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Sample records for posterior capsule opacification

  1. Posterior capsule opacification. Part 1: Experimental investigations.

    PubMed

    Nishi, O

    1999-01-01

    Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) is the most frequent complication associated with decreased vision after cataract surgery. Previous methods of preventing PCO have not proven to be practical, effective, and safe for routine clinical procedure, but some novel concepts and methods have recently been developed. This 2-part review looks at clinical and experimental investigations of PCO, focusing on developments since 1992. Clinical aspects will be presented in a later issue. This paper addresses (1) in vitro models for PCO research; (2) pathophysiology and molecular biology of lens epithelial cells (LECs); (3) prevention of PCO. Of special interest are methods of culturing human LECs obtained by capsulotomy during cataract surgery, including those obtained with an intact capsular bag, to provide an in vitro model for investigating the pathophysiology of LECs; the effect of a sharp bend in the lens capsule that induces contact inhibition of migrating LECs; more specific inhibition of migrating LECs using an immunotoxin, b-FGF-saporin, or EDTA and RGD-peptides.

  2. Automatic quantification of posterior capsule opacification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Sarah A.; Uyyanonvara, Bunyarit; Boyce, James F.; Sanguinetti, Giorgia; Hollick, Emma J.; Meacock, William R.; Spalton, David J.; Paplinski, Andrew P.

    2000-06-01

    After Cataract surgery where a plastic implant lens is implanted into the eye to replace the natural lens, many patients suffer from cell growth across a membrane situated at the back of the lens which degrades their vision. The cell growth is known as Posterior Capsule Opacification (or PCO). It is important to be able to quantify PCO so that the effect of different implant lens types and surgical techniques may be evaluated. Initial results obtained using a neural network to detect PCO from implant lenses are compared to an established but less automated method of detection, which segments the images using texture segmentation in conjunction with co- occurrence matrices. Tests show that the established method performs well in clinical validation and repeatability trials. The requirement to use a neural network to analyze the implant lens images evolved from the analysis of over 1000 images using the established co-occurrence matrix segmentation method. The work shows that a method based on neural networks is a promising tool to automate the procedure of calculating PCO.

  3. Effect of four different intraocular lenses on posterior capsule opacification

    PubMed Central

    Duman, Rahmi; Karel, Fatih; Özyol, Pelin; Ateş, Can

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the impact of 4 different intraocular lenses (IOLs) on posterior capsule opacification (PCO) by comparing the neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser capsulotomy rates. METHODS This retrospective study included 4970 eyes of 4013 cataract patients who underwent phacoemulsification and IOL implantation between January 2000 and January 2008 by the same surgeon at one clinic. Four different IOLs were assessed. The outcome parameter was the incidence of Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomies. RESULTS An Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy was performed in 153 (3.07%) of the 4970 eyes. The mean follow-up time was 84mo for all of the IOL groups. The percentage of eyes developing PCO was significantly greater for the acrylic hydrophilic IOLs than for the hydrophobic IOLs, although eyes with acrylic hydrophilic IOLs did not require Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy as soon as eyes with acrylic hydrophobic IOLs. There was no difference between the long-term PCO rates when 1- and 3-piece acrylic hydrophobic IOLs were compared or when IOLs made of the same material but with different haptic angles were compared. CONCLUSION In this study, eyes with acrylic hydrophilic IOLs were more likely to develop PCO than those with acrylic hydrophobic IOLs. The lens design (1-piece versus 3-piece and varying haptic angles) did not affect the PCO rate. PMID:25709920

  4. Two-photon triggered drug delivery system: a new way to prevent posterior capsule opacification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.-C.; Härtner, S.; Hampp, N.

    2006-02-01

    One of the major complications of cataract surgery is posterior capsule opacification caused by proliferation and migration of residual lens epithelial cells into the visual axis. In this study we present a novel approach to treat posterior capsule opacification in a non-invasive manner. A polymer-drug conjugate has been developed which is suitable for manufacturing functional intraocular lenses equipped with a drug delivery system. The therapeutic molecules, 5-fluorouracil, were attached through a photolabile linkage to the acrylic polymer backbone of the intraocular lens material. The controlled release of 5-fluorouracil is accomplished by two-photon induced cleavage of the linkage which is stable in ordinary conditions. The properties of the therapeutic system are characterized and the function is demonstrated in in vitro tests. The utilization of two-photon-absorption processes in drug delivery may provide a powerful tool to prevent posterior capsule opacification.

  5. Posterior capsule opacification and neovascularization treated with intravitreal bevacizumab and Nd:YAG capsulotomy

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Castro, Grimelda Yuriana; Hitos-Fájer, Alejandra; Mendoza-Schuster, Erick; Velez-Montoya, Raul; Velasco-Barona, Cecilio Francisco

    2008-01-01

    We reported a 75-year-old diabetic man, who developed opacification and neovascularization of the posterior capsule after extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. The patient was treated with two injections of 2.5 mg of intravitreal bevacizumab. The treatment produced an important regression of the posterior capsular new vessels, allowing us to perform a successful Nd:YAG capsulotomy, clearing the visual axis and improving the visualization of the posterior pole. Even though, best corrected visual acuity was 20/200 due to diabetic macular edema. PMID:19668770

  6. Optical aberrations in pseudophakic eyes after 2.5-mm Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy for posterior capsule opacification.

    PubMed

    Casprini, Fabrizio; Balestrazzi, Angelo; Tosi, Gian Marco; Lazzarotto, Marco; Malandrini, Alex; Lepri, Francesca; Martone, Gianluca; Caporossi, Tomaso; Caporossi, Aldo

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate aberrometric outcomes in eyes with posterior capsule opacification after 2.5-mm Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy compared to pseudophakic eyes without posterior capsule opacification. Photographic image analysis of posterior capsule opacification was performed on 36 eyes that showed advanced posterior capsule opacification (case group) and on 36 eyes which showed absence of posterior capsule opacification (control group). Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) and wavefront analysis were performed in the control group and in the case group after 2.5-mm capsulotomy. Mean BSCVA in the case group after treatment was significantly higher than before treatment (P < .05) and similar to the BSCVA in the control group (P > .1). Aberrometric analysis was performed on the control group, but light scattering prevented the analysis in posterior capsule opacification before capsulotomy, which was then performed after the intervention in 18 (50%) eyes. Mean total high order aberrations and 3rd order aberrations were significantly higher in the case group than in the control group (P < .05). Fourth and 5th order aberration values were similar between the case and control groups (P > .06). Our wavefront results can detect a deterioration of visual quality in patients that underwent a 2.5-mm Nd:YAG capsulotomy compared to pseudophakic patients not affected by posterior capsule opacification. This difference cannot be detected by standard visual acuity examination. Further study is needed to clarify whether our high order aberration findings were related to small, 2.5-mm capsulotomies and whether aberrometry may be indicative for mild to moderate posterior capsule opacification.

  7. Comparison of posterior capsule opacification with hydrophobic acrylic and hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Vasavada, Abhay R; Raj, Shetal M; Shah, Alpesh; Shah, Gauri; Vasavada, Viraj; Vasavada, Vaishali

    2011-06-01

    To compare posterior capsule opacification (PCO) 3 years postoperatively in contralateral eyes with a single-piece hydrophobic acrylic and 1 of 2 single-piece hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) with different configurations. Iladevi Cataract and IOL Research Institute, Ahmedabad, India. Prospective randomized clinical trial. A hydrophobic Acrysof (hydrophobic group) or a hydrophilic C-flex (hydrophilic group C) or Akreos Adapt IOL (hydrophilic group A) was randomized for implantation in the fellow eye or vice versa of each patient. The Evaluation of Posterior Capsule Opacification (EPCO) area, EPCO score, and neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) capsulotomy rates were compared using digital photographs. The study enrolled 68 patients. Although there was no significant difference at 1 month, the median EPCO score was statistically significantly lower in the hydrophobic group than in hydrophilic group C (P = .00) and hydrophilic group A (P = .000) at 3 years. There were no significant differences in the median EPCO area at 1 month; however, the area was statistically significantly less in the hydrophobic group than in hydrophilic group C and hydrophilic group A at 3 years (both P = .000). Four (12.9%) of 31 eyes in hydrophilic group C and 5 (16%) of 31 eyes in hydrophilic group A required an Nd:YAG capsulotomy; no eye in the hydrophobic group required a capsulotomy (P = .04 and P = .02, respectively). Posterior capsule opacification was significantly less with the Acrysof hydrophobic acrylic IOL at 3 years. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Optical coherence tomography evaluation of posterior capsule opacification related to intraocular lens design.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Montañés, Javier; Alvarez, Aurora; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; García-Layana, Alfredo

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate posterior capsule opacification (PCO) and the impact of different intraocular lens (IOL) models on PCO characteristics using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Eighty-three eyes with PCO (fibrosis or pearl type) and 32 pseudophakic eyes without PCO were included. Horizontal 3.0 mm long OCT scans of the posterior capsule were obtained. Measurements and means of the peak posterior capsule intensity (PCI) and posterior capsule thickness (PCT) (distance between 2 spikes at posterior capsule) at 3 scan points were recorded. The PCI and PCT were compared with best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and IOL data. The PCT was high for IOLs with a rounded edge (P = .001) and with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) IOLs (P<.001). If the IOL optic was concave-convex, the PCT was higher than if the optic was biconvex (P = .001). The PCT of hydrophilic acrylic IOLs was higher than of hydrophobic acrylic IOLs (P = .04). Multivariate analysis of PCT showed that PMMA was the only factor statistically associated with PCT (P = .02). The worse logMAR BCVA correlated significantly with a higher PCT value (P<.001) but not with PCI (P = .42). An IOL size of 12.5 mm was related to fibrosis-type PCO (odds ratio, 3.14; P = .04). The PCT was most affected by IOL characteristics. Poly(methyl methacrylate) IOLs and IOLs with rounded edges were associated with higher PCT. Hydrophilic acrylic IOLs were associated with greater PCT than hydrophobic IOLs. Posterior capsule thickness was a factor in decreased BCVA.

  9. A new endocapsular open ring for prevention of anterior and posterior capsule opacification

    PubMed Central

    Pallikaris, Ioannis G; Stojanovic, Nela R; Ginis, Harilaos S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to demonstrate the functionality of a new design of a thick endocapsular open ring for prevention of anterior capsule opacification (ACO) and posterior capsule opacification (PCO). Setting The Institute of Vision and Optics, University of Crete and University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Design Prospective, interventional pilot study. Methods Fifteen patients (17 eyes) underwent cataract surgery with phacoemulsification. During surgery, a thick endocapsular open ring (peripheral capsule reconstructor) was inserted into the capsular bag, prior to intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Six different models of IOL were implanted. Postoperatively, the degree of ACO and PCO was evaluated and described as none, mild, moderate, or severe. Results The mean follow-up period was 30±8.06 months (range: 12–36 months). At the last follow-up, mild PCO was observed in only three eyes and mild ACO in three patients. The centration of IOLs was good in all but one eye, which had a tilted IOL. Conclusion The results of this pilot study suggest that the implantation of a new design of thick endocapsular open ring is feasible and may contribute to the prevention of PCO and ACO after cataract surgery. PMID:27843291

  10. Intraocular cytokines imbalance in congenital cataract and its impact on posterior capsule opacification.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Arnaud; Bourcier, Tristan; Gaucher, David; Candolfi, Ermanno; Speeg-Schatz, Claude

    2016-05-01

    Congenital cataract is of particular interest because of the variability of etiologies and the inflammatory reaction that are often observed. The aim of the study was to describe intraocular levels of various inflammation-related cytokines of patients with congenital cataract and to study their correlations with clinical determinants. We followed a cohort of 18 patients (18 eyes) with congenital cataract from a University hospital and measured levels of various inflammation-related cytokines in the aqueous humor of patients with congenital cataract, and compared these levels to those observed in a control group (patients with senile cataract) using multiplex immunoassay. Correlation analysis was used to study the possible correlation between intraocular levels of cytokines and clinical determinants. Compared with the control group, the group with congenital cataract showed clear and significantly elevated concentrations of inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-15, IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-6, IL-5, IL-9, MIP-1α, MCP-1 and IP-10). Postoperative intraocular inflammation and opacification of the posterior capsule seemed to be correlated with preoperative IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 levels. An inflammatory condition may occur in eyes with congenital cataract. The cytokine profiles are really different than those observed in senile cataract. Moreover, cytokines levels may be of interest to predict posterior capsule opacification and to complete the etiological workup.

  11. Ophthalmic drug delivery utilizing two-photon absorption: a novel approach to treat posterior capsule opacification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.-C.; Träger, J.; Zorn, M.; Haberkorn, N.; Hampp, N.

    2007-07-01

    Intraocular lens (IOL) implantation is the standard technique to treat cataract. Despite recent progress in surgical procedures, posterior capsule opacification is one of the sill remaining postoperative complications of cataract surgery. We present a novel strategy to reduce the incidence of posterior capsule opacification. A drug delivery polymer suitable for manufacturing intraocular lenses has been developed which enables repeated drug release in a non-invasive and controlled manner. The therapeutic molecules are attached through a UV light sensitive linkage to the polymer backbone which is mainly responsible for the optical properties of the intraocular lenses. However, UV light can not trigger the release of drug from the polymer due to the high absorption of the cornea. We developed linkers which enable drug release by two-photon absorption induced cleavage of the linker structure. Since the two-photon absorption requires high photon densities, this does not occur in ambient light conditions in daily life, but is easily triggered by focused laser beams from a pulsed laser. In this proof-of-principle study we have employed a cyclobutane type linker and investigated the properties of the therapeutic system with the approved drugs 5-fluorouracil and chlorambucil. The controlled drug delivery was successfully demonstrated in vitro and additional cell tests confirmed that the device itself shows no cytotoxicity until photochemical activation. This presented concept can provide a powerful method in ophthalmic drug delivery.

  12. Quantitative analysis of posterior capsule opacification of hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Oharazawa, Hideaki; Suzuki, Hisaharu; Shibata, Keiko; Yamada, Yumi; Matsui, Hironori; Shiwa, Toshihiko; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ohara, Kunitoshi

    2007-02-01

    Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) remains a common complication of modern cataract surgery, although both modification of materials used and changes in the intraocular lens (IOL) optic edge design have helped to decrease its incidence slightly. Recently, various kinds of quantitative methods have been developed for measuring PCO. The purpose of this study was to compare the quantitative analysis of PCO between different types of IOL designs. Patients enrolled in the study had age-related cataract and underwent uneventful cataract surgery and implantation of either the AcrySof MA30BA (Alcon) or the Sensor AR40e (AMO), which are differently designed hydrophobic acrylic IOLs with a sharp-edged optic design. Postoperative examination was performed at 6 months. Retroillumination photographs of each eye were obtained, and the degree of PCO was assessed using the Evaluation of Posterior Capsule Opacification (EPCO) system. Grade 1 PCO was noted in both the MA30BA and the AR40e groups. There was no significant difference in the mean PCO score between the MA30BA and AR40e groups. Although the sharp-edged optic designs of both IOLs might similarly inhibit PCO at 6 months, a long-term follow-up period is needed to determine if any PCO differences occur between these 2 hydrophobic acrylic IOLs.

