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Sample records for postal dosimetric system

  1. Dosimetric characteristics of fabricated silica fibre for postal radiotherapy dose audits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadzil, M. S. Ahmad; Ramli, N. N. H.; Jusoh, M. A.; Kadni, T.; Bradley, D. A.; Ung, N. M.; Suhairul, H.; Mohd Noor, N.

    2014-11-01

    Present investigation aims to establish the dosimetric characteristics of a novel fabricated flat fibre TLD system for postal radiotherapy dose audits. Various thermoluminescence (TL) properties have been investigated for five sizes of 6 mol% Ge-doped optical fibres. Key dosimetric characteristics including reproducibility, linearity, fading and energy dependence have been established. Irradiations were carried out using a linear accelerator (linac) and a Cobalt-60 machine. For doses from 0.5 Gy up to 10 Gy, Ge-doped flat fibres exhibit linearity between TL yield and dose, reproducible to better than 8% standard deviation (SD) following repeat measurements (n = 3). For photons generated at potentials from 1.25 MeV to 10 MV an energy-dependent response is noted, with a coefficient of variation (CV) of less than 40% over the range of energies investigated. For 6.0 mm length flat fibres 100 μm thick × 350 pm wide, the TL fading loss following 30 days of storage at room temperature was < 8%. The Ge-doped flat fibre system represents a viable basis for use in postal radiotherapy dose audits, corrections being made for the various factors influencing the TL yield.

  2. Standardization of individual dosimetric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallini, A.

    1983-10-01

    The activities of an Italian operating group for the standardization of individual dosimeters are discussed. Intercalibration was performed for about 10,000 individual dosimeters in order to analyze systematic and random measuring errors. The validity of normalized inspection procedures was examined and the necessity of periodic checks was considered. Legislation is proposed including a technical inspection prior to authorization to start a dosimetry center and a norm for periodic controls of dosimetry services. The creation of a dosimetric data bank is also suggested.

  3. Clinical Digital Breast Tomosynthesis System: Dosimetric Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Steve Si Jia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To comprehensively characterize the dosimetric properties of a clinical digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) system for the acquisition of mammographic and tomosynthesis images. Materials and Methods: Compressible water-oil mixture phantoms were created and imaged by using the automatic exposure control (AEC) of the Selenia Dimensions system (Hologic, Bedford, Mass) in both DBT and full-field digital mammography (FFDM) mode. Empirical measurements of the x-ray tube output were performed with a dosimeter to measure the air kerma for the range of tube current–exposure time product settings and to develop models of the automatically selected x-ray spectra. A Monte Carlo simulation of the system was developed and used in conjunction with the AEC-chosen settings and spectra models to compute and compare the mean glandular dose (MGD) resulting from both imaging modalities for breasts of varying sizes and glandular compositions. Results: Acquisition of a single craniocaudal view resulted in an MGD ranging from 0.309 to 5.26 mGy in FFDM mode and from 0.657 to 3.52 mGy in DBT mode. For a breast with a compressed thickness of 5.0 cm and a 50% glandular fraction, a DBT acquisition resulted in an only 8% higher MGD than an FFDM acquisition (1.30 and 1.20 mGy, respectively). For a breast with a compressed thickness of 6.0 cm and a 14.3% glandular fraction, a DBT acquisition resulted in an 83% higher MGD than an FFDM acquisition (2.12 and 1.16 mGy, respectively). Conclusion: For two-dimensional–three-dimensional fusion imaging with the Selenia Dimensions system, the MGD for a 5-cm-thick 50% glandular breast is 2.50 mGy, which is less than the Mammography Quality Standards Act limit for a two-view screening mammography study. © RSNA, 2012 PMID:22332070

  4. Developing and improving a scanning system for dosimetric applications

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, P.; Galvan, V.; Castellanoa, G.; Valente, M.

    2010-08-04

    Radiotherapy is nowadays one of the most used techniques for the treatment of different pathologies, particularly cancer diseases. The accuracy regarding the application of these treatments, which are planned according to patient information, depends mainly on the dosimetric measurements of absorbed dose within irradiated tissues. The present work is devoted to the study, design and construction of an original device capable of performing visible light transmission measurements in order to analyze Fricke gel dosimeters. Furthermore, a suitable bi-dimensional positioning system along with a dedicated control system and image processing software has been adapted to the dosimetric device in order to perform 2D dose mapping. The obtained results confirm the feasibility of the proposed method, therefore suggesting its potentiality for clinical applications.

  5. Dosimetric precision of an ion beam tracking system

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Scanned ion beam therapy of intra-fractionally moving tumors requires motion mitigation. GSI proposed beam tracking and performed several experimental studies to analyse the dosimetric precision of the system for scanned carbon beams. Methods A beam tracking system has been developed and integrated in the scanned carbon ion beam therapy unit at GSI. The system adapts pencil beam positions and beam energy according to target motion. Motion compensation performance of the beam tracking system was assessed by measurements with radiographic films, a range telescope, a 3D array of 24 ionization chambers, and cell samples for biological dosimetry. Measurements were performed for stationary detectors and moving detectors using the beam tracking system. Results All detector systems showed comparable data for a moving setup when using beam tracking and the corresponding stationary setup. Within the target volume the mean relative differences of ionization chamber measurements were 0.3% (1.5% standard deviation, 3.7% maximum). Film responses demonstrated preserved lateral dose gradients. Measurements with the range telescope showed agreement of Bragg peak depth under motion induced range variations. Cell survival experiments showed a mean relative difference of -5% (-3%) between measurements and calculations within the target volume for beam tracking (stationary) measurements. Conclusions The beam tracking system has been successfully integrated. Full functionality has been validated dosimetrically in experiments with several detector types including biological cell systems. PMID:20591160

  6. Using Energy Information Systems (EIS): A Guidebook for the U.S. Postal Service

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, Dale; Hough, Ben; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William; Goldman, Charles

    2004-10-11

    The U.S. Postal Service (Postal Service) recently installed Energy Information Systems (EIS) at 30 facilities in California. These systems integrate electric utility meter data acquisition hardware, software, and communication systems to collect, archive, analyze, and display whole-facility energy consumption data. At some point in the future, these systems could also be integrated with sub-meters that measure the electricity consumption of key end-use equipment. The purpose of this guidebook is to help Postal Service facility managers interpret and act upon energy data available from their EIS, translating the abundance of information these systems provide into knowledge that can be used to reduce energy use and costs. The guidebook first describes basic EIS capabilities and explains the data and reports that Postal Service EIS provide. It outlines a set of strategies for utilizing this information to improve operations and maintenance of building energy use equipment and for facilitating demand response. Finally, the guidebook offers suggestions on creating a routine for tracking and analyzing energy data and integrating this information into regular energy management activities.

  7. 39 CFR 601.104 - Postal purchasing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Postal purchasing authority. 601.104 Section 601.104 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE... in writing local buying authority throughout the Postal Service. ...

  8. Dosimetric comparison of linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery systems

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, S. D.; Kumar, Sudhir; Dagaonkar, S. S.; Bisht, Geetika; Dayanand, S.; Devi, Reena; Deshpande, S. S.; Chaudhary, S.; Bhatt, B. C.; Kannan, S.

    2007-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a special radiotherapy technique used to irradiate intracranial lesions by 3-D arrangements of narrow photon beams eliminating the needs of invasive surgery. Three different tertiary collimators, namely BrainLab and Radionics circular cones and BrainLab micro multileaf collimator (mMLC), are used for linear accelerator-based SRS systems (X-Knife). Output factor (St), tissue maximum ratio (TMR) and off axis ratio (OAR) of these three SRS systems were measured using CC01 (Scanditronix/ Welhofer) and Pinpoint (PTW) cylindrical and Markus plane parallel ionization chambers as well as TLD and radiochromic film. Measurement results of CC01 and Pinpoint chambers were very close to each other which indicate that further reduction in volume and physical dimensions of cylindrical ionization chamber is not necessary for SRS/SRT dosimetry. Output factors of BrainLab and Radionics SRS cones were very close to each other while output factors of equivalent diameter mMLC field were different from SRS circular cones. TMR of the three SRS systems compared were very close to one another. OAR of Radionics cone and BrainLab mMLC were very close to each other, within 2%. However, OARs of BrainLab cone were found comparable to OARs of Radionics cone and BrainLab mMLC within maximum variation of 4%. In addition, user-measured similar data of other three mMLC X-Knives were compared with the mMLC X-Knife data measured in this work and found comparable. The concept of switching over to mMLC-based SRS/SRT is thus validated from dosimetric characteristics as well. PMID:21217914

  9. Dosimetric comparison of linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery systems.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S D; Kumar, Sudhir; Dagaonkar, S S; Bisht, Geetika; Dayanand, S; Devi, Reena; Deshpande, S S; Chaudhary, S; Bhatt, B C; Kannan, S

    2007-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a special radiotherapy technique used to irradiate intracranial lesions by 3-D arrangements of narrow photon beams eliminating the needs of invasive surgery. Three different tertiary collimators, namely BrainLab and Radionics circular cones and BrainLab micro multileaf collimator (mMLC), are used for linear accelerator-based SRS systems (X-Knife). Output factor (S(t)), tissue maximum ratio (TMR) and off axis ratio (OAR) of these three SRS systems were measured using CC01 (Scanditronix/ Welhofer) and Pinpoint (PTW) cylindrical and Markus plane parallel ionization chambers as well as TLD and radiochromic film. Measurement results of CC01 and Pinpoint chambers were very close to each other which indicate that further reduction in volume and physical dimensions of cylindrical ionization chamber is not necessary for SRS/SRT dosimetry. Output factors of BrainLab and Radionics SRS cones were very close to each other while output factors of equivalent diameter mMLC field were different from SRS circular cones. TMR of the three SRS systems compared were very close to one another. OAR of Radionics cone and BrainLab mMLC were very close to each other, within 2%. However, OARs of BrainLab cone were found comparable to OARs of Radionics cone and BrainLab mMLC within maximum variation of 4%. In addition, user-measured similar data of other three mMLC X-Knives were compared with the mMLC X-Knife data measured in this work and found comparable. The concept of switching over to mMLC-based SRS/SRT is thus validated from dosimetric characteristics as well.

  10. [Improved program maintenance of the CIRCIS dosimetric planning system].

    PubMed

    Sevast'ianov, A I; Liutova, N A; Ratner, T G

    1983-03-01

    A special computer complex CIRCIS (Informatique, France) is used in the All-Union Cancer Research Center, USSR AMS, for the dosimetric planning of radiotherapy on 5 gamma-beam units and electron accelerator. Mathematical maintenance of the complex includes programs of the calculation of dose distribution for gamma-, inhibition and electron radiation but has no program of the calculation of the time of irradiation. The authors have devised and introduced into the complex such a program in the Fortran language that makes it possible to calculate within 2-3 min the time of irradiation for multifield rotation therapy using several units as a time, thus expediting the dosimetric planning for patients' irradiation.

  11. 39 CFR 601.104 - Postal purchasing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....104 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE... authority. Only the Postmaster General/CEO; the Postal Service's vice president, Supply Management... matters. The Postal Service's vice president, Supply Management, or his or her designee, may also...

  12. 39 CFR 601.104 - Postal purchasing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....104 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE... authority. Only the Postmaster General/CEO; the Postal Service's vice president, Supply Management... matters. The Postal Service's vice president, Supply Management, or his or her designee, may also...

  13. Testing survey methodology to measure patients' experiences and views of the emergency and urgent care system: telephone versus postal survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To address three methodological challenges when attempting to measure patients' experiences and views of a system of inter-related health services rather than a single service: the feasibility of a population survey for identifying system users, the optimal recall period for system use, and the mode of administration which is most feasible and representative in the context of routine measurement of system performance. Methods Postal survey of a random sample of 900 members of the general population and market research telephone survey of quota sample of 1000 members of the general population. Results Response rates to the postal and market research telephone population surveys were 51% (457 out of 893 receiving the questionnaire) and 9% (1014 out of 11924 contactable telephone numbers) respectively. Both surveys were able to identify users of the system in the previous three months: 22% (99/457) of postal and 15% (151/1000) of telephone survey respondents. For both surveys, recall of event occurrence reduced by a half after four weeks. The telephone survey more accurately estimated use of individual services within the system than the postal survey. Experiences and views of events remained reasonably stable over the three month recall time period for both modes of administration. Even though the response rate was lower, the telephone survey was more representative of the population, was faster and cheaper to undertake, and had fewer missing values. Conclusions It is possible to identify users of a health care system using a population survey. A recall period of three months can be used to estimate experiences and views but one month is more accurate for estimating use of the system. A quota sample market research telephone survey gives a low response rate yet is more representative and accurate than a postal survey of a random sample of the population. PMID:20534151

  14. [In-phantom dosimetric measurements as quality control for brachytherapy: System check and constancy check].

    PubMed

    Kollefrath, Michael; Bruggmoser, Gregor; Nanko, Norbert; Gainey, Mark

    2015-06-01

    In brachytherapy dosimetric measurements are difficult due to the inherent dose-inhomogenieties. Typically in routine clincal practice only the nominal dose rate is determined for computer controlled afterloading systems. The region of interest lies close to the source when measuring the spatial dose distribution. In this region small errors in the postioning of the detector, and its finite size, lead to large measurement uncertainties that exacerbate the routine dosimetric control of the system in the clinic. The size of the measurement chamber, its energy dependence, and the directional dependence of the measurement apparatus are the factors which have a significant influence on dosimetry. Although ionisation chambers are relatively large, they are employed since similar chambers are commonly found on clincal brachytherapy units. The dose is determined using DIN 6800 [11] since DIN 6809-2 [12], which deals with dosimetry in brachytherapy, is antiquated and is currently in the process of revision. Further information regarding dosimetry for brachytherapy can be found in textbooks [1] and [2]. The measurements for this work were performed with a HDR (High-Dose-Rate) (192)Ir source, type mHDR V2, and a Microselectron Afterloader V2 both from Nucletron/Elekta. In this work two dosimetric procedures are presented which, despite the aforemention difficulties, should assist in performing checks of the proper operation of the system. The first is a system check that measures the dose distribution along a line and is to be performed when first bringing the afterloader into operation, or after significant changes to the system. The other is a dosimetric constancy check, which with little effort can be performed monhtly or weekly. It simultaneously verifies the positioning of the source at two positions, the functionality of the system clock and the automatic re-calculation of the source activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  15. Validation of dosimetric field matching accuracy from proton therapy using a robotic patient positioning system.

    PubMed

    Farr, Jonathan B; O'Ryan-Blair, Avril; Jesseph, Frederick; Hsi, Wen-Chien; Allgower, Chris E; Mascia, Anthony E; Thornton, Allan F; Schreuder, Andreas N

    2010-04-12

    Large area, shallow fields are well suited to proton therapy. However, due to beam production limitations, such volumes typically require multiple matched fields. This is problematic due to the relatively narrow beam penumbra at shallow depths compared to electron and photon beams. Therefore, highly accurate dose planning and delivery is required. As the dose delivery includes shifting the patient for matched fields, accuracy at the 1-2 millimeter level in patient positioning is also required. This study investigates the dosimetric accuracy of such proton field matching by an innovative robotic patient positioner system (RPPS). The dosimetric comparisons were made between treatment planning system calculations, radiographic film and ionization chamber measurements. The results indicated good agreement amongst the methods and suggest that proton field matching by a RPPS is accurate and efficient.

  16. Dosimetric characteristics of novalis Tx system with high definition multileaf collimator.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zheng; Wang, Zhiheng; Wu, Q Jackie; Yan, Hui; Bowsher, Jim; Zhang, Junan; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2008-10-01

    A new Novalis Tx system equipped with a high definition multileaf collimator (HDMLC) recently became available to perform both image-guided radiosurgery and conventional radiotherapy. It is capable of delivering a highly conformal radiation dose with three energy modes: 6 MV photon energy, 15 MV photon energy, and 6 MV photon energy in a stereotactic radiosurgery mode with 1000 MU/min dose rate. Dosimetric characteristics of the new Novalis Tx treatment unit with the HDMLC are systematically measured for commissioning. A high resolution diode detector and miniion-chamber detector are used to measure dosimetric data for a range of field sizes from 4 x 4 mm to 400 x 400 mm. The commissioned Novalis Tx system has passed the RPC stereotactic radiosurgery head phantom irradiation test. The Novalis Tx system not only expands its capabilities with three energy modes, but also achieves better beam conformity and sharer beam penumbra with HDMLC. Since there is little beam data information available for the new Novalis Tx system, we present in this work the dosimetric data of the new modality for reference and comparison.

  17. 76 FR 49511 - Postal Service Initiative on Retail Postal Locations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Postal Service Initiative on Retail Postal Locations AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice... of the continuation of service at postal retail locations. The procedural schedule included an...

  18. Three dimensional dose verification of VMAT plans using the Octavius 4D dosimetric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugam, Sankar; Xing, Aitang; Young, Tony; Thwaites, David; Holloway, Lois

    2015-01-01

    The Octavius 4D dosimetric system generates a 3D dose matrix based on a measured planar dose and user supplied Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) data. The accuracy of 3D dose matrices reconstructed by the Octavius 4D dosimetric system was systematically studied for an open static field, an open arc field and clinical VMAT plans. The Octavius reconstructed 3D dose matrices were compared with the Treatment Planning System (TPS) calculated 3D dose matrices using 3D gamma (γ) analysis with 2%/2mm and 3%/3mm tolerance criteria. The larger detector size in the 2D detector array of the Octavius system resulted in failed voxels in the high dose gradient regions. For the open arc fields mean (1σ) γ pass rates of 84.5(8.9) % and 94.2(4.5) % were observed with 2%/2mm and 3%/3mm tolerance criteria respectively and for clinical VMAT plans mean (1σ) γ pass rates of 86.8(3.5) % and 96.7(1.4) % were observed.

  19. Bedside rationing by general practitioners: A postal survey in the Danish public healthcare system

    PubMed Central

    Lauridsen, Sigurd MR; Norup, Michael; Rossel, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background It is ethically controversial whether medical doctors are morally permitted to ration the care of their patients at the bedside. To explore whether general practitioners in fact do ration in this manner we conducted a study within primary care in the Danish public healthcare system. The purpose of the study was to measure the extent to which general practitioners (GPs) would be willing to factor in cost-quality trade-offs when prescribing medicine, and to discover whether, and if so to what extent, they believe that patients should be informed about this. Methods Postal survey of 600 randomly selected Danish GPs, of which 330 responded to the questionnaire. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 14.0) was used to produce general descriptive statistics. Significance was calculated with the McNemar and the chi-square test. The main outcome measures of the study were twofold: an assessment of the proportion of GPs who, in a mainly hypothetical setting, would consider cost-quality trade-offs relevant to their clinical decision-making given their economic impact on the healthcare system; and a measure of the extent to which they would disclose this information to patients. Results In the hypothetical setting 95% of GPs considered cost-quality trade-offs relevant to their clinical decision-making given the economic impact of such trade-offs on the healthcare system. In all 90% stated that this consideration had been relevant in clinical decision-making within the last month. In the hypothetical setting 55% would inform their patients that they considered a cost-quality trade-off relevant to their clinical decisions given the economic impact of such trade-offs on the healthcare system. The most common reason (68%) given for not wanting to inform patients about this matter was the belief that the information would not prove useful to patients. In the hypothetical setting cost-quality trade-offs were considered relevant significantly more

  20. Long-term dosimetric stability of multiple TomoTherapy delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Smilowitz, Jennifer B; Dunkerley, David; Hill, Patrick M; Yadav, Poonam; Geurts, Mark W

    2017-05-01

    The dosimetric stability of six TomoTherapy units was analyzed to investigate changes in performance over time and with system upgrades. Energy and output were tracked using monitor chamber signal, onboard megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) detector profile, and external ion chamber measurements. The systems (and monitoring periods) include three Hi-Art (67, 61, and 65 mos.), two TomoHDA (31 and 26 mos.), and one Radixact unit (11 mos.), representing approximately 10 years of clinical use. The four newest systems use the Dose Control Stability (DCS) system and Fixed Target Linear Accelerator (linac) (FTL). The output stability is reported as deviation from reference monitor chamber signal for all systems and/or from an external chamber signal. The energy stability was monitored using relative (center versus off-axis) MVCT detector signal (beam profile) and/or the ratio of chamber measurements at 2 depths. The clinical TomoHDA data were used to benchmark the Radixact stability, which has the same FTL but runs at a higher dose rate. The output based on monitor chamber data of all systems is very stable. The standard deviation of daily output on the non-DCS systems was 0.94-1.52%. As expected, the DCS systems had improved standard deviation: 0.004-0.06%. The beam energy was also very stable for all units. The standard deviation in profile flatness was 0.23-0.62% for rotating target systems and 0.04-0.09% for FTL. Ion chamber output and PDD ratios supported these results. The output stability on the Radixact system during extended treatment delivery (20, 30, and 40 min) was comparable to a clinical TomoHDA system. For each system, results are consistent between different measurement tools and techniques, proving not only the dosimetric stability, but also these quality parameters can be confirmed with various metrics. The replacement history over extended time periods of the major dosimetric components of the different delivery systems (target, linac, and magnetron

  1. Dosimetric comparison between two MLC systems commonly used for stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy: a Monte Carlo and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Asnaashari, K; Chow, James C L; Heydarian, Mostafa

    2013-06-01

    In this work dosimetric parameters of two multi-leaf collimator (MLC) systems, namely the beam modulator (BM), which is the MLC commercial name for Elekta "Synergy S" linear accelerator and Radionics micro-MLC (MMLC), are compared using measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Dosimetric parameters, such as percentage depth doses (PDDs), in-plane and cross-plane dose profiles, and penumbras for different depths and field sizes of the 6 MV photon beams were measured using ionization chamber and a water tank. The collimator leakages were measured using radiographic films. MMLC and BM were modeled using the EGSnrc-based BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code and above dosimetric parameters were calculated. The energy fluence spectra for the two MLCs were also determined using the BEAMnrc and BEAMDP. Dosimetric parameters of the two MLCs were similar, except for penumbras. Leaf-side and leaf-end 80-20% dose penumbras at 10 cm depth for a 10×10 cm(2) field size were 4.8 and 5.1mm for MMLC and 5.3 mm and 6.3 mm for BM, respectively. Both Radionics MMLC and Elekta BM can be used effectively based on their dosimetric characteristics for stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy, although the former showed slightly sharper dose penumbra especially in the leaf-end direction. Copyright © 2012 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SU-E-T-425: Feasibility of Establishing a National Postal Dosimetry System Using EBT3 Gafchromic Film

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Rahman, W; Mohammed, I; Bamajboor, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a postal dosimeter consisting of EBT3 films and a miniature Lucite phantom to be used for photon beams output audits for mega-voltage photon beams across the Saudi Arabia. Methods: Two batches of EBT3 films were calibrated in 5 mega-voltage photon beams with energies ranging between 6 MV and 18 MV in the dose range between 0 to 4 Gy. A 4×4×20 cm{sup 3} lucite phantom was constructed to be used as an irradiation phantom. The lucite irradiation phantom consists of two parts and allows for embedding a 2.5×2.0 cm{sup 2} EBT3 film at 8.9 cm depth. Factors that convert the dose measured in the lucite irradiation phantom at 8.9 cm depth to the dose at 10 cm depth in water for 10×10 cm{sup 2} field for different photon energies were calculated using the dosxyznrc/EGSnrcMP user code. The performance of the proposed postal dosimeter was tested in 17 different photon beams across 4 radiotherapy centres in Saudi Arabia. The outputs of the 17 beams are monitored by either the International Atomic Energy Agency or by the Radiological Physics Centre. Results: For the 17 photon beams, the average of the ratios of measured to stated outputs was 1.01 ± 0.02 and with a maximum ratio of 1.05. Conclusion: The results of our work indicate that the proposed postal dosimetry system can be used for national auditing of outputs for mega-voltage photon beams. The service can be offered to other national radiotherapy centres or to a be used for credentialing of centres participating in national trials.

  3. Application of a radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter to nonreference condition dosimetry in the postal dose audit system

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, Hideyuki Fukumura, Akifumi; Fukahori, Mai; Sakata, Suoh; Yamashita, Wataru; Takase, Nobuhiro; Yajima, Kaori; Katayose, Tetsurou; Abe-Sakama, Kyoko; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Kusano, Yohsuke; Shimbo, Munefumi

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to obtain a set of correction factors of the radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter (RGD) output for field size changes and wedge insertions. Methods: Several linear accelerators were used for irradiation of the RGDs. The field sizes were changed from 5 × 5 cm to 25 × 25 cm for 4, 6, 10, and 15 MV x-ray beams. The wedge angles were 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°. In addition to physical wedge irradiation, nonphysical (dynamic/virtual) wedge irradiations were performed. Results: The obtained data were fitted with a single line for each energy, and correction factors were determined. Compared with ionization chamber outputs, the RGD outputs gradually increased with increasing field size, because of the higher RGD response to scattered low-energy photons. The output increase was about 1% per 10 cm increase in field size, with a slight difference dependent on the beam energy. For both physical and nonphysical wedged beam irradiation, there were no systematic trends in the RGD outputs, such as monotonic increase or decrease depending on the wedge angle change if the authors consider the uncertainty, which is approximately 0.6% for each set of measured points. Therefore, no correction factor was needed for all inserted wedges. Based on this work, postal dose audits using RGDs for the nonreference condition were initiated in 2010. The postal dose audit results between 2010 and 2012 were analyzed. The mean difference between the measured and stated doses was within 0.5% for all fields with field sizes between 5 × 5 cm and 25 × 25 cm and with wedge angles from 15° to 60°. The standard deviations (SDs) of the difference distribution were within the estimated uncertainty (1SD) except for the 25 × 25 cm field size data, which were not reliable because of poor statistics (n = 16). Conclusions: A set of RGD output correction factors was determined for field size changes and wedge insertions. The results obtained from recent postal dose

  4. Commissioning of a motion system to investigate dosimetric consequences due to variability of respiratory waveforms.

    PubMed

    Cetnar, Ashley J; James, Joshua; Wang, Brain

    2016-01-08

    A commercially available six-dimensional (6D) motion system was assessed for accuracy and clinical use in our department. Positional accuracy and respiratory waveform reproducibility were evaluated for the motion system. The system was then used to investigate the dosimetric consequences of respiratory waveform variation when an internal target volume (ITV) approach is used for motion management. The maximum deviations are 0.3 mm and 0.22° for translation and rotation accuracy, respectively, for the tested clinical ranges. The origin reproducibility is less than±0.1 mm. The average differences are less than 0.1 mm with a maximum standard deviation of 0.8 mm between waveforms of actual patients and replication of those waveforms by HexaMotion for three breath-hold and one free-breathing waveform. A modified gamma analysis shows greater than 98% agreement with a 0.5 mm and 100 ms threshold. The motion system was used to investigate respiratory waveform variation and showed that, as the amplitude of the treatment waveform increases above that of the simulation waveform, the periphery of the target volume receives less dose than expected. However, by using gating limits to terminate the beam outside of the simulation amplitude, the results are as expected dosimetrically. Specifically, the average dose difference in the periphery between treating with the simulation waveform and the larger amplitude waveform could be up to 12% less without gating limits, but only differed 2% or less with the gating limits in place. The general functionality of the system performs within the manufacturer's specifications and can accurately replicate patient specific waveforms. When an ITV approach is used for motion management, we found the use of gating limits that coincide with the amplitude of the patient waveform at simulation helpful to prevent the potential underdosing of the target due to changes in patient respiration.

  5. SU-F-P-11: Long Term Dosimetric Stability of 6 TomoTherapy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smilowitz, J; Dunkerley, D; Geurts, M; Hill, P; Yadav, P

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The dosimetric stability of six TomoTherapy units was analyzed to investigate changes in performance over time and with system upgrades. Methods: Energy and output were tracked using monitor chamber signal, onboard MVCT detector signal and external ion chamber measurements. The systems (and monitoring periods) include 3 Hi-Art (67, 61 and 65 mos.), 2 HDA (29 and 25 mos.) and one research unit (7 mo.). Dose Control Stability system (DCS) was installed on 4 systems. Output stability is reported as deviation from reference monitor chamber signal for all systems, and from an external chamber for 4 systems. Energy stability was monitored using the relative (center versus off-axis) MVCT detector signal and/or the ratio of chamber measurements at 2 depths. The results from the clinical systems were used to benchmark the stability of the research unit, which has the same linear accelerator but runs at a higher dose rate. Results: The output based on monitor chamber data of all six systems is very stable. Non- DCS had a standard deviation of 1.7% and 1.8%. As expected, DCS systems had improved standard deviation: 0.003–0.05%. The energy was also very stable for all units. The standard deviation in exit detector flatness was 0.02–0.3%. Ion chamber output and 20/10 cm ratios supported these results. The stability for the research system, as monitored with a variety of metrics, is on par with the existing systems. Conclusion: The output and energy of six TomoTherapy units over a total of almost 10 years is quite stable. For each system, the results are consistent between the different measurement tools and techniques, proving not only the dosimetric stability, but that these quality parameters can be confirmed with various metrics. A research unit operating at a higher dose rate performed as well as the clinical treatment units. University of Wisconsin and Accuray Inc. (vendor of TomoTherapy systems) have a research agreement which supplies funds for research to

  6. Comparison of the dose distribution obtained from dosimetric systems with intensity modulated radiotherapy planning system in the treatment of prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gökçe, M. Uslu, D. Koçyiğit; Ertunç, C.; Karalı, T.

    2016-03-25

    The aim of this study is to compare Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) plan of prostate cancer patients with different dose verification systems in dosimetric aspects and to compare these systems with each other in terms of reliability, applicability and application time. Dosimetric control processes of IMRT plan of three prostate cancer patients were carried out using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD), ion chamber (IC) and 2D Array detector systems. The difference between the dose values obtained from the dosimetric systems and treatment planning system (TPS) were found to be about % 5. For the measured (TLD) and calculated (TPS) doses %3 percentage differences were obtained for the points close to center while percentage differences increased at the field edges. It was found that TLD and IC measurements will increase the precision and reliability of the results of 2D Array.

  7. Comparison of the dose distribution obtained from dosimetric systems with intensity modulated radiotherapy planning system in the treatment of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gökçe, M.; Uslu, D. Koçyiǧit; Ertunç, C.; Karalı, T.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to compare Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) plan of prostate cancer patients with different dose verification systems in dosimetric aspects and to compare these systems with each other in terms of reliability, applicability and application time. Dosimetric control processes of IMRT plan of three prostate cancer patients were carried out using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD), ion chamber (IC) and 2D Array detector systems. The difference between the dose values obtained from the dosimetric systems and treatment planning system (TPS) were found to be about % 5. For the measured (TLD) and calculated (TPS) doses %3 percentage differences were obtained for the points close to center while percentage differences increased at the field edges. It was found that TLD and IC measurements will increase the precision and reliability of the results of 2D Array.

  8. LabVIEW-based control and acquisition system for the dosimetric characterization of a silicon strip detector.

    PubMed

    Ovejero, M C; Pérez Vega-Leal, A; Gallardo, M I; Espino, J M; Selva, A; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Arráns, R

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work is to present a new data acquisition, control, and analysis software system written in LabVIEW. This system has been designed to obtain the dosimetry of a silicon strip detector in polyethylene. It allows the full automation of the experiments and data analysis required for the dosimetric characterization of silicon detectors. It becomes a useful tool that can be applied in the daily routine check of a beam accelerator.

  9. LabVIEW-based control and acquisition system for the dosimetric characterization of a silicon strip detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovejero, M. C.; Pérez Vega-Leal, A.; Gallardo, M. I.; Espino, J. M.; Selva, A.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Arráns, R.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work is to present a new data acquisition, control, and analysis software system written in LabVIEW. This system has been designed to obtain the dosimetry of a silicon strip detector in polyethylene. It allows the full automation of the experiments and data analysis required for the dosimetric characterization of silicon detectors. It becomes a useful tool that can be applied in the daily routine check of a beam accelerator.

  10. Commissioning of a motion system to investigate dosimetric consequences due to variability of respiratory waveforms.

    PubMed

    Cetnar, Ashley J; James, Joshua; Wang, Brain

    2016-01-01

    A commercially available six-dimensional (6D) motion system was assessed for accuracy and clinical use in our department. Positional accuracy and respiratory waveform reproducibility were evaluated for the motion system. The system was then used to investigate the dosimetric consequences of respiratory waveform variation when an internal target volume (ITV) approach is used for motion management. The maximum deviations are 0.3 mm and 0.22° for translation and rotation accuracy, respectively, for the tested clinical ranges. The origin reproducibility is less than ±0.1 mm. The average differences are less than 0.1 mm with a maximum standard deviation of 0.8 mm between waveforms of actual patients and replication of those waveforms by HexaMotion for three breath-hold and one free-breathing waveform. A modified gamma analysis shows greater than 98% agreement with a 0.5 mm and 100 ms threshold. The motion system was used to investigate respiratory waveform variation and showed that, as the amplitude of the treatment waveform increases above that of the simulation waveform, the periphery of the target volume receives less dose than expected. However, by using gating limits to terminate the beam outside of the simulation amplitude, the results are as expected dosimetrically. Specifically, the average dose difference in the periphery between treating with the simulation waveform and the larger amplitude waveform could be up to 12% less without gating limits, but only differed 2% or less with the gating limits in place. The general functionality of the system performs within the manufacturer's specifications and can accurately replicate patient specific waveforms. When an ITV approach is used for motion management, we found the use of gating limits that coincide with the amplitude of the patient waveform at simulation helpful to prevent the potential underdosing of the target due to changes in patient respiration. PACS numbers: 87.55.Kh, 87.55.Qr, 87.56.Fc. © 2016 The

  11. On the implementation of a recently proposed dosimetric formalism to a robotic radiosurgery system

    SciTech Connect

    Pantelis, E.; Moutsatsos, A.; Zourari, K.; Kilby, W.; Antypas, C.; Papagiannis, P.; Karaiskos, P.; Georgiou, E.; Sakelliou, L.

