Prince, Lillian; Chappelle, Wayne L; McDonald, Kent D; Goodman, Tanya; Cowper, Sara; Thompson, William
The goal of this study was to assess for the main sources of occupational stress, as well as self-reported symptoms of distress and post-traumatic stress disorder among U.S. Air Force (USAF) Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS) intelligence exploitation and support personnel. DCGS intelligence operators (n=1091) and nonintelligence personnel (n = 447) assigned to a USAF Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Wing responded to the web-based survey. The overall survey response rate was 31%. Study results revealed the most problematic stressors among DCGS intelligence personnel included high workload, low manning, as well as organizational leadership and shift work issues. Results also revealed 14.35% of DCGS intelligence operators' self-reported high levels of psychological distress (twice the rate of DCGS nonintelligence support personnel). Furthermore, 2.0% to 2.5% self-reported high levels of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, with no significant difference between groups. The implications of these findings are discussed along with recommendations for USAF medical and mental health providers, as well as operational leadership.
Chappelle, Wayne L; McDonald, Kent D; Prince, Lillian; Goodman, Tanya; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie N; Thompson, William
The goal of this study is to repeat a survey administered in 2010 to assess for changes in mental health among United States Air Force aircrew operating Predator/Reaper remotely piloted aircraft, also commonly referred to as "drones." Participants were assessed for self-reported sources of occupational stress, levels of clinical distress using the Outcome Questionnaire-45.2, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using the PTSD Checklist-Military Version. A total of 1,094 aircrew responded to the web-based survey composed of the commercially available standardized instruments mentioned above. The survey also contained nonstandardized items asking participants to report the main sources of their occupational stress, as well as questions addressing demographics and work-related characteristics. The estimated response rate to the survey was 49%. Study results reveal the most problematic self-reported stressors are operational: low manning, extra duties/administrative tasks, rotating shift work, and long hours. The results also reveal 10.72% of operators self-reported experiencing high levels of distress and 1.57% reported high levels of PTSD symptomology. The results are lower than findings from the 2010 survey and from soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Implications of the study and recommendations for United States Air Force line leadership and mental health providers are discussed.
Kenane, N; Montcriol, A; Bordes, J; Prunet, B; Ledantec, P; N'diaye, M
Compressive pnemopericardium is an uncommon cause of shock after blunt trauma. The purpose of this report is to describe a case of air tamponnade observed during management of a patient with thoraco-abominal injuries in Dakar, Senegal. Diagnosis was suspected based on chest x-rays and subsequently confirmed by CT-scan. Clinical features included shock syndrome, small heart sign, and constant deterioration under assisted ventilation. Despite initial improvement after needle aspiration, the patient died due to probable recurrence of air tamponnade. Based on their review of the literature, the authors discuss the physiopathology of air tamponande and emergency treatment by needle aspiration that must be followed by surgery for creation of a pericardial window.
Shi, Wei-Bin; Wang, Zi-Hao; Qu, Chun-Ying; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Han; Zhou, Min; Chen, Ying; Xu, Lei-Ming
AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of CO2 insufflation compared with air insufflation in the endoscopic submucosal excavation (ESE) of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. METHODS: Sixty patients were randomized to undergo endoscopic submucosal excavation, with the CO2 group (n = 30) and the air group (n = 30) undergoing CO2 insufflation and air insufflation in the ESE, respectively. The end-tidal CO2 level (pETCO2) was observed at 4 time points: at the beginning of ESE, at total removal of the tumors, at completed wound management, and 10 min after ESE. Additionally, the patients’ experience of pain at 1, 3, 6 and 24 h after the examination was registered using a visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS: Both the CO2 group and air group were similar in mean age, sex, body mass index (all P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in PetCO2 values before and after the procedure (P > 0.05). However, the pain scores after the ESE at different time points in the CO2 group decreased significantly compared with the air group (1 h: 21.2 ± 3.4 vs 61.5 ± 1.7; 3 h: 8.5 ± 0.7 vs 42.9 ± 1.3; 6 h: 4.4 ± 1.6 vs 27.6 ± 1.2; 24 h: 2.3 ± 0.4 vs 21.4 ± 0.7, P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the percentage of VAS scores of 0 in the CO2 group after 1, 3, 6 and 24 h was significantly higher than that in the air group (60.7 ± 1.4 vs 18.9 ± 1.5, 81.5 ± 2.3 vs 20.6 ± 1.2, 89.2 ± 0.7 vs 36.8 ± 0.9, 91.3 ± 0.8 vs 63.8 ± 1.3, respectively, P < 0.05). Moreover, the condition of the CO2 group was better than that of the air group with respect to anal exsufflation. CONCLUSION: Insufflation of CO2 in the ESE of gastrointestinal stromal tumors will not cause CO2 retention and it may significantly reduce the level of pain, thus it is safe and effective. PMID:23326136
Chappelle, Wayne; Goodman, Tanya; Reardon, Laura; Thompson, William
Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), commonly referred to as "drones," have emerged over the past decade as an innovative warfighting tool. Given there is a paucity of empirical research assessing drone operators, the purpose of this study was to assess for the prevalence of PTSD symptoms among this cohort. Of the 1084 United States Air Force (USAF) drone operators that participated, a total of 4.3% endorsed a pattern of symptoms of moderate to extreme level of severity meeting criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4th edition. The incidence of PTSD among USAF drone operators in this study was lower than rates of PTSD (10-18%) among military personnel returning from deployment but higher than incidence rates (less than 1%) of USAF drone operators reported in electronic medical records. Although low PTSD rates may be promising, limitations to this study are discussed.
Lynch, Isabelle; Hayes, Ann; Buffum, Martha D; Conners, Erin E
The standard of practice for colonoscopy is room air insufflation. Recent research demonstrates safety and significant decrease in postcolonoscopy discomfort from distention when carbon dioxide (CO2) is used during insufflation. Reducing abdominal pain after colonoscopy may lead to increased acceptance of colonoscopy screening for colorectal cancer. This study aims to compare patient comfort intra- and postprocedure, length of recovery, and nursing time in patients undergoing colonoscopy using room air vs. CO2 insufflation. This study uses an experimental design with patients randomly assigned to either room air or CO2 during colonoscopy. Physician endoscopists, postprocedure nurses, and patients were blinded to assignment. Prior bowel surgery, inflammatory bowel disease, or inability to consent excluded participants. Outcome measures included discomfort assessment, nursing tasks, and recovery time.Of 191 participants, 177 were men and 14 were women; 94 received room air; 97 received CO2. Patients insufflated with room air reported higher levels of some measures of discomfort: (a) during colonoscopy (p = .02), (b) on admission to recovery (p = .001), and (c) on discharge from recovery (p = .001). Patients receiving room air required more nursing tasks in recovery (p = .001) and more total nursing time (p = .001).Compared with room air, CO2 insufflation increases patient comfort and decreases nursing tasks and time.
traditionally disqualified (i.e., grounded) aviators with mental health disorders resulting from traumatic experiences, such as post-traumatic stress...disorder. Following successful treatment, aviators have been required to demonstrate at least 6 months of stability before they were considered fit...to return to flying status. However, in the experience of the Neuropsychiatry Branch of the Aeromedical Consultation Service, many of these aviators
Vanlinthout, L; Boghaert, A; Thienpont, L
Venous air embolism following urethral inflation only scarcely documented: an extensive search of the literature yielded four papers relating to this subject. We report a new case of venous air embolism due to this uncommon etiology. Careful study revealed some common pathogenetic features with previously reported cases. Some important precautions can diminish the likelihood of gas embolism and reduce its fatal outcome in situations, similar to the kind mentioned.
Edens, E T
A new electroscope has been designed from the conventional Haslinger tubes. The new rigid scope combines the advantage of air insufflation in the flexible system with the therapeutic possibilities of the rigid tubes and is trustworthy in the following esophageal procedures; a) finding entrance of severe strictures; b) introducing nasogastric feeding tubes; c) extraction of foreign bodies; d) tumor coagulation/spur in hypopharyngeal diverticuli; e) washing and suction in cases with severe food retention; f)making tumor smears in patients with clotting disorders; g) taking substantial biopsies with an optical forceps, and h) objective photodocumentation of esophageal pathology.
Shiani, Ashok; Lipka, Seth; Lai, Andrew; Rodriguez, Andrea C.; Andrade, Christian M.; Kumar, Ambuj; Brady, Patrick
Background and study aims Carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation has been suggested to be an ideal alternative to room air insufflation to reduce trapped air within the bowel lumen after balloon assisted enteroscopy (BAE). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the safety and efficacy of utilizing CO2 insufflation as compared to room air during BAE. Patients and methods The primary outcome is mean change in visual analog scale (VAS; 10 cm) at 1, 3, and 6 hours to assess pain. Secondary outcomes include insertion depth (anterograde or retrograde), adverse events, total enteroscopy rate, diagnostic yield, mean anesthetic dosage, and PaCO2 at procedure completion. We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from inception until May 2015. Multiple independent extractions were performed, the process was executed as per the standards of the Cochrane collaboration. Results Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the meta-analysis. VAS at 6 hours favored CO2 over room air (MD 0.13; 95 % CI 0.01, 0.25; p = 0.03). Anterograde insertion depth (cm) was improved in the CO2 group (MD, 58.2; 95 % CI 17.17, 99.23; p = 0.005), with an improvement in total enteroscopy rate in the CO2 group (RR 1.91; 95 % CI 1.20, 3.06; p = 0.007). Mean dose of propofol (mg) favored CO2 compared to air (MD, – 70.53; 95 % CI – 115.07, – 25.98; P = 0.002). There were no differences in adverse events in either group. Conclusions Despite the ability of CO2 to improve insertion depth and decrease amount of anesthesia required, further randomized control trials are needed to determine the agent of choice for insufflation in balloon assisted enteroscopy. PMID:28191497
Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer
This article serves to challenge the prevailing wisdom that suggests that most trauma is followed by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and is best treated with critical incident stress debriefing (CISD). Instead, recent evidence suggests that many individuals exposed to stress do not experience stress responses. Even those who do, however,…
Korábová, I; Masopustová, Z
The aim of this paper is to introduce the issue of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth to health care professionals. The text focuses on the diagnostic definition of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth, symptoms, physiological background, prevalence, course, risk factors and consequences of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth for a woman, her child and her partner. Options for interventions and therapy are outlined as well.
... Depression During Pregnancy & Postpartum Anxiety During Pregnancy & Postpartum Pregnancy or Postpartum Obsessive Symptoms Postpartum Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Bipolar Mood Disorders Postpartum Psychosis Tools for ...
Islam, Md Nahidul; Bradley, Benjamin A; Ceredig, Rhodri
After major trauma, the human immune system initiates a series of inflammatory events at the injury site that is later followed by suppression of local inflammation favoring the repair and remodeling of the damaged tissues. This local immune response involves complex interactions between resident cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, soluble mediators such as cytokines and chemokines, and recruited cells such as neutrophils, monocytes and mesenchymal stromal cells. If of sufficient magnitude, these initial immune responses nevertheless have systemic consequences resulting in a state called post-traumatic immunosuppression (PTI). However, controversy exists regarding the exact immunological changes occurring in systemic compartments triggered by these local immune responses. PTI is one of the leading causes of post-surgical mortality and makes patients vulnerable to hospital-acquired infections, multiple organ failure and many other complications. In addition, hemorrhage, blood transfusion, immunesenescence and immunosuppressant drugs aggravate PTI. PTI has been intensively studied, but published results are frequently cloudy. The purpose of this review is to focus on the contributions made by different responsive modalities to immunosuppression following sterile trauma and to try to integrate these into an overall scheme of PTI. PMID:27195120
Eren, Y; Yavasoglu, N G; Comoglu, S S
Localized unilateral hyperhidrosis is rare and poorly understood, sometimes stemming from trauma. Feet, quite vulnerable to trauma are affected by disease-mediated plantar hyperhidrosis, usually bilaterally. This report describes partial hyperhidrosis developing post-traumatically on the left plantar region of a 52-year-old male.
Pujol, N; Boisrenoult, P; Beaufils, P
Post-traumatic knee stiffness and loss of range of motion is a common complication of injuries to the knee area. The causes of post-traumatic knee stiffness can be divided into flexion contractures, extension contractures, and combined contractures. Post-traumatic stiffness can be due to the presence of dense intra-articular adhesions and/or fibrotic transformation of peri-articular structures. Various open and arthroscopic surgical treatments are possible. A precise diagnosis and understanding of the pathology is mandatory prior to any surgical treatment. Failure is imminent if all pathologies are not addressed correctly. From a general point of view, a flexion contracture is due to posterior adhesions and/or anterior impingement. On the other hand, extension contractures are due to anterior adhesions and/or posterior impingement. This overview will describe the different modern surgical techniques for treating post-traumatic knee stiffness. Any bony impingements must be treated before soft tissue release is performed. Intra-articular stiff knees with a loss of flexion can be treated by an anterior arthroscopic arthrolysis. Extra-articular pathology causing a flexion contracture can be treated by open or endoscopic quadriceps release. Extension contractures can be treated by arthroscopic or open posterior arthrolysis. Postoperative care (analgesia, rehabilitation) is essential to maintaining the range of motion obtained intra-operatively.
Based on over a decade of work in the area of PTSD, including a longitudinal study of PTSD among adolescents, Dr. Yule provides an introduction to post-traumatic stress disorder as it occurs in youth. This includes a look at the manifestations of stress reactions, the incidence and prevalence of PTSD, and the relationship between levels of…
could lead to memories that are too strong, contributing to the recurrent, intrusive retrieval of the traumatic events that occurs in PTSD. As a...emotionally arousing experiences are typically vivid and persistent. The recurrent, intrusive memories of traumatic events in post-traumatic stress disorder...signaling plays a critical role in the maintenance of waking and in the regulation of REM sleep. J Neurophysiol 92:2071–2082. Ouyang M, Zhang L, Zhu
Documentation Page, DD Form 1473 (is)(is not) attached. Title Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder and the Canadian Vietnam Veteran Author(s) Robert H. Stretch...EDITIONS WILL BE USED U. Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder and the Canadian Vietnam Veteran MAJ Robert H. Stretch, Ph.D. U.S. Army Medical R&D Command... Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). PTSD results from exposure to trauma that is generally outside the range of normal human experience. It is
10 Aug 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Mission Connect MTBI Translational Research Consortium 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Post traumatic hypopituitarism 5b...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is to identify the incidence of post traumatic hypopituitarism ...June 21, 2010; however, none have reached the six month milestone for blood testing 15. SUBJECT TERMS post traumatic hypopituitarism 16. SECURITY
Andreasen, Nancy C.
Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) are categorized as separate and discrete disorders, the boundary between them is sometimes indistinct. Their separation is based on the assumption that PTSD results primarily from psychological stress, while TBI is the consequence of an identifiable injury to the brain. This distinction is based on an antiquated polarity between mind and brain, and the separation of the two disorders often becomes arbitrary in day-to-day psychiatric practice and research. PMID:22033951
Aissa, A; Hassine, A; Hajji, H; Ben Salah, K; Morjène, A; Alouini, R
Diaphragmatic hernia is a post-traumatic lesion specific trauma that may go unnoticed. The left hemidiaphragm is the most frequently affected. The diagnosis is then made at the occasion of a complication, especially gastric volvulus. The authors report the case of a young man aged 26 years old with a gastric volvulus on post-traumatic diaphragmatic hernia diagnosed by CT.
Biran, S; Wertheimer, D
The post-traumatic reaction, at least in the group of soldiers under discussion, consisted in the conflict between their courage and moral, on one hand, and the fear of death, on the other. We should consider the great majority of these soldiers as good human and war material, not prone to cowardice or neglect of their duties. In spite of this, it was obvious in their case that human endurance is not unlimited. Their desease was not a subconscious simulation, but a real case of conversion hysteria at some of them, and the anxiety hysteria, accompanied by the nightmares, at the others. The disclosing psychotherapy, started immediately and conducted in concentrated form, led to self-awareness and to complete recovery.
Horovitz, David; Matic, Damir B
A forehead lipoma is a rare finding in a child, and one that penetrates the underlying layers of muscle and bone to attach to dura has not previously been reported. Two such cases, both in children who underwent uneventful deliveries aided by forceps, are presented. Both lesions were present at birth and, based on clinical findings, were originally thought to be dermoid cysts. Dermoid cysts could not be ruled out with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Histopathology identified fibrofatty tissue consistent with lipoma. Both lesions extended from the subcutaneous tissue through the frontalis muscle and frontal bone to the dura. Given these findings and the history of forceps delivery, the most likely diagnosis is post-traumatic pseudolipoma. This lesion should be considered in the differential diagnosis of congenital lesions of the forehead, particularly if there is a history of forceps delivery or other trauma to the area. PMID:19554153
Duan, Wenjie; Guo, Pengfei; Gan, Pei
The present study aims to examine the relationship between trait resilience and virtues in the context of trauma. A total of 537 participants who attended the preliminary investigation and completed the Life Events Checklist were screened. Of these participants, 142 suffered from personal traumatic experiences in the past year; these individuals were qualified and invited to respond to online questionnaires to assess trait resilience, virtues (i.e., Conscientiousness, Vitality, and Relationship), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and post-traumatic growth (PTG). The following questionnaires were used: Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-Revised, Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, PTSD Checklist-Specific, and Post-traumatic Growth Inventory-Chinese. Only 95 participants who manifested self-reported PTSD symptoms and PTG were involved in the current analyses. Trauma was positively and significantly correlated with PTSD in the current sample. Results indicated that trait resilience was positively associated with virtues and PTG; by contrast, PTSD scores were negatively but not significantly related to most of these factors. The three virtues contributed to PTG to a greater extent than trait resilience in non-PTSD and PTSD groups. However, trait resilience remained a significant predictor in the PTSD group even when the three virtues were controlled. The relationship between trait resilience and PTG was moderated by PTSD type (non-PTSD group vs. PTSD group). Our results further suggested that trait resilience and virtues were conceptually related but functionally different constructs. Trait resilience and virtues are positively related; thus, these factors contributed variances to PTG in the context of trauma; however, trait resilience is only manifested when virtues are controlled and when individuals are diagnosed as PTSD. Furthermore, implications and limitations of this study are discussed. PMID:25932954
Wallace, Duncan; Cooper, John
Summary Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in people exposed to life-threatening trauma. GPs may be seeing more patients with post-traumatic stress disorder as military personnel return from overseas deployments. The condition can present in various ways. To reduce the likelihood of missed or delayed diagnosis GPs can screen at-risk populations. A comprehensive assessment is recommended. Specialist referral may be required, particularly if there are other mental health problems. Trauma-focused psychological therapies should be offered as the first line of treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Usually 8–12 sessions are needed for a therapeutic effect. If drug treatment is needed, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first line. Other drugs used in post-traumatic stress disorder include antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and prazosin. PMID:26648617
Wallace, Duncan; Cooper, John
Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in people exposed to life-threatening trauma. GPs may be seeing more patients with post-traumatic stress disorder as military personnel return from overseas deployments. The condition can present in various ways. To reduce the likelihood of missed or delayed diagnosis GPs can screen at-risk populations. A comprehensive assessment is recommended. Specialist referral may be required, particularly if there are other mental health problems. Trauma-focused psychological therapies should be offered as the first line of treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Usually 8-12 sessions are needed for a therapeutic effect. If drug treatment is needed, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first line. Other drugs used in post-traumatic stress disorder include antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and prazosin.
AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-2-0099 TITLE: Enhancing Post-Traumatic Pain Relief...DATES COVERED 1 Sep 2010-31 Aug 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enhancing Post-Traumatic Pain Relief with Alternative Perineural Drugs 5a. CONTRACT...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The primary objective of this proposal was to identify perineural drug combinations that enhance pain relief by
Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) is a powerful psychotherapy with well-researched benefits for adults and children who are experiencing post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is a wealth of research and practice-based evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of EMDR in many differing clinical presentations but the true potential of this extraordinarily beneficial therapeutic approach has not been fully embraced by the mental health nursing profession.
Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Von Holle, Ann; Ulman, T. Frances; Thornton, Laura M.; Klump, Kelly L.; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steve; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Huber, Thomas; Johnson, Craig; Jones, Ian; Kaplan, Allan S.; Mitchell, James E.; Strober, Michael; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D. Blake; Berrettini, Wade H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Objective Comorbidity among eating disorders, traumatic events, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been reported in several studies. The main objectives of this study were to describe the nature of traumatic events experienced and to explore the relation between PTSD and anorexia nervosa (AN) in a sample of women. Methods Eight hundred twenty-four participants from the National Institutes of Health funded Genetics of Anorexia Nervosa Collaborative Study were assessed for eating disorders, PTSD, and personality characteristics. Results From a final sample of 753 women with AN, 13.7% (n=103) met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD. The sample mean age was 29.5 years (SD=11.1). In pairwise comparisons across AN subtypes, the odds of having a PTSD diagnosis were significantly lower in individuals with restricting AN (RAN) than individuals with purging AN without binge eating (PAN) (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.30, 0.80). The majority of participants with PTSD reported the first traumatic event before the onset of AN (64.1%, n=66). The most common traumatic events reported by those with a PTSD diagnosis were sexual related traumas during childhood (40.8%) and during adulthood (35.0%). Conclusions AN and PTSD do co-occur and traumatic events tend to occur prior to the onset of AN. Clinically, these results underscore the importance of assessing trauma history and PTSD in individuals with AN and raise the question of whether specific modifications or augmentations to standard treatment for AN should be considered in a subgroup to address PTSD-related psychopathology. PMID:21715295
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POST TRAUMATIC STRESS AND PHYSICAL FITNESS AND THE IMPACT OF ARMY FITNESS POLICY ON POST TRAUMATIC STRESS PREVENTION...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) AUG 2008 – JUN 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POST TRAUMATIC STRESS AND PHYSICAL FITNESS AND...THE IMPACT OF ARMY FITNESS POLICY ON POST TRAUMATIC STRESS PREVENTION 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6
Schreurs, Bernard G.; Smith-Bell, Carrie A.; Burhans, Lauren B.
Extinction of fear is important for treating stress-related conditions particularly post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although traditional extinction presents the feared stimulus by itself, there is evidence from both clinical and basic research that repeatedly presenting the feared stimulus by itself does not prevent fear from returning. This renewal or relapse can be “thwarted” by unpaired extinction – presentations of the feared stimulus and the event producing the fear. However, no matter how effective standard unpaired extinction may be in the laboratory, repeated presentation of a traumatic event is untenable. To make an unpaired extinction procedure more clinically relevant, we classically conditioned the rabbit nictitating membrane response using electrical stimulation or air puff as the unconditioned stimulus and then during unpaired extinction reduced both the intensity of the unconditioned stimulus and the days of unpaired stimulus presentations. We found unpaired extinction reduced conditioned and exaggerated unconditioned responding (an animal analog of PTSD called conditioning-specific reflex modification) and could be accomplished with a weak unconditioned stimulus as long as extended presentations were used. Surprisingly, brief presentations of a weak unconditioned stimulus or extended presentations of a strong one made the exaggerated responses stronger. One implication is that brief treatment may not just be ineffectual; it may heighten the symptoms of PTSD. Another implication is that using strong stimuli may also heighten those symptoms. PMID:21074779
Kim, Dong Hyun; Kang, Seong-Woong; Park, Yoon Ghil; Lee, Hye Ree
Purpose For patients with neuromuscular disease, air stacking, which inflates the lungs to deep volumes, is important for many reasons. However, neuromuscular patients with severe glottic dysfunction or indwelling tracheostomy tubes cannot air stack effectively. For these patients, we developed a device that permits deep lung insufflations substituting for glottic function. Materials and Methods Thirty-seven patients with bulbar-innervated muscle weakness and/or tracheostomies were recruited. Twenty-three had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and 14 were tetraplegic patients due to cervical spinal cord injury. An artificial external glottic device (AEGD) was used to permit passive deep lung insufflation. In order to confirm the utility of AEGD, vital capacity, maximum insufflation capacity (MIC), and lung insufflation capacity (LIC) with AEGD (LICA) were measured. Results For 30 patients, MICs were initially zero. However, with the use of the AEGD, LICA was measurable for all patients. The mean LICA was 1,622.7±526.8 mL. Although MIC was measurable for the remaining 7 patients without utilizing the AEGD, it was significantly less than LICA, which was 1,084.3±259.9 mL and 1,862.9±248 mL, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusion The AEGD permits lung insufflation by providing deeper lung volumes than possible by air stacking. PMID:22028162
Edmondson, Donald; von Känel, Roland
In this paper, a first in a Series of two, we look at the evidence for an association of post-traumatic stress disorder with incident cardiovascular disease risk and the mechanisms that might cause this association, as well as the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder due to cardiovascular disease events and its associated prognostic risk. We discuss research done after the publication of previous relevant systematic reviews, and survey currently funded research from the two most active funders in the field: the National Institutes of Health and the US Veterans Administration. We conclude that post-traumatic stress disorder is a risk factor for incident cardiovascular disease, and a common psychiatric consequence of cardiovascular disease events that might worsen the prognosis of the cardiovascular disease. There are many candidate mechanisms for the link between post-traumatic stress disorder and cardiovascular disease, and several ongoing studies could soon point to the most important behavioural and physiological mechanisms to target in early phase intervention development. Similarly, targets are emerging for individual and environmental interventions that might offset the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder after cardiovascular disease events.
Voelk, Markus; Rogler, Gerhard; Strotzer, Michael; Lock, Guntram; Manke, Christoph; Feuerbach, Stefan
We report a case of successful percutaneous treatment of a chronic post-traumatic splenic pseudocyst using alcohol as the sclerosing agent. A 26-year-old man presented with a symptomatic cystic mass located in the spleen. Aspiration of 300 ml of fluid was only temporarily effective, and therefore a drainage catheter was placed 3 days later. After histopathologic and microbiologic exclusion of a malignant or infectious origin, local sclerotherapy with alcohol was performed because of recurrence after percutaneous drainage. This therapy was repeated six times within 2 weeks. Two weeks later, the remaining volume was determined to be 16 ml. Six months after treatment the cyst was no longer visible. To our knowledge this is the first case of a chronic post-traumatic splenic cyst treated with alcohol. Percutaneous sclerotherapy of a symptomatic post-traumatic splenic pseudocyst may be an alternative to surgical treatment.
Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Fujimoto, Ai; Ochiai, Yasutoshi; Kanai, Takanori; Naohisa, Yahagi
Background and aim The efficacy of CO2 insufflation during balloon-assisted enteroscopy remains controversial. This study aimed to perform a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which CO2 insufflation was compared with air insufflation in balloon-assisted enteroscopy. Methods PubMed, the Cochrane library, and the Igaku-Chuo-Zasshi database were searched to identify RCTs eligible for inclusion in the systematic review. Data from the eligible studies were combined to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs) or weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Four RCTs (461 patients) were identified. Compared with air insufflation, CO2 insufflation significantly increased intubation depth of oral enteroscopy (WMD: 55.2, 95% CI: 10.77–99.65, p = 0.015). However, there was significant heterogeneity. The intubation depth of anal enteroscopy showed no significant difference between the CO2 group and the air group. CO2 insufflation significantly reduced abdominal pain compared with air insufflation (WMD: −2.463, 95% CI: −4.452 to −0.474, p = 0.015), without significant heterogeneity. The PaCO2 or end-tidal CO2 level showed no significant difference between the CO2 group and air group. Conclusions Compared with air insufflation, CO2 insufflation during balloon-assisted enteroscopy caused less post-procedural pain without CO2 retention. PMID:26966518
Chen, Jieling; Zhou, Xiao; Zeng, Min; Wu, Xinchun
Objective The current longitudinal study aims to examine the bidirectional relationship between post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and post-traumatic growth (PTG). Method One hundred twenty-two adults in the most severely affected area were investigated by self-report questionnaires at 12 months and 18 months after the Wenchuan Earthquake occurred in China. Results The autoregressive cross-lagged structure equation analysis revealed that PTG at 12 months post-earthquake could negatively predict PTSS at 18 months post-earthquake above and beyond PTSS stability, whereas PTSS at 12 months post-earthquake could not significantly predict subsequent PTG. Moreover, PTG at 12 months post-earthquake could predict fewer subsequent intrusions, numbing and hyper-arousal symptoms but not avoidance symptoms. Conclusion Growth can play a role in reducing long-term post-traumatic stress symptoms, and the implication of a positive perspective in post-trauma circumstance is discussed. PMID:26046912
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... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vaginal insufflator. 884.5920 Section 884.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5920 Vaginal insufflator. (a) Identification. A vaginal insufflator is a device used to...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vaginal insufflator. 884.5920 Section 884.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5920 Vaginal insufflator. (a) Identification. A vaginal insufflator is a device used to...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vaginal insufflator. 884.5920 Section 884.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5920 Vaginal insufflator. (a) Identification. A vaginal insufflator is a device used to...
A confrontation with death can lead to acute reactions of stress, followed possibly, after a phase of latency, by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is characterised by the appearance of a repetition syndrome combining reliving, hypervigilance and avoidance; comorbidities frequently arise, increasingthe risk of suicide. Caregivers have an important role to play in identifying them.
Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Sinha, Vijay Prakash; Pal, U. S.; Yadav, Sharad C.; Singh, Maneesh K.
Pregabalin is effective in the treatment of peripheral and central neuropathic pain. This study evaluated the effectiveness of pregablin in management of post traumatic peripheral nerve injury facial pain not responding to other medication like analgesics. Pregabalin was well tolerated. The most common adverse effects were dizziness and tiredness. PMID:23251069
Porter, D M; Bell, C C
This case report examines the use of clonidine to successfully treat a child suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This case shows an unintentional washout period that exemplifies a cause-effect relationship between clonidine and the inhibition of reenactment symptoms of PTSD.
Bowles, S V; James, L C; Solursh, D S; Yancey, M K; Epperly, T D; Folen, R A; Masone, M
When a spontaneous abortion is followed by complicated bereavement, the primary care physician may not consider the diagnosis of acute stress disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder. The major difference between these two conditions is that, in acute stress disorder, symptoms such as dissociation, reliving the trauma, avoiding stimuli associated with the trauma and increased arousal are present for at least two days but not longer than four weeks. When the symptoms persist beyond four weeks, the patient may have post-traumatic stress disorder. The symptoms of distress response after spontaneous abortion include psychologic, physical, cognitive and behavioral effects; however, patients with distress response after spontaneous abortion often do not meet the criteria for acute or post-traumatic stress disorder. After spontaneous abortion, as many as 10 percent of women may have acute stress disorder and up to 1 percent may have post-traumatic stress disorder. Critical incident stress debriefing, which may be administered by trained family physicians or mental health practitioners, may help patients who are having a stress disorder after a spontaneous abortion.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and...P.;T., Adler, A.,B.; Vaitkus, M.,A. Country: USA Title: Assessing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and PTSD Symptomatology in U.S. Army Personnel This...T POST - TRAUMATIC STRESS , DISORDER ’A Experience an event outside the range of usual human experience B. Persistently reexperience the traumatic
The study used publicly available data on post-traumatic stress disorder in a sample of the Australian population with a history of sexual abuse to demonstrate how this evidence can inform economic analyses. The 2007 Australian Mental Health Survey revealed that 8.3% of 993 adolescents experienced childhood sexual abuse, of which 40.2% were diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder diagnosis corresponded to a significant loss of quality of life. Survival analysis was used to estimate the lifetime persistence of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. The average time between post-traumatic stress disorder onset and remission was 11.4 years. Results suggest that successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder will save 2.05 quality adjusted life years per child or adolescent with post-traumatic stress disorder.
Marcus, J C; Altura, B T; Altura, B M
The objective of this study was to determine the values of serum ionized magnesium, total magnesium, and ionized calcium/ionized magnesium ratios in children with headaches. One hundred thirty-five children with primary complaints of headaches were classified according to the criteria of the International Headache Society. Blood samples were obtained and tested for ionized magnesium (IMg(2+)), total magnesium, ionized calcium (ICa(2+)), and pH. The ICa(2+)/IMg(2+) ratio was calculated. Nine children were given a diagnosis of post-traumatic headache. Six of them had statistically significant (P <.05) lowered IMg(2+) levels and high ICa(2+)/IMg(2+) ratios. Abnormalities in serum IMg(2+) concentrations and ICa(2+)/IMg(2+) ratios were found in children with post-traumatic headaches, but total magnesium levels were normal.
Patel, Shelain; Colaco, Henry B; Elvey, Michael E; Lee, Marcus H
Post-traumatic osteonecrosis of the proximal humerus represents a challenging problem to the surgeon. It is commonly seen following multi-fragmentary fractures of the proximal humerus which may affect the long-term functional recovery after such injuries. This review summarises the current evidence on risk factors, reasons why estimating its epidemiology is difficult, the vascular supply of the humeral head, classification, and management options.
Rowe, Rachel K.; Striz, Martin; Bachstetter, Adam D.; Van Eldik, Linda J.; Donohue, Kevin D.; O'Hara, Bruce F.; Lifshitz, Jonathan
Objective Clinical observations report excessive sleepiness immediately following traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, there is a lack of experimental evidence to support or refute the benefit of sleep following a brain injury. The aim of this study is to investigate acute post-traumatic sleep. Methods Sham, mild or moderate diffuse TBI was induced by midline fluid percussion injury (mFPI) in male C57BL/6J mice at 9:00 or 21:00 to evaluate injury-induced sleep behavior at sleep and wake onset, respectively. Sleep profiles were measured post-injury using a non-invasive, piezoelectric cage system. In separate cohorts of mice, inflammatory cytokines in the neocortex were quantified by immunoassay, and microglial activation was visualized by immunohistochemistry. Results Immediately after diffuse TBI, quantitative measures of sleep were characterized by a significant increase in sleep (>50%) for the first 6 hours post-injury, resulting from increases in sleep bout length, compared to sham. Acute post-traumatic sleep increased significantly independent of injury severity and time of injury (9:00 vs 21:00). The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β increased in brain-injured mice compared to sham over the first 9 hours post-injury. Iba-1 positive microglia were evident in brain-injured cortex at 6 hours post-injury. Conclusion Post-traumatic sleep occurs for up to 6 hours after diffuse brain injury in the mouse regardless of injury severity or time of day. The temporal profile of secondary injury cascades may be driving the significant increase in post-traumatic sleep and contribute to the natural course of recovery through cellular repair. PMID:24416145
Wong, Cheryl M
Exposure to trauma can result in immune dysregulation, and increasing evidence suggests that there are immune alterations associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the exact nature of these immune findings in PTSD has not been defined. The study of psychoneuroimmunology in PTSD is relevant not only for understanding the biological underpinnings of this disorder, but also for establishing the nature of the associations between PTSD and other medical and psychiatric illnesses.
Chodakiewitz, Yosef G; Daniels, Alan H; Kamal, Robin N; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C
Post-traumatic Raynaud's phenomenon following non-penetrating or non-repetitive injury is rare. We report a case of Raynaud's phenomenon occurring in a single digit 3 months following volar plate avulsion injury. Daily episodes of painless pallor of the digit occurred for 1 month upon any exposure to cold, resolving with warm water therapy. Symptoms resolved after the initiation of hand therapy, splinting, and range-of- motion exercises.
effectiveness in preventing epileptogenesis in the LFPI model of PTE. In this first project year we have developed a high-speed video /EEG recording and analysis...served its purpose of familiarizing us with chronic video /EEG recording and analysis of spikes and seizures. However, having succeeded with this model ...explore anti-epileptogenic strategies in and animal model of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) using lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI). Our focus is on
Daneshvar, Daniel H; Goldstein, Lee E; Kiernan, Patrick T; Stein, Thor D; McKee, Ann C
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity around the world. Concussive and subconcussive forms of closed-head injury due to impact or blast neurotrauma represent the most common types of TBI in civilian and military settings. It is becoming increasingly evident that TBI can lead to persistent, long-term debilitating effects, and in some cases, progressive neurodegeneration and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). The epidemiological literature suggests that a single moderate-to-severe TBI may be associated with accelerated neurodegeneration and increased risk of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or motor neuron disease. However, the pathologic phenotype of these post-traumatic neurodegenerations is largely unknown and there may be pathobiological differences between post-traumatic disease and the corresponding sporadic disorder. By contrast, the pathology of CTE is increasingly well known and is characterized by a distinctive pattern of progressive brain atrophy and accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau neurofibrillary and glial tangles, dystrophic neurites, 43 kDa TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) neuronal and glial aggregates, microvasculopathy, myelinated axonopathy, neuroinflammation, and white matter degeneration. Clinically, CTE is associated with behavioral changes, executive dysfunction, memory deficits, and cognitive impairments that begin insidiously and most often progress slowly over decades. Although research on the long-term effects of TBI is advancing quickly, the incidence and prevalence of post-traumatic neurodegeneration and CTE are unknown. Critical knowledge gaps include elucidation of pathogenic mechanisms, identification of genetic risk factors, and clarification of relevant variables-including age at exposure to trauma, history of prior and subsequent head trauma, substance use, gender, stress, and comorbidities-all of which may contribute to risk profiles and the development of post-traumatic
In practice it is not unusual for client-centred therapists to work with people who have experienced traumatic events. However, client-centred therapy is not usually considered within texts on traumatic stress and questions have been raised over the appropriateness of client-centred therapy with trauma survivors. The present study shows how, although he was writing well before the introduction of the term 'post-traumatic stress disorder', Carl Rogers provided a theory of therapy and personality that contains an account of threat-related psychological processes largely consistent with contemporary trauma theory. Rogers' theory provides the conceptual underpinnings to the client-centred and experiential ways of working with traumatized people. Furthermore, Rogers' theory provides an understanding of post-traumatic growth processes, and encourages therapists to adopt a more positive psychological perspective to their understanding of how people adjust to traumatic events.
Beal, Alan L; Deuser, William E; Beilman, Greg J
We have previously described a high incidence of admission hypokalemia in trauma patients at our institution. We subsequently performed a prospective study of 112 trauma patients to examine the possible etiologies of post-traumatic hypokalemia. Trauma patients >or=5 years old were evaluated within 6 h of injury with a variety of studies including catecholamines, cortisol, and insulin levels, with studies repeated 24 to 36 h after admission. No potassium replacement was given during this time. Demographic factors such as age, types of injury, and severity of injuries were collected. We found that the mean age of those with post-traumatic hypokalemia (
Toussaint, Loren L; Whipple, Mary O; Vincent, Ann
Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder are common in fibromyalgia patients. This study compared post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls and determined whether patient-control differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms mediated differences in mental health. In all, 30 patients and 30 healthy controls completed questionnaires assessing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health. Fibromyalgia patients had greater symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health than controls. Patient-control differences in mental health symptoms were fully or partially mediated by differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Healthcare providers should understand the role of trauma as management of trauma symptoms may be one strategy for improving mental health.
Injury and Subsequent Post-Traumatic Arthritis" Start date: 9/30/2012 PIs – Steven A. Olson ( SAO ); Farshid Guilak (FG); and Virginia B Kraus (VBK...of Biomarkers Associated with Joint Injury and Subsequent Post-Traumatic Arthritis" Start date: 9/30/2012 PIs – Steven A. Olson ( SAO ); Farshid Guilak...2012 PIs – Steven A. Olson ( SAO ); Farshid Guilak (FG); and Virginia B Kraus (VBK) 1. INTRODUCTION: Post-traumatic arthritis (PTA) is a clinically
POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD) IN THE GLOBAL WAR ON TERRORISM (GWOT) by Boon Wah, Kwan Lai Yee Irene, Tan December 2008 Thesis...REPORT DATE December 2008 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Economic Analysis of Post-traumatic Stress ...This thesis addresses the trend analysis of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) prevalence across the different branches of armed services in the
Tan, Liwen; Zhang, Li; Qi, Rongfeng; Lu, Guangming; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Jun; Li, Weihui
This study compared the difference in brain structure in 12 mine disaster survivors with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder, 7 cases of improved post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and 14 controls who experienced the same mine disaster but did not suffer post-traumatic stress disorder, using the voxel-based morphometry method. The correlation between differences in brain structure and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms was also investigated. Results showed that the gray matter volume was the highest in the trauma control group, followed by the symptoms-improved group, and the lowest in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the symptoms-improved group, the gray matter volume in the lingual gyrus of the right occipital lobe was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the right middle occipital gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus was reduced in the symptoms-improved group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule and right superior frontal gyrus was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. The gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule was significantly positively correlated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory subscale score in the symptoms-improved group and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group (r = 0.477, P = 0.039). Our findings indicate that (1) chronic post-traumatic stress disorder patients have gray matter structural damage in the prefrontal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe, (2) after post-traumatic stress, the disorder symptoms are improved and gray matter structural damage is reduced, but cannot recover to the trauma-control level, and (3) the superior parietal lobule is possibly associated with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder patients exhibit gray matter abnormalities.
Sawant, Ajit S.; Kumar, Vikash; Pawar, Prakash; Tamhankar, Ashwin S.
The bladder neck distraction is a rare posterior urethral injury in paediatric age group. It mostly occurs secondary to road traffic accidents. We report three cases of paediatric bladder neck distraction injury. Three paediatric patients aged between 4 to 7 years (mean 5 year), who presented with post traumatic bladder neck distraction injury but no other major injury, they were treated with early urethro-vesical anastomosis. Postoperatively all patients were continent and with good urine flow rates. In paediatric bladder neck distraction injury, immediate urethro-vesical anastomosis gives good results. PMID:28384935
Kirkpatrick, Heather A; Heller, Grant M
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the few mental disorders in which the cause is readily identifiable. In this article, we review the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria, prevalence, and presentation of patients with PTSD in primary care. The purpose of this article is to review current literature regarding theory, etiology, and treatment effectiveness. Key findings in terms of neurobiological underpinnings with implications for future treatment are discussed. Recommendations regarding effective psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy, emerging treatment, and management issues in primary care settings are offered.
Valverde Villar, A M; Salcedo Montejo, M
Post-traumatic cortical defect appears 3 months after greenstick or torus fractures in children. This entity is asymptomatic and usually located just proximal to the fracture site. The most frequently affected bone is the distal radius. The pathogenesis of this lesion remains unclear but it seems to be caused by an intramedullary fat and blood accumulation beneath a intact periostium. Its diagnosis is based on CT and MR images and no treatment is needed, because its resolution is the rule. There are only 25 cases reported in English literature, we present another one after an epiphisiolysis in the distal radius.
Goswami, Sonal; Rodríguez-Sierra, Olga; Cascardi, Michele; Paré, Denis
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition that develops in a proportion of individuals following a traumatic event. Despite recent advances, ethical limitations associated with human research impede progress in understanding PTSD. Fortunately, much effort has focused on developing animal models to help study the pathophysiology of PTSD. Here, we provide an overview of animal PTSD models where a variety of stressors (physical, psychosocial, or psychogenic) are used to examine the long-term effects of severe trauma. We emphasize models involving predator threat because they reproduce human individual differences in susceptibility to, and in the long-term consequences of, psychological trauma. PMID:23754973
US FDA approval of two serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) agents for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has created new opportunities for drug development. This follows many years of exploring the potential utility of several classes of psychotropic agents for this very common, yet under-recognized and under-treated disorder. This review examines some of the basic neurobiological abnormalities observed in PTSD and summarizes open and controlled drug trials for major classes of medications, including SSRIs, other antidepressants, atypical neuroleptics, noradrenergic modulators and anticonvulsants, while critically evaluating the extent of effectiveness of these agents and reviewing unmet gaps in therapeutic need.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Laparoscopic insufflator. 884.1730 Section 884.1730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... accessory instruments that are not used to effect intra-abdominal insufflation (pneumoperitoneum)....
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Laparoscopic insufflator. 884.1730 Section 884.1730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... accessory instruments that are not used to effect intra-abdominal insufflation (pneumoperitoneum)....
Nakanishi, Akito; Yajima, Hiroshi; Kisanuki, Osamu
We present a case of post-traumatic osteonecrosis of the lunate after fracture of the distal radius. Post-traumatic osteonecrosis of the carpal lunate after a fracture of the distal radius has, to our knowledge, not been reported previously. We treated the patient with vascularised bone graft from the distal radius, with a satisfactory result.
Landolt, Markus A.; Ystrom, Eivind; Sennhauser, Felix H.; Gnehm, Hanspeter E.; Vollrath, Margarete E.
Background: Previous studies found notable rates of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pediatric patients and their parents and suggest a significant association between child and parent PTSS. However, little is known about mutual influences between child and parental PTSS over time. This study…
Doyle, Colin; Mitchell, Duncan
This article summarizes literature (1997-2001) from the MEDLINE data base concerning post-traumatic stress disorder in people with intellectual disabilities. It finds that these individuals may manifest emotional trauma primarily through challenging behavior. The article suggests that post-traumatic stress syndrome in this population frequently…
Zhang, Wei; Yan, Ting Ting; Barriball, K. Louise; While, Alison E.; Liu, Xiao Hong
While the adverse effects of raising a child with autism are well demonstrated, there have been few reports of the post-traumatic growth of mothers of children with autism. The purpose of this research was to explore dimensions of post-traumatic growth in this population in Mainland China and identify the factors facilitating post-traumatic…
Michel, P; Hulin, A; Desbordes, J M
A post-traumatic intramural hematoma of duodenum in a 9 year old child was detected during exploratory laparotomy but left undisturbed. Postoperative follow up during parenteral feeding included surveillance by repeated gastrografin follow through examinations, normal transit being restored by the 12th day. Intramural hematoma of duodenum is usually due to injury and often affects male children. Symptomatology is that of upper digestive occlusion. The principal investigation should be gastro-duodenal follow through examinations with gastrografin, because of the risk of an associated perforation, to reveal possible partial or total duodenal obstruction. Conservative treatment is possible, but in case of failure or in adults surgery is indicated with evacuation of the hematoma and in some cases a gastro-jejunostomy.
Rotar, Raluca; Uwechue, Raphael; Sasapu, Kishore Kumar
A driver presented to the emergency department 1 day after an accident driving his excavator with abdominal pain and vomiting. He was admitted to the surgical ward 2 days later, after reattending. A CT scan revealed wall thickening and oedema in the transverse colon. This was supported by a subsequent CT virtual colonoscopy which raised the suspicion of neoplasia. A follow-up colonoscopy was not carried further than the transverse colon due to an indurated, tight stricture. Biopsies from that area showed ulceration and inflammatory changes non-specific for ischaemia, drug-induced changes or inflammatory bowel disease. As a consequence of the subocclusive symptoms and the possibility of a neoplastic diagnosis, a laparoscopic-assisted transverse colectomy was performed. The histology of the resected segment revealed post-traumatic inflammation and fibrosis with no evidence of neoplasia.
Burg, Matthew M; Soufer, Robert
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling condition that develops consequent to trauma exposure such as natural disasters, sexual assault, automobile accidents, and combat that independently increases risk for early incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular (CV) mortality by over 50 % and incident hypertension risk by over 30 %. While the majority of research on PTSD and CVD has concerned initially healthy civilian and military veteran samples, emerging research is also demonstrating that PTSD consequent to the trauma of an acute cardiac event significantly increases risk for early recurrence and mortality and that patient experiences in the clinical pathway that are related to the emergency department environment may provide an opportunity to prevent PTSD onset and thus improve outcomes. Future directions for clinical and implementation science concern broad PTSD and trauma screening in the context of primary care medical environments and the testing of PTSD treatments with CVD-related surrogates and endpoints.
Corso, Kent A; McGeary, Donald D
This is a clinical case study of a 45-year-old, Caucasian male, active duty military officer. It demonstrates the short-term efficacy of habit-reversal training on the treatment of trichotillomania (TTM) in three 50-minute sessions, with concomitant, but unanticipated decreases in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and emotional distress as measured by the PTSD Checklist, Form PCL-M and OQ-45, respectively. This study discusses the benefits and limitations of such a short treatment for comorbid TTM and PTSD, while positing the relationship between the two disorders. Finally, it lends support for the classification of TTM as an anxiety disorder rather than an impulse-control disorder.
Jordan, Harold W.; Howe, Gary L.; Gelsomino, Joe; Lockert, Edna W.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders recently included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III).1 The disorder refers to the psychological sequelae that may follow a significant stressor. The military has previously referred to PTSD as “war neurosis,” “shell shock,” and “combat neurosis.” PTSD has recently gained attention as a means of legal defense. As a defense, it may exist separately from “innocence by reason of insanity.” The authors review the literature, provide case vignettes exemplifying the clinical features, and present three additional cases that gained local and national notoriety because of their defense motions. The senior author served as an expert witness in these cases. Recommendations are given to readers who may in the future serve as expert witnesses or consultants in similar cases. PMID:3950984
Baker, Dewleen G; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Risbrough, Victoria B
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can result from a traumatic experience that elicits emotions of fear, helpless or horror. Most individuals remain asymptomatic or symptoms quickly resolve, but in a minority intrusive imagery and nightmares, emotional numbing and avoidance, and hyperarousal persist for decades. PTSD is associated with psychiatric and medical co-morbidities, increased risk for suicide, and with poor social and occupational functioning. Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy are common treatments. Whereas, research supports the efficacy of the cognitive behavioral psychotherapies, there is insufficient evidence to unequivocally support the efficacy of any specific pharmacotherapy. Proven effective pharmacologic agents are sorely needed to treat core and targeted PTSD symptoms, and for prevention. This review describes current and emerging pharmacotherapies that advance these goals.
Hull, Alastair M; Curran, Stephen A
Most people experience at least one potentially traumatic event (PTE) during their life. Many will develop only transient distress and not a psychological illness. Even the most inherently horrific event does not invariably lead to the development of a psychological disorder while an individual with sufficient vulnerabilit may develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after what appears be an event of low magnitude. The diagnosis of PTSD differs fro most psychiatric disorders as it includes an aetiological factor, the traumatic event, as a core criterion. The DSM 5 core symptoms of PTSD are grouped into four key symptom clusters: re-experiencing, avoidance, negative cognitions and mood, and arousal. Symptoms must be present for at least one month and cause functional impairment. PTSD patients can avoid engaging in treatment and assertive follow-up may be necessary.
Chowdhury, Uttom; Pancha, Amit
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a syndrome defined by the intrusive re-experiencing of trauma, avoidance of reminders of the trauma and increased hyperarousal. Although the condition is well established in adults, there is little research into PTSD in children and adolescents. The available research shows that young people experience similar symptoms to adults. Risk factors include family dysfunction, peer problems, greater exposure to the trauma and the presence of pre-existing psychiatric disorder such as anxiety. Protective factors include good coping skills, good relationship with a parent and support from others in the community. This article reviews treatment approaches to PTSD in young people in particular the use of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT).
Paoloni, Valeria; Pavoni, Chiara; Mucedero, Manuela; Bollero, Patrizio; Laganà, Giuseppina; Cozza, Paola
Summary Aim To provide clinicians with useful information for immediate diagnosis and management of impacted maxillary incisors due to trauma. Methods We present a case of post-traumatic impaction of a central right maxillary incisor in a young patient. The treatment plan consisted in the interceptive management (surgical and orthodontic), the valuation of the necessary space to move the impacted tooth in the normal position and the biomechanical approach for anchorage, avoiding prosthetic/implants replacement. Results The therapy of an impacted maxillary incisor due to trauma requires a multidisciplinary approach: orthodontic, surgical, endodontic and periodontal considerations are essential for successful treatment. Conclusions Surgical exposure and orthodontic traction is the treatment most often used in case of posttraumatic impacted incisor: this technique in fact can lead to suitable results at the periodontal, occlusal and esthetics levels at an early stage and more definitively than with other treatment options. PMID:23991268
Pitman, Roger K; Rasmusson, Ann M; Koenen, Karestan C; Shin, Lisa M; Orr, Scott P; Gilbertson, Mark W; Milad, Mohammed R; Liberzon, Israel
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the only major mental disorder for which a cause is considered to be known: that is, an event that involves threat to the physical integrity of oneself or others and induces a response of intense fear, helplessness or horror. Although PTSD is still largely regarded as a psychological phenomenon, over the past three decades the growth of the biological PTSD literature has been explosive, and thousands of references now exist. Ultimately, the impact of an environmental event, such as a psychological trauma, must be understood at organic, cellular and molecular levels. This Review attempts to present the current state of this understanding on the basis of psychophysiological, structural and functional neuroimaging, and endocrinological, genetic and molecular biological studies in humans and in animal models.
Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Nazzal, Yara; Dreer, Laura E
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to many undesired problems and complications, including immediate and long-term seizures/epilepsy, changes in mood, behavioral, and personality problems, cognitive and motor deficits, movement disorders, and sleep problems. Clinicians involved in the treatment of patients with acute TBI need to be aware of a number of issues, including the incidence and prevalence of early seizures and post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE), comorbidities associated with seizures and anticonvulsant therapies, and factors that can contribute to their emergence. While strong scientific evidence for early seizure prevention in TBI is available for phenytoin (PHT), other antiepileptic medications, eg, levetiracetam (LEV), are also being utilized in clinical settings. The use of PHT has its drawbacks, including cognitive side effects and effects on function recovery. Rates of recovery after TBI are expected to plateau after a certain period of time. Nevertheless, some patients continue to improve while others deteriorate without any clear contributing factors. Thus, one must ask, ‘Are there any actions that can be taken to decrease the chance of post-traumatic seizures and epilepsy while minimizing potential short- and long-term effects of anticonvulsants?’ While the answer is ‘probably,’ more evidence is needed to replace PHT with LEV on a permanent basis. Some have proposed studies to address this issue, while others look toward different options, including other anticonvulsants (eg, perampanel or other AMPA antagonists), or less established treatments (eg, ketamine). In this review, we focus on a comparison of the use of PHT versus LEV in the acute TBI setting and summarize the clinical aspects of seizure prevention in humans with appropriate, but general, references to the animal literature. PMID:25143737
Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Nazzal, Yara; Dreer, Laura E
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to many undesired problems and complications, including immediate and long-term seizures/epilepsy, changes in mood, behavioral, and personality problems, cognitive and motor deficits, movement disorders, and sleep problems. Clinicians involved in the treatment of patients with acute TBI need to be aware of a number of issues, including the incidence and prevalence of early seizures and post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE), comorbidities associated with seizures and anticonvulsant therapies, and factors that can contribute to their emergence. While strong scientific evidence for early seizure prevention in TBI is available for phenytoin (PHT), other antiepileptic medications, eg, levetiracetam (LEV), are also being utilized in clinical settings. The use of PHT has its drawbacks, including cognitive side effects and effects on function recovery. Rates of recovery after TBI are expected to plateau after a certain period of time. Nevertheless, some patients continue to improve while others deteriorate without any clear contributing factors. Thus, one must ask, 'Are there any actions that can be taken to decrease the chance of post-traumatic seizures and epilepsy while minimizing potential short- and long-term effects of anticonvulsants?' While the answer is 'probably,' more evidence is needed to replace PHT with LEV on a permanent basis. Some have proposed studies to address this issue, while others look toward different options, including other anticonvulsants (eg, perampanel or other AMPA antagonists), or less established treatments (eg, ketamine). In this review, we focus on a comparison of the use of PHT versus LEV in the acute TBI setting and summarize the clinical aspects of seizure prevention in humans with appropriate, but general, references to the animal literature.