  13. Using artificial intelligence to predict the risk for posterior capsule opacification after phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Seyed-Farzad; Sabbaghi, Mostafa; Z-Mehrjardi, Hadi; Hashemi, Hassan; Alizadeh, Somayeh; Majdi, Mercede; Taee, Farough

    2012-03-01

    To apply artificial intelligence models to predict the occurrence of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) after phacoemulsification. Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Clinical-based cross-sectional study. The posterior capsule status of eyes operated on for age-related cataract and the need for laser capsulotomy were determined. After a literature review, data polishing, and expert consultation, 10 input variables were selected. The QUEST algorithm was used to develop a decision tree. Three back-propagation artificial neural networks were constructed with 4, 20, and 40 neurons in 2 hidden layers and trained with the same transfer functions (log-sigmoid and linear transfer) and training protocol with randomly selected eyes. They were then tested on the remaining eyes and the networks compared for their performance. Performance indices were used to compare resultant models with the results of logistic regression analysis. The models were trained using 282 randomly selected eyes and then tested using 70 eyes. Laser capsulotomy for clinically significant PCO was indicated or had been performed 2 years postoperatively in 40 eyes. A sample decision tree was produced with accuracy of 50% (likelihood ratio 0.8). The best artificial neural network, which showed 87% accuracy and a positive likelihood ratio of 8, was achieved with 40 neurons. The area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve was 0.71. In comparison, logistic regression reached accuracy of 80%; however, the likelihood ratio was not measurable because the sensitivity was zero. A prototype artificial neural network was developed that predicted posterior capsule status (requiring capsulotomy) with reasonable accuracy. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Area densitometry using rotating Scheimpflug photography for posterior capsule opacification and surface light scattering analyses.

    PubMed

    Minami, Keiichiro; Honbo, Masato; Mori, Yosai; Kataoka, Yasushi; Miyata, Kazunori

    2015-11-01

    To compare area densitometry analysis using rotating Scheimpflug photography in quantifications of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) and surface light scattering with previous anterior-segment analyzer measurement. Miyata Eye Hospital, Miyazaki, Japan. Prospective observational case series. Scheimpflug images of eyes with foldable intraocular lenses (IOLs) were obtained using rotating and fixed Scheimpflug photography. Area densitometry on the posterior and anterior surfaces was conducted for PCO and surface light scattering analyses, respectively, with an identical area size. Correlation between two measurements was analyzed using linear regression. The study included 105 eyes of 74 patients who received IOLs 1 to 18 years (mean, 4.9 ± 4.5 years) postoperatively. In the PCO analysis on the posterior IOL surface, there was a significant correlation between the two measurements (P < .001, R(2) = 0.60). In the surface light scattering analysis, a significant and higher correlation was obtained (P < .001, R(2) = 0.91) until the fixed Scheimpflug photography exhibited saturation due to intensive scatterings. Area densitometry combined with a rotating Scheimpflug photography was exchangeable to previously established densitometry measurement, and allowed successive evaluation in longer-term observations. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of intraocular lens design on posterior capsule opacification after continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, K; Nagamoto, T; Yozawa, H; Kato, K; Kurosaka, D; Miyajima, H B; Kimura, C

    1995-11-01

    We compared the effect of biconvex and convex-plano (posterior plano) intraocular lenses on posterior capsule opacification (PCO) following continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) in 212 eyes. During the three years following surgery, the cumulative frequency of neodymium:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy, calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method, was significantly higher in patients in the biconvex group (32.5% by the third year) than in those in the convex-plano group (5.9% by the third year) (P < .05, Wilcoxon's test; P < .01, Cox-Mantel's test). Measured with the tracing method, the area within a 5 mm diameter central circle that developed Elschnig pearls was 2.93 +/- 4.91 mm2 in the biconvex group and 1.66 +/- 2.37 mm2 in the convex-plano group. In the study, PCO was less severe in the convex-plano group than in the biconvex group following CCC. These results are contrary to those reported previously in patients with can-opener capsulotomy.

  16. Posterior capsule opacification 9 years after phacoemulsification with a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Chang, Anthony; Kugelberg, Maria

    2017-03-10

    To compare the development of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) and survival rate without capsulotomy after implantation of a hydrophobic or hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) at the 9-year postoperative follow-up. One of 3 experienced cataract surgeons performed standard phacoemulsification in one eye of 120 patients with cataract. The patients were randomized to implantation of either a hydrophobic acrylic IOL or a hydrophilic acrylic IOL. Both IOLs had sharp posterior edges. Retroillumination images of PCO were obtained with a fundus camera 9 years postoperatively and analyzed semiobjectively using POCOman computer software. Seventy-eight of the 120 patients completed the 9-year follow-up examination. Patients implanted with the hydrophilic IOL had significantly (p<0.001) more and denser PCO. The survival rate without Nd:YAG capsulotomy was significantly higher (p<0.001) in eyes with the hydrophobic IOL. After 9 years, more and denser PCO developed in eyes with the hydrophilic IOL than the hydrophobic IOL. The survival rate without the need for capsulotomy was higher in eyes with the hydrophobic IOL.

  17. Micropatterned Protective Membranes Inhibit Lens Epithelial Cell Migration in Posterior Capsule Opacification Model.

    PubMed

    Magin, Chelsea M; May, Rhea M; Drinker, Michael C; Cuevas, Kevin H; Brennan, Anthony B; Reddy, Shravanthi T

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the ability of Sharklet (SK) micropatterns to inhibit lens epithelial cell (LEC) migration. Sharklet Technologies, Inc. (STI) and InSight Innovations, LLC have proposed to develop a Sharklet-patterned protective membrane (PM) to be implanted in combination with a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) to inhibit cellular migration across the posterior capsule, and thereby reduce rates of posterior capsular opacification (PCO). A variety of STI micropatterns were evaluated versus smooth (SM) controls in a modified scratch wound assay for the ability to reduce or inhibit LEC migration. The best performing topography was selected, translated to a radial design, and applied to PM prototypes. The PM prototypes were tested in an in vitro PCO model for reduction of cell migration behind an IOL versus unpatterned prototypes and IOLs with no PM. In both assays, cell migration was analyzed with fluorescent microscopy. All SK micropatterns significantly reduced LEC migration compared with SM controls. Micropatterns that protruded from the surface reduced migration more than recessed features. The best performing micropattern reduced LEC coverage by 80%, P = 0.0001 (ANOVA, Tukey Test). Micropatterned PMs reduced LEC migration in a PCO model by 50%, P = 0.0005 (ANOVA, Tukey Test) compared with both IOLs with no PM and IOLs with SM PMs. Collectively, in vitro results indicate the implantation of micropatterned PMs in combination with posterior chamber IOLs could significantly reduce rates of clinically relevant PCO. This innovative technology is a globally accessible solution to high PCO rates. A novel IOL incorporating the SK micropattern in a membrane design surrounding the optic may help increase the success of cataract surgery by reducing secondary cataract, or PCO.

  18. Micropatterned Protective Membranes Inhibit Lens Epithelial Cell Migration in Posterior Capsule Opacification Model

    PubMed Central

    Magin, Chelsea M.; May, Rhea M.; Drinker, Michael C.; Cuevas, Kevin H.; Brennan, Anthony B.; Reddy, Shravanthi T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the ability of Sharklet (SK) micropatterns to inhibit lens epithelial cell (LEC) migration. Sharklet Technologies, Inc. (STI) and InSight Innovations, LLC have proposed to develop a Sharklet-patterned protective membrane (PM) to be implanted in combination with a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) to inhibit cellular migration across the posterior capsule, and thereby reduce rates of posterior capsular opacification (PCO). Methods A variety of STI micropatterns were evaluated versus smooth (SM) controls in a modified scratch wound assay for the ability to reduce or inhibit LEC migration. The best performing topography was selected, translated to a radial design, and applied to PM prototypes. The PM prototypes were tested in an in vitro PCO model for reduction of cell migration behind an IOL versus unpatterned prototypes and IOLs with no PM. In both assays, cell migration was analyzed with fluorescent microscopy. Results All SK micropatterns significantly reduced LEC migration compared with SM controls. Micropatterns that protruded from the surface reduced migration more than recessed features. The best performing micropattern reduced LEC coverage by 80%, P = 0.0001 (ANOVA, Tukey Test). Micropatterned PMs reduced LEC migration in a PCO model by 50%, P = 0.0005 (ANOVA, Tukey Test) compared with both IOLs with no PM and IOLs with SM PMs. Conclusions Collectively, in vitro results indicate the implantation of micropatterned PMs in combination with posterior chamber IOLs could significantly reduce rates of clinically relevant PCO. This innovative technology is a globally accessible solution to high PCO rates. Translational Relevance A novel IOL incorporating the SK micropattern in a membrane design surrounding the optic may help increase the success of cataract surgery by reducing secondary cataract, or PCO. PMID:25883876

  19. Cytoskeletal Drugs Prevent Posterior Capsular Opacification in Human Lens Capsule in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sureshkumar, Jeyalakshmi; Haripriya, Aravind; Muthukkaruppan, Veerappan; Kaufman, Paul L.; Tian, Baohe

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine whether the cytoskeletal drugs H-7 and Latrunculin B (LAT-B) inhibit posterior capsular opacification (PCO) in the cultured human lens capsular bag. Methods Following extracapsular cataract (lens) extraction in human donor eyes, the capsular bag was prepared and cultured by standard techniques. Forty-eight capsular bags were studied, in which 13 were treated with H-7 (50, 100 or 300μM), 12 with 1% BSS (vehicle of H-7), 11 with LAT-B (2, 5 or 10μM), and 12 with 0.25% DMSO (vehicle of LAT-B). Forty out of the 48 capsular bags were from paired eyes of 20 donors with 1 bag being treated with H-7/LAT-B and the other with BSS/DMSO for each pair, including 20 for the H-7-BSS protocol and 20 for the LAT-B-DMSO protocol. The medium with the cytoskeletal drug/vehicle was replaced every 3–4 days for 4 weeks. PCO was assessed daily using inverted phase-contrast microscopy and scored on a 4-point scale. Results In all cultures with BSS or DMSO, residual lens epithelial cells (LECs) on the anterior capsule migrated to and proliferated on the posterior capsule by 3–7 days and apparent LEC growth on the posterior capsule with severe capsular wrinkling (PCO Grade 3) was seen by 2-3weeks. When treated continuously with H-7 or LAT-B, the migration and proliferation of LECs and the capsular wrinkling were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, with the inhibition being complete (PCO Grade 0) in the 300μM H-7 (n=8, p<0.001) or 10μM LAT-B culture (n=3, p=0.002). Conclusion H-7 and LAT-B dose-dependently inhibited PCO formation in the cultured human lens capsular bags, suggesting that cytoskeletal drugs might prevent PCO formation after surgery in the human eye. PMID:22138731

  20. Posterior capsule opacification and neodymium: YAG capsulotomy with heparin-surface-modified intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Winther-Nielson, A; Johansen, J; Pedersen, G K; Corydon, L

    1998-07-01

    To compare the effect of heparin-surface-modified (HSM) and conventional unmodified poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) intraocular lenses (IOLs) on the formation of posterior capsule opacification (PCO). Department of Ophthalmology, Vejle Hospital, Denmark. This prospective, randomized, double-blind study comprised 250 eyes of 246 patients who had uneventful extracapsular cataract extraction in otherwise healthy eyes with implantation of a biconvex IOL or a convex-plano lens with a continuous laser ridge. Patients were examined once a year for 3 years, at which time the degree of PCO was recorded. A neodymium:YAG laser capsulotomy was performed if certain criteria were met. The incidence of PCO was statistically significantly higher in eyes with an HSM convex-plano laser-ridge IOL than in those with an unmodified convex-plano lens (P < .005). There were no significant differences between any other groups. The incidence of PCO was higher in eyes with an HSM convex-plano IOL with a laser ridge.

  1. Hydrophobic versus double-square-edged hydrophilic foldable acrylic intraocular lens: effect on posterior capsule opacification.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Takeshi; Nishi, Yutarou; Oveson, Brian C; Jo, Young-Joon

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate posterior capsule opacification (PCO) 2 years after cataract surgery with implantation of a hydrophobic acrylic or single-piece sharp-edged hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL). Toyama Prefectural Central Hospital, Toyama, Japan. Case-control study. Patients with bilateral senile cataract were prospectively randomized to receive a hydrophobic IOL (Acrysof SA60AT) in 1 eye and a hydrophilic IOL (Meridian HP60M) in the other eye. The PCO density value, degree of IOL decentration and tilt, and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were measured using Scheimpflug videophotography 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after surgery. Visual acuity and the number of eyes requiring neodymium:YAG laser capsulotomy were also assessed. The study evaluated 16 eyes (63 patients). The PCO value in the hydrophilic group increased significantly with time and was statistically significantly greater than in the hydrophobic group 18 and 24 months postoperatively (both P < .001). The capsulotomy rate was statistically significantly higher in the hydrophilic group than in the hydrophobic group (P < .01). Visual acuity in the hydrophilic group worsened significantly with time and was statistically significantly worse than in the hydrophobic group at 18 and 24 months (both P < .001). Intraocular lens decentration, IOL tilt, and the ACD did not change significantly during the follow-up in either group (P > .05), and there were no statistically significant postoperative differences in these parameters between the 2 IOL groups (P > .05). Two years after surgery, the hydrophobic IOL group had less PCO, a lower capsulotomy rate, and better visual acuity than the hydrophilic IOL group. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Epidemiological evaluation of YAG capsulotomy incidence for posterior capsule opacification in various intraocular lenses in Japanese eyes

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Yutaro; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Nishi, Kayo; Mimura, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective We investigated the yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) capsulotomy rates in various intraocular lenses (IOLs). Study design/patients and methods We retrospectively analyzed 23,440 eyes implanted with either MA60BM, MA60AC, VA-60BB, CeeOnEdge, Clariflex, Technis Z9002, SI-40NB, or UV26T IOLs. We calculated the YAG capsulotomy rates at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years post lens implantation. Results YAG capsulotomy rates at 3 years postimplantation for the eight groups of IOLs were, respectively, 3.7%, 3.9%, 23.7%, 3.4%, 4.5%, 4.7%, 10.4%, and 21.0%. YAG capsulotomy rates at 10 years postimplantation for the MA60BM and SI-40NB IOLs were, respectively, 9.1% and 15% (P<0.05). The average YAG rates for all sharp-edged and round-edged IOLs at 5 years postimplantation were, respectively, 5.2%±0.7% and 25.6%±9.0% (P<0.05). Conclusion In all studied IOLs, posterior capsule opacification prevention seemed to be associated with the posterior optic sharp-edge design. Round-edged silicone IOLs may also retard posterior capsule opacification formation, though not as much as sharp-edged IOLs. As the follow-up period progressed, round-edged silicone IOLs showed significantly higher YAG rates than sharp-edged IOLs. PMID:26366054

  3. An Optical Section-Assisted In Vivo Rabbit Model for Capsular Bend and Posterior Capsule Opacification Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qian; Yu, Fang; Yu, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Yinying; Ding, Xixia; Zhu, Weigen; Li, Jin; Zhao, Yun-e

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To establish an optical section-assisted in vivo rabbit model for capsular bend and posterior capsule opacification (PCO) investigation. Methods A total of 10 rabbits underwent phacoemulsification surgery and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. On the basis of the relationship between the anterior capsule and IOL, the rabbits were divided into complete overlap and incomplete overlap groups, in which six and four rabbits were included, respectively. The capsular bend optical sections were assessed using ultra-long scan depth optical coherence tomography (UL-OCT), and posterior capsule opacification was evaluated with slit lamp on postoperative day 3, 7, 14, and 28. In addition, histopathological section was used to verify the accuracy of capsular bend type captured by OCT in three rabbits. Results Based on the special animal model, six capsular bend types were observed, namely, anterior (A), middle (M), posterior (P), detachment (D), funnel (Fun) and furcate adhesion (Fur). On day 3, capsular bend began to form. On 14 days, the capsular bends were comprised of A, M and D types, which were almost maintained until day 28. Histopathological section findings were consistent with optical sectioning results. In the incomplete and complete groups, the earliest PCO within the optical zone were on day 7 and 28, respectively. The incomplete group exhibited higher incidence and faster PCO on day 7 (p = 0.038) and 14 (p = 0.002). Conclusions This animal model not only mimics capsular bend evolution and PCO processes but also produces OCT optical section images equivalent to and more repeatable than histopathology, thereby providing a promising method for the further investigations of PCO. PMID:26840405

  4. Sulfadiazine modified PDMS as a model material with the potential for the mitigation of posterior capsule opacification (PCO).

