission after 5-13 plasmapheresis treatments, within 5-27 days of starting treatment. Patients who did not respond to plasmapheresis (2/6) were treated 7 and 17 days after onset of proteinuria; 1 of these had acute tubular necrosis and acute rejection leading to graft loss and the other developed acute rejections, ongoing proteinuria, and subsequent graft loss. All 4 patients who went into remission have maintained good graft function, 22-53 months post transplant. In our experience early institution of plasmapheresis for recurrent post-transplant proteinuria in FSGS is effective.
Shah, Nirali N; Freeman, Alexandra F; Su, Helen; Cole, Kristen; Parta, Mark; Moutsopoulos, Niki M; Baris, Safa; Karakoc-Aydiner, Elif; Hughes, Thomas E; Kong, Heidi H; Holland, Steve M; Hickstein, Dennis D
Dedicator-of-Cytokinesis-8 (DOCK8) deficiency, a primary immunodeficiency disease, can be reversed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT); however, there are few reports describing the use of alternative donor sources for HSCT in DOCK8 deficiency. We describe HSCT for patients with DOCK8 deficiency who lack a matched related or unrelated donor using bone marrow from haploidentical related donors and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT/CY) for GVHD prophylaxis. Seven patients with DOCK8 deficiency (median age 20 years, range 7-25 years) received a haploidentical related donor HSCT. The conditioning regimen included 2 days of low-dose cyclophosphamide, 5 days of fludarabine, three days of busulfan, and 200 cGy TBI. Graft-versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT/CY) 50 mg/kg/day on days +3 and +4, and tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil starting at day +5. The median times to neutrophil and platelet engraftment were 15 and 19 days, respectively. All patients attained >90% donor engraftment by day +30. Four subjects developed acute GVHD (one with maximum grade 3). No patient developed chronic GVHD. With a median follow-up time of 20.6 months (range 9.5 - 31.7 months), 6 of 7 patients are alive and disease-free. Haploidentical related donor HSCT with PT/CY represents an effective therapeutic approach for patients with DOCK8 deficiency who lack a matched related or unrelated donor.
Lu, Benjamin Y; Kojima, Lisa; Huang, Mary S; Friedmann, Alison M; Ferry, Judith A; Weinstein, Howard J
Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-LPD) rarely occurs in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), who have not received hematopoietic transplantation. We describe EBV-LPD manifesting as facial lesions in two children with ALL in remission. One patient was a 16-year-old male with T-cell ALL with an EBV-positive angiocentric polymorphous lip lesion presenting as right-sided facial swelling. The other patient was a 12-year-old male with B-cell ALL with an EBV-positive polymorphous lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate presenting as bilateral dacryoadenitis. Neither patient had known primary immunodeficiencies. Both cases improved with immunosuppressant de-escalation. These cases suggest that immunosuppression induced by maintenance chemotherapy is sufficient to promote EBV-LPD.
Distribution of lymphocytes with interleukin-2 receptors (TAC antigens) in reactive lymphoproliferative processes, Hodgkin's disease, and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. An immunohistologic study of 300 cases.
Sheibani, K.; Winberg, C. D.; van de Velde, S.; Blayney, D. W.; Rappaport, H.
The authors investigated the distribution of interleukin-2 receptors (TAC antigen) in the lymph nodes of 300 patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. They used fresh-frozen sections to evaluate a possible correlation between the immunophenotype of specific lymphoid disorders and the presence or absence of TAC expression and to determine whether the TAC positivity of lymphoid cells contributes to the characterization of lymphoproliferative processes. All of the cases had previously been studied with a large screening panel of monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal antisera. Among 85 patients with a variety of benign reactive processes, the lymph nodes from 47 contained TAC-bearing lymphocytes in various patterns of distribution. Of 41 patients with Hodgkin's disease, 37 had TAC-bearing lymphocytes. Of 26 B-cell, well-differentiated lymphocytic lymphomas (WDL), 14 were diffusely TAC-positive and one had TAC-bearing cells in random distribution. Six cases of intermediate lymphocytic lymphoma were also studied, and three showed randomly distributed TAC-bearing lymphocytes. Of 19 patients with follicular or follicular and diffuse, poorly differentiated lymphocytic (PDL) lymphoma, 14 were TAC-positive. All 3 diffuse PDL lymphomas studied were TAC-negative. Among 23 cases of B-cell and 5 cases of T-cell mixed cell lymphoma, 15 and three, respectively, had TAC-positive lymphocytes. Of 39 large cell lymphomas (B-cell, 33; T-cell, 6), 14 were TAC-positive. All 13 cases of hairy cell leukemia were diffusely positive. Of 23 T-lymphoblastic lymphomas, only 1 showed positive TAC reactivity, which was focal. Of 5 cases of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, 2 had TAC-bearing lymphocytes. Our study indicates that the TAC antigen is not lineage-specific, and that it may be expressed by lymphoid cells regardless of their phenotype. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:3105322
Jaiswal, Sarita Rani; Chakrabarti, Aditi; Chatterjee, Sumita; Bhargava, Sneh; Ray, Kunal; Chakrabarti, Suparno
Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a rare but serious complication after allogeneic transplantation which has been reported to be particularly high after unrelated cord blood transplantation. We report on the incidence, risk factors and outcome of HPS in 51 patients (age 2-64 years) after haploidentical peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCY). The incidence of HPS was 12.2 %, occurring at a median of 18 days. The non-relapse mortality in patients with HPS was 83.3 % compared to 11.6 % in patients without HPS. Complete donor chimerism was documented in all patients with HPS. Definite infective etiology was identified in two patients only. The others were refractory to multiple lines of treatment and 3 patients underwent a second transplant. Even though the symptoms and biochemical markers of HPS showed prompt response in 2/3 patients undergoing a second allograft, they succumbed to infections before haematological recovery. The others succumbed to multi-organ failure or infections. Age < 10 years, transplantation for non-malignant disease and high CD34 content of the graft were identified as risk factors for HPS. Considering the fact that post-transplant HPS is usually a refractory and fatal condition, we discuss further attempts at deciphering the pathogenesis, developing modalities to prevent this complication and improve the outcome.
Katsura, Emi; Ichikawa, Tatsuki; Taura, Naota; Miyaaki, Hisamitsu; Miuma, Satoshi; Shibata, Hidetaka; Honda, Takuya; Hidaka, Masaaki; Soyama, Akihiko; Takeshima, Fuminao; Eguchi, Susumu; Nakao, Kazuhiko
Background The risk of liver cirrhosis is higher among individuals with diabetes mellitus, and a cirrhotic patient with diabetes may have a poorer prognosis after liver transplantation compared to a patient without diabetes. Thus, we evaluated whether fasting plasma glucose prior to receiving a liver transplant was a prognostic factor for post-transplant survival. Material/Methods Ninety-one patients received a living donor liver transplant between November 2005 and December 2012. Patients were considered diabetic if they were prescribed diabetes medications or had impaired glucose tolerance as measured by an oral glucose tolerance test. Each patient was monitored through December 31, 2013, to evaluate prognosis. Results Fasting plasma glucose of at least 100 mg/dL significantly decreased survival following transplant (52% in the high FPG group compared to 78% in the control group, p=0.04), while postprandial hyperglycemia had no effect on survival. Additionally, overall mortality and the incidence of vascular disease were significantly higher among patients with uncontrolled plasma glucose. Impaired fasting plasma glucose was significantly and inversely associated with overall survival in the univariate and multivariate analyses, while creatinine (at least 1 mg/dL) was inversely associated with survival in the univariate analysis. Conclusions Elevated fasting plasma glucose prior to liver transplantation was inversely associated with post-transplant survival. This effect may be due to underlying microangiopathy as a result of uncontrolled diabetes before transplantation. Our data demonstrated the importance of controlled blood glucose prior to liver transplantation. PMID:27909287
Stallone, Giovanni; Infante, Barbara; Grandaliano, Giuseppe
The central issue in organ transplantation remains suppression of allograft rejection. Thus, the development of immunosuppressive drugs has been the key to successful allograft function. The increased immunosuppressive efficiency obtained in the last two decades in kidney transplantation dramatically reduced the incidence of acute rejection. However, the inevitable trade-off was an increased rate of post-transplant infections and malignancies. Since the incidence of cancer in immunosuppressed transplant recipients becomes greater over time, and the introduction of new immunosuppressive strategies are expected to extend significantly allograft survival, the problem might grow exponentially in the near future. Thus, cancer is becoming a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients otherwise successfully treated by organ transplantation. There are at least four distinct areas requiring consideration, which have a potentially serious impact on recipient outcome after transplantation: (i) the risk of transmitting a malignancy to the recipient within the donor organ; (ii) the problems of previously diagnosed and treated malignancy in the recipient; (iii) the prevention of de novo post-transplant malignant diseases and (iv) the management of these complex and often life-threatening clinical problems. In this scenario, the direct and indirect oncogenic potential of immunosuppressive therapy should be always carefully considered. PMID:26413294
Li, Ning; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Storer, Barry E.; Martin, Paul J.; Sale, George E.; Argenyi, Zsolt B.; Myerson, David
Severe keratinocyte dysplasia (SKD) has been reported as a common event in the early post-transplant period of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCST) patients.1 The purpose of our study is to determine the possible causes of SKD during the intermediate post-transplant period, and to ascertain its prevalence in skin biopsies. Skin biopsy slides, obtained from HCST recipients who were days 28 to 84 post transplant, were evaluated for SKD. Forty-four examples of SKD were identified in 467 slides, or 9%. Thirty-seven patients were evaluated as cases in a case-control design. SKD was strongly associated with a conditioning regimen containing busulfan with an odds ratio (OR) of 7.25 (p=0.0002). In a multivariate adjusted analysis, SKD was not associated with cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, total body irradiation (TBI), or a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen. SKD was not associated with clinical acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). SKD histology gradually resolved, reaching a normal histology after an average of 241 days. This study finds that severe keratinocyte dysplasia in the period 28 to 84 days post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is strongly associated with a busulfan conditioning regimen. PMID:22326632
Costa-Requena, Gema; Cantarell Aixendri, M Carmen; Rodriguez Urrutia, Amanda; Seron Micas, Daniel
Transplantation is an effective treatment for end stage renal failure. The aim of this study was to compare patient's perceived health related quality of life (HRQoL) with population values, at one moth and 6 moths of kidney post-transplantation. The Questionnaire of Quality of Life in Kidney Disease was administered during the first month and also at the 6 months following transplantation. A comparison with the general population was done with the generic part of the questionnaire. In the statistical analyses, typical standardized scores were used. In this study 72 patients were included with a median age of 57 years. At the 6 month post-transplantation, the patient's HRQoL showed values that were similar to the general population. When we compared the HRQoL at the first month and at the 6 month post-transplantation, the differences of HRQoL were significant in all dimensions, except on the General health and Emotional role. At 6 moths after transplantation, there was an improvement in the perceived HRQoL that was similar to the general population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
[A case of iatrogenic immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disease in a patient treated with methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis for 9 consecutive years, which Showed natural remission after discontinuation of MTX therapy].
Kaneko, Jun; Gozu, Kazuo; Aoyagi, Haruhiko; Matsui, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Kumi; Isogai, Jun; Maejima, Shizuaki
We report our experience with a case of iatrogenic immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disease in a patient who had been treated with methotrexate (MTX) for rheumatoid arthritis for 9 consecutive years, which showed natural remission after discontinuation of the MTX therapy. The patient was a 64-year-old woman who was admitted emergently to our hospital with hematemesis and melena. She presented with multiple gastric ulcers and bilateral tonsillitis with a central ulcer. Biopsy of these lesions raised the suspicion of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Positron emission tomography (PET)- computed tomography( CT) showed increased fluorodeoxyglucose( FDG) accumulation in the pharynx, cervical lymph nodes, liver, spleen, stomach, distal part of the ileum, and para-aortic lymph nodes, with a maximum standard uptake value of 26.85. Blood test showed elevated lactate dehydrogenase( LDH)( 321 U/L) and interleukin( IL)-2R( 3,531 U/mL) levels. After discontinuation of MTX, the sore throat subsided, and the tonsillitis, lymph node enlargement, and ulcers were resolved. The levels of LDH and IL-2R returned to within the normal range. The patient could be categorized into a regressive disease group with relatively favorable prognosis among patients with MTX-induced lymphoproliferative disease. However, she should continue to be followed up regularly because there remains a possibility that lymphoproliferative disease may relapse after the discontinuation of MTX.
Wu, Junyi; Sun, Hongcheng; Han, Zhongbo; Peng, Zhihai
The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of post-transplantation adjuvant chemotherapy in the prevention of tumor recurrence and metastasis for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exceeding Milan criteria after liver transplantation. A total of 117 patients with HCC exceeding the Milan criteria who had undergone orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) from August 2002 to February 2009 were enrolled and retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into four groups according to chemotherapy regimens and the impact of different chemotherapy regimens on survival, disease-free survival, and adverse effects were compared. One year survival rates for the gemicitabine, conventional chemotherapy, oxaliplatin plus capecitabine and the best supportive care (BSC) group were 87.5%, 84.2%, 81.6%, and 67.5%. The 3-year survival rates were 48.1%, 25.9%, 31.6%, and 33.7%, respectively for the four groups. One year disease free survival rates for the four groups were 69.8%, 47.4%, 53.8%, and 45.7% respectively. And 3-year disease free survival rates were 43.2%, 23.7%, 23.6%, and 25.1% for the four groups. Stratification analysis showed that the gemcitabine regimen and conventional chemotherapy could significantly improve the survival rate and disease free survival rate for HCC patients who had major vascular invasion and/or microvascular invasion after liver transplantation compared with BSC group. For HCC patients beyond Milan criteria, especially who had vascular invasion and/or micorvascular invasion, post-transplantation adjuvant chemotherapy can significantly improve survival. Gemcitabine is a proper regimen for postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Conventional chemotherapy can also benefit patients, but the adverse effects are not satisfactory.
Chen, Haotian; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Zhinong; Zhou, Wei; Cao, Qian
Abstract Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) plays an important role in various diseases. EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) is a rare disease with a canceration tendency. It is difficult to differentiate LPD with involvement of digestive tract from Crohn disease due to similar clinical and endoscopic manifestations. We present a case report of multiple ulcers with esophagus, small bowel and the entire colon involved, proved to be NK-Cell LPD, developed into EBV-associated NK/T Cell lymphoma, in an immunocompetent man who was initially misdiagnosed as Crohn disease. This report underscores that intestinal ulcers should be cautiously diagnosed, for it sometimes could be a precancerous lesion. PMID:27015206
DeZern, Amy E.; Zahurak, Marianna; Symons, Heather; Cooke, Kenneth; Jones, Richard J.; Brodsky, Robert A.
Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a life-threatening hematopoietic stem cell disorder that is treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or immunosuppressive therapy (IST). The management of patients with refractory SAA after IST is a major challenge. Alternative donor BMT is the best chance for cure in refractory SAA, but morbidity and mortality from graft failure and complications of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) have limited enthusiasm for this approach. Here, we employed post-transplantation high-dose cyclophosphamide in an effort to safely expand the donor pool in 16 consecutive patients with refractory SAA who did not have a matched sibling donor. Between July 2011 and August 2016, 16 patients underwent allogeneic (allo) BMT for refractory SAA from 13 haploidentical donors and 3 unrelated donors. The nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen consisted of antithymocyte globulin, fludarabine, low-dose cyclophosphamide, and total body irradiation. Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg/day i.v. on days +3 and +4 was administered for GVHD prophylaxis. Additionally, patients received mycophenolate mofetil on days +5 through 35 and tacrolimus from day +5 through 1 year. The median age of the patients at the time of transplantation was 30 (range, 11 to 69) years. The median time to neutrophil recovery over 1000 × 103/mm3 for 3 consecutive days was 19 (range, 16 to 27) days, to red cell engraftment was 25 (range, 2 to 58) days, and to last platelet transfusion to keep platelets counts over 50 × 103/mm3 was 27.5 (range, 22 to 108) days. Graft failure, primary or secondary, was not seen in any of the patients. All 16 patients are alive, transfusion independent, and without evidence of clonality. The median follow-up is 21 (range, 3 to 64) months. Two patients had grade 1 or 2 skin-only acute GVHD. These same 2 also had mild chronic GVHD of the skin/mouth requiring systemic steroids. One of these GVHD patients was able to come off all IST by 15 months and the
Goldin, Lynn R.; McMaster, Mary L.; Caporaso, Neil E.
We review monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) as a precursor to chronic lymphocytic leukemia and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) as a precursor to plasma cell disorders. These conditions are present in the general population and increase with age. These precursors aggregate with lymphoproliferative malignancies in families suggesting shared inheritance. MBL and MGUS may share some of the same risk factors as their related malignancies but data are limited. While these conditions are characterized by enhanced risk for the associated malignancy, the majority of individuals with these conditions do not progress to malignancy. A key focus for current work is to identify markers that predict progression to malignancy. PMID:23549397
Minamitani, Takeharu; Ma, Yijie; Zhou, Hufeng; Kida, Hiroshi; Tsai, Chao-Yuan; Obana, Masanori; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Fujio, Yasushi; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Zhao, Bo; Kikutani, Hitoshi; Kieff, Elliott; Gewurz, Benjamin E; Yasui, Teruhito
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a major cause of immunosuppression-related B-cell lymphomas and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). In these malignancies, EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) and LMP2A provide infected B cells with surrogate CD40 and B-cell receptor growth and survival signals. To gain insights into their synergistic in vivo roles in germinal center (GC) B cells, from which most EBV-driven lymphomas arise, we generated a mouse model with conditional GC B-cell LMP1 and LMP2A coexpression. LMP1 and LMP2A had limited effects in immunocompetent mice. However, upon T- and NK-cell depletion, LMP1/2A caused massive plasmablast outgrowth, organ damage, and death. RNA-sequencing analyses identified EBV oncoprotein effects on GC B-cell target genes, including up-regulation of multiple proinflammatory chemokines and master regulators of plasma cell differentiation. LMP1/2A coexpression also up-regulated key HL markers, including CD30 and mixed hematopoietic lineage markers. Collectively, our results highlight synergistic EBV membrane oncoprotein effects on GC B cells and provide a model for studies of their roles in immunosuppression-related lymphoproliferative diseases.
Ma, Cindy S.; Hare, Nathan J.; Nichols, Kim E.; Dupré, Loic; Andolfi, Grazia; Roncarolo, Maria-Grazia; Adelstein, Stephen; Hodgkin, Philip D.; Tangye, Stuart G.
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is an often-fatal immunodeficiency characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, fulminant infectious mononucleosis, and/or lymphoma. The genetic lesion in XLP, SH2D1A, encodes the adaptor protein SAP (signaling lymphocytic activation molecule–associated [SLAM-associated] protein); however, the mechanism(s) by which mutations in SH2D1A causes hypogammaglobulinemia is unknown. Our analysis of 14 XLP patients revealed normal B cell development but a marked reduction in the number of memory B cells. The few memory cells detected were IgM+, revealing deficient isotype switching in vivo. However, XLP B cells underwent proliferation and differentiation in vitro as efficiently as control B cells, which indicates that the block in differentiation in vivo is B cell extrinsic. This possibility is supported by the finding that XLP CD4+ T cells did not efficiently differentiate into IL-10+ effector cells or provide optimal B cell help in vitro. Importantly, the B cell help provided by SAP-deficient CD4+ T cells was improved by provision of exogenous IL-10 or ectopic expression of SAP, which resulted in increased IL-10 production by T cells. XLP CD4+ T cells also failed to efficiently upregulate expression of inducible costimulator (ICOS), a potent inducer of IL-10 production by CD4+ T cells. Thus, insufficient IL-10 production may contribute to hypogammaglobulinemia in XLP. This finding suggests new strategies for treating this immunodeficiency. PMID:15761493
Kindel, Steven J; Joy, Brian F; Pahl, Elfriede; Wald, Eric L
Although cardiac transplantation is life-saving, morbidities from immunosuppression are significant. EoE is a complication of calcineurin inhibitors following liver transplant causing feeding intolerance, weight loss, vomiting, and dysphagia. There are limited reports of EoE following heart transplantation. We performed a retrospective single-center review of pediatric cardiac transplant patients from 2000 to 2010. A case-control analysis of patients with and without EoE was performed evaluating heart transplantation outcomes such as rates of rejection, CAV, PTLD, and graft loss. Eighty-six transplants were performed in 84 patients; 34 (40%) underwent diagnostic endoscopy, and 10 (12%) had EoE. Median time to diagnosis of EoE was 3.7 yr (IQR: 2.0-5.2). There were no differences in demographics or use of induction medications between patients with or without EoE. Patients with EoE had fewer episodes of treated rejection (1.0 vs. 2.5; p = 0.04). Four of 10 (40%) EoE patients had PTLD compared with only 2/24 (8%) of those without EoE (p = 0.048; OR 7.33 [95% CI: 1.1-50.2]). There were no differences in CAV or graft loss between groups. EoE should be considered as a cause of GI symptoms in children after cardiac transplantation and may be associated with fewer rejection episodes and increased rates of PTLD, thus representing a marker of over-immunosuppression.
Falahati, Rustom; Zhang, Jianqing; Flebbe-Rehwaldt, Linda; Shi, Yimin; Gerson, Stanton L; Gaensler, Karin ML
The feasibility of allogeneic transplantation, without myeloablation or post-transplant immunosuppression, was tested using in vivo chemoselection of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) after transduction with a novel tricistronic lentiviral vector (MGMTP140K-2A-GFP-IRES-TK (MAGIT)). This vector contains P140K-O6-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMTP140K), HSV-thymidine kinase (TKHSV), and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) enabling (i) in vivo chemoselection of HSC by conferring resistance to benzylguanine (BG), an inhibitor of endogenous MGMT, and to chloroethylating agents such as 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)nitrosourea (BCNU) and, (ii) depletion of proliferating cells such as malignant clones or transduced donor T cells mediating graft versus host disease (GVHD), by expression of the suicide gene TKHSV and Ganciclovir (GCV) administration. Non-myeloablative transplantation of transduced, syngeneic, lineage-depleted (Lin−) BM in neonates resulted in 0.67% GFP+ mononuclear cells in peripheral blood. BG/BCNU chemoselection, 4 and 8 weeks post-transplant, produced 50-fold donor cell enrichment. Transplantation and chemoselection of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched MAGIT-transduced Lin− BM also produced similar expansion for >40 weeks. The efficacy of this allotransplant approach was validated in Hbbth3 heterozygous mice by correction of β-thalassemia intermedia, without toxicity or GVHD. Negative selection, by administration of GCV resulted in donor cell depletion without graft ablation, as re-expansion of donor cells was achieved with BG/BCNU treatment. These studies show promise for developing non-ablative allotransplant approaches using in vivo positive/negative selection. PMID:22871662
Szymańska, Edyta; Kaliciński, Piotr; Pawłowska, Joanna; Szymańska, Sylwia; Pronicki, Maciej; Stefanowicz, Marek; Teisseyre, Joanna; Broniszczak, Dorota; Rokicki, Dariusz
BACKGROUND Liver transplantation (LT) is recommended for various metabolic diseases, including urea cycle disorders (UCDs). The aim of this study was to determine indications and outcomes of LT for UCDs in the tertiary reference Children's Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS Medical charts of children with UCD who underwent LT between 2008 and July 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. The following parameters were analyzed: symptoms at time of diagnosis, age at diagnosis, age at transplantation, graft characteristics and survival, postsurgical complications, and biochemical and laboratory results before and after transplantation. RESULTS Twelve patients with UCD who underwent LT at a mean age of 5 y (0.5-14 y) received a total of 14 liver grafts. Four children (33%) received a living donor graft, while 8 (68%) got a deceased donor liver graft. A total number of transplanted organs consisted of 9 (64%) whole-liver grafts and 5 (36%) reduced-size grafts. The 30-day post-transplant patient survival rate was 100% and graft survival rate was 93% (13/14). For those with a post-transplant follow-up of at least 1 year (n=10/12), the 1-year patient survival rate was 100% and the graft survival rate was 85.7% (12/14). Median peak of blood ammonia at presentation was 653 (159-2613) µg/dL (normal <80 µg/dl), and median peak of blood glutamine was 1273.2 µmol/l (964-3900 µmol/l). There was 1 episode of hyperammonemia following LT, but it was not due to UCD. Six (50%) patients were diagnosed with some degree of developmental delay/neurological impairment before transplantation, which remained stable or slightly improved after transplantation. Patients without developmental delay before transplantation maintained their cognitive abilities at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS LT leads to eradication of hyperammonemia, withdrawal of dietary restrictions with low-protein diet, and potentially improved neurocognitive development.
Wambua, Lillian; Wambua, Peninah Nduku; Ramogo, Allan Maurice; Mijele, Domnic; Otiende, Moses Yongo
Wildebeest-associated malignant catarrhal fever (WA-MCF), an acute lymphoproliferative disease of cattle caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1), remains a significant constraint to cattle production in nomadic pastoralist systems in eastern and southern Africa. The transmission of WA-MCF is dependent on the presence of the wildlife reservoir, i.e. wildebeest, belonging to the species Connochaetes taurinus and Connochaetes gnou; hence, the distribution of WA-MCF is largely restricted to Kenya, Tanzania and the Republic of South Africa, where wildebeest are present. WA-MCF is analogous to sheep-associated MCF (SA-MCF) in many aspects, with the latter having sheep as its reservoir host and a more global distribution, mainly in developed countries with intensive livestock production systems. However, unlike SA-MCF, the geographic seclusion of WA-MCF may have contributed to an apparent neglect in research efforts aimed at increased biological understanding and control of the disease. This review aims to highlight the importance of WA-MCF and the need for intensified research towards measures for its integrated control. We discuss current knowledge on transmission and geographical distribution in eastern and southern Africa and the burden of WA-MCF in affected vulnerable pastoral communities in Africa. Recent findings towards vaccine development and pertinent knowledge gaps for future research efforts on WA-MCF are also considered. Finally, integrated control of WA-MCF based on a logical three-pronged framework is proposed, contextualizing vaccine development, next-generation diagnostics, and diversity studies targeted to the viral pathogen and cattle hosts.
Decreasing incidence of symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus disease and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder in pediatric liver transplant recipients: report of the studies of pediatric liver transplantation experience.
Narkewicz, Michael R; Green, Michael; Dunn, Stephen; Millis, Michael; McDiarmid, Susan; Mazariegos, George; Anand, Ravinder; Yin, Wanrong
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) causes significant morbidity and mortality in pediatric recipients of liver transplantation (LT). Describe the incidence of PTLD and symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus (SEBV) disease in a large multicenter cohort of children who underwent LT with a focus on the risk factors and changes in incidence over time. SEBV and PTLD were prospectively determined in 2283 subjects who had undergone LT for the first time with at least 1 year of follow-up in the Studies of Pediatric Liver Transplantation database. SEBV was defined with specific criteria, and PTLD required tissue confirmation. The incidence of SEBV and PTLD was determined with a Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariate and multivariate modeling of risk factors was performed with standard methods. SEBV occurred in 199 patients; 174 (87.4%) were EBV-negative at LT. Seventy-five patients developed PTLD, and 64 (85.3%) of these patients were EBV-negative at LT. Among the 2048 patients with at least 2 years of follow-up, 8.3% developed SEBV by the second year after LT, and 2.8% developed PTLD. There were lower rates of SEBV (5.9% versus 11.3%, P < 0.001) and PTLD (1.7% versus 4.2%, P = 0.001) in 2002-2007 versus 1995-2001. In 2002-2007, tacrolimus and cyclosporine trough blood levels in the first year after LT were significantly lower, and fewer children were receiving steroids. Biliary atresia, and recipient EBV status were correlated. In a multivariate analysis, era of LT, recipient EBV status, and frequent rejection episodes were associated with SEBV and PTLD. The incidence of SEBV and PTLD is decreasing in pediatric LT recipients concomitantly with a reduction in immunosuppression. Younger recipients and those with multiple rejections remain at higher risk for SEBV and PTLD. © 2013 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Hare, Nathan J; Ma, Cindy S; Alvaro, Frank; Nichols, Kim E; Tangye, Stuart G
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is an immunodeficiency resulting from mutations in SH2D1A, which encodes signalling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP). In addition to SLAM, SAP associates with several other cell-surface receptors including 2B4 (CD244), Ly9 (CD229), CD84 and NTB-A. SAP contains a single src-homology-2 domain and acts as an intracellular adaptor protein by recruiting the protein tyrosine kinase FynT to the cytoplasmic domains of some of these receptors, which results in the initiation of specific downstream signal transduction pathways. XLP is likely to result from perturbed signalling through one or more of these SAP-associating receptors. In this study, we identified missense (Y54C, I84T and F87S) and insertion (fs82 --> X103) mutations in four different kindreds affected by XLP. Each mutation dramatically reduced the half-life of SAP, thus diminishing its expression in primary lymphocytes as well as in transfected cell lines. Interestingly, although the Y54C and F87S mutations compromised the ability of SAP to associate with different receptors, the I84T mutation had no effect on the ability of SAP to bind SLAM, CD84 or 2B4. However, signalling downstream of SLAM was reduced in the presence of SAP bearing the I84T mutation. These findings indicate that, irrespective of the type of mutation, signalling through SAP-associating receptors in XLP can be impaired by reducing the expression of SAP, the ability of SAP to bind surface receptors and/or its ability to activate signal transduction downstream of the SLAM-SAP complex.
Kondo, Seiji; Tanimoto, Kazuki; Yamada, Kozue; Yoshimoto, Goichi; Suematsu, Eiichi; Fujisaki, Tomoaki; Oshiro, Yumi; Tamura, Kazuo; Takeshita, Morishige; Okamura, Seiichi
We retrospectively analyzed in 54 consecutively enrolled Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) relevant clinicopathological characteristics, in particular paying attention to treatment with methotrexate (MTX). Between the 28 patients treated with MTX (MTX-treated group) and the 26 who were not (non-MTX group), there was no difference in age, interval between onset of RA and LPD, and lymphoma stage. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that in the MTX-treated group, 15 (53 %) patients had mature B-cell LPD, eight (29 %) mature T/NK-cell LPD, and five (18 %) had Hodgkin lymphoma. In the non-MTX group, 22 (84 %) had mature B-cell LPD, 2 (8 %) had mature T/NK-cell LPD, and 2 (8 %) had Hodgkin lymphoma. The frequency of mature T/NK-cell LPD was significantly higher in the MTX-treated group (p < 0.05). Of the eight patients in the MTX-treated group with mature T/NK-cell LPD, two had large granular lymphocytic leukemia and the other six had a variety of different histological types with frequent CD8 but not CD56 expression. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection was significantly higher in the MTX-treated group (p < 0.05); evidence of latent type II EBV infection was found in four of the eight patients with mature T/NK-cell LPD. Withdrawal of MTX led to complete remission in seven patients with mature T/NK-cell LPD irrespective of EBV infection. Our findings highlight that mature T/NK-cell LPD is a frequent complication in RA patients treated with MTX. EBV infection may play a role in the pathogenesis of T/NK-cell LPD, as well as B-cell LPD and Hodgkin lymphoma in MTX-treated RA patients.
Ikeda, Kazuki; Nakamura, Takefumi; Kinoshita, Takahiro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Uose, Suguru; Someda, Hitoshi; Miyoshi, Takashi; Io, Katsuhiro; Nagai, Ken-Ichi
We report the case of a 78-year-old woman with methotrexate-related gastric lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). The patient had a history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and had been treated with methotrexate (MTX). Endoscopic examination revealed round elevated lesions in the stomach, and a biopsy specimen showed atypical lymphoid cell proliferation. Immunohistological study found these atypical cells to be positive for L-26 but not for CD3 or EBER. Therefore, we made a diagnosis of MTX-related LPD showing features of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Combined positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) showed increased avidity in the stomach in addition to slightly increased FDG-avidity in the mediastinum and left chest wall. We decided not to start chemotherapy but to discontinue administration of MTX, with follow-up using endoscopy and PET-CT. The endoscopic examinations after cessation of MTX demonstrated gradual regression of the elevated lesions. PET-CT 6 months after cessation showed no increased FDG avidity in the stomach. While disease regression was observed in the stomach, the other FDG-avid spots remained unchanged on PET-CT. Therefore, we performed chemotherapy as additional therapy. On PET-CT after chemotherapy, the FDG-avid spots remained unchanged for more than 1 year, and we eventually concluded that they were RA-related inflammatory lesions. In patients with MTX-related LPD, cessation of MTX may be a therapeutic option, but careful follow-up and chemotherapy in accordance with the clinical course are essential.
Flynn, J T; Schulman, S L; deChadarevian, J P; Dunn, S P; Kaiser, B A; Polinsky, M S; Baluarte, H J
A child with congenital nephrotic syndrome underwent renal transplantation, was treated for acute rejection, and then developed nephrotic syndrome and renal failure. He was felt to have minimal change disease on allograft biopsy, but failed to respond to therapy with corticosteroids. Cyclophosphamide was substituted for cyclosporine and rapidly induced a complete remission of his nephrotic syndrome. We feel that this case not only represents an important example of a useful therapeutic approach to the child with congenital nephrotic syndrome who develops nephrotic syndrome post transplantation, and also raises questions concerning the pathogenesis of congenital nephrotic syndrome.
Stokes, Jessica; Hoffman, Emely A; Zeng, Yi; Larmonier, Nicolas; Katsanis, Emmanuel
Advances in haploidentical bone marrow transplantation (h-BMT) have drastically broadened the treatment options for patients requiring BMT. The possibility of significantly reducing the complications resulting from graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) with the administration of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT-CY) has substantially improved the efficacy and applicability of T cell-replete h-BMT. However, higher frequency of disease recurrence remains a major challenge in h-BMT with PT-CY. There is a critical need to identify novel strategies to prevent GvHD while sparing the graft-versus-leukaemia (GvL) effect in h-BMT. To this end, we evaluated the impact of bendamustine (BEN), given post-transplant, on GvHD and GvL using clinically relevant murine h-BMT models. We provide results indicating that post-transplant bendamustine (PT-BEN) alleviates GvHD, significantly improving survival, while preserving engraftment and GvL effects. We further document that PT-BEN can mitigate GvHD even in the absence of Treg. Our results also indicate that PT-BEN is less myelosuppressive than PT-CY, significantly increasing the number and proportion of CD11b(+) Gr-1(hi) cells, while decreasing lymphoid cells. In vitro we observed that BEN enhances the suppressive function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) while impairing the proliferation of T- and B-cells. These results advocate for the consideration of PT-BEN as a new therapeutic platform for clinical implementation in h-BMT. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Madkaikar, Manisha; Mhatre, Snehal; Gupta, Maya; Ghosh, Kanjaksha
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of lymphocyte homeostasis. It is characterized by non-malignant lymphoproliferation autoimmunity mostly directed toward blood cells and increased risk of lymphoma. Majority of patients with ALPS harbor heterozygous germline mutations in the gene for the TNF receptor-family member Fas (CD 95, Apo-1) which are inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Somatic Fas mutations are the second most common genetic etiology of ALPS. Additionally mutations in the genes encoding Fas-ligand (FASLG), caspase 10 (CASP10) and caspase 8 (CASP8), NRAS and KRAS have been identified in a small number of patients with ALPS and related disorders. Approximately one-third of patients with ALPS have yet unidentified defect. ALPS was initially thought to be a very rare disease, but recent studies have shown that it may be more common than previously thought. Testing for ALPS should therefore be considered in patients with unexplained lymphadenopathy, cytopenias, and hepatosplenomegaly. There have been significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of ALPS in last few years which has resulted in the development of new diagnostic criteria and a number of targeted therapies. This review describes the clinical and laboratory manifestations found in patients with ALPS, as well as the molecular basis for the disease and new advances in treatment.
Marsh, Rebecca A; Bleesing, Jack J; Chandrakasan, Shanmuganathan; Jordan, Michael B; Davies, Stella M; Filipovich, Alexandra H
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease type 1 (XLP1) is a rare immune deficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is often performed because of the morbidity and mortality associated with XLP1. There is limited experience using reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens for these patients. Here we report our 8-year single-center experience. Sixteen consecutive patients diagnosed with XLP1 underwent allogeneic HCT between 2006 and 2013 after a RIC regimen consisting of alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan. Patient phenotypes included hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) after Epstein-Barr virus (n = 5) or human herpesvirus 6 (n = 1), macrophage activation syndrome (n = 1), interstitial pneumonitis and encephalitis (n = 1), B cell lymphoma (n = 8), and hypogammaglobulinemia (n = 2). One patient was asymptomatic. Fourteen of 16 patients received 8/8 HLA-matched unrelated or related bone marrow grafts, whereas 2 patients received mismatched unrelated grafts. Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of methylprednisolone and cyclosporine in all but 1 patient, who additionally received methotrexate. All patients had hematopoietic recovery. There were no cases of hepatic veno-occlusive disease or pulmonary hemorrhage. One patient (6%) developed acute GVHD and later also developed chronic GVHD (6%). Five patients (31%) developed mixed chimerism. Only 1 patient with mixed chimerism (6%) experienced a decline of donor chimerism to less than 50% but returned to full donor chimerism after infusion of donor lymphocytes and a CD34(+) selected stem cell boost. Infectious complications were frequent, particularly viral reactivation. One-year survival estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis was 80%, with long-term survival estimated at 71%. Survival was similar for patients with or without a history of HLH (86% versus 75%, respectively, P = .70). There were no occurrences of lymphoma or HLH
Ueda, Koki; Ikeda, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Kazuei; Sukegawa, Masumi; Sano, Takahiro; Kimura, Satoshi; Suzuki, Osamu; Hashimoto, Yuko; Takeishi, Yasuchika
After acute infection of Epstein-Barr virus, Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells survive but usually do not show clonal proliferation. However, Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells occasionally acquire a proliferative capacity that provokes clonal lymphoproliferative disorders. We herein present a case with Epstein-Barr virus-infected CD30+ B cell and immunoglobulin G4+ plasmacytoid cell proliferation in the lymph nodes, suggesting a pathological and clinical interaction between Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and immunoglobulin G4-related disease. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease has been recognized as a benign disease with proliferation of IgG4-related disease+ plasmacytoid cells. Several studies have recently reported the coexistence of immunoglobulin G4-related disease+ plasmacytoid cells with Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells in lymph nodes in some immunoglobulin G4-related disease cases. However, the pathogenic role of the clonal proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells in immunoglobulin G4-related disease, as well as the treatments for patients with both Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells and immunoglobulin G4-related disease, have never been discussed. A 50-year-old Japanese man was referred to us for persistent fatigue and lymphadenopathy. His blood examination showed elevated IgG4, and detected high levels of Epstein-Barr virus DNA. A lymph node biopsy revealed IgG4+ plasmacytoid cells and infiltration of large lymphoid cells, which were positive for CD20, CD30, Epstein-Barr virus-related late membrane protein 1, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA, and were negative for IgG4. Based on the diagnosis of both Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder and IgG4-related disease, the patient received eight cycles of rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide and prednisolone, which resulted in the complete disappearance of lymphadenopathy. Moreover, his serum IgG4 level was significantly
Bashey, A; Solomon, S R
Availability of an HLA-identical sibling (MRD) or suitably matched unrelated donor (MUD) has historically been a limiting factor in the application of allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation. Although almost all patients have an HLA-haploidentical family donor, prior attempts at transplantation from such donors using T-cell replete grafts and conventional immunosuppression were associated with unacceptable rates of GVHD, and when stringent ex vivo T-cell depletion was used to control GVHD, rates of graft rejection and post-transplant infections were prohibitive. The recent approach to HLA-haploidentical donor transplantation developed in Baltimore that uses T-cell replete grafts and post-transplant CY (Haplo-post-HCT-CY) to control post-transplant allo-reactivity appears to have overcome many of the obstacles historically associated with haploidentical donor transplantation. In particular, TRM rates of <10% are usual and rapid reconstitution of immunity leads to a low rate of post-transplant infections and no post-tranplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD), consistent with the hypothesis that post-transplant CY selectively depletes proliferating alloreactive T cells responsible for GVHD and graft rejection while preserving resting memory T cells essential for post-transplant immunologic recovery. In parallel trials using similar non-myeloablative conditioning regimens, Haplo-post-HCT-CY produced similar overall survival to double umbilical cord blood transplantation(DUCBT) in adult patients (62% vs 54%), with low rates of TRM (7% vs 24%), severe acute GVHD (0% vs 21%) and chronic GVHD (13% vs 25%). Furthermore, recent non-randomized comparisons adjusted for risk factors show that Haplo-post-HCT-CY achieve at least equivalent outcomes to conventional MRD and MUD transplants. Although most experience has been obtained using BM, emerging data suggest that a G-CSF mobilized PBSC graft can also safely be used for Haplo-post-HCT-CY. Haplo-post-HCT-CY also avoids the
Rodrigues, Vera; Conde, Marta; Figueiredo, António; Vasconcelos, Júlia; Dias, Alexandra
The Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS) is an impairment of lymphocyte apoptosis expressed by generalized non-malignant lymphoproliferation, lymphadenopathy and/or splenomegaly. This article describes a seven and 14 year old males. The first one was admitted at 3 years of age with fever, bicytopenia and generalized lymphadenopathy. Hystopathological analysis of lymph nodes showed reactive follicular hyperplasia and marked paracortical expansion. He was readmitted three years later presenting herpes zoster and similar clinical features. High levels of IL-10 and increasing tendency of Fas-L in plasma and serum. The second child was admitted at 13 years of age presenting thigh and gluteus cellulitis, anemia and neutropenia. T lymphocytes aß+CD4-CD8- 3,1%. Hystopathological analysis of lymph nodes showed marked paracortical hyperplasia. Both children are treated with mycophenolate mofetil with good response. ALPS is an underestimated entity that must be considered in non malign lymphoproliferation, autoimmunity and expansion of an unusual population of a/ßCD3+CD4-CD8-(double-negative T cells>1%).
de Barros-Mazon, Sílvia; Guariento, Maria E; da Silva, Cleide Aparecida; Coffman, Robert L; Abrahamsohn, Ises A
In the search to identify differences in the immunological response between patients with the indeterminate or cardiac form of Chagas disease, trypomastigote-specific peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferative responses were studied. Suppression of lymphoproliferation occurred in both groups of patients, being more intense in those with the cardiac form. By adding to the cultures neutralizing mAbs anti-IFN-gamma, anti-IL-4, anti-IL-13, or anti-IL-10, indomethacin to block prostaglandin synthesis, NMMA as inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, or glutathione-peroxidase as H(2)O(2) scavenger, it was found that indomethacin augmented lymphoproliferation in both groups of patients. However, anti-IL-10 treatment increased proliferation only in PBMC cultures from patients with the cardiac form, indicating that in these patients, IL-10 was suppressing the immune response. These patients also had higher IL-10 levels in unstimulated cultures and higher PGE(2) levels in stimulated cultures. The results evidence that IL-10 regulates parasite-specific T cell responses in patients with the cardiac form, whereas regulation by prostaglandins (PG) occurs in patients with either cardiac or indeterminate form of the disease.