Tremolada, Marta; Bonichini, Sabrina; Basso, Giuseppe; Pillon, Marta
With modern therapies and supportive care, survival rates of childhood cancer have increased considerably. However, there are long-term psychological sequelae of these treatments that may not manifest until pediatric survivors are into adulthood. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in young adult survivors of childhood cancer ranges from 6.2 to 22%; associated risk factors are young age at the assessment, female gender, low education level, and some disease-related factors. The aim of this study was to investigate, in adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of childhood cancer, the incidence and severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs), and to identify the risk factors and the associated post-traumatic growth (PTG) index. Participants were 223 AYA cancer survivors recruited during follow-up visits in the Oncohematology Clinic of the Department of Child and Woman’s Health, University of Padua. Data were collected from self-report questionnaires on PTSS incidence, PTG mean score, perceived social support, and medical and socio-demographic factors. Ex-patients’ mean age at the assessment was 19.33 years (SD = 3.01, 15–25), 123 males and 100 females, with a mean of years off-therapy of 9.64 (SD = 4.17). Most (52.5%) had survived an hematological disorder and 47.5% a solid tumor when they were aged, on average, 8.02 years (SD = 4.40). The main results indicated a moderate presence of clinical (≥9 symptoms: 9.4%) and sub-clinical PTSS (6–8 symptoms: 11.2%), with the avoidance criterion most often encountered. Re-experience symptoms and PTG mean score were significantly associated (r = 0.24; p = 0.0001). A hierarchical regression model (R2 = 0.08; F = 1.46; p = 0.05) identified female gender (β = 0.16; p = 0.05) and less perceived social support (β = -0.43; p = 0.05) as risk factors to developing PTSS. Another hierarchical regression model assessed the possible predictors of the PTG total score (R2 = 0.36; F = 9.1; p = 0.0001), with
Tremolada, Marta; Bonichini, Sabrina; Basso, Giuseppe; Pillon, Marta
With modern therapies and supportive care, survival rates of childhood cancer have increased considerably. However, there are long-term psychological sequelae of these treatments that may not manifest until pediatric survivors are into adulthood. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in young adult survivors of childhood cancer ranges from 6.2 to 22%; associated risk factors are young age at the assessment, female gender, low education level, and some disease-related factors. The aim of this study was to investigate, in adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of childhood cancer, the incidence and severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs), and to identify the risk factors and the associated post-traumatic growth (PTG) index. Participants were 223 AYA cancer survivors recruited during follow-up visits in the Oncohematology Clinic of the Department of Child and Woman's Health, University of Padua. Data were collected from self-report questionnaires on PTSS incidence, PTG mean score, perceived social support, and medical and socio-demographic factors. Ex-patients' mean age at the assessment was 19.33 years (SD = 3.01, 15-25), 123 males and 100 females, with a mean of years off-therapy of 9.64 (SD = 4.17). Most (52.5%) had survived an hematological disorder and 47.5% a solid tumor when they were aged, on average, 8.02 years (SD = 4.40). The main results indicated a moderate presence of clinical (≥9 symptoms: 9.4%) and sub-clinical PTSS (6-8 symptoms: 11.2%), with the avoidance criterion most often encountered. Re-experience symptoms and PTG mean score were significantly associated (r = 0.24; p = 0.0001). A hierarchical regression model (R (2) = 0.08; F = 1.46; p = 0.05) identified female gender (β = 0.16; p = 0.05) and less perceived social support (β = -0.43; p = 0.05) as risk factors to developing PTSS. Another hierarchical regression model assessed the possible predictors of the PTG total score (R (2) = 0.36; F = 9.1; p = 0.0001), with
Battaglia, Santina; Smith, Byron F.; Ciuti, Gastone; Gerding, Jason; Menciassi, Arianna; Obstein, Keith L.; Valdastri, Pietro; Webster, Robert J.
Despite clear patient experience advantages, low specificity rates have thus far prevented swallowable capsule endoscopes from replacing traditional endoscopy for diagnosis of colon disease. One explanation for this is that capsule endoscopes lack the ability to provide insufflation, which traditional endoscopes use to distend the intestine for a clear view of the internal wall. To provide a means of insufflation from a wireless capsule platform, in this paper we use biocompatible effervescent chemical reactions to convert liquids and powders carried onboard a capsule into gas. We experimentally evaluate the quantity of gas needed to enhance capsule visualization and locomotion, and determine how much gas can be generated from a given volume of reactants. These experiments motivate the design of a wireless insufflation capsule, which is evaluated in ex vivo experiments. These experiments illustrate the feasibility of enhancing visualization and locomotion of endoscopic capsules through wireless insufflation. PMID:23212312
34Prospective Analysis of Risk Factors Related to Depression and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Deployed United States Navy Personnel" Name of...Risk Factors Related to Depression and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Deployed United States...Dissertation: Prospective Analysis of Risk Factors Related to Depression and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Deployed United States Navy Personnel
Zhang, Wei; Yan, Ting Ting; Barriball, K Louise; While, Alison E; Liu, Xiao Hong
While the adverse effects of raising a child with autism are well demonstrated, there have been few reports of the post-traumatic growth of mothers of children with autism. The purpose of this research was to explore dimensions of post-traumatic growth in this population in Mainland China and identify the factors facilitating post-traumatic growth. A total of 11 mothers of pre-school children were recruited from five rehabilitation centres of children with disabilities in Shanghai. The semi-structured interviews were conducted between August 2012 and October 2012 and analysed using thematic analysis. The data partially confirmed Tedeschi and Calhoun's model of post-traumatic growth. A new philosophy of life, appreciation of life, relating to others, personal strength and spiritual change were five domains of post-traumatic growth in mothers of children with autism. Perceived social support, peer example, effective coping style and self-efficacy enhancement were facilitating factors of post-traumatic growth. Further studies are needed to understand how to promote the post-traumatic growth of mothers of children with autism.
Li, Y; Cao, F; Cao, D; Liu, J
Nursing students in the present sample who have experienced childhood adversity have a certain level of post-traumatic growth. If introduced into nursing curricula, emotional intelligence interventions may increase emotional coping resources and enhance social skills for nurses, which may benefit their long-term occupational health. As researchers consider personal resilience a strategy for responding to workplace adversity in nurses, resilience building should be incorporated into nursing education. This is a preliminary study that may guide future investigations of the curvilinear relationship rather than linear relationship between post-traumatic growth and positive factors in the special sample of nursing students. Resilience, emotional intelligence and post-traumatic growth may benefit nursing students' careers and personal well-being in clinical work. Developing both their emotional intelligence and resilience may assist their individual post-traumatic growth and enhance their ability to cope with clinical stress. To investigate the relationships among post-traumatic growth, emotional intelligence and psychological resilience in vocational school nursing students who have experienced childhood adversities, a cross-sectional research design with anonymous questionnaires was conducted and self-report data were analysed. The Childhood Adversities Checklist (Chinese version), Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Emotional Intelligence Scale and the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale were used. Survey data were collected from 202 Chinese vocational school nursing students during 2011. Post-traumatic growth was associated with emotional intelligence and psychological resilience. Results indicated a curvilinear relationship between emotional intelligence and post-traumatic growth, and between psychological resilience and post-traumatic growth. Moderate-level emotional intelligence and psychological resilience were most associated with the greatest levels of growth
Lipinska, Malgorzata; Timol, Ridwana; Kaminer, Debra; Thomas, Kevin G F
Successful memory consolidation during sleep depends on healthy slow-wave and rapid eye movement sleep, and on successful transition across sleep stages. In post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep is disrupted and memory is impaired, but relations between these two variables in the psychiatric condition remain unexplored. We examined whether disrupted sleep, and consequent disrupted memory consolidation, is a mechanism underlying declarative memory deficits in post-traumatic stress disorder. We recruited three matched groups of participants: post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 16); trauma-exposed non-post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 15); and healthy control (n = 14). They completed memory tasks before and after 8 h of sleep. We measured sleep variables using sleep-adapted electroencephalography. Post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants experienced significantly less sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep percentage, and experienced more awakenings and wake percentage in the second half of the night than did participants in the other two groups. After sleep, post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants retained significantly less information on a declarative memory task than controls. Rapid eye movement percentage, wake percentage and sleep efficiency correlated with retention of information over the night. Furthermore, lower rapid eye movement percentage predicted poorer retention in post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed individuals. Our results suggest that declarative memory consolidation is disrupted during sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder. These data are consistent with theories suggesting that sleep benefits memory consolidation via predictable neurobiological mechanisms, and that rapid eye movement disruption is more than a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder.
Lin, Chun-Yu; Tsai, Feng-Chun; Lee, Hsiu-An; Tseng, Yuan-His
Abstract Patients with multiple traumas associated with cardiopulmonary failure have a high mortality rate; however, such patients can be temporarily stabilized using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), providing a bridge to rescue therapy. Using a retrospective study design, we aimed to clarify the prognostic factors of post-traumatic ECMO support. From March 2006 to July 2016, 43 adult patients (mean age, 37.3 ± 15.2 years; 7 females [16.3%]) underwent ECMO because of post-traumatic cardiopulmonary failure. Pre-ECMO demographics, peri-ECMO events, and post-ECMO recoveries were compared between survivors and nonsurvivors. The most common traumatic insult was traffic collision (n = 30, 69.8%), and involved injury areas included the chest (n = 33, 76.7%), head (n = 14, 32.6%), abdomen (n = 21, 48.8%), and fractures (n = 21, 48.8%). Fifteen patients (34.9%) underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation and 22 (51.2%) received rescue interventions before ECMO deployment. The mean time interval between trauma and ECMO was 90.6 ± 130.1 hours, and the mode of support was venovenous in 26 patients (60.5%). A total of 26 patients (60.5%) were weaned off of ECMO and 22 (51.6%) survived to discharge, with an overall mean support time of 162.9 ± 182.7 hours. A multivariate regression analysis identified 2 significant predictors for in-hospital mortality: an injury severity score (ISS) >30 (odds ratio [OR], 9.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04–18.47; P = 0.042), and the requirement of renal replacement therapy (RRT) during ECMO (OR, 8.64; 95% CI, 1.73–26.09; P = 0.020). These two factors were also significant for the 1-year survival (ISS >30: 12.5%; ISS ≤30, 48.1%, P = 0.001) (RRT required, 15.0%; RRT not required, 52.2%, P = 0.006). Using ECMO in selected traumatized patients with cardiopulmonary failure can be a salvage therapy. Prompt intervention before shock-impaired systemic organ perfusion and acute
Muhtz, Christoph; Wiedemann, Klaus; Kellner, Michael
Symptom provocation has proved its worth for understanding the pathophysiology of diseases and in general for the development of new therapeutic approaches in the medical field. In the research of anxiety disorders, investigations using experimentally induced panic attacks by various agents, such as sodium lactate, carbon dioxide, cholezystokinine-tetrapetid etc., have a long tradition and allow the exploration of usually naturally occuring spontaneous psychopathological phenomena under controlled conditions. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent disorder that can develop following exposure to an extreme traumatic event. In DSM-IV it is currently classified as an anxiety disorder and shares phenomenological similarities with panic disorder. The use of panicogenic challenge tests is also an interesting neurobiological approach to learn more about the nature of PTSD and may be a possibility to develop new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of PTSD symptoms. Not only panic anxiety, but also flashbacks and other dissociative symptoms can be provoked by several panicogens in PTSD. The purpose of this review is to evaluate studies using panicogens in PTSD. Methodological short-comings of current studies and needed directions of further research are discussed.
Lapp, Leann K; Agbokou, Catherine; Peretti, Charles-Siegfried; Ferreri, Florian
Prevalence and risk factors for the development of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth is well described in the literature. However, its management and treatment has only begun to be investigated. The aim of this article is to describe the studies that examine the effects of interventions on PTSD after childbirth. MedLine, PILOTS, CINAHL and ISI Web of Science databases were systematically searched for randomised controlled trials, pilot studies and case studies using key words related to PTSD, childbirth, treatment and intervention. The reference lists of the retrieved articles were also used to supplement the search. A total of nine studies were retrieved. Seven studies that examined debriefing or counselling were identified; six randomised controlled trials and one pilot study. Also found were one case report describing the effects of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) on two women, and one pilot study of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR). Overall, there is limited evidence concerning the management of women with PTSD after childbirth. The results agree with the findings from the non-childbirth related literature: debriefing and counselling are inconclusively effective while CBT and EMDR may improve PTSD status but require investigation in controlled trials before conclusions could be drawn.
This study profiles 127 cases of Vietnamese, Cambodian, Laotian and Chinese refugee outpatients diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Traumatic etiologies included victims of wars such as political refugees, concentration camp prisoners and victims of rape, severe personal losses (property or human lives). These traumata were experienced by our subjects during the period between the end of the Vietnam war in April 1975 and recent times, when they finally arrived in the USA. Clinical symptoms of these subjects reflected many influences of their oriental culture background and are characterized by internalization that needs to be overcome for assessment as well as for therapy. Symptomatic treatment with psychopharmacology and supportive therapy are helpful while cultural approaches have been adopted by many patients to reach the inner self pathology that could be of both mental and organic in nature. These facts need to be taken into consideration in the future description of the PTSD clinical picture. Recommendations are made for future PTSD studies in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, and to promote a global movement for prevention of any socio-political situation that may generate PTSD.
Zhang, Youxue; Xie, Bing; Chen, Heng; Li, Meiling; Liu, Feng; Chen, Huafu
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs in individuals who have experienced life-threatening mental traumas. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated that the pathology of PTSD may be associated with the abnormal functional integration among brain regions. In the current study, we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping, a novel voxel-wise data-driven approach based on graph theory, to explore aberrant FC through the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the PTSD. We calculated both short- and long-range FCD in PTSD patients and healthy controls (HCs). Compared with HCs, PTSD patients showed significantly increased long-range FCD in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), but no abnormal short-range FCD was found in PTSD. Furthermore, seed-based FC analysis of the left DLPFC showed increased connectivity in the left superior parietal lobe and visual cortex of PTSD patients. The results suggested that PTSD patients experienced a disruption of intrinsic long-range functional connections in the fronto-parietal network and visual cortex, which are associated with attention control and visual information processing.
Lieberthal, Jason; Sambamurthy, Nisha; Scanzello, Carla R.
Inflammation is a variable feature of osteoarthritis (OA), associated with joint symptoms and progression of disease. Signs of inflammation can be observed in joint fluids and tissues from patients with joint injuries at risk for development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Furthermore, inflammatory mechanisms are hypothesized to contribute to the risk of OA development and progression after injury. Animal models of PTOA have been instrumental in understanding factors and mechanisms involved in chronic progressive cartilage degradation observed after a predisposing injury. Specific aspects of inflammation observed in humans, including cytokine and chemokine production, synovial reaction, cellular infiltration and inflammatory pathway activation, are also observed in models of PTOA. Many of these models are now being utilized to understand the impact of post-injury inflammatory response on PTOA development and progression, including risk of progressive cartilage degeneration and development of chronic symptoms post-injury. As evidenced from these models, a vigorous inflammatory response occurs very early after joint injury but is then sustained at a lower level at the later phases. This early inflammatory response contributes to the development of PTOA features including cartilage erosion and is potentially modifiable, but specific mediators may also play a role in tissue repair. Although the optimal approach and timing of anti-inflammatory interventions after joint injury are yet to be determined, this body of work should provide hope for the future of disease modification tin PTOA. PMID:26521728
Amongst the many modifications and applications of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT), its utilisation in the treatment of psychological trauma is amongst the most complex. Psychological trauma is usually defined as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the Anglo-American literature. Despite the focus of the scientific literature on PTSD, psychological trauma engenders profound disturbances of mood, affect regulation, self-concept, interpersonal adjustment and a profound existential crisis in the lives of those afflicted. In the light of this, no one psychological therapy is positioned to 'treat'all aspects of psychological traumatic stress. Through its focus upon the individual and his or her experience of their interpersonal world, IPT provides scope for a psychological intervention which, whilst aiming at relief of distress, approaches issues not usually addressed in symptom focussed treatments. In this paper, I will attempt to outline the rationale for the use of IPT in psychological trauma and PTSD and then provide some evidence of its utility in the clinical setting.
Mesolella, Massimo; Ricciardiello, Filippo; Tafuri, Domenico; Varriale, Roberto; Testa, Domenico
Blunt trauma to the neck or to the chest are increasingly observed in the emergency clinical practice. They usually follow motor vehicle accidents or may be work or sports related. A wide pattern of clinical presentation can be potentially encountered. We report the uncommon case of a patient who was referred to our observation presenting with hoarseness and disphagia. Twenty days before he had sustained a car accident with trauma to the chest, neck and the mandible. Laryngoscopy showed a left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. Further otolaryngo-logical examination showed no other abnormality. At CT and MR imaging a post-traumatic aortic pseudoaneurysm was revealed. The aortic pseudoaneurysm was consequently repaired by implantation of an endovascular stent graft under local anesthesia. The patient was discharged 10 days later. At 30-days follow-up laryngoscopy the left vocal cord palsy was completely resolved. Hoarseness associated with a dilated left atrium in a patient with mitral valve stenosis was initially described by Ortner more than a century ago. Since then several non malignant, cardiovascular, intrathoracic disease that results in embarrassment from recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy usually by stretching, pulling or compression; thus, the correlations of these pathologies was termed as cardiovocal syndrome or Ortner's syndrome. The reported case illustrates that life-threatening cardiovascular comorbidities can cause hoarseness and that an impaired recurrent laryngeal nerve might be correctable.
Ricciardiello, Filippo; Tafuri, Domenico; Varriale, Roberto; Testa, Domenico
Abstract Blunt trauma to the neck or to the chest are increasingly observed in the emergency clinical practice. They usually follow motor vehicle accidents or may be work or sports related. A wide pattern of clinical presentation can be potentially encountered. We report the uncommon case of a patient who was referred to our observation presenting with hoarseness and disphagia. Twenty days before he had sustained a car accident with trauma to the chest, neck and the mandible. Laryngoscopy showed a left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. Further otolaryngo-logical examination showed no other abnormality. At CT and MR imaging a post-traumatic aortic pseudoaneurysm was revealed. The aortic pseudoaneurysm was consequently repaired by implantation of an endovascular stent graft under local anesthesia. The patient was discharged 10 days later. At 30-days follow-up laryngoscopy the left vocal cord palsy was completely resolved. Hoarseness associated with a dilated left atrium in a patient with mitral valve stenosis was initially described by Ortner more than a century ago. Since then several non malignant, cardiovascular, intrathoracic disease that results in embarrassment from recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy usually by stretching, pulling or compression; thus, the correlations of these pathologies was termed as cardiovocal syndrome or Ortner’s syndrome. The reported case illustrates that life-threatening cardiovascular comorbidities can cause hoarseness and that an impaired recurrent laryngeal nerve might be correctable. PMID:28352797
Ganz, D; Sher, L
Recently, the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescence is higher than the prevalence of PTSD in adult populations. PTSD and suicidality are often found in populations of adolescents presenting with other emotional disorders (particularly mood disorders), traumatic grief, childhood abuse, and/or a family or peer history of suicide. The reasons and developments of the association between PTSD and suicidality in adolescence, however, remain unclear. Core psychobiological changes contributing to PTSD affect emotion, arousal, perception of the self and the world, irritability, impulsivity, anger, aggression and depression. There is evidence that the aforementioned factors, as well as alcohol and other drug use may act to moderate the influence of stressful life events and lead to eventual suicidality. Both PTSD and suicidality in adolescents have also been hypothesized to be a result of exposure to violence and negative coping styles. There are many treatment challenges for these populations, yet the most promising prevention and treatments include suicide risk screenings, suicide education, Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, addressing associated coping mechanisms and prescribing anti-depressant and anti-anxiety medications. However, when prescribing medications, physicians do need to be careful to consider the weaknesses and strengths of each of the pharmacological options as they apply to adolescents presenting with PTSD and suicidality.
Engdahl, B.; Leuthold, A. C.; Tan, H.-R. M.; Lewis, S. M.; Winskowski, A. M.; Dikel, T. N.; Georgopoulos, A. P.
In a recent paper (Georgopoulos et al 2010 J. Neural Eng. 7 016011) we reported on the power of the magnetoencephalography (MEG)-based synchronous neural interactions (SNI) test to differentiate post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subjects from healthy control subjects and to classify them with a high degree of accuracy. Here we show that the main differences in cortical communication circuitry between these two groups lie in the miscommunication of temporal and parietal and/or parieto-occipital right hemispheric areas with other brain areas. This lateralized temporal-posterior pattern of miscommunication was very similar but was attenuated in patients with PTSD in remission. These findings are consistent with observations (Penfield 1958 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 44 51-66, Penfield and Perot 1963 Brain 86 595-696, Gloor 1990 Brain 113 1673-94, Banceaud et al 1994 Brain 117 71-90, Fried 1997 J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 9 420-8) that electrical stimulation of the temporal cortex in awake human subjects, mostly in the right hemisphere, can elicit the re-enactment and re-living of past experiences. Based on these facts, we attribute our findings to the re-experiencing component of PTSD and hypothesize that it reflects an involuntarily persistent activation of interacting neural networks involved in experiential consolidation.
Motzkin, Julian C; Koenigs, Michael R
Disentangling the effects of "organic" neurologic damage and psychological distress after a traumatic brain injury poses a significant challenge to researchers and clinicians. Establishing a link between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been particularly contentious, reflecting difficulties in establishing a unique diagnosis for conditions with overlapping and sometimes contradictory symptom profiles. However, each disorder is linked to a variety of adverse health outcomes, underscoring the need to better understand how neurologic and psychiatric risk factors interact following trauma. Here, we present data showing that individuals with a TBI are more likely to develop PTSD, and that individuals with PTSD are more likely to develop persistent cognitive sequelae related to TBI. Further, we describe neurobiological models of PTSD, highlighting how patterns of neurologic damage typical in TBI may promote or protect against the development of PTSD in brain-injured populations. These data highlight the unique course of PTSD following a TBI and have important diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment implications for individuals with a dual diagnosis.
Gupta, Madhulika A
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with both (1) 'ill-defined' or 'medically unexplained' somatic syndromes, e.g. unexplained dizziness, tinnitus and blurry vision, and syndromes that can be classified as somatoform disorders (DSM-IV-TR); and (2) a range of medical conditions, with a preponderance of cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal, neurological, and gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes, chronic pain, sleep disorders and other immune-mediated disorders in various studies. Frequently reported medical co-morbidities with PTSD across various studies include cardiovascular disease, especially hypertension, and immune-mediated disorders. PTSD is associated with limbic instability and alterations in both the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal and sympatho-adrenal medullary axes, which affect neuroendocrine and immune functions, have central nervous system effects resulting in pseudo-neurological symptoms and disorders of sleep-wake regulation, and result in autonomic nervous system dysregulation. Hypervigilance, a central feature of PTSD, can lead to 'local sleep' or regional arousal states, when the patient is partially asleep and partially awake, and manifests as complex motor and/or verbal behaviours in a partially conscious state. The few studies of the effects of standard PTSD treatments (medications, CBT) on PTSD-associated somatic syndromes report a reduction in the severity of ill-defined and autonomically mediated somatic symptoms, self-reported physical health problems, and some chronic pain syndromes.
Júnior, Jose Carlos Garcia; Zabeu, Jose Luis Amim; Junior, Ivaldo Angelo Cintra; Mattos, Carlos Augusto; Myrrha, Jesely Pereira
To evaluate patients undergoing arthroscopic release of a stiff elbow, with discussion of the technique, possible difficulties and risks. Methods: Twenty-four elbow arthroscopy procedures were performed. All the patients were evaluated using goniometry before the operation and six months afterwards and were rated using the Mayo elbow performance score (MEPS). Results: Fifteen men and nine women underwent surgery (14 right elbows and ten left elbows). Their mean age was 34.58 years and length of follow-up, 38.41 months. Their mean gain of range of motion was 43.3° and of MEPS, 85.4. Conclusion: Arthroscopic release might enable better intra-articular viewing and enhance the options for changing strategy during surgery, reducing surgical trauma and enabling early rehabilitation. This technique can reach similar or better results than open surgery. The disadvantages of arthroscopy are the long learning curve and higher cost of the procedure. Neurovascular complications are reported with both techniques. To avoid such problems, the protocol for portal construction must be rigorously followed. Arthroscopic release was shown to be a safe and effective option for achieving range-of-motion gains in cases of post-traumatic stiff elbow. PMID:27042641
Almli, Lynn M.; Fani, Negar; Smith, Alicia K.; Ressler, Kerry J.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is increasingly recognized as both a disorder of enormous mental health and societal burden, but also as an anxiety disorder that may be particularly understandable from a scientific perspective. Specifically, PTSD can be conceptualized as a disorder of fear and stress dysregulation, and the neural circuitry underlying these pathways in both animals and humans are becoming increasingly well understood. Furthermore, PTSD is the only disorder in psychiatry in which the initiating factor, the trauma exposure, can be identified. Thus, the pathophysiology of the fear and stress response underlying PTSD can be examined and potentially interrupted. Twin studies have shown that the development of PTSD following a trauma is heritable, and that genetic risk factors may account for up to 30–40% of this heritability. A current goal is to understand the gene pathways that are associated with PTSD, and how those genes act on the fear/stress circuitry to mediate risk vs. resilience for PTSD. This review will examine gene pathways that have recently been analysed, primarily through candidate gene studies (including neuroimaging studies of candidate genes), in addition to genome-wide associations and the epigenetic regulation of PTSD. Future and on-going studies are utilizing larger and collaborative cohorts to identify novel gene candidates through genome-wide association and other powerful genomic approaches. Identification of PTSD biological pathways strengthens the hope of progress in the mechanistic understanding of a model psychiatric disorder and allows for the development of targeted treatments and interventions. PMID:24103155
Weber, Darren L
This review considers theory and evidence for abnormal information processing in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cognitive studies have indicated sensitivity in PTSD for traumatic information, more so than general emotional information. These findings were supported by neuroimaging studies that identify increased brain activity during traumatic cognition, especially in affective networks (including the amygdala, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex). In theory, it is proposed that traumatic cognition may interfere with neutral cognition and there is evidence of abnormal neutral stimulus processing in PTSD. Firstly, PTSD patients perform poorly on a variety of neuropsychology tasks that involve attention and memory for neutral information. The evidence from event-related potentials and functional neuroimaging also indicates abnormal results in PTSD during neutral stimulus processing. The research evidence generally provides support for theories of trauma sensitivity and abnormal neutral stimulus processing in PTSD. However, there is only tentative evidence that trauma cognition concurrently interferes with neutral cognition. There is even some evidence that traumatic or novelty arousal processes can increase the capacity for attentive processing, thereby enhancing cognition for neutral stimulus information. Research on this topic has not yet fully explored the mechanisms of interaction between traumatic and neutral content in the cognitive dynamics of PTSD. PMID:19639038
Neria, Y.; Nandi, A.; Galea, S.
Background Disasters are traumatic events that may result in a wide range of mental and physical health consequences. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is probably the most commonly studied post-disaster psychiatric disorder. This review aimed to systematically assess the evidence about PTSD following exposure to disasters. Method A systematic search was performed. Eligible studies for this review included reports based on the DSM criteria of PTSD symptoms. The time-frame for inclusion of reports in this review is from 1980 (when PTSD was first introduced in DSM-III) and February 2007 when the literature search for this examination was terminated. Results We identified 284 reports of PTSD following disasters published in peer-reviewed journals since 1980. We categorized them according to the following classification: (1) human-made disasters (n=90), (2) technological disasters (n=65), and (3) natural disasters (n=116). Since some studies reported on findings from mixed samples (e.g. survivors of flooding and chemical contamination) we grouped these studies together (n=13). Conclusions The body of research conducted after disasters in the past three decades suggests that the burden of PTSD among persons exposed to disasters is substantial. Post-disaster PTSD is associated with a range of correlates including sociodemographic and background factors, event exposure characteristics, social support factors and personality traits. Relatively few studies have employed longitudinal assessments enabling documentation of the course of PTSD. Methodological limitations and future directions for research in this field are discussed. PMID:17803838
Colonoscopy is an essential diagnostic and therapeutic tool for many gastrointestinal diseases and is also a key element in the prevention and early diagnosis of colon cancer. Despite numerous technical advances, colonoscopy continues to be uncomfortable for patients, both during and after the procedure. To a large extent, the discomfort of colonoscopy depends on the need to distend the colon, which usually produces abdominal pain. Although ambient air is usually employed to expand and inflate the colon, in the last few years devices that allow carbon dioxide (CO(2)) insufflation in colonoscopy have been developed. This gas is a highly attractive option for pain-free colonoscopy.
Expert-reviewed information summary about post-traumatic stress and related symptoms in cancer patients, cancer survivors, and their family members. Assessment and treatment of these symptoms are discussed.
Post-traumatic stress disorder is highly prevalent among individuals who suffer from opioid use disorder. Compared to individuals with opioid use disorder alone, those with post-traumatic stress disorder have a worse course of illness, occupational functioning, and physical health. The neurobiological pathways underlying each disorder overlap substantially, and there are multiple pathways through which these disorders may interact. This narrative review explores evidence underpinning 3 explanatory perspectives on comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid use disorder: The opioid susceptibility model (a.k.a.: the Self-Medication Hypothesis), the post-traumatic stress disorder susceptibility model, and the common factors model. Diagnostic implications, treatment implications, and directions for future research are discussed.
... they rest their practice on their integrity and personal talents—on their perceptions, feelings, insights, intuition, and ... evaluation and will want to consult with your personal physician. Post-traumatic stress disorder has both psychological ...
Expert-reviewed information summary about post-traumatic stress and related symptoms in cancer patients, cancer survivors, and their family members. Assessment and treatment of these symptoms are discussed.
Szura, Miroslaw; Pach, Radoslaw; Matyja, Andrzej; Kulig, Jan
One of the methods used to reduce pain and discomfort during colonoscopy is insufflation of carbon dioxide instead of air. However, the actual benefit of carbon dioxide insufflation is not unequivocally proven. The aim of the study was to evaluate the advantages of carbon dioxide insufflation during screening colonoscopy. A total of 200 patients undergoing screening colonoscopy between 2010 and 2011 were included in the prospective, randomized study carried out in a surgical referral center. Screening unsedated colonoscopy with either air or carbon dioxide insufflation was performed; patients were randomly assigned to air or carbon dioxide group by means of computer-generated randomization lists. All examinations were performed in an ambulatory setting with standard videocolonoscopes. The main outcomes analyzed were (a) duration of the entire procedure, (b) cecal intubation time, and (c) pain severity immediately, 15, and 60 min after the procedure. Group I included 59 women and 41 men and group II included 51 women and 49 men. The duration of the procedure was circa 10 min in both groups. Pain score values immediately and 15 min after the procedure were similar in both groups (P=0.624 and 0.305, respectively). A lower pain score was observed only after 60 min in patients insufflated with carbon dioxide (1.28 vs. 1.54, P=0.008). No pain reduction was observed in women and in obese patients (BMI>30). Carbon dioxide insufflation during unsedated screening colonoscopy does not decrease the duration of the procedure and appears to reduce pain intensity at 60 min after examination to an extent without clinical significance. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01461564.
Traumatic Arthritis" Start date: 9/30/2012 PIs – Steven A. Olson ( SAO ); Farshid Guilak (FG); and Virginia B Kraus (VBK) Table of Contents...Joint Injury and Subsequent Post-Traumatic Arthritis" Start date: 9/30/2012 PIs – Steven A. Olson ( SAO ); Farshid Guilak (FG); and Virginia B Kraus (VBK... SAO ); Farshid Guilak (FG); and Virginia B Kraus (VBK) 1. INTRODUCTION: Post-traumatic arthritis (PTA) is a clinically important complication of
Steven A. Olson ( SAO ); Farshid Guilak (FG); and Virginia B Kraus (VBK) "Assessment of Biomarkers Associated with Joint Injury and Subsequent Post...Traumatic Arthritis" Start date: 9/30/2012 PIs – Steven A. Olson ( SAO ); Farshid Guilak (FG); and Virginia B Kraus (VBK) 1. INTRODUCTION...Associated with Joint Injury and Subsequent Post-Traumatic Arthritis" Start date: 9/30/2012 PIs – Steven A. Olson ( SAO ); Farshid Guilak (FG); and
Shields, J; Erdal, K; Skrinjaric, J; Majic, G
Post-traumatic stress symptomatology was found in 22 of 25 health care professionals working in postwar Croatia. Assessment of exposure to war trauma and of the subjective impact of this exposure found the former more predictive of post-traumatic stress. Results suggest that the situations faced by health care professionals in war and postwar environments may be considered independent traumatic stressors, and that the symptomatology arising from such exposure may last for years. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0591 TITLE: Electric Field Stimulation Enhances Healing of Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritic Cartilage PRINCIPAL...DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2014 – 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electric Field Stimulation Enhances Healing of Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritic Cartilage...instability, among other traumatic affections of joints, and occupations or sports that subject joints to high levels of impact and torsional loading
08-2-0076 TITLE: Telemedicine for Improved Delivery of Psychosocial Treatments for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE Telemedicine for Improved Delivery of Psychosocial Treatments for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT: Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is considered a major public health problem in the U.S. because it has fairly high prevalence
IEDs), suicide bombers and indirect fire all being special stressors, an y several levels of combat related stress that an individual may...Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and the Casual Link to Crime: A Looming National Tragedy A Monograph by MAJ David L. Daniel United States Army...Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and the Casual Link to Crime: A Looming National Tragedy 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6
Joint Injury and Subsequent Post- Traumatic Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Steven A. Olson CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Duke...COVERED 30 Sep 2013 - 29 Sep 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Assessment of Biomarkers Associated with Joint Injury and Subsequent...the development of post-traumatic arthritis (PTA). PTA is a clinically important complication of joint injury with life-long effects for the
Schmidt, H G K; Diefenbeck, M; Krenn, V; Abitzsch, D; Militz, M; Tiemann, A H; Haustedt, N; Gückel, P; Bühler, M; Gerlach, U-J
A classification of osteomyelitis must reflect the complexity of the disease and, moreover, provide conclusions for the treatment. The classification is based on the following eight parameters: source of infection (OM [osteomyelitis]/OT [post-traumatic OM]), anatomic region, stability of affected bone (continuity of bone), foreign material (internal fixation, prosthesis), range of infection (involved structures), activity of infection (acute, chronic, quiescent), causative microbes (unspecific and specific bacteria, fungi) and comorbidity (immunosuppressive diseases, general and local). In the long version of the classification, which was designed for scientific studies, the parameters are named by capital letters and specified by Arabic numbers, e.g., an acute, haematogenous osteomyelitis of a femur in an adolescent with diabetes mellitus, caused by Staphylococcus aureus, multi-sensible is coded as: OM2 Lo33 S1a M1 In1d Aa1 Ba2a K2a. The letters and numbers can be found in clearly arranged tables or calculated by a freely available grouper on the internet (www.osteomyelitis.exquit.net). An equally composed compact version of the classification for clinical use includes all eight parameters, but without further specification. The above-mentioned example in the compact version is: OM 3 S a Ba2 K2. The short version of the classification uses only the first six parameters and excludes causative microbes and comorbidity. The above mentioned example in the short version is: OM 3 S a. The long version of the classification describes an osteomyelitis in every detail. The complexity of the patient's disease is clearly reproducible and can be used for scientific comparisons. The for clinical use suggested compact and short versions of the classification include all important characteristics of an osteomyelitis, can be composed quickly and distinctly with the help of tables and provide conclusions for the individual treatment. The freely available grouper (www
De Simoni, Sara; Grover, Patrick J.; Jenkins, Peter O.; Honeyfield, Lesley; Quest, Rebecca A.; Ross, Ewan; Scott, Gregory; Wilson, Mark H.; Majewska, Paulina; Waldman, Adam D.; Patel, Maneesh C.
See Bigler (doi:10.1093/aww277) for a scientific commentary on this article. Post-traumatic amnesia is very common immediately after traumatic brain injury. It is characterized by a confused, agitated state and a pronounced inability to encode new memories and sustain attention. Clinically, post-traumatic amnesia is an important predictor of functional outcome. However, despite its prevalence and functional importance, the pathophysiology of post-traumatic amnesia is not understood. Memory processing relies on limbic structures such as the hippocampus, parahippocampus and parts of the cingulate cortex. These structures are connected within an intrinsic connectivity network, the default mode network. Interactions within the default mode network can be assessed using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging, which can be acquired in confused patients unable to perform tasks in the scanner. Here we used this approach to test the hypothesis that the mnemonic symptoms of post-traumatic amnesia are caused by functional disconnection within the default mode network. We assessed whether the hippocampus and parahippocampus showed evidence of transient disconnection from cortical brain regions involved in memory processing. Nineteen patients with traumatic brain injury were classified into post-traumatic amnesia and traumatic brain injury control groups, based on their performance on a paired associates learning task. Cognitive function was also assessed with a detailed neuropsychological test battery. Functional interactions between brain regions were investigated using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Together with impairments in associative memory, patients in post-traumatic amnesia demonstrated impairments in information processing speed and spatial working memory. Patients in post-traumatic amnesia showed abnormal functional connectivity between the parahippocampal gyrus and posterior cingulate cortex. The strength of this functional
De Simoni, Sara; Grover, Patrick J; Jenkins, Peter O; Honeyfield, Lesley; Quest, Rebecca A; Ross, Ewan; Scott, Gregory; Wilson, Mark H; Majewska, Paulina; Waldman, Adam D; Patel, Maneesh C; Sharp, David J
SEE BIGLER DOI101093/AWW277 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Post-traumatic amnesia is very common immediately after traumatic brain injury. It is characterized by a confused, agitated state and a pronounced inability to encode new memories and sustain attention. Clinically, post-traumatic amnesia is an important predictor of functional outcome. However, despite its prevalence and functional importance, the pathophysiology of post-traumatic amnesia is not understood. Memory processing relies on limbic structures such as the hippocampus, parahippocampus and parts of the cingulate cortex. These structures are connected within an intrinsic connectivity network, the default mode network. Interactions within the default mode network can be assessed using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging, which can be acquired in confused patients unable to perform tasks in the scanner. Here we used this approach to test the hypothesis that the mnemonic symptoms of post-traumatic amnesia are caused by functional disconnection within the default mode network. We assessed whether the hippocampus and parahippocampus showed evidence of transient disconnection from cortical brain regions involved in memory processing. Nineteen patients with traumatic brain injury were classified into post-traumatic amnesia and traumatic brain injury control groups, based on their performance on a paired associates learning task. Cognitive function was also assessed with a detailed neuropsychological test battery. Functional interactions between brain regions were investigated using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Together with impairments in associative memory, patients in post-traumatic amnesia demonstrated impairments in information processing speed and spatial working memory. Patients in post-traumatic amnesia showed abnormal functional connectivity between the parahippocampal gyrus and posterior cingulate cortex. The strength of this functional
Zebrack, Brad; Kwak, Minyoung; Salsman, John; Cousino, Melissa; Meeske, Kathleen; Aguilar, Christine; Embry, Leanne; Block, Rebecca; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Cole, Steve
Objective Theories of posttraumatic growth suggest that some degree of distress is necessary to stimulate growth; yet investigations of the relationship between stress and growth following trauma are mixed. This study aims to understand the relationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms and posttraumatic growth in adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients. Method 165 AYA patients aged 14–39 years at diagnosis completed standardized measures of posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth at 12 months following diagnosis. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing and regression were used to examine linear and curvilinear relationship between posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth. Results No significant relationships between overall posttraumatic stress severity and posttraumatic growth were observed at 12-month follow-up. However, curvilinear relationships between re-experiencing (a posttraumatic stress symptom) and two of five posttraumatic growth indicators (New possibilities, Personal strengths) were observed. Conclusion Findings suggest that re-experiencing is associated with some aspects of posttraumatic growth but not others. Although re-experiencing is considered a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder, it also may represent a cognitive process necessary to achieve personal growth for AYAs. Findings call into question the supposed psychopathological nature of re-experiencing and suggest that re-experiencing, as a cognitive process, may be psychologically adaptive. Opportunities to engage family, friends, cancer survivors, or health care professionals in frank discussions about fears, worries, or concerns may help AYAs re-experiencing cancer in a way that enhances their understanding of what happened to them and contributes to positive adaptation to life after cancer. PMID:24916740
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hysteroscopic insufflator. 884.1700 Section 884.1700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... and tubing/filter fits which only include accessory instruments that are not used to...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hysteroscopic insufflator. 884.1700 Section 884.1700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... and tubing/filter fits which only include accessory instruments that are not used to...
A CENTURY OF MISUNDERSTANDING: THE HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER UNDERSTANDING IN THE UNITED STATES...Development of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Understanding in the United States Military 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...thesis examines the development of Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) understanding within the United States Military. The study follows the
Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Cocchi, Luca; Harrison, Ben J; Shavitt, Roseli G; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Ferrão, Ygor A; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Cordioli, Aristides V; Yücel, Murat; Pantelis, Christos; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Miguel, Euripedes C; Torres, Albina R
We evaluated whether traumatic events are associated with a distinctive pattern of socio-demographic and clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We compared socio-demographic and clinical features of 106 patients developing OCD after post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; termed post-traumatic OCD), 41 patients developing OCD before PTSD (pre-traumatic OCD), and 810 OCD patients without any history of PTSD (non-traumatic OCD) using multinomial logistic regression analysis. A later age at onset of OCD, self-mutilation disorder, history of suicide plans, panic disorder with agoraphobia, and compulsive buying disorder were independently related to post-traumatic OCD. In contrast, earlier age at OCD onset, alcohol-related disorders, contamination-washing symptoms, and self-mutilation disorder were all independently associated with pre-traumatic OCD. In addition, patients with post-traumatic OCD without a previous history of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) showed lower educational levels, greater rates of contamination-washing symptoms, and more severe miscellaneous symptoms as compared to post-traumatic OCD patients with a history of OCS.
Katzman, Martin A; Struzik, Lukasz; Vivian, Lisa L; Vermani, Monica; McBride, Joanna C
Post-traumatic stress disorder is a difficult to treat, yet common disorder, which is associated with significant morbidity, mortality and societal burden. Comprehensive management of post-traumatic stress disorder must include both psychotherapeutic and pharmacologic components. The current evidence-based pharmacologic management approaches to post-traumatic stress disorder, suggests that first-line treatments for monotherapy are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, sertraline, paroxetine and fluoxetine. Other potential options include other monotherapies including venlafaxine, mirtazapine, tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, as well as adjunctive usage of atypical antipsychotics, lamotrigine, trazadone and a number of adrenergic agents. A trial of therapy should be at least 8 weeks and continue for at the very least 12 months, but is likely to be much longer. In light of the risks of untreated post-traumatic stress disorder (e.g., suicide and impaired psychosocial functioning), therapy may need to be continued for 2 years or more. Pharmacologic therapy instituted at the time of acute psychologic trauma shows promise for the prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder in the future and warrants further study.
Iranmanesh, Sedigheh; Shamsi, Ala; Dehghan, Mahlegha
Support of parents of children with cancer requires healthcare personnel to be knowledgeable about the prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms among Iranian parents of children with cancer. This study was conducted to fulfill this aim in the South-East of Iran. Using the Impact of Event Scale -Revised, for parents of children with cancer, 200 parents in two hospitals supervised by Kerman University of Medical Sciences, were assessed. The total mean score of post-traumatic stress symptoms was 41.70. Among all categories of the Impact of Event Scale -Revised, the highest mean belonged to the category of 'intrusion' 16.03 (SD = 6.24) and the lowest one belonged to the category of 'hyperarousal' 10.68 (SD = 4.58). Based on the results, mothers had higher post-traumatic stress symptoms compared with fathers (p < 0.05). Adjusted odds ratio showed that the prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms among mothers was 2.49 times more than that among fathers (p = 0.01). There was no association between sociodemographic data and post-traumatic stress symptoms. More research is needed to elucidate the Iranian parents' experience of having children with cancer.
Maeda, Yuki; Hirasawa, Dai; Fujita, Naotaka; Ohira, Tetsuya; Harada, Yoshihiro; Yamagata, Taku; Koike, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Kenjirou
AIM To assess the efficacy of CO2 insufflation for reduction of mediastinal emphysema (ME) immediately after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). METHODS A total of 46 patients who were to undergo esophageal ESD were randomly assigned to receive either CO2 insufflation (CO2 group, n = 24) or air insufflation (Air group, n = 22). Computed tomography (CT) was carried out immediately after ESD and the next morning. Pain and abdominal distention were chronologically recorded using a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). The volume of residual gas in the digestive tract was measured using CT imaging. RESULTS The incidence of ME immediately after ESD in the CO2 group was significantly lower than that in the Air group (17% vs 55%, P = 0.012). The incidence of ME the next morning was 8.3% vs 32% respectively (P = 0.066). There were no differences in pain scores or distention scores at any post-procedure time points. The volume of residual gas in the digestive tract immediately after ESD was significantly smaller in the CO2 group than that in the Air group (808 mL vs 1173 mL, P = 0.013). CONCLUSION CO2 insufflation during esophageal ESD significantly reduced postprocedural ME. CO2 insufflation also reduced the volume of residual gas in the digestive tract immediately after ESD, but not the VAS scores of pain and distention. PMID:27621583
Siavoshi, Sara; Dougherty, Carrie; Ailani, Jessica; Yadwadkar, Kaustubh; Berkowitz, Frank
We present a case of post-traumatic headache complicated by intracranial hypotension resulting in an acquired Chiari malformation and myelopathy with syringomyelia. This constellation of findings suggest a possible series of events that started with a traumatic cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) leak, followed by descent of the cerebellar tonsils and disruption of CSF circulation that caused spinal cord swelling and syrinx. This unusual presentation of post-traumatic headache highlights the varying presentations and the potential sequelae of intracranial hypotension. In addition, the delayed onset of upper motor neuron symptoms along with initially normal head computerized tomography scan (CT) findings, beg the question of whether or not a post-traumatic headache warrants earlier magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMID:28036062
Slavin-Spenny, Olga M; Cohen, Jay L; Oberleitner, Lindsay M; Lumley, Mark A
Research on emotional disclosure should test the effects of different disclosure methods and whether symptoms are affected differently than post-traumatic growth. We randomized 214 participants with unresolved stressful experiences to four disclosure conditions (written, private spoken, talking to a passive listener, talking to an active facilitator) or two control conditions. All groups had one 30-minute session. After 6 weeks, disclosure groups reported more post-traumatic growth than controls, and disclosure conditions were similar in this effect. All groups decreased in stress symptoms (intrusions, avoidance, psychological and physical symptoms), but disclosure did not differ from control. We conclude that 30 minutes of disclosure leads to post-traumatic growth but not necessarily symptom reduction, and various disclosure methods have similar effects. Research on the effects of disclosure should focus on the benefits of growth as well as symptom reduction.
Huang, Junhua; Liu, Qunying; Li, Jinliang; Li, Xuejiang; You, Jin; Zhang, Liang; Tian, Changfu; Luan, Rongsheng
Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder in earthquake rescue workers is relatively high. Risk factors for this disorder include demographic characteristics, earthquake-related high-risk factors, risk factors in the rescue process, personality, social support and coping style. This study examined the current status of a unit of 1 040 rescue workers who participated in earthquake relief for the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12(th), 2008. Post-traumatic stress disorder was diagnosed primarily using the Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Scale during structured interviews. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine major risk factors that contributed to the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Results revealed that the incidence of this disorder in the rescue group was 5.96%. The impact factors in univariate analysis included death of family members, contact with corpses or witnessing of the deceased or seriously injured, near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma in the rescue process and working at the epicenter of the earthquake. Correlation analysis suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder was positively correlated with psychotic and neurotic personalities, negative coping and low social support. Impact factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis included near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma, working in the epicenter of the rescue, neurotic personality, negative coping and low social support, among which low social support had the largest odds ratio of 20.42. Findings showed that the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder was the result of the interaction of multiple factors.
Andreev, Andreia Prokopiev; Guirov, Kouzman Georgiev
A unique case of post-traumatic aorto-left renal vein fistula (ALRVF) is presented. Some specific features of diagnosis and treatment of post-traumatic and postaneurysm ALRVF are discussed. The importance of careful planning of the operative strategy is emphasized because substantial blood loss may lead to serious intraoperative complications and frequently necessitates autohemotransfusion. The 10-year follow-up confirmed that direct reconstruction was the appropriate procedure, with no indications that an endovascular procedure would have been preferable. Direct reconstruction may also be valuable in treating postaneurysm ALVRF. PMID:22477454
Stiebel, Matthew; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E
Traumatic knee injury is common in young adults and strongly contributes to premature development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Post-traumatic knee OA poses a therapeutic dilemma to the physician, since no known therapy has an acceptable safety profile, effectively relieves joint pain, and enjoys reasonable patient acceptance. Consequently, these young patients will ultimately be faced with the decision to either undergo surgical intervention, despite prosthesis durability concerns, or to continue with ineffective nonsurgical treatment. Emerging therapies, such as biologics, disease-modifying drugs, partial joint resurfacings, and minimally invasive joint-unloading implants are currently being studied to fill this therapeutic void in the young patient with post-traumatic knee OA.
Kumar, Rakesh; Mittal, Radhey Shyam
Bilateral facial nerve palsy [FNP] is a rare condition. Mostly it is idiopathic. Post traumatic bilateral FNP is even more rare and having unique neurosurgical considerations. Post traumatic delayed presentation of bilateral FNP is socially debilitating and also having diagnostic challenge. Due to lack of facial asymmetry as present in unilateral facial paralysis, it is difficult to recognize. We are presenting a case of delayed onset bilateral FNP who developed FNP after 12 days of head injury with a brief discussion of its diagnostic dilemma and management along with literature review.
Lambert, D; Nerot, C; Huguenin, A; Diallo, S; Mzabi, A; Ohl, X; Noel, V; Rouger, C; Strady, C; Villena, I; Bani-Sadr, F; Toubas, D
We report 3 cases of post-traumatic cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Lichtheimia corymbifera, two of them occurring after a farm working accident. Management of post-traumatic mucormycoses consists of a wide excision of the infected tissue, combined with immediate antifungal therapy. Liposomal amphotericin B is the recommended first line treatment. Few studies have evaluated the efficacy of posaconazole. All 3 patients received a surgical debridement and liposomal amphotericin B, which was followed by posaconazole in 2 cases. The duration of the antifungal treatment is not yet well defined. All three patients received a treatment of five weeks with a favorable outcome.
Marks, Joshua A; Hager, Eric; Henry, David; Martin, Niels D
Endovascular treatment of post-traumatic pseudoaneurysms has become a viable, less invasive option when compared to open repair. Due to the relative youth of this technology, studies have yet to be concluded on the long-term patency of stent grafts in this population. For this reason, concern exists with endovascular stent placement in the young trauma patient. In this study, we present a case and review the literature on a post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the posterior tibial artery in a 19-year-old man treated with an endovascular stent. PMID:21769220
Bennett, Paul; Patterson, Katie; Noble, Simon
This research identified psychosocial factors associated with post-traumatic stress and health anxiety following a venous thrombotic embolism. In all, 158 participants, largely registered with a venous thrombotic embolism information website (Lifeblood: The Thrombosis Charity), completed an online survey. Post-traumatic symptom scores were linked to health threat, and not moderated by perceived control over risk for further venous thrombotic embolism. Health anxiety was associated with continuing symptoms and a negative emotional response to the venous thrombotic embolism. There is a need to intervene to reduce both short- and long-term distress in this population, ideally using a stepped-care model.
Gerardi, Maryrose; Cukor, Judith; Difede, Joann; Rizzo, Albert; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov
Anxiety disorders, including phobias and post-traumatic stress disorder, are common and disabling disorders that often involve avoidance behavior. Cognitive-behavioral treatments, specifically imaginal and in vivo forms of exposure therapy, have been accepted and successful forms of treatment for these disorders. Virtual reality exposure therapy, an alternative to more traditional exposure-based therapies, involves immersion in a computer-generated virtual environment that minimizes avoidance and facilitates emotional processing. In this article, we review evidence on the application of virtual reality exposure therapy to the treatment of specific phobias and post-traumatic stress disorder and discuss its advantages and cautions.
Ruchkin, Vladislav V.; Eisemann, Martin; Hagglof, Bruno
A study of 15 Russian juvenile male rape victims found their level of post-traumatic stress correlated with the temperament dimensions of harm avoidance and reward dependence. The total level of post-traumatic stress reaction was negatively correlated with parental emotional warmth and positively with paternal rejection. (Author/CR)
Potts, M K
This study examined predictors and health-related effects of post-traumatic stress among 129 civilian internees of the Japanese during World War II. Post-traumatic stress disorder was noted in 36.7% within the 6 months after their release and in 15.0% within the most recent 6 months. Women were more likely than men to indicate post-traumatic stress disorder within the 6 months after their release. Higher incomes were associated with lower levels of post-traumatic stress within the most recent 6 months. After controlling for demographic and internment-related factors, higher levels of post-traumatic stress were associated with poorer physical health. This association was stronger among older internees than among their younger counterparts. Implications of the findings for clinical gerontology are discussed.
Vassiliu, P; Velmahos, G C; Toutouzas, K G
Residual post-traumatic hemothorax (RPTH) occurs in 3 to 8 per cent of patients with tube thoracostomy and may cause serious infectious complications. Surgical evacuation is recommended, and thoracoscopic evacuation (THEVA) tends to replace open thoracotomy for this purpose. The objective of this study is to evaluate the optimal timing, safety, and efficacy of THEVA. Over 5 years patients with tube thoracostomy for trauma who had unresolved opacities on plain chest radiograph were evaluated by CT. If the residual fluid volume was estimated to be more than 500 mL3 on CT the patients were offered THEVA. Unstable patients were excluded. A score ranging from one (easy) to three (difficult) was used to grade the difficulty of the operation according to the attending surgeon's perception. Of 1728 chest trauma patients 143 (8%) were evaluated by CT for persistent opacity on plain film, 31 (1.8%) were found to have RPTH, and 24 (1.4%) were eventually taken for THEVA at 3.5+/-2 days after admission. Low oxygen saturation (less than 94%) was found in 58 per cent of patients before THEVA but in only 25 per cent after THEVA (P = 0.02). The majority of chest tubes (75%) were removed within 4 days of the operation. Two patients required conversion to thoracotomy. THEVA done within 3 days of admission was associated with a lower operative difficulty score, shorter hospital stay, and a trend toward shorter intraoperative time compared with THEVA done after 3 days of admission. All patients had effective resolution of their radiographic opacities after THEVA. Three patients developed a complication (urinary tract infection, pneumonia, and persistent air leak). We conclude that patients with significant RPTH and without major physiologic compromise are appropriate candidates for THEVA. The procedure is safe, evacuates PRTH effectively, and improves the respiratory function of affected patients. Ideally it should be performed within 3 days of admission.
Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Smith, Patrick; Bryant, Richard; Salmon, Karen; Yule, William; Dalgleish, Tim; Nixon, Reginald D. V.
Background: Negative trauma-related cognitions have been found to be a significant factor in the maintenance of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults. Initial studies of such appraisals in trauma-exposed children and adolescents suggest that this is an important line of research in youth, yet empirically validated measures for use with…
immunocompetant cells experience bidirectional communication with hormones and cytokines [35,40]. Thus, despite compelling experimental findings, HSD has not...hypertonic saline with 6% dextran-70 (HSD) has been shown in experimental studies to reduce shock/resuscitation-induced inflammatory reactions and...alterations have been described in clinical and experimental investigations of post-traumatic hemorrhagic shock . The initial immunological
Bryant, Richard A.; Moulds, Michelle L.; Mastrodomenico, Julie; Hopwood, Sally; Felmingham, Kim; Nixon, Reginald D. V.