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to implement a recently proposed dosimetric formalism for nonstandard fields to the calibration and small field output factor measurement of a robotic stereotactic radiosurgery system. Methods: Reference dosimetry measurements were performed in the nonstandard, 60 mm diameter machine specific reference (msr) field using a Farmer ion chamber, five other cylindrical chambers with cavity lengths ranging from 16.25 down to 2.7 mm, and alanine dosimeters. Output factor measurements were performed for the 5, 7.5, 10, and 15 mm field sizes using microchambers, diode detectors, alanine dosimeters, TLD microcubes, and EBT Gafchromic films. Measurement correction factors as described in the proposed formalism were calculated for the ion chamber and diode detector output factor measurements based on published Monte Carlo data. Corresponding volume averaging correction factors were calculated for the alanine output factor measurements using 3D dose distributions, measured with polymer gel dosimeters. Results: Farmer chamber and alanine reference dosimetry results were found in close agreement, yielding a correction factor of k{sub Q{sub m{sub s{sub r,Q}{sup f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r},f{sub r}{sub e}{sub f}}}}}=0.999{+-}0.016 for the chamber readings. These results were also found to be in agreement within experimental uncertainties with corresponding results obtained using the shorter cavity length ionization chambers. The mean measured dose values of the latter, however, were found to be consistently greater than that of the Farmer chamber. This finding, combined with an observed inverse relationship between the mean measured dose and chamber cavity length that follows the trend predicted by theoretical volume averaging calculations in the msr field, implies that the Farmer k{sub Q{sub m{sub s{sub r,Q}{sup f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r},f{sub r}{sub e}{sub f}}}}} correction is greater than unity. Regarding the output factor results, deviations as large as

  12. SU-E-T-411: Dosimetric Comparison Between Two Multileaf Collimator Systems for Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Asnaashari, K; Chow, J; Heydarian, M

    2012-06-01

    This aim of this study is to compare the dosimetric parameters of two multileaf collimator (MLC) systems: (1) the beam modulator (BM), which is the MLC commercial name for Elekta 'Synergy S' linear accelerator; and (2) Radionics micro-MLC (MMLC). Dosimetric parameters of percentage depth dose (PDD), in-plane and cross-plane beam profile, penumbra, MLC leakage and transmission for a 6 MV photon beam with different field sizes and depths were measured using ionization chamber, film, solid water phantom and water tank. At the same time, the BM and MMLC were modeled using the BEAMnrc code and the above dosimetric parameters were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. Energy fluence spectra for the two MLC were determined using the BEAMnrc and BEAMDP. We found that dosimetric parameters (PDD, beam profile, energy fluence spectra, leakage and transmission) of the two MLC were similar, except for penumbra. The leaf-side and leaf-end 20%-80% penumbras at 10 cm depth for a 10×10 cm(2) field were 4.8 and 5.1 mm for the MMLC and 5.3 mm and 6.3 mm for the BM, respectively. The maximum percentage of the leakage for the BM and MMLC are 1.3% and 1.2%, while the average percentage of leakage for the BM and MMLC are 0.9% and 1%. Based on their dosimetric characteristics for stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy, it can be concluded that both the BM and MMLC can be used effectively, though the latter showed slightly sharper dose penumbra especially in the leaf-end direction. However, the BM has the advantages of producing considerably larger field at isocenter and having a greater isocenter clearance compared to the MMLC. The dosimetric data in this study should help radiotherapy staff to appreciate dependence of dosimetry on the MLC design and configuration for stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy. Actual or potential conflicts of interest do not exist. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. Postal survey methodology to assess patient satisfaction in a suburban emergency medical services system: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Aaron W; Lindsell, Christopher J; Handel, Daniel A; Collett, Lindsey; Gallo, Paul; Kaiser, Kevin D; Locasto, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Background Patient satisfaction is of growing importance to providers of emergency medical services (EMS). Prior reports of patient satisfaction have frequently used resource-intensive telephone follow-up to assess satisfaction. We determine the feasibility of using a single mailing, anonymous postal survey methodology for collecting patient satisfaction data from a suburban EMS system. Methods Patients transported between January 2001 and December 2004 were mailed a brief satisfaction questionnaire. The questionnaire was printed on a pre-addressed, postage paid postcard and consisted of five questions that used a five-point Likert scale to assess satisfaction with EMS personnel and services provided. Three open-ended questions assessed concerns, the most important service provided, and methods for improving service. Survey response rate was the primary outcome of interest. The Chi-square test was used to compare rates between years. Results The survey required about 6 man hours and cost about $70 per month. Overall response rate was 32.0% (857/2764; 95CI 30.3% – 33.9%). During the first year, response rate was 42.6% (95CI 38.5% – 46.8%), but was significantly lower in subsequent years (29.0% in year 2, 30.8% in year 3, and 27.6% in year 4, p < 0.05). There were 847/851 respondents (99.5%) who were satisfied or very satisfied with their EMS experience. Three patients felt the service was adequate and one was very unsatisfied. Open-ended questions suggested that interpersonal communications were the single most important contributor to patient satisfaction. Patients also reported that response times and technical aspects of care were important to them. Conclusion Postal surveys for assessing patient satisfaction following EMS transport can achieve comparable response rates to similar surveys in other health care settings. Response rates did not decline after the second year of patient surveys, suggesting some stability after the initial year. Interpersonal

  14. Dosimetric evaluation of a Monte Carlo IMRT treatment planning system incorporating the MIMiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassiah-Szegedi, P.; Fuss, M.; Sheikh-Bagheri, D.; Szegedi, M.; Stathakis, S.; Lancaster, J.; Papanikolaou, N.; Salter, B.

    2007-12-01

    The high dose per fraction delivered to lung lesions in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) demands high dose calculation and delivery accuracy. The inhomogeneous density in the thoracic region along with the small fields used typically in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments poses a challenge in the accuracy of dose calculation. In this study we dosimetrically evaluated a pre-release version of a Monte Carlo planning system (PEREGRINE 1.6b, NOMOS Corp., Cranberry Township, PA), which incorporates the modeling of serial tomotherapy IMRT treatments with the binary multileaf intensity modulating collimator (MIMiC). The aim of this study is to show the validation process of PEREGRINE 1.6b since it was used as a benchmark to investigate the accuracy of doses calculated by a finite size pencil beam (FSPB) algorithm for lung lesions treated on the SBRT dose regime via serial tomotherapy in our previous study. Doses calculated by PEREGRINE were compared against measurements in homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials carried out on a Varian 600C with a 6 MV photon beam. Phantom studies simulating various sized lesions were also carried out to explain some of the large dose discrepancies seen in the dose calculations with small lesions. Doses calculated by PEREGRINE agreed to within 2% in water and up to 3% for measurements in an inhomogeneous phantom containing lung, bone and unit density tissue.

  15. Design and dosimetric characteristics of a new endocavitary contact radiotherapy system using an electronic brachytherapy source

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Susan; Garcia-Ramirez, Jose; Lu Wei; Myerson, Robert J.; Parikh, Parag

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To present design aspects and acceptance tests performed for clinical implementation of electronic brachytherapy treatment of early stage rectal adenocarcinoma. A dosimetric comparison is made between the historically used Philips RT-50 unit and the newly developed Axxent{sup Registered-Sign} Model S700 electronic brachytherapy source manufactured by Xoft (iCad, Inc.). Methods: Two proctoscope cones were manufactured by ElectroSurgical Instruments (ESI). Two custom surface applicators were manufactured by Xoft and were designed to fit and interlock with the proctoscope cones from ESI. Dose rates, half value layers (HVL), and percentage depth dose (PDD) measurements were made with the Xoft system and compared to historical RT-50 data. A description of the patient treatment approach and exposure rates during the procedure is also provided. Results: The electronic brachytherapy system has a lower surface dose rate than the RT-50. The dose rate to water on the surface from the Xoft system is approximately 2.1 Gy/min while the RT-50 is 10-12 Gy/min. However, treatment times with Xoft are still reasonable. The HVLs and PDDs between the two systems were comparable resulting in similar doses to the target and to regions beyond the target. The exposure rate levels around a patient treatment were acceptable. The standard uncertainty in the dose rate to water on the surface is approximately {+-}5.2%. Conclusions: The Philips RT-50 unit is an out-of-date radiotherapy machine that is no longer manufactured with limited replacement parts. The use of a custom-designed proctoscope and Xoft surface applicators allows delivery of a well-established treatment with the ease of a modern radiotherapy device. While the dose rate is lower with the use of Xoft, the treatment times are still reasonable. Additionally, personnel may stand farther away from the Xoft radiation source, thus potentially reducing radiation exposure to the operator and other personnel.

  16. 39 CFR 762.15 - Postal Service payments not made by disbursement postal money order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... postal money order. 762.15 Section 762.15 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS General, Definitions, Issuance § 762.15 Postal Service payments not made by disbursement postal money order. Postal Service...

  17. 39 CFR 762.15 - Postal Service payments not made by disbursement postal money order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... postal money order. 762.15 Section 762.15 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS General, Definitions, Issuance § 762.15 Postal Service payments not made by disbursement postal money order. Postal Service...

  18. Evaluation of the dosimetric accuracy for a couch-based tracking system (CBTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Suk; Kim, Kwang Hyeon; Shim, Jang Bo; Yang, Dae Sik; Park, Young Je; Yoon, Won Sup; Kim, Chul Yong; Cao, Yuanjie

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the geometric and dosimetric accuracy of an in-house-developed couch-based tracking system (CBTS) was investigated using both film and in-house-developed polymer gel dosimeters. We evaluated the 1D and the 2D motion accuracies of our couch system by using Gafchromic EBT film. For the 1D test, the couch system was moved 5, 10, and 20 mm in the X, Y, and Z directions, respectively. Meanwhile, for the 2D test, it was moved along the XY, YZ, and ZX directions. We compared the profiles, full widths at half maximum (FWHMs), and penumbras between the static and the tracking fields. For the 3D test, we quantitatively compared the dose distribution between the static and the tracking fields by using the polymer gel dosimeter when it was simultaneously moved in the XYZ directions. We confirmed that the film was moved according to motion amplitudes of 5, 10, and 20 mm in the X, Y, and Z directions, respectively, in the 1D and 2D motion tests. The value of the FWHM of the static field and the three tracking fields were 51.88, 53.28, 57.67, and 64.43 mm, respectively. Two types of penumbras became wider with increasing amplitudes compared to the static field. For the 3D test, the dose distribution of the XYZ tracking field was qualitatively larger than that of the static field. We conclude that this CBTS has the potential for pre-clinical applications in adaptive radiation therapy.

  19. Dosimetric quality control of Eclipse treatment planning system using pelvic digital test object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhdech, Yassine; Beaumont, Stéphane; Guédon, Jeanpierre; Crespin, Sylvain

    2011-03-01

    Last year, we demonstrated the feasibility of a new method to perform dosimetric quality control of Treatment Planning Systems in radiotherapy, this method is based on Monte-Carlo simulations and uses anatomical Digital Test Objects (DTOs). The pelvic DTO was used in order to assess this new method on an ECLIPSE VARIAN Treatment Planning System. Large dose variations were observed particularly in air and bone equivalent material. In this current work, we discuss the results of the previous paper and provide an explanation for observed dose differences, the VARIAN Eclipse (Anisotropic Analytical) algorithm was investigated. Monte Carlo simulations (MC) were performed with a PENELOPE code version 2003. To increase efficiency of MC simulations, we have used our parallelized version based on the standard MPI (Message Passing Interface). The parallel code has been run on a 32- processor SGI cluster. The study was carried out using pelvic DTOs and was performed for low- and high-energy photon beams (6 and 18MV) on 2100CD VARIAN linear accelerator. A square field (10x10 cm2) was used. Assuming the MC data as reference, χ index analyze was carried out. For this study, a distance to agreement (DTA) was set to 7mm while the dose difference was set to 5% as recommended in the TRS-430 and TG-53 (on the beam axis in 3-D inhomogeneities). When using Monte Carlo PENELOPE, the absorbed dose is computed to the medium, however the TPS computes dose to water. We have used the method described by Siebers et al. based on Bragg-Gray cavity theory to convert MC simulated dose to medium to dose to water. Results show a strong consistency between ECLIPSE and MC calculations on the beam axis.

  20. Assessment of dosimetric impact of system specific geometric distortion in an MRI only based radiotherapy workflow for prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, C.; Nordström, F.; Persson, E.; Brynolfsson, J.; Olsson, L. E.

    2017-04-01

    Dosimetric errors in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) only radiotherapy workflow may be caused by system specific geometric distortion from MRI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on planned dose distribution and delineated structures for prostate patients, originating from this distortion. A method was developed, in which computer tomography (CT) images were distorted using the MRI distortion field. The displacement map for an optimized MRI treatment planning sequence was measured using a dedicated phantom in a 3 T MRI system. To simulate the distortion aspects of a synthetic CT (electron density derived from MR images), the displacement map was applied to CT images, referred to as distorted CT images. A volumetric modulated arc prostate treatment plan was applied to the original CT and the distorted CT, creating a reference and a distorted CT dose distribution. By applying the inverse of the displacement map to the distorted CT dose distribution, a dose distribution in the same geometry as the original CT images was created. For 10 prostate cancer patients, the dose difference between the reference dose distribution and inverse distorted CT dose distribution was analyzed in isodose level bins. The mean magnitude of the geometric distortion was 1.97 mm for the radial distance of 200-250 mm from isocenter. The mean percentage dose differences for all isodose level bins, were  ⩽0.02% and the radiotherapy structure mean volume deviations were  <0.2%. The method developed can quantify the dosimetric effects of MRI system specific distortion in a prostate MRI only radiotherapy workflow, separated from dosimetric effects originating from synthetic CT generation. No clinically relevant dose difference or structure deformation was found when 3D distortion correction and high acquisition bandwidth was used. The method could be used for any MRI sequence together with any anatomy of interest.

  1. Dosimetric effects of positioning shifts using 6D-frameless stereotactic Brainlab system in hypofractionated intracranial radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hosang; Keeling, Vance P; Ali, Imad; Ahmad, Salahuddin

    2016-01-01

    Dosimetric consequences of positional shifts were studied using frameless Brainlab ExacTrac X-ray system for hypofractionated (3 or 5 fractions) intracranial stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). SRT treatments of 17 patients with metastatic intracranial tumors using the stereotactic system were retrospectively investigated. The treatments were simulated in a treatment planning system by modifying planning parameters with a matrix conversion technique based on positional shifts for initial infrared (IR)-based setup (XC: X-ray correction) and post-correction (XV: X-ray verification). The simulation was implemented with (a) 3D translational shifts only and (b) 6D translational and rotational shifts for dosimetric effects of angular correction. Mean translations and rotations (± 1 SD) of 77 fractions based on the initial IR setup (XC) were 0.51±0.86 mm (lateral), 0.30±1.55 mm (longitudinal), and -1.63±1.00 mm (vertical); 0.53±0.56 mm (pitch), 0.42±0.60 mm (roll), and 0.44±0.90 mm (yaw), respectively. These were -0.07±0.24 mm, -0.07±0.25 mm, 0.06±0.21 mm, 0.04±0.23 mm, 0.00±0.30 mm, and 0.02±0.22 mm, respectively, for the postcorrection (XV). Substantial degradation of the treatment plans was observed in D95 of PTV (2.6%±3.3%; simulated treatment versus treatment planning), Dmin of PTV (13.4%±11.6%), and Dmin of CTV (2.8%±3.8%, with the maximum error of 10.0%) from XC, while dosimetrically negligible changes (< 0.1%) were detected for both CTV and PTV from XV simulation. 3D angular correction significantly improved CTV dose coverage when the total angular shifts (|pitch|+|roll|+|yaw|) were greater than 2°. With the 6D stereoscopic X-ray verification imaging and frameless immobilization, submillimeter and subdegree accuracy is achieved with negligible dosimetric deviations. 3D angular correction is required when the angular deviation is substantial. A CTV-to-PTV safety margin of 2 mm is large enough to prevent deterioration of CTV

  2. Dosimetric effects of positioning shifts using 6D-frameless stereotactic Brainlab system in hypofractionated intracranial radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hosang; Keeling, Vance P; Ali, Imad; Ahmad, Salahuddin

    2016-01-08

    Dosimetric consequences of positional shifts were studied using frameless Brainlab ExacTrac X-ray system for hypofractionated (3 or 5 fractions) intracranial stereo-tactic radiotherapy (SRT). SRT treatments of 17 patients with metastatic intracranial tumors using the stereotactic system were retrospectively investigated. The treatments were simulated in a treatment planning system by modifying planning parameters with a matrix conversion technique based on positional shifts for initial infrared (IR)-based setup (XC: X-ray correction) and post-correction (XV: X-ray verification). The simulation was implemented with (a) 3D translational shifts only and (b) 6D translational and rotational shifts for dosimetric effects of angular correction. Mean translations and rotations (± 1 SD) of 77 fractions based on the initial IR setup (XC) were 0.51 ± 0.86 mm (lateral), 0.30 ± 1.55 mm (longitudinal), and -1.63 ± 1.00 mm (vertical); -0.53° ± 0.56° (pitch), 0.42° ± 0.60° (roll), and 0.44°± 0.90° (yaw), respectively. These were -0.07 ± 0.24 mm, -0.07 ± 0.25 mm, 0.06± 0.21 mm, 0.04° ± 0.23°, 0.00° ± 0.30°, and -0.02° ± 0.22°, respectively, for the postcorrection (XV). Substantial degradation of the treatment plans was observed in D95 of PTV (2.6% ± 3.3%; simulated treatment versus treatment planning), Dmin of PTV (13.4% ± 11.6%), and Dmin of CTV (2.8% ± 3.8%, with the maximum error of 10.0%) from XC, while dosimetrically negligible changes (< 0.1%) were detected for both CTV and PTV from XV simulation. 3D angular correction significantly improved CTV dose coverage when the total angular shifts (|pitch| + |roll| + |yaw|) were greater than 2°. With the 6D stereoscopic X-ray verification imaging and frameless immobilization, submillimeter and subdegree accuracy is achieved with negligible dosimetric deviations. 3D angular correction is required when the angular deviation is substantial. A CTV-to-PTV safety margin of 2 mm is large enough to prevent

  3. 39 CFR 762.26 - Postal facilities not to cash disbursement postal money orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Postal facilities not to cash disbursement postal money orders. 762.26 Section 762.26 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements,...

  4. 39 CFR 762.15 - Postal Service payments not made by disbursement postal money order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Postal Service payments not made by disbursement postal money order. 762.15 Section 762.15 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS General, Definitions,...

  5. 76 FR 47275 - Postal Service Initiative on Retail Postal Locations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... post offices, opening or closing of those facilities, and improving customer experience. Id. Witness...\\ Id. at 17-18. Finally, the testimony explains how the Postal Service's new rules work ] and how they... Postal Service's request raises important issues. Given the Postal Service's financial position, the...

  6. 76 FR 11532 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document addresses a recent Postal Service filing concerning an additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS...

  7. 75 FR 18244 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... Contracts. The Postal Service contemporaneously filed a contract related to the proposed new product...

  8. 39 CFR 762.26 - Postal facilities not to cash disbursement postal money orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... money orders. 762.26 Section 762.26 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.26 Postal facilities not...

  9. 39 CFR 762.26 - Postal facilities not to cash disbursement postal money orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... money orders. 762.26 Section 762.26 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.26 Postal facilities not...

  10. Postal cancellation from spaceport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The John F. Kennedy Space Center, in cooperation with the United States Postal Service, is offering a cancellation service to interested philatelists for the space flight programs at Kennedy.Philatelists who wish to avail themselves of this service may do so by following the procedures outlined below: Specify the event for which you wish this service. There is a limit of five covers per customer per event.

  11. Design and dosimetric analysis of a 385 MHz TETRA head exposure system for use in human provocation studies.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Gernot; Bolz, Thomas; Uberbacher, Richard; Escorihuela-Navarro, Ana; Bahr, Achim; Dorn, Hans; Sauter, Cornelia; Eggert, Torsten; Danker-Hopfe, Heidi

    2012-10-01

    A new head exposure system for double-blind provocation studies investigating possible effects of terrestrial trunked radio (TETRA)-like exposure (385 MHz) on central nervous processes was developed and dosimetrically analyzed. The exposure system allows localized exposure in the temporal brain, similar to the case of operating a TETRA handset at the ear. The system and antenna concept enables exposure during wake and sleep states while an electroencephalogram (EEG) is recorded. The dosimetric assessment and uncertainty analysis yield high efficiency of 14 W/kg per Watt of accepted antenna input power due to an optimized antenna directly worn on the subject's head. Beside sham exposure, high and low exposure at 6 and 1.5 W/kg (in terms of maxSAR10g in the head) were implemented. Double-blind control and monitoring of exposure is enabled by easy-to-use control software. Exposure uncertainty was rigorously evaluated using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)-based computations, taking into account anatomical differences of the head, the physiological range of the dielectric tissue properties including effects of sweating on the antenna, possible influences of the EEG electrodes and cables, variations in antenna input reflection coefficients, and effects on the specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution due to unavoidable small variations in the antenna position. This analysis yielded a reasonable uncertainty of <±45% (max to min ratio of 4.2 dB) in terms of maxSAR10g in the head and a variability of <±60% (max to min ratio of 6 dB) in terms of mass-averaged SAR in different brain regions, as demonstrated by a brain region-specific absorption analysis.

  12. New method to perform dosimetric quality control of treatment planning system using PENELOPE Monte Carlo and anatomical digital test objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhdech, Yassine; Beaumont, Stéphane; Guédon, Jean-Pierre; Torfeh, Tarraf

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we deepen the R&D program named DTO-DC (Digital Object Test and Dosimetric Console), which goal is to develop an efficient, accurate and full method to achieve dosimetric quality control (QC) of radiotherapy treatment planning system (TPS). This method is mainly based on Digital Test Objects (DTOs) and on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation using the PENELOPE code [1]. These benchmark simulations can advantageously replace experimental measures typically used as reference for comparison with TPS calculated dose. Indeed, the MC simulations rather than dosimetric measurements allow contemplating QC without tying treatment devices and offer in many situations (i.p. heterogeneous medium, lack of scattering volume...) better accuracy compared to dose measurements with classical dosimetry equipment of a radiation therapy department. Furthermore using MC simulations and DTOs, i.e. a totally numerical QC tools, will also simplify QC implementation, and enable process automation; this allows radiotherapy centers to have a more complete and thorough QC. The program DTO-DC was established primarily on ELEKTA accelerator (photons mode) using non-anatomical DTOs [2]. Today our aim is to complete and apply this program on VARIAN accelerator (photons and electrons mode) using anatomical DTOs. First, we developed, modeled and created three anatomical DTOs in DICOM format: 'Head and Neck', Thorax and Pelvis. We parallelized the PENELOPE code using MPI libraries to accelerate their calculation, we have modeled in PENELOPE geometry Clinac head of Varian Clinac 2100CD (photons mode). Then, to implement this method, we calculated the dose distributions in Pelvis DTO using PENELOPE and ECLIPSE TPS. Finally we compared simulated and calculated dose distributions employing the relative difference proposed by Venselaar [3]. The results of this work demonstrate the feasibility of this method that provides a more accurate and easily achievable QC. Nonetheless, this method, implemented

  13. 76 FR 51311 - Administrative Practice and Procedure, Postal Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ...'' link in the banner at the top of the Commission's Web site ( http://www.prc.gov ) or by directly accessing the Commission's Filing Online system at https://www.prc.gov/prc-pages/filing-online/login.aspx... request to the Postal Service to develop language describing individual products.\\1\\ The Postal...

  14. 75 FR 45176 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... filed six attachments as follows: Attachment A--a redacted copy of the Governor's Decision No. 09-6... electronically via the Commission's Filing Online system at http://www.prc.gov . Commenters who cannot submit... to 39 U.S.C. 3642 and 39 CFR 3020.30 et seq., the Postal Service filed a formal request...

  15. 75 FR 44819 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... filed six attachments as follows: Attachment A--a redacted copy of the Governor's Decision No. 09-6... via the Commission's Filing Online system at http://www.prc.gov . Commenters who cannot submit their... to 39 U.S.C. 3642 and 39 CFR 3020.30 et seq., the Postal Service filed a formal request...

  16. 75 FR 11452 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... objectives and factors: Objective No. 1 (maximization of incentives to reduce costs and increase efficiency... (the degree of mail preparation by mailers for delivery into the postal system and its effect on cost reduction); and Factor No. 12 (the need to increase efficiency, reduce costs, and maintain high quality...

  17. 39 CFR 255.9 - Other postal regulations; authority of postal managers and employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... managers and employees. 255.9 Section 255.9 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND... ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY § 255.9 Other postal regulations; authority of postal managers and... repeal, modify, or amend any other postal regulation, to authorize any postal manager or employee to...

  18. 39 CFR 255.9 - Other postal regulations; authority of postal managers and employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... managers and employees. 255.9 Section 255.9 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND... ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY § 255.9 Other postal regulations; authority of postal managers and... repeal, modify, or amend any other postal regulation, to authorize any postal manager or employee to...

  19. Potential application of metal nanoparticles for dosimetric systems: Concepts and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Guidelli, Eder José Baffa, Oswaldo

    2014-11-07

    Metallic nanoparticles increase the delivered dose and consequently enhance tissue radio sensitization during radiation therapy of cancer. The Dose Enhancement Factor (DEF) corresponds to the ratio between the dose deposited on a tissue containing nanoparticles, and the dose deposited on a tissue without nanoparticles. In this sense, we have used electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) to investigate how silver and gold nanoparticles affect the dose deposition in alanine dosimeters, which act as a surrogate of soft tissue. Besides optimizing radiation absorption by the dosimeter, the optical properties of these metal nanoparticles could also improve light emission from materials employed as radiation detectors. Therefore, we have also examined how the plasmonic properties of noble metal nanoparticles could enhance radiation detection using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry. This work will show results on how the use of gold and silver nanoparticles are beneficial for the ESR and OSL dosimetric techniques, and will describe the difficulties we have been facing, the challenges to overcome, and the perspectives.

  20. Potential application of metal nanoparticles for dosimetric systems: Concepts and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidelli, Eder José; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2014-11-01

    Metallic nanoparticles increase the delivered dose and consequently enhance tissue radio sensitization during radiation therapy of cancer. The Dose Enhancement Factor (DEF) corresponds to the ratio between the dose deposited on a tissue containing nanoparticles, and the dose deposited on a tissue without nanoparticles. In this sense, we have used electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) to investigate how silver and gold nanoparticles affect the dose deposition in alanine dosimeters, which act as a surrogate of soft tissue. Besides optimizing radiation absorption by the dosimeter, the optical properties of these metal nanoparticles could also improve light emission from materials employed as radiation detectors. Therefore, we have also examined how the plasmonic properties of noble metal nanoparticles could enhance radiation detection using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry. This work will show results on how the use of gold and silver nanoparticles are beneficial for the ESR and OSL dosimetric techniques, and will describe the difficulties we have been facing, the challenges to overcome, and the perspectives.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of the dosimetric accuracy of the in vivo plastic scintillation detector OARtrac system for prostate cancer treatments

    PubMed Central

    Klawikowski, Slade J.; Zeringue, Clint; Wootton, Landon S.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Beddar, Sam

    2014-01-01

    A promising, new, in vivo prostate dosimetry system has been developed for clinical radiation therapy. This work outlines the preliminary end-to-end testing of the accuracy and precision of the new OARtrac scintillation dosimetry system. We tested 94 calibrated plastic scintillation detector (PSD) probes before their final integration into endorectal balloon assemblies. These probes had been calibrated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Dosimetry Laboratory (MDADL). We used a complete clinical OARtrac system including the PSD probes, charge coupled device (CCD camera) monitoring system, and the manufacturer’s integrated software package. The PSD probes were irradiated at 6 MV in a Solid Water® phantom. Irradiations were performed with a 6 MV linear accelerator using anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior (AP/PA) matched fields to a maximum dose of 200 cGy in a 100 cm source-axis distance (SAD geometry. As a whole, the OARtrac system has good accuracy with a mean error of 0.01% and an error spread of ± 5.4% at the 95% confidence interval. These results reflect the PSD probes’ accuracy before their final insertion into endorectal balloons. Future work will test the dosimetric effects of mounting the PSD probes within the endorectal balloon assemblies. PMID:24732073

  2. Preliminary evaluation of the dosimetric accuracy of the in vivo plastic scintillation detector OARtrac system for prostate cancer treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klawikowski, Slade J.; Zeringue, Clint; Wootton, Landon S.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Beddar, Sam

    2014-05-01

    A promising, new, in vivo prostate dosimetry system has been developed for clinical radiation therapy. This work outlines the preliminary end-to-end testing of the accuracy and precision of the new OARtrac scintillation dosimetry system. We tested 94 calibrated plastic scintillation detector (PSD) probes before their final integration into endorectal balloon assemblies. These probes had been calibrated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Dosimetry Laboratory. We used a complete clinical OARtrac system including the PSD probes, charge coupled device camera monitoring system, and the manufacturer's integrated software package. The PSD probes were irradiated at 6 MV in a Solid Water® phantom. Irradiations were performed with a 6 MV linear accelerator using anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior matched fields to a maximum dose of 200 cGy in a 100 cm source-axis distance geometry. As a whole, the OARtrac system has good accuracy with a mean error of 0.01% and an error spread of ±5.4% at the 95% confidence interval. These results reflect the PSD probes’ accuracy before their final insertion into endorectal balloons. Future work will test the dosimetric effects of mounting the PSD probes within the endorectal balloon assemblies.

  3. SU-E-T-335: Dosimetric Investigation of An Advanced Rotating Gamma Ray System for Imaged Guided Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C; Eldib, A; Chibani, O; Li, J; Chen, L; Li, C; Mora, G

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Co-60 beams have unique dosimetric properties for cranial treatments and thoracic cancers. The conventional concern about the high surface dose is overcome by modern system designs with rotational treatment techniques. This work investigates a novel rotational Gamma ray system for image-guided, external beam radiotherapy. Methods: The CybeRT system (Cyber Medical Corp., China) consists of a ring gantry with either one or two treatment heads containing a Gamma source and a multileaf collimator (MLC). The MLC has 60 paired leaves, and the maximum field size is either 40cmx40cm (40 pairs of 0.5cm central leaves, 20 pairs of 1cm outer leaves), or 22cmx40cm (32 pairs of 0.25cm central leaves, 28 pairs of 0.5cm outer leaves). The treatment head(s) can swing 35° superiorly and 8° inferiorly, allowing a total of 43° non-coplanar beam incident. The treatment couch provides 6-degrees-of-freedom motion compensation and the kV cone-beam CT system has a spatial resolution of 0.4mm. Monte Carlo simulations were used to compute dose distributions and compare with measurements. A retrospective study of 98 previously treated patients was performed to compare CybeRT with existing RT systems. Results: Monte Carlo results confirmed the CybeRT design parameters including output factors and 3D dose distributions. Its beam penumbra/dose gradient was similar to or better than that of 6MV photon beams and its isocenter accuracy is 0.3mm. Co-60 beams produce lower-energy secondary electrons that exhibit better dose properties in low-density lung tissues. Because of their rapid depth dose falloff, Co-60 beams are favorable for peripheral lung tumors with half-arc arrangements to spare the opposite lung and critical structures. Superior dose distributions were obtained for head and neck, breast, spine and lung tumors. Conclusion: Because of its accurate dose delivery and unique dosimetric properties of C-60 sources, CybeRT is ideally suited for advanced SBRT as well as

  4. 78 FR 37246 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: The Commission is... the introductory (``Whereas'') paragraphs of the Agreement; revisions to existing articles; and new...

  5. 77 FR 2676 - Competitive Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... Postal Service an artificial competitive advantage. The Commission gave considerable weight to the... 39 CFR Part 3015 Competitive Postal Products AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Commission is initiating a review to determine whether competitive...

  6. Hydrogen-fueled postal vehicle performance evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel consumption, range, and emissions data were obtained while operating a hydrogen-fueled postal delivery vehicle over a defined Postal Service Driving Cycle and the 1975 Urban Driving Cycle. The vehicle's fuel consumption was 0.366 pounds of hydrogen per mile over the postal driving cycle and 0.22 pounds of hydrogen per mile over the urban driving cycle. These data correspond to 6.2 and 10.6 mpg equivalent gasoline mileage for the two driving cycles, respectively. The vehicle's range was 24.2 miles while being operated on the postal driving cycle. Vehicle emissions were measured over the urban driving cycle. HC and CO emissions were quite low, as would be expected. The oxides of nitrogen were found to be 4.86 gm/mi, a value which is well above the current Federal and California standards. Vehicle limitations discussed include excessive engine flashbacks, inadequate acceleration capability the engine air/fuel ratio, the water injection systems, and the cab temperature. Other concerns are safety considerations, iron-titanium hydride observed in the fuel system, evidence of water in the engine rocker cover, and the vehicle maintenance required during the evaluation.

  7. Four-dimensional computed tomography based respiratory-gated radiotherapy with respiratory guidance system: analysis of respiratory signals and dosimetric comparison.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Ae; Kim, Chul Yong; Yang, Dae Sik; Yoon, Won Sup; Park, Young Je; Lee, Suk; Kim, Young Bum

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of respiratory guidance system in 4-dimensional computed tomography (4 DCT) based respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT) by comparing respiratory signals and dosimetric analysis of treatment plans. The respiratory amplitude and period of the free, the audio device-guided, and the complex system-guided breathing were evaluated in eleven patients with lung or liver cancers. The dosimetric parameters were assessed by comparing free breathing CT plan and 4 DCT-based 30-70% maximal intensity projection (MIP) plan. The use of complex system-guided breathing showed significantly less variation in respiratory amplitude and period compared to the free or audio-guided breathing regarding the root mean square errors (RMSE) of full inspiration (P = 0.031), full expiration (P = 0.007), and period (P = 0.007). The dosimetric parameters including V(5 Gy), V(10 Gy), V(20 Gy), V(30 Gy), V(40 Gy), and V(50 Gy) of normal liver or lung in 4 DCT MIP plan were superior over free breathing CT plan. The reproducibility and regularity of respiratory amplitude and period were significantly improved with the complex system-guided breathing compared to the free or the audio-guided breathing. In addition, the treatment plan based on the 4D CT-based MIP images acquired with the complex system guided breathing showed better normal tissue sparing than that on the free breathing CT.

  8. 78 FR 79710 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...] New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... the introductory paragraphs of the Agreement; revisions to numerous existing articles; and new...

  9. 39 CFR 761.6 - Delivery of Postal Service securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Delivery of Postal Service securities. 761.6 Section 761.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.6 Delivery of Postal Service securities. A Reserve Bank which has received Postal Service...

  10. Dosimetric verification of IMAT delivery with a conventional EPID system and a commercial portal dose image prediction tool

    SciTech Connect

    Iori, Mauro; Cagni, Elisabetta; Paiusco, Marta; Munro, Peter; Nahum, Alan E.

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: The electronic portal imaging device (EPID) is a system for checking the patient setup; as a result of its integration with the linear accelerator and software customized for dosimetry, it is increasingly used for verification of the delivery of fixed-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In order to extend such an approach to intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT), the combined use of an EPID system and a portal dose image prediction (PDIP) tool has been investigated. Methods: The dosimetric behavior of an EPID system, mechanically reinforced to maintain its positional stability during the accelerator gantry rotation, has been studied to assess its ability to measure portal dose distributions for IMAT treatment beams. In addition, the PDIP tool of a commercial treatment planning system, commonly used for static IMRT dosimetry, has been validated for simulating the PDIs of IMAT treatment fields. The method has been applied to the delivery verification of 23 treatment fields that were measured in their dual mode of IMRT and IMAT modalities. Results: The EPID system has proved to be appropriate for measuring the PDIs of IMAT fields; additionally the PDIP tool was able to simulate these accurately. The results are quite similar to those obtained for static IMRT treatment verification, although it was necessary to investigate the dependence of the EPID signal and of the accelerator monitor chamber response on variable dose rate. Conclusions: Our initial tests indicate that the EPID system, together with the PDIP tool, is a suitable device for the verification of IMAT plan delivery; however, additional tests are necessary to confirm these results.

  11. Dosimetric evaluation of the clinical implementation of the first commercial IMRT Monte Carlo treatment planning system at 6 MV

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, Emily; Seuntjens, Jan; Sheikh-Bagheri, Daryoush

    2004-10-01

    In this work we dosimetrically evaluated the clinical implementation of a commercial Monte Carlo treatment planning software (PEREGRINE, North American Scientific, Cranberry Township, PA) intended for quality assurance (QA) of intensity modulated radiation therapy treatment plans. Dose profiles calculated in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms using this system were compared to both measurements and simulations using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code for the 6 MV beam of a Varian CL21EX linear accelerator. For simple jaw-defined fields, calculations agree within 2% of the dose at d{sub max} with measurements in homogeneous phantoms with the exception of the buildup region where the calculations overestimate the dose by up to 8%. In heterogeneous lung and bone phantoms the agreement is within 3%, on average, up to 5% for a 1x1 cm{sup 2} field. We tested two consecutive implementations of the MLC model. After matching the calculated and measured MLC leakage, simulations of static and dynamic MLC-defined fields using the most recent MLC model agreed to within 2% with measurements.

  12. Dosimetric evaluation of PLATO and Oncentra treatment planning systems for High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy gynecological treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Hardev; De La Fuente Herman, Tania; Showalter, Barry; Thompson, Spencer J.; Syzek, Elizabeth J.; Herman, Terence; Ahmad, Salahuddin

    2012-10-23

    This study compares the dosimetric differences in HDR brachytherapy treatment plans calculated with Nucletron's PLATO and Oncentra MasterPlan treatment planning systems (TPS). Ten patients (1 T1b, 1 T2a, 6 T2b, 2 T4) having cervical carcinoma, median age of 43.5 years (range, 34-79 years) treated with tandem and ring applicator in our institution were selected retrospectively for this study. For both Plato and Oncentra TPS, the same orthogonal films anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral were used to manually draw the prescription and anatomical points using definitions from the Manchester system and recommendations from the ICRU report 38. Data input for PLATO was done using a digitizer and Epson Expression 10000XL scanner was used for Oncentra where the points were selected on the images in the screen. The prescription doses for these patients were 30 Gy to points right A (RA) and left A (LA) delivered in 5 fractions with Ir-192 HDR source. Two arrangements: one dwell position and two dwell positions on the tandem were used for dose calculation. The doses to the patient points right B (RB) and left B (LB), and to the organs at risk (OAR), bladder and rectum for each patient were calculated. The mean dose and the mean percentage difference in dose calculated by the two treatment planning systems were compared. Paired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. No significant differences in mean RB, LB, bladder and rectum doses were found with p-values > 0.14. The mean percent difference of doses in RB, LB, bladder and rectum are found to be less than 2.2%, 1.8%, 1.3% and 2.2%, respectively. Dose calculations based on the two different treatment planning systems were found to be consistent and the treatment plans can be made with either system in our department without any concern.

