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Sample records for posterior capsule opacification

  1. Automatic quantification of posterior capsule opacification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Sarah A.; Uyyanonvara, Bunyarit; Boyce, James F.; Sanguinetti, Giorgia; Hollick, Emma J.; Meacock, William R.; Spalton, David J.; Paplinski, Andrew P.

    2000-06-01

    After Cataract surgery where a plastic implant lens is implanted into the eye to replace the natural lens, many patients suffer from cell growth across a membrane situated at the back of the lens which degrades their vision. The cell growth is known as Posterior Capsule Opacification (or PCO). It is important to be able to quantify PCO so that the effect of different implant lens types and surgical techniques may be evaluated. Initial results obtained using a neural network to detect PCO from implant lenses are compared to an established but less automated method of detection, which segments the images using texture segmentation in conjunction with co- occurrence matrices. Tests show that the established method performs well in clinical validation and repeatability trials. The requirement to use a neural network to analyze the implant lens images evolved from the analysis of over 1000 images using the established co-occurrence matrix segmentation method. The work shows that a method based on neural networks is a promising tool to automate the procedure of calculating PCO.

  2. Effect of four different intraocular lenses on posterior capsule opacification

    PubMed Central

    Duman, Rahmi; Karel, Fatih; Özyol, Pelin; Ateş, Can

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the impact of 4 different intraocular lenses (IOLs) on posterior capsule opacification (PCO) by comparing the neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser capsulotomy rates. METHODS This retrospective study included 4970 eyes of 4013 cataract patients who underwent phacoemulsification and IOL implantation between January 2000 and January 2008 by the same surgeon at one clinic. Four different IOLs were assessed. The outcome parameter was the incidence of Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomies. RESULTS An Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy was performed in 153 (3.07%) of the 4970 eyes. The mean follow-up time was 84mo for all of the IOL groups. The percentage of eyes developing PCO was significantly greater for the acrylic hydrophilic IOLs than for the hydrophobic IOLs, although eyes with acrylic hydrophilic IOLs did not require Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy as soon as eyes with acrylic hydrophobic IOLs. There was no difference between the long-term PCO rates when 1- and 3-piece acrylic hydrophobic IOLs were compared or when IOLs made of the same material but with different haptic angles were compared. CONCLUSION In this study, eyes with acrylic hydrophilic IOLs were more likely to develop PCO than those with acrylic hydrophobic IOLs. The lens design (1-piece versus 3-piece and varying haptic angles) did not affect the PCO rate. PMID:25709920

  3. Two-photon triggered drug delivery system: a new way to prevent posterior capsule opacification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.-C.; Härtner, S.; Hampp, N.

    2006-02-01

    One of the major complications of cataract surgery is posterior capsule opacification caused by proliferation and migration of residual lens epithelial cells into the visual axis. In this study we present a novel approach to treat posterior capsule opacification in a non-invasive manner. A polymer-drug conjugate has been developed which is suitable for manufacturing functional intraocular lenses equipped with a drug delivery system. The therapeutic molecules, 5-fluorouracil, were attached through a photolabile linkage to the acrylic polymer backbone of the intraocular lens material. The controlled release of 5-fluorouracil is accomplished by two-photon induced cleavage of the linkage which is stable in ordinary conditions. The properties of the therapeutic system are characterized and the function is demonstrated in in vitro tests. The utilization of two-photon-absorption processes in drug delivery may provide a powerful tool to prevent posterior capsule opacification.

  4. Posterior capsule opacification and neovascularization treated with intravitreal bevacizumab and Nd:YAG capsulotomy

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Castro, Grimelda Yuriana; Hitos-Fájer, Alejandra; Mendoza-Schuster, Erick; Velez-Montoya, Raul; Velasco-Barona, Cecilio Francisco

    2008-01-01

    We reported a 75-year-old diabetic man, who developed opacification and neovascularization of the posterior capsule after extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. The patient was treated with two injections of 2.5 mg of intravitreal bevacizumab. The treatment produced an important regression of the posterior capsular new vessels, allowing us to perform a successful Nd:YAG capsulotomy, clearing the visual axis and improving the visualization of the posterior pole. Even though, best corrected visual acuity was 20/200 due to diabetic macular edema. PMID:19668770

  5. A new endocapsular open ring for prevention of anterior and posterior capsule opacification

    PubMed Central

    Pallikaris, Ioannis G; Stojanovic, Nela R; Ginis, Harilaos S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to demonstrate the functionality of a new design of a thick endocapsular open ring for prevention of anterior capsule opacification (ACO) and posterior capsule opacification (PCO). Setting The Institute of Vision and Optics, University of Crete and University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Design Prospective, interventional pilot study. Methods Fifteen patients (17 eyes) underwent cataract surgery with phacoemulsification. During surgery, a thick endocapsular open ring (peripheral capsule reconstructor) was inserted into the capsular bag, prior to intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Six different models of IOL were implanted. Postoperatively, the degree of ACO and PCO was evaluated and described as none, mild, moderate, or severe. Results The mean follow-up period was 30±8.06 months (range: 12–36 months). At the last follow-up, mild PCO was observed in only three eyes and mild ACO in three patients. The centration of IOLs was good in all but one eye, which had a tilted IOL. Conclusion The results of this pilot study suggest that the implantation of a new design of thick endocapsular open ring is feasible and may contribute to the prevention of PCO and ACO after cataract surgery. PMID:27843291

  6. Quantitative analysis of posterior capsule opacification of hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Oharazawa, Hideaki; Suzuki, Hisaharu; Shibata, Keiko; Yamada, Yumi; Matsui, Hironori; Shiwa, Toshihiko; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ohara, Kunitoshi

    2007-02-01

    Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) remains a common complication of modern cataract surgery, although both modification of materials used and changes in the intraocular lens (IOL) optic edge design have helped to decrease its incidence slightly. Recently, various kinds of quantitative methods have been developed for measuring PCO. The purpose of this study was to compare the quantitative analysis of PCO between different types of IOL designs. Patients enrolled in the study had age-related cataract and underwent uneventful cataract surgery and implantation of either the AcrySof MA30BA (Alcon) or the Sensor AR40e (AMO), which are differently designed hydrophobic acrylic IOLs with a sharp-edged optic design. Postoperative examination was performed at 6 months. Retroillumination photographs of each eye were obtained, and the degree of PCO was assessed using the Evaluation of Posterior Capsule Opacification (EPCO) system. Grade 1 PCO was noted in both the MA30BA and the AR40e groups. There was no significant difference in the mean PCO score between the MA30BA and AR40e groups. Although the sharp-edged optic designs of both IOLs might similarly inhibit PCO at 6 months, a long-term follow-up period is needed to determine if any PCO differences occur between these 2 hydrophobic acrylic IOLs.

  7. Ophthalmic drug delivery utilizing two-photon absorption: a novel approach to treat posterior capsule opacification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.-C.; Träger, J.; Zorn, M.; Haberkorn, N.; Hampp, N.

    2007-07-01

    Intraocular lens (IOL) implantation is the standard technique to treat cataract. Despite recent progress in surgical procedures, posterior capsule opacification is one of the sill remaining postoperative complications of cataract surgery. We present a novel strategy to reduce the incidence of posterior capsule opacification. A drug delivery polymer suitable for manufacturing intraocular lenses has been developed which enables repeated drug release in a non-invasive and controlled manner. The therapeutic molecules are attached through a UV light sensitive linkage to the polymer backbone which is mainly responsible for the optical properties of the intraocular lenses. However, UV light can not trigger the release of drug from the polymer due to the high absorption of the cornea. We developed linkers which enable drug release by two-photon absorption induced cleavage of the linker structure. Since the two-photon absorption requires high photon densities, this does not occur in ambient light conditions in daily life, but is easily triggered by focused laser beams from a pulsed laser. In this proof-of-principle study we have employed a cyclobutane type linker and investigated the properties of the therapeutic system with the approved drugs 5-fluorouracil and chlorambucil. The controlled drug delivery was successfully demonstrated in vitro and additional cell tests confirmed that the device itself shows no cytotoxicity until photochemical activation. This presented concept can provide a powerful method in ophthalmic drug delivery.

  8. Micropatterned Protective Membranes Inhibit Lens Epithelial Cell Migration in Posterior Capsule Opacification Model

    PubMed Central

    Magin, Chelsea M.; May, Rhea M.; Drinker, Michael C.; Cuevas, Kevin H.; Brennan, Anthony B.; Reddy, Shravanthi T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the ability of Sharklet (SK) micropatterns to inhibit lens epithelial cell (LEC) migration. Sharklet Technologies, Inc. (STI) and InSight Innovations, LLC have proposed to develop a Sharklet-patterned protective membrane (PM) to be implanted in combination with a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) to inhibit cellular migration across the posterior capsule, and thereby reduce rates of posterior capsular opacification (PCO). Methods A variety of STI micropatterns were evaluated versus smooth (SM) controls in a modified scratch wound assay for the ability to reduce or inhibit LEC migration. The best performing topography was selected, translated to a radial design, and applied to PM prototypes. The PM prototypes were tested in an in vitro PCO model for reduction of cell migration behind an IOL versus unpatterned prototypes and IOLs with no PM. In both assays, cell migration was analyzed with fluorescent microscopy. Results All SK micropatterns significantly reduced LEC migration compared with SM controls. Micropatterns that protruded from the surface reduced migration more than recessed features. The best performing micropattern reduced LEC coverage by 80%, P = 0.0001 (ANOVA, Tukey Test). Micropatterned PMs reduced LEC migration in a PCO model by 50%, P = 0.0005 (ANOVA, Tukey Test) compared with both IOLs with no PM and IOLs with SM PMs. Conclusions Collectively, in vitro results indicate the implantation of micropatterned PMs in combination with posterior chamber IOLs could significantly reduce rates of clinically relevant PCO. This innovative technology is a globally accessible solution to high PCO rates. Translational Relevance A novel IOL incorporating the SK micropattern in a membrane design surrounding the optic may help increase the success of cataract surgery by reducing secondary cataract, or PCO. PMID:25883876

  9. Cytoskeletal Drugs Prevent Posterior Capsular Opacification in Human Lens Capsule in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sureshkumar, Jeyalakshmi; Haripriya, Aravind; Muthukkaruppan, Veerappan; Kaufman, Paul L.; Tian, Baohe

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine whether the cytoskeletal drugs H-7 and Latrunculin B (LAT-B) inhibit posterior capsular opacification (PCO) in the cultured human lens capsular bag. Methods Following extracapsular cataract (lens) extraction in human donor eyes, the capsular bag was prepared and cultured by standard techniques. Forty-eight capsular bags were studied, in which 13 were treated with H-7 (50, 100 or 300μM), 12 with 1% BSS (vehicle of H-7), 11 with LAT-B (2, 5 or 10μM), and 12 with 0.25% DMSO (vehicle of LAT-B). Forty out of the 48 capsular bags were from paired eyes of 20 donors with 1 bag being treated with H-7/LAT-B and the other with BSS/DMSO for each pair, including 20 for the H-7-BSS protocol and 20 for the LAT-B-DMSO protocol. The medium with the cytoskeletal drug/vehicle was replaced every 3–4 days for 4 weeks. PCO was assessed daily using inverted phase-contrast microscopy and scored on a 4-point scale. Results In all cultures with BSS or DMSO, residual lens epithelial cells (LECs) on the anterior capsule migrated to and proliferated on the posterior capsule by 3–7 days and apparent LEC growth on the posterior capsule with severe capsular wrinkling (PCO Grade 3) was seen by 2-3weeks. When treated continuously with H-7 or LAT-B, the migration and proliferation of LECs and the capsular wrinkling were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, with the inhibition being complete (PCO Grade 0) in the 300μM H-7 (n=8, p<0.001) or 10μM LAT-B culture (n=3, p=0.002). Conclusion H-7 and LAT-B dose-dependently inhibited PCO formation in the cultured human lens capsular bags, suggesting that cytoskeletal drugs might prevent PCO formation after surgery in the human eye. PMID:22138731

  10. Epidemiological evaluation of YAG capsulotomy incidence for posterior capsule opacification in various intraocular lenses in Japanese eyes

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Yutaro; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Nishi, Kayo; Mimura, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective We investigated the yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) capsulotomy rates in various intraocular lenses (IOLs). Study design/patients and methods We retrospectively analyzed 23,440 eyes implanted with either MA60BM, MA60AC, VA-60BB, CeeOnEdge, Clariflex, Technis Z9002, SI-40NB, or UV26T IOLs. We calculated the YAG capsulotomy rates at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years post lens implantation. Results YAG capsulotomy rates at 3 years postimplantation for the eight groups of IOLs were, respectively, 3.7%, 3.9%, 23.7%, 3.4%, 4.5%, 4.7%, 10.4%, and 21.0%. YAG capsulotomy rates at 10 years postimplantation for the MA60BM and SI-40NB IOLs were, respectively, 9.1% and 15% (P<0.05). The average YAG rates for all sharp-edged and round-edged IOLs at 5 years postimplantation were, respectively, 5.2%±0.7% and 25.6%±9.0% (P<0.05). Conclusion In all studied IOLs, posterior capsule opacification prevention seemed to be associated with the posterior optic sharp-edge design. Round-edged silicone IOLs may also retard posterior capsule opacification formation, though not as much as sharp-edged IOLs. As the follow-up period progressed, round-edged silicone IOLs showed significantly higher YAG rates than sharp-edged IOLs. PMID:26366054

  11. An Optical Section-Assisted In Vivo Rabbit Model for Capsular Bend and Posterior Capsule Opacification Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qian; Yu, Fang; Yu, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Yinying; Ding, Xixia; Zhu, Weigen; Li, Jin; Zhao, Yun-e

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To establish an optical section-assisted in vivo rabbit model for capsular bend and posterior capsule opacification (PCO) investigation. Methods A total of 10 rabbits underwent phacoemulsification surgery and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. On the basis of the relationship between the anterior capsule and IOL, the rabbits were divided into complete overlap and incomplete overlap groups, in which six and four rabbits were included, respectively. The capsular bend optical sections were assessed using ultra-long scan depth optical coherence tomography (UL-OCT), and posterior capsule opacification was evaluated with slit lamp on postoperative day 3, 7, 14, and 28. In addition, histopathological section was used to verify the accuracy of capsular bend type captured by OCT in three rabbits. Results Based on the special animal model, six capsular bend types were observed, namely, anterior (A), middle (M), posterior (P), detachment (D), funnel (Fun) and furcate adhesion (Fur). On day 3, capsular bend began to form. On 14 days, the capsular bends were comprised of A, M and D types, which were almost maintained until day 28. Histopathological section findings were consistent with optical sectioning results. In the incomplete and complete groups, the earliest PCO within the optical zone were on day 7 and 28, respectively. The incomplete group exhibited higher incidence and faster PCO on day 7 (p = 0.038) and 14 (p = 0.002). Conclusions This animal model not only mimics capsular bend evolution and PCO processes but also produces OCT optical section images equivalent to and more repeatable than histopathology, thereby providing a promising method for the further investigations of PCO. PMID:26840405

  12. Sulfadiazine modified PDMS as a model material with the potential for the mitigation of posterior capsule opacification (PCO).

    PubMed

    Amoozgar, Bahram; Morarescu, Diana; Sheardown, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Cataract surgery, while the most common surgical procedure performed, leads to posterior capsule opacification in approximately 30% of cases. Transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been shown to play important roles in the cellular processes leading to posterior capsule opacification. Delivery of inhibitors to MMPs may have the potential to inhibit the initial cascade of events that lead to PCO. However, delivery of these molecules via tethering has proven difficult. In this work, sulfadiazine was tethered to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via a polyethylene glycol (PEG) spacer as a potential MMPI mimic. Surface characterization using a variety of methods demonstrated successful modification with the antibiotic. The surfaces were examined with lens epithelial cells to determine their effect on these cellular processes, including cell transdifferentiation and production of extracellular matrix components. The presence of TGF-β2 in the cell culture media was found to stimulate the production of ECM components such as collagen, fibronectin, and laminin, as well as alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and the migration marker Rho by HLE-B3 and FHL124 cells. In all cases, these effects were decreased but not completely eradicated by the presence of sulfadiazine on the PDMS surfaces. While the level of inhibition necessary for inhibition of PCO in vivo is unknown, these results suggest that IOL surface modification with sulfadiazine has the potential to reduce cellular changes associated with PCO. Furthermore, the results demonstrate for the first time that changes consistent with inhibition of fibrosis may be elicited by surfaces modified with sulfadiazine.

  13. Comparison of 25-gauge sutureless vitrectomy and 20-gauge vitrectomy in the treatment of posterior capsule opacification in pseudophakic children

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-Ming; Xie, Li-Xin

    2015-01-01

    AIM To compare the effectiveness and safety of pars plana capsulotomy and vitrectomy using 25-gauge tansconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy system and 20-gauge vitrectomy system for posterior capsule opacification (PCO) in pseudophakic children. METHODS Retrospectively study. Pars plana capsulotomy and vitrectomy using 25-gauge sutureless vitrectomy system was performed for PCO in the study group (32 eyes). Patients in the control group (34 eyes) underwent capsulotomy and vitrectomy using standard 20-gauge vitrectomy system, providing a comparison between 2 groups with regard to preoperative and postoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), and intraoperative and postoperative complications. The two groups were performed consequentially. The patients ages ranged from 2 to 13y (means: 6.61±2.73y). Surgical technique, intraoperative and postoperative complications, visual acuity, IOP, and recurrent PCO were recorded. RESULTS The surgical procedure was performed uneventfully in all patients. Visual acuity improved significantly in both groups. BCVA improved in 22 eyes (81.5%) in the study group and in 28 eyes (87.5%) in the control group. There was no statistical difference of visual acuity that were attainable in two groups (H=0.115, P=0.909). Mean postoperative IOP showed no significant difference between the groups at 1wk. All sort of PCO were accomplished by 20-gauge system, while 25-gauge system was effective for pearls style and 2 grade of fibrous PCO, and was insufficient to grade 3 of PCO. In the study group two cases were not accomplished by 25-gauge system while 20-gauge system conquered them. Compared with the control group, mean operative time for opening and closing the sclerotomy in the study group was considerably reduced. The mean follow-up was 38.2mo (range: 8-79mo). During the follow-up period, no incision leakage, corneal edema, vitreous loss, IOL damage, retinal detachment, recurrent PCO, or other complications were

  14. Comparison of posterior capsule opacification at 360-degree square edge hydrophilic and sharp edge hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ling; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Ling; Ma, Ting; Liang, Hou-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    AIM To compare posterior capsule opacification (PCO) degree and visual functions after phacoemulsification in eyes implanted with 360-degree square edge hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) (570C C-flex, Rayner) and sharp edge hydrophobic acrylic IOL (Sensar AR40e, AMO) in diabetic patients. METHODS Sixty diabetic patients underwent uneventful phacoemulsification and randomly implanted one of the two IOLs. The PCO value was measured by retroillumination photographs and Evaluation of Posterior Capsule Opacification (EPCO) 2000 image-analysis software at 1, 6, 12, and 24mo after surgery. Visual acuity, and contrast sensitivity in photopic and mesopic conditions were also examined at each follow up time point. The incidence of eye that required Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy were also compared. RESULTS There was not any statistically significant difference in PCO scores between Rayner C-flex 570C group and Sensar AR40e group at each follow up time point. Visual acuity, Nd:YAG capsulotomy incidence and contrast sensitivity also had no significant difference during the 24mo follow-up. CONCLUSION For diabetic patients, Rayner 570C C-flex and Sensar AR40e IOLs are same effective for prevent PCO. The 360-degree square edge design maybe is a good alternative technique to improve PCO prevention. PMID:26309870

  15. Improvements in interpretation of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paplinski, Andrew P.; Boyce, James F.; Barman, Sarah A.

    2000-06-01

    We present further improvements to the methods of interpretation of the Posterior Capsular Opacification (PCO) images. These retro-illumination images of the back surface of the implanted lens are used to monitor the state of patient's vision after cataract operation. A common post-surgical complication is opacification of the posterior eye capsule caused by the growth of epithelial cells across the back surface of the capsule. Interpretation of the PCO images is based on their segmentation into transparent image areas and opaque areas, which are affected by the growth of epithelial cells and can be characterized by the increase in the image local variance. This assumption is valid in majority of cases. However, for different materials used for the implanted lenses it sometimes happens that the epithelial cells grow in a way characterized by low variance. In such a case segmentation gives a relatively big error. We describe an application of an anisotropic diffusion equation in a non-linear pre-processing of PCO images. The algorithm preserves the high-variance areas of PCO images and performs a low-pass filtering of small low- variance features. The algorithm maintains a mean value of the variance and guarantees existence of a stable solution and improves segmentation of the PCO images.

  16. Influence of three‐piece and single‐piece designs of two sharp‐edge optic hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses on the prevention of posterior capsule opacification: a prospective, randomised, long‐term clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Zemaitiene, Reda; Jasinskas, Vytautas; Auffarth, Gerd U

    2007-01-01

    Background Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) is still a major long‐term complication of modern cataract surgery. We evaluated the impact of sharp‐edged intraocular lenses (IOLs) with different haptic designs made from the same hydrophobic acrylic material on posterior and anterior lens capsule opacification. Setting Eye clinic of Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania. Prospective randomised clinical study. Methods Seventy‐four eyes of 74 patients scheduled for cataract surgery were included in a prospective randomised clinical study. Thirty‐seven eyes of 37 patients received a three‐piece acrylic hydrophobic (AcrySof, MA3OBA, Alcon) IOL; and thirty‐seven eyes of 37 patients received a one‐piece acrylic hydrophobic (AcrySof, SA3OAL, Alcon) IOL. Visual acuity, anterior capsule opacification (ACO), capsular folds, capsulorrhexis/optic overlapping and posterior capsule opacification (PCO) were evaluated. ACO was assessed subjectively. PCO values in the entire IOL optic area and in the central 3 mm optic zone were assessed using a photographic image‐analysis system (EPCO2000). Follow‐ups were performed postoperatively at 1 day, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years. Results There were no significant differences in best corrected visual acuity, grade of ACO and capsulorrhexis/optic overlapping between IOL types during the follow‐up period. Patients in the one‐piece acrylic hydrophobic IOL group more frequently presented with capsular folds behind the IOL optic area than those in the three‐piece IOL group. In the three‐piece acrylic hydrophobic IOL group, PCO values (mean (SD)) of the entire IOL optic area were significantly lower six months postoperative (three‐piece: 0.002 (0.009); one‐piece: 0.007 (0.017); p = 0.04), one year postoperative (three‐piece: 0.004 (0.016); one‐piece: 0.026 (0.041); p = 0.001) as well as one year postoperative in the central 3 mm optic zone (three‐piece: 0.000 (0.0002); one‐piece: 0

  17. Management of the posterior capsule during pediatric intraocular lens implantation.

    PubMed

    Buckley, E G; Klombers, L A; Seaber, J H; Scalise-Gordy, A; Minzter, R

    1993-06-15

    One of the major obstacles in pediatric intraocular lens implantation has been the subsequent dense opacification of the posterior capsule. We used a modification of the standard pediatric cataract surgical procedure, which involved endocapsular cataract extraction, posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation, pars plana posterior capsulotomy, and pars plana anterior vitrectomy in 20 consecutive patients with unilateral traumatic, radiation-induced, and developmental cataracts. Visual axes were rapidly restored in all patients without further intervention for posterior capsule opacification. Visual acuity returned to 20/40 or better in all patients and 75% of all patients (15 patients) reached maximum improvement by five weeks. No complications attributed to intraoperative removal of the posterior capsule occurred.

  18. [Postoperative opacification of posterior chamber intraocular lenses - a review].

    PubMed

    Schmidbauer, J M; Werner, L; Apple, D J; Pandey, S K; Izak, A M; Trivedi, R H; Macky, T A; Auffarth, G U; Peng, Q; Arthur, S N; Escobar-Gomez, M; Ma, L; Vargas, L G

    2001-09-01

    Postoperative opacification of intraocular lenses (IOLs) is a very unpleasant complication for the ophthalmic surgeon and the patient. We report on our experiences with opacification of different foldable IOL designs and rigid poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) posterior chamber lenses.1. Snowflake degeneration of PMMA IOLs: This condition is an unanticipated and surprising late postoperative finding 8 to 15 years after implantation. In our opinion, this complication is probably not related to the PMMA biomaterial itself, but rather it appears to represent a manufacturing problem that has affected a selected, albeit large number of lenses manufactured in the 1980s-mid 1990s.2. Degeneration of UV absorber material and calcium deposits within the optic of hydrophilic IOLs: Two years postoperatively degenerations of UV absorber material and calcium deposits within the optic of single piece hydrophilic acrylic lenses SC60B-OUV manufactured by MDR (Medical developmental research Inc. Clearwater FL, USA) can occur. Although the precise mechanism is not fully known, it was assumed that these opacifications are due to premature aging of the UV blocking agent incorporated in the lens biomaterial and calcification.3. Calcification on the surface of the Bausch & Lomb Hydroviewtrade mark IOLs: Twelve to 15 months postoperatively granular surface calcifications in Hydroviewtrade mark IOLs occured. The mechanism is not fully understood. According to Bausch and Lomb studies, part of the components of the packaging contained silicone, which may have come off the packaging onto the lens optic, where it then appears to be a catalyst for calcium precipitation. The manufacturer has correlated a change in packaging with the appearance of the opacification. The manufacturer now believes that this problem has been solved. However, final verification will require a careful 1 - 2 years clinical study.4. Glistenings in the hydrophobic acrylic AcrySoftrade mark IOLs: The time frame of

  19. RGD Surface Functionalization of the Hydrophilic Acrylic Intraocular Lens Material to Control Posterior Capsular Opacification

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi-Shiang; Bertrand, Virginie; Bozukova, Dimitriya; Pagnoulle, Christophe; Labrugère, Christine; De Pauw, Edwin; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire; Durrieu, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Posterior Capsular Opacification (PCO) is the capsule fibrosis developed on implanted IntraOcular Lens (IOL) by the de-differentiation of Lens Epithelial Cells (LECs) undergoing Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). Literature has shown that the incidence of PCO is multifactorial including the patient's age or disease, surgical technique, and IOL design and material. Reports comparing hydrophilic and hydrophobic acrylic IOLs have shown that the former has more severe PCO. On the other hand, we have previously demonstrated that the adhesion of LECs is favored on hydrophobic compared to hydrophilic materials. By combining these two facts and contemporary knowledge in PCO development via the EMT pathway, we propose a biomimetically inspired strategy to promote LEC adhesion without de-differentiation to reduce the risk of PCO development. By surface grafting of a cell adhesion molecule (RGD peptide) onto the conventional hydrophilic acrylic IOL material, the surface-functionalized IOL can be used to reconstitute a capsule-LEC-IOL sandwich structure, which has been considered to prevent PCO formation in literature. Our results show that the innovative biomaterial improves LEC adhesion, while also exhibiting similar optical (light transmittance, optical bench) and mechanical (haptic compression force, IOL injection force) properties compared to the starting material. In addition, compared to the hydrophobic IOL material, our bioactive biomaterial exhibits similar abilities in LEC adhesion, morphology maintenance, and EMT biomarker expression, which is the crucial pathway to induce PCO. The in vitro assays suggest that this biomaterial has the potential to reduce the risk factor of PCO development. PMID:25501012

  20. Endocapsular hyperthermia probe to prevent posterior capsular opacification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco, Marcia; Nose, Izuru; Lee, William; Acosta, Ana C.; Fragoso, Miryam; Fernandez, Viviana; Salas, Nelson; Parel, Jean M.

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility to induce lens epithelial cell death with intraoperative hyperthermia for prevention of secondary cataract. Methods: A prototype miniature resistive hyperthermia probe was designed. The probe contained a thermocouple for temperature feed-back. A timer allowed monitoring of the electrical driving of the hyperthermia probe and the temperature induced as a function of time. To model the heating response, a simple model of the lens capsule was constructed using a thin acrylic plastic shell embedded in a sponge immersed in a water bath at 37°C. The shell was filled with sodium hyaluronate. The probe was positioned at the center of the shell with the thermocouple next to the wall. An experimental protocol was developed to assess the feasibility of increasing the temperature of the human lens to hyperthermia levels in fresh cadaver eyes: An annular metal ring was bonded just below the limbus, the cornea and iris were sectioned, the lens material was removed through a central 5mm diameter capsulorhexis, the capsule was filled with SHA and the globe was set on a temperature-controlled cylindrical vial. Preliminary Results: At 3.3W (2.2V, 1.5A) the shell's content increases from 37°C to 51°C in 30s. At that temperature, LEC death is expected to occur within 1sec. Conclusion: This preliminary study demonstrates the feasibility of increasing the temperature of the capsular bag to kill LECs by hyperthermia.

  1. Posterior Capsular Opacification in Preschool- and School-Age Patients after Pediatric Cataract Surgery without Posterior Capsulotomy

    PubMed Central

    Batur, Muhammed; Gül, Adem; Seven, Erbil; Can, Ertuğrul; Yaşar, Tekin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the development of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) in preschool- and school-age children with cataract who underwent cataract surgery without posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy. Materials and Methods: The records of 30 eyes of 21 patients who underwent pediatric cataract surgery and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation were retrospectively reviewed. Patients’ age, PCO status and duration, need for neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser treatment based on coverage of visual axis, and follow-up period were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patients was 7.6±2.83 (4-12) years. Unilateral cataract surgery and IOL implantation were performed in 12 patients (57.14%) and bilateral cataract surgery and IOL implantation were performed in nine patients (42.86%). Average follow-up time was 17.7±22.67 (3-83) months. PCO developed in 21 eyes (70%) and covered the visual axis in 15 eyes (50%), which therefore required Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy. The mean duration of postoperative PCO development was 8.91±18.7 months (1 week-71 months). Conclusion: We believe that with adequately experienced surgeons, performing both cataract surgery and posterior capsulotomy with anterior vitrectomy in the same session is appropriate for selected preschool- and school-age children with cataract. PMID:28058161

  2. FGF2 antagonizes aberrant TGFβ regulation of tropomyosin: role for posterior capsule opacity.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Eri; Shibata, Shinsuke; Shibata, Teppei; Kiyokawa, Etsuko; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Singh, Dhirendra P

    2016-12-15

    Transforming growth factor (TGF) β2 and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 are involved in regulation of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) and other processes of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) such as cancer progression, wound healing and tissue fibrosis as well as normal embryonic development. We previously used an in vivo rodent PCO model to show the expression of tropomyosin (Tpm) 1/2 was aberrantly up-regulated in remodelling the actin cytoskeleton during EMT. In this in vitro study, we show the Tpms family of cytoskeleton proteins are involved in regulating and stabilizing actin microfilaments (F-actin) and are induced by TGFβ2 during EMT in lens epithelial cells (LECs). Importantly, we found TGFβ2 and FGF2 played contrasting roles. Stress fibre formation and up-regulation of α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) induced by TGFβ2 could be reversed by Tpm1/2 knock-down by siRNA. Expression of Tpm1/2 and stress fibre formation induced by TGFβ2 could be reversed by FGF2. Furthermore, FGF2 delivery to TGFβ-treated LECs perturbed EMT by reactivating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway and subsequently enhanced EMT. Conversely, MEK inhibitor (PD98059) abated the FGF2-mediated Tpm1/2 and αSMA suppression. However, we found that normal LECs which underwent EMT showed enhanced migration in response to combined TGFβ and FGF2 stimulation. These findings may help clarify the mechanism reprogramming the actin cytoskeleton during morphogenetic EMT cell proliferation and fibre regeneration in PCO. We propose that understanding the physiological link between levels of FGF2, Tpm1/2 expression and TGFβs-driven EMT orchestration may provide clue(s) to develop therapeutic strategies to treat PCO based on Tpm1/2.

  3. Design, characterization, and in vitro cellular inhibition and uptake of optimized genistein-loaded NLC for the prevention of posterior capsular opacification using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenji; Li, Xuedong; Ye, Tiantian; Chen, Fen; Sun, Xiao; Kong, Jun; Yang, Xinggang; Pan, Weisan; Li, Sanming

    2013-09-15

    This study was to design an innovative nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) for drug delivery of genistein applied after cataract surgery for the prevention of posterior capsular opacification. NLC loaded with genistein (GEN-NLC) was produced with Compritol 888 ATO, Gelucire 44/14 and Miglyol 812N, stabilized by Solutol(®) HS15 by melt emulsification method. A 2(4) central composite design of 4 independent variables was performed for optimization. Effects of drug concentration, Gelucire 44/14 concentration in total solid lipid, liquid lipid concentration, and surfactant concentration on the mean particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency were investigated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical test was used to assess the optimization. The optimized GEN-NLC showed a homogeneous particle size of 90.16 nm (with PI=0.33) of negatively charged surface (-25.08 mv) and high encapsulation efficiency (91.14%). Particle morphology assessed by TEM revealed a spherical shape. DSC analyses confirmed that GEN was mostly entrapped in amorphous state. In vitro release experiments indicated a prolonged and controlled genistein release for 72 h. In vitro growth inhibition assay showed an effective growth inhibition of GEN-NLCs on human lens epithelial cells (HLECs). Preliminary cellular uptake test proved a enhanced penetration of genistein into HLECs when delivered in NLC.

  4. Glued intraocular lens scaffolding to create an artificial posterior capsule for nucleus removal in eyes with posterior capsule tear and insufficient iris and sulcus support.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Amar; Jacob, Soosan; Agarwal, Ashvin; Narasimhan, Smita; Kumar, Dhivya Ashok; Agarwal, Athiya

    2013-03-01

    Glued IOL scaffolding decreases the chance of nucleus drop in eyes with insufficient iris and capsule support. The advantages include no temporary device or substance that must be removed after nucleus emulsification, ability to perform complete surgery without enlarging incisions, stable fixation of the IOL, compartmentalization of the eye, and decreased vitreous hydration and aspiration. The IOL is preplaced via glued transscleral haptic fixation of the IOL. The glued IOL placed under the nucleus then acts as a scaffold nuclear fragments are emulsified and thus acts as an artificial posterior capsule.

  5. Central posterior capsule pigmentation in a patient with pigment dispersion and previous ocular trauma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Al-Mezaine, Hani S

    2010-01-01

    We report a 55-year-old man with unusually dense, unilateral central posterior capsule pigmentation associated with the characteristic clinical features of pigment dispersion syndrome, including a Krukenberg's spindle and dense trabecular pigmentation in both eyes. A history of an old blunt ocular trauma probably caused separation of the anterior hyaloid from the back of the lens, thereby creating an avenue by which pigment could reach the potential space of Berger's from the posterior chamber.

  6. Risk Factors for Posterior Capsule Rupture and Vitreous Loss during Phacoemulsification

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Mohammad; Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Einollahi, Bahram; Baradaran-Rafii, Ali-Reza; Feizi, Sepehr; Kiavash, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine the rate and risk factors of vitreous loss during phacoemulsification in patients with cataracts operated by ophthalmology residents and fellows at Labbafinejad Medical Center. Methods This prospective descriptive study included consecutive patients with cataracts undergoing phacoemulsification over a one year period. All patients were operated under local or general anesthesia using the divide and conquer technique. Preoperatively, all patients underwent a complete ocular examination including measurement of visual acuity, slitlamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure measurement, and dilated funduscopy. Main outcome measures included the rate of posterior capsular rupture and vitreous loss as well as associated risk factors such as surgical experience, ocular and systemic conditions, and type and severity of the cataract. Results Overall, 767 eyes of 767 patients with mean age of 63.7±10.3 (range, 25–91) years were operated. The overall rate of vitreous loss was 7.9% which was 5-fold greater in the hands of residents as compared to fellows. Among different factors, older age, female sex, small pupil, small capsulorrhexis, presence of pseudoexfoliation, and high myopia were significantly associated with vitreous loss. The highest rate of vitreous loss occurred in patients with dense nuclear cataracts. Conclusion Considering the higher rate of vitreous loss in patients operated by ophthalmology residents; patients with known risk factors for vitreous loss should better be operated by more experienced surgeons. PMID:23198076

  7. Potential acuity meter for predicting visual acuity after Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy

    SciTech Connect

    Smiddy, W.E.; Radulovic, D.; Yeo, J.H.; Stark, W.J.; Maumenee, A.E.

    1986-03-01

    We studied 30 patients with opacifications of the posterior capsule to determine if the potential acuity meter (PAM) could accurately predict final visual outcome after Nd:YAG discussion. The final visual acuity was within one line of the PAM prediction in 22 of 30 patients (73%), better by two or more lines in seven patients (23%), and worse in one patient (4%) by two lines. Although in thicker capsules the final acuity was occasionally better than the PAM prediction, the rates of false negative and false positive predictions were very low. Mild cystoid macular edema (3 patients), age-related macular degeneration (3 patients), intraocular lens status, and level of initial acuity did not diminish PAM accuracy. The PAM effectively predicts final visual acuity after YAG posterior capsulotomy, when used in a patient, unhurried manner.

  8. Microplasma Induced Cell Morphological Changes and Apoptosis of Ex Vivo Cultured Human Anterior Lens Epithelial Cells - Relevance to Capsular Opacification.

    PubMed

    Recek, Nina; Andjelić, Sofija; Hojnik, Nataša; Filipič, Gregor; Lazović, Saša; Vesel, Alenka; Primc, Gregor; Mozetič, Miran; Hawlina, Marko; Petrovski, Goran; Cvelbar, Uroš

    2016-01-01

    Inducing selective or targeted cell apoptosis without affecting large number of neighbouring cells remains a challenge. A plausible method for treatment of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) due to remaining lens epithelial cells (LECs) by reactive chemistry induced by localized single electrode microplasma discharge at top of a needle-like glass electrode with spot size ~3 μm is hereby presented. The focused and highly-localized atmospheric pressure microplasma jet with electrode discharge could induce a dose-dependent apoptosis in selected and targeted individual LECs, which could be confirmed by real-time monitoring of the morphological and structural changes at cellular level. Direct cell treatment with microplasma inside the medium appeared more effective in inducing apoptosis (caspase 8 positivity and DNA fragmentation) at a highly targeted cell level compared to treatment on top of the medium (indirect treatment). Our results show that single cell specific micropipette plasma can be used to selectively induce demise in LECs which remain in the capsular bag after cataract surgery and thus prevent their migration (CXCR4 positivity) to the posterior lens capsule and PCO formation.

  9. Unilateral perihilar opacification caused by lightning.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Y; Aihara, T; Takano, H; Nakashima, N; Nozaki, S

    1993-01-01

    The chest radiographs of two children struck by lightning showed right perihilar opacification. The radiographs were taken 2 h and 5 h after the event respectively. To our knowledge no similar cases have been reported.

  10. ACCOMMODATIVE MOVEMENTS OF THE LENS/CAPSULE AND THE STRAND THAT EXTENDS BETWEEN THE POSTERIOR VITREOUS ZONULE INSERTION ZONE & THE LENS EQUATOR, IN RELATION TO THE VITREOUS FACE AND AGING

    PubMed Central

    CROFT, MARY ANN; HEATLEY, GREGG; MCDONALD, JARED P.; KATZ, ALEXANDER; KAUFMAN, PAUL L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate the dynamic accommodative movements of the lens capsule, posterior lens and the strand that attaches to the posterior vitreous zonule insertion zone and posterior lens equator (PVZ INS-LE), and their age-related changes. Methods Twelve human subjects (ages 19–65 years) and twelve rhesus monkeys (ages 6–27 years) were studied. Accommodation was induced pharmacologically (humans) or by central electrical stimulation (monkeys). Ultrasound biomicroscopy was used to image intraocular structures in both species. Surgical procedures and contrast agents were utilized in the monkey eyes to elucidate function and allow visualization of the intraocular accommodative structures. Results Human: The posterior pole of the lens moves posteriorly during accommodation in proportion to accommodative amplitude and ciliary muscle movement. Monkey: Similar accommodative movements of the posterior lens pole were seen in the monkey eyes. Following extracapsular lens extraction (ECLE), the central capsule bows backward during accommodation in proportion to accommodative amplitude and ciliary muscle movement, while the peripheral capsule moves forward. During accommodation the ciliary muscle moved forward by ~1.0 mm, pulling forward the vitreous zonule and the PVZ INS-LE structure. During the accommodative response the PVZ INS-LE structure moved forward when the lens was intact and when the lens substance and capsule were removed. In both the monkey and the human eyes these movements declined with age. Conclusions The accommodative shape change of the central capsule may be due to the elastic properties of the capsule itself. For these capsule/lens accommodative posterior movements to occur, the vitreous face must either allow for it or facilitate it. The PVZ INS-LE structure may act as a “strut” to the posterior lens equator (pushing the lens equator forward) and thereby facilitate accommodative forward lens equator movement and lens thickening. The age

  11. The Royal College of Ophthalmologists' National Ophthalmology Database Study of cataract surgery: report 2, relationships of axial length with ocular copathology, preoperative visual acuity, and posterior capsule rupture

    PubMed Central

    Day, A C; Donachie, P H J; Sparrow, J M; Johnston, R L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the relationships of axial length with ocular copathology, preoperative visual acuity, and posterior capsule rupture rates in patients undergoing cataract surgery. Design The Royal College of Ophthalmologists' National Ophthalmology Database (NOD) study. Methods Anonymised data on 180 114 eyes from 127 685 patients undergoing cataract surgery between August 2006 and November 2010 were collected prospectively from 28 sites. Data parameters included: demographics, biometry, ocular copathology, visual acuity measurements, and surgical complications including posterior capsule rupture, or vitreous loss or both (PCR). Results Consultant surgeons performed a higher proportion of operations on eyes whose axial length were at the extremes. Glaucoma and age related macular degeneration were more common in eyes with shorter axial lengths, whilst previous vitrectomy was associated with longer axial lengths. Eyes with brunescent or white cataracts or amblyopia were more common at both axial length extremes. Preoperative visual acuities were similar for eyes with axial length measurements up to approximately 28 mm and worse for eyes with longer axial length measurements. PCR rates showed little change with axial length (overall mean 1.95%, 95% CI: 1.89 to 2.01%), except for a borderline increase in eyes with axial length <20.0 mm where rates were 3.6% (95% CI: 2.0 to 6.3%). The likelihood of PCR in eyes with axial length <20.0 mm was 1.88 times higher than those of ≥20.0 mm (P=0.0373). Conclusion Rates of ocular comorbidities vary by axial length. PCR rates in eyes with very short or long axial lengths were lower than expected. PMID:26493034

  12. Microplasma Induced Cell Morphological Changes and Apoptosis of Ex Vivo Cultured Human Anterior Lens Epithelial Cells – Relevance to Capsular Opacification

    PubMed Central

    Hojnik, Nataša; Filipič, Gregor; Lazović, Saša; Vesel, Alenka; Primc, Gregor; Mozetič, Miran; Hawlina, Marko; Petrovski, Goran; Cvelbar, Uroš

    2016-01-01

    Inducing selective or targeted cell apoptosis without affecting large number of neighbouring cells remains a challenge. A plausible method for treatment of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) due to remaining lens epithelial cells (LECs) by reactive chemistry induced by localized single electrode microplasma discharge at top of a needle-like glass electrode with spot size ~3 μm is hereby presented. The focused and highly-localized atmospheric pressure microplasma jet with electrode discharge could induce a dose-dependent apoptosis in selected and targeted individual LECs, which could be confirmed by real-time monitoring of the morphological and structural changes at cellular level. Direct cell treatment with microplasma inside the medium appeared more effective in inducing apoptosis (caspase 8 positivity and DNA fragmentation) at a highly targeted cell level compared to treatment on top of the medium (indirect treatment). Our results show that single cell specific micropipette plasma can be used to selectively induce demise in LECs which remain in the capsular bag after cataract surgery and thus prevent their migration (CXCR4 positivity) to the posterior lens capsule and PCO formation. PMID:27832099

  13. Radiation-Induced Middle Ear and Mastoid Opacification in Skull Base Tumors Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Gary V.; Ahmed, Salmaan; Allen, Pamela; Gidley, Paul W.; Woo, Shiao Y.; DeMonte, Franco; Chang, Eric L.; Mahajan, Anita

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To assess the incidence of middle ear (ME) pathology in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) for skull base tumors. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of 61 patients treated with RT between 2003 and 2008 for skull base tumors was conducted. Clinical outcomes and demographics were reviewed. Dose-volume histogram analysis was performed on the eustachian canal (EC), ME, mastoid air cells, vestibular apparatus, cochlea, internal auditory canal, lateral and posterior nasopharynx, and temporal lobes to relate doses to symptoms and radiographic change. Otomastoid opacification was rated 0 (none), 1 (mild), 2 (moderate), and 3 (severe) by a neuroradiologist blinded to clinical outcomes and doses. Results: The median prescribed dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 14-74 Gy). The ME mean dose was 14 Gy and 34 Gy for Grade 0-1 and 2-3 opacification, respectively (p < 0.0001). The mean mastoid dose was 10 Gy and 26 Gy for Grade 0-1 and 2-3, respectively (p < 0.0001). The mean EC dose was 17 Gy and 32 Gy for Grade 0-1 and 2-3, respectively (p = 0.0001). Otomastoid opacification resolved in 17 of 40 patients (42.5%), at a mean of 17 months after RT (range, 2-45 months). Otomastoid opacification persisted in 23 of 40 patients (57.5%), with a mean follow-up of 23 months (range, 2-55 months). Multivariate analysis showed that mastoid dose >30 Gy (odds ratio = 28.0, p < 0.001) and posterior nasopharynx dose of >30 Gy (odds ratio = 4.9, p = 0.009) were associated with Grade 2-3 effusions, whereas other factors including dose to EC and ME were not significant. Conclusions: A mean RT dose >30 Gy to the mastoid air cells or posterior nasopharynx is associated with increased risk of moderate to severe otomastoid opacification, which persisted in more than half of patients at 2-year follow-up.

  14. Auxiliary proteins that facilitate formation of collagen-rich deposits in the posterior knee capsule in a rabbit-based joint contracture model.

    PubMed

    Steplewski, Andrzej; Fertala, Jolanta; Beredjiklian, Pedro K; Abboud, Joseph A; Wang, Mark L Y; Namdari, Surena; Barlow, Jonathan; Rivlin, Michael; Arnold, William V; Kostas, James; Hou, Cheryl; Fertala, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Post-traumatic joint contracture is a debilitating consequence of trauma or surgical procedures. It is associated with fibrosis that develops regardless of the nature of initial trauma and results from complex biological processes associated with inflammation and cell activation. These processes accelerate production of structural elements of the extracellular matrix, particularly collagen fibrils. Although the increased production of collagenous proteins has been demonstrated in tissues of contracted joints, researchers have not yet determined the complex protein machinery needed for the biosynthesis of collagen molecules and for their assembly into fibrils. Consequently, the purpose of our study was to investigate key enzymes and protein chaperones needed to produce collagen-rich deposits. Using a rabbit model of joint contracture, our biochemical and histological assays indicated changes in the expression patterns of heat shock protein 47 and the α-subunit of prolyl 4-hydroxylase, key proteins in processing nascent collagen chains. Moreover, our study shows that the abnormal organization of collagen fibrils in the posterior capsules of injured knees, rather than excessive formation of fibril-stabilizing cross-links, may be a key reason for observed changes in the mechanical characteristics of injured joints. This result sheds new light on pathomechanisms of joint contraction, and identifies potentially attractive anti-fibrotic targets.

  15. Interlenticular opacification in piggyback AcrySof intraocular lenses: explantation technique and laboratory investigations

    PubMed Central

    Eleftheriadis, H.; Marcantonio, J.; Duncan, G.; Liu, C.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Interlenticular opacification (ILO) is a recognised complication of piggyback intraocular lenses (IOLs). The aetiology, histopathology, and treatment are not clearly defined, however.
METHODS—Two pairs of AcrySof IOLs were explanted from a patient with bilateral ILO. The explantation technique and surgical challenges of IOL exchanges are described. The explanted IOL complexes and a sample of the anterior capsule were examined by phase, polarising, and immunofluorescence microscopy.
RESULTS—A 50 year old man developed ILO bilaterally after piggyback AcrySof IOL implantation. A central contact zone was surrounded by a homogeneous paracentral opacity possibly consisting of extracellular matrix previously laid down by proliferating lens epithelial cells (LECs). These opacities were in turn surrounded by interlenticular Elschnig pearl-type opacities contiguous with the same material filling the periphery of the capsular bag. The IOL complexes were very adherent to the capsular bag and they had to be separated with the help of high viscosity viscoelastic before a single one piece PMMA IOL implantation via large limbal incisions. The sample of anterior capsule showed a ridge configuration from the piling of LECs in the site of apposition with the anterior capsule and cells showing different characteristics on either side of the ridge.
CONCLUSION—Cellular proliferation, deposition of ECM from proliferating LECs, and capsular changes induced by cell metaplasia may lead to ILO formation in piggyback AcrySof IOLs. Careful separation of the AcrySof IOL complex from the capsule, meticulous clean up of the proliferating material, and implantation of single or dual in the bag PMMA IOLs through a large incision with capsulorrhexis enlargement may help in the prevention of recurrence of interface opacification.

 PMID:11423458

  16. Ocular Penetration and Efficacy of Levofloxacin Using Different Drug-Delivery Techniques for the Prevention of Endophthalmitis in Rabbit Eyes with Posterior Capsule Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Uda, Takahiro; Mitani, Arisa; Tasaka, Yoshitaka; Kawasaki, Shiro; Mito, Tsuyoshi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of different drug-delivery techniques for levofloxacin (LVFX) in ocular penetration and the prevention of endophthalmitis using an aphakic rabbit model with posterior capsule rupture (PCR). Methods: LVFX was administered to aphakic rabbit eyes with or without PCR using eye drops (EDs), subconjunctival injection (SCI), or intracameral (IC) injection. The concentration of the drug in the vitreous and aqueous humors was estimated at 2 h after injection. In another study, aphakic rabbit eyes with PCR were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, immediately followed by 0.5% LVFX ED, 0.5% moxifloxacin (MFLX) ED, LVFX IC (500 μg/0.1 mL), or IC saline. EDs were administered 0, 3, and 6 h after surgery. Changes on electroretinography (ERG) and intraocular bacterial growth were determined sequentially until 48 h after inoculation. Results: The concentrations of LVFX at 2 h after IC were higher in the aqueous humor and the vitreous cavity of eyes with or without PCR, compared with EDs or SCI. Eyes treated with LVFX ED, MFLX ED, or IC saline showed a significantly greater reduction in b-wave amplitude on ERG at 48 h compared with eyes treated with LVFX IC. The number of bacteria recovered from the vitreous humor in eyes treated with IC LVFX at 48 h was significantly less than from eyes that received other treatments. Conclusion: The LVFX IC was effective at suppressing endophthalmitis caused by E. faecalis in eyes with a PCR. PMID:24410272

  17. Perception of difficulties with vision-related activities of daily living among patients undergoing unilateral posterior capsulotomy

    PubMed Central

    de Senne, Firmani M. B.; Temporini, Edméa R.; Arieta, Carlos E. L.; Pacheco, Karla D.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the influence of Nd:YAG (neodymium: yttrium-aluminum- garnet) laser unilateral posterior capsulotomy on visual acuity and patients’ perception of difficulties with vision-related activities of daily life. METHODS We conducted an interventional survey that included 48 patients between 40 and 80 years of age with uni- or bilateral pseudophakia, posterior capsule opacification, and visual acuity ≤0.30 (logMAR) in one eye who were seen at a Brazilian university hospital. All patients underwent posterior capsulotomy using an Nd:YAG laser. Before and after the intervention, patients were asked to complete a questionnaire that was developed in an exploratory study. RESULTS Before posterior capsulotomy, the median visual acuity (logMAR) of the included patients was 0.52 (range 0.30–1.60). After posterior capsulotomy, the median visual acuity of the included patients improved to 0.10 (range 0.0–0.52). According to the subjects’ perceptions, their ability to perform most of their daily life activities improved after the intervention (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS After patients underwent posterior capsulotomy with an Nd:YAG laser, a significant improvement in the visual acuity of the treated eye was observed. Additionally, subjects felt that they experienced less difficulty performing most of their vision-dependent activities of daily living. PMID:20535363

  18. Posterior capsulorhexis combined with optic buttonholing: an alternative to standard in-the-bag implantation of sharp-edged intraocular lenses? A critical analysis of 1000 consecutive cases

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    . Results A low rate of vitreous complications was found, which can be avoided by appropriate surgery. Vitreous entanglement occurred in six eyes, and vitreous herniation after PPCCC over-sizing in two. In three, anterior vitrectomy was performed. There was only one single case of retinal detachment—supposedly unrelated to the technique itself—and no case of cystoid macular edema. Retro-optical regenerate formation was completely abolished, while fibrosis was drastically reduced by the posterior capsule sandwiched in between the anterior LEC layer on the backside of the anterior capsule and the anterior optic surface, thereby blocking contact-mediated myofibroblastic LEC transdifferentiation. Additional capsular polishing further reduced residual fibrosis emerging from the anterior capsule contacting the optic adjacent to the haptic junction, as well as regeneratory LEC re-proliferation on the posterior capsule overlying the optic. Postoperative pressure course was almost identical to that found after standard in-the-bag implantation of the IOL, as was flare, and macular thickness and morphology. As opposed to bag-fixated IOLs, no axial movement of the optic was detected. IOL optics always perfectly centered even when the capsular opening was not optimally centered. Due to the exquisite stretchability and elasticity of the posterior capsule, the 6-mm IOL optic could safely be buttoned-in in a posterior capsulorhexis of 4 mm and smaller. Conclusions Posterior optic buttonholing (POBH) is a safe and effective technique which not only excludes retro-optical opacification, but also withholds capsular fibrosis by obviating direct contact between the anterior capsular leaf and the optic surface. Anterior LEC abrasion significantly reduced both the residual fibrosis and regeneratory LEC proliferation. Apart from pediatric cataract, POBH is currently recommended for eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome, high axial myopia, peripheral retinal disease, and multifocal IOL

  19. Polycythemia causing posterior segment vascular occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Suganeswari; Raman, Rajiv; Sharma, Tarun

    2017-01-01

    A 44-year-old male patient presented with features suggestive of transient central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) followed by permanent CRAO and lateral posterior ciliary artery occlusion. He had diagnostic features of polycythemia vera (PV). When presented for the first time, the patient had features of ocular ischemia such as ocular pain, conjunctival congestion, and retinal opacification but with normal arm-to-retina time and normal arteriovenous transit time. During the second presentation, he had ocular pain, congested conjunctiva, retinal opacification, cherry red spot with box-carrying of retinal vessels, and choroidal infarct (Amalric's sign). He had lost light perception in that eye. Patients with polycythemia are prone to multifocal vascular occlusions and this can be the presenting feature in PV. A timely diagnosis and prompt management can prevent these repeated thromboembolic occlusive episodes. PMID:28298862

  20. A study of lens opacification for a Mars mission

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.L.; Wilson, J.W.; Cox, A.B.; Lett, J.T. USAF, School of Aerospace Medicine, Radiation Science Div., Brooks AFB, TX Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CL )

    1991-07-01

    A method based on risk-related cross sections is used to estimate risks of 'stationary' cataracts caused by radiation exposures during extended missions in deep space. Estimates of the even more important risk of late degenerative cataractogenesis are made on the basis of the limited data available. Data on lenticular opacification in the New Zealand white rabbit, an animal model from which such results can be extrapolated to humans, are analyzed by the Langley cosmic ray shielding code (HZETRN) to generate estimates of stationary cataract formation resulting from a Mars mission. The effects of the composition of shielding material and the relationship between risk and LET are given, and the effects of target fragmentation on the risk coefficients are evaluated explicitly. 12 refs.

  1. Reversible opacification of a hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Park, Choul Yong; Chuck, Roy S

    2012-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman with diabetic retinopathy and chronic myelogenous leukemia had phacoemulsification cataract removal and hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) (Akreos MI-60) implantation in both eyes. One month after surgery, significant IOL opacity and severe cystoid macular edema were observed in both eyes. After bilateral intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (Avastin) to control macular edema, central clearing of the IOL opacity was observed in both eyes. Two months after the injection, the IOL opacity had almost disappeared from both eyes. To our knowledge, this is the first case of early postoperative bilateral IOL opacity in a hydrophilic acrylic IOL cleared after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) intravitreal injection. The role of anti-VEGF therapy in clearing IOL opacification requires further investigation.

  2. Chromosome abnormalities and the genetics of congenital corneal opacification

    PubMed Central

    Mataftsi, A.; Islam, L.; Kelberman, D.; Sowden, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital corneal opacification (CCO) encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders that have different etiologies, including genetic and environmental. Terminology used in clinical phenotyping is commonly not specific enough to describe separate entities, for example both the terms Peters anomaly and sclerocornea have been ascribed to a clinical picture of total CCO, without investigating the presence or absence of iridocorneal adhesions. This is not only confusing but also unhelpful in determining valid genotype-phenotype correlations, and thereby revealing clues for pathogenesis. We undertook a systematic review of the literature focusing on CCO as part of anterior segment developmental anomalies (ASDA), and analyzed its association specifically with chromosomal abnormalities. Genes previously identified as being associated with CCO are also summarized. All reports were critically appraised to classify phenotypes according to described features, rather than the given diagnosis. Some interesting associations were found, and are discussed. PMID:21738392

  3. A study of lens opacification for a Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, J. L.; Wilson, J. W.; Cox, A. B.; Lett, J. T.

    1991-01-01

    A method based on risk-related cross sections is used to estimate risks of 'stationary' cataracts caused by radiation exposures during extended missions in deep space. Estimates of the even more important risk of late degenerative cataractogenesis are made on the basis of the limited data available. Data on lenticular opacification in the New Zealand white rabbit, an animal model from which such results can be extrapolated to humans, are analyzed by the Langley cosmic ray shielding code (HZETRN) to generate estimates of stationary cataract formation resulting from a Mars mission. The effects of the composition of shielding material and the relationship between risk and LET are given, and the effects of target fragmentation on the risk coefficients are evaluated explicitly.

  4. Chromosome abnormalities and the genetics of congenital corneal opacification.

    PubMed

    Mataftsi, A; Islam, L; Kelberman, D; Sowden, J C; Nischal, K K

    2011-01-01

    Congenital corneal opacification (CCO) encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders that have different etiologies, including genetic and environmental. Terminology used in clinical phenotyping is commonly not specific enough to describe separate entities, for example both the terms Peters anomaly and sclerocornea have been ascribed to a clinical picture of total CCO, without investigating the presence or absence of iridocorneal adhesions. This is not only confusing but also unhelpful in determining valid genotype-phenotype correlations, and thereby revealing clues for pathogenesis. We undertook a systematic review of the literature focusing on CCO as part of anterior segment developmental anomalies (ASDA), and analyzed its association specifically with chromosomal abnormalities. Genes previously identified as being associated with CCO are also summarized. All reports were critically appraised to classify phenotypes according to described features, rather than the given diagnosis. Some interesting associations were found, and are discussed.

  5. Egg capsules of the dusky catshark Bythaelurus canescens (Carcharhiniformes, Scyliorhinidae) from the south-eastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Concha, F; Bustamante, C; Oddone, M C; Hernández, S; Lamilla, J

    2010-09-01

    The external morphology of the egg capsule of Bythaelurus canescens and its fixation to the substratum are described. Bythaelurus canescens egg capsules are typically vase-shaped, dorso-ventrally flattened, pale yellow in colour when fresh and covered by 12-15 longitudinal ridges. The anterior border of the capsule is straight, whereas the posterior border is semicircular. Two horns bearing long, coiled tendrils arise from the anterior and posterior ends of the capsule. The presence of longitudinal ridges and long coiled tendrils at both anterior and posterior ends of the capsule readily distinguish these egg capsules from those of other chondrichthyans occurring in the south-east Pacific Ocean.

  6. Opacification of hydrophilic intraocular lenses after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Warren, Peter J; Andreatta, Walter; Patel, Amit K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Opacification of hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) is an emerging complication following Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). We report six cases and review the current literature. Methods In this retrospective, noncomparative, observational case series, patients with IOL opacification after previous DSAEK surgery were identified from corneal clinic records. Case notes were reviewed for demographic details, indication for DSAEK, IOL model, incidence of rebubbling, and postoperative course. Results Six patients developed IOL opacification after DSAEK. All patients had Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy and had previously received hydrophilic acrylic IOL models. Central anterior IOL opacification was noted in all six cases. Five cases (83%) had required rebubbling due to dislocated graft tissue, and one had an early postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) rise. Five cases (83%) were managed conservatively, and one case with a failed graft underwent redo DSAEK and IOL exchange. Conclusion Repeated exposure to intracameral air, raised IOP, and other patient influences may be major etiological factors for IOL opacification after DSAEK. We advise avoiding hydrophilic acrylic IOL models in patients who may require future endothelial keratoplasty. PMID:25709389

  7. Influence of bladder distension on opacification of urinary collecting system during CT urography.

    PubMed

    Curić, Josip; Vukelić-Marković, Mirjana; Marusić, Petar; Hrkać-Pustahija, Ana; Brkljacić, Boris

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare opacification of the renal collecting system and ureters detected by computed tomographic urography (CTU) performed 20 min and 1 h after the ingestion of 1,000 ml of water. CTU was performed on 89 patients (55 men, 34 women; age 28-77 years) and 168 collecting systems and ureters were evaluated. A 16-detector-row scanner (Sensation 16, Siemens) was used; a two-phase protocol with a split bolus of contrast agent (total 120 ml) was applied. A combined nephrographic-excretory phase was obtained 100 s after the second injection. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the excretory phase were created and used to evaluate the degree of opacification of the collecting system and ureters. In 44 patients, water was administered 20 min before examination, and in 45 patients, 1 h before examination. CTU performed 1 h after water ingestion demonstrated complete opacification of calices in 87.5%, of renal pelvis in 97.5%, of upper ureter in 91.8% and of lower ureter in 87.5% of patients. CTU performed 20 min after water ingestion demonstrated complete opacification of calices in 79.5%, of renal pelvis in 85%, of upper ureter in 62.5% and of lower ureter in 54.5% of patients. Complete opacification of the proximal and distal ureter in the group with a 1-h delay was statistically higher (P<0.01). CTU performed on the distended bladder, 1 h after the oral ingestion of water, enables excellent opacification of collecting system, including distal ureters.