    PubMed

    Amoozgar, Bahram; Morarescu, Diana; Sheardown, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Cataract surgery, while the most common surgical procedure performed, leads to posterior capsule opacification in approximately 30% of cases. Transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been shown to play important roles in the cellular processes leading to posterior capsule opacification. Delivery of inhibitors to MMPs may have the potential to inhibit the initial cascade of events that lead to PCO. However, delivery of these molecules via tethering has proven difficult. In this work, sulfadiazine was tethered to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via a polyethylene glycol (PEG) spacer as a potential MMPI mimic. Surface characterization using a variety of methods demonstrated successful modification with the antibiotic. The surfaces were examined with lens epithelial cells to determine their effect on these cellular processes, including cell transdifferentiation and production of extracellular matrix components. The presence of TGF-β2 in the cell culture media was found to stimulate the production of ECM components such as collagen, fibronectin, and laminin, as well as alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and the migration marker Rho by HLE-B3 and FHL124 cells. In all cases, these effects were decreased but not completely eradicated by the presence of sulfadiazine on the PDMS surfaces. While the level of inhibition necessary for inhibition of PCO in vivo is unknown, these results suggest that IOL surface modification with sulfadiazine has the potential to reduce cellular changes associated with PCO. Furthermore, the results demonstrate for the first time that changes consistent with inhibition of fibrosis may be elicited by surfaces modified with sulfadiazine.

  5. [Effect of posterior neodymium:YAG capsulotomy. Safety evaluation of macular foveal thickness, intraocular pressure and endothelial cell loss in pseudophakic patients with posterior capsule opacification].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Casas, D; Barrancos, C; Alio, J L; Ruiz-Guerrero, M; Muñoz-Negrete, F J

    2013-11-01

    To determine the effect of posterior capsulotomy on macular thickness, intraocular pressure and endothelial cell loss in pseudophakic patients with posterior capsule opacification using the other eye of every patient as a control. An observational prospective study was conducted on 31 pseudophakic patients with posterior capsular opacification in one eye, using the other eye as a control. Patients did not suffer any other ocular pathology. All patients were treated by posterior capsular opacification with Nd:YAG capsulotomy, and followed up for a three-month period. The ocular examination included, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), macular optical coherence tomography (OCT), and endothelial cell assessment (including densitometry, cell size and coefficient of variation, hexagonal cell percentage and pachymetry), which were determined in both eyes before treatment, and one week, one month and 3 months after capsulotomy. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to assess the capsulotomy effect adjusted by corresponding baseline measurements and time. No association was found between capsulotomy and IOP (P=.597), macular thickness (P=.085) or ECA (densitometry (P=.422), average size of cells (P=.299), variation coefficient (P=.495), hexagonal cell percent (P=.093) and corneal pachymetry (P=.423). A significant increase of 0.15 Snellen units in BCVA was found during the 3-month follow-up period (P<.001). This study shows that after Nd:YAG capsulotomy, BCVA improves significantly without any IOP, OCT or ECA changes during the three-month follow-up. Nd:YAG capsulotomy is a safe procedure in pseudophakic patients without any other ocular pathology. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Does Posterior Capsule Opacification Affect the Results of Diagnostic Technologies to Evaluate the Retina and the Optic Disc?

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Medina, Jose Javier; del Rio-Vellosillo, Monica; Santos-Bueso, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The visual outcome obtained after cataract removal may progressively decline because of posterior capsular opacification (PCO). This condition can be treated by creating an opening in the posterior lens capsule by Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. PCO optical imperfections cause several light reflection, refraction, and diffraction phenomena, which may interfere with the functional and structural tests performed in different ocular locations for the diagnosis and follow-up of ocular disease, like macular and optic nerve diseases. Some parameters measured by visual field examinations, scanning laser polarimetry, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have changed after PCO removal. Imaging quality also changes following capsulotomy. Consequently, the results of ancillary tests in pseudophakic eyes for studying ocular diseases like glaucoma or maculopathies should be correlated with other clinical examinations, for example, slit-lamp biomicroscopy or funduscopy. If PCO is clinically significant, a new baseline should be set for future comparisons following capsulotomy when using automated perimetry and scanning laser polarimetry. To perform OCT in the presence of PCO, reliable examinations (considering signal strength) apparently guarantee that measurements are not influenced by PCO. PMID:26167499

  7. Does Posterior Capsule Opacification Affect the Results of Diagnostic Technologies to Evaluate the Retina and the Optic Disc?

    PubMed

    Garcia-Medina, Jose Javier; Del Rio-Vellosillo, Monica; Zanon-Moreno, Vicente; Santos-Bueso, Enrique; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto; Ferreras, Antonio; Pinazo-Duran, Maria Dolores

    2015-01-01

    The visual outcome obtained after cataract removal may progressively decline because of posterior capsular opacification (PCO). This condition can be treated by creating an opening in the posterior lens capsule by Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. PCO optical imperfections cause several light reflection, refraction, and diffraction phenomena, which may interfere with the functional and structural tests performed in different ocular locations for the diagnosis and follow-up of ocular disease, like macular and optic nerve diseases. Some parameters measured by visual field examinations, scanning laser polarimetry, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have changed after PCO removal. Imaging quality also changes following capsulotomy. Consequently, the results of ancillary tests in pseudophakic eyes for studying ocular diseases like glaucoma or maculopathies should be correlated with other clinical examinations, for example, slit-lamp biomicroscopy or funduscopy. If PCO is clinically significant, a new baseline should be set for future comparisons following capsulotomy when using automated perimetry and scanning laser polarimetry. To perform OCT in the presence of PCO, reliable examinations (considering signal strength) apparently guarantee that measurements are not influenced by PCO.

  8. Posterior capsule opacification in rabbit eyes implanted with 1-piece and 3-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Werner, Liliana; Mamalis, Nick; Izak, Andrea M; Pandey, Suresh K; Davis, Brandon L; Nilson, Chistian D; Weight, Christopher; Apple, David J

    2005-04-01

    To evaluate the outcome of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) after implantation in rabbit eyes of currently available 3-piece and 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) with square optic edges. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. The 3-piece designs evaluated were the AR40e (Advanced Medical Optics Inc.) and the MA60AC (Alcon, Inc.); the 1-piece designs were the SA60AT and the SA30AT (Alcon, Inc.). Nine lenses of each type were implanted in a randomized manner by the same surgeon in 18 Dutch Belted pigmented rabbits. After a follow-up of 3 weeks, the rabbits were killed and analyses of the enucleated eyes were performed from the posterior or Miyake-Apple view. The intensity of central PCO, peripheral PCO, and Soemmering's ring formation was scored from 0 to 4. The area of Soemmering's ring formation was also scored from 0 to 4 based on the number of quadrants involved. Other parameters analyzed were capsulorhexis coverage of the IOL anterior surface, IOL centration, fixation, and presence of striae. Results from the posterior view were complemented by histopathologic evaluation of the eyes. No statistically significant difference was found between the 4 groups of IOLs in the parameters analyzed from the posterior view. When cell ingrowth occurred with the 1-piece designs, causing peripheral and central PCO formation, it was more likely to start at the optic-haptic junctions, as observed during the clinical follow-up with slitlamp examination and confirmed by gross and histopathologic analyses of the enucleated eyes. The square, truncated optic edge is the most important IOL design feature for PCO prevention. The optic-haptic junctions of the 1-piece designs appear to be sites where the barrier effect of the truncated optic edge is less effective.

  9. Two-year follow-up of posterior capsule opacification after implantation of a hydrophilic or hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Kugelberg, Maria; Wejde, Gisela; Jayaram, Hari; Zetterström, Charlotta

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate posterior capsule opacification (PCO) 2 years after cataract surgery following implantation of a hydrophilic or a hydrophobic single-piece acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) with a sharp edge. Phacoemulsification cataract surgery was performed in one eye of 120 patients with senile cataract in this prospective study. They were randomized to implantation of either a hydrophilic acrylic IOL (BL27; Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY, USA) or a hydrophobic acrylic IOL (AcrySof) SA60AT; Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, TX, USA). Two years after surgery, retroillumination images were obtained and PCO area and severity were evaluated using pocoman software. Best corrected visual acuity (VA) (both high-contrast [100%] and low-contrast [2.5%]), glare, laser flare and intraocular pressure were measured. Capsulotomy rates were recorded. Patients implanted with the hydrophilic IOL had a greater percentage area and severity of PCO compared with patients with the hydrophobic IOL (p < 0.001). There was no difference in PCO between men and women in the hydrophilic group. However, in the hydrophobic group, women had significantly more PCO than men (p < 0.05). Patients with the hydrophobic acrylic IOL had better high- and low-contrast visual activity (VA) (p < 0.01) and less glare (p < 0.001) than those with a hydrophilic acrylic IOL. Of the patients with the hydrophilic IOL, 42% underwent capsulotomy, compared with 10% in the hydrophobic group (p < 0.001). Two years after surgery, patients with the SA60AT hydrophobic acrylic IOL had less PCO and better high- and low-contrast VA than patients with the BL27 hydrophilic acrylic IOL.

  10. Comparison of 25-gauge sutureless vitrectomy and 20-gauge vitrectomy in the treatment of posterior capsule opacification in pseudophakic children

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-Ming; Xie, Li-Xin

    2015-01-01

    AIM To compare the effectiveness and safety of pars plana capsulotomy and vitrectomy using 25-gauge tansconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy system and 20-gauge vitrectomy system for posterior capsule opacification (PCO) in pseudophakic children. METHODS Retrospectively study. Pars plana capsulotomy and vitrectomy using 25-gauge sutureless vitrectomy system was performed for PCO in the study group (32 eyes). Patients in the control group (34 eyes) underwent capsulotomy and vitrectomy using standard 20-gauge vitrectomy system, providing a comparison between 2 groups with regard to preoperative and postoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), and intraoperative and postoperative complications. The two groups were performed consequentially. The patients ages ranged from 2 to 13y (means: 6.61±2.73y). Surgical technique, intraoperative and postoperative complications, visual acuity, IOP, and recurrent PCO were recorded. RESULTS The surgical procedure was performed uneventfully in all patients. Visual acuity improved significantly in both groups. BCVA improved in 22 eyes (81.5%) in the study group and in 28 eyes (87.5%) in the control group. There was no statistical difference of visual acuity that were attainable in two groups (H=0.115, P=0.909). Mean postoperative IOP showed no significant difference between the groups at 1wk. All sort of PCO were accomplished by 20-gauge system, while 25-gauge system was effective for pearls style and 2 grade of fibrous PCO, and was insufficient to grade 3 of PCO. In the study group two cases were not accomplished by 25-gauge system while 20-gauge system conquered them. Compared with the control group, mean operative time for opening and closing the sclerotomy in the study group was considerably reduced. The mean follow-up was 38.2mo (range: 8-79mo). During the follow-up period, no incision leakage, corneal edema, vitreous loss, IOL damage, retinal detachment, recurrent PCO, or other complications were

  11. Comparison of posterior capsule opacification at 360-degree square edge hydrophilic and sharp edge hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ling; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Ling; Ma, Ting; Liang, Hou-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    AIM To compare posterior capsule opacification (PCO) degree and visual functions after phacoemulsification in eyes implanted with 360-degree square edge hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) (570C C-flex, Rayner) and sharp edge hydrophobic acrylic IOL (Sensar AR40e, AMO) in diabetic patients. METHODS Sixty diabetic patients underwent uneventful phacoemulsification and randomly implanted one of the two IOLs. The PCO value was measured by retroillumination photographs and Evaluation of Posterior Capsule Opacification (EPCO) 2000 image-analysis software at 1, 6, 12, and 24mo after surgery. Visual acuity, and contrast sensitivity in photopic and mesopic conditions were also examined at each follow up time point. The incidence of eye that required Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy were also compared. RESULTS There was not any statistically significant difference in PCO scores between Rayner C-flex 570C group and Sensar AR40e group at each follow up time point. Visual acuity, Nd:YAG capsulotomy incidence and contrast sensitivity also had no significant difference during the 24mo follow-up. CONCLUSION For diabetic patients, Rayner 570C C-flex and Sensar AR40e IOLs are same effective for prevent PCO. The 360-degree square edge design maybe is a good alternative technique to improve PCO prevention. PMID:26309870

  12. Efficacy and safety of capsular bending ring implantation to prevent posterior capsule opacification: three-year results of a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Menapace, Rupert; Sacu, Stefan; Georgopoulos, Michael; Findl, Oliver; Rainer, Georg; Nishi, Okihiro

    2008-08-01

    To determine whether a capsular bending ring (CBR) with a rectangular cross-section and sharp edges moves the barrier to the very equator and avoids contact between the capsulorhexis and optic to prevent posterior capsule opacification (PCO) and anterior capsule fibrosis. Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. A 0.7 mm high, open poly(methyl methacrylate) CBR was implanted in 60 eyes (patients) in a prospective randomized intraindividual trial. The impact of additional CBR implantation on PCO and anterior capsule fibrosis was compared to that of intraocular lens (IOL) implantation alone using objective scoring. No CBR-related surgical complications occurred. The objective PCO score and area were statistically significantly reduced in the CBR group. In patients with complete follow-up, the mean PCO score (scale 1 to 10) at 1, 2, and 3 years was 0.8, 1.7, and 2.1, respectively, in the CBR group and 2.6, 3.9, and 4.6, respectively, in the no-CBR group. The number of quadrants affected by PCO was 0.9, 1.5, and 1.8 versus 3.2, 3.8, and 3.8. Barrier failures with the CBR were caused by the inherent slight edge blunting and occasional eyelet gaping. Laser capsulotomies were performed in the no-CBR group only. Capsule stress folds and fibrotic anterior capsule opacification were also greatly reduced. The best corrected visual acuity was better in the CBR group. Capsular bending ring implantation was an effective and safe adjunct to in-the-bag IOL fixation. With improvements in technology and design securing exquisitely sharp edges and circumferential capsular bending independent of the capsular bag diameter, this concept has the potential to prevent PCO and anterior capsule fibrosis.

  13. Do non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs delay posterior capsule opacification after phacoemulsification in children? A randomized, prospective controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Evereklioglu, Cem; İlhan, Özgür

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of topical ketorolac for the prevention of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) in pediatric cataract surgery. The eyes were prospectively and randomly assigned to receive postoperative 3-month topical ketorolac 0.5% drops with intact posterior capsule (group 1) or primary posterior capsulotomy combined with anterior vitrectomy (group 2). All children had uneventful corneal small-incision phacoemulsification with a primary implantation of a foldable acrylic posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL). The frequency and timing of severe PCO was evaluated for each group and documented by slit-lamp examination and photography. A total of 38 eyes of 27 children (15 girls, 12 boys) were included in the study. Among them 16 children had unilateral and 11 had bilateral surgery. All cataracts were developmental cases diagnosed between 1 and 7 years of age. There were 20 eyes in group 1 and 18 eyes in group 2. Mean pediatric age at surgery was 38.1 months (12-72 months) in group 1 and 34.2 months in group 2 children (12-78 months) (p>0.05). Overall mean follow up was 26.3 months (6-48 months). Clinically significant PCO that finally needed neodymium:YAG laser application developed in four eyes (20.0%) in group 1 and in two eyes (11.1%) in group 2, and the difference was not statistically significant (chi-square test, p >0.05). Long-term postoperative use of topical ketorolac drops with the preservation of posterior capsule was found to be effective for the prevention of PCO in pediatric cataract surgery, at least during the period of this study.