Significant proportions of participants drop out of cognitive behaviour therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study indexed the pretreatment characteristics of civilian trauma survivors who remained in (n = 95) and dropped out (n = 33) of therapy for chronic PTSD. Therapy involved either cognitive behaviour therapy or supportive…
Elklit, Ask; Brink, Ole
The authors' objective was to examine the ability of acute stress disorder (ASD) and other trauma-related factors in a group of physical assault victims in predicting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 6 months later. Subjects included 214 victims of violence who completed a questionnaire 1 to 2 weeks after the assault, with 128 participating…
Deblinger, Esther; And Others
This investigation compared rates of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms across sexually abused (N=29), physically abused (N=20), and nonabused (N=29) psychiatrically hospitalized children. Overall rates were not significantly different across groups, but significant differences were found with respect to specific symptoms, especially in…
Grosse, Susan J.
Children may be exposed to trauma in their personal lives or at school. Teachers can prepare children to cope with trauma by understanding the nature of trauma, teaching skills for responding to emergencies, and learning how to mitigate the after-effects of trauma. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has specific characteristics and…
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: Progress in the Time of Controversy,” Clinical Psychology Review 29...Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Operating Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: Progress in a Time of Controversy.” Clinical Psychology Review 29
Williams, Mary Beth; Sommer, John F., Jr.
This book delivers state-of-the-art techniques and information for practitioners to help individuals, groups, families, and communities suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It addresses concerns about the efficacy of critical incident stress debriefing, examines the value of a variety of innovative treatment methods, and explores…
Demaree, Mary Ann
Discusses development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in children living in violent homes and communities. Discusses the role of teachers in creating classrooms that feel safe. Notes the importance of relearning safety to children who have PTSD. Describes strategies to create feeling of safety in the children. (BAC)
Rammelt, Stefan; Zwipp, Hans
Hindfoot malunions after fractures of the talus and calcaneus lead to severe disability and pain. Corrective osteotomies and arthrodeses aim at functional rehabilitation and reduction of pain resulting from post-traumatic arthritis, eccentric loading and impingement due to hindfoot malunion. Preoperative analysis should include the three-dimensional outline of the malunion, the presence of post-traumatic arthritis, non-union, or infection, the extent of any avascular necrosis or comorbidities. In properly selected, compliant patients with intact cartilage cover little or no, AVN, and adequate bone quality, a corrective joint-preserving osteotomy with secondary internal fixation may be carried out. In the majority of cases, realignment is augmented by arthrodesis for post-traumatic arthritis. Fusion is restricted to the affected joint(s) to minimise loss of function. Correction of the malunion is achieved by asymmetric joint resection, distraction and structural bone grafting with corrective osteotomies for severe axial malalignment. Bone grafting is also needed after resection of a fibrous non-union, sclerotic or necrotic bone. Numerous clinical studies have shown substantial functional improvement and high subjective satisfaction rates from pain reduction after corrective osteotomies and fusions for post-traumatic hindfoot malalignment. This article reviews the indications, techniques and results of corrective surgery after talar and calcaneal malunions and nonunions based on an easy-to-use classification.
Silver, Steven M.; Iacono, C. U.
Found substantial support for DSM-III's criteria for Post-Traumatic Stress using 405 Vietnam combat veterans and suggested that depression and anger be included as major signs. A comparison of symptom intensity between Vietnam veterans and non-Vietnam veterans showed Vietnam veterans experienced significantly greater intensities of DSM-III…
Mindfulness Training for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Sutapa Ford, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...other documentation. PT090084: “Post-traumatic Headache and Psychological Health: Mindfulness Training for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (Contract...Psychological Health: 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Mindfulness Training for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury” 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing ( EMDR ...Effects of Inpatient Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy and Specific Trauma Characteristics in Patients with Non-Combat-Related PTSD...i POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AND THE MILITARY A Selected Bibliography Compiled by Lori M. Sekela U.S. Army War College Library Carlisle
Kloeffler, G Davis
Dental professionals can intervene in head, neck and facial pain found in female patients who suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There are three theories for why women are predisposed to pain: hormonal differences, nervous system rewiring and sympathetic issues. This article includes case studies of three patients who are representative of these theories. A rapid, nonintrusive intervention will also be described.
The study used publicly available data on post-traumatic stress disorder in a sample of the Australian population with a history of sexual abuse to demonstrate how this evidence can inform economic analyses. The 2007 Australian Mental Health Survey revealed that 8.3% of 993 adolescents experienced childhood sexual abuse, of which 40.2% were…
Villasana, L.E.; Westbrook, G.L.; Schnell, E.
In the mammalian hippocampus, neurogenesis persists into adulthood, and increased generation of newborn neurons could be of clinical benefit following concussive head injuries. Post-traumatic neurogenesis has been well documented using “open” traumatic brain injury (TBI) models in rodents; however, human TBI most commonly involves closed head injury. Here we used a closed head injury (CHI) model to examine post-traumatic hippocampal neurogenesis in mice. All mice were subjected to the same CHI protocol, and a gross-motor based injury severity score was used to characterize neurologic impairment one hour after the injury. When analyzed 2 weeks later, post-traumatic neurogenesis was significantly increased only in mice with a high degree of transient neurologic impairment immediately after injury. This increase was associated with an early increase in c-fos activity, and subsequent reactive astrocytosis and microglial activation in the dentate gyrus. Our results demonstrate that the initial degree of neurologic impairment after closed head injury predicts the induction of secondary physiologic and pathophysiologic processes, and that animals with severe neurologic impairment early after injury manifest an increase in post-traumatic neurogenesis in the absence of gross anatomic pathology. PMID:24861442
LaDue, Robin A.
Vietnam veterans from racial or ethnic minority groups have a "double minority" status; clinicians treating these veterans should distinguish between behaviors resulting from experiences in Vietnam and those due to experiences as members of minority groups. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) affects an estimated 20% of all Vietnam…
Richardson, Amy E; Morton, Randall P; Broadbent, Elizabeth
Evidence suggests that patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) are susceptible to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, research is yet to examine predictors of PTSD symptoms in this patient group. The objective of this study was to investigate whether coping strategies at HNC diagnosis were related to outcomes of post-traumatic stress and health-related quality of life (HRQL) 6 months later. Sixty-five patients with HNC completed an assessment of coping, distress, and health-related quality of life at diagnosis and again 6 months later, and an assessment of post-traumatic stress at 6 months. Correlations and regression analyses were performed to examine relationships between coping and outcomes over time. Regression analyses showed that denial, behavioural disengagement and self-blame at diagnosis predicted post-traumatic stress symptoms. Self-blame at diagnosis also predicted poor HRQL. Results have implications for the development of psychological interventions that provide alternative coping strategies to potentially reduce PTSD symptoms and improve HRQL.
Crosby, James W.; Oehler, Judy; Capaccioli, Kristen
Peer victimization (PV) has been associated with a number of negative psychological sequelae. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between PV and the symptomatology of post-traumatic stress disorder, and no studies to date have examined this relationship in a rural sample. Adapted versions of the SEQ-SR and the TSCC were used to…
Furuta, Marie; Sandall, Jane; Cooper, Derek; Bick, Debra
This study aimed to identify factors associated with birth-related post-traumatic stress symptoms during the early postnatal period. Secondary analysis was conducted using data from a prospective cohort study of 1824 women who gave birth in one large hospital in England. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were measured by the Impact of Event Scale at 6 to 8 weeks postpartum. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were developed for analyses. Results showed that post-traumatic stress symptoms were more frequently observed in black women and in women who had a higher pre-pregnancy BMI compared to those with a lower BMI. Women who have a history of mental illness as well as those who gave birth before arriving at the hospital, underwent an emergency caesarean section or experienced severe maternal morbidity or neonatal complications also showed symptoms. Women's perceived control during labour and birth significantly reduced the effects of some risk factors. A higher level of perceived social support during the postnatal period also reduced the risk of post-traumatic stress symptoms. From the perspective of clinical practice, improving women's sense of control during labour and birth appears to be important, as does providing social support following the birth.
Confer, Jacob Russell
The symptoms, assessment, and treatments of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) have been empirically investigated to the extent that there is a breadth of valid and reliable instruments investigating this psychopathological syndrome. There, too, exists a substantial evidence base for various treatment models demonstrating effectiveness in…
Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Nish, David; Leonard, Noelle R.; Strauss, Shiela M.
In the present report we describe patterns of traumatic events and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), both partial and full, among homeless youth and those at risk for homelessness, with an emphasis on gender differences. Participants were 85 homeless and at-risk youth (49% female) recruited from a drop-in center in New York City in 2000.…
Moore, Nykeisha; Wadsworth, John; Cory, James
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety syndrome that can develop after exposure to a traumatic event in which harm occurred or was threatened. PTSD is often treated with group therapy. Rehabilitation counselors need to be aware of the group treatments for PTSD because counselors may be leaders of group therapy, may work with consumers…
Masten, Carrie L.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Hodgdon, Hilary B.; McClure, Erin B.; Charney, Dennis S.; Ernst, Monique; Kaufman, Joan; Pine, Daniel S.; Monk, Christopher S.
Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine processing of facial emotions in a sample of maltreated children showing high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Maltreatment during childhood has been associated independently with both atypical processing of emotion and the development of PTSD. However, research has provided little…
Bertram, Rosalyn M.; Dartt, Jennifer L.
We examine the historical development and use of the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder that has been primarily applied to war veterans. We explore how study of this population and refinement of this diagnosis were influenced by changing paradigms and the emergence of new theory. From this context, we then explore similarities and…
Cruwys, Tegan; O'Kearney, Richard
Brewin's dual representation theory, Ehlers and Clark's cognitive appraisal model, and Dalgleish's schematic, propositional, analogue and associative representational systems model are considered in the light of recent evidence on the neural substrates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The models' proposals about the cognitive mechanism of…
Sinski, Jennifer Blevins
Postsecondary institutions currently face the largest influx of veteran students since World War II. As the number of veteran students who may experience learning problems caused by Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and/or Traumatic Brain Injury continues to rise, the need for instructional strategies that address their needs increases. Educators may…
... Afghanistan, PTSD and mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) are often linked and their symptoms may overlap. Blast waves from explosions can cause TBI, rattling the brain inside the skull. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop after a terrifying ...
Chazan, Saralea; Cohen, Esther
Twenty-three children, aged four to eight years, who had been exposed to violent attacks, were videotaped in individual 40-minute play sessions. These play narratives were recorded by a student researcher trained in narrative analysis and play therapy. She then sorted these play vignettes into three patterns of post-traumatic play, defined in the…
Mitchell, A.; Clegg, J.
Research using the concept of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) with adults with intellectual disability (ID)assumes they perceive and react to traumatic events in a similar way to non-disabled adults. Reactions to trauma displayed by children may be relevant to adults with ID as well. Two focus groups were held with professionals and…
Butt, Mohammad Farooq; Dhar, Shabir A; Farooq, Munir; Kawoosa, Altaf A; Mir, Mohammad Ramzan
Closing wedge osteotomies are the gold standard for the management of post-traumatic cubitus varus deformity. However, most of these osteotomies are fraught with complications such as lateral condylar prominence, instability, and difficulty in correcting internal rotation. We describe a new technique that provides a means for the management of all these problems simultaneously.
Jaffee, Laura Jordan
A slew of recent news coverage has reported favorably on the use of virtual reality video games as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in U.S. soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Drawing on critical disability studies work, this paper argues that such depictions (re)produce a depoliticized framework for understanding…
Iversen, Amy C; Fear, Nicola T; Ehlers, Anke; Hughes, Jamie Hacker; Hull, Lisa; Earnshaw, Mark; Greenberg, Neil; Rona, Roberto; Wessely, Simon; Hotopf, Matthew
Background Understanding the factors which increase the risk of PTSD for military personnel is important. This study aims to investigate the relative contribution of pre-deployment, peri-deployment, and post deployment variables to the prevalence of post traumatic stress symptoms in UK Armed Forces personnel who have been deployed in Iraq since 2003. Method Data are drawn from stage 1 of a retrospective cohort study comparing a random sample of UK military personnel deployed to the 2003 Iraq War with a control group who were not deployed to the initial phase of war fighting (response rate 61%). The analyses are limited to 4762 regular service individuals who responded and who deployed to Iraq since 2003. Results Post traumatic stress symptoms were associated with lower rank, being unmarried, low educational attainment and a history of childhood adversity. Exposure to potentially traumatising events was associated with post traumatic stress symptoms. Appraisals of the experience as involving threat to life or that work in theatre was above an individual’s trade and experience were strongly associated with post traumatic stress symptoms Low morale, poor social support within the unit and non-receipt of a homecoming brief were associated with greater risk of post traumatic stress symptoms. Conclusions These results support that there are modifiable occupational factors which may influence an individual’s risk of PTSD. Personal appraisal of threat to life during the trauma emerged as the strongest predictor of symptoms, and therefore interventions focused on reinstating a sense of control are an important focus for treatment. PMID:18226287
Hong, Meng; Wang, Qian; Tang, Zhide; Wang, Youpei; Gu, Yunfeng; Lou, Yongliang; Zheng, Meiqin
Bacillus cereus is the second most frequent cause of post-traumatic bacterial endophthalmitis. Although genotyping of B. cereus associated with gastrointestinal infections has been reported, little is known about the B. cereus clinical isolates associated with post-traumatic endophthalmitis. This is largely due to the limited number of clinical strains available isolated from infected tissues of patients with post-traumatic endophthalmitis. In this study, we report successful isolation of twenty-four B. cereus strains from individual patients with different disease severity of post-traumatic endophthalmitis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all strains could be categorized into three genotypes (GTI, GTII and GTIII) and the clinical score showed significant differences among these groups. We then further performed genotyping using the vrrA gene, and evaluated possible correlation of genotype with the clinical features of B. cereus-caused post-traumatic endophthalmitis, and with the prognosis of infection by conducting follow-up with patients for up to 2 months. We found that the disease of onset and final vision acuity were significantly different among the three groups. These results suggested that the vrrA gene may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of endophthalmitis, and genotyping of B. cereus has the potential for predicting clinical manifestation and prognosis of endophthalmitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of large numbers of clinical isolates of B. cereus from patients with endophthalmitis. This work sets the foundation for future investigation of the pathogenesis endophthalmitis caused by B. cereus infection.
Hong, Meng; Wang, Qian; Tang, Zhide; Wang, Youpei; Gu, Yunfeng; Lou, Yongliang; Zheng, Meiqin
Bacillus cereus is the second most frequent cause of post-traumatic bacterial endophthalmitis. Although genotyping of B. cereus associated with gastrointestinal infections has been reported, little is known about the B. cereus clinical isolates associated with post-traumatic endophthalmitis. This is largely due to the limited number of clinical strains available isolated from infected tissues of patients with post-traumatic endophthalmitis. In this study, we report successful isolation of twenty-four B. cereus strains from individual patients with different disease severity of post-traumatic endophthalmitis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all strains could be categorized into three genotypes (GTI, GTII and GTIII) and the clinical score showed significant differences among these groups. We then further performed genotyping using the vrrA gene, and evaluated possible correlation of genotype with the clinical features of B. cereus–caused post-traumatic endophthalmitis, and with the prognosis of infection by conducting follow-up with patients for up to 2 months. We found that the disease of onset and final vision acuity were significantly different among the three groups. These results suggested that the vrrA gene may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of endophthalmitis, and genotyping of B. cereus has the potential for predicting clinical manifestation and prognosis of endophthalmitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of large numbers of clinical isolates of B. cereus from patients with endophthalmitis. This work sets the foundation for future investigation of the pathogenesis endophthalmitis caused by B. cereus infection. PMID:26886446
Richards, Anne; Metzler, Thomas J; Ruoff, Leslie M; Inslicht, Sabra S; Rao, Madhu; Talbot, Lisa S; Neylan, Thomas C
A growing literature shows prominent sex effects for risk for post-traumatic stress disorder and associated medical comorbid burden. Previous research indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with reduced slow wave sleep, which may have implications for overall health, and abnormalities in rapid eye movement sleep, which have been implicated in specific post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, but most research has been conducted in male subjects. We therefore sought to compare objective measures of sleep in male and female post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with age- and sex-matched control subjects. We used a cross-sectional, 2 × 2 design (post-traumatic stress disorder/control × female/male) involving83 medically healthy, non-medicated adults aged 19-39 years in the inpatient sleep laboratory. Visual electroencephalographic analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower slow wave sleep duration (F(3,82) = 7.63, P = 0.007) and slow wave sleep percentage (F(3,82) = 6.11, P = 0.016). There was also a group × sex interaction effect for rapid eye movement sleep duration (F(3,82) = 4.08, P = 0.047) and rapid eye movement sleep percentage (F(3,82) = 4.30, P = 0.041), explained by greater rapid eye movement sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder females compared to control females, a difference not seen in male subjects. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower energy in the delta spectrum (F(3,82) = 6.79, P = 0.011) in non-rapid eye movement sleep. Slow wave sleep and delta findings were more pronounced in males. Removal of post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder, who had greater post-traumatic stress disorder severity, strengthened delta effects but reduced rapid eye movement effects to non-significance. These findings support previous evidence that post-traumatic
Schwab, W; Marth, C; Bergant, A M
Traumatic birth experiences may lead to serious psychological impairment. Recent studies show that a considerable number of women can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in some cases in a subsyndromal form. Until now, the possibility that postpartum psychological symptoms might be a continuum of a pre-existing disorder in pregnancy has rarely been considered. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the proportion of women who develop post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of childbirth. Materials and Methods: 56 multiparous women were recruited for the study. The diagnosis of PTSD was made according to the criteria for psychological disorders in the DSM-IV (Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). The data were collected in structured interviews in the 30th to 38th week of gestation and in the 6th week post partum. Results: Of the 56 women participating, 52 (93 %) completed the survey. Uncontrolled results showed that 21.15 % of the multiparous women met the full diagnostic PTSD criteria in the 6th week post partum. After the exclusion of all cases already characterised by all criteria or a subsyndromal form of PTSD caused by previous traumatisation, the PTSD rate was below 8 % at 6 weeks postpartum (= incidence rate of PTSD post partum). Conclusions: The present study is the first prospective longitudinal study to demonstrate the occurrence of full criteria PTSD in multiparous women as a result of childbirth after having excluded pre-existing PTSD. The results of our study show a high prevalence rate of PTSD during pregnancy. A number of women report all aspects of post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of childbirth.
TAYCAN, Okan; YILDIRIM, Ahmet
Exposure to multiple traumatic events, particularly in childhood, has been shown to result in more complex symptoms than those seen after exposure to a single traumatic event. In case of overlooking the link between trauma and psychopathology, patients with multiple traumatic experiences receive a variety of different diagnoses that are unable to completely cover the clinical picture. Misdiagnoses of genuine cases inevitably lead to mistreatment. A diagnosis of complex post-traumatic stress disorder has been proposed to cover the emerging psychopathology in survivors of multiple traumas. This present report aimed to discuss the construct and to increase the awareness of complex post-traumatic stress disorder diagnosis among mental health professionals. PMID:28360730
Beh, Joey Chan Yiing; Hamouda, Ehab Shaban Mahmoud
Post-traumatic osseous cystic lesions are a rare complication in children. An aetiology of intramedullary fat seepage through the damaged bone cortex and its entrapment within the subperiosteum has been proposed. These lesions run a benign course and usually resolve spontaneously. The presence of fatty marrow gives it a distinct appearance which aids in its diagnosis and differentiation from other bone lesions. This case demonstrates a fat-fluid level within the subperiosteal cystic lesion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and this is a typical feature of post-traumatic cystic lesion in a child. Recognition of this imaging feature allows for a confident diagnosis, cutting down on unnecessary, potentially invasive investigations. PMID:27761186
Introduction Post-traumatic syringomyelia is a progressive degenerative disorder that is a well-recognized sequela of spinal cord injury. There is currently no optimal intervention capable of producing satisfactory long-term clinical results. Case presentation In this report, we present a 55-year-old Asian man with recurrent syringomyelia after shunt treatment. The syrinx extended from the thoracic cord into the medulla. We used a silicone tube to create a channel connecting the syrinx cavity directly to the fourth ventricle. The patient made a good recovery and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging revealed a considerable diminution in the size of the syrinx. Conclusions We present a new approach that has the potential to improve the outcome of patients with recurrent post-traumatic syringomyelia, who cannot be treated by conventional methods. PMID:20626895
Abdul-Hamid, Walid Khalid; Hughes, Jamie Hacker
Herodotus' account of the Athenian spear carrier Epizelus' psychogenic mutism following the Marathon Wars is usually cited as the first documented account of post-traumatic stress disorders in historical literature. This paper describes much earlier accounts of post combat disorders that were recorded as occurring in Mesopotamia (present day Iraq) during the Assyrian dynasty (1300-609 BC). The descriptions in this paper include many symptoms of what we would now identify in current diagnostic classification systems as post-traumatic stress disorders; including flashbacks, sleep disturbance and low mood. The Mesopotamians explain the disorder in terms of spirit affliction; the spirit of those enemies whom the patient had killed during battle causing the symptoms.
This report describes a case of fibromyalgia developing following a workplace injury, but in which the issues of compensation and work disability were not relevant. A previously healthy 37-year-old woman developed back and groin pain after lifting a heavy box. Over the next months, pain and allodynia gradually spread over her body, and headaches, sleep disturbance, paresthesias, and bowel symptoms developed for the first time. The pain was constant and severe, invading and interfering with every area of daily function. Surprisingly, no previous case reports or definition of post-traumatic fibromyalgia could be found. This case report, narrated by the patient, suggests that there is such an entity as post-traumatic fibromyalgia, and that central nervous system plasticity plays a central role.
Ruff, Robert L.; Blake, Kayla
This article reviews possible ways that traumatic brain injury (TBI) can induce migraine-type post-traumatic headaches (PTHs) in children, adults, civilians, and military personnel. Several cerebral alterations resulting from TBI can foster the development of PTH, including neuroinflammation that can activate neural systems associated with migraine. TBI can also compromise the intrinsic pain modulation system and this would increase the level of perceived pain associated with PTH. Depression and anxiety disorders, especially post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are associated with TBI and these psychological conditions can directly intensify PTH. Additionally, depression and PTSD alter sleep and this will increase headache severity and foster the genesis of PTH. This article also reviews the anatomic loci of injury associated with TBI and notes the overlap between areas of injury associated with TBI and PTSD. PMID:27635228
As a part of an ongoing clinical study of refugees with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the primary objective of the current study was to examine and describe the distribution of adult attachment patterns as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) in Arabic-speaking refugees. A total of 43 adult male and female refugees with Iraqi and Palestinian backgrounds completed the AAI. Sixty-seven percent of the sample was classified as Unresolved with respect to loss or trauma and a substantial proportion of insecure attachment representations (14% Secure-Autonomous, 39% Dismissing, 42% Preoccupied, 5% Cannot Classify) was found, in addition to high intake levels of post traumatic stress symptoms and comorbidity. Findings are compared with AAI studies of other PTSD or trauma samples, and the paper elaborates upon the methodological challenges in administering the AAI in a context of simultaneous translation.
Giorgianni, Andrea; Minotto, Renzo; Mercuri, Anna; Frattini, Lara; Baruzzi, Fabio; Valvassori, Luca
The use of flow-diverter (FD) stents in recent years has positively changed the therapeutic approach to some vascular diseases, especially of certain types of aneurysms. This paper describes the case of a young patient after a major head trauma causing multiple skull fractures. The trauma occasioned two pseudoaneurysms from the A1 segment of the right anterior cerebral artery and from the A2 segment of the left anterior cerebral artery. Both lesions were treated with two Pipeline devices (ev3, Irvine, CA, USA) in two different sessions. The CT study and angiographic investigations performed in the following month showed a complete resolution of the post-traumatic pseudoaneurysmal lesions. Although the use of FD stents is described in the literature, particularly in the treatment of selected aneurysms, this paper shows good technical results in the use of these stents in cases of intracranial post-traumatic pseudoaneurysms with clinical improvement. PMID:25934771
What is Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder? The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (1994) of the American Psychiatric...ways: (1) recurrent and intrusive distressing recollections of the event,, including images , thoughts, or perceptions. (2) Recurrent distressing dreams...of the event (3) Acting or feeling as if the traumatic event were recurring (includes a sense of reliving the experience, illusions, hallucinations
does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 26 JAN 2011 2 . REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4...dx ( COSC / OSCAR) Family Advocacy / Family Support Readiness General Education on PH (All SM &FM) Substance Abuse Aftercare OT for Non-PH...of the continuum of services in preventing and managing Post Traumatic Stress and related conditions. Three Phases: 1. Current state analysis 2
Shah, Tabindah; Mushtaq, Sahil
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs due to traumatic events. The last two decades have seen various traumatic events in Kashmiri population, which has led to psychological impact on all population, especially children. PTSD is one of the psychiatric disorders occurring after witnessing of traumatic events. A review of literature regarding PTSD in children of Kashmir (India) has been done to assess the prevalence, causes, neurobiology, risk factors and psychiatric co morbidity associated with it. PMID:26894159
associated with epileptogenesis were determined. It was determined that upregulation of the JaK/STAT pathway in the injured hippocampus occurs after CCI...inhibitor, WP1066. Blocking JaK/STAT3 activity did not prevent loss of GABA cells in the injured hippocampus . Inhibitory postsynaptic currents in the...reduce development of post-traumatic epilepsy, and did not significantly improve memory function, but did enhance the motor recovery. These findings
Ng, Rachel H C
Cortical blindness as sequelae of trauma has been reported in literature but mostly in the setting of occipital cortex or visual tract damages. We present a case of transient cortical blindness in a child following a closed head injury with a non-displaced occipital bone fracture and underlying occipital lobe contusion. We discuss the pathophysiology behind Post-traumatic transient cortical blindness, relevant investigations, and current management.
Shanker, V S; Gadikoppula, S; Loeffler, M D
Two cases are presented of post traumatic para-articular osteoma developing at the site of tibial attachment of the medial collateral ligament of knee joint. These occurred after injuries sustained while playing football and in one case the ossified mass was treated with surgical excision for unresolved symptoms after conservative measures. A comparison is made with Pellegrini Stieda disease, which is a similar affection of the femoral insertion of the medial ligament of the knee joint.
Sumer, M M; Atasoy, H T; Unal, A; Kalayci, M; Mahmutyazicioglu, K; Erdem, O
Post-traumatic epilepsy is more frequent after severe head injuries, however the severity of the trauma is not always correlated with the injured brain tissue. We report a patient whose seizures developed 4 years after a face trauma. Upward displacement of the sphenoid wing caused a contusion at the orbital surface of the frontal lobe. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalographic findings are presented. The patient responded well to commonly used antiepileptic drugs.
Monitoring Tissue Ischemia After Potentially Life Threatening Post-Traumatic Injuries Dr. Wanchun Tang Institute of Critical Care Medicine Rancho Mirage, CA...the study was to develop a PSLCO2 sensor based on the existing Sensation platform. The Sensation carbon nanotube sensor technology provided a...severity of tissue ischemia and there better guide for optimizing fluid resuscitation. It is especially significant for the military application since
Wang, X.; Luo, F.; Huang, K.
Objectives Induced membrane technique is a relatively new technique in the reconstruction of large bone defects. It involves the implantation of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement in the bone defects to induce the formation of membranes after radical debridement and reconstruction of bone defects using an autologous cancellous bone graft in a span of four to eight weeks. The purpose of this study was to explore the clinical outcomes of the induced membrane technique for the treatment of post-traumatic osteomyelitis in 32 patients. Methods A total of 32 cases of post-traumatic osteomyelitis were admitted to our department between August 2011 and October 2012. This retrospective study included 22 men and ten women, with a mean age of 40 years (19 to 70). Within this group there were 20 tibias and 12 femurs with a mean defect of 5 cm (1.5 to 12.5). Antibiotic-loaded PMMA cement was inserted into the defects after radical debridement. After approximately eight weeks, the defects were implanted with bone graft. Results The patients were followed for 27.5 months (24 to 32). Radiographic bone union occurred at six months for 26 cases (81%) and clinical healing occurred in 29 cases (90%) at ten months. A total of six cases had a second debridement before bone grafting because of recurrence of infection and one patient required a third debridement. No cases of osteomyelitis had recurred at the time of the last follow-up visit. Conclusion The induced membrane technique for the treatment of post-traumatic osteomyelitis is a simple, reliable method, with good early results. However, there are many challenges in determining the scope of the debridement, type of limb fixation and source of bone graft to be used. Cite this article: Dr Z. Xie. Induced membrane technique for the treatment of bone defects due to post-traumatic osteomyelitis. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:101–105. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.53.2000487. PMID:27033845
trial is being conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of propranolol , topiramate, and amitriptyline as treatments for chronic post-traumatic headaches...effectiveness of propranolol , amitriptyline, and topiramate as treatments for chronic PTHAs. We are conducting a single-center, prospective, randomized...double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-arm trial to evaluate propranolol , amitriptyline, and topiramate for treatment of chronic PTHAs. A total of
of Poster: Auricular Acupuncture for Sleep Disturbance in Veterans with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Conference: Academic Research Competition...FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 August 2012- 31 August 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acupuncture for Disturbed Sleep in Veterans with Post... PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of San Diego AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER University of San
Vitzthum, Karin; Mache, Stefanie; Joachim, Ricarda; Quarcoo, David; Groneberg, David A
Psychotrauma occurs as a result to a traumatic event, which may involve witnessing someone's actual death or personally experiencing serious physical injury, assault, rape and sexual abuse, being held as a hostage, or a threat to physical or psychological integrity. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder and was defined in the past as railway spine, traumatic war neurosis, stress syndrome, shell shock, battle fatigue, combat fatigue, or post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS). If untreated, post-traumatic stress disorder can impair relationships of those affected and strain their families and society. Deployed soldiers are especially at a high risk to be affected by PTSD but often receive inadequate treatment. Reviews to date have focused only on a single type of treatment or groups of soldiers from only one country. The aim of the current review was to evaluate characteristics of therapeutic methods used internationally to treat male soldiers' PTSD after peacekeeping operations in South Eastern Europe and the Gulf wars. This systematic literature review returned results pertaining to the symptoms, diagnosis, timing and effectiveness of treatment. Sample groups and controls were relatively small and, therefore, the results lack generalizability. Further research is needed to understand the influence and unique psychological requirements of each specific military operation on the internationally deployed soldiers. PMID:19643016
Dubroja, I; Valent, S; Miklić, P; Kesak, D
From 1986 to the end of 1991, 19 patients with persisting post-traumatic unawareness were admitted for rehabilitation. Criteria for admission were head trauma, Glasgow coma scale score < or = 8 points, and at least a one month duration of unawareness. Out of 19 patients, 12 patients (63%) regained consciousness, 11 patients (58%) within the first year and one patient (5%) within the second year. The mean duration of unawareness in the patients who recovered consciousness was 190 (range 62-440) days. In the recovery group, according to the Glasgow outcome scale, seven out of 12 patients (58%) were moderately disabled and five (42%) were severely disabled at the moment of discharge from rehabilitation. All the 12 patients who regained consciousness live with their families, and none had to be kept in an institution. The data confirm that awakening from post-traumatic unawareness is possible after a long period. Therefore, post-traumatic unawareness persisting for more than a month should not be considered an irreversible condition, because an outcome that might be regarded by some as being acceptable is possible even in patients with very severe brain damage. PMID:7738556
Wagner, Birgit; Boucsein, Valerie; Maercker, Andreas
In Switzerland, all deaths through assisted suicide are reported as unnatural deaths and investigated by a forensic team (police, medical examiner, and state attorney). However, there is limited knowledge concerning the impact these forensic investigations have on the development of post-traumatic stress disorder, complicated grief, or depression in those who have lost a loved one. A cross-sectional survey of 85 family members or close friends who were present at an assisted suicide was conducted in December 2007. The Impact of Event Scale, Inventory of Complicated Grief, and Brief Symptom Inventory were used to assess mental health. The newly developed Forensic Investigation Experience Scale measured the emotional experience of the legal investigation at the death scene. The data suggest that the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder is significantly related to having experienced the forensic investigation as emotionally difficult. Thus, the way the forensic investigation is conducted immediately after an unnatural death is evidently associated with the development of post-traumatic stress. It is recommended that a protocol be developed establishing a standardised response to cases of assisted suicide and that specific training be provided for the legal professionals involved.
Khanjani, Mohammad Saeed; Younesi, Seyed Jalal; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Azkhosh, Manouchehr
Introduction There is increasing evidence regarding people’s reactions to life stressors in which people also may show positive experiences following a traumatic event. The aim of the present study was to explain the facilitators of post-traumatic growth based on the experiences of patients with a spinal cord injury. Methods This was a qualitative study conducted on 16 Iranian patients with a spinal cord injury using semistructured, in-depth interviews, and content analysis in 2015. These participants, despite their spinal cord injury, were successful in their lives and were considered successful members of society. A purposive sampling method was used until reaching data saturation, and then the collected data were analyzed using a content analysis method. Results The study revealed several factors as facilitators of post-traumatic growth in the patients. The extracted facilitators were put into seven categories of main concepts, including existence of support resources, contact with spinal cord injury associations, spiritual beliefs, positive attitude toward injury, access to proper facilities, enhancement of knowledge and awareness, and active presence in society. Conclusion Different factors may facilitate post-traumatic growth in patients with a spinal cord injury. Understanding these facilitators may help us in designing educational, support, and consulting programs for patients and their families as well as to the correct the support programs. PMID:28243405
Nelson, David V; Esty, Mary Lee
Previous report suggested the beneficial effects of an adaptation of the Flexyx Neurotherapy System (FNS) for the amelioration of mixed traumatic brain injury/post-traumatic stress symptoms in veterans of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars. As a novel variant of electroencephalograph biofeedback, FNS falls within the bioenergy domain of complementary and alternative medicine. Rather than learning voluntary control over the production/inhibition of brain wave patterns, FNS involves offsetting stimulation of brain wave activity by means of an external energy source, specifically, the conduction of electromagnetic energy stimulation via the connecting electroencephalograph cables. Essentially, these procedures subliminally induce strategic distortion of ongoing brain wave activity to presumably facilitate resetting of more adaptive patterns of activity. Reported herein are two cases of Vietnam veterans with mixed traumatic brain injury/post-traumatic stress symptoms, each treated with FNS for 25 sessions. Comparisons of pre- and post-treatment questionnaire assessments revealed notable decreases for all symptoms, suggesting improvements across the broad domains of cognition, pain, sleep, fatigue, and mood/emotion, including post-traumatic stress symptoms, as well as for overall activity levels. Findings suggest FNS treatment may be of potential benefit for the partial amelioration of symptoms, even in some individuals for whom symptoms have been present for decades.
Roque, Autumn Pearl
Post-traumatic stress disorder has a lifetime prevalence of almost 9% in the United States. The diagnosis is associated with increased rates of comorbid substance abuse and increased rates of depression. Providers are taught how to diagnose and treat PTSD, but little discussion is devoted to how to prevent the disorder. Behavioral research in animal studies has provided some evidence for the use of medications in decreasing the fear response and the reconsolidation of memories. A heightened fear response and the re-experience of traumatic memory are key components for diagnosis. The purpose of this literature review is to examine the evidence for pharmacotherapy as prophylactic treatment in acute stress/trauma in order to prevent the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. The body of the review includes discussions on medications, medications as adjunct to script-driven imagery, and special considerations for military, first responders, and women. This article concludes with implications for practice and recommendations for future research. The key words used for the literature search were "prophylactic treatment of PTSD," "pharmacotherapy and trauma," "pharmacological prevention of PTSD," "beta blockers and the prevention of PTSD," "acute stress and prevention of PTSD," "propranolol and PTSD," "secondary prevention of PTSD," and "medications used to prevent PTSD." Findings were categorized by medications and medications as adjunct to script-driven imagery. The literature suggests that hydrocortisone, propranolol, and morphine may decrease symptoms and diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder.
Mac Donald, Christine L; Adam, Octavian R; Johnson, Ann M; Nelson, Elliot C; Werner, Nicole J; Rivet, Dennis J; Brody, David L
High rates of adverse outcomes have been reported following blast-related concussive traumatic brain injury in US military personnel, but the extent to which such adverse outcomes can be predicted acutely after injury is unknown. We performed a prospective, observational study of US military personnel with blast-related concussive traumatic brain injury (n = 38) and controls (n = 34) enrolled between March and September 2012. Importantly all subjects returned to duty and did not require evacuation. Subjects were evaluated acutely 0-7 days after injury at two sites in Afghanistan and again 6-12 months later in the United States. Acute assessments revealed heightened post-concussive, post-traumatic stress, and depressive symptoms along with worse cognitive performance in subjects with traumatic brain injury. At 6-12 months follow-up, 63% of subjects with traumatic brain injury and 20% of controls had moderate overall disability. Subjects with traumatic brain injury showed more severe neurobehavioural, post-traumatic stress and depression symptoms along with more frequent cognitive performance deficits and more substantial headache impairment than control subjects. Logistic regression modelling using only acute measures identified that a diagnosis of traumatic brain injury, older age, and more severe post-traumatic stress symptoms provided a good prediction of later adverse global outcomes (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve = 0.84). Thus, US military personnel with concussive blast-related traumatic brain injury in Afghanistan who returned to duty still fared quite poorly on many clinical outcome measures 6-12 months after injury. Poor global outcome seems to be largely driven by psychological health measures, age, and traumatic brain injury status. The effects of early interventions and longer term implications of these findings are unknown.
Meentken, Maya G.; van Beynum, Ingrid M.; Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Helbing, Willem A.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.
Children and adolescents with a congenital heart defect (ConHD) frequently undergo painful or frightening medical procedures and hospitalizations. They often need multiple invasive procedures at a very young age and require regular checkups during their entire life. From other pediatric populations, it is known that these kinds of experiences can result in acute stress reactions and even in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the long-term. PTSD and also subthreshold PTSD can lead to serious (psychosocial) impairment. However, limited information is available about PTSD in children with ConHD. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide a summary of the current literature on post-traumatic stress (PTS) in children and adolescents with ConHD describing the prevalence of PTSD and its predictors/correlates. This review indicates that a range of 12–31% of children undergoing cardiac surgery develop PTSD. A range of 12–14% shows elevated post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). These findings are comparable to those of hospitalized children without ConHD. Noteworthy, most studies used varying self-report questionnaires to measure PTSD and only one study used a semistructured interview. Although all studies point in the same direction of elevated PTSD and PTSS, systematic research is necessary to be able to draw firm conclusions. At present, as far as we know, in most clinics treating patients with ConHD, there is no regular screening for PTS in children with ConHD. In the reviewed literature, there is strong consensus that screening for PTSS and (preventive) psychological care for children and adolescents with ConHD is urgently needed. PMID:28243582
Meentken, Maya G; van Beynum, Ingrid M; Legerstee, Jeroen S; Helbing, Willem A; Utens, Elisabeth M W J
Children and adolescents with a congenital heart defect (ConHD) frequently undergo painful or frightening medical procedures and hospitalizations. They often need multiple invasive procedures at a very young age and require regular checkups during their entire life. From other pediatric populations, it is known that these kinds of experiences can result in acute stress reactions and even in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the long-term. PTSD and also subthreshold PTSD can lead to serious (psychosocial) impairment. However, limited information is available about PTSD in children with ConHD. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide a summary of the current literature on post-traumatic stress (PTS) in children and adolescents with ConHD describing the prevalence of PTSD and its predictors/correlates. This review indicates that a range of 12-31% of children undergoing cardiac surgery develop PTSD. A range of 12-14% shows elevated post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). These findings are comparable to those of hospitalized children without ConHD. Noteworthy, most studies used varying self-report questionnaires to measure PTSD and only one study used a semistructured interview. Although all studies point in the same direction of elevated PTSD and PTSS, systematic research is necessary to be able to draw firm conclusions. At present, as far as we know, in most clinics treating patients with ConHD, there is no regular screening for PTS in children with ConHD. In the reviewed literature, there is strong consensus that screening for PTSS and (preventive) psychological care for children and adolescents with ConHD is urgently needed.
susceptibility to post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other stress-related disorders. We examined the relationship between mushroom , stubby, thin and...trend for a reduction in mushroom spine density (25%, p < 0.082). Levels of FKBP5 mRNA were marginally elevated in the PTSD cases (z = 1.94, p = 0.053...and levels correlated inversely with mushroom (Spearman’s rho = −0.83, p < 0.001) and overall spine density (rho = −0.75, p < 0.002) and directly
ORGANIZATION: Emory University Atlanta, GA 30322-1018 REPORT DATE: August 2012 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual Report PREPARED FOR: U.S...To) 1 August 2011–31 July 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Conditioned Fear Extinction and Generalization in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder...TT 100 RS4606 RGS2 CC 109 CG 88 GG 28 RS4680 COMT AA 44 GA 99 GG 83 RS4875113
Nehete, Rajendra; Nehete, Anita; Singla, Sandeep; Adhav, Harshad
In bilateral thumb amputations, the functional impairment is serious and every attempt should be made to reconstruct the thumb. We report a case of bilateral post traumatic thumb amputation, reconstructed with bilateral second toe transfer. Only two such cases have been reported in literature so far. Though there are various modalities for the reconstruction of thumb, microvascular toe transfer has its own merits. The convalescent period is minimal with excellent function. It is bilaterally symmetric and aesthetically superior to the osteoplastic reconstruction. The technical details are discussed, and the long term functional and aesthetic results are presented.
Shanker, V. S.; Gadikoppula, S.; Loeffler, M. D.
Two cases are presented of post traumatic para-articular osteoma developing at the site of tibial attachment of the medial collateral ligament of knee joint. These occurred after injuries sustained while playing football and in one case the ossified mass was treated with surgical excision for unresolved symptoms after conservative measures. A comparison is made with Pellegrini Stieda disease, which is a similar affection of the femoral insertion of the medial ligament of the knee joint. PMID:9562171
Flory, Janine D.; Yehuda, Rachel
Approximately half of people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) also suffer from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The current paper examines evidence for two explanations of this comorbidity. First, that the comorbidity reflects overlapping symptoms in the two disorders. Second, that the co-occurrence of PTSD and MDD is not an artifact, but represents a trauma-related phenotype, possibly a subtype of PTSD. Support for the latter explanation is inferred from literature that examines risk and biological correlates of PTSD and MDD, including molecular processes. Treatment implications of the comorbidity are considered. PMID:26246789
Eads, Bruce; Wark, David M
Alert hypnosis can be a valuable part of the treatment protocol for the resolution of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Research indicates that combat veterans with PTSD are more hypnotically susceptible than the general population. For that reason, it is hypothesized that they should be better able to use hypnosis in treatment. As opposed to the traditional modality, eyes-open alert hypnosis allows the patient to take advantage of hypnotic phenomena while participating responsibly in work, social life, and recreation. Three case studies are reported on combat veterans with PTSD who learned to overcome their symptoms using alert hypnosis.
Lu, Shun; Wu, Junwei; Fu, Baisheng; Dong, Jinlei; Yang, Yongliang; Xin, Maoyuan; Wang, Guodong; He, Tong-Chuan; Zhou, Dongsheng
Abstract While uncommon, post-traumatic pelvic malunions present reconstructive challenges and are associated with significant disability and financial burden. A transiliac osteotomy is a surgical technique useful to correct certain types of pelvic fracture malunions, and is only used when the correction of a limb-length discrepancy is the primary goal. This study aims to present our experience with this technique in the treatment of post-traumatic pelvic malunions. Eight patients who underwent transiliac osteotomies for post-traumatic pelvic malunions at our department from 2006 to 2011 were included in this study. We reviewed the clinical and radiographic results of these patients. By the time of their last follow-up, all osteotomy sites and iliac bone graft had healed with no evidence of internal fixation failure. Of the 3 patients who complained of preoperative posterior pain, 2 reported an improvement. All 8 patients noted the resolution of their lower back pain. At the time of their final follow-up, 4 patients could walk normally, 2 had a slight limp without a cane, 1 patient used a cane to help with standing and walking, and the final felt limited during ambulation with a cane. Limb-lengthening relative to preoperative measurements was 2.86 cm (2.2–3.0 cm) at the time of the last follow-up. Two patients were able to return to their previous jobs, 4 patients changed their jobs or engaged in light manual labor while the final 2 were able to perform activities of daily living but were unable to participate in work or labor. Three patients reported being “extremely satisfied” with their outcomes, 3 were “satisfied,” and 2 were “unsatisfied.” A transiliac osteotomy can be used to manage selected cases of post-traumatic pelvic malunions that are unable to be corrected with a traditional release and osteotomy. However, in these cases the correction of limb-length discrepancies should be the primary reconstructive goal. PMID:27043674
Flory, Janine D; Yehuda, Rachel
Approximately half of people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) also suffer from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The current paper examines evidence for two explanations of this comorbidity. First, that the comorbidity reflects overlapping symptoms in the two disorders. Second, that the co-occurrence of PTSD and MDD is not an artifact, but represents a trauma-related phenotype, possibly a subtype of PTSD. Support for the latter explanation is inferred from literature that examines risk and biological correlates of PTSD and MDD, including molecular processes. Treatment implications of the comorbidity are considered.
Steenkamp, Maria M; Nash, William P; Litz, Brett T
Since the start of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, the U.S. military has implemented several population-based initiatives to enhance psychological resilience and prevent psychological morbidity in troops. The largest of these initiatives is the Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program, which has been disseminated to more than 1 million soldiers. However, to date, CSF has not been independently and objectively reviewed, and the degree to which it successfully promotes adaptive outcomes and prevents the development of deployment-related mental health disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is uncertain. This paper critically evaluates the theoretic foundation for and evidence supporting the use of CSF.
Margolin, Gayla; Vickerman, Katrina A.
Exposure to child physical abuse and parents’ domestic violence can subject youth to pervasive traumatic stress and lead to Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The often repeating and ongoing nature of family violence exposure may result in youth exhibiting problems in multiple domains of functioning and meeting criteria for multiple disorders in addition to PTSD. These characteristics as well as unique factors related to children’s developmental level and symptom presentation complicate a PTSD diagnosis. This paper describes evolving conceptualizations in the burgeoning field of trauma related to family violence exposure, and reviews considerations that inform assessment and treatment planning for this population. PMID:20107623
Familiar, Itziar; Murray, Laura; Gross, Alden; Skavenski, Stephanie; Jere, Elizabeth; Bass, Judith
Background Scant information exists on PTSD symptoms and structure in youth from developing countries. Methods We describe the symptom profile and exposure to trauma experiences among 343 orphan and vulnerable children and adolescents from Zambia. We distinguished profiles of post-traumatic stress symptoms using latent class analysis. Results Average number of trauma-related symptoms (21.6; range 0-38) was similar across sex and age. Latent class model suggested 3 classes varying by level of severity: low (31% of the sample), medium (45% of the sample), and high (24% of the sample) symptomatology. Conclusions Results suggest that PTSD is a continuously distributed latent trait. PMID:25382359
Olavi, A; Kolari, P J; Esa, A
Impedancegraphy and laser Doppler flowmetry were used to measure whether limb circulation changes following post-traumatic immobilization and edema. Intermittent pneumatic compression was used for edema treatment. Limb blood flow due to edema was unchanged compared to the contralateral healthy leg. Intermittent pneumatic compression reduced edema very significantly (p less than 0.001). Intermittent compression showed a slight but significant (p less than 0.01) improvement in impedancegraph blood flow after treatment. Laser Doppler skin blood flow decreased non-significantly following the compression treatment.
Nehete, Rajendra; Nehete, Anita; Singla, Sandeep; Adhav, Harshad
In bilateral thumb amputations, the functional impairment is serious and every attempt should be made to reconstruct the thumb. We report a case of bilateral post traumatic thumb amputation, reconstructed with bilateral second toe transfer. Only two such cases have been reported in literature so far. Though there are various modalities for the reconstruction of thumb, microvascular toe transfer has its own merits. The convalescent period is minimal with excellent function. It is bilaterally symmetric and aesthetically superior to the osteoplastic reconstruction. The technical details are discussed, and the long term functional and aesthetic results are presented. PMID:22754176
Lambru, Giorgio; Castellini, Paola; Manzoni, Gian Camillo; Torelli, Paola
A correlation between head trauma and cluster headache is believed to exist. We report a case of post-traumatic episodic cluster headache that fulfills the criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition. The distinctive features of this case are: a close temporal relation between head trauma and headache onset; pain ipsilateral to the side of trauma; mild severity of trauma; episodic course well-responsive to low doses of verapamil. Given the close temporal relation between the 2 events, multiple hypotheses can be advanced about a possible role of head trauma in the pathogenesis of cluster headache.
Marcuzzi, A; Ozben, H; Russomando, A
The authors describe a case of post-traumatic wrist arthritis with an osteochondral defect in the scaphoid fossa of the radius. The patient was treated with proximal row carpectomy, radial styloidectomy and reconstruction of the defect using the proximal half of the scaphoid as an autologous osteochondral graft. Pain relief was achieved while wrist motion and strength were improved. The carpal bones are a source of osteochondral grafts and can be used to expand the indications of motion-preserving wrist salvage procedures.
Singer, Susanne; Götze, Heide; Buttstädt, Marianne; Ziegler, Corinna; Richter, Robert; Brown, Anna; Niederwieser, Dietger; Dorst, Jana; Jäkel, Nadja; Geue, Kristina
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of art therapy on post-traumatic growth in patients with haematological malignancies in a non-randomised trial (n = 36, intervention group; n = 129, control group). Art therapy was administered over a period of 22 weeks in small groups. Post-traumatic growth was measured with the Stress-Related Growth Scale. After controlling for the effect of potential confounders, no difference in post-traumatic growth was observed between the intervention and control groups after 22 weeks. There was no evidence for an effect of weekly group sessions with art therapy on post-traumatic growth in patients with haematological malignancies.
Swan, Sarah; Keen, Nadine; Reynolds, Nicola; Onwumere, Juliana
Individuals with severe mental health problems, such as psychosis, are consistently shown to have experienced high levels of past traumatic events. They are also at an increased risk of further traumatisation through victimization events such as crime and assault. The experience of psychosis itself and psychiatric hospitalization have also been recognized to be sufficiently traumatic to lead to the development of post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are elevated in people with psychosis compared to the general population. The current guidance for the treatment of PTSD is informed by an evidence base predominately limited to populations without co-morbid psychiatric disorders. The systematic review therefore sought to present the current available literature on the use of psychological treatments targeting PTS symptoms in a population with a primary diagnosis of a psychotic disorder. The review aimed to investigate the effect of these interventions on PTS symptoms and also the effect on secondary domains such as psychotic symptoms, affect and functioning. Fifteen studies were identified reporting on cognitive behavior therapy, prolonged exposure, eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing and written emotional disclosure. The review provides preliminary support for the safe use of trauma-focused psychological interventions in groups of people with severe mental health problems. Overall, the interventions were found to be effective in reducing PTS symptoms. Results were mixed with regard to secondary effects on additional domains. Further research including studies employing sufficiently powered methodologically rigorous designs is indicated. PMID:28352239
Bagarozzi, D A
Abortion has been reported to cause post-traumatic stress disorders in women. The manifestation of these disorders is usually delayed, and the causative effect of abortion is largely denied. Such denial is a major contributing factor to the development of the stress. This paper seeks to provide a model for assessment, treatment, and evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness that can be used when post-traumatic stress is diagnosed as a result of abortion. The possibilities of a delayed stress reaction should be examined when clients experience 1) flashbacks of the surgical procedure, people involved, or physical surroundings; 2) nightmares of being trapped in a man-made disaster and being unable to help others who are suffering from, participating in, or witnessing a terrorist act, ritual murder, or human sacrifice; 3) the sudden onset of sadomasochistic interactions or accident proneness where the client receives punishment/pain to alleviate hidden guilt; 4) sexual dysfunctions with no physiological basis; 5) uncharacteristic emotional outbursts; 6) the sudden onset of psychosomatic symptoms, and 7) impacted grief reactions. A detailed case study is presented to illustrate a number of clinical issues relevant to the treatment of a couple which had unresolved feelings about the wife's abortion before she met the husband and the abortion of the husband's girlfriend before he met his wife. Clinical experience suggests that the resolution of this conflict can be accomplished through short-term therapy, and further research is being conducted to determine how well treatment gains are being maintained.
Theeler, Brett; Lucas, Sylvia; Riechers, Ronald G; Ruff, Robert L
Post-traumatic headache (PTH) is the most frequent symptom after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We review the epidemiology and characterization of PTH in military and civilian settings. PTH appears to be more likely to develop following mild TBI (concussion) compared with moderate or severe TBI. PTH often clinically resembles primary headache disorders, usually migraine. For migraine-like PTH, individuals who had the most severe headache pain had the highest headache frequencies. Based on studies to date in both civilian and military settings, we recommend changes to the current definition of PTH. Anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are frequently associated with TBI, especially in military populations and in combat settings. PTSD can complicate treatment of PTH as a comorbid condition of post-concussion syndrome. PTH should not be treated as an isolated condition. Comorbid conditions such as PTSD and sleep disturbances also need to be treated. Double-blind placebo-controlled trials in PTH population are necessary to see whether similar phenotypes in the primary headache disorders and PTH will respond similarly to treatment. Until blinded treatment trials are completed, we suggest that, when possible, PTH be treated as one would treat the primary headache disorder(s) that the PTH most closely resembles.
King, Heather C; Spence, Dennis L; Hickey, Anita H; Sargent, Paul; Elesh, Ronald; Connelly, Cynthia D
The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of an auricular acupuncture (AA) insomnia regimen among Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder and sleep disturbance. Secondarily, this study examined the effect of an AA insomnia regimen on objective sleep times by wrist actigraphy, subjective sleep times by sleep diary, and sleep quality ratings utilizing the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. Veterans (n = 30) were randomized to receive a 3-week AA insomnia regimen. Veterans receiving the AA insomnia regimen reported it as a more acceptable treatment for sleep disturbance than subjects in the control group (AA group median = 5 vs. control group median = 3, p = 0.004). Significant differences between groups were found on the sleep quality and daytime dysfunction components of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (p = 0.003, p = 0.004). No other significant differences between groups were found for objective and subjective sleep measures. These results suggest that an AA insomnia regimen may improve sleep quality and daytime dysfunction among veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Future, large-scale, prospective clinical trials are needed to examine AA effects on sleep.
Ganger, Rudolf; Radler, Christof; Speigner, Bernhard; Grill, Franz
Twenty-five post-traumatic leg length discrepancies combined with axial deviation in 22 patients were treated with the Taylor spatial frame. We retrospectively analysed the accuracy of correction, the complication rate and the clinical outcome including the duration of treatment. The cases were divided into three sub-groups according to the level of the osteotomy. The mean age at operation was 22.7 years; the mean follow-up was 21.1 months. The patients presented uniplanar and multiplanar deformities in combination with leg length discrepancy. Twenty-one of 25 cases showed a frontal plane malalignment preoperatively. Only three of those 21 cases continued to show minimal malalignment postoperatively. The preoperative mechanical axis deviation present in 15 of 17 lower extremities was fully corrected in 13 extremities. The 25 lengthening and correction procedures were associated with a total of 61 difficulties, including 44 problems, seven obstacles and ten complications. In conclusion, the Taylor spatial frame allows accurate results in correction of complex post-traumatic deformities with minimal morbidity.
Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Dembińska, Edyta
The paper presents the post-war history of post-traumatic research conducted at the Department of Psychiatry of the Jagiellonian University and the analysis of the main research approaches and selected publications. The time after World War II passed in Poland in two directions: coping with the finished war trauma and simultaneously the experience of communist persecution trauma. First scientific publications appeared in the fifties and were focused on the research of former concentration camps prisoners (KZ-Syndrome). Between 1962 and 1989 a special edition of Przegląd Lekarski, which concentrated entirely on war trauma research, was published. The journal was nominated for the Peace Nobel Prize twice. The research team from the Department of Psychiatry headed by Professor Antoni Kępiński made a very extensive description of KZ-Syndrome issues. The paper summarizes the most important contemporary research findings on psychopathology of KZ-Syndrome (Szymusik), reaction dynamics (Teutsch), after camp adjustment (Orwid), paroxysmal hypermnesia (Półtawska), somatic changes (Gatarski, Witusik). The result of the study was the basis for the development of a methodology and a new look at the classification of the consequences of post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as the development of ethical attitudes towards patients.