Alger, Katrina; Bunting, Elizabeth; Schuler, Krysten; Whipps, Christopher M
Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is an oncogenic avian retrovirus that was previously thought to exclusively infect domestic turkeys but was recently shown to be widespread in Wild Turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ) throughout most of the eastern US. In commercial flocks, the virus spreads between birds housed in close quarters, but there is little information about potential risk factors for infection in wild birds. Initial studies focused on distribution of LPDV nationally, but investigation of state-level data is necessary to assess potential predictors of infection and detect patterns in disease prevalence and distribution. We tested wild turkey bone marrow samples (n=2,536) obtained from hunter-harvested birds in New York State from 2012 to 2014) for LPDV infection. Statewide prevalence for those 3 yr was 55% with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 53-57%. We evaluated a suite of demographic, anthropogenic, and land cover characteristics with logistic regression to identify potential predictors for infection based on odds ratio (OR). Age (OR=0.16, 95% CI=0.13-0.19) and sex (OR=1.3, 95% CI=1.03-1.24) were strong predictors of LPDV infection, with juveniles less likely to test positive than adults, and females more likely to test positive than males. The number of birds released during the state's 40-yr translocation program (OR=0.993, 95% CI=0.990-0.997) and the ratio of agriculture to forest cover (OR=1.13, 95% CI=1.03-1.19) were also predictive of LPDV infection. Prevalence distribution was analyzed using dual kernel density smoothing to produce a risk surface map, combined with Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic and the Anselin Local Moran's I to identify statistically significant geographic clusters of high or low prevalence. These methods revealed the prevalence of LPDV was high (>50%) throughout New York State, with regions of variation and several significant clusters. We revealed new information about the risk factors and distribution of LPDV in
Epstein-Barr virus-associated posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder after high-dose immunosuppressive therapy and autologous CD34-selected hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe autoimmune diseases.
Nash, Richard A; Dansey, Roger; Storek, Jan; Georges, George E; Bowen, James D; Holmberg, Leona A; Kraft, George H; Mayes, Maureen D; McDonagh, Kevin T; Chen, Chien-Shing; Dipersio, John; Lemaistre, C Fred; Pavletic, Steven; Sullivan, Keith M; Sunderhaus, Julie; Furst, Daniel E; McSweeney, Peter A
High-dose immunosuppressive therapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently being evaluated for the control of severe autoimmune diseases. The addition of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) to high-dose chemoradiotherapy in the high-dose immunosuppressive therapy regimen and CD34 selection of the autologous graft may induce a higher degree of immunosuppression compared with conventional autologous HSCT for malignant diseases. Patients may be at higher risk of transplant-related complications secondary to the immunosuppressed state, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), but this is an unusual complication after autologous HSCT. Fifty-six patients (median age, 42 years; range, 23-61 years) with either multiple sclerosis (n = 26) or systemic sclerosis (n = 30) have been treated. The median follow-up has been 24 months (range, 2-60 months). Two patients (multiple sclerosis, n = 1; systemic sclerosis, n = 1) had significant reactivations of herpesvirus infections early after HSCT and then developed aggressive EBV-PTLD and died on days +53 and +64. Multiorgan clonal B-cell infiltrates that were EBV positive by molecular studies or immunohistology were identified at both autopsies. Both patients had positive screening skin tests for equine ATG (Atgam) and had been converted to rabbit ATG (Thymoglobulin) from the first dose. Of the other 54 patients, 2 of whom had partial courses of rabbit ATG because of a reaction to the intravenous infusion of equine ATG, only 1 patient had a significant clinical reactivation of a herpesvirus infection (herpes simplex virus 2) early after HSCT, and none developed EBV-PTLD. The T-cell count in the peripheral blood on day 28 was 0/microL in all 4 patients who received rabbit ATG; this was significantly less than in patients who received equine ATG (median, 174/microL; P =.001; Mann-Whitney ranked sum test). Although the numbers are limited
Chauvet, Sophie; Bridoux, Frank; Ecotière, Laure; Javaugue, Vincent; Sirac, Christophe; Arnulf, Bertrand; Thierry, Antoine; Quellard, Nathalie; Milin, Serge; Bender, Sébastien; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Jaccard, Arnaud; Fermand, Jean-Paul; Touchard, Guy
Kidney diseases associated with immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal gammopathy are poorly described, with few data for patient outcomes and renal response. Case series. 35 patients from 8 French departments of nephrology were retrospectively studied. Inclusion criteria were: (1) detectable serum monoclonal IgM, (2) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60mL/min/1.73m(2) and/or proteinuria with protein excretion > 0.5g/d and/or microscopic hematuria, and (3) kidney biopsy showing monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits and/or lymphomatous B-cell renal infiltration. All patients received chemotherapy, including rituximab-based regimens in 8 cases. Patients were classified into 3 groups according to renal pathology: glomerular AL amyloidosis (group 1; n=11), nonamyloid glomerulopathies (group 2; n=15, including 9 patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis), and tubulointerstitial nephropathies (group 3; n=9, including cast nephropathy in 5, light-chain Fanconi syndrome in 3, and isolated tumor infiltration in 1). Posttreatment hematologic response (≥50% reduction in serum monoclonal IgM and/or free light chain level) and renal response (≥50% reduction in 24-hour proteinuria or eGFR≥30mL/min/1.73m(2) in patients with glomerular and tubulointerstitial disorders, respectively). Nephrotic syndrome was observed in 11 and 6 patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Patients in group 3 presented with acute kidney injury (n=7) and/or proximal tubular dysfunction (n=3). Waldenström macroglobulinemia was present in 26 patients (8, 12, and 6 in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Significant lymphomatous interstitial infiltration was observed in 18 patients (4, 9, and 5 patients, respectively). Only 9 of 29 evaluable patients had systemic signs of symptomatic hematologic disease (2, 5, and 2, respectively). In groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, hematologic response was achieved after first-line treatment in 3 of 9, 9 of 10, and 5 of 6 evaluable patients, while
McCurdy, Shannon R.; Kasamon, Yvette L.; Kanakry, Christopher G.; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Tsai, Hua-Ling; Showel, Margaret M.; Kanakry, Jennifer A.; Symons, Heather J.; Gojo, Ivana; Smith, B. Douglas; Bettinotti, Maria P.; Matsui, William H.; Dezern, Amy E.; Huff, Carol Ann; Borrello, Ivan; Pratz, Keith W.; Gladstone, Douglas E.; Swinnen, Lode J.; Brodsky, Robert A.; Levis, Mark J.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Fuchs, Ephraim J.; Rosner, Gary L.; Jones, Richard J.; Luznik, Leo
Composite endpoints that not only encompass mortality and relapse, but other critical post-transplant events such as graft-versus-host disease, are being increasingly utilized to quantify survival without significant morbidity after allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation. High-dose, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide reduces severe graft-versus-host disease with allogeneic marrow transplantation, making composite endpoints after this management particularly interesting. We retrospectively analyzed 684 adults with hematologic malignancies who received T-cell-replete bone marrow grafts and cyclophosphamide after myeloablative HLA-matched related (n=192) or unrelated (n=120), or non-myeloablative HLA-haploidentical (n=372) donor transplantation. The median follow up was 4 (range, 0.02–11.4) years. Graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival was defined as the time after transplantation without grade III–IV acute graft-versus-host disease, chronic graft-versus-host disease requiring systemic treatment, relapse, or death. Chronic graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival was defined as the time after transplantation without moderate or severe chronic graft-versus-host disease, relapse, or death. One-year graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival and chronic graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival estimates were, respectively, 47% (95% CI: 41–55%) and 53% (95% CI: 46–61%) after myeloablative HLA-matched related, 42% (95% CI: 34–52%) and 52% (95% CI: 44–62%) after myeloablative HLA-matched unrelated, and 45% (95% CI: 40–50%) and 50% (95% CI: 45–55%) after non-myeloablative HLA-haploidentical donor transplantation. In multivariable models, there were no differences in graft-versus-host disease-free, or chronic graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival after either myeloablative HLA-matched unrelated or non-myeloablative HLA-haploidentical, compared with myeloablative HLA-matched related
Amparo, E; Kaplan, L; Rosenbloom, B; Lee, S
T-gamma-lymphoproliferative disorder, a syndrome of T-cell lymphocytosis with neutropenia has been described in patients with various autoimmune disorders, especially rheumatoid arthritis. We report a case of T-gamma-lymphoproliferative disorder occurring in a 42-year-old white woman with a long history of dermatitis herpetiformis and subsequent development of Coomb's positive autoimmune hemolytic anemia and polymyositis. The peripheral blood lymphocytes showed the T-suppressor cell phenotype (CD2-, CD3-, CD8-, and CD4-). DNA analysis of the peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed a T-cell receptor beta-chain gene rearrangement and an immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene rearrangement. The patient's course was marked by numerous bouts of infection. The unique factor in this patient was the development of a plasma cell dyscrasia and amyloidosis prior to death.
Klein, Orly R.; Chen, Allen R.; Gamper, Christopher; Loeb, David; Zambidis, Elias; Llosa, Nicolas; Huo, Jeffrey; Dezern, Amy E.; Steppan, Diana; Robey, Nancy; Holuba, Mary Jo; Cooke, Kenneth R.; Symons, Heather J.
Allogeneic (allo-) hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is curative for many nonmalignant pediatric disorders, including hemoglobinopathies, bone marrow failure syndromes, and immunodeficiencies. There is great success using HLA-matched related donors for these patients; however, the use of alternative donors has been associated with increased graft failure, graft versus host disease (GVHD), and transplant-related mortality (TRM). HSCT using alternative donors with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT/Cy) for GVHD prophylaxis has been performed for hematologic malignancies with engraftment, GVHD, and TRM comparable to that seen with HLA-matched related donors. There are limited reports of HSCT in nonmalignant pediatric disorders other than hemoglobinopathies using alternative donors and PT/Cy. We transplanted eleven pediatric patients with life-threatening nonmalignant conditions using reduced intensity conditioning (RIC), alternative donors, and PT/Cy alone or in combination with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. We observed limited GVHD, no TRM, and successful engraftment sufficient to eliminate manifestations of disease in all patients. Allo-HSCT using alternative donors and PT/Cy shows promise for curing nonmalignant disorders; development of prospective clinical trials to confirm these observations is warranted. PMID:26860634
Wall, Sarah; Woyach, Jennifer A
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia affects less than 1% of US adults but is the most common leukemia and primarily affects older patients. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are the seventh most common cancers in the United States and also primarily affect older patients. In general, older patients should be treated differently than their younger, fitter counterparts. Fitness level and comorbidities should be taken into account when planning treatment. First-line treatment of most of these B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders consists of chemoimmunotherapy. In relapsed and refractory disease, there is a growing role for therapies targeting the B-cell receptor signaling pathway.
Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Khalesi, Maryam; Farid, Reza; Badiee, Zahra; Rastin, Maryam; Ahanchian, Hamid
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is an uncommon nonmalignant lymphoproliferative disease which is characterized by chronic, persistent or recurrent lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, immune cytopenia , hypergammaglobinemia and increased risk of lymphoma. We report a 2-year old boy with hepatosplenomegaly as first presentation. Petechial and purpuric rashes with massive cervical lymphadenopathies developed 10 months later.In laboratory tests anemia, thrombocytopenia and hypergammaglobinemia were observed. According to flocytometry increased double negative T cells and by apoptosis assay decrease apoptosis of lymphocytes accompanied clinical manifestations, thus diagnosis of ALPS was established. In conclusion; in all patients with massive lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegay; especially with cytopenia; ALPS should be considered.
Naciri Bennani, Hamza; Abdulrahman, Zhyiar; Allal, Asma; Sallusto, Federico; Delarche, Antoine; Game, Xavier; Esposito, Laure; Doumerc, Nicolas; Debiol, Bénédicte; Kamar, Nassim; Rostaing, Lionel
Background: Living-kidney transplantation is increasing because of the scarcity of kidneys from deceased donors and the increasing numbers of patients on waiting lists for a kidney transplant. Living-kidney transplantation is now associated with increased long-term patient- and allograft-survival rates. Objectives: The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify, in a cohort of 44 ABO-incompatible (ABOi) live-kidney transplant patients, the main complications that occurred within 6 months post-transplantation, and to compare these findings with those from 44 matched ABO-compatible (ABOc) live-kidney transplant patients who were also from our center. Patients and Methods: This single-center retrospective study assessed post-transplantation complications in 44 ABO-i versus 44 matched ABO-c patients. All patients were comparable at baseline except that ABO-i patients had greater immunological risks. Results: During the 6-month post-transplant period, more ABO-i patients presented with postoperative bleeds, thus requiring significantly more blood transfusions. Bleeds were associated with significantly lower values of fibrinogen, platelets, prothrombin time, and hemoglobin levels. Surgical complications, patient- and graft-survival rates, and kidney-function statuses were similar between both groups at 6 months post-transplantation. Conclusions: We conclude that impairment of hemostatic factors at pre-transplant explained the increased risk of a post-transplant bleed in ABO-i patients. PMID:27047806
Haider, D G; Mittermayer, F; Friedl, A; Batrice, A; Auinger, M; Wolzt, M; Hörl, W H
Post-transplant-diabetes-mellitus (PTDM) is a frequent complication after kidney transplantation. One-hundred-and-seven patients with kidney transplantation were screened for the occurrence of PTDM. Of these, full data sets from 49 subjects were available with documented glucose concentrations during maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and regular clinical follow-up of 7-34 months. For assessment of glucose metabolism the response to a standard meal during MHD was used in normoglycemic patients based on fasting blood glucose. Abnormal postprandial blood glucose concentration was defined as >140 mg/dl 2 h after food intake.Twelve end stage renal disease patients had abnormal postprandial blood glucose on MHD. All 12 subjects but also four MHD patients with normal postprandial and fasting blood glucose values developed PTDM. Multivariate Cox-regression analysis revealed that abnormal postprandial blood glucose is a strong predictor for PTDM (Hazard ratio: 42.3 (IQR: 7.9-227.2); p<0.001). Fasting blood glucose (94 vs. 100 mg/dl) was not different between MHD patients who did (n=16) or did not (n=33) develop PTDM.This study suggests that measurement of postprandial blood glucose during MHD identifies patients who develop PTDM after kidney transplantation. It should be used for screening of patients at risk.
Oweira, Hani; Lahdou, Imad; Daniel, Volker; Hofer, Stefan; Mieth, Markus; Schmidt, Jan; Schemmer, Peter; Opelz, Gerhard; Mehrabi, Arianeb; Sadeghi, Mahmoud
Bacterial infections are the most common complications, and the major cause of mortality after liver transplantation (Tx). Neopterin, a marker of immune activation, is produced in monocyte/macrophages in response to inflammation. The aim of our study was to investigate whether early post-operation serum levels of neopterin were associated with post-transplant bacteremia and mortality in liver transplant recipients. We studied 162 of 262 liver Tx patients between January 2008 and February 2011 of whom pre- and early post-Tx sera samples were available. Pre- and early post-operative risk factors of infection and mortality were evaluated in 45 bacteremic patients and 117 non-bacteremic patients. During one-year follow-up, 28 of 262 patients died because of graft failure, septicemia and other diseases. Post-Tx serum neopterin on day 10 (p<0.001) were significantly higher in bacteriemic patients than in patients without bacteremia. Logistic regression analyses showed that day 10 post-Tx neopterin serum level ⩾40 nmol/l has a predictive value (OR=6.86: p<0.001) for bacteremia and mortality (OR=3.47: p=0.021). Our results suggest that early post-Tx neopterin serum levels are very sensitive predictive markers of one-year post-Tx bacteremia and mortality in liver Tx recipients. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arango, Marcos; Combariza, Juan F
Noninfection-related fever can occur after peripheral blood stem cell infusion in haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with post-transplant cyclophosphamide. The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence of fever and characterize some clinical features of affected patients. A retrospective case-series study with 40 patients who received haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was carried out. Thirty-three patients (82.5%) developed fever; no baseline characteristic was associated with its development. Median time to fever onset was 25.5h (range, 9.5-100h) and median peak temperature was 39.0°C (range, 38.1-40.5°C). Not a single patient developed hemodynamic or respiratory compromise that required admission to the intensive care unit. Fever was not explained by infection in any case. Ninety-one percent of the febrile episodes resolved within 96h of cyclophosphamide administration. No significant difference in overall survival, event-free survival, or graft versus host disease-free/relapse-free survival was found in the group of febrile individuals after peripheral blood stem cell infusion. Fever after peripheral blood stem cell infusion in this clinical setting was common; it usually subsides with cyclophosphamide administration. The development of fever was not associated with an adverse prognosis. Copyright © 2017 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
New onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is a major complication associated with solid-organ transplantation, sharing many similarities with type 2 diabetes mellitus. While metformin is recommended as the antiglycemic agent of choice in the general population, guidelines post-transplantation do not endorse metformin with equal importance and promote meglitinides as the agents of choice. Concerns with tolerability and safety of metformin in the complex polypharmacy of transplant recipients are likely causative factors for reluctant prescription among clinicians. However, such practice denies recipients a wide array of benefits attributed to metformin use in the general population. These include attenuation of abnormal glucose metabolism (diabetes treatment and prevention), weight neutrality, improvement in pathophysiological components of the metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, subclinical inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [NAFLD]), lipid-lowering properties, cardiovascular protection and antineoplastic potential. Whether such benefits translate from the general population to our high-risk recipients requires further investigation. By discussing the evidence of the risk/benefit ratio of metformin, the aim of this article is to promote the safe use of metformin as the first-line antiglycemic agent in the context of solid-organ transplantation for a host of indications that require clinical validation with appropriately designed trials. 2011 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
John, M Joseph; Rajasekhar, Reena; Mathews, Vikram
Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is an inherited disorder manifesting with autoimmune cytopenia, lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. The differential diagnosis includes infections, autoimmune disorders or malignancies. The disease is characterized by accumulation of double negative (CD3+ CD4- CD8-) T cells (DNT) in the peripheral blood. We describe a case and review the literature.
Gru, Alejandro A; Jaffe, Elaine S
This article will focus on the cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders associated with EBV, with an emphasis on the upcoming changes in the revised 4th Edition of the WHO classification of tumors of the hematopoietic system, many of which deal with cutaneous disorders derived from NK-cells or T-cells. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma usually presents in the upper aerodigestive tract, but can involve the skin secondarily. EBV-associated T- and NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) in the pediatric age group include the systemic diseases, chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) and systemic EBV+ T-cell lymphoma of childhood. Hydroa vacciniforme (HV)-like LPD is a primarily cutaneous form of CAEBV and encompasses the lesions previously referred to as HV and HV-like lymphoma (HVLL). All the T/NK-cell-EBV-associated diseases occur with higher frequency in Asians, and indigenous populations from Central and South America and Mexico. Among the B-cell EBV-associated LPD two major changes have been introduced in the WHO. The previously designated EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (EBV-DLBCL) of the elderly, has been changed to EBV-DLBCL with 'not otherwise specified' as a modifier (NOS). A new addition to the WHO system is the more recently identified EBV+ mucocutaneous ulcer, which involves skin and mucosal-associated sites.
Berryhill, Allison; Bhamre, Suvarna; Chaudhuri, Abanti; Concepcion, Waldo; Grimm, Paul C
Nephropathic cystinosis is a rare disorder causing the accumulation of intracellular cystine crystals in tissues. The damage to the proximal tubules of the kidneys results in Fanconi syndrome, and patients with cystinosis experience the progression of chronic kidney disease, resulting in the need for kidney transplantation. Treatment of cystinosis with cysteamine has proven to be effective; however, it has many gastrointestinal side effects that are concerning for transplant specialists during the immediate post-transplant period. Transplant specialists routinely discontinue cysteamine therapy for up to six weeks to ensure proper immunosuppressant absorption. This practice is worrisome because it communicates the acceptability of lapses of cysteamine treatment to patients. It may be better to re-initiate cysteamine therapy shortly after transplantation while the patient is followed more closely by the transplant team. This report presents two pediatric patients with nephropathic cystinosis who successfully restarted cysteamine therapy in the immediate post-transplant period without issue in regard to immunosuppression absorption or gastrointestinal side effects. These cases challenge current practice of discontinuing cysteamine therapy during kidney transplantation, and immediate re-initiation of cysteamine therapy in cystinosis patients post-transplant should be considered.
Park, S-C; Yoon, Y-D; Jung, H-Y; Kim, K-H; Choi, J-Y; Park, S-H; Kim, C-D; Kim, Y-L; Kim, H-K; Huh, S; Cho, J-H
Hyperglycemia occurs frequently after kidney transplantation and may be reversed when the dosage of the immunosuppressive agents is tapered. However, the effect of transient post-transplantation hyperglycemia (PTH) on transplantation outcomes is not well described. Kidney transplant recipients without diabetes who underwent kidney transplantation between 2001 and 2012 were enrolled in the study. Transient PTH was defined as recovery from PTH without further antidiabetic therapy and the maintenance of glycated hemoglobin levels <6.5% at 1 year after transplantation. Persistent PTH until 1 year after transplantation was considered to be new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). The factors associated with increased risk of PTH were analyzed. We compared the development of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and other transplantation outcomes among patients with no PTH, transient PTH, and NODAT. Among 176 kidney transplant recipients, 106 (60.2%) developed PTH and 58 (54.7%) of 106 patients with PTH had transient PTH. Older age, high body mass index (BMI), and female gender were independent risk factors for transient PTH. The incidence of diabetes was not significantly different between patients with no PTH and those with transient PTH. The incidence of cardiovascular disease was significantly increased in NODAT group compared with that in no PTH and transient PTH groups. However, the incidences of acute rejection, allograft loss, and patient death were comparable among the three groups. Transient hyperglycemia after kidney transplantation was found to be associated with older age, high body mass index, and female gender. Transient elevation of blood glucose level did not affect post-transplantation outcomes, including diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. However, patients with NODAT should be carefully monitored for the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Börcek, Pelin; Özdemir, B Handan; Özgün, Gonca; Haberal, Mehmet
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder is a relatively common posttransplant malignancy affecting as many as 10% of all solid-organ recipients. Most cases of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder are of B-cell origin, with common Epstein-Barr virus association. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders of T-cell origin are much rarer and less frequently associated with Epstein-Barr virus. Here, we report an unusual case of Epstein-Barr virus-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma causing an intestinal perforation in an adult renal transplant recipient. A 52-year-old male patient with renal allograft developed cryptogenic end-stage liver failure and was accepted as a candidate for liver transplant. Before transplant, he was admitted with severe abdominal pain, which turned out to result from ileal perforation. Pathologic evaluation of the intestinal resection showed diffuse malignant lymphoid infiltration of the ileum, consistent with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. The tumor was positive for Epstein-Barr virus genome. Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma is a rare form of T-cell posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder that is infrequently associated with Epstein-Barr virus. The occurrence of this extraordinary form of post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, its late onset, intestinal localization, and Epstein-Barr virus as sociation represent a unique clinical rarity.
Batorov, Egor V; Tikhonova, Marina A; Kryuchkova, Irina V; Sergeevicheva, Vera V; Sizikova, Svetlana A; Ushakova, Galina Y; Batorova, Dariya S; Gilevich, Andrey V; Ostanin, Alexander A; Shevela, Ekaterina Y; Chernykh, Elena R
High-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (AHSCT) causes severe and long-lasting immunodeficiency in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. The thymus begins to restore the T-cell repertoire approximately from the sixth month post-transplant. We assessed the dynamics of post-transplant recovery of CD4(+)CD45RA(+)CD31(+) T cells, "recent thymic emigrants" (RTEs), and a poorly described subtype of CD4(+)CD45RA(-)CD31(+) T cells in 90 patients with lymphoproliferative disorders following high-dose chemotherapy with AHSCT. Relative and absolute counts of CD4(+)CD31(+) naïve and memory T cells were evaluated before AHSCT, at the day of engraftment, and 6- and 12-month post-transplant. The pre-transplant count of CD4(+)CD45RA(+)CD31(+) T cells was lower than in healthy controls, and did not reach donors' values during the 12-month period. The pre-transplant number of CD4(+)CD45RA(-)CD31(+) T cells was higher than in healthy controls and was restored rapidly following AHSCT. Post-transplant mediastinal radiotherapy reduced counts of RTEs and elongated recovery period. Non-thymic tissue irradiation did not reduce this subset. The obtained data indicate that homeostatic proliferation may decrease the significance of CD31 expression on CD4(+)CD45RA(+) T cells as a marker of RTEs, and suggest that evaluation of RTEs recovery by flow cytometry requires an accurate gating strategy to exclude CD31(+) memory T cells.
Barsoum, Rashad S; William, Emad A; Khalil, Soha S
Hepatitis-C (HCV) infection can induce kidney injury, mostly due to formation of immune-complexes and cryoglobulins, and possibly to a direct cytopathic effect. It may cause acute kidney injury (AKI) as a part of systemic vasculitis, and augments the risk of AKI due to other etiologies. It is responsible for mesangiocapillary or membranous glomerulonephritis, and accelerates the progression of chronic kidney disease due to other causes. HCV infection increases cardiovascular and liver-related mortality in patients on regular dialysis. HCV-infected patients are at increased risk of acute post-transplant complications. Long-term graft survival is compromised by recurrent or de novo glomerulonephritis, or chronic transplant glomerulopathy. Patient survival is challenged by increased incidence of diabetes, sepsis, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, and liver failure. Effective and safe directly acting antiviral agents (DAAs) are currently available for treatment at different stages of kidney disease. However, the relative shortage of DAAs in countries where HCV is highly endemic imposes a need for treatment-prioritization, for which a scoring system is proposed in this review. It is concluded that the thoughtful use of DAAs, will result in a significant change in the epidemiology and clinical profiles of kidney disease, as well as improvement of dialysis and transplant outcomes, in endemic areas.
Liu, Song; Miao, Ji; Shi, Xiaolei; Wu, Yafu; Jiang, Chunping; Zhu, Xinhua; Wu, Xingyu; Ding, Yitao; Xu, Qingxiang
In spite of the increasing success of liver transplantation, there remains inevitable risk of postoperative complications, re-operations, and even death. Risk factors that correlate with post-transplant death have not been fully identified. We performed a retrospective analysis of 65 adults that received donation after circulatory death liver transplantation. Binary logistic regression and Cox's proportional hazards regression were employed to identify risk factors that associate with postoperative death and the length of survival period. Twenty-two recipients (33.8%) deceased during 392.3 ± 45.6 days. The higher preoperative Child-Pugh score (p = .007), prolonged postoperative ICU stay (p = .02), and more postoperative complications (p = .0005) were observed in deceased patients. Advanced pathological staging (p = .02) with more common nerve invasion (p = .03), lymph node invasion (p = .02), and para-tumor satellite lesion (p = .01) were found in deceased group. The higher pre-transplant Child-Pugh score was a risk factor for post-transplant death (OR = 4.38, p = .011), and was correlated with reduced post-transplant survival period (OR = 0.35, p = .009). Nerve invasion was also a risk factor for post-transplant death (OR = 13.85, p = .014), although it failed to affect survival period. Our study emphasizes the impact of recipient's pre-transplant liver function as well as pre-transplant nerve invasion by recipient's liver cancer cells on postoperative outcome and survival period in patients receiving liver transplantation.
Willicombe, Michelle; Kumar, Nicola; Goodall, Dawn; Clarke, Candice; McLean, Adam G; Power, Albert; Taube, David
Corticosteroid use after transplantation is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular events and death. Cerebrovascular disease is a common cause of morbidity and mortality post-renal transplantation; however, a dedicated analysis of cerebrovascular disease in recipients of a steroid sparing protocol has not been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of CVA in transplant recipients receiving a steroid sparing protocol. We retrospectively analyzed 1237 patients who received a kidney alone or a simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplant. Fifty-six of 1237 (4.53%) patients had a CVA post-transplant. All-cause mortality was significantly higher in the CVA group compared with the non-CVA group, OR: 3.4 (1.7-7.0), p < 0.001. Factors found to be associated with increased risk of CVA by multivariate analysis were older age, HR: 1.07 (1.04-1.09), p < 0.001; diabetes at the time of transplantation, HR: 2.83 (1.42-5.64), p = 0.003; corticosteroid use pre-transplant, HR: 3.27 (1.29-8.27), p = 0.013 and recipients of a SPK, HR: 4.03 (1.85-8.79), p < 0.001. This study has identified subgroups of patients who are at increased risk of CVA post-transplant in patients otherwise receiving a steroid sparing immunosuppression protocol. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cai, Qingqing; Chen, Kailin; Young, Ken H
Epstein-Barr virus, a ubiquitous human herpesvirus, can induce both lytic and latent infections that result in a variety of human diseases, including lymphoproliferative disorders. The oncogenic potential of Epstein-Barr virus is related to its ability to infect and transform B lymphocytes into continuously proliferating lymphoblastoid cells. However, Epstein-Barr virus has also been implicated in the development of T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases. Epstein-Barr virus encodes a series of products that mimic several growth, transcription and anti-apoptotic factors, thus usurping control of pathways that regulate diverse homeostatic cellular functions and the microenvironment. However, the exact mechanism by which Epstein-Barr virus promotes oncogenesis and inflammatory lesion development remains unclear. Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases often have overlapping clinical symptoms as well as histologic and immunophenotypic features because both lymphoid cell types derive from a common precursor. Accurate classification of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases is a prerequisite for appropriate clinical management. Currently, the treatment of most T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases is less than satisfactory. Novel and targeted therapies are strongly required to satisfy clinical demands. This review describes our current knowledge of the genetics, oncogenesis, biology, diagnosis and treatment of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases.
Cai, Qingqing; Chen, Kailin; Young, Ken H
Epstein–Barr virus, a ubiquitous human herpesvirus, can induce both lytic and latent infections that result in a variety of human diseases, including lymphoproliferative disorders. The oncogenic potential of Epstein–Barr virus is related to its ability to infect and transform B lymphocytes into continuously proliferating lymphoblastoid cells. However, Epstein–Barr virus has also been implicated in the development of T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases. Epstein–Barr virus encodes a series of products that mimic several growth, transcription and anti-apoptotic factors, thus usurping control of pathways that regulate diverse homeostatic cellular functions and the microenvironment. However, the exact mechanism by which Epstein–Barr virus promotes oncogenesis and inflammatory lesion development remains unclear. Epstein–Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases often have overlapping clinical symptoms as well as histologic and immunophenotypic features because both lymphoid cell types derive from a common precursor. Accurate classification of Epstein–Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases is a prerequisite for appropriate clinical management. Currently, the treatment of most T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases is less than satisfactory. Novel and targeted therapies are strongly required to satisfy clinical demands. This review describes our current knowledge of the genetics, oncogenesis, biology, diagnosis and treatment of Epstein–Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases. PMID:25613730
Image findings of monomorphic non-hogdkin lymphoproliferative disorder in a post renal transplant patient diagnosed with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography
Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Rajasekar, Thirugnanam; Shibu, Deepu; Radhakrishnan, Edathurthy Kalarikal; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a heterogeneous group of lymphoid proliferations caused by immunosuppression after solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. PTLD is categorized by early lesion, polymorphic PTLD and monomorphic PTLD. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) scans have clinical significance in the evaluation of PTLD following renal transplantation. We report imaging findings of a monomorphic non-Hodgkin lymphoma, post renal transplant seen on FDG PET/CT in a 32-year-old lactating woman. Whole body FDG- ET/CT demonstrated uptake in right external iliac and inguinal lymph nodes. PMID:25210292
Min, Ji Won; Kim, Kyoung Woon; Kim, Bo-Mi; Doh, Kyoung Chan; Choi, Min Seok; Choi, Bum Soon; Park, Cheol Whee; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong-Soo
It is well known that pre-transplant B cell activating factor (BAFF) levels are associated with the development of de novo anti-HLA antibodies and antibody mediated rejection post-transplant. However, the clinical significance of BAFF values at allograft rejection has not been determined. In this study, we investigated the clinical significance of pre-transplant BAFF level as well as post-transplant BAFF levels measured when indication biopsy was done. We checked for anti-HLA antibodies in 115 kidney transplant recipients who required allograft biopsy due to an increase in serum creatinine. With the same serum specimen, we measured BAFF levels, and in 78 of these patients, pre-transplant BAFF and anti-HLA antibody levels were detected as well. Patients in each group were divided into tertiles according to BAFF levels. We investigated the relationship between BAFF levels and the occurrence of anti-HLA antibodies. Pre-transplant BAFF levels showed significant association with pre-transplant sensitization, and also with early rejection (Tertile 3, 26.9% vs. Tertile 1, 11.5%; P<0.05). Post-transplant BAFF levels showed significant association with pre-transplant sensitization, but did not show association with anti-HLA antibodies and positive donor-specific antibodies at the time of biopsy. We did not find any association between post-transplant BAFF levels and allograft biopsy results, Banff scores and microvascular inflammation scores. In conclusion, pre-transplant BAFF levels are associated with pre-transplant sensitization and are useful in predicting allograft rejection. But post-transplant BAFF levels measured at the time of indication biopsy are not associated with the appearance of de novo HLA-DSA, allograft rejection, biopsy findings and other allograft outcomes. PMID:27631619
Cho, Min Soo; Choi, Hyo-In; Kim, In-Ok; Jung, Sung-Ho; Yun, Tae-Jin; Lee, Jae-Won; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Jae-Joong
The aim of this study was to describe in more detail the predisposition, natural course, and clinical impact of post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) after heart transplantation (HT). The characteristics and clinical outcomes of 54 patients with PTDM were compared with those of 140 patients without PTDM. The mean age of PTDM patients was significantly higher than controls (48.9 ± 9.3 vs 38.6 ± 13.3 yr, respectively, P = 0.001), and ischemic heart disease was a more common indication of HT (20.4% [11/54] vs 7.1% [10/140], respectively, P = 0.008). In multivariate analysis, only recipient age (odds ratio, 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.40; P = 0.001) was associated with PTDM development. In 18 patients (33%), PTDM was reversed during the follow-up period, and the reversal of PTDM was critically dependent on the time taken to develop PTDM (1.9 ± 1.0 months in the reversed group vs 14.5 ± 25.3 months in the maintained group, P = 0.005). The 5-yr incidence of late infection (after 6 months) was higher in the PTDM group than in the control group (30.4% ± 7.1% vs 15.4% ± 3.3%, respectively, P = 0.031). However, the 5-yr overall survival rate was not different (92.9% ± 4.1% vs 85.8% ± 3.2%, respectively, P = 0.220). In conclusion, PTDM after HT is reversible in one-third of patients and is not a critical factor in patient survival after HT.
Oda, D; Persson, G R; Haigh, W G; Sabath, D E; Penn, I; Aziz, S
Cyclosporine, an immunosuppressive agent widely used in organ transplantation, has several undesirable side effects, including gingival hyperplasia, which occurs in up to 70% of patients. Another complication associated with use of cyclosporine and other immunosuppressants is an increased incidence of malignancies. Long-term use of cyclosporine also is associated with a spectrum of hyperproliferative disorders ranging from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia to aggressive malignant lymphomas. While cyclosporine-related lymphoproliferative disorders have been widely reported, they have not been described in the oral cavity as the first manifestation of this disease. We report on two cardiac transplantation patients with a history of cyclosporine use who presented initially with oral symptoms of lymphoproliferative disorder. Both had erythematous to cyanotic and hyperplastic gingiva. On gingivectomy, the fixed tissue was soft, glistening, and tan colored, in contrast to the usual firm, white, cyclosporine-associated, benign gingival fibrous hyperplasia. Histologically, a dense, diffuse infiltrate of lymphoplasmacytoid cells with vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, a moderate amount of cytoplasm, and high mitotic activity was observed. Immunocytochemical studies confirmed that the cells were monoclonal for lambda light chains in one patient and kappa light chains in the other. The cells from one patient were positive for CD45, while both patients were negative for CD20 and all nonhematopoietic antigens tested. Both tissues were strongly positive for Epstein-Barr virus. Morphology and immunocytochemistry findings are consistent with a posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. These are the first two reported cases of cyclosporine-associated posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders presenting as gingival hyperplasia.
Ries, F; Ferster, A; Rieux-Laucat, F; Biwer, A; Dicato, M
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare disease caused by defective lymphocyte apoptosis and is characterized by non-malignant lymphoproliferation, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmune manifestations and increased risk of both Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Most forms of the disease are due to germ line mutations of the FAS gene and manifest during the first years of life with fluctuating lymphadenopathies, hemolysis, immune thrombocytopenia. During the second decade of life disease manifestations improve spontaneously but autoimmune problems still occur and there is an increased risk of lymphoproliferative malignancy. We describe a typical case of ALPS in a now 44 year old man, followed since the age of 2 for disease manifestations that were unclear at the beginning.
Garrido Colino, C
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) represents a failure of apoptotic mechanisms to maintain lymphocyte homeostasis. ALPS often manifest in childhood with cytopenias, chronic non-malignant lymphoproliferation and autoimmune complications. A number of new insights have improved the understanding of the genetics and biology of ALPS. The treatment of the disease has changed and mycophenolate mofetil and sirolimus have been demonstrated to have marked activity against the disease, improving quality of life for many patients. These will be discussed in this review.
Other Diseases of Blood and Blood-forming Organs; Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia; Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Myeloproliferative Syndrome; Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma; Hodgkins Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma
Skare, J.C.; Milunsky, A.; Byron, K.S.; Sullivan, J.L.
The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is triggered by Epstein-Barr virus infection and results in fatal mononucleosis, immunodeficiency, and lymphoproliferative disorders. This study shows that the mutation responsible for X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is genetically linked to a restriction fragment length polymorphism detected with the DXS42 probe (from Xq24-q27). The most likely recombination frequency between the loci is 4%, and the associated logarithm of the odds is 5.26. Haplotype analysis using flanking restriction fragment length polymorphism markers indicates that the locus for X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is distal to probe DXS42 but proximal to probe DXS99 (from Xq26-q27). It is now possible to predict which members of a family with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome are carrier females and to diagnose the syndrome prenatally.
Leite, Nuno Pinto; Kased, Norbert; Hanna, Robert F; Brown, Michele A; Pereira, Jose M; Cunha, Rui; Sirlin, Claude B
Extranodal lymphoproliferative diseases are common, and their prevalence is increasing. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas and Hodgkin disease, in particular, frequently involve extranodal structures in the abdomen and pelvis, including both the solid organs (liver, spleen, kidneys, and pancreas) and the hollow organs of the gastrointestinal tract. Because virtually any abdominopelvic tissue may be involved, many different imaging manifestations are possible, and lymphoproliferative diseases may mimic other disorders. Familiarity with the imaging manifestations that are diagnostically specific for extranodal lymphoproliferative diseases is important because imaging plays an important role in the noninvasive management of disease. However, a definitive diagnosis requires a biopsy (of bone marrow, a lymph node, or a mass), a peripheral blood analysis, and other laboratory tests. In patients with known disease, the goals of imaging are staging, evaluation of response to therapy, and identification of new or recurrent disease or of complications of therapy. In patients without known disease, imaging permits a provisional diagnosis.
Jeon, Yoon Kyung; Yoon, Sun Och; Paik, Jin Ho; Kim, Young A; Shin, Bong Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Cha, Hee Jeong; Kim, Ji Eun; Huh, Jooryung; Ko, Young-Hyeh
Molecular pathologic testing plays an important role for the diagnosis, prognostication and decision of treatment strategy in lymphoproliferative disease. Here, we briefly review the molecular tests currently used for lymphoproliferative disease and those which will be implicated in clinical practice in the near future. Specifically, this guideline addresses the clonality test for B- and T-cell proliferative lesions, molecular cytogenetic tests for malignant lymphoma, determination of cell-of-origin in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and molecular genetic alterations incorporated in the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms. Finally, a new perspective on the next-generation sequencing for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic purpose in malignant lymphoma will be summarized.
Sud, Rahul; Garry, Lorraine; Spicer, Stephen Timothy; Allen, Richard D M; Eris, Josette M; Wyburn, Kate; Verran, Deborah; Cooper, Caroline Louise; Chadban, Steve
Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rare complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) that carries a high morbidity and mortality. The 'two hit theory' suggests that long term deterioration of the peritoneum combined with intraperitoneal inflammation is needed in the pathogenesis of EPS. For unclear reasons, post transplantation EPS is being increasingly reported in patients previously on PD. To date, there is no proven effective therapy with an absence of randomised controlled trials. Individual case reports and small case series have reported on the use of tamoxifen and corticosteroids for medical management of EPS. The use of everolimus has been reported in a single case, and never in the setting of renal transplantation. Here, we present the first case of post-transplant encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis treated successfully with a combination of everolimus, tamoxifen, low dose corticosteroid and surgery.
Lambotte, Olivier; Neven, Bénédicte; Galicier, Lionel; Magerus-Chatinet, Aude; Schleinitz, Nicolas; Hermine, Olivier; Meyts, Isabelle; Picard, Capucine; Godeau, Bertrand; Fischer, Alain; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric
A diagnosis of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome caused by FAS deficiency during adulthood is unusual. We analyzed 17 cases of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome caused by FAS deficiency diagnosed during adulthood in French reference centers for hereditary immunodeficiencies and for immune cytopenias. Twelve of the 17 patients had developed their first symptoms during childhood. The diagnosis of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome had been delayed for a variety of reasons, including unusual clinical manifestations, late referral to a reference center, and the occurrence of somatic FAS mutations. The 5 other patients presented their first symptoms after the age of 16 years. In these patients, three germline heterozygous FAS mutations were predicted to be associated with haploinsufficiency and a somatic event on the second FAS allele was observed in 2 cases. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome may well be diagnosed in adulthood. The occurrence of additional genetic events may account for the delayed disease onset.