  8. Temperature Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    An ingestible mini-thermometer capable of measuring and relaying internal body temperatures is marketed by Human Technologies, Inc. The CorTemp system, developed by Goddard Space Flight Center and Applied Physics Lab, incorporates space technologies, among them telemetry and microminiaturized circuit, sensor and battery technologies. The capsule is ingested and continually monitors temperature with a vibrating quartz crystal sensor, which telemeters signals to a recorder, where data is displayed and stored. The system is very accurate, and because it does not require wires, allows patients to be monitored in everyday situations. The industrial variant (CSC-100) has wide utility in commercial applications.

  9. Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation animation

    This animation shows the return capsule separating from the Stardust spacecraft.

  10. Parenchymal opacification in chronic infiltrative lung diseases: CT-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Leung, A N; Miller, R R; Müller, N L

    1993-07-01

    To correlate areas of parenchymal opacification on thin-section computed tomographic (CT) scans with histologic findings in patients with chronic infiltrative lung disease, the CT and histologic findings were evaluated in 29 patients with 11 such diseases. Open-lung biopsy was performed after CT. The area of predominant involvement was classified as air space, interstitium, or a mixture of both. A pathologic score of disease activity was assigned, and the extent of fibrosis was assessed whenever fibrosis was present. Parenchymal opacification on CT scans corresponded to abnormalities that affected mainly the air spaces in three patients (10%), the interstitium in 13 patients (45%), or both to a similar degree in 13 patients (45%). In 25 of 29 patients (86%), parenchymal opacification was associated with potentially treatable or reversible disease. Abnormalities considered irreversible were seen in three patients with end-stage fibrosis and one patient with talcosis. Parenchymal opacification on thin-section CT scans is a nonspecific finding in diseases that affect the air spaces, interstitium, or both but usually indicates potentially treatable or reversible disease.

  11. Hydrophilic Acrylic Intraocular Lens Opacification after Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Norouzpour, Amir; Zarei-Ghanavati, Siamak

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report hydrophilic acylic intraocular lens (IOL) opacification after Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSAEK) in an eye with multiple prior intraocular surgeries and iatrogenic aniridia. Case Report: A 34-year-old woman with history of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) for advanced keratoconus and subsequent Urrets-Zavalia Syndrome (UZS) underwent phacoemulsification and hydrophilic acrylic IOL implantation for her cataract. In order to control post-PKP glaucoma, multiple glaucoma surgeries including two glaucoma drainage implants were performed. As the original corneal graft failed, the patient subsequently underwent re-PKP. Four years later, she underwent DSAEK for treatment of the second graft failure. Ten months after DSAEK, a double semi-circular pattern of IOL opacification was observed on the anterior surface of the IOL. The patient did not report any complaints and we decided not to exchange the IOL. Conclusion: In an eye with UZS and iatrogenic aniridia, IOL opacification may result from direct contact between the IOL surface and exogenous air. Aniridia can be a risk factor for development of IOL opacification after DSAEK. Further studies are required to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27413506

  12. Agar blue localization of small pulmonary nodules and ground glass opacifications for thoracoscopic resection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening for lung cancer using high resolution computed tomography (CT) has produced encouraging early results. Extremely small nodules and non-palpable areas of opacifications are able to be detected, but pose a challenge to the thoracic surgeon trying to resect these areas. Methods Forty five patients with ground glass opacifications (GGOs) or small pulmonary nodules underwent pre-operative CT-guided placement of methylene blue dyed agar and/or hook wire needle localization prior to thoracoscopic resection. Progel was applied to any intraoperative air leaks observed after successful resection. Results All lesions were successfully excised thoracoscopically. The blue agar aided in localization of these areas and did not affect the histological architecture during pathologic evaluation. Conclusions Careful pre-operative evaluation and planning, including use of selective CT-guided blue agar localization and hook wire placement, may greatly assist in thoracoscopically locating and resecting these often difficult-to-visualize lesions. PMID:28066669

  13. Sweat collection capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaplaine, R. W.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Capsule, with filter paper insert, is used to collect sweat for rate monitoring, chromatographic analysis, or active sweat gland location within specified area. Construction of capsule allows change of inserts while device remains strapped in place.

  14. Stability of Betaine Capsules

    PubMed Central

    Boily, Stéphanie; Forest, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Betaine is used to treat homocystinuria and is not available in Canada as a formulated drug. In order to facilitate the administration of this compound to patients, a capsule formulation and an evaluation of its stability were required. Capsule formulations of betaine were developed (160 mg and 625 mg of betaine per capsule). As betaine has no chromophore, an HPLC-ELSD analytical method was also developed. The critical quality attributes of these formulations were evaluated (content assay, content uniformity, and dissolution) as well as their stability. Capsules with acceptable quality attributes were produced. These capsules remained stable for 1 year when stored in airtight containers at controlled room temperature. However, shelf life decreased dramatically in nonairtight containers at 30°C (3 months for the lactose-containing capsules of 160 mg and 6 months for the capsules of 625 mg). PMID:23862077

  15. Use of iris recognition camera technology for the quantification of corneal opacification in mucopolysaccharidoses.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Tariq Mehmood; Shakir, Savana; Wong, James; Au, Leon; Ashworth, Jane

    2012-12-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) can cause corneal opacification that is currently difficult to objectively quantify. With newer treatments for MPS comes an increased need for a more objective, valid and reliable index of disease severity for clinical and research use. Clinical evaluation by slit lamp is very subjective and techniques based on colour photography are difficult to standardise. In this article the authors present evidence for the utility of dedicated image analysis algorithms applied to images obtained by a highly sophisticated iris recognition camera that is small, manoeuvrable and adapted to achieve rapid, reliable and standardised objective imaging in a wide variety of patients while minimising artefactual interference in image quality.

  16. Ligamentous and capsular restraints to experimental posterior elbow joint dislocation.

    PubMed

    Deutch, Søren R; Olsen, Bo S; Jensen, Steen L; Tyrdal, Stein; Sneppen, Otto

    2003-10-01

    Pathological external forearm rotation (PEFR) relates to posterolateral elbow joint instability, and is considered a possible requisite step in a simple posterior elbow joint dislocation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capsuloligamentous restraint to PEFR. In all, 18 elbow joint specimens were examined in a joint analysis system developed for experimental elbow dislocation. Sequential cutting of capsule and ligaments followed by stability testing provided specific data relating to each capsuloligamentous structure. The primary stabilizers against PEFR in the extended elbow were the anterior capsule and the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC), whereas in the flexed elbow the anterior capsule did not have a stabilizing effect. In flexed joint positions, the LCLC seems to be the only immediate stabilizer against PEFR, and thereby against posterolateral instability and possibly against posterior dislocation. The medial collateral ligament did not have any immediate stabilizing effect, but it prevented the final step of the posterior dislocation.

  17. Spermidine delays eye lens opacification in vitro by suppressing transglutaminase-catalyzed crystallin cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Lentini, Alessandro; Tabolacci, Claudio; Mattioli, Palma; Provenzano, Bruno; Beninati, Simone

    2011-02-01

    A Ca(2+)-dependent TG activity, identified in the eye lens of several mammalian species, has long been implicated in cataract formation. The precise mechanism of the involvement of this enzyme in this process remains unclear. The purpose of this work was to investigate the modulatory effect of polyamines on TG activity during rabbit eye lens in vitro opacification. We observed, in an in vitro Ca(2+)-induced cataract model, a rapid decrease of the endogenous levels of SPD with the progression of opacification, paralleled by an increase of crystallin cross-linking by bis(γ-glutamyl)SPD. This pattern was reversed adding exogenous SPD to the incubation medium. Indeed, endogenous SPD levels were restored and cross-linking by bis(γ-glutamyl)SPD were drastically reduced. Surprisingly, under this experimental condition, the loss of transparency of lens was delayed. We found that exogenous SPD incubation led to a remarkable increase of mono(γ-glutamyl)SPD, likely responsible of the inhibition of cross-linking of lens crystallins and of the transparency persistence.

  18. The Palisades of Vogt in Congenital Corneal Opacification (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Nischal, Ken K.; Lathrop, Kira L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purposes of this study are first, to determine if the palisades of Vogt (POV) are present or absent in cases of congenital corneal opacification (CCO) by using spectral domain ocular coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and second, in those cases already undergoing penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), to see whether the absence or presence of POV corresponds to re-epithelialization following transplant. Methods This was a retrospective case review of 20 eyes (10 normal, 10 with CCO) evaluated with SD-OCT. The operator was masked to the clinician’s assessment of the ocular surface. In those cases where the decision to perform PKP had already been made, the correlation between POV presence or absence and posttransplant graft epithelialization was determined. Results All cases were imaged without adverse event. Nine eyes showed some evidence of POV and corresponding vasculature. Eight of 10 affected eyes underwent PKP, and subsequently 7 eyes epithelialized and 2 showed some peripheral neovascularization. The one eye that showed no signs of POV was the one that failed to epithelialize. All control subjects had consistent and regular POV. Conclusions Congenital corneal opacification is rare, and this study shows that at least some POV are present in the majority of cases of CCO. However, the palisades may not be entirely normal compared to age-matched controls. When there was absence of POV in a case of CCO, there was immediate and complete failure of epithelialization. PMID:28042184

  19. NIF symmetry capsule modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Pino, J. E.; Rowley, D. P.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Spears, B. K.; Tipton, R. E.

    2013-10-01

    NIF CH ablator symmetry capsules are filled with hydrogen or helium gas. SymCaps have more moderate convergence ratios ~ 15 as opposed to ~ 35 for ignition capsules with DT ice layers, and better agreement has been achieved between simulations and experimental data. We will present modeling of capsules with CD layers and tritium fill, for which we are able to match the dependence of DT yield on recession distance of the CD layer from the gas. We can also match the performance of CH capsules with D3 He fill. The simulations include surface roughness, drive asymmetry, a mock-up of modulation introduced by the tent holding the capsule, and an empirical prescription for ablator-gas atomic mix. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. The Lens Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Danysh, Brian P.; Duncan, Melinda K.

    2009-01-01

    The lens capsule is a modified basement membrane that completely surrounds the ocular lens. It is known that this extracellular matrix is important for both the structure and biomechanics of the lens in addition to providing informational cues to maintain lens cell phenotype. This review covers the development and structure of the lens capsule, lens diseases associated with mutations in extracellular matrix genes and the role of the capsule in lens function including those proposed for visual accommodation, selective permeability to infectious agents, and cell signaling. PMID:18773892

  1. Trypan blue-assisted posterior capsulorhexis in pediatric cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lotfy, Ayman; Abdelrahman, Ayman

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the safety and efficacy of staining the posterior capsule with trypan blue during capsulorhexis in pediatric cataract surgery. Patients and methods This was a prospective randomized comparative study carried out at Alpha Vision Center, Zagazig, Egypt. This study included 2 groups of children with pediatric cataract randomly allocated to undergo irrigation and aspiration. In the trypan group, which included 11 eyes, trypan blue was used to stain the posterior capsule during posterior capsulorhexis. In the control group, which included 10 eyes, no staining was performed. All surgeries were performed by the same surgeon. The 2 groups were compared for criteria such as completion of capsulorhexis, disruption of vitreous face and in-the-bag intraocular lens implantation. Results This study included 21 eyes of 16 patients (age range: 6 months–4 years). A statistically significant difference was observed for the following parameters between the 2 groups: capsulorhexis completion (P=0.04), vitreous face disruption (P=0.01) and in-the-bag intraocular lens implantation (P=0.022). Conclusion This study suggests that staining of the posterior capsule during capsulorhexis in pediatric cataract operation gives better results than capsulorhexis without staining. The stain changes the capsule texture making capsulorhexis easier with fewer complications. PMID:28182152

  2. [Capsulotomy through the pars plana in the eye with pseudophakia of the posterior chamber].

    PubMed

    Radian, A B; Mocanu, C

    1996-01-01

    It described one surgical technique for capsulotomy in the case of secondary cataract at an eye with pseudophakic by posterior chamber. The approaching makes with an simple instrument, through pars plana, the tearing of posterior capsule making under control with operator microscope, in area of visual axie, excluding any possibility to harm the lens, its luxation in vitreous or anothers complications.

  3. Advances in Capsule Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ryan; Enns, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive technology that has revolutionized the approach to small intestinal disease investigation and management. Designed primarily to provide diagnostic imaging of the small intestine, VCE is used predominantly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected Crohn's disease; however, numerous other indications have been established, including the assessment of celiac disease, investigation of small bowel tumors, and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes. Since the introduction of small bowel VCE in 2000, more than 1600 articles have been published describing the evolution of this technology. The main adverse outcome is capsule retention, which can potentially be avoided by careful patient selection or by using a patency capsule. Despite the numerous advances in the past 15 years, limitations such as incomplete VCE studies, missed lesions, and time-consuming reporting remain. The inability to control capsule movement for the application of targeted therapy or the acquisition of tissue for histologic analysis remains among the greatest challenges in the further development of capsule technology. This article outlines the recent technological and clinical advances in VCE and the future directions of research in this field.

  4. Advances in Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive technology that has revolutionized the approach to small intestinal disease investigation and management. Designed primarily to provide diagnostic imaging of the small intestine, VCE is used predominantly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected Crohn’s disease; however, numerous other indications have been established, including the assessment of celiac disease, investigation of small bowel tumors, and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes. Since the introduction of small bowel VCE in 2000, more than 1600 articles have been published describing the evolution of this technology. The main adverse outcome is capsule retention, which can potentially be avoided by careful patient selection or by using a patency capsule. Despite the numerous advances in the past 15 years, limitations such as incomplete VCE studies, missed lesions, and time-consuming reporting remain. The inability to control capsule movement for the application of targeted therapy or the acquisition of tissue for histologic analysis remains among the greatest challenges in the further development of capsule technology. This article outlines the recent technological and clinical advances in VCE and the future directions of research in this field. PMID:27482183

  5. DNA damage is involved in the induction of opacification and neovascularization of the cornea by ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Applegate, L A; Ley, R D

    1991-04-01

    Studies were conducted to examine ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced alterations of the cornea of the gray, short-tailed opossum. Monodelphis domestica, and the effect of post-UVR illumination to photoreactivation light (PRL, 320-500 nm). As photoreactivation treatment specifically monomerizes pyrimidine dimers, an amelioration of the UVR-induced biological end-point would implicate DNA as being a primary chromophore for induction of that end-point. Corneas of anesthetized, four-month-old, opossums were exposed to 250 J m-2 (0.025 J cm-2) from a Westinghouse FS20 sunlamp either one or three times a week for up to 13 exposures. The corneas of 4-5 animals received either: (a) 90 min of PRL immediately prior to UVR; (b) PRL immediately following UVR; (c) PRL alone; or (d) UVR alone. Eyes were examined with a slit lamp microscope 24 hr following each exposure and scored for the appearance of opacification and neovascularization of the cornea. In animals exposed to UVR alone, 2-5 exposures, depending on whether the exposures were given once or three times per week, were required to obtain opacification and neovascularization in 50% of the irradiated corneas. The onset of both opacification and neovascularization in 50% of the corneas required 8-11 exposures when the UVR was immediately followed by PRL. Based on the specificity of photoreactivation repair to act solely on pyrimidine dimers, these observations suggest that UVR-induced pyrimidine dimers in corneal DNA are involved in UVR-induced opacification and neovascularization of the cornea of Monodelphis domestica.

  6. Percutaneous Posterior Calcaneal Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-01-01

    Different types of posterior calcaneal osteotomy are used for calcaneal realignment in the management of hindfoot deformity. We describe a percutaneous technique of posterior calcaneal osteotomy that can be either a Dwyer-type closing wedge osteotomy or displacement osteotomy.

  7. Gelatin capsule in stomach (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... detect the presence of intestinal parasites. A weighted gelatin capsule attached to a string is swallowed and left in place. After about 4 hours, the gelatin capsule is pulled out of the stomach by ...

  8. Capsule injection system for a hydraulic capsule pipelining system

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Henry

    1982-01-01

    An injection system for injecting capsules into a hydraulic capsule pipelining system, the pipelining system comprising a pipeline adapted for flow of a carrier liquid therethrough, and capsules adapted to be transported through the pipeline by the carrier liquid flowing through the pipeline. The injection system comprises a reservoir of carrier liquid, the pipeline extending within the reservoir and extending downstream out of the reservoir, and a magazine in the reservoir for holding capsules in a series, one above another, for injection into the pipeline in the reservoir. The magazine has a lower end in communication with the pipeline in the reservoir for delivery of capsules from the magazine into the pipeline.

  9. Epidemiological assessment of lens opacifications that impaired vision in patients injected with radium-224

    SciTech Connect

    Chmelevsky, D.; Mays, C.W.; Spiess, H.; Stefani, F.H.; Kellerer, A.M.

    1988-08-01

    The incidence of lens opacifications that impaired vision (cataract) was analyzed among 831 patients who were injected with known dosages of /sup 224/Ra in Germany shortly after World War II. The dependence of the incidence on dosage, i.e., injected activity per unit body weight, and on time after treatment was determined. The observations are equally consistent with proportionality of the incidence of cataract to the square of dosage or with a linear dependence beyond a threshold of 0.5 MBq/kg. The possibility of a linear dependence without threshold was strongly rejected (P less than 0.001). The analysis of temporal dependences yielded a component that was correlated with the injected amount of /sup 224/Ra and a component that was uncorrelated. The former was inferred by a maximum likelihood analysis to increase approximately as the square of the time after treatment. The component unrelated to the treatment was found to increase steeply with age and to become dominant within the collective of patients between age 50 and 60. The relative magnitudes of the two components were such that a fraction of 55 to 60% of the total of 58 cataracts had to be ascribed to the dose-related incidence. Impaired vision due to cataract was diagnosed before age 54 in 25 cases. In terms of injected activity per unit body weight no dependence of the sensitivity on age was found; specifically there was no indication of a faster occurrence of the treatment-related cataracts in patients treated at older ages.

  10. Complicated posterior capsulorhexis: aetiology, management, and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Van Cauwenberge, F.; Rakic, J.; Galand, A.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND—A 1 year retrospective analysis of 650 patients, who underwent a posterior capsulorhexis on their intact capsules, was performed to examine the incidence of complications, their aetiologies, and the outcome.
METHODS—Data were analysed on 32 patients with complicated capsulorhexis for type of surgery, preoperative and postoperative factors, and relative risk factors for vitreous issue.
RESULTS—There were six patients with vitreous loss. The posterior capsulorhexis was uncontrolled in 14 cases and difficult to perform in 12 cases. Implantation into the capsular bag was possible in all cases. Systemic vascular hazard and old age (over 80 years) were found to be statistically significant risk factors for vitreous loss (p=0.002 and p=0.03 respectively). The mean follow up was 13.5 months (range 4-25 months). One patient developed a retinal detachment and two had a transient clinical cystoid macular oedema. Visual acuity of ≥ 20/40 was obtained in 93% of the patients.
CONCLUSION—Loss of control of the posterior capsulorhexis has a low incidence but can lead to serious problems during surgery. A good knowledge of the technique is necessary to complete the procedure with a posterior capsulorhexis of the optimum size without vitreous loss.

 PMID:9135382

  11. Sweat collection capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Delaplaine, R. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A sweat collection capsule permitting quantitative collection of sweat is described. The device consists of a frame held immobile on the skin, a closure secured to the frame and absorbent material located next to the skin in a cavity formed by the frame and the closure. The absorbent material may be removed from the device by removing the closure from the frame while the frame is held immobile on the skin.

  12. Capsule-train stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryngelson, Spencer H.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2016-07-01

    Elastic capsules flowing in small enough tubes, such as red blood cells in capillaries, are well known to line up into regular single-file trains. The stability of such trains in somewhat wider channels, where this organization is not observed, is studied in a two-dimensional model system that includes full coupling between the viscous flow and suspended capsules. A diverse set of linearly amplifying disturbances, both long-time asymptotic (modal) and transient (nonmodal) perturbations, is identified and analyzed. These have a range of amplification rates and their corresponding forms are wavelike, typically dominated by one of five principal perturbation classes: longitudinal and transverse translations, tilts, and symmetric and asymmetric shape distortions. Finite-amplitude transiently amplifying perturbations are shown to provide a mechanism that can bypass slower asymptotic modal linear growth and precipitate the onset of nonlinear effects. Direct numerical simulations are used to verify the linear analysis and track the subsequent transition of the regular capsule trains into an apparently chaotic flow.

  13. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Neviaser, Andrew S; Neviaser, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is characterized by painful, gradual loss of active and passive shoulder motion resulting from fibrosis and contracture of the joint capsule. Other shoulder pathology can produce a similar clinical picture, however, and must be considered. Management is based on the underlying cause of pain and stiffness, and determination of the etiology is essential. Subtle clues in the history and physical examination can help differentiate adhesive capsulitis from other conditions that cause a stiff, painful shoulder. The natural history of adhesive capsulitis is a matter of controversy. Management of true capsular restriction of motion (ie, true adhesive capsulitis) begins with gentle, progressive stretching exercises. Most patients improve with nonsurgical treatment. Indications for surgery should be individualized. Failure to obtain symptomatic improvement and continued functional disability following ≥6 months of physical therapy is a general guideline for surgical intervention. Diligent postoperative therapy to maintain motion is required to minimize recurrence of adhesive capsulitis.

  14. Hohlraum Simulations for Symergy Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, S. R.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kyrala, G. A.; Wilson, D. C.

    2006-10-01

    The use of a single capsule implosion within a hohlraum to provide information on both the asymmetry of the radiation drive impinging on the capsule and the total energy absorbed by it has led to the concept of experiments with ``symergy'' capsules. We present simulations for planned shots at Omega with hohlraum drive approximating the first 6 ns of the actual NIF ignition drive and surrogate capsules for the NIF ignition capsule. The hohlraum modeling can assess the effects of hohlraum gas fill, laser timing variations and beam pointings. In addition to its immediate design use, it should be useful in validating both the predictive capability for observed symergy capsule responses and the modeling of the initial stage of the NIF ignition process. N.M. Hoffman, D. C. Wilson, and G. A. Kyrala, 2006 High-Temperature Diagnostics Conference, May 2006, Williamsburg, VA USA, to appear in Rev Sci Inst. 77 (2006)

  15. Capsule endoscopy in portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rondonotti, Emanuele; Villa, Federica; Dell' Era, Alessandra; Tontini, Gian Eugenio; de Franchis, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Since the introduction of small bowel capsule endoscopy, and more recently of esophageal capsule endoscopy, these diagnostic tools have become available for the evaluation of the consequences of portal hypertension in the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine. The main advantage of the esophageal and the small bowel capsule is the relatively less invasiveness that could potentially increase patients' adherence to endoscopic screening/surveillance programs. When esophageal capsule endoscopy was compared with traditional gastroscopy, it showed good sensitivity and specificity in recognizing the presence and the size of esophageal varices. However, the results are not consistent among studies, and more data are needed.

  16. Relationship Between the Middle Genicular Artery and the Posterior Structures of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; Ramos, Leonardo Addêo; Novaretti, João Victor; Ribeiro, Leandro Masini; Szeles, Paulo Roberto de Queiroz; Ingham, Sheila Jean McNeill; Abdalla, Rene Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Background: The middle genicular artery (MGA) is responsible for the blood supply to the cruciate ligaments and synovial tissue. Traumatic sports injuries and surgical procedures (open and arthroscopic) can cause vascular damage. Little attention has been devoted to establish safe parameters for the MGA. Purpose: To investigate the anatomy of the MGA and its relation to the posterior structures of the knees, mainly the posterior capsule and femoral condyles, and to establish safe parameters to avoid harming the MGA. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Dissection of the MGA was performed in 16 fresh, unpaired adult human cadaveric knees with no macroscopic degenerative or traumatic changes and no previous surgeries. The specimens were meticulously evaluated with emphasis on preservation of the MGA. The distances from the MGA to the medial and lateral femoral condyles were measured. The Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis. Results: In all specimens, the MGA emerged from the anterior aspect of the popliteal artery, distal to the superior genicular arteries, and had a short distal trajectory toward the posterior capsule where it entered proximal to the oblique popliteal ligament. The artery lay in the midportion between the condyles. The distance between the posterior aspect of the tibia and the point of entry of the MGA into the posterior joint capsule was 23.8 ± 7.3 mm (range, 14.72-35.68 mm). There was no correlation between an individual’s height and the distance of the entrance point of the MGA into the posterior joint capsule to the posterior superior corner of the tibia. Conclusion: The middle genicular artery lies in the midportion between the medial and lateral femoral condyles. Clinical Relevance: This knowledge is important for the preservation of the blood supply during posterior knee surgical procedures and to settle a secure distance between the posterior aspect of the tibia and the MGA input. This could decrease and

  17. Magnetism in metal-organic capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, Jerry L.; Brechin, Euan K; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Inglis, Ross; Jones, Leigh F.; Mossine, Andrew; Paterson, Martin J.; Power, Nicholas P.; Teat, Simon J.

    2010-01-07

    Nickel and cobalt seamed metal-organic capsules have been isolated and studied using structural, magnetic and computational approaches. Antiferromagnetic exchange in the Ni capsule results from coordination environments enforced by the capsule framework.

  18. Spacecraft Escape Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Charles, Dingell W.; Bufkin, Ann L.; Rodriggs, Liana M.; Peterson, Wayne; Cuthbert, Peter; Lee, David E.; Westhelle, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    A report discusses the Gumdrop capsule a conceptual spacecraft that would enable the crew to escape safely in the event of a major equipment failure at any time from launch through atmospheric re-entry. The scaleable Gumdrop capsule would comprise a command module (CM), a service module (SM), and a crew escape system (CES). The CM would contain a pressurized crew environment that would include avionic, life-support, thermal control, propulsive attitude control, and recovery systems. The SM would provide the primary propulsion and would also supply electrical power, life-support resources, and active thermal control to the CM. The CES would include a solid rocket motor, embedded within the SM, for pushing the CM away from the SM in the event of a critical thermal-protection-system failure or loss of control. The CM and SM would normally remain integrated with each other from launch through recovery, but could be separated using the CES, if necessary, to enable the safe recovery of the crew in the CM. The crew escape motor could be used, alternatively, as a redundant means of de-orbit propulsion for the CM in the event of a major system failure in the SM.

  19. Impulse-driven Micromechanism Capsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takahiro; Ishimori, Shohei; Hayashi, Teru

    We have developed a traveling small capsule, which has a smooth outer surface and is driven by inertia force and friction force. Measuring only 7 mm in diameter and 12 mm in length, it is sufficiently small to be placed in the human gullet or intestines. The capsule contains a small magnet and a coil, and an electric pulse drives the magnet to move the capsule. We performed an experimental investigation on making our capsule travel on a plastic material, which has similar elasticity characteristics to the living body. We also showed that it can travel on the surface of a pig's intestine. Our capsule may be useful for medical treatments such as inspection, drug delivery and operation.

  20. Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACL connect your thighbone (femur) to your shinbone (tibia). If either ligament is torn, it might cause ... ligaments connect the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments form an " ...

  1. Posterior ankle impingement syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maquirriain, Javier

    2005-10-01

    Posterior ankle impingement syndrome is a clinical disorder characterized by posterior ankle pain that occurs in forced plantar flexion. The pain may be acute as a result of trauma or chronic from repetitive stress. Pathology of the os trigonum-talar process is the most common cause of this syndrome, but it also may result from flexor hallucis longus tenosynovitis, ankle osteochondritis, subtalar joint disease, and fracture. Patients usually report chronic or recurrent posterior ankle pain caused or exacerbated by forced plantar flexion or push-off maneuvers, such as may occur during dancing, kicking, or downhill running. Diagnosis of posterior ankle impingement syndrome is based primarily on clinical history and physical examination. Radiography, scintigraphy, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging depict associated bone and soft-tissue abnormalities. Symptoms typically improve with nonsurgical management, but surgery may be required in refractory cases.

  2. Characterization of High Density Lipoprotein Particles in Familial Apolipoprotein A-I Deficiency With Premature Coronary Atherosclerosis, Corneal Arcus and Opacification, and Tubo-Eruptive and Planar Xanthomas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe two male siblings with homozygous familial apolipoprotein (apo) A-I deficiency, markedly decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, undetectable plasma apoA-1, tubo-eruptive and planar xanthomas, and mild corneal arcus and opacification. Sequencing of the apoA-I gene re...

  3. Influence of capsule shell composition on the performance indicators of hypromellose capsule in comparison to hard gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Al-Tabakha, Moawia M; Arida, Adi Issam; Fahelelbom, Khairi M S; Sadek, Bassem; Saeed, Dima Ahmed; Abu Jarad, Rami A; Jawadi, Jeevani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro performances of "vegetable" capsules in comparison to hard gelatin capsules in terms of shell weight variation, reaction to different humidity conditions, resistance to stress in the absence of moisture, powder leakage, disintegration and dissolution. Two types of capsules made of HPMC produced with (Capsule 2) or without (Capsule 3) a gelling agent and hard gelatin capsules (Capsule 1) were assessed. Shell weight variability was relatively low for all tested capsules shells. Although Capsule 1 had the highest moisture content under different humidity conditions, all capsule types were unable to protect the encapsulated hygroscopic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) powder from surrounding humidity. The initial disintegration for all Capsule 1 occurred within 3 min, but for other types of capsules within 6 min (n = 18). Dissolution of acetaminophen was better when the deionized water (DIW) temperature increased from 32 to 42 °C in case of Capsule 1, but the effect of temperature was not significant for the other types of capsules. Acetaminphen dissolution from Capsule 1 was the fastest (i.e. >90% in 10 min) and independent of the media pH or contents unlike Capsule 2 which was influenced by the pH and dissolution medium contents. It is feasible to use hypromellose capsules shells with or without gelling agent for new lines of pharmaceutical products, however, there is a window for capsule shells manufacturing companies to improve the dissolution of their hypromellose capsules to match the conventional gelatin capsule shells and eventually replace them.

  4. The tibialis posterior tendon.

    PubMed

    Lhoste-Trouilloud, A

    2012-02-01

    The tibialis posterior tendon is the largest and anteriormost tendon in the medial ankle. It produces plantar flexion and supination of the ankle and stabilizes the plantar vault. Sonographic assessment of this tendon is done with high-frequency, linear-array transducers; an optimal examination requires transverse retromalleolar, longitudinal retromalleolar, and distal longitudinal scans, as well as dynamic studies. Disorders of the posterior tibial tendon include chronic tendinopathy with progressive rupture, tenosynovitis, acute rupture, dislocation and instability, enthesopathies. The most common lesion is a progressive "chewing gum" lesion that develops in a setting of chronic tendinopathy; it is usually seen in overweight women over 50 years of age with valgus flat feet. Medial ankle pain must also be carefully investigated, and the presence of instability assessed with dynamic maneuvers (forced inversion, or dorsiflexion) of the foot. Sonography plays an important role in the investigation of disorders involving the posterior tibial tendon.

  5. Posterior Fossa Tumors.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Lara A; Young Poussaint, Tina

    2017-02-01

    Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of death from solid tumors in childhood. The most common posterior fossa tumors in children are medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymoma, and brainstem glioma. Location, and imaging findings on computed tomography (CT) and conventional MR (cMR) imaging may provide important clues to the most likely diagnosis. Moreover, information obtained from advanced MR imaging techniques increase diagnostic confidence and help distinguish between different histologic tumor types. Here we discuss the most common posterior fossa tumors in children, including typical imaging findings on CT, cMR imaging, and advanced MR imaging studies.

  6. Posterior crossbites in children.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J F; Crevoisier, R; King, D L; Henry, R; Mills, C M

    1996-11-01

    Posterior crossbite, the most common malocclusion in young children, can be caused by a variety of skeletal, muscular, or dental factors. This condition produces insufficient maxillary arch width and is frequently associated with various oral sucking and postural habits. If left untreated, this problem can result in adverse skeletal growth changes. Various mechanical treatment modalities designed to expand the posterior maxillary arch width are available to correct this problem. The appropriate treatment method depends on the patient's age and level of cooperation as well as the determined etiology of the constriction.

  7. Orion Capsule Mockup is Dropped

    NASA Video Gallery

    An Orion capsule mockup is dropped from a plane 25,000 feet above the Arizona desert to test its parachute design. Orion will return to Earth at speeds faster than previous human spacecraft, and wi...

  8. Tibialis Posterior Tendon Entrapment Within Posterior Malleolar Fracture Fragment.

    PubMed

    Fantry, Amanda; Lareau, Craig; Vopat, Bryan; Blankenhorn, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Management of posterior malleolus fractures continues to be controversial, with respect to both need for fixation and fixation methods. Fixation methods include an open posterior approach to the ankle as well as percutaneous reduction and fixation with or without arthroscopy for visualization of the articular surface. Plain radiographs are unreliable in identifying fracture pattern and intraoperative reduction, making arthroscopy a valuable adjunct to posterior malleolus fracture management. In this article, we report a case of tibialis posterior tendon entrapment within a posterior malleolus fracture, as identified by arthroscopy and managed with open reduction. Tibialis posterior tendon entrapment within a posterior malleolus has not been previously reported. Ankle arthroscopy for posterior malleolus fractures provides an opportunity to identify soft-tissue or tendinous entrapment, articular surface reduction, and articular cartilage injuries unlikely to be identified with fluoroscopy alone and should be considered in reduction and fixation of posterior malleolus fractures.

  9. [Hemiplegia in posterior cerebral artery infarctions: analysis of various responsible mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Ortiz, N; Barraquer Bordas, L; Dourado, M; Rey, A; Avila, A

    1993-01-01

    When cerebral infarction determines hemiplegia or hemiparesia which accompany a hemilateral sensitive deficit and hemianopsia and even neuropsychologic symptoms (aphasic alterations in the case of injury to the left hemisphere, heminegligence and anosognosy in the case of injury to the right hemisphere) the involvement of a sylvian artery syndrome is usually considered. Nonetheless, recent contributions have reported that such symptoms may appear in infarctions of the territory of the posterior cerebral artery. Two clinical-radiologic observations in this line are presented. Nuclear magnetic resonance demonstrated injury to the posterior arm of the internal capsule in one case and in the other the lesion developed over three times, in the latter of which injury to the cerebral peduncle was produced causing hemiparesia. The authors emphasize that hemiplegia or hemiparesia in some infarctions of the posterior cerebral artery may be due to 1) mesencephalic infarction in the posterior plane of the retromamillar Foix and Hillemand pediculum (or G. Lazorthes interpedunculum), 2) infarction or "ischemic penumbra" in the internal capsule by involvement of any of the perforating branches of the posterior cerebrum irrigating the thalamus, except for the medial posterior choroid artery or even of the Foix and Hillemand thalamus-tuberian pediculum (or Lazorthes inferior and anterior) which principally initiates at the posterior communicating branch with a fragment of the posterior branch of the internal capsule perhaps not always being under its control. In this case, the thrombus occupying the posterior cerebrum may extend to the cited communicating branch or a hemodynamic deficit may be produced in the territory of the same.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. BENCAP, LLC: CAPSULE VELOCITY TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Meidinger, Brian

    2005-09-07

    Ben Cap, LLC, has a technology that utilizes bebtonite to plug wells. The bentonite is encapsulated in a cardboard capsule, droped down to the bottom of the well where it is allowed to hydrate, causing the bentonite to expand and plug the well. This method of plugging a well is accepted in some, but not all states. This technology can save a significant amount of money when compared to cementing methods currently used to plug and abandon wells. The test objective was to obtain the terminal velocity of the capsule delivery system as it drops through a column of water in a wellbore. Once the terminal velocity is known, the bentonite swelling action can be timed not to begin swelling until it reaches the bottom of the well bore. The results of the test showed that an average speed of 8.93 plus or minus 0.12 ft/sec was achieved by the capsule as it was falling through a column of water. Plotting the data revealed a very linear function with the capsules achieving terminal velocity shortly after being released. The interference of the capsule impacting the casing was not readily apparent in any of the runs, but a siginal sampling anomaly was present in one run. Because the anomaly was so brief and not present in any of the other runs, no solid conclusions could be drawn. Additional testing would be required to determine the effects of capsules impacting a fluid level that is not at surface.

  11. Contraindications for video capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bandorski, Dirk; Kurniawan, Niehls; Baltes, Peter; Hoeltgen, Reinhard; Hecker, Matthias; Stunder, Dominik; Keuchel, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has been applied in the last 15 years in an increasing field of applications. Although many contraindications have been put into perspective, some precautions still have to be considered. Known stenosis of the gastrointestinal tract is a clear contraindication for VCE unless surgery is already scheduled or at least has been considered as an optional treatment modality. In patients with a higher incidence of stenosis, as in an established diagnosis of Crohn’s disease, clinical signs of obstruction, prior radiation or surgical small bowel resection, a preceding test with the self-dissolving patency capsule can override this contraindication. Endoscopic placement of the capsule should be considered in patients with swallowing disorders to avoid aspiration. Esophageal or gastric motility disorders may require endoscopic capsule transport or application of prokinetics if the real-time viewer proofs delayed transit. In pregnant women, VCE should be restricted to urgent cases where diagnosis cannot be postponed after delivery, as data on safety are missing. There is theoretical and clinical evidence that patients with implanted cardiac devices such as a pacemaker, cardioverters or left heart assist devices, can safely undergo VCE in spite of still existing contraindication by manufacturers. Children from the age of 2 years have safely undergone VCE. Although video capsules are not proven safe with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), first single cases of patients incidentally undergoing MRI with an incorporated capsule have been reported, showing susceptibility artifacts but no signs of clinical harm. PMID:28018097

  12. Summary Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04

    There are 1.936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP) is conducted under the assumption the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. A cut away drawing of a typical cesium chloride (CsCI) capsule and the capsule property and geometry information are provided in Figure 1.1. Strontium fluoride (SrF{sub 2}) capsules are similar in design to CsCl capsules. Further details of capsule design, current state, and reference information are given later in this report and its references. Capsule production and life history is covered in WMP-16938, Capsule Characterization Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project, and is briefly summarized in Section 5.2 of this report.

  13. Opacification of a hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens with a hydrophobic surface after air injection in Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty in a patient with Fuchs dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Mojzis, Peter; Studeny, Pavel; Werner, Liliana; Piñero, David P

    2016-03-01

    A 71-year-old woman with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy in the right eye had uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery with implantation of a single-piece intraocular lens (IOL) (CT47S) in January 2012. Because of corneal problems and vision loss, uneventful Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) was performed in May 2013. Four months later, a new corneal lamella (repeat DSAEK) was implanted with reinjection of an air bubble into the anterior chamber. Six months after the initial DSAEK, the patient complained of blurred vision. On examination, the cornea was transparent but the IOL presented opacification in the central area. The opacified IOL was explanted and analyzed by light microscopy, which showed the presence of thin granular deposits distributed in an overall round pattern that stained positive for calcium. The opacification of hydrophilic acrylic IOLs is a complication that can occur after uneventful endothelial keratoplasty, especially when rebubbling is necessary.

  14. Posterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Go, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 20-25% of all acute strokes occur in the posterior circulation. These strokes can be rather difficult to diagnose because they present in such diverse ways, and can easily be mistaken for more benign entities. A fastidious history, physical exam, high clinical suspicion, and appropriate use of imaging are essential for the emergency physician to properly diagnose and treat these patients. Expert stroke neurologist consultation should be utilized liberally.

  15. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P.; Odom, Susan A.; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  16. Glenn Enters his Mercury Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. enters his Mercury capsule, 'Friendship 7' as he prepares for launch of the Mercury-Atlas rocket. On February 20, 1962 Glenn lifted off into space aboard his Mercury Atlas 6 (MA-6) rocket and became the first American to orbit the Earth. After orbiting the Earth 3 times, Friendship 7 landed in the Atlantic Ocean 4 hours, 55 minutes and 23 seconds later, just East of Grand Turk Island in the Bahamas. Glenn and his capsule were recovered by the Navy Destroyer Noa, 21 minutes after splashdown.

  17. Neonatal Microstructural Development of the Internal Capsule on Diffusion Tensor Imaging Correlates with Severity of Gait and Motor Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Jessica; Mirmiran, Majid; Butler, Erin E.; Lin, Cindy Y.; Barnes, Patrick D.; Kermoian, Rosanne; Stevenson, David K.

    2007-01-01

    Neonatal microstructural development in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule (PLIC) was assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fractional anisotropy (FA) in 24 very-low-birthweight preterm infants at 37 weeks' gestational age and compared with the children's gait and motor deficits at 4 years of age. There were 14 participants with…

  18. Posterior interosseous neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kele, Henrich; Xia, Annie; Weiler, Markus; Schwarz, Daniel; Bendszus, Martin; Pham, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the spatial pattern of lesion dispersion in posterior interosseous neuropathy syndrome (PINS) by high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography. Methods: This prospective study was approved by the local ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. In 19 patients with PINS and 20 healthy controls, a standardized magnetic resonance neurography protocol at 3-tesla was performed with coverage of the upper arm and elbow (T2-weighted fat-saturated: echo time/repetition time 52/7,020 milliseconds, in-plane resolution 0.27 × 0.27 mm2). Lesion classification of the radial nerve trunk and its deep branch (which becomes the posterior interosseous nerve) was performed by visual rating and additional quantitative analysis of normalized T2 signal of radial nerve voxels. Results: Of 19 patients with PINS, only 3 (16%) had a focal neuropathy at the entry of the radial nerve deep branch into the supinator muscle at elbow/forearm level. The other 16 (84%) had proximal radial nerve lesions at the upper arm level with a predominant lesion focus 8.3 ± 4.6 cm proximal to the humeroradial joint. Most of these lesions (75%) followed a specific somatotopic pattern, involving only those fascicles that would form the posterior interosseous nerve more distally. Conclusions: PINS is not necessarily caused by focal compression at the supinator muscle but is instead frequently a consequence of partial fascicular lesions of the radial nerve trunk at the upper arm level. Neuroimaging should be considered as a complementary diagnostic method in PINS. PMID:27683851

  19. Sensor capsule for diagnosis of gastric disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holen, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Motility and pH sensor capsule is developed to monitor gastric acidity, pressure, and temperature. Capsule does not interfere with digestion. Sensor is capsule which includes pH electrode, Pitran pressure transducer, and thermistor temperature sensor all potted in epoxy and enclosed in high density polyethylene sheath.

  20. Posterior Urethral Strictures

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Joel; Wisenbaugh, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic fracture urethral injuries are typically partial and more often complete disruptions of the most proximal bulbar and distal membranous urethra. Emergency management includes suprapubic tube placement. Subsequent primary realignment to place a urethral catheter remains a controversial topic, but what is not controversial is that when there is the development of a stricture (which is usually obliterative with a distraction defect) after suprapubic tube placement or urethral catheter removal, the standard of care is delayed urethral reconstruction with excision and primary anastomosis. This paper reviews the management of patients who suffer pelvic fracture urethral injuries and the techniques of preoperative urethral imaging and subsequent posterior urethroplasty. PMID:26691883

  1. Symptomatic posterior mediastinal angioleiomyoma.

    PubMed

    I, Hoseok; Jeong, Yeon Joo; Choi, Kyung Un; Kim, Yeong-Dae

    2008-08-30

    We report a case of a symptomatic angioleiomyoma in the left posterior mediastinum. A 66-year-old woman presented with left back and flank pain for 6 months. Chest computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a well-circumscribed 4.3 cm round mass. The mass was initially diagnosed as nerve sheath tumor, because of her symptoms and its close location to the sympathetic trunk and intercostal nerve. It was uneventfully removed through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. The pathology revealed an angioleiomyoma.

  2. Osmotic buckling of spherical capsules.

    PubMed

    Knoche, Sebastian; Kierfeld, Jan

    2014-11-07

    We study the buckling of elastic spherical shells under osmotic pressure with the osmolyte concentration of the exterior solution as a control parameter. We compare our results for the bifurcation behavior with results for buckling under mechanical pressure control, that is, with an empty capsule interior. We find striking differences for the buckling states between osmotic and mechanical buckling. Mechanical pressure control always leads to fully collapsed states with opposite sides in contact, whereas uncollapsed states with a single finite dimple are generic for osmotic pressure control. For sufficiently large interior osmolyte concentrations, osmotic pressure control is qualitatively similar to buckling under volume control with the volume prescribed by the osmolyte concentrations inside and outside the shell. We present a quantitative theory which also captures the influence of shell elasticity on the relationship between osmotic pressure and volume. These findings are relevant for the control of buckled shapes in applications. We show how the osmolyte concentration can be used to control the volume of buckled shells. An accurate analytical formula is derived for the relationship between the osmotic pressure, the elastic moduli and the volume of buckled capsules. This also allows use of elastic capsules as osmotic pressure sensors or deduction of elastic properties and the internal osmolyte concentration from shape changes in response to osmotic pressure changes. We apply our findings to published experimental data on polyelectrolyte capsules.

  3. Posterior Cortical Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Lehmann, Manja; Schott, Jonathan M; Rabinovici, Gil D; Rossor, Martin N; Fox, Nick C

    2013-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome that is characterized by a progressive decline in visuospatial, visuoperceptual, literacy and praxic skills. The progressive neurodegeneration affecting parietal, occipital and occipito-temporal cortices which underlies PCA is attributable to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the majority of patients. However, alternative underlying aetiologies including Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB), corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and prion disease have also been identified, and not all PCA patients have atrophy on clinical imaging. This heterogeneity has led to diagnostic and terminological inconsistencies, caused difficulty comparing studies from different centres, and limited the generalizability of clinical trials and investigations of factors driving phenotypic variability. Significant challenges remain in identifying the factors associated with both the selective vulnerability of posterior cortical regions and the young age of onset seen in PCA. Greater awareness of the syndrome and agreement over the correspondence between syndrome-and disease-level classifications are required in order to improve diagnostic accuracy, research study design and clinical management. PMID:22265212

  4. Posterior Fossa Meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Essam A.; Taibah, Abdel Kader; Achilli, Vittorio; Aristegui, Miguel; Mazzoni, Antonio; Sanna, Mario

    1994-01-01

    Posterior fossa meningioma is the second most common tumor in the cerebellopontine angle. It has a higher rate of postoperative morbidity and mortality compared to acoustic neuroma. Forty posterior fossa meningioma patients managed in our centers were reviewed. Thirty-nine patients were managed surgically with 42 surgical procedures. The approaches used were the translabyrinthine approach in 18 patients (43%), the modified transcochlear in 11 cases (26%), the petro-occipital transsigmoid in 5 cases (12%), the suboccipital in 4 cases (10%), the petro-occipital trassigmoid transcervical in 2 cases (5%), the petro-occipital transsigmoid transtentorial in 1 case (2%), and a subtemporal transtentorial for another case (2%). Facial nerve anatomical integrity was preserved in 87% of procedures but was interrupted in 5 cases, with 4 of the latter subsequently repaired. Total tumor removal was accomplished in 38 cases. A second-stage total tumor removal is planned for the remaining case. There was only one case of perioperative death and no cases of radiological recurrence so far. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4p206-bFigure 5p207-bFigure 5 PMID:17171173

  5. Differential staining of bacteria: capsule stain.

    PubMed

    Breakwell, Donald P; Moyes, Rita B; Reynolds, Jackie

    2009-11-01

    Bacterial capsules are composed of high-molecular-weight polysaccharides and/or polypeptides, and are associated with virulence and biofilm formation. Unfortunately, capsules do not stain well with crystal violet, methylene blue, or other simple stains. This unit describes two methods of capsule staining. The first is a wet-mount method using india ink; the capsule is visualized as a refractile zone surrounding a cell. The second is a direct-staining dry-mount method that precipitates copper sulfate and leaves the capsule as a pale blue zone. Both methods are easily performed within approximately 5 min.

  6. Novel posterior fixation keratoprosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacombe, Emmanuel

    1992-08-01

    The keratoprosthesis is the last solution for corneally blind patients that cannot benefit from corneal transplants. Keratoprostheses that have been designed to be affixed anteriorly usually necessitate multi-step surgical procedures and are continuously subjected to the extrusion forces generated by the positive intraocular pressure; therefore, clinical results in patients prove inconsistent. We proposed a novel keratoprosthesis concept that utilizes posterior corneal fixation which `a priori' minimizes the risk of aqueous leakage and expulsion. This prosthesis is implanted in a single procedure thereby reducing the number of surgical complications normally associated with anterior fixation devices. In addition, its novel design makes this keratoprosthesis implantable in phakic eyes. With an average follow-up of 13 months (range 3 to 25 months), our results on 21 cases are encouraging. Half of the keratoprostheses were implanted in severe burn cases, with the remainder in cases of pseudo- pemphigus. Good visual results and cosmetic appearance were obtained in 14 of 21 eyes.

  7. Posterior pole tumor update.

    PubMed

    Ou, Judy I; Wheeler, Sharon M; O'Brien, Joan M

    2002-12-01

    This chapter focuses on the diagnosis and management of choroidal melanoma in light of recent findings from the COMS. Retinoblastoma is emphasized to describe recent trends in primary treatment away from EBRT and toward chemoreduction with local therapy. In addition, vascular and glial tumors of the retina and tumors of the retinal pigment epithelium are described because of the association between these lesions and systemic disease. Recent advances in treatment and genetic testing for these diseases are discussed. Finally, ocular metastasis, intraocular lymphoid tumors, and intraocular leukemia are included because of their importance in determining systemic treatment and prognosis. The chapter gives an overview of important posterior pole tumors and highlights recent developments in the management of each intraocular disease process.

  8. Clinical analysis of contributors to the delayed gallbladder opacification following the use of water-soluble contrast medium

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Ming-Chang; Kok, Victor C; Lee, Ming-Yung; Hsu, Soa-Min; Lee, Pei-Yu; Chang, Che-Wei; Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Juan, Chi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Gallbladder opacification (GBO) on computed tomography (CT) imaging may obscure certain pathological or emergent conditions in the gallbladder, such as neoplasms, stones, and hemorrhagic cholecystitis. This study aimed to investigate the clinical contributing factors that could predict the presence of delayed GBO determined by CT. Methods This study retrospectively evaluated 243 consecutive patients who received enhanced CT or intravenous pyelography imaging and then underwent abdominal CT imaging within 5 days. According to the interval between imaging, the patients were divided into group A (1 day), group B (2 or 3 days), and group C (4 or 5 days). Three radiologists evaluated CT images to determine GBO. Fisher’s exact test and multivariate backward stepwise elimination logistic regression were performed. Results Positive GBO was significantly associated with the interval between imaging studies, contrast type, contrast volume, renal function, and hypertransaminasemia (P<0.05). Multivariate backward stepwise elimination logistic regression analysis of the three groups identified contrast type and hypertransaminasemia as independent predictors of GBO in group B patients (odds ratio [OR], 13.52, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72–106.38 and OR, 3.43, 95% CI, 1.31–8.98, respectively; P<0.05). Hypertransaminasemia was the only independent predictor of GBO in group C patients with an OR of 7.2 (95% CI, 1.62–31.73). Hypertransaminasemia was noted in three patients (100%) who initially underwent imaging 5 days prior to GBO. Conclusion Delayed GBO on CT imaging may be associated with laboratory hypertransaminasemia, particularly in patients receiving contrast medium over a period of ≥4 days. A detailed clinical history, physical examination, and further workup are of paramount importance for investigating the underlying cause behind the hypertransaminasemia. PMID:27660453

  9. Reactor for making uniform capsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Anikumar, Amrutur V. (Inventor); Lacik, Igor (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel reactor for making capsules with uniform membrane. The reactor includes a source for providing a continuous flow of a first liquid through the reactor; a source for delivering a steady stream of drops of a second liquid to the entrance of the reactor; a main tube portion having at least one loop, and an exit opening, where the exit opening is at a height substantially equal to the entrance. In addition, a method for using the novel reactor is provided. This method involves providing a continuous stream of a first liquid; introducing uniformly-sized drops of the second liquid into the stream of the first liquid; allowing the drops to react in the stream for a pre-determined period of time; and collecting the capsules.

  10. Capsule endoscopy: The road ahead

    PubMed Central

    Singeap, Ana-Maria; Stanciu, Carol; Trifan, Anca

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction into clinical practice 15 years ago, capsule endoscopy (CE) has become the first-line investigation procedure in some small bowel pathologies, and more recently, dedicated esophageal and colon CE have expanded the fields of application to include the upper and lower gastrointestinal disorders. During this time, CE has become increasingly popular among gastroenterologists, with more than 2 million capsule examinations performed worldwide, and nearly 3000 PubMed-listed studies on its different aspects published. This huge interest in CE may be explained by its non-invasive nature, patient comfort, safety, and access to anatomical regions unattainable via conventional endoscopy. However, CE has several limitations which impede its wider clinical applications, including the lack of therapeutic capabilities, inability to obtain biopsies and control its locomotion. Several research groups are currently working to overcome these limitations, while novel devices able to control capsule movement, obtain high quality images, insufflate the gut lumen, perform chromoendoscopy, biopsy of suspect lesions, or even deliver targeted drugs directly to specific sites are under development. Overlooking current limitations, especially as some of them have already been successfully surmounted, and based on the tremendous progress in technology, it is expected that, by the end of next 15 years, CE able to perform both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures will remain the major form of digestive endoscopy. This review summarizes the literature that prognosticates about the future developments of CE. PMID:26755883

  11. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Algahtani, Abdulhadi; Aldarmahi, Ahmad; Hmoud, Mohammed; Marzuk, Yousef; Shirah, Bader

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinicoradiological syndrome characterized by headache, altered mental status, seizures, or loss of vision. In this study, we report the largest series of PRES coming from Saudi Arabia and explore the etiology, clinical presentation, and outcome. We also report new imaging findings associated with this condition. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of all cases of PRES admitted to King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between the years 2005 and 2015. A neurologist reviewed all charts and analyzed the clinical presentations, etiological factors, and outcomes, and a neuroradiologist reviewed the imaging studies. Only patients with clinical and imaging features consistent with PRES were included in the study. Results: We collected 31 patients who had clinical and radiological features consistent with PRES. Females were more affected than males (18 females and 13 males), and patients’ age ranged from 6 to 95 years, with a mean of 38.3 years. Patients were treated by removing the precipitating causes and treating the underlying conditions. Resolution of neurologic signs occurred within 2 to 3 weeks in all patients. Conclusion: In our opinion, PRES itself is usually a benign condition with complete recovery if the condition is recognized early and managed appropriately. Although clinical signs are nonspecific, the constellation of symptoms including headache, visual problems, seizures, and altered level of consciousness should suggest the possibility of PRES, especially in high-risk group. Abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging are often characteristic and may be the first clue to the diagnosis. PMID:28042366

  12. HPMC capsules: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Al-Tabakha, Moawia M

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) is employed for a wide variety of pharmaceutical and food preparations. Its applications as viscolizing agent (thickening agent), coating polymer, bioadhesive, in solid dispersion to enhance solubility, binder in the process of granulation and in modified release formulations have been well documented. One other notable use is in the production of capsule shells, replacing the animal derived gelatin in conventional two-piece capsules. The aim of this review is to systemically survey published literature on the HPMC use in capsule shells and resolve questions regarding their suitability as a replacement for hard gelatin capsules. Future refinements in the production and filling of HPMC capsule shells and improvement in their in vivo/in vitro dissolution would ensure their superiority over hard gelatin capsules.

  13. Perform Ultrasonic Testing on Cs Capsule Overpacks

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS, S.J.

    2000-04-06

    This procedure provides a safe, uniform method for the performance of the ultrasonic weld inspection of the Cesium capsule overpacks. The inspection system will detect cracks, lack of fusion, and lack of penetration. This computer controlled automated system will perform the examination once the capsule overpack has been placed in the pool cell. Examination of the capsule overpacks will be in accordance with drawing H-283014, REV. 0 ,and a certified NDE examiner will perform the test procedure, provide analysis, and test documentation.

  14. Postoperative radiation and implant capsule contraction

    SciTech Connect

    Caffee, H.H.; Mendenhall, N.P.; Mendenhall, W.M.; Bova, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    Occasionally radiation is required as adjunctive therapy following mastectomy for breast cancer. The effects of radiation on a developing implant capsule are unknown, but they are very important in relation to the increased use of immediate reconstruction. Experiments were performed on rabbits to study the effects of postoperative radiation therapy on capsule contraction and thickness. The results of these experiments suggest that radiation has no effect on implant capsules.

  15. Duodenum identification mechanism for capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sang Hyo; Mohy-Ud-Din, Zia; Cho, Jin Ho

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study is to implement a duodenum identification mechanism for capsule endoscopes because commercially available capsule endoscopes sometimes present a false negative diagnosis of the duodenum. One reason for the false negative diagnosis is that the duodenum is the fastest moving part within the gastrointestinal tract and the current frame rate of the capsule is not fast enough. When the capsule can automatically identify that it is in the duodenum, the frame rate of the capsule can be temporarily increased to reduce the possibility of a false negative diagnosis. This study proposes a mechanism to identify the duodenum using capacitive proximity sensors that can distinguish the surrounding tissue and transmit data using RF communication. The implemented capsule (D11 mm × L22 mm) was smaller than the commercially available capsule endoscopes, and power consumption was as low as 0.642 mW. Preexperiments were conducted to select an appropriate electrode width in order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and in vitro experiments were conducted to verify whether the implemented capsule could identify the duodenum within 3 s. The experiment showed that the identification rate of duodenum was 93% when the velocity of the capsule was less than 1 cm/s.

  16. In Vivo Cervical Facet Joint Capsule Deformation During Flexion-Extension

    PubMed Central

    Anderst, William J; Lee, Joon Y; Kang, James D

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Non-randomized controlled cohort. Objective To characterize subaxial cervical facet joint kinematics and facet joint capsule (FJC) deformation during in vivo, dynamic flexion-extension. To assess the effect of single-level anterior arthrodesis on adjacent segment FJC deformation. Summary of Background Data The cervical facet joint has been identified as the most common source of neck pain and it is thought to play a role in chronic neck pain related to whiplash injury. Our current knowledge of cervical facet joint kinematics is based on cadaveric mechanical testing. Methods 14 asymptomatic controls and 9 C5-C6 arthrodesis patients performed full range of motion (ROM) flexion-extension while biplane radiographs were collected at 30 Hz. A volumetric model-based tracking process determined 3D vertebral position with sub-millimeter accuracy. FJC fibers were modeled and grouped into anterior, lateral, posterior-lateral, posterior, and posterior-medial regions. FJC fiber deformations (total, shear and compression-distraction) relative to the static position were determined for each cervical motion segment (C2-C3 through C6-C7) during flexion-extension. Results No significant differences in the rate of fiber deformation in flexion were identified among motion segments (p = .159), however, significant differences were observed among fiber regions (p < .001). Significant differences in the rate of fiber deformation in extension were identified among motion segments (p < .001) and among fiber regions (p = .001). The rate of FJC deformation in extension adjacent to the arthrodesis was 45% less than in corresponding motion segments in control subjects (p = .001). Conclusion In control subjects, facet joint capsule deformations are significantly different among vertebral levels and capsule regions when vertebrae are in an extended orientation. In a flexed orientation, FJC deformations are only different among capsule regions. Single-level anterior arthrodesis is

  17. Posterior sampling with improved efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

    1998-12-01

    The Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique provides a means to generate a random sequence of model realizations that sample the posterior probability distribution of a Bayesian analysis. That sequence may be used to make inferences about the model uncertainties that derive from measurement uncertainties. This paper presents an approach to improving the efficiency of the Metropolis approach to MCMC by incorporating an approximation to the covariance matrix of the posterior distribution. The covariance matrix is approximated using the update formula from the BFGS quasi-Newton optimization algorithm. Examples are given for uncorrelated and correlated multidimensional Gaussian posterior distributions.

  18. The disintegration behaviour of capsules in fed subjects: a comparison of hypromellose (carrageenan) capsules and standard gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Jones, B E; Basit, A W; Tuleu, C

    2012-03-15

    Two-piece hard shell capsules made from hypromellose (or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, HPMC) containing carrageenan as a gelling agent have been proposed as an alternative to conventional gelatin capsules for oral drug delivery. We have previously compared the disintegration of hypromellose(carrageenan) (Quali-V(®)) and gelatin capsules (Qualicaps) in fasted human subjects using the technique of gamma scintigraphy. This second study used the same technique with both fasted and fed human subjects. Size 0 capsules were filled with powder plugs made from lactose and did not contain croscarmellose as in the original study. The capsules were separately radiolabelled with indium-111 and technetium-99m. Both capsules were administered simultaneously with 180ml water to eight healthy male subjects following an overnight fast. Each volunteer was positioned in front of the gamma camera and sequential 60s images were acquired in a continuous manner for 30min. The mean (±S.D.) disintegration time in the fasted state for the hypromellose(carrageenan) capsules was 8±2min and for gelatin 7±3min. These results were not statistically different from the data in the original study and show that the removal of the croscarmellose had no effect on the results. The mean (±S.D.) disintegration time in the fed state for the hypromellose(carrageenan) capsules was 16±5min and for the gelatin capsules was 12±4min. There was no statistical difference between the hypromellose(carrageenan) and gelatin capsules in either the fed or fasted state.

  19. Preparation of polyurea capsules using electrocapillary emulsification.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hideki; Tanaka, Keisuke; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Koji; Sakai, Kenichi; Kondo, Tamotsu; Abe, Masahiko

    2008-10-15

    Polyurea capsules have been prepared using the electrocapillary emulsification method in order to control the particle size within the submicron range. The polyurea capsules have been synthesized via the interfacial polycondensation between tetraethylenepentamine (TEP) dissolved in an aqueous phase and toluenediisocyanate (TDI) dissolved in a mixture of cyclohexane and chloroform. The oil phase contains a lipophilic nonionic surfactant (sorbitan sesquioleate, SO-15) as an emulsion stabilizer. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations reveal that the capsule size is decreased as (i) the amount of the aqueous phase injected into the oil phase is decreased and (ii) the dropping rate of the aqueous phase is decreased. Indeed, the mole ratio of the two monomers makes a significant impact on the capsule size. Under the best experimental condition examined in this study, we obtained polyurea capsules with a diameter of approximately 200nm, which should be useful in developing bioreactors or carriers.