Radler, Christof; Speigner, Bernhard; Grill, Franz
Twenty-five post-traumatic leg length discrepancies combined with axial deviation in 22 patients were treated with the Taylor spatial frame. We retrospectively analysed the accuracy of correction, the complication rate and the clinical outcome including the duration of treatment. The cases were divided into three sub-groups according to the level of the osteotomy. The mean age at operation was 22.7 years; the mean follow-up was 21.1 months. The patients presented uniplanar and multiplanar deformities in combination with leg length discrepancy. Twenty-one of 25 cases showed a frontal plane malalignment preoperatively. Only three of those 21 cases continued to show minimal malalignment postoperatively. The preoperative mechanical axis deviation present in 15 of 17 lower extremities was fully corrected in 13 extremities. The 25 lengthening and correction procedures were associated with a total of 61 difficulties, including 44 problems, seven obstacles and ten complications. In conclusion, the Taylor spatial frame allows accurate results in correction of complex post-traumatic deformities with minimal morbidity. PMID:19629482
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric disorder which is frequently comorbid with major depressive disorder (MDD). It has been suggested that some or all individuals diagnosed with comorbid PTSD and MDD have a separate psychobiological condition that can be termed ''post-traumatic mood disorder'' (PTMD). The idea was based on the fact that a significant number of studies suggested that patients suffering from comorbid PTSD and MDD differed clinically and biologically from individuals with PTSD alone or MDD alone. Individuals with comorbid PTSD and MDD are characterized by greater severity of symptoms and the higher level of impairment in social and occupational functioning compared to individuals with PTSD alone or MDD alone. Neurobiological evidence supporting the concept of PTMD includes the findings from neuroendocrine challenge, cerebrospinal fluid, neuroimaging, sleep and other studies. It has been demonstrated that child abuse increases the risk for PTSD, MDD, and suicidal behavior in adolescents and adults. Many victims of childhood abuse develop comorbid PTSD and depression, i.e., they develop PTMD. PTMD is associated with suicidal behavior. The link between childhood abuse, suicidal behavior in adolescents and PTMD indicates that it is important to develop interventions to prevent PTMD in victims of child abuse; to develop measures to prevent suicidal behavior in adolescents with PTMD; and to study psychobiology of PTMD in order to develop treatments for PTMD. Priorities for intervening to reduce adolescent suicidal behavior lie with interventions focused upon the improved recognition, treatment and management of adolescents with psychiatric disorders including PTMD.
Selaman, Zeynep M H; Chartrand, Hayley K; Bolton, James M; Sareen, Jitender
Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder are at increased risk for suicide attempts. The present study aimed to determine which of the specific DSM-IV symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are independently associated with suicide attempts. Data came from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). The NESARC has a sample size of N = 34653. The full sample size included in analyses was 2322 individuals with PTSD. Among individuals with lifetime PTSD, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, as well as any mood, substance, personality, or anxiety disorder (excluding PTSD), increasing numbers of re-experiencing and avoidance symptoms were significantly correlated with suicide attempts. Of the specific symptoms, having physical reactions by reminders of the trauma, being unable to recall some part of it, and having the sense of a foreshortened future, were all associated with suicide attempts. These findings will help extend our understanding of the elevated risk for suicide attempts in individuals with PTSD.
D'Ambrosio, Raimondo; Maris, Donald O.; Grady, M. Sean; Winn, H. Richard; Janigro, Damir
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be associated with memory impairment, cognitive deficits, or seizures, all of which can reflect altered hippocampal function. Whereas previous studies have focused on the involvement of neuronal loss in post-traumatic hippocampus, there has been relatively little understanding of changes in ionic homeostasis, failure of which can result in neuronal hyperexcitability and abnormal synchronization. Because glia play a crucial role in the homeostasis of the brain microenvironment, we investigated the effects of TBI on rat hippocampal glia. Using a fluid percussion injury (FPI) model and patch-clamp recordings from hippocampal slices, we have found impaired glial physiology 2 d after FPI. Electrophysiologically, we observed reduction in transient outward and inward K+ currents. To assess the functional consequences of these glial changes, field potentials and extracellular K+ activity were recorded in area CA3 during antidromic stimulation. An abnormal extracellular K+ accumulation was observed in the post-traumatic hippocampal slices, accompanied by the appearance of CA3 afterdischarges. After pharmacological blockade of excitatory synapses and of K+ inward currents, uninjured slices showed the same altered K+ accumulation in the absence of abnormal neuronal activity. We suggest that TBI causes loss of K+ conductance in hippocampal glia that results in the failure of glial K+ homeostasis, which in turn promotes abnormal neuronal function. These findings provide a new potential mechanistic link between traumatic brain injury and subsequent development of disorders such as memory loss, cognitive decline, seizures, and epilepsy. PMID:10479715
Nakagawa, Seishu; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Sakuma, Atsushi; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta
The relating to others factor of post-traumatic growth (PTG), which involves mutual help and a strong sense of connection with humanity, is important for young people who are coping with stress. The prefrontal cortex (PFC), especially the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), may play an important role in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with regard to coping and resilience. We hypothesized that the neural correlates of PTG may be responsible for resilience to the correlates of PTSD. Our study tested this hypothesis by examining whether measures of PTG, particularly the measures of relating to others after a disaster, were associated with increased regional grey matter volume (rGMV) in the PFC by assessing individuals who had experienced the East Japan Great Earthquake. We calculated the delta-rGMV by subtracting the rGMV obtained 3 months before the disaster from the rGMV obtained after this disaster using voxel-based morphometry. The magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from 26 subjects (M/F: 21/5; age: 21.2 ± 1.6 yrs.) showed that the total scores on a PTG inventory and the subscore for relating to others at the post-assessment were positively and significantly associated with the delta-rGMV in the right DLPFC. The DLPFC seems to be the main neural correlate of PTG. PMID:27670443
Anderson, Donald D.; Chubinskaya, Susan; Guilak, Farshid; Martin, James A.; Oegema, Theodore R.; Olson, Steven A.; Buckwalter, Joseph A.
Even with current treatments of acute joint injuries, more than 40% of people who suffer significant ligament or meniscus tears, or articular surface injuries, will develop osteoarthritis. Correspondingly, 12% or more of all patients with lower extremity osteoarthritis have a history of joint injury. Recent research suggests that acute joint damage that occurs at the time of an injury initiates a sequence of events that can lead to progressive articular surface damage. New molecular interventions, combined with evolving surgical methods, aim to minimize or prevent progressive tissue damage triggered by joint injury. Seizing the potential for progress in the treatment of joint injuries to forestall OA will depend on advances in: (1) quantitative methods of assessing the injury severity, including both structural damage and biologic responses, (2) understanding of the pathogenesis of post-traumatic OA, taking into account potential interactions among the different tissues and the role of post-traumatic incongruity and instability, and (3) application of engineering and molecular research to develop new methods of treating injured joints. This paper highlights recent advances in understanding of the structural damage and the acute biological response following joint injury, and it identifies important directions for future research. PMID:21520254
Friedland, Daniel; Swash, Michael
Retrospective assessment of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) must take into account factors other than traumatic brain injury (TBI) which may impact on memory both at the time of injury and subsequent to the injury. These include analgesics, anaesthesia required for surgery, and the development of acute or post-traumatic stress disorder. This is relevant in clinical and medicolegal settings. Repeated assessments of the post-injury state, involving tests for continuing amnesia, risk promoting recall of events suggested by the examiner, or generating confabulations. The PTA syndrome affects the categorical autobiographical memory, and is accompanied by confusion as an essential component; this should be suspected from the initial or early Glasgow Coma Scale score (13-14/15) if not directly recorded by clinical staff. PTA by itself is only one of several indices of severity of TBI. The nature of the head injury, including observers' accounts, clinical and neuroimaging data, the possible role of other external injuries, blood loss, acute stress disorder and the potential for hypoxic brain injury, must be taken into account as well as concomitant alcohol or substance abuse, and systemic shock. A plausible mechanism for a TBI must be demonstrable, and other causes of amnesia excluded.
Walters, A S; Hening, W A
Tremors in post-traumatic stress disorders have not been previously well characterized. A 67-year-old man has a 46-year history of a noise-induced exaggerated startle reflex followed by a large amplitude rest, postural and kinetic tremor that may persist for up to 3 days. This tremor is superimposed on a continuous mild organic postural/kinetic tremor whose electrophysiological characteristics are different from those of the overlying tremor. We attribute the exaggerated startle reflex and the noise-induced tremor to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and postulate a psychogenic origin for the noise-induced tremor. The patient also believes the noise-induced tremor to be psychologically based and to be produced by the fear and anxiety he experiences when he hears loud, unexpected noises. The sudden onset of the noise-induced tremor, its intermittent character, its temporary disappearance on distraction despite the patient's inability to suppress it, inconsistencies in handwriting and figure drawing, and the fact that the noise-induced tremor is stimulus specific and persists long after the offending stimulus (noise) is no longer present all suggest a tremor of psychogenic origin.
Houweling, Arthur R.; Bazhenov, Maxim; Timofeev, Igor; Steriade, Mircea; Sejnowski, Terrence J.
Chronically isolated neocortex develops chronic hyperexcitability and focal epileptogenesis in a period of days to weeks. The mechanisms operating in this model of post-traumatic epileptogenesis are not well understood. We hypothesized that the spontaneous burst discharges recorded in chronically isolated neocortex result from homeostatic plasticity (a mechanism generally assumed to stabilize neuronal activity) induced by low neuronal activity after deafferentation. To test this hypothesis we constructed computer models of neocortex incorporating a biologically based homeostatic plasticity rule that operates to maintain firing rates. After deafferentation, homeostatic upregulation of excitatory synapses on pyramidal cells, either with or without concurrent downregulation of inhibitory synapses or upregulation of intrinsic excitability, initiated slowly repeating burst discharges that closely resembled the epileptiform burst discharges recorded in chronically isolated neocortex. These burst discharges lasted a few hundred ms, propagated at 1–3 cm/s and consisted of large (10–15 mV) intracellular depolarizations topped by a small number of action potentials. Our results support a role for homeostatic synaptic plasticity as a novel mechanism of post-traumatic epileptogenesis. PMID:15483049
Kivling-Bodén, Gunilla; Sundbom, Elisabet
The overall aim was to study the relationship between post-traumatic symptoms and cognitive abilities among traumatized refugees from the former Yugoslavia, in psychiatric treatment. The results showed that a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as a higher level of post-traumatic symptoms, was significantly associated with poorer average cognitive performance. Three of four tests of fluid intelligence, and the Benton Visual Retention Test, assessing episodic memory, were the most discriminating. A specific constellation of PTSD symptoms, dominated by arousal and intrusive symptoms, had a significant overall correlation with intellectual performance. One implication of the study is that assessment of cognitive abilities might be advisable in this patient group, in particular when arousal and re-experiencing symptoms are frequent.
Slater, P M
Two obstetric patients presenting with post-traumatic stress disorder in the antenatal period are discussed. The first patient had previously had an unexpected stillborn delivered by emergency caesarean section under general anaesthesia. She developed post-traumatic stress disorder and presented for repeat caesarean section in her subsequent pregnancy, suffering flashbacks and severe anxiety. Following antenatal preparation with hypnosis and a psychological method called the rewind technique, she had a repeat caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia, successfully managing her anxiety. The second patient suffered post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms after developing puerperal psychosis during the birth of her first child. Before the birth of her second child, she was taught self-hypnosis, which she used during labour in which she had an uneventful water birth. These cases illustrate the potential value of hypnosis and alternative psychological approaches in managing women with severe antenatal anxiety.
Stratta, Paolo; Sanità, Patrizia; Bonanni, Roberto L; de Cataldo, Stefano; Angelucci, Adriano; Rossi, Rodolfo; Origlia, Nicola; Domenici, Luciano; Carmassi, Claudia; Piccinni, Armando; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Rossi, Alessandro
Clinical correlates of plasma Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) have been investigated in a clinical population with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms and healthy control subjects who survived to the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake. Twenty-six outpatients and 14 control subjects were recruited. Assessments included: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders Patient Version, Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR) for post-traumatic spectrum symptoms. Thirteen patients were diagnosed as Full PTSD and 13 as Partial PTSD. The subjects with full-blown PTSD showed lower BDNF level than subjects with partial PTSD and controls. Different relationship patterns of BDNF with post-traumatic stress spectrum symptoms have been reported in the three samples. Our findings add more insight on the mechanisms regulating BDNF levels in response to stress and further proofs of the utility of the distinction of PTSD into full and partial categories.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and... Gynecological Diagnostic Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories. (a) Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories is a device used to test the...
Nakase, T; Ohzono, K; Shimizu, N; Yoshikawa, H
A case of deformity and shortening after post-traumatic growth arrest treated using the Taylor Spatial Frame (Smith & Nephew, Tennessee, USA) is presented. This is the first report showing the application of the frame for post-traumatic deformity in the distal femur, and successful outcomes promise utilization of the frame even for correction of severe deformity in the distal femur.
Arcuri, Francesco; Baragiotta, Nicola; Poglio, Giuseppe; Benech, Arnaldo
We describe delayed treatment of a post-traumatic fracture of the anterior table of the frontal sinus with a titanium mesh using an endoscopic approach. To our knowledge this is the first case of a delayed post-traumatic deformity of the anterior table being treated by this method.
Background The incidence of severe maternal morbidity is increasing in high-income countries as a consequence, in part, of increased obstetric intervention and increasingly complex medical needs of women who become pregnant. Access to emergency obstetric care means that for the majority of women in these countries, an experience of severe maternal morbidity is unlikely to result in loss of life. However, little is known about the subsequent impact on postnatal psychological health resulting in an evidence gap to support provision of appropriate care for these women. There has recently been increasing recognition that childbirth can be a cause of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The combination of experiencing a life-threatening complication and its management may culminate in psychological trauma. This systematic review examined the association between women’s experience of severe maternal morbidity during labour, at the time of giving birth or within the first week following birth, and PTSD and its symptoms. Methods Relevant literature was identified through multiple databases, including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, Web of Science, Cochrane library and the British Library, using predetermined search strategies. The search terms included "post-traumatic stress disorder", "PTSD", "stress disorders, post-traumatic", "maternal morbidity", “pregnancy complications” “puerperal disorders”, "obstetric labo(u)r complication", "postpartum h(a)emorrhage", "eclampsia”. Studies identified were categorised according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of included studies was assessed using the relevant CASP appraisal tools. Results Eleven primary studies met review criteria. Evidence of a relationship between severe maternal morbidity and PTSD/PTSD symptoms was inconsistent and findings varied between studies. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that severe pre-eclampsia is a risk factor for PTSD and its
Bokhari, Rakan Farouk; Bangash, Mohammad Hasan; Ahamed, Naushad Ali Basheer; Addas, Jameel
Lipomatous extra-axial lesions in the Sylvian fissure are a rare entity. Their identification, however, is usually simple if a systematic radiological approach is adopted. The best line of management for these lesions is still a matter of controversy and fraught with complications. We present a case of a Sylvian fissure lipoma referred to our neurosurgery services with symptomatic seizures and in a post-traumatic patient. The radiological differentiating features of intracranial lipomas and intracranial dermoids have been discussed. The unusual location of the lesion, in combination with the history of seizures and the nature of presentation (trauma being a red-herring) make this case an interesting find. The lesion was managed conservatively with good outcomes at follow up, on anti-epileptic medications. PMID:24967029
Liberzon, Israel; Abelson, James L
Progress in clinical and affective neuroscience is redefining psychiatric illness as symptomatic expression of cellular/molecular dysfunctions in specific brain circuits. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been an exemplar of this progress, with improved understanding of neurobiological systems subserving fear learning, salience detection, and emotion regulation explaining much of its phenomenology and neurobiology. However, many features remain unexplained and a parsimonious model that more fully accounts for symptoms and the core neurobiology remains elusive. Contextual processing is a key modulatory function of hippocampal-prefrontal-thalamic circuitry, allowing organisms to disambiguate cues and derive situation-specific meaning from the world. We propose that dysregulation within this context-processing circuit is at the core of PTSD pathophysiology, accounting for much of its phenomenology and most of its biological findings. Understanding core mechanisms like this, and their underlying neural circuits, will sharpen diagnostic precision and understanding of risk factors, enhancing our ability to develop preventive and "personalized" interventions.
de Sousa, Ricardo Jorge Gomes; Pinto, Ricardo Pedro Ferreira Rodrigues; de Oliveira Massada, Marta Maria Teixeira; Pereira, Manuel Alexandre Negrais Pinho Gonçalves; Geada, José Muras; Costa, Isabel Maria Gonçalves
Talus fractures often lead to late post-traumatic arthrosis. In such cases, the use of latest generation, cementless prostheses has been hindered by the presence of avascular necrosis. We report the case of a 65-year-old patient who presented four years after a talus neck fracture. He had painful ankle arthrosis (AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score 19) and avascular necrosis, with collapse of the entire talar dome. Given the extent of the necrosis, it was decided to cement the talus prosthetic component. One year after the surgery, the patient shows good clinical and radiological results (AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score 87) and is satisfied with the procedure. We are not aware of any similar reports in the literature. PMID:27026994
Junqueira, Jader Joel Machado; Helito, Camilo Partezani; Bonadio, Marcelo Batista; Pécora, Jose Ricardo; Demange, Marco Kawamura
Chronic lateral dislocation of the patella is a rare condition and acquired causes are usually secondary to knee trauma. The neglected chronic dislocation leads to progressive genu valgum and external tibial torsion deformities with subsequent gonarthrosis, which becomes painful and debilitating. There is no consensus regarding treatment of these patients, but total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a useful therapy in cases of painful symptomatic gonarthrosis. Few reports have shown that subvastus approach and lateral release may be a valid option for TKA, since it allows the correction of valgus deformity and patellar tracking without interrupting vascular blood supply of patella. This article reports a case of TKA and extensor mechanism realignment without patellar resurfacing in a patient with genu valgum and chronic post-traumatic patellar dislocation with satisfactory results after two years of follow-up.
Ryan, Joanne; Chaudieu, Isabelle; Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Saffery, Richard
Certain individuals are more susceptible to stress and trauma, as well as the physical and mental health consequences following such exposure, including risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This differing vulnerability is likely to be influenced by genetic predisposition and specific characteristics of the stress itself (nature, intensity and duration), as well as epigenetic mechanisms. In this review we provide an overview of research findings in this field. We highlight some of the key genetic risk factors identified for PTSD, and the evidence that epigenetic processes might play a role in the biological response to trauma, as well as being potential biomarkers of PTSD risk. We also discuss important considerations for future research in this area.
Rubin, Mikael; Hien, Denise A; Das, Dipanjana; Melara, Robert D
This study is the first to explore spontaneous eye blink rate (sEBR) in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We investigated the connection between the magnitude of flanker interference in PTSD participants and sEBR during performance on a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task. As a peripheral measure of cognitive control and dopaminergic function, sEBR may illuminate the relationship between PTSD and executive function. Findings revealed a positive relationship between sEBR and flanker interference in participants diagnosed with PTSD, to both threat-related and neutral stimuli, whereas this relationship was negative in participants exposed to trauma but without PTSD and in healthy controls. Although our results are suggestive of sEBR as a potential physiological index of emotional management in PTSD, most of the correlations were not significant, indicating that further research with a larger sample is needed.
Nguyen, Son; Pak, Mila; Paoli, Daniel; Neff, Donna F
The clinical characteristics of emergence delirium (ED) associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among military veterans encompass transient agitation, restlessness, disorientation, and violent verbal and physical behaviors due to re-experiencing of PTSD-related incidents. Two cases of ED after general anesthesia associated with PTSD are presented. Different anesthesia methods were applied for the two cases. A traditional medical approach appeared not to prevent the incidence of ED. In the second case, dexmedetomidine infusion along with verbal coaching was effective in preventing ED for a veteran known to have "wild wake-ups" with prior anesthetics. Further clinical studies in effectively utilizing dexmedetomidine in this population with PTSD at high risk for ED are warranted.
Liu, Yang; Li, Liang; Li, Baojuan; Zhang, Xi; Lu, Hongbing
To explore the alteration in white matter between survivors with recent onset post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and without PTSD, who survived from the same coal mine flood disaster, the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequences were analyzed using DTI studio and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) packages in this paper. From DTI sequence, the fractional anisotropy (FA) value describes the degree of anisotropy of a diffusion process, while the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value reflects the magnitude of water diffusion. The DTI analyses between PTSD and non-PTSD indicate lower FA values in the right caudate nucleus, right middle temporal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, and right superior temporal gyrus, and higher ADC values in the right superior temporal gyrus and right corpus callosum of the subjects with PTSD. These results are partly in line with our previous volume and cortical thickness analyses, indicating the importance of multi-modality analysis for PTSD.
Mishra, Tushar Subhadarshan; Sasmal, Prakash Kumar; Rout, Bikram; Sharma, Rakesh
Ectopic nail or Onychoheterotopia is an uncommon clinical entity. They are usually congenital; the acquired variety is very rare. The exact pathogenesis of the disease is not clear. They present as a nail like outgrowth, distinct from the classic nail units which is usually asymptomatic. The dorsal aspect of fingers and toes are mostly affected. We present a case of a 24-year-old male with post-traumatic ectopic nail of right middle finger. Complete surgical excision of the ectopic nail was done with its germinal matrix. The patient didn’t have any evidence of recurrence after one year of follow-up, with satisfactory cosmetic outcome. This article highlights the classic presentation of a case of ectopic nail with its surgical management and brief review of literature. PMID:28050430
Morino, Michiharu; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Sakamoto, Shinichi; Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro; Ohata, Kenji; Hara, Mitsuhiro
A 25-year-old man presented with intractable post-traumatic seizures after suffering cerebral contusion in a traffic accident at age 5 years. Cerebral hemispherotomy was performed to transect the neuronal fibers to interrupt connections between seizure foci in wide areas of the brain, and to minimize the resected brain parenchyma. His seizures resolved and behavioral disorders improved, which had been impaired since age 8 years. Increased glucose metabolism in the normal frontal lobe detected by interictal fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography was correlated with the improvements in behavioral disorders. These findings suggest that the effects of seizures may be reversible in brain areas connected with, but remote from, the epileptogenic cortex.
Sherin, Jonathan E.; Nemeroff, Charles B.
The classic fight-or-flight response to perceived threat is a reflexive nervous phenomenon thai has obvious survival advantages in evolutionary terms. However, the systems that organize the constellation of reflexive survival behaviors following exposure to perceived threat can under some circumstances become dysregulated in the process. Chronic dysregulation of these systems can lead to functional impairment in certain individuals who become “psychologically traumatized” and suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), A body of data accumulated over several decades has demonstrated neurobiological abnormalities in PTSD patients. Some of these findings offer insight into the pathophysiology of PTSD as well as the biological vulnerability of certain populations to develop PTSD, Several pathological features found in PTSD patients overlap with features found in patients with traumatic brain injury paralleling the shared signs and symptoms of these clinical syndromes. PMID:22034143
Bell, Jordan B; Nye, Ella C
Previous research documented the elevated risk of suicide and suicidal ideation among Vietnam veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the current study was to examine which Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, PTSD symptom clusters are most associated with suicidal ideation in this population. Fifty Vietnam combat veterans enrolled in treatment for PTSD responded to the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation and were interviewed with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. In linear regression analysis, it was found that the reexperiencing symptom cluster was significantly associated with suicidal ideation but the other two symptom clusters (avoidance/numbing and increased arousal) were not. Furthermore, scores on a measure of severity of combat exposure were not found to be significantly related to PTSD symptoms or suicidal ideation. The results of this study suggest the importance of reexperiencing symptoms for predicting which individuals with combat-related PTSD are most at risk for suicidal ideation and behavior.
Qi, Wei; Gevonden, Martin; Shalev, Arieh
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a frequent, tenacious, and disabling consequence of traumatic events. The disorder's identifiable onset and early symptoms provide opportunities for early detection and prevention. Empirical findings and theoretical models have outlined specific risk factors and pathogenic processes leading to PTSD. Controlled studies have shown that theory-driven preventive interventions, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), or stress hormone-targeted pharmacological interventions, are efficacious in selected samples of survivors. However, the effectiveness of early clinical interventions remains unknown, and results obtained in aggregates (large groups) overlook individual heterogeneity in PTSD pathogenesis. We review current evidence of PTSD prevention and outline the need to improve the disorder's early detection and intervention in individual-specific paths to chronic PTSD.
Nguyen, Son; Paoli, Daniel; Neff, Donna F
The clinical characteristics of emergence delirium (ED) associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among military veterans encompass transient agitation, restlessness, disorientation, and violent verbal and physical behaviors due to re-experiencing of PTSD-related incidents. Two cases of ED after general anesthesia associated with PTSD are presented. Different anesthesia methods were applied for the two cases. A traditional medical approach appeared not to prevent the incidence of ED. In the second case, dexmedetomidine infusion along with verbal coaching was effective in preventing ED for a veteran known to have “wild wake-ups” with prior anesthetics. Further clinical studies in effectively utilizing dexmedetomidine in this population with PTSD at high risk for ED are warranted. PMID:28083465
Lynn, Steven Jay; Malakataris, Anne; Condon, Liam; Maxwell, Reed; Cleere, Colleen
In this article, we describe how cognitive hypnotherapy can be used in conjunction with evidence-based practices for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We review cognitive-behavioral interventions for PTSD, including mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches, and contend that (a) empirical support for the use of hypnosis in treating a variety of conditions is considerable; (b) hypnosis is fundamentally a cognitive-behavioral intervention; (c) psychological interventions with a firm footing in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are well-suited to treat the symptoms of PTSD; and (d) hypnosis can be a useful adjunct to evidence-based cognitive-behavioral approaches, including mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions, for treating PTSD.
Patel, Amit; Jhaveri, Maulik; Golwala, Paresh
Tarsometatarsal (TMT) arthritis is characterized by instability and pain in the foot. The commonest cause is post-traumatic arthritis. A Lisfranc injury involves the articulation between the medial cuneiform and the base of the second metatarsal, which is considered a keystone to midfoot integrity. Neglected or undertreated injury to the Lisfranc joint complex leads to secondary arthritis and significant disability. We present a case of a young male patient with a two-year-old neglected Lisfranc joint injury and secondary osteoarthritis of the first, second, and fourth TMT joints, which we treated surgically with arthrodesis using screws, with a good functional outcome on final follow-up. PMID:28090416
Brenner, Lisa A.
Advances in imaging technology, coupled with military personnel returning home from Iraq and Afghanistan with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and/or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), have increased interest in the neuropsychology and neurobiology of these two conditions. There has been a particular focus on differential diagnosis. This paper provides an overviev of findings regarding the neuropsychological and neurobiological underpinnings of TBI andfor PTSD. A specific focus is on assessment using neuropsychological measures and imaging techniques. Challenges associated with the assessment of individuals with one or both conditions are also discussed. Although use of neuropsychological and neuroimaging test results may assist with diagnosis and treatment planning, further work is needed to identify objective biomarkers for each condition. Such advances would be expected to facilitate differential diagnosis and implementation of best treatment practices. PMID:22034217
Parsons, Ryan G; Ressler, Kerry J
Post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder and phobia manifest in ways that are consistent with an uncontrollable state of fear. Their development involves heredity, previous sensitizing experiences, association of aversive events with previous neutral stimuli, and inability to inhibit or extinguish fear after it is chronic and disabling. We highlight recent progress in fear learning and memory, differential susceptibility to disorders of fear, and how these findings are being applied to the understanding, treatment and possible prevention of fear disorders. Promising advances are being translated from basic science to the clinic, including approaches to distinguish risk versus resilience before trauma exposure, methods to interfere with fear development during memory consolidation after a trauma, and techniques to inhibit fear reconsolidation and to enhance extinction of chronic fear. It is hoped that this new knowledge will translate to more successful, neuroscientifically informed and rationally designed approaches to disorders of fear regulation.
Forinder, Ulla; Claesson, Lovisa; Szybek, Katharina; Lindahl Norberg, Annika
In the present study the aim was to explore the content in a trauma reported in a self-report questionnaire by parents of children with a life threatening illness. Semi-structured interviews were performed, with the aim to explore the specific cognitive and behavioral content of the trauma related symptoms reported by the individual informant. The transcripts of the interviews were analyzed with content analysis using a direct approach with a-priori categories according to the B and C categories of the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for PTSD. The results give us the picture of a complex situation, where the self-report instrument PCL captured a spectrum of qualitatively different cognitions. The parents described traumatic thoughts and images relating not only to experiences in the past (i.e., truly post-traumatic), but also to current stressors and expected future events. PMID:25965909
Zhao, Zhongting; Zhang, Wei; Xing, Jiaming; Yan, Xingke
From the TCM theoretical basis and the evidences of acupoint selection and acupuncture and moxibustion methods regarding acupuncture for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a theoretical discussion is made in this article, also a review regarding the key mechanism of experiment researches on acupuncture for PTSD is made from aspects of neurobiology and brain functional imaging, etc., which could further clarify the effect mechanism of acupuncture on PTSD. It is found that PTSD is a kind of stress syndrome accompanied with a variety of abnormal mental symptom , and acupuncture has superior effect on PTSD. Based on these, the research progress and deficiency on current mechanism study of PTSD are reviewed, hoping to offer ideas for upcoming research and to serve the clinical practice better.
Nishizaki, K; Akagi, H; Ogawa, T; Yuen, K; Masuda, Y
We report a unique case of post-traumatic guitar-shaped deformity of the tympanic membrane in an 8-year-old boy. After a traffic accident, he exhibited bleeding from the ear, incomplete facial palsy and a conductive hearing loss on the left side. Although his symptoms gradually improved, the deformity of the tympanic membrane and external auditory canal persisted. The tympanic membrane appeared to be duplicated. Careful examination using an otoscope was required for accurate diagnosis. Without knowledge of the deformity, the physician could easily misinterpret the appearance of the tympanic membrane. Formation of cholesteatoma was not observed and the normal migration of the epithelium in the external auditory canal seemed to be maintained. However, we were concerned that tubal dysfunction could eventually induce the retraction and atrophy of the tympanic membrane to ultimately form a cholesteatoma. We therefore recommend patients such as this to be evaluated periodically because of the risk of tubal dysfunction and cholesteatoma.
Jankowski, Pawel P; Levy, Michael L; Crawford, John Ross
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare tumour of childhood with 15-20 cases reported yearly in North America. We present a case of a 13-year-old boy diagnosed with PCNSL who presented more than one-and-a-half years post-treatment with high dose cytosine arabinoside and methotrexate with a right-sided basal ganglia haemorrhage on MRI following a concussion while playing organised football against medical advice. There was no evidence of an underlying vascular malformation or recurrent disease by MRI, cerebrospinal fluid analysis or positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). However, 6 months post-injury he presented with asymptomatic disease recurrence of the frontal lobe. Our case reports an unusual MRI pattern of post-traumatic injury in a child previously treated for PCNSL that would support a recommendation for the avoidance of contact sports in this population.
Beckham, Jean C; Wiley, Matthew T; Miller, Susannah C; Dennis, Michelle F; Wilson, Sarah M; McClernon, F Joseph; Calhoun, Patrick S
Using ambulatory methods for 1 week of monitoring, this study investigated the association between smoking and situational cues in 22 smokers with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 23 smokers without PTSD. Generalized estimating equations contrasted 1,759 smoking and 1,088 nonsmoking situations by group status controlling for multiple covariates. PTSD smokers reported higher stress and PTSD symptoms across daily activities. For all smokers, higher nicotine dependence, craving, food and caffeine consumption, and being outside were related to smoking. PTSD smokers were more likely to smoke when experiencing PTSD symptoms, anxiety, and stress. Following smoking, smokers with PTSD reported a significant reduction in negative affect. These results are consistent with previous ambulatory findings regarding mood in smokers, and underscore that in smokers with PTSD, PTSD symptom variables as well as stress and anxiety are significantly associated with ad lib smoking.
Ashby, Bethany D; Kaul, Paritosh
The sexual assault of girls and women in this country is estimated at approximately 20%. The development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after sexual abuse and assault is one of the potential lingering aftereffects. In this article we describe PTSD after sexual abuse and its effect on presenting complaints, such as sexually transmitted infections, contraception, and chronic pain, for the pediatric and adolescent gynecology (PAG) clinician. Treatment approaches, including the use of antidepressants and anxiolytics, as well as evidenced-based psychotherapies, are highlighted. In addition, this article will assist the PAG clinician in identifying trauma-related concerns during clinic visits and will cover specific screening tools to aid in identification of PTSD. A better understanding of PTSD after sexual abuse will allow PAG providers to deliver better care to their patients.
Candel, Ingrid; Merckelbach, Harald
In psychiatric literature, dissociative reactions at the time of a traumatic event (i.e., peritraumatic dissociation) are considered to be risk factors for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this article, we critically review research concerned with the link between peritraumatic dissociation and PTSD. Our main point is that studies in this area heavily rely on retrospective reports of dissociative reactions during the trauma. We argue that this methodology has important limitations since people in general and PTSD patients in particular find it difficult to give accurate descriptions of past emotional states. Restrictive factors that play a role in this context have to do with forgetting, attribution, and malingering.
Corrigan, Frank M.; Hull, Alastair M.
Evidence of efficacy in studies of post-traumatic conditions is largely derived from studies in which variables are kept to a minimum. Extrapolation of treatments from uncomplicated disorders to complex conditions may therefore be called evidence-based without being evidenced. Complex conditions with polysymptomatic presentations and extensive comorbidity are being denied proper evaluation, and patients most severely traumatised from the early stages of their development are not provided with rigorously evaluated psychotherapies because they are more difficult to study in the manner approved by research protocols. Such evidence as there is suggests that the simple extension of treatments for uncomplicated disorders is seriously inadequate. This has significant implications for health services responsible for the provision of the most efficacious treatments to those whose disorders arise from severe trauma, often very early in their life. PMID:26191439
Rubin, Mikael; Hien, Denise A.; Das, Dipanjana; Melara, Robert D.
This study is the first to explore spontaneous eye blink rate (sEBR) in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We investigated the connection between the magnitude of flanker interference in PTSD participants and sEBR during performance on a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task. As a peripheral measure of cognitive control and dopaminergic function, sEBR may illuminate the relationship between PTSD and executive function. Findings revealed a positive relationship between sEBR and flanker interference in participants diagnosed with PTSD, to both threat-related and neutral stimuli, whereas this relationship was negative in participants exposed to trauma but without PTSD and in healthy controls. Although our results are suggestive of sEBR as a potential physiological index of emotional management in PTSD, most of the correlations were not significant, indicating that further research with a larger sample is needed. PMID:28165364
Combs, Hannah L; Berry, David T R; Pape, Theresa; Babcock-Parziale, Judith; Smith, Bridget; Schleenbaker, Randal; Shandera-Ochsner, Anne; Harp, Jordan P; High, Walter M
United States veterans of the Iraqi (Operation Iraqi Freedom [OIF]) and Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom [OEF]) conflicts have frequently returned from deployment after sustaining mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and enduring stressful events resulting in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A large number of returning service members have been diagnosed with both a history of mTBI and current PTSD. Substantial literature exists on the neuropsychological factors associated with mTBI and PTSD occurring separately; far less research has explored the combined effects of PTSD and mTBI. The current study employed neuropsychological and psychological measures in a sample of 251 OIF/OEF veterans to determine whether participants with a history of mTBI and current PTSD (mTBI+PTSD) have poorer cognitive and psychological outcomes than participants with mTBI only (mTBI-o), PTSD only (PTSD-o), or veteran controls (VC), when groups are comparable on intelligence quotient, education, and age. The mTBI+PTSD group performed more poorly than VC, mTBI-o, and PTSD-o groups on several neuropsychological measures. Effect size comparisons suggest small deleterious effects for mTBI-o on measures of processing speed and visual attention and small effects for PTSD-o on measures of verbal memory, with moderate effects for mTBI+PTSD on the same variables. Additionally, the mTBI+PTSD group was significantly more psychologically distressed than the PTSD-o group, and PTSD-o group was more distressed than VC and mTBI-o groups. These findings suggest that veterans with mTBI+PTSD perform significantly lower on neuropsychological and psychiatric measures than veterans with mTBI-o or PTSD-o. The results also raise the possibility of mild but persisting cognitive changes following mTBI sustained during deployment.
Background This study investigates the outcome of crisis intervention for chronic post traumatic disorders with a model based on the theory that such crises manifest trauma in the present. The sufferer's behavior is in response to the current perception of dependency and entrapment in a mistrusted relationship. The mechanism of disorder is the sufferer's activity, which aims to either prove or disprove the perception of entrapment, but, instead, elicits more semblances of it in a circular manner. Patients have reasons to keep such activity private from therapy and are barely aware of it as the source of their symptoms. Methods The hypothesis is that the experimental intervention will reduce symptoms broadly within 8 to 24 h from initiation of treatment, compared to treatment as usual. The experimental intervention sidesteps other symptoms to engage patients in testing the trustworthiness of the troubled relationship with closure, thus ending the circularity of their own ways. The study compares 32 experimental subjects with 26 controls at similar crisis stabilization units. Results The results of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) supported the hypothesis (both in total score and for four of five subscales), as did results with Client Observation, a pilot instrument designed specifically for the circular behavior targeted by the experimental intervention. Results were mostly non-significant from two instruments of patient self-observation, which provided retrospective pretreatment scores. Conclusions The discussion envisions further steps to ascertain that this broad reduction of symptoms ensues from the singular correction that distinguishes the experimental intervention. Trial registration Protocol Registration System NCT00269139. The PRS URL is https://register.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:20420716
Robinson, Sarah R.; Jobson, Laura A.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and autobiographical memory specificity in older adults. Method: Older adult trauma survivors (N = 23) completed the Autobiographical Memory Test, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and Addenbrooke's Cognitive…
Native American Development Corp., Washington, DC.
Stress can make a person more apt to abuse alcohol and drugs. Based on interviews with Phil Tingley, president of the National Indian Social Workers Association, this booklet suggests that some Native American youth are victims of a special kind of stress--post-traumatic stress (PTS). PTS symptoms are delayed mental and physical responses to…
Quinn, Kathleen L.
Literature exists to support the statement that children suffer from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The diagnosis is not one that is commonly made in children and is generally considered occurring in returning war veterans or adult victims of trauma, including incest. The American Psychological Association (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical…
Gilderthorp, Rosanna C.
This study aimed to critically review all studies that have set out to evaluate the use of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for people diagnosed with both intellectual disability (ID) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Searches of the online databases Psych Info, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, The Cochrane…
Whalley, Matthew G.; Rugg, Michael D.; Smith, Adam P. R.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Brewin, Chris R.
In the present study, we used fMRI to assess patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depression, and trauma-exposed controls, during an episodic memory retrieval task that included non-trauma-related emotional information. In the study phase of the task neutral pictures were presented in emotional or neutral contexts.…
Widome, Rachel; Kehle, Shannon M.; Carlson, Kathleen F.; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Gulden, Ashley; Lust, Katherine
Objective: To determine if post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with health risk behaviors among Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans attending college. Method: Using 2008 Boynton College Student Health Survey data, we tested associations between self-reported PTSD diagnosis and self-reported risk behaviors…
Stallard, Paul; Smith, Elisabeth
Background: Comparatively little is known about the cognitive appraisals and coping styles of child road traffic accident (RTA) survivors that are associated with chronic post-traumatic reactions. Methods: Seventy-five children and young people aged 7-18 who were involved in a road traffic accident and attended an accident and emergency department…
Miller, David J.; And Others
It has been documented that exposure to severe and prolonged stress can result in emotional disturbances which may last for decades. Research has focused on the diagnosis of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), symptoms of which include flashbacks, increased startle response, interpersonal withdrawal, suspiciousness, impulsivity, and…
Woods, Stephanie J.
This article presents a review of knowledge regarding post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women experiencing intimate partner violence. Knowledge related to the prevalence and predictors of PTSD in battered women, the association between PTSD and physical health, and the emerging science regarding PTSD and physiological and immune parameters…
This article discusses the biomedical and the social constructionist models applied to response to trauma, presents the prevalence and the etiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and describes its biological and psychological correlates in children and adults. It concludes that future research might benefit from investigating factors…
Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.
This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse…
Cowher, Salene J.
The author recently spent part of a sabbatical from her university exploring the most current research on treating clients diagnosed with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). During the sabbatical, she was struck by how her own complacency had become unintentionally disinviting to her work with these clients, as she learned that preconceptions…
Many students enter the postsecondary classroom with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), but do not disclose their disability for fear of stigma from the school and the instructors they must face. For the past 7 years, this author has noticed that, when instructional designs incorporate practices that meet the needs and learning processes of…
Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD) is found more frequently in inner-city African American and Latino youth than in European American youth. Previous research on PTSD and its relationship with inner-city violence, minority youth, school violence and institutionalized oppression is examined. School counselor's roles and possible interventions…
Runyon, Melissa K.; Faust, Jan; Orvaschel, Helen
A study examined differences in the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomalogy among 96 abused children with and without concurrent depression. Analysis revealed that three post-trauma symptoms, including psychological amnesia, flashbacks/reenactments, and sleep difficulties, discriminated among groups. Children with PTSD and depression…
Karcher, Christopher Robb
This review of research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children resulting from human violence focuses on methodological issues, types of violence, treatment issues, and directions for future research. Literature reviewed is predominantly that published since 1986. An introduction offers background information and examines the…
Pierrehumbert, B; Nicole, A; Muller-Nix, C; Forcada-Guex, M; Ansermet, F
Background: Progress in perinatal medicine has made it possible to increase the survival of very or extremely low birthweight infants. Developmental outcomes of surviving preterm infants have been analysed at the paediatric, neurological, cognitive, and behavioural levels, and a series of perinatal and environmental risk factors have been identified. The threat to the child's survival and invasive medical procedures can be very traumatic for the parents. Few empirical reports have considered post-traumatic stress reactions of the parents as a possible variable affecting a child's outcome. Some studies have described sleeping and eating problems as related to prematurity; these problems are especially critical for the parents. Objective: To examine the effects of post-traumatic reactions of the parents on sleeping and eating problems of the children. Design: Fifty families with a premature infant (25–33 gestation weeks) and a control group of 25 families with a full term infant participated in the study. Perinatal risks were evaluated during the hospital stay. Mothers and fathers were interviewed when their children were 18 months old about the child's problems and filled in a perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder questionnaire (PPQ). Results: The severity of the perinatal risks only partly predicts a child's problems. Independently of the perinatal risks, the intensity of the post-traumatic reactions of the parents is an important predictor of these problems. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the parental response to premature birth mediates the risks of later adverse outcomes. Preventive intervention should be promoted. PMID:12937044
Schechter, Daniel S.
This article summarizes the scant existing research on the effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on mothers and their babies during the peripartum period and describes a pilot research project within the Infant-Family Service (IFS) at the New York-Presbyterian Hospital, an outpatient mental health service for inner-city families with…
Lips, Orville J.
This paper describes the implementation of an inpatient treatment program for Vietnam combat veterans exhibiting symptoms related to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, at the North Chicago Veterans Administration Medical Center. Issues related to organizational and staff problems encountered during the program are outlined, and unique problems…
Weems, Carl F.; Taylor, Leslie K.; Cannon, Melinda F.; Marino, Reshelle C.; Romano, Dawn M.; Scott, Brandon G.; Perry, Andre M.; Triplett, Vera
This study examined the stability of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a predominantly ethnic minority sample of youth exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Youth (n = 191 grades 4th thru 8th) were screened for exposure to traumatic experiences and PTSD symptoms at 24 months (Time 1) and then again at 30 months (Time 2) post-disaster. PTSD…
Elhai, Jon D.; Gray, Matthew J.; Naifeh, James A.; Butcher, Jimmie J.; Davis, Joanne L.; Falsetti, Sherry A.; Best, Connie L.
The authors examined the Trauma Symptom Inventorys (TSI) ability to discriminate 88 student post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) simulators screened for genuine PTSD from 48 clinical PTSD-diagnosed outpatients. Results demonstrated between-group differences on several TSI clinical scales and the Atypical Response (ATR) validity scale.…
Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul; Parlee, Brenda
Little is known about risk factors for problem gambling (PG) within the rapidly growing urban Aboriginal population in North America. Racial discrimination may be an important risk factor for PG given documented associations between racism and other forms of addictive behaviour. This study examined associations between racial discrimination and problem gambling among urban Aboriginal adults, and the extent to which this link was mediated by post traumatic stress. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Results indicate more than 80 % of respondents experienced discrimination due to Aboriginal race in the past year, with the majority reporting high levels of racism in that time period. Past year racial discrimination was a risk factor for 12-month problem gambling, gambling to escape, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in bootstrapped regression models adjusted for confounders and other forms of social trauma. Elevated PTSD symptoms among those experiencing high levels of racism partially explained the association between racism and the use of gambling to escape in statistical models. These findings are the first to suggest racial discrimination may be an important social determinant of problem gambling for Aboriginal peoples. Gambling may be a coping response that some Aboriginal adults use to escape the negative emotions associated with racist experiences. Results support the development of policies to reduce racism directed at Aboriginal peoples in urban areas, and enhanced services to help Aboriginal peoples cope with racist events.
McKinnon, Anna; Smith, Patrick; Bryant, Richard; Salmon, Karen; Yule, William; Dalgleish, Tim; Dixon, Clare; Nixon, Reginald D V; Meiser-Stedman, Richard
The Children's Post-Traumatic Cognitions Inventory (CPTCI) is a self-report questionnaire that measures maladaptive cognitions in children and young people following exposure to trauma. In this study, the psychometric properties of the CPTCI were examined in further detail with the objective of furthering its utility as a clinical tool. Specifically, we investigated the CPTCI's discriminant validity, test-retest reliability, and the potential for the development of a short form of the measure. Three samples (London, East Anglia, Australia) of children and young people exposed to trauma (N = 535; 7-17 years old) completed the CPTCI and a structured clinical interview to measure posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms between 1 and 6 months following trauma. Test-retest reliability was investigated in a subsample of 203 cases. The results showed that a score in the range of 46 to 48 on the CPTCI was indicative of clinically significant appraisals as determined by the presence of PTSD. The measure also had moderate-to-high test-retest reliability (r = .78) over a 2-month period. The Children's Post-Traumatic Cognitions Inventory-Short Form (CPTCI-S) had excellent internal consistency (α = .92), and moderate-to-high test-retest reliability (r = .78). The examination of construct validity showed the model had an excellent fitting factor structure (Comparative Fit index = 0.95, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.91, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .07). A score ranging from 16 to 18 was the best cutoff point on the CPTCI-S, in that it was indicative of clinically significant appraisals as determined by the presence of PTSD. Based on these results, we concluded that the CPTCI is a useful tool to support the practice of clinicians and that the CPTCI-S has excellent psychometric properties.
Chin, Wei-Shan; Shiao, Judith Shu-Chu; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Kuo, Chun-Ya; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Guo, Yue Leon
The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety and PTSDs, and the risk factors for psychological symptoms at 6 years after occupational injury. This longitudinal study followed workers who were occupationally injured in 2009. Psychological symptoms and return to work were assessed at 3 and 12 months after injury. Injured workers who had completed the initial questionnaire survey at 3 or 12 months after injury were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to the participants. For workers with high Brief Symptom Rating Scale and Post-traumatic Symptom Checklist scores, an in-depth psychiatric evaluation was performed using the Mini-international Neuropsychiatric Interview. A total of 570 workers completed the questionnaire (response rate, 28.7%). Among them, 243 (42.6%) had high psychological symptom scores and were invited for a phone interview; 135 (55.6%) completed the interview. The estimated rates of major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)/partial PTSD were 9.2 and 7.2%, respectively, and both these rates were higher at 6 years after injury than at 12 months after injury (2.0 and 5.1%). After adjustment for family and social factors, the risk factors for high psychological scores were length of hospitalization immediately after injury, affected physical appearance, repeated occupational injuries, unemployment, and number of quit jobs after the injury. At 6 years after occupational injury, the re-emergence of psychiatric disorders was observed. Relevant factors for poor psychological health were severity of injury and instability of work. Periodic monitoring of psychological and physical health and economic stability are warranted.
Tsuji, Shotaro; Inoue, Shinichi; Tachibana, Toshiya; Maruo, Keishi; Arizumi, Fumihiro; Yoshiya, Shinichi
Abstract Descriptive case report. To report a rare case of post-traumatic torticollis by odontoid fracture in a patient with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). Cervical fractures in DISH can result from minor trauma, and a delay in presentation often prevents their timely diagnosis. Cervical fractures in patients with spinal DISH usually occur in extension injuries, and almost always occur in the lower cervical spine. Reports of odontoid fractures with torticollis in patients with spinal DISH are rare. A 73-year-old man with DISH presented with severe neck pain and a cervical deformity presenting as torticollis without neurological deficits. He gave a history of a fall while riding a bicycle at a low speed 3 months ago. X-ray showed torticollis in the right side, and computed tomography (CT) showed a type-II odontoid fracture and subluxation at the C1-2 level. We performed a staged treatment because this patient had severe neck pain associated with a chronic course. Initially, the fracture dislocation was reduced under general anesthesia and was stabilized with a halo vest. We then performed posterior occipitocervical in situ fusion after confirming the correction of the cervical deformity by CT. The patient showed significant amelioration of neck symptoms postoperatively, and bony fusion was achieved 1 year after surgery. For post-traumatic torticollis due to an odontoid fracture, plain CT is useful for diagnosis and posterior occipitocervical in situ fusion following correction and immobilization with a halo vest is a safe and an effective treatment. PMID:26356707
Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Dembińska, Edyta
The paper illustrates the research on post-traumatic disorders conducted in Kraków at the Department of Psychotherapy and the Department of Psychiatry of the Jagiellonian University Medical College after 1989. The political changes that occurred in Poland after 1989 allowed the research to be extended with new groups of survivors. Having conducted the research of the former concentration camp prisoners, the study started to be carried out in the two research teams: 1) the former prisoners of the Stalinist period, Siberian deportees, war veterans and others were examined at the former Social Pathology Institute of the Department of Psychiatry, Jagiellonian University Medical College and the work is continued at the Department of Psychotherapy, Jagiellonian University Medical College; 2) at the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic the research of the Holocaust survivors and their families has been carried on by the same team up to the present day. The paper outlines the historical background of persecution, its course and a typical impact it had on health of each of the group of survivors. All individuals suffer from widely understood post-traumatic disorders (F43.1 and F62.0). However, differences in the profile of symptoms can be noted. The manner in which the research was organised and its modifications are also presented. The aim of this paper is to familiarise the Reader with the presented concepts and contextualise them in a political and historical dimensions, and in the continuity of the previous research on KZ-Syndrome and war neuroses.
Farren, Jessica; Jalmbrant, Maria; Ameye, Lieveke; Joash, Karen; Mitchell-Jones, Nicola; Tapp, Sophie; Timmerman, Dirk; Bourne, Tom
Objectives This is a pilot study to investigate the type and severity of emotional distress in women after early pregnancy loss (EPL), compared with a control group with ongoing pregnancies. The secondary aim was to assess whether miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy impacted differently on the type and severity of psychological morbidity. Design This was a prospective survey study. Consecutive women were recruited between January 2012 and July 2013. We emailed women a link to a survey 1, 3 and 9 months after a diagnosis of EPL, and 1 month after the diagnosis of a viable ongoing pregnancy. Setting The Early Pregnancy Assessment Unit (EPAU) of a central London teaching hospital. Participants We recruited 186 women. 128 had a diagnosis of EPL, and 58 of ongoing pregnancies. 11 withdrew consent, and 11 provided an illegible or invalid email address. Main outcome measures Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was measured using the Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS), and anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results Response rates were 69/114 at 1 month and 44/68 at 3 months in the EPL group, and 20/50 in controls. Psychological morbidity was higher in the EPL group with 28% meeting the criteria for probable PTSD, 32% for anxiety and 16% for depression at 1 month and 38%, 20% and 5%, respectively, at 3 months. In the control group, no women met criteria for PTSD and 10% met criteria for anxiety and depression. There was little difference in type or severity of distress following ectopic pregnancy or miscarriage. Conclusions We have shown a large number of women having experienced a miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy fulfil the diagnostic criteria for probable PTSD. Many suffer from moderate-to-severe anxiety, and a lesser number depression. Psychological morbidity, and in particular PTSD symptoms, persists at least 3 months following pregnancy loss. PMID:27807081
Manners, T; Salmon, J; Barron, A; Willies, C; Murray, A
AIM—The presence of traumatic angle recession is a risk factor for failure of glaucoma filtration surgery and a previous study has suggested that antimetabolite treatment should be used in these patients. This study was undertaken to determine for the first time the mid term results of trabeculectomy with intraoperative application of mitomycin C in patients with post-traumatic angle recession glaucoma. METHODS—A retrospective analysis was made of 43 consecutive trabeculectomy procedures in 41 young black/mixed race patients followed for a mean period of 25 months (range 2-66 months). Mitomycin C 0.02% was applied between the sclera and conjunctiva for 1-5 minutes at the time of surgery. The intraocular pressure and visual acuity were measured postoperatively. The success of this technique was analysed by using a Kaplan-Meier cumulative survival curve. RESULTS—The intraocular pressure was successfully controlled at last follow up without topical treatment in 77% (33/43 eyes) and the visual acuity was the same or better in 81% (35/43 eyes). Cumulative probability of success was 85% at 1 year follow up, 81% at 2 years, and 66% at 3 years and thereafter. Hypotonous maculopathy occurred in one patient and no cases of late bleb infection were found. CONCLUSIONS—In medically uncontrolled post-traumatic angle recession glaucoma trabeculectomy with mitomycin C is an effective surgical procedure with an acceptable complication rate. Good intraocular pressure control and preservation of vision can be expected in most patients. PMID:11159478
Alway, Yvette; Gould, Kate Rachel; McKay, Adam; Johnston, Lisa; Ponsford, Jennie
Increasing evidence indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop following traumatic brain injury (TBI), despite most patients having no conscious memory of their accident. This prospective study examined the frequency, timing of onset, symptom profile, and trajectory of PTSD and its psychiatric comorbidities during the first 4 years following moderate-to-severe TBI. Participants were 85 individuals (78.8% male) with moderate or severe TBI recruited following admission to acute rehabilitation between 2005 and 2010. Using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Disorders (SCID-I), participants were evaluated for pre- and post-injury PTSD soon after injury and reassessed at 6 months, 12 months, 2 years, 3 years, and 4 years post-injury. Over the first 4 years post-injury, 17.6% developed injury-related PTSD, none of whom had PTSD prior to injury. PTSD onset peaked between 6 and 12 months post-injury. The majority of PTSD cases (66.7%) had a delayed-onset, which for a third was preceded by subsyndromal symptoms in the first 6 months post-injury. PTSD frequency increased over the first year post-injury, remained stable during the second year, and gradually declined thereafter. The majority of subjects with PTSD experienced a chronic symptom course and all developed one or more than one comorbid psychiatric disorder, with mood, other anxiety, and substance-use disorders being the most common. Despite event-related amnesia, post-traumatic stress symptoms, including vivid re-experiencing phenomena, may develop following moderate-to-severe TBI. Onset is typically delayed and symptoms may persist for several years post-injury.