Prasad, Narayan; Jaiswal, Akhilesh; Agarwal, Vikas; Kumar, Shashi; Chaturvedi, Saurabh; Yadav, Subhash; Gupta, Amit; Sharma, Raj K.; Bhadauria, Dharmendra; Kaul, Anupama
Background We aimed to longitudinally analyse changes in the levels of serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and associated minerals in patients undergoing renal transplantation. Methods Sixty-three patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who underwent living donor transplantation were recruited. Serum FGF23, iPTH, uric acid, inorganic phosphorous (iP), blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were measured pre-transplant and at 1 (M1), 3 (M3) and 12 months (M12) post-transplantation. Results FGF23 levels were decreased at M1, M3 and M12 by 93.81, 96.74 and 97.53%, respectively. iPTH levels were decreased by 67.95, 74.95 and 84.9%, respectively. The prevalence of hyperparathyroidism at M1, M3 and M12 post-transplantation was 63.5, 42.9 and 11.1%, respectively. FGF23 and iP levels remained above the normal range in 23 (36.5%) and 17 (27%) patients at M1, 10 (15.9%) and 5 (8%) at M3 and in none at M12 post-transplantation, respectively. A multivariate regression model revealed that, pre-transplant, iP was positively associated with iPTH (P = 0.016) but not with FGF 23; however, post-transplant, iP level was negatively associated with FGF23 (P < 0.001) but not with iPTH. Conclusions Post-transplant FGF23 levels settle faster than those of iPTH. However, 11% of patients continued to have hyperparathyroidism even after 12 months. PMID:27679713
Campistol, Josep M; Cuervas-Mons, Valentín; Manito, Nicolás; Almenar, Luis; Arias, Manuel; Casafont, Fernando; Del Castillo, Domingo; Crespo-Leiro, María G; Delgado, Juan F; Herrero, J Ignacio; Jara, Paloma; Morales, José M; Navarro, Mercedes; Oppenheimer, Federico; Prieto, Martín; Pulpón, Luis A; Rimola, Antoni; Román, Antonio; Serón, Daniel; Ussetti, Piedad
Solid-organ transplant recipients are at increased risk of developing cancer compared with the general population. Tumours can arise de novo, as a recurrence of a preexisting malignancy, or from the donated organ. The ATOS (Aula sobre Trasplantes de Órganos Sólidos; the Solid-Organ Transplantation Working Group) group, integrated by Spanish transplant experts, meets annually to discuss current advances in the field. In 2011, the 11th edition covered a range of new topics on cancer and transplantation. In this review we have highlighted the new concepts and best practices for managing cancer in the pre-transplant and post-transplant settings that were presented at the ATOS meeting. Immunosuppression plays a major role in oncogenesis in the transplant recipient, both through impaired immunosurveillance and through direct oncogenic activity. It is possible to transplant organs obtained from donors with a history of cancer as long as an effective minimization of malignancy transmission strategy is followed. Tumour-specific wait-periods have been proposed for the increased number of transplantation candidates with a history of malignancy; however, the patient's individual risk of death from organ failure must be taken into consideration. It is important to actively prevent tumour recurrence, especially the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in liver transplant recipients. To effectively manage post-transplant malignancies, it is essential to proactively monitor patients, with long-term intensive screening programs showing a reduced incidence of cancer post-transplantation. Proposed management strategies for post-transplantation malignancies include viral monitoring and prophylaxis to decrease infection-related cancer, immunosuppression modulation with lower doses of calcineurin inhibitors, and addition of or conversion to inhibitors of the mammalian target of rapamycin. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Comparison of Subcutaneous versus Intravenous Alemtuzumab for Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis with Fludarabine/Melphalan-Based Conditioning in Matched Unrelated Donor Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.
Patel, Khilna; Parmar, Sapna; Shah, Shreya; Shore, Tsiporah; Gergis, Usama; Mayer, Sebastian; van Besien, Koen
The objective of this study was to compare infusion-related reactions and outcomes of using subcutaneous (subQ) alemtuzumab versus intravenous (i.v.) alemtuzumab as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis for matched unrelated donor stem cell transplantations. Outcomes include incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV)/Epstein-Barr (EBV) viremia, development of CMV disease or post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder, fatal infections, acute and chronic GVHD, time to engraftment, relapse rate, and survival. We conducted a retrospective study of all adult matched unrelated donor stem cell transplantations patients who received fludarabine/melphalan with subQ or i.v. alemtuzumab in combination with tacrolimus as part of their conditioning for unrelated donor transplantation at New York-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center from January 1, 2012 to March 21, 2014. Alemtuzumab was administered at a total cumulative dose of 100 mg (divided over days -7 to -3). Forty-six patients received an unrelated donor stem cell transplantation with fludarabine/melphalan and either subQ (n = 26) or i.v. (n = 20) alemtuzumab in combination with tacrolimus. Within the evaluable population, 130 subQ and 100 i.v. alemtuzumab doses were administered. For the primary outcome, ≥grade 2 infusion-related reactions occurred in 11 (8%) versus 25 (25%) infusions in the subQ and i.v. cohorts, respectively (P = .001). Overall, 12 injections (9%) in the subQ arm versus 26 infusions (26%) in the i.v. arm experienced an infusion-related reaction of any grade (P = .001). There were no significant differences between the subQ and i.v. arms in rates of reactivation of CMV/EBV, development of CMV disease or post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder, fatal infections, acute and chronic GVHD, relapse, or survival. Subcutaneous administration of alemtuzumab for GVHD prophylaxis was associated with fewer infusion-related reactions compared with i.v. administration in the SCT setting
Dabrowska-Zamojcin, Ewa; Romanowski, Maciej; Dziedziejko, Violetta; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Safranow, Krzysztof; Domanski, Leszek; Pawlik, Andrzej
Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common complication after solid organ transplantation, especially in recipients treated with calcineurin inhibitors. Previous studies suggest that chronic inflammation and chemokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can increase or decrease transcriptional activity and can change the production of chemokines. The aim of this study was to examine the association between CCL2 and CCL5 gene polymorphisms and the development of post-transplant diabetes mellitus. The study included 315 patients who received kidney transplants and were treated with calcineurin inhibitors. Patients were divided into two subgroups: with PTDM (n=43) and without PTDM (n=272). An additive model of univariate Cox regression analysis showed that the hazard of PTDM development was significantly positively associated with the number of CCL2 rs1024611 G alleles (HR 1.65; 95%CI 1.08-2.53; p=0.021). Multivariate Cox regression analysis, taking into the account the recipient's sex, age and BMI, as well as the number of G alleles of the CCL2 rs1024611 polymorphism, revealed that this polymorphism is an independent risk factor for post-transplant diabetes. The results of our study suggest an association between the CCL2 gene rs1024611 G allele and PTDM in patients treated with tacrolimus or cyclosporine.
Kurata, Yoko; Kuzuya, Takafumi; Miwa, Yuko; Iwasaki, Kenta; Haneda, Masataka; Amioka, Katsuo; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Watarai, Yoshihiko; Katayama, Akio; Uchida, Kazuharu; Kobayashi, Takaaki
Although therapeutic drug monitoring based on blood concentration has been widely implemented in transplant recipients treated with immunosuppressive agents, clinical adverse events such as rejection, infection or drug-induced toxicity caused by inappropriate dosage cannot be completely controlled. Development of an effective assay for optimized immunosuppression would be desirable, which can potentially lead to personalized medicine in renal transplantation. Cyclosporine (CSA) pharmacodynamic analysis using carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-based T cell proliferation assay was examined in 66 kidney transplant recipients before and after transplantation. Two parameters, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) and the percentage of T-cell proliferation values at the lower plateau (bottom), were compared with clinical events. A significant relation in CSA pharmacodynamic parameters was observed between pre- and post-transplantation. Analysis of the association between clinical outcomes and pharmacodynamic parameters in post-transplant samples demonstrated the following findings: (i) cytomegalovirus (CMV)/varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation and CSA-induced nephrotoxicity were significantly associated with high sensitivity to CSA (low bottom or low IC50), (ii) acute T cell-mediated rejection (ATMR) was significantly related to low sensitivity to CSA (high bottom), and (iii) de novo human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibody production was associated with lower bottom and IC50 values, although the elucidation of those mechanisms is still in progress. It was suggested that CSA pharmacodynamics applied at post-transplantation would be useful for optimizing immunosuppressive therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Comparison of two real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction strategies for minimal residual disease evaluation in lymphoproliferative disorders: correlation between immunoglobulin gene mutation load and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction performance.
Della Starza, Irene; Cavalli, Marzia; Del Giudice, Ilaria; Barbero, Daniela; Mantoan, Barbara; Genuardi, Elisa; Urbano, Marina; Mannu, Claudia; Gazzola, Anna; Ciabatti, Elena; Guarini, Anna; Foà, Robin; Galimberti, Sara; Piccaluga, Pierpaolo; Gaidano, Gianluca; Ladetto, Marco; Monitillo, Luigia
We compared two strategies for minimal residual disease evaluation of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders characterized by a variable immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) genes mutation load. Twenty-five samples from chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (n = 18) or mantle cell lymphoma (n = 7) patients were analyzed. Based on IGH variable region genes, 22/25 samples carried > 2% mutations, 20/25 > 5%. In the IGH joining region genes, 23/25 samples carried > 2% mutations, 18/25 > 5%. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on IGH genes using two strategies: method A utilizes two patient-specific primers, whereas method B employs one patient-specific and one germline primer, with different positions on the variable, diversity and joining regions. Twenty-three samples (92%) resulted evaluable using method A, only six (24%) by method B. Method B poor performance was specifically evident among mutated IGH variable/joining region cases, although no specific mutation load above, which the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction failed was found. The molecular strategies for minimal residual disease evaluation should be adapted to the B-cell receptor features of the disease investigated.
Verghese, Priya; Gillingham, Kristen; Matas, Arthur; Chinnakotla, Srinath; Chavers, Blanche
The association of blood transfusions with GS after pediatric KTx is unclear. We retrospectively analyzed blood transfusions post-KTx and subsequent outcomes. Between 1984 and 2013, 482 children (<18 years of age) underwent KTx at our center. Recipient demographics, outcomes and transfusion data were collected. Cox regression with post-KTx blood transfusion as a time-dependent covariate was performed to model the impact of blood transfusion on outcomes. Of the 208 (44%) that were transfused, 39% had transfusion <1 month post-KTx; 48% >12 months. Transfused and non-transfused recipients were not significantly different. In univariate and multivariate analyses, there was no difference between transfused and non-transfused recipient patient survival, antibody-mediated and ACR, and DSA free survival. Transfusions <1 month post-KTx did not impact DCGS (P=NS). Patients transfused >12 months post-KTx had significantly lower 12 month eGFR (compared to non-transfused) and worse subsequent DCGS. Post-KTx blood transfusions have increased in pediatric KTx over time but have no negative association with rejection or DSA production. DCGS is unaffected by transfusion within first month. Transfusions after the first year occur in patients with more advanced chronic kidney disease and are associated with significantly worse DCGS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Devillier, R; Bramanti, S; Fürst, S; Sarina, B; El-Cheikh, J; Crocchiolo, R; Granata, A; Chabannon, C; Morabito, L; Harbi, S; Faucher, C; Santoro, A; Weiller, P-J; Vey, N; Carlo-Stella, C; Castagna, L; Blaise, D
Unmanipulated haploidentical transplantation (Haplo-SCT) using post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) represents an alternative for patients with high-risk diseases lacking HLA-identical donor. Although it provides low incidences of GVHD, the efficacy of Haplo-SCT is still questioned, especially for patients with myeloid malignancies. Thus, we analyzed 60 consecutive patients with refractory (n=30) or high-risk CR (n=30) AML or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) who underwent PT-Cy Haplo-SCT. The median age was 57 years (22-73 years), hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index was ⩾3 in 38 patients (63%) and Haplo-SCT was the second allogeneic transplantation for 10 patients (17%). Although most of patients received PBSC as graft source (n=48, 80%), we found low incidences of grade 3-4 acute (2%) and severe chronic GVHD (4%). Among patients with high-risk CR diseases, 1-year non-relapse mortality, cumulative incidence of relapse, progression-free and overall survivals were 20%, 32%, 47% and 62%, respectively. In patients with refractory disease, corresponding results were 34%, 35%, 32% and 37%, respectively. We conclude that PT-Cy Haplo-SCT could provide promising anti-leukemic effect even in the setting of very advanced diseases. Thus, it represents a viable alternative for high-risk AML/MDS patients without HLA-identical donor.
Blaslov, Kristina; Katalinic, Lea; Kes, Petar; Spasovski, Goce; Smalcelj, Ruzica; Basic-Jukic, Nikolina
Although glucocorticoid therapy is considered to be the main pathogenic factor, a consistent body of evidence suggests that other immunosuppressants might also play an important role in the development of the post-transplant renal osteopathy (PRO) through their pleiotropic pharmacological effects. Glucocorticoids seem to induce osteoclasts' activity suppressing the osteoblasts while data regarding other immunosuppressive drugs are still controversial. Mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine appear to be neutral regarding the bone metabolism. However, the study analyzing any independent effect of antimetabolites on bone turnover has not been conducted yet. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) induce trabecular bone loss in rodent, with contradictory results in renal transplant recipients. Suppression of vitamin D receptor is probably the underlying mechanism of renal calcium wasting in renal transplant recipients receiving CNI. In spite of an increased 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D level, the kidney is not able to reserve calcium, suggesting a role of vitamin D resistance that may be related to bone loss. More efforts should be invested to determine the role of CNI in PRO. In particular, data regarding the role of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi), such as sirolimus and everolimus, in the PRO development are still controversial. Rapamycin markedly decreases bone longitudinal growth as well as callus formation in experimental models, but also lowers the rate of bone resorption markers and glomerular filtration in clinical studies. Everolimus potently inhibits primary mouse and human osteoclast activity as well as the osteoclast differentiation. It also prevents the ovariectomy-induced loss of cancellous bone by 60 %, an effect predominantly associated with a decreased osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, resulting in a partial preservation of the cancellous bone. At present, there is no clinical study analyzing the effect of everolimus on bone turnover in renal
Dierickx, Daan; Cardinaels, Nina
Liver transplantation has emerged as a life-saving treatment for several patients with acute liver failure, end stage liver disease and primary hepatic malignancies. However, long term immunosuppressive therapy aiming to reduce the risk of transplant rejection increases the incidence of several complications including malignancies. This is illustrated by the observation of a high ratio between observed and expected cases of lymphoproliferative disorders following liver transplantation. Despite a huge heterogeneity in morphological appearance of these disorders ranging from reactive-like lesions to real lymphomas, they are collectively termed posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders. In this review we will provide an overview of this rare but challenging disorder as a complication of liver transplantation. PMID:26494960
Lombardi, Lindsey R.; Kanakry, Christopher G.; Zahurak, Marianna; Durakovic, Nadira; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Kasamon, Yvette L.; Gladstone, Douglas E.; Matsui, William; Borrello, Ivan; Huff, Carol Ann; Swinnen, Lode J.; Brodsky, Robert A.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Fuchs, Ephraim J.; Rosner, Gary L.; Jones, Richard J.; Luznik, Leo
Busulfan (Bu)/cyclophosphamide (Cy) is a standard conditioning platform for allogeneic transplantation. We developed a strategy separating the Cy into two pre/post-transplantation doses (PTCy), providing myeloablative conditioning and single-agent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. We investigated the impact of Bu route on treatment-related toxicity for 131 consecutive adult patients. Busulfan was administered in four daily divided doses either orally (n = 72) or intravenously (n = 59) with pharmacokinetics on the first-dose and as necessary on subsequent doses to achieve a target area-under-the-concentration-curve (AUC) of 800–1400 µmol*min/L per dose. BuCy/PTCy with pharmacokinetics is well-tolerated with low treatment-related toxicity. Hepatic veno-occlusive disease incidence was 6% with two fatal events. Bu administration route in the context of BuCy/PTCy did not statistically impact hepatotoxicity, GVHD, relapse, disease-free survival, or overall survival. The BuCy/PTCy platform has a low incidence of treatment-related toxicity, including hepatotoxicity, in hematologic malignancies when using pharmacokinetics for a target AUC of 800–1400 µmol*min/L, irrespective of Bu administration route. PMID:26292764
Dierickx, Daan; Tousseyn, Thomas; Requilé, Annelies; Verscuren, Raf; Sagaert, Xavier; Morscio, Julie; Wlodarska, Iwona; Herreman, An; Kuypers, Dirk; Van Cleemput, Johan; Nevens, Frederik; Dupont, Lieven; Uyttebroeck, Anne; Pirenne, Jacques; De Wolf-Peeters, Christiane; Verhoef, Gregor; Brepoels, Lieselot; Gheysens, Olivier
We investigated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in 170 cases with suspected or biopsy-proven posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. All solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients who underwent an 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography scan between 2003 and 2010 in our center for the indication posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, were retrospectively reviewed and results were compared with tissue biopsy whenever possible. One hundred and seventy positron emission tomography scans in 150 patients were eligible for evaluation. In 45 cases, the patient had a biopsy-confirmed posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder before positron emission tomography scanning and positron emission tomography was performed for staging purposes. In the remaining 125 cases, positron emission tomography was performed to differentiate between posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder and other diseases. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-uptake was quantitatively expressed by calculation of maximum and mean standardized uptake value in the most intense lesion or, in the absence of attenuation corrected positron emission tomography scans, by comparing uptake in target lesion to liver and mediastinal uptake. We found an overall sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 89%, positive predictive value of 91% and negative predictive value of 87% for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder detection by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. In a subanalysis of the 125 scans performed for differentiating posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder from other diseases, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 90%, 89%, 85% and 93%, respectively. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-uptake in posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder was generally high with a median mean and maximum standardized uptake
Dierickx, Daan; Tousseyn, Thomas; Requilé, Annelies; Verscuren, Raf; Sagaert, Xavier; Morscio, Julie; Wlodarska, Iwona; Herreman, An; Kuypers, Dirk; Van Cleemput, Johan; Nevens, Frederik; Dupont, Lieven; Uyttebroeck, Anne; Pirenne, Jacques; De Wolf-Peeters, Christiane; Verhoef, Gregor; Brepoels, Lieselot; Gheysens, Olivier
We investigated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in 170 cases with suspected or biopsy-proven posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. All solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients who underwent an 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography scan between 2003 and 2010 in our center for the indication posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, were retrospectively reviewed and results were compared with tissue biopsy whenever possible. One hundred and seventy positron emission tomography scans in 150 patients were eligible for evaluation. In 45 cases, the patient had a biopsy-confirmed posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder before positron emission tomography scanning and positron emission tomography was performed for staging purposes. In the remaining 125 cases, positron emission tomography was performed to differentiate between posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder and other diseases. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-uptake was quantitatively expressed by calculation of maximum and mean standardized uptake value in the most intense lesion or, in the absence of attenuation corrected positron emission tomography scans, by comparing uptake in target lesion to liver and mediastinal uptake. We found an overall sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 89%, positive predictive value of 91% and negative predictive value of 87% for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder detection by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. In a subanalysis of the 125 scans performed for differentiating posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder from other diseases, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 90%, 89%, 85% and 93%, respectively. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-uptake in posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder was generally high with a median mean and maximum standardized uptake
Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis in individuals from sporadic (non-familial) chronic lymphocytic leukemia families persists over time, but does not progress to chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases
Matos, Daniel Mazza; Furtado, Felipe Magalhães; Falcão, Roberto Passetto
Background Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis is classified as ‘high-count or clinical’ monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis and ‘low-count or population’ monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis. Previously, 167 first-degree relatives pertaining to sporadic (non-familial) chronic lymphocytic leukemia families were studied and the presence of seven monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis individuals was reported. Objective The aim of this report is to describe the outcomes of five of the original monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis individuals. Methods Flow cytometry analysis was performed on mononuclear cells previously isolated from peripheral blood samples. A strategy of sequential gating designed to identify the population of CD19+/CD5+ B-lymphocytes was used and, subsequently, the monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis cells were characterized by the CD20weak/CD79bweak/negative phenotype. Results The monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis clone showed consistent stability over time with little variations in size. After a median follow-up of 7.6 years, none of the five monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis individuals progressed to chronic lymphocytic leukemia or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disease. Conclusions The data of this study suggest that chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis detected in the context of sporadic chronic lymphocytic leukemia families is not prone to clinical evolution and could be just a sign of immune senescence. PMID:26408361
Meena, K R; Bisht, Supriya; Tamaria, K C
Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS) is a rare inherited disorder of abnormal lymphocyte apoptosis, leading to chronic lymphoproliferation. It presents as lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly and autoimmune phenomena. Pure red cell aplasia is characterized by normochromic normocytic anemia, reticulocytopenia, and absence of erythroblasts from a normal bone marrow. Only few lymphoproliferative disorders have been associated with erythroid aplasia. The authors are reporting a case of ALPS associated with red cell aplasia in a 7-y-old girl.
Vlachaki, Efthymia; Diamantidis, Michael D; Klonizakis, Philippos; Haralambidou-Vranitsa, Styliani; Ioannidou-Papagiannaki, Elizabeth; Klonizakis, Ioannis
Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a rare bone marrow failure syndrome defined by a progressive normocytic anaemia and reticulocytopenia without leukocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Secondary PRCA can be associated with various haematological disorders, such as chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The aim of the present review is to investigate the infrequent association between PRCA and lymphoproliferative disorders. PRCA might precede the appearance of lymphoma, may present simultaneously with the lymphoid neoplastic disease, or might appear following the lymphomatic disorder. Possible pathophysiological molecular mechanisms to explain the rare association between PRCA and lymphoproliferative disorders are reported. Most cases of PRCA are presumed to be autoimmune mediated by antibodies against either erythroblasts or erythropoietin, by T-cells secreting factors selectively inhibiting erythroid colonies in the bone marrow or by NK cells directly lysing erythroblasts. Finally, focus is given to the therapeutical approach, as several treatment regimens have failed for PRCA. Immunosuppressive therapy and/or chemotherapy are effective for improving anaemia in the majority of patients with lymphoma-associated PRCA. Further investigation is required to define the pathophysiology of PRCA at a molecular level and to provide convincing evidence why it might appear as a rare complication of lymphoproliferative disorders.
Libra, Massimo; Gasparotto, Daniela; Gloghini, Annunziata; Navolanic, Patrick Michael; De Re, Valli; Carbone, Antonino
Several infectious agents have been associated with development of lymphoproliferative disorders. Among these is hepatitis C virus (HCV), which infects more than 200 million people worldwide. HCV infection has been linked to progression of type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) syndrome and has also been suggested to contribute to development of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Mechanisms responsible for development of lymphoproliferative disorders among HCV-positive patients remain unclear. Accumulating evidence supports a model in which chronic stimulation of B-cells by antigens associated with HCV infection causes nonmalignant B-cell expansion that may evolve into B-cell NHL. The course of disease among HCV-positive B-cell NHL patients may be complicated by coinfection with other infectious agents. This possibility has been explored by studies that have investigated potential interactions between HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as well as between HCV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Further characterization of the mechanisms by which HCV promotes development of lymphoproliferative disorders may improve diagnosis, classification, and treatment of these conditions.
Ollech, Jacob E; Kramer, Mordechai R; Peled, Nir; Ollech, Ayelet; Amital, Anat; Medalion, Benjamin; Saute, Milton; Shitrit, David
Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common and potentially serious complication after solid organ transplantation. There are only a few data, however, about the incidence of DM in patients undergoing lung transplantation. The medical records of 119 consecutive patients who underwent lung transplantation from 1998 to September 2004 were reviewed. Patients were divided in three groups according to their diabetes status, including pre-transplant DM, the PTDM group and those without DM. Patient records and all laboratory data were reviewed and the clinical course of diabetes was monitored. All recipients were treated with tacrolimus based regimen. Mean follow-up for all patients was 25+/-10. Twenty-three patients had DM in the pre-lung transplantation (LTX) DM group. PTDM developed in 34 of the remaining 96 patients (35.4%) with an incidence of 20%, 23% after 6 months and 12 months post-transplant. No significant difference was noted between 12 and 24 months post-LTX. The patients who developed DM were older (57+/-15 vs 53+/-13 years, p=0.009), had increased BMI (26+/-5 vs 24+/-4, p=0.0001), shorter time from diagnosis to LTX (21+/-13 vs 28+/-18 months, p=0.007) more cytomegalovirus infection and more acute rejection and hyperglycemia in the first month after LTX. Four patients died in the PTDM group compared to nine patients in the no-DM group (12% vs 14%; p=0.72). Post-transplant diabetes is a common complication in lung transplant patients receiving tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. The risk for developing PTDM is greatest among older recipients, those obese, and among recipients with more rejections episodes.
Hymes, Leonard C; Greenbaum, Laurence; Amaral, Sandra G; Warshaw, Barry L
Subclinical acute rejection (SCR) has been increasingly recognized in adult renal transplant recipients with the advent of surveillance biopsies. However, in children, surveillance biopsies are not routinely performed at most centers. Therefore, the incidence, predisposing factors, treatment, and clinical outcomes of SCR remain unclear in children. From August 2004 to December 2005, we performed 36 protocol biopsies at three months post-transplantation. All patients had received induction therapy with basiliximab and were maintained on prednisone, MMF, and tacrolimus. Sixteen cases of SCR were detected by biopsy (44%). Age, gender, race, donor source, or serum creatinine did not discriminate between children with SCR and those with normal biopsies. All cases of SCR were treated with high doses of methylprednisolone. At one yr post-transplant, renal function was similar in children with SCR to those with normal surveillance biopsies (p = 0.62). Because of the high incidence of SCR, the maintenance dose of MMF was increased by 50% in 20 children transplanted after December 2005. This resulted in a significant decline in the incidence of SCR from 44 to 15% (p < 0.05). However, the incidence of polyomavirus (BK) viremia also increased significantly in these children (p < 0.005). A high incidence of SCR was found on surveillance biopsies at three months post-transplant and could not be predicted by age, gender, race, donor source, or serum creatinine. The occurrence of SCR declined significantly by increasing the dose of MMF, but resulted in an increase in BK viremia. We conclude that surveillance biopsies provide valuable information in the management of pediatric renal transplant recipients. Increasing immunosuppression to avoid SCR should be weighed against the risk for infection.
Querfeld, Christiane; Kuzel, Timothy M; Guitart, Joan; Rosen, Steven T
The spectrum of CD30+ lymphoproliferative diseases of the skin includes CD30+ cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, lymphomatoidpapulosis, as well as borderline cases. These entities constitute the second most common group of cutaneous lymphomas according to the newly revised World Health Organization and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer consensus classification. Recent progress in immune and molecular biology, and identification of therapeutic targets have increased our understanding of these diseases and have led to novel treatment approaches. This review will provide an update on recent findings of immunologic, molecular, cytogenetic features and treatment strategies for patients with CD30+ lymphoproliferative diseases.
Valentini, Rudolph P; Imam, Abubakr; Warrier, Indira; Ellis, Demetrius; Ritchey, A Kim; Ravindranath, Yaddanapudi; Shapiro, Ron; Moritz, Michael L
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) has been reported to occur after renal transplantation, and typically does so in the first few weeks post-transplant. We report on a 3-yr-old child who developed cold AIHA nearly 1 yr after an ABO identical, living donor renal transplant from his mother. Numerous transfusions, pulse steroids, repeat plasma exchange treatments, and IVIG were unsuccessful. Nearly 3 wk into his illness, tacrolimus was changed to cyclosporine, and then to sirolimus, and resulted in a prompt response. He currently has a normal renal function and a normal hemoglobin level on sirolimus monotherapy.
Gibbs, A R; Seal, R M
The clinical, laboratory, and pathological features of six primary lymphoproliferative conditions of the lung are described. These comprise two patients with malignant lymphomas, one with pseudolymphoma, one with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP), one with lymphomatoid granulomatosis, and one with plasma cell granuloma. We recommend that the term 'premalignant lymphoma' be used for pseudolymphoma since the condition, although tending to remain localised, has a malignant potential. A combination of dyspnoea, cough, and pyrexia were the presenting features in our cases of premalignant and malignant lymphoma although they may often be discovered accidentally by chest radiography. The patient with LIP presented with the usual symptoms of dyspnoea and cough. The initial manifestations of the patient with lymphomatoid granulomatosis were skin radh and peripheral neuropathy nine months before the pulmonary symptoms, a not unusual occurrence. Plasma cell granuloma is often asymptomatic but our patient presented with cough, chest pain, haemoptysis. Premalignant lymphoma tends to pursue a benign course although exceptionally it may become disseminated. Malignant lymphoma may remain localised for many years but a significant proportion metastasise. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis and LIP have a varied course but both may terminate in malignant lymphoma. Plasma cell granuloma is always benign. The interrelationships of these conditions and their differential diagnosis are discussed.
Yang, Ting; Wu, Xue Mei; Qiu, Hong Qiang; Fu, Dan Hui; Hu, Jian Da; Li, Jian; Zheng, Xiao Yun; Luo, Xiao Feng; Yuan, Xiao Hong; Chen, Ru Ling; Chen, Zhi Zhe
Metabolism of triazole antifungal agents is highly competitive to conventional post-transplant immunosuppressants like cyclosporine A (CsA) via the cytochrome P450-dependent pathway. We present the first report on lethal complications that may arise due to this type of drug interaction. A retrospective survey identified 10 of 104 cases (9.62%) that suffered life-threatening complications associated with the interaction between CsA and itraconazole or voriconazole following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) at our center. According to the close drug monitoring, all 10 patients experienced supratherapeutic levels of CsA even with a preemptive CsA dosage reduction and prompt dose adjustment. Six patients developed grade I to III acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and eventually died from either idiopathic pneumonia syndrome or diffuse alveolar hemorrhage; another four patients died from CSA-associated neurological complications. Impaired hepatic and renal function was noted in only one of these 10 cases. The high frequency as well as the unpredictability of severe complications lead us to suggest that triazole should always be replaced by another antifungal medication (e.g., amphotericin B or Echincandins) while patients receive CsA after HSCT, especially in the Chinese population. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Sadat, M A; Dirscherl, S; Sastry, L; Dantzer, J; Pech, N; Griffin, S; Hawkins, T; Zhao, Y; Barese, C N; Cross, S; Orazi, A; An, C; Goebel, W S; Yoder, M C; Li, X; Grez, M; Cornetta, K; Mooney, S D; Dinauer, M C
X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD) is an inherited immunodeficiency with absent phagocyte NADPH-oxidase activity caused by defects in the gene-encoding gp91(phox). Here, we evaluated strategies for less intensive conditioning for gene therapy of genetic blood disorders without selective advantage for gene correction, such as might be used in a human X-CGD protocol. We compared submyeloablative with ablative irradiation as conditioning in murine X-CGD, examining engraftment, oxidase activity and vector integration in mice transplanted with marrow transduced with a gamma-retroviral vector for gp91(phox) expression. The frequency of oxidase-positive neutrophils in the donor population was unexpectedly higher in many 300 cGy-conditioned mice compared with lethally irradiated recipients, as was the fraction of vector-marked donor secondary CFU-S12. Vector integration sites in marrow, spleen and secondary CFU-S12 DNA from primary recipients were enriched for cancer-associated genes, including Evi1, and integrations in or near cancer-associated genes were more frequent in marrow and secondary CFU-S12 from 300 cGy-conditioned mice compared with fully ablated mice. These findings support the concept that vector integration can confer a selection bias, and suggest that the intensity of the conditioning regimen may further influence the effects of vector integration on clonal selection in post-transplant engraftment and hematopoiesis.
Naveed, Muhammad; Khamis Butt, Umar Bin; Mannan, Jovaria
We describe 2 cases of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), which is a rare disorder of auto-immunity, chronic persistent or recurrent lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and hyper gamma globulinemia (1gG, 1gA). Both cases presented in neonatal period which is a rare age of presentation in this disease. A 20 days old female neonate presented with respiratory symptoms which rapidly progressed needing ventilatory support. There was hepatomegaly and no auscultatory findings in the chest. Serial CBCs (complete blood counts) showed persistent leucocytosis with predominant lymphocytosis. Her chest X-ray showed left sided consolidation which responded poorly to antibiotics. Her prompt clinical response to steroids raised the suspicion of autoimmunity and the diagnosis was established after a negative bone marrow examination for leukemia and a positive result for ALPS on flow cytometry. The second case presented with anemia, thrombocytopenia starting in neonatal period followed by persistent lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly and recurrent infections which responded poorly to antibiotics. Diagnosis was delayed due to low index of suspicion, and finally achieved with multiple radiological studies, histopathology and flow cytometry.
Parrish, Andrew; Fenchel, Matthew; Storch, Gregory A; Buller, Richard; Mason, Sheila; Williams, Nikki; Ikle, David; Conrad, Carol; Faro, Albert; Goldfarb, Samuel; Hayes, Don; Melicoff-Portillo, Ernestina; Schecter, Marc; Visner, Gary; Sweet, Stuart; Danziger-Isakov, Lara
Prediction of PTLD after pediatric lung transplant remains difficult. Use of EBV VL in WB has been poorly predictive, while measurement of VL in BAL fluid has been suggested to have enhanced utility. The NIH-sponsored Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation in Children (CTOTC-03) prospectively obtained serial quantitative measurements of EBV PCR in both WB and BAL fluid after pediatric lung transplantation. Descriptive statistics, contingency analyses, and Kaplan-Meier analyses evaluated possible association between EBV and PTLD. Of 61 patients, 34 (56%) had an EBV+PCR (at least once in WB or BAL). EBV donor (D)+patients more often had a positive PCR (D+/recipient (R)-: 13/18; D+/R+: 14/23) compared to EBV D- patients (6/17). Several D-/R- (5/12) patients developed EBV, but none developed PTLD. All four PTLD patients were D+/R- with EBV+PCR. Neither the time to first EBV+PCR nor the CT for PCR positivity in BAL or WB was statistically different between those with and without PTLD. Having an EBV-seropositive donor was associated with increased risk of EBV+PCR in WB. EBV load in BAL was not predictive of PTLD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Imamovic, Semir; Ljuca, Farid; Imamovic, Goran; Iljazagic Halilovic, Fatima; Krdzalic, Alisa; Hasukic, Sefik; Mesic, Deso; Zerem, Enver
Increasing gap between demand and availability of human kidneys for transplantation has forced a re-evaluation of the limits on donor age acceptability. The present study included 74 patients who underwent kidney transplantation in University Clinical Centre Tuzla. In an observational cohort study we assessed impact of donor age on post transplant renal function by analyzing following parameters: 24 hour urine output, creatinine clearance (Cr Cl) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Depending on donor age recipients were allocated in to two groups. Group I included patients who received renal graft from donors age up to 55 years, and Group II encountered recipients who received renal graft from donors older than 55 years. Our goal was to determine whether donor age over 55 years significantly diminishes renal graft function in first seven post transplant days. No statistically significant difference was found between Group I and II regarding 24 hour urine output. From second to fifth postoperative day creatinine clearance values were higher in the group of patients who received kidney from donors older than 55 years (47+/-19, 1 vs. 44, 4+/-20, 8). On the fifth, sixth and seventh post operative day GFR was significantly higher in patients who received renal graft from donors age up to 55 years (p<0, 0161). Our data showed no significant difference in observed variables between the two groups, thus indicating that utilization of renal grafts from donors' age > 55 years is acceptable and may considerably expand the donor pool.
Yabu, J. M.; Fontaine, M. J.
Blood group incompatibility remains a significant barrier to kidney transplantation. Approximately one-third of donors are blood group incompatible with their intended recipient. Options for these donor-recipient pairs include blood group incompatible transplantation or kidney paired donation. However, the optimal protocol for blood group incompatible transplantation is unknown. Protocols differ in techniques to remove ABO antibodies, titer targets and immunosuppression regimens. In addition, the mechanisms of graft accommodation to blood group antigens remain poorly understood. We describe a blood group incompatible protocol using pre-transplant therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin and rituximab in addition to prednisone, mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus. In this protocol, we do not exclude patients based on a high initial titer and do not implement post-transplant TPE. All 16 patients who underwent this protocol received a living donor transplant with 100 percent patient and graft survival, and no reported episodes of antibody-mediated rejection to date with a median follow-up of 2.6 years (range 0.75 to 4.7 years). We conclude that blood group incompatible transplantation can be achieved without post-transplant TPE. PMID:25739580
Shivaswamy, Vijay; Boerner, Brian; Larsen, Jennifer
Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a frequent consequence of solid organ transplantation. PTDM has been associated with greater mortality and increased infections in different transplant groups using different diagnostic criteria. An international consensus panel recommended a consistent set of guidelines in 2003 based on American Diabetes Association glucose criteria but did not exclude the immediate post-transplant hospitalization when many patients receive large doses of corticosteroids. Greater glucose monitoring during all hospitalizations has revealed significant glucose intolerance in the majority of recipients immediately after transplant. As a result, the international consensus panel reviewed its earlier guidelines and recommended delaying screening and diagnosis of PTDM until the recipient is on stable doses of immunosuppression after discharge from initial transplant hospitalization. The group cautioned that whereas hemoglobin A1C has been adopted as a diagnostic criterion by many, it is not reliable as the sole diabetes screening method during the first year after transplant. Risk factors for PTDM include many of the immunosuppressant medications themselves as well as those for type 2 diabetes. The provider managing diabetes and associated dyslipidemia and hypertension after transplant must be careful of the greater risk for drug-drug interactions and infections with immunosuppressant medications. Treatment goals and therapies must consider the greater risk for fluctuating and reduced kidney function, which can cause hypoglycemia. Research is actively focused on strategies to prevent PTDM, but until strategies are found, it is imperative that immunosuppression regimens are chosen based on their evidence to prolong graft survival, not to avoid PTDM.
Kelpke, Stacey S.; Chen, Bo; Bradley, Kelley M.; Teng, Xinjun; Chumley, Phillip; Brandon, Angela; Yancey, Brett; Moore, Brandon; Head, Hughston; Viera, Liliana; Thompson, John A.; Crossman, David K.; Bray, Molly S.; Eckhoff, Devin E.; Agarwal, Anupam; Patel, Rakesh P.
Renal injury induced by brain death is characterized by ischemia and inflammation and limiting it is a therapeutic goal that could improve outcomes in kidney transplantation. Brain death resulted in decreased circulating nitrite levels and increased infiltrating inflammatory cell infiltration into the kidney. Since nitrite stimulates nitric oxide signaling in ischemic tissues, we tested whether nitrite therapy was beneficial in a rat model of brain death followed by kidney transplantation. Nitrite, administered over 2 hours of brain death, blunted the increased inflammation without affecting brain death-induced alterations in hemodynamics. Kidneys were transplanted after 2 hours of brain death and renal function followed over 7 days. Allografts collected from nitrite-treated brain dead rats showed significant improvement in function over the first 2 to 4 days post transplantation compared to untreated brain dead animals. Gene microarray analysis after 2 hours of brain death without or with nitrite therapy showed the latter significantly altered the expression of about 400 genes. Ingenuity Pathway analysis indicated multiple signaling pathways were affected by nitrite, including those related to hypoxia, transcription and genes related to humoral immune responses. Thus, nitrite-therapy attenuates brain death-induced renal injury by regulating responses to ischemia and inflammation, ultimately leading to better post-transplant kidney function. PMID:22534964
A case of age-related EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder metachronously showing two distinct morphologic appearances, one of a polymorphic disease resembling classical Hodgkin lymphoma, and the other of a large-cell lymphoma.
Murase, Tadashi; Fujita, Ayumi; Ueno, Hironori; Park, Jae-Won; Yano, Takahiro; Hoshikawa, Masahiro; Takagi, Masayuki; Kuramochi, Shigeru
We report a case of age-related EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (age-related EBV+ B-cell LPD) metachronously showing two distinct morphologic appearances: one of a polymorphic disease resembling classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL), and the other of a large-cell lymphoma. A 71-year-old man was admitted to the St. Marianna University Hospital because of fever and generalized lymphadenopathy. Right axillary lymph node biopsy revealed mixed cellularity classical Hodgkin lymphoma (MCHL). The patient was referred to the Tokyo Medical Center, where he was treated with chemotherapy and obtained CR. One year later, the patient again developed fever and generalized lymphadenopathy. Biopsy of the right cervical mass revealed a diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with salvage chemotherapies and obtained the second CR. Two years later, the patient developed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Although CR was achieved with chemotherapy, AML relapsed 5 months later and proved to be refractory. Two and a half years later, the patient developed right cervical lymph node enlargement. The biopsy again revealed diagnosis of MCHL. The patient died 2 months later. On reviewing all of the biopsy specimens, including the findings of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, possibility of CHL was ruled out, because neoplastic giant cells resembling Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells were positive for both Oct2 and BOB.1, which has not been reported in CHL. Both HRS-like cells at the time of diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma and lymphoma cells at the time of diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were positive for CD20 and EBV-encoded small RNAs. This case was finally diagnosed as having age-related EBV+ B-cell LPD. We report the case here as it underscores the difficulty in diagnosing age-related EBV+ B-cell LPDs and also suggests an important role of EBV in the pathogenesis of lymphoid neoplasms.
