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Sample records for postal dosimetric system

  1. Dosimetric characteristics of fabricated silica fibre for postal radiotherapy dose audits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadzil, M. S. Ahmad; Ramli, N. N. H.; Jusoh, M. A.; Kadni, T.; Bradley, D. A.; Ung, N. M.; Suhairul, H.; Mohd Noor, N.

    2014-11-01

    Present investigation aims to establish the dosimetric characteristics of a novel fabricated flat fibre TLD system for postal radiotherapy dose audits. Various thermoluminescence (TL) properties have been investigated for five sizes of 6 mol% Ge-doped optical fibres. Key dosimetric characteristics including reproducibility, linearity, fading and energy dependence have been established. Irradiations were carried out using a linear accelerator (linac) and a Cobalt-60 machine. For doses from 0.5 Gy up to 10 Gy, Ge-doped flat fibres exhibit linearity between TL yield and dose, reproducible to better than 8% standard deviation (SD) following repeat measurements (n = 3). For photons generated at potentials from 1.25 MeV to 10 MV an energy-dependent response is noted, with a coefficient of variation (CV) of less than 40% over the range of energies investigated. For 6.0 mm length flat fibres 100 μm thick × 350 pm wide, the TL fading loss following 30 days of storage at room temperature was < 8%. The Ge-doped flat fibre system represents a viable basis for use in postal radiotherapy dose audits, corrections being made for the various factors influencing the TL yield.

  2. Standardization of individual dosimetric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallini, A.

    1983-10-01

    The activities of an Italian operating group for the standardization of individual dosimeters are discussed. Intercalibration was performed for about 10,000 individual dosimeters in order to analyze systematic and random measuring errors. The validity of normalized inspection procedures was examined and the necessity of periodic checks was considered. Legislation is proposed including a technical inspection prior to authorization to start a dosimetry center and a norm for periodic controls of dosimetry services. The creation of a dosimetric data bank is also suggested.

  3. Developing and improving a scanning system for dosimetric applications

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, P.; Galvan, V.; Castellanoa, G.; Valente, M.

    2010-08-04

    Radiotherapy is nowadays one of the most used techniques for the treatment of different pathologies, particularly cancer diseases. The accuracy regarding the application of these treatments, which are planned according to patient information, depends mainly on the dosimetric measurements of absorbed dose within irradiated tissues. The present work is devoted to the study, design and construction of an original device capable of performing visible light transmission measurements in order to analyze Fricke gel dosimeters. Furthermore, a suitable bi-dimensional positioning system along with a dedicated control system and image processing software has been adapted to the dosimetric device in order to perform 2D dose mapping. The obtained results confirm the feasibility of the proposed method, therefore suggesting its potentiality for clinical applications.

  4. 39 CFR 601.104 - Postal purchasing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....104 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE... authority. Only the Postmaster General/CEO; the Postal Service's vice president, Supply Management... matters. The Postal Service's vice president, Supply Management, or his or her designee, may also...

  5. 39 CFR 601.104 - Postal purchasing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....104 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE... authority. Only the Postmaster General/CEO; the Postal Service's vice president, Supply Management... matters. The Postal Service's vice president, Supply Management, or his or her designee, may also...

  6. [Improved program maintenance of the CIRCIS dosimetric planning system].

    PubMed

    Sevast'ianov, A I; Liutova, N A; Ratner, T G

    1983-03-01

    A special computer complex CIRCIS (Informatique, France) is used in the All-Union Cancer Research Center, USSR AMS, for the dosimetric planning of radiotherapy on 5 gamma-beam units and electron accelerator. Mathematical maintenance of the complex includes programs of the calculation of dose distribution for gamma-, inhibition and electron radiation but has no program of the calculation of the time of irradiation. The authors have devised and introduced into the complex such a program in the Fortran language that makes it possible to calculate within 2-3 min the time of irradiation for multifield rotation therapy using several units as a time, thus expediting the dosimetric planning for patients' irradiation.

  7. 76 FR 49511 - Postal Service Initiative on Retail Postal Locations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Postal Service Initiative on Retail Postal Locations AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice... of the continuation of service at postal retail locations. The procedural schedule included...

  8. Validation of dosimetric field matching accuracy from proton therapy using a robotic patient positioning system.

    PubMed

    Farr, Jonathan B; O'Ryan-Blair, Avril; Jesseph, Frederick; Hsi, Wen-Chien; Allgower, Chris E; Mascia, Anthony E; Thornton, Allan F; Schreuder, Andreas N

    2010-04-12

    Large area, shallow fields are well suited to proton therapy. However, due to beam production limitations, such volumes typically require multiple matched fields. This is problematic due to the relatively narrow beam penumbra at shallow depths compared to electron and photon beams. Therefore, highly accurate dose planning and delivery is required. As the dose delivery includes shifting the patient for matched fields, accuracy at the 1-2 millimeter level in patient positioning is also required. This study investigates the dosimetric accuracy of such proton field matching by an innovative robotic patient positioner system (RPPS). The dosimetric comparisons were made between treatment planning system calculations, radiographic film and ionization chamber measurements. The results indicated good agreement amongst the methods and suggest that proton field matching by a RPPS is accurate and efficient.

  9. Dosimetric characteristics of novalis Tx system with high definition multileaf collimator.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zheng; Wang, Zhiheng; Wu, Q Jackie; Yan, Hui; Bowsher, Jim; Zhang, Junan; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2008-10-01

    A new Novalis Tx system equipped with a high definition multileaf collimator (HDMLC) recently became available to perform both image-guided radiosurgery and conventional radiotherapy. It is capable of delivering a highly conformal radiation dose with three energy modes: 6 MV photon energy, 15 MV photon energy, and 6 MV photon energy in a stereotactic radiosurgery mode with 1000 MU/min dose rate. Dosimetric characteristics of the new Novalis Tx treatment unit with the HDMLC are systematically measured for commissioning. A high resolution diode detector and miniion-chamber detector are used to measure dosimetric data for a range of field sizes from 4 x 4 mm to 400 x 400 mm. The commissioned Novalis Tx system has passed the RPC stereotactic radiosurgery head phantom irradiation test. The Novalis Tx system not only expands its capabilities with three energy modes, but also achieves better beam conformity and sharer beam penumbra with HDMLC. Since there is little beam data information available for the new Novalis Tx system, we present in this work the dosimetric data of the new modality for reference and comparison.

  10. SU-E-T-425: Feasibility of Establishing a National Postal Dosimetry System Using EBT3 Gafchromic Film

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Rahman, W; Mohammed, I; Bamajboor, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a postal dosimeter consisting of EBT3 films and a miniature Lucite phantom to be used for photon beams output audits for mega-voltage photon beams across the Saudi Arabia. Methods: Two batches of EBT3 films were calibrated in 5 mega-voltage photon beams with energies ranging between 6 MV and 18 MV in the dose range between 0 to 4 Gy. A 4×4×20 cm{sup 3} lucite phantom was constructed to be used as an irradiation phantom. The lucite irradiation phantom consists of two parts and allows for embedding a 2.5×2.0 cm{sup 2} EBT3 film at 8.9 cm depth. Factors that convert the dose measured in the lucite irradiation phantom at 8.9 cm depth to the dose at 10 cm depth in water for 10×10 cm{sup 2} field for different photon energies were calculated using the dosxyznrc/EGSnrcMP user code. The performance of the proposed postal dosimeter was tested in 17 different photon beams across 4 radiotherapy centres in Saudi Arabia. The outputs of the 17 beams are monitored by either the International Atomic Energy Agency or by the Radiological Physics Centre. Results: For the 17 photon beams, the average of the ratios of measured to stated outputs was 1.01 ± 0.02 and with a maximum ratio of 1.05. Conclusion: The results of our work indicate that the proposed postal dosimetry system can be used for national auditing of outputs for mega-voltage photon beams. The service can be offered to other national radiotherapy centres or to a be used for credentialing of centres participating in national trials.

  11. Application of a radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter to nonreference condition dosimetry in the postal dose audit system

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, Hideyuki Fukumura, Akifumi; Fukahori, Mai; Sakata, Suoh; Yamashita, Wataru; Takase, Nobuhiro; Yajima, Kaori; Katayose, Tetsurou; Abe-Sakama, Kyoko; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Kusano, Yohsuke; Shimbo, Munefumi

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to obtain a set of correction factors of the radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter (RGD) output for field size changes and wedge insertions. Methods: Several linear accelerators were used for irradiation of the RGDs. The field sizes were changed from 5 × 5 cm to 25 × 25 cm for 4, 6, 10, and 15 MV x-ray beams. The wedge angles were 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°. In addition to physical wedge irradiation, nonphysical (dynamic/virtual) wedge irradiations were performed. Results: The obtained data were fitted with a single line for each energy, and correction factors were determined. Compared with ionization chamber outputs, the RGD outputs gradually increased with increasing field size, because of the higher RGD response to scattered low-energy photons. The output increase was about 1% per 10 cm increase in field size, with a slight difference dependent on the beam energy. For both physical and nonphysical wedged beam irradiation, there were no systematic trends in the RGD outputs, such as monotonic increase or decrease depending on the wedge angle change if the authors consider the uncertainty, which is approximately 0.6% for each set of measured points. Therefore, no correction factor was needed for all inserted wedges. Based on this work, postal dose audits using RGDs for the nonreference condition were initiated in 2010. The postal dose audit results between 2010 and 2012 were analyzed. The mean difference between the measured and stated doses was within 0.5% for all fields with field sizes between 5 × 5 cm and 25 × 25 cm and with wedge angles from 15° to 60°. The standard deviations (SDs) of the difference distribution were within the estimated uncertainty (1SD) except for the 25 × 25 cm field size data, which were not reliable because of poor statistics (n = 16). Conclusions: A set of RGD output correction factors was determined for field size changes and wedge insertions. The results obtained from recent postal dose

  12. Commissioning of a motion system to investigate dosimetric consequences due to variability of respiratory waveforms.

    PubMed

    Cetnar, Ashley J; James, Joshua; Wang, Brain

    2016-01-01

    A commercially available six-dimensional (6D) motion system was assessed for accuracy and clinical use in our department. Positional accuracy and respiratory waveform reproducibility were evaluated for the motion system. The system was then used to investigate the dosimetric consequences of respiratory waveform variation when an internal target volume (ITV) approach is used for motion management. The maximum deviations are 0.3 mm and 0.22° for translation and rotation accuracy, respectively, for the tested clinical ranges. The origin reproducibility is less than ±0.1 mm. The average differences are less than 0.1 mm with a maximum standard deviation of 0.8 mm between waveforms of actual patients and replication of those waveforms by HexaMotion for three breath-hold and one free-breathing waveform. A modified gamma analysis shows greater than 98% agreement with a 0.5 mm and 100 ms threshold. The motion system was used to investigate respiratory waveform variation and showed that, as the amplitude of the treatment waveform increases above that of the simulation waveform, the periphery of the target volume receives less dose than expected. However, by using gating limits to terminate the beam outside of the simulation amplitude, the results are as expected dosimetrically. Specifically, the average dose difference in the periphery between treating with the simulation waveform and the larger amplitude waveform could be up to 12% less without gating limits, but only differed 2% or less with the gating limits in place. The general functionality of the system performs within the manufacturer's specifications and can accurately replicate patient specific waveforms. When an ITV approach is used for motion management, we found the use of gating limits that coincide with the amplitude of the patient waveform at simulation helpful to prevent the potential underdosing of the target due to changes in patient respiration. PACS numbers: 87.55.Kh, 87.55.Qr, 87.56.Fc.

  13. Commissioning of a motion system to investigate dosimetric consequences due to variability of respiratory waveforms.

    PubMed

    Cetnar, Ashley J; James, Joshua; Wang, Brain

    2016-01-08

    A commercially available six-dimensional (6D) motion system was assessed for accuracy and clinical use in our department. Positional accuracy and respiratory waveform reproducibility were evaluated for the motion system. The system was then used to investigate the dosimetric consequences of respiratory waveform variation when an internal target volume (ITV) approach is used for motion management. The maximum deviations are 0.3 mm and 0.22° for translation and rotation accuracy, respectively, for the tested clinical ranges. The origin reproducibility is less than±0.1 mm. The average differences are less than 0.1 mm with a maximum standard deviation of 0.8 mm between waveforms of actual patients and replication of those waveforms by HexaMotion for three breath-hold and one free-breathing waveform. A modified gamma analysis shows greater than 98% agreement with a 0.5 mm and 100 ms threshold. The motion system was used to investigate respiratory waveform variation and showed that, as the amplitude of the treatment waveform increases above that of the simulation waveform, the periphery of the target volume receives less dose than expected. However, by using gating limits to terminate the beam outside of the simulation amplitude, the results are as expected dosimetrically. Specifically, the average dose difference in the periphery between treating with the simulation waveform and the larger amplitude waveform could be up to 12% less without gating limits, but only differed 2% or less with the gating limits in place. The general functionality of the system performs within the manufacturer's specifications and can accurately replicate patient specific waveforms. When an ITV approach is used for motion management, we found the use of gating limits that coincide with the amplitude of the patient waveform at simulation helpful to prevent the potential underdosing of the target due to changes in patient respiration.

  14. 39 CFR 762.15 - Postal Service payments not made by disbursement postal money order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... postal money order. 762.15 Section 762.15 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS General, Definitions, Issuance § 762.15 Postal Service payments not made by disbursement postal money order. Postal Service...

  15. 39 CFR 762.15 - Postal Service payments not made by disbursement postal money order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... postal money order. 762.15 Section 762.15 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS General, Definitions, Issuance § 762.15 Postal Service payments not made by disbursement postal money order. Postal Service...

  16. Comparison of the dose distribution obtained from dosimetric systems with intensity modulated radiotherapy planning system in the treatment of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gökçe, M.; Uslu, D. Koçyiǧit; Ertunç, C.; Karalı, T.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to compare Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) plan of prostate cancer patients with different dose verification systems in dosimetric aspects and to compare these systems with each other in terms of reliability, applicability and application time. Dosimetric control processes of IMRT plan of three prostate cancer patients were carried out using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD), ion chamber (IC) and 2D Array detector systems. The difference between the dose values obtained from the dosimetric systems and treatment planning system (TPS) were found to be about % 5. For the measured (TLD) and calculated (TPS) doses %3 percentage differences were obtained for the points close to center while percentage differences increased at the field edges. It was found that TLD and IC measurements will increase the precision and reliability of the results of 2D Array.

  17. LabVIEW-based control and acquisition system for the dosimetric characterization of a silicon strip detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovejero, M. C.; Pérez Vega-Leal, A.; Gallardo, M. I.; Espino, J. M.; Selva, A.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Arráns, R.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work is to present a new data acquisition, control, and analysis software system written in LabVIEW. This system has been designed to obtain the dosimetry of a silicon strip detector in polyethylene. It allows the full automation of the experiments and data analysis required for the dosimetric characterization of silicon detectors. It becomes a useful tool that can be applied in the daily routine check of a beam accelerator.

  18. LabVIEW-based control and acquisition system for the dosimetric characterization of a silicon strip detector.

    PubMed

    Ovejero, M C; Pérez Vega-Leal, A; Gallardo, M I; Espino, J M; Selva, A; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Arráns, R

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work is to present a new data acquisition, control, and analysis software system written in LabVIEW. This system has been designed to obtain the dosimetry of a silicon strip detector in polyethylene. It allows the full automation of the experiments and data analysis required for the dosimetric characterization of silicon detectors. It becomes a useful tool that can be applied in the daily routine check of a beam accelerator.

  19. On the implementation of a recently proposed dosimetric formalism to a robotic radiosurgery system

    SciTech Connect

    Pantelis, E.; Moutsatsos, A.; Zourari, K.; Kilby, W.; Antypas, C.; Papagiannis, P.; Karaiskos, P.; Georgiou, E.; Sakelliou, L.

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to implement a recently proposed dosimetric formalism for nonstandard fields to the calibration and small field output factor measurement of a robotic stereotactic radiosurgery system. Methods: Reference dosimetry measurements were performed in the nonstandard, 60 mm diameter machine specific reference (msr) field using a Farmer ion chamber, five other cylindrical chambers with cavity lengths ranging from 16.25 down to 2.7 mm, and alanine dosimeters. Output factor measurements were performed for the 5, 7.5, 10, and 15 mm field sizes using microchambers, diode detectors, alanine dosimeters, TLD microcubes, and EBT Gafchromic films. Measurement correction factors as described in the proposed formalism were calculated for the ion chamber and diode detector output factor measurements based on published Monte Carlo data. Corresponding volume averaging correction factors were calculated for the alanine output factor measurements using 3D dose distributions, measured with polymer gel dosimeters. Results: Farmer chamber and alanine reference dosimetry results were found in close agreement, yielding a correction factor of k{sub Q{sub m{sub s{sub r,Q}{sup f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r},f{sub r}{sub e}{sub f}}}}}=0.999{+-}0.016 for the chamber readings. These results were also found to be in agreement within experimental uncertainties with corresponding results obtained using the shorter cavity length ionization chambers. The mean measured dose values of the latter, however, were found to be consistently greater than that of the Farmer chamber. This finding, combined with an observed inverse relationship between the mean measured dose and chamber cavity length that follows the trend predicted by theoretical volume averaging calculations in the msr field, implies that the Farmer k{sub Q{sub m{sub s{sub r,Q}{sup f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r},f{sub r}{sub e}{sub f}}}}} correction is greater than unity. Regarding the output factor results, deviations as large as

  20. 39 CFR 762.26 - Postal facilities not to cash disbursement postal money orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Postal facilities not to cash disbursement postal money orders. 762.26 Section 762.26 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements,...

  1. 39 CFR 762.15 - Postal Service payments not made by disbursement postal money order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Postal Service payments not made by disbursement postal money order. 762.15 Section 762.15 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS General, Definitions,...

  2. Dosimetric evaluation of a Monte Carlo IMRT treatment planning system incorporating the MIMiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassiah-Szegedi, P.; Fuss, M.; Sheikh-Bagheri, D.; Szegedi, M.; Stathakis, S.; Lancaster, J.; Papanikolaou, N.; Salter, B.

    2007-12-01

    The high dose per fraction delivered to lung lesions in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) demands high dose calculation and delivery accuracy. The inhomogeneous density in the thoracic region along with the small fields used typically in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments poses a challenge in the accuracy of dose calculation. In this study we dosimetrically evaluated a pre-release version of a Monte Carlo planning system (PEREGRINE 1.6b, NOMOS Corp., Cranberry Township, PA), which incorporates the modeling of serial tomotherapy IMRT treatments with the binary multileaf intensity modulating collimator (MIMiC). The aim of this study is to show the validation process of PEREGRINE 1.6b since it was used as a benchmark to investigate the accuracy of doses calculated by a finite size pencil beam (FSPB) algorithm for lung lesions treated on the SBRT dose regime via serial tomotherapy in our previous study. Doses calculated by PEREGRINE were compared against measurements in homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials carried out on a Varian 600C with a 6 MV photon beam. Phantom studies simulating various sized lesions were also carried out to explain some of the large dose discrepancies seen in the dose calculations with small lesions. Doses calculated by PEREGRINE agreed to within 2% in water and up to 3% for measurements in an inhomogeneous phantom containing lung, bone and unit density tissue.

  3. 75 FR 80860 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is...). The Postal Service contemporaneously filed a contract related to the proposed new product pursuant...

  4. 78 FR 29784 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning the addition of Global Expedited Package Services...

  5. 75 FR 65533 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission... Postal Service contemporaneously filed a contract related to the proposed new product pursuant to 39...

  6. 75 FR 80859 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is...). The Postal Service contemporaneously filed a contract related to the proposed new product pursuant...

  7. 75 FR 18244 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... Contracts. The Postal Service contemporaneously filed a contract related to the proposed new...

  8. 75 FR 80857 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is...). The Postal Service contemporaneously filed a contract related to the proposed new product pursuant...

  9. 76 FR 9055 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... new requirement. \\1\\ Notice of the United States Postal Service of Classification Change Related...

  10. 75 FR 27375 - Postal Rate Case Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Postal Rate Case Management AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is seeking comments relevant to management of an anticipated exigent postal rate case. It...

  11. Design and dosimetric characteristics of a new endocavitary contact radiotherapy system using an electronic brachytherapy source

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Susan; Garcia-Ramirez, Jose; Lu Wei; Myerson, Robert J.; Parikh, Parag

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To present design aspects and acceptance tests performed for clinical implementation of electronic brachytherapy treatment of early stage rectal adenocarcinoma. A dosimetric comparison is made between the historically used Philips RT-50 unit and the newly developed Axxent{sup Registered-Sign} Model S700 electronic brachytherapy source manufactured by Xoft (iCad, Inc.). Methods: Two proctoscope cones were manufactured by ElectroSurgical Instruments (ESI). Two custom surface applicators were manufactured by Xoft and were designed to fit and interlock with the proctoscope cones from ESI. Dose rates, half value layers (HVL), and percentage depth dose (PDD) measurements were made with the Xoft system and compared to historical RT-50 data. A description of the patient treatment approach and exposure rates during the procedure is also provided. Results: The electronic brachytherapy system has a lower surface dose rate than the RT-50. The dose rate to water on the surface from the Xoft system is approximately 2.1 Gy/min while the RT-50 is 10-12 Gy/min. However, treatment times with Xoft are still reasonable. The HVLs and PDDs between the two systems were comparable resulting in similar doses to the target and to regions beyond the target. The exposure rate levels around a patient treatment were acceptable. The standard uncertainty in the dose rate to water on the surface is approximately {+-}5.2%. Conclusions: The Philips RT-50 unit is an out-of-date radiotherapy machine that is no longer manufactured with limited replacement parts. The use of a custom-designed proctoscope and Xoft surface applicators allows delivery of a well-established treatment with the ease of a modern radiotherapy device. While the dose rate is lower with the use of Xoft, the treatment times are still reasonable. Additionally, personnel may stand farther away from the Xoft radiation source, thus potentially reducing radiation exposure to the operator and other personnel.

  12. Evaluation of the dosimetric accuracy for a couch-based tracking system (CBTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Suk; Kim, Kwang Hyeon; Shim, Jang Bo; Yang, Dae Sik; Park, Young Je; Yoon, Won Sup; Kim, Chul Yong; Cao, Yuanjie

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the geometric and dosimetric accuracy of an in-house-developed couch-based tracking system (CBTS) was investigated using both film and in-house-developed polymer gel dosimeters. We evaluated the 1D and the 2D motion accuracies of our couch system by using Gafchromic EBT film. For the 1D test, the couch system was moved 5, 10, and 20 mm in the X, Y, and Z directions, respectively. Meanwhile, for the 2D test, it was moved along the XY, YZ, and ZX directions. We compared the profiles, full widths at half maximum (FWHMs), and penumbras between the static and the tracking fields. For the 3D test, we quantitatively compared the dose distribution between the static and the tracking fields by using the polymer gel dosimeter when it was simultaneously moved in the XYZ directions. We confirmed that the film was moved according to motion amplitudes of 5, 10, and 20 mm in the X, Y, and Z directions, respectively, in the 1D and 2D motion tests. The value of the FWHM of the static field and the three tracking fields were 51.88, 53.28, 57.67, and 64.43 mm, respectively. Two types of penumbras became wider with increasing amplitudes compared to the static field. For the 3D test, the dose distribution of the XYZ tracking field was qualitatively larger than that of the static field. We conclude that this CBTS has the potential for pre-clinical applications in adaptive radiation therapy.

  13. Dosimetric quality control of Eclipse treatment planning system using pelvic digital test object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhdech, Yassine; Beaumont, Stéphane; Guédon, Jeanpierre; Crespin, Sylvain

    2011-03-01

    Last year, we demonstrated the feasibility of a new method to perform dosimetric quality control of Treatment Planning Systems in radiotherapy, this method is based on Monte-Carlo simulations and uses anatomical Digital Test Objects (DTOs). The pelvic DTO was used in order to assess this new method on an ECLIPSE VARIAN Treatment Planning System. Large dose variations were observed particularly in air and bone equivalent material. In this current work, we discuss the results of the previous paper and provide an explanation for observed dose differences, the VARIAN Eclipse (Anisotropic Analytical) algorithm was investigated. Monte Carlo simulations (MC) were performed with a PENELOPE code version 2003. To increase efficiency of MC simulations, we have used our parallelized version based on the standard MPI (Message Passing Interface). The parallel code has been run on a 32- processor SGI cluster. The study was carried out using pelvic DTOs and was performed for low- and high-energy photon beams (6 and 18MV) on 2100CD VARIAN linear accelerator. A square field (10x10 cm2) was used. Assuming the MC data as reference, χ index analyze was carried out. For this study, a distance to agreement (DTA) was set to 7mm while the dose difference was set to 5% as recommended in the TRS-430 and TG-53 (on the beam axis in 3-D inhomogeneities). When using Monte Carlo PENELOPE, the absorbed dose is computed to the medium, however the TPS computes dose to water. We have used the method described by Siebers et al. based on Bragg-Gray cavity theory to convert MC simulated dose to medium to dose to water. Results show a strong consistency between ECLIPSE and MC calculations on the beam axis.

  14. 39 CFR 762.26 - Postal facilities not to cash disbursement postal money orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... money orders. 762.26 Section 762.26 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.26 Postal facilities not...

  15. 39 CFR 762.26 - Postal facilities not to cash disbursement postal money orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... money orders. 762.26 Section 762.26 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.26 Postal facilities not...

  16. Assessment of dosimetric impact of system specific geometric distortion in an MRI only based radiotherapy workflow for prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, C.; Nordström, F.; Persson, E.; Brynolfsson, J.; Olsson, L. E.

    2017-04-01

    Dosimetric errors in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) only radiotherapy workflow may be caused by system specific geometric distortion from MRI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on planned dose distribution and delineated structures for prostate patients, originating from this distortion. A method was developed, in which computer tomography (CT) images were distorted using the MRI distortion field. The displacement map for an optimized MRI treatment planning sequence was measured using a dedicated phantom in a 3 T MRI system. To simulate the distortion aspects of a synthetic CT (electron density derived from MR images), the displacement map was applied to CT images, referred to as distorted CT images. A volumetric modulated arc prostate treatment plan was applied to the original CT and the distorted CT, creating a reference and a distorted CT dose distribution. By applying the inverse of the displacement map to the distorted CT dose distribution, a dose distribution in the same geometry as the original CT images was created. For 10 prostate cancer patients, the dose difference between the reference dose distribution and inverse distorted CT dose distribution was analyzed in isodose level bins. The mean magnitude of the geometric distortion was 1.97 mm for the radial distance of 200–250 mm from isocenter. The mean percentage dose differences for all isodose level bins, were  ⩽0.02% and the radiotherapy structure mean volume deviations were  <0.2%. The method developed can quantify the dosimetric effects of MRI system specific distortion in a prostate MRI only radiotherapy workflow, separated from dosimetric effects originating from synthetic CT generation. No clinically relevant dose difference or structure deformation was found when 3D distortion correction and high acquisition bandwidth was used. The method could be used for any MRI sequence together with any anatomy of interest.

  17. Postal cancellation from spaceport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The John F. Kennedy Space Center, in cooperation with the United States Postal Service, is offering a cancellation service to interested philatelists for the space flight programs at Kennedy.Philatelists who wish to avail themselves of this service may do so by following the procedures outlined below: Specify the event for which you wish this service. There is a limit of five covers per customer per event.

  18. 76 FR 51311 - Administrative Practice and Procedure, Postal Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ...'' link in the banner at the top of the Commission's Web site ( http://www.prc.gov ) or by directly accessing the Commission's Filing Online system at https://www.prc.gov/prc-pages/filing-online/login.aspx... request to the Postal Service to develop language describing individual products.\\1\\ The Postal...

  19. Dosimetric effects of positioning shifts using 6D-frameless stereotactic Brainlab system in hypofractionated intracranial radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hosang; Keeling, Vance P; Ali, Imad; Ahmad, Salahuddin

    2016-01-01

    Dosimetric consequences of positional shifts were studied using frameless Brainlab ExacTrac X-ray system for hypofractionated (3 or 5 fractions) intracranial stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). SRT treatments of 17 patients with metastatic intracranial tumors using the stereotactic system were retrospectively investigated. The treatments were simulated in a treatment planning system by modifying planning parameters with a matrix conversion technique based on positional shifts for initial infrared (IR)-based setup (XC: X-ray correction) and post-correction (XV: X-ray verification). The simulation was implemented with (a) 3D translational shifts only and (b) 6D translational and rotational shifts for dosimetric effects of angular correction. Mean translations and rotations (± 1 SD) of 77 fractions based on the initial IR setup (XC) were 0.51±0.86 mm (lateral), 0.30±1.55 mm (longitudinal), and -1.63±1.00 mm (vertical); 0.53±0.56 mm (pitch), 0.42±0.60 mm (roll), and 0.44±0.90 mm (yaw), respectively. These were -0.07±0.24 mm, -0.07±0.25 mm, 0.06±0.21 mm, 0.04±0.23 mm, 0.00±0.30 mm, and 0.02±0.22 mm, respectively, for the postcorrection (XV). Substantial degradation of the treatment plans was observed in D95 of PTV (2.6%±3.3%; simulated treatment versus treatment planning), Dmin of PTV (13.4%±11.6%), and Dmin of CTV (2.8%±3.8%, with the maximum error of 10.0%) from XC, while dosimetrically negligible changes (< 0.1%) were detected for both CTV and PTV from XV simulation. 3D angular correction significantly improved CTV dose coverage when the total angular shifts (|pitch|+|roll|+|yaw|) were greater than 2°. With the 6D stereoscopic X-ray verification imaging and frameless immobilization, submillimeter and subdegree accuracy is achieved with negligible dosimetric deviations. 3D angular correction is required when the angular deviation is substantial. A CTV-to-PTV safety margin of 2 mm is large enough to prevent deterioration of CTV

  20. Dosimetric effects of positioning shifts using 6D-frameless stereotactic Brainlab system in hypofractionated intracranial radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hosang; Keeling, Vance P; Ali, Imad; Ahmad, Salahuddin

    2016-01-08

    Dosimetric consequences of positional shifts were studied using frameless Brainlab ExacTrac X-ray system for hypofractionated (3 or 5 fractions) intracranial stereo-tactic radiotherapy (SRT). SRT treatments of 17 patients with metastatic intracranial tumors using the stereotactic system were retrospectively investigated. The treatments were simulated in a treatment planning system by modifying planning parameters with a matrix conversion technique based on positional shifts for initial infrared (IR)-based setup (XC: X-ray correction) and post-correction (XV: X-ray verification). The simulation was implemented with (a) 3D translational shifts only and (b) 6D translational and rotational shifts for dosimetric effects of angular correction. Mean translations and rotations (± 1 SD) of 77 fractions based on the initial IR setup (XC) were 0.51 ± 0.86 mm (lateral), 0.30 ± 1.55 mm (longitudinal), and -1.63 ± 1.00 mm (vertical); -0.53° ± 0.56° (pitch), 0.42° ± 0.60° (roll), and 0.44°± 0.90° (yaw), respectively. These were -0.07 ± 0.24 mm, -0.07 ± 0.25 mm, 0.06± 0.21 mm, 0.04° ± 0.23°, 0.00° ± 0.30°, and -0.02° ± 0.22°, respectively, for the postcorrection (XV). Substantial degradation of the treatment plans was observed in D95 of PTV (2.6% ± 3.3%; simulated treatment versus treatment planning), Dmin of PTV (13.4% ± 11.6%), and Dmin of CTV (2.8% ± 3.8%, with the maximum error of 10.0%) from XC, while dosimetrically negligible changes (< 0.1%) were detected for both CTV and PTV from XV simulation. 3D angular correction significantly improved CTV dose coverage when the total angular shifts (|pitch| + |roll| + |yaw|) were greater than 2°. With the 6D stereoscopic X-ray verification imaging and frameless immobilization, submillimeter and subdegree accuracy is achieved with negligible dosimetric deviations. 3D angular correction is required when the angular deviation is substantial. A CTV-to-PTV safety margin of 2 mm is large enough to prevent

  1. 75 FR 45176 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... filed six attachments as follows: Attachment A--a redacted copy of the Governor's Decision No. 09-6... electronically via the Commission's Filing Online system at http://www.prc.gov . Commenters who cannot submit... to 39 U.S.C. 3642 and 39 CFR 3020.30 et seq., the Postal Service filed a formal request...

  2. 75 FR 44819 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... filed six attachments as follows: Attachment A--a redacted copy of the Governor's Decision No. 09-6... via the Commission's Filing Online system at http://www.prc.gov . Commenters who cannot submit their... to 39 U.S.C. 3642 and 39 CFR 3020.30 et seq., the Postal Service filed a formal request...

  3. 76 FR 47275 - Postal Service Initiative on Retail Postal Locations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... promulgated by the Postal Service concerning the methods to close or consolidate postal retail facilities.\\3..., the Commission expects parties to make judicious use of discovery, discovery objections, and motions.... See 39 CFR 3001.20 and 3001.20a. Discovery may be propounded upon filing a notice of...

  4. 78 FR 37246 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: The Commission is... the introductory (``Whereas'') paragraphs of the Agreement; revisions to existing articles; and...

  5. 78 FR 79710 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...] New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... the introductory paragraphs of the Agreement; revisions to numerous existing articles; and...

  6. 39 CFR 761.6 - Delivery of Postal Service securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Delivery of Postal Service securities. 761.6 Section 761.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.6 Delivery of Postal Service securities. A Reserve Bank which has received Postal Service...

  7. Design and dosimetric analysis of a 385 MHz TETRA head exposure system for use in human provocation studies.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Gernot; Bolz, Thomas; Uberbacher, Richard; Escorihuela-Navarro, Ana; Bahr, Achim; Dorn, Hans; Sauter, Cornelia; Eggert, Torsten; Danker-Hopfe, Heidi

    2012-10-01

    A new head exposure system for double-blind provocation studies investigating possible effects of terrestrial trunked radio (TETRA)-like exposure (385 MHz) on central nervous processes was developed and dosimetrically analyzed. The exposure system allows localized exposure in the temporal brain, similar to the case of operating a TETRA handset at the ear. The system and antenna concept enables exposure during wake and sleep states while an electroencephalogram (EEG) is recorded. The dosimetric assessment and uncertainty analysis yield high efficiency of 14 W/kg per Watt of accepted antenna input power due to an optimized antenna directly worn on the subject's head. Beside sham exposure, high and low exposure at 6 and 1.5 W/kg (in terms of maxSAR10g in the head) were implemented. Double-blind control and monitoring of exposure is enabled by easy-to-use control software. Exposure uncertainty was rigorously evaluated using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)-based computations, taking into account anatomical differences of the head, the physiological range of the dielectric tissue properties including effects of sweating on the antenna, possible influences of the EEG electrodes and cables, variations in antenna input reflection coefficients, and effects on the specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution due to unavoidable small variations in the antenna position. This analysis yielded a reasonable uncertainty of <±45% (max to min ratio of 4.2 dB) in terms of maxSAR10g in the head and a variability of <±60% (max to min ratio of 6 dB) in terms of mass-averaged SAR in different brain regions, as demonstrated by a brain region-specific absorption analysis.

  8. New method to perform dosimetric quality control of treatment planning system using PENELOPE Monte Carlo and anatomical digital test objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhdech, Yassine; Beaumont, Stéphane; Guédon, Jean-Pierre; Torfeh, Tarraf

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we deepen the R&D program named DTO-DC (Digital Object Test and Dosimetric Console), which goal is to develop an efficient, accurate and full method to achieve dosimetric quality control (QC) of radiotherapy treatment planning system (TPS). This method is mainly based on Digital Test Objects (DTOs) and on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation using the PENELOPE code [1]. These benchmark simulations can advantageously replace experimental measures typically used as reference for comparison with TPS calculated dose. Indeed, the MC simulations rather than dosimetric measurements allow contemplating QC without tying treatment devices and offer in many situations (i.p. heterogeneous medium, lack of scattering volume...) better accuracy compared to dose measurements with classical dosimetry equipment of a radiation therapy department. Furthermore using MC simulations and DTOs, i.e. a totally numerical QC tools, will also simplify QC implementation, and enable process automation; this allows radiotherapy centers to have a more complete and thorough QC. The program DTO-DC was established primarily on ELEKTA accelerator (photons mode) using non-anatomical DTOs [2]. Today our aim is to complete and apply this program on VARIAN accelerator (photons and electrons mode) using anatomical DTOs. First, we developed, modeled and created three anatomical DTOs in DICOM format: 'Head and Neck', Thorax and Pelvis. We parallelized the PENELOPE code using MPI libraries to accelerate their calculation, we have modeled in PENELOPE geometry Clinac head of Varian Clinac 2100CD (photons mode). Then, to implement this method, we calculated the dose distributions in Pelvis DTO using PENELOPE and ECLIPSE TPS. Finally we compared simulated and calculated dose distributions employing the relative difference proposed by Venselaar [3]. The results of this work demonstrate the feasibility of this method that provides a more accurate and easily achievable QC. Nonetheless, this method, implemented

  9. 76 FR 394 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add a Global Direct Contracts 1 contract to...

  10. 77 FR 42341 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add Every Door Direct Mail-Retail (EDDM-R) to...

  11. 76 FR 593 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add a Global Expedited Package Services 3 contract...

  12. 77 FR 58185 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add a Global Expedited Package Services contract to...

  13. 76 FR 49798 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is.... CP2010-36.'' Id. The Postal Service concludes that its filing demonstrates that the new GREP...

  14. 75 FR 28076 - New Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... New Postal Products AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add new Global Expedited Package Services 2 products to.... The Postal Service contends that its filings demonstrate that each of the new GEPS 2...

  15. 77 FR 50729 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request for two related changes to the product lists. The...

  16. 75 FR 9005 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... incidental differences. Id. at 6. The Postal Service contends that its filings demonstrate that this new...

  17. 75 FR 53353 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: The Commission is... Agreements with Foreign Postal Operators be added as a new product to the competitive product list. Id. at...

  18. 75 FR 17175 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is.... The Postal Service contends that its filings demonstrate that each of the new GEPS 2 contracts...

  19. 75 FR 67148 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is.... at 4. The Postal Service concludes that its filings demonstrate that each of the new GEPS 3...

  20. 78 FR 39783 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add a new product to the competitive product list. This...-54. The Postal Service contemporaneously filed a redacted contract related to the proposed...

  1. 78 FR 76333 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing requesting an amendment to Priority Mail Contract 29. This...

  2. 78 FR 77172 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning a contract with Canada for the delivery of...

  3. 75 FR 44029 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... the new contract to begin August 1, 2010. In support of its Notice, the Postal Service filed five... Postal Service also contends that its filings demonstrate that the new GEPS 3 contract complies with...

  4. 78 FR 76334 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing requesting an amendment to Parcel Select Contract 6. This...

  5. 75 FR 44138 - New Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION 30 CFR Part 3020 New Postal Products AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission is updating postal product lists. This action reflects the disposition of...

  6. 75 FR 22633 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission.... The Postal Service contends that its filings demonstrate that each of the new GEPS 2 contracts...

  7. 76 FR 67496 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional Inbound Competitive...

  8. 75 FR 67146 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... 4. The Postal Service concludes that its filings demonstrate that each of the new GEPS 3...

  9. 78 FR 42566 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is...; and new, deleted, and renumbered articles. Id. at 3-7. The Postal Service states that...