  13. Dosimetric evaluation of PLATO and Oncentra treatment planning systems for High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy gynecological treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Hardev; Herman, Tania De La Fuente; Showalter, Barry; Thompson, Spencer J.; Syzek, Elizabeth J.; Herman, Terence; Ahmad, Salahuddin

    2012-10-01

    This study compares the dosimetric differences in HDR brachytherapy treatment plans calculated with Nucletron's PLATO and Oncentra MasterPlan treatment planning systems (TPS). Ten patients (1 T1b, 1 T2a, 6 T2b, 2 T4) having cervical carcinoma, median age of 43.5 years (range, 34-79 years) treated with tandem & ring applicator in our institution were selected retrospectively for this study. For both Plato and Oncentra TPS, the same orthogonal films anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral were used to manually draw the prescription and anatomical points using definitions from the Manchester system and recommendations from the ICRU report 38. Data input for PLATO was done using a digitizer and Epson Expression 10000XL scanner was used for Oncentra where the points were selected on the images in the screen. The prescription doses for these patients were 30 Gy to points right A (RA) and left A (LA) delivered in 5 fractions with Ir-192 HDR source. Two arrangements: one dwell position and two dwell positions on the tandem were used for dose calculation. The doses to the patient points right B (RB) and left B (LB), and to the organs at risk (OAR), bladder and rectum for each patient were calculated. The mean dose and the mean percentage difference in dose calculated by the two treatment planning systems were compared. Paired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. No significant differences in mean RB, LB, bladder and rectum doses were found with p-values > 0.14. The mean percent difference of doses in RB, LB, bladder and rectum are found to be less than 2.2%, 1.8%, 1.3% and 2.2%, respectively. Dose calculations based on the two different treatment planning systems were found to be consistent and the treatment plans can be made with either system in our department without any concern.

  14. 75 FR 80857 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is...). The Postal Service contemporaneously filed a contract related to the proposed new product pursuant to...

  15. 75 FR 9005 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... incidental differences. Id. at 6. The Postal Service contends that its filings demonstrate that this new GEPS...

  16. 78 FR 39783 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add a new product to the competitive product list. This...-54. The Postal Service contemporaneously filed a redacted contract related to the proposed new...

  17. 78 FR 76333 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing requesting an amendment to Priority Mail Contract 29. This notice...

  18. 75 FR 80860 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is...). The Postal Service contemporaneously filed a contract related to the proposed new product pursuant to...

  19. 78 FR 76334 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing requesting an amendment to Parcel Select Contract 6. This notice...

  20. 75 FR 67148 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is.... at 4. The Postal Service concludes that its filings demonstrate that each of the new GEPS 3 contracts...

  1. 78 FR 29784 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning the addition of Global Expedited Package Services 3...

  2. 76 FR 9055 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... new requirement. \\1\\ Notice of the United States Postal Service of Classification Change Related to...

  3. 77 FR 50729 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request for two related changes to the product lists. The changes...

  4. 75 FR 44029 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... the new contract to begin August 1, 2010. In support of its Notice, the Postal Service filed five... Postal Service also contends that its filings demonstrate that the new GEPS 3 contract complies with the...

  5. 78 FR 77172 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning a contract with Canada for the delivery of inbound...

  6. 76 FR 593 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add a Global Expedited Package Services 3 contract to...

  7. 75 FR 44138 - New Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION 30 CFR Part 3020 New Postal Products AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission is updating postal product lists. This action reflects the disposition of recent...

  8. 75 FR 28076 - New Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... New Postal Products AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add new Global Expedited Package Services 2 products to.... The Postal Service contends that its filings demonstrate that each of the new GEPS 2 contracts...

  9. 75 FR 80859 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is...). The Postal Service contemporaneously filed a contract related to the proposed new product pursuant to...

  10. 75 FR 17175 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is.... The Postal Service contends that its filings demonstrate that each of the new GEPS 2 contracts comply...

  11. 75 FR 65533 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission... Postal Service contemporaneously filed a contract related to the proposed new product pursuant to 39 U.S...

  12. 76 FR 49798 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is.... CP2010-36.'' Id. The Postal Service concludes that its filing demonstrates that the new GREP contract...

  13. 75 FR 66677 - New Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION 39 CFR Part 3020 New Postal Products AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission is updating the postal product lists. This action reflects the disposition of...

  14. 75 FR 67146 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

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  15. 75 FR 22633 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  16. 76 FR 67496 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  17. 75 FR 53353 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  18. 77 FR 1089 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  20. 78 FR 42566 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

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  1. 77 FR 58185 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

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  2. 77 FR 42341 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  3. 75 FR 53216 - New Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

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  4. 76 FR 22739 - Postal Service Market Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  5. 75 FR 27375 - Postal Rate Case Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  6. Determining the optimal dosimetric leaf gap setting for rounded leaf-end multileaf collimator systems by simple test fields.

    PubMed

    Yao, Weiguang; Farr, Jonathan B

    2015-07-08

    Individual QA for IMRT/VMAT plans is required by protocols. Sometimes plans cannot pass the institute's QA criteria. For the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) with rounded leaf-end multileaf collimator (MLC), one practical way to improve the agreement of planned and delivered doses is to tune the value of dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) in the TPS from the measured DLG. We propose that this step may be necessary due to the complexity of the MLC system, including dosimetry of small fields and the tongue-and-groove (T&G) effects, and report our use of test fields to obtain linac-specific optimal DLGs in TPSs. More than 20 original patient plans were reoptimized with the linac-specific optimal DLG value. We examined the distribution of gaps and T&G extensions in typical patient plans and the effect of using the optimal DLG on the distribution. The QA pass rate of patient plans using the optimal DLG was investigated. The dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of targets and organs at risk were checked. We tested three MLC systems (Varian millennium 120 MLC, high-definition 120 MLC, and Siemens 160 MLC) installed in four Varian linear accelerators (linacs) (TrueBEAM STx, Trilogy, Clinac 2300 iX, and Clinac 21 EX) and 1 Siemens linac (Artiste). With an optimal DLG, the individual QA for all those patient plans passed the institute's criteria (95% in DTA test or gamma test with 3%/3 mm/10%), even though most of these plans had failed to pass QA when using original DLGs optimized from typical patient plans or from the optimization process (automodeler) of Pinnacle TPS. Using either our optimal DLG or one optimized from typical patient plans or from the Pinnacle optimization process yielded similar DVHs.

  7. SU-E-T-318: Dosimetric Evaluation of ArcCHECK and 3DVH System Using Customized Polymer Gel Dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, K; Fujimoto, S; Akagi, Y; Hirokawa, Y; Hayashi, S; Miyazawa, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: ArcCHECK and 3DVH system (Sun Nuclear) can reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) dose distribution and provide the DVH analysis in a patient. The aim of this study was to evaluate dosimetric accuracy of this system using customized polymer gel dosimeter, and also Gafchromic EBT3 films. Methods: Polyacrylamide-based gel contained magnesium chloride as a sensitizer (iPAGAT) was used in this study. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan was performed for the C-shape structure by the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian) and used to irradiate the ArcCHECK by the Novalis Tx linear accelerator (Varian/BrainLAB). The cubic phantom filled with iPAGAT and EBT3 films placed in three orthogonal planes (axial, sagittal, and coronal) inserted into the I’mRT Phantom (IBA Dosimetry) simulated a patient were irradiated with the same VMAT plan. The measurement-guided 3D dose distribution was reconstructed using 3DVH software from the measured data of the ArcCHECK. The 3D dose distribution in iPAGAT was read out by Signa 1.5 T MRI system (GE), and 2D dose distribution on EBT3 was read out by color scanner (Epson). The comparison of all the dose distributions was performed with dose profiles and gamma index analysis in orthogonal planes using in-house developed software. Results: A good agreement was observed by overlaying the dose profiles of 3DVH, EBT3, and iPAGAT. The mean pass rates by gamma index analysis with 3%/3 mm criteria in orthogonal planes were 94.3% (3DVH vs EBT3), 91.1% (3DVH vs iPAGAT), and 96.4% (iPAGAT vs EBT3), respectively. Conclusion: 3D dose distribution reconstructed by ArcCHECK and 3DVH system was estimated accurately in a patient. However, slightly differences were observed between 3DVH and iPAGAT because of MRI noise, therefore further study is required to improve the accuracy of MRI based polymer gel dosimetry for the DVH analysis.

  8. Development of a three-dimensionally movable phantom system for dosimetric verifications

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Hiroshi; Mizowaki, Takashi; Narita, Yuichiro; Kawada, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Kunio; Mihara, Kazumasa; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2008-05-15

    The authors developed a three-dimensionally movable phantom system (3D movable phantom system) which can reproduce three-dimensional movements to experimentally verify the impact of radiotherapy treatment-related movements on dose distribution. The phantom system consists of three integrated components: a three-dimensional driving mechanism (3D driving mechanism), computer control system, and phantoms for film dosimetry. The 3D driving mechanism is a quintessential part of this system. It is composed of three linear-motion tables (single-axis robots) which are joined orthogonally to each other. This mechanism has a motion range of 100 mm, with a maximum velocity of 200 mm/s in each dimension, and 3D motion ability of arbitrary patterns. These attributes are sufficient to reproduce almost all organ movements. The positional accuracy of this 3D movable phantom system in a state of geostationary is less than 0.1 mm. The maximum error in terms of the absolute position on movement was 0.56 mm. The positional reappearance error on movement was up to 0.23 mm. The observed fluctuation of time was 0.012 s in the cycle of 4.5 s of oscillation. These results suggested that the 3D movable phantom system exhibited a sufficient level of accuracy in terms of geometry and timing to reproduce interfractional organ movement or setup errors in order to assess the influence of these errors on high-precision radiotherapy such as stereotactic irradiation and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. In addition, the authors 3D movable phantom system will also be useful in evaluating the adequacy and efficacy of new treatment techniques such as gating or tracking radiotherapy.

  9. Evaluation of MLC leaf positioning accuracy for static and dynamic IMRT treatments using DAVID in vivo dosimetric system.

    PubMed

    Karagoz, Gulay; Zorlu, Faruk; Yeginer, Mete; Yildiz, Demet; Ozyigit, Gokhan

    2016-03-01

    Accuracy and precision of leaf positioning in multileaf collimators (MLCs) are significant factors for the accuracy of IMRT treatments. This study aimed to investigate the accuracy and repeatability of the MLC leaf positioning via the DAVID in vivo dosimetric system for dynamic and static MLC systems. The DAVID system was designed as multiwire transmission ionization chamber which is placed in accessory holder of linear accelerators. Each wire of DAVID system corresponds to a MLC leaf-pair to verify the leaf positioning accuracy during IMRT treatment and QA. In this study, verifications of IMRT plans of five head and neck (H&N) and five prostate patients treated in a Varian DHX linear accelerator with 80-leaf MLC were performed using DAVID system. Before DAVID-based dosimetry, Electronics Portal Imaging Device (EPID) and PTW 2D ARRAY dosimetry system were used for 2D verification of each plan. The measurements taken by DAVID system in the first day of the treatments were used as reference for the following measurements taken over the next four weeks. The deviations in leaf positioning were evaluated by "Total Deviation (TD)" parameter calculated by DAVID software. The delivered IMRT plans were originally prepared using dynamic MLC method. The same plans were subsequently calculated based on static MLC method with three different intensity levels of five (IL5), 10 (IL10) and 20 (IL20) in order to compare the performances of MLC leaf positioning repeatability for dynamic and static IMRT plans. The leaf positioning accuracy is also evaluated by analyzing DynaLog files based on error histograms and root mean square (RMS) errors of leaf pairs' positions. Moreover, a correlation analysis between simultaneously taken DAVID and EPID measurements and DynaLog file recordings was subsequently performed. In the analysis of DAVID outputs, the overall deviations of dynamic MLC-based IMRT calculated from the deviations of the four weeks were found as 0.55%±0.57% and 1.48%±0

  10. Evaluation of MLC leaf positioning accuracy for static and dynamic IMRT treatments using DAVID in vivo dosimetric system.

    PubMed

    Karagoz, Gulay; Zorlu, Faruk; Yeginer, Mete; Yildiz, Demet; Ozyigit, Gokhan

    2016-03-08

    Accuracy and precision of leaf positioning in multileaf collimators (MLCs) are significant factors for the accuracy of IMRT treatments. This study aimed to inves-tigate the accuracy and repeatability of the MLC leaf positioning via the DAVID invivo dosimetric system for dynamic and static MLC systems. The DAVID system was designed as multiwire transmission ionization chamber which is placed in accessory holder of linear accelerators. Each wire of DAVID system corresponds to a MLC leaf-pair to verify the leaf positioning accuracy during IMRT treatment and QA. In this study, verifications of IMRT plans of five head and neck (H&N) and five prostate patients treated in a Varian DHX linear accelerator with 80-leaf MLC were performed using DAVID system. Before DAVID-based dosimetry, Electronics Portal Imaging Device (EPID) and PTW 2D ARRAY dosimetry system were used for 2D verification of each plan. The measurements taken by DAVID system in the first day of the treatments were used as reference for the following measurements taken over the next four weeks. The deviations in leaf positioning were evaluated by "Total Deviation (TD)" parameter calculated by DAVID software. The delivered IMRT plans were originally prepared using dynamic MLC method. The same plans were subsequently calculated based on static MLC method with three different intensity levels of five (IL5), 10 (IL10) and 20 (IL20) in order to compare the performances of MLC leaf positioning repeatability for dynamic and static IMRT plans. The leaf positioning accuracy is also evaluated by analyzing DynaLog files based on error histograms and root mean square (RMS) errors of leaf pairs' positions. Moreover, a correlation analysis between simultaneously taken DAVID and EPID measurements and DynaLog file recordings was subsequently performed. In the analysis of DAVID outputs, the overall deviations of dynamic MLC-based IMRT calculated from the deviations of the four weeks were found as 0.55% ± 0.57% and 1.48% ± 0

  11. An integrated Monte Carlo dosimetric verification system for radiotherapy treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, T.; Mizowaki, T.; Miyabe, Y.; Takegawa, H.; Narita, Y.; Yano, S.; Nagata, Y.; Teshima, T.; Hiraoka, M.

    2007-04-01

    An integrated Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation system, MCRTV (Monte Carlo for radiotherapy treatment plan verification), has been developed for clinical treatment plan verification, especially for routine quality assurance (QA) of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans. The MCRTV system consists of the EGS4/PRESTA MC codes originally written for particle transport through the accelerator, the multileaf collimator (MLC), and the patient/phantom, which run on a 28-CPU Linux cluster, and the associated software developed for the clinical implementation. MCRTV has an interface with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) (Eclipse, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) and reads the information needed for MC computation transferred in DICOM-RT format. The key features of MCRTV have been presented in detail in this paper. The phase-space data of our 15 MV photon beam from a Varian Clinac 2300C/D have been developed and several benchmarks have been performed under homogeneous and several inhomogeneous conditions (including water, aluminium, lung and bone media). The MC results agreed with the ionization chamber measurements to within 1% and 2% for homogeneous and inhomogeneous conditions, respectively. The MC calculation for a clinical prostate IMRT treatment plan validated the implementation of the beams and the patient/phantom configuration in MCRTV.

  12. Technical and dosimetric aspects of respiratory gating using a pressure-sensor motion monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X. Allen; Stepaniak, Christopher; Gore, Elizabeth

    2006-01-15

    This work introduces a gating technique that uses 4DCT to determine gating parameters and to plan gated treatment, and employs a Siemens linear accelerator to deliver the gated treatment. Because of technology incompatibility, the 4DCT scanner (LightSpeed, GE) and the Siemens accelerator require two different motion-monitoring systems. The motion monitoring system (AZ-773V, Anzai Med.) used for the gated delivery utilizes a pressure sensor to detect the external respiratory motion (pressure change) in real time. Another system (RPM, Varian) used for the 4DCT scanner (LightSpeed, GE) is based on an infrared camera to detect motion of external markers. These two motion monitoring systems (RPM and Anzai systems) were found to correlate well with each other. The depth doses and profile measured for gated delivery (with a duty cycle of 25% or 50%) were found to agree within 1.0% with those measured for ungated delivery, indicating that gating did not significantly alter beam characteristics. The measurement verified also that the MU linearity and beam output remained unchanged (within 0.3%). A practical method of using 4DCT to plan a gated treatment was developed. The duty cycle for either phase or amplitude gating can be determined based on 4DCT with consideration of set-up error and delivery efficiency. The close-loop measurement involving the entire gating process (imaging, planning, and delivery) showed that the measured isodose distributions agreed with those intended, validating the accuracy and reliability of the gating technique. Based these observations, we conclude that the gating technique introduced in this work, integrating Siemens linear accelerator and Anzai pressure sensor device with GE/Varian RPM 4DCT, is reliable and effective, and it can be used clinically to account for respiratory motion during radiation therapy.

  13. Technical and dosimetric aspects of respiratory gating using a pressure-sensor motion monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Li, X Allen; Stepaniak, Christopher; Gore, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This work introduces a gating technique that uses 4DCT to determine gating parameters and to plan gated treatment, and employs a Siemens linear accelerator to deliver the gated treatment. Because of technology incompatibility, the 4DCT scanner (LightSpeed, GE) and the Siemens accelerator require two different motion-monitoring systems. The motion monitoring system (AZ-773V, Anzai Med.) used for the gated delivery utilizes a pressure sensor to detect the external respiratory motion (pressure change) in real time. Another system (RPM, Varian) used for the 4DCT scanner (LightSpeed, GE) is based on an infrared camera to detect motion of external markers. These two motion monitoring systems (RPM and Anzai systems) were found to correlate well with each other. The depth doses and profile measured for gated delivery (with a duty cycle of 25% or 50%) were found to agree within 1.0% with those measured for ungated delivery, indicating that gating did not significantly alter beam characteristics. The measurement verified also that the MU linearity and beam output remained unchanged (within 0.3%). A practical method of using 4DCT to plan a gated treatment was developed. The duty cycle for either phase or amplitude gating can be determined based on 4DCT with consideration of set-up error and delivery efficiency. The close-loop measurement involving the entire gating process (imaging, planning, and delivery) showed that the measured isodose distributions agreed with those intended, validating the accuracy and reliability of the gating technique. Based these observations, we conclude that the gating technique introduced in this work, integrating Siemens linear accelerator and Anzai pressure sensor device with GE/Varian RPM 4DCT, is reliable and effective, and it can be used clinically to account for respiratory motion during radiation therapy.

  14. EMCCD based luminescence imaging system for spatially resolved geo-chronometric and radiation dosimetric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, N.; Adhyaru, P.; Vaghela, H.; Singhvi, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    We report the development of an Electron Multiplier Charge Coupled Device (EMCCD) based luminescence dating system. The system enables position sensitive measurements of luminescence for the estimation of spatially resolved distribution of equivalent dose for complex geological samples. The system includes: 1) a sample stimulation unit (with both thermal and optical stimulations), 2) an optics unit that comprises imaging optics and, 3) a data acquisition and processing unit. The system works in a LabVIEW environment with a graphical user interface (GUI). User specified stimulation protocols enable thermal and optical stimulation in any desired combination. The optics unit images the luminescence on to a EMCCD (512 × 512 pixels, each of 16μm × 16μm size) and maintains a unit magnification. This unit has flexible focusing and a filter housing that enables change of filters combinations without disturbing the setup. Time integrated EMCCD images of luminescence from the sample are acquired as a function of programmable dwell time and these images are processed using indigenously developed MATLAB based programs. Additionally, the programs align the acquired images using a set of control points (identifier features on the images) to a single pixel accuracy. The dose evaluation is based on integrated intensity from selected pixels followed by generation of a growth curve giving luminescence as a function of applied beta doses. Development of this EMCCD camera based luminescence system will enable in-situ luminescence measurements of the samples, without the requirement of separating mineral grains from their matrix. It will also allow age estimation of samples such as lithic artifacts/structures via dating of their surfaces, fusion crust of meteorites, pedogenic carbonates, etc and will additionally open up possibilities of application like testing spatial uniformity of doping in artificial luminescence phosphors, dating/dosimetry of inclusions etc.

  15. SU-E-T-303: Dosimetric Comparison of a LINAC Fallback Plan Generated From Tomotherapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C; Chen, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Quantitatively evaluate the Multi Criteria Optimization (MCO) based MLC step and shoot (sMLC) fallback plan derived from Tomotherapy of multiple lesions lung SBRT Methods: Inter-comparison of various IMRT planning systems tends to be difficult due to the vendor-specific functionalities. The methodology of defining dose constraints and beam geometries is challenging. Raysearch™ planning system offers an alternative replanning to deliver same intensity map from Tomotherapy without modifying original fluence. This intuitive comparison comes from the final fluence map converted without any embedded system dependent dose optimization. This planner independent approach could be utilized to study the merits of individual machines. The term “fallback” was utilized to (A) transfer plans in among treatment delivery systems; (B) maintain acceptable plan qualities; and (C) minimize the biological dose impact due to machine breakdown. The Tomotherapy specific DICOM RT dose and plan are retrieved into Raystation’s pre-defined sMLC protocol. Based on specific machine characteristics, same fluence maps were converted to generate equivalent deliverable segments. Therefore, the treatment plans were evaluated among two planning tools, Tomotherapy and MCO based sMLC delivery plans. Results: By converting the fluence map with the pre-defined machine characteristics, the 9-fields fallback plan has similar ITV coverage compared to the original Tomotherapy plan. ITV average doses, the D95 consisted of 0.9% variation. The total lung doses of fallback plan drifted from 17.4% to 30.5% which represents the limitations of the static beam delivery. D2 of fallback spinal cord increased from 22.4% to 36.4% but still within tolerances. Ipsilateral lung changed from 11.0% to 22.6%. Low dose region between ITVs presented increased dose to the normal lung tissues. Conclusion: Acceptable fallback plan for Tomotherapy SBRT has similar ITVs coverage, but lack of the normal tissues

  16. Development of a three-dimensional model of the human respiratory system for dosimetric use

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Determining the fate of inhaled contaminants in the human respiratory system has challenged scientists for years. Human and animal studies have provided some data, but there is a paucity of data for toxic contaminants and sensitive populations (such as children, elderly, diseased). Methods Three-dimensional modeling programs and publicly available human physiology data have been used to develop a comprehensive model of the human respiratory system. Results The in silico human respiratory system model, which includes the extrathoracic region (nasal, oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal passages), the upper airways (trachea and main bronchi), the tracheobronchial tree, and branching networks through alveolar region, allows for virtually any variation of airway geometries and disease states. The model allows for parameterization of variables that define the subject’s airways by integrating morphological changes created by disease, age, etc. with a dynamic morphology. Conclusions The model can be used for studies of sensitive populations and the homeland security community, in cases where inhalation studies on humans cannot be conducted with toxic contaminants of interest. PMID:23634755

  17. 77 FR 37077 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    .... 1369] New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission... new product. Id., Attachment B. The instant contract has been assigned Docket No. CP2012-33. Request...

  18. 76 FR 11823 - New Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... New Postal Products AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: This notice... and adding a new product to the competitive product list. This notice identifies preliminary... a new product, provisionally titled Lightweight Commercial Parcels, to the competitive product list...

  19. 75 FR 61785 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

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  20. MO-FG-BRA-01: Development of An Image-Guided Dosimetric Planning System for Injectable Brachytherapy Using ELP Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lafata, K; Schaal, J; Liu, W; Cai, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop, validate, and evaluate a methodology for determining dosimetry for intratumoral injections of elastin-like-polypeptide (ELP) brachytherapy nanoparticles. These organic-polymer-based nanoparticles are injectable, biodegradable, and genetically tunable. We present a genetically encoded polymer-solution, composed of novel radiolabeled-ELP nanoparticles that are custom-designed to self-assemble into a local source upon intratumoral injection. Our preliminary results of a small animal study demonstrate 100% tumor response, effective radionuclide retention-rates, strong in vivo stability, and no polymer-induced toxicities. While our approach is therefore highly promising for improved brachytherapy, the current workflow lacks a dosimetry framework. Methods: We are developing a robust software framework that provides image-guided dosimetric-planning capabilities for ELP brachytherapy. The user graphically places ELP injection sites within a µCT-planning-image, and independently defines each injection volume, concentration, and radioisotope to be used. The resulting internal dosimetry is then pre-determined by first modeling post-injection ELP advection-diffusion, and then calculating the resulting dose distribution based on a point- dose-kernel-convolution algorithm. We have experimentally measured ELP steady-state concentrations via µSPECT acquisition, and validated our dose calculation algorithm against Monte Carlo simulations of several radioactivity distributions. Finally, we have investigated potential advantages and limitations of various ELP injection parameters. Results: The µSPECT results demonstrated inhomogeneous steady-state distributions of ELP in tissue, and Monte Carlo radioactivity distributions were designed accordingly. Our algorithm yielded a root-mean-square-error of less than 2% for each distribution tested (average root-mean-square-error was 0.73%). Dose-Volume-Histogram analysis of five different plans showed how strategic

  1. A generalized definition of dosimetric quantities.

    PubMed

    Kellerer, A M; Rossi, H H

    1990-04-01

    The current definitions of microdosimetric and dosimetric quantities use the notion of 'ionizing radiation'. However, this notion is not rigorously defined, and its definition would require the somewhat arbitrary choice of specified energy cut-off values for different types of particles. Instead of choosing fixed cut-off values one can extend the system of definitions by admitting the free selection of a category of types and energies of particles that are taken to be part of the field. In this way one extends the system of dosimetric quantities. Kerma and absorbed dose appear then as special cases of a more general dosimetric quantity, and an analogue to kerma can be obtained for charged particle fields; it is termed cema. A modification that is suitable for electron fields is termed reduced cema.

  2. 32 CFR 700.812 - Postal matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Postal matters. 700.812 Section 700.812 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Officers in General § 700.812 Postal matters. Commanding officers shall ensure that mail and postal...

  3. 32 CFR 700.812 - Postal matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Postal matters. 700.812 Section 700.812 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Officers in General § 700.812 Postal matters. Commanding officers shall ensure that mail and postal...

  4. 32 CFR 700.812 - Postal matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Postal matters. 700.812 Section 700.812 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Officers in General § 700.812 Postal matters. Commanding officers shall ensure that mail and postal...

  5. 32 CFR 700.812 - Postal matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Postal matters. 700.812 Section 700.812 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Officers in General § 700.812 Postal matters. Commanding officers shall ensure that mail and postal...

  6. 32 CFR 700.812 - Postal matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Postal matters. 700.812 Section 700.812 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Officers in General § 700.812 Postal matters. Commanding officers shall ensure that mail and postal...

  7. 76 FR 7883 - Postal Service Rate Adjustment

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  8. 78 FR 65014 - New Postal Product

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  9. 76 FR 592 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  10. 75 FR 65531 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... new product pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. The contract has been assigned Docket...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... contract related to the proposed new product pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. The...

  13. 77 FR 27491 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... profitable new mail; will enhance the financial position of the Postal Service; will increase mail volume... Mail. Id. at 4. To be eligible for the contract prices, Valassis must initiate new shared saturation...

  14. 78 FR 47431 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is.... Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction On July 26, 2013, the Postal Service filed a request to create a new... Mailer from the market dominant product list; and (2) add the new Round-Trip Mailer product to the...

  15. 75 FR 26812 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 91 (Wednesday, May 12, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 26812] [FR Doc No: 2010-11246] POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2010-47; Order No. 454] New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently...

  16. 78 FR 70084 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... (Request). The Postal Service contemporaneously filed a redacted contract related to the proposed new... Governors' Decision No. 11-6, authorizing the new product; Attachment B--a redacted copy of the contract...

  17. 76 FR 395 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... contract related to the proposed new product. Request, Attachment B. The contract has been assigned Docket...

  18. 75 FR 67147 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... demonstrate that the new GREP contract complies with the requirements of 39 U.S.C. 3633 and is functionally...

  19. 75 FR 57087 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... that this new GEPS 3 contract complies with the requirements of 39 U.S.C. 3633 and is functionally...

  20. 75 FR 51505 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... new product pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. The contract has been assigned Docket...

  1. 78 FR 76863 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... (Order No. 956). \\5\\ See, e.g., in Article 1, the addition of two new purposes for the Agreement, and in...

  2. 75 FR 1280 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... 39 CFR Part 3020 New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... dominant and competitive products is also consistent with new requirements in the law. DATES: Effective... Analysis V. Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction The Postal Service seeks to add a new product identified as...

  3. 75 FR 80858 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... Service contemporaneously filed a contract related to the proposed new product pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3632...

  4. 75 FR 54401 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... that each of the new GEPS 3 contracts complies with the requirements of 39 U.S.C. 3633 and is...

  5. 77 FR 304 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... proposed new product under 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. Id. Attachment B. The instant contract...

  6. 75 FR 65532 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... new product pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. The contract has been assigned Docket...

  7. 75 FR 65676 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... demonstrate that each of the new GEPS 3 contracts complies with the requirements of 39 U.S.C. 3633 and is...

  8. 75 FR 57995 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... Service concludes that its filings demonstrate that each of the new GEPS 3 contracts complies with the...

  9. 75 FR 3988 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... 39 CFR Part 3020 New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY.... Commission Analysis V. Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction The Postal Service seeks to add a new product.... Additionally, UPU members may qualify for ``bonuses'' to their new base rate if they provide certain value...

  10. 78 FR 35650 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... articles, and new annexes, but asserts that these differences do not detract from a finding of functional...

  11. 75 FR 57303 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... demonstrate that each of the new GEPS 3 contracts complies with the requirements of 39 U.S.C. 3633 and is...

  12. 75 FR 8758 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... contends that its filings demonstrate that this new GEPS 2 contract is established in compliance with the...

  13. 78 FR 30940 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is...). The Postal Service contemporaneously filed a redacted contract related to the proposed new product... follows: Attachment A--a redacted copy of Governors' Decision No. 11-6, authorizing the new product...

  14. 75 FR 65675 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... competitive product list. It is also noticing a contemporaneous Postal Service notice that new rates for... contemporaneously filed notice pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5 that new rates for inbound Express...

  15. 78 FR 77508 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is.... 09-15; Attachment 3--a redacted copy of the new rates; and Attachment 4--a copy of the certification... referenced Governors' Decision, the new rates and related financial information. Id. at 3. The Postal Service...

  16. 78 FR 63519 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... redacted contract related to the proposed new product. Id. Attachment B. The instant contract has been...

  17. 75 FR 35102 - New Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... New Postal Products AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add new Global Expedited Package Services 2 products to... Service also contends that its filing demonstrates that each of the new GEPS 2 contracts complies with the...

  18. 75 FR 45175 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add two additional Global Expedited Package Services 3 contracts to the competitive product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with the filing...

  19. 75 FR 25303 - New Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ...] New Postal Products AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service filing to add new Global Expedited Packages Services 2 products to the Competitive Product List. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with the filing. DATES...

  20. 75 FR 19434 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Clarification and Adding Global Expedited Package Services 2 to the Competitive Product List, August 28, 2009... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add a Global Expedited Package Services 2 (GEPS 2...

  1. 75 FR 72845 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add five Global Expedited Package Services 3 contracts to the competitive product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with the filing...

  2. 75 FR 69715 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Global Expedited Package Services 2 to the Competitive Product List, August 28, 2009 (Order No. 290). The...; Order No. 582] New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add five additional Global Expedited...

  3. 75 FR 30868 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Clarification and Adding Global Expedited Package Services 2 to the Competitive Product List, August 28, 2009... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service Request to add a Global Expedited Package Services Contracts 2...

  4. 78 FR 40777 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning the addition of Global Expedited Package Services (GEPS) 3 negotiated service agreement to the competitive product list. This notice informs the public of...

  5. 75 FR 12805 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... Clarification and Adding Global Expedited Package Services 2 to the Competitive Product List, August 28, 2009... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to include a new contract within the existing Global...

  6. 75 FR 27843 - New Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ...] New Postal Products AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service filing to add new Global Expedited Package Services 2 products to the Competitive Product List. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with the filing...

  7. 75 FR 42171 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add a Global Expedited Package Services 2 (GEPS 2) contract to the existing GEPS 2 product. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with this filing...

  8. 75 FR 39992 - New Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... New Postal Products AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add two additional Global Expedited Package Services 2 (GEPS 2) contracts to the Competitive Product List. This notice addresses procedural steps associated...

  9. 75 FR 7296 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add a Global Expedited Package Services 2 contract to the Competitive Product List. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with this filing...

  10. 75 FR 65386 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add another Global Expedited Package Services 3 (MC2010-28) contract to the competitive product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with...

  11. 75 FR 880 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... should be included within the Global Direct Contracts 1 product. Id. at 2. \\1\\Notice of United States... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ] ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add a Global Direct Contracts 1 agreement to the...

  12. 78 FR 37851 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning the addition of Global Expedited Package Services 3 Contract to the competitive product list. This notice informs the public of the filing, invites public...

  13. 75 FR 45174 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add six Global Expedited Package Services 3 (GEPS 3) contracts to the competitive product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with the filing...

  14. 75 FR 16526 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add additional Global Expedited Package Services 2 (GEPS 2) contracts to the Competitive Product List. This notice addresses procedural steps associated...

  15. 75 FR 53002 - New Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... GEPS 3 product. \\1\\ Notice of United States Postal Service of Filing Six Functionally Equivalent Global... and Adding Global Expedited Package Services 2 to the Competitive Product List, August 28, 2009 (Order... Postal Products AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing...

  16. 75 FR 47033 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add six Global Expedited Package Services 3 contracts to the competitive product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with the filing. DATES...

  17. 75 FR 44993 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... Postal Service seeks to add a new product, Global Plus 2A, to the competitive product list and to that... baseline contracts for the Global Plus 2 Contracts product.\\4\\ It requests that the instant contracts be..., Order No. 493] New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  18. 76 FR 80412 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... [Federal Register Volume 76, Number 247 (Friday, December 23, 2011)] [Notices] [Pages 80412-80413] [FR Doc No: 2011-32900] POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Docket No. CP2012-4; Order No. 1057] New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a...

  19. 77 FR 76571 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 249 (Friday, December 28, 2012)] [Notices] [Pages 76571-76572] [FR Doc No: 2012-31174] POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. MC2013-25 and CP2013-33; Order No. 1589] New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  20. 76 FR 25381 - Postal Service Market Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Postal Service Market Test AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission... Logistics experimental market test, pending Commission action on anticipated request for permanent status... Postal Service moved to temporarily extend its Collaborative Logistics market test under 39 U.S.C. 3641(d...

  1. 75 FR 39710 - Postal Classification Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... Postal Classification Change AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request concerning two classification changes to... filed a notice pursuant to 39 CFR 3020.90 and 3020.91 concerning two classification changes to...

  2. 78 FR 59382 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... COMMISSION New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add a new product to the competitive product... contemporaneously filed a redacted contract related to the proposed new product. Id. Attachment B. The...

  3. 77 FR 60727 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add First-Class Package Service Contract 20 to the... Postal Service filed a formal request and associated supporting information to add First-Class Package Service Contract 20 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class...

  4. 77 FR 60725 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add First-Class Package Service Contract 16 to the... Postal Service filed a formal request and associated supporting information to add First-Class Package Service Contract 16 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class...