  14. The effect of Nd:YAG laser treatment of posterior capsule opacification on anterior chamber depth and refraction in pseudophakic eyes.

    PubMed

    Khambhiphant, Bharkbhum; Liumsirijarern, Chayata; Saehout, Piyada

    2015-01-01

    This was a prospective descriptive study to determine the changes in intraocular lens (IOL) position after neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser posterior capsulotomy by measuring anterior chamber depth (ACD) and refraction, including the spherical equivalent (SE) and cylinder. Forty-seven pseudophakic eyes with posterior capsule opacification of 29 patients were included. Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy was performed. Patients' ACD and refraction were measured before the treatment, as well as after the treatment at 1 week and 3 months. IOLMaster(®) and an automated refractometer were used at the Department of Ophthalmology, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. There were no statistically significant differences in ACD and SE before and after laser treatment at 1 week and 3 months (repeated analysis of variance, P=0.582 and P=0.269, respectively). Both backward IOL movement (number [n]=29) and forward IOL movement (n=18) were found. Some changes in cylindrical refraction were found at 1 week, but decreased at 3 months after capsulotomy (baseline cylinder: -1.16; cylinder at 1 week and 3 months: -1.00 and -1.14, respectively; P=0.012). These changes were the same with one-piece and three-piece IOLs. Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy did not significantly change ACD and SE. It led to cylinder change at 1 week after laser, but the effect decreased at 3 months. This effect was small and may not be clinically significant.

  15. Lens capsule opacification in aphakic and pseudophakic eyes.

    PubMed

    Nasisse, M P; Dykstra, M J; Cobo, L M

    1995-02-01

    Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) is the most common complication of lens extraction. Although intraocular lenses (IOLs) are thought to inhibit capsule opacification, the mechanisms by which they do this are poorly understood. This study was done to determine the effects of pseudophakia on secondary cataract and PCO in experimentally lentectomized dogs. Twenty-four normal dogs were bilaterally lentectomized by phacoemulsification and unilaterally implanted with a plano-convex polymethylmethacrylate IOL. Secondary cataracts and capsule opacification were evaluated at weeks 1, 2, 4, 10, 14, and 20 after surgery by retrolillumination photography, light microscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The pattern of secondary cataract and PCO in dogs was found to be similar to that in other animal species. Production of new lens material was prominent in the equatorial region, and PCO resulted from fibrous metaplasia of lens epithelium and subsequent capsular fibrosis and wrinkling. The presence of an IOL did not prevent the posterior migration of epithelium, nor did it prevent fibrous metaplasia. The presence of an IOL did, however, minimize the capsule-wrinkling effects of fibroplasia and limit the space available for lentoid formation. In pseudophakic eyes, IOLs influence secondary cataract formation by limiting the space available for lentoid formation and by maintaining a linear scaffolding for lens epithelial fibrous metaplasia.

  16. The effect of Nd:YAG laser treatment of posterior capsule opacification on anterior chamber depth and refraction in pseudophakic eyes

    PubMed Central

    Khambhiphant, Bharkbhum; Liumsirijarern, Chayata; Saehout, Piyada

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This was a prospective descriptive study to determine the changes in intraocular lens (IOL) position after neodymium-doped yttrium–aluminum–garnet (Nd:YAG) laser posterior capsulotomy by measuring anterior chamber depth (ACD) and refraction, including the spherical equivalent (SE) and cylinder. Materials and methods Forty-seven pseudophakic eyes with posterior capsule opacification of 29 patients were included. Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy was performed. Patients’ ACD and refraction were measured before the treatment, as well as after the treatment at 1 week and 3 months. IOLMaster® and an automated refractometer were used at the Department of Ophthalmology, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. Results There were no statistically significant differences in ACD and SE before and after laser treatment at 1 week and 3 months (repeated analysis of variance, P=0.582 and P=0.269, respectively). Both backward IOL movement (number [n]=29) and forward IOL movement (n=18) were found. Some changes in cylindrical refraction were found at 1 week, but decreased at 3 months after capsulotomy (baseline cylinder: −1.16; cylinder at 1 week and 3 months: −1.00 and −1.14, respectively; P=0.012). These changes were the same with one-piece and three-piece IOLs. Conclusion Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy did not significantly change ACD and SE. It led to cylinder change at 1 week after laser, but the effect decreased at 3 months. This effect was small and may not be clinically significant. PMID:25848207

  17. Effect of femtosecond laser-assisted lens surgery on posterior capsule opacification in the human capsular bag in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wertheimer, Christian; Kreutzer, Thomas C; Dirisamer, Martin; Eibl-Lindner, Kirsten; Kook, Daniel; Priglinger, Siegfried; Mayer, Wolfgang J

    2017-03-01

    To compare posterior capsule opacification (PCO) by observing lens epithelial cell growth in the human capsular bag in vitro between conventional lens surgery using phacoemulsification (Phaco) technique and femtosecond laser-assisted lens surgery (FLACS). For the in vitro human capsular bag model, 18 cadaver eyes from nine human donors underwent three types of lens surgery. Three groups consisting of six capsular bags were established, that is FLACS, Phaco and extracapsular lens extraction (ECCE). The capsular bag was transferred into equal cell culture conditions after using one of the defined surgical approaches. Cellular growth of lens epithelial cells was observed and photo-documented. The time until full cell-coverage of the capsular bag was measured. The human capsular bag model can be successfully prepared using FLACS. There was no statistically significant difference in time until cell-coverage of the human donor capsular bag in vitro in all three surgical settings (ECCE versus Phaco p = 0.6; ECCE versus FLACS p = 1.0; Phaco versus FLACS p = 1.0). In our in vitro human capsular bag model, we could not observe a statistically significant difference in PCO formation using different surgical approaches of lens extraction. Therefore, PCO formation might not be attributed to the type of surgery. Furthermore, this study shows that FLACS can be used for the human capsular bag model preparation and validates the human capsular bag model for future research. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Improvements in interpretation of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paplinski, Andrew P.; Boyce, James F.; Barman, Sarah A.

    2000-06-01

    We present further improvements to the methods of interpretation of the Posterior Capsular Opacification (PCO) images. These retro-illumination images of the back surface of the implanted lens are used to monitor the state of patient's vision after cataract operation. A common post-surgical complication is opacification of the posterior eye capsule caused by the growth of epithelial cells across the back surface of the capsule. Interpretation of the PCO images is based on their segmentation into transparent image areas and opaque areas, which are affected by the growth of epithelial cells and can be characterized by the increase in the image local variance. This assumption is valid in majority of cases. However, for different materials used for the implanted lenses it sometimes happens that the epithelial cells grow in a way characterized by low variance. In such a case segmentation gives a relatively big error. We describe an application of an anisotropic diffusion equation in a non-linear pre-processing of PCO images. The algorithm preserves the high-variance areas of PCO images and performs a low-pass filtering of small low- variance features. The algorithm maintains a mean value of the variance and guarantees existence of a stable solution and improves segmentation of the PCO images.

  19. Optical coherence tomography for an in-vivo study of posterior-capsule-opacification types and their influence on the total-pulse energy required for Nd:YAG capsulotomy: a case series.

    PubMed

    Hawlina, Gregor; Perovšek, Darko; Drnovšek-Olup, Brigita; MoŽina, Janez; Gregorčič, Peter

    2014-11-18

    Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) is the most common post-operative complication associated with cataract surgery and is mostly treated with Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. Here, we demonstrate the use of high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a technique for PCO analysis. Additionally, we evaluate the influence of PCO types and the distance between the intraocular lens (IOL) and the posterior capsule (PC), i.e., the IOL/PC distance, on the total-pulse energy required for the Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy. 47 eyes with PCO scheduled for the Nd:YAG procedure were examined and divided into four categories: fibrosis, pearl, mixed type and late-postoperative capsular bag distension syndrome. Using custom-made computer software for OCT image analysis, the IOL/PC distances in two dimensions were measured. The IOL/PC distances were compared with those of a control group of 15 eyes without PCO. The influence of the different PCO types and the IOL/PC distance on the total-pulse energy required for the Nd:YAG procedure was analyzed. The total-pulse energy required for a laser capsulotomy differs significantly between PCO types (p = 0.005, Kruskal-Wallis test). The highest energy was required for the fibrosis PCO type, followed by mixed, pearl and late-postoperative capsular bag distension syndrome. The IOL/PC distance also significantly influenced the total-pulse energy required for laser capsulotomy (p = 0.028, linear regression). Lower total-pulse energy was expected for a larger IOL/PC distance. Our study indicates that the PCO types and the IOL/PC distance influence the total-pulse energy required for Nd:YAG capsulotomy. The presented OCT method has the potential to become an additional tool for PCO characterization. Our results are important for a better understanding of the photodisruptive mechanisms in Nd:YAG capsulotomy.

  20. Management of the posterior capsule during pediatric intraocular lens implantation.

    PubMed

    Buckley, E G; Klombers, L A; Seaber, J H; Scalise-Gordy, A; Minzter, R

    1993-06-15

    One of the major obstacles in pediatric intraocular lens implantation has been the subsequent dense opacification of the posterior capsule. We used a modification of the standard pediatric cataract surgical procedure, which involved endocapsular cataract extraction, posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation, pars plana posterior capsulotomy, and pars plana anterior vitrectomy in 20 consecutive patients with unilateral traumatic, radiation-induced, and developmental cataracts. Visual axes were rapidly restored in all patients without further intervention for posterior capsule opacification. Visual acuity returned to 20/40 or better in all patients and 75% of all patients (15 patients) reached maximum improvement by five weeks. No complications attributed to intraoperative removal of the posterior capsule occurred.

  1. [Postoperative opacification of posterior chamber intraocular lenses - a review].

    PubMed

    Schmidbauer, J M; Werner, L; Apple, D J; Pandey, S K; Izak, A M; Trivedi, R H; Macky, T A; Auffarth, G U; Peng, Q; Arthur, S N; Escobar-Gomez, M; Ma, L; Vargas, L G

    2001-09-01

    Postoperative opacification of intraocular lenses (IOLs) is a very unpleasant complication for the ophthalmic surgeon and the patient. We report on our experiences with opacification of different foldable IOL designs and rigid poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) posterior chamber lenses.1. Snowflake degeneration of PMMA IOLs: This condition is an unanticipated and surprising late postoperative finding 8 to 15 years after implantation. In our opinion, this complication is probably not related to the PMMA biomaterial itself, but rather it appears to represent a manufacturing problem that has affected a selected, albeit large number of lenses manufactured in the 1980s-mid 1990s.2. Degeneration of UV absorber material and calcium deposits within the optic of hydrophilic IOLs: Two years postoperatively degenerations of UV absorber material and calcium deposits within the optic of single piece hydrophilic acrylic lenses SC60B-OUV manufactured by MDR (Medical developmental research Inc. Clearwater FL, USA) can occur. Although the precise mechanism is not fully known, it was assumed that these opacifications are due to premature aging of the UV blocking agent incorporated in the lens biomaterial and calcification.3. Calcification on the surface of the Bausch & Lomb Hydroviewtrade mark IOLs: Twelve to 15 months postoperatively granular surface calcifications in Hydroviewtrade mark IOLs occured. The mechanism is not fully understood. According to Bausch and Lomb studies, part of the components of the packaging contained silicone, which may have come off the packaging onto the lens optic, where it then appears to be a catalyst for calcium precipitation. The manufacturer has correlated a change in packaging with the appearance of the opacification. The manufacturer now believes that this problem has been solved. However, final verification will require a careful 1 - 2 years clinical study.4. Glistenings in the hydrophobic acrylic AcrySoftrade mark IOLs: The time frame of

  2. [The study of cyclosporin A modified intraocular lens preventing posterior capsular opacification in rabbit eyes].

    PubMed

    Teng, H; Zhang, H; Tian, F; Gu, H Q; Liu, X; Sun, J

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the safety and efficacy of cyclosporine A sustained release from modified intraocular lens for preventing posterior capsular opacification (PCO) in rabbit eyes. Forty-five New Zealand albino rabbits undergoing phacoemulsification in their right eyes were randomly and equally divided into three groups. Group A had implanted original IOL, group B had implanted PLGA-IOL(IOL coated with polylactide-glycoli acid), and group C had implanted CsA-PLGA-IOL (CsA loaded PLGA-IOL). All the 45 eyes were examined by a slit-lamp microscope. The intraocular pressures were recorded. Anterior chamber flare and aqueous humor cells were graded at different time point after surgery. The concentrations of CsA in the aqueous humor and blood were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Anterior segment tissue was histologically examined. Wet posterior capsules were weighed. PCO was graded 6 months later. The mean concentrations of CsA in group C at 2 h,1 d,3 d,7 d,14 d,30 d,60 d after operation were (11.47±2.42) mg/L, (10.30±2.15) mg/L, (6.71±1.45) mg/L, (4.81±1.16) mg/L, (6.11±0.84) mg/L, (2.53±0.77) mg/L, (0.86±0.28) mg/L. The concentrations of CsA in blood were undetectable. During the early days after operation, the reactions of the anterior chamber in group A and B were more severe than group C. The initial appearance of PCO in group C was much later than in the other two groups, and the grade of PCO in group C was much lower than the other two groups. The mean weights of wet posterior capsules in group A(312.86±52.91) mg and B(310.64±62.42) mg were much heavier than that of group C(56.93 ± 24.24) mg. Histological observation showed that there was remarkably less accumulation of lens materials on the posterior capsules in group C than in the other two groups. No toxic actions were found in intraocular tissues in group C. Our study suggested that Cyclosporin A modified intraocular lens could effectively and safely prevent the formation and

  3. RGD Surface Functionalization of the Hydrophilic Acrylic Intraocular Lens Material to Control Posterior Capsular Opacification

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi-Shiang; Bertrand, Virginie; Bozukova, Dimitriya; Pagnoulle, Christophe; Labrugère, Christine; De Pauw, Edwin; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire; Durrieu, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Posterior Capsular Opacification (PCO) is the capsule fibrosis developed on implanted IntraOcular Lens (IOL) by the de-differentiation of Lens Epithelial Cells (LECs) undergoing Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). Literature has shown that the incidence of PCO is multifactorial including the patient's age or disease, surgical technique, and IOL design and material. Reports comparing hydrophilic and hydrophobic acrylic IOLs have shown that the former has more severe PCO. On the other hand, we have previously demonstrated that the adhesion of LECs is favored on hydrophobic compared to hydrophilic materials. By combining these two facts and contemporary knowledge in PCO development via the EMT pathway, we propose a biomimetically inspired strategy to promote LEC adhesion without de-differentiation to reduce the risk of PCO development. By surface grafting of a cell adhesion molecule (RGD peptide) onto the conventional hydrophilic acrylic IOL material, the surface-functionalized IOL can be used to reconstitute a capsule-LEC-IOL sandwich structure, which has been considered to prevent PCO formation in literature. Our results show that the innovative biomaterial improves LEC adhesion, while also exhibiting similar optical (light transmittance, optical bench) and mechanical (haptic compression force, IOL injection force) properties compared to the starting material. In addition, compared to the hydrophobic IOL material, our bioactive biomaterial exhibits similar abilities in LEC adhesion, morphology maintenance, and EMT biomarker expression, which is the crucial pathway to induce PCO. The in vitro assays suggest that this biomaterial has the potential to reduce the risk factor of PCO development. PMID:25501012

  4. Endocapsular hyperthermia probe to prevent posterior capsular opacification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco, Marcia; Nose, Izuru; Lee, William; Acosta, Ana C.; Fragoso, Miryam; Fernandez, Viviana; Salas, Nelson; Parel, Jean M.