  10. Potential application of metal nanoparticles for dosimetric systems: Concepts and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidelli, Eder José; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2014-11-01

    Metallic nanoparticles increase the delivered dose and consequently enhance tissue radio sensitization during radiation therapy of cancer. The Dose Enhancement Factor (DEF) corresponds to the ratio between the dose deposited on a tissue containing nanoparticles, and the dose deposited on a tissue without nanoparticles. In this sense, we have used electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) to investigate how silver and gold nanoparticles affect the dose deposition in alanine dosimeters, which act as a surrogate of soft tissue. Besides optimizing radiation absorption by the dosimeter, the optical properties of these metal nanoparticles could also improve light emission from materials employed as radiation detectors. Therefore, we have also examined how the plasmonic properties of noble metal nanoparticles could enhance radiation detection using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry. This work will show results on how the use of gold and silver nanoparticles are beneficial for the ESR and OSL dosimetric techniques, and will describe the difficulties we have been facing, the challenges to overcome, and the perspectives.

  11. Potential application of metal nanoparticles for dosimetric systems: Concepts and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Guidelli, Eder José Baffa, Oswaldo

    2014-11-07

    Metallic nanoparticles increase the delivered dose and consequently enhance tissue radio sensitization during radiation therapy of cancer. The Dose Enhancement Factor (DEF) corresponds to the ratio between the dose deposited on a tissue containing nanoparticles, and the dose deposited on a tissue without nanoparticles. In this sense, we have used electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) to investigate how silver and gold nanoparticles affect the dose deposition in alanine dosimeters, which act as a surrogate of soft tissue. Besides optimizing radiation absorption by the dosimeter, the optical properties of these metal nanoparticles could also improve light emission from materials employed as radiation detectors. Therefore, we have also examined how the plasmonic properties of noble metal nanoparticles could enhance radiation detection using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry. This work will show results on how the use of gold and silver nanoparticles are beneficial for the ESR and OSL dosimetric techniques, and will describe the difficulties we have been facing, the challenges to overcome, and the perspectives.

  12. Preliminary evaluation of the dosimetric accuracy of the in vivo plastic scintillation detector OARtrac system for prostate cancer treatments

    PubMed Central

    Klawikowski, Slade J.; Zeringue, Clint; Wootton, Landon S.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Beddar, Sam

    2014-01-01

    A promising, new, in vivo prostate dosimetry system has been developed for clinical radiation therapy. This work outlines the preliminary end-to-end testing of the accuracy and precision of the new OARtrac scintillation dosimetry system. We tested 94 calibrated plastic scintillation detector (PSD) probes before their final integration into endorectal balloon assemblies. These probes had been calibrated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Dosimetry Laboratory (MDADL). We used a complete clinical OARtrac system including the PSD probes, charge coupled device (CCD camera) monitoring system, and the manufacturer’s integrated software package. The PSD probes were irradiated at 6 MV in a Solid Water® phantom. Irradiations were performed with a 6 MV linear accelerator using anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior (AP/PA) matched fields to a maximum dose of 200 cGy in a 100 cm source-axis distance (SAD geometry. As a whole, the OARtrac system has good accuracy with a mean error of 0.01% and an error spread of ± 5.4% at the 95% confidence interval. These results reflect the PSD probes’ accuracy before their final insertion into endorectal balloons. Future work will test the dosimetric effects of mounting the PSD probes within the endorectal balloon assemblies. PMID:24732073

  13. SU-E-T-335: Dosimetric Investigation of An Advanced Rotating Gamma Ray System for Imaged Guided Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C; Eldib, A; Chibani, O; Li, J; Chen, L; Li, C; Mora, G

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Co-60 beams have unique dosimetric properties for cranial treatments and thoracic cancers. The conventional concern about the high surface dose is overcome by modern system designs with rotational treatment techniques. This work investigates a novel rotational Gamma ray system for image-guided, external beam radiotherapy. Methods: The CybeRT system (Cyber Medical Corp., China) consists of a ring gantry with either one or two treatment heads containing a Gamma source and a multileaf collimator (MLC). The MLC has 60 paired leaves, and the maximum field size is either 40cmx40cm (40 pairs of 0.5cm central leaves, 20 pairs of 1cm outer leaves), or 22cmx40cm (32 pairs of 0.25cm central leaves, 28 pairs of 0.5cm outer leaves). The treatment head(s) can swing 35° superiorly and 8° inferiorly, allowing a total of 43° non-coplanar beam incident. The treatment couch provides 6-degrees-of-freedom motion compensation and the kV cone-beam CT system has a spatial resolution of 0.4mm. Monte Carlo simulations were used to compute dose distributions and compare with measurements. A retrospective study of 98 previously treated patients was performed to compare CybeRT with existing RT systems. Results: Monte Carlo results confirmed the CybeRT design parameters including output factors and 3D dose distributions. Its beam penumbra/dose gradient was similar to or better than that of 6MV photon beams and its isocenter accuracy is 0.3mm. Co-60 beams produce lower-energy secondary electrons that exhibit better dose properties in low-density lung tissues. Because of their rapid depth dose falloff, Co-60 beams are favorable for peripheral lung tumors with half-arc arrangements to spare the opposite lung and critical structures. Superior dose distributions were obtained for head and neck, breast, spine and lung tumors. Conclusion: Because of its accurate dose delivery and unique dosimetric properties of C-60 sources, CybeRT is ideally suited for advanced SBRT as well as

  14. Dosimetric verification of IMAT delivery with a conventional EPID system and a commercial portal dose image prediction tool

    SciTech Connect

    Iori, Mauro; Cagni, Elisabetta; Paiusco, Marta; Munro, Peter; Nahum, Alan E.

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: The electronic portal imaging device (EPID) is a system for checking the patient setup; as a result of its integration with the linear accelerator and software customized for dosimetry, it is increasingly used for verification of the delivery of fixed-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In order to extend such an approach to intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT), the combined use of an EPID system and a portal dose image prediction (PDIP) tool has been investigated. Methods: The dosimetric behavior of an EPID system, mechanically reinforced to maintain its positional stability during the accelerator gantry rotation, has been studied to assess its ability to measure portal dose distributions for IMAT treatment beams. In addition, the PDIP tool of a commercial treatment planning system, commonly used for static IMRT dosimetry, has been validated for simulating the PDIs of IMAT treatment fields. The method has been applied to the delivery verification of 23 treatment fields that were measured in their dual mode of IMRT and IMAT modalities. Results: The EPID system has proved to be appropriate for measuring the PDIs of IMAT fields; additionally the PDIP tool was able to simulate these accurately. The results are quite similar to those obtained for static IMRT treatment verification, although it was necessary to investigate the dependence of the EPID signal and of the accelerator monitor chamber response on variable dose rate. Conclusions: Our initial tests indicate that the EPID system, together with the PDIP tool, is a suitable device for the verification of IMAT plan delivery; however, additional tests are necessary to confirm these results.

  15. Dosimetric evaluation of the clinical implementation of the first commercial IMRT Monte Carlo treatment planning system at 6 MV

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, Emily; Seuntjens, Jan; Sheikh-Bagheri, Daryoush

    2004-10-01

    In this work we dosimetrically evaluated the clinical implementation of a commercial Monte Carlo treatment planning software (PEREGRINE, North American Scientific, Cranberry Township, PA) intended for quality assurance (QA) of intensity modulated radiation therapy treatment plans. Dose profiles calculated in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms using this system were compared to both measurements and simulations using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code for the 6 MV beam of a Varian CL21EX linear accelerator. For simple jaw-defined fields, calculations agree within 2% of the dose at d{sub max} with measurements in homogeneous phantoms with the exception of the buildup region where the calculations overestimate the dose by up to 8%. In heterogeneous lung and bone phantoms the agreement is within 3%, on average, up to 5% for a 1x1 cm{sup 2} field. We tested two consecutive implementations of the MLC model. After matching the calculated and measured MLC leakage, simulations of static and dynamic MLC-defined fields using the most recent MLC model agreed to within 2% with measurements.

  16. Dosimetric evaluation of PLATO and Oncentra treatment planning systems for High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy gynecological treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Hardev; Herman, Tania De La Fuente; Showalter, Barry; Thompson, Spencer J.; Syzek, Elizabeth J.; Herman, Terence; Ahmad, Salahuddin

    2012-10-01

    This study compares the dosimetric differences in HDR brachytherapy treatment plans calculated with Nucletron's PLATO and Oncentra MasterPlan treatment planning systems (TPS). Ten patients (1 T1b, 1 T2a, 6 T2b, 2 T4) having cervical carcinoma, median age of 43.5 years (range, 34-79 years) treated with tandem & ring applicator in our institution were selected retrospectively for this study. For both Plato and Oncentra TPS, the same orthogonal films anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral were used to manually draw the prescription and anatomical points using definitions from the Manchester system and recommendations from the ICRU report 38. Data input for PLATO was done using a digitizer and Epson Expression 10000XL scanner was used for Oncentra where the points were selected on the images in the screen. The prescription doses for these patients were 30 Gy to points right A (RA) and left A (LA) delivered in 5 fractions with Ir-192 HDR source. Two arrangements: one dwell position and two dwell positions on the tandem were used for dose calculation. The doses to the patient points right B (RB) and left B (LB), and to the organs at risk (OAR), bladder and rectum for each patient were calculated. The mean dose and the mean percentage difference in dose calculated by the two treatment planning systems were compared. Paired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. No significant differences in mean RB, LB, bladder and rectum doses were found with p-values > 0.14. The mean percent difference of doses in RB, LB, bladder and rectum are found to be less than 2.2%, 1.8%, 1.3% and 2.2%, respectively. Dose calculations based on the two different treatment planning systems were found to be consistent and the treatment plans can be made with either system in our department without any concern.

  17. Dosimetric evaluation of PLATO and Oncentra treatment planning systems for High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy gynecological treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Hardev; De La Fuente Herman, Tania; Showalter, Barry; Thompson, Spencer J.; Syzek, Elizabeth J.; Herman, Terence; Ahmad, Salahuddin

    2012-10-23

    This study compares the dosimetric differences in HDR brachytherapy treatment plans calculated with Nucletron's PLATO and Oncentra MasterPlan treatment planning systems (TPS). Ten patients (1 T1b, 1 T2a, 6 T2b, 2 T4) having cervical carcinoma, median age of 43.5 years (range, 34-79 years) treated with tandem and ring applicator in our institution were selected retrospectively for this study. For both Plato and Oncentra TPS, the same orthogonal films anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral were used to manually draw the prescription and anatomical points using definitions from the Manchester system and recommendations from the ICRU report 38. Data input for PLATO was done using a digitizer and Epson Expression 10000XL scanner was used for Oncentra where the points were selected on the images in the screen. The prescription doses for these patients were 30 Gy to points right A (RA) and left A (LA) delivered in 5 fractions with Ir-192 HDR source. Two arrangements: one dwell position and two dwell positions on the tandem were used for dose calculation. The doses to the patient points right B (RB) and left B (LB), and to the organs at risk (OAR), bladder and rectum for each patient were calculated. The mean dose and the mean percentage difference in dose calculated by the two treatment planning systems were compared. Paired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. No significant differences in mean RB, LB, bladder and rectum doses were found with p-values > 0.14. The mean percent difference of doses in RB, LB, bladder and rectum are found to be less than 2.2%, 1.8%, 1.3% and 2.2%, respectively. Dose calculations based on the two different treatment planning systems were found to be consistent and the treatment plans can be made with either system in our department without any concern.

  18. 77 FR 37077 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    .... 1369] New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission... new product. Id., Attachment B. The instant contract has been assigned Docket No. CP2012-33....

  19. 75 FR 61785 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ...; Order No. 548] New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... that each of the new GEPS 3 contracts complies with the requirements of 39 U.S.C. 3633 and...

  20. 76 FR 11823 - New Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... New Postal Products AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: This notice... and adding a new product to the competitive product list. This notice identifies preliminary... a new product, provisionally titled Lightweight Commercial Parcels, to the competitive product...

  1. 39 CFR 501.13 - False representations of Postal Service actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.13 False representations of Postal Service actions... Evidencing Systems. The Postal Service reserves the right to suspend and/or revoke the authorization to manufacture or distribute Postage Evidencing Systems throughout the United States or any part thereof...

  2. 32 CFR 700.812 - Postal matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Postal matters. 700.812 Section 700.812 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Officers in General § 700.812 Postal matters. Commanding officers shall ensure that mail and postal...

  3. 32 CFR 700.812 - Postal matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Postal matters. 700.812 Section 700.812 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Officers in General § 700.812 Postal matters. Commanding officers shall ensure that mail and postal...

  4. 32 CFR 700.812 - Postal matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Postal matters. 700.812 Section 700.812 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Officers in General § 700.812 Postal matters. Commanding officers shall ensure that mail and postal...

  5. 32 CFR 700.812 - Postal matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Postal matters. 700.812 Section 700.812 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Officers in General § 700.812 Postal matters. Commanding officers shall ensure that mail and postal...

  6. 32 CFR 700.812 - Postal matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Postal matters. 700.812 Section 700.812 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Officers in General § 700.812 Postal matters. Commanding officers shall ensure that mail and postal...

  7. 75 FR 43581 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service filing to add Global Plus 1A Contracts (CP2008-9 and CP2008-10) to... Paragraphs I. Introduction The Postal Service seeks to add a new product, Global Plus 1A, to the competitive... into two Global Plus 1A contracts.\\1\\ The Postal Service states that the instant contracts...

  8. 76 FR 80412 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... [Federal Register Volume 76, Number 247 (Friday, December 23, 2011)] [Notices] [Pages 80412-80413] [FR Doc No: 2011-32900] POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Docket No. CP2012-4; Order No. 1057] New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing...

  9. 75 FR 54401 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... that each of the new GEPS 3 contracts complies with the requirements of 39 U.S.C. 3633 and...

  10. 75 FR 57995 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... Service concludes that its filings demonstrate that each of the new GEPS 3 contracts complies with...

  11. 75 FR 57303 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... demonstrate that each of the new GEPS 3 contracts complies with the requirements of 39 U.S.C. 3633 and...

  12. 75 FR 65676 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... demonstrate that each of the new GEPS 3 contracts complies with the requirements of 39 U.S.C. 3633 and...

  13. 78 FR 70084 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... (Request). The Postal Service contemporaneously filed a redacted contract related to the proposed new... Governors' Decision No. 11-6, authorizing the new product; Attachment B--a redacted copy of the...

  14. 78 FR 35650 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... articles, and new annexes, but asserts that these differences do not detract from a finding of...

  15. 76 FR 395 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... contract related to the proposed new product. Request, Attachment B. The contract has been assigned...

  16. 75 FR 8758 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... contends that its filings demonstrate that this new GEPS 2 contract is established in compliance with...

  17. 75 FR 3988 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... 39 CFR Part 3020 New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY.... Commission Analysis V. Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction The Postal Service seeks to add a new product.... Additionally, UPU members may qualify for ``bonuses'' to their new base rate if they provide certain...

  18. 75 FR 3383 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... 39 CFR Part 3020 New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... Paragraphs I. Introduction The Postal Service seeks to add a new product identified as Express Mail... related to the proposed new product pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. The contract...

  19. 75 FR 1280 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... 39 CFR Part 3020 New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... dominant and competitive products is also consistent with new requirements in the law. DATES: Effective... Analysis V. Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction The Postal Service seeks to add a new product identified...

  20. 78 FR 65014 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... Postal Service contemporaneously filed a redacted contract related to the proposed new product under 39 U...: Attachment A--a redacted copy of Governors' Decision No. 11-6, authorizing the new product; Attachment...

  1. 78 FR 77508 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is.... 09-15; Attachment 3--a redacted copy of the new rates; and Attachment 4--a copy of the certification... referenced Governors' Decision, the new rates and related financial information. Id. at 3. The Postal...

  2. 75 FR 44292 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... contract related to the proposed new product pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5....

  3. 75 FR 57087 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... that this new GEPS 3 contract complies with the requirements of 39 U.S.C. 3633 and is...

  4. 76 FR 592 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... that the new GREP contract complies with the requirements of 39 U.S.C. 3633 and is...

  5. 75 FR 65532 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... new product pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. The contract has been assigned...

  6. 75 FR 67147 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... demonstrate that the new GREP contract complies with the requirements of 39 U.S.C. 3633 and is...

  7. 77 FR 27491 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... profitable new mail; will enhance the financial position of the Postal Service; will increase mail volume... Mail. Id. at 4. To be eligible for the contract prices, Valassis must initiate new shared...

  8. 75 FR 51505 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... new product pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. The contract has been assigned...

  9. 75 FR 14475 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... contends that its filings demonstrate that each of the new GEPS 2 contracts comply with the requirements...

  10. 78 FR 76863 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... (Order No. 956). \\5\\ See, e.g., in Article 1, the addition of two new purposes for the Agreement, and...

  11. 75 FR 65675 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... competitive product list. It is also noticing a contemporaneous Postal Service notice that new rates for... contemporaneously filed notice pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5 that new rates for inbound...

  12. 75 FR 26812 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 91 (Wednesday, May 12, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 26812] [FR Doc No: 2010-11246] POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2010-47; Order No. 454] New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a...

  13. 75 FR 80858 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... Service contemporaneously filed a contract related to the proposed new product pursuant to 39 U.S.C....

  14. 78 FR 30940 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is...). The Postal Service contemporaneously filed a redacted contract related to the proposed new product... follows: Attachment A--a redacted copy of Governors' Decision No. 11-6, authorizing the new...

  15. 75 FR 65531 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... new product pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. The contract has been assigned...

  16. 75 FR 35102 - New Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... New Postal Products AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add new Global Expedited Package Services 2 products to... Service also contends that its filing demonstrates that each of the new GEPS 2 contracts complies with...

  17. 78 FR 63519 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... redacted contract related to the proposed new product. Id. Attachment B. The instant contract has...

  18. 77 FR 304 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... proposed new product under 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. Id. Attachment B. The instant...

  19. 78 FR 47431 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is.... Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction On July 26, 2013, the Postal Service filed a request to create a new... Mailer from the market dominant product list; and (2) add the new Round-Trip Mailer product to...

  20. 78 FR 59382 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add a new product to the competitive product... contemporaneously filed a redacted contract related to the proposed new product. Id. Attachment B. The...

  1. 76 FR 22739 - Postal Service Market Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Postal Service Market Test AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service proposal to conduct a limited market test involving a... describes the proposed test, addresses procedural aspects of the filing, and invites public comment....

  2. 76 FR 25381 - Postal Service Market Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Postal Service Market Test AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission... Logistics experimental market test, pending Commission action on anticipated request for permanent status... Postal Service moved to temporarily extend its Collaborative Logistics market test under 39 U.S.C....

  3. 77 FR 54937 - International Mail Postal Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... COMMISSION International Mail Postal Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Business Reply Service Contract 3. It seeks inclusion of the new contract within an existing product... public that the Postal Service has filed a notice stating that it (1) has entered into a new contract...

  4. 75 FR 27843 - New Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... Services 2 (GEPS 2) contracts.\\1\\ The Postal Service believes the instant contracts are functionally... Services 2 to the Competitive Product List, August 28, 2009 (Order No. 290). The instant contracts. The Postal Service filed the instant contracts pursuant to 39 CFR 3015.5. In addition, the Postal...

  5. 75 FR 47033 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ...) contracts.\\1\\ The Postal Service believes the instant contracts are functionally equivalent to previously... for Non-Public Treatment of Materials Filed Under Seal, July 14, 2010. The instant contracts. The Postal Service filed the instant contracts pursuant to 39 CFR 3015.5. In addition, the Postal...

  6. 75 FR 42171 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... (GEPS 2) contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service believes the instant contract is functionally equivalent to... Competitive Product List, August 28, 2009 (Order No. 290). The instant contract. The Postal Service filed the instant contract pursuant to 39 CFR 3015.5. In addition, the Postal Service contends that the contract...

  7. 77 FR 76571 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 249 (Friday, December 28, 2012)] [Notices] [Pages 76571-76572] [FR Doc No: 2012-31174] POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. MC2013-25 and CP2013-33; Order No. 1589] New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  8. 75 FR 39710 - Postal Classification Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... Postal Classification Change AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request concerning two classification changes to... filed a notice pursuant to 39 CFR 3020.90 and 3020.91 concerning two classification changes to...

  9. 39 CFR 221.1 - The United States Postal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The United States Postal Service. 221.1 Section 221.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 221.1 The United States Postal Service. The United States Postal Service was established as...

  10. 39 CFR 221.1 - The United States Postal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The United States Postal Service. 221.1 Section 221.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 221.1 The United States Postal Service. The United States Postal Service was established as...

  11. 39 CFR 221.1 - The United States Postal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The United States Postal Service. 221.1 Section 221.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 221.1 The United States Postal Service. The United States Postal Service was established as...

  12. 39 CFR 3001.117 - Posting of documents by Postal Service for inspection by affected postal patrons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Posting of documents by Postal Service for inspection by affected postal patrons. 3001.117 Section 3001.117 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION... Close or Consolidate Post Offices § 3001.117 Posting of documents by Postal Service for inspection...

  13. SU-E-T-318: Dosimetric Evaluation of ArcCHECK and 3DVH System Using Customized Polymer Gel Dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, K; Fujimoto, S; Akagi, Y; Hirokawa, Y; Hayashi, S; Miyazawa, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: ArcCHECK and 3DVH system (Sun Nuclear) can reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) dose distribution and provide the DVH analysis in a patient. The aim of this study was to evaluate dosimetric accuracy of this system using customized polymer gel dosimeter, and also Gafchromic EBT3 films. Methods: Polyacrylamide-based gel contained magnesium chloride as a sensitizer (iPAGAT) was used in this study. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan was performed for the C-shape structure by the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian) and used to irradiate the ArcCHECK by the Novalis Tx linear accelerator (Varian/BrainLAB). The cubic phantom filled with iPAGAT and EBT3 films placed in three orthogonal planes (axial, sagittal, and coronal) inserted into the I’mRT Phantom (IBA Dosimetry) simulated a patient were irradiated with the same VMAT plan. The measurement-guided 3D dose distribution was reconstructed using 3DVH software from the measured data of the ArcCHECK. The 3D dose distribution in iPAGAT was read out by Signa 1.5 T MRI system (GE), and 2D dose distribution on EBT3 was read out by color scanner (Epson). The comparison of all the dose distributions was performed with dose profiles and gamma index analysis in orthogonal planes using in-house developed software. Results: A good agreement was observed by overlaying the dose profiles of 3DVH, EBT3, and iPAGAT. The mean pass rates by gamma index analysis with 3%/3 mm criteria in orthogonal planes were 94.3% (3DVH vs EBT3), 91.1% (3DVH vs iPAGAT), and 96.4% (iPAGAT vs EBT3), respectively. Conclusion: 3D dose distribution reconstructed by ArcCHECK and 3DVH system was estimated accurately in a patient. However, slightly differences were observed between 3DVH and iPAGAT because of MRI noise, therefore further study is required to improve the accuracy of MRI based polymer gel dosimetry for the DVH analysis.

  14. Evaluation of MLC leaf positioning accuracy for static and dynamic IMRT treatments using DAVID in vivo dosimetric system.

    PubMed

    Karagoz, Gulay; Zorlu, Faruk; Yeginer, Mete; Yildiz, Demet; Ozyigit, Gokhan

    2016-03-01

    Accuracy and precision of leaf positioning in multileaf collimators (MLCs) are significant factors for the accuracy of IMRT treatments. This study aimed to investigate the accuracy and repeatability of the MLC leaf positioning via the DAVID in vivo dosimetric system for dynamic and static MLC systems. The DAVID system was designed as multiwire transmission ionization chamber which is placed in accessory holder of linear accelerators. Each wire of DAVID system corresponds to a MLC leaf-pair to verify the leaf positioning accuracy during IMRT treatment and QA. In this study, verifications of IMRT plans of five head and neck (H&N) and five prostate patients treated in a Varian DHX linear accelerator with 80-leaf MLC were performed using DAVID system. Before DAVID-based dosimetry, Electronics Portal Imaging Device (EPID) and PTW 2D ARRAY dosimetry system were used for 2D verification of each plan. The measurements taken by DAVID system in the first day of the treatments were used as reference for the following measurements taken over the next four weeks. The deviations in leaf positioning were evaluated by "Total Deviation (TD)" parameter calculated by DAVID software. The delivered IMRT plans were originally prepared using dynamic MLC method. The same plans were subsequently calculated based on static MLC method with three different intensity levels of five (IL5), 10 (IL10) and 20 (IL20) in order to compare the performances of MLC leaf positioning repeatability for dynamic and static IMRT plans. The leaf positioning accuracy is also evaluated by analyzing DynaLog files based on error histograms and root mean square (RMS) errors of leaf pairs' positions. Moreover, a correlation analysis between simultaneously taken DAVID and EPID measurements and DynaLog file recordings was subsequently performed. In the analysis of DAVID outputs, the overall deviations of dynamic MLC-based IMRT calculated from the deviations of the four weeks were found as 0.55%±0.57% and 1.48%±0

  15. Evaluation of MLC leaf positioning accuracy for static and dynamic IMRT treatments using DAVID in vivo dosimetric system.

    PubMed

    Karagoz, Gulay; Zorlu, Faruk; Yeginer, Mete; Yildiz, Demet; Ozyigit, Gokhan

    2016-03-08

    Accuracy and precision of leaf positioning in multileaf collimators (MLCs) are significant factors for the accuracy of IMRT treatments. This study aimed to inves-tigate the accuracy and repeatability of the MLC leaf positioning via the DAVID invivo dosimetric system for dynamic and static MLC systems. The DAVID system was designed as multiwire transmission ionization chamber which is placed in accessory holder of linear accelerators. Each wire of DAVID system corresponds to a MLC leaf-pair to verify the leaf positioning accuracy during IMRT treatment and QA. In this study, verifications of IMRT plans of five head and neck (H&N) and five prostate patients treated in a Varian DHX linear accelerator with 80-leaf MLC were performed using DAVID system. Before DAVID-based dosimetry, Electronics Portal Imaging Device (EPID) and PTW 2D ARRAY dosimetry system were used for 2D verification of each plan. The measurements taken by DAVID system in the first day of the treatments were used as reference for the following measurements taken over the next four weeks. The deviations in leaf positioning were evaluated by "Total Deviation (TD)" parameter calculated by DAVID software. The delivered IMRT plans were originally prepared using dynamic MLC method. The same plans were subsequently calculated based on static MLC method with three different intensity levels of five (IL5), 10 (IL10) and 20 (IL20) in order to compare the performances of MLC leaf positioning repeatability for dynamic and static IMRT plans. The leaf positioning accuracy is also evaluated by analyzing DynaLog files based on error histograms and root mean square (RMS) errors of leaf pairs' positions. Moreover, a correlation analysis between simultaneously taken DAVID and EPID measurements and DynaLog file recordings was subsequently performed. In the analysis of DAVID outputs, the overall deviations of dynamic MLC-based IMRT calculated from the deviations of the four weeks were found as 0.55% ± 0.57% and 1.48% ± 0

  16. An integrated Monte Carlo dosimetric verification system for radiotherapy treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, T.; Mizowaki, T.; Miyabe, Y.; Takegawa, H.; Narita, Y.; Yano, S.; Nagata, Y.; Teshima, T.; Hiraoka, M.

    2007-04-01

    An integrated Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation system, MCRTV (Monte Carlo for radiotherapy treatment plan verification), has been developed for clinical treatment plan verification, especially for routine quality assurance (QA) of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans. The MCRTV system consists of the EGS4/PRESTA MC codes originally written for particle transport through the accelerator, the multileaf collimator (MLC), and the patient/phantom, which run on a 28-CPU Linux cluster, and the associated software developed for the clinical implementation. MCRTV has an interface with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) (Eclipse, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) and reads the information needed for MC computation transferred in DICOM-RT format. The key features of MCRTV have been presented in detail in this paper. The phase-space data of our 15 MV photon beam from a Varian Clinac 2300C/D have been developed and several benchmarks have been performed under homogeneous and several inhomogeneous conditions (including water, aluminium, lung and bone media). The MC results agreed with the ionization chamber measurements to within 1% and 2% for homogeneous and inhomogeneous conditions, respectively. The MC calculation for a clinical prostate IMRT treatment plan validated the implementation of the beams and the patient/phantom configuration in MCRTV.

  17. EMCCD based luminescence imaging system for spatially resolved geo-chronometric and radiation dosimetric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, N.; Adhyaru, P.; Vaghela, H.; Singhvi, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    We report the development of an Electron Multiplier Charge Coupled Device (EMCCD) based luminescence dating system. The system enables position sensitive measurements of luminescence for the estimation of spatially resolved distribution of equivalent dose for complex geological samples. The system includes: 1) a sample stimulation unit (with both thermal and optical stimulations), 2) an optics unit that comprises imaging optics and, 3) a data acquisition and processing unit. The system works in a LabVIEW environment with a graphical user interface (GUI). User specified stimulation protocols enable thermal and optical stimulation in any desired combination. The optics unit images the luminescence on to a EMCCD (512 × 512 pixels, each of 16μm × 16μm size) and maintains a unit magnification. This unit has flexible focusing and a filter housing that enables change of filters combinations without disturbing the setup. Time integrated EMCCD images of luminescence from the sample are acquired as a function of programmable dwell time and these images are processed using indigenously developed MATLAB based programs. Additionally, the programs align the acquired images using a set of control points (identifier features on the images) to a single pixel accuracy. The dose evaluation is based on integrated intensity from selected pixels followed by generation of a growth curve giving luminescence as a function of applied beta doses. Development of this EMCCD camera based luminescence system will enable in-situ luminescence measurements of the samples, without the requirement of separating mineral grains from their matrix. It will also allow age estimation of samples such as lithic artifacts/structures via dating of their surfaces, fusion crust of meteorites, pedogenic carbonates, etc and will additionally open up possibilities of application like testing spatial uniformity of doping in artificial luminescence phosphors, dating/dosimetry of inclusions etc.

  18. Technical and dosimetric aspects of respiratory gating using a pressure-sensor motion monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X. Allen; Stepaniak, Christopher; Gore, Elizabeth

    2006-01-15

    This work introduces a gating technique that uses 4DCT to determine gating parameters and to plan gated treatment, and employs a Siemens linear accelerator to deliver the gated treatment. Because of technology incompatibility, the 4DCT scanner (LightSpeed, GE) and the Siemens accelerator require two different motion-monitoring systems. The motion monitoring system (AZ-773V, Anzai Med.) used for the gated delivery utilizes a pressure sensor to detect the external respiratory motion (pressure change) in real time. Another system (RPM, Varian) used for the 4DCT scanner (LightSpeed, GE) is based on an infrared camera to detect motion of external markers. These two motion monitoring systems (RPM and Anzai systems) were found to correlate well with each other. The depth doses and profile measured for gated delivery (with a duty cycle of 25% or 50%) were found to agree within 1.0% with those measured for ungated delivery, indicating that gating did not significantly alter beam characteristics. The measurement verified also that the MU linearity and beam output remained unchanged (within 0.3%). A practical method of using 4DCT to plan a gated treatment was developed. The duty cycle for either phase or amplitude gating can be determined based on 4DCT with consideration of set-up error and delivery efficiency. The close-loop measurement involving the entire gating process (imaging, planning, and delivery) showed that the measured isodose distributions agreed with those intended, validating the accuracy and reliability of the gating technique. Based these observations, we conclude that the gating technique introduced in this work, integrating Siemens linear accelerator and Anzai pressure sensor device with GE/Varian RPM 4DCT, is reliable and effective, and it can be used clinically to account for respiratory motion during radiation therapy.

  19. A generalized definition of dosimetric quantities.

    PubMed

    Kellerer, A M; Rossi, H H

    1990-04-01

    The current definitions of microdosimetric and dosimetric quantities use the notion of 'ionizing radiation'. However, this notion is not rigorously defined, and its definition would require the somewhat arbitrary choice of specified energy cut-off values for different types of particles. Instead of choosing fixed cut-off values one can extend the system of definitions by admitting the free selection of a category of types and energies of particles that are taken to be part of the field. In this way one extends the system of dosimetric quantities. Kerma and absorbed dose appear then as special cases of a more general dosimetric quantity, and an analogue to kerma can be obtained for charged particle fields; it is termed cema. A modification that is suitable for electron fields is termed reduced cema.

  20. SU-E-T-303: Dosimetric Comparison of a LINAC Fallback Plan Generated From Tomotherapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C; Chen, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Quantitatively evaluate the Multi Criteria Optimization (MCO) based MLC step and shoot (sMLC) fallback plan derived from Tomotherapy of multiple lesions lung SBRT Methods: Inter-comparison of various IMRT planning systems tends to be difficult due to the vendor-specific functionalities. The methodology of defining dose constraints and beam geometries is challenging. Raysearch™ planning system offers an alternative replanning to deliver same intensity map from Tomotherapy without modifying original fluence. This intuitive comparison comes from the final fluence map converted without any embedded system dependent dose optimization. This planner independent approach could be utilized to study the merits of individual machines. The term “fallback” was utilized to (A) transfer plans in among treatment delivery systems; (B) maintain acceptable plan qualities; and (C) minimize the biological dose impact due to machine breakdown. The Tomotherapy specific DICOM RT dose and plan are retrieved into Raystation’s pre-defined sMLC protocol. Based on specific machine characteristics, same fluence maps were converted to generate equivalent deliverable segments. Therefore, the treatment plans were evaluated among two planning tools, Tomotherapy and MCO based sMLC delivery plans. Results: By converting the fluence map with the pre-defined machine characteristics, the 9-fields fallback plan has similar ITV coverage compared to the original Tomotherapy plan. ITV average doses, the D95 consisted of 0.9% variation. The total lung doses of fallback plan drifted from 17.4% to 30.5% which represents the limitations of the static beam delivery. D2 of fallback spinal cord increased from 22.4% to 36.4% but still within tolerances. Ipsilateral lung changed from 11.0% to 22.6%. Low dose region between ITVs presented increased dose to the normal lung tissues. Conclusion: Acceptable fallback plan for Tomotherapy SBRT has similar ITVs coverage, but lack of the normal tissues

  1. MO-FG-BRA-01: Development of An Image-Guided Dosimetric Planning System for Injectable Brachytherapy Using ELP Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lafata, K; Schaal, J; Liu, W; Cai, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop, validate, and evaluate a methodology for determining dosimetry for intratumoral injections of elastin-like-polypeptide (ELP) brachytherapy nanoparticles. These organic-polymer-based nanoparticles are injectable, biodegradable, and genetically tunable. We present a genetically encoded polymer-solution, composed of novel radiolabeled-ELP nanoparticles that are custom-designed to self-assemble into a local source upon intratumoral injection. Our preliminary results of a small animal study demonstrate 100% tumor response, effective radionuclide retention-rates, strong in vivo stability, and no polymer-induced toxicities. While our approach is therefore highly promising for improved brachytherapy, the current workflow lacks a dosimetry framework. Methods: We are developing a robust software framework that provides image-guided dosimetric-planning capabilities for ELP brachytherapy. The user graphically places ELP injection sites within a µCT-planning-image, and independently defines each injection volume, concentration, and radioisotope to be used. The resulting internal dosimetry is then pre-determined by first modeling post-injection ELP advection-diffusion, and then calculating the resulting dose distribution based on a point- dose-kernel-convolution algorithm. We have experimentally measured ELP steady-state concentrations via µSPECT acquisition, and validated our dose calculation algorithm against Monte Carlo simulations of several radioactivity distributions. Finally, we have investigated potential advantages and limitations of various ELP injection parameters. Results: The µSPECT results demonstrated inhomogeneous steady-state distributions of ELP in tissue, and Monte Carlo radioactivity distributions were designed accordingly. Our algorithm yielded a root-mean-square-error of less than 2% for each distribution tested (average root-mean-square-error was 0.73%). Dose-Volume-Histogram analysis of five different plans showed how strategic

  2. 39 CFR 3055.91 - Consumer access to postal services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consumer access to postal services. 3055.91 Section 3055.91 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Reporting of Customer Satisfaction § 3055.91 Consumer access to postal services. (a)...

  3. 76 FR 55619 - Performance Measurement for Special Postal Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    .... Calamoneri, Managing Counsel, Corporate & Postal Business Law, United States Postal Service to Shoshana M..., Managing Counsel, Corporate & Postal Business Law, United States Postal Service. III. Background of Postal... Enhancement Act (PAEA), Public Law 109-435, 120 Stat. 3198 (2006). The proposed rules described herein...

  4. 39 CFR 761.6 - Delivery of Postal Service securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delivery of Postal Service securities. 761.6... POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.6 Delivery of Postal Service securities. A Reserve Bank... obligations under this part by the delivery of Postal Service securities in definitive form to its...

  5. 39 CFR 222.1 - Authority to administer postal affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority to administer postal affairs. 222.1 Section 222.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 222.1 Authority to administer postal affairs. (a) The Postmaster General. The postmaster...

  6. 39 CFR 222.1 - Authority to administer postal affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority to administer postal affairs. 222.1 Section 222.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 222.1 Authority to administer postal affairs. (a) The Postmaster General. The postmaster...

  7. Detection of IMRT delivery errors using a quantitative 2D dosimetric verification system

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, Nathan L.; Bloch, Charles; White, R. Allen; Salehpour, Mohammad; Rosen, Isaac I.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of detecting intensity modulated radiotherapy delivery errors automatically using a scalar evaluation of two-dimensional (2D) transverse dose measurement of the complete treatment delivery. Techniques using the gamma index and the normalized agreement test (NAT) index were used to parametrize the agreement between measured and computed dose distributions to seven different scalar metrics. Simulated verifications with delivery errors calculated using a commercially available treatment planning system for 9 prostate and 7 paranasal sinus cases were compared to 433 clinical verifications. The NAT index with 5% and 3 mm criteria that included cold areas outside the planning target volume detected the largest percent of delivery errors. Assuming a false positive rate of 5%, it was able to detect 88% of beam energy changes, 94% of a different patient's plan being delivered, 25% of plans with one beam's collimator rotated by 90 deg., 81% of rotating one beam's gantry angle by 10 deg., and 100% of omitting the delivery of one beam. However, no instances of changing one beam's monitor unit setting by 10% or shifting the isocenter by 5 mm were detected. Although the phantom shift could not be detected by the small change it made in the dose distribution, our autopositioning algorithm clearly identified the spatial anomaly. Using tighter 3%/2 mm criteria or combining dose and distance disagreements in an either/or fashion resulted in poorer delivery error detection. The mean value of the 2D gamma index distribution was less sensitive to delivery errors than the other scalar metrics studied. Although we found that scalar metrics do not have sufficient delivery error detection rates to be used as the sole clinical analysis technique, manually examining 2D dose comparison images would result in a near 100% detection rate while performing an ion chamber measurement alone would only detect 54% of these errors.

  8. OBSERVATIONS ON ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF THE BRENTWOOD POSTAL FACILITY FUMIGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper provides a summary of the four tests of the chlorine dioxide (ClO2) generation and scrubbing system at the 14,000,000 cubic foot Brentwood postal facility in Washington, DC, which had been contaminated with anthrax spores contained in a letter addressed to Senator Thoma...