  5. 77 FR 51583 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add First-Class Package Service Contract 15 to the... Postal Service filed a formal request and associated supporting information to add First-Class Package Service Contract 15 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class...

  6. 77 FR 60729 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add First-Class Package Service Contract 17 to the... Postal Service filed a formal request and associated supporting information to add First-Class Package Service Contract 17 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class...

  7. 77 FR 60726 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add First-Class Package Service Contract 19 to the... Postal Service filed a formal request and associated supporting information to add First-Class Package Service Contract 19 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class...

  8. 77 FR 60728 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add First-Class Package Service Contract 18 to the... Postal Service filed a formal request and associated supporting information to add First-Class Package Service Contract 18 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class...

  9. Detection of IMRT delivery errors using a quantitative 2D dosimetric verification system

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, Nathan L.; Bloch, Charles; White, R. Allen; Salehpour, Mohammad; Rosen, Isaac I.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of detecting intensity modulated radiotherapy delivery errors automatically using a scalar evaluation of two-dimensional (2D) transverse dose measurement of the complete treatment delivery. Techniques using the gamma index and the normalized agreement test (NAT) index were used to parametrize the agreement between measured and computed dose distributions to seven different scalar metrics. Simulated verifications with delivery errors calculated using a commercially available treatment planning system for 9 prostate and 7 paranasal sinus cases were compared to 433 clinical verifications. The NAT index with 5% and 3 mm criteria that included cold areas outside the planning target volume detected the largest percent of delivery errors. Assuming a false positive rate of 5%, it was able to detect 88% of beam energy changes, 94% of a different patient's plan being delivered, 25% of plans with one beam's collimator rotated by 90 deg., 81% of rotating one beam's gantry angle by 10 deg., and 100% of omitting the delivery of one beam. However, no instances of changing one beam's monitor unit setting by 10% or shifting the isocenter by 5 mm were detected. Although the phantom shift could not be detected by the small change it made in the dose distribution, our autopositioning algorithm clearly identified the spatial anomaly. Using tighter 3%/2 mm criteria or combining dose and distance disagreements in an either/or fashion resulted in poorer delivery error detection. The mean value of the 2D gamma index distribution was less sensitive to delivery errors than the other scalar metrics studied. Although we found that scalar metrics do not have sufficient delivery error detection rates to be used as the sole clinical analysis technique, manually examining 2D dose comparison images would result in a near 100% detection rate while performing an ion chamber measurement alone would only detect 54% of these errors.

  10. The dosimetric properties of phosphate glass systems prepared by different chemical nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Abdelhalim, Mohamed Anwar K; Al-Shamrani, Bandar Mora

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis and characterization of glass systems were carried out using prepared nanocrystals injected into a glass matrix as a thermoluminescence (TL) activator using the melt-quenching method. Sample 1 was prepared as [40P2 O5 50BaO:2.5MgO, 2.5Na2 O, 5TiO2 ], sample 2 as [37.5P2 O5 37.5CaO:25TiO2 ] and sample 3 as [50P2 O5 -50Li2 O]. Formation of the synthesized compound was confirmed by studying the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. An annealing procedure was carried out for 1 h at 400 °C. The glow curve position and shape shifted dramatically and linearly to the higher temperature values on increasing the heating rate. A heating rate of 30 °C/s was the most suitable for obtaining a high TL response. Samples 2 and 3 have the highest TL response, which approached the effective atomic number (Zeff ) of natural bone. The observed TL sensitivity of the prepared samples 2 and 3 is less than that of commercially available 'TLD-200 chips' and LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) phosphor. Sample [37.5P2 O5 37.5CaO:25TiO2 ] would be useful in personal and environmental dosimetry for measuring high doses of gamma radiation. Sample [50P2 O5 -50Li2 O] is a good dosimeter, although it requires the addition of an appropriate transitional metal (activator) to overcome the problem of high fading. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Dosimetric verification of radiotherapy treatment planning systems in Serbia: national audit.

    PubMed

    Rutonjski, Laza; Petrović, Borislava; Baucal, Milutin; Teodorović, Milan; Cudić, Ozren; Gershkevitsh, Eduard; Izewska, Joanna

    2012-09-12

    Independent external audits play an important role in quality assurance programme in radiation oncology. The audit supported by the IAEA in Serbia was designed to review the whole chain of activities in 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) workflow, from patient data acquisition to treatment planning and dose delivery. The audit was based on the IAEA recommendations and focused on dosimetry part of the treatment planning and delivery processes. The audit was conducted in three radiotherapy departments of Serbia. An anthropomorphic phantom was scanned with a computed tomography unit (CT) and treatment plans for eight different test cases involving various beam configurations suggested by the IAEA were prepared on local treatment planning systems (TPSs). The phantom was irradiated following the treatment plans for these test cases and doses in specific points were measured with an ionization chamber. The differences between the measured and calculated doses were reported. The measurements were conducted for different photon beam energies and TPS calculation algorithms. The deviation between the measured and calculated values for all test cases made with advanced algorithms were within the agreement criteria, while the larger deviations were observed for simpler algorithms. The number of measurements with results outside the agreement criteria increased with the increase of the beam energy and decreased with TPS calculation algorithm sophistication. Also, a few errors in the basic dosimetry data in TPS were detected and corrected. The audit helped the users to better understand the operational features and limitations of their TPSs and resulted in increased confidence in dose calculation accuracy using TPSs. The audit results indicated the shortcomings of simpler algorithms for the test cases performed and, therefore the transition to more advanced algorithms is highly desirable.

  12. 39 CFR 501.13 - False representations of Postal Service actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.13 False representations of Postal Service actions... Evidencing Systems. The Postal Service reserves the right to suspend and/or revoke the authorization to manufacture or distribute Postage Evidencing Systems throughout the United States or any part thereof...

  13. 39 CFR 221.1 - The United States Postal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The United States Postal Service. 221.1 Section 221.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 221.1 The United States Postal Service. The United States Postal Service was established as...

  14. 39 CFR 221.1 - The United States Postal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The United States Postal Service. 221.1 Section 221.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 221.1 The United States Postal Service. The United States Postal Service was established as...

  15. 39 CFR 221.1 - The United States Postal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The United States Postal Service. 221.1 Section 221.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 221.1 The United States Postal Service. The United States Postal Service was established as...

  16. 39 CFR 3001.117 - Posting of documents by Postal Service for inspection by affected postal patrons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Posting of documents by Postal Service for inspection by affected postal patrons. 3001.117 Section 3001.117 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION... Close or Consolidate Post Offices § 3001.117 Posting of documents by Postal Service for inspection...

  17. Dosimetric audit in brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, D A; Nisbet, A

    2014-01-01

    Dosimetric audit is required for the improvement of patient safety in radiotherapy and to aid optimization of treatment. The reassurance that treatment is being delivered in line with accepted standards, that delivered doses are as prescribed and that quality improvement is enabled is as essential for brachytherapy as it is for the more commonly audited external beam radiotherapy. Dose measurement in brachytherapy is challenging owing to steep dose gradients and small scales, especially in the context of an audit. Several different approaches have been taken for audit measurement to date: thimble and well-type ionization chambers, thermoluminescent detectors, optically stimulated luminescence detectors, radiochromic film and alanine. In this work, we review all of the dosimetric brachytherapy audits that have been conducted in recent years, look at current audits in progress and propose required directions for brachytherapy dosimetric audit in the future. The concern over accurate source strength measurement may be essentially resolved with modern equipment and calibration methods, but brachytherapy is a rapidly developing field and dosimetric audit must keep pace. PMID:24807068

  18. Dosimetric and delivery efficiency investigation for treating hepatic lesions with a MLC-equipped robotic radiosurgery–radiotherapy combined system

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Lihui Price, Robert A.; Wang, Lu; Meyer, Joshua; Fan, James; Charlie Ma, Chang Ming

    2016-02-15

    Purpose: The CyberKnife M6 (CK-M6) Series introduced a multileaf collimator (MLC) for extending its capability from stereotactic radiosurgery/stereotactic radiotherapy (SBRT) to conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. This work is to investigate the dosimetric quality of plans that are generated using MLC-shaped beams on the CK-M6, as well as their delivery time, via comparisons with the intensity modulated radiotherapy plans that were clinically used on a Varian Linac for treating hepatic lesions. Methods: Nine patient cases were selected and divided into three groups with three patients in each group: (1) the group-one patients were treated conventionally (25 fractions); (2) the group-two patients were treated with SBRT-like hypofractionation (5 fractions); and (3) the group-three patients were treated similar to group-one patients, but with two planning target volumes (PTVs) and two different prescription dose levels correspondingly. The clinically used plans were generated on the ECLIPSE treatment planning system (TPS) and delivered on a Varian Linac (E-V plans). The multiplan (MP) TPS was used to replan these clinical cases with the MLC as the beam device for the CK-M6 (C-M plans). After plans were normalized to the same PTV dose coverage, comparisons between the C-M and E-V plans were performed based on D{sub 99%} (percentage of prescription dose received by 99% of the PTV), D{sub 0.1cm{sup 3}} (the percentage of prescription dose to 0.1 cm{sup 3} of the PTV), and doses received by critical structures. Then, the delivery times for the C-M plans will be obtained, which are the MP TPS generated estimations assuming having an imaging interval of 60 s. Results: The difference in D{sub 99%} between C-M and E-V plans is +0.6% on average (+ or − indicating a higher or lower dose from C-M plans than from E-V plans) with a range from −4.1% to +3.8%, and the difference in D{sub 0.1cm{sup 3}} was −1.0% on average with a range from −5.1% to +2.9%. The PTV

  19. 39 CFR 761.6 - Delivery of Postal Service securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delivery of Postal Service securities. 761.6... POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.6 Delivery of Postal Service securities. A Reserve Bank... obligations under this part by the delivery of Postal Service securities in definitive form to its...

  20. 39 CFR 3055.91 - Consumer access to postal services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Consumer access to postal services. 3055.91 Section 3055.91 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Reporting of Customer Satisfaction § 3055.91 Consumer access to postal services. (a)...

  1. 39 CFR 3055.91 - Consumer access to postal services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Consumer access to postal services. 3055.91 Section 3055.91 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Reporting of Customer Satisfaction § 3055.91 Consumer access to postal services. (a)...

  2. 39 CFR 3055.91 - Consumer access to postal services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Consumer access to postal services. 3055.91 Section 3055.91 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Reporting of Customer Satisfaction § 3055.91 Consumer access to postal services. (a)...

  3. 39 CFR 3055.91 - Consumer access to postal services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consumer access to postal services. 3055.91 Section 3055.91 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Reporting of Customer Satisfaction § 3055.91 Consumer access to postal services. (a)...

  4. 76 FR 55619 - Performance Measurement for Special Postal Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    .... Calamoneri, Managing Counsel, Corporate & Postal Business Law, United States Postal Service to Shoshana M..., Managing Counsel, Corporate & Postal Business Law, United States Postal Service. III. Background of Postal... Enhancement Act (PAEA), Public Law 109-435, 120 Stat. 3198 (2006). The proposed rules described herein...

  5. 39 CFR 222.1 - Authority to administer postal affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority to administer postal affairs. 222.1 Section 222.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 222.1 Authority to administer postal affairs. (a) The Postmaster General. The postmaster...

  6. 39 CFR 222.1 - Authority to administer postal affairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority to administer postal affairs. 222.1 Section 222.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 222.1 Authority to administer postal affairs. (a) The Postmaster General. The postmaster...

  7. OBSERVATIONS ON ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF THE BRENTWOOD POSTAL FACILITY FUMIGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper provides a summary of the four tests of the chlorine dioxide (ClO2) generation and scrubbing system at the 14,000,000 cubic foot Brentwood postal facility in Washington, DC, which had been contaminated with anthrax spores contained in a letter addressed to Senator Thoma...

  8. OBSERVATIONS ON ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF THE BRENTWOOD POSTAL FACILITY FUMIGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper provides a summary of the four tests of the chlorine dioxide (ClO2) generation and scrubbing system at the 14,000,000 cubic foot Brentwood postal facility in Washington, DC, which had been contaminated with anthrax spores contained in a letter addressed to Senator Thoma...

  9. Dosimetric comparison of Linac-based (BrainLAB®) and robotic radiosurgery (CyberKnife ®) stereotactic system plans for acoustic schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Debnarayan; Balaji Subramanian, S; Murli, V; Sudahar, H; Gopalakrishna Kurup, P G; Potharaju, Mahadev

    2012-02-01

    A dosimetric comparison of linear accelerator (LA)-based (BrainLAB) and robotic radiosurgery (RS) (CyberKnife) systems for acoustic schwannoma (Acoustic neuroma, AN) was carried out. Seven patients with radiologically confirmed unilateral AN were planned with both an LA-based (BrainLAB) and robotic RS (CyberKnife) system using the same computed tomography (CT) dataset and contours. Gross tumour volume (GTV) was contoured on post-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan [planning target volume (PTV) margin 2 mm]. Planning and calculation were done with appropriate calculation algorithms. The prescribed isodose in both systems was considered adequate to cover at least 95% of the contoured target. Plan evaluations were done by examining the target coverage by the prescribed isodose line, and high- and low-dose volumes. Isodose plans and dose volume histograms generated by the two systems were compared. There was no statistically significant difference between the contoured volumes between the systems. Tumour volumes ranged from 380 to 3,100 mm(3). Dose prescription was 13-15 Gy in single fraction (median prescribed isodose 85%). There were no significant differences in conformity index (CI) (0.53 versus 0.58; P = 0.225), maximum brainstem dose (4.9 versus 4.7 Gy; P = 0.935), 2.5-Gy volume (39.9 versus 52.3 cc; P = 0.238) or 5-Gy volume (11.8 versus 16.8 cc; P = 0.129) between BrainLAB and CyberKnife system plans. There were statistically significant differences in organs at risk (OAR) doses, such as mean cochlear dose (6.9 versus 5.4 Gy; P = 0.001), mean mesial temporal dose (2.6 versus 1.7 Gy; P = 0.07) and high-dose (10 Gy) volume (3.2 versus 5.2 cc; P = 0.017). AN patients planned with the CyberKnife system had superior OAR (cochlea and mesial temporal lobe) sparing compared with those planned with the Linac-based system. Further evaluation of these findings in prospective studies with clinical correlation will provide actual clinical benefit from the

  10. 78 FR 65016 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... related to the proposed new product. Id. Attachment B. The instant contract has been assigned Docket No...: Attachment A--a redacted copy of Governors' Decision No. 11-6, authorizing the new product; Attachment B--a...

  11. 78 FR 76332 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... contemporaneously filed a redacted contract related to the proposed new product. Id. Attachment B. The instant... the new product; Attachment B--a redacted copy of the contract; Attachment C--proposed changes to the...

  12. 75 FR 79054 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... Service seeks to add a new product Global Plus 2B Contracts, to the competitive product list and to that... new `baseline' agreements for consideration of future functional analyses of the Global Plus 2B...

  13. 77 FR 305 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... well as a new GEPS-NPR 3 model contract and accompanying financial model that differ from the GEPS-NPR... to the proposed new product under 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. Id. Attachment B. The...

  14. 78 FR 36795 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: The Commission is... contemporaneously filed a redacted contract related to the proposed new product under 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39... Governors' Decision No. 11-6, authorizing the new product; Attachment B--a redacted copy of the contract...

  15. 78 FR 59733 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is...) has filed a request to add a new product, Private Address Forwarding (PAF) service, to the market... identification, request that mail addressed to a PAF ID that they control be forwarded to a new destination...

  16. 78 FR 963 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... Mail International (PMI), and Global Express Guaranteed (GXG), as well as the creation of a new GEPS... proposed new product under 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. Id. Attachment 4. The instant contract...

  17. 78 FR 76334 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... contemporaneously filed a redacted contract related to the proposed new product. Id. Attachment B. The instant... the new product; Attachment B--a redacted copy of the contract; Attachment C--proposed changes to the...

  18. 77 FR 70491 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... redacted contract related to the proposed new product under 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. Id...' Decision No. 11-6, authorizing the new product; Attachment B--a redacted copy of the contract; Attachment C...

  19. 77 FR 47885 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... redacted contract related to the proposed new product under 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. Id...' Decision No. 11-6, authorizing the new product; Attachment B--a redacted copy of the contract; ] Attachment...

  20. 78 FR 63520 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... Contracts 3 product to the competitive product list and the inclusion of a related agreement within the new... 1-2. The instant dockets address a new GREP Contracts ] 3 product and a new baseline agreement. Id...

  1. 75 FR 79053 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... Service seeks to add Global Plus 1B as a new product, to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Request has... instant contracts be considered ``the new `baseline' contracts for future functional equivalency analyses...

  2. 78 FR 59734 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... contemporaneously filed a redacted contract related to the proposed new product. Id. Attachment B. The instant... the new product; Attachment B--a redacted copy of the contract; Attachment C--proposed changes to the...

  3. 77 FR 70488 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... redacted contract related to the proposed new product under 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. Id...' Decision No. 11-6, authorizing the new product; Attachment B--a redacted copy of the contract; Attachment C...

  4. 77 FR 70490 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... redacted contract related to the proposed new product under 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. Id...' Decision No. 11-6, authorizing the new product; Attachment B--a redacted copy of the contract; Attachment C...

  5. 77 FR 70489 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... redacted contract related to the proposed new product under 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. Id...' Decision No. 11-6, authorizing the new product; Attachment B--a redacted copy of the contract; Attachment C...

  6. 78 FR 79022 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... proposed new product under 39 U.S.C. 3632(b)(3) and 39 CFR 3015.5. Id. Attachment B. The instant contract... attachments as follows: Attachment A--a redacted copy of Governors' Decision No. 11-6, authorizing the new...

  7. 78 FR 65015 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... New Postal Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... contemporaneously filed a redacted contract related to the proposed new product. Id. Attachment B. The instant... the new product; Attachment B--a redacted copy of the contract; Attachment C--proposed changes to the...

  8. 75 FR 30869 - New Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ..., Order Granting Clarification and Adding Global Expedited Package Services 2 to the Competitive Product... [Docket Nos. CP2010-54, CP2010-55, CP2010-56, CP2010-57 and CP2010-58; Order No. 466] New Postal Products...-filed Postal Service Request to add five additional Global Expedited Package Services Contracts 2...

  9. 77 FR 1957 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... noticing a recently filed Postal Service request to add Global Plus 2C Contracts to the competitive product..., consisting of two Global Plus 2C agreements, to the competitive products list.\\1\\ The new product covers...\\ Request of the United States Postal Service to Add Global Plus 2C to the Competitive Products List and...

  10. 77 FR 61307 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... ACR. Id. Proposal Nine: Modify First-Class Mail, Standard Mail, and Periodicals Flats Cost Models. The Postal Service proposes to make eight modifications to the Periodicals Flats model. The Postal Service... modifications are straightforward. Others, however, involve significant changes, particularly for Periodicals...

  11. 75 FR 40853 - Postal Rate Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... stating that the concept it has followed involves the identification of available price caps by class, the... 10. According to the Postal Service, this methodology could be viewed as an exercise in borrowing... proposed methodology, the Postal Service states that the percentage changes by class implicit in its...

  12. 75 FR 7634 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... in the customer identity. Id. The Postal Service represents that prices and classifications ``not of... been assigned Docket Nos. CP2010-21 and CP2010-22. The Postal Service uses IBRS contracts for customers that sell lightweight articles to foreign consumers and desire to offer their customers a way to...

  13. 78 FR 79023 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... supporting information to add Priority Mail Contract 73 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal... Product List and Notice of Filing (Under Seal) of Unredacted Governors' Decision, Contract, and Supporting.... CP2014-15. Request. To support its Request, the Postal Service filed six attachments as follows...

  14. 75 FR 7951 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ...: The Commission is adding Express Mail Contract 8 to the Competitive Product List. This action is consistent with a postal reform law. Republication of the Product Lists is also consistent with a statutory... Postal Service seeks to add a new product identified as Express Mail Contract 8 to the Competitive...

  15. 76 FR 53981 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional agreement under the ``Inbound... Inbound Competitive Multi-Service Agreements with Foreign Postal Operators 1 agreement.\\1\\ The Notice concerns the inbound portion of a Multi- Product Bilateral Agreement with China Post Group (China Post...

  16. 77 FR 36585 - Postal Rate Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service notice of rate and changes affecting Inbound Air Parcel Post at... rates not of general applicability for Inbound Air Parcel Post at Universal Postal Union (UPU) rates.\\1... inbound parcels eligible to receive transportation by air, as opposed to surface. Id., Attachment 1 at...

  17. 76 FR 53983 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Norway Post Agreement) under the ``Inbound Competitive Multi-Service Agreements with Foreign Postal..., pursuant to 39 CFR 3015.5, that it has entered into an additional Inbound Competitive Multi-Service... inbound competitive services with Posten Norge AS (Norway Post Agreement) that the Postal Service seeks...

  18. 75 FR 52786 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add Inbound Market Dominant Multi-Service Agreements... CFR 3010.40 et seq. and 3020.30 et seq. to add Inbound Market Dominant Multi-Service Agreements with... Request has been assigned Docket No. MC2010-35. \\1\\ Request of United States Postal Service to Add...

  19. 75 FR 5236 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... inbound market dominant services. This action is consistent with a postal reform law. Republication of the... Inbound Market Dominant Services to the Market Dominant Product List. For the reasons discussed below, the... Canada Post-United States Postal Service Contractual Bilateral Agreement for Inbound Market...

  20. 76 FR 1200 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add Priority Mail Contract 34 to the competitive... 34 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ Priority Mail contracts enable the Postal Service to provide... Priority Mail Contract 34 is a competitive product ``not of general applicability'' within the meaning...

  1. 76 FR 66766 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... noticing a recently filed Postal Service request to include a bilateral agreement with Australia Post in... Corporation (Australia Post), which it seeks to include in the Inbound Market Dominant Multi-Service Agreements with Foreign Postal Operators 1 product.\\1\\ The Australia Post Agreement establishes new rates...

  2. 77 FR 54937 - International Mail Postal Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... customers that sell lightweight articles to foreign consumers and want to offer those consumers a method of...; and the original Governors' Decision No. 08-24 addressing IBRS contracts and related material. Id... versions of the material in Attachments 1 through 3. Postal Service representations. The Postal Service...

  3. 78 FR 70970 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... noticing recent Postal Service filings requesting the addition of Priority Mail Contract 68 to the... Contract 68 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that Priority Mail Contract 68... Service to Add Priority Mail Contract 68 to Competitive Product List and Notice of Filing (Under Seal)...

  4. 75 FR 166 - Postal Product Price Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... recently-filed Postal Service request to change prices for a Global Plus 2 contract. This notice provides...). \\1\\ Notice of United States Postal Service of Change in Prices in Accordance with Order No. 216... requirements of a competitive rate change set forth in 39 CFR 3015.5. Because the basis for the price change...

  5. 75 FR 166 - Postal Product Price Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... recently-filed Postal Service request to change prices for a Global Plus 2 contract. This notice provides... 3). \\1\\ Notice of United States Postal Service of Change in Prices in Accordance with Order No. 216... requirements of a competitive rate change set forth in 39 CFR 3015.5. Because the basis for the price change...

  6. 77 FR 67840 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning the addition of First-Class Package Service Contract 26... First-Class Package Service Contract 26 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class Package Service Contract 26 is a competitive product ``not of general applicability...

  7. 77 FR 65588 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add First-Class Package Service Contract 21 to the... information to add First-Class Package Service Contract 21 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class Package Service Contract 21 is a competitive product ``not of general...

  8. 77 FR 76095 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add First-Class Package Service Contract 34 to the... information to add First-Class Package Service Contract 34 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class Package Service Contract 34 is a competitive product ``not of general...

  9. 77 FR 76093 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add First-Class Package Service Contract 33 to the... information to add First-Class Package Service Contract 33 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class Package Service Contract 33 is a competitive product ``not of general...

  10. 77 FR 76092 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add First-Class Package Service Contract 31 to the... information to add First-Class Package Service Contract 31 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The ] Postal Service asserts that First-Class Package Service Contract 31 is a competitive product ``not of general...

  11. 77 FR 65590 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add First-Class Package Service Contract 22 to the... information to add First-Class Package Service Contract 22 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class Package Service Contract 22 is a competitive product ``not of general...

  12. 77 FR 65588 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add First-Class Package Service Contract 24 to the... information to add First-Class Package Service Contract 24 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class Package Service Contract 24 is a competitive product ``not of general...

  13. 77 FR 66191 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning the addition of First-Class Package Service Contract 25... First-Class Package Service Contract 25 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class Package Service Contract 25 is a competitive product ``not of general applicability...

  14. 77 FR 24996 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add First-Class Package Service Contract 1 to the... associated supporting information to add First-Class Package Service Contract 1 to the Competitive Product List.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class Package Service Contract 1 is ``a competitive...

  15. 77 FR 76094 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add First-Class Package Service Contract 32 to the... information to add First-Class Package Service Contract 32 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class Package Service Contract 32 is a competitive product ``not of general...

  16. 77 FR 65589 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add First-Class Package Service Contract 23 to the... information to add First-Class Package Service Contract 23 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class Package Service Contract 23 is a competitive product ``not of general...

  17. Sci-Sat AM(2): Brachy-04: Spectral and dosimetric study of the Xoft electronic brachytherapy system.

    PubMed

    Liu, D; Reniers, B; Poon, E; Bazalova, M; Rusch, T; Verhaegen, F

    2008-07-01

    The Axxent developed by Xoft Inc. is a miniature x-ray tube capable of generating a 50 kVp x-ray spectrum with dose-rates suitable for HDR applications. Results of spectral measurements compared with Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations have been published. This study is a continuation of previous work with shifting emphasis towards dosimetric characterization of the miniature x-ray tube. Dose distributions using EBT Gafchromic films agree to within 10 % of Geant4 results. In addition, TG-43 parameters can be calculated. However, consideration should be given to the biological effectiveness of the spectrum at different depths. Spectral measurements show significant beam hardening with 1(st) HVL increasing from 0.55 to 1.20 mm Al after 11.50 mm of water filtration. This effect may be attributed to the significant loss of low energy characteristic photons. Furthermore, the degree of beam hardening is dependent of the material, with 1(st) HVLs of 1.20 and 1.03 mm Al after 11.50 mm of water and Lucite respectively. The biological effect is quantified by calculating the number of single and double strand breaks. The number of strand breaks for the 50 kVp x-ray spectrum is similar to that of I-125 radiation. © 2008 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  18. Leaf sequencing and dosimetric verification in intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agazaryan, Nzhde

    Although sophisticated means to calculate and deliver intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) have been developed by many groups, methods to verify the delivery, as well as definitions of acceptability of a treatment in terms of these measurements are the most problematic at this stage of advancement of IMRT. Present intensity modulated radiotherapy systems fail to account for many dosimetric characteristics of the delivery system. In this dissertation, a dosimetrically based leaf sequencing algorithm is developed and implemented for multileaf collimated intensity modulated radiotherapy. The dosimetric considerations are investigated and are shown to significantly improve the outcome in terms of an agreement between desired and delivered radiation dose distributions. Subsequently, a system for determining the desirability of a produced intensity modulated radiotherapy plan in terms of deliverability of calculated profiles with the use of a multileaf collimator is developed. Three deliverability scoring indices are defined to evaluate the deliverability of the profiles. Gradient Index (GI) is a measure of the complexity of the profile in terms of gradients. Baseline Index (BI) is the fraction of the profile that is planned to get lower than the minimum level of transmission radiation. Cumulative Monitor Unit Index (CMUI) is the ratio of the cumulative monitor units (CMU) required for obtaining the desired profile to an average dose level in the profile. The dosimetric investigations of the deliverability scoring indices are presented, showing a clear correlation between scoring indices and dosimetric accuracy. Finally, materials and methods are developed for verification of intensity modulated radiotherapy. Dosimetric verification starts from investigations of the developed leaf sequencing algorithm, then extends to dosimetric verification in terms of deliverability, and lastly, dosimetric verification of complete clinical IMRT plans is performed.

  19. Neighborhood and postal worker characteristics associated with dog bites in postal workers of the Brazilian National Postal Service in Curitiba.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Eduardo Alexandre; Manosso, Rose Maria; Braune, Gisela; Marcenovicz, Priscila Cavalheiro; Kuritza, Leandro Nagae; Ventura, Henrique Larsen Brunow; Paploski, Igor Adolfo Dexheimer; Kikuti, Mariana; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2013-05-01

    Dog bites are the third most common cause of absenteeism among postal workers of the Brazilian National Postal Service in Southern Brazil, with an average off-work time of approximately two days for each biting episode. The objective of this study was to evaluate the neighborhood characteristics involving dog bites that occurred during work time in postal workers, its impact on work and consequent preventive alternatives. A descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study was designed for all Curitiba postal workers. Data were descriptively analyzed and the hypothesis of correlation between median monthly income, population density and occurrence of dog bites was tested. A total of 34.9% of the postal workers answered the questionnaire and 64.6% of them had been bitten while working. The odds of bites occurring in a neighborhood increase by 1.035 times for every increase in one unit in the population density and decrease by 0.998 times for every increase of US$ 1.00 in the neighborhood median monthly income of the head of the family. The occurrence of dog bites among postal workers in Curitiba is related to income and population density and prevention strategies should address mailbox position and adequate fencing to provide protection for postal workers.

  20. 39 CFR 255.8 - Access to postal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES TO POSTAL SERVICE PROGRAMS, ACTIVITIES, FACILITIES, AND ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY... general public; (iv) The anticipated useful life of the modification to the Postal Service; (v) Any...

  1. 39 CFR 255.8 - Access to postal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES TO POSTAL SERVICE PROGRAMS, ACTIVITIES, FACILITIES, AND ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY... general public; (iv) The anticipated useful life of the modification to the Postal Service; (v) Any...

  2. 39 CFR 255.8 - Access to postal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES TO POSTAL SERVICE PROGRAMS, ACTIVITIES, FACILITIES, AND ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY... general public; (iv) The anticipated useful life of the modification to the Postal Service; (v) Any...

  3. 75 FR 3383 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ...The Commission is adding Express Mail Contract 7 to the Competitive Product List. This action is consistent with a postal reform law. Republication of the lists of market dominant and competitive products is also consistent with statutory requirements.

  4. Fair and Equitable Postal Service Access Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Moore, Gwen [D-WI-4

    2011-09-15

    House - 10/03/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, U.S. Postal Service, and Labor Policy . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. 78 FR 26405 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... costs and assumptions, pricing formulas, information relevant to the customer's mailing profile, and cost coverage projections. Id. The Postal Service asks the Commission to protect customer-identifying... portions of the Governors' Decision, contract, customer-identifying information, and related...

  6. 78 FR 43246 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ..., underlying costs and assumptions, pricing formulas, information relevant to the customer's mailing profile, and cost coverage projections. Id. The Postal Service asks the Commission to protect customer... redacted portions of the Governors' Decision, contract, customer-identifying information, and...

  7. Fair and Equitable Postal Service Access Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Moore, Gwen [D-WI-4

    2011-09-15

    10/03/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, U.S. Postal Service, and Labor Policy . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Fair and Equitable Postal Service Access Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Moore, Gwen [D-WI-4

    2011-09-15

    10/03/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, U.S. Postal Service, and Labor Policy . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. 77 FR 4376 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ...The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add Priority Mail Contract 38 to the competitive product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with the filing.

  10. 76 FR 54510 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... ``International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3'' product offering. This document invites... into an additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive contract.\\1\\ The Postal... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Service Agreement, August 19,...

  11. 77 FR 63898 - New Postal Product; Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... New Postal Product; Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice... competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that Express Mail & Priority Mail Contract 11 is a... Postal Service contemporaneously filed a redacted contract related to the proposed new product under 39...

  12. 77 FR 63899 - New Postal Product; Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... New Postal Product; Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is establishing a docket to consider the Postal Service's request to add Priority... list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that Priority Mail Contract 44 is a competitive product ``not...

  13. 75 FR 17789 - Nationwide Change in Frequency of Postal Delivery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Nationwide Change in Frequency of Postal Delivery AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service has requested an advisory opinion from the Commission on a proposed nationwide...

  14. SU-E-T-256: Development of a Monte Carlo-Based Dose-Calculation System in a Cloud Environment for IMRT and VMAT Dosimetric Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) are techniques that are widely used for treating cancer due to better target coverage and critical structure sparing. The increasing complexity of IMRT and VMAT plans leads to decreases in dose calculation accuracy. Monte Carlo simulations are the most accurate method for the determination of dose distributions in patients. However, the simulation settings for modeling an accurate treatment head are very complex and time consuming. The purpose of this work is to report our implementation of a simple Monte Carlo simulation system in a cloud-computing environment for dosimetric verification of IMRT and VMAT plans. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations of a Varian Clinac linear accelerator were performed using the BEAMnrc code, and dose distributions were calculated using the DOSXYZnrc code. Input files for the simulations were automatically generated from DICOM RT files by the developed web application. We therefore must only upload the DICOM RT files through the web interface, and the simulations are run in the cloud. The calculated dose distributions were exported to RT Dose files that can be downloaded through the web interface. The accuracy of the calculated dose distribution was verified by dose measurements. Results: IMRT and VMAT simulations were performed and good agreement results were observed for measured and MC dose comparison. Gamma analysis with a 3% dose and 3 mm DTA criteria shows a mean gamma index value of 95% for the studied cases. Conclusion: A Monte Carlo-based dose calculation system has been successfully implemented in a cloud environment. The developed system can be used for independent dose verification of IMRT and VMAT plans in routine clinical practice. The system will also be helpful for improving accuracy in beam modeling and dose calculation in treatment planning systems. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25861057.

  15. Glass rod detectors for small field, stereotactic radiosurgery dosimetric audit.

    PubMed

    Perks, J; Gao, M; Smith, V; Skubic, S; Goetsch, S

    2005-03-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of using glass rod detectors for quality assurance audit of radiosurgery units. Five radiosurgery units (3 Gamma Knife model C, 1 Gamma Knife model U and 1 Cyberknife) located in California participated in the study. At each center glass rod detectors were used to measure a number of dosimetric parameters including relative collimator output factor and absolute dose rate. The Gamma Knife data obtained is in excellent agreement with the commissioning data generated by the manufacturer for each unit and the Cyberknife data is in general agreement with the data published by other centers. In particular the output factor of the 4 mm Gamma Knife helmet factor, a subject of abundant debate, was measured in the range 0.863-0.872 with an accuracy of better than 1% across the four participating centers. It is hoped that this pilot study will facilitate a nationwide postal audit of stereotactic radiosurgery units.

  16. SU-E-T-132: Dosimetric Impact of Positioning Errors in Hypo-Fractionated Cranial Radiation Therapy Using Frameless Stereotactic BrainLAB System

    SciTech Connect

    Keeling, V; Jin, H; Ali, I; Ahmad, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine dosimetric impact of positioning errors in the stereotactic hypo-fractionated treatment of intracranial lesions using 3Dtransaltional and 3D-rotational corrections (6D) frameless BrainLAB ExacTrac X-Ray system. Methods: 20 cranial lesions, treated in 3 or 5 fractions, were selected. An infrared (IR) optical positioning system was employed for initial patient setup followed by stereoscopic kV X-ray radiographs for position verification. 6D-translational and rotational shifts were determined to correct patient position. If these shifts were above tolerance (0.7 mm translational and 1° rotational), corrections were applied and another set of X-rays was taken to verify patient position. Dosimetric impact (D95, Dmin, Dmax, and Dmean of planning target volume (PTV) compared to original plans) of positioning errors for initial IR setup (XC: Xray Correction) and post-correction (XV: X-ray Verification) was determined in a treatment planning system using a method proposed by Yue et al. (Med. Phys. 33, 21-31 (2006)) with 3D-translational errors only and 6D-translational and rotational errors. Results: Absolute mean translational errors (±standard deviation) for total 92 fractions (XC/XV) were 0.79±0.88/0.19±0.15 mm (lateral), 1.66±1.71/0.18 ±0.16 mm (longitudinal), 1.95±1.18/0.15±0.14 mm (vertical) and rotational errors were 0.61±0.47/0.17±0.15° (pitch), 0.55±0.49/0.16±0.24° (roll), and 0.68±0.73/0.16±0.15° (yaw). The average changes (loss of coverage) in D95, Dmin, Dmax, and Dmean were 4.5±7.3/0.1±0.2%, 17.8±22.5/1.1±2.5%, 0.4±1.4/0.1±0.3%, and 0.9±1.7/0.0±0.1% using 6Dshifts and 3.1±5.5/0.0±0.1%, 14.2±20.3/0.8±1.7%, 0.0±1.2/0.1±0.3%, and 0.7±1.4/0.0±0.1% using 3D-translational shifts only. The setup corrections (XC-XV) improved the PTV coverage by 4.4±7.3% (D95) and 16.7±23.5% (Dmin) using 6D adjustment. Strong correlations were observed between translation errors and deviations in dose coverage for XC. Conclusion

  17. Effect of e-mail versus postal reminders for mammogram screening.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Rajeev; Cabanela, Rosa; Rahman, Ahmed; McMurtry, Erin; Leutink, Dorinda; Scheitel, Sidna; Naessens, James M

    2006-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was undertaken to measure the efficacy of a patient reminder system for females age 40 - 75 in a Midwestern primary care practice. A subset of the population whose email addresses were known was further randomized to measure the effect of email versus postal reminders. A statistically significant increase in completion rates was observed in the intervention group while no difference was found between the email and postal mail groups.