Scott, C S; Limbert, H J; MacKarill, I D; Roberts, B E
A total of 398 cases of B cell lymphoproliferative disease were phenotypically characterised by membrane mouse red blood cell (MRBC) receptor, surface immunoglobulin, common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (CALLA), and FMC7 and T1 monoclonal antibody studies. Relations between chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), prolymphocytic leukaemia (PLL), and "prolymphocytoid" CLL variants were examined with particular reference to the expression of FMC7. In addition, the reactivity of TU1 monoclonal antibody with B cell disorders was established. The results suggest that despite some heterogeneity most cases may be characterised by their phenotypic patterns and that these investigations provide a reproducible basis for classification. PMID:2413082
Asfour, Inas; Afify, Hanaa; Elkourashy, Shaza; Ayoub, Maryse; Kamal, Gihan; Gamal, Mary; Elgohary, Ghada
CXCR4 is a receptor for stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), a molecule that has a chemotactic activity for lymphocytes and is important in homing of hematopoietic stem cells to their adult marrow. We evaluated the CXCR4 (CD184) expression in the harvest cells and in the post-transplant bone marrow (BM) and its relation to engraftment, as determined by the consensus criteria and chimerism. This is a prospective study which included 30 patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; 15 patients received autograft and 15 patients received allograft on dates between January 2012 and May 2014. We assessed CD184 (CXCR4) using flow cytometry in the harvest cells together with post-transplant BM assessment on Day 28 and Day 90 for complete morphologic, molecular studies, and detection of CD184 expression on CD34(+) cells with chimerism studies on total peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Diagnoses of the enrolled patients were as follows: seven (24.1%) with acute myeloid leukemia, eight (27.6%) with multiple myeloma, four (13.8%) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, three (10.3%) with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, two (6.9%) with myelodysplastic syndromes, two (6.9%) with aplastic anemia, two (6.9%) with chronic myeloid leukemia, one (3.4%) with Hodgkin lymphoma, and one (3.4%) with plasmacytomas. One patient died and was excluded from the study because there were not enough data about engraftment. There was no statistical significance between the level of CD184 in stem cell harvest and the prediction of successful engraftment (p>0.05) as well as in Day 28 BM sample (p>0.05), whereas there was a statistical significance between the level of CD184 in Day 90 BM sample and the occurrence of successful engraftment (p=0.002). SDF-1/CXCR4 axis plays a crucial role in engraftment; however, more studies are warranted to assess their expression post-transplant. Evaluating the ligand (chemokine, SDF-1) or its receptor (CXCR4) may serve as potential surrogate markers for assessment
Phillips, Tycel; Devata, Sumana; Wilcox, Ryan A
The T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders are a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) for which current therapeutic strategies are inadequate, as most patients afflicted with these NHL will succumb to disease progression within 2 years of diagnosis. Appreciation of the genetic and immunologic landscape of these aggressive NHL, including PD-L1 (B7-H1, CD274) expression by malignant T cells and within the tumor microenvironment, provides a strong rationale for therapeutic targeting this immune checkpoint. While further studies are needed, the available data suggests that responses with PD-1 checkpoint blockade alone will unlikely approach those achieved in other lymphoproliferative disorders. Herein, we review the unique challenges posed by the T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and discuss potential strategies to optimize checkpoint blockade in these T-cell derived malignancies.
Rinaldi, S; Horne, J; Madill, J
With great interest, we read the recently published article in Transplant International by Upala et al. entitled Underweight and obesity increase the risk of mortality after lung transplantation: a systematic review and meta-analysis . To-date, lung transplant clinical practice guidelines have been based on expert opinions or site-specific experiences. The authors should be commended for recognizing the need to assess articles with rigorous study designs in order to guide evidence-based practice. In their recent work, Upala et al. concluded that both pre-transplant obese and underweight body mass indices are associated with significant risk of post-transplant mortality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Alshehry, Nawal F; Al-Huneini, Mohammed; Lipton, Jeffrey H; Michelis, Fotios V
Lymphoproliferative disorders presenting simultaneously with or subsequent to the occurrence of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) have rarely been reported. Herein, we report 8 cases of a variety of lymphoproliferative conditions associated with CML at different times during the course of the disease. All 8 patients were treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors at some point during the course of their illness. The literature regarding the uncommon association of these apparently unrelated disorders is reviewed as well as the possible underlying mechanisms that could be associated with this phenomenon.
Bacigalupo, A; Dominietto, A; Ghiso, A; Di Grazia, C; Lamparelli, T; Gualandi, F; Bregante, S; Van Lint, M T; Geroldi, S; Luchetti, S; Grasso, R; Pozzi, S; Colombo, N; Tedone, E; Varaldo, R; Raiola, A M
This is a report of 148 patients with hematologic malignancies who received an unmanipulated haploidentical bone marrow transplant (BMT), followed by post-transplant high-dose cyclophosphamide (PT-CY). All patients received a myeloablative conditioning consisting of thiotepa, busulfan, fludarabine (n=92) or TBI, fludarabine (n=56). The median age was 47 years (17-74); 47 patients were in first remission (CR1), 37 in second remission (CR2) and 64 had an active disease; all patients were first grafts. The diagnosis was acute leukemia (n=75), myelodisplastic syndrome (n=24), myelofibrosis (n=16), high-grade lymphoma (n=15) and others (n=18). GVHD prophylaxis consisted in PT-CY on days +3 and +5, cyclosporine (from day 0), and mycophenolate (from day +1). The median day for neutrophil engraftment was day +18 (13-32). The cumulative incidence of grades II-IV acute GVHD was 24%, and of grades III-IV GVHD 10%. The incidence of moderate-severe chronic GVHD was 12%. With a median follow-up for the surviving patients of 313 days (100-1162), the cumulative incidence of transplant-related mortality (TRM) is 13%, and the relapse-related death is 23%. The actuarial 22 months overall survival is 77% for CR1 patients, 49% for CR2 patients and 38% for patients grafted in relapse (P<0.001). Major causes of death were relapse (22%), GVHD (2%) and infections (6%). We confirm our initial results, suggesting that a myeloablative conditioning regimen followed by unmanipulated haploidentical BMT with PT-CY, results in a low risk of acute and chronic GVHD and encouraging rates of TRM and overall survival, also for patients with active disease at the time of transplant.
Shivaswamy, Vijay; Boerner, Brian
Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a frequent consequence of solid organ transplantation. PTDM has been associated with greater mortality and increased infections in different transplant groups using different diagnostic criteria. An international consensus panel recommended a consistent set of guidelines in 2003 based on American Diabetes Association glucose criteria but did not exclude the immediate post-transplant hospitalization when many patients receive large doses of corticosteroids. Greater glucose monitoring during all hospitalizations has revealed significant glucose intolerance in the majority of recipients immediately after transplant. As a result, the international consensus panel reviewed its earlier guidelines and recommended delaying screening and diagnosis of PTDM until the recipient is on stable doses of immunosuppression after discharge from initial transplant hospitalization. The group cautioned that whereas hemoglobin A1C has been adopted as a diagnostic criterion by many, it is not reliable as the sole diabetes screening method during the first year after transplant. Risk factors for PTDM include many of the immunosuppressant medications themselves as well as those for type 2 diabetes. The provider managing diabetes and associated dyslipidemia and hypertension after transplant must be careful of the greater risk for drug-drug interactions and infections with immunosuppressant medications. Treatment goals and therapies must consider the greater risk for fluctuating and reduced kidney function, which can cause hypoglycemia. Research is actively focused on strategies to prevent PTDM, but until strategies are found, it is imperative that immunosuppression regimens are chosen based on their evidence to prolong graft survival, not to avoid PTDM. PMID:26650437
Van Laecke, Steven; Nagler, Evi Vanessa; Taes, Youri; Van Biesen, Wim; Peeters, Patrick; Vanholder, Raymond
Post-transplantation hypomagnesemia is common and predicts diabetes. Magnesium improves glycemic control in diabetics and insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant subjects. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of oral magnesium for improving glycemic control and insulin sensitivity at 3 months post-transplantation. We conducted a single-center, open-label, randomized parallel group study. We included adults with serum magnesium <1.7 mg/dl within 2 weeks after kidney transplantation. We randomized participants to 450 mg magnesium oxide up to three times daily or no treatment. The primary endpoint was the mean difference in fasting glycemia. Secondary endpoints were the mean difference in area under the curve (AUC) of glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test and insulin resistance measured by Homeostasis Model of Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Analyses were on intention-to-treat basis. In patients randomized to magnesium oxide (N = 27) versus no treatment (N = 27), fasting glycemia on average was 11.5 mg/dl lower (95% CI 1.7 to 21.3; P = 0.02). There was no difference between the two groups neither for 2 h AUC, where the mean value was 1164 mg/dl/min (95% CI -1884 to 4284; P = 0.45) lower in the treatment group nor for HOMA-IR. Magnesium supplements modestly improved fasting glycemia without effect on insulin resistance. Higher baseline glycemia among patients in the control group may have driven the positive outcome (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01889576).
Basu, Aninda; Contreras, Alan G.; Datta, Dipak; Flynn, Evelyn; Zeng, Liling; Cohen, Herbert T.; Briscoe, David M.; Pal, Soumitro
Cancer is an increasing and major problem following solid organ transplantation. In part, the increased cancer risk is associated with the use of immunosuppressive agents, especially calcineurin inhibitors. We propose that the effect of calcineurin inhibitors on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) leads to an angiogenic milieu that favors tumor growth. Here, we used 786-0 human renal cancer cells to investigate the effect of Cyclosporine (CsA) on VEGF expression. Utilizing a full-length VEGF promoter-luciferase construct, we found that CsA markedly induced VEGF transcriptional activation through the PKC signaling pathway, specifically involving PKCζ and PKCδ isoforms. Moreover, CsA promoted the association of PKCζ and PKCδ with the transcription factor Sp1 as observed by immunoprecipitation assays. Using promoter deletion constructs, we found that CsA-mediated VEGF transcription was primarily Sp1-dependent. Furthermore, CsA-induced and PKC-Sp1-mediated VEGF transcriptional activation was partially inhibited by pVHL. CsA also promoted the progression of human renal tumors in vivo, where VEGF is overexpressed. Finally, to evaluate the in vivo significance of CsA-induced VEGF overexpression in terms of post-transplantation tumor development, we injected CT26 murine carcinoma cells (known to form angiogenic tumors) into mice with fully MHC mismatched cardiac transplants. We observed that therapeutic doses of CsA increased tumor size, VEGF mRNA expression, and also enhanced tumor angiogenesis. However, co-administration of a blocking anti-VEGF antibody inhibited this CsA-mediated tumor growth. Collectively, these findings define PKC-mediated VEGF transcriptional activation as a key component in the progression of CsA-induced post-transplantation cancer. PMID:18632621
Li, Pu; Huang, Ping; Yang, Ye; Hao, Mu; Peng, Hongwei; Li, Fei
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), a disorder characterized by immune dysregulation due to disrupted lymphocyte homeostasis, is mainly resulted from the mutations in FAS-mediated apoptotic pathway. In addition, other mutations of the genes such as Fas-ligand (FASLG), Caspase 10 (CASP10) and Caspase 8 (CASP8), NRAS and KRAS have also been observed in a small number of patients with ALPS or ALPS-related disorders. However, approximately 20-30% of patients with ALPS have unidentified defect. Its clinical manifestations observed in multiple family members include unexplained lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmune cytopenias such as thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and anemia due to excessive production of antibodies by lymphocytes, elevated number of double-negative T (DNT) cells, and increased risk of lymphoma. As a very rare disease, ALPS was first characterized in the early 1990s. More than 300 families with hereditary ALPS have been reported till now; nearly 500 patients from these families have been studied and followed worldwide over the last 20 years. ALPS has historically considered as a primary immune defect presenting in early childhood, however, recent studies have shown that it may be more common than previous thought because adult onset presentation is increasingly becoming recognized and more adult ALPS patients are diagnosed. The new genetic and biological insights have improved the understanding of ALPS and a number of targeted therapeutic strategies such as mycophenolate mofetil, sirolimus, and pentostatin have been successfully applied in ALPS patients with promising treatment efficacy. This article comprehensively reviews the clinical and laboratory manifestations, new research advances in the molecular pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatments of this disorder.
Capello, Daniela; Cerri, Michaela; Muti, Giuliana; Berra, Eva; Oreste, Pierluigi; Deambrogi, Clara; Rossi, Davide; Dotti, Giampietro; Conconi, Annarita; Viganò, Mario; Magrini, Umberto; Ippoliti, Giovanbattista; Morra, Enrica; Gloghini, Annunziata; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Paulli, Marco; Carbone, Antonino; Gaidano, Gianluca
Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) represent a serious complication of solid organ transplantation. This study assessed the molecular histogenesis of 52 B-cell monoclonal PTLDs, including 12 polymorphic PTLDs (P-PTLDs), 36 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs), and 4 Burkitt/Burkitt-like lymphomas (BL/BLLs). Somatic hypermutation (SHM) of immunoglobulin variable (IgV) genes documented that most monoclonal B-cell PTLDs (75% P-PTLDs, 91.3% DLBCLs, 100% BL/BLLs) derive from germinal center (GC)-experienced B cells. B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) mutations occurred in 25% P-PTLDs, 60.6% DLBCLs, and 75.0% BL/BLLs. A first histogenetic category of PTLDs (31.2% DLBCLs) express the BCL6+/multiple myeloma oncogene-1 protein (MUM1-/+)/CD138- profile and mimic B cells experiencing the GC reaction, as also suggested by ongoing SHM in a fraction of these cases. A second subset of PTLDs (66.7% P-PTLDs and 31.2% DLBCLs) display the BCL6-/MUM1+/CD138- phenotype and mimic B cells that have concluded the GC reaction. A third histogenetic category of PTLDs (25.0% P-PTLDs and 31.2% DLBCLs) shows the BCL6-/MUM1+/CD138+ profile, consistent with preterminally differentiated post-GC B cells. Crippling mutations of IgV heavy chain (IgVH) and/or IgV light chain (IgVL) genes, leading to sterile rearrangements and normally preventing cell survival, occur in 4 DLBCLs and 1 BL/BLL that may have been rescued from apoptosis through expression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). Overall, the histogenetic diversity of monoclonal B-cell PTLDs may help define biologically homogeneous categories of the disease.
Aiken, Taylor; Garber, Ari; Thomas, Dawn; Hamon, Nicole; Lopez, Rocio; Konjeti, Rajesh; McCullough, Arthur; Zein, Nizar; Fung, John; Askar, Medhat; John, Binu V
Early post-transplant hepatic fibrosis is associated with poor outcomes and may be influenced by donor/recipient genetic factors. The rs368234815 IFNL4 polymorphism is related to the previously described IL28B polymorphism, which predicts etiology-independent hepatic fibrosis. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of donor and/or recipient IFNL4 genotype on early fibrosis among patients transplanted for hepatitis C (HCV). Clinical data were collected for 302 consecutive patients transplanted for HCV. 116 patients who had available liver biopsies and donor/recipient DNA were included. 28% of these patients with stage 2 fibrosis or greater were compared to patients without significant post-transplant fibrosis with respect to clinical features as well as donor/recipient IFNL4 genotype. The IFNL4 TT/TT genotype was found in 26.0% of recipients and 38.6% of donors. Patients who developed early post-transplant fibrosis had a 3.45 adjusted odds of having donor IFNL4 TT/TT genotype (p = 0.012). Donor IFNL4 TT/TT genotype also predicted decreased overall survival compared to non-TT/TT genotypes (p = 0.016). Donor IFNL4 TT/TT genotype, a favorable predictor of spontaneous HCV clearance pre-transplant, is associated with increased early post-transplant fibrosis and decreased survival.
Aiken, Taylor; Garber, Ari; Thomas, Dawn; Hamon, Nicole; Lopez, Rocio; Konjeti, Rajesh; McCullough, Arthur; Zein, Nizar; Fung, John; Askar, Medhat; John, Binu V.
Background and Aims Early post-transplant hepatic fibrosis is associated with poor outcomes and may be influenced by donor/recipient genetic factors. The rs368234815 IFNL4 polymorphism is related to the previously described IL28B polymorphism, which predicts etiology-independent hepatic fibrosis. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of donor and/or recipient IFNL4 genotype on early fibrosis among patients transplanted for hepatitis C (HCV). Methods Clinical data were collected for 302 consecutive patients transplanted for HCV. 116 patients who had available liver biopsies and donor/recipient DNA were included. 28% of these patients with stage 2 fibrosis or greater were compared to patients without significant post-transplant fibrosis with respect to clinical features as well as donor/recipient IFNL4 genotype. Results The IFNL4 TT/TT genotype was found in 26.0% of recipients and 38.6% of donors. Patients who developed early post-transplant fibrosis had a 3.45 adjusted odds of having donor IFNL4 TT/TT genotype (p = 0.012). Donor IFNL4 TT/TT genotype also predicted decreased overall survival compared to non-TT/TT genotypes (p = 0.016). Conclusions Donor IFNL4 TT/TT genotype, a favorable predictor of spontaneous HCV clearance pre-transplant, is associated with increased early post-transplant fibrosis and decreased survival. PMID:27875564
Kim, Hyun-Jung; Ko, Young Hyeh; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Seung-Sook; Lee, Hyekyung; Park, Gyeongsin; Paik, Jin Ho; Cha, Hee Jeong; Choi, Yoo-Duk; Han, Jae Ho; Huh, Jooryung
Epstein-Barr virus (human herpesvirus-4) is very common virus that can be detected in more than 95% of the human population. Most people are asymptomatic and live their entire lives in a chronically infected state (IgG positive). However, in some populations, the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been involved in the occurrence of a wide range of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), including Burkitt lymphoma, classic Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and immune–deficiency associated LPDs (post-transplant and human immunodeficiency virus–associated LPDs). T-cell LPDs have been reported to be associated with EBV with a subset of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas, extranodal nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphomas, and other rare histotypes. This article reviews the current evidence covering EBV-associated LPDs based on the 2016 classification of the World Health Organization. These LPD entities often pose diagnostic challenges, both clinically and pathologically, so it is important to understand their unique pathophysiology for correct diagnoses and optimal management. PMID:28592786
Jones, Kimberley; Nourse, Jamie P; Morrison, Leanne; Nguyen-Van, Do; Moss, Denis J; Burrows, Scott R; Gandhi, Maher K
Immunosuppression resulting in impaired Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific T-cell immunity is involved in the pathogenesis of EBV-positive post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV(+) PTLD). Restoration of EBV-specific T-cell immunity by adoptive immunotherapy can induce remission. EBV-nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) is unique in being expressed in all cases of EBV(+) PTLD. Recent data demonstrate that EBNA1 is not immunologically silent and can be exploited as a T-cell target. There are no data on EBNA1-specific T cells in PTLD. EBNA1-specific T cells capable of proliferation, interferon-γ release, and CD107a/b degranulation were assayed in 14 EBV(+) PTLD diagnostic blood samples and 19 healthy controls. EBNA1-specific CD4(+) T cells predominated and were expanded in 10 of 14 patients and 19 of 19 controls. Although human leukocyte antigen class I alleles influenced the magnitude of the response, EBNA1-specific CD8(+) effector T cells were successfully generated in 9 of 14 EBV(+) PTLD patients and 16 of 19 controls. The majority of PTLD patients had a polymorphism in an EBNA1 epitope, and T-cell recognition was greatly enhanced when EBNA1 peptides derived from the polymorphic epitope were used. These results indicate that EBNA1-specific T cells should be included in adoptive immunotherapy for PTLD. Furthermore, expansion protocols should use antigenic sequences from relevant EBV strains.
alpha-Naphthyl acetate esterase activity--a cytochemical marker for T lymphocytees. Correlation with immunologic studies of normal tissues, lymphocytic leukemias, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease, and other lymphoproliferative disorders.
Pinkus, G. S.; Hargreaves, H. K.; McLeod, J. A.; Nadler, L. M.; Rosenthal, D. S.; Said, J. W.
Cytochemical identification of T lymphocytes on the basis of alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (NAE) activity was compared with immunologic markers for cell suspensions and/or cryostat sections of 113 specimens. Nonneoplastic tissues (peripheral blood, lymph nodes, spleens, tonsils, thymus, and pleural fluid) and specimens from various lymphoproliferative disorders, including acute and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, lymphosarcoma cell leukemia, hairy cell leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of B-and T-cell types, and Hodgkin's disease, were evaluated. T (E-rosetting) cells demonstrated several patterns of NAE reactivity: 1) a strong globular reaction product, the most specific pattern for T-cell identification, 2) granular cytoplasmic staining, or 3) no reactivity. B lymphocytes revealed a granular pattern of NAE staining, were devoid of enzyme, or, in rare instances, exhibited strong NAE activity. Percentages of lymphoid cells with strong (globular) NAE activity closely paralleled T-cell (E-rosette) values in the majority of cases, with the best correlations observed for peripheral blood studies. However, discordant results were noted for some neoplastic and nonneoplastic tissues, including cases of T-cell lymphoma or leukemia. Markedly discrepant results were noted for thymic lymphocytes, most of which revealed E-rosette formation and weak or absent NAE activity. Lymph nodes involved by Hodgkin's disease demonstrated a heterogeneous pattern of staining in E-rosetting cells and in Reed-Sternberg variants. Cryostat section studies of reactive lymph nodes and nodular lymphomas demonstrated strong NAE staining in lymphoid cells of T-cell (interfollicular, internodular) areas, with little or no positivity in follicles or nodules (B-cell areas). NAE staining patterns further suggested that T cells comprise part of the follicular cuff and possibly represent a minor population of some neoplastic nodules. Although NAE determinations do not represent a consistently reliable
Amenábar, Juan J; Camacho, Jhon A; Gómez-Larrambe, Nerea; Visus, Teresa; Pijoan, José I; González del Tánago, Jaime; Zárraga, Sofía; García-Olaverri, Jorge; Gaínza, Francisco J
Preimplantation renal biopsy provides potentially valuable information about post-transplant renal function. To assess the prognostic value of preimplantation kidney biopsy from older donors in determining 1-year post-transplant estimated glomerular filtration rate MDRD-4 (eGFR). We evaluated a cohort of 124 renal transplant recipients from deceased donors ≥60 years old, performed at our center between March 2008 and May 2012. Biopsies were assessed by applying the score proposed by O'Valle et al. The overall score was stratified into 3 levels: 0-3, 4-5 and 6-8 points. Kidneys scoring > 8 points were discarded. A total of 77% of the donors were ≥70 years. One year post-transplant, mean eGFR (SD) was lower in transplant recipients with 6-8 points (38.5 [14.1] mL/min/1.73m(2)) than in the group scoring 4-5 points (46.3 [15.7] [p=0.03]) and the group scoring 0-3 (49.6 [12.5] [P=.04]). Seven patients (19%) had eGFR <30mL/min/1.73m(2) 1 year post-transplant in group 6-8 vs. 8 (14%) in group 4-5 and none in group 0-3. In the logistic regression, OR (95% IC), to determine patients with 1-year post-transplant eGFR (<30mL/min/1.73m(2)), delayed graft function (6.3 [1.9-21.3]) and acute rejection (5.8 [1.1-31]), were significant. The adjusted OR of biopsy score group 6-8 vs. 0-5, was 2.2 (0.7-7.3). Allografts with higher pathologic score in preimplantation renal biopsy were associated with a worse 1-year post-transplant eGFR. Delayed graft function and acute rejection were significant risk factors for 1-year post-transplant low eGFR. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Wang, Dong; Wu, Weizhen; Yang, Shunliang; Wang, Qinghua; Tan, Jianming
There are no reliable parameters for post-transplantation immunological monitoring, which might enable recipient-tailored immunosuppressive therapy. 250 renal graft recipients were enrolled and detected for sCD30 level pre-transplantation, and on days 5 and 14, and on months 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 post-transplantation. Analysis was performed on correlation between sCD30 level and acute rejection, lung infection, or graft loss respectively. sCD30 levels descended to a nadir with a mean of 10.2 ± 3.8 U/mL on day 30 post-transplantation, then rose gradually, and approached 21.8 ± 10.1 U/mL on month 3, 34.2 ± 16.5 U/mL on month 6, and 42.9 ± 29.5 U/mL on month 12, then presented a stable level. Recipients with AR had significantly higher sCD30 levels than those without AR on days 5 and 14 post-transplantation. Recipients with pneumonia had significantly lower sCD30 levels within 3 months post-transplantation than those without pneumonia. Significantly higher sCD30 levels were recorded in recipients who suffered graft loss than those with normal graft function on days 5 and 14, and on months 6, 12, and 24. High sCD30 level (≥ 48.3 U/mL) at month 12 post-transplantation has an obvious detrimental effect on renal graft survival (p=0.000, HR=9.075). Serum sCD30 level might reflect immune state of renal graft recipients. Post-transplantation sequential monitoring of sCD30 level is necessary, which might not only identify recipients at the risk of acute rejection and graft loss, but also chosen as an independent predictor of pneumonia in renal transplant recipients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shen, Kefeng; Liu, Qifa; Sun, Jing; Jiang, Qianli; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Hongsheng; Dai, Min; Xiao, Min; Wang, Jin; Luo, Li; Li, Qinlu; An, Haiyun; Hong, Zhen-Ya; Meng, Li; Yang, Mo; Zhou, Jianfeng; Wang, Gaoxiang
To investigate the value of C-reactive protein (CRP) on transplantation day in predicting early post-transplant infections and outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 78 recipients undergoing allo-HSCT. The clinical reference value of CRP on transplantation day was determined, and its sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing bacteremia was analyzed using receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC). The incidence of transplant-related complications, overall survival, and relapse rate of the patients were analyzed with respect to the CRP level. The clinical reference value of CRP for diagnosing bacteremia was 23.3 mg/L (AUC=0.735 [95% CI: 0.623-0.848], P=0.001), which had a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 0.793 and 0.592, respectively. Compared with the patients with low CRP levels, the patients with high CRP levels tended to have delayed neutrophil reconstitution and platelet engraftment by 0.71 days (P=0.237) and 4.09 days (P=0.048), respectively, and had a significantly higher incidence of bacteremia (17.1% vs 53.5%, P=0.001) and CMV viremia (37.1% vs 72.1%, P=0.003) within 100 days following the transplantation; the incidences of EBV viremia, pulmonary invasive fungal infection, or acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) showed no significant difference between the two groups (41.9% vs 22.9%, P=0.094; 14.0% vs 5.7%, P=0.285; 51.2% vs 45.7, P=0.656, respectively). During the follow-up for a median of 318 (7-773) days in high-CRP group and for 299 (78-747) days in low-CRP group, the high-CRP group showed a significantly lower 2-year overall survival than the low-CRP group (42.5% vs 78.4%, P=0.022), and tended to have a higher 2-year cumulative relapse rate (52.3% vs 19.8%, P=0.235). Logistic multivariate analysis identified a high CRP level on transplantation day as the independent risk factor for post-transplant bacteremia within 100 days (OR=5.090 [95% CI: 1.115 -23
Kanakry, Jennifer A; Gocke, Christopher D; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Gladstone, Douglas E; Swinnen, Lode J; Blackford, Amanda L; Fuchs, Ephraim J; Huff, Carol Ann; Borrello, Ivan; Matsui, William H; Brodsky, Robert A; Rosner, Gary L; Shanbhag, Satish; Luznik, Leo; Jones, Richard J; Ambinder, Richard F; Kasamon, Yvette L
Outcomes of nonmyeloablative (NMA), HLA-haploidentical (haplo), related-donor allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) with high-dose post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) appear to be similar to those using HLA-matched donors. Thus, it may be possible to prioritize donor factors other than HLA matching that could enhance antitumor activity. The Fc receptor polymorphism FCGR3A-158VV may confer greater sensitivity to rituximab than FCGR3A-158FF. In a prospective phase II study of NMA, related-donor allo-BMT with PTCy and post-transplantation rituximab for patients with B cell lymphomas, we hypothesized that donor selection that prioritized FCGR3A-158 polymorphism over HLA matching would be feasible, safe, and improve outcomes. The primary endpoint was 1-year progression-free survival (PFS). Of 83 patients transplanted (median age, 59 years), 69 (83%) received haplo grafts. Fifty-four (65%) received a graft that maintained or improved their Fc receptor polymorphism status. With 2.6-year median follow-up, the 1-year PFS and overall survival (OS) probabilities were 71% and 86%, respectively, with 1-year relapse and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) probabilities of 20% and 8%. At 1 year, the probability of acute grades II to IV graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 41%, with acute grades III to IV GVHD probability of 5% and chronic GVHD probability of 11%. Among haplo transplants, the 1-year probabilities of PFS, OS, relapse, and NRM were 70%, 83%, 20%, and 10%, respectively. No differences in outcomes were observed based on donor FCGR3A-158 polymorphism. Excess infection risk was not apparent with post-transplantation rituximab. Although donor selection based on FCGR3A-158 polymorphism was not shown to influence PFS, this study suggests that donor selection based on criteria other than best HLA match is feasible and safe. This study opens the way for the future investigation of donor prioritization based on promising non-HLA factors that may improve
Omodho, Lorna; Francis, Annick; Vander Borght, Sara; Marine, Jean-Christophe; van den Oord, Joost; Amant, Frédéric
Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) approach is nowadays considered a reliable preclinical model to study in vivo cancer biology and therapeutic response. NOD scid and Il2rg-deficient mice represent the “gold standard” host for the generation of PDTXs. Compared to other immunocompromised murine lines, these mice offers several advantages including higher engraftment rate, longer lifespan and improved morphological and molecular preservation of patient-derived neoplasms. Here we describe a spectrum of previously uncharacterized post-transplant disorders affecting 14/116 (12%) NOD.Cg- Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Sug/JicTac (NOG) mice subcutaneously engrafted with patient-derived metastatic melanomas. Affected mice exhibited extensive scaling/crusting dermatitis (13/14) associated with emaciation (13/14) and poor/unsuccessful tumor engraftment (14/14). In this context, the following pathological conditions have been recognized and characterized in details: (i) immunoinflammatory disorders with features of graft versus host disease (14/14); (ii) reactive lymphoid infiltrates effacing xenografted tumors (8/14); (iii) post-transplant B cell lymphomas associated with Epstein-Barr virus reactivation (2/14). We demonstrate that all these entities are driven by co-transplanted human immune cells populating patient-derived tumor samples. Since the exploding interest in the utilization of NOD scid and Il2rg-deficient mice for the establishment of PDTX platforms, it is of uppermost importance to raise the awareness of the limitations associated with this model. The disorders here described adversely impact tumor engraftment rate and animal lifespan, potentially representing a major confounding factor in the context of efficacy and personalized therapy studies. The occurrence of these conditions in the NOG model reflects the ability of this mouse line to promote efficient engraftment of human immune cells. Co-transplanted human lymphoid cells have indeed the potential to colonize
Bashey, Asad; Zhang, Mei-Jie; McCurdy, Shannon R; St Martin, Andrew; Argall, Trevor; Anasetti, Claudio; Ciurea, Stefan O; Fasan, Omotayo; Gaballa, Sameh; Hamadani, Mehdi; Munshi, Pashna; Al Malki, Monzr M; Nakamura, Ryotaro; O'Donnell, Paul V; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Raj, Kavita; Romee, Rizwan; Rowley, Scott; Rocha, Vanderson; Salit, Rachel B; Solh, Melhem; Soiffer, Robert J; Fuchs, Ephraim Joseph; Eapen, Mary
Purpose T-cell-replete HLA-haploidentical donor hematopoietic transplantation using post-transplant cyclophosphamide was originally described using bone marrow (BM). With increasing use of mobilized peripheral blood (PB), we compared transplant outcomes after PB and BM transplants. Patients and Methods A total of 681 patients with hematologic malignancy who underwent transplantation in the United States between 2009 and 2014 received BM (n = 481) or PB (n = 190) grafts. Cox regression models were built to examine differences in transplant outcomes by graft type, adjusting for patient, disease, and transplant characteristics. Results Hematopoietic recovery was similar after transplantation of BM and PB (28-day neutrophil recovery, 88% v 93%, P = .07; 100-day platelet recovery, 88% v 85%, P = .33). Risks of grade 2 to 4 acute (hazard ratio [HR], 0.45; P < .001) and chronic (HR, 0.35; P < .001) graft-versus-host disease were lower with transplantation of BM compared with PB. There were no significant differences in overall survival by graft type (HR, 0.99; P = .98), with rates of 54% and 57% at 2 years after transplantation of BM and PB, respectively. There were no differences in nonrelapse mortality risks (HR, 0.92; P = .74) but relapse risks were higher after transplantation of BM (HR, 1.49; P = .009). Additional exploration confirmed that the higher relapse risks after transplantation of BM were limited to patients with leukemia (HR, 1.73; P = .002) and not lymphoma (HR, 0.87; P = .64). Conclusion PB and BM grafts are suitable for haploidentical transplantation with the post-transplant cyclophosphamide approach but with differing patterns of treatment failure. Although, to our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive comparison, these findings must be validated in a randomized prospective comparison with adequate follow-up.
Döring, Michaela; Cabanillas Stanchi, Karin Melanie; Erbacher, Annika; Haufe, Susanne; Schwarze, Carl Philipp; Handgretinger, Rupert; Hofbeck, Michael; Kerst, Gunter
Phagocytosis of granulocytes and monocytes presents a major mechanism that contributes to the clearance of pathogens and cell debris. We analyzed the phagocytic activity of the peripheral blood cell monocytes, three monocyte subpopulations and granulocytes before and up to one year after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, as well as during transplant-related adverse events. 25 pediatric patients and young adults (median age of 11.0 years) with hemato-oncological malignancies and non malignancies were enrolled in the prospective study. Ingestion of fluorescence-labeled Escherichia coli bacteria was used to assess the phagocytic activity of monocytes and their subpopulations and granulocytes by means of flow cytometry in the patient group as well as in a control group (n=36). During sepsis, a significant increase of phagocytic activity of monocytes (P=0.0003) and a significant decrease of the phagocytic activity of granulocytes (P=0.0003) and the CD14+ CD16++ monocyte subpopulation (P=0.0020) occurred. At the onset of a veno-occlusive disease, a significant increase of phagocytic activity in the CD14++ CD16+ monocyte subpopulation (P=0.001) and a significant decrease in the phagocytic activity of the CD14++ CD16- monocyte subpopulation (P=0.0048) were observed. In conclusion, the phagocytic activity of monocytes, their subpopulations and granulocytes might be a useful and easy determinable parameter that enables identification of post-transplant complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The alterations of phagocytic activity contribute to the altered immune response that accompanies adverse events after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Kitterer, Daniel; Korte, Mario R.; Ulmer, Christoph; Fritz, Peter; Davies, Simon; Lambie, Mark; Alscher, M. Dominik; Betjes, Michiel G. H.; Segerer, Stephan; Braun, Niko
Background Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) commonly presents after peritoneal dialysis has been stopped, either post-transplantation (PT-EPS) or after switching to hemodialysis (classical EPS, cEPS). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PT-EPS and cEPS differ in morphology and clinical course. Methods In this European multicenter study we included fifty-six EPS patients, retrospectively paired-matched for peritoneal dialysis (PD) duration. Twenty-eight patients developed EPS after renal transplantation, whereas the other twenty-eight patients were classical EPS patients. Demographic data, PD details, and course of disease were documented. Peritoneal biopsies of all patients were investigated using histological criteria. Results Eighteen patients from the Netherlands and thirty-eight patients from Germany were included. Time on PD was 78(64–95) in the PT-EPS and 72(50–89) months in the cEPS group (p>0.05). There were no significant differences between the morphological findings of cEPS and PT-EPS. Podoplanin positive cells were a prominent feature in both groups, but with a similar distribution of the podoplanin patterns. Time between cessation of PD to the clinical diagnosis of EPS was significantly shorter in the PT-EPS group as compared to cEPS (4(2–9) months versus 23(7–24) months, p<0.001). Peritonitis rate was significantly higher in cEPS. Conclusions In peritoneal biopsies PT-EPS and cEPS are not distinguishable by histomorphology and immunohistochemistry, which argues against different entities. The critical phase for PT-EPS is during the first year after transplantation and therefore earlier after PD cessation then in cEPS. PMID:25171219
Kwon, M; Bautista, G; Balsalobre, P; Sánchez-Ortega, I; Montesinos, P; Bermúdez, A; de Laiglesia, A; Herrera, P; Martin, C; Humala, K; Zabalza, A; Torres, M; Bento, L; Corral, L L; Heras, I; Serrano, D; Buño, I; Anguita, J; Regidor, C; Duarte, R; Cabrera, R; Gayoso, J; Diez-Martin, J L
For patients with AML, the best alternative donor remains to be defined. We analyze outcomes of patients who underwent myeloablative umbilical cord blood or haploidentical hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in Spain. Fifty-one patients underwent single umbilical cord blood transplantation supported by a third party donor (Haplo-Cord) between 1999 and 2012, and 36 patients received an haploidentical HSCT with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY-haplo) between 2012 and 2014 in GETH centers. The Haplo-Cord cohort included a higher proportion of patients with high disease risk index and use of TBI in the conditioning regimen, and hematopoietic cell transplantation-age Comorbidity Age Index was higher in PTCY-haplo patients. Cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment was 97% in the Haplo-Cord and 100% in the PTCY-haplo group, achieved in a median of 12 and 17 days, respectively (P=0.01). Grade II-IV acute GvHD rate was significantly higher in the PTCY-haplo group (9.8% vs 29%, P=0.02) as well as chronic GvHD rates (20% vs 38%, P=0.03). With a median follow-up of 61 months for the Haplo-Cord group and 26 months for the PTCY-haplo cohort, overall survival at 2 years was 55% and 59% (P=0.66), event-free survival was 45% vs 56% (P=0.46), relapse rate was 27% vs 21% (P=0.79), and non-relapse mortality was 17% vs 23% (P=0.54), respectively. In this multicenter experience, Haplo-Cord and PTCY-haplo HSCT offer valid alternatives for patients with AML. Neutrophil engraftment was faster in the Haplo-Cord cohort, with similar survival rates, with higher GvHD rates after haploidentical HSCT.
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease. 2B4 molecules displaying inhibitory rather than activating function are responsible for the inability of natural killer cells to kill Epstein-Barr virus-infected cells.
Parolini, S; Bottino, C; Falco, M; Augugliaro, R; Giliani, S; Franceschini, R; Ochs, H D; Wolf, H; Bonnefoy, J Y; Biassoni, R; Moretta, L; Notarangelo, L D; Moretta, A
2B4 is a surface molecule involved in activation of the natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity. It binds a protein termed Src homology 2 domain-containing protein (SH2D1A) or signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP), which in turn has been proposed to function as a regulator of the 2B4-associated signal transduction pathway. In this study, we analyzed patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), a severe inherited immunodeficiency characterized by critical mutations in the SH2D1A gene and by the inability to control Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections. We show that, in these patients, 2B4 not only fails to transduce triggering signals, but also mediates a sharp inhibition of the NK-mediated cytolysis. Other receptors involved in NK cell triggering, including CD16, NKp46, NKp44, and NKp30, displayed a normal functional capability. However, their activating function was inhibited upon engagement of 2B4 molecules. CD48, the natural ligand of 2B4, is highly expressed on the surface of EBV(+) B cell lines. Remarkably, NK cells from XLP patients could not kill EBV(+) B cell lines. This failure was found to be the consequence of inhibitory signals generated by the interaction between 2B4 and CD48, as the antibody-mediated disruption of the 2B4-CD48 interaction restored lysis of EBV(+) target cells lacking human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules. In the case of autologous or allogeneic (HLA class I(+)) EBV(+) lymphoblastoid cell lines, restoration of lysis was achieved only by the simultaneous disruption of 2B4-CD48 and NK receptor-HLA class I interactions. Molecular analysis revealed that 2B4 molecules isolated from either XLP or normal NK cells were identical. As expected, in XLP-NK cells, 2B4 did not associate with SH2D1A, whereas similar to 2B4 molecules isolated from normal NK cells, it did associate with Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1.
Charrier, Emily; Cordeiro, Paulo; Brito, Rose-Marie; Harnois, Michaël; Mezziani, Samira; Herblot, Sabine; Le Deist, Françoise; Duval, Michel
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) initiate both innate and adaptive immune responses, making them attractive targets for post-transplantation immunotherapy, particularly after cord blood transplantation (CBT). Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists are currently studied for pDC stimulation in various clinical settings. Their efficacy depends on pDC number and functionality, which are unknown after CBT. We performed a longitudinal study of pDC reconstitution in children who underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and single-unit CBT. Both CBT and unrelated BMT patients received antithymocyte globulin as part of their graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis regimen. pDC blood counts were higher in CBT patients than in healthy volunteers from 2 to 9 months after transplantation, whereas they remained lower in BMT patients. We showed that cord blood progenitors gave rise in vitro to a 500-fold increase in functional pDCs over bone marrow counterparts. Upon stimulation with a TLR agonist, pDCs from both CBT and BMT recipients upregulated T cell costimulatory molecules, whereas interferon-alpha (IFN-α) production was impaired for 9 months after CBT. TLR agonist treatment is thus not expected to induce IFN-α production by pDCs after CBT, limiting its immunotherapeutic potential. Fortunately, in vitro production of large amounts of functional pDCs from cord blood progenitors paves the way for the post-transplantation adoptive transfer of pDCs. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van Lint, Céline; Wang, Wenxin; van Dijk, Sandra; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Rövekamp, Ton Jm; Neerincx, Mark A; Rabelink, Ton J; van der Boog, Paul Jm
The high frequency of outpatient visits after kidney transplantation is burdensome to both the recovering patient and health care capacity. Self-monitoring kidney function offers a promising strategy to reduce the number of these outpatient visits. The objective of this study was to investigate whether it is safe to rely on patients' self-measurements of creatinine and blood pressure, using data from a self-management randomized controlled trial. For self-monitoring creatinine, each participant received a StatSensor Xpress-i Creatinine Meter and related test material. For self-monitoring blood pressure, each participant received a Microlife WatchBP Home, an oscillometric device for blood pressure self-measurement on the upper arm. Both devices had a memory function and the option to download stored values to a computer. During the first year post transplantation, 54 patients registered their self-measured creatinine values in a Web-based Self-Management Support System (SMSS) which provided automatic feedback on the registered values (eg, seek contact with hospital). Values registered in the SMSS were compared with those logged automatically in the creatinine device to study reliability of registered data. Adherence to measurement frequency was determined by comparing the number of requested with the number of performed measurements. To study adherence to provided feedback, SMSS-logged feedback and information from the electronic hospital files were analyzed. Level of adherence was highest during months 2-4 post transplantation with over 90% (42/47) of patients performing at least 75% of the requested measurements. Overall, 87.00% (3448/3963) of all registered creatinine values were entered correctly, although values were often registered several days later. If (the number of) measured and registered values deviated, the mean of registered creatinine values was significantly lower than what was measured, suggesting active selection of lower creatinine values
Tanriover, Bekir; Fernandez, Sonalis; Campenot, Eric S.; Newhouse, Jeffrey H.; Oyfe, Irina; Mohan, Prince; Sandikci, Burhaneddin; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Wexler, Jennifer J.; Carroll, Maureen A.; Sharif, Sairah; Cohen, David J.; Ratner, Lloyd E.; Hardy, Mark A.