  9. Dosimetric audit in brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, D A; Nisbet, A

    2014-01-01

    Dosimetric audit is required for the improvement of patient safety in radiotherapy and to aid optimization of treatment. The reassurance that treatment is being delivered in line with accepted standards, that delivered doses are as prescribed and that quality improvement is enabled is as essential for brachytherapy as it is for the more commonly audited external beam radiotherapy. Dose measurement in brachytherapy is challenging owing to steep dose gradients and small scales, especially in the context of an audit. Several different approaches have been taken for audit measurement to date: thimble and well-type ionization chambers, thermoluminescent detectors, optically stimulated luminescence detectors, radiochromic film and alanine. In this work, we review all of the dosimetric brachytherapy audits that have been conducted in recent years, look at current audits in progress and propose required directions for brachytherapy dosimetric audit in the future. The concern over accurate source strength measurement may be essentially resolved with modern equipment and calibration methods, but brachytherapy is a rapidly developing field and dosimetric audit must keep pace. PMID:24807068

  10. 77 FR 1957 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... noticing a recently filed Postal Service request to add Global Plus 2C Contracts to the competitive product... hereby provides notice that the Postal Service has filed a request to add Global Plus 2C Contracts, consisting of two Global Plus 2C agreements, to the competitive products list.\\1\\ The new product...

  11. 78 FR 963 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... Mail International (PMI), and Global Express Guaranteed (GXG), as well as the creation of a new GEPS... proposed new product under 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. Id. Attachment 4. The instant...

  12. 75 FR 79053 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... Service seeks to add Global Plus 1B as a new product, to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Request has... instant contracts be considered ``the new `baseline' contracts for future functional equivalency...

  13. 77 FR 70490 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... redacted contract related to the proposed new product under 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. Id...' Decision No. 11-6, authorizing the new product; Attachment B--a redacted copy of the contract; Attachment...

  14. 78 FR 76332 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... contemporaneously filed a redacted contract related to the proposed new product. Id. Attachment B. The instant... the new product; Attachment B--a redacted copy of the contract; Attachment C--proposed changes to...

  15. 75 FR 79054 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... Service seeks to add a new product Global Plus 2B Contracts, to the competitive product list and to that... new `baseline' agreements for consideration of future functional analyses of the Global Plus...

  16. 77 FR 70491 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... redacted contract related to the proposed new product under 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. Id...' Decision No. 11-6, authorizing the new product; Attachment B--a redacted copy of the contract; Attachment...

  17. 78 FR 59733 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is...) has filed a request to add a new product, Private Address Forwarding (PAF) service, to the market... identification, request that mail addressed to a PAF ID that they control be forwarded to a new...

  18. 77 FR 70489 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... redacted contract related to the proposed new product under 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. Id...' Decision No. 11-6, authorizing the new product; Attachment B--a redacted copy of the contract; Attachment...

  19. 77 FR 70488 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... redacted contract related to the proposed new product under 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. Id...' Decision No. 11-6, authorizing the new product; Attachment B--a redacted copy of the contract; Attachment...

  20. 78 FR 65015 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... contemporaneously filed a redacted contract related to the proposed new product. Id. Attachment B. The instant... the new product; Attachment B--a redacted copy of the contract; Attachment C--proposed changes to...

  1. 78 FR 76334 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... contemporaneously filed a redacted contract related to the proposed new product. Id. Attachment B. The instant... the new product; Attachment B--a redacted copy of the contract; Attachment C--proposed changes to...

  2. 78 FR 36795 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: The Commission is... contemporaneously filed a redacted contract related to the proposed new product under 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39... Governors' Decision No. 11-6, authorizing the new product; Attachment B--a redacted copy of the...

  3. 78 FR 59734 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... contemporaneously filed a redacted contract related to the proposed new product. Id. Attachment B. The instant... the new product; Attachment B--a redacted copy of the contract; Attachment C--proposed changes to...

  4. 77 FR 305 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... well as a new GEPS-NPR 3 model contract and accompanying financial model that differ from the GEPS-NPR... to the proposed new product under 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. Id. Attachment B....

  5. 78 FR 65016 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... related to the proposed new product. Id. Attachment B. The instant contract has been assigned Docket No...: Attachment A--a redacted copy of Governors' Decision No. 11-6, authorizing the new product; Attachment...

  6. 78 FR 79022 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... proposed new product under 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. Id. Attachment B. The instant contract... attachments as follows: Attachment A--a redacted copy of Governors' Decision No. 11-6, authorizing the...

  7. 77 FR 47885 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... redacted contract related to the proposed new product under 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. Id...' Decision No. 11-6, authorizing the new product; Attachment B--a redacted copy of the contract; ]...

  8. 78 FR 63520 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... Contracts 3 product to the competitive product list and the inclusion of a related agreement within the new... 1-2. The instant dockets address a new GREP Contracts ] 3 product and a new baseline agreement....

  9. 76 FR 66766 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... noticing a recently filed Postal Service request to include a bilateral agreement with Australia Post in... Corporation (Australia Post), which it seeks to include in the Inbound Market Dominant Multi-Service Agreements with Foreign Postal Operators 1 product.\\1\\ The Australia Post Agreement establishes new rates...

  10. 76 FR 53981 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional agreement under the ``Inbound... Inbound Competitive Multi-Service Agreements with Foreign Postal Operators 1 agreement.\\1\\ The Notice concerns the inbound portion of a Multi- Product Bilateral Agreement with China Post Group (China Post...

  11. 77 FR 36585 - Postal Rate Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service notice of rate and changes affecting Inbound Air Parcel Post at... rates not of general applicability for Inbound Air Parcel Post at Universal Postal Union (UPU) rates.\\1... inbound parcels eligible to receive transportation by air, as opposed to surface. Id., Attachment 1 at...

  12. 76 FR 53983 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Norway Post Agreement) under the ``Inbound Competitive Multi-Service Agreements with Foreign Postal..., pursuant to 39 CFR 3015.5, that it has entered into an additional Inbound Competitive Multi-Service... inbound competitive services with Posten Norge AS (Norway Post Agreement) that the Postal Service seeks...

  13. 75 FR 52786 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add Inbound Market Dominant Multi-Service Agreements... CFR 3010.40 et seq. and 3020.30 et seq. to add Inbound Market Dominant Multi-Service Agreements with... Request has been assigned Docket No. MC2010-35. \\1\\ Request of United States Postal Service to Add...

  14. 75 FR 5236 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... inbound market dominant services. This action is consistent with a postal reform law. Republication of the... Inbound Market Dominant Services to the Market Dominant Product List. For the reasons discussed below, the... Canada Post-United States Postal Service Contractual Bilateral Agreement for Inbound Market...

  15. 76 FR 52718 - Complaint About Postal Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... authorization of settlement negotiations. DATES: The settlement coordinator's report is due September 15, 2011... Complaint and directs that the parties begin settlement negotiations based on the Postal Service's offer... Commission directs the Complainant and the Postal Service to immediately engage in settlement...

  16. 78 FR 4478 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... in public Excel spreadsheets. Id. at 3. Functional equivalency. The Postal Service asserts that the... cost and market characteristics. Id. at 4. It notes that the pricing formula and classification... U.S.C. 3633 and related regulations. Id. The Postal Service also indicates that the pricing...

  17. 78 FR 70970 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... noticing recent Postal Service filings requesting the addition of Priority Mail Contract 68 to the... Contract 68 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that Priority Mail Contract 68... Service to Add Priority Mail Contract 68 to Competitive Product List and Notice of Filing (Under Seal)...

  18. 75 FR 7634 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... in the customer identity. Id. The Postal Service represents that prices and classifications ``not of... been assigned Docket Nos. CP2010-21 and CP2010-22. The Postal Service uses IBRS contracts for customers that sell lightweight articles to foreign consumers and desire to offer their customers a way to...

  19. 75 FR 39992 - New Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... Expedited Package Services 2 (GEPS 2) contracts.\\1\\ The Postal Service believes the instant contracts are... Expedited Package Services 2 to the Competitive Product List, August 28, 2009 (Order No. 290). The instant contracts. The Postal Service filed the instant contracts pursuant to 39 CFR 3015.5. In addition, the...

  20. 75 FR 40853 - Postal Rate Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... reform law, a new approach to implementing rate changes for market dominant postal products, which... based on changes in a specified Consumer Price Index (CPI). However, the law includes a provision... Commission determination on certain considerations. The Postal Service is invoking this provision for...

  1. 76 FR 1200 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add Priority Mail Contract 34 to the competitive... 34 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ Priority Mail contracts enable the Postal Service to provide... Priority Mail Contract 34 is a competitive product ``not of general applicability'' within the meaning...

  2. 76 FR 7883 - Postal Service Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... as a functionally equivalent agreement under the Inbound Multi-Service Agreements with Foreign Postal... Service of Type 2 Rate Adjustment, and Notice of Filing Functionally Equivalent Agreement, January 31... Foreign Postal Operators 1 product and two functionally equivalent agreements, Strategic...

  3. 75 FR 166 - Postal Product Price Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... recently-filed Postal Service request to change prices for a Global Plus 2 contract. This notice provides...). \\1\\ Notice of United States Postal Service of Change in Prices in Accordance with Order No. 216... requirements of a competitive rate change set forth in 39 CFR 3015.5. Because the basis for the price change...

  4. 75 FR 166 - Postal Product Price Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... recently-filed Postal Service request to change prices for a Global Plus 2 contract. This notice provides... 3). \\1\\ Notice of United States Postal Service of Change in Prices in Accordance with Order No. 216... requirements of a competitive rate change set forth in 39 CFR 3015.5. Because the basis for the price change...

  5. Dosimetric and delivery efficiency investigation for treating hepatic lesions with a MLC-equipped robotic radiosurgery–radiotherapy combined system

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Lihui Price, Robert A.; Wang, Lu; Meyer, Joshua; Fan, James; Charlie Ma, Chang Ming

    2016-02-15

    Purpose: The CyberKnife M6 (CK-M6) Series introduced a multileaf collimator (MLC) for extending its capability from stereotactic radiosurgery/stereotactic radiotherapy (SBRT) to conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. This work is to investigate the dosimetric quality of plans that are generated using MLC-shaped beams on the CK-M6, as well as their delivery time, via comparisons with the intensity modulated radiotherapy plans that were clinically used on a Varian Linac for treating hepatic lesions. Methods: Nine patient cases were selected and divided into three groups with three patients in each group: (1) the group-one patients were treated conventionally (25 fractions); (2) the group-two patients were treated with SBRT-like hypofractionation (5 fractions); and (3) the group-three patients were treated similar to group-one patients, but with two planning target volumes (PTVs) and two different prescription dose levels correspondingly. The clinically used plans were generated on the ECLIPSE treatment planning system (TPS) and delivered on a Varian Linac (E-V plans). The multiplan (MP) TPS was used to replan these clinical cases with the MLC as the beam device for the CK-M6 (C-M plans). After plans were normalized to the same PTV dose coverage, comparisons between the C-M and E-V plans were performed based on D{sub 99%} (percentage of prescription dose received by 99% of the PTV), D{sub 0.1cm{sup 3}} (the percentage of prescription dose to 0.1 cm{sup 3} of the PTV), and doses received by critical structures. Then, the delivery times for the C-M plans will be obtained, which are the MP TPS generated estimations assuming having an imaging interval of 60 s. Results: The difference in D{sub 99%} between C-M and E-V plans is +0.6% on average (+ or − indicating a higher or lower dose from C-M plans than from E-V plans) with a range from −4.1% to +3.8%, and the difference in D{sub 0.1cm{sup 3}} was −1.0% on average with a range from −5.1% to +2.9%. The PTV

  6. Neighborhood and postal worker characteristics associated with dog bites in postal workers of the Brazilian National Postal Service in Curitiba.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Eduardo Alexandre; Manosso, Rose Maria; Braune, Gisela; Marcenovicz, Priscila Cavalheiro; Kuritza, Leandro Nagae; Ventura, Henrique Larsen Brunow; Paploski, Igor Adolfo Dexheimer; Kikuti, Mariana; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2013-05-01

    Dog bites are the third most common cause of absenteeism among postal workers of the Brazilian National Postal Service in Southern Brazil, with an average off-work time of approximately two days for each biting episode. The objective of this study was to evaluate the neighborhood characteristics involving dog bites that occurred during work time in postal workers, its impact on work and consequent preventive alternatives. A descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study was designed for all Curitiba postal workers. Data were descriptively analyzed and the hypothesis of correlation between median monthly income, population density and occurrence of dog bites was tested. A total of 34.9% of the postal workers answered the questionnaire and 64.6% of them had been bitten while working. The odds of bites occurring in a neighborhood increase by 1.035 times for every increase in one unit in the population density and decrease by 0.998 times for every increase of US$ 1.00 in the neighborhood median monthly income of the head of the family. The occurrence of dog bites among postal workers in Curitiba is related to income and population density and prevention strategies should address mailbox position and adequate fencing to provide protection for postal workers.

  7. 77 FR 63898 - New Postal Product; Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... New Postal Product; Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice... competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that Express Mail & Priority Mail Contract 11 is a... Postal Service contemporaneously filed a redacted contract related to the proposed new product under 39...

  8. 77 FR 63899 - New Postal Product; Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... New Postal Product; Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is establishing a docket to consider the Postal Service's request to add Priority... list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that Priority Mail Contract 44 is a competitive product ``not...

  9. 77 FR 1089 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ...The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add a Global Direct Contracts 1 contract to the competitive product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with the...

  10. 77 FR 2098 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add Global Plus 1C agreements to the competitive... distinction is reflected in a minor classification change and in the financial models. Id. Other...

  11. Fair and Equitable Postal Service Access Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Moore, Gwen [D-WI-4

    2011-09-15

    10/03/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, U.S. Postal Service, and Labor Policy . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. 78 FR 26405 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... costs and assumptions, pricing formulas, information relevant to the customer's mailing profile, and cost coverage projections. Id. The Postal Service asks the Commission to protect customer-identifying... portions of the Governors' Decision, contract, customer-identifying information, and related...

  13. 78 FR 43246 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ..., underlying costs and assumptions, pricing formulas, information relevant to the customer's mailing profile, and cost coverage projections. Id. The Postal Service asks the Commission to protect customer... redacted portions of the Governors' Decision, contract, customer-identifying information, and...

  14. 76 FR 54510 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... ``International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3'' product offering. This document invites... into an additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive contract.\\1\\ The Postal... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Service Agreement, August 19,...

  15. Dosimetric comparison of Linac-based (BrainLAB®) and robotic radiosurgery (CyberKnife ®) stereotactic system plans for acoustic schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Debnarayan; Balaji Subramanian, S; Murli, V; Sudahar, H; Gopalakrishna Kurup, P G; Potharaju, Mahadev

    2012-02-01

    A dosimetric comparison of linear accelerator (LA)-based (BrainLAB) and robotic radiosurgery (RS) (CyberKnife) systems for acoustic schwannoma (Acoustic neuroma, AN) was carried out. Seven patients with radiologically confirmed unilateral AN were planned with both an LA-based (BrainLAB) and robotic RS (CyberKnife) system using the same computed tomography (CT) dataset and contours. Gross tumour volume (GTV) was contoured on post-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan [planning target volume (PTV) margin 2 mm]. Planning and calculation were done with appropriate calculation algorithms. The prescribed isodose in both systems was considered adequate to cover at least 95% of the contoured target. Plan evaluations were done by examining the target coverage by the prescribed isodose line, and high- and low-dose volumes. Isodose plans and dose volume histograms generated by the two systems were compared. There was no statistically significant difference between the contoured volumes between the systems. Tumour volumes ranged from 380 to 3,100 mm(3). Dose prescription was 13-15 Gy in single fraction (median prescribed isodose 85%). There were no significant differences in conformity index (CI) (0.53 versus 0.58; P = 0.225), maximum brainstem dose (4.9 versus 4.7 Gy; P = 0.935), 2.5-Gy volume (39.9 versus 52.3 cc; P = 0.238) or 5-Gy volume (11.8 versus 16.8 cc; P = 0.129) between BrainLAB and CyberKnife system plans. There were statistically significant differences in organs at risk (OAR) doses, such as mean cochlear dose (6.9 versus 5.4 Gy; P = 0.001), mean mesial temporal dose (2.6 versus 1.7 Gy; P = 0.07) and high-dose (10 Gy) volume (3.2 versus 5.2 cc; P = 0.017). AN patients planned with the CyberKnife system had superior OAR (cochlea and mesial temporal lobe) sparing compared with those planned with the Linac-based system. Further evaluation of these findings in prospective studies with clinical correlation will provide actual clinical benefit from the

  16. Leaf sequencing and dosimetric verification in intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agazaryan, Nzhde

    Although sophisticated means to calculate and deliver intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) have been developed by many groups, methods to verify the delivery, as well as definitions of acceptability of a treatment in terms of these measurements are the most problematic at this stage of advancement of IMRT. Present intensity modulated radiotherapy systems fail to account for many dosimetric characteristics of the delivery system. In this dissertation, a dosimetrically based leaf sequencing algorithm is developed and implemented for multileaf collimated intensity modulated radiotherapy. The dosimetric considerations are investigated and are shown to significantly improve the outcome in terms of an agreement between desired and delivered radiation dose distributions. Subsequently, a system for determining the desirability of a produced intensity modulated radiotherapy plan in terms of deliverability of calculated profiles with the use of a multileaf collimator is developed. Three deliverability scoring indices are defined to evaluate the deliverability of the profiles. Gradient Index (GI) is a measure of the complexity of the profile in terms of gradients. Baseline Index (BI) is the fraction of the profile that is planned to get lower than the minimum level of transmission radiation. Cumulative Monitor Unit Index (CMUI) is the ratio of the cumulative monitor units (CMU) required for obtaining the desired profile to an average dose level in the profile. The dosimetric investigations of the deliverability scoring indices are presented, showing a clear correlation between scoring indices and dosimetric accuracy. Finally, materials and methods are developed for verification of intensity modulated radiotherapy. Dosimetric verification starts from investigations of the developed leaf sequencing algorithm, then extends to dosimetric verification in terms of deliverability, and lastly, dosimetric verification of complete clinical IMRT plans is performed.

  17. Effect of e-mail versus postal reminders for mammogram screening.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Rajeev; Cabanela, Rosa; Rahman, Ahmed; McMurtry, Erin; Leutink, Dorinda; Scheitel, Sidna; Naessens, James M

    2006-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was undertaken to measure the efficacy of a patient reminder system for females age 40 - 75 in a Midwestern primary care practice. A subset of the population whose email addresses were known was further randomized to measure the effect of email versus postal reminders. A statistically significant increase in completion rates was observed in the intervention group while no difference was found between the email and postal mail groups.

  18. 39 CFR 762.44 - Receipt or recovery of original disbursement postal money order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... postal money order. 762.44 Section 762.44 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Issuance of Substitutes for Lost, Destroyed, Mutilated, and Defaced Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.44 Receipt or...

  19. 39 CFR 762.44 - Receipt or recovery of original disbursement postal money order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Receipt or recovery of original disbursement postal money order. 762.44 Section 762.44 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Issuance of Substitutes...

  20. 39 CFR 762.25 - Reclamation of amounts of paid disbursement postal money orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reclamation of amounts of paid disbursement postal money orders. 762.25 Section 762.25 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements,...

  1. SU-E-T-256: Development of a Monte Carlo-Based Dose-Calculation System in a Cloud Environment for IMRT and VMAT Dosimetric Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) are techniques that are widely used for treating cancer due to better target coverage and critical structure sparing. The increasing complexity of IMRT and VMAT plans leads to decreases in dose calculation accuracy. Monte Carlo simulations are the most accurate method for the determination of dose distributions in patients. However, the simulation settings for modeling an accurate treatment head are very complex and time consuming. The purpose of this work is to report our implementation of a simple Monte Carlo simulation system in a cloud-computing environment for dosimetric verification of IMRT and VMAT plans. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations of a Varian Clinac linear accelerator were performed using the BEAMnrc code, and dose distributions were calculated using the DOSXYZnrc code. Input files for the simulations were automatically generated from DICOM RT files by the developed web application. We therefore must only upload the DICOM RT files through the web interface, and the simulations are run in the cloud. The calculated dose distributions were exported to RT Dose files that can be downloaded through the web interface. The accuracy of the calculated dose distribution was verified by dose measurements. Results: IMRT and VMAT simulations were performed and good agreement results were observed for measured and MC dose comparison. Gamma analysis with a 3% dose and 3 mm DTA criteria shows a mean gamma index value of 95% for the studied cases. Conclusion: A Monte Carlo-based dose calculation system has been successfully implemented in a cloud environment. The developed system can be used for independent dose verification of IMRT and VMAT plans in routine clinical practice. The system will also be helpful for improving accuracy in beam modeling and dose calculation in treatment planning systems. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25861057.

  2. 39 CFR 1.1 - Establishment of the U.S. Postal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment of the U.S. Postal Service. 1.1 Section 1.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL POLICY (ARTICLE I) § 1.1 Establishment of the U.S. Postal Service. The U.S. Postal Service...

  3. 39 CFR 1.1 - Establishment of the U.S. Postal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Establishment of the U.S. Postal Service. 1.1 Section 1.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL POLICY (ARTICLE I) § 1.1 Establishment of the U.S. Postal Service. The U.S. Postal Service...

  4. 78 FR 12108 - New Postal Product; Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... New Postal Product; Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning an amendment to the existing Express Mail & Priority Mail Contract 11 Negotiated Service Agreement. This notice informs the public...

  5. 78 FR 12801 - New Postal Product; Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... New Postal Product; Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice... Parcel Return Service Contract 3 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that Parcel Return Service Contract 3 is a competitive product ``not of general applicability'' within...

  6. 76 FR 12141 - New Postal Product and New Price Category

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... New Postal Product and New Price Category AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice... Services to the competitive product list. The Postal Service also states that it has established a new... new product to the competitive product list and concurrently establish a new price category under...

  7. 77 FR 24758 - Advisory Committee International Postal and Delivery Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Committee International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice; FACA... Postal and Delivery Services. This Committee has been formed in fulfillment of the provisions of the 2006... postal and delivery services of interest to Advisory Committee members and the public. For...

  8. 77 FR 10033 - Advisory Committee International Postal and Delivery Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Committee International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice; FACA... Postal and Delivery Services. This Committee has been formed in fulfillment of the provisions of the 2006... related to international postal and delivery services of interest to Advisory Committee members and...

  9. 75 FR 471 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add Global Direct Contracts 1 to the Competitive... additional Global Direct contract, and seeks to add it as Global Direct Contracts 1 to the Competitive... previously submitted Global Direct Contracts and is supported by Governors' Decision No. 08- 10,...

  10. 76 FR 10410 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... Justification, Jo Ann Miller, former Director, Global Business Development, asserts that the services to be... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add International Business Reply Service (IBRS... International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3 to the competitive product list...

  11. 75 FR 78915 - Conduct on Postal Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... in 39 CFR 232.1. 1. Paragraph (f) Gambling: The prohibition of lottery ticket sales contains an... Conduct on postal property. * * * * * (f) Gambling. Participating in games for money or other personal property, the operation of gambling devices, the conduct of a lottery or pool, or the selling or...

  12. 75 FR 9523 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... equivalent with the previous Global Direct Contracts because it shares ``similar, if not the same...'' cost... contract meets its attributable costs and there is no cross-subsidization of this competitive product by.... The Commission finds this an acceptable method for the Postal Service to support its Request....

  13. 75 FR 4693 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    .... ] SUMMARY: The Commission is adding Inbound International Expedited International Services 3 to the... Postal Service seeks to add a new product identified as Inbound International Expedited Services 1 to the... the new product as Inbound International Expedited Services 3. II. Background On November 20,...

  14. 75 FR 7951 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ..., asserts that the service to be provided under the contract will cover its attributable costs, make a positive contribution to institutional costs, and increase contribution toward the requisite 5.5 percent of the Postal Service's total institutional costs. Id., Attachment D. Thus, Ms. Plonkey contends...

  15. 75 FR 7201 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... cover its attributable costs, make a positive contribution to institutional costs, and increase contribution toward the requisite 5.5 percent of the Postal Service's total institutional costs. Request... information, including the analyses that provide prices, terms, conditions, cost data, and...

  16. 78 FR 40203 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ...'' link in the banner at the top of the Commission's Web site ( http://www.prc.gov ) or by directly... presents reasons why the proposed new product satisfies the criteria in 39 U.S.C. 3642(b)(1) and (2... addresses 39 U.S.C. 3642(b)(3) (market considerations). Id. at 6-7. The Postal Service asserts that...

  17. 76 FR 4395 - Postal Service Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... High Density/Saturation Letters 0.615 High Density/Saturation Flats & Parcels 0.403 Carrier Route... cost coverage. Id. at 18. The Notice also states that the Postal Service recently filed a... ``challenged'' cost coverage status, and states that the new prices are designed to balance the effect...

  18. 75 FR 12445 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ...: The Commission is adding International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 2 to the Competitive Product List. This action is consistent with a postal reform law. Republication of the Market... product identified as International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 2 to the...

  19. 75 FR 70754 - Postal Classification Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... bundle and container charges for Outside County Periodicals pieces in combined mailings of Standard Mail... change affects bundle and container charges for Outside County Periodicals pieces in combined mailings of.... The Postal Service notes that the planned change means that when bundles or containers include...

  20. 75 FR 34074 - Postal Pricing Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... volume-based discount provision of the Capital One NSA using the analysis of Capital One witness Elliot.\\6\\ Elliot's analysis applied price elasticities from the Postal Service's demand model to the... applied an elasticity-based approach similar to that of witness Elliot for estimating the effect of...

  1. 76 FR 47615 - Postal Rate Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ....\\1\\ The Postal Service incorporates by reference a listing of countries in each pricing tier and the... Docket Nos. MC2009- 10, CP2009-12 and CP2009-57. Id. at 2 and n.4. The following four documents...

  2. 78 FR 13713 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... customer's mailing profile, and cost coverage projections. Id. The Postal Service asks the Commission to protect customer-identifying information from public disclosure indefinitely. Id. at 7. II. Notice of... maintains that the redacted portions of the Governors' Decision, contract, customer-identifying...

  3. 75 FR 30869 - New Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Service believes the instant contracts are functionally equivalent to previously submitted GEPS 2... List, August 28, 2009 (Order No. 290). The instant contracts. The Postal Service filed the instant... reasons why the instant GEPS 2 contracts fit within the Mail Classification Schedule language for GEPS...

  4. 75 FR 30868 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Service believes the instant contract is functionally equivalent to previously submitted GEPS 2 contracts... (Order No. 290). The instant contract. The Postal Service filed the instant contract pursuant to 39 CFR... the contract and supporting documents under seal. The Notice advances reasons why the instant GEPS...

  5. 75 FR 44993 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... Global Plus 2A contracts.\\1\\ The Postal Service states that the instant contracts are functionally... with Order No. 112.\\2\\ It states further that the instant contracts are supported by Governors... contracts have been assigned Docket Nos. CP2010-69 and CP2010-70, respectively. The instant contracts....

  6. 77 FR 39747 - Changes in Postal Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-16434] POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. MC2012-30; Order No. 1386] Changes in... views electronically should contact the person identified in FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT by... Rate Envelope option in the EMI product category. Notice at 1. The stated purpose of the change is...

  7. 76 FR 13242 - Change in Postal Prices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Contents I. Introduction II. Notice of Filings III. Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction On March 1, 2011... Showcase box is a Postal Service-branded parcel box designed to contain product samples and other... Showcase boxes previously prohibited under the agreement as long as those boxes meet specific...

  8. 78 FR 33451 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Supporting Justification, Frank Cebello, Executive Director, Global Business Management, asserts that the... and medium-size businesses. Request at 5. Governors' Decision No. 10-1 established prices and...' Decision No. 11-6 authorizes Postal Service management to prepare and present to the Commission...

  9. 75 FR 45174 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ..., rate schedules, a management analysis, and certification that prices satisfy applicable pricing criteria. Attachment 3 is a Statement of Justification by the Executive Director, Global Business Management. Attachment 4 is a representative agreement between the Postal Service and a customer of...

  10. 76 FR 80985 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to enter into an outstanding International Business Reply..., pursuant to 39 CFR 3015.5, of contingency prices under an outstanding International Business Reply Service... under Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 1...

  11. 39 CFR 762.29 - Endorsement of disbursement postal money orders by payees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Endorsement of disbursement postal money orders by...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.29 Endorsement of disbursement postal...

  12. 39 CFR 762.30 - Disbursement postal money orders issued to incompetent payees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disbursement postal money orders issued to... OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.30 Disbursement postal...

  13. 39 CFR 762.25 - Reclamation of amounts of paid disbursement postal money orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... money orders. 762.25 Section 762.25 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.25 Reclamation of amounts...

  14. 39 CFR 762.14 - Amounts for which disbursement postal money orders may be issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amounts for which disbursement postal money orders... OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS General, Definitions, Issuance § 762.14 Amounts for which disbursement postal money orders may be issued. Disbursement Postal...

  15. 39 CFR 762.14 - Amounts for which disbursement postal money orders may be issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amounts for which disbursement postal money orders... OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS General, Definitions, Issuance § 762.14 Amounts for which disbursement postal money orders may be issued. Disbursement Postal...

  16. 39 CFR 762.25 - Reclamation of amounts of paid disbursement postal money orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... money orders. 762.25 Section 762.25 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.25 Reclamation of amounts...

  17. 39 CFR 762.31 - Disbursement postal money orders issued to deceased payees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disbursement postal money orders issued to... OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.31 Disbursement postal...

  18. 39 CFR 762.29 - Endorsement of disbursement postal money orders by payees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Endorsement of disbursement postal money orders by...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.29 Endorsement of disbursement postal...

  19. 39 CFR 762.31 - Disbursement postal money orders issued to deceased payees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disbursement postal money orders issued to... OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.31 Disbursement postal...

  20. 39 CFR 762.30 - Disbursement postal money orders issued to incompetent payees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disbursement postal money orders issued to... OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.30 Disbursement postal...

  1. 39 CFR 762.29 - Endorsement of disbursement postal money orders by payees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Endorsement of disbursement postal money orders by...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.29 Endorsement of disbursement postal...

  2. 39 CFR 762.14 - Amounts for which disbursement postal money orders may be issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amounts for which disbursement postal money orders... OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS General, Definitions, Issuance § 762.14 Amounts for which disbursement postal money orders may be issued. Disbursement Postal...

  3. SU-E-T-132: Dosimetric Impact of Positioning Errors in Hypo-Fractionated Cranial Radiation Therapy Using Frameless Stereotactic BrainLAB System

    SciTech Connect

    Keeling, V; Jin, H; Ali, I; Ahmad, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine dosimetric impact of positioning errors in the stereotactic hypo-fractionated treatment of intracranial lesions using 3Dtransaltional and 3D-rotational corrections (6D) frameless BrainLAB ExacTrac X-Ray system. Methods: 20 cranial lesions, treated in 3 or 5 fractions, were selected. An infrared (IR) optical positioning system was employed for initial patient setup followed by stereoscopic kV X-ray radiographs for position verification. 6D-translational and rotational shifts were determined to correct patient position. If these shifts were above tolerance (0.7 mm translational and 1° rotational), corrections were applied and another set of X-rays was taken to verify patient position. Dosimetric impact (D95, Dmin, Dmax, and Dmean of planning target volume (PTV) compared to original plans) of positioning errors for initial IR setup (XC: Xray Correction) and post-correction (XV: X-ray Verification) was determined in a treatment planning system using a method proposed by Yue et al. (Med. Phys. 33, 21-31 (2006)) with 3D-translational errors only and 6D-translational and rotational errors. Results: Absolute mean translational errors (±standard deviation) for total 92 fractions (XC/XV) were 0.79±0.88/0.19±0.15 mm (lateral), 1.66±1.71/0.18 ±0.16 mm (longitudinal), 1.95±1.18/0.15±0.14 mm (vertical) and rotational errors were 0.61±0.47/0.17±0.15° (pitch), 0.55±0.49/0.16±0.24° (roll), and 0.68±0.73/0.16±0.15° (yaw). The average changes (loss of coverage) in D95, Dmin, Dmax, and Dmean were 4.5±7.3/0.1±0.2%, 17.8±22.5/1.1±2.5%, 0.4±1.4/0.1±0.3%, and 0.9±1.7/0.0±0.1% using 6Dshifts and 3.1±5.5/0.0±0.1%, 14.2±20.3/0.8±1.7%, 0.0±1.2/0.1±0.3%, and 0.7±1.4/0.0±0.1% using 3D-translational shifts only. The setup corrections (XC-XV) improved the PTV coverage by 4.4±7.3% (D95) and 16.7±23.5% (Dmin) using 6D adjustment. Strong correlations were observed between translation errors and deviations in dose coverage for XC. Conclusion

  4. Postal Service in Colonial America: A Bibliography of Material in the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, National Postal Museum Branch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Timothy, Comp.; Shumate, Debra, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography of materials in the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, National Postal Museum Branch, is intended to promote the study of Colonial American postal service in the library. It focuses on postal service in the European settlements that became the United States. The first section lists 38 books, and the second sections…

  5. Dosimetric accuracy of a deterministic radiation transport based {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy treatment planning system. Part III. Comparison to Monte Carlo simulation in voxelized anatomical computational models

    SciTech Connect

    Zourari, K.; Pantelis, E.; Moutsatsos, A.; Sakelliou, L.; Georgiou, E.; Karaiskos, P.; Papagiannis, P.

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To compare TG43-based and Acuros deterministic radiation transport-based calculations of the BrachyVision treatment planning system (TPS) with corresponding Monte Carlo (MC) simulation results in heterogeneous patient geometries, in order to validate Acuros and quantify the accuracy improvement it marks relative to TG43. Methods: Dosimetric comparisons in the form of isodose lines, percentage dose difference maps, and dose volume histogram results were performed for two voxelized mathematical models resembling an esophageal and a breast brachytherapy patient, as well as an actual breast brachytherapy patient model. The mathematical models were converted to digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) image series for input to the TPS. The MCNP5 v.1.40 general-purpose simulation code input files for each model were prepared using information derived from the corresponding DICOM RT exports from the TPS. Results: Comparisons of MC and TG43 results in all models showed significant differences, as reported previously in the literature and expected from the inability of the TG43 based algorithm to account for heterogeneities and model specific scatter conditions. A close agreement was observed between MC and Acuros results in all models except for a limited number of points that lay in the penumbra of perfectly shaped structures in the esophageal model, or at distances very close to the catheters in all models. Conclusions: Acuros marks a significant dosimetry improvement relative to TG43. The assessment of the clinical significance of this accuracy improvement requires further work. Mathematical patient equivalent models and models prepared from actual patient CT series are useful complementary tools in the methodology outlined in this series of works for the benchmarking of any advanced dose calculation algorithm beyond TG43.

  6. FBX aqueous chemical dosimeter for measurement of dosimetric parameters.

    PubMed

    Moussous, O; Medjadj, T; Benguerba, M

    2011-02-01

    We investigated the ferrous sulphate-benzoic acid-xylenol orange (FBX) aqueous chemical dosimeter for measurement of dosimetric parameters such as the output factor, backscatter factor and lateral beam profiles for different square fields sizes for (60)Co γ-rays. A water phantom was employed to measure these parameters. An ionization chamber (IC) was used for calibration and comparison. A comparison of the resulting measurements with an ionization chamber's measured parameters showed good agreement. We thus believe that the tissue equivalent FBX dosimetry system can measure the dosimetric parameters for (60)Co with reasonable accuracy.

  7. SU-D-18A-06: Variation of Controlled Breath Hold From CT Simulation to Treatment and Its Dosimetric Impact for Left-Sided Breast Radiotherapy with a Real-Time Optical Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Mittauer, K; Deraniyagala, R; Li, J; Lu, B; Liu, C; Lightsey, J; Yan, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Different breath-hold (BH) maneuvers (abdominal breathing vs. chest breathing) during CT simulation and treatment can lead to chest wall positional variation. The purpose of this study is to quantify the variation of active breathing control (ABC)-assisted BH and estimate its dosimetric impact for left-sided whole-breast radiotherapy with a real-time optical tracking system (OTS). Methods: Seven breast cancer patients were included. An in-house OTS tracked an infrared (IR) marker affixed over the xiphoid process of the patient at CT simulation and throughout the treatment course to measure BH variations. Correlation between the IR marker and the breast was studied for dosimetric purposes. The positional variations of 860 BHs were retrospectively incorporated into treatment plans to assess their dosimetric impact on breast and cardiac organs (heart and left anterior descending artery [LAD]). Results: The mean intrafraction variations were 2.8 mm, 2.7 mm, and 1.6 mm in the anteroposterior (AP), craniocaudal (CC), and mediolateral (ML) directions, respectively. Mean stability in any direction was within 1.5 mm. A general trend of BH undershoot at treatment relative to CT simulation was observed with an average of 4.4 mm, 3.6 mm, and 0.1 mm in the AP, CC, and ML directions, respectively. Undershoot up to 12.6 mm was observed for individual patients. The difference between the planned and delivered dose to breast targets was negligible. The average planned/delivered mean heart doses, mean LAD doses, and max LAD doses were 1.4/2.1, 7.4/15.7, and 18.6/31.0 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: Systematic undershoot was observed in ABC-assisted BHs from CT simulation to treatment. Its dosimetric impact on breast coverage was minimized with image guidance, but the benefits of cardiac organ sparing were degraded. A real-time tracking system can be used in junction with the ABC device to improve BH reproducibility.

  8. SU-E-T-136: Dosimetric Robustness of a Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guided Radiation Therapy (MR-IGRT) System

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, V; Green, O; Wooten, H; Kashani, R; Mutic, S; Li, H; Dempsey, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To test the radiation delivery robustness of the first MR-IGRT system using a commercial cylindrical diode array detector (ArcCHECK) and an ionization thimble chamber (Exradin A18). Methods: The MR-IGRT system is composed of three evenly spaced Co-60 sources on a rotating gantry located between two magnet halves. The collimator for each source consists of 30 doubly-focused leaf pairs that allow the system to deliver both conformal and intensity modulated (IMRT) treatment plans. The system's delivery robustness was tested over a span of 6 months from September 2013 through February 2014. This was achieved by repeatedly delivering 10 patient plans. These plans consisted of 2 conformal prostates, 2 IMRT prostates, 2 IMRT head and neck, 2 IMRT breast, 1 IMRT pancreas, and 1 IMRT bladder. The plans were generated with the system's treatment planning software. Once the plans were generated, quality assurance plans were created on a digital ArcCHECK dataset. The ArcCHECK used for testing was specially designed to be MR-compatible by moving the power supply outside of the magnetic field. The A18 ionization chamber was placed in a custom plastic plug insert in the center of the ArcCHECK. Gamma analysis was used with the ArcCHECK for relative dose evaluating both 3%/3mm and 2%/2mm. Absolute point dose was compared between ion chamber measurement and treatment plan. Results: The ArcCHECK passing rate remained constant over the 6 month period. The average passing rate for 3%/3mm and 2%/2mm analysis was 98.6% ± 0.7 and 88.8% ± 2.9, respectively. The ion chamber measurements showed little variation with an average percent difference between planned dose verses measured dose of 0.9% ± 0.7. Conclusion: Minimal differences were noted in the delivery of the 10 patient plans. Over a period that included acceptance testing, commissioning, and clinical deliveries, the MR-IGRT system remained consistent in radiation delivery.