  20. Thermoregulation of capsule production by Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Song Ok; Wright, Jordan O; Tesorero, Rafael A; Lee, Hyunwoo; Beall, Bernard; Cho, Kyu Hong

    2012-01-01

    The capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes serves as an adhesin as well as an anti-phagocytic factor by binding to CD44 on keratinocytes of the pharyngeal mucosa and the skin, the main entry sites of the pathogen. We discovered that S. pyogenes HSC5 and MGAS315 strains are further thermoregulated for capsule production at a post-transcriptional level in addition to the transcriptional regulation by the CovRS two-component regulatory system. When the transcription of the hasABC capsular biosynthetic locus was de-repressed through mutation of the covRS system, the two strains, which have been used for pathogenesis studies in the laboratory, exhibited markedly increased capsule production at sub-body temperature. Employing transposon mutagenesis, we found that CvfA, a previously identified membrane-associated endoribonuclease, is required for the thermoregulation of capsule synthesis. The mutation of the cvfA gene conferred increased capsule production regardless of temperature. However, the amount of the capsule transcript was not changed by the mutation, indicating that a post-transcriptional regulator mediates between CvfA and thermoregulated capsule production. When we tested naturally occurring invasive mucoid strains, a high percentage (11/53, 21%) of the strains exhibited thermoregulated capsule production. As expected, the mucoid phenotype of these strains at sub-body temperature was due to mutations within the chromosomal covRS genes. Capsule thermoregulation that exhibits high capsule production at lower temperatures that occur on the skin or mucosal surface potentially confers better capability of adhesion and invasion when S. pyogenes penetrates the epithelial surface.

  1. Thermoregulation of Capsule Production by Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Song Ok; Wright, Jordan O.; Tesorero, Rafael A.; Lee, Hyunwoo; Beall, Bernard; Cho, Kyu Hong

    2012-01-01

    The capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes serves as an adhesin as well as an anti-phagocytic factor by binding to CD44 on keratinocytes of the pharyngeal mucosa and the skin, the main entry sites of the pathogen. We discovered that S. pyogenes HSC5 and MGAS315 strains are further thermoregulated for capsule production at a post-transcriptional level in addition to the transcriptional regulation by the CovRS two-component regulatory system. When the transcription of the hasABC capsular biosynthetic locus was de-repressed through mutation of the covRS system, the two strains, which have been used for pathogenesis studies in the laboratory, exhibited markedly increased capsule production at sub-body temperature. Employing transposon mutagenesis, we found that CvfA, a previously identified membrane-associated endoribonuclease, is required for the thermoregulation of capsule synthesis. The mutation of the cvfA gene conferred increased capsule production regardless of temperature. However, the amount of the capsule transcript was not changed by the mutation, indicating that a post-transcriptional regulator mediates between CvfA and thermoregulated capsule production. When we tested naturally occurring invasive mucoid strains, a high percentage (11/53, 21%) of the strains exhibited thermoregulated capsule production. As expected, the mucoid phenotype of these strains at sub-body temperature was due to mutations within the chromosomal covRS genes. Capsule thermoregulation that exhibits high capsule production at lower temperatures that occur on the skin or mucosal surface potentially confers better capability of adhesion and invasion when S. pyogenes penetrates the epithelial surface. PMID:22615992

  2. Hydrodynamick instabilities on ICF capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Haan, S.W.

    1991-06-07

    This article summarizes our current understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities as relevant to ICF. First we discuss classical, single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and nonlinear effects in the evolution of a single mode. Then we discuss multimode systems, considering: (1) the onset of nonlinearity; (2) a second order mode coupling theory for weakly nonlinear effects, and (3) the fully nonlinear regime. Two stabilization mechanisms relevant to ICF are described next: gradient scale length and convective stabilization. Then we describe a model which is meant to estimate the weakly nonlinear evolution of multi-mode systems as relevant to ICF, given the short-wavelength stabilization. Finally, we discuss the relevant code simulation capability, and experiments. At this time we are quite optimistic about our ability to estimate instability growth on ICF capsules, but further experiments and simulations are needed to verify the modeling. 52 refs.

  3. [Evaluation of nopal capsules in diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Frati Munari, A C; Vera Lastra, O; Ariza Andraca, C R

    1992-01-01

    To find out if commercial capsules with dried nopal (prickle-pear cactus, Opuntia ficus indica may have a role in the management of diabetes mellitus, three experiments were performed: 30 capsules where given in fasting condition to 10 diabetic subjects and serum glucose was measured through out 3 hours; a control test was performed with 30 placebo capsules. OGTT with previous intake of 30 nopal or placebo capsules was performed in ten healthy individuals. In a crossover and single blinded study 14 diabetic patients withdrew the oral hypoglycemic treatment and received 10 nopal or placebo capsules t.i.d. during one week; serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels were measured before and after each one-week period. Five healthy subjects were also studied in the same fashion. Opuntia capsules did not show acute hypoglycemic effect and did not influence OGTT. In diabetic patients serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels did not change with Opuntia, but they increased with placebo (P < 0.01 glucose and cholesterol, P = NS triglycerides). In healthy individuals glycemia did not change with nopal, while cholesterol and triglycerides decreased (P < 0.01 vs. placebo). The intake of 30 Opuntia capsules daily in patients with diabetes mellitus had a discrete beneficial effect on glucose and cholesterol. However this dose is unpractical and at present it is not recommended in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  4. Asymmetric membrane osmotic capsules for terbutaline sulphate.

    PubMed

    Gobade, N G; Koland, Marina; Harish, K H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate.

  5. Asymmetric Membrane Osmotic Capsules for Terbutaline Sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Gobade, N. G.; Koland, Marina; Harish, K. H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate. PMID:23204625

  6. Oxygen fugacity and piston cylinder capsule assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, S.

    2011-12-01

    A double capsule assembly designed to control oxygen fugacity in piston cylinder experiments has been tested at 1200 °C and 10 kbar. The assembly consists of an outer Pt-capsule containing a solid buffer (Ni-NiO or Co-CoO plus H2O) and an inner AuPd-capsule containing the sample, H2O and a Pt-wire. To prevent direct contact with the buffer phases the AuPd-capsule is embedded in finely ground Al2O3 along with some coarser, fractured Al2O3 facilitating fluid inclusion formation. No water loss is observed in the sample even after 48 hrs but a slight increase in water content is observed in longer duration runs due to oxygen and hydrogen diffusion into the AuPd-capsule. Carbon from the furnace also diffuses through the outer Pt-capsule but reacts with H2O in the outer capsule to form CO2 and never reaches the inner capsule. Oxygen fugacity of runs in equilibrium with the Ni-NiO and Co-CoO buffers was measured by analyzing the Fe content of the Pt-wire in the sample1 and by analyzing Fe dissolved in the AuPd capsule2. The second method gives values that are in good agreement with established buffer whereas results from the first method are one half to one log units higher than the established values. References 1. E. Medard, C. A. McCammon, J. A. Barr, T. L. Grove, Am. Mineral. 93, 1838 (2008). 2. J. Barr, T. Grove, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 160, 631 (2010)

  7. Rethinking "posterior" tongue-tie.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela Sylvia

    2013-12-01

    Currently, many clinicians who help with breastfeeding problems are diagnosing "posterior" tongue-tie in infants and performing or referring for frenotomy. In this "Speaking Out" article, I argue that the diagnosis of "posterior" tongue-tie has successfully raised awareness of the importance of impaired tongue function in breastfeeding difficulty. However, the diagnosis of "posterior" tongue-tie also applies a reductionist, medicalized theoretical frame to the complex problem of impaired tongue function, risking unintended outcomes. Impaired tongue function arises out of multiple interacting and co-evolving factors, including the interplay between social behaviors concerning breastfeeding and mother-infant biology. Consideration of theoretical frames is vital if we are to build an evidence base through efficient use of the scarce resources available for clinical breastfeeding research and minimize unintended outcomes.

  8. Tag gas capsule with magnetic piercing device

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Ira V.

    1976-06-22

    An apparatus for introducing a tag (i.e., identifying) gas into a tubular nuclear fuel element. A sealed capsule containing the tag gas is placed in the plenum in the fuel tube between the fuel and the end cap. A ferromagnetic punch having a penetrating point is slidably mounted in the plenum. By external electro-magnets, the punch may be caused to penetrate a thin rupturable end wall of the capsule and release the tag gas into the fuel element. Preferably the punch is slidably mounted within the capsule, which is in turn loaded as a sealed unit into the fuel element.

  9. Fabrication of capsule assemblies, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, A. R.; Stemann, L. G.

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen capsule assemblies were fabricated for evaluation of fuel pin design concepts for a fast spectrum lithium cooled compact space power reactor. These instrumented assemblies were designed for real time test of prototype fuel pins. Uranium mononitride fuel pins were encased in AISI 304L stainless steel capsules. Fabrication procedures were fully qualified by process development and assembly qualification tests. Instrumentation reliability was achieved utilizing specially processed and closely controlled thermocouple hot zone fabrication and by thermal screening tests. Overall capsule reliability was achieved with an all electron beam welded assembly.

  10. Required Be Capsule Strength For Room Temperature Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, B

    2005-03-21

    The purpose of this memo is to lay out the criteria for the Be capsule strength necessary for room temperature transport. Ultimately we will test full thickness capsules by sealing high pressures inside, but currently we are limited to both thinner capsules and alternative measures of capsule material strength.

  11. Does magnetically assisted capsule endoscopy improve small bowel capsule endoscopy completion rate? A randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Melissa F.; Drew, Kaye; Sidhu, Reena; McAlindon, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Delayed gastric emptying is a significant factor in incomplete small bowel capsule examinations. Gastric transit could be hastened by external magnetic control of the capsule. We studied the feasibility of this approach to improve capsule endoscopy completion rates. Patients and methods: Prospective, single-center, randomized controlled trial involving 122 patients attending for small bowel capsule endoscopy using MiroCam Navi. Patients were randomized to either the control group (mobilisation for 30 minutes after capsule ingestion, followed by intramuscular metoclopramide 10 mg if the capsule failed to enter the small bowel) or the intervention group (1000 mL of water prior to capsule ingestion, followed by positional change and magnetic steering). Outcome measures were capsule endoscopy completion rate, gastric clarity and distention, relationship of body habitus to capsule endoscopy completion rate (CECR), and patient comfort scores. Results: 122 patients were recruited (61 each to the control and intervention groups: mean age 49 years [range 21 – 85], 61 females). There was no significant difference in CECR between the two groups (P = 0.39). Time to first pyloric image was significantly shorter in the intervention group (P = 0.03) but there was no difference in gastric transit times (P = 0.12), suggesting that magnetic control hastens capsular transit to the gastric antrum but does not influence duodenal passage. Gastric clarity and distention were significantly better in the intervention group (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001 respectively). Conclusions: Magnetic steering of a small bowel capsule is unable to overcome pyloric contractions to enhance gastric emptying and improve capsule endoscope completion rate. Excellent mucosal visualisation within the gastric cavity suggests this technique could be harnessed for capsule examination of the stomach. PMID:26878053

  12. Towards Polymer-Based Capsules with Drastically Reduced Controlled Permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Daria V.; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.

    Small molecules (dyes, therapeutics, etc.) could be easily handled, stored, delivered, and released by polyelectrolyte capsules. To make the polyelectrolyte capsule more efficient for small molecule encapsulation, capsule permeability should be significantly decreased. Here, we demonstrate the possibility to entrap water-soluble molecular species into polyelectrolyte capsules modified by a low permeable dense polymer (polypyrrole). Possible future areas in PE capsule application as carriers for gases and volatiles in the pharmaceutical, food, and gases industry, agriculture and cosmetology are discussed.

  13. Dynamics of nonspherical compound capsules in simple shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zheng Yuan; Bai, Bo Feng

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of an initially ellipsoidal compound capsule in a simple shear flow is investigated numerically using a three-dimensional front-tracking finite-difference model. Membrane bending resistance is included based on Helfrich's energy function besides the resistances against shear deformation and area dilatation governed by the constitutive law of Skalak et al. In this paper, we focus specifically on how the presence of a spherical inner capsule and its size affects the characteristics and transition of various dynamical states of nonspherical compound capsules (i.e., the outer capsule). Significant differences in the dynamical characteristics are observed between compound capsules and homogeneous capsules in both qualitative and quantitative terms. We find the transition from swinging to tumbling can occur at vanishing viscosity mismatch through increasing the inner capsule size alone to a critical value regardless of the initial shape of the nonspherical compound capsule (i.e., prolate or oblate). Besides, for compound capsules with viscosity mismatch, the critical viscosity ratio for the swinging-to-tumbling transition remarkably decreases by increasing the inner capsule size. It is thus concluded that the inner capsule size is a key governing parameter of compound capsule dynamics apart from the capillary number, aspect ratio, and viscosity ratio that have been long identified for homogeneous capsules. Further, we discuss the mechanisms underlying the effects of the inner capsule on the compound capsule dynamics from the viewpoint of the effective viscosity of internal fluid and find that the effects of the inner capsule on compound capsule dynamics are qualitatively similar to that of increasing the internal viscosity on homogeneous capsule dynamics. However, in quantitative terms, the compound capsule cannot be viewed as a homogeneous capsule with higher viscosity as obvious inhomogeneity in fluid stress distribution is induced by the inner membrane.

  14. Children's Understanding of Posterior Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girotto, Vittorio; Gonzalez, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Do young children have a basic intuition of posterior probability? Do they update their decisions and judgments in the light of new evidence? We hypothesized that they can do so extensionally, by considering and counting the various ways in which an event may or may not occur. The results reported in this paper showed that from the age of five,…

  15. Stereolithography for Posterior Fossa Cranioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Agner, Celso; Dujovny, Manuel; Evenhouse, Raymond; Charbel, Fady T.; Sadler, Lewis

    1998-01-01

    Posterior fossa cranioplasty has been suggested for improvement of neurological symptoms following craniectomy. However, there is no particular recommendation in the literature about techniques for prosthesis manufacture and implantation. We report our experience using rapid prototyping technology and stereolithography for pre-surgical implant design and production of cranioplasties. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17171056

  16. Capsule Depolymerase Overexpression Reduces Bacillus anthracis Virulence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Friedlander, A. M. (2004). The NheA component of the non- hemolytic enterotoxin of Bacillus cereus is produced by Bacillus anthracis but is not required for...Capsule depolymerase overexpression reduces Bacillus anthracis virulence Angelo Scorpio,3 Donald J. Chabot, William A. Day,4 Timothy A. Hoover and...depolymerase (CapD) is a c-glutamyl transpeptidase and a product of the Bacillus anthracis capsule biosynthesis operon. In this study, we examined the

  17. Capsule Implosion Symmetry in OMEGA Tetrahedral Hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnittman, J. D.; Craxton, R. S.; Pollaine, S. M.; Turner, R. E.; Wallace, J. M.; Murphy, T. J.; Delamater, N. D.; Oertel, J. A.; Hauer, A. A.; Klare, K. A.

    1998-11-01

    The 3-D time-dependent capsule implosion symmetry has been calculated for spherical hohlraums with four laser entrance holes. The code BUTTERCUP calculates the locations of beam spots on the hohlraum wall and includes a model for the absorption and x-ray conversion of the laser energy. The gold wall is heated by 1-D radiation diffusion, and radiation transport is carried out with a 3-D view-factor algorithm. A simple hydrodynamic calculation of the imploding capsule gives the resulting 3-D time-dependent drive symmetry. The predicted radiation uniformity incident on the capsule is very good ( ~1% rms) throughout the laser pulse. Experimental images of the capsule show round implosions with convergence ratios of 10 for standard capsules,(T. J. Murphy, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 42), 2008 (1997). in agreement with predictions. Radiation temperatures and capsule trajectories are calculated and show good agreement with experiment. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460.

  18. Light weight escape capsule for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robert, James A.

    1988-01-01

    Emergency crew escape capabilities have been less than adequate for fighter aircraft since before WW II. From the over-the-side bailout of those days through the current ejection seat with a rocket catapult, escaping from a disabled aircraft has been risky at best. Current efforts are underway toward developing a high-tech, smart ejection seat that will give fighter pilots more room to live in the sky, but an escape capsule is needed to meet current and future fighter envelopes. Escape capsules have a bad reputation due to past examples of high weight, poor performance and great complexity. However, the advantages available demand that a capsule be developed. This capsule concept will minimize the inherent disavantages and incorporate the benefits while integrating all aspects of crew station design. The resulting design is appropriate for a crew station of the year 2010 and includes improved combat acceleration protection, chemical or biological combat capability, improved aircraft to escape system interaction, and the highest level of escape performance achievable. The capsule is compact, which can allow a reduced aircraft size and weighs only 1200 lb. The escape system weight penalty is only 120 lb higher than that for the next ejection seat and the capsule has a corresponding increase in performance.

  19. Intrinsic innervation of the rat knee joint articular capsule and ligaments.

    PubMed

    Marinozzi, G; Ferrante, F; Gaudio, E; Ricci, A; Amenta, F

    1991-01-01

    In spite of the practical importance of having a detailed knowledge of knee joint innervation to understand the pathophysiologic aspects, little information is now available concerning the density and pattern of the nerve fibres which are distributed to it. The present study has been designed to investigate the density and distribution of nerve fibres and receptor corpuscles in the knee joint articular capsule, cruciate and collateral ligaments in the rat, using the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemical in toto staining technique. The investigation was performed on male Wistar rats of 3 months of age, some of which had been treated with capsaicin to deplete their afferent 'C' fibres of their content of neuropeptides. AChE-positive nerve fibres and different types of receptor corpuscle endings were found within articular capsule and ligaments. The highest density of AChE-positive nerve fibres was noticeable in the fibular collateral ligament followed by the tibial collateral ligament, the posterior cruciate ligament, the anterior cruciate ligament and the articular capsule. In the articular capsule the number of type I endings was higher than in the ligaments. The opposite is true for the other type of receptor corpuscles found as well as for nerve endings. Capsaicin treatment significantly reduced the density of AChE-positive nerve fibres in knee joint ligaments but did not affect nerve fibres in the articular capsule. Moreover, it caused the disappearance of some kind of receptor corpuscles within the collateral and cruciate ligaments. The above data collectively suggest that the AChE in toto staining technique may represent a good method for investigating joint innervation and that a significant percentage of nerve fibres supplying knee joint ligaments is represented by C fibre afferents.

  20. Capsule endoscopy in neoplastic diseases.

    PubMed

    Pennazio, Marco; Rondonotti, Emanuele; de Franchis, Roberto

    2008-09-14

    Until recently, diagnosis and management of small-bowel tumors were delayed by the difficulty of access to the small bowel and the poor diagnostic capabilities of the available diagnostic techniques. An array of new methods has recently been developed, increasing the possibility of detecting these tumors at an earlier stage. Capsule endoscopy (CE) appears to be an ideal tool to recognize the presence of neoplastic lesions along this organ, since it is non-invasive and enables the entire small bowel to be visualized. High-quality images of the small-bowel mucosa may be captured and small and flat lesions recognized, without exposure to radiation. Recent studies on a large population of patients undergoing CE have reported small-bowel tumor frequency only slightly above that reported in previous surgical series (range, 1.6%-2.4%) and have also confirmed that the main clinical indication to CE in patients with small-bowel tumors is obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. The majority of tumors identified by CE are malignant; many were unsuspected and not found by other methods. However, it remains difficult to identify pathology and tumor type based on the lesion's endoscopic appearance. Despite its limitations, CE provides crucial information leading in most cases to changes in subsequent patient management. Whether the use of CE in combination with other new diagnostic (MRI or multidetector CT enterography) and therapeutic (Push-and-pull enteroscopy) techniques will lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment of these neoplasms, ultimately resulting in a survival advantage and in cost savings, remains to be determined through carefully-designed studies.

  1. Distortions of posterior visual space.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Flip; Voshell, Martin G

    2009-01-01

    The study of spatial vision is a long and well traveled road (which, of course, converges to a vanishing point at the horizon). Its various distortions have been widely investigated empirically, and most concentrate, pragmatically, on the space anterior to the observer. The visual world behind the observer has received relatively less attention and it is this perspective the current experiments address. Our results show systematic perceptual distortions in the posterior visual world when viewed statically. Under static viewing conditions, observer's perceptual representation was consistently 'spread' in a hyperbolic fashion. Directions to distant, peripheral locations were consistently overestimated by about 11 degrees from the ground truth and this variability increased as the target was moved toward the center of the observer's back. The perceptual representation of posterior visual space is, no doubt, secondary to the more immediate needs of the anterior visual world. Still, it is important in some domains including certain sports, such as rowing, and in vehicular navigation.

  2. Clear Corneal Phacovitrectomy with Posterior Capsulorhexis and IOL Implantation in Management of Selective Vitreoretinal Cases

    PubMed Central

    Boiko, Ernest V.; Churashov, Sergey V.; Kulikov, Alexei N.; Maltsev, Dmitrii S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To describe our technique, clear corneal phacovitrectomy with posterior capsulorhexis (CCPV), for the management of selected posterior segment intraocular foreign body (IOFB), posteriorly dislocated lens fragments (PDLF), and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) cases. Methods. This was a single-center retrospective interventional case series. In 21 patients (21 eyes) we performed phacovitrectomy through three clear corneal tunnel incisions (CCTI) and posterior capsulorhexis to remove IOFB (n = 8), PDLF from the vitreous cavity after complicated phacoemulsification (n = 6), and vitreous hemorrhage and epiretinal membranes in PDR (n = 7). The procedure was completed with implantation of a hydrophobic acrylic IOL through the CCTI. Results. The mean visual acuity (logMAR) was 0.90 preoperative and improved to 0.26 over a mean follow-up of 8.7 months (range, 6–12 months). The intraocular lens was implanted into the capsular bag (n = 12) or onto the anterior capsule (n = 9). One PDR patient experienced an intraprocedural complication, hemorrhage from isolated fibrovascular adhesions. One IOFB patient developed apparent anterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy and required a repeat intervention. Conclusion. Selected vitreoretinal IOFB, PDLF, and PDR cases can be successfully managed by a combined surgical approach involving clear corneal phacovitrectomy with posterior capsulorhexis and implantation of an IOL, with good visual outcome and a low complication rate. PMID:26587281

  3. Posterior Capsular Plication Constrains the Glenohumeral Joint by Drawing the Humeral Head Closer to the Glenoid and Resisting Abduction

    PubMed Central

    DeAngelis, Joseph P.; Hertz, Benjamin; Wexler, Michael T.; Patel, Nehal; Walley, Kempland C.; Harlow, Ethan R.; Manoukian, Ohan S.; Masoudi, Aidin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Ramappa, Arun J.; Nazarian, Ara

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shoulder pain is a common problem, with 30% to 50% of the American population affected annually. While the majority of these shoulder problems improve, there is a high rate of recurrence, as 54% of patients experience persistent symptoms 3 years after onset. Purpose: Posterior shoulder tightness has been shown to alter glenohumeral (GH) kinematics. Clinically, posterior shoulder contractures result in a significant loss of internal rotation and abduction (ABD). In this study, the effect of a posterior capsular contracture on GH kinematics was investigated using an intact cadaveric shoulder without violating the joint capsule or the rotator cuff. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Glenohumeral motion, humeral load, and subacromial contact pressure were measured in 6 fresh-frozen left shoulders during passive ABD from 60° to 100° using an automated robotic upper extremity testing system. Baseline values were compared with the experimental condition in which the full thickness of posterior tissues was plicated without decompressing the joint capsule. Results: Posterior soft tissue plication resulted in increased compression between the humeral head and the glenoid (axial load) at 90° of ABD. Throughout ABD, the posterior contracture increased the anterior and superior moment on the humeral head, but it did not change the GH kinematics in this intact model. As a result, there was no increase in the subacromial contact pressure during ABD with posterior plication. Conclusion: In an intact cadaveric shoulder, posterior contracture does not alter GH motion or subacromial contact pressure during passive ABD. By tightening the soft tissue envelope posteriorly, there is an increase in compressive load on the articular cartilage and anterior/superior force on the humeral head. These findings suggest that subacromial impingement in the setting of a posterior soft tissue contracture may result from alterations in scapulothoracic motion, not

  4. Remobilization does not restore immobilization-induced adhesion of capsule and restricted joint motion in rat knee joints.

    PubMed

    Ando, Akira; Suda, Hideaki; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Onoda, Yoshito; Chimoto, Eiichi; Itoi, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Joint immobilization, which is used in orthopaedic treatments and observed in bedridden people, usually causes restricted joint motion. Decreased joint motion diminishes activities of daily living and increases burden of nursing-care. The purpose of this study was to clarify the reversibility of immobilization-induced capsular changes and restricted joint motion in rat knee joints. The unilateral knee joints of adult male rats were immobilized with an internal fixator for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks as a model of immobilization after surgery or disuse of the joint. After the fixation devices were removed, the rats were allowed to move freely for 16 weeks. Sham-operated rats were used as controls. Sagittal sections at medial midcondylar regions were made and assessed with histological, histomorphometric, and immunohistochemical methods. Joint motion was measured using a custom-made device under x-ray control after removal of the periarticular muscles. In the 1/16-week and 2/16-week immobilization-remobilization (Im-Rm) groups, cord-like structures connecting the superior and inferior portions of the posterior capsule (partial adhesion) were observed without restricted joint motion. In the 4/16-, 8/16-, and 16/16-week Im-Rm groups, global adhesion of the posterior capsule and restricted joint motion were observed. The restricted joint motion was not completely restored after incision of the posterior capsule. These data indicate that immobilization alone causes irreversible capsular changes and arthrogenic restricted joint motion. Besides the joint capsule, other arthrogenic factors such as ligaments might influence the restricted joint motion. Prolonged immobilization over 4 weeks should be avoided to prevent irreversible joint contracture.

  5. A scintigraphic investigation of the disintegration behaviour of capsules in fasting subjects: a comparison of hypromellose capsules containing carrageenan as a gelling agent and standard gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Tuleu, C; Khela, M K; Evans, D F; Jones, B E; Nagata, S; Basit, A W

    2007-03-01

    Two-piece hard shell capsules made from hypromellose (or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, HPMC) have been proposed as an alternative to conventional gelatin capsules for oral drug delivery; however, little is known about their in vivo behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the disintegration of HPMC and gelatin capsules in fasted human subjects using the technique of gamma scintigraphy. HPMC capsules containing carrageenan as a gelling agent (QUALI-V(R), Qualicaps) and gelatin capsules (Qualicaps) of size 0 were filled with a lactose-based mixture. The capsules were separately radiolabelled with indium-111 and technetium-99m. Both capsules were administered simultaneously with 180ml water to eight healthy male subjects following an overnight fast. Each volunteer was positioned in front of the gamma camera and sequential 60s images were acquired in a continuous manner for 30min. No differences in the oesophageal transit of the two types of capsules were noted, with the capsules arriving in the stomach in a matter of seconds. All the capsules disintegrated in the stomach. The mean (+/-S.D.) disintegration time for the HPMC capsules was 9+/-2min (range 6-11min). The corresponding mean time for the gelatin capsules was 7+/-4min (range 3-13min). These disintegration times were not significantly different (P=0.108, paired t-test). In conclusion, HPMC and gelatin capsules show rapid and comparable in vivo disintegration times in the fasted state. HPMC capsules containing carrageenan as a gelling agent therefore offer a practical alternative to gelatin capsules as an oral drug delivery carrier.

  6. Scaling effects in spiral capsule robots.

    PubMed

    Liang, Liang; Hu, Rong; Chen, Bai; Tang, Yong; Xu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Spiral capsule robots can be applied to human gastrointestinal tracts and blood vessels. Because of significant variations in the sizes of the inner diameters of the intestines as well as blood vessels, this research has been unable to meet the requirements for medical applications. By applying the fluid dynamic equations, using the computational fluid dynamics method, to a robot axial length ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-2) m, the operational performance indicators (axial driving force, load torque, and maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall) of the spiral capsule robot and the fluid turbulent intensity around the robot spiral surfaces was numerically calculated in a straight rigid pipe filled with fluid. The reasonableness and validity of the calculation method adopted in this study were verified by the consistency of the calculated values by the computational fluid dynamics method and the experimental values from a relevant literature. The results show that the greater the fluid turbulent intensity, the greater the impact of the fluid turbulence on the driving performance of the spiral capsule robot and the higher the energy consumption of the robot. For the same level of size of the robot, the axial driving force, the load torque, and the maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall of the outer spiral robot were larger than those of the inner spiral robot. For different requirements of the operating environment, we can choose a certain kind of spiral capsule robot. This study provides a theoretical foundation for spiral capsule robots.

  7. Capsule HRB-21 postirradiation examination plan

    SciTech Connect

    Packan, N.H.; Kania, M.J.; Shrader, L.G.

    1990-03-01

    Irradiation capsule HRB-21 is a test capsule designed to provide Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) coated particle fuel performance data under test reactor conditions representative of normal MHTGR operation. The irradiated fuel will also be used for postirradiation heating in a controlled atmosphere allowing acquisition of fission product release data at sustained high temperatures. The in-reactor performance data, the postirradiation examination data, and the postirradiation heating data will be used for the validation of fuel performance models under normal and off-normal operating conditions. The accelerated irradiation is to take place in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL. This report identifies the procedures to be followed in carrying out the postirradiation disassembly and examination of HRB-21. Included is a description of the capsule, a detailed sequence of steps for disassembly of the capsule, a description of the postirradiation examination techniques to be employed, and specifications for the storage of capsule components and the reporting of results. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Adhesive capsulitis: a review of current treatment.

    PubMed

    Neviaser, Andrew S; Hannafin, Jo A

    2010-11-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is characterized by a painful, gradual loss of both active and passive glenohumeral motion resulting from progressive fibrosis and ultimate contracture of the glenohumeral joint capsule. Variable nomenclature, inconsistent reporting of disease staging, and a multitude of different treatments have created a confusing and contradictory body of literature about this condition. Our purpose is to review the evidence for both nonsurgical and surgical management of adhesive capsulitis with an emphasis on level I and II studies when available. Significant deficits in the literature include a paucity of randomized controlled trials, failure to report response to treatment in a stage-based fashion, and an incomplete understanding of the disease's natural course. Recognition that the clinical stages reflect a progression in the underlying pathological changes should guide future treatments.

  9. Unsteady Pressures on a Generic Capsule Shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, Nathan; Ross, James C.

    2015-01-01

    While developing the aerodynamic database for the Orion spacecraft, the low-speed flight regime (transonic and below) proved to be the most difficult to predict and measure accurately. The flow over the capsule heat shield in descent flight was particularly troublesome for both computational and experimental efforts due to its unsteady nature and uncertainty about the boundary layer state. The data described here were acquired as part of a study to improve the understanding of the overall flow around a generic capsule. The unsteady pressure measurements acquired on a generic capsule shape are presented along with a discussion about the effects of various flight conditions and heat-shield surface roughness on the resulting pressure fluctuations.

  10. Spectral measurements of asymmetrically irradiated capsule backlighters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiter, P. A.; Drake, R. P.

    2016-11-01

    Capsule backlighters provide a quasi-continuum x-ray spectrum over a wide range of photon energies [J. F. Hansen et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 013504 (2008)]. Ideally one irradiates the capsule backlighter symmetrically, however, in complex experimental geometries, this is not always possible. In recent experiments we irradiated capsule backlighters asymmetrically and measured the x-ray spectrum from multiple directions. We will present time-integrated spectra over the photon energy range of 2-13 keV and time-resolved spectra over the photon energy range of 2-3 keV. We will compare the spectra from different lines of sight to determine if the laser asymmetry results in an angular dependence in the x-ray emission.

  11. Spectral measurements of asymmetrically irradiated capsule backlighters

    DOE PAGES

    Keiter, P. A.; Drake, R. P.

    2016-09-09

    Capsule backlighters provide a quasi-continuum x-ray spectrum over a wide range of photon energies. Ideally one irradiates the capsule backlighter symmetrically, however, in complex experimental geometries, this is not always possible. In recent experiments we irradiated capsule backlighters asymmetrically and measured the x-ray spectrum from multiple directions. We will present time-integrated spectra over the photon energy range of ~2-13 keV and time-resolved spectra over the photon energy range of ~2-3 keV. Lastly, we will compare the spectra from different lines of sight to determine if the laser asymmetry results in an angular dependence in the x-ray emission.

  12. Capsule endoscopy—A mechatronics perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lin; Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Tan, Su Lim; Wong, Kai Juan; Ho, Khek Yu; Phee, Soo Jay

    2011-03-01

    The recent advances in integrated circuit technology, wireless communication, and sensor technology have opened the door for development of miniature medical devices that can be used for enhanced monitoring and treatment of medical conditions. Wireless capsule endoscopy is one of such medical devices that has gained significant attention during the past few years. It is envisaged that future wireless capsule endoscopies replace traditional endoscopy procedures by providing advanced functionalities such as active locomotion, body fluid/tissue sampling, and drug delivery. Development of energy-efficient miniaturized actuation mechanisms is a key step toward achieving this goal. Here, we review some of the actuators that could be integrated into future wireless capsules and discuss the existing challenges.

  13. Water Landing Characteristics of a Reentry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations have been made to determine the water-landing characteristics of a conical-shaped reentry capsule having a segment of a sphere as the bottom. For the experimental portion of the investigation, a 1/12-scale model capsule and a full-scale capsule were tested for nominal flight paths of 65 deg and 90 deg (vertical), a range of contact attitudes from -30 deg to 30 deg, and a full-scale vertical velocity of 30 feet per second at contact. Accelerations were measured by accelerometers installed at the centers of gravity of the model and full-scale capsules. For the model test the accelerations were measured along the X-axis (roll) and Z-axis (yaw) and for the full-scale test they were measured along the X-axis (roll), Y-axis (pitch), and Z-axis (yaw). Motions and displacements of the capsules that occurred after contact were determined from high-speed motion pictures. The theoretical investigation was conducted to determine the accelerations that might occur along the X-axis when the capsule contacted the water from a 90 deg flight path at a 0 deg attitude. Assuming a rigid body, computations were made from equations obtained by utilizing the principle of the conservation of momentum. The agreement among data obtained from the model test, the full-scale test, and the theory was very good. The accelerations along the X-axis, for a vertical flight path and 0 deg attitude, were in the order of 40g. For a 65 deg flight path and 0 deg attitude, the accelerations along the X-axis were in the order of 50g. Changes in contact attitude, in either the positive or negative direction from 0 deg attitude, considerably reduced the magnitude of the accelerations measured along the X-axis. Accelerations measured along the Y- and Z-axes were relatively small at all test conditions.

  14. Video capsule endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has evolved to become an important tool for the non-invasive examination of the small bowel, which hitherto had been relatively inaccessible to direct visualisation. VCE has been shown to play a role in monitoring the activity of small bowel Crohn’s disease and can be used to assess the response to anti-inflammatory treatment in Crohn’s disease. For those patients with Crohn’s disease who have undergone an intestinal resection, VCE has been assessed as a tool to detect post-operative recurrence. VCE may also aid in the reclassification of patients with a diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Unclassified to Crohn’s disease. The evolution of colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) has expanded the application of this technology further. The use of CCE to assess the activity of ulcerative colitis has been described. This advance in capsule technology has also fuelled interest in its potential role as a minimally invasive tool to assess the whole of GI tract opening the possibility of its use for the panenteric assessment of Crohn’s disease. VCE is a safe procedure. However, the risk of a retained capsule is higher in patients with suspected or confirmed Crohn’s disease compared with patients having VCE examination for other indications. A retained video capsule is rare after successful passage of a patency capsule which may be utilised to pre-screen patients undergoing VCE. This paper describes the use of VCE in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27499830

  15. Posterior commissure of the human larynx revisited.

    PubMed

    Tucker, John A; Tucker, Sean T

    2010-05-01

    The existence of the posterior commissure (PC) of the human larynx has been disputed (Hirano M, Sato K, et al. The posterior glottis. Trans Am Laryngol Assoc. 1986;107:70-75). "The term posterior commissure has no relevance to anatomical structure. The term commissure means a joining together. The bilateral vocal folds never join at their posterior ends. The posterior aspect of the glottis is a wall. The posterior lateral aspect of the posterior glottis is also the lateral wall of the posterior glottis" (Hirano M, Sato K, et al. The posterior glottis. Trans Am Laryngol Assoc. 1986;107:70-75). This study is intended to clarify the development of anatomical and morphological aspects of the PC in conjunction with a clinical classification of the larynx in sagittal view. This study uses human embryo and fetal laryngeal sections from the Carnegie Collection of Human Embryos (the world standard) and whole organ laryngeal sections from the Tucker Laryngeal Fetal Collection. Correlation of histologic and gross anatomical structure is made with the Hirano et al atlas, the Vidić Photographic Atlas of the Human Body, and the O'Rahilly Embryonic Atlas. Embryologic data clearly describe and illustrate the posterior union of the cricoid cartilage with formation of the PC. The anatomical functional aspects of the posterior lateral cricoid lamina as the supporting buttress of the articulating arytenoid cartilages are illustrated.

  16. Isolated posterior cruciate ligament calcification

    PubMed Central

    Koukoulias, Nikolaos E; Papastergiou, Stergios G

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a case of calcified posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). A 61-year-old female presented in our department reporting 12 months history of knee pain that was getting worse during the night. The patient was under medication for epileptic seizure, osteoporosis and hyperthyroidism. X-rays demonstrated calcification of the PCL. CT and MRI excluded any other intra-articular and extra-articular pathology. Arthroscopic debridement of the calcium deposits was performed and the symptoms resolved immediately, while the postoperative x-rays were normal. Histological examination confirmed the calcium nature of the lesion. Two years postoperatively the patient remains asymptomatic. PMID:22669889

  17. Rest and stress transluminal attenuation gradient and contrast opacification difference for detection of hemodynamically significant stenoses in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Ko, Brian S; Seneviratne, Sujith; Cameron, James D; Gutman, Sarah; Crossett, Marcus; Munnur, Kiran; Meredith, Ian T; Wong, Dennis T L

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of stress 320 detector CT coronary angiography (CTA) derived transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG320) and contrast opacification (CO) difference to detect hemodynamically significant stenoses as determined by invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR ≤ 0.80). Twenty-seven patients, including 51 vessels on rest CTA were studied. 16 (31 %) vessels were not interpretable on stress CTA largely secondary to motion artefacts. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed a comparable area under the curve (AUC) for rest and stress TAG320 (0.78 and 0.75) which was higher than CTA alone (0.68), and rest and stress CO difference (0.76 and 0.67). Compared with rest CTA, stress CTA demonstrated inferior image quality (Median Likert score 4 vs. 3, P < 0.0001) and required a higher mean radiation exposure (3.2 vs. 5.1 mSv, P < 0.0001). Stress TAG320 and CO difference is less feasible and was not superior in diagnostic performance when compared with rest TAG320 and CO difference.

  18. Huge interparietal posterior fontanel meningohydroencephalocele

    PubMed Central

    Dos Santos, Manuel Filipe Dias; de Santa Barbara, Rita de Cassia

    2015-01-01

    Congenital encephalocele is a neural tube defect characterized by a sac-like protrusion of the brain, meninges, and other intracranial structures through the skull, which is caused by an embryonic development abnormality. The most common location is at the occipital bone, and its incidence varies according to different world regions. We report a case of an 1-month and 7-day-old male child with a huge interparietal-posterior fontanel meningohydroencephalocele, a rare occurrence. Physical examination and volumetric computed tomography were diagnostic. The encephalocele was surgically resected. Intradural and extradural approaches were performed; the bone defect was not primarily closed. Two days after surgery, the patient developed hydrocephaly requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunting. The surgical treatment of the meningohydroencephalocele of the interparietal-posterior fontanel may be accompanied by technical challenges and followed by complications due to the presence of large blood vessels under the overlying skin. In these cases, huge sacs herniate through large bone defects including meninges, brain, and blood vessels. The latter present communication with the superior sagittal sinus and ventricular system. A favorable surgical outcome generally follows an accurate strategy taking into account individual features of the lesion. PMID:26484324

  19. Longevity of Posterior Composite Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Opdam, N.J.M.; van de Sande, F.H.; Bronkhorst, E.; Cenci, M.S.; Bottenberg, P.; Pallesen, U.; Gaengler, P.; Lindberg, A.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; van Dijken, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis, based on individual participant data from several studies, was to investigate the influence of patient-, materials-, and tooth-related variables on the survival of posterior resin composite restorations. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a search resulting in 12 longitudinal studies of direct posterior resin composite restorations with at least 5 years’ follow-up. Original datasets were still available, including placement/failure/censoring of restorations, restored surfaces, materials used, reasons for clinical failure, and caries-risk status. A database including all restorations was constructed, and a multivariate Cox regression method was used to analyze variables of interest [patient (age; gender; caries-risk status), jaw (upper; lower), number of restored surfaces, resin composite and adhesive materials, and use of glass-ionomer cement as base/liner (present or absent)]. The hazard ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals were determined, and annual failure rates were calculated for subgroups. Of all restorations, 2,816 (2,585 Class II and 231 Class I) were included in the analysis, of which 569 failed during the observation period. Main reasons for failure were caries and fracture. The regression analyses showed a significantly higher risk of failure for restorations in high-caries-risk individuals and those with a higher number of restored surfaces. PMID:25048250

  20. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification. A dental amalgam capsule is a container device in which silver alloy is intended to be mixed with...

  1. 21 CFR 520.446 - Clindamycin capsules and tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... capsules and tablets. (a) Specifications(1) Each capsule contains the equivalent of 25, 75, 150, or 300 milligrams (mg) clindamycin as the hydrochloride salt. (2) Each tablet contains the equivalent of 25, 75, or 150 mg clindamycin as the hydrochloride salt. (3) Each capsule contains the equivalent of 25, 75,...

  2. 21 CFR 520.608 - Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. 520.608 Section 520.608 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains dicloxacillin...

  3. 21 CFR 520.608 - Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. 520.608 Section 520.608 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains dicloxacillin...

  4. 21 CFR 520.608 - Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. 520.608 Section 520.608 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains dicloxacillin...

  5. 21 CFR 520.622d - Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules. 520.622d... Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 12.5, 50, 200, or 400 milligrams (mg) diethylcarbamazine citrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 011014 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use...

  6. Capsule endoscopy of the small bowel

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Hey-Long; Yung, Diana; Sidhu, Reena; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios

    2016-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a first line small bowel investigative modality which provides more sensitive mucosal imaging than comparators. It is a non-invasive, non-irradiating tool well tolerated by patients. The risk of retention of the capsule can be minimised by ensuring luminal patency using the Agile patency device. Research continues into how to minimise missed pathology and variability in the identification of pathology or interpretation of images. The consensus is that bowel preparation using laxatives improves visibility and diagnostic yield. Research includes the development of image recognition software, both to eliminate sequentially identical images to improve viewing speed and to select or enhance images likely to represent pathology. However, careful reading by experienced capsule endoscopists remains the benchmark. This should be performed at a speed comfortable to the viewer, probably at a maximum of 15 frames per second. Some prior experience of endoscopy appears to be helpful for novice capsule endoscopists and formal training on a hands-on training course seems to improve pathology recognition, for novices and for those with CE experience. PMID:27826572

  7. Capsule endoscopy in patients refusing conventional endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Vázquez, Javier; Argüelles-Arias, Federico; García-Montes, Josefa Maria; Caunedo-Álvarez, Ángel; Pellicer-Bautista, Francisco Javier; Herrerías-Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy is nowadays the diagnostic technique of choice in the study of small bowel pathologies, allowing the non-invasive study of the entire mucosa. This has led, together with new technical advances, to the creation of two new models (PillCam ESO and PillCam Colon) for the study of esophageal and colonic diseases. These two new capsules offer an interesting alternative to conventional endoscopy in the study of the upper and lower digestive tracts, because traditional endoscopy is often unpleasant and uncomfortable for the patient, can be painful, often requires moderate or deep sedation and is not without complications (hemorrhage, perforation, etc.). PillCam Colon is particularly important for its usefulness in the diagnosis of colonic polyps, and is a potentially useful tool in cases of incomplete colonoscopy or in colorectal cancer screening, even more when most patients are reluctant to undergo screening programs due to the said disadvantages of conventional colonoscopy. This article discusses the advantages of capsule endoscopy over conventional endoscopy, its current application possibilities and indications in routine clinical practice. In the various sections of the work, we assess the application of endoscopic capsule in different sections of the digestive tract (esophagus, stomach, and colon) and finally the potential role of panendoscopy with PillCam Colon. PMID:24966612

  8. Design of Endoscopic Capsule With Multiple Cameras.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yingke; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Dan; Yin, Zheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhihua

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the miss rate of the wireless capsule endoscopy, in this paper, we propose a new system of the endoscopic capsule with multiple cameras. A master-slave architecture, including an efficient bus architecture and a four level clock management architecture, is applied for the Multiple Cameras Endoscopic Capsule (MCEC). For covering more area of the gastrointestinal tract wall with low power, multiple cameras with a smart image capture strategy, including movement sensitive control and camera selection, are used in the MCEC. To reduce the data transfer bandwidth and power consumption to prolong the MCEC's working life, a low complexity image compressor with PSNR 40.7 dB and compression rate 86% is implemented. A chipset is designed and implemented for the MCEC and a six cameras endoscopic capsule prototype is implemented by using the chipset. With the smart image capture strategy, the coverage rate of the MCEC prototype can achieve 98% and its power consumption is only about 7.1 mW.

  9. Water Landing Characteristics of a Reentry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Water Landing Characteristics of a Reentry Capsule. Experimental and theoretical investigations have been made to determine the water-landing characteristics of a conical-shaped reentry capsule having a segment of a sphere as the bottom. For the experimental portion of the investigation, a 1/12-scale model capsule and a full-scale capsule were tested for nominal flight paths of 65 deg and 90 deg (vertical), a range of contact attitudes from -30 deg to 30 deg, and a full-scale vertical velocity of 30 feet per second at contact. Accelerations were measured by accelerometers installed at the centers of gravity of the model and full-scale capsules. For the model test the accelerations were measured along the X-axis (roll) and Z-axis (yaw) and for the full-scale test they were measured along the X-axis (roll), Y-axis (pitch), and Z-axis (yaw). Motions and displacements of the capsules that occurred after contact were determined from high-speed motion pictures. The theoretical investigation was conducted to determine the accelerations that might occur along the X-axis when the capsule contacted the water from a 90 deg flight path at a 0 deg attitude. Assuming a rigid body, computations were made from equations obtained by utilizing the principle of the conservation of momentum. The agreement among data obtained from the model test, the full-scale test, and the theory was very good. The accelerations along the X-axis, for a vertical flight path and 0 deg attitude, were in the order of 40g. For a 65 deg flight path and 0 deg attitude, the accelerations along the X-axis were in the order of 50g. Changes in contact attitude, in either the positive or negative direction from 0 deg attitude, considerably reduced the magnitude of the accelerations measured along the X-axis. Accelerations measured along the Y- and Z-axes were relatively small at all test conditions. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030955. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  10. Presence of a capsule in Neisseria lactamica, antigenically similar to the capsule of N. meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Martin, P V; Laviotola, A; Ohayon, H; Riou, J Y

    1986-01-01

    Three of thirteen strains of Neisseria lactamica, a species closely related to N. meningitidis, were selected on the basis of their ability to be strongly agglutinated by serogroup B antimeningococcal serum. The presence of a capsule was demonstrated using Alcian blue as a stain for acidic polysaccharide. When reacted with serogroup B antimeningococcal sera, 2 out of 3 N. lactamica B-coagglutanating strains exhibited an extracellular material comparable in size, antigenicity and staining properties to the capsule of serogroup B N. meningitidis.

  11. Kinetic simulation of hydrodynamic equivalent capsule implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Thomas; Le, Ari; Schmitt, Mark; Herrmann, Hans

    2016-10-01

    We have carried out simulations of direct-drive hydrodynamic equivalent capsule implosion experiments conducted on Omega laser facility at the Laboratory of Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester. The capsules had a glass shell (SiO2) 4.87 μm with an inner diameter of 1086 μm. One was filled with deuterium (D) and tritium (T) at 6.635 and 2.475 atmospheric pressure respectively. The other capsule with D, T, and He-3 at 2.475, 2.475, and 5.55 atmospheric pressure respectively. The capsules were imploded with 60 laser beams with a square pulse length of 0.6ns of total energy of 15.6 kJ. One-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic calculations with HYDRA and kinetic particle/hybrid simulations with LSP are carried out for the post-shot analysis. HYDRA outputs at 0.6ns are linked to LSP, in which the electrons are treated as a fluid while all the ion dynamics is simulated by the standard particle-in-cell technique. Additionally, simulations with the new photon package in LSP are initiated at the beginning of the implosion to include the implosion phase of the capsule. The simulation results of density, temperature, and velocity profiles of the electrons, D, T, He-3, and SiO2species are compared with HYDRA. Detail comparisons among the kinetic simulations, rad-hydro simulations, and experimental results of neutron yield, yield ratio, fusion burn histories, and shell convergence will be presented to assess plasma kinetic effects. Work performed under the auspices of the US DOE by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W7405-ENG-36.

  12. Imaging of the Posterior Skull Base.

    PubMed

    Job, Joici; Branstetter, Barton F

    2017-01-01

    The posterior skull base can be involved by a variety of pathologic processes. They can be broadly classified as: traumatic, neoplastic, vascular, and inflammatory. Pathology in the posterior skull base usually involves the lower cranial nerves, either as a source of pathology or a secondary source of symptoms. This review will categorize pathology arising in the posterior skull base and describe how it affects the skull base itself and surrounding structures.

  13. Posterior peritoneal recesses: assessment using CT

    SciTech Connect

    Rubenstein, W.A.; Auh, Y.H.; Zirinsky, K.; Kneeland, J.B.; Whalen, J.P.; Kazam, E.

    1985-08-01

    Intraperitoneal compartments may extend posteriorly to the level of known retroperitoneal structures at several locations within the abdomen. These locations include the posterior subhepatic or hepatorenal space, the splenorenal space, the retropancreatic recess, the paracolic gutters, and the pararectal fossae. Because of their posterior location, fluid collections within these compartments may be mistaken radiologically for retroperitoneal masses. The sectional anatomy of these spaces and particularly their appearance on computed tomographic scans, are illustrated in this paper.

  14. Posterior ankle impingement in the dancer.

    PubMed

    Moser, Brad R

    2011-01-01

    Dancers spend a lot of time in the relevé position in demi-pointe and en pointe in their training and their careers. Pain from both osseous and soft tissue causes may start to occur in the posterior aspect of their ankle. This article reviews the potential causes of posterior ankle impingement in dancers. It will discuss the clinical evaluation of a dancer and the appropriate workup and radiographic studies needed to further evaluate a dancer with suspected posterior ankle impingement.

  15. Experimental measurement on movement of spiral-type capsule endoscope

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wanan; Dai, Houde; He, Yong; Qin, Fengqing

    2016-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscope achieved great success, however, the maneuvering of wireless capsule endoscope is challenging at present. A magnetic driving instrument, including two bar magnets, a stepper motor, a motor driver, a motor controller, and a power supplier, was developed to generate rotational magnetic fields. Permanent magnet ring, magnetized as S and N poles radially and mounted spiral structure on the surface, acted as a capsule. The maximum torque passing to the capsule, rotational synchronization of capsule and motor, and the translational speed of capsule, were measured in ex vivo porcine large intestine. The experimental results illustrate that the rotational movement of the spiral-type capsule in the intestine is feasible and the cost of the magnetic driving equipment is low. As a result, the solution is promising in the future controllability. PMID:26848279

  16. Experimental measurement on movement of spiral-type capsule endoscope.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanan; Dai, Houde; He, Yong; Qin, Fengqing

    2016-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscope achieved great success, however, the maneuvering of wireless capsule endoscope is challenging at present. A magnetic driving instrument, including two bar magnets, a stepper motor, a motor driver, a motor controller, and a power supplier, was developed to generate rotational magnetic fields. Permanent magnet ring, magnetized as S and N poles radially and mounted spiral structure on the surface, acted as a capsule. The maximum torque passing to the capsule, rotational synchronization of capsule and motor, and the translational speed of capsule, were measured in ex vivo porcine large intestine. The experimental results illustrate that the rotational movement of the spiral-type capsule in the intestine is feasible and the cost of the magnetic driving equipment is low. As a result, the solution is promising in the future controllability.

  17. An Alternative and Validated Injection Method for Accessing the Subretinal Space via a Transcleral Posterior Approach.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Sachin; Le, Andrew; Davenport, Julian; Gorin, Michael B; Nusinowitz, Steven; Matynia, Anna

    2016-12-07

    Subretinal injections have been successfully used in both humans and rodents to deliver therapeutic interventions of proteins, viral agents, and cells to the interphotoreceptor/subretinal compartment that has direct exposure to photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Subretinal injections of plasminogen as well as recent preclinical and clinical trials have demonstrated safety and/or efficacy of delivering viral vectors and stem cells to individuals with advanced retinal disease. Mouse models of retinal disease, particularly hereditary retinal dystrophies, are essential for testing these therapies. The most common injection procedure in rodents is to use small transcorneal or transcleral incisions with an anterior approach to the retina. With this approach, the injection needle penetrates the neurosensory retina disrupting the underlying RPE and on insertion can easily nick the lens, causing lens opacification and impairment of noninvasive imaging. Accessing the subretinal space via a transcleral, posterior approach avoids these problems: the needle crosses the sclera approximately 0.5 mm from the optic nerve, without retinal penetration and avoids disrupting the vitreous. Collateral damage is limited to that associated with the focal sclerotomy and the effects of a transient, serous retinal detachment. The simplicity of the method minimizes ocular injury, ensures rapid retinal reattachment and recovery, and has a low failure rate. The minimal damage to the retina and RPE allows for clear assessment of the efficacy and direct effects of the therapeutic agents themselves. This manuscript describes a novel subretinal injection technique that can be used to target viral vectors, pharmacological agents, stem cells or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to the subretinal space in mice with high efficacy, minimal damage, and fast recovery.

  18. Capsule- and disk-filter procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skrobialowski, Stanley C.

    2016-01-01

    Capsule and disk filters are disposable, self-contained units composed of a pleated or woven filter medium encased in a polypropylene or other plastic housing that can be connected inline to a sample-delivery system (such as a submersible or peristaltic pump) that generates sufficient pressure (positive or negative) to force water through the filter. Filter media are available in several pore sizes, but 0.45 µm is the pore size used routinely for most studies at this time. Capsule or disk filters (table 5.2.1.A.1) are required routinely for most studies when filtering samples for trace-element analyses and are recommended when filtering samples for major-ion or other inorganic-constituent analyses.

  19. Electroformation of Janus and patchy capsules

    PubMed Central

    Rozynek, Zbigniew; Mikkelsen, Alexander; Dommersnes, Paul; Fossum, Jon Otto

    2014-01-01

    Janus and patchy particles have designed heterogeneous surfaces that consist of two or several patches with different materials properties. These particles are emerging as building blocks for a new class of soft matter and functional materials. Here we introduce a route for forming heterogeneous capsules by producing highly ordered jammed colloidal shells of various shapes with domains of controlled size and composition. These structures combine the functionalities offered by Janus or patchy particles, and those given by permeable shells such as colloidosomes. The simple assembly route involves the synergetic action of electro-hydrodynamic flow and electro-coalescence. We demonstrate that the method is robust and straightforwardly extendable to production of multi-patchy capsules. This forms a starting point for producing patchy colloidosomes with domains of anisotropic chemical surface properties, permeability or mixed liquid–solid phase domains, which could be exploited to produce functional emulsions, light and hollow supra-colloidosome structures, or scaffolds. PMID:24853057

  20. Adhesive capsulitis of the hip: a review.

    PubMed

    Looney, Colin G; Raynor, Brett; Lowe, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    Adhesive capsulitis of the hip (ACH) is a rare clinical entity. Similar to adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder, ACH is characterized by a painful decrease in active and passive range of motion as synovial inflammation in the acute stages of the disease progresses to capsular fibrosis in the chronic stages. Once other diagnoses have been ruled out, management of ACH is tailored to reduce inflammation in the acute stages with NSAIDs, intra-articular steroid injections, and targeted physical therapy while biomechanical dysfunction in the spine, hip, sacroiliac joint, or lower limb joints is addressed. In chronic stages of the disease, intervention should focus on decreasing the progression of fibrotic changes and regaining range of motion through aggressive physical therapy. Interventions described for chronic ACH include manipulation under anesthesia; pressure dilatation; and open or arthroscopic synovectomy, lysis of adhesions, and capsular release. Surgical intervention should be considered only after failure of a minimum 3-month course of nonsurgical treatment.

  1. [Quality control of zhuanggu shenjin capsules].

    PubMed

    Ni, G; Chen, X; Zhang, Y; Liu, Z; Gao, Y; Quan, R; Sun, Q; Ni, H

    1996-01-01

    Studies have been made on the microscopic identification of red jinseng, dog bone, indian bread, yanhusuo and datura flower in Zhuanggu Shenjin Capsules, as well as on the identification of ginsengside and tetrahydropalmatine by TLC and the determination of icariin by dual wavelength TLC-scanning. The content of the latter compound should be no less than 0.380mg/g and the average rate of recovery 97.62% (n = 5).

  2. Rarefied Flows of Planetary Entry Capsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, James N.

    1997-01-01

    The impact of rarefaction on entry capsules and spacecraft aerothermodynamics is emphasized for various aeroassist missions. The capability of the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to simulate such flows is demonstrated through examples of validation studies and applications. Several space flight projects and ground-based experiments are reviewed for which rarefaction effects have significant effect on spacecraft performance or experimental measurements. This review clearly demonstrates the significant role that the DSMC method plays in characterizing such flows.

  3. Analysis of 2011 Defect Imaging Capsule Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Paul; Cobble, James; Hsu, Scott; Magelssen, Glenn; Murphy, Thomas; Obery, Kimberly; Schmitt, Mark; Tregillis, Ian; Krasheninnikova, Natalia; Wysocki, Frederick

    2011-10-01

    Los Alamos is engaged in a project to design high neutron fluence feature-driven mix experiments for the National Ignition Facility in 2012. These results will be relevant for determining how much imperfection capsules can have in inertial fusion energy. To prepare for NIF, we fielded shots on the Omega laser in January and July 2011 with a 40 beam polar direct drive configuration similar to what we will employ on NIF. The capsules were 15 to 17 micron CH plastic shells about 880 microns in diameter filled with 5 atm of D2 gas. We fielded capsules with different dopant layers and different depth equatorial grooves that were about 30 microns wide. We obtained radius versus time plots, radiographs, neutron yields, ion temperatures, burn widths, streak spectra, among other data. Preliminary calculations show that we match the radius versus time plots within about the data error and we have reasonable matches to the other data. We will will present these results and additional detailed comparisons of calculations to data. Work performed by Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396 for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. Aerodynamics for the Mars Phoenix Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Desai, Prasun N.; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Pre-flight aerodynamics data for the Mars Phoenix entry capsule are presented. The aerodynamic coefficients were generated as a function of total angle-of-attack and either Knudsen number, velocity, or Mach number, depending on the flight regime. The database was constructed using continuum flowfield computations and data from the Mars Exploration Rover and Viking programs. Hypersonic and supersonic static coefficients were derived from Navier-Stokes solutions on a pre-flight design trajectory. High-altitude data (free-molecular and transitional regimes) and dynamic pitch damping characteristics were taken from Mars Exploration Rover analysis and testing. Transonic static coefficients from Viking wind tunnel tests were used for capsule aerodynamics under the parachute. Static instabilities were predicted at two points along the reference trajectory and were verified by reconstructed flight data. During the hypersonic instability, the capsule was predicted to trim at angles as high as 2.5 deg with an on-axis center-of-gravity. Trim angles were predicted for off-nominal pitching moment (4.2 deg peak) and a 5 mm off-axis center-ofgravity (4.8 deg peak). Finally, hypersonic static coefficient sensitivities to atmospheric density were predicted to be within uncertainty bounds.

  5. Capsule Design for Hybrid Shock Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgaertel, J. A.; Dodd, E. S.; Loomis, E. N.

    2014-10-01

    Hybrid Shock-Ignition (HSI) is an alternate fusion energy concept that combines indirect drive and shock ignition schemes in order to access new regimes in National Ignition Facility (NIF) hohlraum physics. Building off of tetrahedral hohlraum experiments at the OMEGA laser facility, we have preliminary designs for spherical hohlraums that combine symmetrically arranged laser entrance holes for indirect-drive beams (to initially compress the capsule) and holes for direct-drive beams to drive a strong ignitor shock (to further compress and ignite the fuel). A LANL Eulerian hydrodynamic code is being used to find optimal laser drive, hohlraum, and capsule specifications, via criteria such as implosion symmetry, implosion time, and neutron yield. At first, drive will be modeled using a radiation source to mimic the hohlraum drive, and later, ignitor beams will be added. Initial capsule designs will be presented for experiments to develop the HSI platform on the sub-ignition scale OMEGA laser facility in FY15. Supported under the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. LA-UR-14-25071.

  6. Basic ammonothermal GaN growth in molybdenum capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimputkar, S.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.

    2016-12-01

    Single crystal, bulk gallium nitride (GaN) crystals were grown using the basic ammonothermal method in a high purity growth environment created using a non-hermetically sealed molybdenum (Mo) capsule and compared to growths performed in a similarly designed silver (Ag) capsule and capsule-free René 41 autoclave. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis revealed transition metal free (<1×1017 cm-3) GaN crystals. Anomalously low oxygen concentrations ((2-6)×1018 cm-3) were measured in a {0001} seeded crystal boule grown using a Mo capsule, despite higher source material oxygen concentrations ((1-5)×1019 cm-3) suggesting that molybdenum (or molybdenum nitrides) may act to getter oxygen under certain conditions. Total system pressure profiles from growth runs in a Mo capsule system were comparable to those without a capsule, with pressures peaking within 2 days and slowly decaying due to hydrogen diffusional losses. Measured Mo capsule GaN growth rates were comparable to un-optimized growth rates in capsule-free systems and appreciably slower than in Ag-capsule systems. Crystal quality replicated that of the GaN seed crystals for all capsule conditions, with high quality growth occurring on the (0001) Ga-face. Optical absorption and impurity concentration characterization suggests reduced concentrations of hydrogenated gallium vacancies (VGa-Hx).

  7. High-speed precision weighing of pharmaceutical capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürmen, Miran; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we present a cost-effective method for fast and accurate in-line weighing of hard gelatin capsules based on the optimized capacitance sensor and real-time processing of the capsule capacitance profile resulting from 5000 capacitance measurements per second. First, the effect of the shape and size of the capacitive sensor on the sensitivity and stability of the measurements was investigated in order to optimize the performance of the system. The method was tested on two types of hard gelatin capsules weighing from 50 mg to 650 mg. The results showed that the capacitance profile was exceptionally well correlated with the capsule weight with the correlation coefficient exceeding 0.999. The mean precision of the measurements was in the range from 1 mg to 3 mg, depending on the size of the capsule and was significantly lower than the 5% weight tolerances usually used by the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, the method was found feasible for weighing pharmaceutical hard gelatin capsules as long as certain conditions are met regarding the capsule fill properties and environment stability. The proposed measurement system can be calibrated by using only two or three sets of capsules with known weight. However, for most applications it is sufficient to use only empty and nominally filled capsules for calibration. Finally, a practical application of the proposed method showed that a single system is capable of weighing around 75 000 capsules per hour, while using multiple systems could easily increase the inspection rate to meet almost any requirements.