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility to induce lens epithelial cell death with intraoperative hyperthermia for prevention of secondary cataract. Methods: A prototype miniature resistive hyperthermia probe was designed. The probe contained a thermocouple for temperature feed-back. A timer allowed monitoring of the electrical driving of the hyperthermia probe and the temperature induced as a function of time. To model the heating response, a simple model of the lens capsule was constructed using a thin acrylic plastic shell embedded in a sponge immersed in a water bath at 37°C. The shell was filled with sodium hyaluronate. The probe was positioned at the center of the shell with the thermocouple next to the wall. An experimental protocol was developed to assess the feasibility of increasing the temperature of the human lens to hyperthermia levels in fresh cadaver eyes: An annular metal ring was bonded just below the limbus, the cornea and iris were sectioned, the lens material was removed through a central 5mm diameter capsulorhexis, the capsule was filled with SHA and the globe was set on a temperature-controlled cylindrical vial. Preliminary Results: At 3.3W (2.2V, 1.5A) the shell's content increases from 37°C to 51°C in 30s. At that temperature, LEC death is expected to occur within 1sec. Conclusion: This preliminary study demonstrates the feasibility of increasing the temperature of the capsular bag to kill LECs by hyperthermia.

  5. Interlenticular opacification: clinicopathological correlation of a complication of posterior chamber piggyback intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Gayton, J L; Apple, D J; Peng, Q; Visessook, N; Sanders, V; Werner, L; Pandey, S K; Escobar-Gomez, M; Hoddinott, D S; Van Der Karr, M

    2000-03-01

    To present a clinicopathological correlation of 2 pairs of piggyback posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOLs) explanted because of opacification between the lens optics. Gayton Health Center, Eyesight Associates of Middle Georgia, Warner Robins, Georgia, and Center for Research on Ocular Therapeutics and Biodevices, Storm Eye Institute, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA. Two pairs of piggyback AcrySof lenses were explanted from 2 patients with significant visual loss related to opacification between the optics. They were submitted for pathological analysis. Gross and histopathological examinations were performed, and photomicroscopy was used to document the results. Gross examination showed accumulation of a membrane-like white material between the lenses. Histopathological examination revealed that the tissue consisted of retained/proliferative lens epithelial cells (bladder cells or pearls) mixed with lens cortical material. Piggyback PC IOLs were explanted in 2 cases because of a newly described complication, interlenticular opacification. Three surgical means may help prevent this complication: meticulous cortical cleanup, especially in the equatorial region; creation of a relatively large continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis to sequester retained cells peripheral to the IOL optic within the equatorial fornix; insertion of the posterior IOL in the capsular bag and the anterior IOL in the ciliary sulcus to isolate retained cells from the interlenticular space.

  6. Posterior Capsular Opacification in Preschool- and School-Age Patients after Pediatric Cataract Surgery without Posterior Capsulotomy

    PubMed Central

    Batur, Muhammed; Gül, Adem; Seven, Erbil; Can, Ertuğrul; Yaşar, Tekin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the development of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) in preschool- and school-age children with cataract who underwent cataract surgery without posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy. Materials and Methods: The records of 30 eyes of 21 patients who underwent pediatric cataract surgery and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation were retrospectively reviewed. Patients’ age, PCO status and duration, need for neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser treatment based on coverage of visual axis, and follow-up period were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patients was 7.6±2.83 (4-12) years. Unilateral cataract surgery and IOL implantation were performed in 12 patients (57.14%) and bilateral cataract surgery and IOL implantation were performed in nine patients (42.86%). Average follow-up time was 17.7±22.67 (3-83) months. PCO developed in 21 eyes (70%) and covered the visual axis in 15 eyes (50%), which therefore required Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy. The mean duration of postoperative PCO development was 8.91±18.7 months (1 week-71 months). Conclusion: We believe that with adequately experienced surgeons, performing both cataract surgery and posterior capsulotomy with anterior vitrectomy in the same session is appropriate for selected preschool- and school-age children with cataract. PMID:28058161

  7. Posterior Capsular Opacification in Preschool- and School-Age Patients after Pediatric Cataract Surgery without Posterior Capsulotomy.

    PubMed

    Batur, Muhammed; Gül, Adem; Seven, Erbil; Can, Ertuğrul; Yaşar, Tekin

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to evaluate the development of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) in preschool- and school-age children with cataract who underwent cataract surgery without posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy. The records of 30 eyes of 21 patients who underwent pediatric cataract surgery and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation were retrospectively reviewed. Patients' age, PCO status and duration, need for neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser treatment based on coverage of visual axis, and follow-up period were recorded. The mean age of the patients was 7.6±2.83 (4-12) years. Unilateral cataract surgery and IOL implantation were performed in 12 patients (57.14%) and bilateral cataract surgery and IOL implantation were performed in nine patients (42.86%). Average follow-up time was 17.7±22.67 (3-83) months. PCO developed in 21 eyes (70%) and covered the visual axis in 15 eyes (50%), which therefore required Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy. The mean duration of postoperative PCO development was 8.91±18.7 months (1 week-71 months). We believe that with adequately experienced surgeons, performing both cataract surgery and posterior capsulotomy with anterior vitrectomy in the same session is appropriate for selected preschool- and school-age children with cataract.

  8. [Condition of the posterior capsule in pseudophakia in children].

    PubMed

    Koraszewska-Matuszewska, B; Samochowiec-Donocik, E; Pieczara, E

    1995-01-01

    Evaluation of the posterior capsule transparency in children after congenital cataract surgery with posterior intraocular lens implantation. Examination comprised 41 eyes of 29 patients with posterior IOLS, aged 5-17 years (mean 10.3). In all cases, posterior capsule was unimpaired during surgery. During follow-up, (mean 27 months), 36.6% the eyes showed posterior capsule opacity of various degree. Neodymium YAG laser capsulotomy was performed in 13 cases and instrumental capsulotomy in 2. Opacity of the posterior capsule caused a decrease of visual acuity below 0.4. It improved after capsulotomy in all cases. No serious complications were observed.

  9. Effect of topical prednisolone and diclofenac on the short-term change in morphology of posterior capsular opacification.

    PubMed

    Neumayer, Thomas; Buehl, Wolf; Findl, Oliver

    2006-10-01

    To observe and document the effect of steroidal and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory treatment on the formation of Elschnig pearls. A prospective, randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled, two-way-cross-over study. Thirty-nine eyes of 32 patients with pronounced, regeneratory posterior capsule opacification (PCO) were included. The patients were treated topically with prednisolone and diclofenac (verum) or with lubricating eye drops (placebo) four times daily for one week. After a wash-out period of two weeks the patients received the contrary treatment also four times daily for one week. Digital retroillumination images were taken at day one, three, five, eight, and 15 of each medication period. The changes in the size of 4,675 Elschnig pearls were analyzed. The mean cumulative area of all marked pearls/eye and follow-up was 1.2 mm(2) (range: 0.1 mm(2) to 3.2 mm(2)). The mean pearl size was 12,809 microm(2) (range: 60 microm(2) to 1.08 x 10(6) microm(2)). Between the follow-up examinations, 1,274 pearls disappeared (mean: 33 pearls/eye, range: five to 69 pearls; 27%) and 777 newly formed pearls appeared (mean: 20 pearls/eye, range: three to 53 pearls; 20%). There was no statistically significant difference in pearl size change and in number of disappeared and newly appeared pearls between the verum and the placebo treatments. Topical prednisolone and diclofenac do not influence the short-term change of Elschnig pearls. Elschnig pearls disappear and appear within days. The degree of progression and regression varies greatly among eyes.

  10. UV-assisted treatment on hydrophobic acrylic IOLs anterior surface with methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine: Reducing inflammation and maintaining low posterior capsular opacification properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaodan; Luo, Chenqi; Lin, Lin; Zhang, Li; Li, Heyi; Yao, Ke; Xu, Zhikang

    2017-06-01

    In order to enhance the surface biocompatibility of hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs), the anterior surface was modified through graft polymerization with methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) initiated by ultraviolet radiation. Chemical changes on the IOL surface were characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to confirm the covalent binding of MPC. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis were used to characterise the morphological changes to the IOL surface. Static water contact angle (WCA) measurements showed that the hydrophilicity of the anterior surface was enhanced after grafting with MPC. The surface biocompatibility of the untreated and Anterior UV-MPC IOLs was compared with the adhesion behaviour of macrophages in vitro. The degree of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) of untreated, anterior treated, and posterior treated IOLs was evaluated by observing the behaviour of lens epithelial cells (LECs) between the IOL optic portion and type IV collagen. Results suggest that the MPC modified anterior surface resisted the attachment of macrophages. However, MPC grafted onto the posterior surface enhanced the migration of LECs between the IOL optic and type IV collagen, which may result in severe PCO. In conclusion, our Anterior UV-MPC IOLs may reduce postoperative inflammation while maintaining the low PCO rates of hydrophobic acrylic IOLs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Material properties of the human posterior knee capsule.

    PubMed

    Rachmat, H H; Janssen, D; Verkerke, G J; Diercks, R L; Verdonschot, N

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable interest to develop accurate subject-specific biomechanical models of the knee. Most of the existing models currently do not include a representation of the posterior knee capsule. In order to incorporate the posterior capsule in knee models, data is needed on its mechanical properties. To quantify the mechanical properties of the human posterior knee capsule through semi-static tensile tests. Fifteen posterior knee capsule specimens (5 knees, 3 male, 2 female; age 79.2±7.9 years) were used to perform tensile tests. A medial, central and lateral specimen was taken from each knee. The cross-sectional area was measured, after which semi-static tensile tests were performed to quantify the material properties. The stiffness of the capsule was randomly distributed over the regions. The global Young's modulus and yield strength was 8.58±10.77 MPa and 1.75±1.89 MPa, respectively. A strong correlation (ρ=0.900) was found between Young's modulus and yield strength. The location of failure was not associated with smallest cross-sectional area or highest strain. The results suggest that the posterior knee capsule does not have a systematic (medial-central-lateral) distribution of material properties. The posterior capsule may play an important role in knee joint mechanics, particularly when in hyper extension.

  12. Effect of intraocular lens design on migration of lens epithelial cells onto the posterior capsule.

    PubMed

    Nagamoto, T; Eguchi, G

    1997-01-01

    To find the conditions that prevent posterior capsule opacification through in vitro analysis of the relationship between intraocular lens (IOL) optic configuration and lens epithelial cell (LEC) migration. Division of Morphogenesis, Department of Developmental Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki, Japan. In a preliminary experiment, we measured the size of the capsular bag of rabbits at 8, 16, 20, and 26 weeks of age. The size of a 20-week-old capsular bag was the same size as the capsular bag in senescent Japanese eyes. We isolated the capsular bags in 20- and 8-week-old rabbits. The bags along with a biconvex (BC), convex-plano (CP), or no IOL (C) were cultured, and the eyes were divided into one of six groups (8W-C, 8W-BC, 8W-CP, 20W-C, 20W-BC and 20W-CP), each including six specimens. Two specimens in the 8W-CP group completely blocked LEC migration at the optic edge. All specimens in the 20W-CP group and one in the 20W-BC group showed cell aggregation along the optic edge. None of the other specimens in the BC and C groups blocked migration or showed cell aggregation. In the rabbit-model study, the convex-plano lens was superior to the biconvex lens in inhibiting migration of LECs. A firm contact between the IOL and the posterior capsule blocked the migration.

  13. Posterior capsular opacification and intraocular lens decentration. Part I: Comparison of various posterior chamber lens designs implanted in the rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Hansen, S O; Solomon, K D; McKnight, G T; Wilbrandt, T H; Gwin, T D; O'Morchoe, D J; Tetz, M R; Apple, D J

    1988-11-01

    Experimental phacoemulsification procedures were performed in 54 Rex rabbits. In 96 eyes, posterior chamber intraocular lenses (IOLs) were implanted in the capsular sac, and 12 eyes served as controls with no lens implantation. The IOLs were divided into eight groups consisting of both one-piece and three-piece styles with various optic designs. Each lens was evaluated for the relative effect on posterior capsular opacification (PCO) and optic decentration, two of the most common complications of modern cataract surgery and IOL implantation. Optics with a convex-anterior, plano-posterior design (the type of IOL optic most frequently implanted today) had the highest incidence of PCO. With capsular fixated IOLs, the features that have a statistically significant impact on reducing PCO include (1) one-piece, all-polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) IOL styles, (2) a biconvex or posterior convex optic design, and (3) angulated loops. Lens decentration was not affected by the optic design, but statistical analysis showed that one-piece, all-PMMA IOL construction provided the most consistent centration.

  14. Interlenticular opacification: dual-optic versus piggyback intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Werner, Liliana; Mamalis, Nick; Stevens, Scott; Hunter, Brian; Chew, Jesse J L; Vargas, Luis G

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate and compare the incidence of capsular bag opacification, particularly interlenticular opacification (ILO), in rabbit eyes implanted with a dual-optic silicone intraocular lens (IOL) or piggyback lenses. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Ten dual-optic study IOLs (Synchrony), 10 control pairs of piggyback silicone-plate lenses, and 10 control pairs of piggyback single-piece hydrophobic acrylic lenses were implanted in the capsular bag of 30 rabbit eyes following phacoemulsification. After a 6-week follow-up, the rabbits were killed and their eyes enucleated. Anterior capsule opacification and posterior capsule opacification were graded on a 0 to 4 scale from a posterior or Miyake-Apple view. Interlenticular opacification was noted in relation to the center of the interlenticular space (periphery, paracentral, and central area) and to the number of quadrants involved. The eyes were then evaluated histopathologically. Postoperative inflammatory reaction was similar in all groups. Interlenticular opacification formation was statistically different among the 3 groups of lenses (ILO extension, P = .0013, and ILO extension x ILO quadrants, P = .0023; Kruskal-Wallis test). Pairwise post comparisons of ILO formation showed that the differences between the study IOL group and the silicone-plate lens group were not significant. Interlenticular opacification post comparisons between the hydrophobic acrylic lenses and the study lens or the silicone-plate lenses were significant (P = .002 and P = .001, respectively). Histopathologic examination showed extension of the proliferating cortical material from the peripheral Soemmering's ring into the interlenticular space, causing ILO, especially with the pairs of hydrophobic acrylic lenses. In this rabbit model, ILO was significantly associated with pairs of hydrophobic acrylic lenses implanted in the bag. This study appears to confirm clinical observations that implantation of 2

  15. Capsular bag opacification with a new accommodating intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Anne M; Werner, Liliana; Liu, Erica; Stallings, Shannon; Ollerton, Andrew; Leishman, Lisa; Bodnar, Zachary; Morris, Caleb; Mamalis, Nick

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility and capsular bag opacification of an accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) containing large haptic elements that separate the anterior and posterior capsules. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Bilateral phacoemulsification with IOL implantation was performed in 6 New Zealand rabbits. Each animal received a study (accommodating) IOL and a control (1-piece hydrophobic acrylic) IOL. Eyes were examined at the slitlamp from 1 day through 6 weeks postoperatively. The globes were then enucleated and evaluated grossly. Capsular bag opacification was scored from the posterior aspect (Miyake-Apple view). The eyes were then processed for complete histopathologic evaluation. At 6 weeks, the mean posterior capsule opacification (PCO) clinical score was 0.5 ± 0.3 (SD) in the study group and 3.0 ± 0.9 in the control group (P=.001, 2-tail paired t test). Anterior capsule opacification was practically absent in the study group and mild in the control group. Miyake-Apple posterior view showed a mean central PCO score of 0 ± 0 in the study group and 3.0 ± 1.1 in the control group (P=.001), peripheral PCO score of 0.7 ± 0.4 and 3.5 ± 0.8 (P=.0006), respectively, and Soemmerring ring score of 2.3 ± 0.8 and 7.0 ± 2.8 (P=.01), respectively. Histopathology showed no signs of toxicity in any eye. The study IOL maintained an expanded capsular bag secondary to the large size of the haptic elements, which appears to prevent capsular bag opacification. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Oval capsulorhexis for phacoemulsification in posterior polar cataract with preexisting posterior capsule rupture.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kiranjit; Mittal, Vikas; Kaur, Harmit