  9. Application of Information Science in Postal Services, Telecommunications, and Management,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-27

    RD-A122 Oil APPLICATION OF INFORMATION SCIENCE IN POSTAL SERVICES i/i TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND MANAGEMENT(U) FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIV WRIGHT-PATTERSON...6hTWOJL GMIAU Or STAWSOI - 1963 -A FTD-ID(RS)T-1322-82 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION APPLICATION OF INFORMATION SCIENCE IN POSTAL SERVICES...82 EDITED TRANSLATION FTD-ID(RS)T-1322-82 27 October 1982 MICROFICHE NR: FTD-82-C-001369 APPLICATION OF INFORMATION SCIENCE IN POSTAL SERVICES

  10. 39 CFR 262.5 - Systems (Privacy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Systems (Privacy). 262.5 Section 262.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS § 262.5 Systems (Privacy). (a) Privacy Act system of records. A Postal Service system...

  11. 39 CFR 762.28 - Release of original disbursement postal money orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of original disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.28 Release of original disbursement...

  12. 39 CFR 762.43 - Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Issuance of Substitutes for Lost, Destroyed, Mutilated, and Defaced Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.43 Issuance of substitute disbursement...

  13. 39 CFR 762.27 - Processing of disbursement postal money orders by Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Processing of disbursement postal money orders by... DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.27 Processing...

  14. 39 CFR 762.43 - Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Issuance of Substitutes for Lost, Destroyed, Mutilated, and Defaced Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.43 Issuance of substitute disbursement...

  15. 39 CFR 762.28 - Release of original disbursement postal money orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Release of original disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.28 Release of original disbursement...

  16. 39 CFR 762.43 - Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Issuance of Substitutes for Lost, Destroyed, Mutilated, and Defaced Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.43 Issuance of substitute disbursement...

  17. 39 CFR 762.43 - Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Issuance of Substitutes for Lost, Destroyed, Mutilated, and Defaced Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.43 Issuance of substitute disbursement...

  18. 39 CFR 762.28 - Release of original disbursement postal money orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release of original disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.28 Release of original disbursement...

  19. 39 CFR 762.43 - Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Issuance of Substitutes for Lost, Destroyed, Mutilated, and Defaced Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.43 Issuance of substitute disbursement...

  20. 39 CFR 762.27 - Processing of disbursement postal money orders by Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Processing of disbursement postal money orders by... DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.27 Processing...

  1. 39 CFR 762.28 - Release of original disbursement postal money orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Release of original disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.28 Release of original disbursement...

  2. 39 CFR 762.28 - Release of original disbursement postal money orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Release of original disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.28 Release of original disbursement...

  3. 39 CFR 235.1 - Postal Service to the Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Postal Service to the Armed Forces. 235.1 Section... LIAISON § 235.1 Postal Service to the Armed Forces. (a) Publication 38, Postal Agreement with the... Armed Forces. (b) The Chief Inspector is responsible for military liaison. (c) Postal inspectors...

  4. 39 CFR 235.1 - Postal Service to the Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Postal Service to the Armed Forces. 235.1 Section... LIAISON § 235.1 Postal Service to the Armed Forces. (a) Publication 38, Postal Agreement with the... Armed Forces. (b) The Chief Inspector is responsible for military liaison. (c) Postal inspectors...

  5. 39 CFR 762.27 - Processing of disbursement postal money orders by Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Federal Reserve Banks. 762.27 Section 762.27 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE... disbursement postal money orders by Federal Reserve Banks. In accordance with an agreement between the Postal Service and the Federal Reserve Banks as depositaries and fiscal agents of the United States,...

  6. 39 CFR 762.27 - Processing of disbursement postal money orders by Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Federal Reserve Banks. 762.27 Section 762.27 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE... disbursement postal money orders by Federal Reserve Banks. In accordance with an agreement between the Postal Service and the Federal Reserve Banks as depositaries and fiscal agents of the United States,...

  7. 39 CFR 762.27 - Processing of disbursement postal money orders by Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Reserve Banks. 762.27 Section 762.27 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE... disbursement postal money orders by Federal Reserve Banks. In accordance with an agreement between the Postal Service and the Federal Reserve Banks as depositaries and fiscal agents of the United States,...

  8. 39 CFR 778.10 - How does the Postal Service make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the Postal Service make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns? 778.10 Section 778.10 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE... Postal Service make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns? (a) If a state process provides...

  9. 39 CFR 235.1 - Postal Service to the Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Postal Service to the Armed Forces. 235.1 Section... LIAISON § 235.1 Postal Service to the Armed Forces. (a) Publication 38, Postal Agreement with the... Armed Forces. (b) The Chief Inspector is responsible for military liaison. (c) Postal inspectors...

  10. 39 CFR 235.1 - Postal Service to the Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Postal Service to the Armed Forces. 235.1 Section... LIAISON § 235.1 Postal Service to the Armed Forces. (a) Publication 38, Postal Agreement with the... Armed Forces. (b) The Chief Inspector is responsible for military liaison. (c) Postal inspectors...

  11. 39 CFR 235.1 - Postal Service to the Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Postal Service to the Armed Forces. 235.1 Section... LIAISON § 235.1 Postal Service to the Armed Forces. (a) Publication 38, Postal Agreement with the... Armed Forces. (b) The Chief Inspector is responsible for military liaison. (c) Postal inspectors...

  12. Dosimetric Verification by Using the ArcCHECK System and 3DVH Software for Various Target Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jin Ho; Shin, Hun-Joo; Kay, Chul Seung; Son, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the usefulness of the 3DVH software with an ArcCHECK 3D diode array detector in newly designed plans with various target sizes. Methods The isocenter dose was measured with an ion-chamber and was compared with the planned and 3DVH predicted doses. The 2D gamma passing rates were evaluated at the diode level by using the ArcCHECK detector. The 3D gamma passing rates for specific regions of interest (ROIs) were also evaluated by using the 3DVH software. Several dose-volume histograms (DVH)-based predicted metrics for all structures were also obtained by using the 3DVH software. Results The isocenter dose deviation was <1% in all plans except in the case of a 1 cm target. Besides the gamma passing rate at the diode level, the 3D gamma passing rate for specific ROIs tended to decrease with increasing target size; this was more noticeable when a more stringent gamma criterion was applied. No correlation was found with the gamma passing rates and the DVH-based metrics especially in the ROI with high-dose gradients. Conclusions Delivery quality assurance by using 3DVH and ArcCHECK can provide substantial information through a simple and easy approach, although the accuracy of this system should be judged cautiously. PMID:25807544

  13. A comprehensive system for dosimetric commissioning and Monte Carlo validation for the small animal radiation research platform

    PubMed Central

    Tryggestad, E; Armour, M; Iordachita, I; Verhaegen, F; Wong, J W

    2011-01-01

    Our group has constructed the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) for delivering focal, kilo-voltage radiation to targets in small animals under robotic control using cone-beam CT guidance. The present work was undertaken to support the SARRP’s treatment planning capabilities. We have devised a comprehensive system for characterizing the radiation dosimetry in water for the SARRP and have developed a Monte Carlo dose engine with the intent of reproducing these measured results. We find that the SARRP provides sufficient therapeutic dose rates ranging from 102 to 228 cGy min−1 at 1 cm depth for the available set of high-precision beams ranging from 0.5 to 5 mm in size. In terms of depth–dose, the mean of the absolute percentage differences between the Monte Carlo calculations and measurement is 3.4% over the full range of sampled depths spanning 0.5–7.2 cm for the 3 and 5 mm beams. The measured and computed profiles for these beams agree well overall; of note, good agreement is observed in the profile tails. Especially for the smallest 0.5 and 1 mm beams, including a more realistic description of the effective x-ray source into the Monte Carlo model may be important. PMID:19687532

  14. Dosimetric Verification of the System of Planning Brainscan for Stereotactic Radiosurgery at Oncology Department of the General Hospital of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez R, J. T.; Salinas, B.; Tovar M, V. M.; Villasenor O, L. F.; Molero M, A. C.

    2006-09-08

    The verification consists on the planning and administration of stereotactic treatments by means of conformed static beams, several polyethylene capsules with powder TLD 100 (type IAEA) located inside the head of a phantom Alderson-Rando. Because the planning system corrects for no-homogeneity in the density from the tomographic information, it is assumed that the absorbed dose in the tumor volume (capsule) corresponds to the dose absorbed to LiF: DLiF. Applying different cavity theories, the percent deviations to the nominal dose are: -1.81%{<=}{delta}%{<=}0.71%, which are consistent with the order of the U%'s. The values of DW are calculated from two calibration curve: TL Response (nC) vs DW for the energy of the 60Co corrected for energy dependence to the accelerator photon beam quality D20/D10=0.57. Once curve for 0.5 to 5 Gy and other for 5 to 35 Gy. The traceability for the Dwater is obtained by means of a secondary standard ionization chamber Farmer PTW 30013 calibrated at the NRC.

  15. 39 CFR 255.8 - Access to postal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES TO POSTAL SERVICE PROGRAMS, ACTIVITIES, FACILITIES, AND ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY... meet ABA design standards is not required, a discretionary alteration may be made on a...

  16. Dosimetric verification of a commercial Monte Carlo treatment planning system (VMC++) for a 9 MeV electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Schiapparelli, P.; Zefiro, D.; Taccini, G.

    2009-05-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of the voxel-based Monte Carlo algorithm implemented in the commercial treatment planning system ONCENTRA MASTERPLAN for a 9 MeV electron beam produced by a linear accelerator Varian Clinac 2100 C/D. In order to realize an experimental verification of the computed data, three different groups of tests were planned. The first set was performed in a water phantom to investigate standard fields, custom inserts, and extended treatment distances. The second one concerned standard field, irregular entrance surface, and oblique incidence in a homogeneous PMMA phantom. The last group involved the introduction of inhomogeneities in a PMMA phantom to simulate high and low density materials such as bone and lung. Measurements in water were performed by means of cylindrical and plane-parallel ionization chambers, whereas measurements in PMMA were carried out by the use of radiochromic films. Point dose values were compared in terms of percentage difference, whereas the gamma index tool was used to perform the comparison between computed and measured dose profiles, considering different tolerances according to the test complexity. In the case of transverse scans, the agreement was searched in the plane formed by the intersection of beam axis and the profile (2D analysis), while for percentage depth dose curves, only the beam axis was explored (1D analysis). An excellent agreement was found for point dose evaluation in water (discrepancies smaller than 2%). Also the comparison between planned and measured dose profiles in homogeneous water and PMMA phantoms showed good results (agreement within 2%-2 mm). Profile evaluation in phantoms with internal inhomogeneities showed a good agreement in the case of ''lung'' insert, while in tests concerning a small ''bone'' inhomogeneity, a discrepancy was particularly evidenced in dose values on the beam axis. This is due to the inaccurate geometrical description of the phantom that is

  17. SU-E-T-130: Dosimetric Evaluation of Tissue Equivalent Gel Dosimeter Using Saccharide in Radiotherapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y; Lee, D; Jung, H; Ji, Y; Kim, K; Chang, U; Kwon, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In this study, the dose responses of the MAGIC gel with various concentrations and type of saccharide are examined to clarify the roles of mono and disaccharide in the polymerization process. Then we focused on the tissue equivalence and dose sensitivity of MAGIC gel dosimeters. Methods: The gel is composed of HPLC, 8% gelatin, 2 × 10-3 M L-ascorbic acid, 1.8 × 10-2 M hydroquinone, 8 × 10-5 M copper(II)sulfate and 9% methacrylic acid, new polymer gels are synthesized by adding glucose(monosaccharide), sucrose(disaccharide) and urea in the concentration range of 5∼35%. For irradiation of the gel, cesium-137 gamma-ray irradiator was used, radiation dose was delivered from 5∼50 Gy. MRI images of the gel were acquired by using a 3.0 T MRI system. Results: When saccharide and urea were added, the O/C, O/N and C/N ratios agreed with those of soft tissue with 1.7%. The dose-response of glucose and sucrose gel have slope-to-intercept ratio of 0.044 and 0.283 respectively. The slope-to-ratio is one important determinant of gel sensitivity. R-square values of glucose and sucrose gel dosimeters were 0.984 and 0.994 respectively. Moreover when urea were added, the slope-to-intercept ratio is 0.044 and 0.073 respectively. R-square values of mono and disaccharide gel were 0.973 and 0.989 respectively. When a saccharide is added into the MAGIC gel dosimeter, dose sensitivity is increased. However when urea were added, dose sensitivity is slightly decreased. Conclusion: In this study, it was possible to obtain the following conclusions by looking at the dose response characteristics after adding mono-, di-saccharide and urea to a MAGIC gel dosimeter. Saccharide was a tendency of increasing dose sensitivity with disaccharide. Sa.ccharide is cost effective, safe, soft tissue equivalent, and can be used under various experimental conditions, making it a suitable dosimeter for some radiotherapy applications.

  18. 75 FR 16837 - Public Review of Draft United States Thoroughfare, Landmark, and Postal Address Data Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... exchange, and data quality. The Urban and Regional Information Systems Association (URISA), in conjunction... Address Data Standard AGENCY: Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. ACTION: Notice; request for comments on draft United States Thoroughfare, Landmark, and Postal Address Data Standard...

  19. 78 FR 51678 - Market Tests of Experimental Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... 39 CFR Parts 3001 and 3035 Market Tests of Experimental Postal Products AGENCY: Postal Regulatory... Service filings concerning market tests of experimental products. The proposed rules address the contents of market test filings, describe how the filings will be reviewed, and discuss related matters....

  20. 12 CFR 7.1010 - Postal service by national bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Postal service by national bank. 7.1010 Section 7.1010 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND... and operate a postal substation on banking premises and receive income from it. The services...

  1. Elaboration d'un dosimetre a fibres scintillantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archambault, Louis

    Le but de ce travail est de developper un dosimetre constitue d'une matrice de petits scintillateurs plastiques. Ce dosimetre doit presenter une bonne precision et reproductibilite pour satisfaire aux exigences imposees par des techniques de radiotherapie de pointe comme la radiotherapie d'intensite modulee, la radiochirurgie et la tomotherapie. Le desavantage majeur de cette forme de dosimetrie est la presence de bruit produit par l'effet de la radiation sur la fibre optique transportant la lumiere de scintillation jusqu'au photodetecteur. Pour en reduire l'impact, une etude approfondie des dosimetres a scintillation a ete effectuee. Commencant par une modelisation theorique de la collecte et du guidage lumineux, ce travail a ete suivi d'une comparaison experimentale de plusieurs scintillateurs plastiques, de methodes de couplage, de photodetecteurs et de techniques de filtrage. Ces etudes ont permis de choisir les fibres scintillantes pour leur gain de signal de 50% relativement aux autres scintillateurs plastiques. La camera CCD est le photodetecteur le plus adapte pour ce projet etant donne une sensibilite et une stabilite suffisantes, une capacite d'evaluer 3000 signaux dosimetriques simultanement et un systeme de separation chromatique. Apres la selection des meilleures composantes, un dosimetre a ete developpe pour etudier la performance des techniques de filtrage. Il a ete demontre que, apres utilisation du meilleur filtrage, une precision superieure a 1% pouvait etre atteinte. Un dosimetre a trois detecteurs de volumes differents (0,0014, 0,0034 et 0,0083 cm 3) a demontre une linearite face a des taux de doses allant de 10 a 600 cGy/min et pour des temps d'integration entre 0,05 et 50 s. Une reproductibilite superieure a 1% a ete observee pour des doses minimales de 45, 35 et 20 cGy respectivement pour le petit, le moyen et le grand detecteur. Une matrice de 10 detecteurs espaces de 5 mm sur une ligne a ensuite ete realisee. Ce dosimetre s'est montre

  2. 39 CFR 762.42 - Request for substitute disbursement postal money orders; requirements for undertaking of indemnity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Request for substitute disbursement postal money... POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Issuance of Substitutes for Lost, Destroyed, Mutilated, and Defaced Disbursement...

  3. 39 CFR 762.42 - Request for substitute disbursement postal money orders; requirements for undertaking of indemnity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Request for substitute disbursement postal money... POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Issuance of Substitutes for Lost, Destroyed, Mutilated, and Defaced Disbursement...

  4. 39 CFR 761.8 - Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities; payment of interest, payment at maturity or upon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities... POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.8 Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities; payment of interest, payment at maturity or...

  5. 39 CFR 761.8 - Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities; payment of interest, payment at maturity or upon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities... POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.8 Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities; payment of interest, payment at maturity or...

  6. 39 CFR 761.8 - Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities; payment of interest, payment at maturity or upon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities... POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.8 Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities; payment of interest, payment at maturity or...

  7. 39 CFR 761.8 - Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities; payment of interest, payment at maturity or upon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities... POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.8 Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities; payment of interest, payment at maturity or...

  8. Dosimetric methodology of the ICRP

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.

    1994-12-31

    Establishment of guidance for the protection of workers and members of the public from radiation exposures necessitates estimation of the radiation dose to tissues of the body at risk. The dosimetric methodology formulated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is intended to be responsive to this need. While developed for radiation protection, elements of the methodology are often applied in addressing other radiation issues; e.g., risk assessment. This chapter provides an overview of the methodology, discusses its recent extension to age-dependent considerations, and illustrates specific aspects of the methodology through a number of numerical examples.

  9. 39 CFR 3060.43 - Annual transfer from competitive products fund to Postal Service fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual transfer from competitive products fund to... transfer from competitive products fund to Postal Service fund. (a) The Postal Service must on an annual... Products Fund to the Postal Service Fund. (b) If the assumed taxable income from competitive products for...

  10. 39 CFR 281.2 - Action required by processing postal officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... center director of customer services at the office of mailing. The notification should include, but not... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Action required by processing postal officials. 281.2 Section 281.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION...

  11. 39 CFR 281.2 - Action required by processing postal officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... center director of customer services at the office of mailing. The notification should include, but not... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Action required by processing postal officials. 281.2 Section 281.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION...

  12. 39 CFR 281.2 - Action required by processing postal officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... center director of customer services at the office of mailing. The notification should include, but not... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Action required by processing postal officials. 281.2 Section 281.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION...

  13. 39 CFR 281.2 - Action required by processing postal officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... center director of customer services at the office of mailing. The notification should include, but not... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Action required by processing postal officials. 281.2 Section 281.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION...

  14. 39 CFR 281.2 - Action required by processing postal officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... center director of customer services at the office of mailing. The notification should include, but not... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Action required by processing postal officials. 281.2 Section 281.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION...

  15. IPIP: A new approach to inverse planning for HDR brachytherapy by directly optimizing dosimetric indices

    SciTech Connect

    Siauw, Timmy; Cunha, Adam; Atamtuerk, Alper; Hsu, I-Chow; Pouliot, Jean; Goldberg, Ken

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Many planning methods for high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy require an iterative approach. A set of computational parameters are hypothesized that will give a dose plan that meets dosimetric criteria. A dose plan is computed using these parameters, and if any dosimetric criteria are not met, the process is iterated until a suitable dose plan is found. In this way, the dose distribution is controlled by abstract parameters. The purpose of this study is to develop a new approach for HDR brachytherapy by directly optimizing the dose distribution based on dosimetric criteria. Methods: The authors developed inverse planning by integer program (IPIP), an optimization model for computing HDR brachytherapy dose plans and a fast heuristic for it. They used their heuristic to compute dose plans for 20 anonymized prostate cancer image data sets from patients previously treated at their clinic database. Dosimetry was evaluated and compared to dosimetric criteria. Results: Dose plans computed from IPIP satisfied all given dosimetric criteria for the target and healthy tissue after a single iteration. The average target coverage was 95%. The average computation time for IPIP was 30.1 s on an Intel(R) Core{sup TM}2 Duo CPU 1.67 GHz processor with 3 Gib RAM. Conclusions: IPIP is an HDR brachytherapy planning system that directly incorporates dosimetric criteria. The authors have demonstrated that IPIP has clinically acceptable performance for the prostate cases and dosimetric criteria used in this study, in both dosimetry and runtime. Further study is required to determine if IPIP performs well for a more general group of patients and dosimetric criteria, including other cancer sites such as GYN.

  16. 39 CFR 601.104 - Postal purchasing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS PURCHASING OF PROPERTY AND SERVICES § 601.104 Postal purchasing..., or terminating any contract regarding the acquisition of property, services, and related...

  17. 39 CFR 601.104 - Postal purchasing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS PURCHASING OF PROPERTY AND SERVICES § 601.104 Postal purchasing..., or terminating any contract regarding the acquisition of property, services, and related...

  18. Reform the Postal Service for the 21st Century Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Connolly, Gerald E. [D-VA-11

    2011-03-30

    04/01/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, U.S. Postal Service, and Labor Policy. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. 75 FR 17789 - Nationwide Change in Frequency of Postal Delivery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... also describes the quantitative research it employed utilizing surveys. Id. at 12-29. The Postal... the market research activities it conducted to gauge consumer and business impact from a reduction...

  20. 75 FR 10843 - Special Summer Postal Rate Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... threshold is the amount of Standard Mail for each participating company sent through the Permit(s) or Ghost... foster relationships with existing and new patrons with limited investment, and the Postal Service,...

  1. Practical simplifications for radioimmunotherapy dosimetric models

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.; DeNardo, G.L.; O`Donnell, R.T.; Yuan, A.; DeNardo, D.A.; Macey, D.J.; DeNardo, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is potentially useful for assessment and prediction of efficacy and toxicity for radionuclide therapy. The usefulness of these dose estimates relies on the establishment of a dose-response model using accurate pharmacokinetic data and a radiation dosimetric model. Due to the complexity in radiation dose estimation, many practical simplifications have been introduced in the dosimetric modeling for clinical trials of radioimmunotherapy. Although research efforts are generally needed to improve the simplifications used at each stage of model development, practical simplifications are often possible for specific applications without significant consequences to the dose-response model. In the development of dosimetric methods for radioimmunotherapy, practical simplifications in the dosimetric models were introduced. This study evaluated the magnitude of uncertainty associated with practical simplifications for: (1) organ mass of the MIRD phantom; (2) radiation contribution from target alone; (3) interpolation of S value; (4) macroscopic tumor uniformity; and (5) fit of tumor pharmacokinetic data.

  2. Dosimetric Predictors of Laryngeal Edema

    SciTech Connect

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe . E-mail: gisangui@utmb.edu; Adapala, Prashanth; Endres, Eugene J. C; Brack, Collin; Fiorino, Claudio; Sormani, Maria Pia; Parker, Brent

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate dosimetric predictors of laryngeal edema after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A total of 66 patients were selected who had squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck with grossly uninvolved larynx at the time of RT, no prior major surgical operation except for neck dissection and tonsillectomy, treatment planning data available for analysis, and at least one fiberoptic examination of the larynx within 2 years from RT performed by a single observer. Both the biologically equivalent mean dose at 2 Gy per fraction and the cumulative biologic dose-volume histogram of the larynx were extracted for each patient. Laryngeal edema was prospectively scored after treatment. Time to endpoint, moderate or worse laryngeal edema (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 2+), was calculated with log rank test from the date of treatment end. Results: At a median follow-up of 17.1 months (range, 0.4- 50.0 months), the risk of Grade 2+ edema was 58.9% {+-} 7%. Mean dose to the larynx, V30, V40, V50, V60, and V70 were significantly correlated with Grade 2+ edema at univariate analysis. At multivariate analysis, mean laryngeal dose (continuum, hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.15; p < 0.001), and positive neck stage at RT (N0-x vs. N +, hazard ratio, 3.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-9.58; p = 0.008) were the only independent predictors. Further stratification showed that, to minimize the risk of Grade 2+ edema, the mean dose to the larynx has to be kept {<=}43.5 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction. Conclusion: Laryngeal edema is strictly correlated with various dosimetric parameters; mean dose to the larynx should be kept {<=}43.5 Gy.

  3. Proton Radiotherapy for Liver Tumors: Dosimetric Advantages Over Photon Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiaochun Krishnan, Sunil; Zhang Xiaodong; Dong Lei; Briere, Tina; Crane, Christopher H.; Martel, Mary; Gillin, Michael; Mohan, Radhe; Beddar, Sam

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to dosimetrically investigate the advantages of proton radiotherapy over photon radiotherapy for liver tumors. The proton plan and the photon plan were designed using commercial treatment planning systems. The treatment target dose conformity and heterogeneity and dose-volume analyses of normal structures were compared between proton and photon radiotherapy for 9 patients with liver tumors. Proton radiotherapy delivered a more conformal target dose with slightly less homogeneity when compared with photon radiotherapy. Protons significantly reduced the fractional volume of liver receiving dose greater or equal to 30 Gy (V{sub 30}) and the mean liver dose. The stomach and duodenal V{sub 45} were significantly lower with the use of proton radiotherapy. The V{sub 40} and V{sub 50} of the heart and the maximum spinal cord dose were also significantly lower with the use of proton radiotherapy. Protons were better able to spare one kidney completely and deliver less dose to one (generally the left) kidney than photons. The mean dose to the total body and most critical structures was significantly decreased using protons when compared to corresponding photon plans. In conclusion, our study suggests the dosimetric benefits of proton radiotherapy over photon radiotherapy. These dosimetric advantages of proton plans may permit further dose escalation with lower risk of complications.

  4. Dosimetric characteristics of the Elekta Beam Modulator.

    PubMed

    Patel, I; Glendinning, A G; Kirby, M C

    2005-12-07

    The dosimetric characteristics of a production pilot multi-leaf collimator (Elekta Beam Modulator, Elekta Oncology Systems, Crawley, UK) having a 4 mm leaf width (at isocentre) have been investigated. Characteristics explored included leaf bank set-up, penumbra width (80-20%) as a function of leaf position, leaf positioning reproducibility, interleaf leakage and leaf transmission. The penumbra values for leaf ends were measured to be between 4.2 and 4.8 mm for various large rectangular fields studied using Kodak X-omat V film at isocentre (1.5 cm deep). Similar films were taken with a standard 1 cm width multi-leaf collimator (MLC) and the penumbra for leaf ends was found to range from 4.3 to 5.2 mm. Other results showed that the rounded leaf tip provided tight control of the penumbra across the leaves' full range of travel. The positioning of the leaves was within a 0.5 mm range when approaching from the same direction. The maximum interleaf leakage was found to be 1.7% and the average leaf transmission less than 1.0%. No major differences were observed in leakage and transmission with changing gantry angle.

  5. Dosimetric effects of patient rotational setup errors on prostate IMRT treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Weihua; Yang, Yong; Li, Xiang; Heron, Dwight E.; Saiful Huq, M.; Yue, Ning J.

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine dose delivery errors that could result from systematic rotational setup errors (ΔΦ) for prostate cancer patients treated with three-phase sequential boost IMRT. In order to implement this, different rotational setup errors around three Cartesian axes were simulated for five prostate patients and dosimetric indices, such as dose-volume histogram (DVH), tumour control probability (TCP), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and equivalent uniform dose (EUD), were employed to evaluate the corresponding dosimetric influences. Rotational setup errors were simulated by adjusting the gantry, collimator and horizontal couch angles of treatment beams and the dosimetric effects were evaluated by recomputing the dose distributions in the treatment planning system. Our results indicated that, for prostate cancer treatment with the three-phase sequential boost IMRT technique, the rotational setup errors do not have significant dosimetric impacts on the cumulative plan. Even in the worst-case scenario with ΔΦ = 3°, the prostate EUD varied within 1.5% and TCP decreased about 1%. For seminal vesicle, slightly larger influences were observed. However, EUD and TCP changes were still within 2%. The influence on sensitive structures, such as rectum and bladder, is also negligible. This study demonstrates that the rotational setup error degrades the dosimetric coverage of target volume in prostate cancer treatment to a certain degree. However, the degradation was not significant for the three-phase sequential boost prostate IMRT technique and for the margin sizes used in our institution.

  6. Comparing the dosimetric characteristics of the electron beam from dedicated intraoperative and conventional radiotherapy accelerators.

    PubMed

    Baghani, Hamid Reza; Aghamiri, Seyed Mahmoud Reza; Mahdavi, Seyed Rabi; Akbari, Mohammad Esmail; Mirzaei, Hamid Reza

    2015-03-08

    The specific design of the mobile dedicated intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) accelerators and different electron beam collimation system can change the dosimetric characteristics of electron beam with respect to the conventional accelerators. The aim of this study is to measure and compare the dosimetric characteristics of electron beam produced by intraoperative and conventional radiotherapy accelerators. To this end, percentage depth dose along clinical axis (PDD), transverse dose profile (TDP), and output factor of LIAC IORT and Varian 2100C/D conventional radiotherapy accelerators were measured and compared. TDPs were recorded at depth of maximum dose. The results of this work showed that depths of maximum dose, R90, R50, and RP for LIAC beam are lower than those of Varian beam. Furthermore, for all energies, surface doses related to the LIAC beam are substantially higher than those of Varian beam. The symmetry and flatness of LIAC beam profiles are more desirable compared to the Varian ones. Contrary to Varian accelerator, output factor of LIAC beam substantially increases with a decrease in the size of the applicator. Dosimetric characteristics of beveled IORT applicators along clinical axis were different from those of the flat ones. From these results, it can be concluded that dosimetric characteristics of intraoperative electron beam are substantially different from those of conventional clinical electron beam. The dosimetric characteristics of the LIAC electron beam make it a useful tool for intraoperative radiotherapy purposes.

  7. 76 FR 59768 - Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice... the meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services scheduled...

  8. 39 CFR 760.1 - Treasury Department regulations; applicability to Postal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treasury Department regulations; applicability to... OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS APPLICABILITY OF TREASURY DEPARTMENT REGULATIONS § 760.1 Treasury Department regulations; applicability to Postal Service. The provisions of Treasury...

  9. We Were There: Letters from the Battle Front. Postal Pack for Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Postal Museum, Washington, DC. Education Dept.

    This curriculum guide includes letters and postal history from three U.S. wars: the Civil War, World War II, and the Vietnam War. The postal pack was developed with the idea that letters and stamps present personal perspectives that enable students to comprehend the past better. Letters in the postal pack are printed in both the original…

  10. 75 FR 28204 - Conduct on Postal Property; Penalties and Other Law

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 232 Conduct on Postal Property; Penalties and Other Law AGENCY: Postal Service. ACTION: Final rule... abrogate any other Federal laws or regulations or any State and local laws and regulations applicable...

  11. 77 FR 2340 - Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice of... the renewal of the charter of the Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services in... oversight of foreign policy related to international postal services and other international...

  12. 75 FR 4273 - Conduct on Postal Property; Penalties and Other Law

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... 232 Conduct on Postal Property; Penalties and Other Law AGENCY: Postal Service. ACTION: Final rule... penalty for violations of the rules concerning conduct on Postal Service property. The authorized maximum... Service property establish the maximum penalty for a violation as a fine of not more than $50...

  13. Transport and dosimetric solutions for the ELIMED laser-driven beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Amato, A.; Candiano, G.; Cuttone, G.; Giove, D.; Korn, G.; Krasa, J.; Leanza, R.; Manna, R.; Maggiore, M.; Marchese, V.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Sabini, M. G.; Schillaci, F.; Tramontana, A.; Valastro, L.; Velyhan, A.

    2015-10-01

    Within 2017, the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical applications) transport beam-line and dosimetric systems for laser-generated beams will be installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility in Prague (CZ), inside the ELIMAIA (ELI Multidisciplinary Applications of laser-Ion Acceleration) interaction room. The beam-line will be composed of two sections: one in vacuum, devoted to the collecting, focusing and energy selection of the primary beam and the second in air, where the ELIMED beam-line dosimetric devices will be located. This paper briefly describes the transport solutions that will be adopted together with the main dosimetric approaches. In particular, the description of an innovative Faraday Cup detector with its preliminary experimental tests will be reported.

  14. 75 FR 69143 - Postal Rate and Classification Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Geographic Markets. Subject to Postal Service approval, customers designate specific geographic target... year. Up to 20 SCFs may be selected or up to five target markets (consisting of multiple contiguous... three price adjustments and related classification changes for market dominant products.\\1\\...

  15. 39 CFR 255.8 - Access to postal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 255.8 Access to postal facilities. (a) Legal requirements and policy—(1) ABA Standards. Where the design standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) of 1968, 42 U.S.C. 4151 et seq., do not apply... facilities not legally required to conform to ABA standards when it determines that doing so would...

  16. 28 CFR 540.22 - Special postal services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.22 Special postal services. (a) An inmate, at no cost to the government, may send correspondence by registered, certified, or insured mail, and may request a return receipt. (b) An inmate may insure outgoing personal correspondence (e.g., a...

  17. 28 CFR 540.22 - Special postal services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.22 Special postal services. (a) An inmate, at no cost to the government, may send correspondence by registered, certified, or insured mail, and may request a return receipt. (b) An inmate may insure outgoing personal correspondence (e.g., a...

  18. 28 CFR 540.22 - Special postal services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.22 Special postal services. (a) An inmate, at no cost to the government, may send correspondence by registered, certified, or insured mail, and may request a return receipt. (b) An inmate may insure outgoing personal correspondence (e.g., a...

  19. 28 CFR 540.22 - Special postal services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.22 Special postal services. (a) An inmate, at no cost to the government, may send correspondence by registered, certified, or insured mail, and may request a return receipt. (b) An inmate may insure outgoing personal correspondence (e.g., a...

  20. 28 CFR 540.22 - Special postal services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.22 Special postal services. (a) An inmate, at no cost to the government, may send correspondence by registered, certified, or insured mail, and may request a return receipt. (b) An inmate may insure outgoing personal correspondence (e.g., a...

  1. 77 FR 64362 - Postal Rate and Classification Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... forgone from these promotions by factoring the lost revenue into the price cap calculation. Id. at 9. The...: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service notice of annual price adjustments for all market dominant classes of mail. The adjustments include a one-cent increase in the price of...

  2. 76 FR 53982 - New Postal Product and Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Filing Functionally Equivalent Agreement, August 16, 2011 (Notice). See also Docket Nos. MC2010-35, R2010... States Postal Service and Koninklijke TNT Post BV and TNT Post Pakketservice Benelux BV (TNT Agreement...). In Order No. 700, the Commission approved the functionally equivalent HongKong Post Agreement.\\2\\...

  3. 77 FR 20656 - Postal Service Classification and Price Adjustments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... small premium to use Picture Permit imprints. Id. The Postal Service will charge an additional one cent... to consider all matters related to the Notice. The Commission's rules provide for a 20- day comment.... Ordering Paragraphs It is ordered: 1. The Commission establishes Docket No. R2012-7 to consider...

  4. Sun safety knowledge and practice in UK postal delivery workers

    PubMed Central

    Davis, S.; Griffiths, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Postal delivery workers spend a large proportion of their work time outdoors, placing them at increased risk of skin cancer. To date, no studies have examined occupational sun safety knowledge and practice within this group in the UK. Aims To describe the occupational sun safety knowledge and practice of UK postal delivery workers and to investigate the association of demographic, personal and occupational factors with knowledge and practice in order to identify potential strategies for improving sun safety in this occupational group. Methods Postal delivery workers completed a questionnaire that collected data on occupational sun safety knowledge and practice in addition to demographic, personal and workplace characteristics. One-way analysis of variances were applied to assess differences in knowledge and practice by these characteristics. Results A total of 1153 postal delivery workers completed the questionnaire, a 60% response rate. Thirty-three per cent reported receiving sun safety training within the previous 12 months. The majority of respondents reported correct knowledge on three of the six domains and good practice on four of the six behavioural domains. However, only one-fifth of respondents reported wearing sunglasses and ensuring a plentiful intake of water. Knowledge and practice differed significantly according to demographic, personal and workplace characteristics. Conclusions There is a need to raise the profile of occupational skin cancer in this occupational group and to increase the priority given to occupational sun safety policies alongside targeted and tailored interventions, the effect of which can be evaluated. PMID:26675005

  5. Dosimetric accuracy of a staged radiosurgery treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernica, George; de Boer, Steven F.; Diaz, Aidnag; Fenstermaker, Robert A.; Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    2005-05-01

    For large cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), the efficacy of radiosurgery is limited since the large doses necessary to produce obliteration may increase the risk of radiation necrosis to unacceptable levels. An alternative is to stage the radiosurgery procedure over multiple stages (usually two), effectively irradiating a smaller volume of the AVM nidus with a therapeutic dose during each session. The difference between coordinate systems defined by sequential stereotactic frame placements can be represented by a translation and a rotation. A unique transformation can be determined based on the coordinates of several fiducial markers fixed to the skull and imaged in each stereotactic coordinate system. Using this transformation matrix, isocentre coordinates from the first stage can be displayed in the coordinate system of subsequent stages allowing computation of a combined dose distribution covering the entire AVM. The accuracy of this approach was tested on an anthropomorphic head phantom and was verified dosimetrically. Subtle defects in the phantom were used as control points, and 2 mm diameter steel balls attached to the surface were used as fiducial markers and reference points. CT images (2 mm thick) were acquired. Using a transformation matrix developed with two frame placements, the predicted locations of control and reference points had an average error of 0.6 mm near the fiducial markers and 1.0 mm near the control points. Dose distributions in a staged treatment approach were accurately calculated using the transformation matrix. This approach is simple, fast and accurate. Errors were small and clinically acceptable for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Accuracy can be improved by reducing the CT slice thickness.

  6. CURRENT STATUS OF INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRIC MONITORING IN UKRAINE.

    PubMed

    Chumak, V; Deniachenko, N; Makarovska, O; Mihailescu, L-C; Prykhodko, A; Voloskyi, V; Vanhavere, F

    2016-09-01

    About 50 000 workers are being occupationally exposed to radiation in Ukraine. Individual dosimetric monitoring (IDM) is provided by 77 dosimetry services and laboratories of very different scale with a number of monitored workers ranging from several persons to ∼9000. In the present work, the current status of personal dosimetry in Ukraine was studied. The First National Intercomparison (FNI) of the IDM labs was accompanied by a survey of the laboratory operation in terms of coverage, types of dosimetry provided, instrumentation and methodologies used, metrological support, data recording, etc. Totally, 34 laboratories responded to the FNI call, and 18 services with 19 different personal dosimetry systems took part in the intercomparison exercise providing 24 dosimeters each for blind irradiation to photons of 6 different qualities (ISO N-series X-rays, S-Cs and S-Co sources) in a dose range of 5-60 mSv. Performance of the dosimetry labs was evaluated according to ISO 14146 criteria of matching trumpet curves with H0 = 0.2 mSv. The test revealed that 8 of the 19 systems meet ISO 14146 criteria in full, 5 other labs show marginal performance and 6 laboratories demonstrated catastrophic quality of dosimetric results. Altogether, 18 participating labs provide dosimetric monitoring to 37 477 workers (about three-fourths of all occupationally exposed workers), usually on monthly (nuclear industry) or quarterly (rest of applications) basis. Of this number, 20 664 persons (55 %) receive completely adequate individual monitoring, and the number of personnel receiving IDM of inadequate quality counts 3054 persons.