  18. 39 CFR 762.44 - Receipt or recovery of original disbursement postal money order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Receipt or recovery of original disbursement postal money order. 762.44 Section 762.44 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Issuance of Substitutes...

  19. 39 CFR 762.44 - Receipt or recovery of original disbursement postal money order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... postal money order. 762.44 Section 762.44 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Issuance of Substitutes for Lost, Destroyed, Mutilated, and Defaced Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.44 Receipt or...

  20. Dosimetric accuracy of a deterministic radiation transport based {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy treatment planning system. Part III. Comparison to Monte Carlo simulation in voxelized anatomical computational models

    SciTech Connect

    Zourari, K.; Pantelis, E.; Moutsatsos, A.; Sakelliou, L.; Georgiou, E.; Karaiskos, P.; Papagiannis, P.

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To compare TG43-based and Acuros deterministic radiation transport-based calculations of the BrachyVision treatment planning system (TPS) with corresponding Monte Carlo (MC) simulation results in heterogeneous patient geometries, in order to validate Acuros and quantify the accuracy improvement it marks relative to TG43. Methods: Dosimetric comparisons in the form of isodose lines, percentage dose difference maps, and dose volume histogram results were performed for two voxelized mathematical models resembling an esophageal and a breast brachytherapy patient, as well as an actual breast brachytherapy patient model. The mathematical models were converted to digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) image series for input to the TPS. The MCNP5 v.1.40 general-purpose simulation code input files for each model were prepared using information derived from the corresponding DICOM RT exports from the TPS. Results: Comparisons of MC and TG43 results in all models showed significant differences, as reported previously in the literature and expected from the inability of the TG43 based algorithm to account for heterogeneities and model specific scatter conditions. A close agreement was observed between MC and Acuros results in all models except for a limited number of points that lay in the penumbra of perfectly shaped structures in the esophageal model, or at distances very close to the catheters in all models. Conclusions: Acuros marks a significant dosimetry improvement relative to TG43. The assessment of the clinical significance of this accuracy improvement requires further work. Mathematical patient equivalent models and models prepared from actual patient CT series are useful complementary tools in the methodology outlined in this series of works for the benchmarking of any advanced dose calculation algorithm beyond TG43.

  1. Electronic tissue compensation achieved with both dynamic and static multileaf collimator in eclipse treatment planning system for Clinac 6 EX and 2100 CD Varian linear accelerators: Feasibility and dosimetric study

    PubMed Central

    Kinhikar, Rajesh A.; Sharma, Pramod K.; Patkar, Sachin; Tambe, Chandrashekhar M.; Deshpande, Deepak D.

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) and static multileaf collimator (SMLC), along with three-dimensional treatment planning system (3-D TPS), open the possibility of tissue compensation. A method using electronic tissue compensator (ETC) has been implemented in Eclipse 3-D TPS (V 7.3, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA) at our center. The ETC was tested for head and neck conformal radiotherapy planning. The purpose of this study was to verify the feasibility of DMLC and SMLC in head and neck field irradiation for delivering homogeneous dose in the midplane at a pre-defined depth. In addition, emphasis was given to the dosimetric aspects in commissioning ETC in Eclipse. A Head and Neck Phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, USA) was used for the dosimetric verification. Planning was carried out for both DMLC and SMLC ETC plans. The dose calculated at central axis by eclipse with DMLC and SMLC was noted. This was compared with the doses measured on machine with ion chamber and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). The calculated isodose curves and profiles were compared with the measured ones. The dose profiles along the two major axes from Eclipse were also compared with the profiles obtained from Amorphous Silicon (AS500) Electronic portal imaging device (EPID) on Clinac 6 EX machine. In uniform dose regions, measured dose values agreed with the calculated doses within 3%. Agreement between calculated and measured isodoses in the dose gradient zone was within 3 mm. The isodose curves and the profiles were found to be in good agreement with the measured curves and profiles. The measured and the calculated dose profiles along the two major axes were flat for both DMLC and SMLC. The dosimetric verification of ETC for both the linacs demonstrated the feasibility and the accuracy of the ETC treatment modality for achieving uniform dose distributions. Therefore, ETC can be used as a tool in head and neck treatment planning optimization for improved dose uniformity. PMID

  2. FBX aqueous chemical dosimeter for measurement of dosimetric parameters.

    PubMed

    Moussous, O; Medjadj, T; Benguerba, M

    2011-02-01

    We investigated the ferrous sulphate-benzoic acid-xylenol orange (FBX) aqueous chemical dosimeter for measurement of dosimetric parameters such as the output factor, backscatter factor and lateral beam profiles for different square fields sizes for (60)Co γ-rays. A water phantom was employed to measure these parameters. An ionization chamber (IC) was used for calibration and comparison. A comparison of the resulting measurements with an ionization chamber's measured parameters showed good agreement. We thus believe that the tissue equivalent FBX dosimetry system can measure the dosimetric parameters for (60)Co with reasonable accuracy.

  3. 39 CFR 211.2 - Regulations of the Postal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... bylaws of the Board of Governors; (2) The Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual; the Postal Operations Manual; the Administrative Support Manual; the Employee and...

  4. SU-E-T-136: Dosimetric Robustness of a Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guided Radiation Therapy (MR-IGRT) System

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, V; Green, O; Wooten, H; Kashani, R; Mutic, S; Li, H; Dempsey, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To test the radiation delivery robustness of the first MR-IGRT system using a commercial cylindrical diode array detector (ArcCHECK) and an ionization thimble chamber (Exradin A18). Methods: The MR-IGRT system is composed of three evenly spaced Co-60 sources on a rotating gantry located between two magnet halves. The collimator for each source consists of 30 doubly-focused leaf pairs that allow the system to deliver both conformal and intensity modulated (IMRT) treatment plans. The system's delivery robustness was tested over a span of 6 months from September 2013 through February 2014. This was achieved by repeatedly delivering 10 patient plans. These plans consisted of 2 conformal prostates, 2 IMRT prostates, 2 IMRT head and neck, 2 IMRT breast, 1 IMRT pancreas, and 1 IMRT bladder. The plans were generated with the system's treatment planning software. Once the plans were generated, quality assurance plans were created on a digital ArcCHECK dataset. The ArcCHECK used for testing was specially designed to be MR-compatible by moving the power supply outside of the magnetic field. The A18 ionization chamber was placed in a custom plastic plug insert in the center of the ArcCHECK. Gamma analysis was used with the ArcCHECK for relative dose evaluating both 3%/3mm and 2%/2mm. Absolute point dose was compared between ion chamber measurement and treatment plan. Results: The ArcCHECK passing rate remained constant over the 6 month period. The average passing rate for 3%/3mm and 2%/2mm analysis was 98.6% ± 0.7 and 88.8% ± 2.9, respectively. The ion chamber measurements showed little variation with an average percent difference between planned dose verses measured dose of 0.9% ± 0.7. Conclusion: Minimal differences were noted in the delivery of the 10 patient plans. Over a period that included acceptance testing, commissioning, and clinical deliveries, the MR-IGRT system remained consistent in radiation delivery.

  5. SU-D-18A-06: Variation of Controlled Breath Hold From CT Simulation to Treatment and Its Dosimetric Impact for Left-Sided Breast Radiotherapy with a Real-Time Optical Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Mittauer, K; Deraniyagala, R; Li, J; Lu, B; Liu, C; Lightsey, J; Yan, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Different breath-hold (BH) maneuvers (abdominal breathing vs. chest breathing) during CT simulation and treatment can lead to chest wall positional variation. The purpose of this study is to quantify the variation of active breathing control (ABC)-assisted BH and estimate its dosimetric impact for left-sided whole-breast radiotherapy with a real-time optical tracking system (OTS). Methods: Seven breast cancer patients were included. An in-house OTS tracked an infrared (IR) marker affixed over the xiphoid process of the patient at CT simulation and throughout the treatment course to measure BH variations. Correlation between the IR marker and the breast was studied for dosimetric purposes. The positional variations of 860 BHs were retrospectively incorporated into treatment plans to assess their dosimetric impact on breast and cardiac organs (heart and left anterior descending artery [LAD]). Results: The mean intrafraction variations were 2.8 mm, 2.7 mm, and 1.6 mm in the anteroposterior (AP), craniocaudal (CC), and mediolateral (ML) directions, respectively. Mean stability in any direction was within 1.5 mm. A general trend of BH undershoot at treatment relative to CT simulation was observed with an average of 4.4 mm, 3.6 mm, and 0.1 mm in the AP, CC, and ML directions, respectively. Undershoot up to 12.6 mm was observed for individual patients. The difference between the planned and delivered dose to breast targets was negligible. The average planned/delivered mean heart doses, mean LAD doses, and max LAD doses were 1.4/2.1, 7.4/15.7, and 18.6/31.0 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: Systematic undershoot was observed in ABC-assisted BHs from CT simulation to treatment. Its dosimetric impact on breast coverage was minimized with image guidance, but the benefits of cardiac organ sparing were degraded. A real-time tracking system can be used in junction with the ABC device to improve BH reproducibility.

  6. 76 FR 67500 - Postal Service Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    .... The Postal Service notes, among other things, that prices for Nonautomation Presort and Mixed ADC... parcels offerings to address the different needs of fulfillment parcels and marketing parcels. Id. at 19.... at 19-20. It also involves eliminating the NFMs category and replacing it with a new...

  7. 75 FR 78915 - Conduct on Postal Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... in 39 CFR 232.1. 1. Paragraph (f) Gambling: The prohibition of lottery ticket sales contains an... Conduct on postal property. * * * * * (f) Gambling. Participating in games for money or other personal property, the operation of gambling devices, the conduct of a lottery or pool, or the selling or purchasing...

  8. 76 FR 13242 - Change in Postal Prices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Contents I. Introduction II. Notice of Filings III. Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction On March 1, 2011... Showcase box is a Postal Service-branded parcel box designed to contain product samples and other... Showcase boxes previously prohibited under the agreement as long as those boxes meet specific...

  9. 75 FR 43581 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Paragraphs I. Introduction The Postal Service seeks to add a new product, Global Plus 1A, to the competitive... the Global Plus 1 Contracts product.\\5\\ It requests that the instant contracts be considered ``the new... add Global Plus 1A Contracts to the competitive product list. Id. II. Notice of Filing The Commission...

  10. 75 FR 471 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Global Direct Contracts 1 to the Competitive Products List, December 23, 2009 (Notice). \\2\\ Governors... should be included in the Global Direct Contracts product on the Competitive Product List.\\4\\ The Postal... Global Direct Contracts 1 be added to the Competitive Product List, particularly as future Global Direct...

  11. 75 FR 34074 - Postal Pricing Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... volume-based discount provision of the Capital One NSA using the analysis of Capital One witness Elliot.\\6\\ Elliot's analysis applied price elasticities from the Postal Service's demand model to the... applied an elasticity-based approach similar to that of witness Elliot for estimating the effect of...

  12. 75 FR 6108 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... reform law. Republication of the lists of market dominant and competitive products is also consistent....sharfman@prc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulatory History, 74 FR 65169 (December 9, 2009). Table of... Inbound Parcel Post and Xpresspost-USA from Canada. The Postal Service acknowledges an existing bilateral...

  13. 75 FR 7201 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... changes in a postal reform law. Republication of the lists of market dominant and competitive products is...-6820 or stephen.sharfman@prc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulatory History, 74 FR 31374 (July 1... Surface Parcel post at Non-UPU Rates and Xpresspost-USA) International Money Transfer Service...

  14. 76 FR 47615 - Postal Rate Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ....\\1\\ The Postal Service incorporates by reference a listing of countries in each pricing tier and the... Docket Nos. MC2009- 10, CP2009-12 and CP2009-57. Id. at 2 and n.4. The following four documents...

  15. 78 FR 13713 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... customer's mailing profile, and cost coverage projections. Id. The Postal Service asks the Commission to protect customer-identifying information from public disclosure indefinitely. Id. at 7. II. Notice of... maintains that the redacted portions of the Governors' Decision, contract, customer-identifying...

  16. 77 FR 39747 - Changes in Postal Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-16434] POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. MC2012-30; Order No. 1386] Changes in... views electronically should contact the person identified in FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT by... Rate Envelope option in the EMI product category. Notice at 1. The stated purpose of the change is...

  17. 78 FR 13714 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning the addition of Priority Mail Contract 55 to the... Mail Contract 55 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ It asserts that Priority Mail Contract 55 is a... Priority Mail Contract 55 to Competitive Product List and Notice of Filing (Under Seal) of Unredacted...

  18. 75 FR 12445 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ...: The Commission is adding International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 2 to the Competitive Product List. This action is consistent with a postal reform law. Republication of the Market... product identified as International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 2 to the...

  19. A High Technology Military Postal Service.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Mail to military personnel overseas is delivered essentially in the same way it was during World War I. The use of electronic mail has been growing...in private industry and the United States Postal Service recently began an international application of electronic mail . The new technology offers

  20. 76 FR 10410 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... Justification, Jo Ann Miller, former Director, Global Business Development, asserts that the services to be... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add International Business Reply Service (IBRS... International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3 to the competitive product list...

  1. 76 FR 80985 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to enter into an outstanding International Business Reply..., pursuant to 39 CFR 3015.5, of contingency prices under an outstanding International Business Reply Service... under Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 1...

  2. 78 FR 4478 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... cost and market characteristics. Id. at 4. It notes that the pricing formula and classification... noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning an additional Global Plus 2C contract. This notice... notice announcing that it is entering into an additional Global Plus 2C contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The...

  3. 78 FR 33451 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Supporting Justification, Frank Cebello, Executive Director, Global Business Management, asserts that the... and medium-size businesses. Request at 5. Governors' Decision No. 10-1 established prices and...' Decision No. 11-6 authorizes Postal Service management to prepare and present to the Commission...

  4. 75 FR 45174 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ..., rate schedules, a management analysis, and certification that prices satisfy applicable pricing criteria. Attachment 3 is a Statement of Justification by the Executive Director, Global Business Management. Attachment 4 is a representative agreement between the Postal Service and a customer of...

  5. 78 FR 12108 - New Postal Product; Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... New Postal Product; Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning an amendment to the existing Express Mail & Priority Mail Contract 11 Negotiated Service Agreement. This notice informs the public...

  6. 78 FR 12801 - New Postal Product; Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... New Postal Product; Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice... Parcel Return Service Contract 3 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that Parcel Return Service Contract 3 is a competitive product ``not of general applicability'' within...

  7. 76 FR 12141 - New Postal Product and New Price Category

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... New Postal Product and New Price Category AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice... Services to the competitive product list. The Postal Service also states that it has established a new... new product to the competitive product list and concurrently establish a new price category under that...

  8. 77 FR 10033 - Advisory Committee International Postal and Delivery Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Committee International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice; FACA... Postal and Delivery Services. This Committee has been formed in fulfillment of the provisions of the 2006... related to international postal and delivery services of interest to Advisory Committee members and...

  9. Poster - Thur Eve - 12: Dosimetric manifestation of harmonic mode imaging for seed implant brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, G; Angyalfi, S; Dunscombe, P; Khan, R

    2012-07-01

    To demonstrate the dosimetric effects of observer variability in defining the prostate and critical organs, using Tissue Harmonic (H) ultrasound imaging mode for permanent seed implant brachytherapy. Images were acquired using a B -K medical 8848 probe with Brightness (B) and H mode for ten prostate brachytherapy patients. The prostate, rectum and urethra were contoured independently by five observers. The clinically used treatment plans based on B mode imaging fulfilling the dosimetric criteria were applied on these contours. Dosimetric parameters (prostate: D90, V100 and V200; rectum: V100; urethra: V140, V150 and V160) were computed using SPOT PRO™ planning system. Interobserver variability in dosimetric parameters was tested using standard deviations as percentages of means. Two-factor analysis of variances showed significant (p<0.05) interobserver variability in all dosimetric parameters for both modes. Interobserver agreement in dosimetric parameters improves in H mode due to improved interobserver consistency in contouring these organs on H mode images compared to B mode. There is no significant difference observed (paired student t test, p>0.05) in the mean values of dosimetric parameters in H and B mode for prostate and critical organs. H mode due to its better image quality helped to improve the interobserver agreement in contouring the prostate and critical organs and hence better interobserver consistency in all dosimetric parameter. Because the difference in the mean value of dosimetric parameters between two imaging modes is not statistically significant, H mode does not appear to offer any clinical advantages in terms of improving the dosimetric outcome. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  10. Dosimetric inter-institutional comparison in European radiotherapy centres: Results of IAEA supported treatment planning system audit.

    PubMed

    Gershkevitsh, Eduard; Pesznyak, Csilla; Petrovic, Borislava; Grezdo, Joseph; Chelminski, Krzysztof; do Carmo Lopes, Maria; Izewska, Joanna; Van Dyk, Jacob

    2014-05-01

    One of the newer audit modalities operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) involves audits of treatment planning systems (TPS) in radiotherapy. The main focus of the audit is the dosimetry verification of the delivery of a radiation treatment plan for three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy using high energy photon beams. The audit has been carried out in eight European countries - Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Serbia, Slovakia, Poland and Portugal. The corresponding results are presented. The TPS audit reviews the dosimetry, treatment planning and radiotherapy delivery processes using the 'end-to-end' approach, i.e. following the pathway similar to that of the patient, through imaging, treatment planning and dose delivery. The audit is implemented at the national level with IAEA assistance. The national counterparts conduct the TPS audit at local radiotherapy centres through on-site visits. TPS calculated doses are compared with ion chamber measurements performed in an anthropomorphic phantom for eight test cases per algorithm/beam. A set of pre-defined agreement criteria is used to analyse the performance of TPSs. TPS audit was carried out in 60 radiotherapy centres. In total, 190 data sets (combination of algorithm and beam quality) have been collected and reviewed. Dosimetry problems requiring interventions were discovered in about 10% of datasets. In addition, suboptimal beam modelling in TPSs was discovered in a number of cases. The TPS audit project using the IAEA methodology has verified the treatment planning system calculations for 3D conformal radiotherapy in a group of radiotherapy centres in Europe. It contributed to achieving better understanding of the performance of TPSs and helped to resolve issues related to imaging, dosimetry and treatment planning.

  11. 39 CFR 1.1 - Establishment of the U.S. Postal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment of the U.S. Postal Service. 1.1 Section 1.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL POLICY (ARTICLE I) § 1.1 Establishment of the U.S. Postal Service. The U.S. Postal Service...

  12. 39 CFR 1.1 - Establishment of the U.S. Postal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Establishment of the U.S. Postal Service. 1.1 Section 1.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL POLICY (ARTICLE I) § 1.1 Establishment of the U.S. Postal Service. The U.S. Postal Service...

  13. A comprehensive system for dosimetric commissioning and Monte Carlo validation for the small animal radiation research platform

    PubMed Central

    Tryggestad, E; Armour, M; Iordachita, I; Verhaegen, F; Wong, J W

    2011-01-01

    Our group has constructed the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) for delivering focal, kilo-voltage radiation to targets in small animals under robotic control using cone-beam CT guidance. The present work was undertaken to support the SARRP’s treatment planning capabilities. We have devised a comprehensive system for characterizing the radiation dosimetry in water for the SARRP and have developed a Monte Carlo dose engine with the intent of reproducing these measured results. We find that the SARRP provides sufficient therapeutic dose rates ranging from 102 to 228 cGy min−1 at 1 cm depth for the available set of high-precision beams ranging from 0.5 to 5 mm in size. In terms of depth–dose, the mean of the absolute percentage differences between the Monte Carlo calculations and measurement is 3.4% over the full range of sampled depths spanning 0.5–7.2 cm for the 3 and 5 mm beams. The measured and computed profiles for these beams agree well overall; of note, good agreement is observed in the profile tails. Especially for the smallest 0.5 and 1 mm beams, including a more realistic description of the effective x-ray source into the Monte Carlo model may be important. PMID:19687532

  14. Dosimetric Verification by Using the ArcCHECK System and 3DVH Software for Various Target Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jin Ho; Shin, Hun-Joo; Kay, Chul Seung; Son, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the usefulness of the 3DVH software with an ArcCHECK 3D diode array detector in newly designed plans with various target sizes. Methods The isocenter dose was measured with an ion-chamber and was compared with the planned and 3DVH predicted doses. The 2D gamma passing rates were evaluated at the diode level by using the ArcCHECK detector. The 3D gamma passing rates for specific regions of interest (ROIs) were also evaluated by using the 3DVH software. Several dose-volume histograms (DVH)-based predicted metrics for all structures were also obtained by using the 3DVH software. Results The isocenter dose deviation was <1% in all plans except in the case of a 1 cm target. Besides the gamma passing rate at the diode level, the 3D gamma passing rate for specific ROIs tended to decrease with increasing target size; this was more noticeable when a more stringent gamma criterion was applied. No correlation was found with the gamma passing rates and the DVH-based metrics especially in the ROI with high-dose gradients. Conclusions Delivery quality assurance by using 3DVH and ArcCHECK can provide substantial information through a simple and easy approach, although the accuracy of this system should be judged cautiously. PMID:25807544

  15. A comprehensive system for dosimetric commissioning and Monte Carlo validation for the small animal radiation research platform.

    PubMed

    Tryggestad, E; Armour, M; Iordachita, I; Verhaegen, F; Wong, J W

    2009-09-07

    Our group has constructed the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) for delivering focal, kilo-voltage radiation to targets in small animals under robotic control using cone-beam CT guidance. The present work was undertaken to support the SARRP's treatment planning capabilities. We have devised a comprehensive system for characterizing the radiation dosimetry in water for the SARRP and have developed a Monte Carlo dose engine with the intent of reproducing these measured results. We find that the SARRP provides sufficient therapeutic dose rates ranging from 102 to 228 cGy min(-1) at 1 cm depth for the available set of high-precision beams ranging from 0.5 to 5 mm in size. In terms of depth-dose, the mean of the absolute percentage differences between the Monte Carlo calculations and measurement is 3.4% over the full range of sampled depths spanning 0.5-7.2 cm for the 3 and 5 mm beams. The measured and computed profiles for these beams agree well overall; of note, good agreement is observed in the profile tails. Especially for the smallest 0.5 and 1 mm beams, including a more realistic description of the effective x-ray source into the Monte Carlo model may be important.

  16. Dosimetric verification by using the ArcCHECK system and 3DVH software for various target sizes.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin Ho; Shin, Hun-Joo; Kay, Chul Seung; Son, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of the 3DVH software with an ArcCHECK 3D diode array detector in newly designed plans with various target sizes. The isocenter dose was measured with an ion-chamber and was compared with the planned and 3DVH predicted doses. The 2D gamma passing rates were evaluated at the diode level by using the ArcCHECK detector. The 3D gamma passing rates for specific regions of interest (ROIs) were also evaluated by using the 3DVH software. Several dose-volume histograms (DVH)-based predicted metrics for all structures were also obtained by using the 3DVH software. The isocenter dose deviation was <1% in all plans except in the case of a 1 cm target. Besides the gamma passing rate at the diode level, the 3D gamma passing rate for specific ROIs tended to decrease with increasing target size; this was more noticeable when a more stringent gamma criterion was applied. No correlation was found with the gamma passing rates and the DVH-based metrics especially in the ROI with high-dose gradients. Delivery quality assurance by using 3DVH and ArcCHECK can provide substantial information through a simple and easy approach, although the accuracy of this system should be judged cautiously.

  17. Dosimetric Verification of the System of Planning Brainscan for Stereotactic Radiosurgery at Oncology Department of the General Hospital of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez R, J. T.; Salinas, B.; Tovar M, V. M.; Villasenor O, L. F.; Molero M, A. C.

    2006-09-08

    The verification consists on the planning and administration of stereotactic treatments by means of conformed static beams, several polyethylene capsules with powder TLD 100 (type IAEA) located inside the head of a phantom Alderson-Rando. Because the planning system corrects for no-homogeneity in the density from the tomographic information, it is assumed that the absorbed dose in the tumor volume (capsule) corresponds to the dose absorbed to LiF: DLiF. Applying different cavity theories, the percent deviations to the nominal dose are: -1.81%{<=}{delta}%{<=}0.71%, which are consistent with the order of the U%'s. The values of DW are calculated from two calibration curve: TL Response (nC) vs DW for the energy of the 60Co corrected for energy dependence to the accelerator photon beam quality D20/D10=0.57. Once curve for 0.5 to 5 Gy and other for 5 to 35 Gy. The traceability for the Dwater is obtained by means of a secondary standard ionization chamber Farmer PTW 30013 calibrated at the NRC.

  18. Dosimetric verification of a commercial Monte Carlo treatment planning system (VMC++) for a 9 MeV electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Schiapparelli, P.; Zefiro, D.; Taccini, G.

    2009-05-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of the voxel-based Monte Carlo algorithm implemented in the commercial treatment planning system ONCENTRA MASTERPLAN for a 9 MeV electron beam produced by a linear accelerator Varian Clinac 2100 C/D. In order to realize an experimental verification of the computed data, three different groups of tests were planned. The first set was performed in a water phantom to investigate standard fields, custom inserts, and extended treatment distances. The second one concerned standard field, irregular entrance surface, and oblique incidence in a homogeneous PMMA phantom. The last group involved the introduction of inhomogeneities in a PMMA phantom to simulate high and low density materials such as bone and lung. Measurements in water were performed by means of cylindrical and plane-parallel ionization chambers, whereas measurements in PMMA were carried out by the use of radiochromic films. Point dose values were compared in terms of percentage difference, whereas the gamma index tool was used to perform the comparison between computed and measured dose profiles, considering different tolerances according to the test complexity. In the case of transverse scans, the agreement was searched in the plane formed by the intersection of beam axis and the profile (2D analysis), while for percentage depth dose curves, only the beam axis was explored (1D analysis). An excellent agreement was found for point dose evaluation in water (discrepancies smaller than 2%). Also the comparison between planned and measured dose profiles in homogeneous water and PMMA phantoms showed good results (agreement within 2%-2 mm). Profile evaluation in phantoms with internal inhomogeneities showed a good agreement in the case of ''lung'' insert, while in tests concerning a small ''bone'' inhomogeneity, a discrepancy was particularly evidenced in dose values on the beam axis. This is due to the inaccurate geometrical description of the phantom that is

  19. SU-E-T-130: Dosimetric Evaluation of Tissue Equivalent Gel Dosimeter Using Saccharide in Radiotherapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y; Lee, D; Jung, H; Ji, Y; Kim, K; Chang, U; Kwon, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In this study, the dose responses of the MAGIC gel with various concentrations and type of saccharide are examined to clarify the roles of mono and disaccharide in the polymerization process. Then we focused on the tissue equivalence and dose sensitivity of MAGIC gel dosimeters. Methods: The gel is composed of HPLC, 8% gelatin, 2 × 10-3 M L-ascorbic acid, 1.8 × 10-2 M hydroquinone, 8 × 10-5 M copper(II)sulfate and 9% methacrylic acid, new polymer gels are synthesized by adding glucose(monosaccharide), sucrose(disaccharide) and urea in the concentration range of 5∼35%. For irradiation of the gel, cesium-137 gamma-ray irradiator was used, radiation dose was delivered from 5∼50 Gy. MRI images of the gel were acquired by using a 3.0 T MRI system. Results: When saccharide and urea were added, the O/C, O/N and C/N ratios agreed with those of soft tissue with 1.7%. The dose-response of glucose and sucrose gel have slope-to-intercept ratio of 0.044 and 0.283 respectively. The slope-to-ratio is one important determinant of gel sensitivity. R-square values of glucose and sucrose gel dosimeters were 0.984 and 0.994 respectively. Moreover when urea were added, the slope-to-intercept ratio is 0.044 and 0.073 respectively. R-square values of mono and disaccharide gel were 0.973 and 0.989 respectively. When a saccharide is added into the MAGIC gel dosimeter, dose sensitivity is increased. However when urea were added, dose sensitivity is slightly decreased. Conclusion: In this study, it was possible to obtain the following conclusions by looking at the dose response characteristics after adding mono-, di-saccharide and urea to a MAGIC gel dosimeter. Saccharide was a tendency of increasing dose sensitivity with disaccharide. Sa.ccharide is cost effective, safe, soft tissue equivalent, and can be used under various experimental conditions, making it a suitable dosimeter for some radiotherapy applications.

  20. 39 CFR 762.25 - Reclamation of amounts of paid disbursement postal money orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reclamation of amounts of paid disbursement postal money orders. 762.25 Section 762.25 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT..., Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.25 Reclamation of amounts of...

  1. 39 CFR 762.25 - Reclamation of amounts of paid disbursement postal money orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reclamation of amounts of paid disbursement postal money orders. 762.25 Section 762.25 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT..., Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.25 Reclamation of amounts of...

  2. 39 CFR 447.52 - Holding of State or local office by Postal Service employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holding of State or local office by Postal Service employees. 447.52 Section 447.52 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PERSONNEL RULES OF CONDUCT FOR POSTAL EMPLOYEES Participation in Community Affairs § 447.52 Holding of State or local office by Postal...

  3. 39 CFR 762.31 - Disbursement postal money orders issued to deceased payees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disbursement postal money orders issued to... OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.31 Disbursement postal...

  4. 39 CFR 762.30 - Disbursement postal money orders issued to incompetent payees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disbursement postal money orders issued to... OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.30 Disbursement postal...

  5. 39 CFR 762.29 - Endorsement of disbursement postal money orders by payees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Endorsement of disbursement postal money orders by...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.29 Endorsement of disbursement postal...

  6. 39 CFR 762.14 - Amounts for which disbursement postal money orders may be issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amounts for which disbursement postal money orders... OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS General, Definitions, Issuance § 762.14 Amounts for which disbursement postal money orders may be issued. Disbursement Postal...

  7. 39 CFR 762.29 - Endorsement of disbursement postal money orders by payees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Endorsement of disbursement postal money orders by...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.29 Endorsement of disbursement postal...

  8. 39 CFR 762.30 - Disbursement postal money orders issued to incompetent payees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disbursement postal money orders issued to... OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.30 Disbursement postal...

  9. 39 CFR 762.25 - Reclamation of amounts of paid disbursement postal money orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... money orders. 762.25 Section 762.25 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.25 Reclamation of amounts...

  10. 39 CFR 762.14 - Amounts for which disbursement postal money orders may be issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amounts for which disbursement postal money orders... OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS General, Definitions, Issuance § 762.14 Amounts for which disbursement postal money orders may be issued. Disbursement Postal...

  11. 39 CFR 762.14 - Amounts for which disbursement postal money orders may be issued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amounts for which disbursement postal money orders... OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS General, Definitions, Issuance § 762.14 Amounts for which disbursement postal money orders may be issued. Disbursement Postal...

  12. 39 CFR 762.25 - Reclamation of amounts of paid disbursement postal money orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... money orders. 762.25 Section 762.25 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.25 Reclamation of amounts...

  13. 39 CFR 762.29 - Endorsement of disbursement postal money orders by payees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Endorsement of disbursement postal money orders by...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.29 Endorsement of disbursement postal...

  14. Postal Service in Colonial America: A Bibliography of Material in the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, National Postal Museum Branch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Timothy, Comp.; Shumate, Debra, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography of materials in the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, National Postal Museum Branch, is intended to promote the study of Colonial American postal service in the library. It focuses on postal service in the European settlements that became the United States. The first section lists 38 books, and the second sections…

  15. Dosimetric Characteristics for Brachytherapy Sources

    SciTech Connect

    DeWerd, Larry A.; Davis, Stephen D.

    2011-05-05

    Brachytherapy sources are characterized by the dosimetric parameters in a protocol such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 43. The air-kerma strength is measured and traceable to a primary standard. Then the parameters such as dose-rate constant, radial dose function, and anisotropy function are measured and related back to the primary standard. This is normally accomplished with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). Since radial dose function and anisotropy function are relative parameters, some of the dosimetric corrections are negligible. For the dose-rate constant, parameters such as the energy dependence compared with a calibration beam such as {sup 60}Co need to be accounted for. A description of the primary standard measurements and TLD measurements will be discussed.

  16. 78 FR 40203 - New Postal Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... Rate Boxes--Non-Published Rates (PMI RRB-NPR) to the competitive product list.\\1\\ It provides a related... pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642 and 39 CFR 3020 et seq. Id. at 1. The Postal Service describes PMI RRB-NPR as a... postage for PMI RRB on an annualized basis. Id. at 4. Certain requirements attach if customers use a...

  17. Elaboration d'un dosimetre a fibres scintillantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archambault, Louis

    Le but de ce travail est de developper un dosimetre constitue d'une matrice de petits scintillateurs plastiques. Ce dosimetre doit presenter une bonne precision et reproductibilite pour satisfaire aux exigences imposees par des techniques de radiotherapie de pointe comme la radiotherapie d'intensite modulee, la radiochirurgie et la tomotherapie. Le desavantage majeur de cette forme de dosimetrie est la presence de bruit produit par l'effet de la radiation sur la fibre optique transportant la lumiere de scintillation jusqu'au photodetecteur. Pour en reduire l'impact, une etude approfondie des dosimetres a scintillation a ete effectuee. Commencant par une modelisation theorique de la collecte et du guidage lumineux, ce travail a ete suivi d'une comparaison experimentale de plusieurs scintillateurs plastiques, de methodes de couplage, de photodetecteurs et de techniques de filtrage. Ces etudes ont permis de choisir les fibres scintillantes pour leur gain de signal de 50% relativement aux autres scintillateurs plastiques. La camera CCD est le photodetecteur le plus adapte pour ce projet etant donne une sensibilite et une stabilite suffisantes, une capacite d'evaluer 3000 signaux dosimetriques simultanement et un systeme de separation chromatique. Apres la selection des meilleures composantes, un dosimetre a ete developpe pour etudier la performance des techniques de filtrage. Il a ete demontre que, apres utilisation du meilleur filtrage, une precision superieure a 1% pouvait etre atteinte. Un dosimetre a trois detecteurs de volumes differents (0,0014, 0,0034 et 0,0083 cm 3) a demontre une linearite face a des taux de doses allant de 10 a 600 cGy/min et pour des temps d'integration entre 0,05 et 50 s. Une reproductibilite superieure a 1% a ete observee pour des doses minimales de 45, 35 et 20 cGy respectivement pour le petit, le moyen et le grand detecteur. Une matrice de 10 detecteurs espaces de 5 mm sur une ligne a ensuite ete realisee. Ce dosimetre s'est montre

  18. Application of Information Science in Postal Services, Telecommunications, and Management,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-27

    RD-A122 Oil APPLICATION OF INFORMATION SCIENCE IN POSTAL SERVICES i/i TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND MANAGEMENT(U) FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIV WRIGHT-PATTERSON...6hTWOJL GMIAU Or STAWSOI - 1963 -A FTD-ID(RS)T-1322-82 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION APPLICATION OF INFORMATION SCIENCE IN POSTAL SERVICES...82 EDITED TRANSLATION FTD-ID(RS)T-1322-82 27 October 1982 MICROFICHE NR: FTD-82-C-001369 APPLICATION OF INFORMATION SCIENCE IN POSTAL SERVICES

  19. Dosimetric methodology of the ICRP

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.