    2011-07-01

    We describe use of an oval capsulorhexis rather than the conventional circular capsulorhexis for phacoemulsification in posterior polar cataract with preexisting posterior capsule rupture. An oval capsulorhexis minimizes the turbulence in the capsular bag by increasing the area available for efflux of fluid. It also enables end-to-end nuclear sculpting, removal of the nuclear fragment from the bag, intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, and vitrectomy without stretching the capsular bag. The smaller axis of the oval capsulorhexis facilitates optic capture of a sulcus-fixated IOL. The oval capsulorhexis can be used safely for phacoemulsification of all grades of nuclear sclerosis in posterior polar cataract with preexisting posterior capsule rupture. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Using HSV-TK/GCV suicide gene therapy to inhibit lens epithelial cell proliferation for treatment of posterior capsular opacification

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yong-Xiang; Liu, Tian-Jing; Yang, Jin; Chen, Yan; Fang, Yan-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To establish a novel, targeted lentivirus-based HSV-tk (herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase)/GCV (ganciclovir) gene therapy system to inhibit lens epithelial cell proliferation for treatment of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) after cataract surgery. Methods An enhanced Cre recombinase (Cre/loxP) system with a lentiviral vector expressing Cre under the control of the lens-specific promoter LEP503 (Lenti-LEP503-HSVtk-Cre [LTKCRE]) was constructed, as well as another lentiviral vector containing a switching unit. The latter vector contains a stuffer sequence encoding EGFP (Lenti-hPGK-Loxp-EGFP-pA-Loxp-HSVtk [PGFPTK]) with a functional polyadenylation signal between two loxP sites, followed by the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene, both under the control of the human posphoglycerate kinase (hPGK) promoter. Expression of the downstream gene (HSV-tk) is activated by co-expression of Cre. Human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) or retinal pigmental epithelial cells (RPECs) were co-infected with LTKCRE and PGFPTK. The inhibitory effects on HLECs and RPECs infected by the enhanced specific lentiviral vector combination at the concentration of 20 µg/ml GCV were assayed and compared. Results The specific gene expression of Cre and HSV-tk in HLECs is activated by the LEP503 promoter. LTKCRE and PGFPTK co-infected HLECs, but not RPECs, expressed high levels of the HSV-tk protein. After 96 h of GCV treatment, the percentage of apoptotic HLECs infected by the enhanced specific lentiviral vector combination was 87.23%, whereas that of apoptotic RPECs was only 10.12%. Electron microscopy showed that GCV induced apoptosis and necrosis of the infected HLECs. Conclusions The enhanced specific lentiviral vector combination selectively and effectively expressed HSV-tk in HLECs. A concentration of 20 µg/ml, GCV is effective against the proliferation of HLECs in vitro. This cell-type-specific gene therapy using a Cre/loxP lentivirus system may be a

  18. FGF2 antagonizes aberrant TGFβ regulation of tropomyosin: role for posterior capsule opacity.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Eri; Shibata, Shinsuke; Shibata, Teppei; Kiyokawa, Etsuko; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Singh, Dhirendra P

    2016-12-15

    Transforming growth factor (TGF) β2 and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 are involved in regulation of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) and other processes of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) such as cancer progression, wound healing and tissue fibrosis as well as normal embryonic development. We previously used an in vivo rodent PCO model to show the expression of tropomyosin (Tpm) 1/2 was aberrantly up-regulated in remodelling the actin cytoskeleton during EMT. In this in vitro study, we show the Tpms family of cytoskeleton proteins are involved in regulating and stabilizing actin microfilaments (F-actin) and are induced by TGFβ2 during EMT in lens epithelial cells (LECs). Importantly, we found TGFβ2 and FGF2 played contrasting roles. Stress fibre formation and up-regulation of α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) induced by TGFβ2 could be reversed by Tpm1/2 knock-down by siRNA. Expression of Tpm1/2 and stress fibre formation induced by TGFβ2 could be reversed by FGF2. Furthermore, FGF2 delivery to TGFβ-treated LECs perturbed EMT by reactivating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway and subsequently enhanced EMT. Conversely, MEK inhibitor (PD98059) abated the FGF2-mediated Tpm1/2 and αSMA suppression. However, we found that normal LECs which underwent EMT showed enhanced migration in response to combined TGFβ and FGF2 stimulation. These findings may help clarify the mechanism reprogramming the actin cytoskeleton during morphogenetic EMT cell proliferation and fibre regeneration in PCO. We propose that understanding the physiological link between levels of FGF2, Tpm1/2 expression and TGFβs-driven EMT orchestration may provide clue(s) to develop therapeutic strategies to treat PCO based on Tpm1/2.

  19. The posterior segment of the temporomandibular joint capsule and its anatomic relationship.

    PubMed

    Mérida-Velasco, J Ramón; Rodríguez, J Francisco; de la Cuadra, Crótida; Peces, M Dolores; Mérida, J Antonio; Sánchez, Indalecio

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to clarify the arrangement of the posterior segment of the temporomandibular joint capsule and its pertinent relationships. The temporomandibular region was dissected bilaterally in 20 adult cadavers. Natural stained latex was injected into 16 cadavers through the external carotid artery to facilitate the dissection of the arterial vessels. The posterior segment of the joint capsule is made up of the so-called "bilaminar zone" of the articular disc. The upper internal portion of the posterior segment of the capsule was reinforced by the discomalleolar ligament. The retroarticular space was filled with loose connective tissue and the anterior branches of the anterior tympanic artery were distributed throughout the posterior segment of the joint capsule. The posterior segment of the temporomandibular joint capsule corresponds to the bilaminar zone of the articular disc. The structures of the retroarticular space are extracapsular.

  20. Prevention of capsular bag opacification with a modified hydrophilic acrylic disk-shaped intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Leishman, Lisa; Werner, Liliana; Bodnar, Zachary; Ollerton, Andrew; Michelson, Jennifer; Schmutz, Mason; Mamalis, Nick

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the stability and capsular bag opacification with a modified disk-shaped 1-piece hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) suspended between 2 complete haptic rings connected by a pillar of the haptic material and with a commercially available 1-piece hydrophilic acrylic IOL. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Study and control IOLs were implanted into the left eyes and right eyes of 5 New Zealand rabbits. Eyes were examined at the slitlamp from 1 through 4 weeks. At 4 weeks, the globes were enucleated and evaluated under a very-high-frequency ultrasound. Photographs were taken and capsular bag opacification scored from the posterior aspect (Miyake-Apple view), and the eyes were processed for complete histopathology. At 4 weeks, the posterior capsule opacification score was 0.0 in the study group and 1.75 ± 0.5 (SD) in the control group (P=.005, paired t test). Ultrasound examination showed that 2 of the study IOLs had no contact between the posterior optic surface and the posterior capsule. Minimal proliferative cortical material was confined to the peripheral space between anterior and posterior rings of the study IOL haptics in localized areas at the equatorial region of the capsular bag. Anterior capsule opacification was absent in all eyes. The study IOL is a modification of a previous design, incorporating haptic perforations between the peripheral rings. By maintaining an open capsular bag and enhancing endocapsular inflow of aqueous, this modified design appears to prevent capsular bag opacification. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of elements of interlenticular opacification.

    PubMed

    Werner, Liliana; Apple, David J; Pandey, Suresh K; Solomon, Kerry D; Snyder, Michael E; Brint, Stephen F; Gayton, Johnny L; Shugar, Joel K; Trivedi, Rupal H; Izak, Andrea M

    2002-03-01

    To report the histopathologic and ultrastructural features of three cases of interlenticular opacification (ILO) between piggyback intraocular lenses. Interventional case series with clinicopathologic correlation. Three pairs of acrylic piggyback lenses were explanted due to decrease in visual acuity associated with ILO. Lenses were evaluated with gross and light microscopic examinations in all cases. The anterior lens in one case was examined with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The material opacifying the interlenticular space was composed mostly of retained/regenerative cortical material in all cases. From the peripheral interface towards the central interface, the opacifying material changed as the interlenticular space was progressively narrower. The material attached to the peripheral interface, where the interlenticular space was wider, was very thick. At the midperipheral interface, the thick cortical material was broken into multiple globules due to liquefactive degeneration. At the paracentral zone, compression of the globules formed a flat, compact layer of an amorphous material. At the central interface (contact zone), almost no material could be found between the piggyback lenses. Analyses of ILO cases where all the components of the opacifying material were in situ allowed us to confirm that the pathogenesis of this complication is similar to that of posterior capsule opacification; thus, careful removal of lens epithelial cells and cortical material is mandatory in piggyback implantation.

  2. Capsular bag opacification after experimental implantation of a new accommodating intraocular lens in rabbit eyes.

    PubMed

    Werner, Liliana; Pandey, Suresh K; Izak, Andrea M; Vargas, Luis G; Trivedi, Rupal H; Apple, David J; Mamalis, Nick

    2004-05-01

    To evaluate the development of capsular bag opacification in rabbit eyes after implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL) designed to minimize contact between the anterior capsule and the IOL and ensure expansion of the capsular bag. David J. Apple, MD Laboratories for Ophthalmic Devices Research, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Ten New Zealand white rabbits had a study IOL (new accommodating silicone IOL [Synchrony, Visiogen, Inc.]) implanted in 1 eye and a control IOL (1-piece plate silicone IOL with large fixation holes) implanted in the other eye. Intraocular lens position, anterior capsule opacification (ACO), and posterior capsule opacification (PCO) were qualitatively assessed using slitlamp retroillumination photographs of the dilated eyes. Anterior capsule opacification and PCO were graded on a 0 to 4 scale after the eyes were enucleated (Miyake-Apple posterior and anterior views after excision of the cornea and iris). The eyes were also evaluated histopathologically. The rate of ACO and PCO was significantly higher in the control group. Fibrosis and ACO were almost absent in the study group; the control group exhibited extensive capsulorhexis contraction, including capsulorhexis occlusion. Postoperative IOL dislocation into the anterior chamber and pupillary block syndrome were observed in some eyes in the study group. The special design features associated with the study IOL appeared to help prevent PCO. Complications in the study group were probably caused by the increased posterior vitreous pressure in rabbit eyes compared to human eyes and the relatively large size of the study IOL relative to the anterior segment of rabbit eyes.

  3. Posterior capsule dehiscence during phacoemulsification and manual extracapsular cataract extraction: comparison of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Basti, Surendra; Garg, Prashant; Reddy, Madhukar K

    2003-03-01

    To compare the intraoperative behavior and postoperative outcomes of posterior capsule dehiscence during phacoemulsification and during manual extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE). L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. This study was a retrospective chart review of consecutive cases of posterior capsule dehiscence over 2 years in patients having phacoemulsification or manual ECCE. A chi-square test was used for statistical comparison of the results in the 2 groups. In the 127 eyes with posterior capsule dehiscence, the incidence of vitreous prolapse was comparable between the 2 groups (phacoemulsification, 61.6%; ECCE, 62.7%). In the phacoemulsification group, vitreous prolapse occurred more frequently if nuclear fragments were present at the time of posterior capsule dehiscence than if they were present during cortex removal (P =.05). Posterior dislocation of nuclear fragments occurred in 4 eyes in the phacoemulsification group. Increased anterior uveitis in the early postoperative period occurred more frequently in the ECCE group (P =.02). The visual outcomes were similar between the 2 groups. Even though differences existed between the intraoperative factors influencing the management of posterior capsule dehiscence during phacoemulsification and ECCE, the final anatomic and visual outcomes were comparable.

  4. Design, characterization, and in vitro cellular inhibition and uptake of optimized genistein-loaded NLC for the prevention of posterior capsular opacification using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenji; Li, Xuedong; Ye, Tiantian; Chen, Fen; Sun, Xiao; Kong, Jun; Yang, Xinggang; Pan, Weisan; Li, Sanming

    2013-09-15

    This study was to design an innovative nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) for drug delivery of genistein applied after cataract surgery for the prevention of posterior capsular opacification. NLC loaded with genistein (GEN-NLC) was produced with Compritol 888 ATO, Gelucire 44/14 and Miglyol 812N, stabilized by Solutol(®) HS15 by melt emulsification method. A 2(4) central composite design of 4 independent variables was performed for optimization. Effects of drug concentration, Gelucire 44/14 concentration in total solid lipid, liquid lipid concentration, and surfactant concentration on the mean particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency were investigated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical test was used to assess the optimization. The optimized GEN-NLC showed a homogeneous particle size of 90.16 nm (with PI=0.33) of negatively charged surface (-25.08 mv) and high encapsulation efficiency (91.14%). Particle morphology assessed by TEM revealed a spherical shape. DSC analyses confirmed that GEN was mostly entrapped in amorphous state. In vitro release experiments indicated a prolonged and controlled genistein release for 72 h. In vitro growth inhibition assay showed an effective growth inhibition of GEN-NLCs on human lens epithelial cells (HLECs). Preliminary cellular uptake test proved a enhanced penetration of genistein into HLECs when delivered in NLC.

  5. Glued intraocular lens scaffolding to create an artificial posterior capsule for nucleus removal in eyes with posterior capsule tear and insufficient iris and sulcus support.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Amar; Jacob, Soosan; Agarwal, Ashvin; Narasimhan, Smita; Kumar, Dhivya Ashok; Agarwal, Athiya

    2013-03-01

    Glued IOL scaffolding decreases the chance of nucleus drop in eyes with insufficient iris and capsule support. The advantages include no temporary device or substance that must be removed after nucleus emulsification, ability to perform complete surgery without enlarging incisions, stable fixation of the IOL, compartmentalization of the eye, and decreased vitreous hydration and aspiration. The IOL is preplaced via glued transscleral haptic fixation of the IOL. The glued IOL placed under the nucleus then acts as a scaffold nuclear fragments are emulsified and thus acts as an artificial posterior capsule.

  6. Posterior Capsule Rupture during Phacoemulsification among Patients with Pseudoexfoliation–Is There A Correlation?

    PubMed Central

    Thanigasalam, THEVI; SAHOO, Soumendra; KYAW SOE, Htoo Htoo

    2014-01-01

    This study was done to correlate the occurrence of posterior capsule rupture among patients with pseudoexfoliation during phacoemulsification. This was a retrospective audit of patients who underwent phacoemulsification type cataract surgery from January 2011 to December 2012 in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. Data was obtained from the National Eye Database (NED) of Malaysia. The data was analysed using SPSS version 21.0. By using logistic regression analysis, it was found that there was no significant increase in the occurrence of posterior capsule rupture among patients with pseudoexfoliation. Hence, we concluded that there was no correlation between the occurrence of posterior capsule rupture and the presence of pesudoexfoliation among patients who underwent phacoemulsification. PMID:25977622

  7. Visual outcome following posterior capsule rupture during phacoemulsification in a tertiary care hospital in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Thevi, T; Sahoo, S

    2016-04-01

    To analyse the visual outcomes of cases with posterior capsule rupture (PCR) compared to those without PCR following phacoemulsification. The occurrence of posterior capsule rupture during phacoemulsification surgery for cataract can have serious implications in the visual recovery. However, recognition of PCR and proper management can yield a successful visual outcome. This study analysed the visual outcomes of cases with PCR compared to those without PCR. This is a case-control study. All patients who underwent cataract surgery from 2011 to 2012 in Hospital Melaka were traced from the National Eye Database (NED) of Malaysia. The visual outcomes were classified as good, borderline and poor as per WHO guidelines. The data was analysed with SPSS version 12 IBM. Out of 80.4% (2519) of eyes that had undergone phacoemulsification (PHACO) type of surgery, 3.06% (77 cases) had posterior capsule rupture complication. There was no significant difference in the visual outcome of borderline between cases with PCR and cases without PCR (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.989; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.382- 2.560). However, cases with PCR were significantly less likely to have good vision compared to those without PCR (OR 0.335; 95% CI 0.157-0.714). The study reveals that a significant number of patients without PCR had good vision, whereas those with PCR did not get good vision. We would like to suggest meticulous care during phacoemulsification surgery to avoid PCR in order to obtain good visual outcomes.