  7. Military Postal Service Task Group. Recommendations Regarding the Military Postal System of the Department of Defense.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    unify the processes, technology, training, procedures and funding for military mail. Such an approach would allow DoD to achieve economies of scale...business model that capitalizes on economies of scale and organizational efficiencies • Require compatibility with current supply chain management...0 8 8 0 0 0 210 2016 2226 0 0 0 210 2024 2234 Government Service (GS) 29 48 290 2 352 Contractors 36 63 199 65 363 Totals 630 793 3243 532 5198 US

  8. Patient doses and dosimetric evaluations in interventional cardiology.

    PubMed

    Bor, Dogan; Olğar, Turan; Toklu, Türkay; Cağlan, Ayça; Onal, Elif; Padovani, Renato

    2009-03-01

    Interventional cardiological examinations may be associated with excessive radiation exposures which may cause skin injuries and higher probabilities of stochastic effects. Dose-area product (DAP) and skin doses of 325 patients were measured using alternative dosimetric techniques for different cardiological examinations. Data were collected from five different systems with the involvement of 11 cardiologists. All these dosimetric information has been collected separately for each of 10 projections together with the exposure parameters of X-ray systems. Mean DAP values measured with a transparent ion chamber were 49.1 Gy cm(2), 66.8 Gy cm(2), 106.9 Gy cm(2) and 124.7 Gy cm(2), respectively, for coronary angiography (CA), percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or stent (PT-SI), coronary angiography and/or PTCA and/or stent (CA-PT-SI), and ablation examinations. Radiochromic films, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) and point measurement of air kerma (AK) were carried out for skin dose assessments. Skin doses of 23 patients measured with radiochromic films were found to be between 2 Gy and 6 Gy. Although the complexity of the procedures was the major reason for these excessive doses, considerable contributions of high X-ray output of some fluoroscopy units were also noticed. In addition to the direct measurement of DAP, alternative DAP values were also determined from the skin dose measurement techniques; exposed areas were summed on digitized radiochromic films in one technique, The product of AK reading with X-ray field size measured at the patient entrance using slow X-ray films was taken as another DAP. Good correlations were found among the DAP results and also between the entrance skin doses calculated from AK measurements and direct DAP readings (R(2)=0.91). A trigger DAP value of 130 Gy cm(2) for the 2 Gy of skin doses was derived from this relationship. Collection of dosimetric data for each projection was also investigated regarding a

  9. An outbreak of Q fever affecting postal workers in Oxfordshire.

    PubMed

    Winner, S J; Eglin, R P; Moore, V I; Mayon-White, R T

    1987-05-01

    Twenty-five people in Oxfordshire were found to have had clinical illness due to Q fever in the 3 months from April to June 1983. Twelve cases were diagnosed through the routine laboratory diagnostic service. Five of these were postmen, four of whom worked in a sorting office where an outbreak of illness similar to influenza had been noted by the Occupational Health Nurse. Thirteen cases were diagnosed by active case-finding in this sorting office but investigation failed to define the source of the outbreak. Nine of the 18 postal workers were found to have antibodies to phase I Coxiella burnetii antigen. The significance of these antibodies is discussed. Surveillance for over 2 years has not revealed anyone with symptoms or signs suggestive of chronic Q fever. An outbreak of Q fever among postal workers has not previously been described. We recommend continued surveillance for this enigmatic condition.

  10. Comparison of Dosimetric Performance among Commercial Quality Assurance Systems for Verifying Pretreatment Plans of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Using Flattening-Filter-Free Beams

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of different commercial quality assurance (QA) systems for the pretreatment verification plan of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) with volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) technique using a flattening-filter-free beam. The verification for 20 pretreatment cancer patients (seven lung, six spine, and seven prostate cancers) were tested using three QA systems (EBT3 film, I’mRT MatriXX array, and MapCHECK). All the SBRT-VMAT plans were optimized in the Eclipse (version 11.0.34) treatment planning system (TPS) using the Acuros XB dose calculation algorithm and were delivered to the Varian TrueBeam® accelerator equipped with a high-definition multileaf collimator. Gamma agreement evaluation was analyzed with the criteria of 2% dose difference and 2 mm distance to agreement (2%/2 mm) or 3%/3 mm. The highest passing rate (99.1% for 3%/3 mm) was observed on the MapCHECK system while the lowest passing rate was obtained on the film. The pretreatment verification results depend on the QA systems, treatment sites, and delivery beam energies. However, the delivery QA results for all QA systems based on the TPS calculation showed a good agreement of more than 90% for both the criteria. It is concluded that the three 2D QA systems have sufficient potential for pretreatment verification of the SBRT-VMAT plan. PMID:27709851

  11. Dosimetric validation and clinical implementation of two 3D dose verification systems for quality assurance in volumetric-modulated arc therapy techniques.

    PubMed

    Clemente-Gutiérrez, Francisco; Pérez-Vara, Consuelo

    2015-03-08

    A pretreatment quality assurance program for volumetric techniques should include redundant calculations and measurement-based verifications. The patient-specific quality assurance process must be based in clinically relevant metrics. The aim of this study was to show the commission, clinical implementation, and comparison of two systems that allow performing a 3D redundant dose calculation. In addition, one of them is capable of reconstructing the dose on patient anatomy from measurements taken with a 2D ion chamber array. Both systems were compared in terms of reference calibration data (absolute dose, output factors, percentage depth-dose curves, and profiles). Results were in good agreement for absolute dose values (discrepancies were below 0.5%) and output factors (mean differences were below 1%). Maximum mean discrepancies were located between 10 and 20 cm of depth for PDDs (-2.7%) and in the penumbra region for profiles (mean DTA of 1.5 mm). Validation of the systems was performed by comparing point-dose measurements with values obtained by the two systems for static, dynamic fields from AAPM TG-119 report, and 12 real VMAT plans for different anatomical sites (differences better than 1.2%). Comparisons between measurements taken with a 2D ion chamber array and results obtained by both systems for real VMAT plans were also performed (mean global gamma passing rates better than 87.0% and 97.9% for the 2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm criteria). Clinical implementation of the systems was evaluated by comparing dose-volume parameters for all TG-119 tests and real VMAT plans with TPS values (mean differences were below 1%). In addition, comparisons between dose distributions calculated by TPS and those extracted by the two systems for real VMAT plans were also performed (mean global gamma passing rates better than 86.0% and 93.0% for the 2%/2 mm and 3%/ 3 mm criteria). The clinical use of both systems was successfully evaluated.

  12. Increasing response rates to postal questionnaires: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Phil; Roberts, Ian; Clarke, Mike; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Pratap, Sarah; Wentz, Reinhard; Kwan, Irene

    2002-01-01

    Objective To identify methods to increase response to postal questionnaires. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of any method to influence response to postal questionnaires. Studies reviewed 292 randomised controlled trials including 258 315 participants Intervention reviewed 75 strategies for influencing response to postal questionnaires. Main outcome measure The proportion of completed or partially completed questionnaires returned. Results The odds of response were more than doubled when a monetary incentive was used (odds ratio 2.02; 95% confidence interval 1.79 to 2.27) and almost doubled when incentives were not conditional on response (1.71; 1.29 to 2.26). Response was more likely when short questionnaires were used (1.86; 1.55 to 2.24). Personalised questionnaires and letters increased response (1.16; 1.06 to 1.28), as did the use of coloured ink (1.39; 1.16 to 1.67). The odds of response were more than doubled when the questionnaires were sent by recorded delivery (2.21; 1.51 to 3.25) and increased when stamped return envelopes were used (1.26; 1.13 to 1.41) and questionnaires were sent by first class post (1.12; 1.02 to 1.23). Contacting participants before sending questionnaires increased response (1.54; 1.24 to 1.92), as did follow up contact (1.44; 1.22 to 1.70) and providing non-respondents with a second copy of the questionnaire (1.41; 1.02 to 1.94). Questionnaires designed to be of more interest to participants were more likely to be returned (2.44; 1.99 to 3.01), but questionnaires containing questions of a sensitive nature were less likely to be returned (0.92; 0.87 to 0.98). Questionnaires originating from universities were more likely to be returned than were questionnaires from other sources, such as commercial organisations (1.31; 1.11 to 1.54). Conclusions Health researchers using postal questionnaires can improve the quality of their research by using the strategies shown to be effective in this systematic review

  13. Electromagnetic Real-Time Tumor Position Monitoring and Dynamic Multileaf Collimator Tracking Using a Siemens 160 MLC: Geometric and Dosimetric Accuracy of an Integrated System

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Andreas; Nill, Simeon; Tacke, Martin; Oelfke, Uwe

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: Dynamic multileaf collimator tracking represents a promising method for high-precision radiotherapy to moving tumors. In the present study, we report on the integration of electromagnetic real-time tumor position monitoring into a multileaf collimator-based tracking system. Methods and Materials: The integrated system was characterized in terms of its geometric and radiologic accuracy. The former was assessed from portal images acquired during radiation delivery to a phantom in tracking mode. The tracking errors were calculated from the positions of the tracking field and of the phantom as extracted from the portal images. Radiologic accuracy was evaluated from film dosimetry performed for conformal and intensity-modulated radiotherapy applied to different phantoms moving on sinusoidal trajectories. A static radiation delivery to the nonmoving target served as a reference for the delivery to the moving phantom with and without tracking applied. Results: Submillimeter tracking accuracy was observed for two-dimensional target motion despite the relatively large system latency of 500 ms. Film dosimetry yielded almost complete recovery of a circular dose distribution with tracking in two dimensions applied: 2%/2 mm gamma-failure rates could be reduced from 59.7% to 3.3%. For single-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy delivery, accuracy was limited by the finite leaf width. A 2%/2 mm gamma-failure rate of 15.6% remained with tracking applied. Conclusion: The integrated system we have presented marks a major step toward the clinical implementation of high-precision dynamic multileaf collimator tracking. However, several challenges such as irregular motion traces or a thorough quality assurance still need to be addressed.

  14. Errors in radiation oncology: a study in pathways and dosimetric impact.

    PubMed

    Klein, Eric E; Drzymala, Robert E; Purdy, James A; Michalski, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    As complexity for treating patients increases, so does the risk of error. Some publications have suggested that record and verify (R&V) systems may contribute in propagating errors. Direct data transfer has the potential to eliminate most, but not all, errors. And although the dosimetric consequences may be obvious in some cases, a detailed study does not exist. In this effort, we examined potential errors in terms of scenarios, pathways of occurrence, and dosimetry. Our goal was to prioritize error prevention according to likelihood of event and dosimetric impact. For conventional photon treatments, we investigated errors of incorrect source-to-surface distance (SSD), energy, omitted wedge (physical, dynamic, or universal) or compensating filter, incorrect wedge or compensating filter orientation, improper rotational rate for arc therapy, and geometrical misses due to incorrect gantry, collimator or table angle, reversed field settings, and setup errors. For electron beam therapy, errors investigated included incorrect energy, incorrect SSD, along with geometric misses. For special procedures we examined errors for total body irradiation (TBI, incorrect field size, dose rate, treatment distance) and LINAC radiosurgery (incorrect collimation setting, incorrect rotational parameters). Likelihood of error was determined and subsequently rated according to our history of detecting such errors. Dosimetric evaluation was conducted by using dosimetric data, treatment plans, or measurements. We found geometric misses to have the highest error probability. They most often occurred due to improper setup via coordinate shift errors or incorrect field shaping. The dosimetric impact is unique for each case and depends on the proportion of fields in error and volume mistreated. These errors were short-lived due to rapid detection via port films. The most significant dosimetric error was related to a reversed wedge direction. This may occur due to incorrect collimator angle or

  15. [Work-related disability among postal employees: incidence, duration, and social security costs in 2008].

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Flávia Alves Neves; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh

    2014-06-01

    This study analyzed the characteristics of Brazilian postal workers that received sick leave benefits in 2008. The databases were from the Unified Benefits System (SUB) and the National Registry of Social Information (CNIS). The incidence rate was 556.5 benefits per 10,000 employees, and the leading causes of work-related sick leave were injuries, musculoskeletal disorders, and mental disorders. Areas most frequently reported in injuries were knees and legs, wrists and hands, ankles and feet, and shoulders and arms, with higher incidence rates in men. Women were more affected by musculoskeletal disorders and mental disorders. Average sick leave lasted longer in men, and the incidence of benefits increased with age. The States with the highest incidence rates were Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás, and Santa Catarina, and security benefits averaged BRL 1,847.00. Postal work may involve additional risk of injuries to the limbs, due to the long distances carrying heavy weight, assault, and dog bites.

  16. Dosimetric accuracy assessment of a treatment plan verification system for scanned proton beam radiotherapy: one-year experimental results and Monte Carlo analysis of the involved uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Molinelli, S; Mairani, A; Mirandola, A; Vilches Freixas, G; Tessonnier, T; Giordanengo, S; Parodi, K; Ciocca, M; Orecchia, R

    2013-06-07

    During one year of clinical activity at the Italian National Center for Oncological Hadron Therapy 31 patients were treated with actively scanned proton beams. Results of patient-specific quality assurance procedures are presented here which assess the accuracy of a three-dimensional dose verification technique with the simultaneous use of multiple small-volume ionization chambers. To investigate critical cases of major deviations between treatment planning system (TPS) calculated and measured data points, a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tool was implemented for plan verification in water. Starting from MC results, the impact of dose calculation, dose delivery and measurement set-up uncertainties on plan verification results was analyzed. All resulting patient-specific quality checks were within the acceptance threshold, which was set at 5% for both mean deviation between measured and calculated doses and standard deviation. The mean deviation between TPS dose calculation and measurement was less than ±3% in 86% of the cases. When all three sources of uncertainty were accounted for, simulated data sets showed a high level of agreement, with mean and maximum absolute deviation lower than 2.5% and 5%, respectively.

  17. Dosimetric accuracy assessment of a treatment plan verification system for scanned proton beam radiotherapy: one-year experimental results and Monte Carlo analysis of the involved uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinelli, S.; Mairani, A.; Mirandola, A.; Vilches Freixas, G.; Tessonnier, T.; Giordanengo, S.; Parodi, K.; Ciocca, M.; Orecchia, R.

    2013-06-01

    During one year of clinical activity at the Italian National Center for Oncological Hadron Therapy 31 patients were treated with actively scanned proton beams. Results of patient-specific quality assurance procedures are presented here which assess the accuracy of a three-dimensional dose verification technique with the simultaneous use of multiple small-volume ionization chambers. To investigate critical cases of major deviations between treatment planning system (TPS) calculated and measured data points, a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tool was implemented for plan verification in water. Starting from MC results, the impact of dose calculation, dose delivery and measurement set-up uncertainties on plan verification results was analyzed. All resulting patient-specific quality checks were within the acceptance threshold, which was set at 5% for both mean deviation between measured and calculated doses and standard deviation. The mean deviation between TPS dose calculation and measurement was less than ±3% in 86% of the cases. When all three sources of uncertainty were accounted for, simulated data sets showed a high level of agreement, with mean and maximum absolute deviation lower than 2.5% and 5%, respectively.

  18. Dosimetric accuracy of a treatment planning system for actively scanned proton beams and small target volumes: Monte Carlo and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magro, G.; Molinelli, S.; Mairani, A.; Mirandola, A.; Panizza, D.; Russo, S.; Ferrari, A.; Valvo, F.; Fossati, P.; Ciocca, M.

    2015-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of a commercial treatment planning system (TPS), in optimising proton pencil beam dose distributions for small targets of different sizes (5-30 mm side) located at increasing depths in water. The TPS analytical algorithm was benchmarked against experimental data and the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code, previously validated for the selected beam-line. We tested the Siemens syngo® TPS plan optimisation module for water cubes fixing the configurable parameters at clinical standards, with homogeneous target coverage to a 2 Gy (RBE) dose prescription as unique goal. Plans were delivered and the dose at each volume centre was measured in water with a calibrated PTW Advanced Markus® chamber. An EBT3® film was also positioned at the phantom entrance window for the acquisition of 2D dose maps. Discrepancies between TPS calculated and MC simulated values were mainly due to the different lateral spread modeling and resulted in being related to the field-to-spot size ratio. The accuracy of the TPS was proved to be clinically acceptable in all cases but very small and shallow volumes. In this contest, the use of MC to validate TPS results proved to be a reliable procedure for pre-treatment plan verification.

  19. 39 CFR 501.3 - Postage Evidencing System provider qualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to a provider's Postage Evidencing System or supporting infrastructure, or with the start-up or...) and will cooperate with the Postal Service in every reasonable way to help the Postal Service...

  20. Dosimetric characteristics of Novalis shaped beam surgery unit.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fang-Fang; Zhu, Jingeng; Yan, Hui; Gaun, Haiqun; Hammoud, Rabih; Ryu, Samuel; Kim, Jae H

    2002-08-01

    The dosimetric characteristics of a new dedicated radiosurgical treatment unit are systematically measured in terms of its percent depth dose, beam profile, and relative scatter factor. High-resolution diode detector, mini-ion-chamber detector, and conventional Kodak XV films are used to measure dosimetric data for a range of field sizes from 6x6 mm to 100x100 mm. The effects of collimator size, micro-multileaf collimator shape, and detector type on the dosimetric data are investigated. Results indicate that, with careful design, accurate dosimetric data could be acquired using either a dedicated diode detector or a mini-ion-chamber detector, and film detector. Special attention is required when measuring dosimetric data for small field sizes such as 6x6 mm.

  1. 78 FR 43247 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Privacy Act... systems of records. SUMMARY: The United States Postal Service is proposing to modify four General Privacy... to one record system to include assessments of postal employees and to expand the locations...

  2. Rating of acceptable load in manual sorting of postal parcels.

    PubMed

    Stålhammar, H R; Louhevaara, V; Troup, J D

    1996-10-01

    The psychophysical test, the rating of acceptable load (RAL) were used to assess acceptable weights for dynamic lifting in postal workers engaged in sorting parcels. The standard test (RALSt) and a work-simulating test (RALW) were administered to 103 volunteers: all experienced male sorters. In the RALSt, subjects selected the weight which would be acceptable for lifting in a box with handles from table to floor and back to the table once every 5 min for the working day. for the RALW, the box was without handles and the weight was chosen to be acceptable for transfer 4-6 times/min from a table to the parcel container and back to the table. Both tests were made during normal working hours at postal sorting centres. The overall means for RALSt and RALW were 16.4 kg and 9.4 kg respectively (p < 0.001): both being substantially higher than the average parcel weight of 4 kg. The RALSt and RALW tests proved to be repetitive and sensitive for differentiating the effects of load and task variable in actual manual material handling. Thus they appear to be applicable to the evaluation of manual materials handling problems.

  3. 76 FR 15028 - Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice; FACA Committee meeting announcement. SUMMARY: As required by the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92... Postal and Delivery Services. This Committee has been formed in fulfillment of the provisions of the...

  4. 76 FR 54829 - Advisory Committee On International Postal and Delivery Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Committee On International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice; advisory committee meeting announcement. SUMMARY: As required by the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public... International Postal and Delivery Services. This Committee has been formed in fulfillment of the provisions...

  5. 75 FR 57102 - Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice; FACA Committee meeting announcement. Summary: As required by the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92... Postal and Delivery Services. This Committee has been formed in fulfillment of the provisions of the...

  6. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL SERVICE STAMP DISTRIBUTION NETWORK, KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate Waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. In this report, the findi...

  7. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL SERVICE OPERATIONS, MERRIFIELD, VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. This report describ...

  8. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICES, PITTSBURGH, PA AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. This report describ...

  9. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MATERIALS DISTRIBUTION CENTER, TOPEKA, KANSAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate Waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. In this report, the findi...

  10. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL SERVICE BULK MAIL CENTER, DALLAS, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. This report describ...

  11. 77 FR 18716 - Transportation Security Administration Postal Zip Code Change; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... Postal Zip Code Change; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION... zip code. This rule revises existing regulations to reflect organizational changes and it has no.... Background Beginning December 17, 2008, the postal zip codes for TSA headquarters facilities in Virginia...

  12. 77 FR 41877 - Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice, FACA... Postal and Delivery Services (the Advisory Committee). This Committee has been formed in fulfillment of... delivery matters. Public input: Any member of the public interested in providing public input to...

  13. 78 FR 55773 - Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice; FACA... Postal and Delivery Services. This Committee has been formed in fulfillment of the provisions of the 2006... delivery services of interest to Advisory Committee members and the public. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  14. 37 CFR 201.8 - Disruption of postal or other transportation or communication services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disruption of postal or other... OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.8 Disruption of... Register has determined that there is or has been a general disruption or suspension of postal or...

  15. 78 FR 57671 - Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services; Membership Renewals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services; Membership Renewals AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice; Membership renewals. SUMMARY: The 2006 Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act (Pub. L... term of membership should be two years, except that the Assistant Secretary may, at his or...

  16. 40 CFR 52.351 - United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Clean Fuel Fleet Program. 52.351 Section 52.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.351 United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, carbon monoxide NAAQS, United States Postal Service substitute...

  17. 40 CFR 52.351 - United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Clean Fuel Fleet Program. 52.351 Section 52.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.351 United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, carbon monoxide NAAQS, United States Postal Service substitute...

  18. 40 CFR 52.351 - United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Clean Fuel Fleet Program. 52.351 Section 52.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.351 United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, carbon monoxide NAAQS, United States Postal Service substitute...

  19. 40 CFR 52.351 - United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Clean Fuel Fleet Program. 52.351 Section 52.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.351 United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, carbon monoxide NAAQS, United States Postal Service substitute...

  20. 40 CFR 52.351 - United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Clean Fuel Fleet Program. 52.351 Section 52.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.351 United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, carbon monoxide NAAQS, United States Postal Service substitute...

  1. 78 FR 52694 - Price Cap Rules for Certain Postal Rate Adjustments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... Postal Service's Annual Compliance Report. Id. Valpak's concerns stem from the Postal Service's reporting... appear below the signature of this order. Section 3010.1 defines the terms ``annual limitation... rate adjustment authority may only be applied after applying the annual limitation. Section...

  2. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FORENSIC & TECHNICAL SERVICES DIVISION - NATIONAL FORENSIC LABORATORY, DULLES, VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. This report describes the...

  3. [Dosimetric evaluation of conformal radiotherapy: conformity factor].

    PubMed

    Oozeer, R; Chauvet, B; Garcia, R; Berger, C; Felix-Faure, C; Reboul, F

    2000-01-01

    The aim of three-dimensional conformal therapy (3DCRT) is to treat the Planning Target Volume (PTV) to the prescribed dose while reducing doses to normal tissues and critical structures, in order to increase local control and reduce toxicity. The evaluation tools used for optimizing treatment techniques are three-dimensional visualization of dose distributions, dose-volume histograms, tumor control probabilities (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP). These tools, however, do not fully quantify the conformity of dose distributions to the PTV. Specific tools were introduced to measure this conformity for a given dose level. We have extended those definitions to different dose levels, using a conformity index (CI). CI is based on the relative volumes of PTV and outside the PTV receiving more than a given dose. This parameter has been evaluated by a clinical study including 82 patients treated for lung cancer and 82 patients treated for prostate cancer. The CI was low for lung dosimetric studies (0.35 at the prescribed dose 66 Gy) due to build-up around the GTV and to spinal cord sparing. For prostate dosimetric studies, the CI was higher (0.57 at the prescribed dose 70 Gy). The CI has been used to compare treatment plans for lung 3DCRT (2 vs 3 beams) and prostate 3DCRT (4 vs 7 beams). The variation of CI with dose can be used to optimize dose prescription.

  4. Participation bias in postal surveys among older adults: the role played by self-reported health, physical functional decline and frailty.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Philipe de Souto

    2012-01-01

    Postal survey is a simple and efficient way to collect information in large study samples. The purpose of this study was to find out differences between older adults who responded to a postal survey on health outcomes and those who did not, and to examine the importance of frailty, physical functional decline and poor self-reported health in determining non-response. We mailed out a questionnaire on general health twice at a year's interval to 1000 individuals ≥60 years, and members of the medical insurance scheme of the French national education system. At Year1, 535 persons responded to the questionnaire (65% women, 70.9 ± 8.4 years). A year later (Year2), we obtained 384 responses (63.3% women, 70.5 ± 7.8 years). Compared to respondents, non-respondents at Year2 were more frequently categorized as frail, reported more often to be in bad health, and had more physical functional declines. Frailty, physical functional decline and poor self-reported health increased the likelihood of not responding to Year2 questionnaire, with poor self-reported health weakening the association of physical functional decline and non-response. Respondents of this postal survey are fitter and healthier than non-respondents. This participation bias precludes the generalization of postal surveys results.

  5. 77 FR 46528 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... within the Postal Service network and through other carrier networks. Additionally, in June, 2012, the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice of modification to...

  6. 39 CFR Appendix A to Part 3002 - Postal Regulatory Commission, Mission Statement of the Office of the Consumer Advocate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Office of the Consumer Advocate A Appendix A to Part 3002 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ORGANIZATION Pt. 3002, App. A Appendix A to Part 3002—Postal Regulatory Commission... Advocate is to be a vigorous, responsive, and effective advocate for reasonable and equitable treatment...

  7. 39 CFR 3050.10 - Analytical principles to be applied in the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Analytical principles to be applied in the Postal... REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.10 Analytical principles to be applied in the... Commission, the Postal Service shall use only accepted analytical principles. With respect to its...

  8. 39 CFR 3050.10 - Analytical principles to be applied in the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical principles to be applied in the Postal... REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.10 Analytical principles to be applied in the... Commission, the Postal Service shall use only accepted analytical principles. With respect to its...

  9. 39 CFR 3050.10 - Analytical principles to be applied in the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical principles to be applied in the Postal... REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.10 Analytical principles to be applied in the... Commission, the Postal Service shall use only accepted analytical principles. With respect to its...

  10. 39 CFR 3050.10 - Analytical principles to be applied in the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Analytical principles to be applied in the Postal... REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.10 Analytical principles to be applied in the... Commission, the Postal Service shall use only accepted analytical principles. With respect to its...

  11. 39 CFR 3050.10 - Analytical principles to be applied in the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical principles to be applied in the Postal... REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.10 Analytical principles to be applied in the... Commission, the Postal Service shall use only accepted analytical principles. With respect to its...

  12. 39 CFR Appendix A to Part 3002 - Postal Regulatory Commission, Mission Statement of the Office of the Consumer Advocate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Office of the Consumer Advocate A Appendix A to Part 3002 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ORGANIZATION Pt. 3002, App. A Appendix A to Part 3002—Postal Regulatory Commission... Advocate is to be a vigorous, responsive, and effective advocate for reasonable and equitable treatment...

  13. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to... studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. The Postal Service shall provide a list of special studies whose results are used to produce the estimates in...

  14. Dosimetric comparison of stereotactic body radiotherapy for spinal metastasis in cyberknife and helical tomotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Young-nam; Kay, Chul Seung; Son, Seok Hyun; Choi, Byung Ock; Jung, Ji-Young; Shin, Hun-Joo; Kay, Chul Seung; Son, Seok Hyun; Kim, Myong Ho; Seo, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Gi Woong

    2012-12-01

    This study seeks to evaluate the stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) dosimetric benefit of cyberknife (CK) and helical tomotherapy (HT) for spinal tumor patients in regards to successful plan acceptance and lower dosage to critical structures. This study used dose volume histogram (DVH) compared the two systems quantitatively, by using several indices for the dosimetric comparisons, including the conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) for the planned target volume (PTV). We planned L3 (n = 2), L5 (n = 1), T12 (n = 1), C3 (n = 1), and T5 (n = 1) spinal tumors case with planning target volumes ranging from 3.55-17.95 cc. Prescription doses were 1600 ˜ 2000 cGy per single fraction. CK prescribed 80 ˜ 85% in PTV and HT 90 ˜ 95%, respectively. The dosimetric data were compared between the two treatment systems by calculating the CI, HI, and maximum doses to the OARs based on the treatment plans, generated for each site. Regarding the homogeneity of PTV, both plans gave satisfactory results, and no significant differences were observed. The partial volume tolerance dose (received dose of 10 Gy at a spinal cord volume 10%) to the spinal cord in 16 ˜ 18 Gy single fraction was satisfactory. We found that both planning systems satisfied the required PTV prescription, but better dose conformity and better dose homogeneity with a poorer dose gradient were achieved with HT then with CK.

  15. SU-E-T-651: Quantification of Dosimetric Accuracy of Respiratory Gated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Thiyagarajan, Rajesh; Vikraman, S; Maragathaveni, S; Dhivya, N; Kataria, Tejinder; Nambiraj, N Arunai; Sigamani, Ashokkumar; Sinha, Sujit Nath; Yadav, Girigesh; Raman, Kothanda

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric accuracy of respiratory gated stereotactic body radiation therapy delivery using dynamic thorax phantom. Methods: Three patients with mobile target (2 lung, 1liver) were chosen. Retrospective 4DCT image sets were acquired for using Varian RPM system. An in-house MATLAB program was designed for MIP, MinIP and AvgIP generation. ITV was contoured on MIP image set for lung patients and on MinIP for liver patient. Dynamic IMRT plans were generated on selected phase bin image set in Eclipse (v10.0) planning system. CIRS dynamic thorax phantom was used to perform the dosimetric quality assurance. Patient breathing pattern file from RPM system was converted to phantom compatible file by an in-house MATLAB program. This respiratory pattern fed to the CIRS dynamic thorax phantom. 4DCT image set was acquired for this phantom using patient breathing pattern. Verification plans were generated using patient gating window and delivered on the phantom. Measurements were carried out using with ion chamber and EBT2 film. Exposed films were analyzed and evaluated in FilmQA software. Results: The stability of gated output in comparison with un-gated output was within 0.5%. The Ion chamber measured and TPS calculated dose compared for all the patients. The difference observed was 0.45%, −0.52% and −0.54 for Patient 1, Patient2 and Patient 3 respectively.Gamma value evaluated from EBT film shows pass rates from 92.41% to 99.93% for 3% dose difference and 3mm distance to agreement criteria. Conclusion: Dosimetric accuracy of respiratory gated SBRT delivery for lung and liver was dosimetrically acceptable. The Ion chamber measured dose was within 0.203±0.5659% of the expected dose. Gamma pass rates were within 96.63±3.84% of the expected dose.

  16. Dosimetric verification of gated delivery of electron beams using a 2D ion chamber array.

    PubMed

    Yoganathan, S A; Das, K J Maria; Raj, D Gowtham; Kumar, Shaleen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetric characteristics; such as beam output, symmetry and flatness between gated and non-gated electron beams. Dosimetric verification of gated delivery was carried for all electron beams available on Varian CL 2100CD medical linear accelerator. Measurements were conducted for three dose rates (100 MU/min, 300 MU/min and 600 MU/min) and two respiratory motions (breathing period of 4s and 8s). Real-time position management (RPM) system was used for the gated deliveries. Flatness and symmetry values were measured using Imatrixx 2D ion chamber array device and the beam output was measured using plane parallel ion chamber. These detector systems were placed over QUASAR motion platform which was programmed to simulate the respiratory motion of target. The dosimetric characteristics of gated deliveries were compared with non-gated deliveries. The flatness and symmetry of all the evaluated electron energies did not differ by more than 0.7 % with respect to corresponding non-gated deliveries. The beam output variation of gated electron beam was less than 0.6 % for all electron energies except for 16 MeV (1.4 %). Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that Varian CL2100 CD is well suitable for gated delivery of non-dynamic electron beams.

  17. Dosimetric characterization of a bi-directional micromultileaf collimator for stereotactic applications.

    PubMed

    Bucciolini, M; Russo, S; Banci Buonamici, F; Pini, S; Silli, P

    2002-07-01

    A 6 MV photon beam from Linac SL75-5 has been collimated with a new micromultileaf device that is able to shape the field in the two orthogonal directions with four banks of leaves. This is the first clinical installation of the collimator and in this paper the dosimetric characterization of the system is reported. The dosimetric parameters required by the treatment planning system used for the dose calculation in the patient are: tissue maximum ratios, output factors, transmission and leakage of the leaves, penumbra values. Ionization chambers, silicon diode, radiographic films, and LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters have been employed for measurements of absolute dose and beam dosimetric data. Measurements with different dosimeters supply results in reasonable agreement among them and consistent with data available in literature for other models of micromultileaf collimator; that permits the use of the measured parameters for clinical applications. The discrepancies between results obtained with the different detectors (around 2%) for the analyzed parameters can be considered an indication of the accuracy that can be reached by current stereotactic dosimetry.

  18. Effect of photon energy spectrum on dosimetric parameters of brachytherapy sources

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Mahdi; Davenport, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim The aim of this study is to quantify the influence of the photon energy spectrum of brachytherapy sources on task group No. 43 (TG-43) dosimetric parameters. Background Different photon spectra are used for a specific radionuclide in Monte Carlo simulations of brachytherapy sources. Materials and methods MCNPX code was used to simulate 125I, 103Pd, 169Yb, and 192Ir brachytherapy sources. Air kerma strength per activity, dose rate constant, radial dose function, and two dimensional (2D) anisotropy functions were calculated and isodose curves were plotted for three different photon energy spectra. The references for photon energy spectra were: published papers, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC). The data calculated by these photon energy spectra were compared. Results Dose rate constant values showed a maximum difference of 24.07% for 103Pd source with different photon energy spectra. Radial dose function values based on different spectra were relatively the same. 2D anisotropy function values showed minor differences in most of distances and angles. There was not any detectable difference between the isodose contours. Conclusions Dosimetric parameters obtained with different photon spectra were relatively the same, however it is suggested that more accurate and updated photon energy spectra be used in Monte Carlo simulations. This would allow for calculation of reliable dosimetric data for source modeling and calculation in brachytherapy treatment planning systems. PMID:27247558

  19. Monte Carlo dosimetric study of the medium dose rate CSM40 source.

    PubMed

    Vijande, J; Granero, D; Perez-Calatayud, J; Ballester, F

    2013-12-01

    The (137)Cs medium dose rate (MDR) CSM40 source model (Eckert & Ziegler BEBIG, Germany) is in clinical use but no dosimetric dataset has been published. This study aims to obtain dosimetric data for the CSM40 source for its use in clinical practice as required by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO). Penelope2008 and Geant4 Monte Carlo codes were used to characterize this source dosimetrically. It was located in an unbounded water phantom with composition and mass density as recommended by AAPM and ESTRO. Due to the low photon energies of (137)Cs, absorbed dose was approximated by collisional kerma. Additional simulations were performed to obtain the air-kerma strength, sK. Mass-energy absorption coefficients in water and air were consistently derived and used to calculate collisional kerma. Results performed with both radiation transport codes showed agreement typically within 0.05%. Dose rate constant, radial dose function and anisotropy function are provided for the CSM40 and compared with published data for other commercially available (137)Cs sources. An uncertainty analysis has been performed. The data provided by this study can be used as input data and verification in the treatment planning systems.

  20. Dosimetric comparison of helical tomotherapy and dynamic conformal arc therapy in stereotactic radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Chao, Pei-Ju; Wang, Chang-Yu; Lan, Jen-Hong; Huang, Yu-Je; Hsu, Hsuan-Chih; Sung, Chieh-Cheng; Su, Te-Jen; Lian, Shi-Long; Fang, Fu-Min

    2011-01-01

    The dosimetric results of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for vestibular schwannoma (VS) performed using dynamic conformal arc therapy (DCAT) with the Novalis system and helical TomoTherapy (HT) were compared using plan quality indices. The HT plans were created for 10 consecutive patients with VS previously treated with SRS using the Novalis system. The dosimetric indices used to compare the techniques included the conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) for the planned target volume (PTV), the comprehensive quality index (CQI) for nine organs at risk (OARs), gradient score index (GSI) for the dose drop-off outside the PTV, and plan quality index (PQI), which was verified using the plan quality discerning power (PQDP) to incorporate 3 plan indices, to evaluate the rival plans. The PTV ranged from 0.27-19.99 cm(3) (median 3.39 cm(3)), with minimum required PTV prescribed doses of 10-16 Gy (median 12 Gy). Both systems satisfied the minimum required PTV prescription doses. HT conformed better to the PTV (CI: 1.51 ± 0.23 vs. 1.94 ± 0.34; p < 0.01), but had a worse drop-off outside the PTV (GSI: 40.3 ± 10.9 vs. 64.9 ± 13.6; p < 0.01) compared with DCAT. No significant difference in PTV homogeneity was observed (HI: 1.08 ± 0.03 vs. 1.09 ± 0.02; p = 0.20). HT had a significantly lower maximum dose in 4 OARs and significant lower mean dose in 1 OAR; by contrast, DCAT had a significantly lower maximum dose in 1 OAR and significant lower mean dose in 2 OARs, with the CQI of the 9 OARs = 0.92 ± 0.45. Plan analysis using PQI (HT 0.37 ± 0.12 vs. DCAT 0.65 ± 0.08; p < 0.01), and verified using the PQDP, confirmed the dosimetric advantage of HT. However, the HT system had a longer beam-on time (33.2 ± 7.4 vs. 4.6 ± 0.9 min; p < 0.01) and consumed more monitor units (16772 ± 3803 vs. 1776 ± 356.3; p < 0.01). HT had a better dose conformity and similar dose homogeneity but worse dose gradient than DCAT. Plan analysis confirmed the dosimetric advantage of HT

  1. TU-D-9A-01: TG176: Dosimetric Effects of Couch Tops and Immobilization Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Olch, A

    2014-06-15

    The dosimetric impact from devices external to the patient is a complex combination of increased skin dose, reduced tumor dose, and altered dose distribution. Although small monitor unit or dose corrections are routinely made for blocking trays, ion chamber correction factors, or tissue inhomogeneities, the dose perturbation of the treatment couch top or immobilization devices are often overlooked. These devices also increase surface dose, an effect which is also often ignored or underestimated. These concerns have grown recently due to the increased use of monolithic carbon fiber couch tops which are optimal for imaging for patient position verification but cause attenuation and increased surface dose compared to the ‘tennis racket’ style couch top they often replace. Also, arc delivery techniques have replaced stationary gantry techniques which cause a greater fraction of the dose to be delivered from posterior angles. A host of immobilization devices are available and used to increase patient positioning reproducibility, and these also have attenuation and skin dose implications which are often ignored. This report of Task Group 176 serves to present a survey of published data that illustrates the magnitude of the dosimetric effects of a wide range of devices external to the patient. The report also provides methods for modeling couch tops in treatment planning systems so the physicist can accurately compute the dosimetric effects for indexed patient treatments. Both photon and proton beams are considered. A discussion on avoidance of high density structures during beam planning is also provided. An important aspect of this report are the recommendations we make to clinical physicists, treatment planning system vendors, and device vendors on how to make measurements of skin dose and attenuation, how to report these values, and for the vendors, an appeal is made to work together to provide accurate couch top models in planning systems. Learning Objectives

  2. Dosimetric Comparison of Helical Tomotherapy and Dynamic Conformal Arc Therapy in Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannomas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Chao, Pei-Ju; Wang, Chang-Yu; Lan, Jen-Hong; Huang, Yu-Je; Hsu, Hsuan-Chih; Sung, Chieh-Cheng; Su, Te-Jen; Lian, Shi-Long; Fang, Fu-Min

    2011-04-01

    The dosimetric results of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for vestibular schwannoma (VS) performed using dynamic conformal arc therapy (DCAT) with the Novalis system and helical TomoTherapy (HT) were compared using plan quality indices. The HT plans were created for 10 consecutive patients with VS previously treated with SRS using the Novalis system. The dosimetric indices used to compare the techniques included the conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) for the planned target volume (PTV), the comprehensive quality index (CQI) for nine organs at risk (OARs), gradient score index (GSI) for the dose drop-off outside the PTV, and plan quality index (PQI), which was verified using the plan quality discerning power (PQDP) to incorporate 3 plan indices, to evaluate the rival plans. The PTV ranged from 0.27-19.99 cm{sup 3} (median 3.39 cm{sup 3}), with minimum required PTV prescribed doses of 10-16 Gy (median 12 Gy). Both systems satisfied the minimum required PTV prescription doses. HT conformed better to the PTV (CI: 1.51 {+-} 0.23 vs. 1.94 {+-} 0.34; p < 0.01), but had a worse drop-off outside the PTV (GSI: 40.3 {+-} 10.9 vs. 64.9 {+-} 13.6; p < 0.01) compared with DCAT. No significant difference in PTV homogeneity was observed (HI: 1.08 {+-} 0.03 vs. 1.09 {+-} 0.02; p = 0.20). HT had a significantly lower maximum dose in 4 OARs and significant lower mean dose in 1 OAR; by contrast, DCAT had a significantly lower maximum dose in 1 OAR and significant lower mean dose in 2 OARs, with the CQI of the 9 OARs = 0.92 {+-} 0.45. Plan analysis using PQI (HT 0.37 {+-} 0.12 vs. DCAT 0.65 {+-} 0.08; p < 0.01), and verified using the PQDP, confirmed the dosimetric advantage of HT. However, the HT system had a longer beam-on time (33.2 {+-} 7.4 vs. 4.6 {+-} 0.9 min; p < 0.01) and consumed more monitor units (16772 {+-} 3803 vs. 1776 {+-} 356.3; p < 0.01). HT had a better dose conformity and similar dose homogeneity but worse dose gradient than DCAT. Plan analysis

  3. 39 CFR 3055.32 - Measurement systems using a delivery factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Measurement systems using a delivery factor. 3055.32 Section 3055.32 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements §...