Background Relationship between live donor renal anatomic asymmetry and post-transplant recipient function has not been studied extensively. Methods We analyzed 96 live-kidney donors, who had anatomical asymmetry (>10% renal length and/or volume difference calculated from CT angiograms) and their matching recipients. Split function differences (SFD) were quantified with 99mTc-DMSA renography. Implantation biopsies at time-zero were semi-quantitatively scored. A comprehensive model utilizing donor renal volume adjusted to recipient weight (Vol/Wgt), SFD, and biopsy score was used to predict recipient estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at one-year. Primary analysis consisted of a logistic regression model of outcome (odds of developing eGFR>60ml/min/1.73 m2 at one-year), a linear regression model of outcome (predicting recipient eGFR at one-year, using the CKD-EPI formula), and a Monte Carlo simulation based on the linear regression model (N=10,000 iterations). Results In the study cohort, the mean Vol/Wgt and eGFR at one-year were 2.04 ml/kg and 60.4 ml/min/1.73m2, respectively. Volume and split ratios between two donor kidneys were strongly correlated (r=0.79, p-value<0.001). The biopsy scores among SFD categories (<5%, 5–10%, >10%) were not different (p=0.190). On multivariate models, only Vol/Wgt was significantly associated with higher odds of having eGFR>60ml/min/1.73 m2 (OR=8.94, 95% CI 2.47–32.25, p=0.001) and had a strong discriminatory power in predicting the risk of eGFR<60ml/min/1.73m2 at one-year (ROC curve=0.78, 95% CI 0.68–0.89). Conclusion In the presence of donor renal anatomic asymmetry, Vol/Wgt appears to be a major determinant of recipient renal function at one-year post-transplantation. Renography can be replaced with CT volume calculation in estimating split renal function. PMID:25719258
Sun, Jia-peng; Lu, Xin-tian; Zhao, Wei-hong; Hua, Ying
We described 1 case of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), first diagnosed in our hospital, and reviewed the recent literature. The 11-month old male patient presented with a history of splenomegaly and hepatomegaly since 1 month after birth. He suffered recurrent infectious diseases including cytomegalovirus infection, parvovirus B19 infection and chronic diarrhea disease. Besides, his symptoms included hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. The laboratory abnormality indicated an expanded population of alpha/beta double-negative T cells (DNTs) (27.18% of lymphocytes, 35.16% of CD3+ T lymphocytes) in peripheral blood, and autoantibodies including antinuclear antibody, double-stranded DNA and rheumatic factor were positive. Hyper gamma globulinemia and positive direct Coombs tests were seen in the patient. His parents were both healthy and denied autoimmune diseases. We identified a heterozygous point mutation in exon 3 of the FAS gene carrying c.309 A>C, resulting in a single base pair substitution in exon 3 of FAS gene which changed the codon of Arg103 to Ser103. Unfortunately, we were unable to obtain the gene results of the child's parents. The patient was treated with glucocorticoids in our hospital and with mycophenolatemofetil in other hospital. And we were informed that his anemia condition relieved through the telephone follow-up, but he still suffered recurrent infections, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly still existed. As we all know ALPS is characterized by defective lymphocyte apoptosis, and thus cause lymphoproliferative disease and autoimmune disease, and increase the risk of lymphoma. It is more likely to be misdiagnosed as other diseases. ALPS should be suspected in the case of chronic lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly and autoimmune features. Flow cytometry approach is helpful for the diagnosis. Immunosuppressive drugs are the necessary treatment.
... new treatments to improve health and expand scientific knowledge through research. XLP is a primary immune deficiency ... Helps Researchers Explore Microbial Genomic Data Biological Materials Biological ... Clinical Sciences Support Center Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Units Topical ...
Rudman Spergel, Amanda; Walkovich, Kelly; Price, Susan; Niemela, Julie E; Wright, Dowain; Fleisher, Thomas A; Rao, V Koneti
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare inherited disorder of apoptosis, most commonly due to mutations in the FAS (TNFRSF6) gene. It presents with chronic lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and symptomatic multilineage cytopenias in an otherwise healthy child. Unfortunately, these clinical findings are also noted in other childhood lymphoproliferative conditions, such as leukemia, lymphoma, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, which can confound the diagnosis. This report describes a 6-year-old girl with symptoms misdiagnosed as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and treated with chemotherapy before the recognition that her symptoms and laboratory values were consistent with a somatic FAS mutation leading to ALPS. This case should alert pediatricians to include ALPS in the differential diagnosis of a child with lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and cytopenias; obtain discriminating screening laboratory biomarkers, such as serum vitamin B-12 and ferritin levels; and, in the setting of a highly suspicious clinical scenario for ALPS, pursue testing for somatic FAS mutations when germ-line mutation testing is negative.
Stirkat, Falk; Croner, Roland S.; Vassos, Nikolaos; Raptis, Dimitrios; Yedibela, Süleyman; Hohenberger, Werner; Müller, Volker
Introduction The aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT) as a marker for complications and as a prognostic factor for mortality after liver transplantation. Material and methods Liver transplant patients between January 2007 and April 2011 were prospectively included in the study. Procalcitonin serum concentration was recorded before, 6 h after reperfusion and then daily. Postoperative clinical course was prospectively analyzed from admission to discharge. Main surgical data such as operating procedure, type of reperfusion, operating and ischemic times, high urgency (HU) status and MELD score at the time of transplantation were also recorded. Results Sixteen patients with initial PCT > 5 ng/ml suffered ≥ 1 complication (p = 0.03). However, there was no association between the level of the 1st peak PCT and the further postoperative course or the occurrence of complications. Patients in whom a 2nd PCT peak occurred had a significantly higher risk for a complicated course, for a complicated sepsis course and for mortality (p < 0.0001). Warm ischemic time over 58 min, operating time over 389 min and HU status were significant independent factors for a complicated postoperative course (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 and p = 0.03 respectively). Conclusions Based on our results, we believe that PCT course and the occurrence of a 2nd peak seem to possess important diagnostic and prognostic power in the post-transplant setting after liver transplantation. PMID:27186183
Hernández-Sierra, Astrid; Rovira, Jordi; Petit, Anna; Moya-Rull, Daniel; Mazuecos, María Auxiliadora; Sánchez-Fructuoso, Ana Isabel; Errasti, Pedro; Idoate, Miguel Ángel; Cruzado, Josep María; Vidal, August; Diekmann, Fritz; Oppenheimer, Federico; Campistol, Josep M; Revuelta, Ignacio
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is one of the most frequent transplant related tumors. Several pathways are involved; however, the impact of the molecular phenotype associated to the tumor stage and the behavior-depending resultant therapy is still unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the role of HHV-8 and mTOR pathway in tumor stages of skin KS after renal transplantation. Twelve renal transplant recipients with cutaneous KS from five transplant centers (1980-2007) under reduction of immunosuppression or conversion to mTOR inhibitor were included. The expression of HHV-8, PTEN, TGFβ, VEGF, phospho-mTOR, and phospho-P70S6K in tumoral tissue was analyzed. KS lesions were classified as patch, plaque, and nodule state. HHV-8 infection was found in all tissue samples. KS lesions showed high activation of VEGF, p-mTOR and p-P70S6K, low PTEN, and null TGFβ expression. The only pathway activated in a staging-dependent manner was mTOR with higher p-mTOR and p-P70S6K expression in nodule versus patch stage. KS lesions disappeared after 5.24 months in all converted patients without any recurrence in 14.05 years of mean follow-up. The activation of mTOR pathway according to KS stages supports the rational of the mTOR inhibitor in post-transplant Kaposi.
Lodding, I P; Sengeløv, H; da Cunha-Bang, C; Iversen, M; Rasmussen, A; Gustafsson, F; Downing, J G; Grarup, J; Kirkby, N; Frederiksen, C M; Mocroft, A; Sørensen, S S; Lundgren, J D
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in transplant recipients is reported to replicate with a doubling time of 1.2-2 days, and weekly screening is recommended for early diagnosis. We re-evaluated these features in our cohort of transplant recipients. The CMV doubling time of the first CMV infection in the first year post-transplant could be calculated for 193 recipients of haematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation. Factors determining the proportion of recipients with a high diagnostic CMV viral load (≥ 18,200 IU/mL) were explored using mathematical simulation. The overall median doubling time was 4.3 days (IQR 2.5-7.8) and was not influenced by prior CMV immunity, or type of transplantation (p > 0.4). Assuming a fixed doubling time of 1.3 days and screening intervals of 7 or 10 days, 11.1% and 33.3% were projected to have a high CMV viral load at diagnosis, compared to 1.4% and 4.3% if the doubling time varies as observed in our cohort. Consistently, 1.9% of recipients screened weekly had a high diagnostic virus load. Screening intervals can be extended to 10 days in cohorts with comparable CMV doubling time, whereas shorter than 7 days is required in cohorts with shorter doubling times to maintain pre-emptive screening quality.
Piazza, Antonina; Poggi, Elvira; Ozzella, Giuseppina; Adorno, Domenico
The development of de novo human leukocyte antigen (HLA) donor specific antibodies (DSA), detected by both cytotoxic or solid phase assays, was considered the major risk factor for allograft failure in kidney transplantation. However, it was shown that not all patients with persistent production of DSA suffered loss of their grafts. Modified Luminex-Single Antigen assays, able to identify C1q-fixing antibodies, represent a new strategy in assessing the clinical relevance of detected DSA. This study demonstrated that C1q-fixing capability of de novo DSA is a clinically relevant marker of worse outcome and inferior graft survival in kidney transplantation. In fact, our findings evidenced a very low graft survival only in the patients who developed DSA able to fix C1q during post-transplant course, while patients producing C1q-negative DSA had good graft survival, which was comparable to that found in our previous study for DSA-negative patients. Moreover, anti-HLA class II antibodies had a higher incidence than anti-HLA class I, and the ability to fix C1q was significantly more frequent among anti-DQ DSA than anti-DR DSA. Monitoring of de novo C1q-DSA production represents a useful, non-invasive tool for risk stratification and prediction of graft outcome in kidney transplantation.
Flynn, Katy; Daiches, Anna; Malpus, Zoey; Yonan, Nizar; Sanchez, Melissa
Exploring patients' narratives can lead to new understandings about perceived illness states. Intensive Care Unit delirium is when people experience transitory hallucinations, delusions or paranoia in the Intensive Care Unit and little is known about how this experience affects individuals who have had a heart or lung transplant. A total of 11 participants were recruited from two heart and lung transplant services and were invited to tell their story of transplant and Intensive Care Unit delirium. A narrative analysis was conducted and the findings were presented as a shared story. This shared story begins with death becoming prominent before the transplant: 'you live all the time with Mr Death on your shoulder'. Following the operation, death permeates all aspects of dream worlds, as dreams in intensive care 'tunes into the subconscious of your fears'. The next part of the shared story offers hope of restitution; however, this does not last as reality creeps in: 'I thought it was going to be like a miracle cure'. Finally, the restitution narrative is found to be insufficient and individuals differ in the extent to which they can achieve resolution. The societal discourse of a transplant being a 'gift', which gives life, leads to internalised responsibility for the 'success' or 'failure' of the transplant. Participants describe how their experiences impact their sense of self: 'a post-transplant person'. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
Kelpke, Stacey S; Chen, Bo; Bradley, Kelley M; Teng, Xinjun; Chumley, Phillip; Brandon, Angela; Yancey, Brett; Moore, Brandon; Head, Hughston; Viera, Liliana; Thompson, John A; Crossman, David K; Bray, Molly S; Eckhoff, Devin E; Agarwal, Anupam; Patel, Rakesh P
Renal injury induced by brain death is characterized by ischemia and inflammation, and limiting it is a therapeutic goal that could improve outcomes in kidney transplantation. Brain death resulted in decreased circulating nitrite levels and increased infiltrating inflammatory cell infiltration into the kidney. Since nitrite stimulates nitric oxide signaling in ischemic tissues, we tested whether nitrite therapy was beneficial in a rat model of brain death followed by kidney transplantation. Nitrite, administered over 2 h of brain death, blunted the increased inflammation without affecting brain death-induced alterations in hemodynamics. Kidneys were transplanted after 2 h of brain death and renal function followed over 7 days. Allografts collected from nitrite-treated brain-dead rats showed significant improvement in function over the first 2 to 4 days after transplantation compared with untreated brain-dead animals. Gene microarray analysis after 2 h of brain death without or with nitrite therapy showed that the latter significantly altered the expression of about 400 genes. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that multiple signaling pathways were affected by nitrite, including those related to hypoxia, transcription, and genes related to humoral immune responses. Thus, nitrite therapy attenuates brain death-induced renal injury by regulating responses to ischemia and inflammation, ultimately leading to better post-transplant kidney function.
Suthanthiran, Manikkam; Hojo, Minoru; Maluccio, Mary; Boffa, Daniel J.; Luan, Fu L.
Malignancy is a dreaded complication following organ transplantation. Immunosuppressive therapy-induced impairment of the host immune system is the prevailing hypothesis for the high incidence and aggressive progression of post-transplant neoplasm. We summarize our observations supporting an autonomous cellular mechanism for cyclosporine and tacrolimus associated metastases. Cyclosporine conferred tumor invasiveness by a direct effect on the tumor cells and promoted metastases in T-, B-, and NK cell deficient SCID- beige mice, and anti-TGF-β antibodies reduced metastases. Tacrolimus, another calcineurin inhibitor widely used in transplantation, induced TGF-β secretion by tumor cells and promoted metastases in the SCID- beige mice. The immunosuppressive macrolide rapamycin reversed an invasive phenotype to a non-invasive one, reduced circulating levels of TGF-β1 and prevented tumor growth and metastases in the immocompetant BALB/c mice and in the SCID-beige mice. Our studies, in addition to demonstrating a cell autonomous mechanism for tumor progression, advance TGF-β blockade as an anti-tumor strategy. PMID:19768190
Romanowski, Maciej; Dziedziejko, Violetta; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Safranow, Krzysztof; Domanski, Leszek; Pawlik, Andrzej
Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common metabolic complication after organ transplantation and may be associated with the use of calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus and cyclosporine). Leptin and adiponectin are adipokines and play an important role in the regulation of insulin secretion as well as glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to examine the association between adiponectin and leptin gene polymorphisms and development of PTDM. The study included 323 patients who received kidney transplants and were treated with calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus or cyclosporine). The association between adiponectin and leptin gene polymorphisms and PTDM was studied in three models of Cox regression analysis--additive, dominant and recessive. In these three models, the LEP rs2167270 gene polymorphism was statistically significantly associated with increased risk of PTDM. The association between the LEP rs2167270 polymorphism and PTDM was confirmed by multivariate regression analysis. The results of our study suggest an association between the leptin rs2167270 gene A allele and PTDM. Original submitted 27 February 2015; Revision submitted 22 May 2015.
Shah, Shaili; Wu, Eveline; Rao, V Koneti; Tarrant, Teresa K
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is characterized by immune dysregulation due to a defect in lymphocyte apoptosis. The clinical manifestations may be noted in multiple family members and include lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, increased risk of lymphoma, and autoimmune disease, which typically involves hematopoietic cell lines manifesting as multilineage cytopenias. Since the disease was first characterized in the early 1990s, there have been many advances in the diagnosis and management of this syndrome. The inherited genetic defect of many ALPS patients has involved (FAS) pathway signaling proteins, but there remain those patients who carry undefined genetic defects. Despite ALPS having historically been considered a primary immune defect presenting in early childhood, adult onset presentation is increasingly becoming recognized and more so in genetically undefined patients and those with somatic FAS mutations. Thus, future research may identify novel pathways and/or regulatory proteins important in lymphocyte activation and apoptosis.
De Muro, Pierina; Faedda, Rossana; Masala, Antonio; Lepedda, Antonio Junior; Zinellu, Elisabetta; Ciccarese, Milco; Cossu, Maria; Pala, Pier Giorgio; Satta, Rita Pasqualina; Formato, Marilena
Allograft rejection during the first year after renal transplantation can lead to persistent allograft dysfunction and reduced long-term graft survival. Thus, it is important to define early predictors of kidney damage, less invasive than allograft biopsy. Urinary glycosaminoglycan/proteoglycan concentration and distribution, N-acetyl-β-(D)-glucosaminidase (NAG), and monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG) levels were evaluated in the immediate post-transplant and during a 1-year follow-up. We observed increased urinary levels of MIG, urinary trypsin inhibitor and its degradation products, the lack of urinary heparan sulfate excretion, and the decreased chondroitin sulfate relative content at day 1 post-transplant in most patients who developed complications in the postoperative period. Moreover, urinary MIG levels showed significant correlations with NAG, C-reactive protein, and GFR at day 1 post-transplant. The monitoring of glycosaminoglycan/proteoglycan urinary pattern and the levels of urine MIG could serve as useful markers for predicting possible complications of transplantation, unraveling an early inflammatory state, on whose basis the immunosuppressive therapy could be appropriately modified.
Pecchi, Annarita; Besutti, Giulia; De Santis, Mario; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Nosseir, Sofia; Tarantino, Giuseppe; Di Benedetto, Fabrizio; Torricelli, Pietro
AIM: To evaluate the relationship between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) vascularity and grade; to describe patterns and vascular/histopathological variations of post-transplantation recurrence. METHODS: This retrospective study included 165 patients (143 men, 22 women; median age 56.8 years, range 28-70.4 years) transplanted for HCC who had a follow-up period longer than 2 mo. Pre-transplantation dynamic computed tomography or magnetic resonance examinations were retrospectively reviewed, classifying HCC imaging enhancement pattern into hypervascular and hypovascular based on presence of wash-in during arterial phase. All pathologic reports of the explanted livers were reviewed, collecting data about HCC differentiation degree. The association between imaging vascular pattern and pathological grade was estimated using the Fisher exact test. All follow-up clinical and imaging data were reviewed for evidence of recurrence. Recurrence rate was calculated and imaging features of recurrent tumor were collected, classifying early and late recurrences based on timing (< or ≥ 2 years after transplantation) and intrahepatic, extrahepatic and both intrahepatic and extrahepatic recurrences based on location. All intrahepatic recurrences were classified as hypervascular or hypovascular and the differentiation degree was collected where available. The presence of variations in imaging enhancement pattern and pathological grade between the primary tumor and the intrahepatic recurrence was evaluated and the association between imaging and histopatholgical variations was estimated by using the χ2 test. RESULTS: Of the 163 patients with imaging evidence of viable tumor, 156 (95.7%) had hypervascular and 7 (4.3%) hypovascular HCC. Among the 125 patients with evidence of viable tumor in the explanted liver, 19 (15.2%) had grade 1, 56 (44.8%) grade 2, 40 (32%) grade 3 and 4 (3.2%) grade 4 HCC, while the differentiation degree was not assessable for 6 patients (4.8%). A significant
Unal, A; Ata, S; Karakurkcu, C; Ciraci, M Z; Kocyigit, I; Sipahioglu, M H; B Tokgoz; Oymak, O
The pathogenesis of post-transplantation erythrocytosis (PTE) is not well understood and appears to be multifactorial. Our hypothesis in this study was that several factors, including toxicity of calcineurin inhibitor, immunologic factors, and chronic allograft nephropathy, can trigger local tissue hypoxia in peritubular interstitium, which is where production of erythropoietin (EPO) takes place. This local interstitial tissue hypoxia can cause an increase in renal EPO production, which induces the development of PTE. This cross-sectional study included 15 renal transplant recipients, in whom polycythemia developed after kidney transplantation, with elevated hematocrit level to >51%. Forty-eight age- and gender-matched renal transplant recipients with normal hematocrit level were included as the renal transplant control group. In addition, 13 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were also included as the healthy control group. We used urine hypoxia-inducible factor-2 alpha (HIF-2α) levels to evaluate whether there is local tissue hypoxia in renal allograft. HIF-2α levels were measured by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum EPO and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels were also measured. HIF-2α levels were significantly lower in the polycythemia group than the other two groups, but there was no significant difference between the healthy control group and the renal transplant control group with regard to HIF-2α levels. There was no significant difference among the 3 study groups in terms of levels of serum EPO and IGF-1. Local tissue hypoxia in renal allograft does not seem to play an important role in the development of PTE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ponce, P; Gusmão, L; Adragão, T; Bruges, M; Gomes, E M; Antunes, J
To study the effect of the correction of post-transplantation Hypophosphatemia on mineral metabolism. 15 patients with renal transplants for 3 to 12 months, Serum Creatinine "177 micmol/1, were treated with oral phosphorus (P) for persistent hypophosphatemia. 3 periods of blood and urine collection at intervals of 3 weeks. T1 under basal treatment with oral P, T2 after 3 weeks off medication with P, Ca, or P binders. T3 3 weeks after going back on oral P supplements. Serum P dropped from T1 to T2 (1.03 +/- 0.03 mmol/L to 0.83 +/- 0.03 mmol/L, p "0.0001), rising again in T3 to 1.06 +/- 0.03 mmol/L. From T1 to T2, PTHi decreased from 95.4 +/- 8.7 to 66.8 8.9pg/ml), osteocalcin rose from 3.8 +/- 1.2 to 16.6 +/- 2.3ng/ml (p<0.001) and 25-Vit D rose from 16.7 +/- 1.9 to 21.4 +/- 2.1 ng/l (p<0.001), with the reversal of these changes from T2 to T3 when serum P increased once again. There was a significant correlation between serum P and PTHi and serum P and 25-Vit D. There were no significant variations of the serum Ca, Alk. Phosph., ICTP and CaFE values in the three periods. 1-Serum P never dropped below 0.55 mmol/L, which had no clinical consequences, 2- When the P dropped, PTHi also dropped and osteocalcin and 25-Vit D rose, without any major variation in bone catabolism, 3- Correction of hypophosphatemia may delay recovery from secondary hyperparathyroidism.
Bodeau, Sandra; Sauzay, Chloé; Pluquet, Olivier; Choukroun, Gabriel; Galmiche, Antoine
Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality in organ transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive regimen based on Cyclosporin A (CsA). Organ transplantation and chronic immunosuppression are typically associated with skin cancers (both squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Recent studies have shown that in addition to its immunosuppressive effects, accounted for by the inhibition of calcineurin and the modulation of the transcriptional programme of lymphocytes, CsA also directly stimulates the growth and aggressive behaviour of various cancer cells. Using renal carcinogenesis as an example, we discuss the current evidence for a role of cellular proteostasis, i.e. the regulation of the production, maturation and turnover of proteins in eukaryotic cells, in tumorigenesis arising under conditions of chronic immunosuppression. We present the recent studies showing that CsA induces the unfolded protein response (UPR) in normal and transformed kidney cells. We examine how the UPR might be important, considering in particular the genomic analyses showing the existence of a correlation between the levels of expression of the actors of the UPR, the chaperones of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the aggressiveness of renal carcinoma. The UPR may offer a possible explanation for how immunosuppressive regimens based on CsA promote renal carcinogenesis. We discuss the opportunities offered by this biological knowledge in terms of screening, diagnosis and treatment of post-transplant cancers, and propose possible future translational studies examining the role of tumour proteostasis and the UPR in this context. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.
George, Lindsey A; Teachey, David T
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of abnormal lymphocyte homeostasis, resulting from mutations in the Fas apoptotic pathway. Clinical manifestations include noninfectious and nonmalignant lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and autoimmune pathology-most commonly, autoimmune cytopenias. Rarely, and in association with specific genetic mutations, patients with ALPS may go on to develop secondary lymphoid malignancies. Though ALPS is a rare disorder, it should be suspected and ruled out in children presenting with chronic and refractory multilineage cytopenias associated with nonmalignant lymphoproliferation. Revised diagnostic criteria and insights into disease biology have improved both diagnosis and treatment. Sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil are the best-studied and most effective corticosteroid-sparing therapies for ALPS, and they should be considered first-line therapy for patients who need chronic treatment. This review highlights practical clinical considerations for diagnosis and management of ALPS.
Holtick, Udo; Chemnitz, Jens-Markus; Shimabukuro-Vornhagen, Alexander; Theurich, Sebastian; Chakupurakal, Geothy; Krause, Anke; Fiedler, Anne; Luznik, Leo; Hellmich, Martin; Wolf, Dominik; Hallek, Michael; von Bergwelt-Baildon, Michael; Scheid, Christof
Post-transplant cyclophosphamide is increasingly used as graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis in the setting of bone marrow transplantation. No data have been published on the use of single-agent GvHD prophylaxis with post-transplant cyclophosphamide in the setting of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). In a phase II trial, 11 patients with myeloma or lymphoma underwent conditioning with fludarabine and busulfan followed by T-replete PBSCT and application of 50 mg/kg/d of cyclophosphamide on day+3 and +4 without other concurrent immunosuppression (IS). Median time to leukocyte, neutrophil, and platelet engraftment was 18, 21, and 18 d. The incidence of grade II-IV and grade III-IV GvHD was 45% and 27%, with a non-relapse mortality (NRM) of 36% at one and 2 yr. After median follow-up of 927 d, overall and relapse-free survival was 64% and 34%. Three patients did not require any further systemic IS until day+100 and thereafter. Analysis of immune reconstitution demonstrated rapid T- and NK-cell recovery. B- and CD3+/CD161+NK/T-cell recovery was superior in patients not receiving additional IS. Post-transplant cyclophosphamide as sole IS in PBSCT is feasible and allows rapid immune recovery. Increased rates of severe acute GvHD explain the observed NRM and may advise a temporary combination partner such as mTor-inhibitors in the PBSCT setting. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lopez-Ben, R; Smith, J K; Kew, C E; Kenney, P J; Julian, B A; Robbin, M L
This report describes the imaging characteristics of focal posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder may be limited to the allograft. A focal complex mass in the renal allograft hilum surrounding the main renal blood vessels is a common finding and can be visualized with sonography. MR imaging can help increase diagnostic confidence.
Izumiya, Sakura; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Hodohara, Keiko; Yoshida, Takashi; Okabe, Hidetoshi
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are lymphoid or plasmacytic proliferations that develop as a consequence of immunosuppression in a recipient of a solid organ, bone marrow or stem cell allograft. The development of PTLDs is usually associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the disorder is also termed EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). The development of PTLD is a rare complication in autologous bone marrow/peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. In the present study, we report a case of EBV-associated LPD which developed following autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for relapsing Hodgkin's lymphoma. A 51-year-old male presented with swelling of the left cervical lymph nodes. A biopsy revealed nodular sclerosis classical Hodgkin's lymphoma. Following four courses of ABVd (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) therapy, the Hodgkin's lymphoma relapsed. CHASE (cyclophosphamide, etoposide, cytarabine, dexamethasone) therapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation were performed. In the 128 days following the transplantation, lymph node swelling was noted and a biopsy specimen demonstrated EBV-associated LPD. The serum copy number of EBV-DNA was 2.7×10(3) copies/ml. The occurrence of EBV-associated LPD may be on the rise due to the increased number of patients undergoing immunosuppression therapy. The measurement of the serum EBV-DNA copy number and the detection of EBV-infected atypical lymphocytes using in situ hybridization are significant in establishing an early accurate diagnosis and initiating the correct treatment for EBV-associated LPD in patients with immunosuppression.
Nelson, Alex; Dhamija, Radhika; Nickels, Katherine
We present an 11-year-old boy who presented with symptoms of subacute facial nerve palsy after cardiac transplant. Neuroimaging revealed multiple ring-enhancing lesions that were most concerning for opportunistic organism abscesses and he was treated with broad-spectrum antifungal and antibacterial therapy. After noninvasive testing failed to identify a causative organism, he underwent brain biopsy. Pathology revealed posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease that was later determined to be isolated to the central nervous system. The patient was treated with reduction in his immunotherapy and chemotherapy including rituximab and methotrexate. This case exemplifies the importance of having a low threshold to consider posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease in posttransplant patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Su'ut, L; O'Connor, S J; Richards, S J; Jones, R A; Roberts, B E; Davies, F E; Fegan, C D; Jack, A S; Morgan, G J
In order to delineate the specific morphological and immunophenotypic features of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders associated with trisomy 12, 172 sequential unselected cases of CD19+CD5+ B-cell disorders, primarily affecting the peripheral blood and bone marrow, were studied. Trisomy 12 was found in 24 cases (13.9%), with all cases morphologically classified as either CLL-PL or CLL-mixed by FAB criteria. Trisomy 12 was not found in any cases of typical CLL. Trisomy 12 cases demonstrated a significant higher expression of CD11a (P<0.0001) and CD20 (P<0.0006) when compared to cases with the equivalent morphology and immunophenotype, but without the chromosomal abnormality. Trisomy 12 cases also demonstrated a higher frequency of FMC7, CD38 expression and moderate to strong surface immunoglobulin staining. However, no correlation was detected between the percentages of trisomy 12 cells and cells expressing CD11a, CD38, FMC7 or sIg mean fluorescent intensity. Cells from trisomy 12 positive cases were sorted according to their CD11a expression using fluorescent activated cell sorting. There was a significant increase in the percentage of trisomy 12 cells within the CD11a+ sorted fraction compared to the unsorted population (P < 0.05), implying that trisomy 12 is associated with increased expression of CD11a. With the highly specific morphological and immunophenotypic features demonstrated by trisomy 12 cases in this study, it is highly likely that these cases constitute a specific group of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.
Sugita, Junichi; Kawashima, Naomi; Fujisaki, Tomoaki; Kakihana, Kazuhiko; Ota, Shuichi; Matsuo, Keitaro; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Akashi, Koichi; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Harada, Mine; Teshima, Takanori
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) using post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is increasingly performed. We conducted a multicenter phase II study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of PTCy-based HLA-haploidentical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PTCy-haploPBSCT) after busulfan-containing reduced-intensity conditioning. Thirty-one patients were enrolled; 61% patients were not in remission and 42% patients had a history of prior allo-SCT. Neutrophil engraftment was achieved in 87% patients with a median of 19 days. The cumulative incidence of grades II to IV and III to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and chronic GVHD at 1 year were 23%, 3%, and 15%, respectively. No patients developed severe chronic GVHD. Day 100 nonrelapse mortality (NRM) rate was 19.4%. Overall survival, relapse, and disease-free survival rates were 45%, 45%, and 34%, respectively, at 1 year. Subgroup analysis showed that patients who had a history of prior allo-SCT had lower engraftment, higher NRM, and lower overall survival than those not receiving a prior allo-SCT. Our results suggest that PTCy-haploPBSCT after busulfan-containing reduced-intensity conditioning achieved low incidences of acute and chronic GVHD and NRM and stable donor engraftment and low NRM, particularly in patients without a history of prior allo-SCT.
Shah, Neeral L; Intagliata, Nicolas M; Henry, Zachary H; Argo, Curtis K; Northup, Patrick G
AIM To investigate the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in pre-transplant patients and its effect on post transplant mortality and graft failure. METHODS We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patient records from the organ procurement and transplant network data set. Patients were identified by the presence of SBP pre-transplant. Univariate post-transplant survival models were constructed using the Kaplan-Meier technique and multivariate models were constructed using the Cox proportional hazards model. Variables that affected post-transplant graft survival were identified in the SBP population. RESULTS Forty-seven thousand eight hundred and eighty patient records were included in the analysis for both groups, and 1966 (4.11%) patients were identified in the data set as having pre-transplant SBP. Patients that had pre-transplant SBP had higher rates of graft loss from recurrent hepatitis C virus (HCV) (3.6% vs 2.0%, P < 0.0001), infections leading to graft loss (1.9% vs 1.3%, P = 0.02), primary non-function (4.3% vs 3.0%, P < 0.0001) and chronic rejection (1.1% vs 0.7%, P = 0.04). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a statistically significant difference in all-cause survival in patients with a history of SBP vs those without (P < 0.0001). Pre-transplant history of SBP was independently predictive of mortality due to recurrent HCV (HR = 1.11, 95%CI: 1.02-1.21, P < 0.017) after liver transplantation. CONCLUSION HCV patients prior to the advent of directing acting anti-viral agents had a higher incidence of pre-transplant SBP than other patients on the liver transplant wait list. SBP history pre-transplant resulted in a higher rate of graft loss due to recurrent HCV infection and chronic rejection. PMID:28083084
Takeda, Koji; Takayama, Hiroo; Colombo, Paolo C; Jorde, Ulrich P; Yuzefpolskaya, Melana; Fukuhara, Shinichi; Mancini, Donna M; Naka, Yoshifumi
Right heart failure (RHF) is an unresolved issue during continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support. Little is known about post-transplant outcomes in patients complicated by late RHF during LVAD support. Between May 2004 and December 2013, 141 patients underwent cardiac transplantation after isolated LVAD bridging at our center. Late RHF was defined as heart failure requiring medical intervention >4 weeks after LVAD implantation. The patients' mean age was 53 ± 13 years, 82% were men, and 36% had an ischemic etiology. The mean duration of LVAD support before transplantation was 0.75 years. Late RHF developed in 21 patients (15%) during LVAD support. Of these patients, 11 were supported with inotropic agents at the time of transplantation. Patients with RHF had higher creatinine (1.6 ± 0.88 mg/dL vs 1.3 ± 0.67 mg/dL, p = 0.07), higher blood urea nitrogen (32 ± 17 mg/dL vs 24 ± 10 mg/dL, p = 0.0013), higher total bilirubin (0.96 ± 0.46 mg/dL vs 0.78 ± 0.42 mg/dL, p = 0.07), and lower albumin (3.8 ± 0.60 g/dL vs 4.1 ± 0.46 g/dL, p = 0.0019) at the time of transplantation compared with patients who did not develop RHF. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in patients with late RHF during LVAD support (29% vs 6.7%, p = 0.002). Overall post-transplant survival rates were 87% at 1 year, 83% at 3 years, and 77% at 5 years. The 5-year post-transplant survival was significantly worse in patients who developed late RHF during LVAD support compared with survival in patients who did not develop RHF (26% vs 87%, p < 0.0001). Late RHF during LVAD support adversely affects post-transplant survival. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ravis, Eleonore; Theron, Alexis; Mancini, Julien; Jaussaud, Nicolas; Morera, Pierre; Chalvignac, Virginie; Guidon, Catherine; Grisoli, Dominique; Gariboldi, Vlad; Riberi, Alberto; Habib, Gilbert; Mouly-Bandini, Annick; Collart, Frederic
Heart transplantation is the gold-standard treatment for end-stage heart failure. However, the shortage of grafts has led to longer waiting times and increased mortality for candidates without priority. To study waiting-list and post-transplant mortality, and their risk factors among patients registered for heart transplantation without initial high emergency procedure. All patients registered on the heart transplantation waiting list (2004-2015) without initial high emergency procedure were included. Clinical, biological, echocardiographic and haemodynamic data were collected. Waiting list and 1-year post-transplant survival were analysed with a Kaplan-Meier model. Of 221 patients enrolled, 168 (76.0%) were men. Mean age was 50.0±12.0 years. Forty-seven patients died on the waiting list, resulting in mortality rates of 11.2±2.7% at 1 year, 31.9±5.4% at 2 years and 49.4±7.1% at 3 years. Median survival was 36.0±4.6 months. In the multivariable analysis, left ventricular ejection fraction<30% (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38-10.24; P=0.010) and severe right ventricular systolic dysfunction (HR: 2.89, 95% CI: 1.41-5.92; P=0.004) were associated with increased waiting-list mortality. The post-transplant survival rate was 73.1±4.4% at 1 year. Pretransplant severe right ventricular dysfunction and age>50 years were strong predictors of death after transplantation (HR: 5.38, 95% CI: 1.38-10.24 [P=0.020] and HR: 6.16, 95% CI: 1.62-9.32 [P=0.0130], respectively). Mortality among candidates for heart transplantation remains high. Patients at highest risk of waiting-list mortality have to be promoted, but without compromising post-transplant outcomes. For this reason, candidates with severe right ventricular dysfunction are of concern, because, for them, transplantation is hazardous. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Wu, Sa; Zhang, Xin; Li, Zhi-Ming; Shi, Yan-Xia; Huang, Jia-Jia; Xia, Yi; Yang, Hang; Jiang, Wen-Qi
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a common complication of therapeutic immunosuppression after organ transplantation. Gene expression profile facilitates the identification of biological difference between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive and negative PTLDs. Previous studies mainly implemented variance/regression analysis without considering unaccounted array specific factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the gene expression difference between EBV positive and negative PTLDs through partial least squares (PLS) based analysis. With a microarray data set from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, we performed PLS based analysis. We acquired 1188 differentially expressed genes. Pathway and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis identified significantly over-representation of dysregulated genes in immune response and cancer related biological processes. Network analysis identified three hub genes with degrees higher than 15, including CREBBP, ATXN1, and PML. Proteins encoded by CREBBP and PML have been reported to be interact with EBV before. Our findings shed light on expression distinction of EBV positive and negative PTLDs with the hope to offer theoretical support for future therapeutic study.
Good outcome after liver transplantation for ALD without a 6 months abstinence rule prior to transplantation including post-transplant CDT monitoring for alcohol relapse assessment - a retrospective study.
Kollmann, Dagmar; Rasoul-Rockenschaub, Susanne; Steiner, Irene; Freundorfer, Edith; Györi, Georg Philipp; Silberhumer, Gerd; Soliman, Thomas; Berlakovich, Gabriela Andrea
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the second most common indication for liver transplantation (LT). The utility of fixed intervals of abstinence prior to listing is still a matter of discussion. Furthermore, post-LT long-term observation is challenging, and biomarkers as carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) may help to identify alcohol relapse. We retrospectively analyzed data from patients receiving LT for ALD from 1996 to 2012. A defined period of alcohol abstinence prior to listing was not a precondition, and abstinence was evaluated using structured psychological interviews. A total of 382 patients received LT for ALD as main (n = 290) or secondary (n = 92) indication; median follow-up was 73 months (0-213). One- and five-year patient survival and graft survival rates were 82% and 69%, and 80% and 67%, respectively. A total of 62 patients (16%) experienced alcohol relapse. Alcohol relapse did not have a statistically significant effect on patient survival (P = 0.10). Post-transplant CDT measurements showed a sensitivity and specificity of 84% and 85%, respectively. In conclusion, this large single-center analysis showed good post-transplant long-term results in patients with ALD when applying structured psychological interviews before listing. Relapse rates were lower than those reported in the literature despite using a strict definition of alcohol relapse. Furthermore, post-LT CDT measurement proved to be a useful supplementary tool for detecting alcohol relapse. © 2016 Steunstichting ESOT.
Seo, S; Xie, H; Karron, R A; Thumar, B; Englund, J A; Leisenring, W M; Stevens-Ayers, T; Boeckh, M; Campbell, A P
Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV-3) can cause severe respiratory illness among hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. Factors associated with PIV-3-specific Ab level, and the association between PIV-3 Ab levels and clinical outcomes in HCT recipients who acquire PIV-3 infection, are unknown. We evaluated PIV-3-specific hemagglutination inhibition Ab levels and clinical outcomes among 172 patients with PIV-3 infection following HCT. In a multivariable linear regression model, high post-transplantation Ab levels were independently associated with higher pre-transplantation recipient titer (mean difference 0.38 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.26, 0.50), P<0.001). Significant associations between pre-HCT Ab titers in both patients and donors and occurrence of lower respiratory tract disease (LRD) after HCT were not observed. In conclusion, low pre-transplantation titers are associated with low Ab levels after HCT. The relationship between PIV-3 Ab levels and outcomes remain uncertain. Further study is needed to prospectively evaluate the dynamics of PIV-3-specific Ab responses and the relative contribution of PIV-3-specific Ab to protection from infection acquisition and progression to LRD.
Cabrera, María Elena; Marinov, Neda; Guerra, Carolina; Morilla, Ricardo; Matutes, Estella
Chronic lymphoproliferative disorders include a variety of diseases which are often a diagnostic problem for clinical hematologists. To study prospectively the distribution and incidence of chronic lymphoproliferative disorders in Chile and compare them with those of other Western, Latin American and Oriental countries. A group of 132 patients were studied in a 36 months period (1999-2001), with a panel of monoclonal antibodies. A score for chronic lymphocytic leukemia was employed to differentiate it from other B-cell disorders. The median age was 63 years old (range 32-94). Most patients had B-cell tumors (109) and the rest (23), T-cell tumors (82% vs 18%). Forty five percent of patients with B-cell tumors had a chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), while the others were disseminated lymphomas. The incidence of T-cell tumors was slightly higher than that of other Western countries. Noteworthy is that the most common of these disorders was adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), in concordance with the high HTLV-1 seroprevalence in Chile. A morphologic, immunophenotypic and pathological study in a large number of patients with chronic lymphoproliferative disorders in Chile, shows a relatively low incidence of CLL when compared to other chronic B-cell tumors and a high representation of ATLL associated to HTLV-1 infection, compared with other Western countries. The lower incidence of CLL in our study might be due to patient's selection and/or underdiagnosis of this disease as a substantial proportion of CLL are asymptomatic.
Aberdein, Danielle; Munday, John S; Gandolfi, Barbara; Dittmer, Keren E; Malik, Richard; Garrick, Dorian J; Lyons, Leslie A
British shorthair (BSH) kittens in multiple litters died as a result of a severe non-neoplastic lymphoproliferative disease that showed many similarities with human autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Human ALPS is caused by inherited defects in FAS-mediated lymphocyte apoptosis and the possibility of similar defects was investigated in BSH cats. The whole genomes of two affected kittens were sequenced and compared to 82 existing cat genomes. Both BSH kittens had homozygous insertions of an adenine within exon 3 of the FAS-ligand gene. The resultant frameshift and premature stop codon were predicted to result in a severely truncated protein that is unlikely to be able to activate FAS. Three additional affected BSH kittens were homozygous for the variant, while 11 of 16 unaffected, but closely related, BSH cats were heterozygous for the variant. All BSH cats in the study were from a population with significant inbreeding. The variant was not identified in a further survey of 510 non-BSH cats. Identification of a genetic defect in the FAS-mediated apoptosis pathway confirms that the lymphoproliferative disease in BSH cats fulfills the diagnostic criteria for ALPS in humans. These results will enable the development of a genetic test to detect BSH carrier animals.