    1994-12-31

    Establishment of guidance for the protection of workers and members of the public from radiation exposures necessitates estimation of the radiation dose to tissues of the body at risk. The dosimetric methodology formulated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is intended to be responsive to this need. While developed for radiation protection, elements of the methodology are often applied in addressing other radiation issues; e.g., risk assessment. This chapter provides an overview of the methodology, discusses its recent extension to age-dependent considerations, and illustrates specific aspects of the methodology through a number of numerical examples.

  20. 39 CFR 778.10 - How does the Postal Service make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the Postal Service make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns? 778.10 Section 778.10 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE... Postal Service make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns? (a) If a state process provides...

  1. 39 CFR 762.27 - Processing of disbursement postal money orders by Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Federal Reserve Banks. 762.27 Section 762.27 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE... disbursement postal money orders by Federal Reserve Banks. In accordance with an agreement between the Postal Service and the Federal Reserve Banks as depositaries and fiscal agents of the United States,...

  2. 39 CFR 762.27 - Processing of disbursement postal money orders by Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Federal Reserve Banks. 762.27 Section 762.27 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE... disbursement postal money orders by Federal Reserve Banks. In accordance with an agreement between the Postal Service and the Federal Reserve Banks as depositaries and fiscal agents of the United States,...

  3. 39 CFR 762.27 - Processing of disbursement postal money orders by Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Reserve Banks. 762.27 Section 762.27 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE... disbursement postal money orders by Federal Reserve Banks. In accordance with an agreement between the Postal Service and the Federal Reserve Banks as depositaries and fiscal agents of the United States,...

  4. 39 CFR 762.28 - Release of original disbursement postal money orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of original disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.28 Release of original disbursement...

  5. 39 CFR 762.43 - Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Issuance of Substitutes for Lost, Destroyed, Mutilated, and Defaced Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.43 Issuance of substitute disbursement...

  6. 39 CFR 762.27 - Processing of disbursement postal money orders by Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Processing of disbursement postal money orders by... DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.27 Processing...

  7. 39 CFR 762.43 - Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Issuance of Substitutes for Lost, Destroyed, Mutilated, and Defaced Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.43 Issuance of substitute disbursement...

  8. 39 CFR 762.28 - Release of original disbursement postal money orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Release of original disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.28 Release of original disbursement...

  9. 39 CFR 762.43 - Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Issuance of Substitutes for Lost, Destroyed, Mutilated, and Defaced Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.43 Issuance of substitute disbursement...

  10. 39 CFR 762.43 - Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Issuance of Substitutes for Lost, Destroyed, Mutilated, and Defaced Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.43 Issuance of substitute disbursement...

  11. 39 CFR 762.28 - Release of original disbursement postal money orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release of original disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.28 Release of original disbursement...

  12. 39 CFR 762.43 - Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Issuance of Substitutes for Lost, Destroyed, Mutilated, and Defaced Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.43 Issuance of substitute disbursement...

  13. 39 CFR 762.27 - Processing of disbursement postal money orders by Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Processing of disbursement postal money orders by... DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.27 Processing...

  14. 39 CFR 762.28 - Release of original disbursement postal money orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Release of original disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.28 Release of original disbursement...

  15. 39 CFR 762.28 - Release of original disbursement postal money orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Release of original disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Endorsements, Payment, Guaranties, Warranties and Processing of Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.28 Release of original disbursement...

  16. 39 CFR 235.1 - Postal Service to the Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Postal Service to the Armed Forces. 235.1 Section... LIAISON § 235.1 Postal Service to the Armed Forces. (a) Publication 38, Postal Agreement with the... Armed Forces. (b) The Chief Inspector is responsible for military liaison. (c) Postal inspectors provide...

  17. 39 CFR 235.1 - Postal Service to the Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Postal Service to the Armed Forces. 235.1 Section... LIAISON § 235.1 Postal Service to the Armed Forces. (a) Publication 38, Postal Agreement with the... Armed Forces. (b) The Chief Inspector is responsible for military liaison. (c) Postal inspectors provide...

  18. 39 CFR 235.1 - Postal Service to the Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Postal Service to the Armed Forces. 235.1 Section... LIAISON § 235.1 Postal Service to the Armed Forces. (a) Publication 38, Postal Agreement with the... Armed Forces. (b) The Chief Inspector is responsible for military liaison. (c) Postal inspectors...

  19. 39 CFR 235.1 - Postal Service to the Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Postal Service to the Armed Forces. 235.1 Section... LIAISON § 235.1 Postal Service to the Armed Forces. (a) Publication 38, Postal Agreement with the... Armed Forces. (b) The Chief Inspector is responsible for military liaison. (c) Postal inspectors...

  20. 39 CFR 235.1 - Postal Service to the Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Postal Service to the Armed Forces. 235.1 Section... LIAISON § 235.1 Postal Service to the Armed Forces. (a) Publication 38, Postal Agreement with the... Armed Forces. (b) The Chief Inspector is responsible for military liaison. (c) Postal inspectors...

  1. 75 FR 16837 - Public Review of Draft United States Thoroughfare, Landmark, and Postal Address Data Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... exchange, and data quality. The Urban and Regional Information Systems Association (URISA), in conjunction... Address Data Standard AGENCY: Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. ACTION: Notice; request for comments on draft United States Thoroughfare, Landmark, and Postal Address Data Standard...

  2. 39 CFR 262.5 - Systems (Privacy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Systems (Privacy). 262.5 Section 262.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS § 262.5 Systems (Privacy). (a) Privacy Act system of records. A Postal Service system...

  3. IPIP: A new approach to inverse planning for HDR brachytherapy by directly optimizing dosimetric indices

    SciTech Connect

    Siauw, Timmy; Cunha, Adam; Atamtuerk, Alper; Hsu, I-Chow; Pouliot, Jean; Goldberg, Ken

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Many planning methods for high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy require an iterative approach. A set of computational parameters are hypothesized that will give a dose plan that meets dosimetric criteria. A dose plan is computed using these parameters, and if any dosimetric criteria are not met, the process is iterated until a suitable dose plan is found. In this way, the dose distribution is controlled by abstract parameters. The purpose of this study is to develop a new approach for HDR brachytherapy by directly optimizing the dose distribution based on dosimetric criteria. Methods: The authors developed inverse planning by integer program (IPIP), an optimization model for computing HDR brachytherapy dose plans and a fast heuristic for it. They used their heuristic to compute dose plans for 20 anonymized prostate cancer image data sets from patients previously treated at their clinic database. Dosimetry was evaluated and compared to dosimetric criteria. Results: Dose plans computed from IPIP satisfied all given dosimetric criteria for the target and healthy tissue after a single iteration. The average target coverage was 95%. The average computation time for IPIP was 30.1 s on an Intel(R) Core{sup TM}2 Duo CPU 1.67 GHz processor with 3 Gib RAM. Conclusions: IPIP is an HDR brachytherapy planning system that directly incorporates dosimetric criteria. The authors have demonstrated that IPIP has clinically acceptable performance for the prostate cases and dosimetric criteria used in this study, in both dosimetry and runtime. Further study is required to determine if IPIP performs well for a more general group of patients and dosimetric criteria, including other cancer sites such as GYN.

  4. 12 CFR 7.1010 - Postal service by national bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and operate a postal substation on banking premises and receive income from it. The services performed by the substation are those permitted under applicable rules of the United States Postal Service and... advertise, develop, and extend the services of the substation for the purpose of attracting customers to the...

  5. 77 FR 20656 - Postal Service Classification and Price Adjustments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... Postal Service Classification and Price Adjustments AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice... announcing its intent to implement Picture Permit Imprint Indicia as price categories for First-Class Mail... and price adjustment will permit certain images, such as corporate or product logos, to be placed in...

  6. 76 FR 9381 - Change in Contractual Priority Mail Postal Prices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Change in Contractual Priority Mail Postal Prices AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice... contractual Priority Mail prices. This document provides public notice of the changes and addresses related... of a change in prices pursuant to an amendment to Priority Mail Contract 7.\\1\\ The Notice includes...

  7. 78 FR 51678 - Market Tests of Experimental Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... 39 CFR Parts 3001 and 3035 Market Tests of Experimental Postal Products AGENCY: Postal Regulatory... Service filings concerning market tests of experimental products. The proposed rules address the contents of market test filings, describe how the filings will be reviewed, and discuss related matters. The...

  8. Dosimetric Predictors of Laryngeal Edema

    SciTech Connect

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe . E-mail: gisangui@utmb.edu; Adapala, Prashanth; Endres, Eugene J. C; Brack, Collin; Fiorino, Claudio; Sormani, Maria Pia; Parker, Brent

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate dosimetric predictors of laryngeal edema after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A total of 66 patients were selected who had squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck with grossly uninvolved larynx at the time of RT, no prior major surgical operation except for neck dissection and tonsillectomy, treatment planning data available for analysis, and at least one fiberoptic examination of the larynx within 2 years from RT performed by a single observer. Both the biologically equivalent mean dose at 2 Gy per fraction and the cumulative biologic dose-volume histogram of the larynx were extracted for each patient. Laryngeal edema was prospectively scored after treatment. Time to endpoint, moderate or worse laryngeal edema (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 2+), was calculated with log rank test from the date of treatment end. Results: At a median follow-up of 17.1 months (range, 0.4- 50.0 months), the risk of Grade 2+ edema was 58.9% {+-} 7%. Mean dose to the larynx, V30, V40, V50, V60, and V70 were significantly correlated with Grade 2+ edema at univariate analysis. At multivariate analysis, mean laryngeal dose (continuum, hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.15; p < 0.001), and positive neck stage at RT (N0-x vs. N +, hazard ratio, 3.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-9.58; p = 0.008) were the only independent predictors. Further stratification showed that, to minimize the risk of Grade 2+ edema, the mean dose to the larynx has to be kept {<=}43.5 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction. Conclusion: Laryngeal edema is strictly correlated with various dosimetric parameters; mean dose to the larynx should be kept {<=}43.5 Gy.

  9. Practical simplifications for radioimmunotherapy dosimetric models

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.; DeNardo, G.L.; O`Donnell, R.T.; Yuan, A.; DeNardo, D.A.; Macey, D.J.; DeNardo, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is potentially useful for assessment and prediction of efficacy and toxicity for radionuclide therapy. The usefulness of these dose estimates relies on the establishment of a dose-response model using accurate pharmacokinetic data and a radiation dosimetric model. Due to the complexity in radiation dose estimation, many practical simplifications have been introduced in the dosimetric modeling for clinical trials of radioimmunotherapy. Although research efforts are generally needed to improve the simplifications used at each stage of model development, practical simplifications are often possible for specific applications without significant consequences to the dose-response model. In the development of dosimetric methods for radioimmunotherapy, practical simplifications in the dosimetric models were introduced. This study evaluated the magnitude of uncertainty associated with practical simplifications for: (1) organ mass of the MIRD phantom; (2) radiation contribution from target alone; (3) interpolation of S value; (4) macroscopic tumor uniformity; and (5) fit of tumor pharmacokinetic data.

  10. Reevaluations of dosimetric factors: Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.; Thiessen, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 13 papers in this proceedings of a symposium on the reevaluation of dosimetric factors for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A summary and general discussion are included at the end of the proceedings. (KRM)

  11. Proton Radiotherapy for Liver Tumors: Dosimetric Advantages Over Photon Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiaochun Krishnan, Sunil; Zhang Xiaodong; Dong Lei; Briere, Tina; Crane, Christopher H.; Martel, Mary; Gillin, Michael; Mohan, Radhe; Beddar, Sam

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to dosimetrically investigate the advantages of proton radiotherapy over photon radiotherapy for liver tumors. The proton plan and the photon plan were designed using commercial treatment planning systems. The treatment target dose conformity and heterogeneity and dose-volume analyses of normal structures were compared between proton and photon radiotherapy for 9 patients with liver tumors. Proton radiotherapy delivered a more conformal target dose with slightly less homogeneity when compared with photon radiotherapy. Protons significantly reduced the fractional volume of liver receiving dose greater or equal to 30 Gy (V{sub 30}) and the mean liver dose. The stomach and duodenal V{sub 45} were significantly lower with the use of proton radiotherapy. The V{sub 40} and V{sub 50} of the heart and the maximum spinal cord dose were also significantly lower with the use of proton radiotherapy. Protons were better able to spare one kidney completely and deliver less dose to one (generally the left) kidney than photons. The mean dose to the total body and most critical structures was significantly decreased using protons when compared to corresponding photon plans. In conclusion, our study suggests the dosimetric benefits of proton radiotherapy over photon radiotherapy. These dosimetric advantages of proton plans may permit further dose escalation with lower risk of complications.

  12. Effective atomic numbers and electron density of dosimetric material

    PubMed Central

    Kaginelli, S. B.; Rajeshwari, T.; Sharanabasappa; Kerur, B. R.; Kumar, Anil S.

    2009-01-01

    A novel method for determination of mass attenuation coefficient of x-rays employing NaI (Tl) detector system and radioactive sources is described.in this paper. A rigid geometry arrangement and gating of the spectrometer at FWHM position and selection of absorber foils are all done following detailed investigation, to minimize the effect of small angle scattering and multiple scattering on the mass attenuation coefficient, μ/ρ, value. Firstly, for standardization purposes the mass attenuation coefficients of elemental foils such as Aluminum, Copper, Molybdenum, Tantalum and Lead are measured and then, this method is utilized for dosimetric interested material (sulfates). The experimental mass attenuation coefficient values are compared with the theoretical values to find good agreement between the theory and experiment within one to two per cent. The effective atomic numbers of the biological substitute material are calculated by sum rule and from the graph. The electron density of dosimetric material is calculated using the effective atomic number. The study has discussed in detail the attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of dosimetric material/biological substitutes. PMID:20098566

  13. A dosimetric comparison of two high-dose-rate brachytherapy planning systems in cervix cancer: standardized template planning vs. computerized treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Patone, Hassisen; Souhami, Luis; Parker, William; Evans, Michael; Duclos, Marie; Portelance, Lorraine

    2008-01-01

    High-dose-rate brachytherapy is an important component of the curative treatment for cervical cancer. Some institutions use standardized template planning (STP), based on a precalculated table of dose rates, instead of computerized treatment planning (CTP), based on digitized orthogonal X-ray films. STP can be used as a backup check in case of computer hardware malfunction, and/or as a way to minimize treatment planning time. We performed a dosimetric comparison of STP and CTP to determine dose differences at point A and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 38 bladder and rectal reference points. We retrospectively reviewed the treatment plans of 62 patients (135 applications) treated with a tandem and two ovoids using the CTP method. For each of these plans, we calculated the dwell times required to deliver the same prescription dose had STP been used. We also used the planning computer to vary tandem and ovoid geometry and develop a table of dose rates based on geometric parameters. The mean dose at point A was 7.6 Gy using CTP, increasing to 8.4 Gy when the STP approach was used (p<0.05). The mean doses at the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 38 bladder and rectal points were both 4.5 Gy with CTP and increased to 4.9 and 5.0 Gy, respectively using STP (p<0.05). Our table of dose rates showed significant dose rate dependency on the applicators geometry. Our study shows that if the STP approach had been used, a significantly higher dose would have been delivered, and that STP tables accounting for differences in implant geometry should be carefully considered.

  14. 39 CFR 761.8 - Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities; payment of interest, payment at maturity or upon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities... POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.8 Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities; payment of interest, payment at maturity or...

  15. 39 CFR 762.42 - Request for substitute disbursement postal money orders; requirements for undertaking of indemnity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Request for substitute disbursement postal money... POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Issuance of Substitutes for Lost, Destroyed, Mutilated, and Defaced Disbursement...

  16. 39 CFR 762.42 - Request for substitute disbursement postal money orders; requirements for undertaking of indemnity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Request for substitute disbursement postal money... POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Issuance of Substitutes for Lost, Destroyed, Mutilated, and Defaced Disbursement...

  17. 39 CFR 761.8 - Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities; payment of interest, payment at maturity or upon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities... POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.8 Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities; payment of interest, payment at maturity or upon...

  18. 39 CFR 761.8 - Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities; payment of interest, payment at maturity or upon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities... POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.8 Servicing book-entry Postal Service securities; payment of interest, payment at maturity or upon...

  19. Reform the Postal Service for the 21st Century Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Connolly, Gerald E. [D-VA-11

    2011-03-30

    04/01/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, U.S. Postal Service, and Labor Policy. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. 39 CFR 601.104 - Postal purchasing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS PURCHASING OF PROPERTY AND SERVICES § 601.104 Postal purchasing..., or terminating any contract regarding the acquisition of property, services, and related...

  1. Reform the Postal Service for the 21st Century Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Connolly, Gerald E. [D-VA-11

    2011-03-30

    04/01/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, U.S. Postal Service, and Labor Policy. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Reform the Postal Service for the 21st Century Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Connolly, Gerald E. [D-VA-11

    2011-03-30

    House - 04/01/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, U.S. Postal Service, and Labor Policy. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. 75 FR 10843 - Special Summer Postal Rate Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... threshold is the amount of Standard Mail for each participating company sent through the Permit(s) or Ghost... foster relationships with existing and new patrons with limited investment, and the Postal Service,...

  4. 39 CFR 3060.43 - Annual transfer from competitive products fund to Postal Service fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual transfer from competitive products fund to... transfer from competitive products fund to Postal Service fund. (a) The Postal Service must on an annual... Products Fund to the Postal Service Fund. (b) If the assumed taxable income from competitive products for...

  5. 76 FR 37660 - Rules of Practice Before the Postal Service Board of Contract Appeals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... 955 Rules of Practice Before the Postal Service Board of Contract Appeals AGENCY: Postal Service. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal Service is revising portions of the rules of practice before the.... Executive Summary The rules of practice in proceedings before the Postal Service Board of Contract Appeals...

  6. 39 CFR 281.2 - Action required by processing postal officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... center director of customer services at the office of mailing. The notification should include, but not... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Action required by processing postal officials. 281.2 Section 281.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION FIRM...

  7. 39 CFR 281.2 - Action required by processing postal officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... center director of customer services at the office of mailing. The notification should include, but not... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Action required by processing postal officials. 281.2 Section 281.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION FIRM...

  8. 39 CFR 281.2 - Action required by processing postal officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... center director of customer services at the office of mailing. The notification should include, but not... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Action required by processing postal officials. 281.2 Section 281.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION...

  9. 39 CFR 281.2 - Action required by processing postal officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... center director of customer services at the office of mailing. The notification should include, but not... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Action required by processing postal officials. 281.2 Section 281.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION...

  10. 39 CFR 281.2 - Action required by processing postal officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... center director of customer services at the office of mailing. The notification should include, but not... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Action required by processing postal officials. 281.2 Section 281.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION...

  11. Dosimetric characteristics of the Elekta Beam Modulator.

    PubMed

    Patel, I; Glendinning, A G; Kirby, M C

    2005-12-07

    The dosimetric characteristics of a production pilot multi-leaf collimator (Elekta Beam Modulator, Elekta Oncology Systems, Crawley, UK) having a 4 mm leaf width (at isocentre) have been investigated. Characteristics explored included leaf bank set-up, penumbra width (80-20%) as a function of leaf position, leaf positioning reproducibility, interleaf leakage and leaf transmission. The penumbra values for leaf ends were measured to be between 4.2 and 4.8 mm for various large rectangular fields studied using Kodak X-omat V film at isocentre (1.5 cm deep). Similar films were taken with a standard 1 cm width multi-leaf collimator (MLC) and the penumbra for leaf ends was found to range from 4.3 to 5.2 mm. Other results showed that the rounded leaf tip provided tight control of the penumbra across the leaves' full range of travel. The positioning of the leaves was within a 0.5 mm range when approaching from the same direction. The maximum interleaf leakage was found to be 1.7% and the average leaf transmission less than 1.0%. No major differences were observed in leakage and transmission with changing gantry angle.

  12. Dosimetric effects of patient rotational setup errors on prostate IMRT treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Weihua; Yang, Yong; Li, Xiang; Heron, Dwight E.; Saiful Huq, M.; Yue, Ning J.

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine dose delivery errors that could result from systematic rotational setup errors (ΔΦ) for prostate cancer patients treated with three-phase sequential boost IMRT. In order to implement this, different rotational setup errors around three Cartesian axes were simulated for five prostate patients and dosimetric indices, such as dose-volume histogram (DVH), tumour control probability (TCP), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and equivalent uniform dose (EUD), were employed to evaluate the corresponding dosimetric influences. Rotational setup errors were simulated by adjusting the gantry, collimator and horizontal couch angles of treatment beams and the dosimetric effects were evaluated by recomputing the dose distributions in the treatment planning system. Our results indicated that, for prostate cancer treatment with the three-phase sequential boost IMRT technique, the rotational setup errors do not have significant dosimetric impacts on the cumulative plan. Even in the worst-case scenario with ΔΦ = 3°, the prostate EUD varied within 1.5% and TCP decreased about 1%. For seminal vesicle, slightly larger influences were observed. However, EUD and TCP changes were still within 2%. The influence on sensitive structures, such as rectum and bladder, is also negligible. This study demonstrates that the rotational setup error degrades the dosimetric coverage of target volume in prostate cancer treatment to a certain degree. However, the degradation was not significant for the three-phase sequential boost prostate IMRT technique and for the margin sizes used in our institution.

  13. Comparing the dosimetric characteristics of the electron beam from dedicated intraoperative and conventional radiotherapy accelerators.

    PubMed

    Baghani, Hamid Reza; Aghamiri, Seyed Mahmoud Reza; Mahdavi, Seyed Rabi; Akbari, Mohammad Esmail; Mirzaei, Hamid Reza

    2015-03-08

    The specific design of the mobile dedicated intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) accelerators and different electron beam collimation system can change the dosimetric characteristics of electron beam with respect to the conventional accelerators. The aim of this study is to measure and compare the dosimetric characteristics of electron beam produced by intraoperative and conventional radiotherapy accelerators. To this end, percentage depth dose along clinical axis (PDD), transverse dose profile (TDP), and output factor of LIAC IORT and Varian 2100C/D conventional radiotherapy accelerators were measured and compared. TDPs were recorded at depth of maximum dose. The results of this work showed that depths of maximum dose, R90, R50, and RP for LIAC beam are lower than those of Varian beam. Furthermore, for all energies, surface doses related to the LIAC beam are substantially higher than those of Varian beam. The symmetry and flatness of LIAC beam profiles are more desirable compared to the Varian ones. Contrary to Varian accelerator, output factor of LIAC beam substantially increases with a decrease in the size of the applicator. Dosimetric characteristics of beveled IORT applicators along clinical axis were different from those of the flat ones. From these results, it can be concluded that dosimetric characteristics of intraoperative electron beam are substantially different from those of conventional clinical electron beam. The dosimetric characteristics of the LIAC electron beam make it a useful tool for intraoperative radiotherapy purposes.

  14. Dosimetric accuracy of a staged radiosurgery treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernica, George; de Boer, Steven F.; Diaz, Aidnag; Fenstermaker, Robert A.; Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    2005-05-01

    For large cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), the efficacy of radiosurgery is limited since the large doses necessary to produce obliteration may increase the risk of radiation necrosis to unacceptable levels. An alternative is to stage the radiosurgery procedure over multiple stages (usually two), effectively irradiating a smaller volume of the AVM nidus with a therapeutic dose during each session. The difference between coordinate systems defined by sequential stereotactic frame placements can be represented by a translation and a rotation. A unique transformation can be determined based on the coordinates of several fiducial markers fixed to the skull and imaged in each stereotactic coordinate system. Using this transformation matrix, isocentre coordinates from the first stage can be displayed in the coordinate system of subsequent stages allowing computation of a combined dose distribution covering the entire AVM. The accuracy of this approach was tested on an anthropomorphic head phantom and was verified dosimetrically. Subtle defects in the phantom were used as control points, and 2 mm diameter steel balls attached to the surface were used as fiducial markers and reference points. CT images (2 mm thick) were acquired. Using a transformation matrix developed with two frame placements, the predicted locations of control and reference points had an average error of 0.6 mm near the fiducial markers and 1.0 mm near the control points. Dose distributions in a staged treatment approach were accurately calculated using the transformation matrix. This approach is simple, fast and accurate. Errors were small and clinically acceptable for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Accuracy can be improved by reducing the CT slice thickness.

  15. NOTE: Monte Carlo dosimetric study of the BEBIG Co-60 HDR source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, F.; Granero, D.; Pérez-Calatayud, J.; Casal, E.; Agramunt, S.; Cases, R.

    2005-11-01

    Although not as widespread as Ir-192, Co-60 is also available on afterloading equipment devoted to high dose rate brachytherapy, mainly addressed to the treatment of gynaecological lesions. The purpose of this study is to obtain the dosimetric parameters of the Co-60 source used by the BEBIG MultiSource remote afterloader (BEBIG GmbH, Germany) for which there are no dosimetric data available in the literature. The Monte Carlo code GEANT4 has been used to obtain the TG43 parameters and the 2D dose rate table in Cartesian coordinates of the BEBIG Co-60 HDR source. The dose rate constant, radial dose function and anisotropy function have been calculated and are presented in a tabular form as well as a detailed 2D dose rate table in Cartesian coordinates. These dosimetric datasets can be used as input data and to validate the treatment planning system calculations.

  16. Transport and dosimetric solutions for the ELIMED laser-driven beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Amato, A.; Candiano, G.; Cuttone, G.; Giove, D.; Korn, G.; Krasa, J.; Leanza, R.; Manna, R.; Maggiore, M.; Marchese, V.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Sabini, M. G.; Schillaci, F.; Tramontana, A.; Valastro, L.; Velyhan, A.

    2015-10-01

    Within 2017, the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical applications) transport beam-line and dosimetric systems for laser-generated beams will be installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility in Prague (CZ), inside the ELIMAIA (ELI Multidisciplinary Applications of laser-Ion Acceleration) interaction room. The beam-line will be composed of two sections: one in vacuum, devoted to the collecting, focusing and energy selection of the primary beam and the second in air, where the ELIMED beam-line dosimetric devices will be located. This paper briefly describes the transport solutions that will be adopted together with the main dosimetric approaches. In particular, the description of an innovative Faraday Cup detector with its preliminary experimental tests will be reported.

  17. CURRENT STATUS OF INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRIC MONITORING IN UKRAINE.

    PubMed

    Chumak, V; Deniachenko, N; Makarovska, O; Mihailescu, L-C; Prykhodko, A; Voloskyi, V; Vanhavere, F

    2016-09-01

    About 50 000 workers are being occupationally exposed to radiation in Ukraine. Individual dosimetric monitoring (IDM) is provided by 77 dosimetry services and laboratories of very different scale with a number of monitored workers ranging from several persons to ∼9000. In the present work, the current status of personal dosimetry in Ukraine was studied. The First National Intercomparison (FNI) of the IDM labs was accompanied by a survey of the laboratory operation in terms of coverage, types of dosimetry provided, instrumentation and methodologies used, metrological support, data recording, etc. Totally, 34 laboratories responded to the FNI call, and 18 services with 19 different personal dosimetry systems took part in the intercomparison exercise providing 24 dosimeters each for blind irradiation to photons of 6 different qualities (ISO N-series X-rays, S-Cs and S-Co sources) in a dose range of 5-60 mSv. Performance of the dosimetry labs was evaluated according to ISO 14146 criteria of matching trumpet curves with H0 = 0.2 mSv. The test revealed that 8 of the 19 systems meet ISO 14146 criteria in full, 5 other labs show marginal performance and 6 laboratories demonstrated catastrophic quality of dosimetric results. Altogether, 18 participating labs provide dosimetric monitoring to 37 477 workers (about three-fourths of all occupationally exposed workers), usually on monthly (nuclear industry) or quarterly (rest of applications) basis. Of this number, 20 664 persons (55 %) receive completely adequate individual monitoring, and the number of personnel receiving IDM of inadequate quality counts 3054 persons. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. 39 CFR 501.2 - Postage Evidencing System provider authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Suite 4200, Washington, DC 20260-4200. Information updates may be found on the Postal Service Web site... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Postage Evidencing System provider authorization. 501.2 Section 501.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAGE PROGRAMS AUTHORIZATION TO...

  19. 39 CFR 111.3 - Amendments to the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. 111.3 Section 111.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL... Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. (a) Except for interim or final... changes made to the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual...

  20. Patient doses and dosimetric evaluations in interventional cardiology.

    PubMed

    Bor, Dogan; Olğar, Turan; Toklu, Türkay; Cağlan, Ayça; Onal, Elif; Padovani, Renato

    2009-03-01

    Interventional cardiological examinations may be associated with excessive radiation exposures which may cause skin injuries and higher probabilities of stochastic effects. Dose-area product (DAP) and skin doses of 325 patients were measured using alternative dosimetric techniques for different cardiological examinations. Data were collected from five different systems with the involvement of 11 cardiologists. All these dosimetric information has been collected separately for each of 10 projections together with the exposure parameters of X-ray systems. Mean DAP values measured with a transparent ion chamber were 49.1 Gy cm(2), 66.8 Gy cm(2), 106.9 Gy cm(2) and 124.7 Gy cm(2), respectively, for coronary angiography (CA), percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or stent (PT-SI), coronary angiography and/or PTCA and/or stent (CA-PT-SI), and ablation examinations. Radiochromic films, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) and point measurement of air kerma (AK) were carried out for skin dose assessments. Skin doses of 23 patients measured with radiochromic films were found to be between 2 Gy and 6 Gy. Although the complexity of the procedures was the major reason for these excessive doses, considerable contributions of high X-ray output of some fluoroscopy units were also noticed. In addition to the direct measurement of DAP, alternative DAP values were also determined from the skin dose measurement techniques; exposed areas were summed on digitized radiochromic films in one technique, The product of AK reading with X-ray field size measured at the patient entrance using slow X-ray films was taken as another DAP. Good correlations were found among the DAP results and also between the entrance skin doses calculated from AK measurements and direct DAP readings (R(2)=0.91). A trigger DAP value of 130 Gy cm(2) for the 2 Gy of skin doses was derived from this relationship. Collection of dosimetric data for each projection was also investigated regarding a

  1. Dosimetric accuracy of a deterministic radiation transport based {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy treatment planning system. Part II: Monte Carlo and experimental verification of a multiple source dwell position plan employing a shielded applicator

    SciTech Connect

    Petrokokkinos, L.; Zourari, K.; Pantelis, E.; Moutsatsos, A.; Karaiskos, P.; Sakelliou, L.; Seimenis, I.; Georgiou, E.; Papagiannis, P.

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is the dosimetric validation of a deterministic radiation transport based treatment planning system (BRACHYVISION v. 8.8, referred to as TPS in the following) for multiple {sup 192}Ir source dwell position brachytherapy applications employing a shielded applicator in homogeneous water geometries. Methods: TPS calculations for an irradiation plan employing seven VS2000 {sup 192}Ir high dose rate (HDR) source dwell positions and a partially shielded applicator (GM11004380) were compared to corresponding Monte Carlo (MC) simulation results, as well as experimental results obtained using the VIP polymer gel-magnetic resonance imaging three-dimensional dosimetry method with a custom made phantom. Results: TPS and MC dose distributions were found in agreement which is mainly within {+-}2%. Considerable differences between TPS and MC results (greater than 2%) were observed at points in the penumbra of the shields (i.e., close to the edges of the ''shielded'' segment of the geometries). These differences were experimentally verified and therefore attributed to the TPS. Apart from these regions, experimental and TPS dose distributions were found in agreement within 2 mm distance to agreement and 5% dose difference criteria. As shown in this work, these results mark a significant improvement relative to dosimetry algorithms that disregard the presence of the shielded applicator since the use of the latter leads to dosimetry errors on the order of 20%-30% at the edge of the ''unshielded'' segment of the geometry and even 2%-6% at points corresponding to the potential location of the target volume in clinical applications using the applicator (points in the unshielded segment at short distances from the applicator). Conclusions: Results of this work attest the capability of the TPS to accurately account for the scatter conditions and the increased attenuation involved in HDR brachytherapy applications employing multiple source dwell positions and

  2. Postal Service unveils new space stamps at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Postal Service unveils its newest series of stamps, Space Discovery, at the KSC Visitor Complex. The event coincided with NASA's 40th anniversary on this date. Participating in the unveiling are (left to right) Barry Ziehl, U.S. Postal Service; JoAnn Morgan, KSC associate director of advanced development and shuttle upgrades; Karla Corcoran, Postal Service inspector general; Kristene A. Graves, a student from Lewis Carroll Elementary School ; and Dr. Donald Thomas, astronaut and veteran of four Shuttle missions. Behind them is the mockup of an orbiter. During the ceremony, Kristene read her essay 'My Stamp Adventure' that she had written for an area-wide contest for the event. The stamps were designed by renowned aerospace artist Attila Heija. The strip of five individual stamps together make up a futuristic scene complete with space vehicles, a futuristic space city, and space explorers. The stamps are available nationwide beginning Oct. 1.

  3. Postal Service unveils new space stamps at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Applauding the unveiling of the U.S. Postal Service's newest series of stamps, Space Discovery, are are (left to right) Barry Ziehl, U.S. Postal Service; JoAnn Morgan, KSC associate director of advanced development and shuttle upgrades; Karla Corcoran, Postal Service inspector general; Kristene A. Graves, a student from Lewis Carroll Elementary School; and Dr. Donald Thomas, astronaut and veteran of four Shuttle missions. During the ceremony, Kristene read her essay 'My Stamp Adventure' that she had written for an area-wide contest for the event. The unveiling took place at the KSC Visitor Complex and coincided with NASA's 40th anniversary on this date. Behind the large display can be seen the mockup of an orbiter. The stamps were designed by renowned aerospace artist Attila Heija. The strip of five individual stamps together make up a futuristic scene complete with space vehicles, a futuristic space city, and space explorers. The stamps are available nationwide beginning Oct. 1.

  4. A biokinetic and dosimetric model for ionic indium in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Martin; Mattsson, Sören; Johansson, Lennart; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews biokinetic data for ionic indium, and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic indium in adult humans. The development of parameter values focuses on human data and indium in the form of ionic indium(III), as indium chloride and indium arsenide. The model presented for systemic indium is defined by five different pools: plasma, bone marrow, liver, kidneys and other soft tissues. The model is based on two subsystems: one corresponding to indium bound to transferrin and one where indium is transported back to the plasma, binds to red blood cell transferrin and is then excreted through the kidneys to the urinary bladder. Absorbed doses to several organs and the effective dose are calculated for 111In- and 113mIn-ions. The proposed biokinetic model is compared with previously published biokinetic indium models published by the ICRP. The absorbed doses are calculated using the ICRP/ICRU adult reference phantoms and the effective dose is estimated according to ICRP Publication 103. The effective doses for 111In and 113mIn are 0.25 mSv MBq-1 and 0.013 mSv MBq-1 respectively. The updated biokinetic and dosimetric models presented in this paper take into account human data and new animal data, which represent more detailed and presumably more accurate dosimetric data than that underlying previous models for indium.

  5. Comparison of Dosimetric Performance among Commercial Quality Assurance Systems for Verifying Pretreatment Plans of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Using Flattening-Filter-Free Beams

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of different commercial quality assurance (QA) systems for the pretreatment verification plan of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) with volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) technique using a flattening-filter-free beam. The verification for 20 pretreatment cancer patients (seven lung, six spine, and seven prostate cancers) were tested using three QA systems (EBT3 film, I’mRT MatriXX array, and MapCHECK). All the SBRT-VMAT plans were optimized in the Eclipse (version 11.0.34) treatment planning system (TPS) using the Acuros XB dose calculation algorithm and were delivered to the Varian TrueBeam® accelerator equipped with a high-definition multileaf collimator. Gamma agreement evaluation was analyzed with the criteria of 2% dose difference and 2 mm distance to agreement (2%/2 mm) or 3%/3 mm. The highest passing rate (99.1% for 3%/3 mm) was observed on the MapCHECK system while the lowest passing rate was obtained on the film. The pretreatment verification results depend on the QA systems, treatment sites, and delivery beam energies. However, the delivery QA results for all QA systems based on the TPS calculation showed a good agreement of more than 90% for both the criteria. It is concluded that the three 2D QA systems have sufficient potential for pretreatment verification of the SBRT-VMAT plan. PMID:27709851

  6. Military Postal Service Task Group. Recommendations Regarding the Military Postal System of the Department of Defense.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    unify the processes, technology, training, procedures and funding for military mail. Such an approach would allow DoD to achieve economies of scale...business model that capitalizes on economies of scale and organizational efficiencies • Require compatibility with current supply chain management...0 8 8 0 0 0 210 2016 2226 0 0 0 210 2024 2234 Government Service (GS) 29 48 290 2 352 Contractors 36 63 199 65 363 Totals 630 793 3243 532 5198 US

  7. 76 FR 59768 - Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice... the meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services scheduled...