  4. 39 CFR 3055.5 - Changes to measurement systems, service standards, service goals, or reporting methodologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Changes to measurement systems, service standards, service goals, or reporting methodologies. 3055.5 Section 3055.5 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of...

  5. 77 FR 65024 - New Postal Product and Related Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... F. It maintains that the redacted portions of the contract, customer- identifying information, and... structure, underlying costs and assumptions, pricing formulas, information relevant to the customer's mailing profile, and cost coverage projections. Id. The Postal Service asks the Commission to...

  6. United States Postal Service Pension Obligation Recalculation and Restoration Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Lynch, Stephen F. [D-MA-9

    2011-04-04

    04/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, U.S. Postal Service, and Labor Policy . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. United States Postal Service Pension Obligation Recalculation and Restoration Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Thompson, Bennie G. [D-MS-2

    2011-10-12

    11/02/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, U.S. Postal Service, and Labor Policy . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Dosimetric, mechanical, and geometric verification of conformal dynamic arc treatment.

    PubMed

    Malatesta, T; Landoni, V; delle Canne, S; Bufacchi, A; Marmiroli, L; Caspiani, O; Bonanni, A; Tortoreto, F; Leone, M V; Capparella, R; Fragomeni, R; Begnozzi, L

    2003-01-01

    A conformal dynamic arc (CD-arc) technique has been implemented at the S. Giovanni Calibita-Fatebenefratelli Hospital Radiotherapy Center. This technique is performed by rotational beams and a dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC): during the treatment delivery the gantry rotates and the field shape, formed by the DMLC changes continuously. The aim of this study was to perform dosimetric, mechanical, and geometric verification to ensure that the dose calculated by a commercial treatment planning system and administered to the patient was correct, before and during the clinical use of this technique. Absolute dose values, at the isocenter and at other points placed in dose heterogeneity zone, have been verified with an ionization chamber in a solid homogeneous phantom. In uniform dose regions measured dose values resulted in agreements with the calculated doses within 2%. Isodose distributions have also been determined by radiographic films and compared with those predicted by the planning system. Distance to agreement between calculated and measured isodoses in dose gradient zone was within 2 mm. In conclusion, our results demonstrated the feasibility and the accuracy of the CD-arc technique for achieving highly conformal dose distributions. Up till now 20 patients have been treated with CD-arc therapy.

  9. 39 CFR 262.5 - Systems (Privacy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... individual. (c) Computer matching program. A “matching program,” as defined in the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. 552a... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Systems (Privacy). 262.5 Section 262.5 Postal... DEFINITIONS § 262.5 Systems (Privacy). (a) Privacy Act system of records. A Postal Service system...

  10. Dosimetric characterization of two radium sources for retrospective dosimetry studies

    SciTech Connect

    Candela-Juan, C.; Karlsson, M.; Lundell, M.; Ballester, F.; Tedgren, Å. Carlsson

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: During the first part of the 20th century, {sup 226}Ra was the most used radionuclide for brachytherapy. Retrospective accurate dosimetry, coupled with patient follow up, is important for advancing knowledge on long-term radiation effects. The purpose of this work was to dosimetrically characterize two {sup 226}Ra sources, commonly used in Sweden during the first half of the 20th century, for retrospective dose–effect studies. Methods: An 8 mg {sup 226}Ra tube and a 10 mg {sup 226}Ra needle, used at Radiumhemmet (Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden), from 1925 to the 1960s, were modeled in two independent Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport codes: GEANT4 and MCNP5. Absorbed dose and collision kerma around the two sources were obtained, from which the TG-43 parameters were derived for the secular equilibrium state. Furthermore, results from this dosimetric formalism were compared with results from a MC simulation with a superficial mould constituted by five needles inside a glass casing, placed over a water phantom, trying to mimic a typical clinical setup. Calculated absorbed doses using the TG-43 formalism were also compared with previously reported measurements and calculations based on the Sievert integral. Finally, the dose rate at large distances from a {sup 226}Ra point-like-source placed in the center of 1 m radius water sphere was calculated with GEANT4. Results: TG-43 parameters [including g{sub L}(r), F(r, θ), Λ, and s{sub K}] have been uploaded in spreadsheets as additional material, and the fitting parameters of a mathematical curve that provides the dose rate between 10 and 60 cm from the source have been provided. Results from TG-43 formalism are consistent within the treatment volume with those of a MC simulation of a typical clinical scenario. Comparisons with reported measurements made with thermoluminescent dosimeters show differences up to 13% along the transverse axis of the radium needle. It has been estimated that

  11. Optical and dosimetric properties of zircon.

    PubMed

    Kristianpoller, N; Weiss, D; Chen, R

    2006-01-01

    Irradiation effects were investigated in zircon crystals by methods of optical absorption and luminescence. Special attention was given to the effects of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. The same main thermoluminescence (TL) peaks with the same thermal activation energies appeared after VUV as after X- or beta irradiation, indicating that the same traps were induced by the different irradiations. TL excitation spectra in the VUV showed an increase <220 nm and maxima near 190 and 140 nm. Excitation spectra of phototransferred TL (PTTL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were also measured. Most TL emission bands also appeared in the X-luminescence, PTTL and OSL. Dosimetric properties such as the TL radiation sensitivity, thermal stability of radiation-induced defects and TL dose dependence were also investigated. The radiation sensitivity of zircon was by an order of magnitude lower than that of TLD-100. The 355 K TL peak showed linear dose dependence only up to approximately 500 Gy and the 520 K peak up to approximately 1800 Gy.

  12. Gamma Putty dosimetric studies in electron beam

    PubMed Central

    Gloi, Aime M.

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, lead has been used for field shaping in megavoltage electron beams in radiation therapy. In this study, we analyze the dosimetric parameters of a nontoxic, high atomic number (Z = 83), bismuth-loaded material called Gamma Putty that is malleable and can be easily molded to any desired shape. First, we placed an ionization chamber at different depths in a solid water phantom under a Gamma Putty shield of thickness (t = 0, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mm, respectively) and measured the ionizing radiation on the central axis (CAX) for electron beam ranging in energies from 6 to 20 MeV. Next, we investigated the relationship between the relative ionization (RI) measured at a fixed depth for several Gamma Putty shield at different cutout diameters ranging from 2 to 5 cm for various beam energies and derived an exponential fitting equation for clinical purposes. The dose profiles along the CAX show that bremsstrahlung dominates for Gamma Putty thickness >15 mm. For high-energy beams (12–20 MeV) and all Gamma Putty thicknesses up to 25 mm, RI below 5% could not be achieved due to the strong bremsstrahlung component. However, Gamma Putty is a very suitable material for reducing the transmission factor below 5% and protecting underlying normal tissues for low-energy electron beams (6–9 MeV). PMID:27651563

  13. A high sensitive phosphor for dosimetric applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kore, Bhushan P. Dhoble, S. J.; Dhoble, N. S.; Lochab, S. P.

    2015-06-24

    In this study a novel TL phosphor CaMg{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+} was prepared by acid distillation method. The TL response of this phosphor towards γ-rays and carbon ion beam was tested. Good dosimetric glow curve was observed which is stable against both the type of radiations. The CaMg{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphor doped with 0.2 mol% of Dy{sup 3+}, irradiated with γ-ray shows nearly equal sensitivity to that of commercially available CaSO{sub 4}:Dy TLD phosphor whereas 3.5 times more sensitivity than CaSO{sub 4}:Dy, when irradiated with carbon ion beam. The change in glow peak intensities and glow peak temperature with variation in irradiation species and energy of ion beam is discussed here. The effect of these on trapping parameters is also illustrated.

  14. Adaptive optimization by 6 DOF robotic couch in prostate volumetric IMRT treatment: rototranslational shift and dosimetric consequences.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Silvia; Placidi, Lorenzo; Azario, Luigi; Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; Greco, Francesca; Damiani, Andrea; Mantini, Giovanna; Frascino, Vincenzo; Piermattei, Angelo; Valentini, Vincenzo; Balducci, Mario

    2015-09-08

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the magnitude and dosimetric relevance of translational and rotational shifts on IGRT prostate volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using Protura six degrees of freedom (DOF) Robotic Patient Positioning System. Patients with cT3aN0M0 prostate cancer, treated with VMAT simultaneous integrated boost (VMAT-SIB), were enrolled. PTV2 was obtained adding 0.7 cm margin to seminal vesicles base (CTV2), while PTV1 adding to prostate (CTV1) 0.7 cm margin in all directions, except 1.2 cm, as caudal margin. A daily CBCT was acquired before dose delivery. The translational and rotational displacements were corrected through Protura Robotic Couch, collected and applied to the simulation CT to obtain a translated CT (tCT) and a rototranslated CT (rtCT) on which we recalculated the initial treatment plan (TP). We analyzed the correlation between dosimetric coverage, organs at risk (OAR) sparing, and translational or rotational displacements. The dosimetric impact of a rototranslational correction was calculated. From October 2012 to September 2013, a total of 263 CBCT scans from 12 patients were collected. Translational shifts were < 5 mm in 81% of patients and the rotational shifts were < 2° in 93% of patient scans. The dosimetric analysis was performed on 172 CBCT scans and calculating 344 VMAT-TP. Two significant linear correlations were observed between yaw and the V20 femoral heads and between pitch rotation and V50 rectum (p < 0.001); rototranslational correction seems to impact more on PTV2 than on PTV1, especially when margins are reduced. Rotational errors are of dosimetric significance in sparing OAR and in target coverage. This is relevant for femoral heads and rectum because of major distance from isocenter, and for seminal vesicles because of irregular shape. No correlation was observed between translational and rotational errors. A study considering the intrafractional error and the deformable registration is ongoing.

  15. Dosimetric implications of new compounds for neutron capture therapy (NCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Systemic application of radiolabeled or cytotoxic agents should allow targeting of primary and metastatic neoplasms on a cellular level. In fact, drug uptake in non-target cell pools often exceeds toxic levels before sufficient amounts are delivered to tumor. In addition, at the large concentration of molecules necessary for therapy, effects of saturation are often found. Application of NCT can circumvent problems associated with high uptake in competing non-target cell pools, as the /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Li reaction is activated only within the radiation field. A comparison with other modes of particle therapy indicated that NCT provides significant advantages. It is however, difficult to obtain vehicles for boron transport which demonstrate both the tumor specificity and concentration requisite for NCT. A number of biomolecules have been investigated which show both the necessary concentration and specificity. These include chlorpromazine, thiouracil, porphyrins, amino acids, and nucleosides. However, these analogs have yet to be made available for NCT. Dosimetric implications of binding sites are considered, as well as alternate neutron sources. (ERB)

  16. Active pixel as dosimetric device for interventional radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servoli, L.; Baldaccini, F.; Biasini, M.; Checcucci, B.; Chiocchini, S.; Cicioni, R.; Conti, E.; Di Lorenzo, R.; Dipilato, A. C.; Esposito, A.; Fanó, L.; Paolucci, M.; Passeri, D.; Pentiricci, A.; Placidi, P.

    2013-08-01

    Interventional Radiology (IR) is a subspecialty of radiology comprehensive of all minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed using radiological devices to obtain image guidance. The interventional procedures are potentially harmful for interventional radiologists and medical staff due to the X-ray diffusion by the patient's body. The characteristic energy range of the diffused photons spans few tens of keV. In this work we will present a proposal for a new X-ray sensing element in the energy range of interest for IR procedures. The sensing element will then be assembled in a dosimeter prototype, capable of real-time measurement, packaged in a small form-factor, with wireless communication and no external power supply to be used for individual operators dosimetry for IR procedures. For the sensor, which is the heart of the system, we considered three different Active Pixel Sensors (APS). They have shown a good capability as single X-ray photon detectors, up to several tens keV photon energy. Two dosimetric quantities have been considered, the number of detected photons and the measured energy deposition. Both observables have a linear dependence with the dose, as measured by commercial dosimeters. The uncertainties in the measurement are dominated by statistic and can be pushed at ˜5% for all the sensors under test.

  17. Dosimetric Study of a Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M.; Arzamendi, S.; Díaz-Perches, R.

    Carcinoma of the cervix is the most common malignancy - in terms of both incidence and mortality - in Mexican women. Low dose rate (LDR) intracavitary brachytherapy is normally prescribed for the treatment of this disease to the vast majority of patients attending public hospitals in our country. However, most treatment planning systems being used in these hospitals still rely on Sievert integral dose calculations. Moreover, experimental verification of dose distributions are hardly ever done. In this work we present a dosimetric characterisation of the Amersham CDCS-J 137Cs source, an LDR brachytherapy source commonly used in Mexican hospitals. To this end a Monte Carlo simulation was developed, that includes a realistic description of the internal structure of the source embedded in a scattering medium. The Monte Carlo results were compared to experimental measurements of dose distributions. A lucite phantom with the same geometric characteristics as the one used in the simulation was built. Dose measurements were performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters together with commercial RadioChromic dye film. A comparison between our Monte Carlo simulation, the experimental data, and results reported in the literature is presented.

  18. Dosimetric measurements of an n-butyl cyanoacrylate embolization material for arteriovenous malformations

    SciTech Connect

    Labby, Zacariah E.; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Gemmete, Joseph J.; Pandey, Aditya S.; Roberts, Donald A.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The therapeutic regimen for cranial arteriovenous malformations often involves both stereotactic radiosurgery and endovascular embolization. Embolization agents may contain tantalum or other contrast agents to assist the neurointerventionalists, leading to concerns regarding the dosimetric effects of these agents. This study investigated dosimetric properties of n-butyl cyanoacrylate (n-BCA) plus lipiodol with and without tantalum powder. Methods: The embolization agents were provided cured from the manufacturer with and without added tantalum. Attenuation measurements were made for the samples and compared to the attenuation of a solid water substitute using a 6 MV photon beam. Effective linear attenuation coefficients (ELAC) were derived from attenuation measurements made using a portal imager and derived sample thickness maps projected in an identical geometry. Probable dosimetric errors for calculations in which the embolized regions are overridden with the properties of water were calculated using the ELAC values. Interface effects were investigated using a parallel plate ion chamber placed at set distances below fixed samples. Finally, Hounsfield units (HU) were measured using a stereotactic radiosurgery CT protocol, and more appropriate HU values were derived from the ELAC results and the CT scanner’s HU calibration curve. Results: The ELAC was 0.0516 ± 0.0063 cm{sup −1} and 0.0580 ± 0.0091 cm{sup −1} for n-BCA without and with tantalum, respectively, compared to 0.0487 ± 0.0009 cm{sup −1} for the water substitute. Dose calculations with the embolized region set to be water equivalent in the treatment planning system would result in errors of −0.29% and −0.93% per cm thickness of n-BCA without and with tantalum, respectively. Interface effects compared to water were small in magnitude and limited in distance for both embolization materials. CT values at 120 kVp were 2082 and 2358 HU for n-BCA without and with tantalum, respectively

  19. Aquifer thermal energy storage at Mid-Island postal facility: Phase 1 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marseille, T.J.; Armstrong, P.R.; Brown, D.R.; Vail, L.W.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1993-05-01

    The successful widespread commercialization of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) in the United States will depend on how experiences gained from early full-scale projects are used as guides in the design, installation, and operation of future projects. One early system, built in the mid-1980s, is the US Postal Service (USPS) Mid-Island Mail Processing Facility (MPF), in Melville, New York. The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) of the MPF's workroom is provided by an ATES system, which is operated year-round to provide a source for both heating and cooling, in combination with a triethylene glycol (TEG) liquid-desiccant system for humidity control. Because the facility affords a unique opportunity to study this innovative system, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) entered into agreements with the USPS, the US Geological Survey (USGS), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (the Energy Authority) to assess the operation and performance of the system. Two essentially independent questions were to be addressed by the project. The first question was: How does the MPF ATES/TEG technology compare to conventional technologies '' The second was: What can be done to make operation of the USPS MPF more economical '' Modelling of the MPF ATES/TEG HVAC system and its loads helped to address both of these questions by showing how much energy is used by the different system components. This report is divided into six sections. Section 1 is an introduction. Section 2 provides system background. Section 3 describes PNL's technical performance assessment of the system. Section 4 discusses the life-cycle cost assessment. An operational assessment of the liquid-desiccant system is discussed in Section 5. Section 6 contains conclusions of this study.

  20. Aquifer thermal energy storage at Mid-Island postal facility: Phase 1 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marseille, T.J.; Armstrong, P.R.; Brown, D.R.; Vail, L.W.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1993-05-01

    The successful widespread commercialization of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) in the United States will depend on how experiences gained from early full-scale projects are used as guides in the design, installation, and operation of future projects. One early system, built in the mid-1980s, is the US Postal Service (USPS) Mid-Island Mail Processing Facility (MPF), in Melville, New York. The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) of the MPF`s workroom is provided by an ATES system, which is operated year-round to provide a source for both heating and cooling, in combination with a triethylene glycol (TEG) liquid-desiccant system for humidity control. Because the facility affords a unique opportunity to study this innovative system, the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) entered into agreements with the USPS, the US Geological Survey (USGS), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (the Energy Authority) to assess the operation and performance of the system. Two essentially independent questions were to be addressed by the project. The first question was: ``How does the MPF ATES/TEG technology compare to conventional technologies?`` The second was: ``What can be done to make operation of the USPS MPF more economical?`` Modelling of the MPF ATES/TEG HVAC system and its loads helped to address both of these questions by showing how much energy is used by the different system components. This report is divided into six sections. Section 1 is an introduction. Section 2 provides system background. Section 3 describes PNL`s technical performance assessment of the system. Section 4 discusses the life-cycle cost assessment. An operational assessment of the liquid-desiccant system is discussed in Section 5. Section 6 contains conclusions of this study.

  1. Advanced optical techniques for monitoring dosimetric parameters in photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Buhong; Qiu, Zhihai; Huang, Zheng

    2012-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the generation of highly reactive singlet oxygen through interactions of photosensitizer, light and molecular oxygen. PDT has become a clinically approved, minimally invasive therapeutic modality for a wide variety of malignant and nonmalignant diseases. The main dosimetric parameters for predicting the PDT efficacy include the delivered light dose, the quantification and photobleaching of the administrated photosensitizer, the tissue oxygen concentration, the amount of singlet oxygen generation and the resulting biological responses. This review article presents the emerging optical techniques that in use or under development for monitoring dosimetric parameters during PDT treatment. Moreover, the main challenges in developing real-time and noninvasive optical techniques for monitoring dosimetric parameters in PDT will be described.

  2. Electromagnetic and Thermal Dosimetric Techniques in Humans and its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu

    There has been increasing public concern about the adverse health effects of human exposure to radio frequency fields. Radio frequency fields are also used for medical application. This paper reviews electromagnetic and thermal computational dosimetric techniques, which has been developed by the authors. The feature of the thermal dosimetric method is that body core temperature can be computed reasonably unlike conventional method. This scheme is particularly useful for intense localized or whole-body electromagnetic wave exposure. Computational examples are shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposal.

  3. Dosimetric effects caused by couch tops and immobilization devices: Report of AAPM Task Group 176

    SciTech Connect

    Olch, Arthur J.; Gerig, Lee; Li, Heng; Mihaylov, Ivaylo; Morgan, Andrew

    2014-06-15

    The dosimetric impact from devices external to the patient is a complex combination of increased skin dose, reduced tumor dose, and altered dose distribution. Although small monitor unit or dose corrections are routinely made for blocking trays, ion chamber correction factors, e.g., accounting for temperature and pressure, or tissue inhomogeneities, the dose perturbation of the treatment couch top or immobilization devices is often overlooked. These devices also increase skin dose, an effect which is also often ignored or underestimated. These concerns have grown recently due to the increased use of monolithic carbon fiber couch tops which are optimal for imaging for patient position verification but cause attenuation and increased skin dose compared to the “tennis racket” style couch top they often replace. Also, arc delivery techniques have replaced stationary gantry techniques which cause a greater fraction of the dose to be delivered from posterior angles. A host of immobilization devices are available and used to increase patient positioning reproducibility, and these also have attenuation and skin dose implications which are often ignored. This report of Task Group 176 serves to present a survey of published data that illustrates the magnitude of the dosimetric effects of a wide range of devices external to the patient. The report also provides methods for modeling couch tops in treatment planning systems so the physicist can accurately compute the dosimetric effects for indexed patient treatments. Both photon and proton beams are considered. A discussion on avoidance of high density structures during beam planning is also provided. An important aspect of this report are the recommendations the authors make to clinical physicists, treatment planning system vendors, and device vendors on how to make measurements of surface dose and attenuation and how to report these values. For the vendors, an appeal is made to work together to provide accurate couch top

  4. Dosimetric and mechanical characteristics of a commercial dynamic {mu}MLC used in SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Galal, Mohamed M.; Keogh, Sinead; Khalil, Sultan

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to carry out mechanical and dosimetric assessments on a commercial dynamic micromulti leaf collimator system to be used for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). Mechanical parameters such as leaf position accuracy with different gantry angles and leaf position reproducibility were measured. Also dosimetric measurements of the interleaf leakage, intraleaf transmission, penumbra width, and light field alignment were carried out. Furthermore, measurements of output factors (S{sub cp}) and in-air factors (S{sub c}) for the {mu}MLC system will be reported. Methods: EBT2 films were used to assess the leaf position error with gantry angle and after stress test, penumbra width and light field alignment. Leaf leakage was quantified using both EBT2 film and a pinpoint ion chamber. With regard to output factors, the pinpoint chamber was placed in a water phantom at 10 cm depth and 100 cm SSD. For in-air output factor measurements, 0.2 cm of brass was placed above the photon diode as build-up. Results: Measurements of mechanical parameters gave values of 0.05 cm (SD 0.035) for the average leaf position accuracy for different gantry angles and after stress test. Dosimetric measurements, yielded values of 0.22 {+-} 0.01 and 0.24 {+-} 0.01 cm, respectively, for side and head leaf penumbras. Also, average leaf abutting, leakage and transmission were found to be 0.65, 0.91, and 0.20%, respectively. Conclusions: (a) The add-on {mu}MLC system in combination with our LINAC has been commissioned to be used for clinical purposes and showed good agreement with published results for different {mu}MLC types. (b) This work has lead to the recommendation that leaves should be recalibrated after ten static beams or after each dynamic arc.

  5. The anthrax vaccine and research: reactions from postal workers and public health professionals.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Thomas, Tammy; Kumar, Supriya

    2008-12-01

    During the 2001 anthrax attacks, public health agencies faced operational and communication decisions about the use of antibiotic prophylaxis and the anthrax vaccine with affected groups, including postal workers. This communication occurred within an evolving situation with incomplete and uncertain data. Guidelines for prophylactic antibiotics changed several times, contributing to confusion and mistrust. At the end of 60 days of taking antibiotics, people were offered an additional 40 days' supply of antibiotics, with or without the anthrax vaccine, the former constituting an investigational new drug protocol. Using data from interviews and focus groups with 65 postal workers in 3 sites and structured interviews with 16 public health professionals, this article examines the challenges for public health professionals who were responsible for communication with postal workers about the vaccine. Multiple factors affected the response, including a lack of trust, risk perception, disagreement about the recommendation, and the controversy over the military's use of the vaccine. Some postal workers reacted with suspicion to the vaccine offer, believing that they were the subjects of research, and some African American workers specifically drew an analogy to the Tuskegee syphilis study. The consent forms required for the protocol heightened mistrust. Postal workers also had complex and ambivalent responses to additional research on their health. The anthrax attacks present us with an opportunity to understand the challenges of communication in the context of uncertain science and suggest key strategies that may improve communications about vaccines and other drugs authorized for experimental use in future public health emergencies.

  6. The spectral applications of Beer-Lambert law for some biological and dosimetric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Içelli, Orhan; Yalçin, Zeynel; Karakaya, Vatan; Ilgaz, Işıl P.

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis of biological and dosimetric materials which contain organic and inorganic materials and to make the determination by using the spectral theorem Beer-Lambert law. Beer-Lambert law is a system of linear equations for the spectral theory. It is possible to solve linear equations with a non-zero coefficient matrix determinant forming linear equations. Characteristic matrix of the linear equation with zero determinant is called point spectrum at the spectral theory.

  7. U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Velazquez, L.E.; Petty, J.L. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics.

  8. Intra-arterial {sup 90}Y brachytherapy: Preliminary dosimetric study using a specially modified angioplasty balloon

    SciTech Connect

    Popowski, Y.; Nouet, P.; Rouzaud, M.

    1995-10-15

    Irradiation has been shown to be effective in preventing restenosis after dilatation in human peripheral arteries. We have developed a dedicated system for coronary intraarterial irradiation using a {sup 90}Y pure beta-emitting source inside a specially modified angioplasty balloon. This paper presents a preliminary dosimetric evaluation of this system. Thermoluminescent dosimetric measurements using the standard balloons filled with contrast medium were plotted semilogarithmically as a function of distance from the balloon surface. The logarithms of the measured doses fit a straight line as a function of depth. The doses at 1 mm and 3 mm are approximately 50 and 10% of the surface dose, respectively. Due to the poor centering of the source in the conventional balloons, the dispersion and standard deviations (SDs) of the measured surface doses increased proportionally to the balloon diameter (SDs are 1.89, 5.52, 5.79, and 6.46 Gy for 2.5, 3, 3.5, and 4 mm balloon diameters, respectively). For the 3.5 mm centering and conventional balloons the respective mean, minimum, and maximum surface doses were 8.41 Gy (min.7.26; max. 9.46) and 7.89 Gy (min. 2.18; max. 16.06) and their standard deviations were 0.66 and 5.79 Gy, respectively. Conventional angioplasty balloons cannot ensure a homogeneous dose delivery to an arterial wall with an intralumenal {sup 90}Y beta source. Preliminary dosimetric results using a modified centering balloon show that it permits improved surface dose distribution (axial and circumferential homogeneity), making it suitable for clinical applications. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Mechanical and dosimetric quality control for computer controlled radiotherapy treatment equipment.

    PubMed

    Thompson, A V; Lam, K L; Balter, J M; McShan, D L; Martel, M K; Weaver, T A; Fraass, B A; Ten Haken, R K

    1995-05-01

    Modern computer controlled radiotherapy treatment equipment offers the possibility of delivering complex, multiple field treatments with minimal operator intervention, thus making multiple field conformal therapy practical. Conventional quality control programs are inadequate for this new technology, so new quality control procedures are needed. A reasonably fast, sensitive, and complete daily quality control program has been developed in our clinic that includes nearly automated mechanical as well as dosimetric tests. Automated delivery of these quality control fields is performed by the control system of the MM50 racetrack microtron, directed by the CCRS sequence processor [D. L. McShan and B. A. Fraass, Proceedings of the XIth International Conference on the use of computers in Radiation Therapy, 20-24 March 1994, Manchester, U.K. (North Western Medical Physics Department, Manchester, U.K., 1994), pp. 210-211], which controls the treatment process. The mechanical tests involve multiple irradiations of a single film to check the accuracy and reproducibility of the computer controlled setup of gantry and collimator angles, table orientation, collimator jaws, and multileaf collimator shape. The dosimetric tests, which involve multiple irradiations of an array of ionization chambers in a commercial dose detector (Keithly model 90100 Tracker System) rigidly attached to the head of the treatment gantry, check the output and symmetry of the treatment unit as a function of gantry and collimator angle and other parameters. For each of the dosimetric tests, readings from the five ionization chambers are automatically read out, stored, and analyzed by the computer, along with the geometric parameters of the treatment unit for that beam.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Dosimetric impact of an air passage on intraluminal brachytherapy for bronchus cancer

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Wakita, Akihisa; Nakamura, Satoshi; Nishioka, Shie; Aikawa, Ako; Kato, Toru; Abe, Yoshihisa; Kobayashi, Kazuma; Inaba, Koji; Murakami, Naoya; Itami, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The brachytherapy dose calculations used in treatment planning systems (TPSs) have conventionally been performed assuming homogeneous water. Using measurements and a Monte Carlo simulation, we evaluated the dosimetric impact of an air passage on brachytherapy for bronchus cancer. To obtain the geometrical characteristics of an air passage, we analyzed the anatomical information from CT images of patients who underwent intraluminal brachytherapy using a high-dose-rate 192Ir source (MicroSelectron V2r®, Nucletron). Using an ionization chamber, we developed a measurement system capable of measuring the peripheral dose with or without an air cavity surrounding the catheter. Air cavities of five different radii (0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1.25 and 1.5 cm) were modeled by cylindrical tubes surrounding the catheter. A Monte Carlo code (GEANT4) was also used to evaluate the dosimetric impact of the air cavity. Compared with dose calculations in homogeneous water, the measurements and GEANT4 indicated a maximum overdose of 5–8% near the surface of the air cavity (with the maximum radius of 1.5 cm). Conversely, they indicated a minimum overdose of ~1% in the region 3–5 cm from the cavity surface for the smallest radius of 0.3 cm. The dosimetric impact depended on the size and the distance of the air passage, as well as the length of the treatment region. Based on dose calculations in water, the TPS for intraluminal brachytherapy for bronchus cancer had an unexpected overdose of 3–5% for a mean radius of 0.75 cm. This study indicates the need for improvement in dose calculation accuracy with respect to intraluminal brachytherapy for bronchus cancer. PMID:27605630

  11. Quality assurance and dosimetric evaluation for an endocavitary unit.

    PubMed

    Klein, E E; Purdy, J A

    1994-01-01

    The use of endocavitary contact therapy for selected rectal carcinomas continues to be an effective treatment option. Very small volumes are treated with an extremely high dose rate associated with rapid fall-off in depth and an overall high dose. The clinical benefits of the high dose rate leads to dosimetric and quality-assurance challenges. In addition, the operating room environment creates concerns in terms of dosimetry and radiation safety due to varying room line voltages and uncontrolled environments. The unit at our facility delivers 50 kVp X-rays using an SSD of 35 mm with lead-lined procotscopes of 24 and 29 mm. The dose rate is approximately 10 Gy per minute. Establishment of daily, monthly, and annual quality assurance reviews have been made and assessed. Parallel-plate ionization chambers measure outputs and relative depth dose with different phantoms. Silver bromide film is used to evaluate beam profiles. An electron diode system was chosen for day-of-treatment output checks. An ion chamber survey meter measures scatter and leakage exposure rates. Day-of-treatment output checks have assured output stability in various operating rooms. Trends in output have been confirmed by monthly ion chamber checks. Percent depth dose measurements carried out in liquid water compared well with accepted published data as did corrected polystyrene measurements. Radiation survey measurements detected acceptable exposure rate levels. The established comprehensive quality assurance program incorporates cross checking with multiple dosimetry systems. The confidence level of dose delivery has increased with the introduction of a day-of-treatment output checks.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. SU-E-T-345: Effect of DLG and MLC Transmission Value Set in the Treatment Planning System (TPS) On Dosimetric Accuracy of True Beam Hypofractionated SRT/SBRT and 2Gy/fx Prostate Rapid Arc Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, X; Wang, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Due to limited commissioning time, we previously only released our True beam non-FFF mode for prostate treatment. Clinical demand now pushes us to release the non-FFF mode for SRT/SBRT treatment. When re-planning on True beam previously treated SRT/SBRT cases on iX machine we found the patient specific QA pass rate was worse than iX’s, though the 2Gy/fx prostate Result had been as good. We hypothesize that in TPS the True beam DLG and MLC transmission values, of those measured during commissioning could not yet provide accurate SRS/SBRT dosimetry. Hence this work is to investigate how the TPS DLG and transmission value affects Rapid Arc plans’ dosimetric accuracy. Methods: We increased DLG and transmission value of True beam in TPS such that their percentage differences against the measured matched those of iX’s. We re-calculated 2 SRT, 1 SBRT and 2 prostate plans, performed patient specific QA on these new plans and compared the results to the previous. Results: With DLG and transmission value set respectively 40 and 8% higher than the measured, the patient specific QA pass rate (at 3%/3mm) improved from 95.0 to 97.6% vs previous iX’s 97.8% in the case of SRT. In the case of SBRT, the pass rate improved from 75.2 to 93.9% vs previous iX’s 92.5%. In the case of prostate, the pass rate improved from 99.3 to 100%. The maximum dose difference in plans before and after adjusting DLG and transmission was approximately 1% of the prescription dose among all plans. Conclusion: The impact of adjusting DLG and transmission value on dosimetry might be the same among all Rapid Arc plans regardless hypofractionated or not. The large variation observed in patient specific QA pass rate might be due to the data analysis method in the QA software being more sensitive to hypofractionated plans.

  13. Study of return rate and return time of undeliverable postal letters.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Pokrzywniak, Andrea; Stang, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Postal questionnaires are widely used to collect data in health research and epidemiologic studies. One problem related to mail surveys is the availability of an up-to-date and accurate list of people in the population from which to draw the sample for the survey. For the identification of incorrect postal addresses it is important that all incorrectly addressed mails are returned as undeliverable. This study examines the proportion of unreturned postal letters that were sent to incorrect addresses. We sent 339 letters to existing addresses throughout Germany, but used fictional names name of persons. Three hundred and three letters (98.2%) were returned as undeliverable. The return rates only slightly differed by layout of the envelopes, region and deliverer.

  14. Development of evaluation procedures for local exhaust ventilation for United States postal service mail-processing equipment.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Bryan R; Topmiller, Jennifer L; Crouch, Keith G

    2004-07-01

    Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have conducted several evaluations of local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems for the United States Postal Service (USPS) since autumn 2001 when (a) terrorist(s) employed the mail system for acts of bioterrorism. As a part of the USPS 2002 Emergency Preparedness Plan, the development and installation of LEV onto USPS mail-processing equipment can reduce future exposures to operators from potentially hazardous contaminants, such as anthrax, which might be emitted during the processing of mail. This article describes how NIOSH field testing led to the development of recommended testing procedures for evaluations of LEV capture efficiency for mail-processing equipment, including tracer gas measurements, smoke release observations, air velocity measurements, and decay-rate testing under access hoods.

  15. Dosimetric characterization of an 192Ir brachytherapy source with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE.

    PubMed

    Casado, Francisco Javier; García-Pareja, Salvador; Cenizo, Elena; Mateo, Beatriz; Bodineau, Coral; Galán, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations are highly spread and settled practice to calculate brachytherapy sources dosimetric parameters. In this study, recommendations of the AAPM TG-43U1 report have been followed to characterize the Varisource VS2000 (192)Ir high dose rate source, provided by Varian Oncology Systems. In order to obtain dosimetric parameters for this source, Monte Carlo calculations with PENELOPE code have been carried out. TG-43 formalism parameters have been presented, i.e., air kerma strength, dose rate constant, radial dose function and anisotropy function. Besides, a 2D Cartesian coordinates dose rate in water table has been calculated. These quantities are compared to this source reference data, finding results in good agreement with them. The data in the present study complement published data in the next aspects: (i) TG-43U1 recommendations are followed regarding to phantom ambient conditions and to uncertainty analysis, including statistical (type A) and systematic (type B) contributions; (ii) PENELOPE code is benchmarked for this source; (iii) Monte Carlo calculation methodology differs from that usually published in the way to estimate absorbed dose, leaving out the track-length estimator; (iv) the results of the present work comply with the most recent AAPM and ESTRO physics committee recommendations about Monte Carlo techniques, in regards to dose rate uncertainty values and established differences between our results and reference data. The results stated in this paper provide a complete parameter collection, which can be used for dosimetric calculations as well as a means of comparison with other datasets from this source.

  16. Dosimetric Impact of Intrafractional Patient Motion in Pediatric Brain Tumor Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Beltran, Chris Trussell, John; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the dosimetric consequences of intrafractional patient motion on the clinical target volume (CTV), spinal cord, and optic nerves for non-sedated pediatric brain tumor patients. The patients were immobilized for treatment using a customized thermoplastic full-face mask and bite-block attached to an array of reflectors. The array was optically tracked by infra-red cameras at a frequency of 10 Hz. Patients were localized based on skin/mask marks and weekly films were taken to ensure proper setup. Before each noncoplanar field was delivered, the deviation from baseline of the array was recorded. The systematic error (SE) and random error (RE) were calculated. Direct simulation of the intrafractional motion was used to quantify the dosimetric changes to the targets and critical structures. Nine patients utilizing the optical tracking system were evaluated. The patient cohort had a mean of 31 {+-} 1.5 treatment fractions; motion data were acquired for a mean of 26 {+-} 6.2 fractions. The mean age was 15.6 {+-} 4.1 years. The SE and RE were 0.4 and 1.1 mm in the posterior-anterior, 0.5 and 1.0 mm in left-right, and 0.6 and 1.3 mm in superior-inferior directions, respectively. The dosimetric effects of the motion on the CTV were negligible; however, the dose to the critical structures was increased. Patient motion during treatment does affect the dose to critical structures, therefore, planning risk volumes are needed to properly assess the dose to normal tissues. Because the motion did not affect the dose to the CTV, the 3-mm PTV margin used is sufficient to account for intrafractional motion, given the patient is properly localized at the start of treatment.

  17. Comparison of dosimetric and radiobiological parameters on plans for prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy using an endorectal balloon for different dose-calculation algorithms and delivery-beam modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sang-Won; Suh, Tae-Suk; Chung, Jin-Beom; Eom, Keun-Yong; Song, Changhoon; Kim, In-Ah; Kim, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Cho, Woong

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of dosimetric and radiobiological parameters on treatment plans by using different dose-calculation algorithms and delivery-beam modes for prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy using an endorectal balloon. For 20 patients with prostate cancer, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) plans were generated by using a 10-MV photon beam with flattening filter (FF) and flattening-filter-free (FFF) modes. The total treatment dose prescribed was 42.7 Gy in 7 fractions to cover at least 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) with 95% of the prescribed dose. The dose computation was initially performed using an anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) in the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) and was then re-calculated using Acuros XB (AXB V. 11.0.34) with the same monitor units and multileaf collimator files. The dosimetric and the radiobiological parameters for the PTV and organs at risk (OARs) were analyzed from the dose-volume histogram. An obvious difference in dosimetric parameters between the AAA and the AXB plans was observed in the PTV and rectum. Doses to the PTV, excluding the maximum dose, were always higher in the AAA plans than in the AXB plans. However, doses to the other OARs were similar in both algorithm plans. In addition, no difference was observed in the dosimetric parameters for different delivery-beam modes when using the same algorithm to generate plans. As a result of the dosimetric parameters, the radiobiological parameters for the two algorithm plans presented an apparent difference in the PTV and the rectum. The average tumor control probability of the AAA plans was higher than that of the AXB plans. The average normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) to rectum was lower in the AXB plans than in the AAA plans. The AAA and the AXB plans yielded very similar NTCPs for the other OARs. In plans using the same algorithms, the NTCPs for delivery

  18. GPs' attitudes to personal continuity: findings from everyday practice differ from postal surveys.

    PubMed

    Schers, Henk; Bor, Hans; van den Bosch, Wil; Grol, Richard

    2006-07-01

    We conducted a study in which we measured GPs' attitudes towards personal continuity directly after consultations, and identified which factors predicted its perceived importance. Moreover, we related these data to attitudes as measured by a postal survey. GPs varied considerably in their attitudes towards personal continuity. Continuity was valued for serious and psychosocial issues and also for routine checks for a chronic illness. There was no relation whatsoever between the importance that individual GPs attached to continuity after consultations, and their scores on the postal survey.