  8. Posterior repair and sexual function

    PubMed Central

    Komesu, Yuko M.; Rogers, Rebecca G.; Kammerer-Doak, Dorothy N.; Barber, Matthew D.; Olsen, Ambre L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of posterior repair (PR) on sexual function in patients who have undergone incontinence and/or pelvic reconstructive surgery. STUDY DESIGN A cohort study of women who underwent incontinence and/or prolapse surgery was performed. Participants completed the pelvic organ prolapse urinary incontinence sexual questionnaire (PISQ) before and after the operation. PISQ scores were compared between women who underwent PR and women who did not. RESULTS Of 73 study participants, 30 women underwent PR; 43 women did not (no PR). Although there was no difference in dyspareunia between groups pre-op, dyspareunia prevalence post-op was significantly lower in the no PR group. Preoperative PISQ scores were similar between groups. After the operation, both groups significantly improved their PISQ scores, without a difference between groups. CONCLUSION Although the incidence of dyspareunia differed between PR and no PR groups, overall improvement in sexual function was reflected in improved total PISQ scores that occurred irrespective of PR performance. PMID:17618777

  9. Strain and load thresholds for cervical muscle recruitment in response to quasi-static tensile stretch of the caprine C5-C6 facet joint capsule.

    PubMed

    Azar, Nadia R; Kallakuri, Srinivasu; Chen, Chaoyang; Lu, Ying; Cavanaugh, John M

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the response of cervical muscles to physiologic tensile stretch of cervical facet joint capsule (FJC) at a quasi-static displacement rate of 0.5mm/s. In vivo caprine left C5-C6 FJC preparations were subjected to an incremental tensile displacement paradigm. EMG activity was recorded during FJC stretch from the right trapezius (TR) and multifidus (MF) muscle groups at the C5 and C6 levels and bilaterally from the sternomastoid (SM) and longus colli (LC) muscle groups at the C5-C6 level. Onset of muscular activity was later analyzed using visual and computer-based methods. Capsule load and strain at the time of onset were recorded and compared between the muscle groups. Results indicated capsule load was a better indicator of the tensile stretch thresholds for muscular recruitment than capsule strain. MF responded at significantly smaller capsule loads than TR and LC, while TR and LC activation loads were not significantly different. SM did not respond to physiologic FJC stretch. Muscle group recruitment order reflected the muscles' fiber type compositions and functional roles in the spine. This study provides the first evidence that the cervical ligamento-muscular reflex pathways are activated via tensile FJC stretch and extend to superficial and deep musculature on the anterior and posterior aspects of the neck, ipsilateral and contralateral to the side of FJC stretch.

  10. Motion of an elastic capsule in a square microfluidic channel

    PubMed Central

    Kuriakose, S.; Dimitrakopoulos, P.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we investigate computationally the steady-state motion of an elastic capsule along the centerline of a square microfluidic channel and compare it with that in a cylindrical tube. In particular, we consider a slightly over-inflated elastic capsule made of a strain-hardening membrane with comparable shearing and area-dilatation resistance. Under the conditions studied in this paper (i.e. small, moderate and large capsules at low and moderate flow rates), the capsule motion in a square channel is similar to, and thus governed by the same scaling laws with the capsule motion in a cylindrical tube, even though in the channel the cross-section in the upstream portion of large capsules is non-axisymmetric (i.e. square-like with rounded corners). When the hydrodynamic forces on the membrane increase, the capsule develops a pointed downstream edge and a flattened rear (possibly with a negative curvature) so that the restoring tension forces are increased as also happens with droplets. Membrane tensions increase significantly with the capsule size while the area near the downstream tip is the most probable to rupture when a capsule flows in a microchannel. Because the membrane tensions increase with the interfacial deformation, a suitable Landau-Levich-Derjaguin-Bretherton analysis reveals that the lubrication film thickness h for large capsules depends on both the capillary number Ca and the capsule size a; our computations determine the latter dependence to be (in dimensionless form) h ~ a−2 for the large capsules studied in this work. For small and moderate capsule sizes a, the capsule velocity Ux and additional pressure drop ΔP+ are governed by the same scaling laws as for high-viscosity droplets. The velocity and additional pressure drop of large thick capsules also follow the dynamics of high-viscosity droplets, and are affected by the lubrication film thickness. The motion of our large thick capsules is characterized by a Ux−u~h~a−2

  11. Comprehensive and Systematic Analysis of the Immunocompatibility of Polyelectrolyte Capsules.

    PubMed

    Zyuzin, Mikhail V; Díez, Paula; Goldsmith, Meir; Carregal-Romero, Susana; Teodosio, Cristina; Rejman, Joanna; Feliu, Neus; Escudero, Alberto; Almendral, María Jesús; Linne, Uwe; Peer, Dan; Fuentes, Manuel; Parak, Wolfgang J

    2017-02-15

    The immunocompability of polyelectrolyte capsules synthesized by layer-by-layer deposition has been investigated. Capsules of different architecture and composed of either non-degradable or biodegradable polymers, with either positively or negatively charged outer surface, and with micrometer size, have been used, and the capsule uptake by different cell lines has been studied and quantified. Immunocompatibility studies were performed with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Data demonstrate that incubation with capsules, at concentrations relevant for practical applications, did not result in a reduced viability of cells, as it did not show an increased apoptosis. Presence of capsules also did not result in an increased expression of TNF-α, as detected with antibody staining, as well as at mRNA level. It also did not result in increased expression of IL-6, as detected at mRNA level. These results indicate that the polyelectrolyte capsules used in this study are immunocompatible.

  12. Role of shocks and mix caused by capsule defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, P. A.; Cobble, J. A.; Tregillis, I. L.; Schmitt, M. J.; Obrey, K. D.; Glebov, V.; Batha, S. H.; Magelssen, G. R.; Fincke, J. R.; Hsu, S. C.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Murphy, T. J.; Wysocki, F. J.

    2012-09-01

    An Eulerian code with a turbulent mix model is used to model a set of plastic (CH) ablator capsules with and without equatorial grooves. The "perfect" capsule results were used to calibrate simulations of capsules with equatorial grooves of different depths that provided information on increasingly perturbed implosions. Simulations with a turbulence model were able to calculate the same yield over mix (YOM) ratio (experiment/mix simulation) of 0.2 to 0.3 for thin (8-μm thick) and thick shell (15-μm thick) capsules with no grooves and thin capsules with shallow grooves. When the capsules have deep grooves, the YOM ratio increases to greater than unity, probably because the deformed shocks focus too strongly on the symmetry axis in our two-dimensional simulations. This is supported by a comparison of simulated and experimental x-ray images.

  13. Wireless communication link for capsule endoscope at 600 MHz.

    PubMed

    Khaleghi, A; Balasingham, I

    2015-01-01

    Simulation of a wireless communication link for a capsule endoscopy is presented for monitoring of small intestine in humans. The realized communication link includes the transmitting capsule antenna, the outside body receiving antenna and the model of the human body. The capsule antenna is designed for operating at the frequency band of 600 MHz with an impedance bandwidth of 10 MHz and omnidirectional radiation pattern. The quality of the communication link is improved by using directive antenna outside body inside matching layer for electromagnetic wave tuning to the body. The outside body antenna has circular polarization that guaranteeing the communication link for different orientations of the capsule inside intestine. It is shown that the path loss for the capsule in 60 mm from the abdomen surface varies between 37-47 dB in relation to the antenna orientation. This link can establish high data rate wireless communications for capsule endoscopy.

  14. Polar tent for reduced perturbation of NIF ignition capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, B. A.; Pickworth, L.; Stadermann, M.; Field, J.; Robey, H.; Scott, H. A.; Smalyuk, V.

    2016-10-01

    In simulations, a tent that contacts the capsule near the poles and departs tangential to the capsule surface greatly reduces the capsule perturbation, and the resulting mass injected into the hot-spot, compared to current capsule support methods. Target fabrication appears feasible with a layered tent (43-nm polyimide + 8-nm C) for increased stiffness. We are planning quantitative measurements of the resulting shell- ρR perturbation near peak implosion velocity (PV) using enhanced self-emission backlighting, achieved by adding 1% Ar to the capsule fill in Symcaps (4He + H). Layered DT implosions are also planned for an integrated test of capsule performance. We will describe the design and simulation predictions. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Analysis Of Wetted-Foam ICF Capsule Perormance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, R.; Olson, R.; Zylstra, A.; Haines, B.; Yi, A.; Bradley, P.; Yin, L.; Leeper, R.; Kline, J.

    2016-10-01

    The performance of wetted-foam ICF capsules is investigated with the RAGE Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamics computer code. We are developing an experimental platform on NIF that employs a wetted foam liquid DT fuel layer ICF capsules. By varying the capsule temperature, the vapor density in the capsule can be prescribed, and the hot spot convergence ratio (CR) of the capsule implosion can be controlled. This allows us to investigate the fidelity of RAGE in modeling of capsule implosions as the value of CR is varied. In the NIF experiments, CR can be varied from 12 to 25. This presentation will cover simulations with RAGE of three NIF shots performed in 2016; a DD and a DT liquid fuel shot with CR =14 and a DT shot with CR =16. It will also discuss analysis of future experiments. This work was performed under auspices of the U. S. DOE by LANL.

  16. Treatment implications of posterior fossa ependymoma subgroups.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Vijay; Taylor, Michael D

    2016-11-15

    Posterior fossa ependymoma comprises two distinct molecular entities, ependymoma_posterior fossa A (EPN_PFA) and ependymoma_posterior fossa B (EPN_PFB), with differentiable gene expression profiles. As yet, the response of the two entities to treatment is unclear. To determine the relationship between the two molecular subgroups of posterior fossa ependymoma and treatment, we studied a cohort of 820 patients with molecularly profiled, clinically annotated posterior fossa ependymomas. We found that the strongest predictor of poor outcome in patients with posterior fossa ependymoma across the entire age spectrum was molecular subgroup EPN_PFA, which was recently reported in the paper entitled "Therapeutic impact of cytoreductive surgery and irradiation of posterior fossa ependymoma in the molecular era: a retrospective multicohort analysis" in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Patients with incompletely resected EPN_PFA tumors had a very poor outcome despite receiving adjuvant radiation therapy, whereas a substantial proportion of patients with EPN_PFB tumors can be cured with surgery alone.

  17. Congenital basis of posterior fossa anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Cotes, Claudia; Bonfante, Eliana; Lazor, Jillian; Jadhav, Siddharth; Caldas, Maria; Swischuk, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    The classification of posterior fossa congenital anomalies has been a controversial topic. Advances in genetics and imaging have allowed a better understanding of the embryologic development of these abnormalities. A new classification schema correlates the embryologic, morphologic, and genetic bases of these anomalies in order to better distinguish and describe them. Although they provide a better understanding of the clinical aspects and genetics of these disorders, it is crucial for the radiologist to be able to diagnose the congenital posterior fossa anomalies based on their morphology, since neuroimaging is usually the initial step when these disorders are suspected. We divide the most common posterior fossa congenital anomalies into two groups: 1) hindbrain malformations, including diseases with cerebellar or vermian agenesis, aplasia or hypoplasia and cystic posterior fossa anomalies; and 2) cranial vault malformations. In addition, we will review the embryologic development of the posterior fossa and, from the perspective of embryonic development, will describe the imaging appearance of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. Knowledge of the developmental bases of these malformations facilitates detection of the morphological changes identified on imaging, allowing accurate differentiation and diagnosis of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. PMID:26246090

  18. Recurrent posterior shoulder instability. Diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Pollock, R G; Bigliani, L U

    1993-06-01

    Recurrent posterior glenohumeral instability is regarded as a difficult problem to diagnose and treat. A careful history and physical examination are the most helpful tools in making this diagnosis. A positive posterior stress test, demonstrable posterior subluxation, and a sulcus sign are frequently present on examination. Special roentgenographic studies, such as the computerized arthrotomography (arthro-CT) scan, may be used in cases in which plain roentgenographs suggest bony glenoid abnormalities. When conservative therapy fails, there is no consensus on the operative treatment. Procedures that address the soft tissues, such as capsulorrhaphy and posterior labral repair, as well as those that alter the bony geometry of the joint, such as posterior bone blocks and glenoid or humeral osteotomies, have been described. Capsular laxity is the most common pathologic finding in the authors' experience, and they favor the use of a posterior-inferior capsular shift procedure to correct this problem. Augmentation of the repair with a posterior bone block is reserved for unusual cases, such as when glenoid hypoplasia is present or in certain revision situations.

  19. Posterior labral injury in contact athletes.

    PubMed

    Mair, S D; Zarzour, R H; Speer, K P

    1998-01-01

    Nine athletes (seven football offensive linemen, one defensive lineman, and one lacrosse player) were found at arthroscopy to have posterior labral detachment from the glenoid. In our series, this lesion is specific to contact athletes who engage their opponents with arms in front of the body. All patients had pain with bench pressing and while participating in their sport, diminishing their ability to play effectively. Conservative measures were ineffective in relieving their symptoms. Examination under anesthesia revealed symmetric glenohumeral translation bilaterally, without evidence of posterior instability. Treatment consisted of glenoid rim abradement and posterior labral repair with a bioabsorbable tack. All patients returned to complete at least one full season of contact sports and weightlifting without pain (minimum follow-up, > or = 2 years). Although many injuries leading to subluxation of the glenohumeral joint occur when an unanticipated force is applied, contact athletes ready their shoulder muscles in anticipation of impact with opponents. This leads to a compressive force at the glenohumeral joint. We hypothesize that, in combination with a posteriorly directed force at impact, the resultant vector is a shearing force to the posterior labrum and articular surface. Repeated exposure leads to posterior labral detachment without capsular injury. Posterior labral reattachment provides consistently good results, allowing the athlete to return to competition.

  20. Multiple internalization pathways of polyelectrolyte multilayer capsules into mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Kastl, Lena; Sasse, Daniel; Wulf, Verena; Hartmann, Raimo; Mircheski, Josif; Ranke, Christiane; Carregal-Romero, Susana; Martínez-López, José Antonio; Fernández-Chacón, Rafael; Parak, Wolfgang J; Elsasser, Hans-Peter; Rivera Gil, Pilar

    2013-08-27

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) capsules are carrier vehicles with great potential for biomedical applications. With the future aim of designing biocompatible, effective therapeutic delivery systems (e.g., for cancer), the pathway of internalization (uptake and fate) of PEM capsules was investigated. In particular the following experiments were performed: (i) the study of capsule co-localization with established endocytic markers, (ii) switching-off endocytotic pathways with pharmaceutical/chemical inhibitors, and (iii) characterization and quantification of capsule uptake with confocal and electron microscopy. As result, capsules co-localized with lipid rafts and with phagolysosomes, but not with other endocytic vesicles. Chemical interference of endocytosis with chemical blockers indicated that PEM capsules enter the investigated cell lines through a mechanism slightly sensitive to electrostatic interactions, independent of clathrin and caveolae, and strongly dependent on cholesterol-rich domains and organelle acidification. Microscopic characterization of cells during capsule uptake showed the formation of phagocytic cups (vesicles) to engulf the capsules, an increased number of mitochondria, and a final localization in the perinuclear cytoplasma. Combining all these indicators we conclude that PEM capsule internalization in general occurs as a combination of different sequential mechanisms. Initially, an adsorptive mechanism due to strong electrostatic interactions governs the stabilization of the capsules at the cell surface. Membrane ruffling and filopodia extensions are responsible for capsule engulfing through the formation of a phagocytic cup. Co-localization with lipid raft domains activates the cell to initiate a lipid-raft-mediated macropinocytosis. Internalization vesicles are very acidic and co-localize only with phagolysosome markers, excluding caveolin-mediated pathways and indicating that upon phagocytosis the capsules are sorted to

  1. Detection of Capsule Tampering by Near-Infrared Reflectance Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    nondestructive methods of screening over-the-counter drugs. In 1982 potassium cyanide appeared in capsules of Extra Strength Tylenol in the Chicago area, and...to grow; earlier this year cyanide-laced Tylenol capsules caused the death of a woman in the New York area (5,6), and even more recently Excedrin...cost to Johnson and Johnson alone, the maker of Tylenol , is estimated to be $150 million (10) for the most recent recall of capsules. Litigation

  2. Deep brain stimulation of the ventral internal capsule/ventral striatum for obsessive-compulsive disorder: worldwide experience.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, B D; Gabriels, L A; Malone, D A; Rezai, A R; Friehs, G M; Okun, M S; Shapira, N A; Foote, K D; Cosyns, P R; Kubu, C S; Malloy, P F; Salloway, S P; Giftakis, J E; Rise, M T; Machado, A G; Baker, K B; Stypulkowski, P H; Goodman, W K; Rasmussen, S A; Nuttin, B J

    2010-01-01

    Psychiatric neurosurgery teams in the United States and Europe have studied deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule and adjacent ventral striatum (VC/VS) for severe and highly treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. Four groups have collaborated most closely, in small-scale studies, over the past 8 years. First to begin was Leuven/Antwerp, followed by Butler Hospital/Brown Medical School, the Cleveland Clinic and most recently the University of Florida. These centers used comparable patient selection criteria and surgical targeting. Targeting, but not selection, evolved during this period. Here, we present combined long-term results of those studies, which reveal clinically significant symptom reductions and functional improvement in about two-thirds of patients. DBS was well tolerated overall and adverse effects were overwhelmingly transient. Results generally improved for patients implanted more recently, suggesting a 'learning curve' both within and across centers. This is well known from the development of DBS for movement disorders. The main factor accounting for these gains appears to be the refinement of the implantation site. Initially, an anterior-posterior location based on anterior capsulotomy lesions was used. In an attempt to improve results, more posterior sites were investigated resulting in the current target, at the junction of the anterior capsule, anterior commissure and posterior ventral striatum. Clinical results suggest that neural networks relevant to therapeutic improvement might be modulated more effectively at a more posterior target. Taken together, these data show that the procedure can be successfully implemented by dedicated interdisciplinary teams, and support its therapeutic promise.

  3. Deep brain stimulation of the ventral internal capsule/ventral striatum for obsessive-compulsive disorder: worldwide experience

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, BD; Gabriels, LA; Malone, DA; Rezai, AR; Friehs, GM; Okun, MS; Shapira, NA; Foote, KD; Cosyns, PR; Kubu, CS; Malloy, PF; Salloway, SP; Giftakis, JE; Rise, MT; Machado, AG; Baker, KB; Stypulkowski, PH; Goodman, WK; Rasmussen, SA; Nuttin, BJ

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric neurosurgery teams in the United States and Europe have studied deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule and adjacent ventral striatum (VC/VS) for severe and highly treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. Four groups have collaborated most closely, in small-scale studies, over the past 8 years. First to begin was Leuven/Antwerp, followed by Butler Hospital/Brown Medical School, the Cleveland Clinic and most recently the University of Florida. These centers used comparable patient selection criteria and surgical targeting. Targeting, but not selection, evolved during this period. Here, we present combined long-term results of those studies, which reveal clinically significant symptom reductions and functional improvement in about two-thirds of patients. DBS was well tolerated overall and adverse effects were overwhelmingly transient. Results generally improved for patients implanted more recently, suggesting a ‘learning curve’ both within and across centers. This is well known from the development of DBS for movement disorders. The main factor accounting for these gains appears to be the refinement of the implantation site. Initially, an anterior–posterior location based on anterior capsulotomy lesions was used. In an attempt to improve results, more posterior sites were investigated resulting in the current target, at the junction of the anterior capsule, anterior commissure and posterior ventral striatum. Clinical results suggest that neural networks relevant to therapeutic improvement might be modulated more effectively at a more posterior target. Taken together, these data show that the procedure can be successfully implemented by dedicated interdisciplinary teams, and support its therapeutic promise. PMID:18490925

  4. Segmentation of a class of ophthalmological images using a directional variance operator and co-occurrence arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paplinski, Andrew P.; Boyce, James F.

    1997-11-01

    The posterior capsule opacification images considered are images of the membrane encapsulating an artificial lens implanted during cataract surgery in place of the natural lens. The images are taken to monitor the state of the patient's vision after the surgery. Subsequent to the surgery, the membrane of the posterior capsule may become opacified, thus degrading the patient's vision. We discuss the methodology used and the results obtained in the segmentation of the images into transparent and opacified regions. The opacification is primarily characterized by its texture, therefore a directional standard deviation operator is applied to an image giving rise to a family of 'conjugate' images. From these images, the multi-dimensional histogram (co- occurrence) array is calculated and subsequently approximated by Gaussian distributions to form the basis for the segmentation step.

  5. Small intestinal model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to propose a small intestine model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy. The electrical stimulus can cause contraction of the small intestine and propel the capsule along the lumen. The proposed model considered the drag and friction from the small intestine using a thin walled model and Stokes' drag equation. Further, contraction force from the small intestine was modeled by using regression analysis. From the proposed model, the acceleration and velocity of various exterior shapes of capsule were calculated, and two exterior shapes of capsules were proposed based on the internal volume of the capsules. The proposed capsules were fabricated and animal experiments were conducted. One of the proposed capsules showed an average (SD) velocity in forward direction of 2.91 ± 0.99 mm/s and 2.23 ± 0.78 mm/s in the backward direction, which was 5.2 times faster than that obtained in previous research. The proposed model can predict locomotion of the capsule based on various exterior shapes of the capsule. PMID:22177218

  6. Mine rescue capsule dynamics modeling and stress analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuyi; Li, Jingjing; Sun, Yaobin

    2013-10-01

    Mine rescue capsule is used for emergency mine shelter. It should meet the impact of anti- explosion, water pressure of anti-static load, fire prevention and good air tightness performance. At present, mine rescue capsule design is mainly based on traditional experience design of sealed pressure vessels. In-depth theoretical analysis on structure and mechanical calculation for rescue capsule is lack. The structure deformation and distribution of equivalent stress were investigated under different explosion pressure conditions based on the elastic-plastic finite element theory and software ANSYS. The results provide certain design basis for the mine rescue capsule structural design.

  7. Procedures For Making Precision CH Bumps On Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Letts, S; Fearon, E; Buckley, S; Klingmann, J; Cook, B

    2004-11-10

    Recently we were asked to produce target capsules with bumps on the surface. The bumps were to test the effects of fill tubes in future targets. The bumps desired were to be Gaussian in shape and from 60 to 40 {micro}m in diameter and from 1 to 6 {micro}m high. The capsules had a nominal diameter of 500 {micro}m. The approach we used was to align a precision aperture to the capsule and coat through the aperture onto the capsule surface using plasma polymer coating. The bumps were characterized using optical microscopy, Wyko interferometry, and AFM sphere mapping.

  8. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) singly encapsulated cesium chloride capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Smyth, W.W.

    1997-05-22

    Three nonstandard Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) cesium chloride capsules are being shipped from WESF (225B building) to the 324 building. They would normally be shipped in the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) cask under its US Department of Energy (DOE) license (DOE 1996), but these capsules are nonstandard: one has a damaged or defective weld in the outer layer of encapsulation, and two have the outer encapsulation removed. The 3 capsules, along with 13 other capsules, will be overpacked in the 324 building to meet the requirements for storage in WESF`s pool.

  9. Method of forming capsules containing a precise amount of material

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Maya, Jakob

    1986-01-01

    A method of forming a sealed capsule containing a submilligram quantity of mercury or the like, the capsule being constructed from a hollow glass tube, by placing a globule or droplet of the mercury in the tube. The tube is then evacuated and sealed and is subsequently heated so as to vaporize the mercury and fill the tube therewith. The tube is then separated into separate sealed capsules by heating spaced locations along the tube with a coiled heating wire means to cause collapse spaced locations therealong and thus enable separation of the tube into said capsules.

  10. Method of forming capsules containing a precise amount of material

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1986-06-24

    A method of forming a sealed capsule containing a submilligram quantity of mercury or the like, the capsule being constructed from a hollow glass tube, by placing a globule or droplet of the mercury in the tube. The tube is then evacuated and sealed and is subsequently heated so as to vaporize the mercury and fill the tube therewith. The tube is then separated into separate sealed capsules by heating spaced locations along the tube with a coiled heating wire means to cause collapse spaced locations there along and thus enable separation of the tube into said capsules. 7 figs.

  11. Comparison of therapeutic effects of topical azithromycin solution and systemic doxycycline on posterior blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Zandian, Mehdi; Rahimian, Neda; Soheilifar, Sanaz

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the effect of azithromycin drop and doxycycline capsule on treatment of posterior blepharitis. METHODS Fifty patients (100 eyes) with moderate posterior blepharitis, randomly divided into two therapeutic groups; all the patients got warm eyelid compress and massage three times a day for 3wk. In addition the first group got azithromycin 1% drop, twice daily for 1wk and then one drop daily for 2wk. The second group got oral doxycycline 100 mg daily for 3wk. At the end of the research, patients' signs and symptoms were compared together. ANOVA, Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS Topical therapy with azithromycin and oral therapy with doxycycline relieved signs and symptoms after 3wk. There were no significant differences between symptoms healing rate and foreign body sensation healing in these two groups (P>0.05). However, azithromycin drop was more effective in reduction of eye redness and doxycycline was more effective in meibomian glands plugging healing and reducing the corneal staining. CONCLUSION Topical azithromycin could have similar effects as oral doxycycline on posterior blepharitis in improving subjective symptoms. However, doxycycline can reduce objective signs such as ocular surface staining and meibomian gland plugging more than azithromycin. PMID:27500111

  12. Posterior Hip Pain in an Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Rachel M.; Slabaugh, Mark A.; Grumet, Robert C.; Virkus, Walter W.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Posterior hip pain is a relatively uncommon but increasingly recognized complaint in the orthopaedic community. Patient complaints and presentations are often vague or nonspecific, making diagnosis and subsequent treatment decisions difficult. The purposes of this article are to review the anatomy and pathophysiology related to posterior hip pain in the athletic patient population. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature via a MEDLINE search of all relevant articles between 1980 and 2010. Results: Many patients who complain of posterior hip pain actually have pain referred from another part of the body—notably, the lumbar spine or sacroiliac joint. Treatment options for posterior hip pain are typically nonoperative; however, surgery is warranted in some cases. Conclusions: Recent advancements in the understanding of hip anatomy, pathophysiology, and treatment options have enabled physicians to better diagnosis athletic hip injuries and select patients for appropriate treatment. PMID:23015944

  13. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Adib F, Curtis C, Bienkowski P Micheli LJ. Posterior cruciate ligament sprain. In: Frontera WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD Jr, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, ...

  14. Postirradiation examination of capsule GF-4. [HTGR

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacs, W.J.; Sedlak, B.J.

    1980-10-01

    The GF-4 capsule test was irradiated in the SILOE reactor at Grenoble, France between April 8, 1975 and July 26, 1976. High-enriched uranium (HEU) UC/sub 2/ and weak acid resin (WAR) UC/sub x/O/sub y/ fissile and ThO/sub 2/ fertile particles were tested. Postirradiation examination of cured-in-place fuel rods showed no fuel rod/graphite element interaction. In addition, all rods exhibited adequate structural integrity. Irradiation-induced dimensional changes for rods containing all TRISO-coated fuel were consistent with model predictions; however, rods containing BISO-coated fuel exhibited greater volumetric contractions than predicted.

  15. Multiple angiodysplasia diagnosed by capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Diamantini, Giulia; Procacciante, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    A 28-year-old Caucasian man was admitted in our unit for acute massive rectal bleeding. Past medical and family history was unremarkable. Hemoglobin was 7.6 g/dL. Blood transfusions were required. Computed tomography and gastrointestinal endoscopy were negative for active bleeding. When patient’s hemoglobin was normalized and stable, a video capsule endoscopy was performed. Video relieved the presence of multiple digiunal and ileal angiodysplastic lesions. A double endoscopic argon plasma coagulation procedure was planned on general anaesthesia. Upper and rectal operative approach were performed. Procedure was uneventful. After 2 years follow-up patient had no recurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  16. Dopant Distribution in NIF Beryllium Ablator Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.; Xu, H. W.; Youngblood, K. P.; Wall, D. R.; Stephens, R. B.; Moreno, K. A.; Nikroo, A.; Salmonson, J. D.; Haan, S. W.; Wu, K. J.; Wang, Y. M.; Hamza, A. V.

    2012-10-01

    Good implosion performance requires capsule ablator material with spherically uniform x-ray opacity, which is controlled by one of several dopants (Cu, Si, Al, etc.) in the Be shell. During production, the dopant concentration is radially stepped. However, the various Be-dopant interactions result in vastly different dopant distribution patterns, some quite inhomogeneous. We have characterized these structures and established the phenomenological basis and the magnitudes of the inhomogeneity both in spatial length scales and in atomic percent. We will discuss the case of inhomogeneous Cu diffusion in detail, followed by discussions of other dopants and the estimate of the impact of these structures on target implosion.

  17. Automatic blood detection in capsule endoscopy video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novozámský, Adam; Flusser, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Sulík, Lukáš; Bureš, Jan; Krejcar, Ondřej

    2016-12-01

    We propose two automatic methods for detecting bleeding in wireless capsule endoscopy videos of the small intestine. The first one uses solely the color information, whereas the second one incorporates the assumptions about the blood spot shape and size. The original idea is namely the definition of a new color space that provides good separability of blood pixels and intestinal wall. Both methods can be applied either individually or their results can be fused together for the final decision. We evaluate their individual performance and various fusion rules on real data, manually annotated by an endoscopist.

  18. Characterization of an aged WESF capsule

    SciTech Connect

    Kenna, B.T.; Schultz, F.J.

    1983-07-01

    A joint effort by SNLA and ORNL was initiated for a detailed characterization of an 18-year-old WESF /sup 137/Cs source which has been used in the Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids. The study included evaluation of the inner and outer stainless steel capsules by optical metallography, electron microprobe, and physical testing. Analysis of the residual atmospheres within the two containers was also done. The CsCl was analyzed for isotopic content and impurities. No potential problem areas, including corrosion, were found.

  19. Gibbs Sampling for Marginal Posterior Expectations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-19

    Achcar and Smith (1989) shows that performance of the Laplace method is often very sensitive to parametrization. Morris (1988) offers expansions based on...Berkeley Symp. 1, 453-468. Lindley, D.V. (1980). "Approximate Bayesian Methods" in Bayesian Statistics, J.M. Bernardo, M.H. DeGroot , D.V. Lindley...A.F.M. Smith, University Press, Valencia, Spain. Morris , C. "Approximating Posterior Distributions and Posterior Moments" In: Bayesian Statistics 3, J.M

  20. [Posterior cortical atrophy (Benson-syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Rózsa, Anikó; Szilvássy, Ildikó; Kovács, Krisztina; Boór, Krisztina; Gács, Gyula

    2010-01-30

    We present the characteristics of posterior cortical atrophy--a very rare cortical dementia--in a 69 year old woman's case. Our patient's symptoms began with a visual problem which was initially explained by ophthalmological disorder. After neurological exam visual agnosia was diagnosed apart from other cognitive disorder (alexia without agraphia, acalculia, prosopagnosia, constructional disorder, clock-time recognition disorder, dressing apraxia, visuospatial disorientation). The brain MRI showed bilateral asymmetric parieto-occipital atrophy which is characteristic of posterior cortical atrophy.

  1. Shapes of sedimenting soft elastic capsules in a viscous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltz, Horst-Holger; Kierfeld, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Soft elastic capsules which are driven through a viscous fluid undergo shape deformation coupled to their motion. We introduce an iterative solution scheme which couples hydrodynamic boundary integral methods and elastic shape equations to find the stationary axisymmetric shape and the velocity of an elastic capsule moving in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds numbers. We use this approach to systematically study dynamical shape transitions of capsules with Hookean stretching and bending energies and spherical rest shape sedimenting under the influence of gravity or centrifugal forces. We find three types of possible axisymmetric stationary shapes for sedimenting capsules with fixed volume: a pseudospherical state, a pear-shaped state, and buckled shapes. Capsule shapes are controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the Föppl-von-Kármán number characterizing the elastic properties and a Bond number characterizing the driving force. For increasing gravitational force the spherical shape transforms into a pear shape. For very large bending rigidity (very small Föppl-von-Kármán number) this transition is discontinuous with shape hysteresis. The corresponding transition line terminates, however, in a critical point, such that the discontinuous transition is not present at typical Föppl-von-Kármán numbers of synthetic capsules. In an additional bifurcation, buckled shapes occur upon increasing the gravitational force. This type of instability should be observable for generic synthetic capsules. All shape bifurcations can be resolved in the force-velocity relation of sedimenting capsules, where up to three capsule shapes with different velocities can occur for the same driving force. All three types of possible axisymmetric stationary shapes are stable with respect to rotation during sedimentation. Additionally, we study capsules pushed or pulled by a point force, where we always find capsule shapes to transform smoothly without bifurcations.

  2. Posterior Wnts Have Distinct Roles in Specification and Patterning of the Planarian Posterior Region.

    PubMed

    Sureda-Gómez, Miquel; Pascual-Carreras, Eudald; Adell, Teresa

    2015-11-05

    The wnt signaling pathway is an intercellular communication mechanism essential in cell-fate specification, tissue patterning and regional-identity specification. A βcatenin-dependent signal specifies the AP (Anteroposterior) axis of planarians, both during regeneration of new tissues and during normal homeostasis. Accordingly, four wnts (posterior wnts) are expressed in a nested manner in central and posterior regions of planarians. We have analyzed the specific role of each posterior wnt and the possible cooperation between them in specifying and patterning planarian central and posterior regions. We show that each posterior wnt exerts a distinct role during re-specification and maintenance of the central and posterior planarian regions, and that the integration of the different wnt signals (βcatenin dependent and independent) underlies the patterning of the AP axis from the central region to the tip of the tail. Based on these findings and data from the literature, we propose a model for patterning the planarian AP axis.

  3. Vertigo due to posterior circulation stroke.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Soo; Lee, Hyung

    2013-07-01

    Stroke in the distribution of the posterior circulation may present as acute onset spontaneous vertigo and imbalance. Although vertigo due to posterior circulation stroke is usually associated with other neurologic symptoms or signs, small infarcts in the cerebellum or brainstem can present with vertigo without other localizing symptoms. Approximately 17% of patients with isolated posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory infarction presented with isolated vertigo, nystagmus, and postural unsteadiness. A head impulse test can differentiate acute isolated vertigo associated with cerebellar stroke from more benign disorders involving the inner ear. Sometimes acute isolated audiovestibular loss can be the initial symptom of impending posterior circulation ischemic stroke (particularly within the territory of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery). In this case, evaluation of isolated audiovestibular loss may prevent the progression of acute vertigo and hearing loss into more widespread areas of infarction in the posterior circulation. In this article, the clinical syndromes and signs of acute vestibular syndrome due to posterior circulation stroke involving the brainstem and cerebellum are summarized.

  4. Modulation of Kingella kingae Adherence to Human Epithelial Cells by Type IV Pili, Capsule, and a Novel Trimeric Autotransporter

    PubMed Central

    Porsch, Eric A.; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E.; Geme, Joseph W. St.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kingella kingae is an emerging bacterial pathogen that is being recognized increasingly as an important etiology of septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and bacteremia, especially in young children. Colonization of the posterior pharynx is a key step in the pathogenesis of K. kingae disease. Previous work established that type IV pili are necessary for K. kingae adherence to the respiratory epithelium. In this study, we set out to identify additional factors that influence K. kingae interactions with human epithelial cells. We found that genetic disruption of the gene encoding a predicted trimeric autotransporter protein called Knh (Kingella NhhA homolog) resulted in reduced adherence to human epithelial cells. In addition, we established that K. kingae elaborates a surface-associated polysaccharide capsule that requires a predicted ABC-type transporter export operon called ctrABCD for surface presentation. Furthermore, we discovered that the presence of a surface capsule interferes with Knh-mediated adherence to human epithelial cells by nonpiliated organisms and that maximal adherence in the presence of a capsule requires the predicted type IV pilus retraction machinery, PilT/PilU. On the basis of the data presented here, we propose a novel adherence mechanism that allows K. kingae to adhere efficiently to human epithelial cells while remaining encapsulated and more resistant to immune clearance. PMID:23093386

  5. Posterior urethral polyp with type I posterior urethral valves: a rare association in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Kesan, Krushnakumar V; Gupta, Rahul Kumar; Kothari, Paras; Gupta, Abhaya; Mudkhedkar, Kedar; Kamble, Ravikiran; Dikshit, K Vishesh

    2014-06-01

    Urethral polyp is a rare cause of bladder outlet obstruction, voiding dysfunction, and hematuria in the pediatric age group. Urethral polyps are rarely associated with other congenital urinary tract anomalies. In this study, we report a case of solitary posterior urethral polyp with type I posterior urethral valve in a 7-day-old neonate presented with urinary retention and deranged renal function. The polyp was diagnosed on cystoscopy. Transurethral resection of the polyp with posterior urethral valve fulguration was performed. Pathologic assessment revealed a fibroepithelial lesion, which was consistent with congenital posterior urethral polyp.

  6. Orbital Thermal Control of the Mercury Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, Kenneth C.

    1960-01-01

    The approach to orbital thermal control of the Project Mercury capsule environment is relatively unsophisticated compared with that for many unmanned satellites. This is made possible by the relatively short orbital flight of about 4 1/2 hours and by the presence of the astronaut who is able to monitor the capsule systems and compensate for undesirable thermal conditions. The general external features of the Mercury configuration as it appears in the orbital phase of flight are shown. The conical afterbody is a double-wall structure. The inner wall serves as a pressure vessel for the manned compartment, and the outer wall, of shingle type construction, acts as a radiating shield during reentry. Surface treatment of the shingles calls for a stably oxidized surface to minimize reentry temperatures. The shingles are supported by insulated stringers attached to the inner skin. Areas between stringers are insulated by blankets of Thermoflex insulation. This insulation is especially effective at high altitude due to the reduction of its thermal conductivity with decreasing pressure. As a result of the design of the afterbody for the severe reentry conditions, the heat balance on the manned compartment indicates the necessity for moderate internal cooling to compensate for the heat generation due to human and electrical sources. This cooling is achieved by the controlled vaporization of water in the cabin and astronaut-suit heat exchangers.

  7. Physics Considerations for Double-Shell Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daughton, W.; Montgomery, D. S.; Wilson, D.; Simakov, A.; Dodd, E.; Merritt, L.; Cardenas, T.; Kline, J. L.; Batha, S.

    2016-10-01

    Double-shell capsules offer an alternative approach for achieving burn on the National Ignition Facility. These capsules consist of a low-Z ablatively driven outer shell that converges a factor of 3 before colliding with a high-Z inner shell filled with liquid DT. Such targets permit short simple laser pulses using near vacuum hohlraum conditions, which have been shown to eliminate laser plasma instabilities, resulting in good coupling efficiency. The adiabat of the fuel is set predominantly by a single strong shock, followed by the nearly adiabatic compression of the fuel volume by a convergence ratio of 9 . In this talk, we present some key physics consideration for double-shell targets, including design constraints for optimizing the kinetic energy transfer to the inner shell. These basics considerations are confirmed by a series of 1D simulations, resulting in several optimized point designs. Two-dimensional simulations are employed to evaluate the influence of low-mode asymmetries, as well as the stability of both the outer and inner shells as the implosion proceeds.

  8. Isotretinoin Oil-Based Capsule Formulation Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Pi-Ju; Huang, Chi-Te; Lee, Chen-Chou; Li, Chi-Lin; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Tsai, Yi-Hung; Wu, Pao-Chu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize an isotretinoin oil-based capsule with specific dissolution pattern. A three-factor-constrained mixture design was used to prepare the systemic model formulations. The independent factors were the components of oil-based capsule including beeswax (X1), hydrogenated coconut oil (X2), and soybean oil (X3). The drug release percentages at 10, 30, 60, and 90 min were selected as responses. The effect of formulation factors including that on responses was inspected by using response surface methodology (RSM). Multiple-response optimization was performed to search for the appropriate formulation with specific release pattern. It was found that the interaction effect of these formulation factors (X1X2, X1X3, and X2X3) showed more potential influence than that of the main factors (X1, X2, and X3). An optimal predicted formulation with Y10 min, Y30 min, Y60 min, and Y90 min release values of 12.3%, 36.7%, 73.6%, and 92.7% at X1, X2, and X3 of 5.75, 15.37, and 78.88, respectively, was developed. The new formulation was prepared and performed by the dissolution test. The similarity factor f2 was 54.8, indicating that the dissolution pattern of the new optimized formulation showed equivalence to the predicted profile. PMID:24068886

  9. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  10. Potassium iodide capsule treatment of feline sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Reis, Erica G; Gremião, Isabella D F; Kitada, Amanda A B; Rocha, Raphael F D B; Castro, Verônica S P; Barros, Mônica B L; Menezes, Rodrigo C; Pereira, Sandro A; Schubach, Tânia M P

    2012-06-01

    Sporotrichosis is a mycosis caused by Sporothrix schenckii. The most affected animal is the cat; it has played an important role in the zoonotic transmission of this disease, especially in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, since 1998. In order to evaluate the treatment of feline sporotrichosis with potassium iodide, an observational cohort was conducted in 48 cats with sporotrichosis at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Fiocruz. All cats received potassium iodide capsules, 2.5 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg q24h. The cure rate was 47.9%, treatment failure was 37.5%, treatment abandonment was 10.4% and death was 4.2%. Clinical adverse effects were observed in 52.1% of the cases. Thirteen cats had a mild increase in hepatic transaminase levels during the treatment, six of them presented clinical signs suggestive of hepatotoxicity. Compared to previous studies with itraconazole and iodide in saturated solution, potassium iodide capsules are an alternative for feline sporotrichosis treatment.

  11. Bioavailability and in vitro oesophageal sticking tendency of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose capsule formulations and corresponding gelatine capsule formulations.

    PubMed

    Honkanen, Outi; Laaksonen, Pia; Marvola, Janne; Eerikäinen, Sari; Tuominen, Raimo; Marvola, Martti; Pia, Laaksonen; Janne, Marvola; Sari, Eerikäinen; Raimo, Tuominen; Martti, Marvola

    2002-06-01

    The overall aim of the present study was to widen our knowledge about the biopharmaceutical behaviour of novel hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-based two-piece capsules by comparing them with the classic hard gelatine capsules. Firstly, the tendency of the HPMC capsules to stick to isolated porcine oesophageal preparation was evaluated. The force needed to detach the HPMC capsules from the oesophagus was significantly lower than that for the gelatine capsules (P<0.001), which is evidently an advantage of this new dosage form. The second aim was to investigate the possibility of preparing sustained-release capsules using different powdered HPMCs as diluents (K100, K4M and K15M) and the effect of the molecular weight of HPMC powder on the in vitro and in vivo behaviour of the capsules. In addition to peroral drug administration also rectal dosing was applied. Two groups of eight healthy volunteers participated in randomised, cross-over, single-dose studies. One group was administered capsules orally and the other rectally. There were no marked differences in the bioavailability properties of either the oral or rectal HPMC capsules containing ibuprofen as model drug as compared with corresponding gelatine capsule formulations. Using different viscosity grades of HPMC powders as diluents it was possible to control the absorption rate of the model drug both from gelatine and HPMC capsules as far as the oral route was concerned. After rectal administration there were no statistically significant differences between the formulations containing different grades of HPMC powder. Only partial correlation was observed between the results of the bioavailability studies and the in vitro dissolution studies. From a biopharmaceutical point of view these two shell materials can be regarded as interchangeable.

  12. Development of three-layered rumen escapable capsules for cattle

    PubMed Central

    SEYAMA, Tomohiro; HIRAYASU, Hirofumi; YAMAWAKI, Kenji; ADACHI, Takuhiko; SUGIMOTO, Takayuki; KASAI, Koji

    2016-01-01

    A new rumen escapable tool is presented for cattle in prospect of developing medical treatment or supplementing trace elements for disease prevention. This tool consists of a three-layered capsule that dissolves in the lower digestive tract, but not in the rumen. The capsule was manufactured by capsule-forming techniques through the use of liquid surface tension. This method does not involve high-temperature treatment, so the capsule can contain not only lipophilic substances but also hydrophilic or heat-sensitive substances. Furthermore, the capsule has a specific gravity of 1.3 and diameter of 6.0 mm, which were previously shown to be appropriate to avoid rumination. The objective of this study was to confirm the effectiveness of the capsule pertinent to rumen escaping. In order to validate rumen escape, capsules containing 30 g of water-soluble vitamin (thiamine hydrochloride) per head were administered to four lactating cows assigned in a crossover trial. In the group administered encapsulated thiamine hydrochloride, blood thiamine levels increased from 12.4 ± 1.03 ng/ml before administration to 54.8 ± 2.21 ng/ml at 6 hr following administration, whereas the level remained at 13.3 ± 2.05 ng/ml in the control group administered via aqueous solution. This indicates that the three-layered capsules passed through the rumen and dissolved in the lower digestive tract, thus functioning as a rumen escapable tool. PMID:27546371

  13. Capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans grows by enlargement of polysaccharide molecules

    PubMed Central

    Frases, Susana; Pontes, Bruno; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Viana, Nathan B.; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    The human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans has a distinctive polysaccharide (PS) capsule that enlarges during infection. The capsule is essential for virulence, but the mechanism for capsular growth is unknown. In the present study, we used dynamic light scattering (LS) analysis of capsular PS and optical tweezers (OT) to explore the architecture of the capsule. Analysis of capsular PS from cells with small and large capsules by dynamic LS revealed a linear correlation between PS effective diameter and microscopic capsular diameter. This result implied that capsule growth was achieved by the addition of molecules with larger effective diameter, such that some molecules can span the entire diameter of the capsule. Measurement of polystyrene bead penetration of C. neoformans capsules by using OT techniques revealed that the outer regions were penetrable, but not the inner regions. Our results provide a mechanism for capsular enlargement based on the axial lengthening of PS molecules and suggest a model for the architecture of a eukaryotic microbial capsule. PMID:19164571

  14. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification....

  15. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification....

  16. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification....

  17. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification....

  18. Streptococcus pneumoniae capsule determines disease severity in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Grandgirard, Denis; Valente, Luca G.; Täuber, Martin G.; Leib, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria can be characterized into over 90 serotypes according to the composition of their polysaccharide capsules. Some serotypes are common in nasopharyngeal carriage whereas others are associated with invasive disease, but when carriage serotypes do invade disease is often particularly severe. It is unknown whether disease severity is due directly to the capsule type or to other virulence factors. Here, we used a clinical pneumococcal isolate and its capsule-switch mutants to determine the effect of capsule, in isolation from the genetic background, on severity of meningitis in an infant rat model. We found that possession of a capsule was essential for causing meningitis. Serotype 6B caused significantly more mortality than 7F and this correlated with increased capsule thickness in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a stronger inflammatory cytokine response in the CSF and ultimately more cortical brain damage. We conclude that capsule type has a direct effect on meningitis severity. This is an important consideration in the current era of vaccination targeting a subset of capsule types that causes serotype replacement. PMID:27009189

  19. [A review on liquid-filled hard gelatin capsules].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jia-Hua; Yang, Ming; Zeng, Min; Chen, Xue-Mei; Lan, Jie

    2008-03-01

    Novel dosage forms emerges more and more in recent years. One of them is liquid-filled hard gelatin capsules, which adopt gelatin or the hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as capsule shell. The liquid-filled hard gelatin capsule is increasingly getting attention because of its new-concept dosage form design, which deliver liquid drugs by solid form. The paper mainly introduces application, pharmaceutical manufacturing, quality assessment, prospect of liquid-filled hard gelatin capsules, and focuses on the application and pharmaceutical manufacturing (preparation) of liquid-filled capsule. It is suggested that the capsule is suitable for various liquid or semi-solid natural plant extract and achieve different release profiles. The preparation adopted liquid-filled hard capsules technology. The influence factors concluded property of shell and device of filling. The quality was often evaluated by moisture content of capsule shell, dissolution rate etc. At the same time, it was pointed out that the new dosage form has remarkable marketing prospect and bring profits for enterprises.

  20. Diamagnetically stabilized levitation control of an intraluminal magnetic capsule.

    PubMed

    Lam, Michael; Mintchev, Martin

    2009-08-01

    Controlled navigation promotes full utilization of capsule endoscopy for reliable real-time diagnosis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but intermittent natural peristalsis can disturb the navigational control, destabilize the capsule and take it out of levitation. The focus of the present work was to develop an economical and effective real-time magnetic capsule-guiding system that can operate in the presence of naturally existing peristalsis while retaining navigational control. A real-size magnetic navigation system that can handle peristaltic forces of up to 1.5 N was designed utilizing the computer-aided design (CAD) system Maxwell 3D (Ansoft, Pittsburg, PA) and was verified using a small-size physical experimental setup. The proposed system contains a pair of 50 cm diameter, 10,000-turn copper electromagnets with a 10 cm x 10 cm ferrous core driven by currents of up to 300 A and can successfully maintain position control over the levitating capsule during peristalsis. The addition of bismuth diamagnetic casing for stabilizing the levitating capsule was also studied. A modeled magnetic field around the diamagnetically cased permanent magnet was shown to be redistributed aligning its interaction with the external electromagnets, thus stabilizing the levitating capsule. In summary, a custom-designed diamagnetically facilitated capsule navigation system can successfully steer an intraluminal magnet-carrying capsule.

  1. 21 CFR 520.622d - Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 12.5, 50, 200, or 400 milligrams (mg... dogs—(1) Amount/indications for use. 3 mg per pound (/lb) body weight daily for prevention of heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis); 25 to 50 mg/lb body weight in a single dose as an aid in the treatment...

  2. 21 CFR 520.622d - Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 12.5, 50, 200, or 400 milligrams (mg... dogs—(1) Amount/indications for use. 3 mg per pound (/lb) body weight daily for prevention of heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis); 25 to 50 mg/lb body weight in a single dose as an aid in the treatment...

  3. Analysis of Fission Products on the AGR-1 Capsule Components

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Demkowicz; Jason M. Harp; Philip L. Winston; Scott A. Ploger

    2013-03-01

    The components of the AGR-1 irradiation capsules were analyzed to determine the retained inventory of fission products in order to determine the extent of in-pile fission product release from the fuel compacts. This includes analysis of (i) the metal capsule components, (ii) the graphite fuel holders, (iii) the graphite spacers, and (iv) the gas exit lines. The fission products most prevalent in the components were Ag-110m, Cs 134, Cs 137, Eu-154, and Sr 90, and the most common location was the metal capsule components and the graphite fuel holders. Gamma scanning of the graphite fuel holders was also performed to determine spatial distribution of Ag-110m and radiocesium. Silver was released from the fuel components in significant fractions. The total Ag-110m inventory found in the capsules ranged from 1.2×10 2 (Capsule 3) to 3.8×10 1 (Capsule 6). Ag-110m was not distributed evenly in the graphite fuel holders, but tended to concentrate at the axial ends of the graphite holders in Capsules 1 and 6 (located at the top and bottom of the test train) and near the axial center in Capsules 2, 3, and 5 (in the center of the test train). The Ag-110m further tended to be concentrated around fuel stacks 1 and 3, the two stacks facing the ATR reactor core and location of higher burnup, neutron fluence, and temperatures compared with Stack 2. Detailed correlation of silver release with fuel type and irradiation temperatures is problematic at the capsule level due to the large range of temperatures experienced by individual fuel compacts in each capsule. A comprehensive Ag 110m mass balance for the capsules was performed using measured inventories of individual compacts and the inventory on the capsule components. For most capsules, the mass balance was within 11% of the predicted inventory. The Ag-110m release from individual compacts often exhibited a very large range within a particular capsule.

  4. Analysing intracellular deformation of polymer capsules using structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Cui, Jiwei; Sun, Huanli; Müllner, Markus; Yan, Yan; Noi, Ka Fung; Ping, Yuan; Caruso, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the behaviour of therapeutic carriers is important in elucidating their mechanism of action and how they are processed inside cells. Herein we examine the intracellular deformation of layer-by-layer assembled polymer capsules using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM). Spherical- and cylindrical-shaped capsules were studied in three different cell lines, namely HeLa (human epithelial cell line), RAW264.7 (mouse macrophage cell line) and differentiated THP-1 (human monocyte-derived macrophage cell line). We observed that the deformation of capsules was dependent on cell line, but independent of capsule shape. This suggests that the mechanical forces, which induce capsule deformation during cell uptake, vary between cell lines, indicating that the capsules are exposed to higher mechanical forces in HeLa cells, followed by RAW264.7 and then differentiated THP-1 cells. Our study demonstrates the use of super-resolution SIM in analysing intracellular capsule deformation, offering important insights into the cellular processing of drug carriers in cells and providing fundamental knowledge of intracellular mechanobiology. Furthermore, this study may aid in the design of novel drug carriers that are sensitive to deformation for enhanced drug release properties.Understanding the behaviour of therapeutic carriers is important in elucidating their mechanism of action and how they are processed inside cells. Herein we examine the intracellular deformation of layer-by-layer assembled polymer capsules using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM). Spherical- and cylindrical-shaped capsules were studied in three different cell lines, namely HeLa (human epithelial cell line), RAW264.7 (mouse macrophage cell line) and differentiated THP-1 (human monocyte-derived macrophage cell line). We observed that the deformation of capsules was dependent on cell line, but independent of capsule shape. This suggests that the mechanical forces

  5. Three-dimensional simulations of Nova capsule implosion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Marinak, M.M.; Tipton, R.E.; Landen, O.L.

    1995-11-01

    Capsule implosion experiments carried out on the Nova laser are simulated with the three-dimensional HYDRA radiation hydrodynamics code. Simulations of ordered near single mode perturbations indicate that structures which evolve into round spikes can penetrate farthest into the hot spot. Bubble-shaped perturbations can burn through the capsule shell fastest, however, causing even more damage. Simulations of a capsule with multimode perturbations shows spike amplitudes evolving in good agreement with a saturation model during the deceleration phase. The presence of sizable low mode asymmetry, caused either by drive asymmetry or perturbations in the capsule shell, can dramatically affect the manner in which spikes approach the center of the hot spot. Three-dimensional coupling between the low mode shell perturbations intrinsic to Nova capsules and the drive asymmetry brings the simulated yields into closer agreement with the experimental values.

  6. Toward an Integrated Model of Capsule Regulation in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Brian C.; Skowyra, Michael L.; Spencer, Sarah J.; Gish, Stacey R.; Williams, Matthew; Held, Elizabeth P.; Brent, Michael R.; Doering, Tamara L.

    2011-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes serious human disease in immunocompromised populations. Its polysaccharide capsule is a key virulence factor which is regulated in response to growth conditions, becoming enlarged in the context of infection. We used microarray analysis of cells stimulated to form capsule over a range of growth conditions to identify a transcriptional signature associated with capsule enlargement. The signature contains 880 genes, is enriched for genes encoding known capsule regulators, and includes many uncharacterized sequences. One uncharacterized sequence encodes a novel regulator of capsule and of fungal virulence. This factor is a homolog of the yeast protein Ada2, a member of the Spt-Ada-Gcn5 Acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex that regulates transcription of stress response genes via histone acetylation. Consistent with this homology, the C. neoformans null mutant exhibits reduced histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation. It is also defective in response to a variety of stress conditions, demonstrating phenotypes that overlap with, but are not identical to, those of other fungi with altered SAGA complexes. The mutant also exhibits significant defects in sexual development and virulence. To establish the role of Ada2 in the broader network of capsule regulation we performed RNA-Seq on strains lacking either Ada2 or one of two other capsule regulators: Cir1 and Nrg1. Analysis of the results suggested that Ada2 functions downstream of both Cir1 and Nrg1 via components of the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway. To identify direct targets of Ada2, we performed ChIP-Seq analysis of histone acetylation in the Ada2 null mutant. These studies supported the role of Ada2 in the direct regulation of capsule and mating responses and suggested that it may also play a direct role in regulating capsule-independent antiphagocytic virulence factors. These results validate our experimental approach to dissecting capsule

  7. Alkaline phosphatase encapsulated in gellan-chitosan hybrid capsules.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toshihiro; Ogiwara, Daisuke; Ohkawa, Kousaku; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki

    2005-05-23

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was encapsulated in gellan-chitosan polyion complex (PIC) capsules using a convenient procedure. The recovery of ALP was about 50% when the capsules were prepared by dropping a solution of ALP and gellan mixture (ALP/gellan) into a chitosan solution. When p-nitrophenyl phosphate (p-NPP) and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (BCIP) were incubated with ALP/gellan-chitosan capsules as substrates for ALP, the transparent colorless capsules changed to yellow and blue, respectively. The encapsulation of ALP into the PIC capsules was also confirmed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses. The ALP and polypeptides of more than 30 kDa remained without release even after incubation at 4 degrees C for 14 d. The biochemical properties of the encapsulated ALP activity were similar to those of the intact enzyme. When the solution containing p-NPP was loaded on a column packed with ALP/gellan-chitosan capsules at 27 degrees C, approximately 75% of p-NPP was hydrolyzed by passing through the column. No significant leakage of ALP was observed during the procedure, indicating that the capsules were resistant to pressure in the chromatographic operation. Furthermore, 70% of the hydrolytic activity of the packed capsules remained after storage at 4 degrees C for one month. These results suggest that the polyion complex capsules could be useful materials for protein fixation without chemical modification. [Diagram: see text] Encapsulation of ALP into PIC capsules and the morphological changes seen in the absence of the ALP substrate and in the presence of p-NPP and BICP.

  8. Effects of two different mobilization techniques on pain, range of motion and functional disability in patients with adhesive capsulitis: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Surabhi; Raza, Shahid; Moiz, Jamal Ali; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad H.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare the effects of two different mobilization techniques in the management of patients with adhesive capsulitis. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty non-diabetic men and women with adhesive capsulitis were randomly allocated to the reverse distraction group (n=15) or Kaltenborn group (n=15). The reverse distraction technique and Kaltenborn’s caudal and posterior glides (grades III and IV) were applied 10–15 times along with conventional physical therapy for 18 treatment sessions in 6 weeks. Pain was measured with a visual analog scale, abduction and external rotation range of motion with goniometry, hand behind back reach with inch tape, and functional disability with the Flexilevel scale of shoulder function before and after the treatment. [Results] Although all the variables improved significantly in both groups after 18 intervention sessions, reverse distraction was significantly better than Kaltenborn’s caudal and posterior glides in decreasing pain and improving abduction range of motion and functional scores. [Conclusion] This study supports the clinical use of reverse distraction as an alternative to conventional mobilization techniques to decrease pain and improve range of motion and functional scores in patients with adhesive capsulitis. PMID:28174448

  9. Performance qualification of a new hypromellose capsule: Part II. Disintegration and dissolution comparison between two types of hypromellose capsules.

    PubMed

    Ku, M Sherry; Lu, Qinghong; Li, Weiyi; Chen, Yansong

    2011-09-15

    This Part II paper describes the disintegration and dissolution aspects of the qualification of a new hypromellose capsule (HPMC Shell 2). This new capsule does not contain any gelling agent, and is manufactured by a thermal gelation process. Rupture time of the carrageenan-containing capsule (HPMC Shell 1) and HPMC Shell 2, as measured by an improved real-time detection method, showed only slight differences that did not manifest in vivo. The absence of a gelling agent appeared to give HPMC Shell 2 advantages in dissolution in acidic media and in buffers containing potassium ions. Slow drug release of HPMC Shell 1 in 0.1M HCl was attributed to the interaction of carrageenan with drug compounds; whereas the presence of potassium ions, a gelling promoter for carrageenan, caused delay in capsule opening and larger capsule-to-capsule variation. Disintegration and dissolution performances of both hypromellose capsules are comparable in other dissolution media tested. Based on the superior dissolution performances and quality attributes in terms of physical, mechanical and processability that were detailed in Paper I, the new hypromellose capsule was satisfactorily qualified and has since been used in nearly 20 investigational new drug (IND) compounds.

  10. A comparative study on liquid core formulation on the diameter on the alginate capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Hui-Yen; Lee, Boon-Beng; Radzi, AkmalHadi Ma'; Zakaria, Zarina; Chan, Eng-Seng

    2015-08-01

    Liquid core capsule has vast application in biotechnology related industries such as pharmaceutical, medical, agriculture and food. Formulation of different types of capsule was important to determine the performance of the capsule. Generally, the liquid core capsule with different formulations generated different size of capsule.Therefore, the aim of this project is to investigate the effect of different liquid core solution formulations on the diameter of capsule. The capsule produced by extruding liquid core solutions into sodium alginate solution. Three types of liquid core solutions (chitosan, xanthan gum, polyethylene glycol (PEG)) were investigated. The results showed that there is significant change in capsule diameter despite in different types of liquid core solution were used and a series of capsule range in diameter of 3.1 mm to 4.5 mm were produced. Alginate capsule with chitosan formulation appeared to be the largest capsule among all.

  11. Posterior cruciate ligament removal contributes to abnormal knee motion during posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Cromie, Melinda J; Siston, Robert A; Giori, Nicholas J; Delp, Scott L

    2008-11-01

    Abnormal anterior translation of the femur on the tibia has been observed in mid flexion (20-60 degrees ) following posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty. The underlying biomechanical causes of this abnormal motion remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to isolate the effects of posterior cruciate ligament removal on knee motion after total knee arthroplasty. We posed two questions: Does removing the posterior cruciate ligament introduce abnormal anterior femoral translation? Does implanting a posterior stabilized prosthesis change the kinematics from the cruciate deficient case? Using a navigation system, we measured passive knee kinematics of ten male osteoarthritic patients during surgery after initial exposure, after removing the anterior cruciate ligament, after removing the posterior cruciate ligament, and after implanting the prosthesis. Passively flexing and extending the knee, we calculated anterior femoral translation and the flexion angle at which femoral rollback began. Removing the posterior cruciate ligament doubled anterior translation (from 5.1 +/- 4.3 mm to 10.4 +/- 5.1 mm) and increased the flexion angle at which femoral rollback began (from 31.2 +/- 9.6 degrees to 49.3 +/- 7.3 degrees). Implanting the prosthesis increased the amount of anterior translation (to 16.1 +/- 4.4 mm), and did not change the flexion angle at which femoral rollback began. Abnormal anterior translation was observed in low and mid flexion (0-60 degrees) after removing the posterior cruciate ligament, and normal motion was not restored by the posterior stabilized prosthesis.