Berio, A; Mangiante, G; Piazzi, A
The paper reported on a case of severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI) associated with a probable autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome variant (Dianzani autoimmune lymphoproliferative disease) (DALD). A male patient with typical features of SMEI and a SCN1A gene variant presented in the first year of life with multiple lymph nodes, palpable liver at 2 cm from the costal margin, neutropenia, dysgammaglobulinemia, relative and sometimes absolute lymphocytosis. Subsequently the patient presented with constantly raised IgA in serum and positive antinuclear and thyroid antimicrosomal antibodies. The diagnosis of probable autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome was made; arthritis, skin and throat blisters, which appeared subsequently led to the diagnosis of linear IgA disease. On the basis of these unique associations, the Authors hypothesized that autoimmunity may be partly responsible of the severe epileptic symptomatology, perhaps mediated by autoantibodies against sodium channels or by accompanying cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Corticosteroid treatment ameliorated the epilepsy and laboratory tests. Future studies will be necessary to evaluate the relevance of autoimmunity in SMEI.
Rao, V Koneti; Oliveira, João Bosco
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) represents a failure of apoptotic mechanisms to maintain lymphocyte homeostasis, permitting accumulation of lymphoid mass and persistence of autoreactive cells that often manifest in childhood with chronic nonmalignant lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and recurring multilineage cytopenias. Cytopenias in these patients can be the result of splenic sequestration as well as autoimmune complications manifesting as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia. More than 300 families with hereditary ALPS have now been described; nearly 500 patients from these families have been studied and followed worldwide over the last 20 years by our colleagues and ourselves. Some of these patients with FAS mutations affecting the intracellular portion of the FAS protein also have an increased risk of B-cell lymphoma. The best approaches to diagnosis, follow-up, and management of ALPS, its associated cytopenias, and other complications resulting from infiltrative lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity are presented.
Naumann-Bartsch, Nora; Stachel, Daniel; Morhart, Patrick; Staatz, Gundula; Jüngert, Jörg; Schwarz, Klaus; Holter, Wolfgang
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is an uncommon disorder of Fas-mediated apoptosis that results in impaired lymphocyte death and, therefore, disturbed immune homeostasis. Besides presentation with lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly, patients with ALPS have a high incidence of autoimmune phenomena. To our knowledge, this is the first description of polyarteritis nodosa that includes numerous arterial aneurysms in a child with ALPS. Active vasculitis resolved after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This report of polyarteritis nodosa associated with human ALPS supports previous findings in Fas-deficient mouse models that frequently develop vasculitic manifestations and suggests that apoptotic defects of lymphocytes may play a role in the pathophysiology of systemic vasculitis. Thus, patients with ALPS might be more susceptible to autoimmune vessel inflammation. This case furthermore emphasizes that even rare autoimmune manifestations should be considered and investigated in patients with immunodeficiencies, because that might help in planning treatment strategies for these patients.
Fernández Castillo, Rafael; Fernandez Gallegos, Ruth; Gomez Urquiza, Jose Luis; Cañadas de la Fuente, Guillermo A; Esteban de la Rosa, Rafael Jose; Peña Amaro, Maria Pilar
The onset of post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) among kidney recipients is associated with an increased risk of graft failure and high rates of morbidity and mortality. Minimize the risk of PTDM is a priority for improving long-term survival rates. Aims. This study aims to assess the prevalence of PTDM in a renal transplant patient population, to identify risk factors and assess the graft and patient survival. The sample consisted of 112 renal transplant patients , 69 men and 43 women , renal transplant , who attended for five years post-transplant consultation. Were analyzed as potential risk factors for PTDM : age , sex, body mass index (BMI ) , obesity , VHC , hypertension, dyslipidemia , total cholesterol (TC) , serum triglyceride and immunosuppressive therapy ( cyclosporine , tacrolimus , mycophenolate mofetil and sirolimus ), also the prevalence of acute rejection episodes was evaluated. The prevalence of PTDM was 24.2 %, compared with 85 patients (75.8%) with standard glucose (PGN) . PTDM patients showed a higher BMI , a higher percentage of overweight , dyslipidemia , total cholesterol levels , triglycerides and performed a greater percentage of patients with PDMPT including Mycophenolate mofetil was administered. There is a high incidence of PTDM in kidney recipients , the importance of weight control and strict adherence to all identified risk factors , as well as in minimizing the doses of immunosuppressive therapies to prevent the onset of PTDM. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Jian; Ma, Linlin; Xie, Zelin; Guo, Yuwen; Sun, Wen; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Jun; Xiao, Jing; Zhu, Yichen; Tian, Ye
This study investigated the incidence and types of post-transplant malignancy in Chinese renal transplant recipients and the risk factors associated with malignancy. Data from 3,462 patients who underwent renal transplantation at Beijing Friendship Hospital were combined with data from 26 previous reports describing malignancy rates in 27,170 Chinese renal transplant recipients. Between 1974 and 2014, 179/3,462 (5.17 %) patients who underwent renal transplantation at our center developed malignancy. The most common site of malignancy was the urinary system, and the most common type was urothelial transitional cell carcinoma. Combined data from our center and previous reports showed malignancy in 671 (2.19 %) Chinese renal transplant recipients. The ten most common malignancies were urothelial transitional cell carcinoma (n = 283), hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 68), gastrointestinal cancer (n = 63), renal cell carcinoma (n = 42), lymphoma (n = 42), lung cancer (n = 28), breast cancer (n = 19), skin cancer (n = 18), Kaposi's sarcoma (n = 12), and cervical cancer (n = 10). The incidence of post-transplant malignancy in renal transplant recipients was lower in China than the reported rates in other countries, and the most common sites of malignancy were the urinary and digestive system. The relative frequency of malignancy sites differed between northern and southern China. Renal transplant recipients on long-term immunosuppressive therapy should receive careful follow-up, including annual or biannual screening for malignancy in high-risk individuals.
Hong, Sanghee; Le-Rademacher, Jennifer; Artz, Andrew; McCarthy, Philip L.; Logan, Brent R.; Pasquini, Marcelo C.
Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with non-myeloablative conditioning (NMA) for lymphoproliferative diseases (LD) includes fludarabine with and without low-dose total body irradiation (TBI). Transplant outcomes were compared among patients ≥40 years with LD who received a HCT with TBI (N=382) and no-TBI (N=515) NMA from 2001 to 2011. The groups were comparable except for donor, graft, prophylaxis for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), disease status and year of HCT. Cumulative incidences of grades II–IV GVHD at 100 days, were 29% and 20% (p=0.001), and chronic GVHD at 1 year were 54% and 44% (p=0.004) for TBI and no-TBI, respectively. Multivariate analysis of progression/relapse, treatment failure and mortality showed no outcome differences by conditioning. Full donor chimerism at day 100 was observed in 82% vs. 64% in the TBI and no-TBI groups, respectively (p=0.006). Subset of four most common conditioning/ GVHD prophylaxis combinations demonstrated higher rates of grades II–IV acute (p<0.001) and chronic GVHD (p<0.001) among recipients of TBI-mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) compared to other combinations. TBI-based NMA conditioning induces faster full donor chimerism but overall survival outcomes are comparable to no-TBI regimens. Combination of TBI and MMF are associated with higher rates of GVHD without impact on survival outcomes in patients with LD. PMID:25437248
Quadrelli, C.; Barozzi, P.; Riva, G.; Vallerini, D.; Zanetti, E.; Potenza, L.; Forghieri, F.; Luppi, M.
Similarly to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is a γ-herpesvirus, recently recognized to be associated with the occurrence of rare B cell lymphomas and atypical lymphoproliferations, especially in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected subjects. Moreover, the human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), a β-herpesvirus, has been shown to be implicated in some non-malignant lymph node proliferations, such as the Rosai Dorfman disease, and in a proportion of Hodgkin’s lymphoma cases. HHV-6 has a wide cellular tropism and it might play a role in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of human diseases, but given its ubiquity, disease associations are difficult to prove and its role in hematological malignancies is still controversial. The involvement of another β-herpesvirus, the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), has not yet been proven in human cancer, even though recent findings have suggested its potential role in the development of CD4+ large granular lymphocyte (LGL) lymphocytosis. Here, we review the current knowledge on the pathogenetic role of HHV-8 and human β-herpesviruses in human lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:22110893
Butler, Javed; McCoin, Nicole S; Feurer, Irene D; Speroff, Theodore; Davis, Stacy F; Chomsky, Don B; Wilson, John R; Merrill, Walter H; Drinkwater, Davis C; Pierson, Richard N; Pinson, C Wright
Health-related quality of life and functional performance are important outcome measures following heart transplantation. This study investigates the impact of pre-transplant functional performance and post-transplant rejection episodes, obesity and osteopenia on post-transplant health-related quality of life and functional performance. Functional performance and health-related quality of life were measured in 70 adult heart transplant recipients. A composite health-related quality of life outcome measure was computed via principal component analysis. Iterative, multiple regression-based path analysis was used to develop an integrated model of variables that affect post-transplant functional performance and health-related quality of life. Functional performance, as measured by the Karnofsky scale, improved markedly during the first 6 months post-transplant and was then sustained for up to 3 years. Rejection Grade > or =2 was negatively associated with health-related quality of life, measured by Short Form-36 and reversed Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale scores. Patients with osteopenia had lower Short Form-36 physical scores and obese patients had lower functional performance. Path analysis demonstrated a negative direct effect of obesity (beta = - 0.28, p < 0.05) on post-transplant functional performance. Post-transplant functional performance had a positive direct effect on the health-related quality of life composite score (beta = 0.48, p < 0.001), and prior rejection episodes grade > or =2 had a negative direct effect on this measure (beta = -0.29, p < 0.05). Either directly or through effects mediated by functional performance, moderate-to-severe rejection, obesity and osteopenia negatively impact health-related quality of life. These findings indicate that efforts should be made to devise immunosuppressive regimens that reduce the incidence of acute rejection, weight gain and osteopenia after heart transplantation.
Cieri, Nicoletta; Greco, Raffaella; Crucitti, Lara; Morelli, Mara; Giglio, Fabio; Levati, Giorgia; Assanelli, Andrea; Carrabba, Matteo G; Bellio, Laura; Milani, Raffaella; Lorentino, Francesca; Stanghellini, Maria Teresa Lupo; De Freitas, Tiago; Marktel, Sarah; Bernardi, Massimo; Corti, Consuelo; Vago, Luca; Bonini, Chiara; Ciceri, Fabio; Peccatori, Jacopo
Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) performed using bone marrow (BM) grafts and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has gained much interest for the excellent toxicity profile after both reduced-intensity and myeloablative conditioning. We investigated, in a cohort of 40 high-risk hematological patients, the feasibility of peripheral blood stem cells grafts after a treosulfan-melphalan myeloablative conditioning, followed by a PTCy and sirolimus-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis (Sir-PTCy). Donor engraftment occurred in all patients, with full donor chimerism achieved by day 30. Post-HSCT recovery of lymphocyte subsets was broad and fast, with a median time to CD4 > 200/μL of 41 days. Cumulative incidences of grade II to IV and III-IV acute GVHD were 15% and 7.5%, respectively, and were associated with a significant early increase in circulating regulatory T cells at day 15 after HSCT, with values < 5% being predictive of subsequent GVHD occurrence. The 1-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 20%. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 100 days and 1 year were 12% and 17%, respectively. With a median follow-up for living patients of 15 months, the estimated 1-year overall and disease-free survival (DFS) was 56% and 48%, respectively. Outcomes were more favorable in patients who underwent transplantation in complete remission (1-year DFS 71%) versus patients who underwent transplantation with active disease (DFS, 34%; P = .01). Overall, myeloablative haploidentical HSCT with peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) and Sir-PTCy is a feasible treatment option: the low rates of GVHD and NRM as well as the favorable immune reconstitution profile pave the way for a prospective comparative trial comparing BM and PBSC in this specific transplantation setting.
Lim, E J; Crowley, P; Mitchell, C A; Angus, P W
Multicentric Castleman disease is a lymphoproliferative disorder which when seen in the setting of HIV/AIDS is often associated with human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) infection. We describe the case of a HIV-negative man who developed HHV-8-associated multicentric Castleman disease 11 years after liver transplantation. The patient presented with fevers and weight loss. Physical examination revealed enlarged cervical, axillary and inguinal lymph nodes. Widespread lymphadenopathy was confirmed on computed tomography (CT) scanning. Histology of an enlarged lymph node showed a polymorphous infiltrate with mature plasma cells, plasmacytoid lymphocytes and occasional blasts within the cortex and paracortex. The diagnosis of Castleman disease was confirmed by the finding of numerous HHV-8-immunopositive cells around the regressed lymph node follicles and the detection of HHV-8 on plasma PCR. Although the conventional treatment for this condition has been combination chemotherapy, in the post-transplant context it was decided to treat the patient with valganciclovir and cessation of immunosuppression. His symptoms resolved rapidly and repeat plasma PCR done 3 months after starting treatment was negative for HHV-8. A follow-up CT scan showed a dramatic reduction in the size and amount of lymphadenopathy. After 15 months of treatment, he remains well with no evidence of graft dysfunction or rejection. ©2010 The Authors Journal compilation©2010 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Kew, C E; Lopez-Ben, R; Smith, J K; Robbin, M L; Cook, W J; Gaston, R S; Deierhoi, M H; Julian, B A
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), a complication of immunosuppression, develops in approximately 1% of renal allograft recipients. Typically, PTLD is a proliferation of B-cells associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection; it is said to be most often a systemic disease. Involvement occasionally is localized near the allograft. This is a retrospective analysis of all cases of PTLD in recipients of 1474 renal transplants performed at University of Alabama at Birmingham between 1993 and 1997. Of 14 patients developing PTLD, 10 had disease localized near the allograft. The mean interval from transplantation to diagnosis was 221 +/- 70 days. All patients presented with renal dysfunction; an ultrasound examination revealed a hilar mass, with hydronephrosis in five and stenosis of renal vessels in eight. No patient had lymphadenopathy, according to computerized tomographic or magnetic resonance imaging findings. After reduction of immunosuppressive therapy, seven required a nephrectomy because of rejection, progressive dysfunction, or mass enlargement. Tissue recovered in four patients was consistent with PTLD; the tumors in the remaining three patients were unresectable and regressed. One patient died 1 month after a nephrectomy, and another died 4 years after surgery; neither had evidence of PTLD when they died. Three patients retain functional grafts without clinical or radiographical evidence of progression. All patients with disseminated disease died. In a large cohort of renal allograft recipients, PTLD affected 1%. Disease localized near the allograft was the most common variant. For most patients with localized disease, the outcome was graft loss, and the mortality was low. Localized PTLD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of allograft dysfunction in the 1st posttransplant year.
Lejman, M; Drabko, K; Styka, B; Winnicka, D; Babicz, M; Jaszczuk, I; Kowalczyk, J R
In the light of an increasing number of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations and more frequent use of reduced-intensity conditioning as preparative regimens for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, post-transplant cell chimera monitoring is considered a necessity. The quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction method, along with the commercial AmpFSTR SGMPlus kit, was applied in research on hematopoietic chimeras. The total of 102 patients who had undergone allogenic transplantations were investigated. Chimerism monitoring was commenced on the seventh day after transplantation and lasted up to 12 years in some cases, according to the instituted schedule. The kit has been shown to be fully sufficient for determining genetic profiles of recipients and donors and selecting informative markers. The method has been proven effective and satisfactory for assessing quantitative chimeras. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mrazek, Frantisek; Schneiderova, Petra; Kriegova, Eva; Raida, Ludek; Kuba, Adam; Gajdos, Petr; Königova, Nikola; Onderkova, Jana; Ambruzova, Zuzana
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) is used as a curative treatment in severe hematological and immunological disorders. Despite clear improvement of the aHSCT outcome, substantial proportion of patients still suffers from severe complications, including graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). The aim of this study was, therefore, to identify inflammation-associated molecules deregulated in the early serum samples of the patients after aHSCT and nominate markers associated with particular aHSCT parameters/complications. Serum concentrations of 92 inflammation-associated proteins were measured in samples obtained from 80 aHSCT patients 14 days after transplantation and from 23 healthy control subjects by a novel sensitive proximity extension assay technology using Proseek Multiplex Inflammation I kit. Serum profiles of inflammatory proteins in patients after aHSCT were substantially different from those observed in control subjects and related to underlying disease status before transplantation. Particularly, the difference between aHSCT patients and controls reached significance level for 57 analytes (40 upregulated, 17 downregulated in aHSCT patients). The concentration of several markers was associated with the level of donor/recipient HLA match (TGF-α: p corr = 0.025, HGF: p corr = 0.036) and with complete donor chimerism at day +30 after allografting (DNER: p corr = 0.042). None of the markers was significantly associated with acute and chronic GvHD after correction. More than half of investigated proteins significantly differed between the samples from aHSCT patients and healthy control subjects as a consequence of the "cytokine storm" after aHSCT. Comparisons of patient's subgroups based on specific biological/clinical parameters revealed much less evident differences; nevertheless, we nominated several markers associated with the level of donor/recipient HLA match and post-transplant chimerism.
Uribe, M; Hunter, B; Alba, A; Calabrán, L; Flores, L; Soto, P; Herzog, C
The success rate of pediatric liver transplantation has improved in recent years. Advances in immunosuppression have reduced the risk of rejection, but have enhanced the risk of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Since 1994, we have performed 197 orthotopic liver transplantations in 157 recipients younger than 15 years. Herein we have performed a retrospective study to review the incidence and clinical characteristics, along with the treatment and outcomes of PTLD diagnosed over this 14-year experience. We documented 8 cases of PTLD (5%), half of which occurred during the first 2 years posttransplantation; 5 presented with abdominal involvement and 2 with thoracic masses. The histological findings showed lymphoma in 6 cases. All were treated with reduction of immunosuppression and 2 received Rituximab. Three patients died, a mortality rate of 37.5%. One subject experienced rejection, and the others responded to treatment. PTLD is a life-threatening condition that requires a high index of suspicion, appropriate imaging, biopsy diagnosis, and prompt treatment to achieve positive results. Quantitative monitoring of Epstein-Barr virus load may be useful to detect a high-risk population.
Oliveira, João Bosco
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) represents a failure of apoptotic mechanisms to maintain lymphocyte homeostasis, permitting accumulation of lymphoid mass and persistence of autoreactive cells that often manifest in childhood with chronic nonmalignant lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and recurring multilineage cytopenias. Cytopenias in these patients can be the result of splenic sequestration as well as autoimmune complications manifesting as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia. More than 300 families with hereditary ALPS have now been described; nearly 500 patients from these families have been studied and followed worldwide over the last 20 years by our colleagues and ourselves. Some of these patients with FAS mutations affecting the intracellular portion of the FAS protein also have an increased risk of B-cell lymphoma. The best approaches to diagnosis, follow-up, and management of ALPS, its associated cytopenias, and other complications resulting from infiltrative lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity are presented. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrial.gov as #NCT00001350. PMID:21885601
Castellano-Sanchez, Amilcar A; Li, Shiyong; Qian, Jiang; Lagoo, Anand; Weir, Edward; Brat, Daniel J
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) represent a spectrum ranging from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven polyclonal lymphoid proliferations to EBV+ or EBV- malignant lymphomas. Central nervous system (CNS) PTLDs have not been characterized fully. We reviewed the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features of 12 primary CNS PTLDs to define them more precisely. Patients included 10 males and 2 females (median age, 43.4 years) who were recipients of kidney (n = 5), liver (n = 2), heart (n = 2), peripheral blood stem cells (n = 2), or bone marrow (n = 1). All received immunosuppressive therapy. CNS symptoms developed 3 to 131 months (mean, 31 months) after transplantation. By neuroimaging, most showed multiple (3 to 9) intra-axial, contrast-enhancing lesions. Histologic sections showed marked expansion of perivascular spaces by large, cytologically malignant lymphoid cells that were CD45+, CD20+, EBV+ and showed light chain restriction or immunoglobulin gene rearrangement. In distinction to PTLDs in other organ systems, CNS PTLDs were uniformly high-grade lymphomas that fulfilled the World Health Organization criteria for monomorphic PTLDs. Extremely short survival periods were noted for each CNS PTLD that followed peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Survival of others with CNS PTLD varied; some lived more than 2 years.
Cavicchioli, L; Ferraresso, S; Westmoreland, S; Kaliyaperumal, S; Knight, H; Crossan, C; Scobie, L; Danesi, A; Vadori, M; Trez, D; Badin, R Aron; Hantraye, P; Cozzi, E
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are a heterogeneous group of lymphoid proliferations that occur in the setting of depressed T-cell function due to immunosuppressive therapy used following solid organ transplantation, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and also xenotransplantation. In the present study, 28 immunosuppressed parkinsonian Macaca fascicularis were intracerebrally injected with wild-type or CTLA4-Ig transgenic porcine xenografts to identify a suitable strategy to enable long-term cell survival, maturation, and differentiation. Nine of 28 (32%) immunosuppressed primates developed masses compatible with PTLD, located mainly in the gastrointestinal tract and/or nasal cavity. The masses were classified as monomorphic PTLD according to the World Health Organization classification. Immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses revealed that the PTLDs were associated with macaca lymphocryptovirus as confirmed by double-labeling immunohistochemistry for CD20 and Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2), where the viral protein was located within the CD20+ neoplastic B cells. In sera from 3 distinct phases of the experimental life of the primates, testing by quantitative PCR revealed a progression of the viral load that paralleled the PTLD progression and no evidence of zoonotic transmission of porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus through xenoneuronal grafts. These data suggest that monitoring the variation of macaca lymphocryptovirus DNA in primates could be used as a possible early diagnostic tool for PTLD progression, allowing preemptive treatment such as immunosuppression therapy reduction.
Kim, Kyu Yeun; Hur, Ji Ae; Kim, Ki Hwan; Cha, Yoon Jin; Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Dong Soo
DiGeorge syndrome is an immunodeficient disease associated with abnormal development of 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches. As a hemizygous deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 occurs, various clinical phenotypes are shown with a broad spectrum. Conotruncal cardiac anomalies, hypoplastic thymus, and hypocalcemia are the classic triad of DiGeorge syndrome. As this syndrome is characterized by hypoplastic or aplastic thymus, there are missing thymic shadow on their plain chest x-ray. Immunodeficient patients are traditionally known to be at an increased risk for malignancy, especially lymphoma. We experienced a 7-year-old DiGeorge syndrome patient with mediastinal mass shadow on her plain chest x-ray. She visited Severance Children's Hospital hospital with recurrent pneumonia, and throughout her repeated chest x-ray, there was a mass like shadow on anterior mediastinal area. We did full evaluation including chest computed tomography, chest ultrasonography, and chest magnetic resonance imaging. To rule out malignancy, video assisted thoracoscopic surgery was done. Final diagnosis of the mass which was thought to be malignancy, was lymphoproliferative lesion.
Sriram, Swetha; Joshi, Avni Y.; Rodriguez, Vilmarie
The term disappearing HDL syndrome refers to development of severe high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) deficiency in noncritically ill patients with previously normal HDL-C and triglyceride levels. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of the immune system due to an inability to regulate lymphocyte homeostasis resulting in lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. We describe a 17-year-old boy who was evaluated in the lipid clinic for history of undetectable or low HDL-C and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Past medical history was significant for ALPS IA diagnosed at 10 years of age when he presented with bilateral cervical adenopathy. He was known to have a missense mutation in one allele of the FAS protein extracellular domain consistent with ALPS type 1A. HDL-C and LDL-C levels had been undetectable on multiple occasions, though lipids had not been measured prior to the diagnosis of ALPS. He had been receiving sirolimus for immunosuppression. The HDL-C and LDL-C levels correlated with disease activity and improved to normal levels during times when the activity of ALPS was controlled. This case highlights the importance of considering ALPS as a cause of low HDL-C and LDL-C levels in a child with evidence of lymphoproliferation. PMID:27579193
Sriram, Swetha; Joshi, Avni Y; Rodriguez, Vilmarie; Kumar, Seema
The term disappearing HDL syndrome refers to development of severe high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) deficiency in noncritically ill patients with previously normal HDL-C and triglyceride levels. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of the immune system due to an inability to regulate lymphocyte homeostasis resulting in lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. We describe a 17-year-old boy who was evaluated in the lipid clinic for history of undetectable or low HDL-C and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Past medical history was significant for ALPS IA diagnosed at 10 years of age when he presented with bilateral cervical adenopathy. He was known to have a missense mutation in one allele of the FAS protein extracellular domain consistent with ALPS type 1A. HDL-C and LDL-C levels had been undetectable on multiple occasions, though lipids had not been measured prior to the diagnosis of ALPS. He had been receiving sirolimus for immunosuppression. The HDL-C and LDL-C levels correlated with disease activity and improved to normal levels during times when the activity of ALPS was controlled. This case highlights the importance of considering ALPS as a cause of low HDL-C and LDL-C levels in a child with evidence of lymphoproliferation.
Today, a main focus of the transplant community is the long-term outcomes of lung and heart allograft recipients. However, even early post-transplant survival (within the first post-transplant year) needs improvement, as early graft failure still accounts for many allograft losses. In this chapter, we review the experience of heart and lung transplantation as reported to the Organ Procurement Transplant Network/United Network of Organ Sharing registry and investigate the factors responsible for causing failure in the first post-transplant year. Trends indicate that sicker patients are increasingly being transplanted, thereby limiting improvements in early post-transplant survival. More lung and heart transplant patients are coming to transplant on dialysis. In heart transplant, there is an increase in the number of heart retransplant patients and an increase in patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. For lung transplant, more patients are on a ventilator prior to transplant than in the past 25 years. Given that sicker/riskier patients are now receiving more heart and lung transplants, future studies need to take place to better understand these patients so that they can have the same survival as patients entering transplant with less severe illnesses.
M. Habte; G. Diarra; P.G. Scowcroft
The extent to which pretransplant colonization of seedlings with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus aggregatum Schenck and Smith emend. Koske could enhance the post-transplant growth of two cultivars of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (cv. K-8 and cv. K-636) in Al- and Mn-rich acid soils was evaluated in a...
Jin, Sang-Man; Oh, Seung-Hoon; Oh, Bae Jun; Suh, Sunghwan; Bae, Ji Cheol; Lee, Jung Hee; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Kwang-Won; Kim, Jae Hyeon
While a few studies have demonstrated the benefit of PEGylation in islet transplantation, most have employed renal subcapsular models and none have performed direct comparisons of islet mass in intraportal islet transplantation using islet magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, our aim was to demonstrate the benefit of PEGylation in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation with a novel algorithm for islet MRI. Islets were PEGylated after ferucarbotran labeling in a rat syngeneic intraportal islet transplantation model followed by comparisons of post-transplant glycemic levels in recipient rats infused with PEGylated (n = 12) and non-PEGylated (n = 13) islets. The total area of hypointense spots and the number of hypointense spots larger than 1.758 mm2 of PEGylated and non-PEGylated islets were quantitatively compared. The total area of hypointense spots (P < 0.05) and the number of hypointense spots larger than 1.758 mm2 (P < 0.05) were higher in the PEGylated islet group 7 and 14 days post translation (DPT). These results translated into better post-transplant outcomes in the PEGylated islet group 28 DPT. In validation experiments, MRI parameters obtained 1, 7, and 14 DPT predicted normoglycemia 4 wk post-transplantation. We directly demonstrated the benefit of islet PEGylation in protection against nonspecific islet destruction in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation using a novel algorithm for islet MRI. This novel algorithm could serve as a useful tool to demonstrate such benefit in future clinical trials of islet transplantation using PEGylated islets. PMID:25483878
Jin, Sang-Man; Oh, Seung-Hoon; Oh, Bae Jun; Suh, Sunghwan; Bae, Ji Cheol; Lee, Jung Hee; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Kwang-Won; Kim, Jae Hyeon
While a few studies have demonstrated the benefit of PEGylation in islet transplantation, most have employed renal subcapsular models and none have performed direct comparisons of islet mass in intraportal islet transplantation using islet magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, our aim was to demonstrate the benefit of PEGylation in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation with a novel algorithm for islet MRI. Islets were PEGylated after ferucarbotran labeling in a rat syngeneic intraportal islet transplantation model followed by comparisons of post-transplant glycemic levels in recipient rats infused with PEGylated (n = 12) and non-PEGylated (n = 13) islets. The total area of hypointense spots and the number of hypointense spots larger than 1.758 mm(2) of PEGylated and non-PEGylated islets were quantitatively compared. The total area of hypointense spots (P < 0.05) and the number of hypointense spots larger than 1.758 mm(2) (P < 0.05) were higher in the PEGylated islet group 7 and 14 days post translation (DPT). These results translated into better post-transplant outcomes in the PEGylated islet group 28 DPT. In validation experiments, MRI parameters obtained 1, 7, and 14 DPT predicted normoglycemia 4 wk post-transplantation. We directly demonstrated the benefit of islet PEGylation in protection against nonspecific islet destruction in the early post-transplant period of intraportal islet transplantation using a novel algorithm for islet MRI. This novel algorithm could serve as a useful tool to demonstrate such benefit in future clinical trials of islet transplantation using PEGylated islets.
Ross, Duncan; Jones, Monica; Komanduri, Krishna; Levy, Robert B.
Administration of cyclophosphamide following transplant (Post-transplant cyclophosphamide, PTC) has shown promise in the clinic as a prophylactic agent against graft vs. host disease. An important issue with regard to recipient immune function and reconstitution after PTC is the extent to which in addition to diminution of anti-host allo-reactive donor T cells, the remainder of the non-host allo-reactive donor T cell pool may be impacted. To investigate PTC’s effects on non-host reactive donor CD8 T cells, ova specific (OT-I) and gp100 specific Pmel-1 T cells were labeled with proliferation dyes and transplanted into syngeneic and allogeneic recipients. Notably, an intermediate dose (66mg/kg) of PTC which abrogated GVHD following allogeneic HSCT, did not significantly diminish these peptide specific donor T cell populations. Analysis of the rate of proliferation following transplant illustrated that lymphopenic driven donor non host reactive TCR Tg T cells in syngeneic recipients underwent slow division resulting in significant sparing of these donor populations. In contrast, following exposure to specific antigen at the time of transplant, these same T cells were significantly depleted by PTC demonstrating the global susceptibility of rapidly dividing T cells following encounter with cognate antigen. In total, our results employing both syngeneic and allogeneic minor antigen mismatched T cell replete models of transplantation, demonstrate a concentration of PTC that abrogates GVHD can preserve most cells that are dividing due to the accompanying lymphopenia following exposure. These findings have important implications with regard to immune function and reconstitution in recipients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. PMID:23819914
Dunphy, Cherie H; Gardner, Laura J; Grosso, Leonard E; Evans, H Lance
We studied the flow cytometric immunophenotyping (FCI) and genotypic data of 11 specimens from 10 transplant recipients and categorized them based on a scheme for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs). Specimens had been analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and/or Southern blot for T-cell and B-cell (immunoglobulin heavy chain and light chain genes) gene rearrangements (BGR). The categories for PTLDs were as follows: 1, 1; 2, 6; and 3, 4. The plasmacytic and polymorphic B-cell hyperplasias (PBCHs) revealed no monoclonal/aberrant cells by FCI or genotypic studies (GS). Three of 4 polymorphic B-cell lymphomas (PBCLs) revealed monoclonal or aberrant (no surface light chain) B cells by FCI; 1 of 3 revealed a BGR. However, the 1 case with no monoclonal/aberrant B cells by FCI revealed a BGR. Both immunoblastic lymphomas revealed monoclonal or aberrant B cells by FCI; 1 revealed a BGR. Both multiple myelomas revealed monoclonal plasma cells by FCI; 1 revealed a BGR. In the 4 PTLDs with monoclonal/aberrant B cells by FCI and no clonality detected by GS, the GS were performed on fresh and paraffin-embedded tissue samples. FCI of the plasmacytic and PBCHs supported no clonal process by GS. FCI defined a clonal process in 2 PBCLs, I immunoblastic lymphoma, and 1 multiple myeloma that were negative by GS. However, 1 PBCL that was polyclonal by FCI was monoclonal by GS. Thus, FCI is useful for identifying a clonal process in PTLDs with negative results by GS; FCI and GS should be performed routinely in PTLDs to detect a clonal process.
Rubenstein, Jon Nicholas; Beatty, Colleen; Kinkade, Zoe; Bryan, Cara; Hogg, Jeffery Paul; Gibson, Laura F; Vos, Jeffrey A
Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma (ENMZL) of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) is a problematic and sometimes controversial diagnosis. While commonly seen in the stomach in the setting of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection, other extranodal sites, such as the lung, may also present with disease. ENMZL is clinically and morphologically heterogeneous; however, regardless of presentation, the etiology lies in the accumulation of lymphoid tissue in non-traditional sites. This phenomenon is typically secondary to an underlying inflammatory stimulus such as chronic infection or autoimmune states. The current case report details the clinical history of a patient with Sjögren syndrome over a four year period who eventually developed ENMZL. The patient initially presented with an atypical, but polyclonal, lymphoproliferative process diagnosed as lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia. Over time, the patient showed evolution to a monoclonal process with associated radiologic progression of disease. This evolution manifested as a dense lymphoid infiltrate with prominent plasmacytic differentiation and the development of a lung mass radiologically. This case contributes to the growing body of knowledge that suggests ENMZL lies along a biological spectrum of lymphoproliferative disorders whereby a benign, reactive process may eventually undergo malignant transformation. This evolution likely represents the acquisition of genetic abnormalities that allow autonomous proliferation in the absence of the initial immune stimulus. In practice, determining when this event occurs and, thus, distinguishing between reactive and neoplastic disorders within this spectrum may be difficult as no single clinicopathologic feature may be present to establish the diagnosis. This case further illustrates the importance of correlating the clinical, radiologic and pathologic data to evaluate patients with atypical pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorders and to allow the optimal management of
Teachey, David T; Seif, Alix E; Grupp, Stephan A
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of T cell dysregulation caused by defective Fas-mediated apoptosis. Patients with ALPS can develop a myriad of clinical manifestations including lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmunity and increased rates of malignancy. ALPS may be more common that originally thought, and testing for ALPS should be considered in patients with unexplained lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and/or autoimmunity. As the pathophysiology of ALPS is better characterized, a number of targeted therapies are in preclinical development and clinical trials with promising early results. This review describes the clinical and laboratory manifestations found in ALPS patients, as well as the molecular basis for the disease and new advances in treatment.
Autoimmune Pancytopenia; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS); Evans Syndrome; Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune; Autoimmune Neutropenia; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Rheumatoid Arthritis
Xie, Yi; Pittaluga, Stefania; Price, Susan; Raffeld, Mark; Hahn, Jamie; Jaffe, Elaine S; Rao, V Koneti; Maric, Irina
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by defective FAS-mediated apoptosis, autoimmune disease, accumulation of mature T-cell receptor alpha/beta positive, CD4 and CD8 double-negative T cells and increased risk of lymphoma. Despite frequent hematologic abnormalities, literature is scarce regarding the bone marrow pathology in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. We retrospectively reviewed 3l bone marrow biopsies from a cohort of 240 patients with germline FAS mutations. All biopsies were performed for the evaluation of cytopenias or to rule out lymphoma. Clinical information was collected and morphological, immunohistochemical, flow cytometric and molecular studies were performed. Bone marrow lymphocytosis was the predominant feature, present in 74% (23/31) of biopsies. The lymphoid cells showed several different patterns of infiltration, most often forming aggregates comprising T cells in 15 cases, B cells in one and a mixture of T and B cells in the other seven cases. Double-negative T cells were detected by immunohistochemistry in the minority of cases (10/31; 32%); significantly, all but one of these cases had prominent double-negative T-lymphoid aggregates, which in four cases diffusely replaced the marrow space. One case showed features of Rosai-Dorfman disease, containing scattered S-100(+) cells with emperipolesis and double-negative T cells. No clonal B or T cells were detected by polymerase chain reaction in any evaluated cases. Classical Hodgkin lymphoma was identified in three cases. Our results demonstrate that infiltrates of T cells, or rarely B cells, can be extensive in patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, mimicking lymphoma. A multi-modality approach, integrating clinical, histological, immunohistochemical as well as other ancillary tests, can help avoid this diagnostic pitfall. This study is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov ID # NCT00001350.
Xie, Yi; Pittaluga, Stefania; Price, Susan; Raffeld, Mark; Hahn, Jamie; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Rao, V. Koneti; Maric, Irina
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by defective FAS-mediated apoptosis, autoimmune disease, accumulation of mature T-cell receptor alpha/beta positive, CD4 and CD8 double-negative T cells and increased risk of lymphoma. Despite frequent hematologic abnormalities, literature is scarce regarding the bone marrow pathology in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. We retrospectively reviewed 3l bone marrow biopsies from a cohort of 240 patients with germline FAS mutations. All biopsies were performed for the evaluation of cytopenias or to rule out lymphoma. Clinical information was collected and morphological, immunohistochemical, flow cytometric and molecular studies were performed. Bone marrow lymphocytosis was the predominant feature, present in 74% (23/31) of biopsies. The lymphoid cells showed several different patterns of infiltration, most often forming aggregates comprising T cells in 15 cases, B cells in one and a mixture of T and B cells in the other seven cases. Double-negative T cells were detected by immunohistochemistry in the minority of cases (10/31; 32%); significantly, all but one of these cases had prominent double-negative T-lymphoid aggregates, which in four cases diffusely replaced the marrow space. One case showed features of Rosai-Dorfman disease, containing scattered S-100+ cells with emperipolesis and double-negative T cells. No clonal B or T cells were detected by polymerase chain reaction in any evaluated cases. Classical Hodgkin lymphoma was identified in three cases. Our results demonstrate that infiltrates of T cells, or rarely B cells, can be extensive in patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, mimicking lymphoma. A multi-modality approach, integrating clinical, histological, immunohistochemical as well as other ancillary tests, can help avoid this diagnostic pitfall. This study is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov ID # NCT00001350 PMID:27846610
Ghinoi, A; Mascia, M T; Puccini, R; Ferri, C
Mixed cryoglobulinaemia (MC) is a systemic vasculitis involving small vessels (arterioles, capillaries, venules). The histological hallmark of the disease is the leukocytoclastic vasculitis secondary to the vascular deposition of circulating immune-complexes (CIC), mainly cryoglobulins and complement. The immune-mediated vasculitic lesions are responsible for different MC clinical features, including cutaneous and visceral organ involvement. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents the triggering factor in the large majority of MC patients (>90%). Moreover, several epidemiological, clinico-pathological and laboratory investigations suggested a possible role for HCV in a wide spectrum of immuno-lymphoproliferative disorders; namely, porphyria cutanea tarda, diabetes, polyarthritis, lung fibrosis, poly-dermatomyositis, thyroiditis, thyroid cancer, B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (B-NHL), etc. Renal involvement with or without MC syndrome can be observed in HCV-infected individuals. There is great geographical etherogeneity in the prevalence of HCV-related disorders. This epidemiological observation suggests a multifactorial and multistep process in the pathogenesis of these conditions, involving other unknown genetic and/or environmental factors. HCV lymphotropism may explain the mono-oligoclonal B-lymphocyte expansion observed in HCV-infected individuals, particularly in MC patients. The 'benign' lymphoproliferative disorder, classified as monotypic lymphoproliferative disorders of undetermined significance (MLDUS), may be responsible for the wide production of CIC, including cryoglobulins, rheumatoid factor and different organ and non-organ specific autoantibodies. The consequence is the appearance of various HCV-related autoimmune diseases, including MC syndrome. This latter may be complicated by B-NHL in 10% of the cases; moreover, HCV infection has been confirmed in a significant percentage of 'idiopathic B-NHL. For a correct therapeutic approach to cryoglobulinaemic
Rivinius, Rasmus; Helmschrott, Matthias; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Schmack, Bastian; Erbel, Christian; Gleissner, Christian A; Akhavanpoor, Mohammadreza; Frankenstein, Lutz; Darche, Fabrice F; Schweizer, Patrick A; Thomas, Dierk; Ehlermann, Philipp; Bruckner, Tom; Katus, Hugo A; Doesch, Andreas O
Amiodarone is a frequently used antiarrhythmic drug in patients with end-stage heart failure. Given its long half-life, pre-transplant use of amiodarone has been controversially discussed, with divergent results regarding morbidity and mortality after heart transplantation (HTX). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term use of amiodarone before HTX on early post-transplant atrial fibrillation (AF) and mortality after HTX. Five hundred and thirty patients (age ≥18 years) receiving HTX between June 1989 and December 2012 were included in this retrospective single-center study. Patients with long-term use of amiodarone before HTX (≥1 year) were compared to those without long-term use (none or <1 year of amiodarone). Primary outcomes were early post-transplant AF and mortality after HTX. The Kaplan-Meier estimator using log-rank tests was applied for freedom from early post-transplant AF and survival. Of the 530 patients, 74 (14.0%) received long-term amiodarone therapy, with a mean duration of 32.3±26.3 months. Mean daily dose was 223.0±75.0 mg. Indications included AF, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. Patients with long-term use of amiodarone before HTX had significantly lower rates of early post-transplant AF (P=0.0105). Further, Kaplan-Meier analysis of freedom from early post-transplant AF showed significantly lower rates of AF in this group (P=0.0123). There was no statistically significant difference between patients with and without long-term use of amiodarone prior to HTX in 1-year (P=0.8596), 2-year (P=0.8620), 5-year (P=0.2737), or overall follow-up mortality after HTX (P=0.1049). Moreover, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed no statistically significant difference in overall survival (P=0.1786). Long-term use of amiodarone in patients before HTX significantly reduces early post-transplant AF and is not associated with increased mortality after HTX.