  8. Posterior lens capsule abscess due to Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis following extracapsular cataract extraction.

    PubMed Central

    Manners, R M; Canning, C R

    1991-01-01

    A case of posterior lens capsular abscess occurring many months after an extracapsular cataract extraction is presented. This was caused by a mixed infection involving Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The significance of Staph epidermidis after such a long postoperative period is uncertain, but the case shows features typical of secondary endophthalmitis due to P acnes, including a long delay in onset and a grumbling course not brought under control by medical treatment. It supports the theory that the nidus of infection is localised in the posterior lens capsule by showing development of a visible capsular abscess with associated vitreous involvement. The subsequent removal of the capsule and vitreous, despite leaving the intraocular lens in place, led to complete resolution of the inflammation. Both organisms have previously been found to be sequestered in the posterior lens capsule by histological and microbiological examination of excised capsular specimens. It is important to consider them as possible causative agents in the formation of a postoperative capsular abscess. Images PMID:1768656

  9. Glenohumeral posterior mobilization versus conventional physiotherapy for primary adhesive capsulitis: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Espinoza, Héctor Joaquín; Pavez, Francisco; Guajardo, Cristopher; Acosta, Manuel

    2015-09-22

    To compare the short-term efficacy of a glenohumeral posterior mobilization technique versus conventional physiotherapy for the improvement of the range of external rotation in patients with primary adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. This is a randomized clinical trial conducted at Hospital Clinico San Borja Arriaran in Chile. Fifty-seven patients with an age range of 50 to 58 years old were enrolled in two groups. Both groups were randomized to receive a treatment of 10 sessions: the experimental group (n=29) received a glenohumeral posterior mobilization technique after training with a cycle ergometer, and the control group (n=28) received conventional physiotherapy. The primary outcome measure was range of passive movement in external rotation; secondary outcomes were forward flexion and shoulder abduction, pain perception using the visual analogue scale and functionality test using the Constant-Murley Score. The study had the statistical power to detect a difference of four degrees between the groups in the improvement of the range of external rotation at the end of the treatment period. The experimental group showed a significant improvement with a mean difference of 46.3 degrees (SD=8.7) compared to 18.1 (SD=7.2) in the control group (p<0.0001). There was also a decrease in the perception of pain (p= 0.0002) and improved function (p< 0.0001) in the group treated with glenohumeral posterior mobilization technique. The glenohumeral posterior mobilization technique applied after training with cycle ergometer is an effective short-term technique to treat primary adhesive capsulitis decreasing the severity of pain and improving joint function compared with conventional physiotherapy treatment. The degree of increase in shoulder external rotation is more than 20 degrees beyond the increase achieved with conventional treatment.

  10. Central posterior capsule pigmentation in a patient with pigment dispersion and previous ocular trauma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Al-Mezaine, Hani S

    2010-01-01

    We report a 55-year-old man with unusually dense, unilateral central posterior capsule pigmentation associated with the characteristic clinical features of pigment dispersion syndrome, including a Krukenberg's spindle and dense trabecular pigmentation in both eyes. A history of an old blunt ocular trauma probably caused separation of the anterior hyaloid from the back of the lens, thereby creating an avenue by which pigment could reach the potential space of Berger's from the posterior chamber.

  11. Long-term discission rate after placing posterior chamber lenses with the convex surface posterior.

    PubMed

    Downing, J E

    1986-11-01

    The incidence of secondary capsulotomy was studied in a group of 757 posterior chamber intraocular lenses placed with the convex surface posterior within the capsular bag. Minimum follow-up was 12 months and ranged up to 61 months, with a mean of 33 months. In the first year, only 2.9% of cases required discission, but this rose to 15.7% at five years. The need for capsulotomy with angled-haptic lenses was 7.9% at three years; it was 15.0% with uniplanar lenses (P = .04). This difference appeared to be due to better apposition of the optic to the posterior capsule in the angled lenses, creating a more effective barrier to epithelial pearl migration. Capsulotomy carries significant risks and lens designs that minimize the long-term need for capsulotomy should be sought. Convex posterior lenses with angled haptics have a low incidence of posterior capsule opacification.

  12. Posterior Shoulder Capsules Are Thicker and Stiffer in the Throwing Shoulders of Healthy College Baseball Players: A Quantitative Assessment Using Shear-Wave Ultrasound Elastography.

    PubMed

    Takenaga, Tetsuya; Sugimoto, Katsumasa; Goto, Hideyuki; Nozaki, Masahiro; Fukuyoshi, Masaki; Tsuchiya, Atsushi; Murase, Atsunori; Ono, Tetsuya; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2015-12-01

    Posterior and posteroinferior capsules in the shoulder joints of throwing athletes have been reported to be thicker in throwing than nonthrowing shoulders, and this has a relationship to glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD). However, the stiffness of these thickened capsules has not been reported. Shear-wave ultrasound elastography is a new technology that can measure tissue elasticity quantitatively. The posterior and posteroinferior capsules are stiffer as well as thicker in the throwing shoulders of baseball players than in their nonthrowing shoulders. The thickness and elasticity of these capsules are inversely correlated with glenohumeral internal rotation. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Forty-five male college baseball players were examined. The thickness and elasticity of the posterior capsule beneath the infraspinatus and the posteroinferior capsule beneath the teres minor were measured using an ultrasonic device equipped with shear-wave elastographic technology. Glenohumeral internal rotation at 90° of shoulder abduction and humeral retrotorsion were also measured. The mean thickness and elasticity of the posterior capsule were significantly greater for the throwing compared with the nonthrowing shoulder (thickness: 1.34 vs 1.04 mm, respectively; elasticity: 40.0 vs 32.2 kPa, respectively; P < .001 for both). The mean thickness and elasticity of the posteroinferior capsule were also significantly greater in the throwing compared with the nonthrowing shoulder (thickness: 1.40 vs 1.04 mm, respectively; elasticity: 39.4 vs 31.6 kPa, respectively; P < .001 for both). After correcting the range of motion for bilateral differences in retrotorsion, correlation coefficients showed that posterior capsule thickness and elasticity (Pearson r = -0.43 and -0.56, respectively; P < .001 for both) and posteroinferior capsule thickness and elasticity (Pearson r = -0.51 and -0.52, respectively; P < .001 for both) were negatively correlated with the

  13. Lesions of the posterior limb of the internal capsule in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Long, Youming; Wu, Linzhan; Zhong, Rong; Ouyang, Xiaoming; Liang, Junyan; Gao, Cong; Chen, Xiaohui; Qiu, Wei; Chang, Yanyu; Wang, Zhanhang; Ye, Jinlong

    2017-05-01

    Posterior limb of the internal capsule lesions (PLICL) are one of the MRI features of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). However, there is no evidence that such lesions are pathogenically related to NMOSD. We retrospectively analyzed features of PLICL in NMOSD, and other central nervous system inflammatory disorders, in 561 patients. We also examined the pathological samples of six patients. Of the 561 patients investigated, PLICL were found in 65 patients (11.6%). Lesions were bilateral in 26 cases (40%) and unilateral in 39 cases (60%). Unilateral lesions were mainly located on the left side (74.3%, 29/39). Of the 65 patients with PLICL, 46 patients had NMOSD (70.8%) and were positive for anti-aquaporin (AQP4-IgG), four had NMOSD (6.2%) and were AQP4-IgG negative, 10 patients had multiple sclerosis (MS), three patients had NMDAR encephalitis, and two had autoimmune meningoencephalitis. Of the six patients whose pathological samples were evaluated, all had PLICL and were negative for AQP4-IgG, and none had pathological NMOSD lesion features. These cases included three patients with multiple sclerosis, one with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, and two with autoimmune meningoencephalitis. In conclusion, PLICL are found not only in patients with NMOSD, but also in MS and other disorders.

  14. Vitreous changes after neodymium-YAG laser irradiation of the posterior lens capsule or mid-vitreous

    SciTech Connect

    Lerman, S.; Thrasher, B.; Moran, M.

    1984-04-01

    Exposure of four monkey and 26 rabbit eyes to neodymium-YAG laser irradiation to the posterior lens capsule or the mid-vitreous area clearly demonstrated significant vitreous changes (liquefaction) as measured by viscosity analyses and proton relaxation studies. We found marked molecular alterations in the vitreous of the exposed eye compared with the contralateral control (unirradiated) eye. These alterations, occurring immediately after laser treatment, were probably the result of acoustic transients accompanying the laser irradiation.

  15. Lower numbers of mechanoreceptors in the posterior cruciate ligament and anterior capsule of the osteoarthritic knees.

    PubMed

    Çabuk, Haluk; Kuşku Çabuk, Fatmagül; Tekin, Ali Çağrı; Dedeoğlu, Süleyman Semih; Çakar, Murat; Büyükkurt, Cem Dinçay

    2016-06-23

    Impaired proprioception accuracy of the knee has been proposed as a local factor in the onset and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Patients with decreased numbers of mechanoreceptors could be more likely to develop arthrosis due to a loss in proprioception of the joint. We aimed to identify and quantify the mechanoreceptors of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), the anterior capsule (AC) and the medial meniscocapsular junction (MCJ) in knee arthrosis. PCLs, ACs and MCJs were harvested from 30 patients with Kellgren and Lawrence grades 3 and 4 osteoarthritis (OA), and ten knees taken from five cadavers without OA were used as a control group. PCL degeneration was evaluated with haematoxylin & eosin, and the types and numbers of mechanoreceptors were evaluated using S100 immunostaining. The patient ages in the OA and control groups (n.s.) did not differ. PCL degeneration was more severe in the gonarthrosis group than in the control group (p = 0.04). The numbers of Golgi corpuscles, Ruffini corpuscles, free nerve endings, total nerve endings and small vessels of the PCL were low in the OA group, as were the numbers of Golgi corpuscles, free nerve endings and total nerve endings of the AC. No significant correlation was found regarding the mechanoreceptors of the MCJ between the two groups. The numbers of mechanoreceptors in patients with OA were low in the PCLs and ACs. A loss in proprioception could be a local risk factor in OA. The proprioceptive impact of preserving PCL while performing total knee arthroplasty may not be exaggerated as its thought. Prognostic study, Level I.

  16. Genome wide gene expression analysis of the posterior capsule in patients with osteoarthritis and knee flexion contracture.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Thomas Mark; Trudel, Guy; Wong, Kayleigh Kristin; Laneuville, Odette

    2014-11-01

    Knee flexion contractures (KFC) are limitations in the ability to fully extend the knee joint. In people with knee osteoarthritis (OA), KFC are common, impair function, and worsen outcomes after arthroplasty. In KFC, the posterior knee capsule is believed to play a key role, but the pathophysiology remains poorly understood. We sought to identify gene expression differences in the posterior knee capsule of patients with OA with and without KFC. Capsule tissue was obtained from the knees of 12 subjects diagnosed with advanced-stage OA at the time of knee arthroplasty surgery. The presence or absence of KFC allocated patients into 2 groups using a case-control design. Genomewide capsular gene expression was compared between the 2 patient groups. Confirmation of differential expression of the corresponding proteins was performed by immunohistochemistry on tissue sections. There were no significant demographic differences between the patients with OA with KFC and without KFC save for reduced extension in their surgical knee (p<0.01). KFC patients showed a 6.4-fold decrease in CSN1S1 (p=0.017) gene expression and a 3.7-, 2.0-, and 2.6-fold increase in CHAD, Sox9, and Cyr61 gene expression, respectively (p=0.001, 0.004, 0.001, respectively). There were corresponding increases in protein levels for chondroadherin, sex determining region Y-box 9, and casein alphaS1 (all p<0.05). Functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated a strong association with pathways related to the extracellular matrix and to tissue fibrosis. Posterior capsules in endstage OA knees with KFC exhibited differential expression of 4 genes all previously documented to be associated with tissue fibrosis.

  17. Adhesion of lens capsule to intraocular lenses of polymethylmethacrylate, silicone, and acrylic foldable materials: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Oshika, T.; Nagata, T.; Ishii, Y.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate the adhesion characteristics of several intraocular lenses (IOLs) to the simulated and rabbit lens capsule.
METHODS—Adhesive force to bovine collagen sheets was measured in water with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), three piece silicone, and acrylic foldable IOLs. In rabbit eyes, phacoemulsification and IOL implantation were performed. Three weeks later, adhesion between the anterior/posterior capsules and IOL optic was tested, and the capsule was examined histologically.
RESULTS—The mean adhesive force to the collagen sheet was 1697 (SD 286) mg for acrylic foldable, 583 (49) mg for PMMA, and 0 mg for silicone IOLs (p=0.0003, Kruskal-Wallis test). Scores (0-5) of adhesion between rabbit anterior capsule and IOL optic were 4.50 (0.55) for acrylic foldable, 3.20 (0.84) for PMMA, and 0.40 (0.55) for silicone IOLs (p=0.004). Scores between rabbit posterior capsule and IOL optic displayed a similar tendency; 4.50 (0.84) for acrylic foldable, 3.00 (1.00) for PMMA, and 0.40 (0.55) for silicone IOLs (p=0.021). Histological observation indicated that the edge of IOL optic suppressed the migration of lens epithelial cells towards the centre of the posterior capsule. This inhibitory effect was most pronounced with acrylic foldable IOL and least with silicone IOL.
CONCLUSIONS—The acrylic foldable IOL adhered to the lens capsule more than the PMMA IOL, and the silicone IOL showed no adhesiveness. These differences seem to play a role in preventing lens epithelial cells from migrating and forming posterior capsule opacification.

 Keywords: intraocular lens; lens capsule; posterior capsule opacification; adhesion PMID:9713064

  18. Ptosis and orbital fat prolapse after posterior sub-Tenon's capsule triamcinolone injection.

    PubMed

    Dal Canto, Albert J; Downs-Kelly, Erinn; Perry, Julian D

    2005-06-01

    To describe the occurrence of orbital fat prolapse and blepharoptosis after posterior sub-Tenon (PST) triamcinolone injection. Retrospective review of consecutive case series. Patients with ptosis and orbital fat herniation after PST triamcinolone injection. Charts of all patients with ptosis and orbital fat herniation presenting after PST triamcinolone injection to the oculoplastics service of the Cole Eye Institute between 1999 and 2003 were reviewed. Charts were reviewed for patient age, indication, dates of injections, time to patient complaint or time to referral for ptosis, and marginal reflex distance (MRD1). Ptosis and orbital fat herniation after PST triamcinolone injection. Eleven patients with a history of ipsilateral PST triamcinolone injections were seen with ptosis and orbital fat prolapse. Ten charts were available for review. Mean patient age was 64 years (range, 45-78 years). Patients underwent 1 to 9 ipsilateral injections, and 2 patients underwent bilateral injections. Patients were seen for ptosis evaluation on average 22.5 months (range, 3-56 months) after the initial injection, and 6.6 months (range, 0-20 months) after the most recent injection. All patients demonstrated significant orbital fat prolapse in conjunction with statistically significant ptosis (P = 0.016). Tissue was obtained in 3 cases. Histologic findings in 1 case showed orbital fat infiltrated by histiocytes that seemed to contain phagocytosed material. Posterior sub-Tenon triamcinolone injection may cause ptosis associated with orbital fat prolapse. This finding may be a relatively common complication of PST triamcinolone injection. We recommend counseling patients about this risk before PST triamcinolone injection.