Afifi, Ibrahim; Parchani, Ashok; Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Menyar, Ayman; Alajaj, Raghad; Elazzazy, Shereen; Latifi, Rifat
Introduction: Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and has been reported to be one of the risk factors for epileptic seizures. Abnormal blood lactate (LAC) and base deficit (BD) reflects hypoperfusion and could be used as metabolic markers to predict the outcome. The aim of this study is to assess the prognostic value of BD and LAC levels for post traumatic convulsion (PTC) in head injury patients. Materials and Methods: All head injury patients with PTC were studied for the demographics profile, mechanism of injury, initial vital signs, and injury severity score (ISS), respiratory rates, CT scan findings, and other laboratory investigations. The data were obtained from the trauma registry and medical records. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: Amongst 3082 trauma patients, 1584 were admitted to the hospital. Of them, 401 patients had head injury. PTC was observed in 5.4% (22/401) patients. Out of the 22 head injury patients, 10 were presented with the head injury alone, whereas 12 patients had other associated injuries. The average age of the patients was 25 years, comprising predominantly of male patients (77%). Neither glasgow coma scale nor ISS had correlation with BD or LAC in the study groups. The mean level of BD and LAC was not statistically different in PTC group compared to controls. However, BD was significantly higher in patients with associated injuries than the isolated head injury group. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation amongst the two groups as far as LAC levels are concerned. Conclusion: Base deficit but not lactic acid concentration was significantly higher in head injury patients with associated injuries. Early resuscitation by pre-hospital personnel and in the trauma room might have impact in minimizing the effect of post traumatic convulsion on BD and LAC. PMID:27057221
Park, Jun T; Chugani, Harry T
To recognize epileptic spasms (ES) as a seizure type after traumatic brain injury (TBI), accidental or non-accidental, in infants and children. In the process, we aim to gain some insight into the mechanisms of epileptogenesis in ES. A retrospective electronic chart review was performed at the Children's Hospital of Michigan from 2002 to 2012. Electronic charts of 321 patients were reviewed for evidence of post-traumatic epilepsy. Various clinical variables were collected including age at TBI, mechanism of trauma, severity of brain injury, electroencephalography/neuroimaging data, and seizure semiology. Six (12.8%) of the 47 patients diagnosed with post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) had ES. Epileptic spasms occurred between two months to two years after TBI. All patients with ES had multiple irritative zones, manifesting as multifocal epileptiform discharges, unilateral or bilateral. Cognitive delay and epileptic encephalopathy were seen in all six patients, five of whom were free of spasms after treatment with vigabatrin or adrenocorticotropic hormone. The risk of PTE is 47/321(14.6%) and the specific risk of ES after TBI is 6/321 (1.8%). The risk of ES appears to be high if the age at which severe TBI occurred was during infancy. Non-accidental head trauma is a risk factor of epileptic spasms. While posttraumatic epilepsy (not ES) may start 10 years after the head injury, ES starts within two years, according to our small cohort. The pathophysiology of ES is unknown, however, our data support a combination of previously proposed models in which the primary dysfunction is a focal or diffuse cortical abnormality, coupled with its abnormal interaction with the subcortical structures and brainstem at a critical maturation stage.
Objectives We evaluated and recorded post-traumatic and postoperative neurosensory deficits of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) in mandibular fracture in order to identify associated risk factors. Materials and Methods This was a prospective cohort study composed of 60 patients treated for mandibular fracture. The primary study variable was the change between the post-traumatic IAN neurosensory examination score and the score after fracture reduction. Risk factors were categorized as demographic, anatomic, fracture displacement, and treatment. Appropriate descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed. Results Sixty patients with unilateral mandibular fracture reported within 24 hours of injury were evaluated over a one-year period. A post-traumatic neurosensory deficit was observed in 52 patients (86.7%), the percentage of which was reduced to 23.3% over the follow-up period. Abnormal postoperative neurosensory scores were significantly higher in angle fracture cases (33.3%) compared to body fracture cases (11.1%). When recovered and non-recovered neurosensory scores were compared by fracture location, 88.9% of body fracture cases showed significant recovery compared to 66.7% of mandibular angle fracture cases. Cases with less than 5 mm fracture displacement showed statistically significantly higher neurosensory recovery scores (90.6%) compared to those with more than 5 mm fracture displacement (60.7%). Conclusion Use of a miniplate with mono-cortical screws does not play a role in increasing IAN post-traumatic neurosensory deficit. Early management can reduce the chances of permanent neurosensory deficit. Mandibular fracture displacement of 5 mm or more and fracture location were found to be associated with an increased risk of post-traumatic IAN neurosensory score worsening. PMID:27847733
Ma, Xiaohong; Liu, Xiang; Hu, Xun; Qiu, Changjian; Wang, Yingcheng; Huang, Yi; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tao
In Chinese adolescents exposed to the Wenchuan earthquake, we used the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES) as the screening tool, and Post-traumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI) and the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) were used to assess the cognitive status and their social supports, to evaluate the prevalence and the predictors variables of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the Wenchuan earthquake in China, which occurred on 12 May 2008. Subjects with a CRIES score greater than 30 were interviewed and assessed using the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD diagnosis by a trained psychiatrist with the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Lifetime version (Kiddie-SADS-L). We found the overall prevalence of PTSD was 2.5% in 3208 adolescents from the surrounding areas of the epicentre 6months after the earthquake. Risk factors for post-traumatic stress symptoms are as follows: being female, being buried/injured during the earthquake, having parents who were severely injured, having classmate(s) who died, having a house destroyed, and witnessing someone buried/wounded/dying during the earthquake. Individuals with better social support had significantly lower scores on the CRIES. There were significant differences in cognitive style between individuals at low risk for PTSD (CRIES<30) and those at high risk for PTSD (CRIES≥30). Post-traumatic cognition emerged as an important factor that was associated with PTSD reactions in children. Social support can lessen the impact of a natural disaster by affecting post-traumatic cognition.
2012). The interaction between sleep quality and academic performance . Journal of Psychiatric Research, 46, 1618–1622. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016...symptoms of depression and anxiety (Killgore, 2010) that negatively affect daily performance . Furthermore, Picchioni et al. (2010) found sleep ...Effects of sleep deprivation on cognition. Progress in Brain Research, 185, 105–129. Litz, B. T., & Schlenger, W. E. (2009). PTSD in service members and
Efficacy and tolerability of medical ozone gas insufflations in patients with osteonecrosis of the jaw treated with bisphosphonates-Preliminary data: Medical ozone gas insufflation in treating ONJ lesions.
Ripamonti, C I; Maniezzo, M; Boldini, S; Pessi, M A; Mariani, L; Cislaghi, E
Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ) is an adverse event reported especially in patients receiving cancer treatments regimen, bisphosphonates (BPs), and denosumab. We performed an open-label, prospective study in patients treated with zoledronic acid who developed ONJ lesions >2.5 cm, and had no benefit after the treatment with the standard therapy, to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of medical ozone (O3) treatment delivered as gas insufflations on each ONJ lesions. Twenty-four patients (mean age 62.5, range 41-80; 12 female) with bone metastases due to breast (11), prostate (4)and lung (4)cancers, myeloma (2), or osteoporosis (3), previously treated with zoledronic acid and not underwent dental preventive measures and with ONJ lesions >2.5 cm, were observed and treated with topical O3 gas insufflation every third day for a minimum of 10 for each pathological area or till necrotic bone sequestrum or surgery. We used a special insufflation bell-shaped device adjusted to the specific characteristics of the patient, capable of eliminating any residue of O3 diffusion by degrading it and releasing O2 into the air. Azithromicin 500 mg/day was administered for 10 days in all patients before the first three gas insufflation although they had previously received various cycles of antibiotics. Ten patients required more than 10 O3 gas insufflations due to multiple lesions and/or purulent sovrainfections; one patient received two further O3 insufflations while waiting the day of surgery. Six of 24 patients interrupted the O3 gas therapy for oncological disease progression (five patients) and for fear of an experimental therapy (one patient). Six patients had the sequestrum and complete or partial (one patient) spontaneous expulsion of the necrotic bone followed by oral mucosa re-epithelization after a range of 4-27 of O3 gas insufflations. No patient reported adverse events. In 12 patients with the largest and deeper ONJ lesions, O3 gas therapy produced the sequestrum of
Javanbakht, Arash; Liberzon, Israel; Amirsadri, Alireza; Gjini, Klevest; Boutros, Nash N
Despite the sparseness of the currently available data, there is accumulating evidence of information processing impairment in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies of event-related potentials (ERPs) are the main tool in real time examination of information processing. In this paper, we sought to critically review the ERP evidence of information processing abnormalities in patients with PTSD. We also examined the evidence supporting the existence of a relationship between ERP abnormalities and symptom profiles or severity in PTSD patients. An extensive Medline search was performed. Keywords included PTSD or post-traumatic stress disorder, electrophysiology or EEG, electrophysiology, P50, P100, N100, P2, P200, P3, P300, sensory gating, CNV (contingent negative variation) and MMN (mismatch negativity). We limited the review to ERP adult human studies with control groups which were reported in the English language. After applying our inclusion-exclusion review criteria, 36 studies were included. Subjects exposed to wide ranges of military and civilian traumas were studied in these reports. Presented stimuli were both auditory and visual. The most widely studied components included P300, P50 gating, N100 and P200. Most of the studies reported increased P300 response to trauma-related stimuli in PTSD patients. A smaller group of studies reported dampening of responses or no change in responses to trauma-related and/or unrelated stimuli. P50 studies were strongly suggestive of impaired gating in patients with PTSD. In conclusion, the majority of reports support evidence of information processing abnormalities in patients with PTSD diagnosis. The predominance of evidence suggests presence of mid-latency and late ERP components differences in PTSD patients in comparison to healthy controls. Heterogeneity of assessment methods used contributes to difficulties in reaching firm conclusions regarding the nature of these differences. We suggest that future ERP
Lin, Chun-Yu; Tsai, Feng-Chun; Lee, Hsiu-An; Tseng, Yuan-His
Patients with multiple traumas associated with cardiopulmonary failure have a high mortality rate; however, such patients can be temporarily stabilized using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), providing a bridge to rescue therapy. Using a retrospective study design, we aimed to clarify the prognostic factors of post-traumatic ECMO support.From March 2006 to July 2016, 43 adult patients (mean age, 37.3 ± 15.2 years; 7 females [16.3%]) underwent ECMO because of post-traumatic cardiopulmonary failure. Pre-ECMO demographics, peri-ECMO events, and post-ECMO recoveries were compared between survivors and nonsurvivors.The most common traumatic insult was traffic collision (n = 30, 69.8%), and involved injury areas included the chest (n = 33, 76.7%), head (n = 14, 32.6%), abdomen (n = 21, 48.8%), and fractures (n = 21, 48.8%). Fifteen patients (34.9%) underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation and 22 (51.2%) received rescue interventions before ECMO deployment. The mean time interval between trauma and ECMO was 90.6 ± 130.1 hours, and the mode of support was venovenous in 26 patients (60.5%). A total of 26 patients (60.5%) were weaned off of ECMO and 22 (51.6%) survived to discharge, with an overall mean support time of 162.9 ± 182.7 hours. A multivariate regression analysis identified 2 significant predictors for in-hospital mortality: an injury severity score (ISS) >30 (odds ratio [OR], 9.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-18.47; P = 0.042), and the requirement of renal replacement therapy (RRT) during ECMO (OR, 8.64; 95% CI, 1.73-26.09; P = 0.020). These two factors were also significant for the 1-year survival (ISS >30: 12.5%; ISS ≤30, 48.1%, P = 0.001) (RRT required, 15.0%; RRT not required, 52.2%, P = 0.006).Using ECMO in selected traumatized patients with cardiopulmonary failure can be a salvage therapy. Prompt intervention before shock-impaired systemic organ perfusion and acute renal failure
Post-traumatic stress reactions before the advent of post-traumatic stress disorder: potential effects on the lives and legacies of Alexander the Great, Captain James Cook, Emily Dickinson, and Florence Nightingale.
Mackowiak, Philip A; Batten, Sonja V
Evidence is presented that Alexander the Great, Captain James Cook, Emily Dickinson, and Florence Nightingale each developed symptoms consistent with post-traumatic stress disorder in the aftermath of repeated potentially traumatizing events of differing character. Their case histories also varied with respect to background, premorbid personality style, risk factors, clinical presentation, and course of the illness, illustrating the pleomorphic character of the disorder, as well as the special problems in diagnosing it in historical figures.
Iwai, S; Sato, K; Nakamura, T; Okazaki, M; Itoh, Y; Toyama, Y; Ikegami, H
We present a case of post-traumatic osteonecrosis of the radial head in a 13-year-old boy which was treated with costo-osteochondral grafts. A satisfactory outcome was seen at a follow-up of two years and ten months. Although costo-osteochondral grafting has been used in the treatment of defects in articular cartilage, especially in the hand and the elbow, the extension of the technique to manage post-traumatic osteonecrosis of the radial head in a child has not previously been reported in the English language literature. Complete relief of pain was obtained and an improvement in the range of movement was observed. The long-term results remain uncertain.
Gerlock, April A
Domestic violence has been a long-standing problem for our nation's active duty and military veterans. The purpose of this article is to describe participants of a domestic violence program, the program design to help lessen attrition, and the completers and noncompleters of the program. There was a significant relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and domestic violence severity for the sample. PTSD severity was also related to reports of domestic violence in the family of origin. Completers and noncompleters were compared on demographic and violence variables and on nine research measures. Completers were more likely younger than 35 years old, employed, had higher self-ratings of relationship mutuality, lower levels of stress and post-traumatic stress, and were regularly court monitored. The results of a logistic regression significantly predicted completers and noncompleters based on age, relationship mutuality, PTSD, and court-monitored status (model chi2 statistic of 31.08, p = 0.0000).
Ohtani, Toshiyuki; Iwanami, Akira; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori; Kato, Tadafumi; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kato, Nobumasa
Sarin gas was dispersed in a Tokyo subway in 1995. This study investigates the mental and somatic symptoms of the 34 victims 5 years after the attack. Structured interviews (Clinician-Administered Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder [CAPS] and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview) and self-rating questionnaires were used to assess the symptoms. Not only post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but also non-specific mental symptoms persisted in the victims at a high rate. A total of 11 victims were diagnosed with current or lifetime PTSD according to CAPS. Victims with PTSD showed higher anxiety levels and more visual memory impairment. A significant correlation between the total score of Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and CAPS was found, indicating that IES-R is a useful tool for evaluating PTSD.
Gabert-Quillen, Crystal A; Selya, Arielle; Delahanty, Douglas L
The present study examined the relationship between trauma exposure and smoking status and the extent to which post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms mediated this relationship in a sample of 329 college students who experienced a prior traumatic event. Participants experienced an average of 2.2 prior traumas, and approximately 15% (n = 49) were smokers. Bootstrapping analyses revealed that after controlling for age, gender and time since trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms served as a pathway through which trauma exposure increased the risk of smoking [BC 95% CI (0.02, 0.18)]. Results appeared to be due largely to the influence of hyperarousal symptoms [BC 95% CI (0.05, 0.22)]. Comprehensive interventions for undergraduate smokers may be improved by attending to the impact of prior trauma and mental health needs.
Sadigh, M R
Recurrent and frightening dreams are commonly experienced by patients who suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder after a motor vehicle accident. Such nocturnal episodes, if left untreated, can result in the experience of severe distress with physical, emotional, and psychophysiological concomitant. The present single-case study investigated the effects of the standard autogenic exercises and autogenic abreaction in reducing the frequency and severity of post-traumatic nightmares in a survivor of a car crash. The patient was also instructed in two additional organ-specific formulas in order to improve her sleep. The results of the study showed that the interventions were successful in effectively treating the patient's distressing nightmares. Follow-up data suggested that the treatment effects persisted after the termination of therapy. Suggestions for future investigations are discussed.
Salzmann-Erikson, Martin; Hiçdurmaz, Duygu
Suffering from post-traumatic stress impacts and restricts the life situation of the individual on several levels, not least regarding social difficulties. Social media on the Internet facilitate new possibilities for interaction and communication. Earlier research has demonstrated that people use social media to seek support and to discuss health-related issues. The current study aimed to describe how individuals suffering from post-traumatic stress use social media to convey authentic narratives of their daily lives, including illness, and further, to analyze the content of this media use. The data comprised YouTube videos, blogs, and forum discussions. Five categories cover the findings: (a) structure of the narrative, (b) narrating the trauma, (c) restrictions in life, (d) strategies in everyday living, and (e) online interaction. We stress that sharing narratives online facilitates a "verbalizing" of the life conditions of the sufferers and can be used as a self-care activity.
Argentero, Piergiorgio; Dell'Olivo, Bianca; Setti, Ilaria
Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are emergent phenomena resulting from exposure to a traumatic event that causes actual or threatened death or injury and produces intense fear, helplessness, or horror. In order to assess the role of different factors contributing to this kind of emergent phenomenon prevalence rates across gender, cultures, and samples exposed to different traumas are examined. Risk factors for PTSD, including pre-existing individual-based factors, features of the traumatic event, and post-trauma interventions are examined as well. Several characteristics of the trauma, related to cognitions, post-trauma social support and therapeutic interventions for PTSD are also considered. Further work is needed in order to analyze the inter-relationships among these factors and underlying mechanisms. The chaotic nature of traumatic processes, the multiple and interactive impacts on traumatic events require a comprehensive perspective aimed at planning effective interventions. Treatment outcome studies recommended the combined use of training and therapies as first-line treatment for PTSD.
Citisli, Veli; Kocaoglu, Murat; Necan, Ceyda; İbrahimoglu, Muhammet; Celiker, Özkan; Baykara, Eyüp; Ozdemir, Mevci; Acar, Feridun; Coskun, Mehmet Erdal
The aim of the present report was to present the patient with an anterior cranial base fracture who developed post-traumatic cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea, which recovered after onset of meningitis complication. A 26-year-old male patient who had a traffic accident one week ago was sent to our clinic because of his rhinorrhea persisting for 4 days. On cranial computed tomography, fracture of the left frontal skull base and sinus walls, a fracture line on temporal bone, parenchymal bleeding in the vicinity of the frontal sinus, subarachnoidal bleeding and left temporal extradural hematoma were detected. Then he underwent sinus wall repair and extradural hematoma was drained through bifrontal craniotomy. However, rhinorrhea persisted which resulted a deterioration in consciousness and he entered into a deep somnolent state. When his symptoms of meningitis became apparent, rhinorrhea of the patient disappeared. The patient transferred in intensive care unit and re-connected to a lumbar drainage system. On cerebral magnetic resonance imaging, regression of contrast-enhanced lesions localized in the left anterotemporal and frontal and in the regions lateral to the right trigon and medial to the right thalamus and in the right posteroparietal regions was observed. Despite repair of the anterior cranial fracture and lumbar drainage, rhinorrhea may persist. Herein, development of meningitis caused disappearing of rhinorrhea symptoms without any need for surgical intervention. PMID:26309437
Barnabas, Karen; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Huiying; Kirouac, Gilbert
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic syndrome triggered by exposure to trauma and a failure to recover from a normal negative emotional reaction to traumatic stress. The neurobiology of PTSD and the participation of neuropeptides in the neural systems and circuits that control fear and anxiety are not fully understood. The long-term dysregulation of neuropeptide systems contributes to the development of anxiety disorders, including PTSD. The neuropeptide galanin (Gal) and its receptors participate in anxiety-like and depression-related behaviors via the modulation of neuroendocrine and monoaminergic systems. The objective of this research was to investigate how Gal expression changes in the brain of rats 2 weeks after exposure to footshock. Rats exposed to footshocks were subdivided into high responders (HR; immobility>60%) and low responders (LR; immobility<40%) based on immobility elicited by a novel tone one day after exposure. On day 14, rats were anesthetized, and the amygdala, hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands were removed for analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Gal mRNA levels were increased in the amygdala and hypothalamus of HR compared with the control and LR. In contrast, Gal mRNA levels were decreased in the adrenal and pituitary glands of HR compared with the control and LR. Thus, the differential regulation (dysregulation) of the neuropeptide Gal in these tissues may contribute to anxiety and PTSD development. PMID:27907151
Hendriksen, Hendrikus; Olivier, Berend; Oosting, Ronald S
The development of new pharmacological therapies starts with target discovery. Finding new therapeutic targets for anxiety disorders is a difficult process. Most of the currently described drugs for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are based on the inhibition of serotonin reuptake. The mechanism of action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors was already described in 1977 (Benkert et al., 1977). Now, almost 40 years later, we still rely on the same mechanism of action and more effective pharmacological therapies, based on other working mechanisms, are not on the market yet. Finding new molecular switches that upon modulation cure or alleviate the disorder is hampered by a lack of valid animal models. Many of the characteristics of psychiatric disorders are typically human and hence animal models feature only part of the underlying pathology. In this review we define a set of criteria for animal models of PTSD. First, we describe the symptomatology and pathology of PTSD and the current pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options. Next, we compare three often-used animal models and analyze how these models comply with the set of criteria. Finally, we discuss how resolving the underlying mechanisms of effective non-pharmacological treatments (environmental enrichment, re-exposure) may aid therapeutic target discovery.
Donnelly, Craig L; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric condition in childhood and adolescence. Rates vary widely depending upon the type of trauma exposure. Interpersonal traumas, such as rape or physical abuse, are more likely to result in PTSD than exposure to natural or technological disaster. Clinical presentations are exceedingly complex and children with PTSD are at increased risk of having comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. Because of its complexity and frequent occurrence with other disorders, assessment of PTSD necessitates a broad-based evaluation utilizing multiple informations and structured instruments specific to the symptoms of PTSD in youth. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the treatment of first choice. Pharmacological agents for PTSD treatment have received little empirical investigation in childhood. Pharmacological treatment is used to target disabling symptoms of the disorder, which limit psychotherapy or life functioning, by helping children to tolerate working through distressful material in therapy and life. Pharmacological treatment should be based on a stepwise approach utilizing broad spectrum medications such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors as first-line agents. Comorbid conditions should be identified and treated with appropriate medication or psychosocial interventions. Treatment algorithms are provided to guide rational medication strategies for children and adolescents with PTSD, subsyndromal PTSD, and in PTSD that is comorbid with other psychiatric conditions of childhood. Reduction in even one debilitating symptom of PTSD can improve a child's overall functioning across multiple domains.
Nakajima-Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Morita, Nobuaki; Nakao, Tomohei; Shimizu, Takashi; Ogai, Yasukazu; Takahashi, Hideto; Saito, Tamaki; Nakatani, Yoji; Fukushima, Takashi
The purpose of this study was to explore the association between psychosocial functioning of children treated for cancer and that of their parents. Factors associated with psychosocial functioning were also examined. The present study was a cross-sectional survey of 33 mothers and one father (mean age: 37.9), each of whom had a child that had been treated for cancer. The participants answered a package of questionnaires consisting of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Parent Experience of Child Illness (PECI), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Information about the children’s illnesses was collected from medical records. The CBCL total problems T score was correlated with the parental IES-R total scores. Intensity of treatment independently predicted the variance of parental long-term uncertainty. In conclusion, psychosocial problems of children with cancer were associated with parental post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Provision of early, adequate support to parents who are vulnerable to PTSS will help not only the parents, but also their children with cancer. PMID:27529259
Martinez-Vargas, Marina; Soto-Nuñez, Maribel; Tabla-Ramon, Erika; Solis, Barbara; Gonzalez-Rivera, Ruben; Perez-Arredondo, Adan; Estrada-Rojo, Francisco; Castell, Andres; Molina-Guarneros, Juan; Navarro, Luz
Cathepsin B is one of the major lysosomal cysteine proteases involved in neuronal protein catabolism. This cathepsin is released after traumatic injury and increases neuronal death; however, release of cystatin C, a cathepsin inhibitor, appears to be a self-protective brain response. Here we describe the effect of cystatin C intracerebroventricular administration in rats prior to inducing a traumatic brain injury. We observed that cystatin C injection caused a dual response in post-traumatic brain injury recovery: higher doses (350 fmoles) increased bleeding and mortality, whereas lower doses (3.5 to 35 fmoles) decreased bleeding, neuronal damage and mortality. We also analyzed the expression of cathepsin B and cystatin C in the brains of control rats and of rats after a traumatic brain injury. Cathepsin B was detected in the brain stem, cerebellum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex of control rats. Cystatin C was localized to the choroid plexus, brain stem and cerebellum of control rats. Twenty-four hours after traumatic brain injury, we observed changes in both the expression and localization of both proteins in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and brain stem. An early increase and intralysosomal expression of cystatin C after brain injury was associated with reduced neuronal damage. PMID:24714089
Kim, Seon-Hwan; Youm, Jin-Young; Kwon, Hyon-Jo
Various surgical procedures for the treatment of post-traumatic syringomyelia have been introduced recently, but most surgical strategies have been unreliable. We introduce the concept and technique of a new shunting procedure, syringo-subarachnoid-peritoneal shunt. A 54-year-old patient presented to our hospital with a progressive impairment of motion and position sense on the right side. Sixteen years before this admission, he had been treated by decompressive laminectomy for a burst fracture of L1. On his recent admission, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies of the whole spine revealed the presence of a huge syrinx extending from the medulla to the L1 vertebral level. We performed a syringo-subarachnoid-peritoneal shunt, including insertion of a T-tube into the syrinx, subarachnoid space and peritoneal cavity. Clinical manifestations and radiological findings improved after the operation. The syringo-subarachnoid-peritoneal shunt has several advantages. First, fluid can communicate freely between the syrinx, the subarachnoid space, and the peritoneal cavity. Secondly, we can prevent shunt catheter from migrating because dural anchoring of the T-tube is easy. Finally, we can perform shunt revision easily, because only one arm of the T-tube is inserted into the intraspinal syringx cavity. We think that this procedure is the most beneficial method among the various shunting procedures. PMID:22993681
Detweiler, Mark B.; Pagadala, Bhuvaneshwar; Candelario, Joseph; Boyle, Jennifer S.; Detweiler, Jonna G.; Lutgens, Brian W.
The effectiveness of medications for PTSD in general has been well studied, but the effectiveness of medicatio.ns prescribed specifically for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) nightmares is less well known. This retrospective chart review examined the efficacy of various medications used in actual treatment of PTSD nightmares at one Veteran Affairs Hospital. Records at the Salem, VA Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) were examined from 2009 to 2013 to check for the efficacy of actual treatments used in comparis.on with treatments suggested in three main review articles. The final sample consisted of 327 patients and 478 separate medication trials involving 21 individual medications plus 13 different medication combinations. The three most frequently utilized medications were prazosin (107 trials), risperidone (81 trials), and quetiapine (72 trials). Five medications had 20 or more trials with successful results (partial to full nightmare cessation) in >50% of trials: risperidone (77%, 1.0–6.0 mg), clonidine (63%, 0.1–2.0 mg), quetiapine (50%, 12.5–800.0 mg), mirtazapine (50%; 7.5–30.0 mg), and terazosin (64%, 50.0–300.0 mg). Notably, olanzapine (2.5–10.0) was successful (full remission) in all five prescription trials in five separate patients. Based on the clinical results, the use of risperidone, clonidine, terazosin, and olanzapine warrants additional investigation in clinically controlled trials as medications prescribed specifically for PTSD nightmares. PMID:27999253
Mueser, Kim T.; Gottlieb, Jennifer D.; Xie, Haiyi; Lu, Weili; Yanos, Philip T.; Rosenberg, Stanley D.; Silverstein, Steven M.; Duva, Stephanie Marcello; Minsky, Shula; Wolfe, Rosemarie S.; McHugo, Gregory J.
Background A cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) programme designed for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in people with severe mental illness, including breathing retraining, education and cognitive restructuring, was shown to be more effective than usual services. Aims To evaluate the incremental benefit of adding cognitive restructuring to the breathing retraining and education components of the CBT programme (trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00494650). Method In all, 201 people with severe mental illness and PTSD were randomised to 12- to 16-session CBT or a 3-session brief treatment programme (breathing retraining and education). The primary outcome was PTSD symptom severity. Secondary outcomes were PTSD diagnosis, other symptoms, functioning and quality of life. Results There was greater improvement in PTSD symptoms and functioning in the CBT group than in the brief treatment group, with both groups improving on other outcomes and effects maintained 1-year post-treatment. Conclusions Cognitive restructuring has a significant impact beyond breathing retraining and education in the CBT programme, reducing PTSD symptoms and improving functioning in people with severe mental illness. PMID:25858178
Cohen, Jonathan E; Shalev, Hadar; Admon, Roee; Hefetz, Shy; Gasho, Christopher J; Shachar, Lavi J; Shelef, Ilan; Hendler, Talma; Friedman, Alon
Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suffer from a failure of cognitive control over emotional distracters. The physiological substrates of cognitive-emotional interactions and their breakdown in disease are, however, unknown. Here, we studied brain activity in PTSD patients and healthy controls in response to emotion-provoking pictures using electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We demonstrate that in healthy individuals, emotion-induced frontal theta rhythm modulates activity in the beta rhythm mainly in sensory-motor regions. In contrast, in PTSD patients, beta activity is elevated irrespective of emotion, and is not modulated by frontal theta activity in response to negative emotion. EEG source localization and fMRI findings suggest that theta activity is localized to the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices while beta activity is localized to sensory-motor regions. We further found that beta activity in sensory-motor regions is related to the emotion-induced slowing of the motor response in healthy controls while the excess frontal theta activity in PTSD is related to the intensity of negative emotional experience. These findings reveal for the first time the importance of brain electrical oscillations and coherence in emotional top-down modulation and point to specific failure of these mechanisms in PTSD.
Jaoude, Philippe; Vermont, Leah N; Porhomayon, Jahan; El-Solh, Ali A
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are shared by many patients. They both affect sleep and the quality of life of affected subjects. A critical review of the literature supports an association between the two disorders in both combat-related and non-combat-related PTSD. The exact mechanism linking PTSD and SDB is not fully understood. A complex interplay between sleep fragmentation and neuroendocrine pathways is suggested. The overlap of symptoms between PTSD and SDB raises diagnostic challenges that may require a novel approach in the methods used to diagnose the coexisting disorders. Similar therapeutic challenges face patients and providers when treating concomitant PTSD and SDB. Although continuous positive airway pressure therapy imparts a mitigating effect on PTSD symptomatology, lack of both acceptance and adherence are common. Future research should focus on ways to improve adherence to continuous positive airway pressure therapy and on the use of alternative therapeutic methods for treating SDB in patients with PTSD.
Wingo, Aliza P.; Almli, Lynn M.; Stevens, Jennifer J.; Klengel, Torsten; Uddin, Monica; Li, Yujing; Bustamante, Angela C.; Lori, Adriana; Koen, Nastassja; Stein, Dan J.; Smith, Alicia K.; Aiello, Allison E.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Wildman, Derek E.; Galea, Sandro; Bradley, Bekh; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Jin, Peng; Gibson, Greg; Ressler, Kerry J.
DICER1 is an enzyme that generates mature microRNAs (miRNAs), which regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally in brain and other tissues and is involved in synaptic maturation and plasticity. Here, through genome-wide differential gene expression survey of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with comorbid depression (PTSD&Dep), we find that blood DICER1 expression is significantly reduced in cases versus controls, and replicate this in two independent cohorts. Our follow-up studies find that lower blood DICER1 expression is significantly associated with increased amygdala activation to fearful stimuli, a neural correlate for PTSD. Additionally, a genetic variant in the 3′ un-translated region of DICER1, rs10144436, is significantly associated with DICER1 expression and with PTSD&Dep, and the latter is replicated in an independent cohort. Furthermore, genome-wide differential expression survey of miRNAs in blood in PTSD&Dep reveals miRNAs to be significantly downregulated in cases versus controls. Together, our novel data suggest DICER1 plays a role in molecular mechanisms of PTSD&Dep through the DICER1 and the miRNA regulation pathway. PMID:26632874
Zukerman, Gil; Korn, Liat
Religiosity has been shown to moderate the negative effects of traumatic event experiences. The current study was designed to examine the relationship between post-traumatic stress (PTS) following traumatic event exposure; world assumptions defined as basic cognitive schemas regarding the world; and self and religious coping conceptualized as drawing on religious beliefs and practices for understanding and dealing with life stressors. This study examined 777 Israeli undergraduate students who completed several questionnaires which sampled individual world assumptions and religious coping in addition to measuring PTS, as manifested by the PTSD check list. Results indicate that positive religious coping was significantly associated with more positive world assumptions, while negative religious coping was significantly associated with more negative world assumptions. Additionally, negative world assumptions were significantly associated with more avoidance symptoms, while reporting higher rates of traumatic event exposure was significantly associated with more hyper-arousal. These findings suggest that religious-related cognitive schemas directly affect world assumptions by creating protective shields that may prevent the negative effects of confronting an extreme negative experience.
Weems, Carl F; Klabunde, Megan; Russell, Justin D; Reiss, Allan L; Carrión, Victor G
Theoretically, normal developmental variation in amygdala volumes may be altered under conditions of severe stress. The purpose of this article was to examine whether posttraumatic stress moderates the association between age and amygdala volumes in youth exposed to traumatic events who are experiencing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Volumetric imaging was conducted on two groups of youth aged 9-17 years: 28 with exposure to trauma and PTSD symptoms (boys = 15, girls = 13) and 26 matched (age, IQ) comparison youth (Controls; boys = 12, girls = 14). There was a significant group by age interaction in predicting right amygdala volumes. A positive association between age and right amygdala volumes was observed, but only in PTSD youth. These associations with age remained when controlling for IQ, total brain volumes and sex. Moreover, older youth with PTSD symptoms had relatively larger right amygdala volumes than controls. Findings provide evidence that severe stress may influence age-related variation in amygdala volumes. Results further highlight the importance of utilizing age as an interactive variable in pediatric neuroimaging research, in so far as age may act as an important moderator of group differences.
Klabunde, Megan; Russell, Justin D.; Reiss, Allan L.; Carrión, Victor G.
Theoretically, normal developmental variation in amygdala volumes may be altered under conditions of severe stress. The purpose of this article was to examine whether posttraumatic stress moderates the association between age and amygdala volumes in youth exposed to traumatic events who are experiencing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Volumetric imaging was conducted on two groups of youth aged 9–17 years: 28 with exposure to trauma and PTSD symptoms (boys = 15, girls = 13) and 26 matched (age, IQ) comparison youth (Controls; boys = 12, girls = 14). There was a significant group by age interaction in predicting right amygdala volumes. A positive association between age and right amygdala volumes was observed, but only in PTSD youth. These associations with age remained when controlling for IQ, total brain volumes and sex. Moreover, older youth with PTSD symptoms had relatively larger right amygdala volumes than controls. Findings provide evidence that severe stress may influence age-related variation in amygdala volumes. Results further highlight the importance of utilizing age as an interactive variable in pediatric neuroimaging research, in so far as age may act as an important moderator of group differences. PMID:25964500
Green, Cheryl L; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Scoglio, Arielle A; Elman, Igor
Background Excessive gambling is considered to be a part of the addiction spectrum. Stress-like emotional states are a key feature both of pathological gambling (PG) and of substance addiction. In substance addiction, stress symptomatology has been attributed in part to "anti-reward" allostatic neuroadaptations, while a potential involvement of anti-reward processes in the course of PG has not yet been investigated. Methods To that end, individuals with PG (n = 22) and mentally healthy subjects (n = 13) were assessed for trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) using the Life Events Checklist and the Civilian Mississippi Scale, respectively. Results In comparison with healthy subjects, individuals with PG had significantly greater PTSS scores including greater physiological arousal sub-scores. The number of traumatic events and their recency were not significantly different between the groups. In the PG group, greater gambling severity was associated with more PTSS, but neither with traumatic events exposure nor with their recency. Conclusions Our data replicate prior reports on the role of traumatic stress in the course of PG and extend those findings by suggesting that the link may be derived from the anti-reward-type neuroadaptation rather than from the traumatic stress exposure per se.
Weiner, Michael W; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Neylan, Thomas C; Hlavin, Jennifer; Ramage, Erin R; McCoy, Daniel; Studholme, Colin; Cardenas, Valerie; Marmar, Charles; Truran, Diana; Chu, Philip W; Kornak, John; Furlong, Clement E; McCarthy, Charles
A previous study (Haley RW, Marshall WW, McDonald GG, Daugherty MA, Petty F, Fleckenstein JL: Brain abnormalities in Gulf War syndrome: evaluation with 1H MR spectroscopy. Radiology 2000; 215: 807-817) suggested that individuals with Gulf War Illness (GWI) had reduced quantities of the neuronal marker N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in the basal ganglia and pons. This study aimed to determine whether NAA is reduced in these regions and to investigate correlations with other possible causes of GWI, such as psychological response to stress in a large cohort of Gulf War veterans. Individuals underwent tests to determine their physical and psychological health and to identify veterans with (n=81) and without (n=97) GWI. When concentrations of NAA and ratios of NAA to creatine- and choline-containing metabolites were measured in the basal ganglia and pons, no significant differences were found between veterans with or without GWI, suggesting that GWI is not associated with reduced NAA in these regions. Veterans with GWI had significantly higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder, supporting the idea that GWI symptoms are stress related.
Eidelman-Rothman, Moranne; Levy, Jonathan; Feldman, Ruth
Affective and anxiety disorders are debilitating conditions characterized by impairments in cognitive and social functioning. Elucidating their neural underpinnings may assist in improving diagnosis and developing targeted interventions. Neural oscillations are fundamental for brain functioning. Specifically, oscillations in the alpha frequency range (alpha rhythms) are prevalent in the awake, conscious brain and play an important role in supporting perceptual, cognitive, and social processes. We review studies utilizing various alpha power measurements to assess abnormalities in brain functioning in affective and anxiety disorders as well as obsessive compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorders. Despite some inconsistencies, studies demonstrate associations between aberrant alpha patterns and these disorders both in response to specific cognitive and emotional tasks and during a resting state. We conclude by discussing methodological considerations and future directions, and underscore the need for much further research on the role of alpha functionality in social contexts. As social dysfunction accompanies most psychiatric conditions, research on alpha's involvement in social processes may provide a unique window into the neural mechanisms underlying these disorders.
Su, Shanshan; Xiao, Zeping; Lin, Zhiguang; Qiu, Yongming; Jin, Yichao; Wang, Zhen
A number of studies have been done to investigate the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this study we aimed to test the relationship between plasma BDNF levels and PTSD. We solicited 65 subjects having recently experienced road traffic accidents (RTA) conforming to screening criteria. They were given follow-up examinations after one month, three months, and six months. PTSD was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-R-TR, American Psychiatric Association, 2000) using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). All participants were divided into two groups: a group with PTSD and a group without PTSD. There were no significant differences in plasma BDNF levels between the two groups at either the 48h or six-month examination. Within the PTSD group, no significant differences were found in plasma BDNF levels between the two examinations. BDNF levels in those without PTSD showed a higher trend over time after trauma. Higher BDNF levels may be an important protective factor for the prevention of traumatized subjects from developing PTSD.
Abramowitz, Eitan G; Bonne, Omer
Clinical reports and observations going back almost two centuries consistently indicate that hypnotherapy is an effective modality for the treatment of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Pierre Janet was the first clinician to describe the successful initiation of stepwise hypnotic techniques in PTSD symptom reduction. Hypnotherapy may accelerate the formation of a therapeutic alliance and contribute to a positive treatment outcome. Hypnotic techniques may be valuable for patients with PTSD who exhibit symptoms such as anxiety, dissociation, widespread somatoform pain complaints and sleep disturbances. Hypnotic techniques may also facilitate the arduous tasks of working through traumatic memories, increasing coping skills, and promoting a sense of competency. In this review we will present guidelines for the stepwise implementation of hypnotherapy in PTSD. Since most data regarding the use of hypnotherapy in PTSD has been gathered from uncontrolled clinical observations, methodologically sound research demonstrating the efficacy of hypnotic techniques in PTSD is required for hypnotherapy to be officially added to the therapeutic armamentarium for this disorder.
Kuhn, Eric; Greene, Carolyn; Hoffman, Julia; Nguyen, Tam; Wald, Laura; Schmidt, Janet; Ramsey, Kelly M; Ruzek, Josef
PTSD Coach is a mobile application (app) designed to help individuals who have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms better understand and self-manage their symptoms. It has wide-scale use (over 130,000 downloads in 78 countries) and very favorable reviews but has yet to be evaluated. Therefore, this study examines user satisfaction, perceived helpfulness, and usage patterns of PTSD Coach in a sample of 45 veterans receiving PTSD treatment. After using PTSD Coach for several days, participants completed a survey of satisfaction and perceived helpfulness and focus groups exploring app use and benefit from use. Data indicate that participants were very satisfied with PTSD Coach and perceived it as being moderately to very helpful with their PTSD symptoms. Analysis of focus group data resulted in several categories of app use: to manage acute distress and PTSD symptoms, at scheduled times, and to help with sleep. These findings offer preliminary support for the acceptability and perceived helpfulness of PTSD Coach and suggest that it has potential to be an effective self-management tool for PTSD. Although promising, future research is required to validate this, given study limitations.
He, Qiwei; Glas, Cees A W; Veldkamp, Bernard P
This article explores the generalizability of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to various subpopulations. Besides identifying the differential symptom functioning (also referred to as differential item functioning [DIF]) related to various background variables such as gender, marital status and educational level, this study emphasizes the importance of evaluating the impact of DIF on population inferences as made in health surveys and clinical trials, and on the diagnosis of individual patients. Using a sample from the National Comorbidity Study-Replication (NCS-R), four symptoms for gender, one symptom for marital status, and three symptoms for educational level were significantly flagged as DIF, but their impact on diagnosis was fairly small. We conclude that the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for PTSD do not produce substantially biased results in the investigated subpopulations, and there should be few reservations regarding their use. Further, although the impact of DIF (i.e. the influence of differential symptom functioning on diagnostic results) was found to be quite small in the current study, we recommend that diagnosticians always perform a DIF analysis of various subpopulations using the methodology presented here to ensure the diagnostic criteria is valid in their own studies.
Da Silva-Mannel, Juliana; Andreoli, Sérgio Baxter; Martin, Denise
The study aimed to understand how “distress” is experienced by patients with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the social-cultural context of São Paulo, Brazil, an urban environment marked by social inequality and high levels of violence. A qualitative study was conducted between 2008 and 2010 with PTSD patients (F43.1, ICD-10, 1997) who had been victims of robberies and kidnappings in São Paulo. Dense ethnographic observations were carried out, as well as in-depth semi-structured interviews with ten adult patients. The analysis method used was based on anthropology. The results show that it is particularly important to distinguish between perceptions of different forms of the experience of social suffering and perceptions of health and illness held by victims and biomedical experts. The cause of PTSD is more often associated with the personal problems of the victim than with the specific traumatic event. The distress described in terms of what is considered a “normal” reaction to violence and what is considered a symptom of PTSD. The findings indicate that the diagnostic of PTSD can be understood in relation to the different contexts within a culture. The ethnographic approach serves not only to illuminate individual suffering but also the social suffering experienced by the residents of São Paulo. PMID:24284352
Qi, Shun; Mu, Yun-Feng; Cui, Long-Biao; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Fan; Tan, Qing-Rong; Shi, Mei; Liu, Kang; Xi, Yi-Bin; Zhang, Nan-Yin; Zhang, Xiao-Liang; He, Yong; Yang, Jian; Yin, Hong
Alterations of the topological organization of abnormal regions or network-level structural aberrations are still poorly understood for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Herein, we investigated brain structural networks in recent-onset PTSD patients, all affected by the coalmine-flood disaster. Cortical networks were studied in recent onset PTSD patients (n = 15) and matched healthy controls (n = 25). Cortical networks were constructed by thresholding correlation matrices of 150 regions and quantified using graph theoretical approaches. Contributions of high-degree nodes, and regional and global network measures, including degree and betweenness, were studied. Compared with healthy controls, PTSD patients showed altered quantitative values in global network properties, characterized by shorter path length and higher clustering. Moreover, PTSD patients exhibited decreased connectivity in the right lingual gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, left supramarginal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, bilateral superior and inferior frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, and posterior cingulate gyrus. Nodal centrality decreased predominantly in the occipital regions (lingual gyrus) and default-mode regions, while increased correlations and centralities were observed in the medial temporal lobe and posterior cingulate cortex. PTSD-related networks exhibited a less efficient organization and regional connectivity. According to these findings, we conclude that regional connections involving fear-processing and re-experiential-processing cortex may play a role in maintaining or adapting to PTSD pathology.
Detweiler, Mark B; Pagadala, Bhuvaneshwar; Candelario, Joseph; Boyle, Jennifer S; Detweiler, Jonna G; Lutgens, Brian W
The effectiveness of medications for PTSD in general has been well studied, but the effectiveness of medicatio.ns prescribed specifically for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) nightmares is less well known. This retrospective chart review examined the efficacy of various medications used in actual treatment of PTSD nightmares at one Veteran Affairs Hospital. Records at the Salem, VA Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) were examined from 2009 to 2013 to check for the efficacy of actual treatments used in comparis.on with treatments suggested in three main review articles. The final sample consisted of 327 patients and 478 separate medication trials involving 21 individual medications plus 13 different medication combinations. The three most frequently utilized medications were prazosin (107 trials), risperidone (81 trials), and quetiapine (72 trials). Five medications had 20 or more trials with successful results (partial to full nightmare cessation) in >50% of trials: risperidone (77%, 1.0-6.0 mg), clonidine (63%, 0.1-2.0 mg), quetiapine (50%, 12.5-800.0 mg), mirtazapine (50%; 7.5-30.0 mg), and terazosin (64%, 50.0-300.0 mg). Notably, olanzapine (2.5-10.0) was successful (full remission) in all five prescription trials in five separate patients. Based on the clinical results, the use of risperidone, clonidine, terazosin, and olanzapine warrants additional investigation in clinically controlled trials as medications prescribed specifically for PTSD nightmares.
During most of his adult life, in counterpoint to his fame in describing the theory of evolution, Charles Darwin was chronically ill. He consulted many doctors with only limited and temporary success. His symptoms were many and varied. His doctors favoured dyspepsia or suppressed gout as the diagnosis. The Water Cure was only effective initially. Many diagnoses have been proposed by physicians since then. Perhaps he suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not instead of but as well as other physical problems. His symptoms match with criteria for PTSD. Traumatic episodes from his life are considered in this paper: his mother's painful, sudden death from an acute abdominal event when he was eight; his reaction to seeing operations without anaesthetic; the deaths of three of his children, including his beloved daughter, Annie, aged ten; and being overwhelmed by his chronic, unrelenting symptoms. Trauma had not been conceptualised as a diagnosis in Darwin's time. Rather, hysteria and, in war, irritable heart were names given to what is now called PTSD.
Gilpin, N W; Weiner, J L
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol-use disorder (AUD) are highly comorbid in humans. Although we have some understanding of the structural and functional brain changes that define each of these disorders, and how those changes contribute to the behavioral symptoms that define them, little is known about the neurobiology of comorbid PTSD and AUD, which may be due in part to a scarcity of adequate animal models for examining this research question. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the-science on comorbid PTSD and AUD. We summarize epidemiological data documenting the prevalence of this comorbidity, review what is known about the potential neurobiological basis for the frequent co-occurrence of PTSD and AUD and discuss successes and failures of past and current treatment strategies. We also review animal models that aim to examine comorbid PTSD and AUD, highlighting where the models parallel the human condition, and we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each model. We conclude by discussing key gaps in our knowledge and strategies for addressing them: in particular, we (1) highlight the need for better animal models of the comorbid condition and better clinical trial design, (2) emphasize the need for examination of subpopulation effects and individual differences and (3) urge cross-talk between basic and clinical researchers that is reflected in collaborative work with forward and reverse translational impact.
Seow, Lee Seng Esmond; Ong, Clarissa; Mahesh, Mithila Valli; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Shafie, Saleha; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to commonly co-occur with schizophrenia, which is widely considered the most disabling mental illness. Both conditions share neurological risk factors, and present with symptoms that are superficially similar, complicating diagnostic accuracy. The presence of comorbid PTSD is also of concern as additional diagnoses tend to worsen functioning and quality of life. In the current review, EMBASE, Medline, and PsycINFO were searched for articles pertaining to PTSD comorbidity in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Articles went through two stages of review prior to inclusion - one at the abstract level and another at the full-text level. Thirty-four articles were ultimately included in the present review. Prevalence of PTSD in schizophrenia ranged from 0 to 57%, likely due to study heterogeneity. Findings generally indicated that comorbid PTSD was associated with higher levels of positive symptoms, general psychopathology, and neurocognitive impairment, as well as worse functioning and quality of life. As such, it is important for clinicians to differentiate between psychotic and PTSD symptoms, and to pay attention to the associated features of comorbid PTSD in order to provide the most appropriate intervention. Unfortunately, epidemiological and longitudinal studies in this area are lacking.
Da Silva-Mannel, Juliana; Andreoli, Sérgio Baxter; Martin, Denise
The study aimed to understand how "distress" is experienced by patients with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the social-cultural context of São Paulo, Brazil, an urban environment marked by social inequality and high levels of violence. A qualitative study was conducted between 2008 and 2010 with PTSD patients (F43.1, ICD-10, 1997) who had been victims of robberies and kidnappings in São Paulo. Dense ethnographic observations were carried out, as well as in-depth semi-structured interviews with ten adult patients. The analysis method used was based on anthropology. The results show that it is particularly important to distinguish between perceptions of different forms of the experience of social suffering and perceptions of health and illness held by victims and biomedical experts. The cause of PTSD is more often associated with the personal problems of the victim than with the specific traumatic event. The distress described in terms of what is considered a "normal" reaction to violence and what is considered a symptom of PTSD. The findings indicate that the diagnostic of PTSD can be understood in relation to the different contexts within a culture. The ethnographic approach serves not only to illuminate individual suffering but also the social suffering experienced by the residents of São Paulo.
Kasckow, John; Morse, Jennifer; Begley, Amy; Anderson, Stewart; Bensasi, Salem; Thomas, Stephen; Quinn, Sandra C; Reynolds, Charles F
Older individuals with emotional distress and a history of psychologic trauma are at risk for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. This study was an exploratory, secondary analysis of data from the study "Prevention of Depression in Older African Americans". It examined whether Problem Solving Therapy-Primary Care (PST-PC) would lead to improvement in PTSD symptoms in patients with subsyndromal depression and a history of psychologic trauma. The control condition was dietary education (DIET). Participants (n=60) were age 50 or older with scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale of 11 or greater and history of psychologic trauma. Exclusions stipulated no major depression and substance dependence within a year. Participants were randomized to 6-8 sessions of either PST-PC or DIET and followed 2 years with booster sessions every 6 months; 29 participants were in the PST-PC group and 31 were in the DIET group. Mixed effects models showed that improvement of PTSD Check List scores was significantly greater in the DIET group over two years than in the PST-PC group (based on a group time interaction). We observed no intervention⁎time interactions in Beck Depression Inventory or Brief Symptom Inventory-Anxiety subscale scores.
Barreto, George E; Yarkov, Alexander; Avila-Rodriguez, Marcos; Aliev, Gjumrakch; Echeverria, Valentina
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that develops after experiencing trauma. Actual therapies do not help majority of patients with PTSD. Moreover, extinguished fear memories usually reappear in the individuals when exposed to trauma cues. New drugs to reduce the impact of conditioned cues in eliciting abnormal fear responses are urgently required. Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, decreased anxiety and depressive-like behavior, and enhanced fear extinction in mouse models of PTSD. Cotinine, considered a positive modulator of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR), enhances fear extinction in rodents in a manner dependent on the activity of the αnAChRs. Cotinine stimulates signaling pathways downstream of α7nAChR including the protein kinase B (Akt)/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) pathway and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). The stimulation of these factors promotes synaptic plasticity and the extinction of fear. In this review, we discuss the hypothesis that cotinine relieves PTSD symptoms and facilitates fear memory extinction by promoting brain plasticity through the positive modulation of presynaptic nAChRs and its effectors in the brain.
Rumyantseva, G M; Stepanov, A L
Two types of stress situation were compared: involvement in combat actions and working in the post-Chernobyl atomic energy station clean-up. A total of 30 subjects involved in combat actions (combatants) and 33 clean-up workers were observed for 5-6 years and 15-17 years after involvement in stress situations. Mean ages in the two groups were 27.0 +/- 2.8 and 43.7 +/- 4.5 years respectively. Clinical features were analyzed in terms of the major criteria of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - "immersion" in the experience, "avoidance," "hyperexcitability," and "social functioning." There were both common features in the two groups of subjects as well as individual characteristics dependent on the nature of the stress. Patients were treated with Coaxil at a dose of 37.5 mg/day for four weeks. In both groups of patients, Coaxil had the most favorable effects on immersion and hyperexcitability, which improved social adaptation. The "avoidance" symptom was more resistant. These studies lead to the conclusion that Coaxil is an effective agent for the treatment of different types of PTSD.
Swick, Diane; Honzel, Nikki; Turken, U
The error-related negativity (ERN) is a neuroelectric signature of performance monitoring during speeded response time tasks. Previous studies indicate that individuals with anxiety disorders show ERN enhancements that correlate with the degree of clinical symptomology. Less is known about the error monitoring system in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is characterized by impairments in the regulation of fear and other emotional responses, as well as deficits in maintaining cognitive control. Here, combat Veterans with PTSD were compared to control Veterans in two different versions of the flanker task (n=13 or 14 per group). Replicating and extending previous findings, PTSD patients showed an intact ERN in both experiments. In addition, task performance and error compensation behavior were intact. Finally, ERN amplitude showed no relationship with self-reported PTSD, depression, or post-concussive symptoms. These results suggest that error monitoring represents a relative strength in PTSD that can dissociate from cognitive control functions that are impaired, such as response inhibition and sustained attention. A healthy awareness of errors in external actions could be leveraged to improve interoceptive awareness of emotional state. The results could have positive implications for PTSD treatments that rely on self-monitoring abilities, such as neurofeedback and mindfulness training.
Baumann, Michaela; Zwissler, Bastian; Schalinski, Inga; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina; Schauer, Maggie; Kissler, Johanna
People with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often suffer from memory disturbances. In particular, previous studies suggest that PTSD patients perform atypically on tests of directed forgetting, which may be mediated by an altered emotional appraisal of the presented material. Also, a special role of dissociative symptoms in traumatized individuals' memory performance has been suggested. Here, we investigate these issues in traumatized immigrants in Germany. In an item-method directed forgetting task, pictures were presented individually, each followed by an instruction to either remember or forget it. Later, recognition memory was tested for all pictures, regardless of initial instruction. Overall, the PTSD group's discrimination accuracy was lower than the control group's, as PTSD participants produced fewer hits and more false alarms, but the groups did not differ in directed forgetting itself. Moreover, the more negatively participants evaluated the stimuli, the less they were able to discriminate old from new items. Participants with higher dissociation scores were particularly poor at recognizing to-be-forgotten items. Results confirm PTSD patients' general discrimination deficits, but provide no evidence for a distinct directed forgetting pattern in PTSD. Furthermore, data indicate that, in general, more negatively perceived items are discriminated with less accuracy than more positively appraised ones. Results are discussed in the larger context of emotion and stress-related modulations of episodic memory, with particular focus on the role of dissociative symptoms.