Rivinius, Rasmus; Helmschrott, Matthias; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Schmack, Bastian; Erbel, Christian; Gleissner, Christian A; Akhavanpoor, Mohammadreza; Frankenstein, Lutz; Darche, Fabrice F; Schweizer, Patrick A; Thomas, Dierk; Ehlermann, Philipp; Bruckner, Tom; Katus, Hugo A; Doesch, Andreas O
Background Amiodarone is a frequently used antiarrhythmic drug in patients with end-stage heart failure. Given its long half-life, pre-transplant use of amiodarone has been controversially discussed, with divergent results regarding morbidity and mortality after heart transplantation (HTX). Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term use of amiodarone before HTX on early post-transplant atrial fibrillation (AF) and mortality after HTX. Methods Five hundred and thirty patients (age ≥18 years) receiving HTX between June 1989 and December 2012 were included in this retrospective single-center study. Patients with long-term use of amiodarone before HTX (≥1 year) were compared to those without long-term use (none or <1 year of amiodarone). Primary outcomes were early post-transplant AF and mortality after HTX. The Kaplan–Meier estimator using log-rank tests was applied for freedom from early post-transplant AF and survival. Results Of the 530 patients, 74 (14.0%) received long-term amiodarone therapy, with a mean duration of 32.3±26.3 months. Mean daily dose was 223.0±75.0 mg. Indications included AF, Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. Patients with long-term use of amiodarone before HTX had significantly lower rates of early post-transplant AF (P=0.0105). Further, Kaplan–Meier analysis of freedom from early post-transplant AF showed significantly lower rates of AF in this group (P=0.0123). There was no statistically significant difference between patients with and without long-term use of amiodarone prior to HTX in 1-year (P=0.8596), 2-year (P=0.8620), 5-year (P=0.2737), or overall follow-up mortality after HTX (P=0.1049). Moreover, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed no statistically significant difference in overall survival (P=0.1786). Conclusion Long-term use of amiodarone in patients before HTX significantly reduces early post-transplant AF and is not associated with
Aricò, Maurizio; Boggio, Elena; Cetica, Valentina; Melensi, Matteo; Orilieri, Elisabetta; Clemente, Nausicaa; Cappellano, Giuseppe; Buttini, Sara; Soluri, Maria Felicia; Comi, Cristoforo; Dufour, Carlo; Pende, Daniela; Dianzani, Irma; Ellis, Steven R; Pagliano, Sara; Marcenaro, Stefania; Ramenghi, Ugo; Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Dianzani, Umberto
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is caused by genetic defects decreasing Fas function and is characterized by lymphadenopathy/splenomegaly and expansion of CD4/CD8 double-negative T cells. This latter expansion is absent in the ALPS variant named Dianzani Autoimmune/lymphoproliferative Disease (DALD). In addition to the causative mutations, the genetic background influences ALPS and DALD development. We previously suggested a disease-modifying role for the perforin gene involved in familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL). The UNC13D gene codes for Munc13-4, which is involved in perforin secretion and FHL development, and thus, another candidate for a disease-modifying role in ALPS and DALD. In this work, we sequenced UNC13D in 21 ALPS and 20 DALD patients and compared these results with sequences obtained from 61 healthy subjects and 38 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. We detected four rare missense variations in three heterozygous ALPS patients carrying p.Cys112Ser, p.Val781Ile, and a haplotype comprising both p.Ile848Leu and p.Ala995Pro. Transfection of the mutant cDNAs into HMC-1 cells showed that they decreased granule exocytosis, compared to the wild-type construct. An additional rare missense variation, p.Pro271Ser, was detected in a healthy subject, but this variation did not decrease Munc13-4 function. These data suggest that rare loss-of-function variations of UND13D are risk factors for ALPS development.
Aricò, Maurizio; Boggio, Elena; Cetica, Valentina; Melensi, Matteo; Orilieri, Elisabetta; Clemente, Nausicaa; Cappellano, Giuseppe; Buttini, Sara; Soluri, Maria Felicia; Comi, Cristoforo; Dufour, Carlo; Pende, Daniela; Dianzani, Irma; Ellis, Steven R.; Pagliano, Sara; Marcenaro, Stefania; Ramenghi, Ugo; Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Dianzani, Umberto
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is caused by genetic defects decreasing Fas function and is characterized by lymphadenopathy/splenomegaly and expansion of CD4/CD8 double-negative T cells. This latter expansion is absent in the ALPS variant named Dianzani Autoimmune/lymphoproliferative Disease (DALD). In addition to the causative mutations, the genetic background influences ALPS and DALD development. We previously suggested a disease-modifying role for the perforin gene involved in familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL). The UNC13D gene codes for Munc13-4, which is involved in perforin secretion and FHL development, and thus, another candidate for a disease-modifying role in ALPS and DALD. In this work, we sequenced UNC13D in 21 ALPS and 20 DALD patients and compared these results with sequences obtained from 61 healthy subjects and 38 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. We detected four rare missense variations in three heterozygous ALPS patients carrying p.Cys112Ser, p.Val781Ile, and a haplotype comprising both p.Ile848Leu and p.Ala995Pro. Transfection of the mutant cDNAs into HMC-1 cells showed that they decreased granule exocytosis, compared to the wild-type construct. An additional rare missense variation, p.Pro271Ser, was detected in a healthy subject, but this variation did not decrease Munc13-4 function. These data suggest that rare loss-of-function variations of UND13D are risk factors for ALPS development. PMID:23840885
Landgren, Ola; Gilbert, Ethel S; Rizzo, J Douglas; Socié, Gérard; Banks, Peter M; Sobocinski, Kathleen A; Horowitz, Mary M; Jaffe, Elaine S; Kingma, Douglas W; Travis, Lois B; Flowers, Mary E; Martin, Paul J; Deeg, H Joachim; Curtis, Rochelle E
We evaluated 26 901 patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) at 271 centers worldwide to define patterns of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs). PTLDs developed in 127 recipients, with 105 (83%) cases occurring within 1 year after transplantation. In multivariate analyses, we confirmed that PTLD risks were strongly associated (P < .001) with T-cell depletion of the donor marrow, antithymocyte globulin (ATG) use, and unrelated or HLA-mismatched grafts (URD/HLA mismatch). Significant associations were also confirmed for acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease. The increased risk associated with URD/HLA-mismatched donors (RR = 3.8) was limited to patients with T-cell depletion or ATG use (P = .004). New findings were elevated risks for age 50 years or older at transplantation (RR = 5.1; P < .001) and second transplantation (RR = 3.5; P < .001). Lower risks were found for T-cell depletion methods that remove both T and B cells (alemtuzumab and elutriation, RR = 3.1; P = .025) compared with other methods (RR = 9.4; P = .005 for difference). The cumulative incidence of PTLDs was low (0.2%) among 21 686 patients with no major risk factors, but increased to 1.1%, 3.6%, and 8.1% with 1, 2, and more than 3 major risk factors, respectively. Our findings identify subgroups of patients who underwent allogeneic HCT at elevated risk of PTLDs for whom prospective monitoring of Epstein-Barr virus activation and early treatment intervention may be particularly beneficial.
Mazza, Mariarosa; Lozano, Neus; Vieira, Debora Braga; Buggio, Maurizio; Kielty, Cay; Kostarelos, Kostas
Direct labeling of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) prior to transplantation provides a means to track cells after administration and it is a powerful tool for the assessment of new cell-based therapies. Biocompatible nanoprobes consisting of liposome-indocyanine green hybrid vesicles (liposome-ICG) are used to safely label hMSC. Labeled hMSC recapitulating a 3D cellular environment is transplanted as spheroids subcutaneously and intracranially in athymic nude mice. Cells emit a strong NIR signal used for tracking post-transplantation with the IVIS imaging system up to 2 weeks (subcutaneous) and 1 week (intracranial). The transplanted stem cells are imaged in situ after engraftment deep in the brain up to 1 week in living animals using optical imaging techniques and without the need to genetically modify the cells. This method is proposed for efficient, nontoxic direct cell labeling for the preclinical assessment of cell-based therapies and the design of clinical trials, and potentially for localization of the cell engraftment after transplantation into patients. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Zhang, Yan; Briggs, David; Lowe, David; Mitchell, Daniel; Daga, Sunil; Krishnan, Nithya; Higgins, Robert; Khovanova, Natasha
The dynamics of donor specific human leukocyte antigen antibodies during early stage after kidney transplantation are of great clinical interest as these antibodies are considered to be associated with short and long term clinical outcomes. The limited number of antibody time series and their diverse patterns have made the task of modelling difficult. Focusing on one typical post-transplant dynamic pattern with rapid falls and stable settling levels, a novel data-driven model has been developed for the first time. A variational Bayesian inference method has been applied to select the best model and learn its parameters for 39 time series from two groups of graft recipients, i.e. patients with and without acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) episodes. Linear and nonlinear dynamic models of different order were attempted to fit the time series, and the third order linear model provided the best description of the common features in both groups. Both deterministic and stochastic parameters are found to be significantly different in the AMR and no-AMR groups showing that the time series in the AMR group have significantly higher frequency of oscillations and faster dissipation rates. This research may potentially lead to better understanding of the immunological mechanisms involved in kidney transplantation.
Bohelay, Gérôme; Arzouk, Nadia; Lévy, Pierre; Rabaté, Clémentine; Le Cleach, Laurence; Barete, Stéphane; Barrou, Benoît; Matignon, Marie-Benedicte; Euvrard, Sylvie; Lebbé, Céleste; Francès, Camille
This retrospective study concerned 8 patients with post-transplantation Kaposi's sarcoma (pt-KS) after a first kidney transplant who later had a second kidney transplantation. Pt-KS was widespread, with lymph node or visceral involvement in 7 cases. Complete remission was observed in 6 cases and partial remission in 2. After the second kidney transplantation, only 2 cases showed recurrence of skin KS, one with previous complete remission of KS and one with partial remission. The mean delay between stability or complete remission of KS and retransplantation was 2.0 and 7.3 years in patients with and without relapse, respectively. Both recurrent cases showed complete KS remission after tapering immunosuppression therapy and/or switching a calcineurin inhibitor to a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor. We compared these 8 cases to 24 controls who had undergone 2 kidney transplantations but did not have KS, matching on sex, age and phototype. Cases and controls did not differ in graft function or survival. A second kidney transplantation may be possible after pt-KS and has acceptable risk, especially after a long complete remission of pt-KS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Li, Hong-Yu; Wei, Yong-Gang; Li, Bo; Yan, Lv-Nan; Wen, Tian-Fu; Zhao, Ji-Chun; Xu, Ming-Qing; Wang, Wen-Tao; Ma, Yu-Kui; Yang, Jia-Yin
After living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), the prevalence of complications related to the biliary system is 6-35%. In spite of great improvements in both surgical techniques and postoperative and long-term medical treatment, the biliary complications are still considered a relatively high risk for LDLT. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the incidence of biliary complications and identify predisposing risk factors. The clinical and follow-up data of 175 adult patients receiving LDLT (right lobe or left lobe) between 2002 and December 2008 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into 2 groups: with biliary complications (n=30) and without biliary complications (n=145). Thirty patients (17.1%) had post-transplantation biliary complications. Eight patients (4.6%) were diagnosed with bile leakage, while 24 patients (13.7%) developed biliary stricture. Percentage of steatosis of the graft and hepatic artery thrombosis after LDLT were two factors upon univariate analysis (p=0.034, p=0.01, respectively). In multivariate logistic analysis, 20-50% macrovesicular steatosis emerged as a new defined risk factor by us (p=0.001). There was no difference in patient survival rate in different groups and sorts of graft steatosis (p>0.05). We consider that using a graft with macro-vesicular steatosis in 20-50% should be put on the table carefully, balancing both sides of positive and negative.
Peracha, Javeria; Nath, Jay; Ready, Andrew; Tahir, Sanna; Parekh, Krishan; Hodson, James; Ferro, Charles J; Borrows, Richard; Sharif, Adnan
South Asians have increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with Caucasians in the general population, but data for the development of post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is scarce. In this retrospective analysis, data was extracted from electronic patient records at a single centre (2004-2014). Caucasians were more likely to be male, with higher age and BMI than South Asians. Case-control matching was therefore undertaken to remove this bias, resulting in 102 recipient pairs. Median follow-up was 50 months (range 4-127 months). Matched groups had similar baseline characteristics, although South Asians compared with Caucasians received more deceased-donor kidneys (74% vs. 43%, respectively, P < 0.001) and were more likely to be CMV positive (77% vs. 43%, respectively, P < 0.001). PTDM incidence was significantly higher in South Asians versus Caucasians (35% vs. 10%, respectively, subhazard ratio 4.2 [95% CI: 2.1-8.5, P < 0.001]). Donor type had significant interaction with ethnicity, with the observed difference in PTDM rates between ethnicities most visible with receipt of deceased-donor kidneys. No significant difference was detected in allograft function, rejection episodes, adverse cardiovascular events or patient/graft survival. South Asians have increased risk of PTDM, especially recipients of deceased kidneys, and recognition of this allows appropriate patient counselling and development of targeted strategies. © 2016 Steunstichting ESOT.
Tarantino, Ilaria; Barresi, Luca; Curcio, Gabriele; Granata, Antonino; Ligresti, Dario; Tuzzolino, Fabio; Volpes, Riccardo; Amata, Michele; Traina, Mario
Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography is the gold standard of treatment in patients with biliary complications after liver transplantation. The benefits of fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMS) lie in their relative simplicity and the need for only two procedures, one for insertion, and the other for removal. Several case series have been published on such stents with generally good outcomes. Objective is to analyze definitive long-term outcomes of this treatment. Prospective, observational study in a single, tertiary-care referral centre. All consecutive patients with post-transplant biliary stenosis/leak were treated with FCSEMS after failure of conventional treatment. Recurrence was evaluated after four years. From February 2008 to April 2012, 70 patients were included. In all patients, the metal stent was successfully placed. After a mean of 86.7 ± 38.4 days, the stent was removed. Forty-six patients (65.7%) showed resolution. After a mean of 4 ± 1.2 years, 61% of patients maintained the results, but 39% showed recurrence. On the tested variables the diagnosis of stenosis, the number of previous procedures and plastic stents placed correlate with better long-term results. This series suggests a lack of long-term advantages of FCSEMS over plastic stents in the management of biliary stenosis after liver transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Crane, Genevieve M; Samols, Mark A; Morsberger, Laura A; Yonescu, Raluca; Thiess, Michele L; Batista, Denise A S; Ning, Yi; Burns, Kathleen H; Vuica-Ross, Milena; Borowitz, Michael J; Gocke, Christopher D; Ambinder, Richard F; Duffield, Amy S
Tumor-associated inflammatory cells in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) typically outnumber the neoplastic Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (H/RS) cells. The composition of the inflammatory infiltrate, particularly the fraction of macrophages, has been associated with clinical behavior. Emerging work from animal models demonstrates that most tissue macrophages are maintained by a process of self-renewal under physiologic circumstances and certain inflammatory states, but the contribution from circulating monocytes may be increased in some disease states. This raises the question of the source of macrophages involved in human disease, particularly that of CHL. Patients with relapsed CHL following allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) provide a unique opportunity to begin to address this issue. We identified 4 such patients in our archives. Through molecular chimerism and/or XY FISH studies, we demonstrated the DNA content in the post-BMT recurrent CHL was predominantly donor-derived, while the H/RS cells were derived from the patient. Where possible to evaluate, the cellular composition of the inflammatory infiltrate, including the percentage of macrophages, was similar to that of the original tumor. Our findings suggest that the H/RS cells themselves define the inflammatory environment. In addition, our results demonstrate that tumor-associated macrophages in CHL are predominantly derived from circulating monocytes rather than resident tissue macrophages. Given the association between tumor microenvironment and disease progression, a better understanding of macrophage recruitment to CHL may open new strategies for therapeutic intervention.
Morsberger, Laura A.; Yonescu, Raluca; Thiess, Michele L.; Batista, Denise A. S.; Ning, Yi; Burns, Kathleen H.; Vuica-Ross, Milena; Borowitz, Michael J.; Gocke, Christopher D.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Duffield, Amy S.
Tumor-associated inflammatory cells in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) typically outnumber the neoplastic Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (H/RS) cells. The composition of the inflammatory infiltrate, particularly the fraction of macrophages, has been associated with clinical behavior. Emerging work from animal models demonstrates that most tissue macrophages are maintained by a process of self-renewal under physiologic circumstances and certain inflammatory states, but the contribution from circulating monocytes may be increased in some disease states. This raises the question of the source of macrophages involved in human disease, particularly that of CHL. Patients with relapsed CHL following allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) provide a unique opportunity to begin to address this issue. We identified 4 such patients in our archives. Through molecular chimerism and/or XY FISH studies, we demonstrated the DNA content in the post-BMT recurrent CHL was predominantly donor-derived, while the H/RS cells were derived from the patient. Where possible to evaluate, the cellular composition of the inflammatory infiltrate, including the percentage of macrophages, was similar to that of the original tumor. Our findings suggest that the H/RS cells themselves define the inflammatory environment. In addition, our results demonstrate that tumor-associated macrophages in CHL are predominantly derived from circulating monocytes rather than resident tissue macrophages. Given the association between tumor microenvironment and disease progression, a better understanding of macrophage recruitment to CHL may open new strategies for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27685855
Doke, Tomohito; Sato, Waichi; Takahashi, Kazuo; Hayashi, Hiroki; Koide, Sigehisa; Sasaki, Hitomi; Kusaka, Mamoru; Shiroki, Ryoichi; Hoshinaga, Kiyotaka; Takeda, Asami; Yuzawa, Yukio; Hasegawa, Midori
A 53-year-old woman who had undergone deceased donor kidney transplantation twice, at 35 and 43 years of age, presented with renal impairment. She was infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The histology of the graft kidney revealed post-transplant membranous nephropathy (MN) with podocytic infolding and antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). IgG subclass staining showed fine granular deposits of IgG1 and IgG3, but not IgG4, in the glomerular capillary walls. Panel reactive antibody scores for human leukocyte antigen class I and class II were 92.67% and 66.68%, respectively. Thus, this case of post-transplanted MN was considered to be associated with AMR and HCV infection.
Jaspers, Aurélie; Bouhya, Salaheddine; Belaiche, Stéphanie; Chevallier, Patrice; Hermet, Eric; Hospital-Gustems, Carole; Michallet, Mauricette; Rialland, Fanny; Samsonova, Olga; Sirvent, Anne; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Rohrlich, Pierre-Simon; Beguin, Yves
To harmonize clinical practice in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cell Therapy (SFGM-TC) set up the sixth annual series of workshops which brought together practitioners from all member centers and took place in September 2015 in Lille. The main aim of this session was to describe the impact, evaluation and treatment of post-transplant iron overload.
Sorigue, Marc; Juncà, Jordi; Sarrate, Edurne; Grau, Javier
CD43 has been used on histological samples for the differential diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disorders but there is scarce data on its use by flow cytometry (FC). We set out to characterize the expression of CD43 by FC in B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and to determine its possible role in the differential diagnosis of these malignancies. We analyzed the expression of CD43 in clonal B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders with exclusive peripheral blood and/or bone marrow involvement based on their Moreau chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) score with particular emphasis on Moreau CLL score 3 (MS3) cases, which often present a diagnostic challenge. The cohort included 433 CLL (score 4-5), 34 MS3 and 166 lymphoproliferative disorders with lower scores. Generally, the higher the Moreau CLL score, the higher CD43-positivity (425/443 [96%] for CLL, 23/34 [67%] for MS3 and 18/166 [11%] for cases with lower scores). MS3 cases constituted 5.4% of all cases and were more frequently CD5, CD200, CD43-positive and had del(q13) than score 0-2 cases. Among MS3 cases, del(13q) cases were predominantly CD43-positive (12/13). The frequency of CD43-positivity increases sharply with the Moreau score. MS3 cases seem to include both CLL and non-CLL lymphoproliferative disorders and CD43 could aid in the differential diagnosis between the two. However, studies analyzing the correlation between CD43 expression and the underlying biologic changes of these cases are warranted. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society.
Tovbin, David; Shnaider, Alla; Kachko, Leonid; Basok, Anna; Vorobiov, Marina; Rogachev, Boris; Abramov, Dan; Zlotnik, Moshe
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is a rare occurrence in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) in renal transplant patients on immunosuppressive therapy. RPGN post ischemia-reperfusion has not been previously reported. We report a 62 year old male patient on azathioprine therapy, 9 years after left cadaveric renal transplantation due to end stage renal disease of unknown etiology, who presented with progressive deterioration in renal function and hematuria. Renal biopsy was consistent with IgAN. Duplex and CT scan demonstrated a decreased renal graft perfusion, due to severe atherosclerosis and stenosis of iliac arteries. The patient underwent left axilo-femoral bypass graft surgery with improvement in kidney graft perfusion and function. However, few weeks later, patient presented with pulmonary edema and advanced renal failure and he was initiated on hemodialysis. Repeated renal biopsy demonstrated crescentic GN. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of RPGN following reversal of ischemia and reperfusion. There was no evidence for atherembolic disease which is not uncommon after vascular surgery and it has been reported to be rarely associated to crescentic GN. Theoretical explanations for exacerbation of IgAN to crescentic GN, following successful reperfusion, could be enhancement of capillary damage, inflammation and oxidative stress. Putative mechanisms for these phenomena may be interaction of reperfusion-induced hyperfiltration, high intraglomerular capillary pressure, oxidative stress, increased polymorphonucler cells infiltration and inflammation; the presence of IgA immune deposits and azathioprine metabolites, both can also be associated to enhancement of oxidative stress.
Wheat, William H.; Cool, Carlyne D.; Morimoto, Yoshikazu; Rai, Pradeep R.; Kirkpatrick, Charles H.; Lindenbaum, Barbara A.; Bates, Christopher A.; Ellison, Misoo C.; Serls, Amanda E.; Brown, Kevin K.; Routes, John M.
Patients who have common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and granulomatous/lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD) are at high risk for early mortality and B cell lymphomas. Infection with human herpes virus type 8 (HHV8), a B cell lymphotrophic virus, is linked to lymphoproliferative disorders in people who have secondary immunodeficiencies. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of HHV8 infection in CVID patients with GLILD. Genomic DNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells was screened by nested- and real time-quantitative PCR (QRT-PCR) for the presence of HHV8 genome. It was positive in 6/9 CVID patients with GLILD (CVID-GLILD), 1/21 CVID patients without GLILD (CVID-control), and no patients receiving intravenous gamma globulin (n = 13) or normal blood donors (n = 20). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) demonstrated expression of the latency-associated nuclear antigen-1 (LANA-1) in the biopsies of the lung, liver, and bone marrow of four patients with CVID-GLILD. One CVID-GLILD patient developed a B cell lymphoma during the course of the study. QRT-PCR demonstrated high copy number of HHV8 genome and IHC showed diffuse staining for LANA-1 in the malignant lymph node. HHV8 infection may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of the interstitial lung disease and lymphoproliferative disorders in patients with CVID. PMID:16103407
Nomura, Keiko; Kanegane, Hirokazu; Otsubo, Keisuke; Wakiguchi, Hiroshi; Noda, Yukihiro; Kasahara, Yoshihito; Miyawaki, Toshio
Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is defined as a systemic EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, and splenomegaly in apparently immunocompetent persons. Recent studies have revealed that EBV infects T or natural killer cells in most patients with CAEBV; the etiology of CAEBV, however, remains unknown. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative disorder (ALPS) is an inherited disorder associated with defects in apoptosis, and clinically characterized by lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hypergammaglobulinemia, and autoimmune disease. ALPS is most often associated with mutations in the FAS gene, which is an apoptosis-signaling receptor important for homeostasis of the immune system. Based on the clinical similarity between ALPS and CAEBV with respect to lymphoproliferation, we have examined the possibility of the co-occurrence of ALPS in patients with a diagnosis of CAEBV. In this study, we have identified FAS gene mutations in three Japanese patients with lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and unusual EBV infection, who were diagnosed with CAEBV. These observations, which indicate that the clinical development of ALPS may be associated with EBV infection, alert us to a potential diagnostic pitfall of CAEBV.
Chung, B H; Yun, J T; Ha, S E; Kim, J I; Moon, I S; Choi, B S; Park, C W; Kim, Y S; Yang, C W
We investigated the effect of combined use of rituximab (RTX) and plasmapheresis (PP) pre-transplant on post-transplant infection. A total of 196 patients undergoing living-donor kidney transplantation at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, all of whom underwent basiliximab induction therapy, were included in the study. They were divided into 3 groups: RTX/PP/intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) (the RPI group; n = 53), RTX monotherapy (the RTX group; n = 14), and control (the CONT group; n = 129). We compared the post-transplant infections in the 3 groups. The overall prevalence of infection was significantly higher, and the infection-free survival rate was lower, in the RPI group compared with the RTX or CONT groups (P < 0.05). A trend toward more severe bacterial infections was seen in the RPI group compared with the other groups, and fungal infections developed only in the RPI group. After anti-rejection therapy, a significantly higher rate of infection developed in the RPI group than in the other groups (P < 0.05). In addition, the RPI group was an independent risk factor for the development of infection. Our results show that in the setting of basiliximab induction, the use of combined RTX and PP therapy pre-transplant significantly increases the risk for post-transplant infection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sato, Kazushige; Kobayashi, Yoshinobu; Nakamura, Atsushi; Fukushima, Daizo; Satomi, Susumu
The cause of post-transplant CNI-NCs is multifactorial and not ascribed solely to CNI toxicity. A total of 90 children (aged <20 years) who underwent LDLT were evaluated to investigate the predictive factors associated with CNI-NCs. Twelve patients (13.3%) developed CNI-NCs after LDLT (age range, 2-15 years). The symptoms of CNI-NCs were seizures, VD, and stupor. The median onset of CNI-NCs was 10 days (range, 5-30 days) post-transplant. In the univariate analysis, higher recipient age at LDLT, donor age and recipient's BW, lower actual GV/SLV and TAC dosage/BW, and higher mean T-Bil and sodium level for 7 days after transplantation were independently significantly associated with TAC-NCs. Multivariate analysis showed that the T-Bil level in the first week after LDLT was the only significant independent predictive factor for TAC-NCs (HR, 1.588; 95% CI, 1.042-2.358; P=.031). In conclusion, CNI-NCs occurred most frequently in children over 5 years and were associated with hyperbilirubinemia for 7 days post-transplant, regardless of TAC levels. The transplant team should refer to a neurologist to define the diagnosis and to collaborate to resolve the neurological problems.
Gil da Costa, Rui M; Oliveira, Paula A; Vilanova, Manuel; Bastos, Margarida M S M; Lopes, Célia C; Lopes, Carlos
Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) has long been known to cause cancer in farm and laboratory animals. Ptaquiloside, a norsesquiterpene glycoside found in bracken, is considered its main carcinogenic toxin and is capable of inducing tumours in a variety of organ systems, but especially in the urinary bladder, depending on the animal species, the administration route employed and the duration of exposure. In the present study, 12 male CD-1 mice were intraperitoneally administered with 0.5 mg ptaquiloside weekly for 15 weeks, followed by 15 weeks without any treatment. Twelve animals used as controls were administered the vehicle solution (phosphate buffered saline). Two exposed animals died during the experimental work. On necropsy, blood and tissue samples (brain, eyes, thymus, heart, lungs, liver, digestive system, spleen, bladder, kidney, adrenal gland, urinary bladder, sexual accessory glands, testes, muscle, skin and femur) were collected for histological analysis. Leukograms were prepared from blood smears and total WBC counts obtained with a Neubauer chamber. Flow cytometry was used to assess blood T-(CD3(+)) and B-(CD19(+))-lymphocytes, medullary granulocytic (CD11b(+)/Ly-6G(-), CD11b(+)/Ly-6G(+)) and lymphocytic (CD19(+)/IgM(-), CD19+/IgM(+)) populations and thymic lymphoid (CD4(+), CD8(+), CD4(+)/CD8(+)) populations. Lymphoproliferative lesions were analysed immunohistochemically using antibodies against CD45R and CD3. All of the 10 surviving mice developed a lymphoproliferative malignancy. Lymphoproliferative disease was characterized by multifocal B-(CD45(+)/CD3(-))-lymphocytic renal (10/10 animals) and hepatic (2/10 animals) invasion, splenic white pulp hyperplasia (10/10) together with a significant increase in circulating B-(CD19(+))-lymphocytes and the appearance of circulating dysplastic lymphoid cells. Eight out of 10 ptaquiloside-exposed animals developed urothelial dysplasia (six low-grade dysplasia and two high-grade dysplasia). No lesions were
Karapinar, Levent; Gurkan, Alp; Kacar, Serdar; Polat, Omer
We investigated the presence of femoral head avascular osteonecrosis (FHAVN) by a selective investigation with MRI at follow-up. A total of 331(200 men, 131 women) renal transplants were included. They were transplanted at the mean age of 31.4 (9-63) years. The mean follow-up time of all patients after transplantation was 60.6 (6-233) months, and the mean current age 36.6 (11-66) years. All transplants filled out a questionnaire on musculoskeletal symptoms and underwent a detailed clinical examination. Magnetic resonance imaging was done in cases of hip joint pain in groin, buttock, thigh and knee and in 50 asymptomatic transplants. FHAVN were identified according to Ficat Arlet classification. 43(13%) patients reported pain without previous trauma. In the clinical examination, limited ranges of motion of the hip were noted in 13 of them. FHAVN was detected in 11 of 43 patients. Disease was bilateral in two of the eleven patients. Of the 662 femoral heads, 43 were associated with hip pain whereas the remaining 619 were asymptomatic. Avascular osteonecrosis was not confirmed in the asymptomatic 100 hips with magnetic resonance imaging. A selective investigation of FHAVN may be used to diagnose in renal allograft recipients with painful hips at follow-up. With a retrospective selective analysis, the presence of FHAVN was low among renal transplantation recipients at the end of the study.
Kwon, Kye Weon; Hong, Soon Won; Kim, Soon Il; Kim, Yu Seun; Park, Ki Il; Jeong, Hyeon Joo
Diffuse glomerular basement membrane (GBM) lamellation, reminiscent of Alport's syndrome, has rarely, and exclusively, been reported in renal allografts from pediatric donors to adult recipients. We report on a similar lesion, identified in a 42-year-old male, who received a kidney from an unrelated 21-year-old living male donor. The disease of the recipient was unknown. Renal allograft biopsies were performed 3.5 and 4.8 years after the renal transplantation, due to massive proteinuria and serum creatinine elevation. The histological features of both biopsies were similar, but more advanced in the second biopsy. Glomerular mesangium was widened and had an IgA deposit in the first biopsy. In addition to the presence of mesangial electron dense deposits, the GBM showed diffuse lamellation and splintering on the subepithelial side, but no definite deposits. In the second biopsy, IgA deposits were extended to the peripheral capillary walls, but electron microscopic examination was not available. Two months after the second biopsy, the patient returned for hemodialysis.
Maluf, Daniel G; Dumur, Catherine I; Suh, Jihee L; Scian, Mariano J; King, Anne L; Cathro, Helen; Lee, Jae K; Gehrau, Ricardo C; Brayman, Kenneth L; Gallon, Lorenzo; Mas, Valeria R
Non-invasive, cost-effective biomarkers that allow accurate monitoring of graft function are needed in kidney transplantation. Since microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as promising disease biomarkers we sought to establish an miRNA signature in urinary cell pellets comparing kidney transplant patients diagnosed with chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD) with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy and those recipients with normal graft function. Overall, we evaluated 191 samples from 125 deceased donor primary kidney transplant recipients in the discovery, initial validation and the longitudinal validation studies for non-invasive monitoring of graft function. Of 1,733 mature miRNAs studied using microarrays, 22 were found to be differentially expressed between groups. Ontology and pathway analyses showed inflammation as the principal biological function associated with these miRNAs. Twelve selected miRNAs were longitudinally evaluated in urine samples of an independent set of 66 patients, at two time-points post-kidney transplant. A subset of these miRNAs was found to be differentially expressed between groups early post-kidney transplant before histological allograft injury was evident. Thus, a panel of urine miRNAs was identified as potential biomarkers for monitoring graft function and anticipating progression to CAD in kidney transplant patients. PMID:24025639
Klein, Susan D.; Simmons, Roberta G.
As part of a larger study of transplantation and chronic disease and the family, 124 children (10-18 years old) who were chronically ill with kidney disease (n=72) or were a year or more post-transplant (n=52) were included in a study focusing on the effects of chronic kidney disease and transplantation on children's psychosocial development. Ss…
Vanhove, Thomas; Remijsen, Quinten; Kuypers, Dirk; Gillard, Pieter
Post-transplant diabetes mellitus is a frequent complication of solid organ transplantation that generally requires treatment with lifestyle interventions and antidiabetic medication. A number of demonstrated and potential pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) exist between commonly used immunosuppressants and antidiabetic drugs, which are comprehensively summarized in this review. Cyclosporine (CsA) itself inhibits the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 enzyme and a variety of drug transporters. As a result, it increases exposure to repaglinide and sitagliptin, will likely increase the exposure to nateglinide, glyburide, saxagliptin, vildagliptin and alogliptin, and could theoretically increase the exposure to gliquidone and several sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitors. Currently available data, although limited, suggest that these increases are modest and, particularly with regard to gliptins and SGLT-2 inhibitors, unlikely to result in hypoglycemia. The interaction with repaglinide is more pronounced but does not preclude concomitant use if repaglinide dose is gradually titrated. Mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine do not engage in DDIs with any antidiabetic drug. Although calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi) are intrinsically prone to DDIs, their disposition is not influenced by metformin, pioglitazone, sulfonylureas (except possibly glyburide) or insulin. An effect of gliptins on the disposition of CNIs and mTORi is unlikely, but has not been definitively ruled out. Based on their disposition profiles, glyburide and canagliflozin could affect CNI and mTORi disposition although this requires further study. Finally, delayed gastric emptying as a result of glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists seems to have a limited, but not necessarily negligible effect on CNI disposition.
Matsumoto, Ruby; Numata, Kazushi; Doba, Nobutaka; Hara, Koji; Chuma, Makoto; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Nozaki, Akito; Tanaka, Katsuaki; Ishii, Yoshimi; Maeda, Shin
Patients receiving methotrexate (MTX) for the treatment of autoimmune disease are at a high risk of developing lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD), the so-called methotrexate-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (MTX-LPD). We recently performed abdominal ultrasonography (US) in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who had developed hepatic dysfunction during the course of MTX therapy; the examination revealed multiple well-demarcated hepatic tumors with slightly irregular borders, the largest one measuring 9 cm in diameter. In view of the finding of portal and hepatic veins perforating the tumor, we suspected a diagnosis of malignant lymphoma and performed a hepatic tumor biopsy. Histopathological examination of the biopsy specimens revealed a diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and we made a final diagnosis of MTX-LPD. MTX treatment was discontinued, which resulted in rapid resolution of the lesions. Resolution of MTX-LPD can be obtained just by discontinuation of MTX treatment. In patients receiving MTX therapy who are found to have hepatic tumors perforated by the portal vein and/or hepatic vein on abdominal US, it is advisable to perform hepatic tumor biopsy to facilitate differential diagnosis of MTX-LPD and enable a definite diagnosis.
Palmer, J; Goggins, T; Broadwater, G; Chao, N; Horwitz, M; Beaven, A; Sullivan, K; Coleman, R E; Rizzieri, D
Positron emission tomography (PET) in conjunction with computed tomography is a frequently used modality for staging patients with lymphoma. Utility of PET-computed tomography before or early following auto-SCT has not been as rigorously evaluated. We retrospectively analyzed patients who received auto-SCT for treatment of relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkins lymphoma or Hodgkins disease between the years of 1996 and 2007. Patients who had either a PET scan following salvage chemotherapy within 14 weeks of transplantation (pre-PET), and/or a PET scan 6-14 weeks following transplantation (post-PET) were included. A total of 90 patients were identified for analysis. The median follow-up time is 3.3 years, with a range of 0.13-12.0 years. The median PFS was 4.6 years, and median OS was 5.1 years. At the time of this analysis, 34 patients (37%) experienced disease relapse, and 25 (27%) of the patients died from disease progression. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, post-PET did not predict for outcome, pre-PET positivity predicted for decrease in PFS. In conclusion, post-PET scan did not predict for PFS or OS in multivariate analysis. Positive pre-PET scan did predict for PFS as seen in previous studies, and may help identify patients who would benefit from innovative post transplant therapies.
Palmer, J; Goggins, T; Broadwater, G; Chao, N; Horwitz, M; Beaven, A; Sullivan, K; Coleman, RE; Rizzieri, D
Positron emission tomography (PET) in conjunction with computed tomography is a frequently used modality for staging patients with lymphoma. Utility of PET-computed tomography before or early following auto-SCT has not been as rigorously evaluated. We retrospectively analyzed patients who received auto-SCT for treatment of relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkins lymphoma or Hodgkins disease between the years of 1996 and 2007. Patients who had either a PET scan following salvage chemotherapy within 14 weeks of transplantation (pre-PET), and/or a PET scan 6–14 weeks following transplantation (post-PET) were included. A total of 90 patients were identified for analysis. The median follow-up time is 3.3 years, with a range of 0.13–12.0 years. The median PFS was 4.6 years, and median OS was 5.1 years. At the time of this analysis, 34 patients (37%) experienced disease relapse, and 25 (27%) of the patients died from disease progression. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, post-PET did not predict for outcome, pre-PET positivity predicted for decrease in PFS. In conclusion, post-PET scan did not predict for PFS or OS in multivariate analysis. Positive pre-PET scan did predict for PFS as seen in previous studies, and may help identify patients who would benefit from innovative post transplant therapies. PMID:20856212
Cardoso, E A; Miranda, N; Gameiro, P; Frade, M J; Figueiredo, M; Parreira, A
AIMS: To study the expression of the human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV) Tax gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. METHODS: Blood was collected from 72 patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. Serum from all patients was assayed for antibodies directed against HTLV-I structural proteins by ELISA and western blotting. RNA was purified from fresh blood cells and amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After Southern blotting, the PCR products were hybridised with a 32P end-labelled probe specific for the Tax gene. RESULTS: All samples were seronegative. A specific band for the Tax gene was found in five samples. Each of the patients positive for Tax gene expression had a different type of lymphoproliferative disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Infection by HTLV-I cannot be assessed solely by immunological assays, particularly when only disrupted virions are used. Sensitive molecular biology assays are essential for detecting viral gene expression in fresh blood cells. Images PMID:8944616
Kahwash, Samir B; Fung, Bonita; Savelli, Stephanie; Bleesing, Jack J; Qualman, Stephen J
We describe a case of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), which is very unusual with regard to a clinical onset soon after birth, and a clinical picture dominated by splenomegaly, jaundice, and consumptive peripheral blood cytopenias, with minimal lymphadenopathy. Our documented close follow up demonstrated initial involvement of the spleen, followed by involvement of the bone marrow and the peripheral blood. The patient underwent bone marrow transplant and is alive and well 20 months after diagnosis.
Turbyville, Joseph C; Rao, V Koneti
The autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is characterized by chronic, non-malignant lymphoproliferation, autoimmunity often manifesting as multilineage cytopenias, and an increased risk of lymphoma. While considered a rare disease, there are currently over 250 patients with ALPS being followed at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. Most of these patients have a mutation in the gene for the TNF receptor-family member Fas (CD 95, Apo-1), and about one-third have an unknown defect or mutations affecting function of other signaling proteins involved in the apoptotic pathway. While ALPS is one of the few autoimmune diseases with a known genetic defect, there remain unanswered questions regarding how a defect in apoptosis results in the observed phenotype. In addition to shedding light on the pathophysiology of this rare and fascinating condition, studying ALPS may improve our understanding of normal tolerance and more common, sporadic autoimmune disorders.
Rensing-Ehl, A; Warnatz, K; Fuchs, S; Schlesier, M; Salzer, U; Draeger, R; Bondzio, I; Joos, Y; Janda, A; Gomes, M; Abinun, M; Hambleton, S; Cant, A; Shackley, F; Flood, T; Waruiru, C; Beutel, K; Siepermann, K; Dueckers, G; Niehues, T; Wiesel, T; Schuster, V; Seidel, M G; Minkov, M; Sirkiä, K; Kopp, M V; Korhonen, M; Schwarz, K; Ehl, S; Speckmann, C
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is mainly caused by defects in the CD95 pathway. Raised CD3+TCRαβ+CD4-CD8- double negative T cells and impaired T cell apoptosis are hallmarks of the disease. In contrast, the B cell compartment has been less well studied. We found an altered distribution of B cell subsets with raised transitional B cells and reduced marginal zone B cells, switched memory B cells and plasma blasts in most of 22 analyzed ALPS patients. Moreover, 5 out of 66 ALPS patients presented with low IgG and susceptibility to infection revealing a significant overlap between ALPS and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). In patients presenting with lymphoproliferation, cytopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia and impaired B cell differentiation, serum biomarkers were helpful in addition to apoptosis tests for the identification of ALPS patients. Our observations may indicate a role for apoptosis defects in some diseases currently classified as CVID.
Savenkoff, Benjamin; Aubertin, Perrine; Ladriere, Marc; Hulin, Cyril; Champigneulle, Jacqueline; Frimat, Luc
Myeloma following kidney transplantation is a rare entity. It can be divided into two groups: relapse of a previous myeloma and de novo myeloma. Some of these myelomas can be complicated by a monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease, which is even less common. Less than ten cases of monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease after renal graft have been reported in the literature. The treatment of these patients is not well codified. We report the case of a 43-year-old white European man who received a renal transplant for a nephropathy of unknown etiology and developed a nephrotic syndrome with kidney failure at 2-years follow-up. We diagnosed a de novo monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease associated with a kappa light chain multiple myeloma, which is a very uncommon presentation for this disease. Three risk factors were identified in this patient: Epstein-Barr virus reactivation with cytomegalovirus co-infection; intensified immunosuppressive therapy during two previous rejection episodes; and human leukocyte antigen-B mismatches. Chemotherapy treatment and decrease in the immunosuppressive therapy were followed by remission and slight improvement of renal function. A relapse occurred 8 months later and his renal function worsened rapidly requiring hemodialysis. He died from septic shock 4 years after the diagnosis of monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease. This rare case of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder with an uncommon presentation illustrates the fact that treatment in such a situation is very difficult to manage because of a small number of patients reported and a lack of information on this disease. There are no guidelines, especially concerning the immunosuppressive therapy management.