  8. 76 FR 53982 - New Postal Product and Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Filing Functionally Equivalent Agreement, August 16, 2011 (Notice). See also Docket Nos. MC2010-35, R2010... States Postal Service and Koninklijke TNT Post BV and TNT Post Pakketservice Benelux BV (TNT Agreement...). In Order No. 700, the Commission approved the functionally equivalent HongKong Post Agreement.\\2\\...

  9. 77 FR 64362 - Postal Rate and Classification Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... forgone from these promotions by factoring the lost revenue into the price cap calculation. Id. at 9. The...: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service notice of annual price adjustments for all market dominant classes of mail. The adjustments include a one-cent increase in the price of...

  10. 39 CFR 232.1 - Conduct on postal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... brought upon postal property for other than official purposes. (k) Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. (1... signals and directions of security force personnel, other authorized individuals, and all posted traffic... head from time to time by the issuance and posting of specific traffic directives as may be...

  11. 39 CFR 232.1 - Conduct on postal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... brought upon postal property for other than official purposes. (k) Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. (1... signals and directions of security force personnel, other authorized individuals, and all posted traffic... head from time to time by the issuance and posting of specific traffic directives as may be...

  12. 39 CFR 232.1 - Conduct on postal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... brought upon postal property for other than official purposes. (k) Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. (1... signals and directions of security force personnel, other authorized individuals, and all posted traffic... head from time to time by the issuance and posting of specific traffic directives as may be...

  13. 39 CFR 232.1 - Conduct on postal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... brought upon postal property for other than official purposes. (k) Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. (1... signals and directions of security force personnel, other authorized individuals, and all posted traffic... head from time to time by the issuance and posting of specific traffic directives as may be...

  14. Sun safety knowledge and practice in UK postal delivery workers

    PubMed Central

    Davis, S.; Griffiths, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Postal delivery workers spend a large proportion of their work time outdoors, placing them at increased risk of skin cancer. To date, no studies have examined occupational sun safety knowledge and practice within this group in the UK. Aims To describe the occupational sun safety knowledge and practice of UK postal delivery workers and to investigate the association of demographic, personal and occupational factors with knowledge and practice in order to identify potential strategies for improving sun safety in this occupational group. Methods Postal delivery workers completed a questionnaire that collected data on occupational sun safety knowledge and practice in addition to demographic, personal and workplace characteristics. One-way analysis of variances were applied to assess differences in knowledge and practice by these characteristics. Results A total of 1153 postal delivery workers completed the questionnaire, a 60% response rate. Thirty-three per cent reported receiving sun safety training within the previous 12 months. The majority of respondents reported correct knowledge on three of the six domains and good practice on four of the six behavioural domains. However, only one-fifth of respondents reported wearing sunglasses and ensuring a plentiful intake of water. Knowledge and practice differed significantly according to demographic, personal and workplace characteristics. Conclusions There is a need to raise the profile of occupational skin cancer in this occupational group and to increase the priority given to occupational sun safety policies alongside targeted and tailored interventions, the effect of which can be evaluated. PMID:26675005

  15. 75 FR 31702 - General Information on Postal Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM), and its incorporation by reference in the Code... INFORMATION: The most recent Issue 300 of the Domestic Mail Manual (DMM) was issued on May 11, 2009. This... information they need, and (3) reduce the need to consult multiple chapters of the Manual to locate necessary...

  16. 28 CFR 540.22 - Special postal services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.22 Special postal services. (a) An inmate, at no cost to the government, may send correspondence by registered, certified, or insured mail, and may request a return receipt. (b) An inmate may insure outgoing personal correspondence (e.g., a...

  17. 28 CFR 540.22 - Special postal services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.22 Special postal services. (a) An inmate, at no cost to the government, may send correspondence by registered, certified, or insured mail, and may request a return receipt. (b) An inmate may insure outgoing personal correspondence (e.g., a...

  18. 28 CFR 540.22 - Special postal services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.22 Special postal services. (a) An inmate, at no cost to the government, may send correspondence by registered, certified, or insured mail, and may request a return receipt. (b) An inmate may insure outgoing personal correspondence (e.g., a...

  19. 28 CFR 540.22 - Special postal services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.22 Special postal services. (a) An inmate, at no cost to the government, may send correspondence by registered, certified, or insured mail, and may request a return receipt. (b) An inmate may insure outgoing personal correspondence (e.g., a...

  20. 28 CFR 540.22 - Special postal services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.22 Special postal services. (a) An inmate, at no cost to the government, may send correspondence by registered, certified, or insured mail, and may request a return receipt. (b) An inmate may insure outgoing personal correspondence (e.g., a...

  1. 39 CFR 255.8 - Access to postal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 255.8 Access to postal facilities. (a) Legal requirements and policy—(1) ABA Standards. Where the design standards of the Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) of 1968, 42 U.S.C. 4151 et seq., do not apply... facilities not legally required to conform to ABA standards when it determines that doing so would...

  2. Dosimetric validation and clinical implementation of two 3D dose verification systems for quality assurance in volumetric-modulated arc therapy techniques.

    PubMed

    Clemente-Gutiérrez, Francisco; Pérez-Vara, Consuelo

    2015-03-08

    A pretreatment quality assurance program for volumetric techniques should include redundant calculations and measurement-based verifications. The patient-specific quality assurance process must be based in clinically relevant metrics. The aim of this study was to show the commission, clinical implementation, and comparison of two systems that allow performing a 3D redundant dose calculation. In addition, one of them is capable of reconstructing the dose on patient anatomy from measurements taken with a 2D ion chamber array. Both systems were compared in terms of reference calibration data (absolute dose, output factors, percentage depth-dose curves, and profiles). Results were in good agreement for absolute dose values (discrepancies were below 0.5%) and output factors (mean differences were below 1%). Maximum mean discrepancies were located between 10 and 20 cm of depth for PDDs (-2.7%) and in the penumbra region for profiles (mean DTA of 1.5 mm). Validation of the systems was performed by comparing point-dose measurements with values obtained by the two systems for static, dynamic fields from AAPM TG-119 report, and 12 real VMAT plans for different anatomical sites (differences better than 1.2%). Comparisons between measurements taken with a 2D ion chamber array and results obtained by both systems for real VMAT plans were also performed (mean global gamma passing rates better than 87.0% and 97.9% for the 2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm criteria). Clinical implementation of the systems was evaluated by comparing dose-volume parameters for all TG-119 tests and real VMAT plans with TPS values (mean differences were below 1%). In addition, comparisons between dose distributions calculated by TPS and those extracted by the two systems for real VMAT plans were also performed (mean global gamma passing rates better than 86.0% and 93.0% for the 2%/2 mm and 3%/ 3 mm criteria). The clinical use of both systems was successfully evaluated.

  3. Electromagnetic real-time tumor position monitoring and dynamic multileaf collimator tracking using a Siemens 160 MLC: geometric and dosimetric accuracy of an integrated system.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Andreas; Nill, Simeon; Tacke, Martin; Oelfke, Uwe

    2011-02-01

    Dynamic multileaf collimator tracking represents a promising method for high-precision radiotherapy to moving tumors. In the present study, we report on the integration of electromagnetic real-time tumor position monitoring into a multileaf collimator-based tracking system. The integrated system was characterized in terms of its geometric and radiologic accuracy. The former was assessed from portal images acquired during radiation delivery to a phantom in tracking mode. The tracking errors were calculated from the positions of the tracking field and of the phantom as extracted from the portal images. Radiologic accuracy was evaluated from film dosimetry performed for conformal and intensity-modulated radiotherapy applied to different phantoms moving on sinusoidal trajectories. A static radiation delivery to the nonmoving target served as a reference for the delivery to the moving phantom with and without tracking applied. Submillimeter tracking accuracy was observed for two-dimensional target motion despite the relatively large system latency of 500 ms. Film dosimetry yielded almost complete recovery of a circular dose distribution with tracking in two dimensions applied: 2%/2 mm gamma-failure rates could be reduced from 59.7% to 3.3%. For single-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy delivery, accuracy was limited by the finite leaf width. A 2%/2 mm gamma-failure rate of 15.6% remained with tracking applied. The integrated system we have presented marks a major step toward the clinical implementation of high-precision dynamic multileaf collimator tracking. However, several challenges such as irregular motion traces or a thorough quality assurance still need to be addressed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Electromagnetic Real-Time Tumor Position Monitoring and Dynamic Multileaf Collimator Tracking Using a Siemens 160 MLC: Geometric and Dosimetric Accuracy of an Integrated System

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Andreas; Nill, Simeon; Tacke, Martin; Oelfke, Uwe

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: Dynamic multileaf collimator tracking represents a promising method for high-precision radiotherapy to moving tumors. In the present study, we report on the integration of electromagnetic real-time tumor position monitoring into a multileaf collimator-based tracking system. Methods and Materials: The integrated system was characterized in terms of its geometric and radiologic accuracy. The former was assessed from portal images acquired during radiation delivery to a phantom in tracking mode. The tracking errors were calculated from the positions of the tracking field and of the phantom as extracted from the portal images. Radiologic accuracy was evaluated from film dosimetry performed for conformal and intensity-modulated radiotherapy applied to different phantoms moving on sinusoidal trajectories. A static radiation delivery to the nonmoving target served as a reference for the delivery to the moving phantom with and without tracking applied. Results: Submillimeter tracking accuracy was observed for two-dimensional target motion despite the relatively large system latency of 500 ms. Film dosimetry yielded almost complete recovery of a circular dose distribution with tracking in two dimensions applied: 2%/2 mm gamma-failure rates could be reduced from 59.7% to 3.3%. For single-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy delivery, accuracy was limited by the finite leaf width. A 2%/2 mm gamma-failure rate of 15.6% remained with tracking applied. Conclusion: The integrated system we have presented marks a major step toward the clinical implementation of high-precision dynamic multileaf collimator tracking. However, several challenges such as irregular motion traces or a thorough quality assurance still need to be addressed.

  5. 75 FR 57102 - Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice; FACA... Postal and Delivery Services. This Committee has been formed in fulfillment of the provisions of the 2006... related to international postal and delivery services of interest to Advisory Committee members and the...

  6. 77 FR 2340 - Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice of... the renewal of the charter of the Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services in... oversight of foreign policy related to international postal services and other international...

  7. 76 FR 54829 - Advisory Committee On International Postal and Delivery Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Committee On International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice... International Postal and Delivery Services. This Committee has been formed in fulfillment of the provisions of... related to international postal and delivery services that are of interest to Advisory Committee...

  8. 76 FR 15028 - Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice; FACA... Postal and Delivery Services. This Committee has been formed in fulfillment of the provisions of the 2006... related to international postal and delivery services of interest to Advisory Committee members and...

  9. 78 FR 57671 - Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services; Membership Renewals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services; Membership Renewals AGENCY: Department of State... international postal and private-sector delivery services. The Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services was created in accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463)....

  10. 75 FR 4273 - Conduct on Postal Property; Penalties and Other Law

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... regulation. List of Subjects in 39 CFR Part 232 Authority delegations (Government agencies), Crime, Federal... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 232 Conduct on Postal Property; Penalties and Other Law AGENCY: Postal Service. ACTION: Final rule...

  11. 75 FR 28204 - Conduct on Postal Property; Penalties and Other Law

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Authority delegations (Government agencies), Crime, Federal buildings and facilities, Government property... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 232 Conduct on Postal Property; Penalties and Other Law AGENCY: Postal Service. ACTION: Final rule...

  12. 39 CFR 760.1 - Treasury Department regulations; applicability to Postal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treasury Department regulations; applicability to... OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS APPLICABILITY OF TREASURY DEPARTMENT REGULATIONS § 760.1 Treasury Department regulations; applicability to Postal Service. The provisions of Treasury...

  13. We Were There: Letters from the Battle Front. Postal Pack for Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Postal Museum, Washington, DC. Education Dept.

    This curriculum guide includes letters and postal history from three U.S. wars: the Civil War, World War II, and the Vietnam War. The postal pack was developed with the idea that letters and stamps present personal perspectives that enable students to comprehend the past better. Letters in the postal pack are printed in both the original…

  14. SU-C-201-02: Dosimetric Verification of SBRT with FFF-VMAT Using a 3-D Radiochromic/Optical-CT Dosimetry System

    SciTech Connect

    Na, Y; Black, P; Wuu, C; Adamovics, J

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: With an increasing use of small field size and high dose rate irradiation in the advances of radiotherapy techniques, such as stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), an in-depth quality assurance (QA) system is required. The purpose of this study is to investigate a high resolution optical CT-based 3D radiochromic dosimetry system for SBRT with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and flattening filter free (FFF) volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods: Cylindrical PRESAGE radiochromic dosimeters of 10cm height and 11cm diameter were used to validate SBRT. Four external landmarks were placed on the surface of each dosimeter to define the isocenter of target. SBRT plans were delivered using a Varian TrueBeam™ linear accelerator (LINAC). Three validation plans, SBRT with IMRT (6MV 600MU/min), FFF-VMAT (10MV 2400MU/min), and mixed FFF-VMAT (6MV 1400MU/min, 10MV 2400MU/min), were delivered to the PRESAGE dosimeters. Each irradiated PRESAGE dosimeter was scanned using a single laser beam optical CT scanner and reconstructed with a 1mm × 1mm high spatial resolution. The comparison of measured dose distributions of irradiated PRESAGE dosimeters to those calculated by Pinnacle{sup 3} treatment planning system (TPS) were performed with a 10% dose threshold, 3% dose difference (DD), and 3mm distance-to-agreement (DTA) Gamma criteria. Results: The average pass rates for the gamma comparisons between PRESAGE and Pinnacle{sup 3} in the transverse, sagittal, coronal planes were 94.6%, 95.9%, and 96.4% for SBRT with IMRT, FFF-VMAT, and mixed FFF-VMAT plans, respectively. A good agreement of the isodose distributions of those comparisons were shown at the isodose lines 50%, 70%, 80%, 90% and 98%. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the feasibility of the high resolution optical CT-based 3D radiochromic dosimetry system for validation of SBRT with IMRT and FFF-VMAT. This dosimetry system offers higher precision QA with 3D

  15. Application of the quality index methodology for dosimetric verification of build-up effect beyond air-tissue interface in treatment planning system algorithms.

    PubMed

    Caneva, Sandra; Tsiakalos, Miltiadis F; Stathakis, Sotirios; Zefkili, Sofia; Mazal, Alejandro; Rosenwald, Jean-Claude

    2006-05-01

    We have designed a simple benchmark test for the user of a treatment planning system to check the calculation algorithm's ability to model the build up effect beyond an air/tissue interface. The expected result is expressed as an inhomogeneity correction factor CF derived from measurements and from Monte Carlo calculations for a full range of photon beam qualities. The linear regression lines obtained from plotting CF as a function of beam quality index form the basis for a quantitative check of the algorithm performance.

  16. Errors in radiation oncology: a study in pathways and dosimetric impact.

    PubMed

    Klein, Eric E; Drzymala, Robert E; Purdy, James A; Michalski, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    As complexity for treating patients increases, so does the risk of error. Some publications have suggested that record and verify (R&V) systems may contribute in propagating errors. Direct data transfer has the potential to eliminate most, but not all, errors. And although the dosimetric consequences may be obvious in some cases, a detailed study does not exist. In this effort, we examined potential errors in terms of scenarios, pathways of occurrence, and dosimetry. Our goal was to prioritize error prevention according to likelihood of event and dosimetric impact. For conventional photon treatments, we investigated errors of incorrect source-to-surface distance (SSD), energy, omitted wedge (physical, dynamic, or universal) or compensating filter, incorrect wedge or compensating filter orientation, improper rotational rate for arc therapy, and geometrical misses due to incorrect gantry, collimator or table angle, reversed field settings, and setup errors. For electron beam therapy, errors investigated included incorrect energy, incorrect SSD, along with geometric misses. For special procedures we examined errors for total body irradiation (TBI, incorrect field size, dose rate, treatment distance) and LINAC radiosurgery (incorrect collimation setting, incorrect rotational parameters). Likelihood of error was determined and subsequently rated according to our history of detecting such errors. Dosimetric evaluation was conducted by using dosimetric data, treatment plans, or measurements. We found geometric misses to have the highest error probability. They most often occurred due to improper setup via coordinate shift errors or incorrect field shaping. The dosimetric impact is unique for each case and depends on the proportion of fields in error and volume mistreated. These errors were short-lived due to rapid detection via port films. The most significant dosimetric error was related to a reversed wedge direction. This may occur due to incorrect collimator angle or

  17. Dosimetric accuracy of a treatment planning system for actively scanned proton beams and small target volumes: Monte Carlo and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magro, G.; Molinelli, S.; Mairani, A.; Mirandola, A.; Panizza, D.; Russo, S.; Ferrari, A.; Valvo, F.; Fossati, P.; Ciocca, M.

    2015-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of a commercial treatment planning system (TPS), in optimising proton pencil beam dose distributions for small targets of different sizes (5-30 mm side) located at increasing depths in water. The TPS analytical algorithm was benchmarked against experimental data and the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code, previously validated for the selected beam-line. We tested the Siemens syngo® TPS plan optimisation module for water cubes fixing the configurable parameters at clinical standards, with homogeneous target coverage to a 2 Gy (RBE) dose prescription as unique goal. Plans were delivered and the dose at each volume centre was measured in water with a calibrated PTW Advanced Markus® chamber. An EBT3® film was also positioned at the phantom entrance window for the acquisition of 2D dose maps. Discrepancies between TPS calculated and MC simulated values were mainly due to the different lateral spread modeling and resulted in being related to the field-to-spot size ratio. The accuracy of the TPS was proved to be clinically acceptable in all cases but very small and shallow volumes. In this contest, the use of MC to validate TPS results proved to be a reliable procedure for pre-treatment plan verification.

  18. Dosimetric accuracy assessment of a treatment plan verification system for scanned proton beam radiotherapy: one-year experimental results and Monte Carlo analysis of the involved uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Molinelli, S; Mairani, A; Mirandola, A; Vilches Freixas, G; Tessonnier, T; Giordanengo, S; Parodi, K; Ciocca, M; Orecchia, R

    2013-06-07

    During one year of clinical activity at the Italian National Center for Oncological Hadron Therapy 31 patients were treated with actively scanned proton beams. Results of patient-specific quality assurance procedures are presented here which assess the accuracy of a three-dimensional dose verification technique with the simultaneous use of multiple small-volume ionization chambers. To investigate critical cases of major deviations between treatment planning system (TPS) calculated and measured data points, a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tool was implemented for plan verification in water. Starting from MC results, the impact of dose calculation, dose delivery and measurement set-up uncertainties on plan verification results was analyzed. All resulting patient-specific quality checks were within the acceptance threshold, which was set at 5% for both mean deviation between measured and calculated doses and standard deviation. The mean deviation between TPS dose calculation and measurement was less than ±3% in 86% of the cases. When all three sources of uncertainty were accounted for, simulated data sets showed a high level of agreement, with mean and maximum absolute deviation lower than 2.5% and 5%, respectively.

  19. Dosimetric accuracy assessment of a treatment plan verification system for scanned proton beam radiotherapy: one-year experimental results and Monte Carlo analysis of the involved uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinelli, S.; Mairani, A.; Mirandola, A.; Vilches Freixas, G.; Tessonnier, T.; Giordanengo, S.; Parodi, K.; Ciocca, M.; Orecchia, R.

    2013-06-01

    During one year of clinical activity at the Italian National Center for Oncological Hadron Therapy 31 patients were treated with actively scanned proton beams. Results of patient-specific quality assurance procedures are presented here which assess the accuracy of a three-dimensional dose verification technique with the simultaneous use of multiple small-volume ionization chambers. To investigate critical cases of major deviations between treatment planning system (TPS) calculated and measured data points, a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tool was implemented for plan verification in water. Starting from MC results, the impact of dose calculation, dose delivery and measurement set-up uncertainties on plan verification results was analyzed. All resulting patient-specific quality checks were within the acceptance threshold, which was set at 5% for both mean deviation between measured and calculated doses and standard deviation. The mean deviation between TPS dose calculation and measurement was less than ±3% in 86% of the cases. When all three sources of uncertainty were accounted for, simulated data sets showed a high level of agreement, with mean and maximum absolute deviation lower than 2.5% and 5%, respectively.

  20. Dosimetric comparison between three dimensional treatment planning system, Monte Carlo simulation and gel dosimetry in nasopharynx phantom for high dose rate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Fazli, Zeynab; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Zahmatkesh, M H; Mahdavi, Seied Rabei; Tenreiro, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    For the treatment of nasopharnx carcinoma (NPC) using brachytherapy methods and high-energy photon sources are common techniques. In the common three dimensional (3D) treatments planning, all of the computed tomography images are assumed homogeneous. This study presents the results of Monte Carlo calculations for non-homogeneous nasopharynx phantom, MAGICA normoxic gel dosimetry and 3D treatment planning system (TPS). The head phantom was designed with Plexiglas cylinder, head bone, and nasopharynx brachytherapy silicon applicator. For the simulations, version 5 of the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code (MCNP5) was used. 3D treatment planning was performed in Flexiplan software. A normoxic radiosensitive polymer gel was fabricated under normal atmospheric conditions and poured into test tubes (for calibration curve) and the head phantom. In addition, the head phantom was irradiated with Flexitron afterloader brachytherapy machine with (192)Ir source. To obtain calibration curves, 11 dosimeters were irradiated with dose range of 0-2000 cGy. Evaluations of dosimeters were performed on 1.5T scanner. Two-dimensional iso-dose in coronal plan at distances of z = +0.3, -0.3 cm was calculated. There was a good accordance between 3D TPS and MCNP5 simulation and differences in various distances were between 2.4% and 6.1%. There was a predictable accordance between MAGICA gel dosimetry and MCNP5 simulation and differences in various distances were between 5.7% and 7.4%. Moreover, there was an acceptable accordance between MAGICA gel dosimetry and MCNP5 data and differences in various distances were between 5.2% and 9.4%. The sources of differences in this comparison are divided to calculations variation and practical errors that was added in experimental dosimetry. The result of quality assurance of nasopharynx high dose rate brachytherapy is consistent with international standards.

  1. SU-E-T-111: An Iterative Approach to Modelling Dosimetric Properties of a Varian MLC

    SciTech Connect

    DiCostanzo, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In effort to efficiently and accurately model MLC parameters for use in Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS), an iterative technique for characterizing the dosimetric properties of MLCs has been developed. Methods: The initial characterization of the dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) and MLC transmission was performed using varied sizes of moving gaps and transmission measurements through central axis of the radiation beam. These values were determined during the initial data collection. After the initial values were determined and entered into the TPS, two plans were calculated to test the veracity of DLG and transmission independently. The plan used to determine the DLG has openings of varied sizes which are affected differently by the DLG. A large field uniform fluence that required a MLC carriage shift was used to determine the transmission value independent of DLG. After characterizing the dosimetric properties of the MLC independently, clinical IMRT plans were tested and used to tweak the final values. Results: This approach to modelling MLC dosimetric properties was employed for: standard 120 leaf MLC (SDMLC) and 120 leaf high definition MLC (HDMLC). Both types were successfully commissioned, tested, and approved for clinical use on 4 SDMLC machines and 2 HDMLC machines. The pass rate of clinical IMRT plans was 96.9% for 6MV and 98.3% for 10MV for SDMLC and 96.3% for 6MV, 96.5% for 6FFF, and 97.5% for 10FFF for HDMLCs using MapCheck2 with gamma analysis of 2%/2mm and 10% threshold. The final DLG and transmission parameters for 6X were 0.5mm and 0.01, and 1.35mm and 0.02 for HD and SD MLCs respectively. Conclusion: This iterative approach of determining dosimetric properties of MLCs is viable for both SDMLC and HDMLC and multiple energies. This approach accurately and efficiently determines the values needed for commissioning MLCs when they are employed for modulated therapies.

  2. An outbreak of Q fever affecting postal workers in Oxfordshire.

    PubMed

    Winner, S J; Eglin, R P; Moore, V I; Mayon-White, R T

    1987-05-01

    Twenty-five people in Oxfordshire were found to have had clinical illness due to Q fever in the 3 months from April to June 1983. Twelve cases were diagnosed through the routine laboratory diagnostic service. Five of these were postmen, four of whom worked in a sorting office where an outbreak of illness similar to influenza had been noted by the Occupational Health Nurse. Thirteen cases were diagnosed by active case-finding in this sorting office but investigation failed to define the source of the outbreak. Nine of the 18 postal workers were found to have antibodies to phase I Coxiella burnetii antigen. The significance of these antibodies is discussed. Surveillance for over 2 years has not revealed anyone with symptoms or signs suggestive of chronic Q fever. An outbreak of Q fever among postal workers has not previously been described. We recommend continued surveillance for this enigmatic condition.

  3. Sun safety knowledge and practice in UK postal delivery workers.

    PubMed

    Houdmont, J; Davis, S; Griffiths, A

    2016-06-01

    Postal delivery workers spend a large proportion of their work time outdoors, placing them at increased risk of skin cancer. To date, no studies have examined occupational sun safety knowledge and practice within this group in the UK. To describe the occupational sun safety knowledge and practice of UK postal delivery workers and to investigate the association of demographic, personal and occupational factors with knowledge and practice in order to identify potential strategies for improving sun safety in this occupational group. Postal delivery workers completed a questionnaire that collected data on occupational sun safety knowledge and practice in addition to demographic, personal and workplace characteristics. One-way analysis of variances were applied to assess differences in knowledge and practice by these characteristics. A total of 1153 postal delivery workers completed the questionnaire, a 60% response rate. Thirty-three per cent reported receiving sun safety training within the previous 12 months. The majority of respondents reported correct knowledge on three of the six domains and good practice on four of the six behavioural domains. However, only one-fifth of respondents reported wearing sunglasses and ensuring a plentiful intake of water. Knowledge and practice differed significantly according to demographic, personal and workplace characteristics. There is a need to raise the profile of occupational skin cancer in this occupational group and to increase the priority given to occupational sun safety policies alongside targeted and tailored interventions, the effect of which can be evaluated. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  4. Dosimetric characteristics of Novalis shaped beam surgery unit.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fang-Fang; Zhu, Jingeng; Yan, Hui; Gaun, Haiqun; Hammoud, Rabih; Ryu, Samuel; Kim, Jae H

    2002-08-01

    The dosimetric characteristics of a new dedicated radiosurgical treatment unit are systematically measured in terms of its percent depth dose, beam profile, and relative scatter factor. High-resolution diode detector, mini-ion-chamber detector, and conventional Kodak XV films are used to measure dosimetric data for a range of field sizes from 6x6 mm to 100x100 mm. The effects of collimator size, micro-multileaf collimator shape, and detector type on the dosimetric data are investigated. Results indicate that, with careful design, accurate dosimetric data could be acquired using either a dedicated diode detector or a mini-ion-chamber detector, and film detector. Special attention is required when measuring dosimetric data for small field sizes such as 6x6 mm.

  5. Dosimetric adaptive IMRT driven by fiducial points

    SciTech Connect

    Crijns, Wouter; Van Herck, Hans; Defraene, Gilles; Van den Bergh, Laura; Haustermans, Karin; Slagmolen, Pieter; Maes, Frederik; Van den Heuvel, Frank

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy have become standard treatments but are more sensitive to anatomical variations than 3D conformal techniques. To correct for inter- and intrafraction anatomical variations, fast and easy to implement methods are needed. Here, the authors propose a full dosimetric IMRT correction that finds a compromise in-between basic repositioning (the current clinical practice) and full replanning. It simplifies replanning by avoiding a recontouring step and a full dose calculation. It surpasses repositioning by updating the preoptimized fluence and monitor units (MU) using a limited number of fiducial points and a pretreatment (CB)CT. To adapt the fluence the fiducial points were projected in the beam's eye view (BEV). To adapt the MUs, point dose calculation towards the same fiducial points were performed. The proposed method is intrinsically fast and robust, and simple to understand for operators, because of the use of only four fiducial points and the beam data based point dose calculations. Methods: To perform our dosimetric adaptation, two fluence corrections in the BEV are combined with two MU correction steps along the beam's path. (1) A transformation of the fluence map such that it is realigned with the current target geometry. (2) A correction for an unintended scaling of the penumbra margin when the treatment beams scale to the current target size. (3) A correction for the target depth relative to the body contour and (4) a correction for the target distance to the source. The impact of the correction strategy and its individual components was evaluated by simulations on a virtual prostate phantom. This heterogeneous reference phantom was systematically subjected to population based prostate transformations to simulate interfraction variations. Additionally, a patient example illustrated the clinical practice. The correction strategy was evaluated using both dosimetric (CTV mean

  6. Increasing response rates to postal questionnaires: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Phil; Roberts, Ian; Clarke, Mike; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Pratap, Sarah; Wentz, Reinhard; Kwan, Irene

    2002-01-01

    Objective To identify methods to increase response to postal questionnaires. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of any method to influence response to postal questionnaires. Studies reviewed 292 randomised controlled trials including 258 315 participants Intervention reviewed 75 strategies for influencing response to postal questionnaires. Main outcome measure The proportion of completed or partially completed questionnaires returned. Results The odds of response were more than doubled when a monetary incentive was used (odds ratio 2.02; 95% confidence interval 1.79 to 2.27) and almost doubled when incentives were not conditional on response (1.71; 1.29 to 2.26). Response was more likely when short questionnaires were used (1.86; 1.55 to 2.24). Personalised questionnaires and letters increased response (1.16; 1.06 to 1.28), as did the use of coloured ink (1.39; 1.16 to 1.67). The odds of response were more than doubled when the questionnaires were sent by recorded delivery (2.21; 1.51 to 3.25) and increased when stamped return envelopes were used (1.26; 1.13 to 1.41) and questionnaires were sent by first class post (1.12; 1.02 to 1.23). Contacting participants before sending questionnaires increased response (1.54; 1.24 to 1.92), as did follow up contact (1.44; 1.22 to 1.70) and providing non-respondents with a second copy of the questionnaire (1.41; 1.02 to 1.94). Questionnaires designed to be of more interest to participants were more likely to be returned (2.44; 1.99 to 3.01), but questionnaires containing questions of a sensitive nature were less likely to be returned (0.92; 0.87 to 0.98). Questionnaires originating from universities were more likely to be returned than were questionnaires from other sources, such as commercial organisations (1.31; 1.11 to 1.54). Conclusions Health researchers using postal questionnaires can improve the quality of their research by using the strategies shown to be effective in this systematic review

  7. [Dosimetric evaluation of conformal radiotherapy: conformity factor].

    PubMed

    Oozeer, R; Chauvet, B; Garcia, R; Berger, C; Felix-Faure, C; Reboul, F

    2000-01-01

    The aim of three-dimensional conformal therapy (3DCRT) is to treat the Planning Target Volume (PTV) to the prescribed dose while reducing doses to normal tissues and critical structures, in order to increase local control and reduce toxicity. The evaluation tools used for optimizing treatment techniques are three-dimensional visualization of dose distributions, dose-volume histograms, tumor control probabilities (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP). These tools, however, do not fully quantify the conformity of dose distributions to the PTV. Specific tools were introduced to measure this conformity for a given dose level. We have extended those definitions to different dose levels, using a conformity index (CI). CI is based on the relative volumes of PTV and outside the PTV receiving more than a given dose. This parameter has been evaluated by a clinical study including 82 patients treated for lung cancer and 82 patients treated for prostate cancer. The CI was low for lung dosimetric studies (0.35 at the prescribed dose 66 Gy) due to build-up around the GTV and to spinal cord sparing. For prostate dosimetric studies, the CI was higher (0.57 at the prescribed dose 70 Gy). The CI has been used to compare treatment plans for lung 3DCRT (2 vs 3 beams) and prostate 3DCRT (4 vs 7 beams). The variation of CI with dose can be used to optimize dose prescription.

  8. Electron radiotherapy: a study on dosimetric uncertainty using small cutouts.

    PubMed

    Chow, James C L; Grigorov, Grigor N

    2007-01-07

    This note investigated the dosimetric uncertainties due to the positional error when centring a small cutout to the machine central beam axis (CAX) in electron radiotherapy. A group of six circular cutouts with 4 cm diameter were made with their centres shifting 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mm from the machine CAX for the 6 x 6 cm(2) applicator. The per cent depth doses, beam profiles and output factors were measured using the 4, 9 and 16 MeV clinical electron beams produced by a Varian 21 EX linear accelerator. The 2D isodose distributions in the z-x (or cross-line) and z-y (or in-line) plane were calculated by Monte Carlo simulation using the EGSnrc system. When the cutout centre was shifted away from the machine CAX for the 4 MeV beam, the d(m), R(80) and R(90) at the machine CAX had no significant change (<0.1 mm). For higher energies of 9 and 16 MeV beams, the d(m) was reduced by 0.45 and 1.63 mm per mm, between the cutout centre and the machine CAX with off-axis shift <6 mm respectively. R(80) and R(90) were reduced by more than 0.3 mm per mm off-axis shift for both energies. The isodose coverage of the in-line axis beam profile was reduced when the cutout centre was shifted away from machine CAX. It is important for oncology staff to note such dosimetric changes in the clinical electron radiotherapy, particularly when a high energy electron beam is used for small cutout. Such positional uncertainty is unavoidable in fabricating an electron cutout in the mould room.

  9. [Work-related disability among postal employees: incidence, duration, and social security costs in 2008].

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Flávia Alves Neves; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh

    2014-06-01

    This study analyzed the characteristics of Brazilian postal workers that received sick leave benefits in 2008. The databases were from the Unified Benefits System (SUB) and the National Registry of Social Information (CNIS). The incidence rate was 556.5 benefits per 10,000 employees, and the leading causes of work-related sick leave were injuries, musculoskeletal disorders, and mental disorders. Areas most frequently reported in injuries were knees and legs, wrists and hands, ankles and feet, and shoulders and arms, with higher incidence rates in men. Women were more affected by musculoskeletal disorders and mental disorders. Average sick leave lasted longer in men, and the incidence of benefits increased with age. The States with the highest incidence rates were Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás, and Santa Catarina, and security benefits averaged BRL 1,847.00. Postal work may involve additional risk of injuries to the limbs, due to the long distances carrying heavy weight, assault, and dog bites.

  10. Dosimetric comparison of stereotactic body radiotherapy for spinal metastasis in cyberknife and helical tomotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Young-nam; Kay, Chul Seung; Son, Seok Hyun; Choi, Byung Ock; Jung, Ji-Young; Shin, Hun-Joo; Kay, Chul Seung; Son, Seok Hyun; Kim, Myong Ho; Seo, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Gi Woong

    2012-12-01

    This study seeks to evaluate the stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) dosimetric benefit of cyberknife (CK) and helical tomotherapy (HT) for spinal tumor patients in regards to successful plan acceptance and lower dosage to critical structures. This study used dose volume histogram (DVH) compared the two systems quantitatively, by using several indices for the dosimetric comparisons, including the conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) for the planned target volume (PTV). We planned L3 (n = 2), L5 (n = 1), T12 (n = 1), C3 (n = 1), and T5 (n = 1) spinal tumors case with planning target volumes ranging from 3.55-17.95 cc. Prescription doses were 1600 ˜ 2000 cGy per single fraction. CK prescribed 80 ˜ 85% in PTV and HT 90 ˜ 95%, respectively. The dosimetric data were compared between the two treatment systems by calculating the CI, HI, and maximum doses to the OARs based on the treatment plans, generated for each site. Regarding the homogeneity of PTV, both plans gave satisfactory results, and no significant differences were observed. The partial volume tolerance dose (received dose of 10 Gy at a spinal cord volume 10%) to the spinal cord in 16 ˜ 18 Gy single fraction was satisfactory. We found that both planning systems satisfied the required PTV prescription, but better dose conformity and better dose homogeneity with a poorer dose gradient were achieved with HT then with CK.