  12. Dissolution test for silymarin tablets and capsules.

    PubMed

    Campodónico, A; Collado, E; Ricci, R; Pappa, H; Segall, A; Pizzorno, M T

    2001-01-01

    Silybine (SBN), isosilybine (ISBN), silycristine (SCN), silydianine (SDN), and taxifoline (TXF) are the main active flavonoids commonly found in the dried fruits of Silybum marianum, Gaertner (Compositae). Concentrations of these compounds, except TXF, are usually expressed together as silymarin content. This paper describes a simple dissolution test developed to estimate silymarin (Sl) in pharmaceutical formulations. Five commercial products were tested using this new method (including tablets, sugar tablets, and capsules): two from Argentina, one from Brazil, one from Spain, and one from Italy. Results demonstrated that, provided the dosage form disintegrates, amounts dissolved range from 50 to 90% of the labeled value. Products were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV spectrophotometry.

  13. Environmental Fluid Dynamics in Space Capsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhaohua

    Environmental fluid dynamics began to get more and more concern recently because of its effects on indoor air quality and ventilation strategy. Our research is trying to use the tools of Environmental fluid dynamics to investigate the life support system (LSS) for manned space flight, especially for future long-term planetary exploration flight (permanent space station and lunar base, space greenhouse of controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) etc.). The PIV technique will be adopted to obtain the velocity of the flow field and dyed fluids to capture the temperature field. On the other hand, we will use the commercial software (FLUENT) to numerical simulate the same problem. The results in this work can be used to improve the ventilation efficiency, reduce the energy costs and try to make the air in space capsule less effluvial.

  14. Photophysics Applied to Cavitands and Capsules

    PubMed Central

    Berryman, Orion B.; Dube, Henry; Rebek, Julius

    2013-01-01

    The use of light as a stimulus to control functional materials or nano-devices is appealing as it provides convenient control of triggering events where and when they are desired without introducing extra components to the system. Many photophysical and photochemical processes are extremely fast, giving rise to nearly instantaneous onset of events. However, these fast processes can be challenging to engineer into chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry offers a convenient way to study and control photoprocesses. Given the reversible and self-programmed nature of modern host-guest systems, a modular approach can be considered in which different photoprocesses are coupled to obtain complex functions that emerge and are controlled solely by light inputs. In this review, we highlight recent examples of photoswitching and photophysics applied in the context of supramolecular host-guest systems, with a particular emphasis on resorcinarene based cavitands and hydrogen bonded capsules. PMID:24009399

  15. Multilevel wireless capsule endoscopy video segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sae; Celebi, M. Emre

    2010-03-01

    Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a relatively new technology (FDA approved in 2002) allowing doctors to view most of the small intestine. WCE transmits more than 50,000 video frames per examination and the visual inspection of the resulting video is a highly time-consuming task even for the experienced gastroenterologist. Typically, a medical clinician spends one or two hours to analyze a WCE video. To reduce the assessment time, it is critical to develop a technique to automatically discriminate digestive organs and shots each of which consists of the same or similar shots. In this paper a multi-level WCE video segmentation methodology is presented to reduce the examination time.

  16. Genesis Capsule Yields Solar Wind Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, Roger C.; Burnett, Donald S.; Stansbery, Eileen K.; McNamara, Karen M.

    2004-11-01

    NASA's Genesis capsule, carrying the first samples ever returned from beyond the Moon, took a hard landing in the western Utah desert on 8 September after its parachutes failed to deploy. Despite the impact, estimated at 310 km per hour, some valuable solar wind collector materials have been recovered. With these samples, the Genesis team members are hopeful that nearly all of the primary science goals may be met. The Genesis spacecraft was launched in August 2001 to collect and return samples of solar wind for precise isotopic and elemental analysis. The spacecraft orbited the Earth-Sun Lagrangian point (L1), ~1.5 million km sunward of the Earth, for 2.3 years. It exposed ultrapure materials-including wafers of silicon, silicon carbide, germanium, chemically deposited diamond, gold, aluminum, and metallic glass-to solar wind ions, which become embedded within the substrates' top 100 nm of these materials.

  17. Optimal Bowel Preparation for Video Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun Joo; Moon, Jeong Seop; Shim, Ki-Nam

    2016-01-01

    During video capsule endoscopy (VCE), several factors, such as air bubbles, food material in the small bowel, and delayed gastric and small bowel transit time, influence diagnostic yield, small bowel visualization quality, and cecal completion rate. Therefore, bowel preparation before VCE is as essential as bowel preparation before colonoscopy. To date, there have been many comparative studies, consensus, and guidelines regarding different kinds of bowel cleansing agents in bowel preparation for small bowel VCE. Presently, polyethylene glycol- (PEG-) based regimens are given primary recommendation. Sodium picosulphate-based regimens are secondarily recommended, as their cleansing efficacy is less than that of PEG-based regimens. Sodium phosphate as well as complementary simethicone and prokinetics use are considered. In this paper, we reviewed previous studies regarding bowel preparation for small bowel VCE and suggested optimal bowel preparation of VCE. PMID:26880894

  18. Fundus autofluorescence imaging in posterior uveitis.

    PubMed

    Durrani, Khayyam; Foster, C Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Although the phenomenon of fundus autofluorescence has been known for decades, it has only recently been recognized as a measure of retinal pigment epithelial function and health. Characteristic fundus autofluorescence patterns have been described in eyes affected by inflammation of the posterior segment, and these patterns have provided insights into the pathogenesis of posterior uveitis entities. In addition, preliminary data indicate that fundus autofluorescence characteristics may serve as markers of disease activity, allow prediction of visual prognosis, and may help determine the adequacy of therapy. We provide an overview of the current state of fundus autofluorescence imaging technology and review our current knowledge of fundus autoflourescence findings and their clinical use in the posterior uveitis entities.

  19. Capsule HRB-15B postirradiation examination report

    SciTech Connect

    Ketterer, J.W.; Bullock, R.E.

    1981-06-01

    Capsule HRB-15B design tested 184 thin graphite trays containing unbonded fuel particles to peak exposures of 6.6 x 10/sup 25/ n/m/sup 2/ (E > 29 fJ)/sub HTGR/ fast fluence, approx. 27% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA) fissile burnup, and 6% FIMA fertile burnup at nominal time-averaged temperatures of 815 to 915/sup 0/C. The capsule tested a variety of low-enriched uranium (approx. 19.5% U-235) fissile particle types, including UC/sub 2/, UC/sub x/O/sub y/, UO/sub 2/, zirconium-buffered UO/sub 2/ (referred to in this report as UO/sub 2//sup *), and 1:1(Th,U)O/sub 2/ with both TRISO and silicon-BISO coatings. All fertile particles were ThO/sub 2/ with BISO, silicon-BISO, or TRISO coatings. The findings indicated that all TRISO particles retained virtually all of their fission product inventories, except small quantities of silver, at these irradiation temperatures, while some of the silicon-BISO particles released significant amounts of both silver and cesium. No kernel migration, pressure vessel, or outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) failures were observed in the fuel particles, which had total diameters of < 900 ..mu..m; however, the incidence of failed OPyC coatings was found to increase with particle size in the TRISO inert particles, which had diameters of 1000 to 1200 ..mu..m. UO/sub 2//sup */ particles exhibited no detrimental irradiation effects, but they contained pure carbon precipitates in the kernels after irradiation which were not observed in the undoped UO/sub 2/ particles. Postirradiation examination revealed no differences in the irradiation performance of three UC/sub x/O/sub y/ kernel types with varying oxygen/uranium ratios.

  20. Bilateral Superior Labrum Anterior to Posterior (SLAP) Tears With Abnormal Anatomy of Biceps Tendon.

    PubMed

    Morris, Dan; Guettler, Joseph; Morris, Sean

    2015-08-01

    There have been several descriptions of variant anatomy of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT). A recent literature review identified 8 cases of anomalous intracapsular attachment of the LHBT. In this report, we discuss a distinctive case of a young athlete who presented with symptoms consistent with bilateral superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears that were unresponsive to conservative measures. Magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopic findings of this patient confirmed that the patient had type II SLAP tears, a Buford complex anteriorly, and perhaps most important, confluence of the biceps tendon itself to the undersurface of the capsule within the rotator interval. Our case proposes that anomalous insertion of the LHBT, as well as other labral and biceps anchor variations, are not always a benign finding at the time of arthroscopy. In this particular case, the tethering of the biceps tendon to the capsule is thought to have increased stress on the superior labrum and contributed to the development of the bilateral symptomatic type II SLAP tears that were identified and treated in this young athlete.

  1. Emerging Issues and Future Developments in Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Slawinski, Piotr R.; Obstein, Keith L.; Valdastri, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) has transformed from a research venture into a widely used clinical tool and the primary means for diagnosing small bowel pathology. These orally administered capsules traverse passively through the gastrointestinal tract via peristalsis and are used in the esophagus, stomach, small bowel, and colon. The primary focus of CE research in recent years has been enabling active CE manipulation and extension of the technology to therapeutic functionality; thus, widening the scope of the procedure. This review outlines clinical standards of the technology as well as recent advances in CE research. Clinical capsule applications are discussed with respect to each portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Promising research efforts are presented with an emphasis on enabling active capsule locomotion. The presented studies suggest, in particular, that the most viable solution for active capsule manipulation is actuation of a capsule via exterior permanent magnet held by a robot. Developing capsule procedures adhering to current healthcare standards, such as enabling a tool channel or irrigation in a therapeutic device, is a vital phase in the adaptation of CE in the clinical setting. PMID:26028956

  2. Can sonication increase the release from alginate capsules?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liguo; Salsac, Anne-Virginie

    2012-05-01

    The objective is to investigate the influence of sonication on the mechanical and release properties of capsules made of a soft membrane in hydrogel. If high sonication may lead to the capsule rupture induced by a fatigue phenomenon, no influence of sonication is measured on the capsule mechanical properties below the breakup threshold. The release is studied by sonicating capsules filled with blue dextran suspended in an aqueous solution. The step in mass release that results from sonication is found to be proportional to the sonication duration time and pressure wave amplitude. The passive release subsequent to a low-intensity sonication is on average identical to the one measured on non-sonicated capsules. From these results, one can hypothesize that the high frequency ultrasonic stimulation leads to an acoustic streaming flow that enhances convection in the vicinity of the capsule membrane and hence drives out the encapsulated molecules. Sonication could also lead to a higher porosity of the capsule membrane; if so the phenomenon is reversible, as the membrane overall recovers its physical and mechanical properties after sonication.

  3. Albumin/asparaginase capsules prepared by ultrasound to retain ammonia.

    PubMed

    Tinoco, Ana; Ribeiro, Artur; Oliveira, César; Parpot, Pier; Gomes, Andreia; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2016-11-01

    Asparaginase reduces the levels of asparagine in blood, which is an essential amino acid for the proliferation of lymphoblastic malign cells. Asparaginase converts asparagine into aspartic acid and ammonia. The accumulation of ammonia in the bloodstream leads to hyperammonemia, described as one of the most significant side effects of asparaginase therapy. Therefore, there is a need for asparaginase formulations with the potential to reduce hyperammonemia. We incorporated 2 % of therapeutic enzyme in albumin-based capsules. The presence of asparaginase in the interface of bovine serum albumin (BSA) capsules showed the ability to hydrolyze the asparagine and retain the forming ammonia at the surface of the capsules. The incorporation of Poloxamer 407 in the capsule formulation further increased the ratio aspartic acid/ammonia from 1.92 to 2.46 (and 1.10 from the free enzyme), decreasing the levels of free ammonia. This capacity to retain ammonia can be due to electrostatic interactions and retention of ammonia at the surface of the capsules. The developed BSA/asparaginase capsules did not cause significant cytotoxic effect on mouse leukemic macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. The new BSA/asparaginase capsules could potentially be used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia preventing hyperammonemia associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment with asparaginase.

  4. Closed Loop Control of a Tethered Magnetic Capsule Endoscope

    PubMed Central

    Taddese, Addisu Z.; Slawinski, Piotr R.; Obstein, Keith L.; Valdastri, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic field gradients have repeatedly been shown to be the most feasible mechanism for gastrointestinal capsule endoscope actuation. An inverse quartic magnetic force variation with distance results in large force gradients induced by small movements of a driving magnet; this necessitates robotic actuation of magnets to implement stable control of the device. A typical system consists of a serial robot with a permanent magnet at its end effector that actuates a capsule with an embedded permanent magnet. We present a tethered capsule system where a capsule with an embedded magnet is closed loop controlled in 2 degree-of-freedom in position and 2 degree-of-freedom in orientation. Capitalizing on the magnetic field of the external driving permanent magnet, the capsule is localized in 6-D allowing for both position and orientation feedback to be used in a control scheme. We developed a relationship between the serial robot's joint parameters and the magnetic force and torque that is exerted onto the capsule. Our methodology was validated both in a dynamic simulation environment where a custom plug-in for magnetic interaction was written, as well as on an experimental platform. The tethered capsule was demonstrated to follow desired trajectories in both position and orientation with accuracy that is acceptable for colonoscopy. PMID:28286886

  5. Process for overcoming drug retention in hard gelatin inhalation capsules.

    PubMed

    Saim, Said; Horhota, Stephen T

    2002-07-01

    The quantity and consistency of drug delivery from dry powder inhalation devices that incorporate a pre-measured dose in a hard shell capsule of gelatin or other compatible material can be negatively affected by mold release lubricants used in capsule manufacturing. This paper describes a novel process employing supercritical CO2 for selective extraction of the fraction of lubricant responsible for the observed high and inconsistent drug retention in capsules and the ensuing lack of reproducibility of drug delivery. The process allows for lubricant removal from seemingly inaccessible interior surfaces of assembled capsule shells without altering the structural or chemical properties of the capsules. Diffusion limitations are overcome through repeated pressure increase and decrease to generate significant convective flow of dissolved lubricant out of the capsule. Drug retention is alleviated only if nearly all the retentive fraction of the lubricant is removed. The effect of extraction with supercritical CO2 on the structure of the internal surfaces of the capsules is investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Key performance parameters such as drug and carrier retention and fine particle mass are investigated using simulated inhalation tests. Laboratory and pilot scale extractions yielded similar results.

  6. Reversible cortical blindness: posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Mondal, Kanchan Kumar; Das, Somnath; Gupta, Anindya; Biswas, Jaya; Bhattacharyya, Subir Kumar; Biswas, Gautam

    2010-11-01

    Cortical blindness is defined as visual failure with preserved pupillary reflexes in structurally intact eyes due to bilateral lesions affecting occipital cortex. Bilateral oedema and infarction of the posterior and middle cerebral arterial territory, trauma, glioma and meningioma of the occipital cortex are the main causes of cortical blindness. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) refers to the reversible subtype of cortical blindness and is usually associated with hypertension, diabetes, immunosuppression, puerperium with or without eclampsia. Here, 3 cases of PRES with complete or partial visual recovery following treatment in 6-month follow-up are reported.

  7. Posterior cortical atrophy: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Kirshner, Howard S; Lavin, Patrick J M

    2006-11-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy is a striking clinical syndrome in which a dementing illness begins with visual symptoms. Initially, the problem may seem to be loss of elementary vision, but over time the patient develops features of visual agnosia, topographical difficulty, optic ataxia, simultanagnosia, ocular apraxia (Balint's syndrome), alexia, acalculia, right-left confusion, and agraphia (Gerstmann's syndrome), and later a more generalized dementia. Occasional patients have visual hallucinations and signs of Parkinson's disease or Lewy body dementia. A number of different neuropathologic disorders are associated with posterior cortical atrophy.

  8. OdoCapsule: next-generation wireless capsule endoscopy with accurate lesion localization and video stabilization capabilities.

    PubMed

    Karargyris, Alexandros; Koulaouzidis, Anastastios

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a platform to achieve accurate localization of small-bowel lesions and endoscopic video stabilization in wireless capsule endoscopy. Current research modules rely on the use of external magnetic fields and triangulation methods to calculate the position vector of the capsule, leading to considerable error margins. Our platform, entitled OdoCapsule (a synthesis of the words Odometer and Capsule), provides real-time distance information from the point of duodenal entry to the point of exit from the small bowel. To achieve this, OdoCapsule is equipped with three miniature legs. Each leg carries a soft rubber wheel, which is made with human-compliant material. These legs are extendable and retractable thanks to a micromotor and three custom-made torsion springs. The wheels are specifically designed to function as microodometers: each rotation they perform is registered. Hence, the covered distance is measured accurately in real time. Furthermore, with its legs fully extended, OdoCapsule can stabilize itself inside the small-bowel lumen thus offering smoother video capture and better image processing. Recent ex vivo testing of this concept, using porcine small bowel and a commercially available (custom-modified) capsule endoscope, has proved its viability.

  9. Design and synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid capsules for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiafu; Jiang, Yanjun; Wang, Xiaoli; Wu, Hong; Yang, Dong; Pan, Fusheng; Su, Yanlei; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2014-08-07

    Organic-inorganic hybrid capsules, which typically possess a hollow lumen and a hybrid wall, have emerged as a novel and promising class of hybrid materials and have attracted enormous attention. In comparison to polymeric capsules or inorganic capsules, the hybrid capsules combine the intrinsic physical/chemical properties of the organic and inorganic moieties, acquire more degrees of freedom to manipulate multiple interactions, create hierarchical structures and integrate multiple functionalities. Thus, the hybrid capsules exhibit superior mechanical strength (vs. polymeric capsules) and diverse functionalities (vs. inorganic capsules), which may give new opportunities to produce high-performance materials. Much effort has been devoted to exploring innovative and effective methods for the synthesis of hybrid capsules that exhibit desirable performance in target applications. This tutorial review firstly presents a brief description of the capsular structure and hybrid materials in nature, then classifies the hybrid capsules into molecule-hybrid capsules and nano-hybrid capsules based upon the size of the organic and inorganic moieties in the capsule wall, followed by a detailed discussion of the design and synthesis of the hybrid capsules. For each kind of hybrid capsule, the state-of-the-art synthesis methods are described in detail and a critical comment is embedded. The applications of these hybrid capsules in biotechnological areas (biocatalysis, drug delivery, etc.) have also been summarized. Hopefully, this review will offer a perspective and guidelines for the future research and development of hybrid capsules.

  10. Treatment rationale of fractured posterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, A R; Singh, I

    1978-11-01

    The four types of fractures most frequently encountered in posterior teeth--obliquely directed complete fractures, vertically directed complete fractures, obliquely directed incomplete fractures, and vertically directed incomplete fractures--have been described. A detailed treatment approach for each type has been presented.

  11. Posterior Predictive Model Checking in Bayesian Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    This simulation study compared the utility of various discrepancy measures within a posterior predictive model checking (PPMC) framework for detecting different types of data-model misfit in multidimensional Bayesian network (BN) models. The investigated conditions were motivated by an applied research program utilizing an operational complex…

  12. Posterior Probabilities for a Consensus Ordering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fligner, Michael A.; Verducci, Joseph S.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of consensus ordering is defined, and formulas for exact and approximate posterior probabilities for consensus ordering are developed under the assumption of a generalized Mallows' model with a diffuse conjugate prior. These methods are applied to a data set concerning 98 college students. (SLD)

  13. Subspecialization in the human posterior medial cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bzdok, Danilo; Heeger, Adrian; Langner, Robert; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Vogt, Brent A.; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2014-01-01

    The posterior medial cortex (PMC) is particularly poorly understood. Its neural activity changes have been related to highly disparate mental processes. We therefore investigated PMC properties with a data-driven exploratory approach. First, we subdivided the PMC by whole-brain coactivation profiles. Second, functional connectivity of the ensuing PMC regions was compared by task-constrained meta-analytic coactivation mapping (MACM) and task-unconstrained resting-state correlations (RSFC). Third, PMC regions were functionally described by forward/reverse functional inference. A precuneal cluster was mostly connected to the intraparietal sulcus, frontal eye fields, and right temporo-parietal junction; associated with attention and motor tasks. A ventral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) cluster was mostly connected to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and middle left inferior parietal cortex (IPC); associated with facial appraisal and language tasks. A dorsal PCC cluster was mostly connected to the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, anterior/posterior IPC, posterior midcingulate cortex, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; associated with delay discounting. A cluster in the retrosplenial cortex was mostly connected to the anterior thalamus and hippocampus. Furthermore, all PMC clusters were congruently coupled with the default mode network according to task-constrained but not task-unconstrained connectivity. We thus identified distinct regions in the PMC and characterized their neural networks and functional implications. PMID:25462801

  14. Fuchs's heterochromic cyclitis and posterior capsulotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, T J; Coster, D J

    1985-01-01

    We report a case of intractable glaucoma following an uncomplicated secondary posterior capsulotomy in a 48-year-old male with Fuchs's heterochromic cyclitis. The patient had been free of inflammation and glaucoma since cataract extraction 27 years previously. We also report the results of phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes removed from the anterior chamber. Images PMID:3859323

  15. Posterior dislocation of the shoulder in athletes.

    PubMed

    Samilson, R L; Prieto, V

    1983-07-01

    Although posterior dislocation of the shoulder is a rare injury in athletes, failure to recognize and properly manage acute dislocation may have serious consequences. The article discusses the incidence, mechanism of injury, classification, pathologic findings, clinical and radiologic diagnosis, and management.

  16. BAER suppression during posterior fossa dural opening

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Christopher B.; Shields, Lisa B. E.; Jiang, Yi Dan; Yao, Tom; Zhang, Yi Ping; Sun, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intraoperative monitoring with brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER) provides an early warning signal of potential neurological injury and may avert tissue damage to the auditory pathway or brainstem. Unexplained loss of the BAER signal in the operating room may present a dilemma to the neurosurgeon. Methods: This paper documents two patients who displayed a unique mechanism of suppression of the BAER apparent within minutes following dural opening for resection of a posterior fossa meningioma. Results: In two patients with anterior cerebellopontine angle and clival meningiomas, there was a significant deterioration of the BAER soon after durotomy but prior to cerebellar retraction and tumor removal. Intracranial structures in the posterior fossa lying between the tumor and dural opening were shifted posteriorly after durotomy. Conclusion: We hypothesized that the cochlear nerve and vessels entering the acoustic meatus were compressed or stretched when subjected to tissue shift. This movement caused cochlear nerve dysfunction that resulted in BAER suppression. BAER was partially restored after the tumor was decompressed, dura repaired, and bone replaced. BAER was not suppressed following durotomy for removal of a meningioma lying posterior to the cochlear complex. Insight into the mechanisms of durotomy-induced BAER inhibition would allay the neurosurgeon's anxiety during the operation. PMID:25883849

  17. Effect of fill weight, capsule shell, and sinker design on the dissolution behavior of capsule formulations of a weak acid drug candidate BMS-309403.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yongmei; Zhao, Fang; Paborji, Mehdi

    2003-01-01

    Two strengths of BMS-309403 capsules were developed from a common stock granulation. Dissolution testing of the capsules was conducted utilizing the USP apparatus 2 (paddle) with a neutral pH dissolution medium. Unexpectedly, the lower-strength capsules exhibited slower dissolution than the higher-strength capsules filled with the same stock granulation. Higher variability was also observed for the lower-strength capsules. This was found to be mainly caused by a low fill weight in a relatively large size hard gelatin capsule shell. Instead of bursting open, some gelatin capsule shells softened and collapsed onto the granulation, which delayed the release of the active drug. The problem was aggravated by the use of coil sinkers which hindered the medium flow around the capsules. Switching from the gelatin capsule shells to the HPMC (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) shells reversed the dissolution rate ranking between the two capsule strengths. However, both dissolved at a slower rate initially than the gelatin capsules due to the inherent dissolution rate of the HPMC shells at pH 6.8. Notably, the HPMC shells did not occlude the granulation as observed with the gelatin shells. The study demonstrated that the dissolution of capsule formulations in neutral pH media was significantly affected by the fill weight, sinker design, and capsule shell type. Careful selection of these parameters is essential to objectively evaluate the in vitro drug release.

  18. 24. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ENTRANCE TO ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. SHOCK ISOLATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ENTRANCE TO ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. SHOCK ISOLATOR AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  19. 31. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. LOOKING TOWARD BLAST DOOR AND TUNNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. LOOKING TOWARD BLAST DOOR AND TUNNEL VESTIBULE. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  20. Liberty Bell 7 Space Capsule Exhibit previews at Visitor Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Children on a tour at the KSC Visitor Complex get an early look at the Discovery Channel's Liberty Bell 7 Space Capsule Exhibit, which opens to the public on Saturday, June 17. They are on a re- creation of the deck of Ocean Project, the ship that located and recovered the space capsule from the floor of the Atlantic Ocean. Liberty Bell 7 launched U.S. Air Force Captain Virgil '''Gus''' Grissom July 21, 1961, on a mission that lasted 15 minutes and 37 seconds before sinking. It lay undetected for nearly four decades before a Discovery Channel expedition located it and recovered it. The space capsule, now restored and preserved, is part of an interactive exhibit touring science centers and museums in 12 cities throughout the United States until 2003. The exhibit also includes hands-on elements such as a capsule simulator, a centrifuge, and ROV pilot.

  1. Feasibility of High Yield / High Gain NIF Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, L.; Rothenberg, J.; Munro, D.; Van Wonterghem, B.; Haan, S.; Lindl, J.

    1999-12-06

    Our original ignition ''point designs'' (circa 1992) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) were made energetically conservative to provide margin for uncertainties in laser absorption, x-ray conversion efficiency and hohlraum-capsule coupling. Since that time, extensive experiments on Nova and Omega and their related analysis indicate that NIF coupling efficiency may be almost ''as good as we could hope for''. Given close agreement between experiment and theory/modeling, we can credibly explore target enhancements which couple more of NIF's energy to an ignition capsule. We find that 3-4X increases in absorbed capsule energy appear possible, providing a potentially more robust target and {approx}10X increase in capsule yield.

  2. The longest duration of retention of a video capsule.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Chris; Rodgers, Colin

    2014-07-08

    An underweight 15-year-old boy had a video capsule endoscopy (VCE) to investigate iron deficient anaemia associated with elevated platelet and white cell counts. The suspicion was of subclinical small bowel Crohn's disease after the findings of a radiolabelled white cell scan. The VCE in May 2007 found patchy inflammation and superficial ulcers in the terminal ileum consistent with Crohn's disease. By March 2008, the patient remained asymptomatic but the capsule had not passed. He was treated with steroids to improve the inflammation and allow the capsule to pass. This was unsuccessful. Abdominal X-rays appeared to show that it was in the rectum. CT of the abdomen and pelvis in July 2012 showed that it was actually in the mid-distal ileum within a mass of inflamed and matted small bowel loops. He was last reviewed in March 2014. He has now retained the capsule asymptomatically for 6 years and 10 months.

  3. 50. HISTORIC CLOSEUP VIEW OF THE MERCURY CAPSULE ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. HISTORIC CLOSE-UP VIEW OF THE MERCURY CAPSULE ON THE GROUND BEFORE BEING HOISTED ON TOP OF THE REDSTONE ROCKET. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  4. 52. CLOSEUP AERIAL VIEW OF THE MERCURY CAPSULE SITTING ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. CLOSE-UP AERIAL VIEW OF THE MERCURY CAPSULE SITTING ON TOP OF THE REDSTONE ROCKET IN THE TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  5. Perforation forces of the intact porcine anterior lens capsule.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Franziska; Lussi, Jonas; Felekis, Dimitrios; Michels, Stephan; Petruska, Andrew J; Nelson, Bradley J

    2016-09-01

    During the first step of cataract surgery, the lens capsule is perforated and a circular hole is created with a sharp instrument, a procedure called capsulorhexis. To develop automated systems that can assist ophthalmologists during capsulorhexis, the forces required must be quantified. This study investigates perforation forces of the central anterior lens capsule in porcine eyes, which are used as a conservative model for the human eye. A micro-mechanical characterisation method is presented that measures capsular bag perforation forces with a high precision positioning and high-resolution force sensing system. The force during perforation of the anterior lens capsule was measured with various sized needles and indentation speeds and is found to be 15-35mN. A bio-mechanical model is identified that describes an exponential correlation between indentation force and depth, indicating strain hardening behaviour of the porcine anterior lens capsule.

  6. Diamagnetically-stabilized levitation control of an intraluminal magnetic capsule.

    PubMed

    Lam, Michael; Mintchev, Martin P

    2008-01-01

    Controlled navigation promotes full utilization of capsule endoscopy for reliable real-time diagnosis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but intermittent natural peristalsis can disturb the navigational control, destabilize the capsule and take it out of levitation. A real-size magnetic navigation system that can handle peristaltic forces of up to 1.5 N was designed utilizing the computer-aided design (CAD) system Maxwell 3D (Ansoft, Pittsburg, PA), and was verified using a small-size physical experimental setup. The proposed system contains a pair of 50-cm in diameter, 10,000-turns copper electromagnets with a 10-cm by 10-cm ferrous core driven by currents of up to 300 Amperes and can successfully maintain position control over the levitating capsule during peristalsis. The addition of Bismuth diamagnetic casing for stabilizing the levitating capsule was also studied.

  7. Nanoparticle-Stabilized Capsules for the Treatment of Bacterial Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Bradley; Li, Xiaoning; Landis, Ryan F; Kim, Sung Tae; Gupta, Akash; Wang, Li-Sheng; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Tang, Rui; Boerth, Jeffrey A; Rotello, Vincent M

    2015-08-25

    Bacterial biofilms are widely associated with persistent infections. High resistance to conventional antibiotics and prevalent virulence makes eliminating these bacterial communities challenging therapeutic targets. We describe here the fabrication of a nanoparticle-stabilized capsule with a multicomponent core for the treatment of biofilms. The peppermint oil and cinnamaldehyde combination that comprises the core of the capsules act as potent antimicrobial agents. An in situ reaction at the oil/water interface between the nanoparticles and cinnamaldehyde structurally augments the capsules to efficiently deliver the essential oil payloads, effectively eradicating biofilms of clinically isolated pathogenic bacteria strains. In contrast to their antimicrobial action, the capsules selectively promoted fibroblast proliferation in a mixed bacteria/mammalian cell system making them promising for wound healing applications.

  8. Aerodynamics of the EXPERT Reentry Capsule Along the Descent Trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashchenkov, P.; Kashkovsky, A.; Ivanov, M.

    2009-01-01

    Results of numerical simulations of high-altitude aero thermodynamics of the EXPERT reentry capsule along its descent trajectory are presented. Aerodynamic characteristics for different angles of attack and rolling of the capsule at altitude of 150 down to 20 km are studied. An engineering local bridging method is used in computations. The uncertainty of the engineering method in the transitional regime is determined by comparisons with results obtained by DSMC simulations.

  9. The Elastic Properties of the Cryptococcus neoformans Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Frases, Susana; Pontes, Bruno; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Viana, Nathan B.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Microbial capsules are important for virulence, but their architecture and physical properties are poorly understood. The human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans has a large polysaccharide capsule that is necessary for virulence and is the target of protective antibody responses. To study the C. neoformans capsule we developed what we believe is a new approach whereby we probed the capsular elastic properties by applying forces using polystyrene beads manipulated with optical tweezers. This method allowed us to determine the Young's modulus for the capsule in various conditions that affect capsule growth. The results indicate that the Young's modulus of the capsule decreases with its size and increases with the Ca2+ concentration in solution. Also, capsular polysaccharide manifests an unexpected affinity for polystyrene beads, a property that may function in attachment to host cells and environmental structures. Bead probing with optical tweezers provides a new, nondestructive method that may have wide applicability for studying the effects of growth conditions, immune components, and drugs on capsular properties. PMID:19686640

  10. A review of drug delivery systems for capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Fredy; Alici, Gursel; Li, Weihua

    2014-05-01

    The development of a highly controllable drug delivery system (DDS) for capsule endoscopy has become an important field of research due to its promising applications in therapeutic treatment of diseases in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and drug absorption studies. Several factors need to be considered to establish the minimum requirements for a functional DDS. Environmental factors of the GI tract and also pharmaceutical factors can help determine the requirements to be met by a DDS in an endoscopic capsule. In order to minimize the influence of such factors on the performance of an effective DDS, at least two mechanisms should be incorporated into a capsule endoscope: an anchoring mechanism to control the capsule position and a drug release mechanism to control variables such as the drug release rate, number of doses and amount of drug released. The implementation of such remotely actuated mechanisms is challenging due to several constraints, including the limited space available in a swallowable capsule endoscope and the delicate and complex environment within the GI tract. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of existing DDS. A comparison of such DDS for capsule endoscopy based on the minimum DDS requirements is presented and future work is also discussed.

  11. Simulating Space Capsule Water Landing with Explicit Finite Element Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2007-01-01

    A study of using an explicit nonlinear dynamic finite element code for simulating the water landing of a space capsule was performed. The finite element model contains Lagrangian shell elements for the space capsule and Eulerian solid elements for the water and air. An Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) solver and a penalty coupling method were used for predicting the fluid and structure interaction forces. The space capsule was first assumed to be rigid, so the numerical results could be correlated with closed form solutions. The water and air meshes were continuously refined until the solution was converged. The converged maximum deceleration predicted is bounded by the classical von Karman and Wagner solutions and is considered to be an adequate solution. The refined water and air meshes were then used in the models for simulating the water landing of a capsule model that has a flexible bottom. For small pitch angle cases, the maximum deceleration from the flexible capsule model was found to be significantly greater than the maximum deceleration obtained from the corresponding rigid model. For large pitch angle cases, the difference between the maximum deceleration of the flexible model and that of its corresponding rigid model is smaller. Test data of Apollo space capsules with a flexible heat shield qualitatively support the findings presented in this paper.

  12. Video capsule endoscopy: Perspectives of a revolutionary technique

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Simon; Ibrahim, Mostafa; Van Gossum, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) was launched in 2000 and has revolutionized direct endoscopic imaging of the gut. VCE is now a first-line procedure for exploring the small bowel in cases of obscure digestive bleeding and is also indicated in some patients with Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, and polyposis syndrome. A video capsule has also been designed for visualizing the esophagus in order to detect Barrett’s esophagus or esophageal varices. Different capsules are now available and differ with regard to dimensions, image acquisition rate, battery life, field of view, and possible optical enhancements. More recently, the use of VCE has been extended to exploring the colon. Within the last 5 years, tremendous developments have been made toward increasing the capabilities of the colon capsule. Although colon capsule cannot be proposed as a first-line colorectal cancer screening procedure, colon capsule may be used in patients with incomplete colonoscopy or in patients who are unwilling to undergo colonoscopy. In the near future, new technological developments will improve the diagnostic yield of VCE and broaden its therapeutic capabilities. PMID:25516644

  13. MALDI-MS-imaging of whole human lens capsule.

    PubMed

    Ronci, Maurizio; Sharma, Shiwani; Chataway, Tim; Burdon, Kathryn P; Martin, Sarah; Craig, Jamie E; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2011-08-05

    The ocular lens capsule is a smooth, transparent basement membrane that encapsulates the lens and is composed of a rigid network of interacting structural proteins and glycosaminoglycans. During cataract surgery, the anterior lens capsule is routinely removed in the form of a circular disk. We considered that the excised capsule could be easily prepared for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) analysis. MALDI-MSI is a powerful tool to elucidate the spatial distribution of small molecules, peptides, and proteins within tissues. Here, we apply this molecular imaging technique to analyze the freshly excised human lens capsule en face. We demonstrate that novel information about the distribution of proteins by MALDI-MSI can be obtained from this highly compact connective tissue, having no evident histo-morphological characteristics. Trypsin digestion carried out on-tissue is shown to improve MALDI-MSI analysis of human lens capsules and affords high repeatability. Most importantly, MALDI-MSI analysis reveals a concentric distribution pattern of proteins such as apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and collagen IV alpha-1 on the anterior surface of surgically removed lens capsule, which may indicate direct or indirect effects of environmental and mechanical stresses on the human ocular lens.

  14. Biocompatible shaped particles from dried multilayer polymer capsules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Kozlovskaya, Veronika; Goins, Allison; Campos-Gomez, Javier; Saeed, Mohammad; Kharlampieva, Eugenia

    2013-11-11

    We demonstrated a simple and facile approach to fabricate biocompatible monodisperse hollow microparticles of controlled geometry. The hemispherical, spherical, and cubical microparticles are obtained by drying multilayer capsules of hydrogen-bonded poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)/tannic acid (PVPON/TA)n. Drying spherical capsules results in hemispherical particles if 15 < n < 20. This shape transformation is controlled by capsule stiffness, which is regulated by the layer number, capsule diameter, and PVPON molecular weight. Cubical and spherical hollow particles maintaining their three-dimensional shapes in the dry state are obtained if n ≥ 25.5. A 17-fold stiffness increase is required to lead from totally collapsed (PVPON/TA)5.5 to dried self-supporting (PVPON/TA)25.5 particles of 2 μm in dimensions. All hollow particles could be further resuspended in aqueous solutions while retaining their shapes upon rehydration. The cell growth and viability studies using human cancer cells revealed noncytotoxic properties of the (PVPON/TA) multilayer particles. Both spherical and hemispherical capsules were internalized by macrophages with the uptake of the hemispherical particles per cell two times more efficient. The method presented here allows for a robust preparation of biocompatible shaped particles whose shape and dimensions can be easily tuned by controlling capsule size and wall thickness. The reported structures can be potentially useful for biomedical applications such as shape-controlled cellular uptake and flow dynamics.

  15. Orion Capsule Handling Qualities for Atmospheric Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigges, Michael A.; Bihari, Brian D.; Stephens, John-Paul; Vos, Gordon A.; Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.; Law, Howard G.; Johnson, Wyatt; Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Two piloted simulations were conducted at NASA's Johnson Space Center using the Cooper-Harper scale to study the handling qualities of the Orion Command Module capsule during atmospheric entry flight. The simulations were conducted using high fidelity 6-DOF simulators for Lunar Return Skip Entry and International Space Station Return Direct Entry flight using bank angle steering commands generated by either the Primary (PredGuid) or Backup (PLM) guidance algorithms. For both evaluations, manual control of bank angle began after descending through Entry Interface into the atmosphere until drogue chutes deployment. Pilots were able to use defined bank management and reversal criteria to accurately track the bank angle commands, and stay within flight performance metrics of landing accuracy, g-loads, and propellant consumption, suggesting that the pilotability of Orion under manual control is both achievable and provides adequate trajectory performance with acceptable levels of pilot effort. Another significant result of these analyses is the applicability of flying a complex entry task under high speed entry flight conditions relevant to the next generation Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle return from Mars and Near Earth Objects.

  16. Modeling gated neutron images of THD capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Douglas Carl; Grim, Gary P; Tregillis, Ian L; Wilke, Mark D; Morgan, George L; Loomis, Eric N; Wilde, Carl H; Oertel, John A; Fatherley, Valerie E; Clark, David D; Schmitt, Mark J; Merrill, Frank E; Wang, Tai - Sen F; Danly, Christopher R; Batha, Steven H; Patel, M; Sepke, S; Hatarik, R; Fittinghoff, D; Bower, D; Marinak, M; Munro, D; Moran, M; Hilko, R; Frank, M; Buckles, R

    2010-01-01

    Time gating a neutron detector 28m from a NIF implosion can produce images at different energies. The brighter image near 14 MeV reflects the size and symmetry of the capsule 'hot spot'. Scattered neutrons, {approx}9.5-13 MeV, reflect the size and symmetry of colder, denser fuel, but with only {approx}1-7% of the neutrons. The gated detector records both the scattered neutron image, and, to a good approximation, an attenuated copy of the primary image left by scintillator decay. By modeling the imaging system the energy band for the scattered neutron image (10-12 MeV) can be chosen, trading off the decayed primary image and the decrease of scattered image brightness with energy. Modeling light decay from EJ399, BC422, BCF99-55, Xylene, DPAC-30, and Liquid A leads to a preference from BCF99-55 for the first NIF detector, but DPAC 30 and Liquid A would be preferred if incorporated into a system. Measurement of the delayed light from the NIF scintillator using implosions at the Omega laser shows BCF99-55 to be a good choice for down-scattered imaging at 28m.

  17. Posterior Wnts Have Distinct Roles in Specification and Patterning of the Planarian Posterior Region

    PubMed Central

    Sureda-Gómez, Miquel; Pascual-Carreras, Eudald; Adell, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The wnt signaling pathway is an intercellular communication mechanism essential in cell-fate specification, tissue patterning and regional-identity specification. A βcatenin-dependent signal specifies the AP (Anteroposterior) axis of planarians, both during regeneration of new tissues and during normal homeostasis. Accordingly, four wnts (posterior wnts) are expressed in a nested manner in central and posterior regions of planarians. We have analyzed the specific role of each posterior wnt and the possible cooperation between them in specifying and patterning planarian central and posterior regions. We show that each posterior wnt exerts a distinct role during re-specification and maintenance of the central and posterior planarian regions, and that the integration of the different wnt signals (βcatenin dependent and independent) underlies the patterning of the AP axis from the central region to the tip of the tail. Based on these findings and data from the literature, we propose a model for patterning the planarian AP axis. PMID:26556349

  18. 20th Century NASA History: Mercury Manned Orbital Capsule Detail Specification and Project Mercury Capsule Flight Operations Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The detailed preparation required in attempting a mission of the magnitude and scope of PROJECT MERCURY obviously cannot and need not be covered in a document of the handbook type. Prior to any actual attempt to launch a manned capsule, many weeks will be spent in an extensive training and familiarization program. The information contained in this manual, therefore, will pre-suppose a detailed knowledge of the capsule systems and will be confined, for the most part, to procedural data.

  19. Development of an Arthroscopic Joint Capsule Injury Model in the Canine Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Kovacevic, David; Baker, Andrew R.; Staugaitis, Susan M.; Kim, Myung-Sun; Ricchetti, Eric T.; Derwin, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The natural history of rotator cuff tears can be unfavorable as patients develop fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy that is often associated with a loss of muscle strength and shoulder function. To facilitate study of possible biologic mechanisms involved in early degenerative changes to rotator cuff muscle and tendon tissues, the objective of this study was to develop a joint capsule injury model in the canine shoulder using arthroscopy. Methods Arthroscopic surgical methods for performing a posterior joint capsulectomy in the canine shoulder were first defined in cadavers. Subsequently, one canine subject underwent bilateral shoulder joint capsulectomy using arthroscopy, arthroscopic surveillance at 2, 4 and 8 weeks, and gross and histologic examination of the joint at 10 weeks. Results The canine subject was weight-bearing within eight hours after index and follow-up surgeries and had no significant soft tissue swelling of the shoulder girdle or gross lameness. Chronic synovitis and macroscopic and microscopic evidence of pathologic changes to the rotator cuff bony insertions, tendons, myotendinous junctions and muscles were observed. Conclusions This study demonstrates feasibility and proof-of-concept for a joint capsule injury model in the canine shoulder. Future work is needed to define the observed pathologic changes and their role in the progression of rotator cuff disease. Ultimately, better understanding of the biologic mechanisms of early progression of rotator cuff disease may lead to clinical interventions to halt or slow this process and avoid the more advanced and often irreversible conditions of large tendon tears with muscle fatty atrophy. PMID:26808837

  20. The relationship between the temporomandibular joint capsule, articular disc and jaw muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Schmolke, C

    1994-01-01

    The anatomy of the temporomandibular joint capsule and its possible relationships to other structures near the joint are not fully understood. A 3-dimensional analysis based on sagittal, frontal and horizontal serial sections through the human temporomandibular joint region was therefore undertaken. Capsular elements which directly connect the temporal bone with the mandible were seen only on the lateral side of the joint. In the posterior, anterior and medial regions of the joint the upper and lower laminae of the articular disc are attached separately either to the temporal bone or to the mandibular condyle. The shaping of the articular cavities and the texture of the joint capsule permit movements of the articular disc predominantly in the anteromedial direction. On the entire medial side of the joint the articular disc and its capsular attachments are in close contact with the fascia of the lateral pterygoid muscle whereby a small portion of the upper head of this muscle inserts directly into the anteromedial part of the articular disc. Thus both the upper and the lower heads of the lateral pterygoid muscle are likely to influence the position of the articular disc directly during temporomandibular joint movements. Laterally, the articular disc is attached to the fascia of the masseter muscle, and part of the lateral ligament inserts into the temporalis fascia. Since these attachments are relatively weak, neither the temporalis nor the masseter muscles are considered to act directly on the articular disc; instead, via afferents from muscle spindles, they may take part in signalling the position of the temporomandibular joint components, including that of the articular disc. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8014124

  1. Design of a Wireless Medical Capsule for Measuring the Contact Pressure Between a Capsule and the Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengbo; Kreikemeier-Bower, Craig; Xie, Wanchuan; Kothari, Vishal; Terry, Benjamin S

    2017-05-01

    A wireless medical capsule for measuring the contact pressure between a mobile capsule and the small intestine lumen was developed. Two pressure sensors were used to measure and differentiate the contact pressure and the small intestine intraluminal pressure. After in vitro tests of the capsule, it was surgically placed and tested in the proximal small intestine of a pig model. The capsule successfully gathered and transmitted the pressure data to a receiver outside the body. The measured pressure signals in the animal test were analyzed in the time and frequency domains, and a mathematic model was presented to describe the different factors influencing the contact pressure. A novel signal processing method was applied to isolate the contraction information from the contact pressure. The result shows that the measured contact pressure was 1.08 ± 0.08 kPa, and the small intestine contraction pressure's amplitude and rate were 0.29 ± 0.046 kPa and 12 min-1. Moreover, the amplitudes and rates of pressure from respiration and heartbeat were also estimated. The successful preliminary evaluation of this capsule implies that it could be used in further systematic investigation of small intestine contact pressure on a mobile capsule-shaped bolus.

  2. [Manual rotation of occiput posterior presentation].

    PubMed

    Le Ray, C; Goffinet, F

    2011-10-01

    Delivery in occiput posterior position is associated with a higher risk of cesarean section, operative vaginal delivery and severe perineal tears. We report the technic of manual rotation described by Tarnier and Chantreuil and used daily in our maternity center. Only five studies were published on this topic; all of them demonstrate that manual rotation decreases the risk of cesarean section. Moreover, it could decrease the risk of prolonged second stage, chorioamnionitis and third and fourth degree tears in comparison with expectant management. However, manual rotation is associated with a two-fold higher risk of cervical and vaginal lacerations. Manual rotation performed with an adequate technic is an efficient and safe manœuvre to avoid complications associated with occiput posterior vaginal delivery.

  3. Acute traumatic posterior elbow dislocation in children.

    PubMed

    Lieber, Justus; Zundel, Sabine M; Luithle, Tobias; Fuchs, Jörg; Kirschner, Hans-Joachim

    2012-09-01

    Traumatic posterior dislocation of the elbow is often associated with significant morbidity and incomplete recovery. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse the outcome of 33 children (median age 10.8 years). Patients underwent reduction and assessment of stability under general anaesthesia. Pure dislocations (n=10) were immobilized, whereas unstable fractures (n=23) were stabilized. Refixation of ligaments was performed if stability was not achieved by fracture stabilization alone. Immobilization was continued for 26 (pure dislocations) or 35 days (associated injuries), respectively. Results were excellent (n=9) or good (n=1) after pure dislocation. Results were excellent (n=15), good (n=7) or poor (n=1) in children with associated injuries. Accurate diagnosis, concentric stable reduction of the elbow as well as stable osteosynthesis of displaced fractures are associated with good results in children with acute posterior elbow dislocations.

  4. Posterior tibial nerve lesions in ankle arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cugat, Ramon; Ares, Oscar; Cuscó, Xavier; Garcia, Montserrat; Samitier, Gonzalo; Seijas, Roberto

    2008-05-01

    Ankle arthroscopy provides a minimally invasive approach to the diagnosis and treatment of certain ankle disorders. Neurological complications resulting from ankle arthroscopy have been well documented in orthopaedic and podiatric literature. Owing to the superficial location of the ankle joint and the abundance of overlying periarticular neurovascular structures, complications reported in ankle arthroscopy are greater than those reported for other joints. In particular, all reported neurovascular injuries following ankle arthroscopy have been the direct result of distractor pin or portal placement. The standard posteromedial portal has recognized risks because of the proximity of the posterior neurovascular structures. There can be considerable variability in the course of these portals and their proximity to the neurovascular structures. We found one report of intra-articular damage to the posterior tibial nerve as a result of ankle arthroscopy in the English-language literature and we report this paper as a second case described in the literature.

  5. Is the hip capsule thicker in diseased hips?

    PubMed Central

    Bonura, A. A.; Nairn, R.; Schweitzer, M. E.; Kolanko, N. M.; Beaule, P. E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the thickness of the hip capsule in patients with surgical hip disease, either with cam-femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) or non-FAI hip pathology, with that of asymptomatic control hips. Methods A total of 56 hips in 55 patients underwent a 3Tesla MRI of the hip. These included 40 patients with 41 hips with arthroscopically proven hip disease (16 with cam-FAI; nine men, seven women; mean age 39 years, 22 to 58) and 25 with non-FAI chondrolabral pathology (four men, 21 women; mean age 40 years, 18 to 63) as well as 15 asymptomatic volunteers, whose hips served as controls (ten men, five women; mean age 62 years, 33 to 77). The maximal capsule thickness was measured anteriorly and superiorly, and compared within and between the three groups with a gender subanalysis using student’s t-test. The correlation between alpha angle and capsule thickness was determined using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results Superiorly, the hip capsule was significantly greater in cam- (p = 0.028) and non-FAI (p = 0.048) surgical groups compared with the asymptomatic group. Within groups, the superior capsule thickness was significantly greater than the anterior in cam- (p < 0.001) and non-FAI (p < 0.001) surgical groups, but not in the control group. There was no significant correlation between the alpha angle and capsule thickness. There were no gender differences identified in the thickness of the hip capsule. Conclusion The thickness of the capsule does not differ between cam- and non-FAI diseased hips, and thus may not be specific for a particular aetiology of hip disease. The capsule is, however, thicker in diseased surgical hips compared with asymptomatic control hips. Cite this article: K. S. Rakhra, A. A. Bonura, R. Nairn, M. E. Schweitzer, N. M. Kolanko, P. E. Beaule. Is the hip capsule thicker in diseased hips? Bone Joint Res 2016;5:586–593. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.511.2000495. PMID:27903506

  6. Progressive visual agnosia with posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, M; Sartori, G; Liccione, D; Battelli, L; Campo, R

    1996-05-01

    A patient of posterior cortical atrophy characterized by early signs of progressive visual agnosia documented by repeated neuropsychological tests, is reported. SPECT and MRI findings showed left unilateral parieto-occipital involvement in the earlier stage. A PET study executed eight months later showed bilateral parieto-occipital hypometabolism, but predominantly in the left hemisphere. This suggests that the degeneration may have developed asymmetrically, progressing from left unilateral to bilateral.

  7. Endoscopic posterior interhemispheric complete corpus callosotomy.

    PubMed

    Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi; Altinok, Deniz; Luat, Aimee

    2016-12-01

    Traditionally corpus callosotomy is done through a craniotomy centered at the coronal suture, with the aid of a microscope. This involves dissecting through the interhemispheric fissure below the falx to reach the corpus callosum. The authors describe a posterior interhemispheric approach to complete corpus callosotomy with an endoscope, which bypasses the need to perform interhemispheric dissection because the falx is generally close to the corpus callosum in this region.

  8. Material Properties of the Posterior Human Sclera☆

    PubMed Central

    Grytz, Rafael; Fazio, Massimo A.; Girard, Michael J.A.; Libertiaux, Vincent; Bruno, Luigi; Gardiner, Stuart; Girkin, Christopher A.; Downs, J. Crawford

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the material properties of posterior and peripapillary sclera from human donors, and to investigate the macro- and micro-scale strains as potential control mechanisms governing mechanical homeostasis. Posterior scleral shells from 9 human donors aged 57–90 years were subjected to IOP elevations from 5 to 45 mmHg and the resulting full-field displacements were recorded using laser speckle interferometry. Eye-specific finite element models were generated based on experimentally measured scleral shell surface geometry and thickness. Inverse numerical analyses were performed to identify material parameters for each eye by matching experimental deformation measurements to model predictions using a microstructure-based constitutive formulation that incorporates the crimp response and anisotropic architecture of scleral collagen fibrils. The material property fitting produced models that fit both the overall and local deformation responses of posterior scleral shells very well. The nonlinear stiffening of the sclera with increasing IOP was well reproduced by the uncrimping of scleral collagen fibrils, and a circumferentially-aligned ring of collagen fibrils around the scleral canal was predicted in all eyes. Macroscopic in-plane strains were significantly higher in peripapillary region then in the mid-periphery. In contrast, the meso- and micro-scale strains at the collagen network and collagen fibril level were not significantly different between regions. The elastic response of the posterior human sclera can be characterized by the anisotropic architecture and crimp response of scleral collagen fibrils. The similar collagen fibril strains in the peripapillary and mid-peripheral regions support the notion that the scleral collagen architecture including the circumpapillary ring of collagen fibrils evolved to establish optimal load bearing conditions at the collagen fibril level. PMID:23684352

  9. Iris fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Yazdani-Abyaneh, Alireza; Djalilian, Ali R; Fard, Masoud Aghsaei

    2016-12-01

    We introduce a technique for iris fixation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) in which most of the procedure is done outside the eye. This minimizes intraocular manipulation, maximizes corneal endothelial preservation, and avoids the risk for IOL drop into the vitreous cavity intraoperatively. The IOL is fixated to the most peripheral part of the iris, resulting in a rounder pupil. Sutures are placed at exact positions on the haptics, resulting in a well-centered IOL.

  10. Cervical disc hernia operations through posterior laminoforaminotomy

    PubMed Central

    Yolas, Coskun; Ozdemir, Nuriye Guzin; Okay, Hilmi Onder; Kanat, Ayhan; Senol, Mehmet; Atci, Ibrahim Burak; Yilmaz, Hakan; Coban, Mustafa Kemal; Yuksel, Mehmet Onur; Kahraman, Umit

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The most common used technique for posterolateral cervical disc herniations is anterior approach. However, posterior cervical laminotoforaminomy can provide excellent results in appropriately selected patients with foraminal stenosis in either soft disc prolapse or cervical spondylosis. The purpose of this study was to present the clinical outcomes following posterior laminoforaminotomy in patients with radiculopathy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 35 patients diagnosed with posterolateral cervical disc herniation and cervical spondylosis with foraminal stenosis causing radiculopathy operated by the posterior cervical keyhole laminoforaminotomy between the years 2010 and 2015. Results: The file records and the radiographic images of the 35 patients were assessed retrospectively. The mean age was 46.4 years (range: 34-66 years). Of the patients, 19 were males and 16 were females. In all of the patients, the neurologic deficit observed was radiculopathy. The posterolaterally localized disc herniations and the osteophytic structures were on the left side in 18 cases and on the right in 17 cases. In 10 of the patients, the disc level was at C5-6, in 18 at C6-7, in 2 at C3-4, in 2 at C4-5, in 1 at C7-T1, in 1 patient at both C5-6 and C6-7, and in 1 at both C4-5 and C5-6. In 14 of these 35 patients, both osteophytic structures and protruded disc herniation were present. Intervertebral foramen stenosis was present in all of the patients with osteophytes. Postoperatively, in 31 patients the complaints were relieved completely and four patients had complaints of neck pain and paresthesia radiating to the arm (the success of operation was 88.5%). On control examinations, there was no finding of instability or cervical kyphosis. Conclusion: Posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy is an alternative appropriate choice in both cervical soft disc herniations and cervical stenosis. PMID:27217655

  11. Posterior fossa syndrome—a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Salima S.; Hettige, Samantha; Mankad, Kshtij

    2016-01-01

    Posterior fossa syndrome (PFS), or cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS), is a collection of neurological symptoms that occur following surgical resection of a posterior fossa tumour, and is characterised by either a reduction or an absence of speech. Some authors suggest that CM is only one symptom of the CMS complex that also includes ataxia, hypotonia and irritability as well as cranial nerve deficits, neurobehavioral changes and urinary retention or incontinence. It is seen almost exclusively in children. In 1985 Rekate et al. published the first work describing CM as a clinical entity, occurring as a consequence of bilateral cerebellar injury. Other associated symptoms include visual impairment, altered mood, impaired swallowing and significant gross and fine motor deficits. The effects of this can have a devastating impact on both the patient and their carers, posing a significant clinical challenge to neurorehabilitation services. The reported incidence was between 8% and 31% of children undergoing surgery for posterior fossa tumour. The underlying pathologies include vasospasm, oedema, and axonal/neuronal injury. Neuroimaging has contributed to a better understanding of the anatomical location of postoperative injury. There have been a number of suggestions for treatment interventions for PFS. However, apart from some individual reports, there have been no clinical trials indicating possible benefit. Occupational therapy, speech and language therapy, as well as neurocognitive support, contribute to the recovery of these patients. PMID:27942479

  12. Electrocardiographic diagnosis of remote posterior wall myocardial infarction using unipolar posterior lead V9

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, M.W.; Imburgia, M.; King, T.R.; Fischer, K.C.; Kovach, K.L. )

    1989-09-01

    The accuracy of four electrocardiographic criteria for diagnosing remote posterior myocardial infarction was assessed prospectively in 369 patients undergoing exercise treadmill testing with thallium scintigraphy. Criteria included the following: (1) R-wave width greater than or equal to 0.04 s and R-wave greater than or equal to S-wave in V1; (2) R-wave greater than or equal to S-wave in V2; (3) T-wave voltage in V2 minus V6 greater than or equal to 0.38 mV (T-wave index); (4) Q-wave greater than or equal to 0.04 s in left paraspinal lead V9. Twenty-seven patients (7.3 percent) met thallium criteria for posterior myocardial infarction, defined as a persistent perfusion defect in the posterobase of the left ventricle. Sensitivities for the four criteria ranged from 4 to 56 percent, and specificities ranged from 64 to 99 percent. Posterior paraspinal lead V9 provided the best overall predictive accuracy (94 percent), positive predictive value (58 percent), and ability to differentiate patients with and without posterior myocardial infarction of any single criterion (p less than .0001). Combining the T-wave index with lead V9 further enhanced the diagnostic yield: the sensitivity for detecting posterior infarction by at least one of these criteria was 78 percent, and when both criteria were positive, specificity was 98.5 percent. It is concluded that a single, unipolar posterior lead in the V9 position is superior to standard 12-lead electrocardiographic criteria in diagnosing remote posterior myocardial infarction, and that combining V9 with the T-wave index maximizes the diagnostic yield.

  13. Overview of technical solutions and assessment of clinical usefulness of capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Robert

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents an overview of endoscopic capsules with particular emphasis on technical aspects. It indicates common problems in capsule endoscopy such as: (1) limited wireless communication (2) the use of capsule endoscopy in the case of partial patency of the gastrointestinal tract, (3) limited imaging area, (4) external capsule control limitations. It also presents the prospects of capsule endoscopy, the most recent technical solutions for biopsy and the mobility of the capsule in the gastrointestinal tract. The paper shows the possibilities of increasing clinical usefulness of capsule endoscopy resulting from technological limitations. Attention has also been paid to the current role of capsule endoscopy in screening tests and the limitations of its effectiveness. The paper includes the author's recommendations concerning the direction of further research and the possibility of enhancing the scope of capsule endoscopy.

  14. The effect of glicerol and sorbitol plasticizers toward disintegration time of phyto-capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudjiastuti, Pratiwi; Hendradi, Esti; Wafiroh, Siti; Harsini, Muji; Darmokoesoemo, Handoko

    2016-03-01

    The aim of research is determining the effect of glycerol and sorbitol toward the disintegration time of phyto-capsules, originated capsules from plant polysaccharides. Phyto-capsules were made from polysaccharides and 0.5% (v/v) of glycerol and sorbitol of each. The seven capsules of each were determined the disintegration time using Erweka disintegrator. The mean of disintegration time of phyto-capsules without plasticizers, with glycerol and sorbitol were 25'30"; 45'15" and 35'30" respectively. The color and colorless gelatin capsules showed the mean of disintegration time 7'30" and 2'35" respectively.

  15. Thin Oxides as a Cu Diffusion Barrier for NIF Be Ablator Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, Kelly P.; Huang, H.; Xu, H. W.; Hayes, J.; Moreno, K. A.; Wu, J. J.; Nikroo, A.; Alford, C. A.; Hamza, A. V.; Kucheyev, S. O.; Wang, Y. M.; Wu, K. J.

    2013-03-01

    The NIF point design uses a five-layer capsule to modify the X-ray absorption in order to achieve optimized shock timing. A stepped copper dopant design defines the layer structure. The production of the capsule involves pyrolysis to remove the inner plastic mandrel. Copper atoms diffuse radially and azimuthally throughout the capsule during pyrolysis. This diffusion significantly diminishes the capsule performance during implosion. Thermal and coated oxide barrier layers employed between layers mitigate the diffusion of copper during the mandrel removal process. The copper atoms do not diffuse through this barrier during pyrolysis. A capsule fabrication method that produces a capsule with a thin oxide layer will be discussed.

  16. Indications of capsule endoscopy in Crohn´s disease.

    PubMed

    Luján-Sanchis, Marisol; Sanchis-Artero, Laura; Suárez-Callol, Patricia; Medina-Chuliá, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy currently plays a relevant role for Crohn´s disease. This manuscript will discuss the current indications and practical uses of capsule endoscopy in this disease. It is a non-invasive technique that represents a significant advance in the endoscopic diagnosis of small bowel conditions. These circumstances, together with its diagnostic yield and excellent tolerability, make it considerably acceptable by both patients and physicians. This paper discusses the current evidence on the specific circumstances where capsule endoscopy may be indicated for three specific scenarios: Suspected Crohn´s disease, indeterminate colitis, and established Crohn´s disease, where it plays an extensive role. Furthermore, the impact and implications of capsule endoscopy results for follow-up are reviewed. These recommendations must be interpreted and applied in the setting of the integral, individual management of these patients. Understanding its appropriate use in daily clinical practice and an analysis of results may define endoscopic scoring systems to assess activity and mucosal healing in this condition. The present role of capsule endoscopy for Crohn´s disease is subject to ongoing review, and appropriate usage uncovers novel applications likely to result in relevant changes for the future management of these patients.