  19. An Australian secondary standard dosimetry laboratory participation in IAEA postal dose audits.

    PubMed

    Davies, J B; Izewska, J; Meriaty, H; Baldock, C

    2013-03-01

    For over 30 years, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have jointly monitored activities of secondary standard dosimetry laboratories (SSDLs) through postal dose audits with the aim of achieving consistency in dosimetry throughout the world. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) maintains an SSDL and is a member of the IAEA/WHO SSDL Network. Postal dose audit results at this Australian SSDL from 2001 to 2011 demonstrate the consistency of absorbed dose to water measurements, underpinned by the primary standard maintained at the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA).

  20. A Proven Method for Meeting Export Control Objectives in Postal and Shipping Sectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    A Proven Method for Meeting Export Control Objectives in Postal and Shipping Sectors Gregory Crabb, U.S. Postal Inspection Service Julia H...Management Model 3 2.4 USPS and USPIS Use of CERT-RMM 4 3 Export Control Challenges 5 3.1 What Is Export Control? 5 3.2 Objectives and Challenges of... Export Control at USPS 5 3.3 Objectives for Improving Export Screening at USPS 6 4 Development of the New Screening Process 7 4.1 “Walking the Model

  1. 39 CFR 3050.11 - Proposals to change an accepted analytical principle applied in the Postal Service's annual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposals to change an accepted analytical... accepted analytical principle applied in the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. (a... issue a notice of proceeding to change an accepted analytical principle. In addition, any...

  2. 39 CFR 3050.11 - Proposals to change an accepted analytical principle applied in the Postal Service's annual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposals to change an accepted analytical... accepted analytical principle applied in the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. (a... issue a notice of proceeding to change an accepted analytical principle. In addition, any...

  3. 39 CFR 3050.11 - Proposals to change an accepted analytical principle applied in the Postal Service's annual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposals to change an accepted analytical... accepted analytical principle applied in the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. (a... issue a notice of proceeding to change an accepted analytical principle. In addition, any...

  4. 39 CFR 3050.11 - Proposals to change an accepted analytical principle applied in the Postal Service's annual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proposals to change an accepted analytical... accepted analytical principle applied in the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. (a... issue a notice of proceeding to change an accepted analytical principle. In addition, any...

  5. 39 CFR 111.1 - Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by reference of regulations governing domestic mail services... INFORMATION ON POSTAL SERVICE § 111.1 Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by reference of regulations governing domestic mail services. Section 552(a)...

  6. 39 CFR 111.1 - Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by reference of regulations governing domestic mail services... INFORMATION ON POSTAL SERVICE § 111.1 Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by reference of regulations governing domestic mail services. Section 552(a)...

  7. 39 CFR 111.1 - Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by reference of regulations governing domestic mail services... INFORMATION ON POSTAL SERVICE § 111.1 Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by reference of regulations governing domestic mail services. Section 552(a)...

  8. 39 CFR 111.1 - Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by reference of regulations governing domestic mail services... INFORMATION ON POSTAL SERVICE § 111.1 Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by reference of regulations governing domestic mail services. Section 552(a)...

  9. Dosimetric comparison of helical tomothearpy and linac-based IMRT in whole abdomen radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Young-nam; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Jang, Hong Seok; Song, Jin Ho; Choi, Byung Ock; Cho, Seok Goo; Jung, Ji-Young; Kay, Chul Seung

    2012-10-01

    Recent advances in radiotherapy techniques have allowed a significant improvement in the therapeutic ratio of whole abdominal irradiation (WAI) through linear-accelerator (Linac) based intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and helical tomotherapy (HT). IMRT has been shown to reduce the dose to organs at risk (OAR) while adequately treating the tumor volume. HT operates by adjusting 51 beam directions, couch speed, pitch and shapes of a binary multileaf collimator (MLC), with the purpose of clinically increasing the befit to the patient. We incorporated helical tomotherapy as a new modality for WAI for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients whose disease involved the intestine and the mesenteric lymph nodes. Excellent tumor coverage with effective sparing of normal organ sparings, and homogeneous dose distribution could be achieved. This study dosimetrically compared HT and linac-based IMRT by using several indices, including the conformity index (CI) and the homogeneity index (HI) for the planning target volume (PTV), as well as the, max dose and the mean dose and the quality index (QI) for five organs at risk (OARs). The HI and the CI were used to compare the quality of target coverage while the QI was used compare the dosimetric performans for OAR systems. The target coverages between the two systems were similar, but the most QIs were lower than 1, what means that HT is batter at sparing OARs than IMRT. Tomotherapy enabled excellent target coverage, effective sparing of normal tissues, and homogeneous dose distribution without severe acute toxicity.

  10. First biological and dosimetric results of the free flyer biostack experiment AO015 on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reitz, G.; Buecker, H.; Facius, R.; Horneck, G.; Schaeffer, M.; Schott, J. U.; Bayonove, J.; Beaujean, R.; Benton, E. V.; Delpoux, M.

    1991-01-01

    The main objectives of the Biostack Experiment are to study the effectiveness of the structured components of the cosmic radiation to bacterial spores, plant seeds, and animal cysts for a long duration spaceflight and to get dosimetric data such as particle fluences and spectra and total doses for the Long Duration Exposure Facility orbit. The configuration of the experiment packages allows the localization of the trajectory of the particles in each biological layer and to correlate the potential biological impairment or injury with the physical characteristics of the responsible particle. Although the Biostack Experiment was designed for a long duration flight of only nine months, most of the biological systems show a high hatching or germination rate. Some of the first observations are an increase of the mutation rate of embryonic lethals in the second generation of Arabidopsis seeds, somatic mutations, and a reduction of growth rates of corn plants and a reduction of life span of Artemia salina shrimps. The different passive detector systems are also in a good shape and give access to a proper dosimetric analysis. The results are summarized, and some aspects of future analysis are shown.

  11. Dosimetric properties of dysprosium doped calcium magnesium borate glass subjected to Co-60 gamma ray

    SciTech Connect

    Omar, R. S. Wagiran, H. Saeed, M. A.

    2016-01-22

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetric properties of dysprosium doped calcium magnesium borate (CMB:Dy) glass are presented. This study is deemed to understand the application of calcium as the modifier in magnesium borate glass with the presence of dysprosium as the activator to be performed as TL dosimeter (TLD). The study provides fundamental knowledge of a glass system that may lead to perform new TL glass dosimetry application in future research. Calcium magnesium borate glass systems of (70-y) B{sub 2}O{sub 3} − 20 CaO – 10 MgO-(y) Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} with 0.05  mol % ≤ y ≤ 0.7  mol % of dyprosium were prepared by melt-quenching technique. The amorphous structure and TL properties of the prepared samples were determined using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and TL reader; model Harshaw 4500 respectively. The samples were irradiated to Co-60 gamma source at a dose of 50 Gy. Dosimetric properties such as annealing procedure, time temperature profile (TTP) setting, optimization of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration of 0.5 mol % were determined for thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) reader used.

  12. Dosimetric effects of rotational output variation and x-ray target degradation on helical tomotherapy plans.

    PubMed

    Staton, Robert J; Langen, Katja M; Kupelian, Patrick A; Meeks, Sanford L

    2009-07-01

    In this study, two potential sources of IMRT delivery error have been identified for helical tomotherapy delivery using the HiART system (TomoTherapy, Inc., Madison, WI): Rotational output variation and target degradation. The HiArt system is known to have output variation, typically about +/- 2%, due to the absence of a dose servo system. On the HiArt system, x-ray target replacement is required approximately every 10-12 months due to target degradation. Near the end of target life, the target thins and causes a decrease in the beam energy and a softening of the beam profile at the lateral edges of the beam. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dosimetric effects of rotational output variation and target degradation by modeling their effects and incorporating them into recalculated treatment plans for three clinical scenarios: Head and neck, partial breast, and prostate. Models were created to emulate both potential sources of error. For output variation, a model was created using a sine function to match the amplitude (+/- 2%), frequency, and phase of the measured rotational output variation data. A second model with a hypothetical variation of +/- 7% was also created to represent the largest variation that could exist without violating the allowable dose window in the delivery system. A measured beam profile near the end of target life was used to create a modified beam profile model for the target degradation. These models were then incorporated into the treatment plan by modifying the leaf opening times in the delivery sinogram. A new beam model was also created to mimic the change in beam energy seen near the end of target life. The plans were then calculated using a research version of the PLANNED ADAPTIVE treatment planning software from TomoTherapy, Inc. Three plans were evaluated in this study: Head and neck, partial breast, and prostate. The D50 of organs at risk, the D95 for planning target volumes (PTVs), and the local dose difference were used

  13. 37 CFR 201.8 - Disruption of postal or other transportation or communication services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... transportation or communication services. 201.8 Section 201.8 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights U.S. COPYRIGHT... postal or other transportation or communication services. (a) For purposes of 17 U.S.C. 709, when the... transportation or communications services that has delayed the receipt by the Copyright Office of...

  14. 37 CFR 201.8 - Disruption of postal or other transportation or communication services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... transportation or communication services. 201.8 Section 201.8 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT... postal or other transportation or communication services. (a) For purposes of 17 U.S.C. 709, when the... transportation or communications services that has delayed the receipt by the Copyright Office of...

  15. 37 CFR 201.8 - Disruption of postal or other transportation or communication services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... transportation or communication services. 201.8 Section 201.8 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT... postal or other transportation or communication services. (a) For purposes of 17 U.S.C. 709, when the... transportation or communications services that has delayed the receipt by the Copyright Office of...

  16. 37 CFR 201.8 - Disruption of postal or other transportation or communication services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transportation or communication services. 201.8 Section 201.8 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT... postal or other transportation or communication services. (a) For purposes of 17 U.S.C. 709, when the... transportation or communications services that has delayed the receipt by the Copyright Office of...

  17. 5 CFR 875.201 - Am I eligible as a Federal civilian or Postal employee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Am I eligible as a Federal civilian or Postal employee? 875.201 Section 875.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL LONG TERM CARE INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility §...

  18. 5 CFR 875.201 - Am I eligible as a Federal civilian or Postal employee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Am I eligible as a Federal civilian or Postal employee? 875.201 Section 875.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL LONG TERM CARE INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility §...

  19. 5 CFR 875.201 - Am I eligible as a Federal civilian or Postal employee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Am I eligible as a Federal civilian or Postal employee? 875.201 Section 875.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL LONG TERM CARE INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility §...

  20. 5 CFR 875.201 - Am I eligible as a Federal civilian or Postal employee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Am I eligible as a Federal civilian or Postal employee? 875.201 Section 875.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL LONG TERM CARE INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility §...

  1. Female Spirituality, Careering and the U.S. Postal Service, Maintenance Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Kimberly D.; Gallaher, Rex M.; Richmond, Lee J.

    This paper discusses a study examining the lives of women (N=9) involved as either mentors or proteges in the U.S. Postal Service's Maintenance Leadership Program. Participant interviews consisted of the completion of several instruments including a personality inventory, a measure of agentic versus communal values, an instrument that examines…

  2. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: GENERAL MAIL AND VEHICLE MAINTENANCE FACILITY, UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE, BUFFALO, NY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) summarized here was conducted at a U.S.Postal Service (USPS) Facility in Buffalo, NY. The PPOA documented and quantified waste generation at the General Mail Facility (GMF) where mail is processed, and at the Vehicle Maintena...

  3. 39 CFR 3050.21 - Content of the Postal Service's section 3652 report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... competitive advantage for the Postal Service or any mailer. (i) For each nonpostal service, estimate its costs... unreasonable. (g) For each competitive negotiated service agreement: (1) Identify its rates and service... and by competitive product group; (2) Estimate the quality of service of each individual...

  4. 39 CFR 3050.21 - Content of the Postal Service's section 3652 report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... competitive advantage for the Postal Service or any mailer. (i) For each nonpostal service, estimate its costs... unreasonable. (g) For each competitive negotiated service agreement: (1) Identify its rates and service... and by competitive product group; (2) Estimate the quality of service of each individual...

  5. 39 CFR 3050.21 - Content of the Postal Service's section 3652 report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... competitive advantage for the Postal Service or any mailer. (i) For each nonpostal service, estimate its costs... unreasonable. (g) For each competitive negotiated service agreement: (1) Identify its rates and service... and by competitive product group; (2) Estimate the quality of service of each individual...

  6. 39 CFR 3050.21 - Content of the Postal Service's section 3652 report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... competitive advantage for the Postal Service or any mailer. (i) For each nonpostal service, estimate its costs... unreasonable. (g) For each competitive negotiated service agreement: (1) Identify its rates and service... and by competitive product group; (2) Estimate the quality of service of each individual...

  7. 39 CFR 3050.21 - Content of the Postal Service's section 3652 report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... competitive advantage for the Postal Service or any mailer. (i) For each nonpostal service, estimate its costs... unreasonable. (g) For each competitive negotiated service agreement: (1) Identify its rates and service... and by competitive product group; (2) Estimate the quality of service of each individual...

  8. The Postal Sunday School Movement Inc.: A Free Service to the Bush for 65 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Begun in 1933 to serve rural regions of New South Wales (Australia), the Postal Sunday School Movement (PSSM) now offers over 200 nondenominational lessons via mail about the Bible, Christianity, and practical aspects of Christian life. PSSM employs approximately 130 teachers from various church backgrounds; enrolls about 2000 students, preschool…

  9. 29 CFR 4.122 - Contracts for operation of postal contract stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contracts for operation of postal contract stations. 4.122 Section 4.122 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Specific Exclusions § 4.122 Contracts for operation...

  10. We Deliver: The Story of the U.S. Postal Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postal Service, Washington, DC.

    This eight-chapter illustrated booklet chronicles the history of the U.S. Post Office from its establishment by the Continental Congress in 1775 to the present. Chapter 1, "The Colonists," describes the postal service before the Revolutionary War. Benjamin Franklin's appointment as the first Postmaster General of the U.S. and his many…

  11. 5 CFR 875.201 - Am I eligible as a Federal civilian or Postal employee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Am I eligible as a Federal civilian or Postal employee? 875.201 Section 875.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL LONG TERM CARE INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility §...

  12. SU-F-BRB-15: Dosimetric Study of Radiation Therapy for Head/Neck Patients with Metallic Dental Fixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, L; Allan, E; Putten, M Van; Gupta, N; Blakaj, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the dose contributions of scattered electrons from dental amalgams during head and neck radiotherapy, and to evaluate the protective role of dosimetric dental stents during treatment to prevent oral mucositis. Methods: A phantom was produced to accurately simulate the oral cavity and head. The oral cavity consisted of a tissue equivalent upper and lower jaw and complete set of teeth. A set of 4 mm ethylene copolymer dosimetric stents was made for the upper and lower teeth. Five removable gold caps were fitted to apposing right molars, and the phantom was crafted to accomodate horizontal and vertical film for 2D dosimetry and NanoDot dosimeter for recording point doses. The head was simulated using a small cylindrical glass water bath. CT simulation was performed on the phantom with and without metal fittings and, in each case, with and without the dental stent. The CT image sets were imported into Eclipse treatment planning system for contouring and treatment planning, and a 9-field IMRT treatment plan was developed for each scenario. These plans were delivered using a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator. Doses were recorded using GafChromic EBT2 films and NanoDot dosimeters. Results: The measurements revealed a 43% relative increase in dose measured adjacent to the metal fixtures in the horizontal plane without the use of the dental stent. This equates to a total dose of 100 Gy to the oral mucosa during a standard course of definitive radiotherapy. To our knowledge, this is the first dosimetric analysis of dental stents using an anatomically realistic phantom and modern beam arrangement. Conclusion: These results support the use of dosimetric dental stents in head and neck radiotherapy for patients with metallic dental fixtures as a way to effectively reduce dose to nearby mucosal surfaces and, hence, reduce the risk and severity of mucositis.

  13. Multi-institutional dosimetric and geometric commissioning of image-guided small animal irradiators

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, P. E.; Granton, P. V.; Hoof, S. van; Hermans, J.; Gasparini, A.; Jelveh, S.; Clarkson, R.; Kaas, J.; Wittkamper, F.; Sonke, J.-J.; Verhaegen, F.; Jaffray, D. A.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric and geometric properties of a commercial x-ray based image-guided small animal irradiation system, installed at three institutions and to establish a complete and broadly accessible commissioning procedure. Methods: The system consists of a 225 kVp x-ray tube with fixed field size collimators ranging from 1 to 44 mm equivalent diameter. The x-ray tube is mounted opposite a flat-panel imaging detector, on a C-arm gantry with 360° coplanar rotation. Each institution performed a full commissioning of their system, including half-value layer, absolute dosimetry, relative dosimetry (profiles, percent depth dose, and relative output factors), and characterization of the system geometry and mechanical flex of the x-ray tube and detector. Dosimetric measurements were made using Farmer-type ionization chambers, small volume air and liquid ionization chambers, and radiochromic film. The results between the three institutions were compared. Results: At 225 kVp, with 0.3 mm Cu added filtration, the first half value layer ranged from 0.9 to 1.0 mm Cu. The dose-rate in-air for a 40 × 40 mm{sup 2} field size, at a source-to-axis distance of 30 cm, ranged from 3.5 to 3.9 Gy/min between the three institutions. For field sizes between 2.5 mm diameter and 40 × 40 mm{sup 2}, the differences between percent depth dose curves up to depths of 3.5 cm were between 1% and 4% on average, with the maximum difference being 7%. The profiles agreed very well for fields >5 mm diameter. The relative output factors differed by up to 6% for fields larger than 10 mm diameter, but differed by up to 49% for fields ≤5 mm diameter. The mechanical characteristics of the system (source-to-axis and source-to-detector distances) were consistent between all three institutions. There were substantial differences in the flex of each system. Conclusions: With the exception of the half-value layer, and mechanical properties, there were significant differences between the

  14. Retrospective evaluation of dosimetric quality for prostate carcinomas treated with 3D conformal, intensity modulated and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, Scott B; Kairn, Tanya; Middlebrook, Nigel; Hill, Brendan; Christie, David R H; Knight, Richard T; Kenny, John; Langton, Christian M; Trapp, Jamie V

    2013-12-15

    This study examines and compares the dosimetric quality of radiotherapy treatment plans for prostate carcinoma across a cohort of 163 patients treated across five centres: 83 treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), 33 treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and 47 treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Treatment plan quality was evaluated in terms of target dose homogeneity and organs at risk (OAR), through the use of a set of dose metrics. These included the mean, maximum and minimum doses; the homogeneity and conformity indices for the target volumes; and a selection of dose coverage values that were relevant to each OAR. Statistical significance was evaluated using two-tailed Welch's T-tests. The Monte Carlo DICOM ToolKit software was adapted to permit the evaluation of dose metrics from DICOM data exported from a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system. The 3DCRT treatment plans offered greater planning target volume dose homogeneity than the other two treatment modalities. The IMRT and VMAT plans offered greater dose reduction in the OAR: with increased compliance with recommended OAR dose constraints, compared to conventional 3DCRT treatments. When compared to each other, IMRT and VMAT did not provide significantly different treatment plan quality for like-sized tumour volumes. This study indicates that IMRT and VMAT have provided similar dosimetric quality, which is superior to the dosimetric quality achieved with 3DCRT.

  15. Retrospective evaluation of dosimetric quality for prostate carcinomas treated with 3D conformal, intensity modulated and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Scott B; Kairn, Tanya; Middlebrook, Nigel; Hill, Brendan; Christie, David R H; Knight, Richard T; Kenny, John; Langton, Christian M; Trapp, Jamie V

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study examines and compares the dosimetric quality of radiotherapy treatment plans for prostate carcinoma across a cohort of 163 patients treated across five centres: 83 treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), 33 treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and 47 treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods Treatment plan quality was evaluated in terms of target dose homogeneity and organs at risk (OAR), through the use of a set of dose metrics. These included the mean, maximum and minimum doses; the homogeneity and conformity indices for the target volumes; and a selection of dose coverage values that were relevant to each OAR. Statistical significance was evaluated using two-tailed Welch's T-tests. The Monte Carlo DICOM ToolKit software was adapted to permit the evaluation of dose metrics from DICOM data exported from a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system. Results The 3DCRT treatment plans offered greater planning target volume dose homogeneity than the other two treatment modalities. The IMRT and VMAT plans offered greater dose reduction in the OAR: with increased compliance with recommended OAR dose constraints, compared to conventional 3DCRT treatments. When compared to each other, IMRT and VMAT did not provide significantly different treatment plan quality for like-sized tumour volumes. Conclusions This study indicates that IMRT and VMAT have provided similar dosimetric quality, which is superior to the dosimetric quality achieved with 3DCRT. PMID:26229621

  16. [Mathematical simulation support to the dosimetric monitoring on the Russian segment of the International Space Station].

    PubMed

    Mitrikas, V G

    2014-01-01

    To ensure radiation safety of cosmonauts, it is necessary not only to predict, but also to reconstruct absorbed dose dynamics with the knowledge of how long cosmonauts stay in specific space vehicle compartments with different shielding properties and lacking equipment for dosimetric monitoring. In this situation, calculating is one and only way to make a correct estimate of radiation exposure of cosmonaut's organism as a whole (tissue-average dose) and of separate systems and organs. The paper addresses the issues of mathematical simulation of epy radiation environment of standard dosimetric instruments in the Russian segments of the International Space Station (ISS RS). Results of comparing the simulation and experimental data for the complement of dosimeters including ionization chamber-based radiometer R-16, DB8 dosimeters composed of semiconductor detectors, and Pille dosimeters composed of thermoluminescent detectors evidence that the current methods of simulation in support of the ISS RS radiation monitoring provide a sufficiently good agreement between the calculated and experimental data.

  17. A Dosimetric Analysis of IMRT and Multistatic Fields Techniques for Left Breast Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Seong Kwon; Kim, Yeon Sil; Kim, Soo Young; Lee, Mi Jo; Keum, Hyun Sup; Kim, Seung Jin; Youn, Seon Min

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the dosimetric difference between intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using 3 or 5 beams and multistatic field technique (MSF) in radiotherapy of the left breast. We made comparative analysis of two kinds of radiotherapy that can achieve improved dose homogeneity. First is a MSF that uses both major and small irradiation fields at the same time. The other is IMRT using 3 or 5 beams with an inverse planning system using multiple static multileaf collimators. We made treatment plans for 16 early left breast cancer patients who were randomly selected and had undergone breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy, and analyzed them in the dosimetric aspect. For the mean values of V{sub 95} and dose homogeneity index, no statistically significant difference was observed among the three therapies. Extreme hot spots receiving >110% of prescribed dose were not found in any of the three methods. Using Tukey's test, IMRT showed a significantly larger increase in exposure dose to the ipsilateral lung and the heart than MSF in the low-dose area, but in the high-dose area, MSF showed a slight increase. To improve dose homogeneity, the application of MSF, which can be easily planned and applied more widely, is considered optimal as an alternative to IMRT for radiotherapy of early left breast cancer.

  18. An appraisal of the utility or futility of ENT consultant postal questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Stephen; Saunders, J; Clarke, E; Fenton, J E

    2013-03-01

    Despite an increase in ENT postal questionnaires, the quality of their methodology has been questioned (Ramphul et al. in J Laryngol Otol 119:175-178, 1). This retrospective study examined whether quality and utility of such questionnaires published since 2005 has improved. Seventeen consultant postal questionnaires published between 2005 and 2012 were reviewed. Quality of questionnaires was assessed using a 30-point score based on compliance with 15 criteria previously established to evaluate postal questionnaire study-design (Ramphul et al. in J Laryngol Otol 119:175-178, 1). Citation rates were used as an indicator of utility. The specific comments made in each citing paper was reviewed providing information on whether questionnaire findings (a) had an impact on clinical practice, (b) were the citing comments positive, (c) negative or (d) non-specific. Recurrent methodological flaws were identified in all questionnaires. The average score assigned was 44 %, versus 32 % previously reported (Ramphul et al. in J Laryngol Otol 119:175-178, 1) (P < 0.01, Student's t test). The low citation rate demonstrates poor utility for postal questionnaires. Citations were general non-specific referencing with no clear indication that questionnaire findings positively impacted clinical practice. In conclusion, although the quality of ENT postal questionnaire has improved since the original study (Ramphul et al. in J Laryngol Otol 119:175-178, 1), important recurring methodological flaws still exist. The poor utility, based on low citation rates, also reflects the continued deficiencies in design quality. It is recommended that authors of questionnaire-based research should ensure that guidelines for questionnaire design are adhered in order to improve the validity of findings and hence impact on clinical practice.

  19. Benchmarking Dosimetric Quality Assessment of Prostate Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Senthi, Sashendra; Gill, Suki S.; Haworth, Annette; Kron, Tomas; Cramb, Jim; Rolfo, Aldo; Thomas, Jessica; Duchesne, Gillian M.; Hamilton, Christopher H.; Joon, Daryl Lim; Bowden, Patrick; Foroudi, Farshad

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To benchmark the dosimetric quality assessment of prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy and determine whether the quality is influenced by disease or treatment factors. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data from 155 consecutive men treated radically for prostate cancer using intensity-modulated radiotherapy to 78 Gy between January 2007 and March 2009 across six radiotherapy treatment centers. The plan quality was determined by the measures of coverage, homogeneity, and conformity. Tumor coverage was measured using the planning target volume (PTV) receiving 95% and 100% of the prescribed dose (V{sub 95%} and V{sub 100%}, respectively) and the clinical target volume (CTV) receiving 95% and 100% of the prescribed dose. Homogeneity was measured using the sigma index of the PTV and CTV. Conformity was measured using the lesion coverage factor, healthy tissue conformity index, and the conformity number. Multivariate regression models were created to determine the relationship between these and T stage, risk status, androgen deprivation therapy use, treatment center, planning system, and treatment date. Results: The largest discriminatory measurements of coverage, homogeneity, and conformity were the PTV V{sub 95%}, PTV sigma index, and conformity number. The mean PTV V{sub 95%} was 92.5% (95% confidence interval, 91.3-93.7%). The mean PTV sigma index was 2.10 Gy (95% confidence interval, 1.90-2.20). The mean conformity number was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.79). The treatment center independently influenced the coverage, homogeneity, and conformity (all p < .0001). The planning system independently influenced homogeneity (p = .038) and conformity (p = .021). The treatment date independently influenced the PTV V{sub 95%} only, with it being better at the start (p = .013). Risk status, T stage, and the use of androgen deprivation therapy did not influence any aspect of plan quality. Conclusion: Our study has benchmarked measures

  20. Dosimetric characterization of a 2D polycrystalline CVD diamond detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, A.; Cupparo, I.; Baldi, A.; Scaringella, M.; Pasquini, A.; Pallotta, S.; Talamonti, C.; Bruzzi, M.

    2017-03-01

    A bidimensional pixelated dosimeter composed of two polycrystalline Chemical Vapour Deposited diamond films, 2.5 × 2.5 cm2 each placed aside, has been manufactured so as to obtain a detector with a 2 mm pitch over a total active area of 5.0 × 2.5 cm2. We performed the dosimetric characterization of the detector with an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator using a 6 MV photon beam. Uniformity maps, rise and fall times, signal repeatability, dependence on dose rate, linearity with dose and sensitivity show that the device is suitable for dosimetric evaluations in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) treatments. Then, a first quantitative evaluation of the dose distribution in a lung VMAT treatment plan has been carried out, by comparing data from our device with Treatment Planning Sistem values by means of a Γ test, with promising results.

  1. Physical work and strain involved in manual sorting of postal parcels.

    PubMed

    Louhevaara, V; Hakola, T; Ollila, H

    1990-09-01

    A field study was conducted to assess cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal stress and strain and work output during manual sorting of postal parcels, and to detect the effects of parcel sorting on the maximal muscle strength and endurance. The volunteer subjects comprised 32 healthy male sorters with mean (+/- s.d.) age of 34 +/- 7 years at five different sorting sites. Each subject was studied during one evening work shift. During the shift of 391 +/- 46 min the subjects manually sorted 1173 +/- 630 parcels and walked 4.7 +/- 2.3 km with and without the load. While sorting, heart rate was 101 +/- 18 beats min-1. In the heaviest tasks the oxygen consumption was 1.2 +/- 0.41 min-1, and no elevated blood lactate concentrations were found. Work postures in which the back was bent forward averaged 24% of the time for sorting. The overall cardiorespiratory rating and local ratings of perceived exertion for arms, back, and legs did not exceed the 'somewhat strong' level during the work shift. The maximal static strength both for the right and left hand-grip muscles was, on average, 3% lower (p less than 0.05) after the work shift than before the shift. No significant differences were found in the static or dynamic endurance times for the hand-grip muscles when the results obtained after the work shift were compared to the baseline values. At sorting centres the stress and strain on the cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal system was evaluated to remain within acceptable limits for healthy male sorters.

  2. 39 CFR 501.2 - Postage Evidencing System provider authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.2 Postage Evidencing System provider authorization... approval of the Postal Service: (1) Producing or distributing any Postage Evidencing System that generates... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Postage Evidencing System provider...

  3. Monte Carlo simulation and dosimetric verification of radiotherapy beam modifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezi, E.; Lewis, D. G.; Smith, C. W.

    2001-11-01

    Monte Carlo simulation of beam modifiers such as physical wedges and compensating filters has been performed with a rectilinear voxel geometry module. A modified version of the EGS4/DOSXYZ code has been developed for this purpose. The new implementations have been validated against the BEAM Monte Carlo code using its standard component modules (CMs) in several geometrical conditions. No significant disagreements were found within the statistical errors of 0.5% for photons and 2% for electrons. The clinical applicability and flexibility of the new version of the code has been assessed through an extensive verification versus dosimetric data. Both Varian multi-leaf collimator (MLC) wedges and standard wedges have been simulated and compared against experiments for 6 MV photon beams and different field sizes. Good agreement was found between calculated and measured depth doses and lateral dose profiles along both wedged and unwedged directions for different depths and focus-to-surface distances. Furthermore, Monte Carlo-generated output factors for both open and wedged fields agreed with linac commissioning beam data within statistical uncertainties of the calculations (<3% at largest depths). Compensating filters of both low-density and high-density materials have also been successfully simulated. As a demonstration, a wax compensating filter with a complex three-dimensional concave and convex geometry has been modelled through a CT scan import. Calculated depth doses and lateral dose profiles for different field sizes agreed well with experiments. The code was used to investigate the performance of a commercial treatment planning system in designing compensators. Dose distributions in a heterogeneous water phantom emulating the head and neck region were calculated with the convolution-superposition method (pencil beam and collapsed cone implementations) and compared against those from the MC code developed herein. The new technique presented in this work is

  4. 39 CFR 265.13 - Compliance with subpoenas, summonses, and court orders by postal employees within the Inspection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... organizational unit within the Postal Service as outlined in § 224.3 of this chapter. (7) Inspection Service... of Justice. (e) Compliance with subpoena duces tecum. (1) Except as required by part 262 of...

  5. Need for tighter controls over fuel purchased by the Postal Service

    SciTech Connect

    Staats, E.B.

    1980-07-31

    The US Postal Service uses nearly 90 million gallons of gasoline and diesel fuel each year. In fiscal year 1980, the cost of this fuel was expected to be $100 million, and the cost will increase as fuel prices continue to rise. This GAO study finds that the Service needs to change the way it controls fuel. To reduce the susceptibility to fraud, abuse, and waste in the procurement and use of fuel, GAO recommends that the Postmaster General vigorously enforce procedures for verifying fuel deliveries, including maintaining verification records for independent audit; initiate a program to test the quality of fuel received; insure that guidelines for bulk-tank security are followed at all facilities; insure that all fuel dispensed from bulk fuel tanks is accounted for; require drivers to obtain receipts from commercial service stations or record fuel and oil purchases on documents controlled by the Postal Service; and obtain better data on the use of fuel by vehicle drivers.

  6. Mass transport analysis: inhalation rfc methods framework for interspecies dosimetric adjustment.

    PubMed

    Hanna, L M; Lou, S R; Su, S; Jarabek, A M

    2001-05-01

    In 1994, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency introduced dosimetry modeling into the methods used to derive an inhalation reference concentration (RfC). The type of dosimetric adjustment factor (DAF) applied had to span the range of physicochemical characteristics of the gases listed on the Clean Air Act Amendments in 1991 as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and accommodate differences in available data with respect to their toxicokinetic properties. A framework was proposed that allowed for a hierarchy of dosimetry model structures, from optimal to rudimentary, and a category scheme that provided for limiting model structures based on physicochemical and toxicokinetic properties. These limiting cases were developed from restricting consideration to specific properties relying on an understanding of the generalized system based on mass transport theory. Physiochemical characteristics included the solubility and reactivity (e.g., propensity to dissociate, oxidize, or serve as a metabolic substrate) of the gas and were used as major determinants of absorption. Dosimetric adjustments were developed to evaluate portal of entry (POE) effects as well as remote (systemic) effects relevant to the toxicokinetic properties of the gas of interest. The gas categorization scheme consisted of defining three gas categories: (1) gases that are highly soluble and/or reactive, absorbing primarily in the extrathoracic airways; (2) gases that are moderately soluble and/or reactive, absorbing throughout the airways, as well as accumulating in the bloodstream; and (3) gases that have a low water solubility and are lipid soluble such that they are primarily absorbed in the pulmonary region and likely to act systemically. This article presents the framework and the mass transport theory behind the RfC method. Comparison to compartmental approaches and considerations for future development are also discussed.

  7. Outreach sexual infection screening and postal tests in men who have sex with men: are they comparable to clinic screening?

    PubMed

    Wood, Martyn; Ellks, Rachael; Grobicki, Moira

    2015-05-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have higher rates of poor sexual health. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has produced guidance on increasing the uptake of HIV testing to reduce undiagnosed infection in MSM. We report the results of a pilot outreach sexually transmitted infection service using nurse-delivered screening and self-sampled postal testing at a sex on premises venue with comparison made against a sexual health clinic service. Thirty men were included in each group. Users of the nurse-delivered and postal services were older (nurse service median age 57.5 years vs. postal kit service 47 years vs. clinic 35.5 years, p ≤ 0.001). Outreach groups were less likely to have undertaken sexually transmitted infection testing previously than the clinic group (53.3% and 60% vs. 93.3%, p ≤ 0.001). Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae testing uptake was comparable across groups (nurse outreach 86.6%, 'do it yourself' postal kit 100% vs. clinic 100%, p = 0.032), but uptake for blood tests was lower in the postal kit group (nurse outreach 83.3%, postal kit 53.3% vs. clinic 100%, p ≤ 0.001). No significant difference in active sexually transmitted infection positivity across the groups was observed. This combination outreach screening approach is effective in targeting MSM who use sex on premises venues.

  8. The Dosimetric Parameters Investigation of the Pulsed X-ray and Gamma Radiation Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuchebrov, S. G.; Miloichikova, I. A.; Shilova, X. O.

    2016-01-01

    The most common type of radiation used for diagnostic purposes are X-rays. However, X-rays methods have limitations related to the radiation dose for the biological objects. It is known that the use of the pulsed emitting source synchronized with the detection equipment for internal density visualization of objects significant reduces the radiation dose to the object. In the article the analysis of the suitability of the different dosimetric equipment for the radiation dose estimation of the pulsed emitting sources is carried out. The approbation results on the pulsed X-ray generator RAP-160-5 of the dosimetry systems workability with the pulse radiation and its operation range are presented. The results of the dose field investigation of the portable betatron OB-4 are demonstrated. The depth dose distribution in the air, lead and water of the pulsed bremsstrahlung generated by betatron are shown.

  9. Dosimetric differences in flattened and flattening filter-free beam treatment plans

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yue; Yadav, Poonam; Bassetti, Michael; Du, Kaifang; Saenz, Daniel; Harari, Paul; Paliwal, Bhudatt R.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the dosimetric differences in treatment plans from flattened and flattening filter-free (FFF) beams from the TrueBeam System. A total of 104 treatment plans with static (sliding window) intensity-modulated radiotherapy beams and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) beams were generated for 15 patients involving three cancer sites. In general, the FFF beam provides similar target coverage as the flattened beam with improved dose sparing to organ-at-risk (OAR). Among all three cancer sites, the head and neck showed more important differences between the flattened beam and FFF beam. The maximum reduction of the FFF beam in the mean dose reached up to 2.82 Gy for larynx in head and neck case. Compared to the 6 MV flattened beam, the 10 MV FFF beam provided improved dose sparing to certain OARs, especially for VMAT cases. Thus, 10 MV FFF beam could be used to improve the treatment plan. PMID:27217620

  10. Dosimetric Characteristics of 6 MV Modified Beams by Physical Wedges of a Siemens Linear Accelerator.

    PubMed

    Zabihzadeh, Mansour; Birgani, Mohammad Javad Tahmasebi; Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi, Mojtaba; Arvandi, Sholeh; Hoseini, Seyed Mohammad; Fadaei, Mahbube

    2016-01-01

    Physical wedges still can be used as missing tissue compensators or filters to alter the shape of isodose curves in a target volume to reach an optimal radiotherapy plan without creating a hotspot. The aim of this study was to investigate the dosimetric properties of physical wedges filters such as off-axis photon fluence, photon spectrum, output factor and half value layer. The photon beam quality of a 6 MV Primus Siemens modified by 150 and 450 physical wedges was studied with BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) code. The calculated present depth dose and dose profile curves for open and wedged photon beam were in good agreement with the measurements. Increase of wedge angle increased the beam hardening and this effect was more pronounced at the heal region. Using such an accurate MC model to determine of wedge factors and implementation of it as a calculation algorithm in the future treatment planning systems is recommended.

  11. Study of the thermoluminescence dosimetric properties of window glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engin, Birol; Aydaş, Canan; Demirtaş, Hayrünnisa

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the main thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetric characteristics of commercial Turkish transparent window glass. The structure of the glow curves, including the number of peaks, was found to be dose-dependent. A low-temperature glow peak that at 160 °C shifts to higher temperatures was also observed with increasing storage time at room temperature. This result suggests that this TL glow peak is actually made up of two or more overlapping peaks. These we have attributed to the glow peaks at lower temperatures, which decay faster than the ones at higher temperatures with storage time. The thermal fading of the window glass sample at room temperature showed a relatively sharp decay of about 60% occurring over a period of 28 days, after which the decay rate is small for a measured period of 250 days. In order to the improve the post-irradiation stability of the glow curve, the glass samples were heated after irradiation. To remove the unstable TL peaks responsible for the initial rapid fading, post-irradiation heating at 160 °C for 10 min was found to be the most suitable procedure. The dosimetric characteristics of the post-irradiation heated window glass examined in this study include fading, gamma photon dose-response, reproducibility, batch sensitivity, humidity influence, a dose-rate effect and photon energy response. Dose-response was found to be appropriate for dosimetry in the range 5 Gy to 10 kGy. The post-irradiation heating procedure did not affect the main dosimetric characteristics of the window glass samples. The results in this work suggest that the materials could, by using the TL technique, be a suitable candidate for alternative dose measurements in radiation processing, provided that a judicious choice of the post-irradiation heat temperature is made to minimize fading.