Introduction Myeloma following kidney transplantation is a rare entity. It can be divided into two groups: relapse of a previous myeloma and de novo myeloma. Some of these myelomas can be complicated by a monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease, which is even less common. Less than ten cases of monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease after renal graft have been reported in the literature. The treatment of these patients is not well codified. Case presentation We report the case of a 43-year-old white European man who received a renal transplant for a nephropathy of unknown etiology and developed a nephrotic syndrome with kidney failure at 2-years follow-up. We diagnosed a de novo monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease associated with a kappa light chain multiple myeloma, which is a very uncommon presentation for this disease. Three risk factors were identified in this patient: Epstein–Barr virus reactivation with cytomegalovirus co-infection; intensified immunosuppressive therapy during two previous rejection episodes; and human leukocyte antigen-B mismatches. Chemotherapy treatment and decrease in the immunosuppressive therapy were followed by remission and slight improvement of renal function. A relapse occurred 8 months later and his renal function worsened rapidly requiring hemodialysis. He died from septic shock 4 years after the diagnosis of monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease. Conclusions This rare case of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder with an uncommon presentation illustrates the fact that treatment in such a situation is very difficult to manage because of a small number of patients reported and a lack of information on this disease. There are no guidelines, especially concerning the immunosuppressive therapy management. PMID:24942882
Amirzargar, Mohammad Ali; Amirzargar, Aliakbar; Basiri, Abbas; Hajilooi, Mehrdad; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Rajabi, Gholamreza; Mohammadiazar, Sina; Solgi, Ghasem
This study aimed to investigate the predictive power of anti-HLA antibodies, sCD30 levels and IgA-anti-Fab autoantibody before and early after transplantation in relation to long-term kidney allograft survival. Pre- and post-transplant sera samples of 59 living-unrelated donor kidney recipients were tested for above risk factors by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. 15 out of 59 cases experienced rejection episodes (failure group). Pre- and post-transplant high sCD30 levels were significantly associated with graft failure (P=0.02 and P=0.004) and decreased 4 year graft survival (P = 0.009 and P = 0.001). Higher frequency of post-transplant HLA class-II antibody in the absence of class-I antibody was observed in failure group (P=0.007). Patients with post-transplant HLA class-I and class-II antibodies either alone or in combination showed significant lower 4 year graft survival. Recipients with high sCD30 levels in the presence of HLA class-I or class-II antibodies within 2 weeks post-transplant had poor graft survival (P = 0.004 and P = 0.002, respectively). High levels of post-transplant IgA-anti-Fab antibody was more frequent in functioning-graft patients (P = 0.00001), correlated with decreased serum creatinine levels (P = 0.01) and associated with improved graft survival (P = 0.008). Our findings indicate the deleterious effect of early post-transplant HLA antibodies and increased sCD30 levels dependently and protective effect of IgA-anti-Fab antibodies on long-term renal graft outcomes. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grigoryev, Yevgeniy A.; Kurian, Sunil M.; Avnur, Zafi; Borie, Dominic; Deng, Jun; Campbell, Daniel; Sung, Joanna; Nikolcheva, Tania; Quinn, Anthony; Schulman, Howard; Peng, Stanford L.; Schaffer, Randolph; Fisher, Jonathan; Mondala, Tony; Head, Steven; Flechner, Stuart M.; Kantor, Aaron B.; Marsh, Christopher; Salomon, Daniel R.
A major challenge for the field of transplantation is the lack of understanding of genomic and molecular drivers of early post-transplant immunity. The early immune response creates a complex milieu that determines the course of ensuing immune events and the ultimate outcome of the transplant. The objective of the current study was to mechanistically deconvolute the early immune response by purifying and profiling the constituent cell subsets of the peripheral blood. We employed genome-wide profiling of whole blood and purified CD4, CD8, B cells and monocytes in tandem with high-throughput laser-scanning cytometry in 10 kidney transplants sampled serially pre-transplant, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Cytometry confirmed early cell subset depletion by antibody induction and immunosuppression. Multiple markers revealed the activation and proliferative expansion of CD45RO+CD62L− effector memory CD4/CD8 T cells as well as progressive activation of monocytes and B cells. Next, we mechanistically deconvoluted early post-transplant immunity by serial monitoring of whole blood using DNA microarrays. Parallel analysis of cell subset-specific gene expression revealed a unique spectrum of time-dependent changes and functional pathways. Gene expression profiling results were validated with 157 different probesets matching all 65 antigens detected by cytometry. Thus, serial blood cell monitoring reflects the profound changes in blood cell composition and immune activation early post-transplant. Each cell subset reveals distinct pathways and functional programs. These changes illuminate a complex, early phase of immunity and inflammation that includes activation and proliferative expansion of the memory effector and regulatory cells that may determine the phenotype and outcome of the kidney transplant. PMID:20976225
Chung, H S; Kim, E S; Park, J H; Park, C S
C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of infection and inflammation, is produced mainly in the liver. Its slow onset and various influencing factors have limited studies on the intra-operative changes in CRP in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). In this study, we asked whether the intra-operative changes in CRP predicts post-transplant outcome. The peri-transplant data of 263 LDLT patients were reviewed. "Intra-operative CRP decline" was calculated by subtracting the pretransplant CRP from the 1-day post-transplant CRP. A negative value defined an intra-operative decline. Peri-transplant variables were compared between patients with and without gross post-transplant outcomes (GPOs), including death, allograft dysfunction, infection, and kidney injury. Multivariate logistic regression was used to develop a model to predict GPO, and area receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis was used to evaluate the prognostic accuracies for GPO. GPOs were determined in 95 LDLT patients (36.1%). GPO-positive patients had a lesser change in CRP levels (0.51 versus 1.16 mg/dL) and a higher incidence of a decline in CRP (34.7% versus 13.7%) during LDLT (P < .05) than did GPO-negative patients. The AUC of the intra-operative CRP change (0.585; P = .018) did not significantly differ from that of the pretransplant CRP. After multivariate adjustment, a patient with an intra-operative decline in CRP had a 3.21-fold higher risk for GPO occurrence (P = .001). GPO occurrence was related to the intra-operative decline of CRP in LDLT patients. However, multivariate compensation might be required for the clinical utilization of intra-operative decline in CRP as a prognostic indicator. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background Post-transplant anemia (PTA) has long been a less-recognized complication in kidney transplant recipients, and its prevalence also tends to be underestimated. This study sought to evaluate the prevalence, management, and risk factors of PTA from a group of long-term follow-up Chinese kidney transplant recipients. Methods One hundred and fifty-four adult kidney transplant recipients were followed up at Fuzhou General Hospital, China, and retrospectively studied. Results PTA prevalence at transplant and at 5-yearly time points after transplantation were 45.5%, 10.7%, 9.6%, 14.8%, 13.5%, and 19.6%, respectively. Overall, 38.3% of patients had been anemic at least once during the follow-up period, and 42% of these patients had recurrent anemia. Correlation analysis indicated that hemoglobin levels were associated with graft function. No correlations between anemia and age, gender, immunosuppressive regimens, or antihypertensive agents were observed. Binary logistic regression analysis suggested that serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were associated with the diagnosis of anemia at 1 year post-transplant. At 5 years post-transplant, only serum creatinine concentrations correlated with anemia. Although iron drugs are frequently used, erythropoietin was rarely administered in those anemic patients suffering poor graft function that necessitated such therapies. Conclusions The prevalence of PTA is noticeably high, and impaired kidney graft function seemed to be the major risk factor for anemia. There is an urgent need to improve current PTA management and to establish modified guidelines for this common complication in kidney transplant recipients. PMID:24237955
Grigoryev, Yevgeniy A; Kurian, Sunil M; Avnur, Zafi; Borie, Dominic; Deng, Jun; Campbell, Daniel; Sung, Joanna; Nikolcheva, Tania; Quinn, Anthony; Schulman, Howard; Peng, Stanford L; Schaffer, Randolph; Fisher, Jonathan; Mondala, Tony; Head, Steven; Flechner, Stuart M; Kantor, Aaron B; Marsh, Christopher; Salomon, Daniel R
A major challenge for the field of transplantation is the lack of understanding of genomic and molecular drivers of early post-transplant immunity. The early immune response creates a complex milieu that determines the course of ensuing immune events and the ultimate outcome of the transplant. The objective of the current study was to mechanistically deconvolute the early immune response by purifying and profiling the constituent cell subsets of the peripheral blood. We employed genome-wide profiling of whole blood and purified CD4, CD8, B cells and monocytes in tandem with high-throughput laser-scanning cytometry in 10 kidney transplants sampled serially pre-transplant, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Cytometry confirmed early cell subset depletion by antibody induction and immunosuppression. Multiple markers revealed the activation and proliferative expansion of CD45RO(+)CD62L(-) effector memory CD4/CD8 T cells as well as progressive activation of monocytes and B cells. Next, we mechanistically deconvoluted early post-transplant immunity by serial monitoring of whole blood using DNA microarrays. Parallel analysis of cell subset-specific gene expression revealed a unique spectrum of time-dependent changes and functional pathways. Gene expression profiling results were validated with 157 different probesets matching all 65 antigens detected by cytometry. Thus, serial blood cell monitoring reflects the profound changes in blood cell composition and immune activation early post-transplant. Each cell subset reveals distinct pathways and functional programs. These changes illuminate a complex, early phase of immunity and inflammation that includes activation and proliferative expansion of the memory effector and regulatory cells that may determine the phenotype and outcome of the kidney transplant.
Haploidentical T Cell-Replete Transplantation with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide for Patients in or above the Sixth Decade of Age Compared with Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation from an Human Leukocyte Antigen-Matched Related or Unrelated Donor.
Blaise, Didier; Fürst, Sabine; Crocchiolo, Roberto; El-Cheikh, Jean; Granata, Angela; Harbi, Samia; Bouabdallah, Reda; Devillier, Raynier; Bramanti, Stephania; Lemarie, Claude; Picard, Christophe; Chabannon, Christian; Weiller, Pierre-Jean; Faucher, Catherine; Mohty, Bilal; Vey, Norbert; Castagna, Luca
It has recently been shown that a T cell-replete allogeneic (allo) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a haploidentical donor (haplo-ID) could be a valid treatment for hematological malignancies. However, little data exist concerning older populations. We provided transplantation to 31 patients over the age of 55 years from a haplo-ID and compared their outcomes with patients of the same ages who underwent transplantation from a matched related (MRD) or an unrelated donor (UD). All 3 groups were comparable, except for their conditioning. Patients in haplo-ID group received 2 days of post-transplantation high-dose cyclophosphamide followed by cyclosporine A and mycophenolate mofetil, whereas patients in other groups received pretransplantation antithymocyte globulin, cyclosporine A, and additional mycophenolate mofetil in case of 1-antigen mismatch. All patients but 1 in the haplo-ID group engrafted. The incidence of grades 2 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was not statistically different between recipients from haplo-ID (cumulative incidence, 23%) and MRD (cumulative incidence, 21%) transplantations but it was lower than after UD HSCT (cumulative incidence, 44%). No patient in the haplo-ID group developed severe chronic GVHD, compared with cumulative incidences of 16% and 14% after MRD (P = .02) and UD (P = .03) grafts, respectively. The cumulative incidences of relapse were similar in the 3 groups, whereas nonrelapse mortality after UD HSCT was 3-fold higher than after haplo-ID or MRD HSCT. Overall, 2-year overall survival (70%), progression-free survival (67%), and progression and severe chronic GVHD-free survival (67%) probabilities after haplo-ID did not statistically differ from MRD transplantation (78%, 64%, and 51%, respectively), although they were higher than after UD transplantation (51% [P = .08], 38% [P = .02], and 31% [P = .007]). We conclude that T cell-replete haplo-ID HSCT followed by post-transplantation high
Benítez, Carlos E; Rey, Paula; Zoroquiaín, Pablo; Martínez, Jorge; Ramírez, Pablo; Arrese, Marco; Pérez-Ayuso, Rosa María; Valbuena, José R
We report a case of a 51-year-old man who received a cadaveric liver allograft for autoimmune and hepatopulmonary syndrome. The patient was admitted with symptoms of progressive vomiting and diarrhea 16 months after transplantation. Laboratory studies showed abnormal liver functions, and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a 76-mm heterogeneous mass in the liver. Histological examination showed a malignant lymphoid neoplasm with plasmablastic features. Plasmablastic lymphoma (PL) is rare in the post-transplantation period. To the best of our knowledge, only 25 well-documented cases of posttransplant PL, including ours, have been described.
NTB-A [correction of GNTB-A], a novel SH2D1A-associated surface molecule contributing to the inability of natural killer cells to kill Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease.
Bottino, C; Falco, M; Parolini, S; Marcenaro, E; Augugliaro, R; Sivori, S; Landi, E; Biassoni, R; Notarangelo, L D; Moretta, L; Moretta, A
In humans, natural killer (NK) cell function is regulated by a series of receptors and coreceptors with either triggering or inhibitory activity. Here we describe a novel 60-kD glycoprotein, termed NTB-A, that is expressed by all human NK, T, and B lymphocytes. Monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated cross-linking of NTB-A results in the induction of NK-mediated cytotoxicity. Similar to 2B4 (CD244) functioning as a coreceptor in the NK cell activation, NTB-A also triggers cytolytic activity only in NK cells expressing high surface densities of natural cytotoxicity receptors. This suggests that also NTB-A may function as a coreceptor in the process of NK cell activation. Molecular cloning of the cDNA coding for NTB-A molecule revealed a novel member of the immunoglobulin superfamily belonging to the CD2 subfamily. NTB-A is characterized, in its extracellular portion, by a distal V-type and a proximal C2-type domain and by a cytoplasmic portion containing three tyrosine-based motifs. NTB-A undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation and associates with the Src homology 2 domain-containing protein (SH2D1A) as well as with SH2 domain-containing phosphatases (SHPs). Importantly, analysis of NK cells derived from patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) showed that the lack of SH2D1A protein profoundly affects the function not only of 2B4 but also of NTB-A. Thus, in XLP-NK cells, NTB-A mediates inhibitory rather than activating signals. These inhibitory signals are induced by the interaction of NTB-A with still undefined ligands expressed on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected target cells. Moreover, mAb-mediated masking of NTB-A can partially revert this inhibitory effect while a maximal recovery of target cell lysis can be obtained when both 2B4 and NTB-A are simultaneously masked. Thus, the altered function of NTB-A appears to play an important role in the inability of XLP-NK cells to kill EBV-infected target cells.
Parker, Jeremy D.K.; Shen, Yaoqing; Pleasance, Erin; Li, Yvonne; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Zhao, Yongjun; Moore, Richard; Wegrzyn-Woltosz, Joanna; Savage, Kerry J.; Weng, Andrew P.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Jones, Steven; Marra, Marco; Laskin, Janessa; Karsan, Aly
In an attempt to assess potential treatment options, whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing were performed on a patient with an unclassifiable small lymphoproliferative disorder. Variants from genome sequencing were prioritized using a combination of comparative variant distributions in a spectrum of lymphomas, and meta-analyses of gene expression profiling. In this patient, the molecular variants that we believe to be most relevant to the disease presentation most strongly resemble a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), whereas the gene expression data are most consistent with a low-grade chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The variant of greatest interest was a predicted NOTCH2-truncating mutation, which has been recently reported in various lymphomas. PMID:27148583
Juvet, Stephen C.; Thomson, Christopher W.; Kim, Edward Y.; Han, Mei; Zhang, Li
Patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) and lymphoproliferation (LPR) mice are deficient in Fas, and accumulate large numbers of αβ-TCR+, CD4−, CD8− double negative (DN) T cells. The function of these DN T cells remains largely unknown. The common γ subunit of the activating Fc receptors, FcRγ, plays an important role in mediating innate immune responses. We have shown previously that a significant proportion of DN T cells express FcRγ, and that this molecule is required for TCR transgenic DN T cells to suppress allogeneic immune responses. Whether FcRγ plays a critical role in LPR DN T cell-mediated suppression of immune responses to auto and allo-antigens is not known. Here, we demonstrated that FcRγ+, but not FcRγ− LPR DN T cells could suppress Fas+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation in vitro and attenuated CD4+ T cell-mediated graft-versus host disease. Although FcRγ expression did not allow LPR DN T cells to inhibit the expansion of Fas-deficient cells within the LPR context, adoptive transfer of FcRγ+, but not FcRγ−, DN T cells inhibited lymphoproliferation in generalized lymphoproliferative disease (GLD) mice. Furthermore, FcRγ acted in a cell-intrinsic fashion to limit DN T cell accumulation by increasing the rate of apoptosis in proliferated cells. These results indicate that FcRγ can confer Fas-dependent regulatory properties on LPR DN T cells, and suggest that FcRγ may be a novel marker for functional DN Tregs. PMID:23762329
Sirolimus for Refractory Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Report and Literature Review of the Treatment of Post-Transplant Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia.
Park, Jeong A; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Kwon, Hyun-Seop; Baik, Chung-Ryul; Song, Sae-Am; Lee, Jung Nye
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) may occur after any type of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT), even ABO-matched transplantation. It tends to be refractory to standard corticosteroid treatment and requires multiple transfusions. Though, there is no consensus regarding the optimal treatment for post-transplant severe AIHA. We present a pediatric patient with refractory AIHA after umbilical cord blood transplantation. She developed severe AIHA at 3months after transplantation and was unresponsive to multiple treatment modalities, including corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma exchange and rituximab, resulting in persistent transfusion dependency. Sirolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, was started on day 67 after the onset of AIHA, and this patient was successfully rescued without any complications. Sirolimus induces apoptosis in autoreactive lymphocytes, increases regulatory T cells and has been reported to have a positive effect on AIHA following solid organ transplantation (SOT). We reviewed the literature regarding post-transplant AIHA in the PubMed database and evaluated the treatment outcome of sirolimus in AIHA after SOT.
Matz, M; Beyer, J; Wunsch, D; Mashreghi, M-F; Seiler, M; Pratschke, J; Babel, N; Volk, H-D; Reinke, P; Kotsch, K
The early identification of renal transplant recipients at enhanced risk of developing acute and subclinical rejection would allow individualized adjustment of immunosuppression before functional graft injury occurs and would exclude these patients from drug-weaning studies. Protein and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-based analyses of candidate markers in urine open the opportunity to closely monitor kidney-transplanted patients non-invasively. The chemokine interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10; CXCL10) might be an interesting candidate to uncover ongoing immune processes within the graft. Urine samples from kidney-transplanted recipients were retrospectively analyzed for IP-10 mRNA and protein expression. IP-10 levels were correlated with the incidence of acute rejection episodes proven by histology and long-term graft function assessed by the glomerular filtration rate 6 months post transplantation. IP-10 expression in urine identified patients with ongoing acute rejection episodes several days before a biopsy was indicated by rising serum creatinine levels. Most importantly, elevated levels of urinary IP-10 protein within the first four postoperative weeks were predictive of graft function at 6 months even in the absence of acute rejection. These data reveal a correlation between elevated IP-10 expression in urine at early time points post-transplantation and intragraft immune activation that leads to acute rejection and compromised long-term graft function.
Tripon, Simona; Francoz, Claire; Albuquerque, Anna; Paradis, Valérie; Boudjema, Hamza; Voitot, Hélène; Belghiti, Jacques; Valla, Dominique; Durand, François
Refractory ascites may appear in liver transplant recipients with recurrence of hepatitis C virus infection, even in the absence of advanced fibrosis. The mechanisms are unclear. The aim was to determine whether post-transplant cryoglobulinemia could be a predisposing factor for ascites in this population. Retrospective data of 82 liver transplant recipients with HCV recurrence surviving more than 1 year were collected. Cryoglobulinemia was systematically tested after transplantation. All patients had 1-year protocol biopsy with assessment of sinusoidal distension, perisinusoidal fibrosis, and centrolobular necrosis. Additional biopsies were performed when needed. Fourteen of 82 patients (17%) developed refractory ascites. When ascites appeared, fibrosis was stage F0-F1 in 36% and F2-F3 in 57%. Factors independently associated with post-transplant ascites were pretransplant refractory ascites (P = 0.001), fibrosis ≥stage 2 at 1 year (P = 0.002), perisinusoidal fibrosis at 1 year (P = 0.02), and positive cryoglobulinemia (P = 0.02). Patients with ascites had a significantly worse prognosis compared to those without ascites. Refractory ascites may occur in liver transplant recipients with HCV recurrence in the absence of advanced fibrosis. The finding that both positive cryoglobulinemia and perisinusoidal fibrosis at 1 year were significantly associated with ascites suggests that liver microangiopathy is involved in the mechanisms of HCV-related ascites. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.
Yang, Bo; Ding, Xiang; Xie, Jinliang; Zhou, Cheng; Zhu, Xiangrong
To determine the effect of transient withdrawal of immunosuppressive agents during the treatment of pulmonary infection on long-term survival of patients and graft s. A total of 104 patients with post-transplant pulmonary infection were enrolled in this study. These patients received renal transplantation in Center for Organ Transplantation, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, during December 2005 and August 2014. Among them, 50 patients stopped immunosuppressive agents during the treatment of infection. These patients served as stopping drug (SD) group, whereas the remaining patients who served as a control group did not stop immunosuppressive drugs. The five-year cumulative patient survival, graft survival, and laboratory results were compared between the 2 groups. The five-year cumulative patient survival rates in the SD group were significantly lower than those in the control group [(69.8 ± 7.0)% vs (94.2 ± 3.2)%, P=0.001]. There was no significant difference in the allograft survival rates between the 2 groups [(81.7 ± 6.6)% vs (90.9 ± 4.3)%, P=0.113]. In patients who survived from pulmonary infection, there was no significant difference in long-term survival rates between the 2 groups (P=0.979). Pulmonary infection impacts allograft survival after patients underwent renal transplantation. Transient stopping immunosuppressive agents during the treatment of infection is a safe and necessary treatment strategy for patients with serious post-transplant pulmonary infection.
Bush, Jonathan W; Mohammad, Saeed; Melin-Aldana, Hector; Kagalwalla, Amir F; Arva, Nicoleta C
EGID is a known post-transplant complication. Its etiology has been related to antirejection medication, but other factors may also play a role as only few transplant recipients develop EGID despite standardized treatment. This study aimed to determine whether EGID is associated with rejection events and with a specific phenotype of the rejection-positive graft biopsies in children with solid organ transplant. All patients with liver, heart, and kidney transplant followed at our institution were included in the study. Digestive tract eosinophilia was more common in heart and liver recipients and was a rare event after renal transplantation. Subjects with EGID had higher incidence of rejection and elevated peripheral blood AEC. The first rejection event and high AEC values preceded EGID diagnosis in the majority of patients. Histologically, the initial rejection-positive graft biopsy revealed accentuated eosinophilia in EGID patients compared with non-EGID cohort, which correlated with higher blood eosinophil counts at the time of first rejection episode. Prominent graft tissue and peripheral blood eosinophilia prior to EGID diagnosis suggests a predisposition for eosinophil activation in patients with post-transplant digestive eosinophilic disorder. These parameters can be used as markers for subsequent development of EGID. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gorsi, Ujjwal; Naranje, Priyanka; Rathi, Manish; Nada, Ritambhara; Khandelwal, Niranjan
Angiomyxoma is a scarce neoplasm arising from the soft tissues of perineum and pelvis, more commonly seen in the females. For such a tumor to arise in a renal allograft is rare and has previously been reported only in few case. We report a case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising de novo in the renal allograft nine-year posttransplantation. We describe its imaging features on ultrasound and computed tomography which closely mimic the more usual tumor of the transplanted kidney, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder and suggest that angiomyxoma may be considered as a differential diagnosis in a case of soft tissue mass arising within the renal allograft.
Bajwa, Rajinder; Savelli, Stephanie; Gross, Thomas
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), a disorder of programmed cell death, could be due to a congenital defect in the Fas signaling pathway or other pathways for apoptosis. Most cases present with lymphoproliferation and certain autoimmune features such as thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and anemia are due to excessive production of antibodies by B lymphocytes. Majority of cases present within the first few years of life. We report a case of ALPS presenting at birth which was refractory to splenectomy and immunosuppressive therapy, but responded to pentostatin followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie; Aouba, Achille; Canioni, Danielle; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Fischer, Alain; Hermine, Olivier
Mutations of Fas or, less frequently, Fas ligand genes result in a rare inherited lymphoid disorder called autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) in which lymphoma frequency is increased. We report on a patient with ALPS who had been splenectomized for giant splenomegaly and progressively developed a voluminous abdominal tumor. The histology of the removed tumor revealed that it was an accessory spleen exhibiting typical features of ALPS involvement, as shown by the presence of a large excess of CD3+CD4-CD8- T cells and plasma cells without a detectable monoclonal population. This observation highlights the lymphoma's differential diagnosis in this context.
... helps control immune reactions by triggering self-destruction (apoptosis) of cytotoxic lymphocytes when they are no longer ... when defective lymphocytes are not properly destroyed by apoptosis. The XIAP gene provides instructions for making a ...
Jakobovich, E.; Koplewitz, B.; Marva, E.; Granot, E.
We describe a 14-year-old girl, who was 13 y after liver transplantation for biliary atresia with an unremarkable postoperative course. She presented with fever of up to 40°C, extreme fatigue, malaise, anorexia, and occasional vomiting. On physical examination the only finding was splenomegaly. Lab results showed hyperglobulinemia and an elevated sedimentation rate. Liver function tests were normal except for mild elevation of γGTP. Abdominal U/S and CT demonstrated an enlarged spleen with retroperitoneal and mesenteric lymph nodes enlargement. An exhaustive evaluation for infectious causes, autoimmune conditions, and malignancy was negative. A full recovery after 5 months prompted testing for self-limited infectious etiologies. Yersinia enterocolitica infection was diagnosed. PMID:25126442
Rangan, S R; Martin, L N; Enright, F M; Abee, C R
Four of 5 howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) experimentally infected with Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) developed a rapidly fatal malignant lymphoma accompanied by peripheral T-cell lymphocytosis. HVS was isolated from fresh and tissue cultured blood and tissue lymphocytes and from cell cultures derived from nonlymphoid organs. Humoral antibodies against HVS-induced antigens were detected in the sera of the animals. The in vitro response of the peripheral blood lymphocytes to mitogenic stimulants was depressed following HVS infection.
Khosravi, Ali Reza; Shokri, Hojjatollah; Eshghi, Shahin
Objective(s): Systemic candidiasis is an infection of Candida albicans (C. albicans) causing disseminated disease and sepsis, invariably when host defenses are compromised. We investigated the histopathological changes as well as the lymphoproliferative responses and cytokine production of splenic cells after stimulation with Concanavalin A (Con A) and Pokeweed mitogen (PWM) in mice with disseminated candidiasis. Materials and Methods: Lymphoproliferative responses were stimulated in vitro with Con A (1 µg/ml) and PWM (1 µg/ml) mitogens in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 media, and the production of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in the supernatants was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The results revealed that C. albicans organisms multiplied to a greater extent in the kidneys than in the liver and spleen of infected mice. The most predominant forms of C. albicans in different parts of the kidneys were yeast mixed with hyphal forms. Infected mice had a significantly increased proliferative response when splenocytes were stimulated with PWM (2.0±0.16) and Con A (1.9±0.19) (P<0.05). PWM and Con A-stimulated production of IFN-γ significantly tended to be higher in infected mice (PWM: 68.4±14.0 pg/ml; Con A: 53.7±17.3 pg/ml) when compared to controls (P<0.05). Stimulation with PWM and Con A showed no differences in IL-4 production between infected mice and controls. Conclusion: These findings demonstrated a significant increase in both cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion in supernatants of PWM and Con A- stimulated splenocyte cultures obtained from mice with disseminated candidiasis. PMID:28293397
Smith, Casey; Streicher, Andrew; Magnuson, Allison; Newman, Susan; Bertoli, Robert
Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a recognized and extremely morbid complication of solid organ transplantation, but central nervous system involvement, particularly in isolation, is rare. There are no standardized treatment strategies for PTLD, though commonly used strategies include reduction of immunosuppression, chemotherapy, rituximab, radiation, and surgery. We present a case of an unusual morphologic variant of primary central nervous system PTLD with successful response to rituximab and cranial radiation. A 69-year-old Asian male, who underwent postrenal transplant nine years earlier, presented with a one-month history of new onset seizure activity. His evaluation revealed multiple brain lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as serologic and cerebrospinal fluid studies which were positive for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection. Ultimately, he underwent craniotomy with tissue biopsy with the final pathology report showing posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, polymorphic type. The patient was managed with reduction in immunosuppression, rituximab therapy, and cranial radiation treatments. He had demonstrated marked improvement in his neurologic function and was ultimately discharged to inpatient rehabilitation facility. PMID:28116196
Morris, Jaime; Smith, Casey; Streicher, Andrew; Magnuson, Allison; Newman, Susan; Bertoli, Robert
Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a recognized and extremely morbid complication of solid organ transplantation, but central nervous system involvement, particularly in isolation, is rare. There are no standardized treatment strategies for PTLD, though commonly used strategies include reduction of immunosuppression, chemotherapy, rituximab, radiation, and surgery. We present a case of an unusual morphologic variant of primary central nervous system PTLD with successful response to rituximab and cranial radiation. A 69-year-old Asian male, who underwent postrenal transplant nine years earlier, presented with a one-month history of new onset seizure activity. His evaluation revealed multiple brain lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as serologic and cerebrospinal fluid studies which were positive for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection. Ultimately, he underwent craniotomy with tissue biopsy with the final pathology report showing posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, polymorphic type. The patient was managed with reduction in immunosuppression, rituximab therapy, and cranial radiation treatments. He had demonstrated marked improvement in his neurologic function and was ultimately discharged to inpatient rehabilitation facility.
MUÑOZ, Ana; RIBER, Cristina; TRIGO, Pablo; CASTEJÓN, Francisco
Leukemia, i.e., the neoplasia of one or more cell lines of the bone marrow, although less common than in other species, it is also reported in horses. Leukemia can be classified according to the affected cells (myeloproliferative or lymphoproliferative disorders), evolution of clinical signs (acute or chronic) and the presence or lack of abnormal cells in peripheral blood (leukemic, subleukemic and aleukemic leukemia). The main myeloproliferative disorders in horses are malignant histiocytosis and myeloid leukemia, the latter being classified as monocytic and myelomonocytic, granulocytic, primary erythrocytosis or polycythemia vera and megakaryocytic leukemia. The most common lymphoproliferative disorders in horses are lymphoid leukemia, plasma cell or multiple myeloma and lymphoma. Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic neoplasia in horses and usually involves lymphoid organs, without leukemia, although bone marrow may be affected after metastasis. Lymphoma could be classified according to the organs involved and four main clinical categories have been established: generalized-multicentric, alimentary-gastrointestinal, mediastinal-thymic-thoracic and cutaneous. The clinical signs, hematological and clinical pathological findings, results of bone marrow aspirates, involvement of other organs, prognosis and treatment, if applicable, are presented for each type of neoplasia. This paper aims to provide a guide for equine practitioners when approaching to clinical cases with suspicion of hematopoietic neoplasia. PMID:24833969
Feasibility and Outcome of Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation with Post-Transplant High-Dose Cyclophosphamide for Children and Adolescents with Hematologic Malignancies: An AIEOP-GITMO Retrospective Multicenter Study.
Berger, Massimo; Lanino, Edoardo; Cesaro, Simone; Zecca, Marco; Vassallo, Elena; Faraci, Maura; De Bortoli, Massimiliano; Barat, Veronica; Prete, Arcangelo; Fagioli, Franca
Post-transplant high-dose cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is a novel approach to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and rejection in patients given haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Thirty-three patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies and lacking a match-related or -unrelated donor were treated with PTCy haploidentical HSCT in 5 Italian AIEOP centers. Nineteen patients had a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen (57%), and 14 patients received a full myeloablative conditioning regimen (43%). No patients received serotherapy; GVHD prophylaxis was based on PTCy (50 mg/kg on days +3 and +4) combined with mycophenolate plus tacrolimus or cyclosporine A. Neutrophil and platelet engraftment was achieved on days +17 (range, 14 to 37) and +27 (range, 16 to 71). One patient had autologous reconstitution for anti-HLA antibodies. Acute GVHD grades II to IV and III to IV and chronic GVHD developed in 22% (95% CI, 11 to 42), 3% (95% CI, 0 to 21), and 4% (95% CI, 0 to 27) of cases, respectively. The 1-year overall survival rate was 72% (95% CI, 56 to 88), progression-free survival rate was 61% (95% CI, 43 to 80), cumulative incidence of relapse was 24% (95% CI, 13 to 44), and transplant-related mortality was 9% (95% CI, 3 to 26). The univariate analysis for risk of relapse incidence showed how 3 significant variables, mother as donor (P = .02), donor gender as female (P = .04), and patient gender as female (P = .02), were significantly associated with a lower risk of relapse. Disease progression was the main cause of death. PTCy is a safe procedure also for children and adolescents who have already received several lines of chemotherapy. Among the different diseases, a trend for better 1-year rates of overall survival was obtained for nonacute leukemia patients.
Kaimila, Bongani; van der Gronde, Toon; Kasonkanji, Edwards; Fox, Paula; Chikasema, Maria; Tewete, Blessings; Gopal, Satish
Given scarce data from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), we sought to describe CD4 count and HIV RNA trends over time among patients with HIV-positive lymphoproliferative disorders in Malawi. We prospectively enrolled HIV-positive individuals with pathologically confirmed lymphoproliferative disorders between 2013 and 2016. Chemotherapy was standardized with concurrent antiretroviral therapy (ART). We assessed CD4 count and HIV RNA at baseline and every 6 months for up to 2 years. Of 72 HIV-positive patients, 59 had non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), 5 classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL), and 8 multicentric Castleman disease (MCD). Median age was 43 years (range 23-64). Fifty-five patients (76%) were on ART at enrollment for a median 47 months (range 1-387), with median CD4 count of 138 cells/μl (range 2-2,235) and median HIV RNA of 2.2 log10copies/ml (range 0.3-7.3). MCD patients had longer median ART durations, higher median CD4 counts, and lower median HIV RNA at baseline than NHL or CHL patients. CD4 count and HIV RNA steadily improved during follow-up, with different patterns in different histological groups. Twelve-month overall survival (OS) was 55% [95% confidence interval (CI) 42%-66%]. There were trends toward baseline CD4 count <100 cells/μl and HIV RNA >2.0 log10copies/ml being associated with worse OS. However, CD4 count and HIV RNA improvements during follow-up were independent of possible effects on OS. Distribution of HIV-positive lymphoproliferative disorders may change with continued ART scale-up in SSA. Chemotherapy and concurrent ART can lead to good immunological and virological outcomes.
Cornillon, J; Peffault de Latour, R; Apaza, S; Bourg, M-A; Courbon, C; Evard, S; Guiraud, M; Le Bars, L; Petit, S; Magro, L; Schmitt, S; Tardieu, L; Samsonova, O; Tipton, R; Yakoub-Agha, I
The number of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantations has globally taken off in the past decade. However, this increase in transplantation activity has put in the spotlight the need to create a special transplantation-skilled population of nurses. This type of specialisation allocated solely to this activity has not existed within the French nursing community until now. In the attempt to harmonize clinical practices between different French transplantation centers, the French Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cell Therapy (SFGM-TC) sets up its forth annual series of workshops which brought together practitioners from all member centers and took place in September 2013 in Lille. Here we report our results and recommendations regarding the implementation of a transplant nurse status for post-transplant follow-up care.
Magerus-Chatinet, Aude; Neven, Bénédicte; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Daussy, Cécile; Arkwright, Peter D; Lanzarotti, Nina; Schaffner, Catherine; Cluet-Dennetiere, Sophie; Haerynck, Filomeen; Michel, Gérard; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Zarhrate, Mohammed; Radford-Weiss, Isabelle; Romana, Serge P; Picard, Capucine; Fischer, Alain; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric
Autoimmune diseases develop in approximately 5% of humans. They can arise when self-tolerance checkpoints of the immune system are bypassed as a consequence of inherited mutations of key genes involved in lymphocyte activation, survival, or death. For example, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) results from defects in self-tolerance checkpoints as a consequence of mutations in the death receptor-encoding gene TNF receptor superfamily, member 6 (TNFRSF6; also known as FAS). However, some mutation carriers remain asymptomatic throughout life. We have now demonstrated in 7 ALPS patients that the disease develops as a consequence of an inherited TNFRSF6 heterozygous mutation combined with a somatic genetic event in the second TNFRSF6 allele. Analysis of the patients' CD4(-)CD8(-) (double negative) T cells--accumulation of which is a hallmark of ALPS--revealed that in these cells, 3 patients had somatic mutations in their second TNFRSF6 allele, while 4 patients had loss of heterozygosity by telomeric uniparental disomy of chromosome 10. This observation provides the molecular bases of a nonmalignant autoimmune disease development in humans and may shed light on the mechanism underlying the occurrence of other autoimmune diseases.
Aguilar, Claire; Latour, Sylvain
X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) deficiency (also known as X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 2, XLP-2) is a rare primary immunodeficiency. Since the disease was first described in 2006, more than 70 patients suffering from XIAP-deficiency have been reported, thus extending the clinical presentations of the disease. The main clinical features of XLP-2 are (i) elevated susceptibility to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH, frequently in response to infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)), (ii) recurrent splenomegaly and (iii) inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with the characteristics of Crohn's disease. XIAP deficiency is now considered to be one of the genetic causes of IBD in infancy. Although XIAP is an anti-apoptotic molecule, it is also involved in many other pathways, including the regulation of innate immunity and inflammation. XIAP is required for signaling through the Nod-like receptors NOD1 and 2, which are intracellular sensors of bacterial infection. XIAP-deficient T cells (including innate natural killer T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T cells) are overly sensitive to apoptosis. NOD2 function is impaired in XIAP-deficient monocytes. However, the physiopathological mechanisms underlying the clinical phenotypes in XIAP deficiency, notably the HLH and the EBV susceptibility, are not well understood. Here, we review the clinical aspects, molecular etiology and physiopathology of XIAP deficiency.
Hadjiliadis, Denis; Chaparro, Cecilia; Reinsmoen, Nancy L; Gutierrez, Carlos; Singer, Lianne G; Steele, Mark P; Waddell, Thomas K; Davis, Robert D; Hutcheon, Michael A; Palmer, Scott M; Keshavjee, Shaf
The presence of antibodies to human leukocyte antigens (HLA) prior to transplantation has been linked to worse post-transplant outcomes in many solid organ transplants. The effect of these antibodies is less clear in lung transplant recipients, although previous studies have suggested an increased incidence of allograft dysfunction. A retrospective study of all first lung transplant recipients from the University of Toronto (November 1983-July 2001, n = 380) and Duke University (April 1992-June 2000, n = 276) was performed. Demographic data, survival information, and level of last pre-transplant panel reactive antibody (PRA) were collected. PRA level was measured by the complement-dependent cell cytotoxicity assay at both centers. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and groups were compared with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Of 656 lung transplant recipients, 101 (15.4%) had a PRA greater than 0, 37 (5.6%) had a PRA greater than 10%, and 20 (3.0%) had a PRA greater than 25%. Patients with a PRA greater than 25% had decreased median survival than did the rest of the patients (1.5 vs 5.2 years) and at 1 month (70% vs 90%), 1 year (65% vs 76%), and 5 years (31% vs 50%), respectively (p = 0.006, Wilcoxon's rank sum test) test). Significant elevation of PRA prior to lung transplantation is associated with worse survival, especially in the early post-transplant period. This may be due to a direct effect of anti-HLA antibodies on the allograft. The effectiveness of treatments such as plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin prior to transplantation needs to be evaluated.
Kawecki, D; Kwiatkowski, A; Sawicka-Grzelak, A; Durlik, M; Mlynarczyk, G; Chmura, A
This study aims to evaluate the frequency of microbial isolates and their susceptibility profiles cultured from clinical samples obtained from 26 simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant (SPK) recipients suspected of infections during the early post-transplantation period. Data on microbiologic culture of 26 adult patients undergoing SPK were collected prospectively from 2001 to the end of 2006. Isolation and identification of cultured micro-organisms were performed according to standard microbiological procedures and commercially available tests. Susceptibility of the strains to antibacterial agents was made by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. All the patients were followed prospectively for the first 4 weeks after surgery. In total, 263 samples from clinical materials obtained from 26 SPK recipients were cultured. Bacterial cultures were positive in 29.3% (n = 77) clinical samples. Of these, 219 microbial strains were cultured. Gram-positive bacteria were found in 64% (n = 140), Gram-negative bacteria in 22.8% (n = 50), and fungal strains were isolated in 13.2% (n = 29). Incidence rate values for subsequent isolation of micro-organisms in the sub-periods of time for decreasing the SPK were Gram-positive bacteria (102.3-18.7; I versus IV), growing the Gram-negative bacteria (14-46.1 I versus III) IV were 14, decreasing to fungi (22.1-1.6, I versus IV). Until now this early post-transplantation period was considered homogeneous time after transplantation. This study shows that this period is actually heterogenous, with statistically significant differences being observed between results obtained in consecutive 4 weeks after transplantation. The results of this study show that the incidence rate was elevated with increasing age in the SPK group of patients. In the SPK group, our data showed the highest rate of isolation of micro-organisms compared with recipients of kidneys or liver.
Demehri, Shadmehr; Liu, Zhenyi; Lee, Jonghyeob; Lin, Meei-Hua; Crosby, Seth D; Roberts, Christopher J; Grigsby, Perry W; Miner, Jeffrey H; Farr, Andrew G; Kopan, Raphael
Epidermal keratinocytes form a highly organized stratified epithelium and sustain a competent barrier function together with dermal and hematopoietic cells. The Notch signaling pathway is a critical regulator of epidermal integrity. Here, we show that keratinocyte-specific deletion of total Notch signaling triggered a severe systemic B-lymphoproliferative disorder, causing death. RBP-j is the DNA binding partner of Notch, but both RBP-j–dependent and independent Notch signaling were necessary for proper epidermal differentiation and lipid deposition. Loss of both pathways caused a persistent defect in skin differentiation/barrier formation. In response, high levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) were released into systemic circulation by Notch-deficient keratinocytes that failed to differentiate, starting in utero. Exposure to high TSLP levels during neonatal hematopoiesis resulted in drastic expansion of peripheral pre- and immature B-lymphocytes, causing B-lymphoproliferative disorder associated with major organ infiltration and subsequent death, a previously unappreciated systemic effect of TSLP. These observations demonstrate that local skin perturbations can drive a lethal systemic disease and have important implications for a wide range of humoral and autoimmune diseases with skin manifestations. PMID:18507503