  17. Liberty Bell 7 Space Capsule Exhibit previews at Visitor Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Discovery Channel's Liberty Bell 7 Space Capsule Exhibit, which opens to the public at the KSC Visitor Complex on Saturday, June 17, had a preview for the press today. Liberty Bell 7 launched U.S. Air Force Captain Virgil 'Gus' Grissom July 21, 1961, on a mission that lasted 15 minutes and 37 seconds before sinking. The capsule lay undetected for nearly four decades before a Discovery Channel expedition located it and recovered it. Standing in front of the restored Liberty Bell 7 capsule are (left to right) KSC's Deputy Director Jim Jennings; Gunther Wendt, who worked on the Liberty Bell 7 before its launch; Jim Lewis, who piloted the Hunt Club 1 helicopter that rescued Gus Grissom; and Larry Grissom, brother of Gus Grissom. The space capsule, now restored and preserved, is part of an interactive exhibit touring science centers and museums in 12 cities throughout the United States until 2003. The exhibit also includes hands-on elements such as a capsule simulator, a centrifuge, and ROV pilot.

  18. Implantable telemetry capsule for monitoring arterial oxygen saturation and heartbeat.

    PubMed

    Kuwana, K; Dohi, T; Hashimoto, Y; Matsumoto, K; Shimoyama, I

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we have developed an implantable telemetry capsule for monitoring heartbeat. The capsule has three main functions, monitoring vital signs, transmitting the vital signs, and receiving energy for driving the capsule without wires. We used two wavelengths of LEDs and a photodiode sensitive to the two wavelengths for heartbeat sensor. The arterial oxygen saturation is calculated from the amplitude of the heartbeat signal. We fabricated an FM transmitter whose carrier frequency was 80 MHz. Though the GHz range frequency is generally used in transmission, the attenuation in the human body is large. The size of a common linear antenna is about a quarter of its operating wavelength. We employed a coil-based antenna which can reduce size below the quarter of the wavelength. We fabricated a miniaturized transmitter with the coil-based antenna at lower frequency. Our capsule was driven intermittently. We used a rechargeable battery. When the battery ran down, the battery was charged by wireless using the induced electromotive force. This means that the capsule is capable of monitoring vital signs over the long term. We measured the heartbeat from the middle finger of hand in a water tank as a model of a human body.

  19. Cuttlefish capsule: An effective shield against contaminants in the wild.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Inês C; Raimundo, Joana; Lopes, Vanessa M; Brandão, Cláudio; Couto, Ana; Santos, Catarina; Cabecinhas, Adriana S; Cereja, Rui; Calado, Ricardo; Caetano, Miguel; Rosa, Rui

    2015-09-01

    Increasing anthropogenic pressures in estuaries are responsible for the rise of contaminants in several compartments of these ecosystems. Species that benefit from the nursery services provided by estuaries are exposed to such contaminants (e.g. metals and metalloids). It is therefore relevant to understand if marine invertebrates that use these areas as spawning grounds accumulate contaminants in their tissues throughout embryogenesis. This study aimed to quantify As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Se, Pb, V and Zn concentrations in both capsule and embryos of the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) in Sado Estuary (Portugal). Moreover, embryos at their initial, intermediate and final stage of development were collected in sites subjected to different anthropogenic pressures. In general, the capsule accumulated higher element concentration throughout embryogenesis which indicates that the capsule acts as an effective barrier against contaminants uptake by the embryo. Although the capsule becomes thinner throughout embryogenesis, embryo's protection does not seem to be compromised at later development stages. Additionally, the higher concentrations of As, Cu, Se and Zn in the embryo in comparison to the capsule suggests important biological roles during the embryogenesis of this cephalopod mollusc.

  20. Effect of Counterflow Jet on a Supersonic Reentry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan; Venkatachari, Balaji Shankar; Cheng, Gary C.

    2006-01-01

    Recent NASA initiatives for space exploration have reinvigorated research on Apollo-like capsule vehicles. Aerothermodynamic characteristics of these capsule configurations during reentry play a crucial role in the performance and safety of the planetary entry probes and the crew exploration vehicles. At issue are the forebody thermal shield protection and afterbody aeroheating predictions. Due to the lack of flight or wind tunnel measurements at hypersonic speed, design decisions on such vehicles would rely heavily on computational results. Validation of current computational tools against experimental measurement thus becomes one of the most important tasks for general hypersonic research. This paper is focused on time-accurate numerical computations of hypersonic flows over a set of capsule configurations, which employ a counterflow jet to offset the detached bow shock. The accompanying increased shock stand-off distance and modified heat transfer characteristics associated with the counterflow jet may provide guidance for future design of hypersonic reentry capsules. The newly emerged space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method is used to perform time-accurate, unstructured mesh Navier-Stokes computations for all cases investigated. The results show good agreement between experimental and numerical Schlieren pictures. Surface heat flux and aerodynamic force predictions of the capsule configurations are discussed in detail.

  1. Entry Trajectory Issues for the Stardust Sample Return Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Mitcheltree, Robert A.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil

    1999-01-01

    The Stardust mission was successfully launched on February 7, 1999. It will be the first mission to return samples from a comet. The sample return capsule, which is passively controlled during the fastest Earth entry ever, will land by parachute in Utah. The present study describes the analysis of the entry, descent, and landing of the returning sample capsule utilizing the final, launch configuration capsule mass properties. The effects of two aerodynamic instabilities are revealed (one in the high altitude free molecular regime and the other in the transonic/subsonic flow regime). These instabilities could lead to unacceptably large excursions in the angle-of-attack near peak heating and main parachute deployment, respectively. To reduce the excursions resulting from the high altitude instability, the entry spin rate of the capsule is increased. To stabilize the excursions from the transonic/subsonic instability, a drogue chute with deployment triggered by a gravity-switch and timer is added prior to main parachute deployment. A Monte Carlo dispersion analysis of the modified entry (from which the impact of off-nominal conditions during the entry is ascertained) predicts that the capsule attitude excursions near peak heating and drogue chute deployment are within Stardust mission limits. Additionally, the size of the resulting 3-sigma landing ellipse is 60.8 km in downrange by 19.9 km in crossrange, which is within the Utah Test and Training Range boundaries.

  2. Laser tissue interaction in the porcine otic capsule tissue model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Brian J.; Lee, Jon P.; Berns, Michael W.; White, Joel M.; Neev, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The absence of a hard tissue model reflecting the properties of the inner and middle ear has made it difficult to draw consistent conclusions on the many experimental laser studies in ear surgery. Porcine otic capsule tissue has been studied by our group extensively in a wide variety of laser-tissue interaction studies and is an economically attractive and simple to use hard tissue source. Porcine otic capsule was harvested from the temporal bone of freshly sacrificed domestic pigs via a craniotomy approach. The technique when performed with power instruments takes less than 5 minutes and the entire otic capsule bone is removed intact as the suture line is not fused to the remaining petrous apex. The tissue specimen contains a vestibule, cochlea, oval and round windows, and internal auditory canals which can be used as an intact middle ear/inner ear system. The tissue can also be micromachined into thin slabs of bone varying for 100 - 1000 micrometers in thickness. In order to quantify more precisely the laser-tissue interactions in otic capsule, optical properties (absorption and scattering) and physical properties were determined (acoustic impedance). The tissue has been used in a wide variety of basic studies investigating the laser-tissue interactions with argon, KTP, (Nd:YAG), carbon dioxide, Ho:YAG, Er:YAG, and XeCl lasers. Porcine otic capsule is an ideal tissue on which standardized test can be performed to compare the relative effects of various laser in otosurgical models.

  3. Posterior ventricular anchoring neochordal repair of degenerative mitral regurgitation efficiently remodels and repositions posterior leaflet prolapse†

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Y. Joseph; MacArthur, John W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Mitral valve repair techniques for degenerative disease typically entail leaflet resection or neochordal construction, which may require extensive resection, leaflet detachment/reattachment, reliance on diseased native chords or precise neochordal measuring. Occasionally, impaired leaflet mobility, reduced coaptation surface and systolic anterior motion (SAM) may result. We describe a novel technique for addressing posterior leaflet prolapse/flail, which both simplifies repair and addresses these issues. METHODS Fifty-four patients (age 62 ± 11 years) with degenerative MR underwent this new repair, 36 of whom minimally-invasively. A CV5 Gore-Tex suture was placed into the posterior left ventricular myocardium underneath the prolapsing segment as an anchor. This suture was then used to imbricate a portion of the prolapsed segment into the ventricle, creating a smooth, broad, non-prolapsed coapting surface on a leaflet with preserved mobility, additional neochordal support and posteriorly positioned enough to preclude SAM. RESULTS Repair was successful in all patients. The mean MR grade was reduced from +3.8 to +0.1 with 50 of 54 patients having zero MR and 4 of the 54 having trace or mild MR. All patients had proper antero-posterior location of the coaptation line of a mean length of 10.2 mm, and preserved posterior leaflet mobility. No patients had SAM or mitral stenosis. All patients were discharged and are currently doing well. CONCLUSION This new technique facilitated efficient single-suture repair of the prolapsed posterior leaflet mitral regurgitation without the need for resection or sliding annuloplasty. It precluded the need for precise neochordal measurement and preserved the leaflet coaptation surface. PMID:23449863

  4. Talar Osteochondroma Fracture Presenting as Posterior Ankle Impingement.

    PubMed

    Ercin, Ersin; Bilgili, Mustafa Gokhan; Gamsizkan, Mehmet; Avsar, Serdar

    2016-05-01

    Osteochondromas are the most common benign bone tumors. They are usually asymptomatic and found incidentally. When symptomatic, the symptoms are usually due to its location and size. Fracture of an osteochondroma presenting as posterior ankle impingement is a rare condition. We describe a 22-year-old man with solitary exostosis who presented with a posterior ankle mass and posterior ankle impingement with 2 years of follow-up. Surgical intervention was the treatment of choice in this patient, and histologic examination revealed a benign osteochondroma. Osteochondromas found in the posterior aspect of the talus can be complicated by fracture due to persistent motion of the ankle. Talar osteochondroma should be included in the differential diagnosis of posterior ankle impingement causes. Posterior talar osteochondromas, especially when a stalk is present, should be treated surgically before it is more complicated by a fracture and posterior ankle impingement.

  5. Surgical management of posterior fossa metastases.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Geraint J; Jenkinson, Michael D; Zakaria, Rasheed

    2016-12-01

    The diagnosis of brain metastases is associated with a poor prognosis reflecting uncontrolled primary disease that has spread to the relative sanctuary of the central nervous system. 20 % of brain metastases occur in the posterior fossa and are associated with significant morbidity. The risk of acute hydrocephalus and potential for sudden death means these metastases are often dealt with as emergency cases. This approach means a full pre-operative assessment and staging of underlying disease may be neglected and a proportion of patients undergo comparatively high risk surgery with little or no survival benefit. This study aimed to assess outcomes in patients to identify factors that may assist in case selection. We report a retrospective case series of 92 consecutive patients operated for posterior fossa metastases between 2007 and 2012. Routine demographic data was collected plus data on performance status, primary cancer site, details of surgery, adjuvant treatment and survival. The only independent positive prognostic factors identified on multivariate analysis were good performance status (if Karnofsky performance score >70, hazard ratio (HR) for death 0.36, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.18-0.69), adjuvant whole brain radiotherapy (HR 0.37, 95 % CI 0.21-0.65) and adjuvant chemotherapy where there was extracranial disease and non-synchronous presentation (HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.31-0.82). Patients presenting with posterior fossa metastases may not be investigated as thoroughly as those with supratentorial tumours. Staging and assessment is essential however, and in the meantime emergencies related to tumour mass effect should be managed with steroids and cerebrospinal fluid diversion as required.

  6. [Posterior dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint].

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Tatu; Madanat, Rami; Heinänen, Mikko; Brinck, Tuomas; Pajarinen, Jarkko

    2013-01-01

    Posterior dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint is a rare injury. It can be associated with life-threatening complications. Computed tomography is the imaging modality of choice with which possible associated injuries can be detected. Acute injuries are managed with closed reduction under general anaesthesia. A fracture-dislocation is inherently more unstable than an isolated dislocation. Surgical treatment is advocated in cases of delayed diagnosis or failed closed reduction. With early diagnosis and treatment, the long-term outcome of this injury is good.

  7. Entry Dispersion Analysis for the Genesis Sample Return Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil

    2005-01-01

    Genesis will be the first mission to return samples from beyond the Earth-Moon system. The spacecraft will be inserted into a halo orbit about the L1 (Sun-Earth) libration point where it will remain for two years collecting solar wind particles. Upon Earth return, the sample return capsule, which is passively controlled, will descend under parachute to Utah. The present study describes the analysis of the entry, descent, and landing scenario of the returning sample capsule. The robustness of the entry sequence is assessed through a Monte Carlo dispersion analysis where the impact of off-nominal conditions is ascertained. The dispersion results indicate that the capsule attitude excursions near peak heating and drogue chute deployment are within Genesis mission limits. Additionally, the size of the resulting 3-sigma landing ellipse is 47.8 km in downrange by 15.2 km in crossrange, which is within the Utah Test and Training Range boundaries.

  8. Sensitive Detection of Deliquescent Bacterial Capsules through Nanomechanical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Song Ha; Webb, Hayden K

    2015-10-20

    Encapsulated bacteria usually exhibit strong resistance to a wide range of sterilization methods, and are often virulent. Early detection of encapsulation can be crucial in microbial pathology. This work demonstrates a fast and sensitive method for the detection of encapsulated bacterial cells. Nanoindentation force measurements were used to confirm the presence of deliquescent bacterial capsules surrounding bacterial cells. Force/distance approach curves contained characteristic linear-nonlinear-linear domains, indicating cocompression of the capsular layer and cell, indentation of the capsule, and compression of the cell alone. This is a sensitive method for the detection and verification of the encapsulation status of bacterial cells. Given that this method was successful in detecting the nanomechanical properties of two different layers of cell material, i.e. distinguishing between the capsule and the remainder of the cell, further development may potentially lead to the ability to analyze even thinner cellular layers, e.g. lipid bilayers.

  9. Entry Dispersion Analysis for the Genesis Sample Return Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil

    1999-01-01

    Genesis will be the first mission to return samples from beyond the Earth-Moon system. The spacecraft will be inserted into a halo orbit about the L1 (Sun- Earth) libration point where it will remain for two years collecting solar wind particles. Upon Earth return, the sample return capsule, which is passively controlled, will descend under parachute to Utah. The present study describes the analysis of the entry, descent, and landing scenario of the returning sample capsule. The robustness of the entry sequence is assessed through a Monte Carlo dispersion analysis where the impact of off-nominal conditions is ascertained. The dispersion results indicate that the capsule attitude excursions near peak heating and drogue chute deployment are within Genesis mission limits. Additionally, the size of the resulting 3-sigma landing ellipse is 47.8 km in downrange by 15.2 km in crossrange, which is within the Utah Test and Training Range boundaries.

  10. Ingestible wireless capsules for enhanced diagnostic inspection of gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Huynh, Van An; Ting, Eng Kiat; Lai, Joshua Chong Yue; Wong, Kai Juan; Tan, Su Lim; Phee, Soo Jay

    2011-03-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy has become a common procedure for diagnostic inspection of gastrointestinal tract. This method offers a less-invasive alternative to traditional endoscopy by eliminating uncomfortable procedures of the traditional endoscopy. Moreover, it provides the opportunity for exploring inaccessible areas of the small intestine. Current capsule endoscopes, however, move by peristalsis and are not capable of detailed and on-demand inspection of desired locations. Here, we propose and develop two wireless endoscopes with maneuverable vision systems to enhance diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. The vision systems in these capsules are equipped with mechanical actuators to adjust the position of the camera. This may help to cover larger areas of the digestive tract and investigate desired locations. The preliminary experimental results showed that the developed platform could successfully communicate with the external control unit via human body and adjust the position of camera to limited degrees.

  11. Wireless steering mechanism with magnetic actuation for an endoscopic capsule.

    PubMed

    Menciassi, A; Valdastri, P; Quaglia, C; Buselli, E; Dario, P

    2009-01-01

    This paper illustrates the design, development and testing of a miniature mechanism to be integrated in endoscopic capsules for precise steering capabilities (Magnetic Internal Mechanism, MIM). The mechanism consists of an electromagnetic motor connected to a couple of small permanent magnets and immersed in a static magnetic field produced by an external permanent magnet or a by an electromagnetic coil. The overall steering capsule, integrating the magnetic steering mechanism and the vision system is 15.6 mm in diameter, 48 mm in length, 14.4 g in weight and can be oriented with an accuracy of 0.01 degrees . As regards system scalability, the capsule size could be reduced down to 11 mm in diameter by optimizing some mechanical components. On the other hand, the magnets size cannot be reduced because the magnetic link between internal and external magnets at typical operation distances (about 15 mm) would be weak.

  12. Trade study for the disposition of cesium and strontium capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Claghorn, R.D.

    1996-03-01

    This trade study analyzes alternatives for the eventual disposal of cesium and strontium capsules currently stored at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility as by-product. However, for purposes of this study, it is assumed that at some time in the future, the capsules will be declared high-level waste and therefore will require disposal at an offsite geologic repository. The study considered numerous alternatives and selected three for detailed analysis: (1) overpack and storage at high-level waste canister storage building, (2) overpack at the high-level waste vitrification facility followed by storage at a high-level waste canister storage building, and (3) blend capsule contents with other high-level waste feed streams and vitrify at the high-level waste vitrification facility.

  13. Stability and transition to chaos of regular capsule trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryngelson, Spencer; Freund, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    Elastic capsules flowing in sufficiently narrow confines, such as red blood cells in capillaries, are well-known to line up in a single-file train. The stability of such a train in less confined environments, where this organization is not observed, is investigated in a model system that includes full coupling between the viscous flow and suspended elastic capsules. A rich set of linearly amplifying disturbances, including short- and long-time perturbations (non-modal and spectral, respectively) are identified and analyzed. Finite-amplitude transiently amplifying perturbations are shown to provide a mechanism that can bypass slower asymptotic modal linear growth and precipitate the onset of nonlinear dynamics. Direct numerical simulations are used to verify the linear analysis and track the subsequent transition of the regular capsule trains into an apparently chaotic flow. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET 13-36972.

  14. Decompression of Posterior Ankle Impingement With Concomitant Anterior Ankle Pathology by Posterior Ankle Arthroscopy in the Supine Position.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-10-01

    Posterior ankle endoscopy is a safe and effective approach for treatment of posterior ankle impingement. This is usually performed with the patient in prone position. The purpose of this technical note is to describe an arthroscopic approach of decompression of posterior ankle impingement with the patient in supine position. This is indicated if there is posterior ankle impingement together with other ankle pathology requiring anterior ankle arthroscopy. This approach allows treatment of both anterior ankle and posterior ankle pathology with the patient in the supine position. Concomitant anterior ankle arthroscopy can be performed with the usual orientation without the need of change of patient's position.

  15. Therapeutic effect of Zijin capsule in liver fibrosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Da-Yong; Zhao, Gang; Chen, Jia-Chun; Ye, Gan-Mei; Bing, Fei-Hong; Fan, Bu-Wu

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To confirm the therapeutic effect of Zijin capsule on liver fibrosis in rat model. METHODS: Model group: Bovine serum albumin (BSA) Freund’s incomplete adjuvant 0.5 mL was injected subdermally at d1 d15 d22 d29 and d36 for primary sensitization. Seven days after the fifth injection, BSA antibody in the serum was detected by double agar diffusion method. Normal saline of 0.4 mL was injected through cauda vein to BSA antibody-positive rat twice a week for fifteen times. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoction group and Zijin capsule group: In the attack injection period, Chinese medicinal decoction or Zijin capsule was given ig, the others were the same as in the model group. NS was used in the control group. The collagen content of rat liver was determined by Bergman’s method and expressed as x- ± s. The liver pathological changes were divided into four grades and expressed as the avarage of the total rank sum. RESULTS: The collagen content (mg/g) of the liver in the control group (7.2 ± 1.9) was significantly lower than that in the other groups; it was higher in the model group (31.7 ± 16.6) than that in the two therapeutic groups; and lower in Zijin capsule group (9.7 ± 2.8) than that in the TCM decoction group (11.5 ± 5.3). The pathological changes were more aggravated in the model group (37.4) than those in the two therapeutic groups; and more severe in the TCM decoction group (30.2) than in the Zijin capsule group (22.9). CONCLUSION: The therapeutic effect of Zijin capsule on the model was confirmed. PMID:11819291

  16. Water-Landing Characteristics of a Reentry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGehee, John R.; Hathaway, Melvin E.; Vaughan, Victor L., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations have been made to determine the water-landing characteristics of a conical-shaped reentry capsule having a segment of a sphere as the bottom. For the experimental portion of the investigation, a 1/12-scale model capsule and a full-scale capsule were tested for nominal flight paths of 65 deg and 90 deg (vertical), a range of contact attitudes from -30 deg to 30 deg, and a full-scale vertical velocity of 30 feet per second at contact. Accelerations were measured by accelerometers installed at the centers of gravity of the model and full-scale capsules. For the model test the accelerations were measured along the X-axis (roll) and Z-axis (yaw) and for the full-scale test they were measured along the X-axis (roll), Y-axis (pitch), and Z-axis (yaw). Motions and displacements of the capsules that occurred after contact were determined from high-speed motion pictures. The theoretical investigation was conducted to determine the accelerations that might occur along the X-axis when the capsule contacted the water from a 90 deg flight path at a 0 deg attitude. Assuming a rigid body, computations were made from equations obtained by utilizing the principle of the conservation of momentum. The agreement among data obtained from the model test, the full-scale test, and the theory was very good. The accelerations along the X-axis, for a vertical flight path and 0 deg attitude, were in the order of 40g. For a 65 deg flight path and 0 deg attitude, the accelerations along the X-axis were in the order of 50g. Changes in contact attitude, in either the positive or negative direction from 0 deg attitude, considerably reduced the magnitude of the accelerations measured along the X-axis. Accelerations measured along the Y- and Z-axes were relatively small at all test conditions.

  17. An O Antigen Capsule Modulates Bacterial Pathogenesis in Shigella sonnei

    PubMed Central

    Caboni, Mariaelena; Pédron, Thierry; Rossi, Omar; Goulding, David; Pickard, Derek; Citiulo, Francesco; MacLennan, Calman A.; Dougan, Gordon; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Saul, Allan; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Gerke, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Shigella is the leading cause for dysentery worldwide. Together with several virulence factors employed for invasion, the presence and length of the O antigen (OAg) of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays a key role in pathogenesis. S. flexneri 2a has a bimodal OAg chain length distribution regulated in a growth-dependent manner, whereas S. sonnei LPS comprises a monomodal OAg. Here we reveal that S. sonnei, but not S. flexneri 2a, possesses a high molecular weight, immunogenic group 4 capsule, characterized by structural similarity to LPS OAg. We found that a galU mutant of S. sonnei, that is unable to produce a complete LPS with OAg attached, can still assemble OAg material on the cell surface, but a galU mutant of S. flexneri 2a cannot. High molecular weight material not linked to the LPS was purified from S. sonnei and confirmed by NMR to contain the specific sugars of the S. sonnei OAg. Deletion of genes homologous to the group 4 capsule synthesis cluster, previously described in Escherichia coli, abolished the generation of the high molecular weight OAg material. This OAg capsule strongly affects the virulence of S. sonnei. Uncapsulated knockout bacteria were highly invasive in vitro and strongly inflammatory in the rabbit intestine. But, the lack of capsule reduced the ability of S. sonnei to resist complement-mediated killing and to spread from the gut to peripheral organs. In contrast, overexpression of the capsule decreased invasiveness in vitro and inflammation in vivo compared to the wild type. In conclusion, the data indicate that in S. sonnei expression of the capsule modulates bacterial pathogenesis resulting in balanced capabilities to invade and persist in the host environment. PMID:25794007

  18. Characterization of the Kingella kingae Polysaccharide Capsule and Exopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Kimberly F.; Porsch, Eric A.; Heiss, Christian; Black, Ian; Azadi, Parastoo; St. Geme, Joseph W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that Kingella kingae produces a polysaccharide capsule. In an effort to determine the composition and structure of this polysaccharide capsule, in the current study we purified capsular material from the surface of K. kingae strain 269–492 variant KK01 using acidic conditions to release the capsule and a series of steps to remove DNA, RNA, and protein. Analysis of the resulting material by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry revealed N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc), 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo), and galactose (Gal). Further analysis by NMR demonstrated two distinct polysaccharides, one consisting of GalNAc and Kdo with the structure →3)-β-GalpNAc-(1→5)-β-Kdop-(2→ and the other containing galactose alone with the structure →5)-β-Galf-(1→. Disruption of the ctrA gene required for surface localization of the K. kingae polysaccharide capsule resulted in elimination of GalNAc and Kdo but had no effect on the presence of Gal in bacterial surface extracts. In contrast, deletion of the pamABCDE locus involved in production of a reported galactan exopolysaccharide eliminated Gal but had no effect on the presence of GalNAc and Kdo in surface extracts. Disruption of ctrA and deletion of pamABCDE resulted in a loss of all carbohydrates in surface extracts. These results establish that K. kingae strain KK01 produces a polysaccharide capsule with the structure →3)-β-GalpNAc-(1→5)-β-Kdop-(2→ and a separate exopolysaccharide with the structure →5)-β-Galf-(1→. The polysaccharide capsule and the exopolysaccharide require distinct genetic loci for surface localization. PMID:24098695

  19. Motion of an elastic capsule in a constricted microchannel.

    PubMed

    Rorai, Cecilia; Touchard, Antoine; Zhu, Lailai; Brandt, Luca

    2015-05-01

    We study the motion of an elastic capsule through a microchannel characterized by a localized constriction. We consider a capsule with a stress-free spherical shape and impose its steady-state configuration in an infinitely long straight channel as the initial condition for our calculations. We report how the capsule deformation, velocity, retention time, and maximum stress of the membrane are affected by the capillary number, Ca , and the constriction shape. We estimate the deformation by measuring the variation of the three-dimensional surface area and a series of alternative quantities easier to extract from experiments. These are the Taylor parameter, the perimeter and the area of the capsule in the spanwise plane. We find that the perimeter is the quantity that best reproduces the behavior of the three-dimensional surface area. This is maximum at the centre of the constriction and shows a second peak after it, whose location depends on the Ca number. We observe that, in general, area-deformation-correlated quantities grow linearly with Ca , while velocity-correlated quantities saturate for large Ca but display a steeper increase for small Ca . The velocity of the capsule divided by the velocity of the flow displays, surprisingly, two different qualitative behaviors for small and large capillary numbers. Finally, we report that longer constrictions and spanwise wall bounded (versus spanwise periodic) domains cause larger deformations and velocities. If the deformation and velocity in the spanwise wall bounded domains are rescaled by the initial equilibrium deformation and velocity, their behavior is undistinguishable from that in a periodic domain. In contrast, a remarkably different behavior is reported in sinusoidally shaped and smoothed rectangular constrictions indicating that the capsule dynamics is particularly sensitive to abrupt changes in the cross section. In a smoothed rectangular constriction larger deformations and velocities occur over a larger

  20. Spontaneous Late Intraocular Lens and Capsule Tension Ring Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Koçak Altıntaş, Ayşe Gül; Omay, Aslıhan Esra; Çelik, Selda

    2017-01-01

    In this report, three cases with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) and advanced age with spontaneous intraocular lens (IOL) and capsule tension ring (CTR) dislocation were presented. All of our cases experienced progressive vision loss without an episode of strenuous physical activity, trauma, or any other ocular disease. Spontaneous dislocation was observed 2.5 to 8 years after uneventful phacosurgery. Each patient underwent complete IOL and CTR removal combined with anterior chamber IOL implantation. No complications were noticed during follow-up. As a result, capsule tension ring does not prevent late IOL dislocation after uncomplicated phacosurgery in the presence of PEX. Therefore, close follow-up is essential for patients with PEX.

  1. Plastic ablator ignition capsule design for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D S; Haan, S W; Hammel, B A; Salmonson, J D; Callahan, D A; Town, R J

    2009-10-06

    This paper describes current efforts to develop a plastic ablator capsule design for the first ignition attempt on the National Ignition Facility. The trade-offs in capsule scale and laser energy that must be made to achieve ignition probabilities comparable to those with other candidate ablators, beryllium and high-density carbon, are emphasized. Large numbers of 1-D simulations, meant to assess the statistical behavior of the target design, as well as 2-D simulations to assess the target's susceptibility to Rayleigh-Taylor growth are discussed.

  2. Implemented a wireless communication system for VGA capsule endoscope.

    PubMed

    Moon, Yeon-Kwan; Lee, Jyung Hyun; Park, Hee-Joon; Cho, Jin-Ho; Choi, Hyun-Chul

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several medical devices that use wireless communication are under development. In this paper, the small size frequency shift keying (FSK) transmitter and a monofilar antenna for the capsule endoscope, enabling the medical device to transmit VGA-size images of the intestine. To verify the functionality of the proposed wireless communication system, computer simulations and animal experiments were performed with the implemented capsule endoscope that includes the proposed wireless communication system. Several fundamental experiments are carried out using the implemented transmitter and antenna, and animal in-vivo experiments were performed to verify VGA image transmission.

  3. Capsule implosions driven by dynamic hohlraum x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, James

    2005-10-01

    Dynamic hohlraum experiments at the Z facility already implode capsules with up to 80 kJ absorbed x-ray energy. However, many challenging issues remain for ICF. The present experiments use diagnostic capsules to address two of these issues: symmetry measurement and control and building understanding of the capsule/hohlraum implosion system. A suite of x-ray spectrometers record time and space resolved spectra emitted by Ar tracer atoms in the implosion core, simultaneously from up to three different quasi-orthogonal directions. Comparing the results with simulation predictions provide severe tests of understanding. These data also can used to produce a tomographic reconstruction of the time resolved core temperature and density profiles. X-ray and neutron diagnostics are used to examine how the implosion conditions change as the capsule design changes. The capsule design changes include variations in CH wall thickness and diameter, Ge-doped CH shells, and SiO2 shells. In addition, a new campaign investigating Be capsule implosions is beginning. Be capsules may offer superior performance for dynamic hohlraum research and it may be possible to investigate NIF-relevant Be implosion issues such as the fill tube effects, sensitivity to columnar growth associated with sputtered Be capsule fabrication, and the effect of Cu dopants on implosion conditions. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. * In collaboration with G.A. Rochau, G.A. Chandler, S.A. Slutz, P.W. Lake, G. Cooper, G.S. Dunham, R.J. Leeper, R. Lemke, T.A. Mehlhorn, T.J. Nash, D.S. Nielsen, K. Peterson, C.L. Ruiz, D.B. Sinars, J. Torres, W. Varnum, Sandia; R.C. Mancini, T.J. Buris-Mog, UNR; I. Golovkin, J.J. MacFarlane, PRISM; A. Nikro, D. Steinman, J.D. Kilkenny, H. Xu, General Atomics; M. Bump, T.C. Moore, K-tech; D.G. Schroen, Schafer

  4. Colon capsule endoscopy: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline.

    PubMed

    Spada, C; Hassan, C; Galmiche, J P; Neuhaus, H; Dumonceau, J M; Adler, S; Epstein, O; Gay, G; Pennazio, M; Rex, D K; Benamouzig, R; de Franchis, R; Delvaux, M; Devière, J; Eliakim, R; Fraser, C; Hagenmuller, F; Herrerias, J M; Keuchel, M; Macrae, F; Munoz-Navas, M; Ponchon, T; Quintero, E; Riccioni, M E; Rondonotti, E; Marmo, R; Sung, J J; Tajiri, H; Toth, E; Triantafyllou, K; Van Gossum, A; Costamagna, G

    2012-05-01

    PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) is an innovative noninvasive, and painless ingestible capsule technique that allows exploration of the colon without the need for sedation and gas insufflation. Although it is already available in European and other countries, the clinical indications for CCE as well as the reporting and work-up of detected findings have not yet been standardized. The aim of this evidence-based and consensus-based guideline, commissioned by the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) is to furnish healthcare providers with a comprehensive framework for potential implementation of this technique in a clinical setting.

  5. Wireless endoscopy in 2020: Will it still be a capsule?

    PubMed Central

    Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Iakovidis, Dimitris K; Karargyris, Alexandros; Rondonotti, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the major problem of all existing commercial capsule devices is the lack of control of movement. In the future, with an interface application, the clinician will be able to stop and direct the device into points of interest for detailed inspection/diagnosis, and therapy delivery. This editorial presents current commercially-available new designs, European projects and delivery capsule and gives an overview of the progress required and progress that will be achieved -according to the opinion of the authors- in the next 5 year leading to 2020. PMID:25954085

  6. Preshot Predictions for Defect Induced Mix (DIME) Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Paul A.; Krasheninnikova, Natalia S.; Tregillis, Ian L.; Schmitt, Mark J.

    2012-07-31

    In this memo, we evaluate the most probable yield and other results for the Defect Induced Mix (DIME-12A) Polar Direct Drive (PDD) capsule-only shots. We evaluate the expected yield, bang time, burn averaged ion temperature, and the average electron temperature of the Ge line-emitting region. We also include synthetic images of the capsule backlit by Cu K-{alpha} emission (8.39 keV) and core self-emission synthetic images. This memo is a companion to the maximum credible yield memo (LA-UR-12-00287) published earlier.

  7. Dry coating of soft gelatin capsules with HPMCAS.

    PubMed

    Cerea, Matteo; Foppoli, Anastasia; Maroni, Alessandra; Palugan, Luca; Zema, Lucia; Sangalli, Maria Edvige

    2008-11-01

    Dry coating is an innovative powder-layering technique that enables the formation of coatings on solid dosage forms with no need for using water or organic solvents. This technique envisages the distribution of polymer powder blends onto substrate cores and the concurrent or alternate nebulization of liquid plasticizers. In this work, a dry coating process based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) was set up in a rotary fluid bed equipment to prepare enteric-coated soft gelatin capsules. Promising results were obtained in terms of process feasibility and product characteristics, thus suggesting the possibility of advantageous applications for the investigated technique when dealing with gelatin capsule substrates.

  8. Novel calcium-alginate capsules with aqueous core and thermo-responsive membrane.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Yun; Jin, Yao; Xie, Rui; Liu, Jie-Yi; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Meng, Tao; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2011-01-01

    Novel calcium-alginate (Ca-alginate) capsules with aqueous core and thermo-responsive membrane are successfully prepared by introducing a co-extrusion minifluidic approach, and the thermo-responsive gating characteristics of Ca-alginate capsule membranes embedded with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) microspheres are investigated systematically. The experimental results show that the prepared Ca-alginate capsules are highly monodisperse, and the average diameter and membrane thickness of Ca-alginate capsules are about 2.96 mm and 0.11 mm respectively. The Ca-alginate capsule membranes exhibit desired thermo-responsive gating property. With increasing the content of PNIPAM microspheres embedded in the Ca-alginate capsule membranes, the thermo-responsive gating coefficient of the capsule membranes increases simply. When solute molecules diffuse through the capsule membrane, the thermo-responsive gating coefficient is significantly affected by the molecular weight of solute molecules.

  9. 21 CFR 876.1300 - Ingestible telemetric gastrointestinal capsule imaging system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... images of the small bowel with a wireless camera contained in a capsule. This device includes an ingestible capsule (containing a light source, camera, transmitter, and battery), an antenna array,...

  10. 21 CFR 876.1300 - Ingestible telemetric gastrointestinal capsule imaging system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... images of the small bowel with a wireless camera contained in a capsule. This device includes an ingestible capsule (containing a light source, camera, transmitter, and battery), an antenna array,...

  11. Traumatic posterior dislocation of hip in children.

    PubMed

    Kutty, S; Thornes, B; Curtin, W A; Gilmore, M F

    2001-02-01

    Traumatic posterior dislocation of the hip joint in children is an uncommon injury. It constitutes a true orthopedic emergency. It makes up over 80% of pediatric hip dislocations. In children, it can occur as a result of minimal trauma, which is attributed to a soft pliable acetabulum and ligamentous laxity. In skeletally mature adolescents, a greater force is required to dislocate the hip joint. Delay in reduction is associated with long-term complications such as avascular necrosis and degenerative arthritis. Avascular necrosis is related to the duration of dislocation. A poorer prognosis is associated with delay in reduction beyond 6 hours, advanced skeletal maturity, or multiple traumas. Prompt reduction minimizes complications. We report two cases of traumatic posterior dislocation of hip in children aged 3 and 14 years. Both were reduced within 6 hours of dislocation, and review at 6 months revealed normal examination and no evidence of any post-traumatic changes. Post-reduction treatment remains without a consensus. This review highlights the clinical presentation, management, and time-sensitive complications of the injury.

  12. Management of an Uncomplicated Posterior Elbow Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Blackard, Douglas; Sampson, Jo-Ann

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To present a case of an uncomplicated posterior elbow dislocation in a US World Cup athlete and discuss her rehabilitation. Background: Traditional protocol for management of this injury has been splint immobilization for several weeks, but research suggests a shortened duration of immobilization and early active motion. Differential Diagnosis: Elbow dislocation with possible fracture. Treatment: The dislocation was reduced and a compression bandage and sling were applied. The sports medicine staff and athlete determined that rehabilitation would involve limited immobilization with a posterior splint. Also, active range-of- motion exercises were to be incorporated early in the range-of- motion program to decrease pain at the articulation. Uniqueness: The athlete was not immobilized and her aggressive five-phase rehabilitation program progressed according to decrease in inflammation and increase in range of motion and strength. Conclusions: Shortened immobilization and return to World Championship competition 6 weeks postinjury had no longterm adverse effects on the athlete. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig. 5. PMID:16558436

  13. Posterior malleolar fractures of the ankle.

    PubMed

    Bartoníček, J; Rammelt, S; Tuček, M; Naňka, O

    2015-12-01

    Despite an increasing awareness of injuries to PM in ankle fracture-dislocations, there are still many open questions. The mere presence of a posterior fragment leads to significantly poorer outcomes. Adequate diagnosis, classification and treatment require preoperative CT examination, preferably with 3D reconstructions. The indication for surgical treatment is made individually on the basis of comprehensive assessment of the three-dimensional outline of the PM fracture and all associated injuries to the ankle including syndesmotic instability. Anatomic fixation of the avulsed posterior tibiofibular ligament will contribute to syndesmotic stability and restore the integrity of the incisura tibiae thus facilitating anatomic reduction of the distal fibula. A necessary prerequisite is mastering of posterolateral and posteromedial approaches and the technique of direct reduction and internal fixation. Further clinical studies with higher numbers of patients treated by similar methods and evaluation of pre- and postoperative CT scans will be necessary to determine reliable prognostic factors associated with certain types of PM fractures and associated injuries to the ankle.

  14. Microsurgical anatomy of the posterior fossa cisterns.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, H; Rhoton, A L; Peace, D

    1988-07-01

    The microsurgical anatomy of the posterior fossa cisterns was examined in 15 cadavers using 3X to 40X magnification. Liliequist's membrane was found to split into two arachnoidal sheets as it spreads upward from the dorsum sellae: an upper sheet, called the diencephalic membrane, which attaches to the diencephalon at the posterior edge of the mamillary bodies, and a lower sheet, called the mesencephalic membrane, which attaches along the junction of the midbrain and pons. Several other arachnoidal membranes that separate the cisterns were identified. These include the anterior pontine membrane, which separates the prepontine and cerebellopontine cisterns; the lateral pontomesencephalic membrane, which separates the ambient and cerebellopontine cisterns; the medial pontomedullary membrane, which separates the premedullary and prepontine cisterns; and the lateral pontomedullary membrane, which separates the cerebellopontine and cerebellomedullary cisterns. The three cisterns in which the arachnoid trabeculae and membranes are the most dense and present the greatest obstacle at operation are the interpeduncular and quadrigeminal cisterns and the cisterna magna. Numerous arachnoid membranes were found to intersect the oculomotor nerves. The neural and vascular structures in each cistern are reviewed.

  15. Prehension Movements in a Patient (AC) with Posterior Parietal Cortex Damage and Posterior Callosal Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frak, Victor; Paulignan, Yves; Jeannerod, Marc; Michel, Francois; Cohen, Henri

    2006-01-01

    Prehension movements of the right hand were recorded in a right-handed man (AC), with an injury to the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and with a section of the left half of the splenium. The kinematic analysis of AC's grasping movements in direct and perturbed conditions was compared to that of five control subjects. A novel effect in…

  16. Cellulose nanofiber/nanocrystal reinforced capsules: a fast and facile approach toward assembly of liquid-core capsules with high mechanical stability.

    PubMed

    Svagan, Anna J; Musyanovych, Anna; Kappl, Michael; Bernhardt, Max; Glasser, Gunnar; Wohnhaas, Christian; Berglund, Lars A; Risbo, Jens; Landfester, Katharina

    2014-05-12

    Liquid-core capsules of high mechanical stability open up for many solid state-like applications where functionality depending on liquid mobility is vital. Herein, a novel concept for fast and facile improvement of the mechanical properties of walls of liquid-core capsules is reported. By imitating nature's own way of enhancing the mechanical properties in liquid-core capsules, the parenchyma plant cells found in fruits and vegetables, a blend of short cellulose nanofibers (<1 μm, NFC) and nanocrystals (CNC) was exploited in the creation of the capsule walls. The NFC/CNC blend was prepared from a new version of the classical wood pulp hydrolysis. The capsule shell consisted of a covalently (by aromatic diisocyanate) cross-linked NFC/CNC structure at the outer capsule wall and an inner layer dominated by aromatic polyurea. The mechanical properties revealed an effective capsule elastic modulus of 4.8 GPa at 17 wt % NFC/CNC loading, about six times higher compared to a neat aromatic polyurea capsule (0.79 GPa) and 3 orders of magnitude higher than previously reported capsules from regenerated cellulose (0.0074 GPa). The outstanding mechanical properties are ascribed to the dense nanofiber structure, present in the outer part of the capsule wall, that is formed by oriented NFC/CNC of high average aspect ratio (L/d ∼ 70) and held together by both covalent (urethane bonds) and physical bonds (hydrogen bonds).

  17. GNSS integer ambiguity validation based on posterior probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zemin; Bian, Shaofeng

    2015-10-01

    GNSS integer ambiguity validation is considered to be a challenge task for decades. Several kinds of validation tests are developed and widely used in these years, but theoretical basis is their weakness. Ambiguity validation theoretically is an issue of hypothesis test. In the frame of Bayesian hypothesis testing, posterior probability is the canonical standard that statistical decision should be based on. In this contribution, (i) we derive the posterior probability of the fixed ambiguity based on the Bayesian principle and modify it for practice ambiguity validation. (ii) The optimal property of the posterior probability test is proved based on an extended Neyman-Pearson lemma. Since validation failure rate is the issue users most concerned about, (iii) we derive the failure rate upper bound of the posterior probability test, so the user can use the posterior probability test either in the fixed posterior probability or in the fixed failure rate way. Simulated as well as real observed data are used for experimental validations. The results show that (i) the posterior probability test is the most effective within the R-ratio test, difference test, ellipsoidal integer aperture test and posterior probability test, (ii) the posterior probability test is computational efficient and (iii) the failure rate estimation for posterior probability test is useful.

  18. Visual input to the mouse lateral posterior and posterior thalamic nuclei: photoreceptive origins and retinotopic order

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Annette E.; Procyk, Christopher A.; Howarth, Michael; Walmsley, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Key points The lateral posterior and posterior thalamic nuclei have been implicated in aspects of visually guided behaviour and reflex responses to light, including those dependent on melanopsin photoreception.Here we investigated the extent and basic properties of visually evoked activity across the mouse lateral posterior and posterior thalamus.We show that a subset of retinal projections to these regions derive from melanopsin‐expressing retinal ganglion cells and find many cells that exhibit melanopsin‐dependent changes in firing.We also show that subsets of cells across these regions integrate signals from both eyes in various ways and that, within the lateral posterior thalamus, visual responses are retinotopically ordered. Abstract In addition to the primary thalamocortical visual relay in the lateral geniculate nuclei, a number of other thalamic regions contribute to aspects of visual processing. Thus, the lateral posterior thalamic nuclei (LP/pulvinar) appear important for various functions including determining visual saliency, visually guided behaviours and, alongside dorsal portions of the posterior thalamic nuclei (Po), multisensory processing of information related to aversive stimuli. However, despite the growing importance of mice as a model for understanding visual system organisation, at present we know very little about the basic visual response properties of cells in the mouse LP or Po. Prompted by earlier suggestions that melanopsin photoreception might be important for certain functions of these nuclei, we first employ specific viral tracing to show that a subset of retinal projections to the LP derive from melanopsin‐expressing retinal ganglion cells. We next use multielectrode electrophysiology to demonstrate that LP and dorsal Po cells exhibit a variety of responses to simple visual stimuli including two distinct classes that express melanopsin‐dependent changes in firing (together comprising ∼25% of neurons we recorded). We also

  19. Modified conventional hard gelatin capsules as fast disintegrating dosage form in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Ciper, Mesut; Bodmeier, Roland

    2006-02-01

    Fast disintegrating capsules for administration in the oral cavity were prepared either by perforation or by vacuum-drying of conventional hard capsules. When compared to other fast disintegrating dosage forms (e.g. lyophilized sponges or tablets), these capsules have various advantages, in particular, a high drug loading capacity and no compression steps. The disintegration time of conventional hard gelatin capsules (HGC) was reduced from 91 to 39 s by introducing 6-10 small holes (diameter =25-50 microm) into the capsule shell. Vacuum-drying of conventional hard gelatin capsules resulted in brittle capsules, which broke rapidly in the oral cavity. The brittleness of the hard gelatin capsules correlated well with their moisture content. The critical moisture value for sufficient brittleness of hard gelatin capsules was <4% w/w. In contrast, HPMC capsules remained flexible, even at low moisture content. The moisture uptake of various capsule fillers was in the order of Avicel PH101 > lactose > Avicel PH112 > or = mannitol. Hard gelatin capsules filled with mannitol and packaged in bottles with silica gel kept their desired brittleness during 6 months storage at various relative humidities.

  20. Investigation on the aerosol performance of dry powder inhalation hypromellose capsules with different lubricant levels.

    PubMed

    Saleem, I Y; Diez, F; Jones, B E; Kayali, N; Polo, L

    2015-08-15

    HPMC capsules are made by a dipping process and a surface lubricant for the mould pins is an essential processing aid for removing dried capsules shells. For the purpose of this study, the level was determined by quantifying methyloleate (MO) a component found in the lubricant but not in the hypromellose capsules. Here we investigated the influence of the lubricant, low (10.81 μg/capsule=60 mg/kg MO), medium (15.97 μg/capsule=90 mg/kg MO) and high (23.23 μg/capsule=127 mg/kg MO) content on powder (binary mixture of salbutamol: lactose, 1:50 w/w) aerosolization properties was investigated. Results indicated significantly lower emitted dose from capsules with 60 mg/kg MO. Furthermore, the 90 and 127 mg/kg MO level of lubricant capsules produced almost double the Fine Particle Dose & Fine Particle Fraction compared with the low level of lubricant. The data indicates that lubricant level within capsules has an influence on deposition profiles and amount of drug remaining in capsule and inhaler device after actuation. It is suggested lubricant levels greater than 60 mg/kg MO per capsule are required to minimise powder retention within capsules and maximise deposition profiles. AFM (atomic force microscopy) data suggest that internal surface roughness may be related with this phenomena.

  1. Les Habitats: Culture Capsules in English for Use in Beginning French Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofts, Jan; And Others

    Eight culture capsules describing various aspects of French housing are presented. Each capsule includes a French-American contrast and gives ideas for classroom presentation and student activities. The capsules deal with: le logement, les immeubles, les exterieurs, la minuterie, les portes, la salle de bain, le refrigerateur, and culture grains…

  2. Oral delivery of insulin using chitosan capsules cross-linked with phytic acid.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunah; Jeong, Chanmin; Ghafoor, Kashif; Cho, Sungyeon; Park, Jiyong

    2011-01-01

    Phytic acid (PA) was used as a cross-linking agent for encapsulation of insulin in a chitosan matrix for oral delivery of insulin. PA-chitosan capsules were compared with tripolyphosphate (TPP)-chitosan capsules for stable oral delivery of insulin. During 2 h incubation in simulated gastric fluid, PA-chitosan capsules prepared using pH 6, 6% PA solutions showed better stability than TPP-chitosan capsules prepared using pH 7, 6% TTP solution. PA-chitosan capsules released less than 60% of their encapsulated insulin after 24 h incubation in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. TPP-chitosan capsules showed burst release and virtually the entire insulin content was released in 12 h. Both capsule types were tested in vivo via oral drug administration using diabetic mice. PA-chitosan capsules significantly decreased blood glucose levels while TPP-chitosan capsules caused a lesser reduction. The relative pharmacological bioactivity of PA-chitosan capsules prepared was 6.4% while that of TPP-chitosan capsules was 1.1%. PA-chitosan capsules appeared to have good potential for use in oral delivery of insulin for sustained control of the blood glucose level.

  3. 76 FR 3143 - Determination That ALBAMYCIN (Novobiocin Sodium) Capsule, 250 Milligrams, Was Withdrawn From Sale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That ALBAMYCIN (Novobiocin Sodium) Capsule... ALBAMYCIN (novobiocin sodium) capsule, 250 milligrams (mg) was withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or... (novobiocin sodium) capsule, 250 mg. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nancy Hayes, Center for Drug...

  4. 77 FR 53892 - Determination That ALOXI (Palonosetron Hydrochloride) Capsules, 0.5 Milligram (Base), Were Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ...) Capsules, 0.5 Milligram (Base), Were Not Withdrawn From Sale for Reasons of Safety or Effectiveness AGENCY... determined that ALOXI (palonosetron hydrochloride (HCl)) Capsules, 0.5 milligram (mg) (base), were not... abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for palonosetron HCl capsules, 0.5 mg (base), if all other legal...

  5. 78 FR 1221 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Ponstel® (Mefenamic Acid) Capsules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... (Mefenamic Acid) Capsules AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION... acid) capsules. Based upon the facts presented, CBP has concluded in the final determination that India is the country of origin of the Ponstel (mefenamic acid) capsules for purposes of U.S....

  6. 76 FR 20357 - Determination That KEFLEX (Cephalexin) Capsule, Equivalent to 333 Milligrams Base, Was Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... determined that KEFLEX (cephalexin) capsule, equivalent to (EQ) 333 milligrams (mg) base, was not withdrawn... abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for cephalexin capsule, EQ 333 mg base, if all other legal and... (cephalexin) capsule, EQ 333 mg base, is the subject of NDA 050405 held by Victory Pharma, Inc., and the...

  7. Developing gelatin-starch blends for use as capsule materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nuozi; Liu, Hongsheng; Yu, Long; Liu, Xingxun; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Ling; Shanks, Robert

    2013-01-30

    Blends of gelatin with up to 50% hydroxypropylated high amylose (80%) corn starch were developed as capsule materials. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was used as both a plasticizer and a compatibilizer in the blends. In order to prepare hard capsules for pharmaceutical applications using the well-established method of dipping stainless steel mold pins into solution, solutions with higher solids concentrations (up to 30%) were developed. The solutions, films and capsules of the different gelatin-starch blends were characterized by viscosity, transparency, tensile testing, water contact angle and SEM. The linear microstructure of the high amylose starch, and the flexible and more hydrophilic hydroxylpropylene groups grafted onto the starch improved the compatibility between the gelatin and starch. SEM revealed a continuous phase of gelatin on the surface of films from all blends. The water contact angle of pure gelatin and the different blends were similar, indicating a continuous phase of gelatin. By optimizing temperature and incubation time to control viscosity, capsules of various blends were successfully developed. PEG increased the transparency and toughness of the various blends.

  8. Pneumococcal Capsules and Their Types: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Geno, K. Aaron; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L.; Song, Joon Young; Skovsted, Ian C.; Klugman, Keith P.; Jones, Christopher; Konradsen, Helle B.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is an important human pathogen. Its virulence is largely due to its polysaccharide capsule, which shields it from the host immune system, and because of this, the capsule has been extensively studied. Studies of the capsule led to the identification of DNA as the genetic material, identification of many different capsular serotypes, and identification of the serotype-specific nature of protection by adaptive immunity. Recent studies have led to the determination of capsular polysaccharide structures for many serotypes using advanced analytical technologies, complete elucidation of genetic basis for the capsular types, and the development of highly effective pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Conjugate vaccine use has altered the serotype distribution by either serotype replacement or switching, and this has increased the need to serotype pneumococci. Due to great advances in molecular technologies and our understanding of the pneumococcal genome, molecular approaches have become powerful tools to predict pneumococcal serotypes. In addition, more-precise and -efficient serotyping methods that directly detect polysaccharide structures are emerging. These improvements in our capabilities will greatly enhance future investigations of pneumococcal epidemiology and diseases and the biology of colonization and innate immunity to pneumococcal capsules. PMID:26085553

  9. Theranostic Multilayer Capsules for Ultrasound Imaging and Guided Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Ratnayaka, Sithira; Alford, Aaron; Kozlovskaya, Veronika; Liu, Fei; Xue, Bing; Hoyt, Kenneth; Kharlampieva, Eugenia

    2017-03-28

    Despite the accessibility of ultrasound, the clinical potential of ultrasound-active theranostic agents has not been fully realized because it requires combining sufficient imaging contrast, high encapsulation efficiency, and ultrasound-triggered release in one entity. We report on theranostic polymer microcapsules composed of hydrogen-bonded multilayers of tannic acid and poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) that produce high imaging contrast and deliver the anticancer drug doxorubicin upon low-power diagnostic or high-power therapeutic ultrasound irradiation. These capsules exhibit excellent imaging contrast in both brightness and harmonic modes and show prolonged contrast over six months, unlike commercially available microbubbles. We also demonstrate low-dose gradual and high-dose fast release of doxorubicin from the capsules by diagnostic (∼100 mW/cm(2)) and therapeutic (>10 W/cm(2)) ultrasound irradiation, respectively. We show that the imaging contrast of the capsules can be controlled by varying the number of layers, polymer type (relatively rigid tannic acid versus more flexible poly(methacrylic acid)), and polymer molecular weight. In vitro studies demonstrate that 50% doxorubicin release from ultrasound-treated capsules induces 97% cytotoxicity to MCF-7 human cancer cells, while no cytotoxicity is found without the treatment. Considering the strong ultrasound imaging contrast, high encapsulation efficiency, biocompatibility, and tunable drug release, these microcapsules can be used as theranostic agents for ultrasound-guided chemotherapy.

  10. 28. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW MEMBERS (FRONT TO BACK) LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY AND CAPTAIN JAMES L. KING, JR. SHOCK ISOLATOR AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT RACK AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  11. 30. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. OPERATORS' CHAIR AND COMMUNICATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. OPERATORS' CHAIR AND COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE IN FOREGROUND. ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT RACK AT LEFT; LAUNCH CONTROL CONSOLE WITH CAPTAIN JAMES L. KING, JR. IN CENTER. LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  12. Integrated P1 Hohlraum/Capsule Simulations for NIF Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, David; Spears, Brian; Town, Richard; Jones, Oggie; Ma, Tammy; Pak, Arthur; Benedetti, Robin; Hatchett, Steve; Knauer, James; MacKinnon, Andrew; Yeamans, Charles; McNaney, James; Casey, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    We discuss integrated hohlraum/capsule post-shot simulations of two full-scale cryogenic NIF experiments that drove a DT symcap capsule downward/upward by having the peak power in the upper laser beams 16% greater/less than the lower beams. This laser asymmetry results in a radiation drive P1/P0 at the capsule ablation surface of ~2% and a downward/upward capsule velocity of order 100 microns/ns in agreement with the data. The experimental velocity is determined by comparing measurements at different locations of both the arrival times of DD and DT neutrons at time-of-flight detectors, and by zirconium activation measurements that are a function of neutron energy. We compare these two shots to a control shot for the same target with no specified laser asymmetries. We also discuss simulations of planned sub-scale warm symcap experiments that have a goal of measuring DT and DD ion temperatures and the electron temperature as a function of the imposed P1 to characterize the role of non-thermal velocity on temperature measurements. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-656659.

  13. Surface Modification of ICF Target Capsules by Pulsed Laser Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Lane C.; Johnson, Michael A.; Bunn, Thomas L.

    2016-06-30

    Topographical modifications of spherical surfaces are imprinted on National Ignition Facility (NIF) target capsules by extending the capabilities of a recently developed full surface (4π) laser ablation and mapping apparatus. The laser ablation method combines the precision, energy density and long reach of a focused laser beam to pre-impose sinusoidal modulations on the outside surface of High Density Carbon (HDC) capsules and the inside surface of Glow Discharge Polymer (GDP) capsules. Sinusoidal modulations described in this paper have sub-micron to 10’s of microns vertical scale and wavelengths as small as 30 μm and as large as 200 μm. The modulated patterns are created by rastering a focused laser fired at discrete capsule surface locations for a specified number of pulses. The computer program developed to create these raster patterns uses inputs such as laser beam intensity profile, the material removal function, the starting surface figure and the desired surface figure. The patterns are optimized to minimize surface roughness. Lastly, in this paper, simulated surfaces are compared with actual ablated surfaces measured using confocal microscopy.

  14. The design and performance of high-temperature irradiation capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Greenslade, D.L.; Knight, R.C.; Ermi, A.M.

    1990-03-01

    Characterization of high-temperature materials behavior in a neutron environment will be required to develop reliable performance prediction models for high-temperature gas-cooled, space power, and fusion reactors. One vehicle by which material behavior in a fast neutron environment can be studied is the Materials Open Test Assembly (MOTA) in the Fast Flux Facility (FFTF). Until recently, irradiation temperatures in the MOTA were limited to 1075 K. A recent successful experiment, however, has extended the temperature capability in the MOTA to 1500 K. This report describes the design and performance of high-temperature capsules that were used in that experiment. Each of eight uniquely designed instrumented capsules (which contained refractory metal specimens) operated at an irradiation temperature between 1290 and 1500 K. Temperatures within {plus}/{minus}10 K of target were maintained in seven of the eight capsules during the 335-day irradiation. Data obtained during the experiment clearly showed the advantages of having a temperature control system for high-temperature irradiation capsules. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Sequential release of nanoparticle payloads from ultrasonically burstable capsules.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Stephen; Hu, Jennifer; Kearney, Cathal; Skaat, Hadas; Gu, Luo; Gentili, Marco; Vandenburgh, Herman; Mooney, David

    2016-01-01

    In many biomedical contexts ranging from chemotherapy to tissue engineering, it is beneficial to sequentially present bioactive payloads. Explicit control over the timing and dose of these presentations is highly desirable. Here, we present a capsule-based delivery system capable of rapidly releasing multiple payloads in response to ultrasonic signals. In vitro, these alginate capsules exhibited excellent payload retention for up to 1 week when unstimulated and delivered their entire payloads when ultrasonically stimulated for 10-100 s. Shorter exposures (10 s) were required to trigger delivery from capsules embedded in hydrogels placed in a tissue model and did not result in tissue heating or death of encapsulated cells. Different types of capsules were tuned to rupture in response to different ultrasonic stimuli, thus permitting the sequential, on-demand delivery of nanoparticle payloads. As a proof of concept, gold nanoparticles were decorated with bone morphogenetic protein-2 to demonstrate the potential bioactivity of nanoparticle payloads. These nanoparticles were not cytotoxic and induced an osteogenic response in mouse mesenchymal stem cells. This system may enable researchers and physicians to remotely regulate the timing, dose, and sequence of drug delivery on-demand, with a wide range of clinical applications ranging from tissue engineering to cancer treatment.

  16. The Cryptococcus neoformans Capsule: a Sword and a Shield

    PubMed Central

    O'Meara, Teresa R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is characterized by its ability to induce a distinct polysaccharide capsule in response to a number of host-specific environmental stimuli. The induction of capsule is a complex biological process encompassing regulation at multiple steps, including the biosynthesis, transport, and maintenance of the polysaccharide at the cell surface. By precisely regulating the composition of its cell surface and secreted polysaccharides, C. neoformans has developed intricate ways to establish chronic infection and dormancy in the human host. The plasticity of the capsule structure in response to various host conditions also underscores the complex relationship between host and parasite. Much of this precise regulation of capsule is achieved through the transcriptional responses of multiple conserved signaling pathways that have been coopted to regulate this C. neoformans-specific virulence-associated phenotype. This review focuses on specific host stimuli that trigger the activation of the signal transduction cascades and on the downstream transcriptional responses that are required for robust encapsulation around the cell. PMID:22763631

  17. Relating surveillance capsule measurements to pressure vessel damage

    SciTech Connect

    Carew, J.F.; Min, D.K.; Aronson, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    As part of the pressure vessel (PV) materials surveillance program, surveillance capsules including material specimens and neutron flux dosimeters are generally required to monitor changes in the fracture toughness properties of the reactor vessel materials. These capsules are withdrawn sequentially according to a predetermined schedule covering the service life of the vessel, and specimen material changes and dosimeter activation measured. The neutron fluence accumulated by the flux dosimeters is determined from the measured dosimeter activation and known reaction cross section (in practice, the /sup 54/Fe(n,p)/sup 54/Mn reaction.) The capsule fluence and material changes are then extrapolated to the pressure vessel using a fluence lead-factor determined from detailed multigroup neutron transport calculations. Typically, in this extrapolation changes in neutron spectrum are neglected. The purpose of this study is twofold; first, to determine the effect of including spectral changes in the extrapolation from capsule to vessel and second, to evaluate the effect of using the latest ENDF/B-V /sup 54/Fe(n,p)/sup 54/Mn cross sections in converting dosimeter activation to fluence.

  18. Conservative integrated treatment of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder

    PubMed Central

    RUSSO, ADRIANO; ARRIGHI, ANNALISA; VIGNALE, LUIGI; MOLFETTA, LUIGI

    2014-01-01

    Purpose the aim of this study was to present the results of a conservative treatment for adhesive capsulitis based on an original protocol of combined pharmacological and rehabilitation treatment. Methods fifty-two patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis were enrolled in the present study. The treatment protocol included the use of hyaluronic acid and anaesthetic periarticular and intra-articular injections followed by a specific program of capsule and muscle stretching. Results the results of this treatment showed complete recovery of range of motion (ROM) in 50 of the 52 cases. The mean pre-treatment ROM values were: 85° for forward elevation, 75° for abduction, 25° for external rotation, and 15° for internal rotation. The post-treatment mean ROM values showed marked improvements: 175° for forward elevation, 175° for abduction, 87.5° for external rotation and 75° for internal rotation. Conclusions conservative treatment of adhesive capsulitis based on a combined pharmacological and rehabilitation approach was found to be effective in resolving pain and stiffness in 96% of the patients. Level of evidence level IV, therapeutic case series. PMID:25606536

  19. 27. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE AT LEFT; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE AT LEFT; LAUNCH CONTROL CONSOLE AT RIGHT. PADLOCKED PANEL AT TOP CENTER CONTAINS MISSILE LAUNCH KEYS. SHOCK ISOLATOR AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO EAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  20. 26. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW MEMBER LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY AT COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE. LAUNCH CONTROL CONSOLE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  1. High stress actuation by dielectric elastomer with oil capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Thanh-Giang; Lau, Gih-Keong; Shiau, Li-Lynn; Tan, Adrian W. Y.