  12. Dosimetric Characteristics of a Two-Dimensional Diode Array Detector Irradiated with Passively Scattered Proton Beams

    PubMed Central

    Liengsawangwong, Praimakorn; Sahoo, Nanayan; Ding, Xiaoning; Lii, MingFwu; Gillin, Michale T.; Zhu, Xiaorong Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric characteristics of a two-dimensional (2D) diode array detector irradiated with passively scattered proton beams. Materials and Methods: A diode array detector, MapCHECK (Model 1175, Sun Nuclear, Melbourne, FL, USA) was characterized in passive-scattered proton beams. The relative sensitivity of the diodes and absolute dose calibration were determined using a 250 MeV beam. The pristine Bragg curves (PBCs) measured by MapCHECK diodes were compared with those of an ion chamber using a range shift method. The water-equivalent thickness (WET) of the diode array detector’s intrinsic buildup also was determined. The inverse square dependence, linearity, and other proton dosimetric quantities measured by MapCHECK were also compared with those of the ion chambers. The change in the absolute dose response of the MapCHECK as a function of accumulated radiation dose was used as an indicator of radiation damage to the diodes. 2D dose distribution with and without the compensator were measured and compared with the treatment planning system (TPS) calculations. Results: The WET of the MapCHECK diode’s buildup was determined to be 1.7 cm. The MapCHECK-measured PBC were virtually identical to those measured by a parallel-plate ion chamber for 160, 180, and 250 MeV proton beams. The inverse square results of the MapCHECK were within ±0.4% of the ion chamber results. The linearity of MapCHECK results was within 1% of those from the ion chamber as measured in the range between 10 and 300 MU. All other dosimetric quantities were within 1.3% of the ion chamber results. The 2D dose distributions for non-clinical fields without compensator and the patient treatment fields with the compensator were consistent with the TPS results. The absolute dose response of the MapCHECK was changed by 7.4% after an accumulated dose increased by 170 Gy. Conclusions: The MapCHECK is a convenient and useful tool for 2D dose distribution measurements using passively

  13. Dosimetric advantages of IMPT over IMRT for laser-accelerated proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W.; Li, J.; Fourkal, E.; Fan, J.; Xu, X.; Chen, Z.; Jin, L.; Price, R.; Ma, C.-M.

    2008-12-01

    As a clinical application of an exciting scientific breakthrough, a compact and cost-efficient proton therapy unit using high-power laser acceleration is being developed at Fox Chase Cancer Center. The significance of this application depends on whether or not it can yield dosimetric superiority over intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The goal of this study is to show how laser-accelerated proton beams with broad energy spreads can be optimally used for proton therapy including intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) and achieve dosimetric superiority over IMRT for prostate cancer. Desired energies and spreads with a varying δE/E were selected with the particle selection device and used to generate spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs). Proton plans were generated on an in-house Monte Carlo-based inverse-planning system. Fifteen prostate IMRT plans previously used for patient treatment have been included for comparison. Identical dose prescriptions, beam arrangement and consistent dose constrains were used for IMRT and IMPT plans to show the dosimetric differences that were caused only by the different physical characteristics of proton and photon beams. Different optimization constrains and beam arrangements were also used to find optimal IMPT. The results show that conventional proton therapy (CPT) plans without intensity modulation were not superior to IMRT, but IMPT can generate better proton plans if appropriate beam setup and optimization are used. Compared to IMRT, IMPT can reduce the target dose heterogeneity ((D5-D95)/D95) by up to 56%. The volume receiving 65 Gy and higher (V65) for the bladder and the rectum can be reduced by up to 45% and 88%, respectively, while the volume receiving 40 Gy and higher (V40) for the bladder and the rectum can be reduced by up to 49% and 68%, respectively. IMPT can also reduce the whole body non-target tissue dose by up to 61% or a factor 2.5. This study has shown that the laser accelerator under development has a

  14. SU-E-T-119: Dosimetric and Mechanical Characteristics of Elekta Infinity LINAC with Agility MLC

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J; Xu, Q; Xue, J; Zhai, Y; An, L; Chen, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Elekta Infinity is the one of the latest generation LINAC with unique features. Two Infinity LINACs are recently commissioned at our institution. The dosimetric and mechanical characteristics of the machines are presented. Methods: Both Infinity LINACs with Agility MLC (160 leaves with 0.5 cm leaf width) are configured with five electron energies (6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 MeV) and two photon energies (6 and 15 MV). One machine has additional photon energy (10 MV). The commissioning was performed by following the manufacturer's specifications and AAPM TG recommendations. Beam data of both electron and photon beams are measured with scanning ion chambers and linear diode array. Machines are adjusted to have the dosimetrically equivalent characteristics. Results: The commissioning of mechanical and imaging system meets the tolerances by TG recommendations. The PDD{sub 10} of various field sizes for 6 and 15 MV shows < 0.5% difference between two machines. For each electron beams, R{sub 80} matches with < 0.4 mm difference. The symmetry and flatness agree within 0.8% and 0.9% differences for photon beams, respectively. For electron beams, the differences of the symmetry and flatness are within 1.2% and 0.8%, respectively. The mean inline penumbras for 6, 10, and 15 MV are respectively 5.1±0.24, 5.6±0.07, and 5.9±0.10 mm for 10x10 cm at 10 cm depth. The crossline penumbras are larger than inline penumbras by 2.2, 1.4, and 1.0 mm, respectively. The MLC transmission factor with interleaf leakage is 0.5 % for all photon energies. Conclusion: The dosimetric and mechanical characteristics of two Infinity LINACs show good agreements between them. Although the Elekta Infinity has been used in many institutions, the detailed characteristics of the machine have not been reported. This study provides invaluable information to understand the Infinity LINAC and to compare the quality of commissioning data for other LINACs.

  15. Dosimetric evaluation of the interplay effect in respiratory-gated RapidArc radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Craig; Yang, Yong Li, Tianfang; Zhang, Yongqian; Heron, Dwight E.; Huq, M. Saiful

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with gating capability has had increasing adoption in many clinics in the United States. In this new technique, dose rate, gantry rotation speed, and the leaf motion speed of multileaf collimators (MLCs) are modulated dynamically during gated beam delivery to achieve highly conformal dose coverage of the target and normal tissue sparing. Compared with the traditional gated intensity-modulated radiation therapy technique, this complicated beam delivery technique may result in larger dose errors due to the intrafraction tumor motion. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the dosimetric influence of the interplay effect for the respiration-gated VMAT technique (RapidArc, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Our work consisted of two parts: (1) Investigate the interplay effect for different target residual errors during gated RapidArc delivery using a one-dimensional moving phantom capable of producing stable sinusoidal movement; (2) Evaluate the dosimetric influence in ten clinical patients’ treatment plans using a moving phantom driven with a patient-specific respiratory curve. Methods: For the first part of this study, four plans were created with a spherical target for varying residual motion of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 cm. Appropriate gating windows were applied for each. The dosimetric effect was evaluated using EDR2 film by comparing the gated delivery with static delivery. For the second part of the project, ten gated lung stereotactic body radiotherapy cases were selected and reoptimized to be delivered by the gated RapidArc technique. These plans were delivered to a phantom, and again the gated treatments were compared to static deliveries by the same methods. Results: For regular sinusoidal motion, the dose delivered to the target was not substantially affected by the gating windows when evaluated with the gamma statistics, suggesting the interplay effect has a small role in respiratory-gated Rapid

  16. Dosimetric advantages of IMPT over IMRT for laser-accelerated proton beams.

    PubMed

    Luo, W; Li, J; Fourkal, E; Fan, J; Xu, X; Chen, Z; Jin, L; Price, R; Ma, C-M

    2008-12-21

    As a clinical application of an exciting scientific breakthrough, a compact and cost-efficient proton therapy unit using high-power laser acceleration is being developed at Fox Chase Cancer Center. The significance of this application depends on whether or not it can yield dosimetric superiority over intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The goal of this study is to show how laser-accelerated proton beams with broad energy spreads can be optimally used for proton therapy including intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) and achieve dosimetric superiority over IMRT for prostate cancer. Desired energies and spreads with a varying deltaE/E were selected with the particle selection device and used to generate spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs). Proton plans were generated on an in-house Monte Carlo-based inverse-planning system. Fifteen prostate IMRT plans previously used for patient treatment have been included for comparison. Identical dose prescriptions, beam arrangement and consistent dose constrains were used for IMRT and IMPT plans to show the dosimetric differences that were caused only by the different physical characteristics of proton and photon beams. Different optimization constrains and beam arrangements were also used to find optimal IMPT. The results show that conventional proton therapy (CPT) plans without intensity modulation were not superior to IMRT, but IMPT can generate better proton plans if appropriate beam setup and optimization are used. Compared to IMRT, IMPT can reduce the target dose heterogeneity ((D5-D95)/D95) by up to 56%. The volume receiving 65 Gy and higher (V65) for the bladder and the rectum can be reduced by up to 45% and 88%, respectively, while the volume receiving 40 Gy and higher (V40) for the bladder and the rectum can be reduced by up to 49% and 68%, respectively. IMPT can also reduce the whole body non-target tissue dose by up to 61% or a factor 2.5. This study has shown that the laser accelerator under development has

  17. Dosimetric Comparison of Helical Tomotherapy and Linac-IMRT Treatment Plans for Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xin; Penagaricano, Jose; Moros, Eduardo G.; Corry, Peter M.; Yan Yulong; Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development and clinical implementation of external beam radiation treatment technologies continues. The existence of various commercially available technologies for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has stimulated interest in exploring the differential potential advantage one may have compared with another. Two such technologies, Hi-Art Helical Tomotherapy (HT) and conventional medical linear accelerator-based IMRT (LIMRT) have been shown to be particularly suitable for the treatment of head and neck cancers. In this study, 23 patients who were diagnosed with stages 3 or 4 head and neck cancers, without evidence of distance metastatic disease, were treated in our clinic. Treatment plans were developed for all patients simultaneously on the HT planning station and on the Pinnacle treatment planning system for step-and-shoot IMRT. Patients were treated only on the HT unit, with the LIMRT plan serving as a backup in case the HT system might not be available. All plans were approved for clinical use by a physician. The prescription was that patients receive at least 95% of the planning target volume (PTV), which is 66 Gy at 2.2 Gy per fraction. Several dosimetric parameters were computed: PTV dose coverage; PTV volume conformity index; the normalized total dose (NTD), where doses were converted to 2 Gy per fraction to organs at risk (OAR); and PTV dose homogeneity. Both planning systems satisfied our clinic's PTV prescription requirements. The results suggest that HT plans had, in general, slightly better dosimetric characteristics, especially regarding PTV dose homogeneity and normal tissue sparing. However, for both techniques, doses to OAR were well below the currently accepted normal tissue tolerances. Consequently, factors other than the dosimetric parameters studied here may have to be considered when making a choice between IMRT techniques.

  18. 77 FR 38342 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... Service Network (BSN), as well as customers with product-specific service or support issues. SYSTEM... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Postal Service \\TM\\. ACTION: Notice of modification to...

  19. Dosimetric Verification and Validation of Conformal and IMRT Treatments Fields with an Ionization Chamber 2D-Array

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelina, Figueroa M.; Gabriel, Resendiz G.; Miguel, Perez P.

    2008-08-11

    A three-dimensional treatment planning system requires comparisons of calculated and measured dose distributions. It is necessary to confirm by means of patient specific QA that the dose distributions are correctly calculated, and that the patient data is correctly transferred to and delivered by the treatment machine. We used an analysis software for bi-dimensional dosimetric verification of conformal treatment and IMRT fields using as objective criterion the gamma index. An ionization chamber bi-dimensional array was used for absolute dose measurement in the complete field area.

  20. Comprehensive Australasian multicentre dosimetric intercomparison: issues, logistics and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Ebert, M A; Harrison, K M; Cornes, D; Howlett, S J; Joseph, D J; Kron, T; Hamilton, C S; Denham, J W

    2009-02-01

    The present paper describes the logistics of the 2004-2008 Australasian Level III Dosimetry Intercomparison. Dosimetric intercomparisons (or 'audits') can be used in radiotherapy to evaluate the accuracy and quality of radiation delivery. An intercomparison was undertaken in New Zealand and Australia to evaluate the feasibility and logistics of ongoing dosimetric intercomparisons that evaluate all steps in the radiotherapy treatment process, known as a 'Level III' intercomparison. The study commenced in 2002 with the establishment of a study team, definition of the study protocol, acquisition of appropriate equipment and recruitment of participating radiotherapy centres. Measurements were undertaken between October 2004 and March 2008, and included collation of data on time, costs and logistics of the study. Forty independent Australian and New Zealand radiotherapy centres agreed to participate. Measurement visits were made to 37 of these centres. Data is presented on the costs of the study and the level of support required. The study involved the participation of 16 staff at the study centre who invested over 4000 hours in the study, and of over 200 professionals at participating centres. Recommendations are provided for future phantom-based intercomparisons. It is hoped that the present paper will be of benefit to any centres or groups contemplating similar activities by identifying the processes involved in establishing the study, the potential hazards and pitfalls, and expected resource requirements.

  1. Dosimetric algorithm to reproduce isodose curves obtained from a LINAC.

    PubMed

    Estrada Espinosa, Julio Cesar; Martínez Ovalle, Segundo Agustín; Pereira Benavides, Cinthia Kotzian

    2014-01-01

    In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD) and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18 MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18 MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel's size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel's size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo.

  2. Dosimetric Algorithm to Reproduce Isodose Curves Obtained from a LINAC

    PubMed Central

    Estrada Espinosa, Julio Cesar; Martínez Ovalle, Segundo Agustín; Pereira Benavides, Cinthia Kotzian

    2014-01-01

    In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD) and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18 MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18 MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel's size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel's size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo. PMID:25045398

  3. Dosimetric characteristics of the Siemens IGRT carbon fiber tabletop.

    PubMed

    Spezi, Emiliano; Ferri, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the dosimetric characteristics of a new commercial carbon fiber treatment table are investigated. The photon beam attenuation properties of the Siemens image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) tabletop were studied in detail. Two sets of dosimetric measurements were performed. In the first experiment a polystyrene slab phantom was used: the central axis attenuation and the skin-sparing detriment were investigated. In the second experiment, the off-axis treatment table transmission was investigated using a polystyrene cylindrical phantom. Measurements were taken at the isocenter for a 360 degrees rotation of the radiation beam. Our results show that the photon beam attenuation of the Siemens IGRT carbon fiber tabletop varies from a minimum of 2.1% (central axis) to a maximum of 4.6% (120 degrees and 240 degrees beam incidence). The beam entrance dose increases from 82% to 97% of the dose at the depth of maximum for a clinical 6-MV radiation field. The depth of maximum also decreases by 0.4 cm. Despite the wedge cross section of the table the beam attenuation properties of the IGRT tabletop remain constant along the longitudinal direction. American Association of Medical Dosimetrists.

  4. Dosimetric Characteristics of the Siemens IGRT Carbon Fiber Tabletop

    SciTech Connect

    Spezi, Emiliano; Ferri, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the dosimetric characteristics of a new commercial carbon fiber treatment table are investigated. The photon beam attenuation properties of the Siemens image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) tabletop were studied in detail. Two sets of dosimetric measurements were performed. In the first experiment a polystyrene slab phantom was used: the central axis attenuation and the skin-sparing detriment were investigated. In the second experiment, the off-axis treatment table transmission was investigated using a polystyrene cylindrical phantom. Measurements were taken at the isocenter for a 360 deg. rotation of the radiation beam. Our results show that the photon beam attenuation of the Siemens IGRT carbon fiber tabletop varies from a minimum of 2.1% (central axis) to a maximum of 4.6% (120 deg. and 240 deg. beam incidence). The beam entrance dose increases from 82% to 97% of the dose at the depth of maximum for a clinical 6-MV radiation field. The depth of maximum also decreases by 0.4 cm. Despite the wedge cross section of the table the beam attenuation properties of the IGRT tabletop remain constant along the longitudinal direction. American Association of Medical Dosimetrists.

  5. Dosimetric calculations for uranium miners for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Marsh, J W; Blanchardon, E; Gregoratto, D; Hofmann, W; Karcher, K; Nosske, D; Tomásek, L

    2012-05-01

    Epidemiological studies on uranium miners are being carried out to quantify the risk of cancer based on organ dose calculations. Mathematical models have been applied to calculate the annual absorbed doses to regions of the lung, red bone marrow, liver, kidney and stomach for each individual miner arising from exposure to radon gas, radon progeny and long-lived radionuclides (LLR) present in the uranium ore dust and to external gamma radiation. The methodology and dosimetric models used to calculate these organ doses are described and the resulting doses for unit exposure to each source (radon gas, radon progeny and LLR) are presented. The results of dosimetric calculations for a typical German miner are also given. For this miner, the absorbed dose to the central regions of the lung is dominated by the dose arising from exposure to radon progeny, whereas the absorbed dose to the red bone marrow is dominated by the external gamma dose. The uncertainties in the absorbed dose to regions of the lung arising from unit exposure to radon progeny are also discussed. These dose estimates are being used in epidemiological studies of cancer in uranium miners.

  6. Biologic data, models, and dosimetric methods for internal emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The absorbed radiation dose from internal emitters has been and will remain a pivotal factor in assessing risk and therapeutic utility in selecting radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment. Although direct measurements of absorbed dose and dose distributions in vivo have been and will continue to be made in limited situations, the measurement of the biodistribution and clearance of radiopharmaceuticals in human subjects and the use of this data is likely to remain the primary means to approach the calculation and estimation of absorbed dose from internal emitters over the next decade. Since several approximations are used in these schema to calculate dose, attention must be given to inspecting and improving the application of this dosimetric method as better techniques are developed to assay body activity and as more experience is gained in applying these schema to calculating absorbed dose. Discussion of the need for considering small scale dosimetry to calculate absorbed dose at the cellular level will be presented in this paper. Other topics include dose estimates for internal emitters, biologic data mathematical models and dosimetric methods employed. 44 refs.

  7. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans*

    PubMed Central

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva; da Silva, Teógenes Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods The study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (CW), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (CVOL), air kerma-length product (PKL,CT) and effective dose. Conclusion Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, PKL,CT and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. PMID:25741103

  8. Dosimetric characteristics of LKB:Cu,P solid TL detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, S.; Alajerami, Y. S. M.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Saleh, M. A.; Saripan, M. I.; Kadir, A. B. A.; Bradley, D. A.; Alzimami, K.

    2014-11-01

    The dosimetric characteristics of newly developed borate glass dosimeter modified with lithium and potassium carbonate (LKB) and co-doped with CuO and NH4H2PO4 are reported. Broad peaks in the absence of any sharp peak confirms the amorphous nature of the prepared glass. A simple glow curve of Cu doped sample is observed with a single prominent peak (Tm) at 220 °C. The TL intensity response shows an enhancement of ~100 times due to the addition of CuO (0.1 mol%) to LKB compound. A further enhancement of the intensity by a factor of 3 from the addition of 0.25 mol% NH4H2PO4 as a co-dopant impurity is attributed to the creation of extra electron traps with consequent increase in energy transfer of radiation recombination centers. The TL yield performance of LKB:Cu,P with Zeff ≈8.92 is approximately seventeen times less sensitive compared to LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100). The proposed dosimeter shows good linearity up to 103 Gy, minimal fading and photon energy independence. These attractive features offered by our dosimeter is expected to pave the way towards dosimetric applications.

  9. Dosimetric Quantities for Computed Tomography Examinations of Paediatric Patients on the Thoracic and Abdominal Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Flores-M, E.; Gamboa de Buen, I.; Buenfil, A. E.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.; Dies, P.

    2010-12-07

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a high dose X ray imaging procedure and its use has rapidly increased in the last two decades fueled by the development of helical CT. The aim of this study is to present values of the dosimetric quantities for CT paediatric examinations of thoracic and abdominal regions. The protocols studied were those of chest, lung-mediastine, chest-abdomen, pulmonary high resolution and mediastine-abdomen, which are the more common examinations performed at ''Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gomez'' in the thoracic-abdominal region. The measurements were performed on a Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 CT Scanner and the equipment used was a CT pencil ionization chamber, connected to an electrometer. This system was calibrated for RQT9 CT beam quality. A PMMA head phantom with diameter of 16 cm and length of 15 cm was also used. The dosimetric quantities measured were the weighted air kerma index (C{sub w}), the volumetric dose index (C{sub vol}) and the CT air kerma-length product. It was found that the pulmonary high resolution examination presented the highest values for the C{sub w}(31.1 mGy) and C{sub vol}(11.1 mGy). The examination with the lowest values of these two quantities was the chest-abdomen protocol with 10.5 mGy for C{sub w} and 5.5 mGy for C{sub vol}. However, this protocol presented the highest value for P{sub KL,CT}(282.2 mGy cm) when considering the average clinical length of the examinations.

  10. Daily dosimetric quality control of the MM50 Racetrack Microtron using an electronic portal imaging device.

    PubMed

    Dirkx, M L; Kroonwijk, M; de Boer, J C; Heijmen, B J

    1995-10-01

    The MM50 Racetrack Microtron, suited for advanced three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy techniques, is a complex machine in various respects. Therefore, for a number of gantry angles, daily quality control of the absolute output and fluence profiles of the scanned beams are mandatory. For the applied photon beams, a fast method for these daily checks, based on dosimetric measurements with the Philips SRI-100 Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID), has been developed and tested. Open beams are checked for four different gantry angles; for gantry angle 0, a wedged field is checked as well. Performing and analyzing the measurements takes about 10 min. The applied EPID has favourable characteristics for dosimetric quality control measurements: absolute output measurements reproduce within 0.5% (1 SD) and the reproducibility of relative (2D) beam profile measurements is 0.2% (1 SD). The day-to-day sensitivity stability over a period of one month is 0.6% (1 SD). Measured grey scale values are within 0.2% linear with the applied dose. The 2D fluence profile of the 25 MV photon beam of the MM50 is very stable in time: during a period of 5 months a maximum fluctuation of 2.2% has been observed. Once, a deviation in the cGy/MU-value of 6% was detected. There is no interlock in the MM50-system that would have prevented patient treatment with this strongly deviating output. Based on the results of this study and on clinical requirements regarding acceptability of deviations of beam characteristics, a protocol has been developed including action levels for additional investigations and, if necessary, adjustment of the beam characteristics.

  11. Determination of dosimetric parameters for shielded 153Gd source in prostate cancer brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Mahdi; Ghatei, Najmeh; Mehrpouyan, Mohammad; Meigooni, Ali S.; Shahraini, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy (I-RSBT) is a recently developed method for treatment of prostate cancer. In the present study TG-43 dosimetric parameters of a 153Gd source were obtained for use in I-RSBT. Materials and methods A 153Gd source located inside a needle including a Pt shield and an aluminum window was simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Dosimetric parameters of this source model, including air kerma strength, dose rate constant, radial dose function and 2D anisotropy function, with and without the shields were calculated according to the TG-43 report. Results The air kerma strength was found to be 6.71 U for the non-shielded source with 1 GBq activity. This value was found to be 0.04 U and 6.19 U for the Pt shield and Al window cases, respectively. Dose rate constant for the non-shielded source was found to be 1.20 cGy/(hU). However, for a shielded source with Pt and aluminum window, dose rate constants were found to be 0.07 cGy/(hU) and 0.96 cGy/(hU), on the shielded and window sides, respectively. The values of radial dose function and anisotropy function were tabulated for these sources. Additionally, isodose curves were drawn for sources with and without shield, in order to evaluate the effect of shield on dose distribution. Conclusions Existence of the Pt shield may greatly reduce the dose to organs at risk and normal tissues which are located toward the shielded side. The calculated air kerma strength, dose rate constant, radial dose function and 2D anisotropy function data for the 153Gd source for the non-shielded and the shielded sources can be used in the treatment planning system (TPS). PMID:28265239

  12. Dosimetric Impact of Interplay Effect on RapidArc Lung Stereotactic Treatment Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, Chin Loon; Verbakel, Wilko F.A.R.; Cuijpers, Johan P.; Slotman, Ben J.; Senan, Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (RapidArc; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) allows fast delivery of stereotactic radiotherapy for Stage I lung tumors. We investigated discrepancies between the calculated and delivered dose distributions, as well as the dosimetric impact of leaf interplay with breathing-induced tumor motion. Methods and Materials: In 20 consecutive patients with Stage I lung cancer who completed RapidArc delivery, 15 had tumor motion exceeding 5 mm on four-dimensional computed tomography scan. Static and dynamic measurements were performed with Gafchromic EBT film (International Specialty Products Inc., Wayne, NJ) in a Quasar motion phantom (Modus Medical Devices, London, Ontario, Canada). Static measurements were compared with calculated dose distributions, and dynamic measurements were compared with the convolution of static measurements with sinusoidal motion patterns. Besides clinical treatment plans, additional cases were optimized to create excessive multileaf collimator modulation and delivered on the phantom with peak-to-peak motions of up to 25 mm. {gamma} Analysis with a 3% dose difference and 2- or 1-mm distance to agreement was used to evaluate the accuracy of delivery and the dosimetric impact of the interplay effect. Results: In static mode film dosimetry of the two-arc delivery in the phantom showed that, on average, fewer than 3% of measurements had {gamma} greater than 1. Dynamic measurements of clinical plans showed a high degree of agreement with the convolutions: for double-arc plans, 99.5% met the {gamma} criterion. The degree of agreement was 98.5% for the plans with excessive multileaf collimator modulations and 25 mm of motion. Conclusions: Film dosimetry shows that RapidArc accurately delivers the calculated dose distribution and that interplay between leaves and tumor motion is not significant for single-fraction treatments when RapidArc is delivered with two different arcs.

  13. SU-E-T-314: Dosimetric Effect of Smooth Drilling On Proton Compensators in Prostate Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Reyhan, M; Yue, N; Zou, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric effect of smooth drilling of proton compensators in proton prostate plans when compared to typical plunge drilling settings. Methods: Twelve prostate patients were planned in Eclipse treatment planning system using three different drill settings Smooth, Plunge drill A, and Plunge drill B. The differences between A and B were: spacing X[cm]: 0.4(A), 0.1(B), spacing Y[cm]: 0.35(A), 0.1(B), row offset [cm]: 0.2(A), 0(B). Planning parameters were kept consistent between the different plans, which utilized two opposed lateral beams arrangement. Mean differences absolute dosimetry in OAR constraints are presented. Results: The smooth drilled compensator based plans yielded equivalent target coverage to the plans generated with drill settings A and B. Overall, the smooth compensators reduced dose to the majority of organs at risk compared to settings A and B. Constraints were reduced for the following OAR: Rectal V75 by 2.12 and 2.48%, V70 by 2.45 and 2.91%, V65 by 2.85 and 3.37%, V50 by 2.3 and 5.1%, Bladder V65 by 4.49 and 3.67%, Penial Bulb mean by 3.7 and 4.2Gy, and the maximum plan dose 5.3 and 7.4Gy for option A vs smooth and option B vs smooth respectively. The femoral head constraint (V50<5%) was met by all plans, but it was not consistently lower for the smooth drilling plan. Conclusion: Smooth drilled compensators provide equivalent target coverage and overall slightly cooler plans to the majority of organs at risk; it also minimizes the potential dosimetric impacts caused by patient positioning uncertainty.

  14. Dosimetric Quantities for Computed Tomography Examinations of Paediatric Patients on the Thoracic and Abdominal Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-M, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Dies, P.; Gamboa-deBuen, I.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.

    2010-12-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a high dose X ray imaging procedure and its use has rapidly increased in the last two decades fueled by the development of helical CT. The aim of this study is to present values of the dosimetric quantities for CT paediatric examinations of thoracic and abdominal regions. The protocols studied were those of chest, lung-mediastine, chest-abdomen, pulmonary high resolution and mediastine-abdomen, which are the more common examinations performed at "Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez" in the thoracic-abdominal region. The measurements were performed on a Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 CT Scanner and the equipment used was a CT pencil ionization chamber, connected to an electrometer. This system was calibrated for RQT9 CT beam quality. A PMMA head phantom with diameter of 16 cm and length of 15 cm was also used. The dosimetric quantities measured were the weighted air kerma index (Cw), the volumetric dose index (Cvol) and the CT air kerma-length product. It was found that the pulmonary high resolution examination presented the highest values for the Cw (31.1 mGy) and Cvol (11.1 mGy). The examination with the lowest values of these two quantities was the chest-abdomen protocol with 10.5 mGy for Cw and 5.5 mGy for Cvol. However, this protocol presented the highest value for PKL,CT (282.2 mGy cm) when considering the average clinical length of the examinations.

  15. SU-E-T-09: A Dosimetric Analysis of Various Clinically Used Bolus Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stowe, M; Yeager, C; Zhou, F; Hand, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric effect of various clinically used bolus materials. Methods: Materials investigated include solid water, superflab, wet gauze, wet sheets, Play-Doh{sup ™}, and gauze embedded with petroleum jelly. Each bolusing material was scanned in a Philips CT to determine the Hounsfield unit (HU) and to verify uniformity throughout the material. Using the corresponding HU, boluses of 0.5 cm and 1.0 cm thicknesses were created in the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) on a solid water phantom. Dose was calculated at various depths for beam energies 6 MV, 6 MeV, 9 MeV, and 12 MeV to determine the effects of each material on deposition of dose. In addition, linac-based measurements at these energies were made using a farmer chamber in solid water. Wet sheets and wet gauze were measured with various water content to quantify the effects on dose. Results: Preliminary CT scans find a range in HU of bolus materials from −120 to almost 300. There is a trend in the dose at depth based on the HU of the material; however inconsistencies are found when the bolus materials have a negative HU value. The measured data indicates that there is a linear relationship between the mass of water in a material and the dose reading, the slope of which is material dependent. Conclusion: Due to the variation in HU of the bolus materials studied, it is recommended that any new bolus be evaluated before clinical use to determine physical and dosimetric properties. If possible, patients should have bolus included in their CT scans; or if the bolus is created in the TPS, the HU should correspond to the material used. For water-soaked materials, once the bolus material is selected (gauze or sheet), the bolusing effect is only dependent on the amount of water applied to the material.

  16. SU-E-J-167: Dosimetric Consequences From Minimal Displacements in APBI with SAVI Applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekara, S; Dumitru, N; Hyvarinen, M; Pella, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the importance of providing proper solid immobilization in every fraction of treatment in APBI with brachytherapy. Methods: 125 patients treated with APBI brachytherapy with SAVI applicators at SFRO Boca Raton, from 2013–2015 were considered for this retrospective study. The CT scans of each patient, which were taken before each treatment, were imported in to the Oncentra treatment planning system. Then they were compared with the initial CT scan which was used for the initial plan. Deviation in displacements in reference to ribs and skin surface was measured and dosimetric evaluations respective to the initial image were performed. Results: Small deviations in displacements were observed from the SAVI applicator to the ribs and the skin surface. Dosimetric evaluations revealed, very small changes in the inter-fractionation position make significant differences in the maximum dose to critical organs. Additionally, the volume of the cavity also changed between fractions. As a Result, the maximum dose manifested variance between 10% and 32% in ribs and skin surface respectively. Conclusion: It appears that taking a CT scan before each treatment is necessary to minimize the risk of delivering undesired high doses to the critical organs. This study indicates, in 30% of the cases re-planning was necessary between treatments. We conclude that, treatment planning teams should evaluate the placement of the device by analyzing the CT images before each treatment and they must be prepared for re-planning if needed. This study also reveals the urgent need of improving the immobilization methods with APBI when treating with the SAVI applicator.

  17. Conventional Versus Automated Implantation of Loose Seeds in Prostate Brachytherapy: Analysis of Dosimetric and Clinical Results

    SciTech Connect

    Genebes, Caroline; Filleron, Thomas; Graff, Pierre; Jonca, Frédéric; Huyghe, Eric; Thoulouzan, Matthieu; Soulie, Michel; Malavaud, Bernard; Aziza, Richard; Brun, Thomas; Delannes, Martine; Bachaud, Jean-Marc

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To review the clinical outcome of I-125 permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) for low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer and to compare 2 techniques of loose-seed implantation. Methods and Materials: 574 consecutive patients underwent I-125 PPB for low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer between 2000 and 2008. Two successive techniques were used: conventional implantation from 2000 to 2004 and automated implantation (Nucletron, FIRST system) from 2004 to 2008. Dosimetric and biochemical recurrence-free (bNED) survival results were reported and compared for the 2 techniques. Univariate and multivariate analysis researched independent predictors for bNED survival. Results: 419 (73%) and 155 (27%) patients with low-risk and intermediate-risk disease, respectively, were treated (median follow-up time, 69.3 months). The 60-month bNED survival rates were 95.2% and 85.7%, respectively, for patients with low-risk and intermediate-risk disease (P=.04). In univariate analysis, patients treated with automated implantation had worse bNED survival rates than did those treated with conventional implantation (P<.0001). By day 30, patients treated with automated implantation showed lower values of dose delivered to 90% of prostate volume (D90) and volume of prostate receiving 100% of prescribed dose (V100). In multivariate analysis, implantation technique, Gleason score, and V100 on day 30 were independent predictors of recurrence-free status. Grade 3 urethritis and urinary incontinence were observed in 2.6% and 1.6% of the cohort, respectively, with no significant differences between the 2 techniques. No grade 3 proctitis was observed. Conclusion: Satisfactory 60-month bNED survival rates (93.1%) and acceptable toxicity (grade 3 urethritis <3%) were achieved by loose-seed implantation. Automated implantation was associated with worse dosimetric and bNED survival outcomes.

  18. Geometric and dosimetric uncertainties in intracranial stereotatctic treatments for multiple nonisocentric lesions.

    PubMed

    Winey, Brian; Bussiere, Marc

    2014-05-08

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of geometric uncertainties of patient position on treatments of multiple nonisocentric intracranial lesions. The average distance between lesions in patients with multiple targets was determined by a retrospective survey of patients with multiple lesions. Retrospective patient imaging data from fractionated stereotactic patients were used to calculate interfractional and intrafractional patient position uncertainty. Three different immobilization devices were included in the positioning study. The interfractional and intrafractional patient positioning error data were used to calculate the geometric offset of a lesion located at varying distances from the mechanical isocenter for treatments of multiple lesions with a single arc, assuming that no intrafractional position correction is employed during an arc rotation. Dosimetric effects were studied using two representative lesions of two sizes, 6 mm and 13 mm maximum dimensions, and prescribed to 20 Gy and 18 Gy, respectively. Distances between lesions ranged from < 10 mm to 150 mm, which would correspond to a range of isocenter to lesion separations of < 10 mm to 75 mm, assuming an isocenter located at the geometric mean. In the presence of a full six degree of freedom patient correction system, the effects of the intrafractional patient positioning uncertainties were less than 1.8 mm (3.6mm) for 1σ (2σ) deviations for lesion spacing up to 75 mm assuming a quadratic summation of 1σ and 2σ. Without the benefit of a six DOF correction device, only correcting for three translations, the effects of the intrafractional patient positioning uncertainties were within 3.1 mm (7.2 mm) for 1σ (2σ) deviations for distances up to 75 mm. 1σ and 2σ deviations along all six axes were observed in 3.6% and 0.3%, respectively, of 974 fractions analyzed. Dosimetric effects for 2 mm and 4 mm offsets were most significant for the small lesion with minimum dose (Dmin

  19. Geometric and dosimetric uncertainties in intracranial stereotatctic treatments for multiple nonisocentric lesions.

    PubMed

    Winey, Brian; Bussiére, Marc

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of geometric uncertainties of patient position on treatments of multiple nonisocentric intracranial lesions. The average distance between lesions in patients with multiple targets was determined by a retrospective survey of patients with multiple lesions. Retrospective patient imaging data from fractionated stereotactic patients were used to calculate interfractional and intrafractional patient position uncertainty. Three different immobilization devices were included in the positioning study. The interfractional and intrafractional patient positioning error data were used to calculate the geometric offset of a lesion located at varying distances from the mechanical isocenter for treatments of multiple lesions with a single arc, assuming that no intrafractional position correction is employed during an arc rotation. Dosimetric effects were studied using two representative lesions of two sizes, 6 mm and 13 mm maximum dimensions, and prescribed to 20 Gy and 18 Gy, respectively. Distances between lesions ranged from < 10 mm to 150 mm, which would correspond to a range of isocenter to lesion separations of < 10 mm to 75 mm, assuming an isocenter located at the geometric mean. In the presence of a full six degree of freedom patient correction system, the effects of the intrafractional patient positioning uncertainties were less than 1.8 mm (3.6 mm) for 1σ (2σ) deviations for lesion spacing up to 75 mm assuming a quadratic summation of 1σ and 2σ. Without the benefit of a six DOF correction device, only correcting for three translations, the effects of the intrafractional patient positioning uncertainties were within 3.1 mm (7.2 mm) for 1σ (2σ) deviations for distances up to 75 mm. 1σ and 2σ deviations along all six axes were observed in 3.6% and 0.3%, respectively, of 974 fractions analyzed. Dosimetric effects for 2 mm and 4 mm offsets were most significant for the small lesion with minimum dose (Dmin

  20. Contura Multi-Lumen Balloon Breast Brachytherapy Catheter: Comparative Dosimetric Findings of a Phase 4 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, Douglas W.; Vicini, Frank A.; Julian, Thomas B.; Cuttino, Laurie W.; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D.

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Final dosimetric findings of a completed, multi-institutional phase 4 registry trial using the Contura Multi-Lumen Balloon (MLB) breast brachytherapy catheter to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in patients with early-stage breast cancer are presented. Methods and Materials: Three dosimetric plans with identical target coverage were generated for each patient for comparison: multilumen multidwell (MLMD); central-lumen multidwell (CLMD); and central-lumen single-dwell (CLSD) loading of the Contura catheter. For this study, a successful treatment plan achieved ideal dosimetric goals and included the following: ≥95% of the prescribed dose (PD) covering ≥95% of the target volume (TV); maximum skin dose ≤125% of the PD; maximum rib dose ≤145% of the PD; and V150 ≤50 cc and V200 ≤10 cc. Results: Between January 2008 and February 2011, 23 institutions participated. A total of 318 patients were available for dosimetric review. Using the Contura MLB, all dosimetric criteria were met in 78.93% of cases planned with MLMD versus 55.38% with the CLMD versus 37.66% with the CLSD (P≤.0001). Evaluating all patients with the full range of skin to balloon distance represented, median maximum skin dose was reduced by 12% and median maximum rib dose by 13.9% when using MLMD-based dosimetric plans compared to CLSD. The dosimetric benefit of MLMD was further demonstrated in the subgroup of patients where skin thickness was <5 mm, where MLMD use allowed a 38% reduction in median maximum skin dose over CLSD. For patients with rib distance <5 mm, the median maximum rib dose reduction was 27%. Conclusions: Use of the Contura MLB catheter produced statistically significant improvements in dosimetric capabilities between CLSD and CLMD treatments. This device approach demonstrates the ability not only to overcome the barriers of limited skin thickness and close rib proximity, but to consistently achieve a higher standard of dosimetric planning goals.