Francisco, G E; Ivanhoe, C B
Narcolepsy is a rare sequela of brain injury. We report the case of a 27-yr-old male with post-traumatic narcolepsy who was successfully treated with methylphenidate. This patient sustained moderate brain injury from a motorcycle accident. Subsequently, he manifested the classic tetrad of narcolepsy: cataplexy, excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep paralysis, and hypnogogic hallucinations. There was no premorbid seizure or sleep disorder. There was no family history of sleep disorders. Polysomnography and Multiple Sleep Latency Test confirmed the diagnosis of narcolepsy. Sleep latency (time to sleep onset), rapid eye movement sleep latency (time from sleep onset to rapid eye movement sleep onset), and mean multiple sleep latency were all pathologically shortened (2.5, 66, and 1.2 min, respectively). Twenty-four hour electroencephalographic monitoring and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain were normal, as were serum chemistries. Treatment with caffeine was unsuccessful. He was then started on methylphenidate, 10 mg twice daily, which was increased to 30 mg twice daily over a 4-mo period. Cataplexy and excessive daytime sleepiness started to improve 1 mo after adjustments in methylphenidate dosing. Six months after the initiation of methylphenidate therapy, the patient is completely asymptomatic.
Rohleder, N; Karl, A
Since its first description in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been characterized as a disorder of altered affective functioning which causes tremendous distress. In addition, it has been recognized that PTSD is not only accompanied by ''poor health'' but also by a number of specific and non-specific ''somatic'' pathologies, such as cardiovascular, autoimmune and physical complaints/chronic pain. It has been hypothesized that alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) and the immune system may mediate or facilitate these somatic conditions. The aims of this review are to summarize studies that report altered somatic functioning in PTSD and to review how endocrine and immune function differentially affect PTSD-related somatic malfunction. It is hypothesized that alterations of HPA axis and SAM system permit disinhibition of inflammatory mechanisms, which in turn foster the development of somatic diseases as well as self-reported physical complaints.
Muhtz, Christoph; Wittekind, Charlotte; Godemann, Kathrin; Von Alm, Christine; Jelinek, Lena; Yassouridis, Alexander; Kellner, Michael
Intergenerational transmission of psychological trauma and the impact of parental post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on offspring are controversially discussed. We studied 50 offspring (36 women and 14 men, mean age 42.1 years) of refugees who were severely traumatized as children at the end of World War II. From these, 25 of the refugees currently suffered from chronic PTSD, and 25 had no PTSD. Parental PTSD status did not significantly influence mental health [as per the Symptom Checklist (SCL)-90-R] or quality of life (assessed by the 36-item Short-form Health Survey) in their children. In the entire sample, frequency of talking with the mother about the flight correlated with phobic anxiety (r = 0.67, p = 0.03). Interestingly, the stated burden of having a parent with a history of flight significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with almost all subscales of the SCL-90-R. These results in a non-clinical sample do not support a specific role of parental PTSD in intergenerational trauma transmission. Our other remarkable, but preliminary, results need to be studied in larger samples using more subtle interaction or schema analyses. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
BOLU, Abdullah; BALIKCI, Adem; ERDEM, Murat; ÖZNUR, Taner; ÇELİK, Cemil; UZUN, Özcan
Introduction Hyperarousal and alertness play an important role in the clinical presentation of Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Strenuous effort has been made to shed light on the mechanisms that cause these symptoms of patients. Based on the claim that there is a relationship between some subtypes of hyperarousal symptoms and aggression in patients with PTSD, we aimed to examine the relationship between electrophysiological measurements that was measured through transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and aggression scale scores of PTSD patients in this study. Methods The study included 37 patients with a diagnosis of PTSD according to DSM-IV criteria and 25 healthy volunteers. Electrophysiological measurements of participants were made with TMS. The Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaires was administered to patients and control group. Results In the patient group, a positive correlation was found between scores of aggression and arousal symptoms. Motor excitability threshold, one of TMS measurements, which is a sign of cortical excitability, was significantly lower in the patient group than the control group. There was a negative correlation between aggression scale scores and the parameters of motor excitability threshold and cortical silent period which both shows cortical excitability of the patients. Conclusion We concluded that there was an increase in cortical excitability in PTSD patients and we suggest that this increase might be associated with hyperarousal symptoms and aggressive behavior.
MacGregor, Andrew J; Dougherty, Amber L; Mayo, Jonathan A; Han, Peggy P; Galarneau, Michael R
U.S. Navy health care personnel are exposed to an array of psychological stressors during combat deployment. This study compared rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Navy health care personnel with nonhealth care personnel following single and repeated combat deployments. The study sample was identified from electronic records indicating deployment to Iraq, Kuwait, or Afghanistan, and included 3,416 heath care and 4,648 nonhealth care personnel. Health care personnel had higher PTSD rates and an increasing trend in PTSD rates across repeated deployments. After adjusting for combat exposure and other covariates, health care compared with nonhealth care personnel were more likely to be diagnosed with PTSD after one (odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45-2.80), two (OR 2.27; 95% CI 1.26-4.08), and three deployments (OR 4.37; 95% CI 1.25-15.28). Exposure to wounded/dead friendly forces was associated with higher PTSD rates in health care personnel (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.13-2.07). Health care personnel occupy a unique and essential role in current wartime operations, and are a high-risk group for PTSD. These findings suggest that further research is needed on the effects of caregiver stress, and refinements to postdeployment screening for health care personnel should be pursued.
Moore, Elizabeth; Gaskin, Claire; Indig, Devon
Young offenders have a high prevalence of mental illness and a large proportion report experiencing a number of traumatic events during childhood, but there is little research exploring this association. This study describes the prevalence of, and association between, child maltreatment and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among young offenders. The study uses data collected as part of the 2009 NSW Young People in Custody Health Survey which was conducted in nine juvenile detention centers. This paper reports on findings from the baseline questionnaires and 18-months of re-offending data. The analysis included 291 participants who were assessed for PTSD and child maltreatment. The sample was 88% male, 48% Aboriginal, with an average age of 17 years (range 13-21 years). One in five (20%) participants were diagnosed with PTSD, with females significantly more likely to have PTSD than males (40% vs. 17%, p<0.05). Over half (60%) of young offenders reported any child abuse or neglect, with females nearly 10 times more likely to report three or more kinds of severe child maltreatment than males. The main correlate for a diagnosis of PTSD was having three or more kinds of severe child maltreatment (OR=6.73, 95% CI: 1.06-42.92). This study provides evidence for the need to comprehensively assess child abuse and neglect among young offenders in order to provide appropriate treatment in custody and post-release.
Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Walter, Steffen; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Traue, Harald C.
Objective: This pilot study examined the extent to which a specific mechanism of emotion regulation – namely, ambivalence concerning the expressiveness of German soldiers’ emotions – affects the severity of PTSD symptoms after a military operation. Methodology: A survey was conducted at three points in time among 66 soldiers deployed on military crisis operations. The Harvard Trauma Questionaire (HTQ), the Ambivalence over Emotional Expressiveness Questionnaire (AEQ-G18), and a questionnaire on the particular stress of German soldiers during military operations were used. Results: The study showed a significant correlation between emotional ambivalence and traumatization. Furthermore, it was shown that the subjective stress of soldiers leading up to deployment is more pronounced when emotional ambivalence is stronger in the context of military operations. This particular stress is greater before and during the military operation than after. Compared to a male control sample, the average AEQ-G18 scores of the soldier sample examined here are considerably lower. Conclusion: This pilot study clearly indicates that the AEQ-G18 could be a suitable predictor of the psychological burden on soldiers. The correlations between emotional ambivalence on the one hand and the particular and post-traumatic stressors on the other hand are not only statistically significant in the present pilot study, but may also be relevant as risk factors. It is, therefore, necessary to conduct more extensive studies on soldiers participating in military operations to verify the results of this pilot study. PMID:23798980
Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Dennis, Michelle F; Calhoun, Patrick S; Beckham, Jean C
There has been a great deal of interest in the role of the neuroendocrine hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the expression of stress-related psychopathology such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This investigation examined the association of PTSD and childhood maltreatment with three key HPA axis hormones: cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Regression analyses were undertaken on a sample of 43 participants with and 57 participants without PTSD. Results demonstrated that after controlling for age, sex, and PTSD status, exposure to childhood maltreatment was significantly associated with cortisol secretion [F(4,95)=11.68, ΔR(2)=0.11, P=0.0009] and cortisol/DHEA ratio [F(4,95)=6.20, ΔR(2)=0.05, P=0.01]. PTSD status was not associated with any of these neuroendocrine variables. Findings are discussed in the context of the complexity of the relationship of these neuroendocrine variables with trauma exposure and trauma-related psychopathology. It is suggested that DHEA(S) or cortisol/DHEA(S) ratios may not be biomarkers of specific forms of psychopathology per se, but that, instead, the severity and developmental timing of trauma may set the HPA axis in ways that are reflected in interactions among these neuroendocrine hormones. In adulthood, these HPA axis hormones may continue to be dynamically affected by personal and environmental resources.
Zhang, Youxue; Xie, Bing; Chen, Heng; Li, Meiling; Guo, Xiaonan; Chen, Huafu
Abstract Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is suggested to be a structural and functional abnormality in the insula. The insula, which consists of distinct subregions with various patterns of connectivity, displays complex and diverse functions. However, whether these insular subregions have different patterns of connectivity in PTSD remains unclear. Investigating the abnormal functional connectivity of the insular subregions is crucial to reveal its potential effect on diseases specifically PTSD. This study uses a seed-based method to investigate the altered resting-state functional connectivity of insular subregions in PTSD. We found that patients with PTSD showed reduced functional connectivity compared with healthy controls (HCs) between the left ventral anterior insula and the anterior cingulate cortex. The patients with PTSD also exhibited decreased functional connectivity between the right posterior insula and left inferior parietal lobe, and the postcentral gyrus relative to HCs. These results suggest the involvement of altered functional connectivity of insular subregions in the abnormal regulation of emotion and processing of somatosensory information in patients with PTSD. Such impairments in functional connectivity patterns of the insular subregions may advance our understanding of the pathophysiological basis underlying PTSD. PMID:27399097
Barnabas, Karen; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Huiying; Kirouac, Gilbert; Vrontakis, Maria
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic syndrome triggered by exposure to trauma and a failure to recover from a normal negative emotional reaction to traumatic stress. The neurobiology of PTSD and the participation of neuropeptides in the neural systems and circuits that control fear and anxiety are not fully understood. The long-term dysregulation of neuropeptide systems contributes to the development of anxiety disorders, including PTSD. The neuropeptide galanin (Gal) and its receptors participate in anxiety-like and depression-related behaviors via the modulation of neuroendocrine and monoaminergic systems. The objective of this research was to investigate how Gal expression changes in the brain of rats 2 weeks after exposure to footshock. Rats exposed to footshocks were subdivided into high responders (HR; immobility>60%) and low responders (LR; immobility<40%) based on immobility elicited by a novel tone one day after exposure. On day 14, rats were anesthetized, and the amygdala, hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands were removed for analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Gal mRNA levels were increased in the amygdala and hypothalamus of HR compared with the control and LR. In contrast, Gal mRNA levels were decreased in the adrenal and pituitary glands of HR compared with the control and LR. Thus, the differential regulation (dysregulation) of the neuropeptide Gal in these tissues may contribute to anxiety and PTSD development.
Mabey, Linda; van Servellen, Gwen
Although the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is high among those with severe mental illness, little is known about the use of interventions to lessen the burden of PTSD in this population. Currently, there are limited data about safe and effective interventions to treat these individuals. This systematic published work review presents the scientific published work reporting studies of psychological treatment approaches for individuals with comorbid PTSD and severe mental illness. A secondary aim of this study was to identify the specific models implemented and tested, and their impact upon patient outcomes. A review of the published work from January 2001 through January 2012 of English-language publications retrieved from the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), MEDLINE, and the American Psychological Association generated abstracts (PsycINFO) databases was conducted. Six studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. The treatment programs described were cognitive-behavioural therapy, psychoeducation, exposure-based cognitive-behavioural therapy, and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Evidence of the effectiveness of these programs is examined. Data to support the use of these interventions are limited, indicating the need for further research and efficacy trials. Future areas of research and implications for nursing are discussed.
Gene-Cos, Nuri; Perrin, Sean
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common and disabling disorder that develops as a consequence of traumatic events and is characterised by distressing re-experiencing of parts of the trauma, avoidance of reminders, emotional numbing and hyperarousal. The NICE guidelines for PTSD (2005) recommend trauma-focused psychological therapy as the first-line treatment. A survey of 129 GPs in south London investigated the recognition and treatment of PTSD in primary care. The majority of GPs underestimated the prevalence of PTSD. Most PTSD patients seen in GP surgeries currently do not receive or are not referred for NICE recommended psychological treatments. Medications, especially SSRIs, appear to be more commonly prescribed than recommended by NICE. Efforts to disseminate information about PTSD and effective treatments to both patients and GPs are needed to increase recognition rates and prompter access to treatment. The Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme will make the NICE recommended treatments more widely available and will allow self-referral by adults with PTSD to trauma-focused psychological therapy. PMID:26042164
KLEIM, BIRGIT; EHLERS, ANKE; GLUCKSMAN, EDWARD
Background Some studies suggest that early psychological treatment is effective in preventing chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but it is as yet unclear how best to identify trauma survivors who need such intervention. This prospective longitudinal study investigated the prognostic validity of acute stress disorder (ASD), of variables derived from a meta-analysis of risk factors for PTSD, and of candidate cognitive and biological variables in predicting chronic PTSD following assault. Method Assault survivors who had been treated for their injuries at a metropolitan Accident and Emergency (A&E) Department were assessed with structured clinical interviews to establish diagnoses of ASD at 2 weeks (n=222) and PTSD at 6 months (n=205) after the assault. Candidate predictors were assessed at 2 weeks. Results Most predictors significantly predicted PTSD status at follow-up. Multivariate logistic regressions showed that a set of four theory-derived cognitive variables predicted PTSD best (Nagelkerke R2=0·50), followed by the variables from the meta-analysis (Nagelkerke R2=0·37) and ASD (Nagelkerke R2=0·25). When all predictors were considered simultaneously, mental defeat, rumination and prior problems with anxiety or depression were chosen as the best combination of predictors (Nagelkerke R2=0·47). Conclusion Questionnaires measuring mental defeat, rumination and pre-trauma psychological problems may help to identify assault survivors at risk of chronic PTSD. PMID:17588274
Halpin, Emma; Kugathasan, Vanessa; Hulbert, Carol; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Bendall, Sarah
Background: Evidence based treatment interventions for young people with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and trauma histories is lacking. Although case formulation (CF) has been widely regarded in cognitive behavioural therapy manuals as beneficial, there is limited empirical research examining how clients and therapists experience the process. Aim: This study aimed to explore young people’s reactions to CF in treatment for PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) and FEP. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with three participants (aged 19–20) with FEP and PTSD and their therapists, after they had completed a trauma-focused treatment program with a CF component. Transcripts were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological approach and themes were derived. Results: Two themes related to participants’ experiences were identified from the analysis: (1) Developing Insight; (2) A challenging experience; and two themes from the therapists: (1) Doing the case formulation; (2) Value of case formulation. Participants and therapists reported benefits in making connections between current symptoms and past trauma. Participants viewed the process as challenging. Conclusion: Results suggest a potential discrepancy between the experience of the case formulation process for clients and therapists. PMID:27886071
Pardini, M; Krueger, F; Koenigs, M; Raymont, V; Hodgkinson, C; Zoubak, S; Goldman, D; Grafman, J
The past few years have seen an increase in the clinical awareness of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), one of the most disabling and least understood behavioral disorders. Although the biological bases of PTSD are poorly understood, fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) activity has been linked with arousability and aversive-memories extinction, that is, two key features of PTSD. In this study, we investigated the association between the FAAH genetic polymorphisms and PTSD development and maintenance. We assessed PTSD frequency in a group of male Vietnam war veterans who suffered combat-related penetrating traumatic brain injury, that is, a relatively homogeneous population regarding the nature of the events that led to PTSD. We showed that rs2295633, a single-nucleotide polymorphism of FAAH, was significantly associated with PTSD diagnosis in subjects without lesions in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Moreover, the presence of the C allele was associated with more severe re-experiencing of trauma and more negative reported childhood experiences. In conclusion, our data suggest that FAAH has an important role in PTSD through modulation of aversive memories and point to both a novel therapeutic target and a possible risk marker for this condition. PMID:22832737
Jeong, Yourhee; Oh, Hyun Young; Park, Yong Chon
The print media is still one of major sources for health-related information. To shed light on how the media accurately delivers information for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we searched the newspaper articles and analyzed their contents for accuracy in the description of symptoms, causes, and treatment of PTSD. The articles featuring PSTD were searched from the very first available to 2010 at on-line search systems of three major Korean newspapers. A total of 123 articles appeared and the first article appeared in 1984. The number of articles steadily increased till the early 2000s but we found the robust increase in the late 2000s. Among the mentioned symptoms of PTSD: re-experience (39%) was most common, followed by avoidance or numbing (28%) and hyperarousal (22%). Of the 29 articles mentioning treatment of PTSD, 13 mentioned psychotherapy only and 11 mentioned both psychotherapy and medication equally. However, the psychotherapies mentioned were non-specific and only five articles mentioned any empirically supported therapies. The number of articles on PTSD in Korean newspapers has continually increased during the last three decades. However, the quality of information on the treatment of PTSD was questionable. PMID:23853493
Reynolds, J L
CHILDBIRTH CAN BE A VERY PAINFUL EXPERIENCE, often associated with feelings of being out of control. It should not, therefore, be surprising that childbirth may be traumatic for some women. Most women recover quickly post partum; others appear to have a more difficult time. The author asserts that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may occur after childbirth. He calls this variant of PTSD a "traumatic birth experience." There is very little literature on this topic. The evidence available is from case series, qualitative research and studies of women seeking elective cesarean section for psychologic reasons. Elective cesarean section exemplifies the avoidance behaviour typical of PTSD. There are many ways that health care professionals, including physicians, obstetric nurses, midwives, psychologists, psychiatrists and social workers, can address this phenomenon. These include taking a careful history to determine whether a woman has experienced trauma that could place her at risk for a traumatic birth experience; providing excellent pain control during childbirth and careful postpartum care that includes understanding the woman's birth experience; and ruling out postpartum depression. Much more research is needed in this area. PMID:9084390
Jacques, Peggy L.; Kragel, Philip A.; Rubin, David C.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects the functional recruitment and connectivity between neural regions during autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval that overlap with default and control networks. Whether such univariate changes relate to potential differences in the contribution of large-scale neural networks supporting cognition in PTSD is unknown. In the current functional MRI (fMRI) study we employ independent component analysis to examine the influence the engagement of neural networks during the recall of personal memories in PTSD (15 participants) compared to non-trauma exposed, healthy controls (14 participants). We found that the PTSD group recruited similar neural networks when compared to controls during AM recall, including default network subsystems and control networks, but there were group differences in the spatial and temporal characteristics of these networks. First, there were spatial differences in the contribution of the anterior and posterior midline across the networks, and with the amygdala in particular for the medial temporal subsystem of the default network. Second, there were temporal differences in the relationship of the medial prefrontal subsystem of the default network, with less temporal coupling of this network during AM retrieval in PTSD relative to controls. These findings suggest that spatial and temporal characteristics of the default and control networks potentially differ in PTSD versus healthy controls, and contribute to altered recall of personal memory. PMID:23483523
Ruby, Eugene; Sher, Leo
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is significantly associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior among adolescents. Suicide is one of the top three causes of adolescent deaths worldwide. Despite the strong relationship between PTSD and suicidal behavior, precise causal pathways linking PTSD to suicide in adolescents remains unclear. A slew of mediating factors and variables commonly present themselves with both suicide and PTSD, including co-morbid psychiatric disorders, exposure to different forms of trauma and stressful life events, core neurobiological changes, and mental, emotional, and physiological states such as hyperarousal, impulsivity, and aggression. Because youth is such a critical stage of development, it is very important that at-risk adolescents are identified and referred for treatment. With many treatment challenges in these populations, effective implementation and use of prevention methods are of increasing importance. The most proven prevention methods include physician education, means restriction, and gatekeeper training. Other strategies that have received empirical support are public education campaigns and implementing guidelines for the media, including those for television, print media, and the Internet.
Krysinska, Karolina; Lester, David
There is a gap in the literature regarding suicide risk among traumatized individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and this article aims to systematically review literature on the relationship between PTSD and suicidal behavior and ideation. A meta-analysis of 50 articles that examined the association between PTSD and past and current suicidal ideation and behavior was conducted. There was no evidence for an increased risk of completed suicide in individuals with PTSD. PTSD was associated with an increased incidence of prior attempted suicide and prior and current suicidal ideation. Controlling for other psychiatric disorders (including depression) weakened, but did not eliminate, this association. The evidence indicates that there is an association between PTSD and suicidality with several factors, such as concurrent depression and the pre-trauma psychiatric condition, possibly mediating this relationship. There are significant clinical implications of the reported relationship for suicide risk assessment and therapy, and further studies might help to understand the mediating pathways between PTSD and increased suicide risk.
Panagioti, Maria; Gooding, Patricia; Tarrier, Nicholas
There is a large literature investigating the underlying mechanisms, risk factors and demographics of suicidal thoughts and behaviors across a number of psychiatric disorders, such as, major depression, anxiety and schizophrenia. However, less research has focused on the relationship between Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and suicide. There were two broad aims of this review. The first was to assess the extent to which PTSD is associated with suicide, and the second was to determine the effects of co-morbid disorders on this relationship. Overall, there was a clear relationship between PTSD and suicidal thoughts and behaviors irrespective of the type of trauma experienced. Very few studies directly examined whether depression was a mediating factor in the relationships reported. However, where this was investigated, the presence of co-morbid depression appeared to boost the effect of PTSD on suicidality. It was noteworthy that hardly any studies had investigated concepts thought to be key in other domains of research into suicidality, such as, feelings of entrapment, defeat and hopelessness.
Bras, Marijana; Loncar, Zoran; Boban, Maja; Gregurek, Rudolf; Brajković, Lovorka; Tomicić, Hrvoje; Muljacić, Ante; Micković, Vlatko; Kalenić, Barbara
This study examined self-inflicted burns in case series of four patients with chronic combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Those patients were hospitalized in the Burn Unit of the University Hospital of Traumatology in Zagreb because of severe burns and had a premorbid psychiatric history of PTSD. Demographic data and information regarding the circumstances surrounding the incident, burn severity, treatment and outcomes of these patients were collected. The authors have analyzed possible impacts of the sensationalistic way in which media present cases of self-inflicted burning that induce other, new cases of this suicide type, known in the literature as "Werther's syndrome". The importance of multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of burn patients is stressed with emphasis on the important role of liaison psychiatrist in treating these patients. It is necessary to educate media people to avoid sensational reporting on this kind of events. Continuous psychiatric treatment of vulnerable individuals could be useful in prevention of self-inflicted burns.
Rai, Muhammad Farooq; Duan, Xin; Quirk, James D.; Holguin, Nilsson; Schmidt, Eric J.; Chinzei, Nobuaki; Silva, Matthew J.; Sandell, Linda J.
We investigated the spectrum of lesions characteristic of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) across the knee joint in response to mechanical injury. We hypothesized that alteration in knee joint stability in mice reproduces molecular and structural features of PTOA that would suggest potential therapeutic targets in humans. The right knees of eight-week old male mice from two recombinant inbred lines (LGXSM-6 and LGXSM-33) were subjected to axial tibial compression. Three separate loading magnitudes were applied: 6N, 9N, and 12N. Left knees served as non-loaded controls. Mice were sacrificed at 5, 9, 14, 28, and 56 days post-loading and whole knee joint changes were assessed by histology, immunostaining, micro-CT, and magnetic resonance imaging. We observed that tibial compression disrupted joint stability by rupturing the anterior cruciate ligament (except for 6N) and instigated a cascade of temporal and topographical features of PTOA. These features included cartilage extracellular matrix loss without proteoglycan replacement, chondrocyte apoptosis at day 5, synovitis present at day 14, osteophytes, ectopic calcification, and meniscus pathology. These findings provide a plausible model and a whole-joint approach for how joint injury in humans leads to PTOA. Chondrocyte apoptosis, synovitis, and ectopic calcification appear to be targets for potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:28345597
Kasckow, John; Morse, Jennifer; Begley, Amy; Anderson, Stewart; Bensasi, Salem; Thomas, Stephen; Quinn, Sandra C; Reynolds, Charles F
Older individuals with emotional distress and a history of psychologic trauma are at risk for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. This study was an exploratory, secondary analysis of data from the study “Prevention of Depression in Older African Americans”. It examined whether Problem Solving Therapy - Primary Care (PST-PC) would lead to improvement in PTSD symptoms in patients with subsyndromal depression and a history of psychologic trauma. The control condition was dietary education (DIET). Participants (n = 60) were age 50 or older with scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies -Depression scale of 11 or greater and history of psychologic trauma. Exclusions stipulated no major depression and substance dependence within a year. Participants were randomized to 6–8 sessions of either PST-PC or DIET and followed 2 years with booster sessions every 6 months; 29 participants were in the PST-PC group and 31 were in the DIET group. Mixed effects models showed that improvement of PTSD Check List scores was significantly greater in the DIET group over two years than in the PST-PC group (based on a group*time interaction). We observed no intervention*time interactions in Beck Depression Inventory or Brief Symptom Inventory-Anxiety subscale scores. PMID:25107318
Kitchiner, N J
This article describes the treatment of a young man who developed post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following the sudden unexpected miscarriage of his unborn child. He was diagnosed with this anxiety disorder while serving a term of imprisonment. He was treated with a controversial psychological treatment for PTSD, eye movement desensitisation reprocessing (EMDR) therapy, during one, 1-hour session. After this session, his progress was monitored by a further three follow-up appointments at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months, where the self-report questionnaires were repeated and compared with pre-treatment scores. These demonstrated improvement post-treatment and at a 3-month follow-up session. The discussion arising from the treatment will concentrate on EMDR as an effective treatment for PTSD, particularly within a prison setting. Data from recent research highlight the potential risks of PTSD within a community population and the implications for midwives and nurses who treat and care for traumatized patients are discussed.
Hong, Chunlan; Efferth, Thomas
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) widely occurs among victims or witness of disasters. With flashbacks, hyperarousal, and avoidance being the typical symptoms, PTSD became a focus of psychological research. The earthquake in Wenchuan, China, on May 12, 2008, was without precedent in magnitude and aftermath and caused huge damage, which drew scientists' attention to mental health of the survivors. We conducted a systematic overview by collecting published articles from the PubMed database and classifying them into five points: epidemiology, neuropathology, biochemistry, genetics and epigenetics, and treatment. The large body of research during the past 6 years showed that adolescents and adults were among the most studied populations with high prevalence rates for PTSD. Genomic and transcriptomic studies focusing on gene × environment studies as well as epigenetics are still rare, although a few available data showed great potential to better understand the pathophysiology of PTSD as multifactorial disease. Phytotherapy with Chinese herbs and acupuncture are rarely reported as of yet, although the first published data indicated promising therapy effects. Future studies should focus on the following points: (1) The affected populations under observation should be better defined concerning individual risk factor, time of observation, spatial movement, and individual disease courses of patients. (2) The role of social support for prevalence rates of PTSD should be observed in more detail. (3) Efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine should be studied to find potential interventions and effective treatments of PTSD.
Wingo, Aliza P; Almli, Lynn M; Stevens, Jennifer S; Stevens, Jennifer J; Klengel, Torsten; Uddin, Monica; Li, Yujing; Bustamante, Angela C; Lori, Adriana; Koen, Nastassja; Stein, Dan J; Smith, Alicia K; Aiello, Allison E; Koenen, Karestan C; Wildman, Derek E; Galea, Sandro; Bradley, Bekh; Binder, Elisabeth B; Jin, Peng; Gibson, Greg; Ressler, Kerry J
DICER1 is an enzyme that generates mature microRNAs (miRNAs), which regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally in brain and other tissues and is involved in synaptic maturation and plasticity. Here, through genome-wide differential gene expression survey of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with comorbid depression (PTSD&Dep), we find that blood DICER1 expression is significantly reduced in cases versus controls, and replicate this in two independent cohorts. Our follow-up studies find that lower blood DICER1 expression is significantly associated with increased amygdala activation to fearful stimuli, a neural correlate for PTSD. Additionally, a genetic variant in the 3' un-translated region of DICER1, rs10144436, is significantly associated with DICER1 expression and with PTSD&Dep, and the latter is replicated in an independent cohort. Furthermore, genome-wide differential expression survey of miRNAs in blood in PTSD&Dep reveals miRNAs to be significantly downregulated in cases versus controls. Together, our novel data suggest DICER1 plays a role in molecular mechanisms of PTSD&Dep through the DICER1 and the miRNA regulation pathway.
d'Ardenne, Patricia; Heke, Sarah
Since 2000, patient reports have contributed significantly to the widening diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder, notably with the inclusion of complex, repeated, and indirect threat to people who develop symptoms. This paper describes and explains why patient reports matter, through worldwide mental health users' movements and the human rights movement. It looks at 46 recent patient-reported outcomes of preferred psychological treatments in clinical research and practice, and compares them with clinician-reported outcomes, using rating scales that diagnose and measure therapeutic gains. Attention is given to one qualitative study of survivors of the London bombings as an example of patients' personal traumatic experiences. Understanding patients' views and their limitations can help increase success in trauma-focused therapy outcomes, particularly where patients fail to engage with or complete treatment, where they doubt the validity of the treatment, or do not see it as culturally appropriate, or fear of revisiting the past. Specific recommendations are made for a more collaborative approach with patients in psychiatric and community care and clinical research.
Lotfi-Kashani, Farah; Vaziri, Shahram; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kazemi-Zanjani, Nahid; Shamkoeyan, Leila
Background Despite the fact that being exposed to traumatic and stressful events could have severe consequences, studies have shown that even in the wake of negative events such as cancer diagnosis, we see some changes and positive impacts in scheme, philosophy of life and self-perception, a process which is called Post Traumatic Growth (PTG). The aim of the current research is to define share of self-efficacy and perceived social support in the prediction of PTG. Methods The research is a correlation type. For this aim, 95 patients with cancer came to Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital, Tehran, Vali-e-Asr Hospital, Zanjan, and Mehraneh Charity Institute, Zanjan in 2012 have been selec ted based on available sampling and evaluated regarding self-efficacy, and perceived social support and PTG. Results Data analysis using Pearson correlation and regression analysis (simple and multiple) showed that self-efficacy and Perceived Social Support in cancer patients have direct significant relation with variable of PTG and explain 13.5%, 10.6% and jointly 20.7% of PTG changes respectively. Conclusion The research findings show that the variables of self-efficacy and Perceived Social Support explain significantly the PTG and these psychological variables can be used to provide improvement plans and mental health and PTG facilities. PMID:25250161
Ayers, Susan; McKenzie-McHarg, Kirstie; Eagle, Andrew
Background. Approximately 1-2% of women suffer from postnatal post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with wide ranging consequences for these women and their families 1. Appropriate treatment of women who have difficult or traumatic births is not yet established. Evidence in other populations shows that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is effective for PTSD and it is therefore the recommended treatment 2. However, a recent review of treatments for postnatal distress concluded that descriptions of postnatal counseling are largely generalized and non-specific, which makes them difficult to assess or replicate 3. Aims and method. The current paper therefore aims to describe the use of CBT interventions to treat postnatal distress, and to illustrate common themes or issues that occur in postnatal PTSD. This paper reports two case studies of women with postnatal PTSD and their treatment using CBT. Conclusions. In these cases, CBT was an effective treatment for postnatal PTSD. A number of implications are explored for the management of pregnancy and labor.
Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom; Giesbrecht, Timo; Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Smulders, Fren T Y; Meijer, Ewout H; Merckelbach, Harald L G J
Frontal alpha asymmetry, a biomarker derived from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings, has often been associated with psychological adjustment, with more left-sided frontal activity predicting approach motivation and lower levels of depression and anxiety. This suggests high relevance to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a disorder comprising anxiety and dysphoria symptoms. We review this relationship and show that frontal asymmetry can be plausibly linked to neuropsychological abnormalities seen in PTSD. However, surprisingly few studies (k = 8) have directly addressed frontal asymmetry in PTSD, mostly reporting that trait frontal asymmetry has little (if any) predictive value. Meanwhile, preliminary evidence suggest that state-dependent asymmetry during trauma-relevant stimulation distinguishes PTSD patients from resilient individuals. Thus, exploring links between provocation-induced EEG asymmetry and PTSD appears particularly promising. Additionally, we recommend more fine-grained analyses into PTSD symptom clusters in relation to frontal asymmetry. Finally, we highlight hypotheses that may guide future research and help to fully apprehend the practical and theoretical relevance of this biological marker.
Sparr, Landy F; Bremner, J Douglas
The nature of remembrance of traumatic events has been particularly controversial during the past decade as vigorous new research has reshaped thinking about trauma and memory. Memory alterations in traumatized individuals have been investigated within both theoretical and biological frameworks. There are different types of memory, and empirical studies have associated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with a simultaneous weakening and a strengthening of memory. Memory deficiencies in PTSD have been found to be related to problems in new learning (explicit memory), but other specific deficiencies are unvalidated. Recently, accuracy of memory has received particular scrutiny because considerable importance is attached to victims' recollections. In 1998, at the International War Crimes Tribunal in The Hague, The Netherlands, a Bosnian-Croatian soldier was tried for aiding and abetting the rape of a Muslim woman. The defendant's lawyers suggested that the woman's memory was inaccurate, having been adversely affected by her traumatic experiences, and that the defendant whom she identified was not present during her interrogation and abuse. The prosecution disagreed and argued that memories of traumatic experiences in individuals with PTSD are characteristically hyperaccessible. Expert witnesses on both sides were brought in to provide medicolegal testimony about the scientific parameters of stress and its long-term effects on brain regions associated with memory. With the expert witness discussion as background, this article reviews the most recent research about the nature of memory in the aftermath of trauma and the politics of psychological trauma and the law.
Khazaie, Habibolah; Nasouri, Marzie; Ghadami, Mohammad Rasoul
Background Prazosin is significantly effective to reduce sleep disturbance and trauma nightmare in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, results of different studies were evaluated. Objectives The current randomized clinical trial aimed to assess the effects of prazosin on sleep parameters and nightmares among veterans with chronic PTSD. Materials and Methods Thirty-two veterans with chronic war-induced PTSD and distressing nightmares were randomized into prazosin and placebo groups for eight weeks. The main symptoms were qualified using the recurrent distressing dreams item of the clinician administered PTSD scale (CAPS) and the daytime symptom severity was measured by PTSD checklist (PCL) and the objective sleep quality assessment by actigraphy. Results Compared with placebo, prazosin had no significant effects on reduction of daytime symptoms (P = 0.69) and frequency and intensity of trauma-related nightmares. Also, there were no significant differences between pre- and post-treatment actigraphy measurements (P > 0.05). Conclusions The study findings showed that prazosin had no significant effect on reduction of PTSD symptoms as well as nightmares among veterans with chronic PTSD. Further clinical trials are needed to define the effect of prazosin on sleep physiology and whether such effects regarding the therapeutic response. PMID:27822278
Honzel, Nikki; Justus, Timothy; Swick, Diane
Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can show declines in working memory. A dual-task design was used to determine if these impairments are linked to executive control limitations. Participants performed a Sternberg memory task with either one or four letters. In the dual-task condition, the maintenance period was filled with an arrow flanker task. PTSD patients were less accurate on the working memory task than controls, especially in the dual-task condition. In the single-task condition, both groups showed similar patterns of brain potentials from 300–500 ms when discriminating old and new probes. However, when taxed with an additional task, the event-related potentials (ERPs) of the PTSD group no longer differentiated old and new probes. In contrast, interference resolution processes in both the single- and dual-task conditions of the flanker were intact. The lack of differentiation in the ERPs reflects impaired working memory performance under more difficult dual-task conditions. Exacerbated difficulty in performing a working memory task with concurrent task demands suggests a specific limitation in executive control resources in PTSD. PMID:24165904
Porter, Ben; Bonanno, George A; Frasco, Melissa A; Dursa, Erin K; Boyko, Edward J
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious mental illness that affects current and former military service members at a disproportionately higher rate than the civilian population. Prior studies have shown that PTSD symptoms follow multiple trajectories in civilians and military personnel. The current study examines whether the trajectories of PTSD symptoms of veterans separated from the military are similar to continuously serving military personnel. The Millennium Cohort Study is a population-based study of military service members that commenced in 2001 with follow-up assessments occurring approximately every 3 years thereafter. PTSD symptoms were assessed at each time point using the PTSD Checklist. Latent growth mixture modeling was used to compare PTSD symptom trajectories between personnel who separated (veterans; n = 5292) and personnel who remained in military service (active duty; n = 16,788). Four distinct classes (resilient, delayed-onset, improving, and elevated-recovering) described PTSD symptoms trajectories in both veterans and active duty personnel. Trajectory shapes were qualitatively similar between active duty and veterans. However, within the resilient, improving, and elevated recovering classes, the shapes were statistically different. Although the low-symptom class was the most common in both groups (veterans: 82%; active duty: 87%), veterans were more likely to be classified in the other three classes (in all cases, p < 0.01). The shape of each trajectory was highly similar between the two groups despite differences in military and civilian life.
Mottaghi, Ahmad; Zamani, Elham
Background and Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) in the Iran/Iraq war veterans suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 subjects in the age range of 27 to 55 years were included; it included case group (30 war veterans with PTSD) and three control groups (30 patients with PTSD who had not participated in the War, 30 healthy war veterans, and 30 healthy subjects who had not participated in the War). All subjects underwent a clinical TMJ examination that involved the clinical assessment of the TMJ signs and symptoms. Results: The groups of veterans had high prevalence of TMJD signs and symptoms vs. other groups; history of Trauma to joint was significantly higher in subjects who had participated in the war compare with subjects who had not participated in the war (P = 0.0006). Furthermore, pain in palpation of masseter, temporal, pterygoideus, digastric, and sternocleidomastoid muscles in the groups of veterans was significantly greater than other groups (P < 0.0001). Clicking noise during mouth chewing was significantly different between groups (P = 0.01). And, there was significant difference in the frequencies of maximum opening of the mouth between groups (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that subjects’ war veterans with PTSD have significantly poorer TMJ functional status than the control subjects. PMID:25077153
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating joint disease characterized by cartilage degradation which prompts pain, stiffness and swelling. Contributing factors include age, genetics, obesity, injury and overuse of joints. OA is defined by an acute phase and a chronic phase whereby inflammation and degeneration of articular cartilage and other tissues is followed by joint pain and limited mobility. Patients remain asymptomatic until substantial joint damage has occurred and therefore rely on long term surgical joint replacement and pain management as their sole treatment options. For this reason, there is an increasing need to identify early stage osteoarthritis biomarkers. Our study aimed to identify and characterize gene expression variances in 3 different mouse strains (STR/ort, C57BL/6 and MRL/MpJ) with different susceptibility to post traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Through RNA sequence analysis of whole knee joint RNA, we identified differentially expressed genes associated with the initial stages of PTOA in relation to mice with divergent phenotypes. These results will help elucidate potential mechanisms responsible for PTOA outcomes.
Liu, Yang; Li, Baojuan; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Linchuan; Li, Liang; Lu, Hongbing
To explore the alteration in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and functional connectivity between survivors with recent onset post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and without PTSD, survived from the same coal mine flood disaster. In this study, a processing pipeline using arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequence was proposed. Considering low spatial resolution of ASL sequence, a linear regression method was firstly used to correct the partial volume (PV) effect for better CBF estimation. Then the alterations of CBF between two groups were analyzed using both uncorrected and PV-corrected CBF maps. Based on altered CBF regions detected from the CBF analysis as seed regions, the functional connectivity abnormities in PTSD patients was investigated. The CBF analysis using PV-corrected maps indicates CBF deficits in the bilateral frontal lobe, right superior frontal gyrus and right corpus callosum of PTSD patients, while only right corpus callosum was identified in uncorrected CBF analysis. Furthermore, the regional CBF of the right superior frontal gyrus exhibits significantly negative correlation with the symptom severity in PTSD patients. The resting-state functional connectivity indicates increased connectivity between left frontal lobe and right parietal lobe. These results indicate that PV-corrected CBF exhibits more subtle perfusion changes and may benefit further perfusion and connectivity analysis. The symptom-specific perfusion deficits and aberrant connectivity in above memory-related regions may be putative biomarkers for recent onset PTSD induced by a single prolonged trauma exposure and help predict the severity of PTSD.
Löwe, Bernd; Henningsen, Peter; Herzog, Wolfgang
Severe psychological responses to war and violence were already described in Greek antiquity. However, an officially acknowledged diagnosis was introduced only as recently as 1980. This paper describes the historical development of the diagnosis "Posttraumatic Stress Disorder", and investigates why it took so long for the diagnosis to be officially accepted. A first concept goes back to the London Surgeon Eric Erichsen, who in 1866 developed the influential hypotheses that psychological symptoms after railway accidents were caused by a concussion of the spine followed by "molecular changes" in the spinal cord ("railway spine syndrome"). At the same time, Pierre Janet and Sigmund Freud investigated the aetiology of hysteria. In World War I and II, up to 10% of the soldiers were exempted from further service because they suffered from nervous breakdowns caused by the experience of war ("shell shock"). Insights into the psychological long-term effects of Nazi Germany's concentration camps, the political activities of the Vietnam Veterans, and evidence from clinical studies resulted in the introduction of the newly defined diagnosis "Post-traumatic Stress Disorder" into DSM-III in 1980. In the past few years, several aspects of this diagnostic concept were legitimately criticized. Nevertheless, the official introduction of the diagnosis led to the acknowledgement of personal suffering and to the development of specific and efficacious therapies.
Zhang, Youxue; Xie, Bing; Chen, Heng; Li, Meiling; Guo, Xiaonan; Chen, Huafu
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is suggested to be a structural and functional abnormality in the insula. The insula, which consists of distinct subregions with various patterns of connectivity, displays complex and diverse functions. However, whether these insular subregions have different patterns of connectivity in PTSD remains unclear. Investigating the abnormal functional connectivity of the insular subregions is crucial to reveal its potential effect on diseases specifically PTSD. This study uses a seed-based method to investigate the altered resting-state functional connectivity of insular subregions in PTSD. We found that patients with PTSD showed reduced functional connectivity compared with healthy controls (HCs) between the left ventral anterior insula and the anterior cingulate cortex. The patients with PTSD also exhibited decreased functional connectivity between the right posterior insula and left inferior parietal lobe, and the postcentral gyrus relative to HCs. These results suggest the involvement of altered functional connectivity of insular subregions in the abnormal regulation of emotion and processing of somatosensory information in patients with PTSD. Such impairments in functional connectivity patterns of the insular subregions may advance our understanding of the pathophysiological basis underlying PTSD.
Swick, Diane; Cayton, Julien; Ashley, Victoria; Turken, And U
Deficits in working memory (WM) and cognitive control processes have been reported in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in addition to clinical symptoms such as hypervigilance, re-experiencing, and avoidance of trauma reminders. Given the uncontrollable nature of intrusive memories, an important question is whether PTSD is associated with altered control of interference in WM. Some studies also suggest that episodic memory shows a material-specific dissociation in PTSD, with greater impairments in verbal memory and relative sparing of nonverbal memory. It is unclear whether this dissociation applies to WM, as no studies have used identical task parameters across material. Here we tested 29 combat Veterans with PTSD and 29 age-matched control Veterans on a recent probes WM task with words and visual patterns in separate blocks. Participants studied four-item sets, followed by a probe stimulus that had been presented in the previous set (recent probe) or not (nonrecent probe). Participants with PTSD made more errors than controls, and this decrement was similar for verbal and visual stimuli. Proactive interference from items recently presented, but no longer relevant, was not significantly different in the PTSD group and showed no relationship to re-experiencing symptom severity. These results demonstrate that PTSD is not reliably associated with increased intrusions of irrelevant representations into WM when non-emotional stimuli are used. Future studies that use trauma-related material may provide insight into the flashbacks and intrusive thoughts that plague those with PTSD.
Pauly, Hannah M; Larson, Blair E; Coatney, Garrett A; Button, Keith D; DeCamp, Charlie E; Fajardo, Ryan S; Haut, Roger C; Haut Donahue, Tammy L
Subchondral bone is thought to play a significant role in the initiation and progression of the post-traumatic osteoarthritis. The goal of this study was to document changes in tibial and femoral subchondral bone that occur as a result of two lapine models of anterior cruciate ligament injury, a modified ACL transection model and a closed-joint traumatic compressive impact model. Twelve weeks post-injury bones were scanned via micro-computed tomography. The subchondral bone of injured limbs from both models showed decreases in bone volume and bone mineral density. Surgical transection animals showed significant bone changes primarily in the medial hemijoint of femurs and tibias, while significant changes were noted in both the medial and lateral hemijoints of both bones for traumatic impact animals. It is believed that subchondral bone changes in the medial hemijoint were likely caused by compromised soft tissue structures seen in both models. Subchondral bone changes in the lateral hemijoint of traumatic impact animals are thought to be due to transmission of the compressive impact force through the joint. The joint-wide bone changes shown in the traumatic impact model were similar to clinical findings from studies investigating the progression of osteoarthritis in humans.
Schreurs, Bernard G.; Smith-Bell, Carrie A.; Burhans, Lauren B.
Incubation of fear has been used to account for the delayed manifestation of symptoms of fear and anxiety including the delayed onset of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). We have shown the utility of classical conditioning-specific modification of the rabbit nictitating membrane response (NMR) as a model of PTSD. This modification includes an exaggeration in the size and a change in the timing of the unconditioned NMR after several days of classical conditioning. To assess the effects of incubation on conditioning-specific modification, we measured changes in responding as a function of the time between classical conditioning and NMR testing. After just one day of classical conditioning resulting in modest levels of learning, increases in response size were an inverted-U shaped function of days of incubation with little if any change occurring one and ten days after training but significant change occurring after six days. The incubation effect persisted for a week. An unpaired control group showed no change in the size of the response confirming the incubation effect was associative. The results bear a striking resemblance to symptoms of PTSD that do not always occur immediately after trauma and become exacerbated over time and then persist. They point to a window when incubation can exacerbate symptoms and speak to the vulnerability of re-experiencing trauma too soon. This could be a serious problem for military or emergency personnel recalled to combat or a disaster site without sufficient time to deal with the effects of their initial experiences. PMID:21803372
Pizzimenti, C. L.; Lattal, K. M.
Understanding the interaction between fear and reward at the circuit and molecular levels has implications for basic scientific approaches to memory and for understanding the etiology of psychiatric disorders. Both stress and exposure to drugs of abuse induce epigenetic changes that result in persistent behavioral changes, some of which may contribute to the formation of a drug addiction or a stress-related psychiatric disorder. Converging evidence suggests that similar behavioral, neurobiological and molecular mechanisms control the extinction of learned fear and drug-seeking responses. This may, in part, account for the fact that individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder have a significantly elevated risk of developing a substance use disorder and have high rates of relapse to drugs of abuse, even after long periods of abstinence. At the behavioral level, a major challenge in treatments is that extinguished behavior is often not persistent, returning with changes in context, the passage of time or exposure to mild stressors. A common goal of treatments is therefore to weaken the ability of stressors to induce relapse. With the discovery of epigenetic mechanisms that create persistent molecular signals, recent work on extinction has focused on how modulating these epigenetic targets can create lasting extinction of fear or drug-seeking behavior. Here, we review recent evidence pointing to common behavioral, systems and epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of fear and drug seeking. We suggest that targeting these mechanisms in combination with behavioral therapy may promote treatment and weaken stress-induced relapse. PMID:25560936
Avramescu, Sinziana; Nita, Dragos A.
Abstract The subtle mechanisms of post-traumatic epileptogenesis remain unknown, although the incidence of chronic epilepsy after penetrating cortical wounds is high. Here, we investigated whether the increased frequency of seizures occurring within 6 weeks following partial deafferentation of the suprasylvian gyrus in cats is accompanied with a change in the ratio between the number of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Immuno-histochemical labeling of all neurons with neuronal-specific nuclear protein (NeuN) antibody, and of the GABAergic inhibitory neurons with either gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD 65&67) antibodies, was performed on sections obtained from control and epileptic animals with chronically deafferented suprasylvian gyrus. Quantification of the labeled neurons was performed in control animals and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks following cortical deafferentation, in the suprasylvian and marginal gyri, both ipsi- and contra-lateral to the cortical trauma. In all epileptic animals, the neuronal loss was circumscribed to the deafferented suprasylvian gyrus. Inhibitory GABAergic neurons were particularly more sensitive to cortical deafferentation than excitatory ones, leading to a progressively increasing ratio between excitation and inhibition towards excitation, potentially explaining the increased propensity to seizures in chronic undercut cortex. PMID:19422294
Paul, Frédéric; Marimoutou, Catherine; Pommier de Santi, Vincent; Clervoy, Patrick
During the 20th century, the management of war-related psychological trauma shifted from neurology to psychiatry. After September 11, 2001, the French forces participated in a multinational force deployed in Afghanistan to fight against terrorism. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) became a priority. We report the daily work of the psychiatrists involved in this mission and the organization developed to psychologically support wounded military personnel. The doctrine of early intervention psychiatrization and the technique of collective debriefing are the key points of this procedure. The psychiatrist is also responsible for the healthcare community, particularly vulnerable when confronted with severe ballistic injuries. One aim of this organization is also to screen PTSD in soldiers returning from Afghanistan. The military general practitioner is a pivotal point of this procedure built to detect PTSD, anxiety, depressive reaction and behavioral problems. The French health service has developed a genuine care strategy aimed at identifying patients, accompanying them in the formalities for recognition and compensation, and offering them treatment locally by arranging clinical psychology consultations near their home.
Schreurs, Bernard G; Burhans, Lauren B
Not everyone exposed to trauma suffers flashbacks, bad dreams, numbing, fear, anxiety, sleeplessness, hyper-vigilance, hyperarousal, or an inability to cope, but those who do may suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is a major physical and mental health problem for military personnel and civilians exposed to trauma. There is still debate about the incidence and prevalence of PTSD especially among the military, but for those who are diagnosed, behavioral therapy and drug treatment strategies have proven to be less than effective. A number of these treatment strategies are based on rodent fear conditioning research and are capable of treating only some of the symptoms because the extinction of fear does not deal with the various forms of hyper-vigilance and hyperarousal experienced by people with PTSD. To help address this problem, we have developed a preclinical eyeblink classical conditioning model of PTSD in which conditioning and hyperarousal can both be extinguished. We review this model and discuss findings showing that unpaired stimulus presentations can be effective in reducing levels of conditioning and hyperarousal even when unconditioned stimulus intensity is reduced to the point where it is barely capable of eliciting a response. These procedures have direct implications for the treatment of PTSD and could be implemented in a virtual reality environment.
Pizzimenti, C L; Lattal, K M
Understanding the interaction between fear and reward at the circuit and molecular levels has implications for basic scientific approaches to memory and for understanding the etiology of psychiatric disorders. Both stress and exposure to drugs of abuse induce epigenetic changes that result in persistent behavioral changes, some of which may contribute to the formation of a drug addiction or a stress-related psychiatric disorder. Converging evidence suggests that similar behavioral, neurobiological and molecular mechanisms control the extinction of learned fear and drug-seeking responses. This may, in part, account for the fact that individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder have a significantly elevated risk of developing a substance use disorder and have high rates of relapse to drugs of abuse, even after long periods of abstinence. At the behavioral level, a major challenge in treatments is that extinguished behavior is often not persistent, returning with changes in context, the passage of time or exposure to mild stressors. A common goal of treatments is therefore to weaken the ability of stressors to induce relapse. With the discovery of epigenetic mechanisms that create persistent molecular signals, recent work on extinction has focused on how modulating these epigenetic targets can create lasting extinction of fear or drug-seeking behavior. Here, we review recent evidence pointing to common behavioral, systems and epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of fear and drug seeking. We suggest that targeting these mechanisms in combination with behavioral therapy may promote treatment and weaken stress-induced relapse.
d'Ardenne, Patricia; Heke, Sarah
Since 2000, patient reports have contributed significantly to the widening diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder, notably with the inclusion of complex, repeated, and indirect threat to people who develop symptoms. This paper describes and explains why patient reports matter, through worldwide mental health users' movements and the human rights movement. It looks at 46 recent patient-reported outcomes of preferred psychological treatments in clinical research and practice, and compares them with clinician-reported outcomes, using rating scales that diagnose and measure therapeutic gains. Attention is given to one qualitative study of survivors of the London bombings as an example of patients' personal traumatic experiences. Understanding patients' views and their limitations can help increase success in trauma-focused therapy outcomes, particularly where patients fail to engage with or complete treatment, where they doubt the validity of the treatment, or do not see it as culturally appropriate, or fear of revisiting the past. Specific recommendations are made for a more collaborative approach with patients in psychiatric and community care and clinical research. PMID:25152659
Betancourt, Theresa S.; Newnham, Elizabeth A.; McBain, Ryan; Brennan, Robert T.