    2014-03-01

    Though capable of generating a large strain, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) generate only a moderate actuation stress not more than 200kPa, which seriously limits its use as artificial muscles for robotic arm. Enhancement of dielectric strength (greater than 500MV/m) by dielectric oil immersion could possibly enable it a larger force generation. Previously, the immersion was done in an oil bath, which limits portability together with DEAs. In this study, we developed portable capsules to enclose oil over the DEA substrate (VHB 4905). The capsules is made of a thinner soft acrylic membrane and they seals dielectric liquid oil (Dow Corning Fluid 200 50cSt). The DEA substrate is a graphiteclad VHB membrane, which is pre-stretched with pure-shear boundary condition for axial actuation. When activated under isotonic condition, the oil-capsule DEA can sustain a very high dielectric field up to 903 MV/m and does not fail; whereas, the dry DEA breaks down at a lower electric field at 570 MV/m. Furthermore, the oil-capsule DEA can produces higher isometric stress change up to 1.05MPa, which is 70% more than the maximum produced by the dry DEA. This study confirmed that oil capping helps DEA achieve very high dielectric strength and generate more stress change for work.

  2. 21 CFR 520.1920 - Prochlorperazine, isopropamide sustained release capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... capsules. 520.1920 Section 520.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... dogs in which gastrointestinal disturbances are associated with emotional stress. (2)(i)...

  3. 21 CFR 520.2605 - Trimeprazine tartrate and prednisolone capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2605...) Amount. Administer either capsule orally once daily to dogs as follows: Animal weight (pounds) Number of... the infection is controlled by appropriate antibiotic or chemotherapeutic agents. (3)...

  4. Capsule endoscopy in pediatrics: a 10-years journey.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Salvatore; Cohen, Stanley A; Di Nardo, Giovanni; Gualdi, Gianfranco; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Casciani, Emanuele

    2014-11-28

    Video capsule endoscopy (CE) for evaluation the esophagus (ECE), small bowel (SBCE) and the colon (CCE) is particularly useful in pediatrics, because this imaging modality does not require ionizing radiation, deep sedation or general anesthesia. The risk of capsule retention appears to be dependent on indication rather than age and parallels the adult experience by indication, making SBCE a relatively safe procedure with a significant diagnostic yield. The newest indication, assessment of mucosal change, greatly enhances and expands its potential benefit. The diagnostic role of CE extends beyond the SB. The use of ECE also may enhance our knowledge of esophageal disease and assist patient care. Colon CCE is a novel minimally invasive and painless endoscopic technique allowing exploration of the colon without need for sedation, rectal intubation and gas insufflation. The limited data on ECE and CCE in pediatrics does not yet allow the same conclusions regarding efficacy; however, both appear to provide safe methods to assess and monitor mucosal change in their respective areas with little discomfort. Moreover, although experience has been limited, the patency capsule may help lessen the potential of capsule retention; and newly researched protocols for bowel cleaning may further enhance CE's diagnostic yield. However, further research is needed to optimize the use of the various CE procedures in pediatric populations.

  5. Entry Dispersion Analysis for the Stardust Comet Sample Return Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Mitcheltree, Robert A.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil

    1997-01-01

    Stardust will be the first mission to return samples from beyond the Earth-Moon system. The sample return capsule, which is passively controlled during the fastest Earth entry ever, will land by parachute in Utah. The present study analyzes the entry, descent, and landing of the returning sample capsule. The effects of two aerodynamic instabilities are revealed (one in the high altitude free molecular regime and the other in the transonic/subsonic flow regime). These instabilities could lead to unacceptably large excursions in the angle-of-attack near peak heating and main parachute deployment, respectively. To reduce the excursions resulting from the high altitude instability, the entry spin rate of the capsule is increased. To stabilize the excursions from the transonic/subsonic instability, a drogue chute with deployment triggered by an accelerometer and timer is added prior to main parachute deployment. A Monte Carlo dispersion analysis of the modified entry (from which the impact of off-nominal conditions during the entry is ascertained) shows that the capsule attitude excursions near peak heating and drogue chute deployment are within Stardust program limits. Additionally, the size of the resulting 3-sigma landing ellipse is 83.5 km in downrange by 29.2 km in crossrange, which is within the Utah Test and Training Range boundaries.

  6. Are Social Networking Websites Educational? Information Capsule. Volume 0909

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2009-01-01

    More and more school districts across the country are joining social networking sites, such as Facebook and MySpace. This Information Capsule discusses the frequency with which school districts are using social networking sites, how districts are using the sites, and potential drawbacks associated with their use. Issues for districts to consider…

  7. Small bowel capsule endoscopy in 2007: indications, risks and limitations.

    PubMed

    Rondonotti, Emanuele; Villa, Federica; Mulder, Chris J J; Jacobs, Maarten A J M; de Franchis, Roberto

    2007-12-14

    Capsule endoscopy has revoluzionized the study of the small bowel by providing a reliable method to evaluate, endoscopically, the entire small bowel. In the last six years several papers have been published exploring the possible role of this examination in different clinical conditions. At the present time capsule endoscopy is generally recommended as a third examination, after negative bidirectional endoscopy, in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. A growing body of evidence suggests also an important role for this examination in other clinical conditions such as Crohn's disease, celiac disease, small bowel polyposis syndromes or small bowel tumors. The main complication of this examination is the retention of the device at the site of a previously unknown small bowel stricture. However there are also some other open issues mainly due to technical limitations of this tool (which is not driven from remote control, is unable to take biopsies, to insufflate air, to suck fluids or debris and sometimes to correctly size and locate lesions). The recently developed double balloon enteroscope, owing to its capability to explore a large part of the small bowel and to take targeted biopsies, although being invasive and time consuming, can overcome some limitations of capsule endoscopy. At the present time, in the majority of clinical conditions (i.e. obscure GI bleeding), the winning strategy seems to be to couple these two techniques to explore the small bowel in a painless, safe and complete way (with capsule endoscopy) and to define and treat the lesions identified (with double balloon enteroscopy).

  8. Improved sample capsule for determination of oxygen in hemolyzed blood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Sample capsule for determination of oxygen in hemolyzed blood consists of a measured section of polytetrafluoroethylene tubing equipped at each end with a connector and a stopcock valve. This method eliminates errors from air entrainment or from the use of mercury or syringe lubricant.

  9. 21 CFR 520.1920 - Prochlorperazine, isopropamide sustained release capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... dogs in which gastrointestinal disturbances are associated with emotional stress. (2)(i) Capsules described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section are administered orally to dogs weighing from 4 to 15...

  10. Ultrahigh speed en face OCT capsule for endoscopic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Kaicheng; Traverso, Giovanni; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Ahsen, Osman Oguz; Wang, Zhao; Potsaid, Benjamin; Giacomelli, Michael; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Barman, Ross; Cable, Alex; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Langer, Robert; Fujimoto, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Depth resolved and en face OCT visualization in vivo may have important clinical applications in endoscopy. We demonstrate a high speed, two-dimensional (2D) distal scanning capsule with a micromotor for fast rotary scanning and a pneumatic actuator for precision longitudinal scanning. Longitudinal position measurement and image registration were performed by optical tracking of the pneumatic scanner. The 2D scanning device enables high resolution imaging over a small field of view and is suitable for OCT as well as other scanning microscopies. Large field of view imaging for screening or surveillance applications can also be achieved by proximally pulling back or advancing the capsule while scanning the distal high-speed micromotor. Circumferential en face OCT was demonstrated in living swine at 250 Hz frame rate and 1 MHz A-scan rate using a MEMS tunable VCSEL light source at 1300 nm. Cross-sectional and en face OCT views of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract were generated with precision distal pneumatic longitudinal actuation as well as proximal manual longitudinal actuation. These devices could enable clinical studies either as an adjunct to endoscopy, attached to an endoscope, or as a swallowed tethered capsule for non-endoscopic imaging without sedation. The combination of ultrahigh speed imaging and distal scanning capsule technology could enable both screening and surveillance applications. PMID:25909001

  11. Fuel capsule HRB-21 postirradiation examination data report

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, C A; Bell, G L; Emerson, L C

    1995-04-01

    HRB-21 was carried out in HFIR to demonstrate the performance capability of reference Nuclear Energy Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fuel, which consisted of uranium oxycarbide fissile and ThO{sub 2} fertile TRISO particles bonded into compacts. Long before the capsule was removed from the reactor, it was obvious that the fuel was suffering early failure. After 5 of the planned 6 HFIR cycles, the peak fuel test temperature could not be controlled and the irradiation was terminated. The PIE information will be useful to fuel designers for product improvement. Irradiation-induced failure of the protective PyC layers may have led to the failure of outer PyC coatings. Coating failure fraction was determined by several means to be <1% for both fertile and fissile particles at the ends of the capsule, increasing to 6% for fissile particles and 2.5% for fertile particles at the center of the capsule. More study of SiC microstructure vs fission product release is needed. The work on capsule HRB-21 has identified a set of lessons learned that would benefit future programs.

  12. 21 CFR 520.2100 - Selenium, vitamin E capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Selenium, vitamin E capsules. 520.2100 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2100 Selenium, vitamin... to 1 milligram of selenium) and 56.2 milligrams of vitamin E (68 I.U.) (as d-alpha tocopheryl...

  13. 21 CFR 520.2100 - Selenium, vitamin E capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Selenium, vitamin E capsules. 520.2100 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2100 Selenium, vitamin... to 1 milligram of selenium) and 56.2 milligrams of vitamin E (68 I.U.) (as d-alpha tocopheryl...

  14. 21 CFR 520.2100 - Selenium, vitamin E capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Selenium, vitamin E capsules. 520.2100 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2100 Selenium, vitamin... to 1 milligram of selenium) and 56.2 milligrams of vitamin E (68 I.U.) (as d-alpha tocopheryl...

  15. 21 CFR 520.2100 - Selenium, vitamin E capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Selenium, vitamin E capsules. 520.2100 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2100 Selenium, vitamin... to 1 milligram of selenium) and 56.2 milligrams of vitamin E (68 I.U.) (as d-alpha tocopheryl...

  16. The rheology and microstructure of dense suspensions of elastic capsules.

    SciTech Connect

    Reasor, Daniel; Clausen, Jonathan; Aidun, Cyrus

    2010-11-01

    We use a recently developed hybrid numerical technique [MacMeccan et al. (2009)] that combines a lattice-Boltzmann (LB) fluid solver with a finite element (FE) solid-phase solver to study suspensions of elastic capsules. The LB method recovers the Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics, while the linear FE method models the deformation of fluid-filled elastic capsules for moderate levels of deformation. The simulation results focus on accurately describing the suspension rheology, including the particle pressure, and relating these changes to changes in the microstructure. Simulations are performed with hundreds of particles in unbounded shear allowing an accurate description of the bulk suspension rheology and microstructure. In contrast to rigid spherical particles, elastic capsules are capable of producing normal stresses in the dilute limit. For dense suspensions, the first normal stress difference is of particular interest. The first normal stress difference, which is negative for dense rigid spherical suspensions, undergoes a sign change at moderate levels of deformation of the suspended capsules.

  17. Wireless capsule endoscopy: from diagnostic devices to multipurpose robotic systems.

    PubMed

    Moglia, Andrea; Menciassi, Arianna; Schurr, Marc Oliver; Dario, Paolo

    2007-04-01

    In the recent past, the introduction of miniaturised image sensors with low power consumption, based on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology, has allowed the realisation of an ingestible wireless capsule for the visualisation of the small intestine mucosa. The device has received approval from Food and Drug Administration and has gained momentum since it has been more successful than traditional techniques in the diagnosis of small intestine disorders. In 2004 an esophagus specific capsule was launched, while a solution for colon is still under development. However, present solutions suffer from several limitations: they move passively by exploiting peristalsis, are not able to stop intentionally for a prolonged diagnosis, they receive power from an internal battery with short length, and their usage is restricted to one organ, either small bowel or esophagus. However the steady progresses in many branches of engineering, including microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), are envisaged to affect the performances of capsular endoscopy. The near future foreshadows capsules able to pass actively through the whole gastrointestinal tract, to retrieve views from all organs and to perform drug delivery and tissue sampling. In the long term, the advent of robotics could lead to autonomous medical platforms, equipped with the most advanced solutions in terms of MEMS for therapy and diagnosis of the digestive tract. In this review, we discuss the state of the art of wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE): after a description on the current status, we present the most promising solutions.

  18. 21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dichlorophene and toluene capsules. 520.580 Section 520.580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  19. A connection between mix and adiabat in ICF capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Baolian; Kwan, Thomas; Wang, Yi-Ming; Yi, Sunghuan (Austin); Batha, Steven

    2016-10-01

    We study the relationship between instability induced mix, preheat and the adiabat of the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel in fusion capsule experiments. Our studies show that hydrodynamic instability not only directly affects the implosion, hot spot shape and mix, but also affects the thermodynamics of the capsule, such as, the adiabat of the DT fuel, and, in turn, affects the energy partition between the pusher shell (cold DT) and the hot spot. It was found that the adiabat of the DT fuel is sensitive to the amount of mix caused by Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities at the material interfaces due to its exponential dependence on the fuel entropy. An upper limit of mix allowed maintaining a low adiabat of DT fuel is derived. Additionally we demonstrated that the use of a high adiabat for the DT fuel in theoretical analysis and with the aid of 1D code simulations could explain some aspects of the 3D effects and mix in the capsule experiments. Furthermore, from the observed neutron images and our physics model, we could infer the adiabat of the DT fuel in the capsule and determine the possible amount of mix in the hot spot (LA-UR-16-24880). This work was conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.

  20. 21 CFR 520.2100 - Selenium, vitamin E capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selenium, vitamin E capsules. 520.2100 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2100 Selenium, vitamin... to 1 milligram of selenium) and 56.2 milligrams of vitamin E (68 I.U.) (as d-alpha tocopheryl...

  1. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: NOVOCS EVALUATION AT NAS NORTH ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a SITE Technology Capsule. The MACTEC, Inc. (MACTEC), NoVOCs(TM) in-well volatile organic compounds (VOC) stripping technology is an in-situ groundwater remediation technology designed for the cleanup of groundwater contaminated with VOCs. The NoVOCs(TM) technology was ev...

  2. Surface Modification of ICF Target Capsules by Pulsed Laser Ablation

    DOE PAGES

    Carlson, Lane C.; Johnson, Michael A.; Bunn, Thomas L.

    2016-06-30

    Topographical modifications of spherical surfaces are imprinted on National Ignition Facility (NIF) target capsules by extending the capabilities of a recently developed full surface (4π) laser ablation and mapping apparatus. The laser ablation method combines the precision, energy density and long reach of a focused laser beam to pre-impose sinusoidal modulations on the outside surface of High Density Carbon (HDC) capsules and the inside surface of Glow Discharge Polymer (GDP) capsules. Sinusoidal modulations described in this paper have sub-micron to 10’s of microns vertical scale and wavelengths as small as 30 μm and as large as 200 μm. The modulatedmore » patterns are created by rastering a focused laser fired at discrete capsule surface locations for a specified number of pulses. The computer program developed to create these raster patterns uses inputs such as laser beam intensity profile, the material removal function, the starting surface figure and the desired surface figure. The patterns are optimized to minimize surface roughness. Lastly, in this paper, simulated surfaces are compared with actual ablated surfaces measured using confocal microscopy.« less

  3. Video-based measurements for wireless capsule endoscope tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyrou, Evaggelos; Iakovidis, Dimitris K.

    2014-01-01

    The wireless capsule endoscope is a swallowable medical device equipped with a miniature camera enabling the visual examination of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It wirelessly transmits thousands of images to an external video recording system, while its location and orientation are being tracked approximately by external sensor arrays. In this paper we investigate a video-based approach to tracking the capsule endoscope without requiring any external equipment. The proposed method involves extraction of speeded up robust features from video frames, registration of consecutive frames based on the random sample consensus algorithm, and estimation of the displacement and rotation of interest points within these frames. The results obtained by the application of this method on wireless capsule endoscopy videos indicate its effectiveness and improved performance over the state of the art. The findings of this research pave the way for a cost-effective localization and travel distance measurement of capsule endoscopes in the GI tract, which could contribute in the planning of more accurate surgical interventions.

  4. Biconvex intraocular lenses and Nd:YAG capsulotomy: Experimental comparison of surface damage with different poly(methyl methacrylate) formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, J.E.; Alberhasky, M.T. )

    1990-11-01

    Biconvex posterior chamber lenses have optical advantages and decrease the risk of capsular opacification, but they are more likely to be pitted during ND:YAG capsulotomy because of apposition of the lens to the capsule. This study reports the likelihood of surface damage to different formulations of poly(methyl methacrylate) at the energy levels required to open posterior capsules. Molded lenses are more easily damaged than higher molecular weight lathe-cut materials (P less than .01), as expected. However, by keeping energy output low, even injection-molded lenses showed minimal damage, with mean pit size 39 +/- 39 microns at 1 mJ. By using a converging contact lens, low power, and keeping the focus behind the capsule, damage to all materials tested should be clinically insignificant.

  5. Biconvex intraocular lenses and Nd:YAG capsulotomy: experimental comparison of surface damage with different poly(methyl methacrylate) formulations.

    PubMed

    Downing, J E; Alberhasky, M T

    1990-11-01

    Biconvex posterior chamber lenses have optical advantages and decrease the risk of capsular opacification, but they are more likely to be pitted during ND:YAG capsulotomy because of apposition of the lens to the capsule. This study reports the likelihood of surface damage to different formulations of poly(methyl methacrylate) at the energy levels required to open posterior capsules. Molded lenses are more easily damaged than higher molecular weight lathe-cut materials (P less than .01), as expected. However, by keeping energy output low, even injection-molded lenses showed minimal damage, with mean pit size 39 +/- 39 microns at 1 mJ. By using a converging contact lens, low power, and keeping the focus behind the capsule, damage to all materials tested should be clinically insignificant.

  6. Iodine-125 radiation of posterior uveal melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, S.

    1987-12-01

    Twenty-eight cases of posterior choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine-125 in gold eye plaques. Eleven cases were located within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve (group A), nine were within 3.0 mm of the fovea (group B), and eight were within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve and fovea (group C). The mean follow-up of group A was 46.3 months; group B, 25.5 months; and group C, 42.7 months. Complications included macular edema, cataract and tumor growth. Visual acuity remained within two lines of that tested preoperatively for 4 of 11 patients in group A, 4 of 9 in group B, and 5 of 8 in group C. These results with iodine-125 suggest it as an appropriate treatment for patients with choroidal melanoma located near optic nerve and/or macula.

  7. Hemifacial spasm and posterior auricular muscle.

    PubMed

    Kiziltan, M; Sahin, R; Uzun, N; Kiziltan, G

    2006-09-01

    We aimed to investigate to which extent posterior auricular muscle (PAM) was affected and whether it contributed to the reflex activity in hemifacial spasm (HFS) patients. 19 HFS patients' spasm activities were recorded from facial muscles. Spasm activity of PAM was recorded synchronously on the symptomatic side in all patients. Lateral spread of blink reflex to orbicularis oris and PAMs were recorded in all but two patients. Botulinum toxin was applied to the PAM with the 14 patients presenting tinnitus, "clicking" or a "ticking" sound on the sane side and other positive auricular symptoms. After treatment, there was symptomatic improvement in 9 of 14 patients. The patients presenting with auricular symptoms and showing spasm activity in their PAMs can be thought as a candidate for botulinum toxin treatment scheme.

  8. Lentivirus-mediated ERK2 siRNA reduces joint capsule fibrosis in a rat model of post-traumatic joint contracture.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengfeng; Liu, Shen; Fan, Cunyi

    2013-10-17

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-2 is presumed to play an important role in the development of post-traumatic joint contractures. Using a rat injury model, we investigated whether treatment with ERK2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) could reduce the extent of joint capsule fibrosis after an induced injury. Rats were separated into three groups (n = 32 each): non-operated control group, operated contracture group and contracture-treatment group. Stable post-traumatic joint contracture was created through surgical intra-articular joint injury followed by eight weeks of immobilization. In the contracture-treatment group, the rats were treated with lentivirus (LV)-mediated ERK2 siRNA at days 3 and 7 post-surgery. The posterior joint capsule was assessed by western blotting, immunohistochemistry and biochemical analysis for changes in ERK2, phosphorylated (p)-ERK2, myofibroblast, total collagen and relative collagen Type III expression level. Biomechanical testing was used to assess the development of flexion contractures. Statistical analysis was performed using an analysis of variance. In the operated contracture group, rats that developed flexion contractures also showed elevated phosphorylated p-ERK2 expression. In the contracture-treatment group, ERK2 siRNA significantly reduced p-ERK2 expression levels, as well as the severity of flexion contracture development (p < 0.01). Myofibroblast numbers and measurements of total collagen content were also significantly reduced following ERK2 siRNA (p < 0.01). Relative collagen type III expression as a proportion of total of Types I and III collagen, however, was significantly increased in response to ERK2 siRNA (p < 0.01). Our findings demonstrate a role for ERK2 in the induction of joint capsule fibrosis after injury. Furthermore, we show that development of flexion contractures and the resultant increase of joint capsule fibrosis can be reduced by LV-mediated ERK2 siRNA treatment.

  9. Bladder neck incompetence at posterior urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Koraitim, Mamdouh M.

    2015-01-01

    The finding of an incompetent bladder neck (BN) at the time of posterior urethroplasty will necessarily exacerbate the already difficult situation. In such cases the aim of the treatment is not only to restore urethral continuity by end-to-end urethral anastomosis, but also to restore the function of the BN to maintain urinary continence. Fortunately, the incidence of incompetence of the BN at posterior urethroplasty is uncommon, usually ≈4.5%. It seems that pelvic fracture-related BN injuries, in contrast to urethral injuries which result from a shearing force, are due to direct injury by the sharp edge of the fractured and displaced pubic bone. The risk of injuries to the BN is greater in children, in patients with a fracture involving both superior and inferior pubic rami on the same side, and in those managed initially by primary realignment. An incompetent BN is suspected by finding an open rectangular BN on cystography, and a fixedly open BN on suprapubic cystoscopy. An incompetent BN can be treated either subsequent to or concomitant with the urethral repair, according to whether a perineal or a perineo-abdominal urethroplasty is used, respectively. Several options have been reported to treat pelvic fracture-related BN incompetence, including reconstructing the BN, forming a new sphincter by tubularisation of a rectangular flap of the anterior bladder wall, and mechanical occlusion by an artificial sphincter or collagen injection. Reconstruction of the BN by the Young-Dees-Leadbetter∗∗ procedure probably provides the most successful results. PMID:26019982

  10. Improvement of Uveal and Capsular Biocompatibility of Hydrophobic Acrylic Intraocular Lens by Surface Grafting with 2-Methacryloyloxyethyl Phosphorylcholine-Methacrylic Acid Copolymer

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xuhua; Zhan, Jiezhao; Zhu, Yi; Cao, Ji; Wang, Lin; Liu, Sa; Wang, Yingjun; Liu, Zhenzhen; Qin, Yingyan; Wu, Mingxing; Liu, Yizhi; Ren, Li

    2017-01-01

    Biocompatibility of intraocular lens (IOL) is critical to vision reconstruction after cataract surgery. Foldable hydrophobic acrylic IOL is vulnerable to the adhesion of extracellular matrix proteins and cells, leading to increased incidence of postoperative inflammation and capsule opacification. To increase IOL biocompatibility, we synthesized a hydrophilic copolymer P(MPC-MAA) and grafted the copolymer onto the surface of IOL through air plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and static water contact angle were used to characterize chemical changes, topography and hydrophilicity of the IOL surface, respectively. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) showed that P(MPC-MAA) modified IOLs were resistant to protein adsorption. Moreover, P(MPC-MAA) modification inhibited adhesion and proliferation of lens epithelial cells (LECs) in vitro. To analyze uveal and capsular biocompatibility in vivo, we implanted the P(MPC-MAA) modified IOLs into rabbits after phacoemulsification. P(MPC-MAA) modification significantly reduced postoperative inflammation and anterior capsule opacification (ACO), and did not affect posterior capsule opacification (PCO). Collectively, our study suggests that surface modification by P(MPC-MAA) can significantly improve uveal and capsular biocompatibility of hydrophobic acrylic IOL, which could potentially benefit patients with blood-aqueous barrier damage. PMID:28084469

  11. Solution Based Deposition of Polyimide Ablators for NIF Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R

    2002-07-11

    Between June 1997 and March 2002 Luxel Corporation was contracted to explore the possibility of preparing NIF scale capsules with polyimide ablators using solution-based techniques. This work offered a potential alternative to a vapor deposition approach talking place at LLNL. The motivation for pursuing the solution-based approach was primarily two-fold. First, it was expected that much higher strength capsules (relative to vapor deposition) could be prepared since the solution precursors were known to produce high strength films. Second, in applying the ablator as a fluid it was expected that surface tension effects would lead to very smooth surfaces. These potential advantages were offset by expected difficulties, primary among them that the capsules would need to be levitated in some fashion (for example acoustically) during coating and processing, and that application of the coating uniformly to thicknesses of 150 pm on levitated capsules would be difficult. Because of the expected problems with the coupling of levitation and coating, most of the initial effort was to develop coating and processing techniques on stalk-mounted capsules. The program had some success. Using atomizer spray techniques in which application of {approx}5 {micro}m fluid coatings were alternated with heating to remove solvent resulted in up to 70 {micro}m thick coatings that were reasonably smooth at short wavelengths, and showed only about a 1 {micro}m thickness variation over long wavelengths. More controlled deposition with an inkjet devise was also developed. However difficult technical problems remained, and these problems coupled with the relative success of the vapor deposition approach led to the termination of the solution-based work in 2002. What follows is a compilation of the progress reports submitted by Luxel for this work which spanned a number of separate contracts. The reports are arranged chronologically, the last report in the collection has a modest summary of what

  12. An ultra-low-power image compressor for capsule endoscope

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Meng-Chun; Dung, Lan-Rong; Weng, Ping-Kuo

    2006-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy has been popularly applied for the diagnosis of diseases of the alimentary canal including Crohn's Disease, Celiac disease and other malabsorption disorders, benign and malignant tumors of the small intestine, vascular disorders and medication related small bowel injury. The wireless capsule endoscope has been successfully utilized to diagnose diseases of the small intestine and alleviate the discomfort and pain of patients. However, the resolution of demosaicked image is still low, and some interesting spots may be unintentionally omitted. Especially, the images will be severely distorted when physicians zoom images in for detailed diagnosis. Increasing resolution may cause significant power consumption in RF transmitter; hence, image compression is necessary for saving the power dissipation of RF transmitter. To overcome this drawback, we have been developing a new capsule endoscope, called GICam. Methods We developed an ultra-low-power image compression processor for capsule endoscope or swallowable imaging capsules. In applications of capsule endoscopy, it is imperative to consider battery life/performance trade-offs. Applying state-of-the-art video compression techniques may significantly reduce the image bit rate by their high compression ratio, but they all require intensive computation and consume much battery power. There are many fast compression algorithms for reducing computation load; however, they may result in distortion of the original image, which is not good for use in the medical care. Thus, this paper will first simplify traditional video compression algorithms and propose a scalable compression architecture. Conclusion As the result, the developed video compressor only costs 31 K gates at 2 frames per second, consumes 14.92 mW, and reduces the video size by 75% at least. PMID:16504138

  13. Diagnostics for insufficiencies of posterior calculations in Bayesian signal inference.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Sebastian; Oppermann, Niels; Ensslin, Torsten A

    2013-11-01

    We present an error-diagnostic validation method for posterior distributions in Bayesian signal inference, an advancement of a previous work. It transfers deviations from the correct posterior into characteristic deviations from a uniform distribution of a quantity constructed for this purpose. We show that this method is able to reveal and discriminate several kinds of numerical and approximation errors, as well as their impact on the posterior distribution. For this we present four typical analytical examples of posteriors with incorrect variance, skewness, position of the maximum, or normalization. We show further how this test can be applied to multidimensional signals.

  14. Alternative method for enteric coating of HPMC capsules resulting in ready-to-use enteric-coated capsules.

    PubMed

    Huyghebaert, Nathalie; Vermeire, An; Remon, Jean Paul

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an alternative method for enteric coating of HPMC capsules that avoids the sealing step before coating, resulting in ready-to-use enteric-coated capsules for the use in retail or hospital pharmacy or R&D sections of pharmaceutical industry and for the production of enteric-coated heat and moisture sensitive biomaterials. HPMC caps and bodies 00 (Vcaps, Capsugel) were coated separately in a fluid bed apparatus prior to filling (GPCG-1, Glatt) with Eudragit L30D-55 or Eudragit FS 30 D (Röhm), Aqoat AS-HF (Shin-Etsu) and Sureteric (Colorcon), using an optimised coating process. The coated bodies were filled and closed with the coated caps without encountering problems of coating damage. The release in 0.1N HCl after 2h from capsules coated with Eudragit L30D-55, Eudragit FS 30 D, Aqoat AS-HF and Sureteric was 0.6+/-.03, 0.6+/-0.3, 1.2+/-0.2 and 7.3+/-1.9%, respectively. The alternative method was reproducible and offered a way to overcome the time-consuming and expensive sealing step required using the conventional coating procedure. The obtained enteric-coated HPMC capsules can be stored (un)-filled for at least 6 months without loosing enteric properties.

  15. Analysis of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae in invasive disease reveals lack of the capsule locus.

    PubMed

    Lâm, T-T; Claus, H; Frosch, M; Vogel, U

    2016-01-01

    Among invasive Haemophilus influenzae, unencapsulated strains have largely surpassed the previously predominant serotype b (Hib) because of Hib vaccination. Isolates without the genomic capsule (cap) locus are designated non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi). They are different from capsule-deficient variants that show deletion of the capsule transport gene bexA within the cap locus. The frequency of capsule-deficient variants in invasive disease is unknown. We analysed 783 unencapsulated invasive isolates collected over 5 years in Germany and found no single capsule-deficient isolate. Invasive unencapsulated strains in Germany were exclusively NTHi. A negative serotyping result by slide agglutination was therefore highly predictive for NTHi.

  16. Species in the Cryptococcus gattii Complex Differ in Capsule and Cell Size following Growth under Capsule-Inducing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Kenya E; Dwyer, Christine; Campbell, Leona T; Carter, Dee A

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus gattii causes invasive fungal infections that have been increasing in incidence and global distribution in recent years. The major molecular genotypes of C. gattii that were previously classified as VGI to VGIV have recently been described as four new species: C. gattii (VGI), C. deuterogattii (VGII), C. bacillisporus (VGIII), and C. tetragattii (VGIV). The main driver for their classification has been phylogeny, and phenotypic diversity has not yet been extensively characterized. This study examines variation in attributes related to virulence and pathogenicity, including capsule thickness, cell size, tolerance to temperature, oxidative and osmotic stress, and cell wall integrity. A capsule induction agar using diluted Sabouraud medium revealed significant differences in capsule and cell size across the C. gattii species complex and produced irregularly shaped elongated cells in a number of strains. C. gattii/VGI strains possessed the largest capsules of all species but had smaller cells, while C. deuterogattii/VGII strains possessed the largest cells of all species but had smaller capsules. Overall thermotolerance was highest in C. deuterogattii/VGII strains, while a number of C. bacillisporus/VGIII, and C. tetragattii/VGIV strains had substantially reduced growth at 37°C. There was no significant difference among species in their tolerances to oxidative or osmotic stresses, and there was no evidence for defects in cell wall integrity in strains producing irregular cells. These data support the division of the C. gattii species complex into distinctly identified species and suggest underlying reasons for their differences in virulence, epidemiology, and host preference. IMPORTANCE Infections with the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii have been increasing in recent years. Recently, four different species have been described within C. gattii, which correspond to four previously known molecular genotypes (VGI to VGIV). Examining traits

  17. Species in the Cryptococcus gattii Complex Differ in Capsule and Cell Size following Growth under Capsule-Inducing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Kenya E.; Dwyer, Christine; Campbell, Leona T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus gattii causes invasive fungal infections that have been increasing in incidence and global distribution in recent years. The major molecular genotypes of C. gattii that were previously classified as VGI to VGIV have recently been described as four new species: C. gattii (VGI), C. deuterogattii (VGII), C. bacillisporus (VGIII), and C. tetragattii (VGIV). The main driver for their classification has been phylogeny, and phenotypic diversity has not yet been extensively characterized. This study examines variation in attributes related to virulence and pathogenicity, including capsule thickness, cell size, tolerance to temperature, oxidative and osmotic stress, and cell wall integrity. A capsule induction agar using diluted Sabouraud medium revealed significant differences in capsule and cell size across the C. gattii species complex and produced irregularly shaped elongated cells in a number of strains. C. gattii/VGI strains possessed the largest capsules of all species but had smaller cells, while C. deuterogattii/VGII strains possessed the largest cells of all species but had smaller capsules. Overall thermotolerance was highest in C. deuterogattii/VGII strains, while a number of C. bacillisporus/VGIII, and C. tetragattii/VGIV strains had substantially reduced growth at 37°C. There was no significant difference among species in their tolerances to oxidative or osmotic stresses, and there was no evidence for defects in cell wall integrity in strains producing irregular cells. These data support the division of the C. gattii species complex into distinctly identified species and suggest underlying reasons for their differences in virulence, epidemiology, and host preference. IMPORTANCE Infections with the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii have been increasing in recent years. Recently, four different species have been described within C. gattii, which correspond to four previously known molecular genotypes (VGI to VGIV). Examining

  18. Posterior tibial subluxation and short-term arthritis resulting from failed posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Mavrodontidis, Alexandros N; Papadonikolakis, Anastasios; Moebius, Ulf G; Gelalis, Ioannis; Motsis, Efstathios; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2003-01-01

    Posterior tibial subluxations because of combined or isolated posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries require detailed evaluation. PCL reconstructions are difficult procedures because of the low rate of such injuries and the complex anatomy of the ligament. We report on 2 cases of failed PCL reconstruction because of malpositioned femoral tunnels. These 2 cases support the existing biomechanical evidence that the correct placement of the tunnels, especially in the femur, is a major factor in defining the outcome. It seems that the drilling of the tunnels, especially in the femur, during PCL reconstruction must be performed with accuracy and always be evaluated in cases of graft failure. In addition, failed PCL reconstructions are usually accompanied by a short-term excessive arthritis that results in poor functional outcome.

  19. Costello syndrome: Analysis of the posterior cranial fossa in children with posterior fossa crowding.

    PubMed

    Calandrelli, Rosalinda; D'Apolito, Gabriella; Marco, Panfili; Zampino, Giuseppe; Tartaglione, Tommaso; Colosimo, Cesare

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to assess changes in the posterior cranial fossa (PCF) to shed light on the mechanism of cerebellar herniation in children with Costello syndrome (CS) and posterior fossa crowding. We performed a morphovolumetric PCF analysis on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in seven children with CS (mean age 31 ± 16 months) comparing the MRI scans with those of seven age-matched healthy subjects.PCF volume (PCFV), PCF brain volume (PCFBV) and cerebellar volume (CeV) were assessed on axial T2-weighted MRI. Morphometric parameters (diameters of the foramen magnum, tentorial angle, basiocciput, supraocciput, basisphenoid and exocciput lengths) were measured on sagittal T1-weighted MRI. The volume of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces was calculated as PCFV minus PCFBV.Five out of seven CS children showed tonsillar herniation in the upper cervical canal; no child had hydrocephalus but three out of seven children showed ventriculomegaly. In addition, the PCFV/PCFBV ratio, PCFV, CSF spaces volume, basiocciput, basisphenoid and exocciput lengths and latero-lateral and antero-posterior diameters of the foramen magnum were significantly reduced, whereas no significant changes were found in supraocciput length, PCFBV, CeV or hindbrain volume. The volumetric reduction of the PCF due to bony posterior fossa hypoplasia is a predisposing factor for developing cerebellar tonsillar herniation through the foramen magnum in children with CS. The altered anatomy of the foramen magnum and upward expansion of the PCF secondary to an increased tentorial slope serves to explain the possible mechanism of cerebellar herniation in patients with CS.

  20. Costello syndrome: Analysis of the posterior cranial fossa in children with posterior fossa crowding

    PubMed Central

    D’Apolito, Gabriella; Panfili, Marco; Zampino, Giuseppe; Tartaglione, Tommaso; Colosimo, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess changes in the posterior cranial fossa (PCF) to shed light on the mechanism of cerebellar herniation in children with Costello syndrome (CS) and posterior fossa crowding. We performed a morphovolumetric PCF analysis on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in seven children with CS (mean age 31 ± 16 months) comparing the MRI scans with those of seven age-matched healthy subjects. PCF volume (PCFV), PCF brain volume (PCFBV) and cerebellar volume (CeV) were assessed on axial T2-weighted MRI. Morphometric parameters (diameters of the foramen magnum, tentorial angle, basiocciput, supraocciput, basisphenoid and exocciput lengths) were measured on sagittal T1-weighted MRI. The volume of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces was calculated as PCFV minus PCFBV. Five out of seven CS children showed tonsillar herniation in the upper cervical canal; no child had hydrocephalus but three out of seven children showed ventriculomegaly. In addition, the PCFV/PCFBV ratio, PCFV, CSF spaces volume, basiocciput, basisphenoid and exocciput lengths and latero-lateral and antero-posterior diameters of the foramen magnum were significantly reduced, whereas no significant changes were found in supraocciput length, PCFBV, CeV or hindbrain volume The volumetric reduction of the PCF due to bony posterior fossa hypoplasia is a predisposing factor for developing cerebellar tonsillar herniation through the foramen magnum in children with CS. The altered anatomy of the foramen magnum and upward expansion of the PCF secondary to an increased tentorial slope serves to explain the possible mechanism of cerebellar herniation in patients with CS. PMID:26246091

  1. Buckling and its effect on the confined flow of a model capsule suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryngelson, Spencer; Freund, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    The rheology of confined flowing suspensions, such as blood, depend upon the dynamics of the components, which can be particularly rich when they are elastic capsules. Using boundary integral methods, we simulate a two-dimensional model channel through which flows a dense suspension of fluid-filled capsules. A parameter of principal interest is the equilibrium membrane perimeter, which ranges from round capsules to capsules with an elongated dog-bone-like equilibrium shape. It is shown that the minimum effective viscosity occurs for capsules with a biconcave equilibrium shape, similar to that of a red blood cell. The rheological behavior changes significantly over this range; transitions are linked to specific changes in the capsule dynamics. Most noteworthy is an abrupt change in behavior when capsules transition to a dog-bone-like equilibrium shape, which correlates with the onset of capsule buckling. The buckled capsules have a more varied orientation and make significant rotational (rotlet) contributions to the capsule-capsule interactions. Supported under NSF Grant No. CBET 13-36972.

  2. Evaluation and comparison of physicomechanical characteristics of gelatin and hypromellose capsules.

    PubMed

    Missaghi, S; Fassihi, R

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study is evaluation and comparison of physical and mechanical properties of hypromellose and gelatin capsules. For this purpose, the empty and filled capsules of hypromellose and gelatin (size 4) were examined in regard with their physical and mechanical characteristics, employing textural analysis, and disintegration properties in various immersion fluids, utilizing a USP 28 disintegration apparatus. The results demonstrated that owing to their greater water permeability, gelatin capsules disintegrate much faster than hypromellose shells in all tested media. However, hypromellose capsules showed a more uniform pattern of dispersion in the disintegration fluids. As for mechanical properties, at ambient conditions, gelatin capsules appeared to be harder and stronger with less elasticity as compared with hypromellose shells. On the contrary, at an elevated temperature, gelatin capsules demonstrated lower resilience. This study shows that hypromellose capsules have excellent properties and are promising as far as regulatory, manufacturing, religious, and dietary issues are concerned.

  3. Risk Factors for Incident Cortical, Nuclear, Posterior Subcapsular, and Mixed Lens Opacities: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Grace M.; Choudhury, Farzana; Torres, Mina; Azen, Stanley P.; Varma, Rohit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To identify socio-demographic and biological risk factors associated with the 4-year incidence of nuclear, cortical, posterior sub-capsular (PSC), and mixed lens opacities. Design Population-based, longitudinal study. Participants Four thousand six hundred fifty-eight Latinos 40 years and older from 6 census tracts in Los Angeles, California. Methods Participants underwent an interview and detailed eye examination, including best-corrected visual acuity and slit-lamp assessment of lens opacities using the Lens Opacities Classification System II at baseline and again 4 years later. Each opacity type was defined in persons with a LOCS II score of 2 or more. Univariate and forward stepwise logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent baseline risk factors associated with 4-year incidence of nuclear only, cortical only, PSC only, and mixed (when more than one opacity type developed in a person) lens opacities. These comprised 4 mutually exclusive groups, and were based on person rather than eye. Main Outcome Measures Odds ratios for independent risk factors associated with 4-year incidence of nuclear-only, cortical-only, PSC-only, and mixed lens opacities. Results Of the 3471 participants with gradable lenses in the same eye at baseline and 4-year follow-up, 200 (5.8%) had incident nuclear-only opacities, 151(4.1%) had incident cortical-only opacities, 16 (0.5%) had incident PSC-only lens opacities, and 88 (2.5%) had mixed lens opacities. Independent baseline risk factors for incident nuclear-only lens opacities included older age, current smoking, and presence of diabetes. Independent risk factors for incident cortical-only lens opacities included older age and having diabetes at baseline. Female gender was an independent risk factor for incident PSC-only lens opacities. Older age, and presence of diabetes at baseline exam were independent risk factors for incident mixed lens opacities. Specifically, in diabetics, higher levels of hemoglobin

  4. Characterization of bacterial polysaccharide capsules and detection in the presence of deliquescent water by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Su, Hai-Nan; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Liu, Sheng-Bo; Qiao, Li-Ping; Chen, Xiu-Lan; He, Hai-Lun; Zhao, Xian; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2012-05-01

    We detected polysaccharide capsules from Zunongwangia profunda SM-A87 with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The molecular organization of the capsules at the single-polysaccharide-chain level was reported. Furthermore, we found that with ScanAsyst mode the polysaccharide capsules could be detected even in the presence of deliquescent water covering the capsule.

  5. Characterization of Bacterial Polysaccharide Capsules and Detection in the Presence of Deliquescent Water by Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hai-Nan; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Liu, Sheng-Bo; Qiao, Li-Ping; Chen, Xiu-Lan; He, Hai-Lun; Zhao, Xian; Zhou, Bai-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    We detected polysaccharide capsules from Zunongwangia profunda SM-A87 with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The molecular organization of the capsules at the single-polysaccharide-chain level was reported. Furthermore, we found that with ScanAsyst mode the polysaccharide capsules could be detected even in the presence of deliquescent water covering the capsule. PMID:22344657

  6. Porosity of Bleb Capsule declines rapidly with Fluid Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Pandav, Surinder S; Ross, Craig M; Thattaruthody, Faisal; Nada, Ritambhra; Singh, Nirbhai; Gautam, Natasha; Beirne, Stephen; Wallace, Gordon G; Sherwood, Mark B; Crowston, Jonathan G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The porosity of the fibrous capsule around a glaucoma drainage device (GDD) may be the most important functional attribute. The factors that determine capsular porosity are not well understood. Failed GDD surgeries are usually associated with thick impervious capsules and components of aqueous have been implicated in this process. Purpose In this study, we interrogated the effect of passage of nonaqueous fluid on capsular porosity in mature (but aqueous naïve) blebs in a previously reported GDD model (the “Center for Eye Research Australia Implant”). Materials and methods The study was performed at two centers using 17 New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. An experimental GDD was implanted into the subconjunctival space but without connection to the anterior chamber. After 28 days, balanced salt solution (BSS) was passed through the implant for 30 to 40 minutes at 12 mm Hg. Capsular porosity was measured as flow (μL/min) at a constant pressure. Porosity of the capsule was retested at 3 and 6 days. Results There was a marked reduction in capsular porosity within 3 days of exposure to BSS (fluid challenge). Even though the baseline porosity was significantly different in the two groups (3.00 ± 0.5 μL/min and 29.67 ± 12.12 μL/min, p < 0.001), the effect of passage of BSS was similar. Capsular porosity fell by approximately 80% in both groups from baseline after single BSS challenge. Capsular thickness was significantly less in Advanced Eye Center (AEC) rabbits at baseline. There was no change in the capsular thickness before and after single fluid challenge. Conclusion Passage of BSS at physiological pressures for under 40 minutes caused marked reduction in the porosity of the fibrous capsule within 3 days. This was not associated with any significant thickening of the fibrous capsule within this time frame. How to cite this article Pandav SS, Ross CM, Thattaruthody F, Nada R, Singh N, Gautam N, Beirne S, Wallace GG, Sherwood MB, Crowston JG, Coote M

  7. Otic capsule dehiscence syndrome: Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome with no radiographically visible dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Wackym, P Ashley; Wood, Scott J; Siker, David A; Carter, Dale M

    2015-08-01

    We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of two cohorts of patients who had superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome (SSCDS); one group had radiographically confirmed superior canal dehiscence (SCD), and the other exhibited no identified otic capsule dehiscence on imaging (no-iOCD). We compiled data obtained from prospective structured symptomatology interviews; diagnostic studies; three-dimensional, high-resolution, temporal bone computed tomography; and a retrospective case review from our tertiary care referral center. Eleven adults and 1 child with SSCDS were identified, surgically managed, and followed. Six of these patients-1 man and 5 women, aged 29 to 54 years at first surgery (mean: 41.8)-had radiologically confirmed SCD. The other 6 patients-1 man, 4 women, and 1 girl, aged 1 to 51 years (mean: 32.2)-had no-iOCD. The 6 adults with SCD underwent surgery via a middle cranial fossa approach with plugging procedures. The 5 adults and 1 child with no-iOCD underwent round window reinforcement (RWR) surgery. One SCD patient developed no-iOCD 1.5 years after SCD surgery, and she subsequently underwent RWR surgery. Our main outcome measures were patient symptomatology (with video documentation) and the results of diagnostic studies. Other than the character of migraine headaches, there was no difference in preoperative symptomatology between the two groups. Postoperatively, resolution of SSCDS symptoms ultimately occurred in all patients. Both the SCD and the no-iOCD groups experienced a highly significant improvement in postural control following treatment (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p < 0.001). We conclude that the term otic capsule dehiscence syndrome more accurately reflects the clinical syndrome of SSCDS since it includes both superior semicircular canal dehiscence and no-iOCD, as well as posterior and lateral semicircular canal dehiscence, all of which can manifest as SSCDS. We have also included links to videos in which 4 of the SSCDS patients

  8. Posterior regeneration in Isodiametra pulchra (Acoela, Acoelomorpha)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Regeneration is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, but the capacity to restore damaged or missing tissue varies greatly between different phyla and even within the same phylum. However, the distantly related Acoelomorpha and Platyhelminthes share a strikingly similar stem-cell system and regenerative capacity. Therefore, comparing the underlying mechanisms in these two phyla paves the way for an increased understanding of the evolution of this developmental process. To date, Isodiametra pulchra is the most promising candidate as a model for the Acoelomorpha, as it reproduces steadily under laboratory conditions and is amenable to various techniques, including the silencing of gene expression by RNAi. In order to provide an essential framework for future studies, we report the succession of regeneration events via the use of cytochemical, histological and microscopy techniques, and specify the total number of cells in adult individuals. Results Isodiametra pulchra is not capable of regenerating a new head, but completely restores all posterior structures within 10 days. Following amputation, the wound closes via the contraction of local muscle fibres and an extension of the dorsal epidermis. Subsequently, stem cells and differentiating cells invade the wound area and form a loosely delimited blastema. After two days, the posterior end is re-patterned with the male (and occasionally the female) genital primordium being apparent. Successively, these primordia differentiate into complete copulatory organs. The size of the body and also of the male and female copulatory organs, as well as the distance between the copulatory organs, progressively increase and by nine days copulation is possible. Adult individuals with an average length of 670 μm consist of approximately 8100 cells. Conclusion Isodiametra pulchra regenerates through a combination of morphallactic and epimorphic processes. Existing structures are “re-modelled” and provide a

  9. Paratrooper's Ankle Fracture: Posterior Malleolar Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Young, Ki Won; Cho, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyung Seuk; Cho, Hun Ki; Lee, Kyung Tai

    2015-01-01

    Background We assessed the frequency and types of ankle fractures that frequently occur during parachute landings of special operation unit personnel and analyzed the causes. Methods Fifty-six members of the special force brigade of the military who had sustained ankle fractures during parachute landings between January 2005 and April 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The injury sites and fracture sites were identified and the fracture types were categorized by the Lauge-Hansen and Weber classifications. Follow-up surveys were performed with respect to the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score, patient satisfaction, and return to preinjury activity. Results The patients were all males with a mean age of 23.6 years. There were 28 right and 28 left ankle fractures. Twenty-two patients had simple fractures and 34 patients had comminuted fractures. The average number of injury and fractures sites per person was 2.07 (116 injuries including a syndesmosis injury and a deltoid injury) and 1.75 (98 fracture sites), respectively. Twenty-three cases (41.07%) were accompanied by posterior malleolar fractures. Fifty-five patients underwent surgery; of these, 30 had plate internal fixations. Weber type A, B, and C fractures were found in 4, 38, and 14 cases, respectively. Based on the Lauge-Hansen classification, supination-external rotation injuries were found in 20 cases, supination-adduction injuries in 22 cases, pronation-external rotation injuries in 11 cases, tibiofibular fractures in 2 cases, and simple medial malleolar fractures in 2 cases. The mean follow-up period was 23.8 months, and the average follow-up American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score was 85.42. Forty-five patients (80.36%) reported excellent or good satisfaction with the outcome. Conclusions Posterior malleolar fractures occurred in 41.07% of ankle fractures sustained in parachute landings. Because most of the ankle fractures in parachute injuries were

  10. Radial head fracture associated with posterior interosseous nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Sassine, Tannus Jorge; Lima, Guilherme de Freitas; Rodrigues, Leandro Marano; Padua, David Victoria Hoffmann; Nadai, Anderson de

    2016-01-01

    Fractures of the radial head and radial neck correspond to 1.7-5.4% of all fractures and approximately 30% may present associated injuries. In the literature, there are few reports of radial head fracture with posterior interosseous nerve injury. This study aimed to report a case of radial head fracture associated with posterior interosseous nerve injury.

  11. Wnt signaling and the evolution of embryonic posterior development.

    PubMed

    Martin, Benjamin L; Kimelman, David

    2009-03-10

    During vertebrate embryogenesis, most of the mesodermal tissue posterior to the head forms from a progenitor population that continuously adds blocks of muscles (the somites) from the back end of the embryo. Recent work in less commonly studied arthropods--the flour beetle Tribolium and the common house spider--provides evidence suggesting that this posterior growth process might be evolutionarily conserved, with canonical Wnt signaling playing a key role in vertebrates and invertebrates. We discuss these findings as well as other evidence that suggests that the genetic network controlling posterior growth was already present in the last common ancestor of the Bilateria. We also highlight other interesting commonalities as well as differences between posterior growth in vertebrates and invertebrates, suggest future areas of research, and hypothesize that posterior growth may facilitate evolution of animal body plans.

  12. New infectious etiologies for posterior uveitis.

    PubMed

    Khairallah, Moncef; Kahloun, Rim; Ben Yahia, Salim; Jelliti, Bechir; Messaoud, Riadh

    2013-01-01

    Emergent and resurgent arthropod vector-borne diseases are major causes of systemic morbidity and death and expanding worldwide. Among them, viral and bacterial agents including West Nile virus, Dengue fever, Chikungunya, Rift Valley fever, and rickettsioses have been recently associated with an array of ocular manifestations. These include anterior uveitis, retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis and optic nerve involvement. Proper clinical diagnosis of any of these infectious diseases is based on epidemiological data, history, systemic symptoms and signs, and the pattern of ocular involvement. The diagnosis is usually confirmed by the detection of a specific antibody in serum. Ocular involvement associated with emergent infections usually has a self-limited course, but it can result in persistent visual impairment. There is currently no proven specific treatment for arboviral diseases, and therapy is mostly supportive. Vaccination for humans against these viruses is still in the research phase. Doxycycline is the treatment of choice for rickettsial diseases. Prevention, including public measures to reduce the number of mosquitoes and personal protection, remains the mainstay for arthropod vector disease control. Influenza A (H1N1) virus was responsible for a pandemic human influenza in 2009, and was recently associated with various posterior segment changes.

  13. Facilitating text reading in posterior cortical atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Rajdev, Kishan; Shakespeare, Timothy J.; Leff, Alexander P.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We report (1) the quantitative investigation of text reading in posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), and (2) the effects of 2 novel software-based reading aids that result in dramatic improvements in the reading ability of patients with PCA. Methods: Reading performance, eye movements, and fixations were assessed in patients with PCA and typical Alzheimer disease and in healthy controls (experiment 1). Two reading aids (single- and double-word) were evaluated based on the notion that reducing the spatial and oculomotor demands of text reading might support reading in PCA (experiment 2). Results: Mean reading accuracy in patients with PCA was significantly worse (57%) compared with both patients with typical Alzheimer disease (98%) and healthy controls (99%); spatial aspects of passages were the primary determinants of text reading ability in PCA. Both aids led to considerable gains in reading accuracy (PCA mean reading accuracy: single-word reading aid = 96%; individual patient improvement range: 6%–270%) and self-rated measures of reading. Data suggest a greater efficiency of fixations and eye movements under the single-word reading aid in patients with PCA. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate how neurologic characterization of a neurodegenerative syndrome (PCA) and detailed cognitive analysis of an important everyday skill (reading) can combine to yield aids capable of supporting important everyday functional abilities. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with PCA, 2 software-based reading aids (single-word and double-word) improve reading accuracy. PMID:26138948

  14. Representation of numerosity in posterior parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Roitman, Jamie D.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Platt, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Humans and animals appear to share a similar representation of number as an analog magnitude on an internal, subjective scale. Neurological and neurophysiological data suggest that posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is a critical component of the circuits that form the basis of numerical abilities in humans. Patients with parietal lesions are impaired in their ability to access the deep meaning of numbers. Acalculiac patients with inferior parietal damage often have difficulty performing arithmetic (2 + 4?) or number bisection (what is between 3 and 5?) tasks, but are able to recite multiplication tables and read or write numerals. Functional imaging studies of neurologically intact humans performing subtraction, number comparison, and non-verbal magnitude comparison tasks show activity in areas within the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Taken together, clinical cases and imaging studies support a critical role for parietal cortex in the mental manipulation of numerical quantities. Further, responses of single PPC neurons in non-human primates are sensitive to the numerosity of visual stimuli independent of low-level stimulus qualities. When monkeys are trained to make explicit judgments about the numerical value of such stimuli, PPC neurons encode their cardinal numerical value; without such training PPC neurons appear to encode numerical magnitude in an analog fashion. Here we suggest that the spatial and integrative properties of PPC neurons contribute to their critical role in numerical cognition. PMID:22666194

  15. [Posterior reversible encephalopathy: beyond the original description].

    PubMed

    Avecillas-Chasín, Josué M; Matías-Guiu, Jordi A; Bautista-Balbás, Luis

    2015-07-16

    Introduccion. La encefalopatia posterior reversible (EPR) es una entidad clinicorradiologica caracterizada tipicamente por cuadros de cefalea, alteraciones visuales y crisis epilepticas, asociada a edema vasogeno corticosubcortical reversible en la neuroimagen. Objetivo. Presentar una revision de los aspectos fisiopatologicos de esta entidad y tambien de las asociaciones de la EPR descritas en la bibliografia. Desarrollo. Existe una serie de factores desencadenantes bien conocidos, como las crisis hipertensivas, la eclampsia o ciertos medicamentos. La descripcion de cada vez mas casos atipicos desde un punto de vista clinico y radiologico, asi como de posibles nuevos factores desencadenantes, obliga a una redefinicion de la entidad. Conclusiones. La EPR es un conjunto de manifestaciones clinicas y radiologicas que no se pueden enmarcar dentro la palabra 'sindrome'. Aunque la EPR se ha comunicado como irreversible en ciertos casos, el concepto de reversibilidad debe mantenerse en la definicion de esta entidad, ya que, en la mayor parte de los casos, el rapido control de la condicion desencadenante de la EPR permite la reversibilidad de las lesiones.

  16. Dynamic properties of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle.

    PubMed

    Cooper, D S; Shindo, M; Sinha, U; Hast, M H; Rice, D H

    1994-12-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the contractile properties of the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle. Simultaneous measurements were made of the isometric force, temperature, and electromyographic activity of the dorsal cricoarytenoid muscle of anesthetized dogs during supramaximal stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve for twitch and tetanic contraction. The conduction delay between stimulation of the recurrent nerve at the level of the larynx and the onset of the muscle action potential averaged 2.0 +/- 0.2 milliseconds (ms), and the latent period between the onset of electrical activity of the muscle and the onset of contraction had a mean duration of 3.3 +/- 0.8 ms. The mean of isometric contraction times found was 33.3 +/- 2.0 ms, shorter than most previous studies of canine PCA muscle. Tetanic frequency defined as smooth contraction was higher than previous estimates. Considerations of scaling of physiological time based on animal mass were applied to analysis of the experimental findings to make possible systematic comparison of previous findings across species and animal size.

  17. Ganglion cysts of the posterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Gautam M; Nha, Kyung Wook; Patil, Sachin P; Chae, Dong Ju; Kang, Ki Hoon; Yoon, Jung Ro; Choo, Suk Kyu; Yi, Jeong Woo; Kim, Ji Hoon; Baek, Jong Ryoon

    2008-08-01

    Ganglion cysts of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) are uncommon lesions found incidentally on MRI and arthroscopy. Twenty patients (11 males and nine females) with the mean age of 35 years presenting with a variety of knee signs and symptoms were found to have PCL cysts on MRI. Out of these, thirteen patients (65%) had isolated symptomatic PCL cysts and seven patients had associated chondral and meniscal lesions. Eight out of the 20 patients (40%) gave a history of antecedent trauma. On arthroscopy, the majority of the cysts were situated at the midsubstance of the ligament with inter-cruciate distension and no involvement of the substance of the ligament. The content of the cysts varied with the majority having yellowish viscous fluid and three containing serous and bloody fluid. All cysts were successfully treated arthroscopically through standard anterior, posteromedial and posterolateral portals with no signs of recurrence on MRI at a mean followup of 24 months. PCL cysts may clinically mimic meniscal or chondral lesions and preoperatively, MRI is essential for the diagnosis of ganglion cysts arising from the PCL. Ganglion cysts of the PCL can be successfully treated arthroscopically using standard portals.

  18. Intraoperative usefulness and postoperative results of the endoilluminator for performing primary posterior capsulectomy and anterior vitrectomy during pediatric cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Matalia, J; Anaspure, H; Shetty, B K; Matalia, H

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the intraoperative usefulness and postoperative results of endoilluminator use during pediatric cataract surgery. Methods Medical records of children <8 years of age who underwent lens aspiration with primary posterior capsulectomy (PPC) and anterior vitrectomy (AV) with or without intraocular lens implantation (IOL) were studied. An endoilluminator was used intraoperatively as an external light source in all cases to ensure the completeness of PPC and adequacy of AV. All children were divided into three groups depending upon the age at surgery and presence of IOL. We included only the first operated eye in bilateral cases. We studied the intraoperative performance for all and postoperative complications for those with >6 months follow-up. Results The charts of 79 eyes of 46 children (26 boys, 20 girls: 33 bilateral, 13 unilateral) were reviewed, of which we analyzed 46 eyes of 46 children for intraoperative performance and 42 eyes of 42 children for postoperative complications. The intraoperatively adequate size of PPC was obtained in all cases with no vitreous in the anterior chamber. Two cases in the first group developed peaking of the pupil, and one case developed visual axis contraction requiring membranectomy. None of the cases in the other groups developed any complication. Conclusion An endoilluminator is a simple, safe, and powerful tool for better visualization of the posterior capsule and anterior vitreous during pediatric cataract surgery. It helps in confirming a good vitrectomy, ensuring its completeness and thereby reducing the chances of any complication due to inadequate AV. PMID:24946844

  19. Posterior Probability Matching and Human Perceptual Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Murray, Richard F; Patel, Khushbu; Yee, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Probability matching is a classic theory of decision making that was first developed in models of cognition. Posterior probability matching, a variant in which observers match their response probabilities to the posterior probability of each response being correct, is being used increasingly often in models of perception. However, little is known about whether posterior probability matching is consistent with the vast literature on vision and hearing that has developed within signal detection theory. Here we test posterior probability matching models using two tools from detection theory. First, we examine the models' performance in a two-pass experiment, where each block of trials is presented twice, and we measure the proportion of times that the model gives the same response twice to repeated stimuli. We show that at low performance levels, posterior probability matching models give highly inconsistent responses across repeated presentations of identical trials. We find that practised human observers are more consistent across repeated trials than these models predict, and we find some evidence that less practised observers more consistent as well. Second, we compare the performance of posterior probability matching models on a discrimination task to the performance of a theoretical ideal observer that achieves the best possible performance. We find that posterior probability matching is very inefficient at low-to-moderate performance levels, and that human observers can be more efficient than is ever possible according to posterior probability matching models. These findings support classic signal detection models, and rule out a broad class of posterior probability matching models for expert performance on perceptual tasks that range in complexity from contrast discrimination to symmetry detection. However, our findings leave open the possibility that inexperienced observers may show posterior probability matching behaviour, and our methods provide new tools

  20. Mitral Valve Mechanics Following Posterior Leaflet Patch Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Azadeh; Rasmussen, Ann Q.; Honge, Jesper L.; Ostli, Bjorn; Levine, Robert A.; Hagège, Albert; Nygaard, Hans; Nielsen, Sten L.; Jensen, Morten O.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim of the study Attention towards the optimization of mitral valve repair methods is increasing. Patch augmentation is one strategy used to treat functional ischemic mitral regurgitation (FIMR). The study aim was to investigate the force balance changes in specific chordae tendineae emanating from the posterior papillary muscle in a FIMR-simulated valve, following posterior leaflet patch augmentation. Methods Mitral valves were obtained from 12 pigs (body weight 80 kg). An in vitro test set-up simulating the left ventricle was used to hold the valves. The left ventricular pressure was regulated with water to simulate different static pressures during valve closure. A standardized oval pericardial patch (17 × 29 mm) was introduced into the posterior leaflet from mid P2 to the end of the P3 scallop. Dedicated miniature transducers were used to record the forces exerted on the chordae tendineae. Data were acquired before and after 12 mm posterior and 5 mm apical posterior papillary muscle displacement to simulate the effect from one of the main contributors of FIMR, before and after patch augmentation. Results The effect of displacing the posterior papillary muscle induced tethering on the intermediate chordae tendineae to the posterior leaflet, and resulted in a 39.8% force increase (p = 0.014). Posterior leaflet patch augmentation of the FIMR valve induced a 31.1% force decrease (p = 0.007). There was no difference in force between the healthy and the repaired valve simulations (p = 0.773). Conclusion Posterior leaflet patch augmentation significantly reduced the forces exerted on the intermediate chordae tendineae from the posterior papillary muscle following FIMR simulation. As changes in chordal tension lead to a redistribution of the total stress exerted on the valve, patch augmentation may have an adverse long-term influence on mitral valve function and remodeling. PMID:23610985

  1. Posterior Probability Matching and Human Perceptual Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Richard F.; Patel, Khushbu; Yee, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Probability matching is a classic theory of decision making that was first developed in models of cognition. Posterior probability matching, a variant in which observers match their response probabilities to the posterior probability of each response being correct, is being used increasingly often in models of perception. However, little is known about whether posterior probability matching is consistent with the vast literature on vision and hearing that has developed within signal detection theory. Here we test posterior probability matching models using two tools from detection theory. First, we examine the models’ performance in a two-pass experiment, where each block of trials is presented twice, and we measure the proportion of times that the model gives the same response twice to repeated stimuli. We show that at low performance levels, posterior probability matching models give highly inconsistent responses across repeated presentations of identical trials. We find that practised human observers are more consistent across repeated trials than these models predict, and we find some evidence that less practised observers more consistent as well. Second, we compare the performance of posterior probability matching models on a discrimination task to the performance of a theoretical ideal observer that achieves the best possible performance. We find that posterior probability matching is very inefficient at low-to-moderate performance levels, and that human observers can be more efficient than is ever possible according to posterior probability matching models. These findings support classic signal detection models, and rule out a broad class of posterior probability matching models for expert performance on perceptual tasks that range in complexity from contrast discrimination to symmetry detection. However, our findings leave open the possibility that inexperienced observers may show posterior probability matching behaviour, and our methods provide new tools

  2. Capsule Design for Blue Light Therapy against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhangyong; Ren, Binbin; Tan, Haiyan; Liu, Shengrong; Wang, Wei; Pang, Yu; Lin, Jinzhao; Zeng, Chen

    2016-01-01

    A photo-medical capsule that emits blue light for Helicobacter pylori treatment was described in this paper. The system consists of modules for pH sensing and measuring, light-emitting diode driver circuit, radio communication and microcontroller, and power management. The system can differentiate locations by monitoring the pH values of the gastrointestinal tract, and turn on and off the blue light according to the preset range of pH values. Our experimental tests show that the capsule can operate in the effective light therapy mode for more than 32 minutes and the wireless communication module can reliably transmit the measured pH value to a receiver located outside the body.