  11. SU-E-T-651: Quantification of Dosimetric Accuracy of Respiratory Gated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Thiyagarajan, Rajesh; Vikraman, S; Maragathaveni, S; Dhivya, N; Kataria, Tejinder; Nambiraj, N Arunai; Sigamani, Ashokkumar; Sinha, Sujit Nath; Yadav, Girigesh; Raman, Kothanda

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric accuracy of respiratory gated stereotactic body radiation therapy delivery using dynamic thorax phantom. Methods: Three patients with mobile target (2 lung, 1liver) were chosen. Retrospective 4DCT image sets were acquired for using Varian RPM system. An in-house MATLAB program was designed for MIP, MinIP and AvgIP generation. ITV was contoured on MIP image set for lung patients and on MinIP for liver patient. Dynamic IMRT plans were generated on selected phase bin image set in Eclipse (v10.0) planning system. CIRS dynamic thorax phantom was used to perform the dosimetric quality assurance. Patient breathing pattern file from RPM system was converted to phantom compatible file by an in-house MATLAB program. This respiratory pattern fed to the CIRS dynamic thorax phantom. 4DCT image set was acquired for this phantom using patient breathing pattern. Verification plans were generated using patient gating window and delivered on the phantom. Measurements were carried out using with ion chamber and EBT2 film. Exposed films were analyzed and evaluated in FilmQA software. Results: The stability of gated output in comparison with un-gated output was within 0.5%. The Ion chamber measured and TPS calculated dose compared for all the patients. The difference observed was 0.45%, −0.52% and −0.54 for Patient 1, Patient2 and Patient 3 respectively.Gamma value evaluated from EBT film shows pass rates from 92.41% to 99.93% for 3% dose difference and 3mm distance to agreement criteria. Conclusion: Dosimetric accuracy of respiratory gated SBRT delivery for lung and liver was dosimetrically acceptable. The Ion chamber measured dose was within 0.203±0.5659% of the expected dose. Gamma pass rates were within 96.63±3.84% of the expected dose.

  12. 77 FR 38342 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... ADDRESS: Vice President, Engineering Systems, United States Postal Service, 8403 Lee Highway, Merrifield... of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Postal Service \\TM\\. ACTION: Notice of modification to existing systems of records. SUMMARY: The United States Postal Service is proposing to modify fifteen of its...

  13. Dosimetric characterization of a bi-directional micromultileaf collimator for stereotactic applications.

    PubMed

    Bucciolini, M; Russo, S; Banci Buonamici, F; Pini, S; Silli, P

    2002-07-01

    A 6 MV photon beam from Linac SL75-5 has been collimated with a new micromultileaf device that is able to shape the field in the two orthogonal directions with four banks of leaves. This is the first clinical installation of the collimator and in this paper the dosimetric characterization of the system is reported. The dosimetric parameters required by the treatment planning system used for the dose calculation in the patient are: tissue maximum ratios, output factors, transmission and leakage of the leaves, penumbra values. Ionization chambers, silicon diode, radiographic films, and LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters have been employed for measurements of absolute dose and beam dosimetric data. Measurements with different dosimeters supply results in reasonable agreement among them and consistent with data available in literature for other models of micromultileaf collimator; that permits the use of the measured parameters for clinical applications. The discrepancies between results obtained with the different detectors (around 2%) for the analyzed parameters can be considered an indication of the accuracy that can be reached by current stereotactic dosimetry.

  14. Dosimetric verification of gated delivery of electron beams using a 2D ion chamber array.

    PubMed

    Yoganathan, S A; Das, K J Maria; Raj, D Gowtham; Kumar, Shaleen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetric characteristics; such as beam output, symmetry and flatness between gated and non-gated electron beams. Dosimetric verification of gated delivery was carried for all electron beams available on Varian CL 2100CD medical linear accelerator. Measurements were conducted for three dose rates (100 MU/min, 300 MU/min and 600 MU/min) and two respiratory motions (breathing period of 4s and 8s). Real-time position management (RPM) system was used for the gated deliveries. Flatness and symmetry values were measured using Imatrixx 2D ion chamber array device and the beam output was measured using plane parallel ion chamber. These detector systems were placed over QUASAR motion platform which was programmed to simulate the respiratory motion of target. The dosimetric characteristics of gated deliveries were compared with non-gated deliveries. The flatness and symmetry of all the evaluated electron energies did not differ by more than 0.7 % with respect to corresponding non-gated deliveries. The beam output variation of gated electron beam was less than 0.6 % for all electron energies except for 16 MeV (1.4 %). Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that Varian CL2100 CD is well suitable for gated delivery of non-dynamic electron beams.

  15. Dosimetric verification of gated delivery of electron beams using a 2D ion chamber array

    PubMed Central

    Yoganathan, S. A.; Das, K. J. Maria; Raj, D. Gowtham; Kumar, Shaleen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetric characteristics; such as beam output, symmetry and flatness between gated and non-gated electron beams. Dosimetric verification of gated delivery was carried for all electron beams available on Varian CL 2100CD medical linear accelerator. Measurements were conducted for three dose rates (100 MU/min, 300 MU/min and 600 MU/min) and two respiratory motions (breathing period of 4s and 8s). Real-time position management (RPM) system was used for the gated deliveries. Flatness and symmetry values were measured using Imatrixx 2D ion chamber array device and the beam output was measured using plane parallel ion chamber. These detector systems were placed over QUASAR motion platform which was programmed to simulate the respiratory motion of target. The dosimetric characteristics of gated deliveries were compared with non-gated deliveries. The flatness and symmetry of all the evaluated electron energies did not differ by more than 0.7 % with respect to corresponding non-gated deliveries. The beam output variation of gated electron beam was less than 0.6 % for all electron energies except for 16 MeV (1.4 %). Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that Varian CL2100 CD is well suitable for gated delivery of non-dynamic electron beams. PMID:26170552

  16. Dosimetric investigations on Mars-96 mission.

    PubMed

    Semkova, J; Dachev, T s; Matviichuk, Y u; Koleva, R; Tomov, B; Baynov, P; Petrov, V; Nguyen, V; Siegrist, M; Chene, J; d'Uston, C; Cotin, F

    1994-10-01

    The dosimetric experiments Dose-M and Liulin as part of the more complex French-German-Bulgarian-Russian experiments for the investigation of the radiation environment for Mars-96 mission are described. The experiments will be realized with dosemeter-radiometer instruments, measuring absorbed dose in semiconductor detectors and the particle flux. Two detectors will be mounted on board the Mars-96 orbiter. Another detector will be on the guiderope of the Mars-96 Aerostate station. The scientific aims of Dose-M and Liulin experiments are: Analysis of the absorbed dose and the flux on the path and around Mars behind different shielding. Study of the shielding characteristics of the Martian atmosphere from galactic and solar cosmic rays including solar proton events. Together with the French gamma-spectrometer and the German neutron detectors the investigation of the radiation environment on the surface of Mars and in the atmosphere up to 4000 m altitude will be conducted.

  17. 39 CFR 230.27 - Do these rules create any right or benefit enforceable by a party against the Postal Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do these rules create any right or benefit enforceable by a party against the Postal Service? 230.27 Section 230.27 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL... rules create any right or benefit enforceable by a party against the Postal Service? No, subpart B is...

  18. Application of summative content analysis to a postal questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Thomas Howard

    2016-01-01

    Content analysis of replies to closed questions in questionnaires can be undertaken to understand remarks that may explain the responses, provide illustrative examples of issues raised in the questionnaire, define new issues or issues of importance that were not covered in the questionnaire and inform the design of new questions in future surveys. To discuss the usefulness of summative content analysis to free text in postal questionnaires. Content analysis provides useful comparative insights between two respondent groups in the case example provided. Five themes emerged: poor understanding of the concept of 'patient lateral transfer work technique' and the direct instrument nursing observation (DINO) instrument's key directions; outcomes of patient transfer; positive responses; manual handling risk; and poor translation into English of DINO. Respondents need an opportunity to clarify their responses to questionnaires using free text, to provide insight into their understanding of the question being asked, understanding of the concept or construct being discussed, and data triangulation through the confirmation of item responses and free-text comments. Responses to questions in a postal questionnaire and the opportunity for free-text commentary by respondents enable the identification of hidden meanings behind tickbox responses to questions.

  19. Rating of acceptable load in manual sorting of postal parcels.

    PubMed

    Stålhammar, H R; Louhevaara, V; Troup, J D

    1996-10-01

    The psychophysical test, the rating of acceptable load (RAL) were used to assess acceptable weights for dynamic lifting in postal workers engaged in sorting parcels. The standard test (RALSt) and a work-simulating test (RALW) were administered to 103 volunteers: all experienced male sorters. In the RALSt, subjects selected the weight which would be acceptable for lifting in a box with handles from table to floor and back to the table once every 5 min for the working day. for the RALW, the box was without handles and the weight was chosen to be acceptable for transfer 4-6 times/min from a table to the parcel container and back to the table. Both tests were made during normal working hours at postal sorting centres. The overall means for RALSt and RALW were 16.4 kg and 9.4 kg respectively (p < 0.001): both being substantially higher than the average parcel weight of 4 kg. The RALSt and RALW tests proved to be repetitive and sensitive for differentiating the effects of load and task variable in actual manual material handling. Thus they appear to be applicable to the evaluation of manual materials handling problems.

  20. 39 CFR 501.3 - Postage Evidencing System provider qualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to a provider's Postage Evidencing System or supporting infrastructure, or with the start-up or...) and will cooperate with the Postal Service in every reasonable way to help the Postal Service...

  1. TU-D-9A-01: TG176: Dosimetric Effects of Couch Tops and Immobilization Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Olch, A

    2014-06-15

    The dosimetric impact from devices external to the patient is a complex combination of increased skin dose, reduced tumor dose, and altered dose distribution. Although small monitor unit or dose corrections are routinely made for blocking trays, ion chamber correction factors, or tissue inhomogeneities, the dose perturbation of the treatment couch top or immobilization devices are often overlooked. These devices also increase surface dose, an effect which is also often ignored or underestimated. These concerns have grown recently due to the increased use of monolithic carbon fiber couch tops which are optimal for imaging for patient position verification but cause attenuation and increased surface dose compared to the ‘tennis racket’ style couch top they often replace. Also, arc delivery techniques have replaced stationary gantry techniques which cause a greater fraction of the dose to be delivered from posterior angles. A host of immobilization devices are available and used to increase patient positioning reproducibility, and these also have attenuation and skin dose implications which are often ignored. This report of Task Group 176 serves to present a survey of published data that illustrates the magnitude of the dosimetric effects of a wide range of devices external to the patient. The report also provides methods for modeling couch tops in treatment planning systems so the physicist can accurately compute the dosimetric effects for indexed patient treatments. Both photon and proton beams are considered. A discussion on avoidance of high density structures during beam planning is also provided. An important aspect of this report are the recommendations we make to clinical physicists, treatment planning system vendors, and device vendors on how to make measurements of skin dose and attenuation, how to report these values, and for the vendors, an appeal is made to work together to provide accurate couch top models in planning systems. Learning Objectives

  2. Dosimetric comparison of helical tomotherapy and dynamic conformal arc therapy in stereotactic radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Chao, Pei-Ju; Wang, Chang-Yu; Lan, Jen-Hong; Huang, Yu-Je; Hsu, Hsuan-Chih; Sung, Chieh-Cheng; Su, Te-Jen; Lian, Shi-Long; Fang, Fu-Min

    2011-01-01

    The dosimetric results of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for vestibular schwannoma (VS) performed using dynamic conformal arc therapy (DCAT) with the Novalis system and helical TomoTherapy (HT) were compared using plan quality indices. The HT plans were created for 10 consecutive patients with VS previously treated with SRS using the Novalis system. The dosimetric indices used to compare the techniques included the conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) for the planned target volume (PTV), the comprehensive quality index (CQI) for nine organs at risk (OARs), gradient score index (GSI) for the dose drop-off outside the PTV, and plan quality index (PQI), which was verified using the plan quality discerning power (PQDP) to incorporate 3 plan indices, to evaluate the rival plans. The PTV ranged from 0.27-19.99 cm(3) (median 3.39 cm(3)), with minimum required PTV prescribed doses of 10-16 Gy (median 12 Gy). Both systems satisfied the minimum required PTV prescription doses. HT conformed better to the PTV (CI: 1.51 ± 0.23 vs. 1.94 ± 0.34; p < 0.01), but had a worse drop-off outside the PTV (GSI: 40.3 ± 10.9 vs. 64.9 ± 13.6; p < 0.01) compared with DCAT. No significant difference in PTV homogeneity was observed (HI: 1.08 ± 0.03 vs. 1.09 ± 0.02; p = 0.20). HT had a significantly lower maximum dose in 4 OARs and significant lower mean dose in 1 OAR; by contrast, DCAT had a significantly lower maximum dose in 1 OAR and significant lower mean dose in 2 OARs, with the CQI of the 9 OARs = 0.92 ± 0.45. Plan analysis using PQI (HT 0.37 ± 0.12 vs. DCAT 0.65 ± 0.08; p < 0.01), and verified using the PQDP, confirmed the dosimetric advantage of HT. However, the HT system had a longer beam-on time (33.2 ± 7.4 vs. 4.6 ± 0.9 min; p < 0.01) and consumed more monitor units (16772 ± 3803 vs. 1776 ± 356.3; p < 0.01). HT had a better dose conformity and similar dose homogeneity but worse dose gradient than DCAT. Plan analysis confirmed the dosimetric advantage of HT

  3. Dosimetric Comparison of Helical Tomotherapy and Dynamic Conformal Arc Therapy in Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannomas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Chao, Pei-Ju; Wang, Chang-Yu; Lan, Jen-Hong; Huang, Yu-Je; Hsu, Hsuan-Chih; Sung, Chieh-Cheng; Su, Te-Jen; Lian, Shi-Long; Fang, Fu-Min

    2011-04-01

    The dosimetric results of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for vestibular schwannoma (VS) performed using dynamic conformal arc therapy (DCAT) with the Novalis system and helical TomoTherapy (HT) were compared using plan quality indices. The HT plans were created for 10 consecutive patients with VS previously treated with SRS using the Novalis system. The dosimetric indices used to compare the techniques included the conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) for the planned target volume (PTV), the comprehensive quality index (CQI) for nine organs at risk (OARs), gradient score index (GSI) for the dose drop-off outside the PTV, and plan quality index (PQI), which was verified using the plan quality discerning power (PQDP) to incorporate 3 plan indices, to evaluate the rival plans. The PTV ranged from 0.27-19.99 cm{sup 3} (median 3.39 cm{sup 3}), with minimum required PTV prescribed doses of 10-16 Gy (median 12 Gy). Both systems satisfied the minimum required PTV prescription doses. HT conformed better to the PTV (CI: 1.51 {+-} 0.23 vs. 1.94 {+-} 0.34; p < 0.01), but had a worse drop-off outside the PTV (GSI: 40.3 {+-} 10.9 vs. 64.9 {+-} 13.6; p < 0.01) compared with DCAT. No significant difference in PTV homogeneity was observed (HI: 1.08 {+-} 0.03 vs. 1.09 {+-} 0.02; p = 0.20). HT had a significantly lower maximum dose in 4 OARs and significant lower mean dose in 1 OAR; by contrast, DCAT had a significantly lower maximum dose in 1 OAR and significant lower mean dose in 2 OARs, with the CQI of the 9 OARs = 0.92 {+-} 0.45. Plan analysis using PQI (HT 0.37 {+-} 0.12 vs. DCAT 0.65 {+-} 0.08; p < 0.01), and verified using the PQDP, confirmed the dosimetric advantage of HT. However, the HT system had a longer beam-on time (33.2 {+-} 7.4 vs. 4.6 {+-} 0.9 min; p < 0.01) and consumed more monitor units (16772 {+-} 3803 vs. 1776 {+-} 356.3; p < 0.01). HT had a better dose conformity and similar dose homogeneity but worse dose gradient than DCAT. Plan analysis

  4. Effect of photon energy spectrum on dosimetric parameters of brachytherapy sources

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Mahdi; Davenport, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim The aim of this study is to quantify the influence of the photon energy spectrum of brachytherapy sources on task group No. 43 (TG-43) dosimetric parameters. Background Different photon spectra are used for a specific radionuclide in Monte Carlo simulations of brachytherapy sources. Materials and methods MCNPX code was used to simulate 125I, 103Pd, 169Yb, and 192Ir brachytherapy sources. Air kerma strength per activity, dose rate constant, radial dose function, and two dimensional (2D) anisotropy functions were calculated and isodose curves were plotted for three different photon energy spectra. The references for photon energy spectra were: published papers, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC). The data calculated by these photon energy spectra were compared. Results Dose rate constant values showed a maximum difference of 24.07% for 103Pd source with different photon energy spectra. Radial dose function values based on different spectra were relatively the same. 2D anisotropy function values showed minor differences in most of distances and angles. There was not any detectable difference between the isodose contours. Conclusions Dosimetric parameters obtained with different photon spectra were relatively the same, however it is suggested that more accurate and updated photon energy spectra be used in Monte Carlo simulations. This would allow for calculation of reliable dosimetric data for source modeling and calculation in brachytherapy treatment planning systems. PMID:27247558

  5. Monte Carlo dosimetric study of the medium dose rate CSM40 source.

    PubMed

    Vijande, J; Granero, D; Perez-Calatayud, J; Ballester, F

    2013-12-01

    The (137)Cs medium dose rate (MDR) CSM40 source model (Eckert & Ziegler BEBIG, Germany) is in clinical use but no dosimetric dataset has been published. This study aims to obtain dosimetric data for the CSM40 source for its use in clinical practice as required by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO). Penelope2008 and Geant4 Monte Carlo codes were used to characterize this source dosimetrically. It was located in an unbounded water phantom with composition and mass density as recommended by AAPM and ESTRO. Due to the low photon energies of (137)Cs, absorbed dose was approximated by collisional kerma. Additional simulations were performed to obtain the air-kerma strength, sK. Mass-energy absorption coefficients in water and air were consistently derived and used to calculate collisional kerma. Results performed with both radiation transport codes showed agreement typically within 0.05%. Dose rate constant, radial dose function and anisotropy function are provided for the CSM40 and compared with published data for other commercially available (137)Cs sources. An uncertainty analysis has been performed. The data provided by this study can be used as input data and verification in the treatment planning systems.

  6. A clinical method for real-time dosimetric guidance of transperineal 125I prostate implants using interventional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Cormack, R A; Kooy, H; Tempany, C M; D'Amico, A V

    2000-01-01

    The clinical utility of an interventional magnetic resonance (IMR)-guided implant technique with real-time dosimetric feedback is presented. The work was carried out at a IMR unit at Brigham and Women's Hospital. Planning and dosimetric feedback were provided by a software system that provides an interface to the IMR images, anatomy demarcation, template registration, dose calculation engine for planning, and evaluating the implant. Planning during the procedure permits the incorporation of actual needle trajectories in the dose calculations. Fifteen patients were planned in the treatment position. During source placement, actual needle locations were incorporated into the dose calculations. After accounting for the observed needle trajectories of the planned needles, 14 of 15 patients (93%) required additional sources to achieve the desired coverage of the target volume. A brachytherapy implant procedure which provides clinically significant advances has been implemented. Specifically, the planning system allows dosimetric validation of the needle placement. This procedure is effective in delivering brachytherapy to the target volume and assuring that the implant is delivered in accordance with the preplan. The dosimetric feedback could be incorporated in ultrasound-guided implants.

  7. 78 FR 43247 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Privacy Act... systems of records. SUMMARY: The United States Postal Service is proposing to modify four General Privacy... to one record system to include assessments of postal employees and to expand the locations...

  8. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL SERVICE BULK MAIL CENTER, DALLAS, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. This report describ...

  9. 40 CFR 52.351 - United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Clean Fuel Fleet Program. 52.351 Section 52.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.351 United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, carbon monoxide NAAQS, United States Postal Service substitute...

  10. 40 CFR 52.351 - United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Clean Fuel Fleet Program. 52.351 Section 52.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.351 United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, carbon monoxide NAAQS, United States Postal Service substitute...

  11. 40 CFR 52.351 - United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Clean Fuel Fleet Program. 52.351 Section 52.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.351 United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, carbon monoxide NAAQS, United States Postal Service substitute...

  12. 40 CFR 52.351 - United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Clean Fuel Fleet Program. 52.351 Section 52.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.351 United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, carbon monoxide NAAQS, United States Postal Service substitute...

  13. 40 CFR 52.351 - United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Clean Fuel Fleet Program. 52.351 Section 52.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.351 United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, carbon monoxide NAAQS, United States Postal Service substitute...

  14. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL SERVICE OPERATIONS, MERRIFIELD, VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. This report describ...

  15. 39 CFR 762.31 - Disbursement postal money orders issued to deceased payees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or Administrator and presented for payment by a bank it will be paid by the Postal Service without submission to the Postal Service of documentary proof of the authority of the Executor or Administrator. (b) If an Executor or Administrator has not been appointed or if there is doubt as to whether the...

  16. 78 FR 55773 - Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice; FACA... Postal and Delivery Services. This Committee has been formed in fulfillment of the provisions of the 2006... Committee Act. Date and Time: The meeting will be held on Monday, September 30, from 10:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m...

  17. 77 FR 41877 - Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice, FACA... Postal and Delivery Services (the Advisory Committee). This Committee has been formed in fulfillment of... accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act. Date and Time: The meeting will be held on Thursday...

  18. 77 FR 18716 - Transportation Security Administration Postal Zip Code Change; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... Postal Zip Code Change; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule is a technical change to correct a regulatory reference to TSA's postal zip code. This rule revises existing regulations to reflect organizational changes and it has no...

  19. 77 FR 12724 - International Postal Service-Global Expedited Package Services (GEPS) Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Part 20 International Postal Service--Global Expedited Package Services (GEPS) Contracts AGENCY: Postal... requirements that a mailer must meet in order to qualify for a Global Expedited Package Services (GEPS... change for the international competitive product Global Expedited Package Services (GEPS) Contracts. The...

  20. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL SERVICE BULK MAIL CENTER, DALLAS, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. This report describ...

  1. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL SERVICE STAMP DISTRIBUTION NETWORK, KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate Waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. In this report, the findi...

  2. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL SERVICE OPERATIONS, MERRIFIELD, VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. This report describ...

  3. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICES, PITTSBURGH, PA AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. This report describ...

  4. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MATERIALS DISTRIBUTION CENTER, TOPEKA, KANSAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate Waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. In this report, the findi...

  5. 39 CFR 4.5 - Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel, Judicial Officer, Chief Postal Inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistant Postmasters General, General Counsel... BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE OFFICIALS (ARTICLE IV) § 4.5 Assistant Postmasters General.... 204 as Assistant Postmasters General, whether so denominated or not, as the Board authorizes by...

  6. 22 CFR 123.24 - Shipments by U.S. Postal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipments by U.S. Postal Service. 123.24 Section 123.24 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.24 Shipments by U.S. Postal Service. (a) The export of any...

  7. 22 CFR 123.24 - Shipments by U.S. Postal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shipments by U.S. Postal Service. 123.24 Section 123.24 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.24 Shipments by U.S. Postal Service. (a) The export of any...

  8. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MATERIALS DISTRIBUTION CENTER, TOPEKA, KANSAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate Waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. In this report, the findi...

  9. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL SERVICE STAMP DISTRIBUTION NETWORK, KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate Waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. In this report, the findi...

  10. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICES, PITTSBURGH, PA AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. This report describ...

  11. Dosimetric properties of radiophotoluminescent glass detector in low-energy photon beams.

    PubMed

    Kadoya, Noriyuki; Shimomura, Kouhei; Kitou, Satoshi; Shiota, Yasuo; Fujita, Yukio; Dobashi, Suguru; Takeda, Ken; Jingu, Keiichi; Matsushita, Haruo; Namito, Yoshihito; Ban, Syuichi; Koyama, Syuji; Tabushi, Katsuyoshi

    2012-10-01

    A radiophotoluminescent glass rod dosimeter (RGD) has recently become commercially available. It is being increasingly used for dosimetry in radiotherapy to measure the absorbed dose including scattered low-energy photons on the body surface of a patient and for postal dosimetry audit. In this article, the dosimetric properties of the RGD, including energy dependence of the dose response, reproducibly, variation in data obtained by the RGD for each energy, and angular dependence in low-energy photons, are discussed. An RGD (GD-301, Asahi Techno Glass Corporation, Shizuoka, Japan) was irradiated with monochromatic low-energy photon beams generated by synchrotron radiation at Photon Factory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The size of GD-301 was 1.5 mm in diameter and 8.5 mm in length and the active dose readout volume being 1 mm diameter and 0.6 mm depth located 0.7 mm from the end of the detector. The energy dependence of the dose response and reproducibility and variation were investigated for RGDs irradiated with a plastic holder and those irradiated without the plastic holder. Response of the RGD was obtained by not only conventional single field irradiation but also bilateral irradiation. Angular dependence of the RGD was measured in the range of 0°-90° for 13, 17, 40, and 80 keV photon beams by conventional single field irradiation. The dose responses had a peak at around 40 keV. For the energy range of less than 25 keV, all dose response curves steeply decreased in comparison with the ratio of mass energy absorption coefficient of the RGD to that of air. As for the reproducibility and variation in data obtained by the RGD, the coefficient of variance increased with decrease in photon energy. Furthermore, the variation for bilateral irradiation was less than that for single field irradiation. Regarding angular dependence of the RGD, for energies of 13 and 17 keV, the response decreased with increase in the irradiation angle, and the

  12. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FORENSIC & TECHNICAL SERVICES DIVISION - NATIONAL FORENSIC LABORATORY, DULLES, VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. This report describes the...

  13. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FORENSIC & TECHNICAL SERVICES DIVISION - NATIONAL FORENSIC LABORATORY, DULLES, VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. This report describes the...

  14. Dosimetric, mechanical, and geometric verification of conformal dynamic arc treatment.

    PubMed

    Malatesta, T; Landoni, V; delle Canne, S; Bufacchi, A; Marmiroli, L; Caspiani, O; Bonanni, A; Tortoreto, F; Leone, M V; Capparella, R; Fragomeni, R; Begnozzi, L

    2003-01-01

    A conformal dynamic arc (CD-arc) technique has been implemented at the S. Giovanni Calibita-Fatebenefratelli Hospital Radiotherapy Center. This technique is performed by rotational beams and a dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC): during the treatment delivery the gantry rotates and the field shape, formed by the DMLC changes continuously. The aim of this study was to perform dosimetric, mechanical, and geometric verification to ensure that the dose calculated by a commercial treatment planning system and administered to the patient was correct, before and during the clinical use of this technique. Absolute dose values, at the isocenter and at other points placed in dose heterogeneity zone, have been verified with an ionization chamber in a solid homogeneous phantom. In uniform dose regions measured dose values resulted in agreements with the calculated doses within 2%. Isodose distributions have also been determined by radiographic films and compared with those predicted by the planning system. Distance to agreement between calculated and measured isodoses in dose gradient zone was within 2 mm. In conclusion, our results demonstrated the feasibility and the accuracy of the CD-arc technique for achieving highly conformal dose distributions. Up till now 20 patients have been treated with CD-arc therapy.

  15. Error Analysis of non-TLD HDR Brachytherapy Dosimetric Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoush, Ahmad

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group Report43 (AAPM-TG43) and its updated version TG-43U1 rely on the LiF TLD detector to determine the experimental absolute dose rate for brachytherapy. The recommended uncertainty estimates associated with TLD experimental dosimetry include 5% for statistical errors (Type A) and 7% for systematic errors (Type B). TG-43U1 protocol does not include recommendation for other experimental dosimetric techniques to calculate the absolute dose for brachytherapy. This research used two independent experimental methods and Monte Carlo simulations to investigate and analyze uncertainties and errors associated with absolute dosimetry of HDR brachytherapy for a Tandem applicator. An A16 MicroChamber* and one dose MOSFET detectors† were selected to meet the TG-43U1 recommendations for experimental dosimetry. Statistical and systematic uncertainty analyses associated with each experimental technique were analyzed quantitatively using MCNPX 2.6‡ to evaluate source positional error, Tandem positional error, the source spectrum, phantom size effect, reproducibility, temperature and pressure effects, volume averaging, stem and wall effects, and Tandem effect. Absolute dose calculations for clinical use are based on Treatment Planning System (TPS) with no corrections for the above uncertainties. Absolute dose and uncertainties along the transverse plane were predicted for the A16 microchamber. The generated overall uncertainties are 22%, 17%, 15%, 15%, 16%, 17%, and 19% at 1cm, 2cm, 3cm, 4cm, and 5cm, respectively. Predicting the dose beyond 5cm is complicated due to low signal-to-noise ratio, cable effect, and stem effect for the A16 microchamber. Since dose beyond 5cm adds no clinical information, it has been ignored in this study. The absolute dose was predicted for the MOSFET detector from 1cm to 7cm along the transverse plane. The generated overall uncertainties are 23%, 11%, 8%, 7%, 7%, 9%, and 8% at 1cm, 2cm, 3cm

  16. Dosimetric characterization of two radium sources for retrospective dosimetry studies

    SciTech Connect

    Candela-Juan, C.; Karlsson, M.; Lundell, M.; Ballester, F.; Tedgren, Å. Carlsson

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: During the first part of the 20th century, {sup 226}Ra was the most used radionuclide for brachytherapy. Retrospective accurate dosimetry, coupled with patient follow up, is important for advancing knowledge on long-term radiation effects. The purpose of this work was to dosimetrically characterize two {sup 226}Ra sources, commonly used in Sweden during the first half of the 20th century, for retrospective dose–effect studies. Methods: An 8 mg {sup 226}Ra tube and a 10 mg {sup 226}Ra needle, used at Radiumhemmet (Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden), from 1925 to the 1960s, were modeled in two independent Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport codes: GEANT4 and MCNP5. Absorbed dose and collision kerma around the two sources were obtained, from which the TG-43 parameters were derived for the secular equilibrium state. Furthermore, results from this dosimetric formalism were compared with results from a MC simulation with a superficial mould constituted by five needles inside a glass casing, placed over a water phantom, trying to mimic a typical clinical setup. Calculated absorbed doses using the TG-43 formalism were also compared with previously reported measurements and calculations based on the Sievert integral. Finally, the dose rate at large distances from a {sup 226}Ra point-like-source placed in the center of 1 m radius water sphere was calculated with GEANT4. Results: TG-43 parameters [including g{sub L}(r), F(r, θ), Λ, and s{sub K}] have been uploaded in spreadsheets as additional material, and the fitting parameters of a mathematical curve that provides the dose rate between 10 and 60 cm from the source have been provided. Results from TG-43 formalism are consistent within the treatment volume with those of a MC simulation of a typical clinical scenario. Comparisons with reported measurements made with thermoluminescent dosimeters show differences up to 13% along the transverse axis of the radium needle. It has been estimated that

  17. Dosimetric characterization of two radium sources for retrospective dosimetry studies.

    PubMed

    Candela-Juan, C; Karlsson, M; Lundell, M; Ballester, F; Tedgren, Å Carlsson

    2015-05-01

    During the first part of the 20th century, (226)Ra was the most used radionuclide for brachytherapy. Retrospective accurate dosimetry, coupled with patient follow up, is important for advancing knowledge on long-term radiation effects. The purpose of this work was to dosimetrically characterize two (226)Ra sources, commonly used in Sweden during the first half of the 20th century, for retrospective dose-effect studies. An 8 mg (226)Ra tube and a 10 mg (226)Ra needle, used at Radiumhemmet (Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden), from 1925 to the 1960s, were modeled in two independent Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport codes: geant4 and mcnp5. Absorbed dose and collision kerma around the two sources were obtained, from which the TG-43 parameters were derived for the secular equilibrium state. Furthermore, results from this dosimetric formalism were compared with results from a MC simulation with a superficial mould constituted by five needles inside a glass casing, placed over a water phantom, trying to mimic a typical clinical setup. Calculated absorbed doses using the TG-43 formalism were also compared with previously reported measurements and calculations based on the Sievert integral. Finally, the dose rate at large distances from a (226)Ra point-like-source placed in the center of 1 m radius water sphere was calculated with geant4. TG-43 parameters [including gL(r), F(r, θ), Λ, and sK] have been uploaded in spreadsheets as additional material, and the fitting parameters of a mathematical curve that provides the dose rate between 10 and 60 cm from the source have been provided. Results from TG-43 formalism are consistent within the treatment volume with those of a MC simulation of a typical clinical scenario. Comparisons with reported measurements made with thermoluminescent dosimeters show differences up to 13% along the transverse axis of the radium needle. It has been estimated that the uncertainty associated to the absorbed dose within the

  18. Participation bias in postal surveys among older adults: the role played by self-reported health, physical functional decline and frailty.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Philipe de Souto

    2012-01-01

    Postal survey is a simple and efficient way to collect information in large study samples. The purpose of this study was to find out differences between older adults who responded to a postal survey on health outcomes and those who did not, and to examine the importance of frailty, physical functional decline and poor self-reported health in determining non-response. We mailed out a questionnaire on general health twice at a year's interval to 1000 individuals ≥60 years, and members of the medical insurance scheme of the French national education system. At Year1, 535 persons responded to the questionnaire (65% women, 70.9 ± 8.4 years). A year later (Year2), we obtained 384 responses (63.3% women, 70.5 ± 7.8 years). Compared to respondents, non-respondents at Year2 were more frequently categorized as frail, reported more often to be in bad health, and had more physical functional declines. Frailty, physical functional decline and poor self-reported health increased the likelihood of not responding to Year2 questionnaire, with poor self-reported health weakening the association of physical functional decline and non-response. Respondents of this postal survey are fitter and healthier than non-respondents. This participation bias precludes the generalization of postal surveys results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optical and dosimetric properties of zircon.

    PubMed

    Kristianpoller, N; Weiss, D; Chen, R

    2006-01-01

    Irradiation effects were investigated in zircon crystals by methods of optical absorption and luminescence. Special attention was given to the effects of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. The same main thermoluminescence (TL) peaks with the same thermal activation energies appeared after VUV as after X- or beta irradiation, indicating that the same traps were induced by the different irradiations. TL excitation spectra in the VUV showed an increase <220 nm and maxima near 190 and 140 nm. Excitation spectra of phototransferred TL (PTTL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were also measured. Most TL emission bands also appeared in the X-luminescence, PTTL and OSL. Dosimetric properties such as the TL radiation sensitivity, thermal stability of radiation-induced defects and TL dose dependence were also investigated. The radiation sensitivity of zircon was by an order of magnitude lower than that of TLD-100. The 355 K TL peak showed linear dose dependence only up to approximately 500 Gy and the 520 K peak up to approximately 1800 Gy.

  20. A high sensitive phosphor for dosimetric applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kore, Bhushan P. Dhoble, S. J.; Dhoble, N. S.; Lochab, S. P.

    2015-06-24

    In this study a novel TL phosphor CaMg{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+} was prepared by acid distillation method. The TL response of this phosphor towards γ-rays and carbon ion beam was tested. Good dosimetric glow curve was observed which is stable against both the type of radiations. The CaMg{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphor doped with 0.2 mol% of Dy{sup 3+}, irradiated with γ-ray shows nearly equal sensitivity to that of commercially available CaSO{sub 4}:Dy TLD phosphor whereas 3.5 times more sensitivity than CaSO{sub 4}:Dy, when irradiated with carbon ion beam. The change in glow peak intensities and glow peak temperature with variation in irradiation species and energy of ion beam is discussed here. The effect of these on trapping parameters is also illustrated.