Background Former child soldiers are at risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the trajectory of symptoms has yet to be examined. Aims The risk and protective factors associated with PTSD symptom change among former child soldiers in Sierra Leone were investigated. Method Data from 243 former child soldiers (mean age 16.6 years, 30% female) were analysed. Results Self-reported rates of possible PTSD using standard cut-off points declined from 32% to 16% 4 years later (P<0.05). Symptoms of PTSD at baseline were significantly associated with war experiences (P<0.01) and post-conflict family abuse (P<0.001). Reliable improvement in symptoms was reported by 30%. In growth models examining symptom change, worsening of symptoms was associated with death of a parent (P<0.05) and post-conflict stigma (P<0.001). Protective effects were observed for increases in family acceptance (P<0.001). Conclusions The findings indicated improvement in PTSD symptoms among former child soldiers despite limited access to care. Family and community support played a vital part in promoting psychological adjustment. PMID:23887999
Hao, Xu; Junwen, Wang; Jiaqing, Li; Ran, Li; Zhuo, Zhang; Yimin, Huang; Wei, Jiao; Wei, Sun
Abstract Objective A possible relationship between fibrosis along the route of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and the subsequent development of hydrocephalus has been indicated in previous studies. These changes in the fibrosis index may reflect the severity of hydrocephalus and could potentially become a diagnostic tool. The object of this study was to analyze the levels of procollagen type I C-terminal propeptide (PICP), procollagen type III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP), hyaluronic acid (HA), and laminin (LN) in the CSF of patients with post-traumatic hydrocephalus and determine the significance of their presence. Subjects and methods Forty-four patients were included in the study: 24 patients with shunt-dependent post-traumatic hydrocephalus (group A - hydrocephalus group); ten brain trauma patients without any sign of hydrocephalus (group B - trauma group); ten patients without brain trauma and hydrocephalus (group C - normal control group). CSF levels of PICP, PIIINP, HA, LN and transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1) were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Levels of PICP, PIIINP, HA, and LN in the group of hydrocephalus patients were significantly higher than those in the post-trauma patients without hydrocephalus (p < 0.05) and normal control patients (p < 0.05). Moreover, the increased levels of PICP, PIIINP, HA, and LN were positively correlated with the level of TGF-β1 (p < 0.05). Conclusion We demonstrated an increase of fibrosis factors including PICP, PIIINP, HA, and LN, that was positively correlated with TGF-β1 levels. This indicates an important role for the process of fibrosis in the development of post-traumatic chronic hydrocephalus and shows the potential utility of PICP, PIIINP, HA, and LN as a diagnostic index in shunt-dependent post-traumatic chronic hydrocephalus. PMID:28123828
Tomasikova Z, Dlohozkova N, Kosar E, et al. Can social and agonistic interactions be used to detect anxiolytic activity of drugs? Progress in Clinical...adapted from “ social stress” models of traumatic stress) for aspects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Using a “cagewithin-cage resident-intruder...that permits sensory cues to pass but prevents direct physical interaction . For up to 4–6 weeks after the last aggressor exposure, subjects showed
Olatunji, Bunmi O; Fan, Qianqian
A growing body of research has implicated anxiety sensitivity (AS) and its dimensions in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the mechanism(s) that may account for the association between AS and PTSD remains unclear. Using the "trauma film paradigm," which provides a prospective experimental tool for investigating analog intrusion development, the present study examines the extent to which intrusions mediate the association between AS and the development of posttraumatic stress reactions. After completing a measure of AS and state mood, unselected participants (n = 45) viewed a 10 min film of graphic scenes of fatal traffic accidents and then completed a second assessment of state mood. Participants then kept a daily diary to record intrusions about the film for a one-week period. Post-traumatic stress reactions about the film were then assessed after the one-week period. The results showed that general AS and physical and cognitive concerns AS predicted greater post-traumatic stress reactions about the film a week later. Furthermore, the number of intrusions the day after viewing the traumatic film, but not fear and disgust in response to the trauma film, mediated the association between general AS (and AS specifically for physical and cognitive concerns) and post-traumatic stress reactions a week later. Subsequent analysis also showed that physiological arousal during initial exposure to the traumatic film moderated the association between general AS and the number of intrusions reported the day after viewing the film. The implications of these analog findings for conceptualizing the mechanism(s) that may interact to explain the role of AS in the development of PTSD and its effective treatment are discussed.
upon completion of the 6- and 12- month time points. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Post-traumatic osteoarthritis, oxidative stress, mitochondria, animal model 16...experiments were completed in August 2015. The last pigs included additional 6 month follow-ups, and for the first time, 12- month follow-ups. The...effects of NAC were assessed at6 months . We were delighted to discover that, with 2 exceptions, all amobarbital and NAC treated joints (n = 8/group
Noh, Kwantae; Choi, Woo-Jin
Traumatic defects are mostly accompanied by hard and soft tissue loss. This report describes the surgical and prosthetic treatment of a patient with post-traumatic mandibular defect. A split-thickness skin graft was performed prior to implant placement and prefabricated acrylic stent was placed to hold the graft in place. The esthetic and functional demands of the patient were fulfilled by implant-supported screw-retained fixed prosthesis using CAD-CAM technology. PMID:23508120
Poulsen, Dorthe Varning; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K; Djernis, Dorthe; Sidenius, Ulrik
Available evidence shows that an increasing number of soldiers are seeking help for post-traumatic stress disorder. The post-traumatic stress disorder condition has big emotional and psychological consequences for the individual, his/her family and the society. Little research has been done to explore the impact of nature-based therapy for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder although there is a growing amount of evidence pointing towards positive outcome. This qualitative study aims to achieve a deeper understanding of this relationship from the veteran’s perspective. Eight Danish veterans participated in a 10-week nature-based therapy. Qualitative interviews were conducted and analysed using the interpretative phenomenological method. The results indicated that the veterans have achieved tools to use in stressful situations and experienced an improvement in their post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. PMID:28070397
Poulsen, Dorthe Varning; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K; Djernis, Dorthe; Sidenius, Ulrik
Available evidence shows that an increasing number of soldiers are seeking help for post-traumatic stress disorder. The post-traumatic stress disorder condition has big emotional and psychological consequences for the individual, his/her family and the society. Little research has been done to explore the impact of nature-based therapy for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder although there is a growing amount of evidence pointing towards positive outcome. This qualitative study aims to achieve a deeper understanding of this relationship from the veteran's perspective. Eight Danish veterans participated in a 10-week nature-based therapy. Qualitative interviews were conducted and analysed using the interpretative phenomenological method. The results indicated that the veterans have achieved tools to use in stressful situations and experienced an improvement in their post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms.
Berardi, Andrea; Schelling, Gustav; Campolongo, Patrizia
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric chronic disease developing in individuals after the experience of an intense and life-threatening traumatic event. The post-traumatic symptomatology encompasses alterations in memory processes, mood, anxiety and arousal. There is now consensus in considering the disease as an aberrant adaptation to traumatic stress. Pharmacological research, aimed at the discovery of new potential effective treatments, has lately directed its attention towards the "so-called" cognitive enhancers. This class of substances, by modulating cognitive processes involved in the development and/or persistence of the post-traumatic symptomatology, could be of great help in improving the outcome of psychotherapies and patients' prognosis. In this perspective, drugs acting on the endocannabinoid system are receiving great attention due to their dual ability to modulate memory processes on one hand, and to reduce anxiety and depression on the other. The purpose of the present review is to offer a thorough overview of both animal and human studies investigating the effects of cannabinoids on memory processes. First, we will briefly describe the characteristics of the endocannabinoid system and the most commonly used animal models of learning and memory. Then, studies investigating cannabinoid modulatory influences on memory consolidation, retrieval and extinction will be separately presented, and the potential benefits associated with each approach will be discussed. In the final section, we will review literature data reporting beneficial effects of cannabinoid drugs in PTSD patients.
Lee, Joyce; Daffern, Michael; Ogloff, James R P; Martin, Trish
In their daily work, mental health nurses (MHN) are often exposed to stressful events, including patient-perpetrated aggression and violence. Personal safety and health concerns, as well as concern for the physical and psychological well-being of patients, dominate; these concerns have a profound impact on nurses. This cross-sectional study explored and compared the psychological well-being of 196 hospital-based MHN (97 forensic and 99 mainstream registered psychiatric nurses or psychiatric state enrolled nurses). The aim was to examine exposure to inpatient aggression and work stress, and identify factors contributing to the development of post-traumatic stress reactions and general distress. Multiple regression analyses indicated that working in a mainstream setting is associated with increased work stress; however, mainstream and forensic nurses experienced similar psychological well-being. As a group, 14-17% of mainstream and forensic nurses met the diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder, and 36% scored above the threshold for psychiatric caseness. A tentative model of post-traumatic stress and general distress in nurses was developed, illustrating the impact of aggression and stress on well-being. The present study affirms that mental health nursing is a challenging and stressful occupation. Implications for organizations, managers, and individual nurses are discussed.
Pathak, Aditya C; Patil, Atul K; Sheth, Binoti; Bansal, Rohan
Introduction: Traumatic neglected dislocations of hip in children are rare entity. Neglected traumatic dislocations of hip in children along with heterotopic ossification are still rare. Post traumatic neglected hip dislocations are to be diagnosed as early as possible and have to be treated with precision and aggression as the outcome of treatment for the same is not predictable. Case Report: 5 year female with post-traumatic neglected hip dislocation with heterotopic ossification forming a pseudoacetabulum postero-superiorly in which femur head was lodged. The girl was operated by open reduction using Moore’s Posterior approach and showed good results. Here is a mention of a rare case with a good 18 months follow up with no complication. Conclusions: Post-traumatic neglected posterior hip dislocation mostly requires open reduction and relocation of femoral head in original acetabulum with concentric reduction. Heterotopic ossification is a rare but known complication of traumatic dislocation of hip in children. Good results can be achieved in such cases and regular follow-up of patient is required post-operatively.
Soler, Laia; Paretilla, Clàudia; Kirchner, Teresa; Forns, Maria
This study aims to provide evidence concerning the effects of experiencing multiple forms of victimization (poly-victimization) on self-esteem and post-traumatic stress symptoms in Spanish adolescents. A total of 722 adolescents were recruited from seven secondary schools in Catalonia, Spain. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Youth Self Report and the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire were employed to assess self-esteem, post-traumatic stress symptoms and victimization, respectively. Participants were divided into three groups (non-victim, victim and poly-victim groups) according to the total number of different kinds of victimization experienced. Results showed that 88.4 % of adolescents had been exposed to at least one kind of victimization. Poly-victimization was associated with a higher number of post-traumatic stress symptoms in both boys and girls. Also, self-liking was significantly lower in the poly-victim group, whereas self-competence was equivalent across the three victimization groups. Girls were approximately twice as likely to report child maltreatment (OR = 1.92) and sexual victimization (OR = 2.41) as boys. In conclusion, the present study adds evidence on the importance of taking account of the full burden of victimizations suffered when studying victimization correlates. Also, it highlights the importance of prevention policies to focus particularly on preserving adolescents' sense of social worth.
Zhai, Yanxue; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Han; Chen, Zhuo; Du, Siyi; Zhang, Lili; Guo, Yu
Background In China, a growing number of adolescents have experienced traumatic events that have resulted in PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder). Post-traumatic symptoms are common psychological problems in adolescents who have experienced traumatic events. However, existing studies tend to focus on the factors influencing PTSD, such as the response styles and social support, and studies on the relationships between parenting style, resilience and post-traumatic symptoms are still rare. Objectives To analyze the relationships between parenting style, resilience and post-traumatic symptoms among adolescents in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to December 2013 in the Liaoning Province, China. N = 5765 adolescents (aged 12 to 18 years old) were ultimately chosen to participate. The Chinese version of the Essen Trauma Inventory for Kids and Juveniles (ETI-KJ), a modified version of the Parental Authority Questionnaire, and the Chinese Resilience Scale were used to estimate the post-traumatic symptoms, parenting style, and resilience, respectively. Pearson’s correlations, multiple linear regression analyses and structural equation modeling (SEM) were applied to analyze the data. Results Of the adolescents, 39.76% (N = 2292) had been exposed to traumatic events during their lives. The prevalence of probable PTSD at the time of the interview (one-month-prevalence) was 12.65%. Parenting style and resilience were significantly associated with post-traumatic symptoms. According to the SEM, parenting style had a significant direct effect on resilience (0.70, P<0.01) and post-traumatic symptoms (-0.15, P<0.05), and resilience had a significant direct effect on the post-traumatic symptoms (-0.43, P<0.01). Furthermore, parenting style had a significant indirect effect (-0.43×0.70 = -0.30. P<0.01) on the post-traumatic symptoms through resilience. The SEM significantly explained 49% of the variance in resilience and 30% of the variance in post-traumatic
Gard, Tracy L.; Hoover, Donald R.; Shi, Qiuhu; Cohen, Mardge H.; Mutimura, Eugene; Adedimeji, Adebola A.; Anastos, Kathryn
Purpose We examined whether established associations between HIV disease and HIV disease progression on worse health-related quality of life (HQOL) were applicable to women with severe trauma histories, in this case Rwandan women genocide survivors, the majority of whom were HIV infected. Additionally, this study attempted to clarify whether post-traumatic stress symptoms were uniquely associated with HQOL or confounded with depression. Methods The Rwandan Women’s Interassociation Study and Assessment (RWISA) was a longitudinal prospective study of HIV-infected and uninfected women. At study entry 922 women (705 HIV+ and 217 HIV−) completed measures of symptoms of post-traumatic stress and HQOL as well as other demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics. Results Even after controlling for potential confounders and mediators, HIV+ women, in particular those with the lowest CD4 counts, scored significantly worse on HQOL and overall QOL than did HIV− women. Even after controlling for depression and HIV disease progression, women with more post-traumatic stress symptoms scored worse on HQOL and overall QOL than women with fewer post-traumatic stress symptoms. Conclusions This study demonstrated that post-traumatic stress symptoms were independently associated with HQOL and overall QOL, independent of depression and other confounders or potential mediators. Future research should examine whether the long term impact of treatment on physical and psychological symptoms of HIV and post-traumatic stress symptoms would generate improvement in HQOL. PMID:23271207
Cater, John E; van der Linden, Jan
Flow within a model surgical opening during insufflation with heated carbon dioxide was studied using computational fluid dynamics. A volume of fluid method was used to simulate the mixture of ambient air and carbon dioxide gas. The negative buoyancy of the carbon dioxide caused it to fill the wound and form a protective layer on the internal surfaces for a range of flow rates, temperatures, and angles of patient inclination. It was observed that the flow remained attached to the surface of the model due to the action of the Coanda effect. A flow rate of 10 L/min was sufficient to maintain a warm carbon dioxide barrier for a moderately sized surgical incision for all likely angles of inclination.
Lopez, William D.; Konrath, Sara H.; Seng, Julia S.
Objective To examine the relationship between trauma history, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), coping, and smoking in a diverse sample of pregnant women, some of whom are active smokers. Design Secondary analysis from a prospective study on PTSD and pregnancy outcomes. Setting Maternity clinics at three health systems in the Midwestern United States. Participants Women age 18 or older (1,547) interviewed at gestational age less than 28 weeks. Methods Participants were classified at nonsmokers, quitters (stopped smoking during pregnancy), and pregnancy smokers. Demographic, trauma, and pregnancy factors, substance use, and use of tobacco to cope were compared across groups. Logistic regression assessed the influence of these factors on being a smoker versus a nonsmoker and a quitter versus a pregnancy smoker. Results Smokers differed from nonsmokers on all demographic risk factors (being African American, being pregnant as a teen, having lower income and less education, and living in high-crime areas), had higher rates of current and lifetime PTSD, and were more likely to report abuse as their worst trauma. Pregnancy smokers had lower levels of education, were more likely to classify their worst trauma as “extremely troubling,” and were more likely to exhibit PTSD hyperarousal symptoms. In regression models, smoking “to cope with emotions and problems” doubled the odds of continuing to smoke while pregnant even after accounting for several relevant risk factors. Conclusion Smoking behavior in pregnancy may be influenced by the need to cope with abuse-related PTSD symptoms. Clinicians should consider using trauma-informed interventions when working with tobacco-using pregnant women. PMID:21645115
Thomas, Kamala S; Bower, Julienne E; Williamson, Timothy J; Hoyt, Michael A; Wellisch, David; Stanton, Annette L; Irwin, Michael
Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common cancer diagnosed in men, and research suggests that coping with this illness can cause significant distress in patients as well as their partners. This study examined the relationship of caregiving for a partner with PC with diurnal cortisol output in women between the ages of 42 and 75 years old. Participants were women whose partners had PC (n = 19) and women who were in relationships with men with no diagnosed medical illness (n = 26). Women provided saliva samples (4 times per day over 3 days) in their natural environment. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders was also conducted to assess for the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. Partners of men with PC had lower daily cortisol output across the three days than controls, F(1,444.08) = 20.72, p<.001). They were also more likely to report PTSD symptoms with 68.4% of PC partners fulfilling criteria for sub-threshold PTSD as compared to 23.1% of controls (χ(2) = 11.30, p = .01). Mixed model analyses revealed that the presence of sub-threshold PTSD symptoms significantly predicted cortisol production, F(1,419.64) = 5.10, p<.01). Regardless of caregiver status, women who reported at least sub-threshold PTSD symptoms had lower cortisol production than those with no PTSD symptoms. Major depression did not explain differences in cortisol production between partners of PC patients and controls. Although these findings are preliminary, they highlight the importance of developing interventions aimed at reducing risk of psychopathology in partners of men with PC.
Finnegan, Alan; Kip, K; Hernandez, D; McGhee, S; Rosenzweig, L; Hynes, C; Thomas, M
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling trauma and stress-related disorder that may occur after a person experiences a traumatic event, and evokes a combination of intrusion and avoidance symptoms, negative alterations in cognitions and mood, and alterations in arousal and reactivity. Accelerated resolution therapy (ART) is an emerging psychotherapy that provides fast and lasting resolution for mental health problems such as PTSD. ART has been shown to achieve a positive result in one to five sessions, typically over a 2-week period, and requires no homework, skills practice or repeated exposure to targeted events. Initial research, including one randomised control trial, has demonstrated that ART interventions can significantly reduce symptoms of psychological trauma in both civilians and US service members and veterans. These results suggest that ART be considered as either a primary treatment option or for refractory PTSD in those with a suboptimal response to endorsed first-line therapies. Conservative estimates indicate substantial potential cost savings in PTSD treatment. Despite the need for more definitive clinical trials, there is increasing interest in ART in the USA, including in the US Army. The growing positive empirical evidence is compelling, and there appears to be sufficient evidence to warrant UK researchers undertaking ART research. The armed forces offer the potential for comparative international trials. However, equally important are veterans, emergency services personnel and those subjected to violence. ART appears to also have application in other conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, and alcohol or drug misuse. ART can potentially help personnel traumatised by the unique challenges of war and conflict zones by providing brief psychotherapy in a readily accessible and culturally competent manner. ART facilitates the provision of interventions and resolutions in theatre, thus enhancing forces' fighting capability.
Mambally, Sheeja Rajan Thekkayil; Santha, Krishnakumar Krishnan
Crush injuries of severe magnitude involving lower limbs require complex bone and soft tissue reconstructions in the form of microvascular free tissue transfers. However, satisfactory recipient vessels are often unavailable in the leg due to their vulnerability to trauma and post traumatic vessel disease (PTVD), which extends well beyond the site of original injury. In such situations, healthy recipient vessels for free flap anastomosis can be made available by constructing temporary arteriovenous loops with saphenous vein grafts, anastomosed to corresponding free flap vessels. Our study included 7 patients with severe crush injuries of leg due to rail and road traffic accidents. Long and short saphenous vein grafts were anastomosed to Femoral artery in the subsartorial canal in 2 cases and to large muscular branches and accompanying veins in rest of the cases. Free flap transfers were performed in the same sitting in 6 cases. One case showed insufficient dilatation of the vein loop and hence free flap transfer was staged. Free Latissimus dorsi, Gracilis and Rectus abdominis flaps were performed. There were two cases of flap necrosis – one in the case of a pathologic vein graft with staged flap transfer which showed vein thrombosis on re exploration. The other case of flap failure was caused by a hematoma underneath the flap. In another patient, secondary haemorrhage occurred on day 18, without any consequence to the flap. All the other cases had complete free flap survival. We consider the use of single stage arteriovenous loops, a valuable tool to increase the applications of free flap, whenever healthy recipient vessels are not available in the periphery of the trauma. PMID:25991884
Ling, Geoffrey S. F.; Grimes, Jamie; Ecklund, James M.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are common conditions. In Iraq and Afghanistan, explosive blast related TBI became prominent among US service members but the vast majority of TBI was still due to typical causes such as falls and sporting events. PTS has long been a focus of the US military mental health providers. Combat Stress Teams have been integral to forward deployed units since the beginning of the Global War on Terror. Military medical management of disease and injury follows standard of care clinical practice guidelines (CPG) established by civilian counterparts. However, when civilian CPGs do not exist or are not applicable to the military environment, new practice standards are created. Such is the case for mild TBI. In 2009, the VA-DoD CPG for management of mild TBI/concussion was published and a system-wide clinical care program for mild TBI/concussion was introduced. This was the first large scale effort on an entire medical care system to address all severities of TBI in a comprehensive organized way. In 2010, the VA-DoD CPG for management of PTSD was published. Nevertheless, both TBI and PTS are still incompletely understood. Investment in terms of money and effort has been committed by the DoD to their study. The Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, National Intrepid Center of Excellence and the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury are prominent examples of this effort. These are just beginnings, a work in progress ready to leverage advances made scientifically and always striving to provide the very best care to its military beneficiaries.
Kontos, Anthony P; Reches, Amit; Elbin, R J; Dickman, Dalia; Laufer, Ilan; Geva, Amir B; Shacham, Galit; DeWolf, Ryan; Collins, Michael W
Post-traumatic migraine (PTM) (i.e., headache, nausea, light and/or noise sensitivity) is an emerging risk factor for prolonged recovery following concussion. Concussions and migraine share similar pathophysiology characterized by specific ionic imbalances in the brain. Given these similarities, patients with PTM following concussion may exhibit distinct electrophysiological patterns, although researchers have yet to examine the electrophysiological brain activation in patients with PTM following concussion. A novel approach that may help differentiate brain activation in patients with and without PTM is brain network activation (BNA) analysis. BNA involves an algorithmic analysis applied to multichannel EEG-ERP data that provides a network map of cortical activity and quantitative data during specific tasks. A prospective, repeated measures design was used to evaluate BNA (during Go/NoGo task), EEG-ERP, cognitive performance, and concussion related symptoms at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks post-injury intervals among athletes with a medically diagnosed concussion with PTM (n = 15) and without (NO-PTM) (n = 22); and age, sex, and concussion history matched controls without concussion (CONTROL) (n = 20). Participants with PTM had significantly reduced BNA compared to NO-PTM and CONTROLS for Go and NoGo components at 3 weeks and for NoGo component at 4 weeks post-injury. The PTM group also demonstrated a more prominent deviation of network activity compared to the other two groups over a longer period of time. The composite BNA algorithm may be a more sensitive measure of electrophysiological change in the brain that can augment established cognitive assessment tools for detecting impairment in individuals with PTM.
Wilson, C Brad; McLaughlin, Leslie D; Ebenezer, Philip J; Nair, Anand R; Dange, Rahul; Harre, Joseph G; Shaak, Thomas L; Diamond, David M; Francis, Joseph
Serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), and other neurotransmitters are modulated in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines (PIC) are elevated during the progression of the disorder. Currently, the only approved pharmacologic treatments for PTSD are the selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) sertraline and paroxetine, but their efficacy in treating PTSD is marginal at best. In combat-related PTSD, SSRIs are of limited effectiveness. Thus, this study sought to analyze the effects of the SSRI sertraline on inflammation and neurotransmitter modulation via a predator exposure/psychosocial stress animal model of PTSD. We hypothesized that sertraline would diminish inflammatory components and increase 5-HT but might also affect levels of other neurotransmitters, particularly NE. PTSD-like effects were induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6/group × 4 groups). The rats were secured in Plexiglas cylinders and placed in a cage with a cat for 1 h on days 1 and 11 of a 31-day stress regimen. PTSD rats were also subjected to psychosocial stress via daily cage cohort changes. At the conclusion of the stress regimen, treatment group animals were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with sertraline HCl at 10 mg/kg for 7 consecutive days, while controls received i.p. vehicle. The animals were subsequently sacrificed on day 8. Sertraline attenuated inflammatory markers and normalized 5-HT levels in the central nervous system (CNS). In contrast, sertraline produced elevations in NE in the CNS and systemic circulation of SSRI treated PTSD and control groups. This increase in NE suggests SSRIs produce a heightened noradrenergic response, which might elevate anxiety in a clinical setting.
Breen, Michael S.; Maihofer, Adam X.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Tylee, Daniel S.; Chandler, Sharon D.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Risbrough, Victoria B.; Baker, Dewleen G.; O’Connor, Daniel T.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Woelk, Christopher H.
The molecular factors involved in the development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) remain poorly understood. Previous transcriptomic studies investigating the mechanisms of PTSD apply targeted approaches to identify individual genes under a cross-sectional framework lack a holistic view of the behaviours and properties of these genes at the system-level. Here we sought to apply an unsupervised gene-network based approach to a prospective experimental design using whole-transcriptome RNA-Seq gene expression from peripheral blood leukocytes of U.S. Marines (N=188), obtained both pre- and post-deployment to conflict zones. We identified discrete groups of co-regulated genes (i.e., co-expression modules) and tested them for association to PTSD. We identified one module at both pre- and post-deployment containing putative causal signatures for PTSD development displaying an over-expression of genes enriched for functions of innate-immune response and interferon signalling (Type-I and Type-II). Importantly, these results were replicated in a second non-overlapping independent dataset of U.S. Marines (N=96), further outlining the role of innate immune and interferon signalling genes within co-expression modules to explain at least part of the causal pathophysiology for PTSD development. A second module, consequential of trauma exposure, contained PTSD resiliency signatures and an over-expression of genes involved in hemostasis and wound responsiveness suggesting that chronic levels of stress impair proper wound healing during/after exposure to the battlefield while highlighting the role of the hemostatic system as a clinical indicator of chronic-based stress. These findings provide novel insights for early preventative measures and advanced PTSD detection, which may lead to interventions that delay or perhaps abrogate the development of PTSD. PMID:25754082
Beiser, Morton; Wiwa, Owens; Adebajo, Sylvia
Survivors of human-initiated disaster are at high risk for mental disorder, most notably post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies of PTSD have tended to focus on soldiers returning home after combat or on refugees living in resettlement countries under conditions of relative safety. However, most survivors of human-initiated disasters continue to live in or near the places where they initially experienced trauma. Insufficient attention has been paid to social disorganization in situations of continuing unrest and to its role in creating or stabilizing the symptoms of PTSD. The current study took place in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, the scene of long-standing violence and human rights abuse that reached its apogee in 1995. The investigation, which took place in 2002, focused on two villages, one that was heavily exposed to the conflict (A, the affected village), the other relatively spared (NA, not affected). Probability samples of 45 adult residents from A and 55 from NA were interviewed with a schedule that contained the PTSD module from the WHO Diagnostic Interview Schedule. The schedule also contained a measure of exposure to the violence and abuses during the height of the conflict, as well as measures of structural and social capital that are components of community resilience. These included economic security, a sense of moral order, a sense of safety and perceived social support. The six month period prevalence of PTSD was 60 percent in A, and 14.5 percent in NA. Degree of exposure to stress as well as compromised sense of moral order, not feeling safe, and perceived lack of social support were independent predictors of PTSD. In places like the Niger Delta, where people do not physically escape from past trauma, sociocultural disintegration may interfere with communal functioning, thereby eroding community capacity to promote self-healing.
Zhao, Ming; Yu, Zhibo; Zhang, Yang; Huang, Xueling; Hou, Jingming; Zhao, YanGang; Luo, Wei; Chen, Lin; Ou, Lan; Li, Haitao; Zhang, Jiqiang
Previous studies have shown that iron redistribution and deposition in the brain occurs in some neurodegenerative diseases, and oxidative damage due to abnormal iron level is a primary cause of neuronal death. In the present study, we used the single prolonged stress (SPS) model to mimic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and examined whether iron was involved in the progression of PTSD. The anxiety-like behaviors of the SPS group were assessed by the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field tests, and iron levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Expression of glucocorticoid receptors and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and ferritin (Fn) was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry in selected brain areas; TfR1 and Fn mRNA expression were detected by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Ultrastructures of the hippocampus were observed under a transmission electron microscope. Our results showed that SPS exposure induced anxiety-like symptoms and increased the level of serum cortisol and the concentration of iron in key brain areas such as the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum. The stress induced region-specific changes in both protein and mRNA levels of TfR1 and Fn. Moreover, swelling mitochondria and cell apoptosis were observed in neurons in brain regions with iron accumulation. We concluded that SPS stress increased iron in some cognition-related brain regions and subsequently cause neuronal injury, indicating that the iron may function in the pathology of PTSD.
Dévieux, Jessy G.; Malow, Robert M.; Attonito, Jennifer M.; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Gaston, Stéphanie; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Deschamps, Marie-Marcelle
Psychological trauma resulting from natural disasters can negatively affect the health of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). This study examined relationships of alcohol use and exposure to the 2010 Haiti earthquake on symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among HIV-positive adults enrolled in an intervention study. Baseline data was collected from male and female PLWH, 19–56 years old on: alcohol consumption and related harms; anxiety; and coping strategies used to deal with HIV. Two to three months post-earthquake, data was collected from 104 of the study participants on PTSD and earthquake-related impacts. Most participants had less than secondary education (66%) and very low income (92% ≤ H$10,000 or ≤ US$1,250/year). Over two-thirds of participants felt at some point that they should cut down on drinking. Fifty two (50.5 %) met criteria for PTSD. More than 83% lost their belongings and 64% had someone close to them hurt or killed during the earthquake. Bivariate analysis showed that women, younger participants, those who lost all belongings, and those with greater overall alcohol impact were more likely to report PTSD symptoms. In the multivariate model, participants more likely to meet PTSD criteria (p<0.05) were those who reported feeling a need to cut down on drinking (OR=3.14, [CI=1.16, 8.49]) and participants who used behavioral disengagement as a coping mechanism (OR=1.49, [CI=1.15, 1.92]). Following a natural disaster, it is important to address trauma-related mental health needs of PLWH—particularly women and individuals who abuse alcohol. PMID:23373569
Deng, Lisa X; Khan, Abigail May; Drajpuch, David; Fuller, Stephanie; Ludmir, Jonathan; Mascio, Christopher E; Partington, Sara L; Qadeer, Ayesha; Tobin, Lynda; Kovacs, Adrienne H; Kim, Yuli Y
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with adverse outcomes and increased mortality in cardiac patients. No studies have examined PTSD in the adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) population. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of PTSD in patients with ACHD and explore potential associated factors. Patients were enrolled from an outpatient ACHD clinic and completed several validated measures including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Clinical data were abstracted through medical data review. A total of 134 participants (mean age 34.6 ± 10.6; 46% men) were enrolled. Of the 127 participants who completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, 14 (11%) met criteria for elevated PTSD symptoms specifically related to their congenital heart disease or treatment. Of the 134 patients who completed PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, 27 (21%) met criteria for global PTSD symptoms. In univariate analyses, patients with congenital heart disease-specific PTSD had their most recent cardiac surgery at an earlier year (p = 0.008), were less likely to have attended college (p = 0.04), had higher rates of stroke or transient ischemic attack (p = 0.03), and reported greater depressive symptoms on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (7 vs 2, p <0.001). In multivariable analysis, the 2 factors most strongly associated with PTSD were depressive symptoms (p <0.001) and year of most recent cardiac surgery (p <0.03). In conclusion, PTSD is present in 11% to 21% of subjects seen at a tertiary referral center for ACHD. The high prevalence of PTSD in this complex group of patients has important implications for the medical and psychosocial management of this growing population.
Ke, Jun; Zhang, Li; Qi, Rongfeng; Li, Weihui; Hou, Cailan; Zhong, Yuan; He, Zhong; Li, Lingjiang; Lu, Guangming
Background Neuroimaging studies have implicated limbic, paralimbic, and prefrontal cortex in the pathophysiology of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, little is known about the neural substrates of acute PTSD and how they change with symptom improvement. Purpose To examine the neural circuitry underlying acute PTSD and brain function changes during clinical recovery from this disorder. Material and Methods Nineteen acute PTSD patients and nine non-PTSD subjects who all experienced a devastating mining accident underwent clinical assessment as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning while viewing trauma-related and neutral pictures. Two years after the accident, a subgroup of 17 patients completed a second clinical evaluation, of which 13 were given an identical follow-up scan. Results Acute PTSD patients demonstrated greater activation in the vermis and right posterior cingulate, and greater deactivation in the bilateral medial prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobules than controls in the traumatic versus neutral condition. At follow-up, PTSD patients showed symptom reduction and decreased activation in the right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral posterior cingulate/precuneus, and cerebellum. Correlation results confirmed these findings and indicated that brain activation in the posterior cingulate/precuneus and vermis was predictive of PTSD symptom improvement. Conclusion The findings support the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, posterior cingulate, and vermis in the pathogenesis of acute PTSD. Brain activation in the vermis and posterior cingulate/precuneus appears to be a biological marker of recovery potential from PTSD. Furthermore, decreased activation of the middle frontal gyrus, posterior cingulate/precuneus, and cerebellum may reflect symptom improvement.
Koenen, K C; Sumner, J A; Gilsanz, P; Glymour, M M; Ratanatharathorn, A; Rimm, E B; Roberts, A L; Winning, A; Kubzansky, L D
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been declared 'a life sentence' based on evidence that the disorder leads to a host of physical health problems. Some of the strongest empirical research - in terms of methodology and findings - has shown that PTSD predicts higher risk of cardiometabolic diseases, specifically cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Despite mounting evidence, PTSD is not currently acknowledged as a risk factor by cardiovascular or endocrinological medicine. This view is unlikely to change absent compelling evidence that PTSD causally contributes to cardiometabolic disease. This review suggests that with developments in methods for epidemiological research and the rapidly expanding knowledge of the behavioral and biological effects of PTSD the field is poised to provide more definitive answers to questions of causality. First, we discuss methods to improve causal inference using the observational data most often used in studies of PTSD and health, with particular reference to issues of temporality and confounding. Second, we consider recent work linking PTSD with specific behaviors and biological processes, and evaluate whether these may plausibly serve as mechanisms by which PTSD leads to cardiometabolic disease. Third, we evaluate how looking more comprehensively into the PTSD phenotype provides insight into whether specific aspects of PTSD phenomenology are particularly relevant to cardiometabolic disease. Finally, we discuss new areas of research that are feasible and could enhance understanding of the PTSD-cardiometabolic relationship, such as testing whether treatment of PTSD can halt or even reverse the cardiometabolic risk factors causally related to CVD and T2D.
de Kruijk, J R; Leffers, P; Menheere, P; Meerhoff, S; Rutten, J; Twijnstra, A
Objectives: To identify parameters at first presentation after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) that are predictive of the severity of post-traumatic complaints (PTC) after six months. Early recognition of patients with MTBI who are at risk of developing PTC would be useful because early follow up at the outpatient clinic may help to reduce the severity of these complaints in the long run. Methods: The presence of symptoms in the emergency room (ER) (headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and neck pain) and biochemical markers (neurone specific enolase and S-100B) in serum were assessed as possible predictive variables for the severity of PTC. Outcome variables were the severity of 16 PTC six months after the trauma. Result: After six months, the severity of most complaints had declined to pretrauma levels but medians for headache, dizziness, and drowsiness were still increased. In a series of 79 patients, 22 (28%) reported one or more PTC after six months. After adjustment for baseline variables, an at least twofold increased severity of all PTC subgroups was reported by those patients reporting headache, dizziness, or nausea in the ER. A twofold increased severity of "cognitive" and "vegetative" PTC was also found in those with increased concentrations of biochemical serum markers at first presentation. The prevalence of full recovery after six months increased from 50% in patients with three symptoms to 78% in those with no symptoms in the ER. Inclusion of biochemical markers showed that all 10 patients with no symptoms in the ER and normal markers recovered fully. Conclusions: The presence of headache, dizziness, or nausea in the ER after MTBI is strongly associated with the severity of most PTC after six months. Identifying MTBI patients in the ER without headache, dizziness, nausea, or increased serum marker concentrations may be a promising strategy for predicting a good outcome. PMID:12438478
Martínez-Valverde, Tamara; Vidal-Jorge, Marian; Martínez-Saez, Elena; Castro, Lidia; Arikan, Fuat; Cordero, Esteban; Rădoi, Andreea; Poca, Maria-Antonia; Simard, J. Marc
Abstract Post-traumatic brain contusions (PTBCs) are traditionally considered primary injuries and can increase in size, generate perilesional edema, cause mass effect, induce neurological deterioration, and cause death. Most patients experience a progressive increase in pericontusional edema, and nearly half, an increase in the hemorrhagic component itself. The underlying molecular pathophysiology of contusion-induced brain edema and hemorrhagic progression remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate sulfonylurea 1/transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (SUR1-TRPM4) ion channel SUR1 expression in various cell types (neurons, astrocytes, endothelial cells, microglia, macrophages, and neutrophils) of human brain contusions and whether SUR1 up-regulation was related to time postinjury. Double immunolabeling of SUR1 and cell-type– specific proteins was performed in 26 specimens from traumatic brain injury patients whose lesions were surgically evacuated. Three samples from limited brain resections performed for accessing extra-axial skull-base tumors or intraventricular lesions were controls. We found SUR1 was significantly overexpresed in all cell types and was especially prominent in neurons and endothelial cells (ECs). The temporal pattern depended on cell type: 1) In neurons, SUR1 increased within 48 h of injury and stabilized thereafter; 2) in ECs, there was no trend; 3) in glial cells and microglia/macrophages, a moderate increase was observed over time; and 4) in neutrophils, it decreased with time. Our results suggest that up-regulation of SUR1 in humans point to this channel as one of the important molecular players in the pathophysiology of PTBCs. Our findings reveal opportunities to act therapeutically on the mechanisms of growth of traumatic contusions and therefore reduce the number of patients with neurological deterioration and poor neurological outcomes. PMID:26398596
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be associated with long-lasting psychological suffering, distressing psychosocial disability, markedly reduced health-related quality of life, and increased morbidity and mortality in a subgroup of individuals in the aftermath of serious traumatic events. Both etiopathogenesis and treatment modalities of PTSD are best conceptualized within a biopsychosotial model. Pharmacotherapy may lay claim to a major role in the multimodal treatment approaches. Here we outline two different pharmacotherapeutic trends that aim to modify the encoding, consolidation, and rehearsal of traumatic memory in order to reduce the risk of PTSD immediately after trauma exposure on the one hand, and that endeavor to treat the clinical state of PTSD on the other. The theoretical rationales of both pharmacological strategies are the complex neurobiological underpinnings that characterize traumatic memory organization and clinical PTSD. Meanwhile, promising data from randomized controlled trials have been obtained for both approaches. Empirical evidence may inform clinicians in their clinical efforts for this special group of patients. The efficacy of several classes of drugs that have been investigated within a context of research should be evaluated critically and still have to stand the test of effectiveness in daily clinical practice. From a patient perspective, empirical results may serve as a psychoeducative guideline to what pharmacotherapeutic approaches may realistically achieve, what their risks and benefits are, and what their limits are in contributing to reducing the often major chronic suffering caused by serious traumatic events. Ethical issues have to be considered, particularly in the context of pharmacological strategies projected to prevent PTSD in the aftermath of traumatic exposure. PMID:25152660
Chitrala, Kumaraswamy Naidu; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Nagarkatti, Mitzi
Post-traumatic stress disorder is one of the common mental ailments that is triggered by exposure to traumatic events. Till date, the molecular factors conferring risk to the development of PTSD is not well understood. In this study, we have conducted a meta-analysis followed by hierarchical clustering and functional enrichment, to uncover the potential molecular networks and critical genes which play an important role in PTSD. Two datasets of expression profiles from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from 62 control samples and 63 PTSD samples were included in our study. In PTSD samples of GSE860 dataset, we identified 26 genes informative when compared with Post-deploy PTSD condition and 58 genes informative when compared with Pre-deploy and Post-deploy PTSD of GSE63878 dataset. We conducted the meta-analysis using Fisher, roP, Stouffer, AW, SR, PR and RP methods in MetaDE package. Results from the rOP method of MetaDE package showed that among these genes, the following showed significant changes including, OR2B6, SOX21, MOBP, IL15, PTPRK, PPBPP2 and SEC14L5. Gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment of these significant PTSD-related genes for cell proliferation, DNA damage and repair (p-value ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, interaction network analysis was performed on these 7 significant genes. This analysis revealed highly connected functional interaction networks with two candidate genes, IL15 and SEC14L5 highly enriched in networks. Overall, from these results, we concluded that these genes can be recommended as some of the potential targets for PTSD. PMID:27997584
Ghaffarzadegan, Navid; Ebrahimvandi, Alireza; Jalali, Mohammad S.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) stands out as a major mental illness; however, little is known about effective policies for mitigating the problem. The importance and complexity of PTSD raise critical questions: What are the trends in the population of PTSD patients among military personnel and veterans in the postwar era? What policies can help mitigate PTSD? To address these questions, we developed a system dynamics simulation model of the population of military personnel and veterans affected by PTSD. The model includes both military personnel and veterans in a “system of systems.” This is a novel aspect of our model, since many policies implemented at the military level will potentially influence (and may have side effects on) veterans and the Department of Veterans Affairs. The model is first validated by replicating the historical data on PTSD prevalence among military personnel and veterans from 2000 to 2014 (datasets from the Department of Defense, the Institute of Medicine, the Department of Veterans Affairs, and other sources). The model is then used for health policy analysis. Our results show that, in an optimistic scenario based on the status quo of deployment to intense/combat zones, estimated PTSD prevalence among veterans will be at least 10% during the next decade. The model postulates that during wars, resiliency-related policies are the most effective for decreasing PTSD. In a postwar period, current health policy interventions (e.g., screening and treatment) have marginal effects on mitigating the problem of PTSD, that is, the current screening and treatment policies must be revolutionized to have any noticeable effect. Furthermore, the simulation results show that it takes a long time, on the order of 40 years, to mitigate the psychiatric consequences of a war. Policy and financial implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:27716776
Asencio, Maria Angeles; Huertas, María; Carranza, Rafael; Tenias, Jose Maria; Celis, Javier; Gonzalez-del Valle, Fernando
Our aim was to identify the potential risk factors for developing post-traumatic endophthalmitis (PTE) and the possible measures of prevention. Retrospective case-control study, with 15 cases of PTE and 2 matched controls. We reviewed the medical records of the cases and their respective controls during the period 1996-2008 at a Spanish Hospital. We collected demographic data and information about the type of trauma, the potential risk factors, comorbidities, microbial isolations, antimicrobial susceptibility, administered treatments, and the visual outcome. The independent predictor factors identified for PTE were intraocular foreign body (IOFB) (OR 5.48; CI 95 % 1.05-28.7), dirty wound (OR 4.91; CI 95 % 0.96-25.3), and wound closure delays of 24 h or more (OR 5.48; CI 95 % 1.05-28.7). The probability of endophthalmitis in patients without these risk factors was 5.9 %, but ascended to 65.3 % and 90.3 %, in those patients with two and three risk factors, respectively. Infected patients presented a complication rate of 80 %, with an evisceration rate of 53 %; both were significantly associated with infection. The visual outcome was poor and related to the presence of IOFB and virulent microorganisms (Bacillus sp., filamentous fungus), visual acuity at presentation, and retinal detachment. Patients who presented an IOFB, dirty wound, and delayed wound closure were 15 times more likely to develop infection, and when infected, patients fared much worse than those non-infected. We thus recommend aggressive prophylactic measures in patients with these risk factors, adding antifungal prophylaxis when the injury is contaminated with vegetable matter.
Saleh, Hesham; Yu, Stephen; Vigdorchik, Jonathan; Schwarzkopf, Ran
AIM To review and report functional outcomes, complications, and survivorship associated with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the treatment of post-traumatic arthritis (PTA). METHODS We conducted a systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, and SCOPUS in December 2015 for English-language clinical research studies, both prospective and retrospective, examining the use of TKA for the treatment of PTA. All relevant articles were accessed in full. The manual search included references of retrieved articles. We extracted data on patients’ demographics and clinical outcomes, including preoperative diagnosis and pre- and post-operative functional scores. We summarized the data and reported the results in tables and text. RESULTS Sixteen studies, four prospective and ten retrospective, examined patients who underwent TKA for PTA due to fractures of the proximal tibia, patella, and/or distal femur. Eleven studies utilized the Knee Society Scores criteria to assess functional outcomes. All studies utilizing these criteria reported an improvement in functional and knee scores of patients following TKA. Further, studies reported an increased range of motion (ROM) and reduction of pain following surgery. The most commonly reported complications with TKA included infection, stiffness, wound complications, intraoperative rupture of tendons, and osteolysis/polyethylene wear. The overwhelming majority of these complications occurred within the first two years following surgery. Six studies examined the survivorship of TKA with subsequent revision for any reason as an endpoint. Compared to patients with osteoarthritis, patients with PTA required more revisions, the majority for polyethylene wear. CONCLUSION Although associated with higher complication rates, TKA is an effective treatment for PTA, as it improves ROM, pain and functional outcomes. PMID:27672572
Song, Byoung-A; Yoo, So-Young; Kang, Hee-Young; Byeon, Seong-Hye; Shin, Sang-Ho; Hwang, Eun-Jeong
Objective This study evaluated the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among North Korean defectors and their level of suicidal ideation and the correlation between these and heart-rate variability (HRV) to explore the possibility of using HRV as an objective neurobiological index of signs of autonomic nervous system disorder. Methods A total of 32 North Korean defectors (nine men, 23 women) were selected as subjects, and their HRV was measured after they completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-PTSD (MMPI-PTSD) scale and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results 1) Low-frequency (LF)/high-frequency (HF) ratios in the HRV index and MMPI-PTSD scores were correlated (r=0.419, p<0.05), as were BDI item 9 (suicidal ideation) and MMPI-PTSD scores (r=0.600, p<0.01). 2) A regression analysis of LF/HF ratios and MMPI-PTSD scores revealed an R-value of 13.8% (Adj. R2=0.138, F=4.695, p=0.041), and a regression analysis of BDI item 9 and MMPI-PTSD scores showed an R-value of 32.8% (Adj. R2=0.328, F=11.234, p=0.003). In other words, the LF/HF ratio (β=0.419) and BDI item 9 (β=0.600) appear to be risk factors in predicting MMPI-PTSD scores. Conclusion The LF/HF ratio, a standard index of autonomic nervous system activity, can be used as an objective neurobiological index to analyze PTSD among North Korean defectors presenting with various mental and physical symptoms, and the approximate level of suicide -ideation can act as a predicting factor for PTSD. PMID:22216038
Kaminsky, Z; Wilcox, H C; Eaton, W W; Van Eck, K; Kilaru, V; Jovanovic, T; Klengel, T; Bradley, B; Binder, E B; Ressler, K J; Smith, A K
Traumatic stress results in hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis abnormalities and an increased risk to both suicidal behaviors and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous work out of our laboratory identified SKA2 DNA methylation associations with suicidal behavior in the blood and brain of multiple cohorts. Interaction of SKA2 with stress predicted suicidal behavior with ~80% accuracy. SKA2 is hypothesized to reduce the ability to suppress cortisol following stress, which is of potentially high relevance in traumatized populations. Our objective was to investigate the interaction of SKA2 and trauma exposure on HPA axis function, suicide attempt and PTSD. SKA2 DNA methylation at Illumina HM450 probe cg13989295 was assessed for association with suicidal behavior and PTSD metrics in the context of Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) scores in 421 blood and 61 saliva samples from the Grady Trauma Project (GTP) cohort. Dexamethasone suppression test (DST) data were evaluated for a subset of 209 GTP subjects. SKA2 methylation interacted with CTQ scores to predict lifetime suicide attempt in saliva and blood with areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUCs) of 0.76 and 0.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6-0.92, P = 0.003, and CI: 0.65-0.78, P < 0.0001) and to mediate the suppression of cortisol following DST (β = 0.5 ± 0.19, F = 1.51, degrees of freedom (df) = 12/167, P = 0.0096). Cumulatively, the data suggest that epigenetic variation at SKA2 mediates vulnerability to suicidal behaviors and PTSD through dysregulation of the HPA axis in response to stress.
Imanaka, Akihiro; Morinobu, Shigeru; Toki, Shigeru; Yamawaki, Shigeto
A number of clinical studies in which early adversities were defined retrospectively, demonstrated that early adverse experiences increased the morbidity rate of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in later life. However, no prospective studies have yet been conducted to elucidate whether early adversity affects the risk or severity of PTSD. Thus, we examined whether early adversity would strengthen the severity of PTSD symptoms in later life by using neonatal isolation (NI) and single prolonged stress (SPS) as an animal model of PTSD. We measured anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM), contextual freezing in the contextual fear (CF) test, and analgesia in the flinch-jump and hot-plate tests in four groups of adult rats (sham, NI, SPS, and NI+SPS). NI significantly enhanced the SPS-induced decrease in the percentage of open arm time and open arm entries in the EPM, enhanced the SPS-induced increase in contextual freezing, and strengthened SPS-induced analgesia, without any changes in locomotor activity in the open field locomotor test. In addition, we examined the effect of environmental enrichment (EE). Repeated exposure to EE ameliorated the NI-induced enhancement of contextual freezing, but not anxiety-like behavior or analgesia, in response to SPS. The results of the present study demonstrated that while early adversity strengthened PTSD-like symptoms, EE alleviated the enhanced contextual freezing by NI and SPS. These findings suggest that early adversity may worsen dysfunction of the amygdala and hippocampus in PTSD, and an early intervention may alleviate the early adversity-mediated enhancement of hippocampal dysfunction in PTSD.
Ayers, S; Bond, R; Bertullies, S; Wijma, K
There is evidence that 3.17% of women report post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth. This meta-analysis synthesizes research on vulnerability and risk factors for birth-related PTSD and refines a diathesis-stress model of its aetiology. Systematic searches were carried out on PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science using PTSD terms crossed with childbirth terms. Studies were included if they reported primary research that examined factors associated with birth-related PTSD measured at least 1 month after birth. In all, 50 studies (n = 21 429) from 15 countries fulfilled inclusion criteria. Pre-birth vulnerability factors most strongly associated with PTSD were depression in pregnancy (r = 0.51), fear of childbirth (r = 0.41), poor health or complications in pregnancy (r = 0.38), and a history of PTSD (r = 0.39) and counselling for pregnancy or birth (r = 0.32). Risk factors in birth most strongly associated with PTSD were negative subjective birth experiences (r = 0.59), having an operative birth (assisted vaginal or caesarean, r = 0.48), lack of support (r = -0.38) and dissociation (r = 0.32). After birth, PTSD was associated with poor coping and stress (r = 0.30), and was highly co-morbid with depression (r = 0.60). Moderator analyses showed that the effect of poor health or complications in pregnancy was more apparent in high-risk samples. The results of this meta-analysis are used to update a diathesis-stress model of the aetiology of postpartum PTSD and can be used to inform screening, prevention and intervention in maternity care.
Breslau, N.; Troost, J. P.; Bohnert, K.; Luo, Z.
Background Only a minority of trauma victims (<10%) develops post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), suggesting that victims vary in predispositions to the PTSD response to traumas. It is assumed that the influence of predispositions is inversely related to trauma severity: when trauma is extreme predispositions are assumed to play a secondary role. This assumption has not been tested. We estimate the influence of key predispositions on PTSD induced by an extreme trauma – associated with a high percentage of PTSD – (sexual assault), relative to events of lower magnitude (accidents, disaster, and unexpected death of someone close). Method The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) is representative of the adult population of the USA. A total of 34 653 respondents completed the second wave in which lifetime PTSD was assessed. We conducted three series of multinomial logistic regressions, comparing the influence of six predispositions on the PTSD effect of sexual assault with each comparison event. Three pre-existing disorders and three parental history variables were examined. Results Predispositions predicted elevated PTSD risk among victims of sexual assault as they did among victims of comparison events. We detected no evidence that the influence of predispositions on PTSD risk was significantly lower when the event was sexual assault, relative to accidents, disasters and unexpected death of someone close. Conclusions Important predispositions increase the risk of PTSD following sexual assault as much as they do following accidents, disaster, and unexpected death of someone close. Research on other predispositions and alternative classifications of event severity would be illuminating. PMID:22703614
Diamond, Matthew L; Ritter, Anne C; Jackson, Edwin K; Conley, Yvette P; Kochanek, Patrick M; Boison, Detlev; Wagner, Amy K
Objective Determine if genetic variation in enzymes/transporters influencing extracellular adenosine homeostasis, including adenosine kinase (ADK), ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73), and equilibrative nucleoside transporter type-1 (ENT-1), is significantly associated with epileptogenesis and post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) risk, as indicated by time to first seizure analyses. Methods Nine ADK, three CD73, and two ENT-1 tagging SNPs were genotyped in 162 white adults with moderate/severe TBI and no history of premorbid seizures. Kaplan Meier models were used to screen for genetic differences in time to first seizure occurring >1 week post-TBI. SNPs remaining significant after correction for multiple comparisons were examined using Cox Proportional Hazards analyses, adjusting for subdural hematoma, injury severity score, and isolated TBI status. SNPs significant in multivariate models were then entered simultaneously into an adjusted Cox model. Results Comparing Kaplan Meier curves, rs11001109 (ADK) rare allele homozygosity and rs9444348 (NT5E) heterozygosity were significantly associated with shorter time to first seizure and increased seizure rate 3 years post-TBI. Multivariate Cox Proportional Hazard models showed these genotypes remained significantly associated with increased PTE hazard up to 3yrs post-TBI after controlling for variables of interest [rs11001109: HR=4.47, 95%CI (1.27–15.77), p=0.020; rs9444348: HR=2.95, 95%CI (1.19–7.31), p=0.019]. Significance Genetic variation in ADK and NT5E may help explain variability in time to first seizure and PTE risk, independent of previously identified risk factors, after TBI. Once validated, identifying genetic variation in adenosine regulatory pathways relating to epileptogenesis and PTE may facilitate exploration of therapeutic targets and pharmacotherapy development. PMID:26040919
Punzi, Leonardo; Galozzi, Paola; Luisetto, Roberto; Favero, Marta; Ramonda, Roberta; Oliviero, Francesca; Scanu, Anna
Post-traumatic arthritis (PTA) develops after an acute direct trauma to the joints. PTA causes about 12% of all osteoarthritis cases, and a history of physical trauma may also be found in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis. Symptoms include swelling, synovial effusion, pain and sometimes intra-articular bleeding. Usually, PTA recoveries spontaneously, but the persistence of symptoms after 6 months may be considered pathological and so-called chronic PTA. A variety of molecular, mechanobiological and cellular events involved in the pathogenesis and the progression of PTA have been identified. The activation of inflammatory mechanisms during the PTA acute phase appears to play a critical role in the chronic disease onset. Human studies and experimental models have revealed that a series of inflammatory mediators are released in synovial fluid immediately after the joint trauma. These molecules have been proposed as markers of disease and as a potential target for the development of specific and preventative interventions. Currently, chronic PTA cannot be prevented, although a large number of agents have been tested in preclinical studies. Given the relevance of inflammatory reaction, anticytokines therapy, in particular the inhibition of interleukin 1 (IL-1), seems to be the most promising strategy. At the present time, intra-articular injection of IL-1 receptor antagonist is the only anticytokine approach that has been used in a human study of PTA. Despite the fact that knowledge in this area has increased in the past years, the identification of more specific disease markers and new therapeutic opportunities are needed. PMID:27651925
de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Margraf, Jürgen
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and phobias belong to the most common anxiety disorders and to the most common psychiatric illnesses in general. In both disorders, aversive memories are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis and symptomatology. Previously, we have reported that elevated glucocorticoid levels inhibit memory retrieval in animals and healthy humans. We therefore hypothesized that the administration of glucocorticoids might also inhibit the retrieval of aversive memory, thereby reducing symptoms in patients with PTSD and phobias. In recent clinical studies, we found first evidence to support this hypothesis. In patients with PTSD, low-dose cortisol treatment for one month reduced symptoms of traumatic memories without causing adverse side effects. Furthermore, we found evidence for a prolonged effect of the cortisol treatment. Persistent retrieval and reconsolidation of traumatic memories is a process that keeps these memories vivid and thereby the disorder alive. By inhibiting memory retrieval, cortisol may weaken the traumatic memory trace, and thus reduce symptoms even beyond the treatment period. In patients with social phobia, we found that a single oral administration of cortisone 1 h before a socio-evaluative stressor significantly reduced self-reported fear during the anticipation-, exposure-, and recovery phase of the stressor. In subjects with spider phobia, repeated oral administration of cortisol 1 h before exposure to a spider photograph induced a progressive reduction of stimulus-induced fear. This effect was maintained when subjects were exposed to the stimulus again two days after the last cortisol administration, indicating that cortisol facilitated the extinction of phobic fear. In conclusion, by a common mechanism of reducing the retrieval of aversive memories, glucocorticoids may be suited for the treatment of PTSD as well as phobias. More studies are needed to further evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of
Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Parker, Erin M.; Ovalle, Fernando; Noe, Rebecca E.; Bell, Jeneita; Xu, Likang; Morrison, Melissa A.; Mertzlufft, Caitlin E.; Sugerman, David E.