  3. Plastic ablator ignition capsule design for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D S; Haan, S W; Hammel, B A; Salmonson, J D; Callahan, D A; Town, R P

    2009-12-01

    The National Ignition Campaign, tasked with designing and fielding targets for fusion ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), has carried forward three complementary target designs for the past several years: a beryllium ablator design, a plastic ablator design, and a high-density carbon or synthetic diamond design. This paper describes current simulations and design optimization to develop the plastic ablator capsule design as a candidate for the first ignition attempt on NIF. The trade-offs in capsule scale and laser energy that must be made to achieve a comparable ignition probability to that with beryllium are emphasized. Large numbers of 1-D simulations, meant to assess the statistical behavior of the target design, as well as 2-D simulations to assess the target's susceptibility to Rayleigh-Taylor growth are presented.

  4. Plastic ablator ignition capsule design for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Daniel S.; Haan, Steven W.; Hammel, Bruce A.; Salmonson, Jay D.; Callahan, Debra A.; Town, Richard P. J.

    2010-05-15

    The National Ignition Campaign, tasked with designing and fielding targets for fusion ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)], has carried forward three complementary target designs for the past several years: a beryllium ablator design, a plastic ablator design, and a high-density carbon or synthetic diamond design. This paper describes current simulations and design optimization to develop the plastic ablator capsule design as a candidate for the first ignition attempt on NIF. The trade-offs in capsule scale and laser energy that must be made to achieve a comparable ignition probability to that with beryllium are emphasized. Large numbers of one-dimensional simulations, meant to assess the statistical behavior of the target design, as well as two-dimensional simulations to assess the target's susceptibility to Rayleigh-Taylor growth are presented.

  5. Entry Dispersion Analysis for the Genesis Sample Return Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun, N.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil

    1999-01-01

    Genesis will be the first mission to return samples from beyond the Earth-Moon system. The spacecraft will be inserted into a halo orbit about the L1 (Sun- Earth) libration point where it will remain for two years collecting solar wind particles. Upon Earth return, the sample return capsule, which is passively controlled, will descend under parachute to Utah. The present study describes the analysis of the entry, descent, and landing scenario of the returning sample cap- sule. The robustness of the entry sequence is assessed through a Monte Carlo dispersion analysis where the impact of off-nominal conditions is ascertained. The dispersion results indicate that the capsule attitude excursions near peak heating and drogue chute deployment are within Genesis mission limits. Additionally, the size of the resulting 3-sigma landing ellipse is 47.8 km in downrange by 15.2 km in crossrange, which is within the Utah Test and Training Range boundaries.

  6. On localizing a capsule endoscope using magnetic sensors.

    PubMed

    Moussakhani, Babak; Ramstad, Tor; Flåm, John T; Balasingham, Ilangko

    2012-01-01

    In this work, localizing a capsule endoscope within the gastrointestinal tract is addressed. It is assumed that the capsule is equipped with a magnet, and that a magnetic sensor network measures the flux from this magnet. We assume no prior knowledge on the source location, and that the measurements collected by the sensors are corrupted by thermal Gaussian noise only. Under these assumptions, we focus on determining the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) for the location of the endoscope. Thus, we are not studying specific estimators, but rather the theoretical performance of an optimal one. It is demonstrated that the CRLB is a function of the distance and angle between the sensor network and the magnet. By studying the CRLB with respect to different sensor array constellations, we are able to indicate favorable constellations.

  7. [A newly-developed capsule endoscope in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ogata, Haruhiko

    2008-07-01

    A new video capsule endoscope (VCE) developed by Olympus Medical Systems provides upgrade resolution, depth of the field, and brightness of the image, by improving the optical system, contained with the new function to adjust the level of lighting automatically coordinate with the brightness around, and the original handy displayed real-time viewer. Clinical trial using this capsule demonstrated the significantly higher diagnostic yield compared with barium contrast radiography of small bowel, especially for vascular involvement. Real-time viewer could be useful for detecting the gastric transit abnormality as well as for increasing the likelihood of a complete small-bowel examination with metoclopramide administration. Together with balloon-equipped enteroscopy, VCE is a new device which contributes to the diagnosis and the treatment of the small bowel lesion.

  8. Capsule Design for Blue Light Therapy against Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Haiyan; Liu, Shengrong; Wang, Wei; Pang, Yu; Lin, Jinzhao; Zeng, Chen

    2016-01-01

    A photo-medical capsule that emits blue light for Helicobacter pylori treatment was described in this paper. The system consists of modules for pH sensing and measuring, light-emitting diode driver circuit, radio communication and microcontroller, and power management. The system can differentiate locations by monitoring the pH values of the gastrointestinal tract, and turn on and off the blue light according to the preset range of pH values. Our experimental tests show that the capsule can operate in the effective light therapy mode for more than 32 minutes and the wireless communication module can reliably transmit the measured pH value to a receiver located outside the body. PMID:26814481

  9. Modeling performance of a two-dimensional capsule in a microchannel flow: long-term lateral migration.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Ma, Gang

    2010-08-01

    The long-term lateral migration of a two-dimensional elastic capsule in a microchannel is studied numerically in this paper. The numerical method combines a finite volume technique for solving the fluid problem with a front tracking technique for capturing and tracking the capsule membrane. The capsule is modeled as a liquid medium enclosed by a thin membrane which has linear elastic properties. The capsule, whose initial shape is circle and which starts from a near-center position or a near-wall position, experiences tilting and membrane tank-treading, and migrates laterally when moving along the surrounding flow. The lateral migration demonstrates the existence of lift effect of surrounding flow on moving capsule. Before capsule approaches to the microchannel centerline closely, lower membrane dilation modulus and lower viscosity ratio tend to result in faster lateral migration. The initial position also influences the performance behavior of capsule, despite the lateral migration of capsule is a quasisteady process. Small difference in capsule behavior when capsule is not near to the microchannel centerline might lead to significant difference in capsule behavior when capsule approaches closely to the centerline. When capsules are near to microchannel wall, the effect of the wall on capsule behavior might dominate, leading to relatively faster lateral migration. When capsules are not far from microchannel centerline, the effect of the nonlinearity of Poiseuille flow might dominate, resulting in relatively slower lateral movement. When capsules are located closely to the centerline, they behave differently, where the reason still remains poorly understood and it will be one of our future studies. The comparison between the capsule behavior from the present simulation and that by the migration law proposed by Coupier [Phys. Fluids 20, 111702 (2008)] shows that the behavioral agreement for near-wall capsule is better than that for near-center capsule, and the best

  10. Diagnosis of Jejunal Metastases from Lung Cancer Using Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Charlotte; Prim, Nathalie; Mennecier, Bertrand; Delvaux, Michel; Gangi, Afshin; Quoix, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal metastases from lung cancer are rare and usually asymptomatic. We report a case of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer revealed by abdominal pain and severe recurrent anaemia. The diagnosis was obtained with capsule endoscopy. This non-invasive procedure thus represents a valuable method contributing to a rapid and detailed diagnosis while reducing underdiagnosis, and it should thus be considered for lung cancer patients complaining of abdominal symptoms, which may indeed be related to gastrointestinal metastases. PMID:27790115

  11. Cable attachment for a radioactive brachytherapy source capsule

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Ian G; Pierce, Larry A

    2006-07-18

    In cancer brachytherapy treatment, a small californium-252 neutron source capsule is attached to a guide cable using a modified crimping technique. The guide cable has a solid cylindrical end, and the attachment employs circumferential grooves micromachined in the solid cable end. The attachment was designed and tested, and hardware fabricated for use inside a radioactive hot cell. A welding step typically required in other cable attachments is avoided.

  12. 29. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW MEMBERS (FRONT TO BACK) LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY AND CAPTAIN JAMES L. KING, JR. AT CONSOLES. REFRIGERATOR AT RIGHT FLANKED BY RADIO EQUIPMENT (RIGHT) AND FILE CABINETS (LEFT). VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  13. 25. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW MEMBERS (FRONT TO BACK) CAPTAIN JAMES L. KING, JR. AT LAUNCH CONTROL CONSOLE AND LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY AT COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE. RADIO TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER RACKS AT FAR RIGHT; ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT RACKS AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  14. Using Numerical Modeling to Simulate Space Capsule Ground Landings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Ernie; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental work is being conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) to investigate ground landing capabilities of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The Orion capsule is NASA s replacement for the Space Shuttle. The Orion capsule will service the International Space Station and be used for future space missions to the Moon and to Mars. To evaluate the feasibility of Orion ground landings, a series of capsule impact tests are being performed at the NASA Langley Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR). The experimental results derived at LandIR provide means to validate and calibrate nonlinear dynamic finite element models, which are also being developed during this study. Because of the high cost and time involvement intrinsic to full-scale testing, numerical simulations are favored over experimental work. Subsequent to a numerical model validated by actual test responses, impact simulations will be conducted to study multiple impact scenarios not practical to test. Twenty-one swing tests using the LandIR gantry were conducted during the June 07 through October 07 time period to evaluate the Orion s impact response. Results for two capsule initial pitch angles, 0deg and -15deg , along with their computer simulations using LS-DYNA are presented in this article. A soil-vehicle friction coefficient of 0.45 was determined by comparing the test stopping distance with computer simulations. In addition, soil modeling accuracy is presented by comparing vertical penetrometer impact tests with computer simulations for the soil model used during the swing tests.

  15. An Innovative Wireless Endoscopic Capsule With Spherical Shape.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Rossella; Mulana, Francesca; Cavallotti, Carmen; Tortora, Giuseppe; Vigliar, Mario; Vatteroni, Monica; Menciassi, Arianna

    2017-02-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the advancement of the Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) field for ColoRectal Cancer (CRC) screening, by developing all electronic circuits to build an innovative wireless endoscopic capsule with a spherical shape, conceived to reduce the friction during its locomotion and thus improving patient's acceptability. The proposed capsule embeds an image sensor with optics and Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), a control unit with a telemetry module, an actuation system, a battery with a smart recharging circuit able to recharge in 20 minutes, a smart power-on circuit and a localization module. Everything is devised to fit in a small spherical shape with a diameter of 26 mm and a weight of 12.70 g. The authors present a description of the sub-modules involved in the capsule development, together with the firmware and hardware integration. In order to reduce the bandwidth for matching the specifications of the target commercial telemetry, the firmware interfacing of a custom encoder was performed, which is able to compress the incoming images with a negligible loss of information and occupying a number of Look Up-Tables (LUTs) less than 1780. As a preliminary work, a versatile Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) based demo-board system has been developed in order to test and optimize the functionalities and the performance of the single sub-modules and wireless vision chain system. This work allows to demonstrate the feasibility of a complex biomedical system, with severe constraints by highlighting the necessity to enhance the frame rate in the future.

  16. Diagnosis of Jejunal Metastases from Lung Cancer Using Capsule Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Charlotte; Prim, Nathalie; Mennecier, Bertrand; Delvaux, Michel; Gangi, Afshin; Quoix, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal metastases from lung cancer are rare and usually asymptomatic. We report a case of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer revealed by abdominal pain and severe recurrent anaemia. The diagnosis was obtained with capsule endoscopy. This non-invasive procedure thus represents a valuable method contributing to a rapid and detailed diagnosis while reducing underdiagnosis, and it should thus be considered for lung cancer patients complaining of abdominal symptoms, which may indeed be related to gastrointestinal metastases.

  17. Acetylene bubble-powered autonomous capsules: towards in situ fuel.

    PubMed

    Moo, James Guo Sheng; Wang, Hong; Pumera, Martin

    2014-12-28

    A fuel-free autonomous self-propelled motor is illustrated. The motor is powered by the chemistry of calcium carbide and utilising water as a co-reactant, through a polymer encapsulation strategy. Expulsion of acetylene bubbles powers the capsule motor. This is an important step, going beyond the toxic hydrogen peroxide fuel used normally, to find alternative propellants for self-propelled machines.

  18. Performance qualification of a new hypromellose capsule: part I. Comparative evaluation of physical, mechanical and processability quality attributes of Vcaps Plus, Quali-V and gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Sherry Ku, M; Li, Weiyi; Dulin, Wendy; Donahue, Fran; Cade, Dominique; Benameur, Hassan; Hutchison, Keith

    2010-02-15

    This Part I paper describes the qualification of a new high performance hypromellose (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, HPMC) capsule shell which contains no gelling agent and is dissolution friendly. The development history and the test results for a series of quality attributes including scanning electron microscopy, hygroscopicity, machineability, weight variation, powder leakage, mechanical strength, stability, cross-linking, animal and human pharmacokinetic results are reported. Comparisons to gelatin and HPMC capsule containing carrageenan showed the new HPMC capsule is superior in terms of mechanical strength, hygroscopicity and compatibility with a wide range of drugs. Specifically, the new HPMC capsule demonstrated improved weight variation, machineability and powder leakage than the HPMC capsule containing carrageenan. And the new capsule demonstrated a broader applicability than gelatin capsule for new drug development due to its inertness and compatibility for a wide range of excipients including those used for liquid fill formulations. In the second phase of qualification, disintegration and dissolution properties of the new HPMC were evaluated and reported in a Part II paper for 10 new clinical compounds with a variety of formulations optimized based on the biopharmaceutical classification system of solubility and permeability. Based on the superior performance, the new HPMC capsule is satisfactorily qualified and has since been used successfully for nearly 20 investigational new drug (IND) compounds.

  19. Liberty Bell 7 Space Capsule Exhibit previews at Visitor Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Media gather at the KSC Visitor Complex for the kickoff of the Discovery Channel's Liberty Bell 7 Space Capsule Exhibit, which will open to the public on Saturday, June 17. At the podium is Mike Quattrone, executive vice president and general manager, Discovery Channel. Standing to the left of the podium is Rick Abramson, president and chief operating officer of Delaware North Parks Services of Spaceport, Inc., and far left, Jim Jennings, deputy director of Kennedy Space Center. Liberty Bell 7 launched U.S. Air Force Captain Virgil '''Gus''' Grissom July 21, 1961 on a mission that lasted 15 minutes and 37 seconds before sinking to the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, three miles deep. It lay undetected for nearly four decades before a Discovery Channel expedition located it and recovered it. The space capsule is now restored and preserved, and part of an interactive exhibit touring science centers and museums in 12 cities throughout the United States until 2003. The exhibit includes hands-on elements such as a capsule simulator, a centrifuge, and ROV pilot.

  20. Spectral measurements of asymmetrically-irradiated capsule backlighters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiter, Paul; Drake, R. Paul

    2015-11-01

    Capsule backlighters provide a quasi-continuum x-ray spectrum over a wide range of photon energies. [Hansen et al, 2008] Typically lasers irradiate the capsule backlighter symmetrically, however, in complex experimental geometries, this is not always possible. In recent experiments we irradiated capsule backlighters asymmetrically and measured the x-ray spectrum from multiple directions. We will present time-integrated spectra over the photon energy range of ~2-13 keV and time-resolved spectra over the photon energy range of ~2-3 keV. We will also discuss the use of these backlighters in future absorption spectroscopy experiments. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE-NA0001840, and the National Laser User Facility Program, grant number DE-NA0002032, and through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester by the NNSA/OICF under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  1. Low-Density Aerodynamics of the Stardust Sample Return Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmoth, Richard G.; Mitcheltree, Robert A.; Moss, James N.

    1997-01-01

    The aerodynamics of the Stardust Sample Return Capsule are analyzed in the low- density, transitional flow regime using free-molecular, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo, Navier-Stokes, and Newtonian methods to provide inputs for constructing a transitional flow bridging relation. The accuracy of this bridging relation in reconstructing the aero- dynamic coefficients given by the more exact methods is presented for a range of flight conditions and vehicle attitudes. There is good agreement between the various prediction methods, and a simple sine-squared bridging relation is shown to provide a reasonably good description of the axial force, normal force, and pitching moment over a range of Knudsen numbers from 0.001 to 10. The predictions show a static instability of the Star- dust capsule in the free-molecular regime that persists well into the transitional flow. The addition of a thin disk to the base of the capsule is shown to remove this static instability. However, the extremely high entry velocity of 12.6 km/s for the proposed trajectory introduces difficult design issues for incorporating this disk caused by the high aerothermal loads that occur even under relatively rarefied conditions.

  2. Controllable light capsules employing modified Bessel-Gauss beams.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Weiwei; Zhao, Qian; Ren, Yuxuan; Qiu, Xingze; Zhong, Mincheng; Li, Yinmei

    2016-07-08

    We report, in theory and experiment, on a novel class of controlled light capsules with nearly perfect darkness, directly employing intrinsic properties of modified Bessel-Gauss beams. These beams are able to naturally create three-dimensional bottle-shaped region during propagation as long as the parameters are properly chosen. Remarkably, the optical bottle can be controlled to demonstrate various geometries through tuning the beam parameters, thereby leading to an adjustable light capsule. We provide a detailed insight into the theoretical origin and characteristics of the light capsule derived from modified Bessel-Gauss beams. Moreover, a binary digital micromirror device (DMD) based scheme is first employed to shape the bottle beams by precise amplitude and phase manipulation. Further, we demonstrate their ability for optical trapping of core-shell magnetic microparticles, which play a particular role in biomedical research, with holographic optical tweezers. Therefore, our observations provide a new route for generating and controlling bottle beams and will widen the potentials for micromanipulation of absorbing particles, aerosols or even individual atoms.

  3. Controllable light capsules employing modified Bessel-Gauss beams

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Weiwei; Zhao, Qian; Ren, Yuxuan; Qiu, Xingze; Zhong, Mincheng; Li, Yinmei

    2016-01-01

    We report, in theory and experiment, on a novel class of controlled light capsules with nearly perfect darkness, directly employing intrinsic properties of modified Bessel-Gauss beams. These beams are able to naturally create three-dimensional bottle-shaped region during propagation as long as the parameters are properly chosen. Remarkably, the optical bottle can be controlled to demonstrate various geometries through tuning the beam parameters, thereby leading to an adjustable light capsule. We provide a detailed insight into the theoretical origin and characteristics of the light capsule derived from modified Bessel-Gauss beams. Moreover, a binary digital micromirror device (DMD) based scheme is first employed to shape the bottle beams by precise amplitude and phase manipulation. Further, we demonstrate their ability for optical trapping of core-shell magnetic microparticles, which play a particular role in biomedical research, with holographic optical tweezers. Therefore, our observations provide a new route for generating and controlling bottle beams and will widen the potentials for micromanipulation of absorbing particles, aerosols or even individual atoms. PMID:27388558

  4. Bowel preparation regimens for colon capsule endoscopy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Nigar, Sofia; Paleti, Vani; Lane, Devin; Duddempudi, Sushil

    2014-01-01

    Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) is being actively evaluated as an emerging complementary or alternative procedure for evaluation of the colon. The yield of CCE is significantly dependent on the quality of bowel preparation. In addition to achieving a stool-free colon the bowel preparation protocols need to decrease bubble effect and aid propulsion of the capsule. An extensive English literature search was done using PubMed with search terms of colon capsule endoscopy, PillCam and bowel preparation. Full-length articles which met the criteria were included for review. A total of 12 studies including 1149 patients were reviewed. There was significant variability in the type of bowel preparation regimens. Large-volume (3–4 liters) polyethylene glycol (PEG) was the most widely used laxative. Lower volumes of PEG showed comparable results but larger studies are needed to determine efficacy. Sodium phosphate was used as an effective booster in most studies. Magnesium citrate and ascorbic acid are emerging as promising boosters to replace sodium phosphate when it is contraindicated. The potential benefit of prokinetics needs further evaluation. Over the past decade there has been significant improvement in the bowel preparation regimens for CCE. Further experience and studies are likely to standardize the bowel preparation regimens before CCE is adopted into routine clinical practice. PMID:24790642

  5. Polyelectrolyte multilayer capsules with quantum dots for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Adamczak, M; Hoel, H J; Gaudernack, G; Barbasz, J; Szczepanowicz, K; Warszyński, P

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this work was to encapsulate the CdTe quantum dots within the nanocapsules that were prepared by the layer-by-layer adsorption of polyelectrolytes. Two different polyelectrolyte pairs were used as components of the shell: synthetic polycation poly(allyamine hydrochloride) (PAH), together with anionic poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) (PSS), and biocompatible cationic poly-L-lysine hydrobromide in a pair with biocompatible anionic poly-D-glutamic acid sodium salt (PGA). The saturation method was used for formation of consecutive layers on the initial CdTe-polyelectrolyte complex. A growth of the polyelectrolyte shell was followed with the electrophoretic mobility and light scattering measurements, in order to determine the zeta potential and the size of capsules, respectively. The fluorescent spectra of the quantum dots, which are embedded within the capsules, were characterized with spectrofluorimeter. Later on, they were deposited on a negatively charged mica surface and studied by the means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). In order to estimate the cytotoxicity of capsules, their influence on the B-lymphoblastoid cell line proliferation and on unspecific binding to the P-blood mononuclear cells was examined using the flow cytometry.

  6. Inflated Sporopollenin Exine Capsules Obtained from Thin-Walled Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Jackman, Joshua A.; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Sporopollenin is a physically robust and chemically resilient biopolymer that comprises the outermost layer of pollen walls and is the first line of defense against harsh environmental conditions. The unique physicochemical properties of sporopollenin increasingly motivate the extraction of sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) from pollen walls as a renewable source of organic microcapsules for encapsulation applications. Despite the wide range of different pollen species with varying sizes and wall thicknesses, faithful extraction of pollen-mimetic SECs has been limited to thick-walled pollen capsules with rigid mechanical properties. There is an unmet need to develop methods for producing SECs from thin-walled pollen capsules which constitute a large fraction of all pollen species and have attractive materials properties such as greater aerosol dispersion. Herein, we report the first successful extraction of inflated SEC microcapsules from a thin-walled pollen species (Zea mays), thereby overcoming traditional challenges with mechanical stability and loss of microstructure. Morphological and compositional characterization of the SECs obtained by the newly developed extraction protocol confirms successful protein removal along with preservation of nanoscale architectural features. Looking forward, there is excellent potential to apply similar strategies across a wide range of unexplored thin-walled pollen species. PMID:27302853

  7. Inflated Sporopollenin Exine Capsules Obtained from Thin-Walled Pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Jackman, Joshua A.; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-06-01

    Sporopollenin is a physically robust and chemically resilient biopolymer that comprises the outermost layer of pollen walls and is the first line of defense against harsh environmental conditions. The unique physicochemical properties of sporopollenin increasingly motivate the extraction of sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) from pollen walls as a renewable source of organic microcapsules for encapsulation applications. Despite the wide range of different pollen species with varying sizes and wall thicknesses, faithful extraction of pollen-mimetic SECs has been limited to thick-walled pollen capsules with rigid mechanical properties. There is an unmet need to develop methods for producing SECs from thin-walled pollen capsules which constitute a large fraction of all pollen species and have attractive materials properties such as greater aerosol dispersion. Herein, we report the first successful extraction of inflated SEC microcapsules from a thin-walled pollen species (Zea mays), thereby overcoming traditional challenges with mechanical stability and loss of microstructure. Morphological and compositional characterization of the SECs obtained by the newly developed extraction protocol confirms successful protein removal along with preservation of nanoscale architectural features. Looking forward, there is excellent potential to apply similar strategies across a wide range of unexplored thin-walled pollen species.

  8. Engineering Polyelectrolyte Capsules with Independently Controlled Size and Shape.

    PubMed

    Zan, Xingjie; Garapaty, Anusha; Champion, Julie A

    2015-07-14

    Polyelectrolyte capsules (PECs) are a promising delivery system that has the ability to carry a large payload of a variety of cargoes. Controlling PEC properties is critical to understanding and tuning their cellular uptake efficiency, kinetics, and mechanism as well as their biodistribution in the body. The lack of a method to independently engineer PEC size, shape, and chemistry impedes both basic understanding of how physicochemical parameters affect PEC behavior in drug delivery and other applications, and the ability to optimize parameters for best function. Here, we report the successful fabrication of PECs having constant surface chemistry with independently controlled size and shape by combining soft organic templates created by the particle stretching method and a modified layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition process. Changing the template dispersion solution during LBL deposition from water to ethanol allowed us to overcome previous issues with organic templates, such as aggregation and template removal. These results will contribute not only to the basic study of the role of capsule shape and size on its function but also to the optimization of capsule properties for drug or imaging carriers, sensors, reactors, and other applications.

  9. Hard gelatin and hypromellose (HPMC) capsules: estimation of rupture time by real-time dissolution spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    El-Malah, Yasser; Nazzal, Sami; Bottom, Carey B

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure rupture time of gelatin and hypromellose (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose or HPMC) capsules using a novel approach based on real-time dissolution spectroscopy. Rupture time was measured in standard dissolution apparatus at a constant temperature using a dip-type fiber-optic probe. Labrasol released from the capsules was treated as the marker of the rupture process. Light scatter generated by the emulsified labrasol was detected by an ultrafast monochromator at scan rates approximating 24,000 nm/min. This technique was validated by measuring the dissolution time of gelatin capsules. Rupture times of hypromellose capsules were studied as a function of capsule size, capsule grade, and dissolution medium. Statistical correlations were analyzed by ANOVA. Rupture time of hypromellose capsules was dependent on both the medium and the grade of the capsule, and was independent of capsule size. The composition of the dissolution medium contributes to the rupture time of the capsules and should be considered when fast release and quick biological response is desired. Release delay, however, may not manifest itself in vivo and the time to maximum plasma concentration may not be significant.

  10. Formulation and evaluation of sustained release floating capsules of nicardipine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Moursy, N M; Afifi, N N; Ghorab, D M; El-Saharty, Y

    2003-01-01

    Nicardipine hydrochloride, a calcium channel blocker with significant vasodilating and antihypertensive activities, was formulated in this work as sustained release floating capsules. A hydrocolloid of high viscosity grade was used for the floating systems. The inclusion of sodium bicarbonate to allow evolution of CO2 to aid buoyancy was studied. Polymers that retard drug release were included as coprecipitates with the drug and/or as additives in the formulated capsules. Both simple powder mixing of the ingredients and granule preparation via wet granulation were used. Seven capsule formulae were prepared. The prepared capsules were evaluated in vitro by testing drug dissolution, floating time and the kinetics of drug release. In vitro evaluation of a commercially available conventional 20 mg capsule of nicardipine hydrochloride, "Micard", was carried out for comparison. The hydrocolloid used succeeded in effecting capsule buoyancy. Floating time increased with increasing the proportion of the hydrocolloid. Inclusion of sodium bicarbonate increased buoyancy. All of the seven floating capsule formulae prepared proved efficient in controlling drug release. The sustained release floating capsule formulation of choice was evaluated in vivo in comparison to "Micard" capsules using rabbits. Reversed phase HPLC with UV detection was used for drug determination in rabbit plasma. Plasma concentration time curves revealed a longer drug duration for administration in the sustained release formula than the conventional "Micard" capsule being 16 h in the former versus 8 h for the latter.

  11. Internalization of red blood cell-mimicking hydrogel capsules with pH-triggered shape responses.

    PubMed

    Kozlovskaya, Veronika; Alexander, Jenolyn F; Wang, Yun; Kuncewicz, Thomas; Liu, Xuewu; Godin, Biana; Kharlampieva, Eugenia

    2014-06-24

    We report on naturally inspired hydrogel capsules with pH-induced transitions from discoids to oblate ellipsoids and their interactions with cells. We integrate characteristics of erythrocytes such as discoidal shape, hollow structure, and elasticity with reversible pH-responsiveness of poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) to design a new type of drug delivery carrier to be potentially triggered by chemical stimuli in the tumor lesion. The capsules are fabricated from cross-linked PMAA multilayers using sacrificial discoid silicon templates. The degree of capsule shape transition is controlled by the pH-tuned volume change, which in turn is regulated by the capsule wall composition. The (PMAA)15 capsules undergo a dramatic 24-fold volume change, while a moderate 2.3-fold volume variation is observed for more rigid PMAA-(poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PMAA-PVPON)5 capsules when solution pH is varied between 7.4 and 4. Despite that both types of capsules exhibit discoid-to-oblate ellipsoid transitions, a 3-fold greater swelling in radial dimensions is found for one-component systems due to a greater degree of the circular face bulging. We also show that (PMAA-PVPON)5 discoidal capsules interact differently with J774A.1 macrophages, HMVEC endothelial cells, and 4T1 breast cancer cells. The discoidal capsules show 60% lower internalization as compared to spherical capsules. Finally, hydrogel capsules demonstrate a 2-fold decrease in size upon internalization. These capsules represent a unique example of elastic hydrogel discoids capable of pH-induced drastic and reversible variations in aspect ratios. Considering the RBC-mimicking shape, their dimensions, and their capability to undergo pH-triggered intracellular responses, the hydrogel capsules demonstrate considerable potential as novel carriers in shape-regulated transport and cellular uptake.

  12. The roles of Tenascin C and Fibronectin 1 in adhesive capsulitis: a pilot gene expression study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Carina; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Figueiredo, Eduardo Antônio; Smith, Marília Cardoso; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Cohen, Moises; Ejnisman, Benno; Faloppa, Flávio

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We evaluated mRNA expression levels of genes that encode TGF-β1; the TGF-β1 receptor; the collagen-modifying enzymes LOX, PLOD1, and PLOD2; and the extracellular matrix proteins COMP, FN1, TNC and TNXB in synovial/capsule specimens from patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis. Possible associations between the measured mRNA levels and clinical parameters were also investigated. METHODS: We obtained glenohumeral joint synovium/capsule specimens from 9 patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis who had not shown improvement in symptoms after 5 months of physiotherapy. Adhesive capsulitis was confirmed in all patients by magnetic resonance imaging. We also obtained specimens from 8 control patients who had underwent surgery for acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation and who had radiological indication of glenohumeral capsule alteration based on arthroscopic evaluation. mRNA expression in the synovium/capsule specimens was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The B2M and HPRT1 genes were used as references to normalize target gene expression in the shoulder tissue samples. RESULTS: The synovium/capsule samples from the patients with adhesive capsulitis had significantly higher TNC and FN1 expression than those from the controls. Additionally, symptom duration directly correlated with expression of TGFβ1 receptor I. CONCLUSION: Elevated levels of TNC and FN1 expression may be a marker of capsule injury. Upregulation of TGFβ1 receptor I seems to be dependent on symptom duration; therefore, TGFβ signaling may be involved in adhesive capsulitis. As such, TNC, FN1 and TGFβ1 receptor I may also play roles in adhesive capsulitis by contributing to capsule inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:27438566

  13. Posterior urethral valves: long-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Caione, Paolo; Nappo, Simona Gerocarni

    2011-10-01

    Posterior urethral valves represent the most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in infancy that impairs renal and bladder function. Long-term outcome of patients with previous PUV is evaluated. Patients over 18 years of age, treated from 1982 to 1995 before the age of 3 years were considered. Previous surgery, renal function, bladder activity, urinary incontinence, and fertility/sexual activity were evaluated. Clinical interview, creatinine clearance, uroflowmetry with ultrasound post-void urine residue, and self-administered questionnaire were recorded. Out of 45 identified records, 24 patients (53.3%) accepted to be enrolled (age 18-34 years, mean 23 years). The mean follow-up was 19.5 years (16-30 years). Out of the 21 excluded patients, 20 did not reply to the clinical interview and 1 died at age of 6 years. All the 24 patients had early endoscopic section of PUV; nine also received transient ureterocutaneostomy or vesicostomy. Ureteroneocystostomy was performed in five patients and ureterocystoplasty with unilateral nephrectomy in two. At follow-up chronic renal failure was detected in 13 patients (54.1%) and 9 (37.5%) had arterial hypertension. End-stage renal disease developed in five patients (20.8%): three had successful renal transplantation and two were in dialysis. Lower urinary tract symptoms were present in seven patients (29.1%). No significant fertility deficit and sexual dysfunction were observed in 23 patients, while 1 patient was azoospermic. No paternity was reported so far. Long-term outcome of patients with previously treated PUV is mandatory. Kidney, bladder, and sexual functions should be monitored till adulthood to verify any modified behaviour.

  14. The language profile of Posterior Cortical Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Crutch, Sebastian J.; Lehmann, Manja; Warren, Jason D.; Rohrer, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA) is typically considered to be a visual syndrome, primarily characterised by progressive impairment of visuoperceptual and visuospatial skills. However patients commonly describe early difficulties with word retrieval. This paper details the first systematic analysis of linguistic function in PCA. Characterising and quantifying the aphasia associated with PCA is important for clarifying diagnostic and selection criteria for clinical and research studies. Methods Fifteen patients with PCA, 7 patients with logopenic/phonological aphasia (LPA) and 18 age-matched healthy participants completed a detailed battery of linguistic tests evaluating auditory input processing, repetition and working memory, lexical and grammatical comprehension, single word retrieval and fluency, and spontaneous speech. Results Relative to healthy controls, PCA patients exhibited language impairments across all the domains examined, but with anomia, reduced phonemic fluency and slowed speech rate the most prominent deficits. PCA performance most closely resembled that of LPA patients on tests of auditory input processing, repetition and digit span, but was relatively stronger on tasks of comprehension and spontaneous speech. Conclusions The study demonstrates that in addition to the well-reported degradation of vision, literacy and numeracy, PCA is characterised by a progressive oral language dysfunction with prominent word retrieval difficulties. Overlap in the linguistic profiles of PCA and LPA, which are both most commonly caused by Alzheimer’s disease, further emphasises the notion of a phenotypic continuum between typical and atypical manifestations of the disease. Clarifying the boundaries between AD phenotypes has important implications for diagnosis, clinical trial recruitment and investigations into biological factors driving phenotypic heterogeneity in AD. Rehabilitation strategies to ameliorate the phonological deficit in PCA are required

  15. Posterior ankle impingement syndrome: A systematic four-stage approach

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Youichi; Hannon, Charles P; Hurley, Eoghan; Kennedy, John G

    2016-01-01

    Posterior ankle impingement syndrome (PAIS) is a common injury in athletes engaging in repetitive plantarflexion, particularly ballet dancers and soccer players. Despite the increase in popularity of the posterior two-portal hindfoot approach, concerns with the technique remain, including; the technical difficulty, relatively steep learning curve, and difficulty performing simultaneous anterior ankle arthroscopy. The purpose of the current literature review is to provide comprehensive knowledge about PAIS, and to describe a systematic four-stage approach of the posterior two-portal arthroscopy. The etiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic strategies are first introduced followed by options in conservative and surgical management. A detailed systematic approach to posterior hindfoot arthroscopy is then described. This technique allows for systematic review of the anatomic structures and treatment of the bony and/or soft tissue lesions in four regions of interest in the hindfoot (superolateral, superomedial, inferomedial, and inferolateral). The review then discusses biological adjuncts and postoperative rehabilitation and ends with a discussion on the most recent clinical outcomes after posterior hindfoot arthroscopy for PAIS. Although clinical evidence suggests high success rates following posterior hindfoot arthroscopy in the short- and mid-term it may be limited in the pathology that can be addressed due to the technical skills required, but the systematic four-stage approach of the posterior two-portal arthroscopy may improve upon this problem. PMID:27795947

  16. Neural correlates of cognitive impairment in posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Kas, Aurélie; de Souza, Leonardo Cruz; Samri, Dalila; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Lacomblez, Lucette; Kalafat, Michel; Migliaccio, Raffaella; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Cohen, Laurent; Dubois, Bruno; Habert, Marie-Odile; Sarazin, Marie

    2011-05-01

    With the prospect of disease-modifying drugs that will target the physiopathological process of Alzheimer's disease, it is now crucial to increase the understanding of the atypical focal presentations of Alzheimer's disease, such as posterior cortical atrophy. This study aimed to (i) characterize the brain perfusion profile in posterior cortical atrophy using regions of interest and a voxel-based approach; (ii) study the influence of the disease duration on the clinical and imaging profiles; and (iii) explore the correlations between brain perfusion and cognitive deficits. Thirty-nine patients with posterior cortical atrophy underwent a specific battery of neuropsychological tests, mainly targeting visuospatial functions, and a brain perfusion scintigraphy with 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer. The imaging analysis included a comparison with a group of 24 patients with Alzheimer's disease, matched for age, disease duration and Mini-Mental State Examination, and 24 healthy controls. The single-photon emission computed tomography profile in patients with posterior cortical atrophy was characterized by extensive and severe hypoperfusion in the occipital, parietal, posterior temporal cortices and in a smaller cortical area corresponding to the frontal eye fields (Brodmann areas 6/8). Compared with patients with Alzheimer's disease, the group with posterior cortical atrophy showed more severe occipitoparietal hypoperfusion and higher perfusion in the frontal, anterior cingulate and mesiotemporal regions. When considering the disease duration, the functional changes began and remained centred on the posterior lobes, even in the late stage. Correlation analyses of brain perfusion and neuropsychological scores in posterior cortical atrophy highlighted the prominent role of left inferior parietal damage in acalculia, Gerstmann's syndrome, left-right indistinction and limb apraxia, whereas damage to the bilateral dorsal occipitoparietal regions appeared to be involved in B

  17. Detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates from Tonsils and Posterior Oropharynx

    PubMed Central

    Whiley, D. M.; Lee, D. M.; Snow, A. F.; Fairley, C. K.; Peel, J.; Bradshaw, C. S.; Hocking, J. S.; Lahra, M. M.; Chen, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the factors influencing gonorrhea detection at the pharynx. One hundred men infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae were swabbed from the tonsils and posterior oropharynx. N. gonorrhoeae was reisolated from the tonsils and posterior oropharynx in 62% and 52%, respectively (P = 0.041). Culture positivity was greater with higher gonococcal DNA loads at the tonsils (P = 0.001) and oropharynx (P < 0.001). N. gonorrhoeae can be cultured from the tonsils and posterior oropharynx with greater isolation rates where gonococcal loads are higher. PMID:26292303

  18. Immunopathology of the noninfectious posterior and intermediate uveitides.

    PubMed

    Boyd, S R; Young, S; Lightman, S

    2001-01-01

    The posterior and intermediate uveitides share an underlying immune etiology; however, they can be clinically and immunopathologically distinguished. Although the initiating stimuli for posterior and intermediate uveities are not known, it is believed that an exogenous agent (such as a bacterium or a virus) or an endogenous molecule may induce disease. In either case, T-helper lymphocytes in conjunction with human leukocyte antigens are likely to be involved. This review examines the epidemiology, histology, immunopathology, and theories of pathogenesis of several posterior and intermediate uveitides, including sympathetic ophthalmia, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, Behçet's disease, sarcoidosis, intermediate uveitis, white dot syndromes, and birdshot retinochoroidopathy.

  19. Posterior cortical atrophy: an atypical variant of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Suárez-González, Aida; Henley, Susie M; Walton, Jill; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-06-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by striking progressive visual impairment and a pattern of atrophy mainly involving posterior cortices. PCA is the most frequent atypical presentation of Alzheimer disease. The purpose of this article is to provide a summary of PCA's neuropsychiatric manifestations. Emotional and psychotic symptoms are discussed in the context of signal characteristic features of the PCA syndrome (the early onset, focal loss of visual perception, focal posterior brain atrophy) and the underlying cause of the disease. The authors' experience with psychotherapeutic intervention and PCA support groups is shared in detail.

  20. Incidence and surgical importance of the posterior gastric artery.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, K; Prates, J C; DiDio, L J

    1978-01-01

    In a series of 61 adult cadavers, the posterior gastric artery was found in 38 (62.3%), originating from the superior aspect of the mid-third of the splenic artery. The posterior gastric artery, running behind the parietal peritoneum of the omental bursa, produced a peritoneal fold before reaching the posterior wall of the superior portion of the gastric body, near the cardiac region, and the fundus. Its high incidence, hidden origin, deep course, and distribution make this artery very important for surgical procedures relating to the stomach, pancreas, spleen, and celiac region. It may be crucial, especially if partial gastric resection of splenectomy have obliterated other gastric vessels. PMID:629615

  1. Asystole during posterior fossa surgery: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Keshav; Philip, Frenny Ann; Rath, Girija Prasad; Mahajan, Charu; Sujatha, M.; Bharti, Sachidanand Jee; Gupta, Nidhi

    2012-01-01

    Asystole during posterior fossa neurosurgical procedures is not uncommon. Various causes have been implicated, especially when surgical manipulation is carried out in the vicinity of the brain stem. The trigemino-cardiac reflex has been attributed as one of the causes. Here, we report two cases who suffered asystole during the resection of posterior fossa tumors. The vago-glossopharyngeal reflex and the direct stimulation of the brainstem were hypothesized as the causes of asytole. These episodes resolved spontaneously following withdrawal of the surgical stimulus emphasizing the importance of anticipation and vigilance during critical moments of tumor dissection during posterior fossa surgery. PMID:22870159

  2. Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Aker, PD; O’Connor, SM; Mior, SA; Beauchemin, D

    1989-01-01

    Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) has recently been recognized as a clinical entity. It is a rare condition, having a higher incidence in the Japanese population. It is characterized by hyperplasia of cartilage cells with eventual endochondral ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. The radiographic signs are characteristic and consist of a linear band of ossified tissue along the posterior margin of the vertebral body. OPLL can be associated with mild to serious neurological complications due to spinal cord or nerve root compression, or it may be asymptomatic. This paper reviews the radiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of this rare condition. ImagesFigures 1 and 2Figures 3 and 4

  3. Posterior Wall Blowout in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Justin J.; Dean, Chase S.; Chahla, Jorge; Menge, Travis J.; Cram, Tyler R.; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Violation of the posterior femoral cortex, commonly referred to as posterior wall blowout, can be a devastating intraoperative complication in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and lead to loss of graft fixation or early graft failure. If cortical blowout occurs despite careful planning and adherence to proper surgical technique, a thorough knowledge of the anatomy and alternative fixation techniques is imperative to ensure optimal patient outcomes. This article highlights anatomic considerations for femoral tunnel placement in ACL reconstruction and techniques for avoidance and salvage of a posterior wall blowout. PMID:27335885

  4. Structure of capsule around acanthocephalan Corynosoma strumosum from uncommon paratenic hosts-lizards of two species.

    PubMed

    Skorobrechova, Ekaterina M; Nikishin, Vladimir P; Lisitsyna, Olga I

    2012-01-01

    Micromorphology and ultrastructure of capsule forming around acanthocephalan Corynosoma strumosum in uncommon paratenic hosts-lizards Lacerta agilis and Lacerta viridis-have been studied. Experimental infestation of the lizards by acanthocephalans obtained from naturally infested sea fishes showed that only small amount of parasites occurred in the intestine of the host was able to migrate into body cavity and to be encapsulated. Micromorphology of capsules of different ages from different species of lizards and micromorphology and ultrastructure of capsules at the age of 1.5 and 10 days appeared to be similar. In the capsule's structure cells of inflammatory rank were prevailing: mononuclear and multinuclear macrophages, eosinophils, and basophils. Fibroblasts were not numerous and were located only in the outer part of a capsule; exocellular collagen fibers were absent. Inflammatory character of capsule confirms the idea that lizards are unsuitable paratenic hosts for corynosomes.

  5. Characterization of two WESF (Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility) capsules after five years of service

    SciTech Connect

    Sasmor, D.J.; Pierce, J.D.; Tingey, G.L.; Kjarmo, H.E.; Tills, J.; McKeon, D.C.

    1988-04-01

    Two Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) /sup 137/Cs capsules have been analyzed destructively after five years of service in the Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids (SIDSS). The program concentrated on studies of the inner capsule, inner capsule weld areas, and analysis of the CsCl salt. No measurable corrosion was observed on the capsule wall or welds after the five years in the SIDSS Facility. The operating temperatures of the inner capsule wall were calculated to be between 140 and 180/degree/C. Radiochemistry and isotopic analyses provided data for specific activity calculations. There was good correlation between the measured calorimetry of the capsules before sectioning, 53 and 55 kCi, and the activity calculations, 54 and 59 kCi, respectively. 21 refs., 43 figs., 18 tabs.

  6. Is there a role for colon capsule endoscopy beyond colorectal cancer screening? A literature review.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Beintaris, Iosif; Dimitriadis, George D

    2014-09-28

    Colon capsule endoscopy is recommended in Europe alternatively to colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening in average risk individuals. The procedure has also been proposed to complete colon examination in cases of incomplete colonoscopy or when colonoscopy is contraindicated or refused by the patient. As tissue samples cannot be obtained with the current capsule device, colon capsule endoscopy has no place in diagnosing ulcerative colitis or in dysplasia surveillance. Nevertheless, data are accumulating regarding its feasibility to examine ulcerative colitis disease extent and to monitor disease activity and mucosal healing, even though reported results on the capsule's performance in this field vary greatly. In this review we present the currently available evidence for the use of colon capsule endoscopy to complement colonoscopy failure to reach the cecum and its use to evaluate ulcerative colitis disease activity and extent. Moreover, we provide an outlook on issues requiring further investigation before the capsule becomes a mainstream alternative to colonoscopy in such cases.

  7. DETERMINATION OF THE AGR-1 CAPSULE TO FPMS SPECTROMETER TRANSPORT VOLUMES FROM LEADOUT FLOW TEST DATA

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Hartwell; J. B. Walter; D. M. Scates; M. W. Drigert

    2007-05-01

    The AGR-1 experiment is a fueled multiple-capsule irradiation experiment being conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in support of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. A flow experiment conducted during the AGR-1 irradiation provided data that included the effect of flow rate changes on the decay of a short-lived radionuclide (23Ne). This data has been analyzed to determine the capsule-specific downstream transport volume through which the capsule effluents must pass before arrival at the fission product monitoring system spectrometers. These resultant transport volumes when coupled with capsule outlet flow rates determine the transport times from capsule-to-detector. In this work an analysis protocol is developed and applied in order to determine capsule-specific transport volumes to precisions of better than +/- 7%.

  8. Physico-chemical properties of alginate/shellac aqueous-core capsules: Influence of membrane architecture on riboflavin release.

    PubMed

    Ben Messaoud, Ghazi; Sánchez-González, Laura; Probst, Laurent; Jeandel, Carole; Arab-Tehrany, Elmira; Desobry, Stéphane

    2016-06-25

    To enhance physico-chemical properties of alginate liquid-core capsules, shellac was incorporated into the membrane (composite capsules) or as an additional external layer (coated capsules). The influence of pH, coating time, shellac concentration and preparation mechanism (acid or calcium precipitation) were investigated. Results showed that shellac significantly influenced the capsules properties. The feasibility of shellac incorporation was closely related to the preparation conditions as confirmed by Infrared spectroscopy. Optical, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy, highlighted different capsules and membranes architectures. In contrast to simple and composite capsules, coated capsules showed a pH-dependent release of the entrapped vitamin especially after shellac crosslinking with calcium. Heating of coated capsules above the glass transition temperature investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, led to irreversible structural change due to thermoplastic behavior of shellac and enhanced riboflavin retention under acidic conditions. This global approach is useful to control release mechanism of low molecular weight molecules from macro and micro-capsules.

  9. Light-addressable capsules as caged compound matrix for controlled triggering of cytosolic reactions.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Markus; Carregal-Romero, Susana; Rejman, Joanna; Braeckmans, Kevin; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Parak, Wolfgang J

    2013-01-07

    Release me: polyelectrolyte capsules with different cargo in their cavities and plasmonic and magnetic nanoparticles in their walls were synthesized. Enzymatic reactions were triggered inside cells by light-mediated opening of two individual capsules containing either an enzyme or its substrate, by using photothermal heating. Furthermore, this technique allows controlled release of mRNA from capsules, thereby resulting in synthesis of green fluorescent protein (GFP).

  10. Moisture diffusion and permeability characteristics of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and hard gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Barham, Ahmad S; Tewes, Frederic; Healy, Anne Marie

    2015-01-30

    The primary objective of this paper is to compare the sorption characteristics of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and hard gelatin (HG) capsules and their ability to protect capsule contents. Moisture sorption and desorption isotherms for empty HPMC and HG capsules have been investigated using dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) at 25°C. All sorption studies were analysed using the Young-Nelson model equations which distinguishes three moisture sorption types: monolayer adsorption moisture, condensation and absorption. Water vapour diffusion coefficients (D), solubility (S) and permeability (P) parameters of the capsule shells were calculated. ANOVA was performed with the Tukey comparison test to analyse the effect of %RH and capsule type on S, P, and D parameters. The moisture uptake of HG capsules were higher than HPMC capsules at all %RH conditions studied. It was found that values of D and P across HPMC capsules were greater than for HG capsules at 0-40 %RH; whereas over the same %RH range S values were higher for HG than for HPMC capsules. S values decreased gradually as the %RH was increased up to 60% RH. To probe the effect of moisture ingress, spray dried lactose was loaded into capsules. Phase evolution was characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The capsules under investigation are not capable of protecting spray dried lactose from induced solid state changes as a result of moisture uptake. For somewhat less moisture sensitive formulations, HPMC would appear to be a better choice than HG in terms of protection of moisture induced deterioration.

  11. Growth factor restriction impedes progression of wound healing following cataract surgery: identification of VEGF as a putative therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Eldred, Julie A.; McDonald, Matthew; Wilkes, Helen S.; Spalton, David J.; Wormstone, I. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Secondary visual loss occurs in millions of patients due to a wound-healing response, known as posterior capsule opacification (PCO), following cataract surgery. An intraocular lens (IOL) is implanted into residual lens tissue, known as the capsular bag, following cataract removal. Standard IOLs allow the anterior and posterior capsules to become physically connected. This places pressure on the IOL and improves contact with the underlying posterior capsule. New open bag IOL designs separate the anterior capsule and posterior capsules and further reduce PCO incidence. It is hypothesised that this results from reduced cytokine availability due to greater irrigation of the bag. We therefore explored the role of growth factor restriction on PCO using human lens cell and tissue culture models. We demonstrate that cytokine dilution, by increasing medium volume, significantly reduced cell coverage in both closed and open capsular bag models. This coincided with reduced cell density and myofibroblast formation. A screen of 27 cytokines identified nine candidates whose expression profile correlated with growth. In particular, VEGF was found to regulate cell survival, growth and myofibroblast formation. VEGF provides a therapeutic target to further manage PCO development and will yield best results when used in conjunction with open bag IOL designs. PMID:27076230

  12. A note on the low-frequency noise reduction of cylindrical capsules (L).

    PubMed

    Ungar, Eric E

    2006-12-01

    The noise reductions provided by capsules consisting of uniform cylindrical shells whose two ends are closed off by like circular plates are analyzed for the low-frequency regime in which a capsule acts quasi-statically, much like a pressure vessel. The change in the confined volume is determined from the structural deflections produced by a net pressure difference, taking account of the interactions of the shell and end plates. Expressions for the noise reduction of a single capsule and of two nested capsules are derived. Some insights into the noise reduction effects of interaction between the shell and end plates are discussed, as are the contributions of these components.

  13. Metrics for comparing drive on the capsule for indirect drive implosions on NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Debra; Hurricane, Omar; Moody, John; Berzak Hopkins, Laura; Divol, Laurent; Doeppner, Tilo; Dewald, Eduard; Hinkel, Denise; Khan, Shahab; Kritcher, Andrea; Lepape, Sebastien; Ma, Tammy; Meezan, Nathan; Ralph, Joseph; Ross, Steven

    2016-10-01

    Radiation drive on the capsule is an important parameter in ICF because it determines the implosion velocity. For indirect drive, the effective capsule drive is a combination of hohlraum and capsule physics. The hohlraum converts the laser energy into xrays - both flux and spectrum. The xray drive is a function of the hohlraum size, material, and hohlraum fill in addition to being a function of the laser power and energy. The timing of the drive with respect to the capsule implosion trajectory plays a role in the way in the way the capsule absorbs the energy as does the choice of ablator material and capsule dopant. In this presentation, we will look at trends in the data from both hohlraum (Dante, SXI) and capsule diagnostics (bangtime, capsule xray yield) as a method for comparing the drive on the capsule for a variety of designs. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA273.

  14. Simulations of indirectly driven gas-filled capsules at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Eder, D. C.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Pino, J. E.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Grim, G. P.; Remington, B. A.; Rowley, D. P.; Yeamans, C. B.; Tipton, R. E.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, R.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bond, E. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C. J.; Clark, D. S.; Divol, L.; Edgell, D. H.; Edwards, M. J.; Eckart, M. J.; Fittinghoff, D.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Glebov, V. Y.; Glenn, S.; Guler, N.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A.; Hatarik, R.; Herrmann, H.; Hoover, D.; Hsing, W. W.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. S.; Kervin, M.; Khan, S.; Kline, J.; Knauer, J.; Kritcher, A.; Kyrala, G.; Landen, O. L.; Pape, S. Le; Ma, T.; Mackinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Marinak, M. M.; Mcnaney, J. M.; Meezan, N. B.; Merrill, F. E.; Mintz, M.; Moore, A.; Munro, D. H.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A.; Parham, T.; Petrasso, R.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sayre, D. B.; Sepke, S. M.; Spears, B. K.; Stoeffl, W.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R. P.; Volegov, P.; Widmann, K.; Wilson, D. C.; Zylstra, A. B.

    2014-11-01

    Gas-filled capsules imploded with indirect drive on the National Ignition Facility have been employed as symmetry surrogates for cryogenic-layered ignition capsules and to explore interfacial mix. Plastic capsules containing deuterated layers and filled with tritium gas provide a direct measure of mix of ablator into the gas fuel. Other plastic capsules have employed DT or D3He gas fill. We present the results of two-dimensional simulations of gas-filled capsule implosions with known degradation sources represented as in modeling of inertial confinement fusion ignition designs; these are time-dependent drive asymmetry, the capsule support tent, roughness at material interfaces, and prescribed gas-ablator interface mix. Unlike the case of cryogenic-layered implosions, many observables of gas-filled implosions are in reasonable agreement with predictions of these simulations. Yields of TT and DT neutrons as well as other x-ray and nuclear diagnostics are matched for CD-layered implosions. Yields of DT-filled capsules are over-predicted by factors of 1.4-2, while D3He capsule yields are matched, as well as other metrics for both capsule types.

  15. Fabrication of novel silicone capsules with tunable mechanical properties by microfluidic techniques.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Neus; Rodríguez-Abreu, Carlos; Fernández-Nieves, Alberto; Solans, Conxita

    2013-06-12

    A novel approach for the synthesis of silicone capsules using double W/O/W emulsions as templates is introduced. The low viscosity of the silicone precursors enables the use of microfluidic techniques to accurately control the size and morphology of the double emulsion droplets, which after cross-linking result in the desired monodisperse silicone capsules. Their shell thickness can be finely tuned, which in turn allows control over their permeability and mechanical properties; the latter are particularly important in a variety of practical applications where the capsules are subjected to large external forces. The potential of these capsules for controlled release is also demonstrated using a model hydrophilic substance.

  16. A Patency Capsule Remained Intact in the Colon over 210 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Hihara, Yu; Takahashi, Toshiharu; Okaniwa, Shinji; Mizukami, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    We present an unusual case of a 35-year-old male patient whom a patency capsule stayed in his gut without breaking. He has a history of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and multiple abdominal surgeries. Prestudy was performed for abdominal searching, but a patency capsule remained in the colon over 9 days. He displayed neither abdominal nor obstructive symptoms in that period. We collected the patency capsule using colonoscopy after dilating a postoperative stricture at an anastomotic site of the rectum. Clinicians should bear in mind that patency capsules may become retained as distally as the colon in patients with a surgical history of the large intestine. PMID:28321345

  17. Current and future role of magnetically assisted gastric capsule endoscopy in the upper gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Hey-Long; Hale, Melissa Fay; McAlindon, Mark Edward

    2016-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy first captivated the medical world when it provided a means to visualize the small bowel, which was previously out of endoscopic reach. In the subsequent decade and a half we continue to learn of the true potential that capsule endoscopy has to offer. Of particular current interest is whether capsule endoscopy has any reliable investigative role in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Much research has already been dedicated to enhancing the diagnostic and indeed therapeutic properties of capsule endoscopy. Specific modifications to tackle the challenges of the gut have already been described in the current literature. In the upper gastrointestinal tract, the capacious anatomy of the stomach represents one of many challenges that capsule endoscopy must overcome. One solution to improving diagnostic yield is to utilize external magnetic steering of a magnetically receptive capsule endoscope. Notionally this would provide a navigation system to direct the capsule to different areas of the stomach and allow complete gastric mucosal examination. To date, several studies have presented promising data to support the feasibility of this endeavour. However the jury is still out as to whether this system will surpass conventional gastroscopy, which remains the gold standard diagnostic tool in the foregut. Nevertheless, a minimally invasive and patient-friendly alternative to gastroscopy remains irresistibly appealing, warranting further studies to test the potential of magnetically assisted capsule endoscopy. In this article the authors would like to share the current state of magnetically assisted capsule endoscopy and anticipate what is yet to come. PMID:27134661

  18. Learning to Diagnose Cirrhosis with Liver Capsule Guided Ultrasound Image Classification

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang; Song, Jia Lin; Wang, Shuo Hong; Zhao, Jing Wen; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a computer-aided cirrhosis diagnosis system to diagnose cirrhosis based on ultrasound images. We first propose a method to extract a liver capsule on an ultrasound image, then, based on the extracted liver capsule, we fine-tune a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) model to extract features from the image patches cropped around the liver capsules. Finally, a trained support vector machine (SVM) classifier is applied to classify the sample into normal or abnormal cases. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively extract the liver capsules and accurately classify the ultrasound images. PMID:28098774

  19. Symptomatic retention of the patency capsule: a multicenter real life case series

    PubMed Central

    Kopylov, Uri; Nemeth, Artur; Cebrian, Alba; Wurm Johansson, Gabriele; Thorlacius, Henrik; Fernandez-Urien Sainz, Ignacio; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Eliakim, Rami; Toth, Ervin

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: The patency capsule is designed to evaluate the patency of the small bowel before administration of small-bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) in patients at high risk of retention. The utilization of a patency capsule may be associated with a risk of symptomatic retention, but very few cases have been reported to date. The aim of our study was to describe our experience with this rare complication of a patency capsule. Methods: This was a multicenter retrospective case series. The medical records of patients who underwent a patency capsule test were scanned and all cases of symptomatic retention were collected. Results: In total, 20 symptomatic cases of retention out of 1615 (1.2 %) patency capsule tests were identified; in one patient, the patency capsule was retained in the esophagus, in the rest, the capsule was detected in the small bowel resulting in abdominal pain or small-bowel obstruction. One patient (5 %) required surgery; all other patients resolved spontaneously or after corticosteroid therapy. Conclusions: Symptomatic patency capsule retention is a very rare complication with a favorable prognosis. It should be recognized but its use in patients with suspected small-bowel stenosis should not be discouraged. PMID:27652302

  20. Resin Capsules: Permeable Containers for Parallel/Combinatorial Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Bouillon, Isabelle; Soural, Miroslav; Krchňák, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    A resin capsule is a permeable container for resin beads designed for multiple/combinatorial solid-phase organic synthesis. Resin capsules consist of a high density polyethylene ring sealed with peek mesh on both sides. The cylindrical shape of resin capsules enabled space-saving packing into plastic column-like reaction vessels commonly used for solid-phase organic synthesis. Resin capsules have been evaluated for their use in combinatorial synthesis, and a set of model compounds with excellent purity was prepared. PMID:18656988