Objectives We analyzed tornado-related injuries seen at hospitals and risk factors for tornado injury, and screened for post-traumatic stress following a statewide tornado-emergency in Alabama in April 2011. Methods We conducted a chart abstraction of 1,398 patients at 39 hospitals, mapped injured cases, and conducted a case-control telephone survey of 98 injured cases along with 200 uninjured controls. Results Most (n = 1,111, 79.5%) injuries treated were non-life threatening (Injury Severity Score ≤15). Severe injuries often affected head (72.9%) and chest regions (86.4%). Mobile home residents showed the highest odds of injury (OR, 6.98; 95% CI: 2.10–23.20). No severe injuries occurred in tornado shelters. Within permanent homes, the odds of injury were decreased for basements (OR, 0.13; 95% CI: 0.04–0.40), bathrooms (OR, 0.22; 95% CI: 0.06–0.78), hallways (OR, 0.31; 95% CI: 0.11–0.90) and closets (OR, 0.25; 95% CI: 0.07–0.80). Exposure to warnings via the Internet (aOR, 0.20; 95% CI: 0.09–0.49), television (aOR, 0.45; 95% CI: 0.24–0.83), and sirens (aOR, 0.50; 95% CI: 0.30–0.85) decreased the odds of injury, and residents frequently exposed to tornado sirens had lower odds of injury. The prevalence of PTSD in respondents was 22.1% and screening positive for PTSD symptoms was associated with tornado-related loss events. Conclusions Primary prevention, particularly improved shelter access, and media warnings, seem essential to prevent severe tornado-injury. Small rooms such as bathrooms may provide some protection within permanent homes when no underground shelter is available. PMID:24367581
Novakofski, K.D.; Berg, L.C.; Bronzini, I.; Bonnevie, E.D.; Poland, S.G.; Bonassar, L.J.; Fortier, L.A.
Objective The prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) varies between joints. Cartilage in eight different joints was evaluated to elucidate the disparate susceptibilities between joints to post-traumatic OA (PTOA) and provide evidence for joint specific clinical treatments. The hypothesis was that cartilage in different joints would have varying cell death and anabolic gene expression profiles after injury. Methods Adult equine cartilage explants were harvested from shoulder (SH), elbow (EL), carpal (CA), metacarpophalangeal (MC), patellofemoral (FP), tarsal (TA), metatarsophalangeal (MT), and proximal interphalangeal (PP) joints, and were injured by loading with 30 MPa within 1 second. Fractional dissipated energy, cell density, cell death, and gene expression were quantified. Results PP had the highest fractional dissipated energy (94%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 88–101%). Cell density was most dense in superficial zone in all samples, with MC and MT having the highest peak density. Injured samples had significantly higher cell death (13.5%, 95% CI 9.1–17.9%) than non-injured samples (6.8%, 95% CI 2.5–11.1%, p=0.016); however, cell death after injury was not significantly different between joints. Gene expression was significantly different between joints. CD-RAP expression in normal cartilage was lowest in FP (Cp=21, 95% CI −80–122). After injury, the change in CD-RAP expression increased and was highest in FP (147% relative increase after injury, 95% CI 64–213). Conclusion Different joints have different baseline characteristics, including cell density and gene expression, and responses to injury, including energy dissipation and gene expression. These unique characteristics may explain differences in OA prevalence and suggest differences in susceptibility to PTOA. Clinical Relevance Understanding differences in the response to injury and potential susceptibility of OA can lead to the development of preventative or treatment strategies. PMID:25725390
Ghaffarzadegan, Navid; Ebrahimvandi, Alireza; Jalali, Mohammad S
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) stands out as a major mental illness; however, little is known about effective policies for mitigating the problem. The importance and complexity of PTSD raise critical questions: What are the trends in the population of PTSD patients among military personnel and veterans in the postwar era? What policies can help mitigate PTSD? To address these questions, we developed a system dynamics simulation model of the population of military personnel and veterans affected by PTSD. The model includes both military personnel and veterans in a "system of systems." This is a novel aspect of our model, since many policies implemented at the military level will potentially influence (and may have side effects on) veterans and the Department of Veterans Affairs. The model is first validated by replicating the historical data on PTSD prevalence among military personnel and veterans from 2000 to 2014 (datasets from the Department of Defense, the Institute of Medicine, the Department of Veterans Affairs, and other sources). The model is then used for health policy analysis. Our results show that, in an optimistic scenario based on the status quo of deployment to intense/combat zones, estimated PTSD prevalence among veterans will be at least 10% during the next decade. The model postulates that during wars, resiliency-related policies are the most effective for decreasing PTSD. In a postwar period, current health policy interventions (e.g., screening and treatment) have marginal effects on mitigating the problem of PTSD, that is, the current screening and treatment policies must be revolutionized to have any noticeable effect. Furthermore, the simulation results show that it takes a long time, on the order of 40 years, to mitigate the psychiatric consequences of a war. Policy and financial implications of the findings are discussed.
Duncan, Alexis E; Sartor, Carolyn E; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A; Eschenbacher, Michaela A; Diemer, Elizabeth W; Nelson, Elliot C; Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C
The objective of this study was to examine interrelationships between child maltreatment, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and body mass index (BMI) in young women. We used multinomial logistic regression models to explore the possibility that PTSD statistically mediates or moderates the association between BMI category and self-reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA), physical abuse (CPA), or neglect among 3,699 young women participating in a population-based twin study. Obese women had the highest prevalence of CSA, CPA, neglect, and PTSD (p<.001 for all). Although all three forms of child maltreatment were significantly, positively associated with overweight and obesity in unadjusted models, only CSA was significantly associated with obesity after adjusting for other forms of maltreatment and covariates (OR=2.21, 95% CI: 1.63, 3.00). CSA and neglect, but not CPA, were associated with underweight in unadjusted models; however, after adjusting for other forms of maltreatment and covariates, the associations were no longer statistically significant (OR=1.43, 95% CI: 0.90-2.28 and OR=2.16, 95% CI: 0.90-5.16 for CSA and neglect, respectively). Further adjustment for PTSD generally resulted in modest attenuation of effects across associations of child maltreatment forms with BMI categories, suggesting that PTSD may, at most, be only a weak partial mediator of these associations. Future longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms linking CSA and obesity and to further evaluate the role of PTSD in associations between child maltreatment and obesity.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be associated with long-lasting psychological suffering, distressing psychosocial disability, markedly reduced health-related quality of life, and increased morbidity and mortality in a subgroup of individuals in the aftermath of serious traumatic events. Both etiopathogenesis and treatment modalities of PTSD are best conceptualized within a biopsychosotial model. Pharmacotherapy may lay claim to a major role in the multimodal treatment approaches. Here we outline two different pharmacotherapeutic trends that aim to modify the encoding, consolidation, and rehearsal of traumatic memory in order to reduce the risk of PTSD immediately after trauma exposure on the one hand, and that endeavor to treat the clinical state of PTSD on the other. The theoretical rationales of both pharmacological strategies are the complex neurobiological underpinnings that characterize traumatic memory organization and clinical PTSD. Meanwhile, promising data from randomized controlled trials have been obtained for both approaches. Empirical evidence may inform clinicians in their clinical efforts for this special group of patients. The efficacy of several classes of drugs that have been investigated within a context of research should be evaluated critically and still have to stand the test of effectiveness in daily clinical practice. From a patient perspective, empirical results may serve as a psychoeducative guideline to what pharmacotherapeutic approaches may realistically achieve, what their risks and benefits are, and what their limits are in contributing to reducing the often major chronic suffering caused by serious traumatic events. Ethical issues have to be considered, particularly in the context of pharmacological strategies projected to prevent PTSD in the aftermath of traumatic exposure.
Martínez, Lía; Prada, Edward; Satler, Corina; Tavares, Maria C. H.; Tomaz, Carlos
Executive functions (EFs) is an umbrella term for various cognitive processes controlled by a complex neural activity, which allow the production of different types of behaviors seeking to achieve specific objectives, one of them being inhibitory control. There is a wide consensus that clinical and behavioral alterations associated with EF, such as inhibitory control, are present in various neuropsychiatric disorders. This paper reviews the research literature on the relationship between executive dysfunction, frontal-subcortical neural circuit changes, and the psychopathological processes associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A revision on the role of frontal-subcortical neural circuits and their presumable abnormal functioning and the high frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms could explain the difficulties with putting effector mechanisms into action, giving individuals the necessary tools to act efficiently in their environment. Although, neuronal substrate data about ADHD and PTSD has been reported in the literature, it is isolated. Therefore, this review highlights the overlapping of neural substrates in the symptomatology of ADHD and PTSD disorders concerning EFs, especially in the inhibitory component. Thus, the changes related to impaired EF that accompany disorders like ADHD and PTSD could be explained by disturbances that have a direct or indirect impact on the functioning of these loops. Initially, the theoretical model of EF according to current neuropsychology will be presented, focusing on the inhibitory component. In a second stage, this component will be analyzed for each of the disorders of interest, considering the clinical aspects, the etiology and the neurobiological basis. Additionally, commonalities between the two neuropsychiatric conditions will be taken into consideration from the perspectives of cognitive and emotional inhibition. Finally, the implications and future
Louer, Craig R.; Furman, Bridgette D.; Huebner, Janet L.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Olson, Steven A.; Guilak, Farshid
Objective Obesity and joint injury are both primary risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA) that involve potential alterations in the biomechanical and inflammatory environments of the joint. Post-traumatic arthritis (PTA) is a frequent long-term complication of intra-articular fractures. Obesity has been linked to primary OA and may potentially contribute to the development of PTA by a variety of mechanisms. The objectives of this study were to determine if diet-induced obesity influences the severity of PTA in mice and to examine interrelationships between joint degeneration and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and adipokines in this response. Methods C57BL/6 mice were fed either normal chow (13% fat) or a high-fat diet (60% fat) starting at 4 weeks of age. At 16 weeks, half of each group received closed intra-articular fracture of the left knee. At 8 weeks post-fracture, knee osteoarthritis was assessed by cartilage and synovium histology in addition to bone morphology. Serum cytokine concentrations were determined with multiplex assay. Results Fractured knee joints of mice on a high-fat diet showed significantly increased osteoarthritic degeneration compared to non-fractured contralateral controls, while fractured knee joints of low-fat mice did not demonstrate significant differences from non-fractured contralateral controls. High-fat diet increased serum concentrations of interleukin-12p70, interleukin-6, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine, while decreasing adiponectin concentrations. Systemic levels of adiponectin were inversely correlated with synovial inflammation in control limbs. Conclusion Diet-induced obesity significantly increased the severity of osteoarthritis following intra-articular fracture. Obesity and joint injury together can alter systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-12p70. PMID:22576842
Zhang, Qiongmin; Wu, Qizhu; Zhu, Hongru; He, Ling; Huang, Hua; Zhang, Junran; Zhang, Wei
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder. It can be difficult to discern the symptoms of PTSD and obtain an accurate diagnosis. Different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities focus on different aspects, which may provide complementary information for PTSD discrimination. However, none of the published studies assessed the diagnostic potential of multimodal MRI in identifying individuals with and without PTSD. In the current study, we investigated whether the complementary information conveyed by multimodal MRI scans could be combined to improve PTSD classification performance. Structural and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) scans were conducted on 17 PTSD patients, 20 trauma-exposed controls without PTSD (TEC) and 20 non-traumatized healthy controls (HC). Gray matter volume (GMV), amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), and regional homogeneity were extracted as classification features, and in order to integrate the information of structural and functional MRI data, the extracted features were combined by a multi-kernel combination strategy. Then a support vector machine (SVM) classifier was trained to distinguish the subjects at individual level. The performance of the classifier was evaluated using the leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) method. In the pairwise comparison of PTSD, TEC, and HC groups, classification accuracies obtained by the proposed approach were 2.70, 2.50, and 2.71% higher than the best single feature way, with the accuracies of 89.19, 90.00, and 67.57% for PTSD vs. HC, TEC vs. HC, and PTSD vs. TEC respectively. The proposed approach could improve PTSD identification at individual level. Additionally, it provides preliminary support to develop the multimodal MRI method as a clinical diagnostic aid. PMID:27445664
Wilson, C. Brad; McLaughlin, Leslie D.; Ebenezer, Philip J.; Nair, Anand R.; Dange, Rahul; Harre, Joseph G.; Shaak, Thomas L.; Diamond, David M.; Francis, Joseph
Serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), and other neurotransmitters are modulated in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines (PIC) are elevated during the progression of the disorder. Currently, the only approved pharmacologic treatments for PTSD are the selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) sertraline and paroxetine, but their efficacy in treating PTSD is marginal at best. In combat-related PTSD, SSRIs are of limited effectiveness. Thus, this study sought to analyze the effects of the SSRI sertraline on inflammation and neurotransmitter modulation via a predator exposure/psychosocial stress animal model of PTSD. We hypothesized that sertraline would diminish inflammatory components and increase 5-HT but might also affect levels of other neurotransmitters, particularly NE. PTSD-like effects were induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6/group × 4 groups). The rats were secured in Plexiglas cylinders and placed in a cage with a cat for 1 h on days 1 and 11 of a 31-day stress regimen. PTSD rats were also subjected to psychosocial stress via daily cage cohort changes. At the conclusion of the stress regimen, treatment group animals were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with sertraline HCl at 10 mg/kg for 7 consecutive days, while controls received i.p. vehicle. The animals were subsequently sacrificed on day 8. Sertraline attenuated inflammatory markers and normalized 5-HT levels in the central nervous system (CNS). In contrast, sertraline produced elevations in NE in the CNS and systemic circulation of SSRI treated PTSD and control groups. This increase in NE suggests SSRIs produce a heightened noradrenergic response, which might elevate anxiety in a clinical setting. PMID:25126063
Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric sequel to a stressful event or situation of an exceptionally threatening or catastrophic nature. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been used in the management of PTSD for many years. This paper reviews the effectiveness of CBT for the treatment of PTSD following various types of trauma, its potential to prevent PTSD, methods used in CBT, and reflects on the mechanisms of action of CBT in PTSD. Methods: Electronic databases, including PubMed, were searched for articles on CBT and PTSD. Manual searches were conducted for cross-references in the relevant journal sites. Results: The current literature reveals robust evidence that CBT is a safe and effective intervention for both acute and chronic PTSD following a range of traumatic experiences in adults, children, and adolescents. However, nonresponse to CBT by PTSD can be as high as 50%, contributed to by various factors, including comorbidity and the nature of the study population. CBT has been validated and used across many cultures, and has been used successfully by community therapists following brief training in individual and group settings. There has been effective use of Internet-based CBT in PTSD. CBT has been found to have a preventive role in some studies, but evidence for definitive recommendations is inadequate. The effect of CBT has been mediated mostly by the change in maladaptive cognitive distortions associated with PTSD. Many studies also report physiological, functional neuroimaging, and electroencephalographic changes correlating with response to CBT. Conclusion: There is scope for further research on implementation of CBT following major disasters, its preventive potential following various traumas, and the neuropsychological mechanisms of action. PMID:21552319
O’Donovan, Aoife; Epel, Elissa; Lin, Jue; Wolkowitz, Owen; Cohen, Beth; Maguen, Shira; Metzler, Thomas; Lenoci, Maryann; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Neylan, Thomas C
Background Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased risk for age-related diseases and early mortality. An accelerated rate of biological aging could contribute to this increased risk. To investigate, we assessed leukocyte telomere length (LTL), an emerging marker of biological age, in men and women with and without PTSD. We also examined childhood trauma, a risk factor for both PTSD and short LTL, as a potential contributor to short LTL in PTSD. Methods Participants included 43 adults with chronic PTSD (n=18 with multiple categories of childhood trauma) and 47 controls (none with multiple categories of childhood trauma) (M age = 30.55, SD = 7.44). Exclusion criteria included physical illness, medication use, obesity, alcohol or substance abuse, and pregnancy. Structured clinical interviews were conducted to assess PTSD and other psychiatric disorders and childhood trauma exposure. LTL was measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results As predicted, participants with PTSD had shorter age-adjusted LTL than controls. Exposure to childhood trauma was also associated with short LTL. In fact, childhood trauma appeared to account for the PTSD group difference in LTL; only participants with PTSD and exposure to multiple categories of childhood trauma had significantly shorter LTL than controls. Conclusions Childhood trauma is associated with short LTL in individuals with PTSD. Chronic exposure to the psychobiological sequelae of childhood trauma could increase risk for PTSD and short LTL. Thus, the lasting psychological impact of exposure to trauma in childhood may be accompanied by equally enduring changes at the molecular level. PMID:21489410
Ponsford, Jennie L; Spitz, Gershon; McKenzie, Dean
Duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) has emerged as a strong measure of injury severity after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Despite the growing international adoption of this measure, there remains a lack of consistency in the way in which PTA duration is used to classify severity of injury. This study aimed to establish the classification of PTA that would best predict functional or productivity outcomes. We conducted a cohort study of 1041 persons recruited from inpatient admissions to a TBI rehabilitation center between 1985 and 2013. Participants had a primary diagnosis of TBI, emerged from PTA before discharge from inpatient hospital, and engaged in productive activities before injury. Eight models that classify duration of PTA were evaluated-six that were based on the literature and two that were statistically driven. Models were assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) as well as model-based Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) statistics. All categorization models showed longer PTA to be associated with a greater likelihood of being nonproductive at 1 year after TBI. Classification systems with a greater number of categories performed better than two-category systems. The dimensional (continuous) form of PTA resulted in the greatest AUC, and lowest AIC as well as BIC, of the classification systems examined. This finding indicates that the greatest accuracy in prognosis is likely to be achieved using PTA as a continuous variable. This enables the probability of productive outcomes to be estimated with far greater precision than that possible using a classification system. Categorizing PTA to classify severity of injury may be reducing the precision with which clinicians can plan the treatment of patients after TBI.
Jang, Yu Jin; Chung, Hae Gyung; Choi, Jin Hee; Kim, Tae Yong; So, Hyung Seok
Objective Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often missed or incorrectly diagnosed in primary care settings. Although brief screening instruments may be useful in detecting PTSD, an adequate validation study has not been conducted with older adults. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the primary care PTSD screen (PC-PTSD) and single-item PTSD screener (SIPS) in elderly veterans. Methods The PC-PTSD and SIPS assessments were translated into Korean, with a back-translation to the original language to verify accuracy. Vietnamese war veterans [separated into a PTSD group (n=41) and a non-PTSD group (n=99)] participated in several psychometric assessments, including the Korean versions of the PC-PTSD (PC-PTSD-K), SIPS (SIPS-K), a structured clinical interview from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV(SCID), and PTSD checklist(PCL). Results The PC-PTSD-K showed high internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.76), and the test-retest reliability of the PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K were also high (r=0.97 and r=0.91, respectively). A total score of 3 from the PC-PTSD-K yielded the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. The 'bothered a lot' response level from the SIPS-K showed the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.85 and 0.89, respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest that both PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K have good psychometric properties with high validity and reliability for detecting PTSD symptoms in elderly Korean veterans. However, further research will be necessary to increase our understanding of PTSD characteristics in diverse groups with different types of trauma. PMID:27482241
Williamson, J. Scott; Manktelow, Ralph T.; Kelly, Louise; Marcuzzi, A.; Mahabir, Raman C.
Objective To assess the utility of toe-to-finger transfers (TFTs) for post-traumatic reconstruction of the fingerless hand. Design A case series. Setting A regional trauma centre. Patients Eight men, mean age was 36 years (range from 25–59 yr), who had lost all the fingers from a hand due to a crush–degloving injury (6 patients), frostbite (1 patient) or a burn injury (1 patient). Intervention TFT. Twelve TFTs were cone and the mean time from injury to reconstruction was 17.2 months. Main outcome measures Objective (range of motion, moving 2-point discrimination, grip strength, key pinch, Jebsen–Taylor hand assessment, return to work) and subjective (activities of daily living and a questionnaire) measures. Results Eleven of the 12 transfers survived. Six of the 7 in whom the transfer was successful were available for follow-up (mean 45 mo). Range of motion was 10° at the distal interphalangeal joint, 18° at the proximal interphalangeal joint and 59° at the metacarpophalangeal joint. Sensation was protective in all. Grip strength and key pinch were 26.1% and 70.2% of the contralateral hand respectively. Jebsen–Taylor assessment indicated that basic activities were possible but slowed. All 6 patients returned to work and could perform 92.6% of the activities of daily living unassisted. Hand and foot symptoms were mild. Two-thirds were appearance conscious, 5 of the 6 went on to altered vocations and all reported overall satisfaction as high. Conclusion This study supports TFT for reconstruction of the fingerless hand in that, although transferred toe function may be poorer than a normal finger, the hand is restored to a useful, sensate and versatile functional unit, such that global hand and patient function, as well as patient satisfaction, are very good. PMID:11504261
Lewis, John S.; Furman, Bridgette D.; Zeitler, Evan; Huebner, Janet L.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Guilak, Farshid; Olson, Steven A.
Objective To examine the relationship between inflammation and post-traumatic arthritis in a murine intra-articular fracture model. Methods Male C57BL/6 and MRL/MpJ “superhealer” mice received tibial plateau fractures using a previously established method. Mice were sacrificed at 0 (within 4 hours), 1, 3, 5, 7, 28 and 56 days after fracture. Synovial tissue samples were taken prior to fracture and at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days to examine gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines using RT-PCR. Synovial fluid and serum samples were collected to measure cytokine concentrations using ELISA. Histologic analysis was used to evaluate whole joint synovitis and cartilage degradation, and immunohistochemistry to evaluate the distribution of interleukin-1 in the joint tissues from all time points. Results Compared to the C57BL/6 mice, the MRL/MpJ mice had lower intra-articular and systemic inflammation following joint injury, as evidenced by lower gene expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in synovial tissue, and lower protein levels of IL-1α and IL-1β in the synovial fluid, serum, and joint tissues. Furthermore, MRL/MpJ mice had lower gene expression of macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIPs) and macrophage derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) in synovial tissue, and reduced acute and late-stage infiltration of synovial macrophages after joint injury. Conclusion C57BL/6 mice exhibited higher levels of inflammation than MRL/MpJ mice, which are protected from post-traumatic arthritis in this model. These data thus suggest an association between joint tissue inflammation and post-traumatic arthritis in mice. PMID:23203659
Schneider, H; O'Hearn, D J; Leblanc, K; Smith, P L; O'Donnell, C P; Eisele, D W; Peter, J H; Schwartz, A R
To determine the effect of transtracheal insufflation (TTI) on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), we examined breathing patterns in five tracheostomized patients with OSA at varying TTI flow rates when breathing with a closed tracheostomy. The breathing patterns and polysomnographic responses to air insufflation were studied as TTI was increased from 0 to 15 L/min for brief periods of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep (Experiment 1). The frequency of sleep-disordered breathing episodes remained high at 0 and 5 L/min (87.0 +/- 33.7 and 79.4 +/- 24.4 episodes per hour NREM) and decreased significantly to 41.3 +/- 31.5 and 43.4 +/- 31.4 episodes/h NREM sleep at rates of 10 and 15 L/min, respectively (p = 0.003). At high levels of TTI (10 and 15 L/min), obstructive apneas and hypopneas decreased but periodic laryngeal obstructions were induced during stage 1 NREM sleep. To prevent laryngeal obstructions, a servo-control system was used to briefly interrupt TTI during these events. When this system was implemented for more prolonged periods of sleep (Experiment 2, total sleep time 176.6 +/- 12.5 min), high-flow TTI (hf-TTI, 15 L/min) led to an overall reduction in the combined frequency of obstructive apneas and laryngeal obstructions from 63.8 +/- 21.8 to 10.7 +/- 9.1 (p < 0.03) and was associated with a marked reduction in arousal frequency from 60.0 +/- 26.0 to 8. 3 +/- 5.4/h in NREM sleep, and from 67.5 +/- 3.5 to 0 +/- 0/h in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Our findings demonstrate that hf-TTI stabilized breathing patterns in apneic patients, and was safe and efficacious for prolonged periods of sleep.
Elbogen, Eric B.; Johnson, Sally C.; Wagner, H. Ryan; Sullivan, Connor; Taft, Casey T.; Beckham, Jean C.
Background Violence towards others in the community has been identified as a significant problem for a subset of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. Aims To investigate the extent to which post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other risk factors predict future violent behaviour in military veterans. Method A national, multiwave survey enrolling a random sample of all US veterans who served in the military after 11 September 2001 was conducted. A total of 1090 veterans from 50 US states and all military branches completed two survey waves mailed 1 year apart (retention rate = 79%). Results Overall, 9% endorsed engaging in severe violence and 26% in other physical aggression in the previous year, as measured at Wave 2. Younger age, financial instability, history of violence before military service, higher combat exposure, PTSD, and alcohol misuse at Wave 1 were significantly associated with higher severe violence and other physical aggression in the past year at Wave 2. When combinations of these risk factors were present, predicted probability of violence in veterans rose sharply. Veterans with both PTSD and alcohol misuse had a substantially higher rate of subsequent severe violence (35.9%) compared with veterans with alcohol misuse without PTSD (10.6%), PTSD without alcohol misuse (10.0%) or neither PTSD nor alcohol misuse (5.3%). Using multiple regression, we found that veterans with PTSD and without alcohol misuse were not at significantly higher risk of severe violence than veterans with neither PTSD nor alcohol misuse. There was a trend for other physical aggression to be higher in veterans with PTSD without alcohol misuse. Conclusions Co-occurring PTSD and alcohol misuse was associated with a marked increase in violence and aggression in veterans. Compared with veterans with neither PTSD nor alcohol misuse, veterans with PTSD and no alcohol misuse were not significantly more likely to be severely violent and were only marginally more likely to engage in other
Gupta, Madhulika A; Gupta, Aditya K
A large body of literature supports the role of psychologic stress in urticaria; however, the comorbidity between chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a classic stress-mediated syndrome, has received little attention. The underlying etiology of urticaria is not identifiable in about 70% of patients, possibly because of difficulties with identification of a direct cause-and-effect relationship between a potential causative factor and the onset of urticaria. The core features of PTSD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision [DSMIV-TR]) that are important in urticaria include (1) autonomic nervous system reactivity and state of sympathetic hyperarousal that can manifest as CIU, and (2) the persistent re-experiencing of the traumatic events in PTSD, which can manifest as urticaria or angioedema, or both, affecting a previously traumatized body region (eg, urticarial wheals affecting the body region where the patient had been stabbed years earlier). The following features of PTSD make it difficult to use the cause-and-effect model for the determination of causation: (1) PTSD may first emerge years after the initial trauma and is classified as PTSD with Delayed Onset (DSMIV-TR); and (2) the traumatic triggers that precipitate the PTSD symptoms may be unique and idiosyncratic to the patient and not even qualify as stressful or traumatic by standard criteria (eg, precipitating events for the PTSD may include smell of a certain cologne that was used by the perpetrator or witnessing a scene in a movie that was reminiscent of the location where the abuse occurred). Finally, in PTSD with Delayed Onset, patients may not make a conscious association between their recurrent urticaria and their earlier traumas because they can develop classically conditioned associations between stimuli that are reminiscent of the original abuse situation and their somatic reactions such as urticaria. The clinician
KARŞIKAYA, Süreyya; KAVAKCI, Önder; KUĞU, Nesim; GÜLER, Ayşegül Selcen
Introduction In recent studies, it has been suggested that there is a relationship between migraine headaches and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The PTSD has not been diagnosed by a clinician in these studies; the evaluation has been carried out by the screening scales. Besides, it has also been asserted that there was relationship of alexithymia with migraine and other chronic painful disorders. In this study, our aim was to investigate the prevalence of clinically-diagnosed PTSD and alexithymic features among migraine patients. Methods Sixty consecutive migraine patients sent from neurology clinic and 60 healthy controls having similar features constituted the sample of this study. SCID-I/CV PTSD module and the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) was administered to the sample. The subjects also filled in the socio-demographic data form and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS). The level of pain perceived by the migraine patients was evaluated using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Result 17 subjects (28%) in the migraine group and 5 individuals (8.3%) in the control group were diagnosed with PTSD. Hence, PTSD was found to be statistically significantly higher in the migraine group. 25 persons in the migraine group (41.6%) and 12 in the control group (20%) scored above the TAS cutoff score in terms of alexithymic features. Alexithymia was found to be statistically significantly higher in the migraine group). In the migraine group, VAS scores of the ones with PTSD were statistically significantly higher compared to that in ones without PTSD. 94% of the persons diagnosed with PTSD in the migraine group reported that their migraine headaches started after a traumatic experience. In the migraine group, no statistically significant correlation was detected between CAPS and VAS scores in subjects with PTSD. Conclusion In migraine patients, PTSD and alexithymic features have been found higher than in the healthy controls. Further studies are needed to search
Asimakopoulou, E; Madianos, M
Recent progress in medicine and technology has produced a significant increase in the survival rate of critically ill patients who have been treated in Intensive Care Units (ICU). Consequently, researchers have become increasingly interested in the relationship between critical illness and psychiatric consequences. The experience of critical illness has been often associated with Major Depression (MD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). There has been no similar study in Greece. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of MD and PTSD among patients after discharge from ICU in comparison with patients who discharge from pathological or surgical department. The study was conducted on five major hospitals "ATTIKON", "THRIASSIO", "KAT", "GNA GENNIMATAS", "KORGIALENIO - BENAKIO". A standardized instrument was used especially for this study and is based on "ΜΙΝΙ: Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview" and DSM-IV. The data collection was carried out through personal interviews with the patients. It is a cross-sectional study and also a case-control study. The sample of the research was composed of 198 patients, from whom 102 were in ICU (ICU group) and 96 were not (non-ICU group). The results of the statistical processing have shown that there is a positive and statistically significant correlation between MD-PTSD and hospitalization in ICU, and particular hospitalization in ICU increases the likelihood of developing MD by 1.94 times and PTSD by 3.48 times, compared to treatment in another part of the hospital. Furthermore, the ICU group was found to suffer more than the control group from MD (32.4% vs 19.8%) and PTSD (35,3% vs 13,5%). The investigation of sociodemographic characteristics showed that being a woman discharged from ICU is nearly five times more likely to develop MD and nearly twelve times more likely to develop PTSD compared with men. Old age in ICU acts as a protective factor from PTSD. Regarding the clinical
Pinna, Graziano; Rasmusson, Ann M.
Allopregnanolone and its equipotent stereoisomer, pregnanolone (together termed ALLO), are neuroactive steroids that positively and allosterically modulate the action of gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) at GABAA receptors. Levels of ALLO are reduced in the cerebrospinal fluid of female premenopausal patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a severe, neuropsychiatric condition that affects millions, yet is without a consistently effective therapy. This suggests that restoring downregulated brain ALLO levels in PTSD may be beneficial. ALLO biosynthesis is also decreased in association with the emergence of PTSD-like behaviors in socially isolated (SI) mice. Similar to PTSD patients, SI mice also exhibit changes in the frontocortical and hippocampal expression of GABAA receptor subunits, resulting in resistance to benzodiazepine-mediated sedation and anxiolysis. ALLO acts at a larger spectrum of GABAA receptor subunits than benzodiazepines, and increasing corticolimbic ALLO levels in SI mice by injecting ALLO or stimulating ALLO biosynthesis with a selective brain steroidogenic stimulant, such as S-norfluoxetine, at doses far below those that block serotonin reuptake, reduces PTSD-like behavior in these mice. This suggests that synthetic analogs of ALLO, such as ganaxolone, may also improve anxiety, aggression, and other PTSD-like behaviors in the SI mouse model. Consistent with this hypothesis, ganaxolone (3.75–30 mg/kg, s.c.) injected 60 min before testing of SI mice, induced a dose-dependent reduction in aggression toward a same-sex intruder and anxiety-like behavior in an elevated plus maze. The EC50 dose of ganaxolone used in these tests also normalized exaggerated contextual fear conditioning and, remarkably, enhanced fear extinction retention in SI mice. At these doses, ganaxolone failed to change locomotion in an open field test. Therefore, unlike benzodiazepines, ganaxolone at non-sedating concentrations appears to improve dysfunctional emotional
Background Sexual violence against children is a major global health and human rights problem. In order to address this issue there needs to be a better understanding of the issue and the consequences. One major challenge in accomplishing this goal has been a lack of validated child mental health assessments in low-resource countries where the prevalence of sexual violence is high. This paper presents results from a validation study of a trauma-focused mental health assessment tool - the UCLA Post-traumatic Stress Disorder - Reaction Index (PTSD-RI) in Zambia. Methods The PTSD-RI was adapted through the addition of locally relevant items and validated using local responses to three cross-cultural criterion validity questions. Reliability of the symptoms scale was assessed using Cronbach alpha analyses. Discriminant validity was assessed comparing mean scale scores of cases and non-cases. Concurrent validity was assessed comparing mean scale scores to a traumatic experience index. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were run using receiver operating curves. Results Analysis of data from 352 youth attending a clinic specializing in sexual abuse showed that this adapted PTSD-RI demonstrated good reliability, with Cronbach alpha scores greater than .90 on all the evaluated scales. The symptom scales were able to statistically significantly discriminate between locally identified cases and non-cases, and higher symptom scale scores were associated with increased numbers of trauma exposures which is an indication of concurrent validity. Sensitivity and specificity analyses resulted in an adequate area under the curve, indicating that this tool was appropriate for case definition. Conclusions This study has shown that validating mental health assessment tools in a low-resource country is feasible, and that by taking the time to adapt a measure to the local context, a useful and valid Zambian version of the PTSD-RI was developed to detect traumatic stress among youth
Diamond, Matthew L; Ritter, Anne C; Failla, Michelle D; Boles, Jennifer A; Conley, Yvette P; Kochanek, Patrick M; Wagner, Amy K
Objective Post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a significant complication following traumatic brain injury (TBI), yet the role of genetic variation in modulating PTE onset is unclear. We hypothesized that TBI-induced inflammation likely contributes to seizure development. We assessed whether genetic variation in the IL-1β gene, Il-1β levels in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and serum, and CSF/serum IL-1β ratios would predict PTE development post-TBI. Methods We investigated PTE development in 256 Caucasian adults with moderate to severe TBI. IL-1β tagging and functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped. Genetic variance and PTE development were assessed. Serum and CSF IL-1β levels were collected from a subset of subjects (n=59) during first week post injury and evaluated for their associations with IL-1β gene variants and also PTE. Temporally matched CSF/serum IL-1β ratios were also generated to reflect the relative contribution of serum IL-1β to CSF IL-1β. Results Multivariate analysis showed that higher CSF/serum IL-1β ratios were associated with increased risk for PTE over time (p=0.008). Multivariate analysis for rs1143634 revealed an association between the CT genotype and increased PTE risk over time (p=0.005). The CT genotype group also had lower serum IL-1β levels (p=0.014) and higher IL-1β CSF/serum ratios (p=0.093). Significance This is the first report implicating IL-1β gene variability with PTE risk and linking 1) IL-1β gene variation with serum IL-1β levels observed after TBI and 2) IL-1β ratios with PTE risk. Given these findings, we propose that genetic and IL-1β ratio associations with PTE may be attributable to biological variability with blood brain barrier integrity during TBI recovery. These results provide a rationale for further studies 1) validating the impact of genetic variability on IL-1β production after TBI, 2) assessing genetically mediated signaling mechanisms that contribute to IL-1β CSF
Hildebrand, Kevin A; Holmberg, Michael; Shrive, Nigel
extension (flexion contracture) was demonstrated for the experimental knees using the new methodology where the maximum extension was 35 deg +/- 9 deg, compared to the unoperated knee maximum extension of 11 deg +/- 7 deg, 10 or 12 weeks after the immobilization was discontinued. The custom gripping device coupled to a materials testing machine will serve as a measurement test for future studies characterizing a rabbit knee model of post-traumatic joint contractures.
Xiaoling, Xu; Haihang, Zhu; Di, Chen; Langui, Fan; Ting, Lu; Qin, Shen; Chaowu, Chen; Denghao, Deng
Aims: The effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation and warm-water infusion during colonoscopy on patients with chronic constipation remains unknown. We evaluated CO2 insufflation and warm-water irrigation versus air insufflation in unsedated patients with chronic constipation in China. Patients and Methods: This randomized, single–center, controlled trial enrolled 287 consecutive patients, from January 2014 to January 2015, who underwent colonoscopy for chronic constipation. Patients were randomized to CO2 insufflation, warm-water irrigation and air insufflation colonoscopy insertion phase groups. Pain scores were assessed by the visual analog scale (VAS). The primary outcome was real-time maximum insertion pain, recorded by an unblinded nurse assistant. At discharge, the recalled maximum insertion pain was recorded. Meanwhile, patients were requested to select the VAS at 0, 10, 30, and 60 min after the procedure. In addition, cecal intubation and withdrawal time, total procedure time, and adjunct measures were recorded. Results: A total of 287 patients were randomized. The correlation between real-time and recalled maximum insertion pain ((Pearson coefficient r = 0.929; P < 0.0001) confirmed internal validation of the primary outcome. The mean real-time maximum pain scores during insertion 2.9 ± 2.1 for CO2, 2.7 ± 1.9 for water achieved a significantly lower pain score compared with air (5.7 ± 2.5) group (air vs CO2 P < 0.001; air vs water P < 0.001). However, no significant pain score differences were found between the patients in the CO2 and water groups (CO2 vs water, P = 0.0535). P values in painless colonoscopy and only discomfort colonoscopy (pain 1–2) were, respectively, 6 (6.4%) and 8 (8.5%) for air; 17 (17.7%) and 29 (30.2%) for CO2; 16 (16.5%) and 31 (31.9%) for water. At 0, 10, 30, and 60 min postprocedure, pain scores showed in the CO2 and water groups had significantly reduced than in air group. Insertion time was significantly different
Burkhardt, M; Garcia, P; Fries, P; Heinzmann, J; Pohlemann, T; Pizanis, A
We describe the case of a 6-year-old girl with post-traumatic torticollis after falling on her head. The suspected fractures of the dens axis and/or atlas were ruled out after performing CT and MRI examinations as well as dynamic fluoroscopy. Radiological findings showed no further instability but there was a congenital non-fusion of the posterior arch and an age-appropriate non-fused anterior arch of the atlas. In addition to discoligamental injuries and fractures, congenital anomalies and normal variants of the immature anatomy of the cervical spine should also be considered in the diagnosis of the pediatric cervical spine after trauma.
Gessmann, J; Seybold, D; Baecker, H; Muhr, G; Graf, M
Despite adequate primary treatment many ankle fractures result in post-traumatic deformities and arthrosis. Revision mostly requires a multidirectional correction whereas internal fixation procedures are often not applicable due to soft tissue damage and the extent of deformity. The Taylor spatial frame enables simultaneous correction of multidirectional deformities through a virtual hinge using the same ideas of distraction osteogenesis as the Ilizarov fixator. The presented case demonstrates minimally invasive correction of a complex deformity of the ankle with the Taylor spatial frame fixator. Orthogonal alignment was achieved and a stabilizing tibiotalar arthrodesis was performed achieving a good functional and pain-free result.
Messo, Innocent Nasson
In April 2009, military bombs stockpiled in Mbagala, Dar es Salaam, exploded uncontrollably, landing in the neighbourhood killing 26 people, injuring about 600 and destroying 9049 homes. This must have been a terrible experience, with psychological consequences. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among the children involved in the bomb blasts. It was hypothesized that children would not exhibit PTSD symptoms, as well as not showing sex differences in exhibiting PTSD symptoms. The study findings show 93% of children bomb survivors had PTSD symptoms, with no sex differences in the PTSD reported.
Farooque, Kamran; Kandwal, Pankaj; Gupta, Ankit
To report two cases of traumatic paraplegia who developed Sub-acute Post-Traumatic Ascending Myelopathy (SPAM) following surgical decompression.We hereby report two cases (both 35yr old male) with traumatic paraplegia that developed ascending weakness at 3rd and 5th Post-Op day respectively following surgical decompression. Both the patients experienced remarkable improvement in Neurology after treatment with steroids. The authors conclude by emphasizing on minimum cord handling during surgical decompression of the spinal cord to avoid this potentially life threatening complication.
Tulloch, Heather; Greenman, Paul S.; Tassé, Vanessa
There is increasing awareness of the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on physical health, particularly cardiovascular disease. We review the literature on the role of trauma in the development of cardiovascular risk factors and disease, aftermath of a cardiac event, and risk for recurrence in cardiac patients. We explore possible mechanisms to explain these relationships, as well as appropriate assessment and treatment strategies for this population. Our main conclusion is that screening and referral for appropriate treatments are important given the high prevalence rates of PTSD in cardiac populations and the associated impact on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25545708
Bulyakova, N.V.; Popova, M.F.
The authors seek a method of stimulating restorative processes in irradiated muscles of old animals. Rats were used in the experiments. Different series of experiments were performed, including complete transverse section of the gastrocnemius muscle after local x-ray irradiation, and laser therapy of the transversly divided gastrocnemius muscle. Post-traumatic regeneration of the gastrocnemius muscle of old rats is illustrated schematically. The experimental data showed that pulsed laser therapy or grafting of minced unirradiated muscle tissue can largely restore the regenerative capacity of the gastrocnemius muscle of old rats when depressed by x-ray irradiation, but the method of grafting minced unirradiated muscle tissue was more effective.
Allen, John P.; Crawford, Eric F.; Kudler, Harold
Many service members and veterans seeking treatment for alcohol problems also have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article considers the effectiveness of treating alcohol problems and PTSD simultaneously. The authors begin by summarizing the extent of excessive alcohol use among military service members and veterans. They then explore the relationship between combat exposure and subsequent alcohol use; identify and briefly describe evidence-based treatments for alcohol problems and PTSD, separately; and review research on the effects of single treatments for both PTSD symptoms and alcohol use. PMID:27159820
Jaffee, Michael S; Meyer, Kimberly S
The current conflicts in the Middle East have yielded increasing awareness of the acute and chronic effect of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The increasing frequency of exposure to blast and multiple deployments potentially impact the probability that a service member may sustain one of these injuries. The 2008 International Conference on Behavioral Health and Traumatic Brain Injury united experts in the fields of behavioral health and traumatic brain injury to address these significant health concerns. This article summarizes current Department of Defense (DOD) initiatives related to TBI and PTSD.
Chung, M C
Recent research has shown that people who have gone through war experiences in one way or the other tend to manifest reactions classified as post-traumatic stress disorder. Viktor Frankl, the founder of logotherapy, manifested PTSD reactions when he was in a concentration camp. This paper attempts to sketch how he lived through his traumatic experiences by relying on the principle of Will to Meaning as his survival mechanism. Two implications will be outlined derived from this principle for psychotherapies dealing with disaster survivors.
Heinz, Adrienne J; Pennington, David L; Cohen, Nicole; Schmeling, Brandi; Lasher, Brooke A; Schrodek, Emily; Batki, Steven L
Cognitive dysfunction is commonly observed among individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and trauma exposure and is, in turn, associated with worse clinical outcomes. Accordingly, disruptions in cognitive functioning may be conceptualized as a trans-disease phenomenon representing a potential high-yield target for intervention. Less is known though about how different cognitive functions covary with alcohol use, craving, and post-traumatic stress symptom severity among trauma-exposed individuals with AUD. Sixty-eight male and female trauma-exposed military veterans with AUD, entering treatment trials to reduce alcohol use, completed measures assessing alcohol use and craving, post-traumatic stress symptom severity, and cognitive functioning. In multivariate models, after controlling for post-traumatic stress symptom severity, poorer learning and memory was associated with higher alcohol consumption and higher risk taking/impulsivity was associated with stronger preoccupations with alcohol and compulsions to drink. Alcohol consumption and craving, but not performance on cognitive tests, were positively associated with post-traumatic stress symptom severity. Findings suggest that interventions to strengthen cognitive functioning might be used as a preparatory step to augment treatments for AUD. Clinicians are encouraged to consider a standard assessment of cognitive functioning, in addition to post-traumatic stress symptom severity, in treatment planning and delivery for this vulnerable and high-risk population.
Pineau, Hélène; Marchand, André; Guay, Stéphane
This exploratory study intends to characterize the neuropsychological profile in persons with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) using objective measures of cognitive performance. A neuropsychological battery of tests for attention, memory and executive functions was administered to four groups: PTSD (n = 25), mTBI (n = 19), subjects with two formal diagnoses: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI/PTSD) (n = 6) and controls (n = 25). Confounding variables, such as medical, developmental or neurological antecedents, were controlled and measures of co-morbid conditions, such as depression and anxiety, were considered. The PTSD and mTBI/PTSD groups reported more anxiety and depressive symptoms. They also presented more cognitive deficits than the mTBI group. Since the two PTSD groups differ in severity of PTSD symptoms but not in severity of depression and anxiety symptoms, the PTSD condition could not be considered as the unique factor affecting the results. The findings underline the importance of controlling for confounding medical and psychological co-morbidities in the evaluation and treatment of PTSD populations, especially when a concomitant mTBI is also suspected. PMID:25469837
Hourani, Laurel; Tueller, Stephen; Kizakevich, Paul; Lewis, Gregory; Strange, Laura; Weimer, Belinda; Bryant, Stephanie; Bishop, Ellen; Hubal, Robert; Spira, James
The objective of this pilot study was to design, develop, and evaluate a predeployment stress inoculation training (PRESIT) preventive intervention to enable deploying personnel to cope better with combat-related stressors and mitigate the negative effects of trauma exposure. The PRESIT program consisted of three predeployment training modules: (1) educational materials on combat and operational stress control, (2) coping skills training involving focused and relaxation breathing exercises with biofeedback, and (3) exposure to a video multimedia stressor environment to practice knowledge and skills learned in the first two modules. Heart rate variability assessed the degree to which a subset of participants learned the coping skills. With a cluster randomized design, data from 351 Marines randomized into PRESIT and control groups were collected at predeployment and from 259 of these who responded to surveys on return from deployment. Findings showed that the PRESIT group reduced their physiological arousal through increased respiratory sinus arrhythmia during and after breathing training relative to controls. Logistic regression, corrected for clustering at the platoon level, examined group effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as measured by the Post-traumatic Stress Checklist after controlling for relevant covariates. Results showed that PRESIT protected against PTSD among Marines without baseline mental health problems. Although limited by a small number of participants who screened positive for PTSD, this study supports the benefits of PRESIT as a potential preventive strategy in the U.S. military personnel.
Norris, Anne E; Aroian, Karen J
Arab immigrant women are vulnerable to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) because of gender, higher probability of being exposed to war-related violence, traditional cultural values, and immigration stressors. A valid and reliable screen is needed to assess PTSD incidence in this population. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of an Arabic language version of the symptom items in Foa et al.'s [Foa, E.B., Cashman, L., Jaycox, L., and Perry, K. 1997. The validation of a self report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder: the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Psychological Assessment 9(4), 445-451]. Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) in a sample of Arab immigrant women (n=453). Reliability was supported by Cronbach's alpha values for the Arabic language version (0.93) and its subscales (0.77-0.91). Results of group comparisons supported validity: Women who had lived in a refugee camp or emigrated from Iraq - a country where exposure to war and torture is common - were exhibiting depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) score above 18), or reported moderately to severely impaired functioning had significantly higher mean PDS total and symptom subscale scores than women who had not had these experiences or were not exhibiting depressive symptoms. Scores on the PDS and its subscales were also positively correlated with the Profile of Mood States (POMS) depression and anxiety subscales and negatively correlated with the POMS vigor subscale (r=-.29 to-.39).
Logrip, Marian L; Zorrilla, Eric P; Koob, George F
Drug abuse and dependence present significant health burdens for our society, affecting roughly 10% of the population. Stress likely contributes to the development and persistence of drug use; for example, rates of substance dependence are elevated among individuals diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Thus, understanding the interaction between stress and drug use, and associated neuroadaptations, is key for developing therapies to combat substance use disorders. For this purpose, many rodent models of the effects of stress exposure on substance use have been developed; the models can be classified according to three categories of stress exposure: developmental, adult nonsocial, and adult social. The present review addresses preclinical findings on the effect of each type of trauma on responses to and self-administration of drugs of abuse by focusing on a key exemplar for each category. In addition, the potential efficacy of targeting neuropeptide systems that have been implicated in stress responses and stress system neuroadaptation in order to treat comorbid PTSD and substance abuse will be discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'.
Pollard, Harvey B; Shivakumar, Chittari; Starr, Joshua; Eidelman, Ofer; Jacobowitz, David M; Dalgard, Clifton L; Srivastava, Meera; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Stein, Murray B; Ursano, Robert J
"Soldier's Heart," is an American Civil War term linking post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with increased propensity for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We have hypothesized that there might be a quantifiable genetic basis for this linkage. To test this hypothesis we identified a comprehensive set of candidate risk genes for PTSD, and tested whether any were also independent risk genes for CVD. A functional analysis algorithm was used to identify associated signaling networks. We identified 106 PTSD studies that report one or more polymorphic variants in 87 candidate genes in 83,463 subjects and controls. The top upstream drivers for these PTSD risk genes are predicted to be the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFA). We find that 37 of the PTSD candidate risk genes are also candidate independent risk genes for CVD. The association between PTSD and CVD is significant by Fisher's Exact Test (P = 3 × 10(-54)). We also find 15 PTSD risk genes that are independently associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM; also significant by Fisher's Exact Test (P = 1.8 × 10(-16)). Our findings offer quantitative evidence for a genetic link between post-traumatic stress and cardiovascular disease, Computationally, the common mechanism for this linkage between PTSD and CVD is innate immunity and NFκB-mediated inflammation.
ÖZDEMİR, Osman; BOYSAN, Murat; GÜZEL ÖZDEMİR, Pınar; YILMAZ, Ekrem
Introduction There is a burgeoning interest in relations between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although few studies were conducted, weak evidence was found supporting the hypothesis that ADHD may be a risk factor for the development of PTSD. In addition, there is a paucity of research addressing the relations between dissociation and ADHD. In this study, our aim was to examine the relations between PTSD and ADHD combined with the mediating effect of dissociative psychopathology. Methods The participants were 317 undergraduate students, a greater proportion of whom experienced the 2011 Van earthquake (66%). The participants were administered the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Results We found that ADHD symptoms and dissociation were significantly associated with PTSD. Considering the multivariate relations between ADHD, PTSD and dissociation, significant associations between PTSD and ADHD resulted from symptom overlaps. However, pathological dissociation mediated the relations between PTSD and ADHD. Conclusion We concluded that ADHD comorbidity was not a predominant vulnerability factor for the development of post-traumatic stress response but may be an exacerbating factor after the development of PTSD.
Wan, Kelvin H; Chong, Kelvin K L; Young, Alvin L
Post-traumatic orbital reconstruction remains a surgical challenge and requires careful preoperative planning, sound anatomical knowledge and good intraoperative judgment. Computer-assisted technology has the potential to reduce error and subjectivity in the management of these complex injuries. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to explore the emerging role of computer-assisted technologies in post-traumatic orbital reconstruction, in terms of functional and safety outcomes. We searched for articles comparing computer-assisted procedures with conventional surgery and studied outcomes on diplopia, enophthalmos, or procedure-related complications. Six observational studies with 273 orbits at a mean follow-up of 13 months were included. Three out of 4 studies reported significantly fewer patients with residual diplopia in the computer-assisted group, while only 1 of the 5 studies reported better improvement in enophthalmos in the assisted group. Types and incidence of complications were comparable. Study heterogeneities limiting statistical comparison by meta-analysis will be discussed. This review highlights the scarcity of data on computer-assisted technology in orbital reconstruction. The result suggests that computer-assisted technology may offer potential advantage in treating diplopia while its role remains to be confirmed in enophthalmos. Additional well-designed and powered randomized controlled trials are much needed.
Wan, Kelvin H.; Chong, Kelvin K. L.; Young, Alvin L.
Post-traumatic orbital reconstruction remains a surgical challenge and requires careful preoperative planning, sound anatomical knowledge and good intraoperative judgment. Computer-assisted technology has the potential to reduce error and subjectivity in the management of these complex injuries. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to explore the emerging role of computer-assisted technologies in post-traumatic orbital reconstruction, in terms of functional and safety outcomes. We searched for articles comparing computer-assisted procedures with conventional surgery and studied outcomes on diplopia, enophthalmos, or procedure-related complications. Six observational studies with 273 orbits at a mean follow-up of 13 months were included. Three out of 4 studies reported significantly fewer patients with residual diplopia in the computer-assisted group, while only 1 of the 5 studies reported better improvement in enophthalmos in the assisted group. Types and incidence of complications were comparable. Study heterogeneities limiting statistical comparison by meta-analysis will be discussed. This review highlights the scarcity of data on computer-assisted technology in orbital reconstruction. The result suggests that computer-assisted technology may offer potential advantage in treating diplopia while its role remains to be confirmed in enophthalmos. Additional well-designed and powered randomized controlled trials are much needed. PMID:26643191
Pollard, Harvey B.; Shivakumar, Chittari; Starr, Joshua; Eidelman, Ofer; Jacobowitz, David M.; Dalgard, Clifton L.; Srivastava, Meera; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Stein, Murray B.; Ursano, Robert J.
“Soldier's Heart,” is an American Civil War term linking post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with increased propensity for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We have hypothesized that there might be a quantifiable genetic basis for this linkage. To test this hypothesis we identified a comprehensive set of candidate risk genes for PTSD, and tested whether any were also independent risk genes for CVD. A functional analysis algorithm was used to identify associated signaling networks. We identified 106 PTSD studies that report one or more polymorphic variants in 87 candidate genes in 83,463 subjects and controls. The top upstream drivers for these PTSD risk genes are predicted to be the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFA). We find that 37 of the PTSD candidate risk genes are also candidate independent risk genes for CVD. The association between PTSD and CVD is significant by Fisher's Exact Test (P = 3 × 10−54). We also find 15 PTSD risk genes that are independently associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM; also significant by Fisher's Exact Test (P = 1.8 × 10−16). Our findings offer quantitative evidence for a genetic link between post-traumatic stress and cardiovascular disease, Computationally, the common mechanism for this linkage between PTSD and CVD is innate immunity and NFκB-mediated inflammation. PMID:27721742
Warsini, Sri; Buettner, Petra; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Usher, Kim
The Mount Merapi volcanic eruption in October 2010 was one of Indonesia's largest and most recent natural disasters. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to measure the psychosocial impact of the eruption on survivors in two locations in Yogyakarta, Java, Indonesia. The Impact of Event Scale Revised was used to assess participants' symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder responses and demographic characteristics were compared in both locations by conducting bivariate analysis using Mann-Whitney and t tests. The relative contributions of demographic variables and psychosocial impact were examined using multiple linear regression analyses. Two years after the eruption, survivors from the area closest to the eruption had significantly higher Impact of Event Scale Revised scores than those in the comparison area. In particular, females, adults between the ages of 18 and 59, and people who owned their own home experienced the highest levels of psychosocial impact. Nurses and other health professionals need to be aware of the impact of natural disasters on survivors and develop interventions to help people adjust to the psychosocial impact of these events.
Grunert, Brad K; Weis, Jo M; Smucker, Mervin R; Christianson, Heidi F
Prolonged exposure (PE) has been reported to be effective for improving post-traumatic stress symptoms in 60-65% of trauma victims suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examined the results of adding an imagery-based, cognitive restructuring component (imagery rescripting and reprocessing therapy, IRRT) to the treatment of 23 Type I trauma victims suffering from PTSD, all of whom failed to improve with PE alone. With the added treatment component, 18 of 23 clients showed a full recovery from their PTSD symptoms, and no longer met criteria for PTSD after 1-3 sessions of IRRT. It was noteworthy that non-FEAR emotions (e.g., guilt, shame, anger) were found to be predominant for all 23 PE failures examined in this study, suggesting that a simple habituation model (on which PE is based) is not sufficient to address non-FEAR emotions in PTSD. By contrast, IRRT, a cognitive restructuring treatment, was much more effective in PTSD symptom reduction for these clients. It was proposed that more detailed, individualized trauma assessments be conducted for each patient that focus on (1) identifying the predominant trauma-related emotions and cognitions that maintain the PTSD response, and (2) finding the best CBT "treatment fit" for the specific trauma characteristics of each patient.