  19. Risk Factors for Posterior Capsule Rupture and Vitreous Loss during Phacoemulsification

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Mohammad; Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Einollahi, Bahram; Baradaran-Rafii, Ali-Reza; Feizi, Sepehr; Kiavash, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine the rate and risk factors of vitreous loss during phacoemulsification in patients with cataracts operated by ophthalmology residents and fellows at Labbafinejad Medical Center. Methods This prospective descriptive study included consecutive patients with cataracts undergoing phacoemulsification over a one year period. All patients were operated under local or general anesthesia using the divide and conquer technique. Preoperatively, all patients underwent a complete ocular examination including measurement of visual acuity, slitlamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure measurement, and dilated funduscopy. Main outcome measures included the rate of posterior capsular rupture and vitreous loss as well as associated risk factors such as surgical experience, ocular and systemic conditions, and type and severity of the cataract. Results Overall, 767 eyes of 767 patients with mean age of 63.7±10.3 (range, 25–91) years were operated. The overall rate of vitreous loss was 7.9% which was 5-fold greater in the hands of residents as compared to fellows. Among different factors, older age, female sex, small pupil, small capsulorrhexis, presence of pseudoexfoliation, and high myopia were significantly associated with vitreous loss. The highest rate of vitreous loss occurred in patients with dense nuclear cataracts. Conclusion Considering the higher rate of vitreous loss in patients operated by ophthalmology residents; patients with known risk factors for vitreous loss should better be operated by more experienced surgeons. PMID:23198076

  20. Potential acuity meter for predicting visual acuity after Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy

    SciTech Connect

    Smiddy, W.E.; Radulovic, D.; Yeo, J.H.; Stark, W.J.; Maumenee, A.E.

    1986-03-01

    We studied 30 patients with opacifications of the posterior capsule to determine if the potential acuity meter (PAM) could accurately predict final visual outcome after Nd:YAG discussion. The final visual acuity was within one line of the PAM prediction in 22 of 30 patients (73%), better by two or more lines in seven patients (23%), and worse in one patient (4%) by two lines. Although in thicker capsules the final acuity was occasionally better than the PAM prediction, the rates of false negative and false positive predictions were very low. Mild cystoid macular edema (3 patients), age-related macular degeneration (3 patients), intraocular lens status, and level of initial acuity did not diminish PAM accuracy. The PAM effectively predicts final visual acuity after YAG posterior capsulotomy, when used in a patient, unhurried manner.

  1. Microplasma Induced Cell Morphological Changes and Apoptosis of Ex Vivo Cultured Human Anterior Lens Epithelial Cells - Relevance to Capsular Opacification.

    PubMed

    Recek, Nina; Andjelić, Sofija; Hojnik, Nataša; Filipič, Gregor; Lazović, Saša; Vesel, Alenka; Primc, Gregor; Mozetič, Miran; Hawlina, Marko; Petrovski, Goran; Cvelbar, Uroš

    2016-01-01

    Inducing selective or targeted cell apoptosis without affecting large number of neighbouring cells remains a challenge. A plausible method for treatment of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) due to remaining lens epithelial cells (LECs) by reactive chemistry induced by localized single electrode microplasma discharge at top of a needle-like glass electrode with spot size ~3 μm is hereby presented. The focused and highly-localized atmospheric pressure microplasma jet with electrode discharge could induce a dose-dependent apoptosis in selected and targeted individual LECs, which could be confirmed by real-time monitoring of the morphological and structural changes at cellular level. Direct cell treatment with microplasma inside the medium appeared more effective in inducing apoptosis (caspase 8 positivity and DNA fragmentation) at a highly targeted cell level compared to treatment on top of the medium (indirect treatment). Our results show that single cell specific micropipette plasma can be used to selectively induce demise in LECs which remain in the capsular bag after cataract surgery and thus prevent their migration (CXCR4 positivity) to the posterior lens capsule and PCO formation.

  2. Unilateral perihilar opacification caused by lightning.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Y; Aihara, T; Takano, H; Nakashima, N; Nozaki, S

    1993-01-01

    The chest radiographs of two children struck by lightning showed right perihilar opacification. The radiographs were taken 2 h and 5 h after the event respectively. To our knowledge no similar cases have been reported.

  3. ACCOMMODATIVE MOVEMENTS OF THE LENS/CAPSULE AND THE STRAND THAT EXTENDS BETWEEN THE POSTERIOR VITREOUS ZONULE INSERTION ZONE & THE LENS EQUATOR, IN RELATION TO THE VITREOUS FACE AND AGING

    PubMed Central

    CROFT, MARY ANN; HEATLEY, GREGG; MCDONALD, JARED P.; KATZ, ALEXANDER; KAUFMAN, PAUL L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate the dynamic accommodative movements of the lens capsule, posterior lens and the strand that attaches to the posterior vitreous zonule insertion zone and posterior lens equator (PVZ INS-LE), and their age-related changes. Methods Twelve human subjects (ages 19–65 years) and twelve rhesus monkeys (ages 6–27 years) were studied. Accommodation was induced pharmacologically (humans) or by central electrical stimulation (monkeys). Ultrasound biomicroscopy was used to image intraocular structures in both species. Surgical procedures and contrast agents were utilized in the monkey eyes to elucidate function and allow visualization of the intraocular accommodative structures. Results Human: The posterior pole of the lens moves posteriorly during accommodation in proportion to accommodative amplitude and ciliary muscle movement. Monkey: Similar accommodative movements of the posterior lens pole were seen in the monkey eyes. Following extracapsular lens extraction (ECLE), the central capsule bows backward during accommodation in proportion to accommodative amplitude and ciliary muscle movement, while the peripheral capsule moves forward. During accommodation the ciliary muscle moved forward by ~1.0 mm, pulling forward the vitreous zonule and the PVZ INS-LE structure. During the accommodative response the PVZ INS-LE structure moved forward when the lens was intact and when the lens substance and capsule were removed. In both the monkey and the human eyes these movements declined with age. Conclusions The accommodative shape change of the central capsule may be due to the elastic properties of the capsule itself. For these capsule/lens accommodative posterior movements to occur, the vitreous face must either allow for it or facilitate it. The PVZ INS-LE structure may act as a “strut” to the posterior lens equator (pushing the lens equator forward) and thereby facilitate accommodative forward lens equator movement and lens thickening. The age

  4. The Royal College of Ophthalmologists' National Ophthalmology Database Study of cataract surgery: report 2, relationships of axial length with ocular copathology, preoperative visual acuity, and posterior capsule rupture

    PubMed Central

    Day, A C; Donachie, P H J; Sparrow, J M; Johnston, R L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the relationships of axial length with ocular copathology, preoperative visual acuity, and posterior capsule rupture rates in patients undergoing cataract surgery. Design The Royal College of Ophthalmologists' National Ophthalmology Database (NOD) study. Methods Anonymised data on 180 114 eyes from 127 685 patients undergoing cataract surgery between August 2006 and November 2010 were collected prospectively from 28 sites. Data parameters included: demographics, biometry, ocular copathology, visual acuity measurements, and surgical complications including posterior capsule rupture, or vitreous loss or both (PCR). Results Consultant surgeons performed a higher proportion of operations on eyes whose axial length were at the extremes. Glaucoma and age related macular degeneration were more common in eyes with shorter axial lengths, whilst previous vitrectomy was associated with longer axial lengths. Eyes with brunescent or white cataracts or amblyopia were more common at both axial length extremes. Preoperative visual acuities were similar for eyes with axial length measurements up to approximately 28 mm and worse for eyes with longer axial length measurements. PCR rates showed little change with axial length (overall mean 1.95%, 95% CI: 1.89 to 2.01%), except for a borderline increase in eyes with axial length <20.0 mm where rates were 3.6% (95% CI: 2.0 to 6.3%). The likelihood of PCR in eyes with axial length <20.0 mm was 1.88 times higher than those of ≥20.0 mm (P=0.0373). Conclusion Rates of ocular comorbidities vary by axial length. PCR rates in eyes with very short or long axial lengths were lower than expected. PMID:26493034

  5. Opacification of two hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses 3 months after implantation.

    PubMed

    Macky, Tamer A; Werner, Liliana; Soliman, Mahmoud M; Pandey, Suresh K; Izak, Andrea M; Apple, David J

    2003-01-01

    To report clinical, pathologic, histochemical, ultrastructural, and spectrographic analyses of explanted hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) obtained from two patients who had early visual disturbances caused by postoperative opacification of the lens optic. Two hydrophilic IOLs were explanted from patients with decreased visual acuity. The patients became symptomatic 3 months after uneventful phacoemulsification and lens implantation. IOL optic opacification was associated with a fine granularity within the substance of the lens optic. The IOLs were examined by gross and light microscopy. Full-thickness cut sections of the optics were stained with 1% alizarin red (a special stain for calcium). Some sections were submitted for scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Microscopic analyses revealed the presence of multiple fine, granular deposits of variable sizes within the optics of the lenses distributed in a line parallel to the anterior and posterior curvatures of the optic, with a clear zone just beneath the optics' surface. Extension of the opacification into the haptics of the IOLs could also be observed. The deposits stained positive with alizarin red. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy of the internal substance of the IOLs also demonstrated the presence of calcium within the deposits. This is the first clinicopathologic report of optic and haptic opacification occurring with this hydrophilic acrylic IOL model only 3 months postoperatively. Further studies on other similar cases with this lens should be done to determine the incidence and possible mechanisms of this phenomenon.

  6. Microplasma Induced Cell Morphological Changes and Apoptosis of Ex Vivo Cultured Human Anterior Lens Epithelial Cells – Relevance to Capsular Opacification

    PubMed Central

    Hojnik, Nataša; Filipič, Gregor; Lazović, Saša; Vesel, Alenka; Primc, Gregor; Mozetič, Miran; Hawlina, Marko; Petrovski, Goran; Cvelbar, Uroš

    2016-01-01

    Inducing selective or targeted cell apoptosis without affecting large number of neighbouring cells remains a challenge. A plausible method for treatment of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) due to remaining lens epithelial cells (LECs) by reactive chemistry induced by localized single electrode microplasma discharge at top of a needle-like glass electrode with spot size ~3 μm is hereby presented. The focused and highly-localized atmospheric pressure microplasma jet with electrode discharge could induce a dose-dependent apoptosis in selected and targeted individual LECs, which could be confirmed by real-time monitoring of the morphological and structural changes at cellular level. Direct cell treatment with microplasma inside the medium appeared more effective in inducing apoptosis (caspase 8 positivity and DNA fragmentation) at a highly targeted cell level compared to treatment on top of the medium (indirect treatment). Our results show that single cell specific micropipette plasma can be used to selectively induce demise in LECs which remain in the capsular bag after cataract surgery and thus prevent their migration (CXCR4 positivity) to the posterior lens capsule and PCO formation. PMID:27832099

  7. Auxiliary proteins that facilitate formation of collagen-rich deposits in the posterior knee capsule in a rabbit-based joint contracture model.

    PubMed

    Steplewski, Andrzej; Fertala, Jolanta; Beredjiklian, Pedro K; Abboud, Joseph A; Wang, Mark L Y; Namdari, Surena; Barlow, Jonathan; Rivlin, Michael; Arnold, William V; Kostas, James; Hou, Cheryl; Fertala, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Post-traumatic joint contracture is a debilitating consequence of trauma or surgical procedures. It is associated with fibrosis that develops regardless of the nature of initial trauma and results from complex biological processes associated with inflammation and cell activation. These processes accelerate production of structural elements of the extracellular matrix, particularly collagen fibrils. Although the increased production of collagenous proteins has been demonstrated in tissues of contracted joints, researchers have not yet determined the complex protein machinery needed for the biosynthesis of collagen molecules and for their assembly into fibrils. Consequently, the purpose of our study was to investigate key enzymes and protein chaperones needed to produce collagen-rich deposits. Using a rabbit model of joint contracture, our biochemical and histological assays indicated changes in the expression patterns of heat shock protein 47 and the α-subunit of prolyl 4-hydroxylase, key proteins in processing nascent collagen chains. Moreover, our study shows that the abnormal organization of collagen fibrils in the posterior capsules of injured knees, rather than excessive formation of fibril-stabilizing cross-links, may be a key reason for observed changes in the mechanical characteristics of injured joints. This result sheds new light on pathomechanisms of joint contraction, and identifies potentially attractive anti-fibrotic targets.

  8. The Cataract National Dataset electronic multi-centre audit of 55,567 operations: variation in posterior capsule rupture rates between surgeons.

    PubMed

    Johnston, R L; Taylor, H; Smith, R; Sparrow, J M

    2010-05-01

    To demonstrate variations in posterior capsule rupture (PCR) rate between surgeons of the same and different grades as a by-product of routine clinical care. NHS departments using electronic medical record (EMR) systems to collect the Cataract National Dataset (CND) were invited to submit data. Data were remotely extracted, anonymised, assessed for conformity and completeness, and analysed for rates of PCR for individual surgeons within each of the three grades. Data were extracted on 55,567 cataract operations performed at 12 NHS trusts by 406 surgeons between November 2001 and July 2006. Data on the grade of 404 of the 406 surgeons who contributed to the study were available for 55,515 cases (99.9%) and were used for this analysis. Variation in PCR rate between surgeons was highest for the most junior grade of surgeon and between those surgeons contributing relatively few cases to the data set. Variation in PCR was lowest among experienced surgeons contributing large numbers of cases to the data set. Considerable variation in PCR rate exists both between and within surgical grades. Routine electronic collection of the CND allows detailed analysis of variations in PCR rates between individual surgeons. To define acceptable limits for this benchmark complication of cataract surgery, further work is needed to adjust surgeons' outcomes for the case mix complexity.

  9. Influence of aqueous humor convection current on IOL opacification.

    PubMed

    Agresta, A; Giudiceandrea, A; Salgarello, T; Manganelli, C; Fasciani, R; Caporossi, A

    2016-12-10

    The opacification of Akreos Adapt (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester; NY) intraocular lens (IOL) has been previously reported in Literature. A metabolic change in aqueous humour was considered as the main trigger factor to IOL opacification. We report our case and discuss the association with Ex-PRESS, highlighting the particular pattern of IOL opacification and its possible relation with the intraocular convective motions of the aqueous. We analyzed our case using both digital slit lamp acquisition and OCT Visante (Zeiss, Germany) images. A literature review was conducted to evaluate our results with that previously reported. The role of a relative stationary flow was reported as suggested concurrent mechanism in IOL opacification phenomenon.

  10. Outcome of in-the-bag implanted square-edge polymethyl methacrylate intraocular lenses with and without primary posterior capsulotomy in pediatric traumatic cataract

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Neelam; Ram, Jagat; Sukhija, Jaspreet; Pandav, Surinder S.; Gupta, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To study the outcome of in-the-bag implanted square-edge polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) intraocular lenses (IOL) with and without primary posterior capsulotomy in pediatric traumatic cataract. Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken in a tertiary care center. Thirty eyes of 30 children ranging in age from 4 to 16 years with traumatic cataract which underwent cataract extraction with capsular bag implantation of IOL were prospectively evaluated. Group A included 15 eyes of 15 children where primary posterior capsulotomy (PPC) and anterior vitrectomy with capsular bag implantation of square-edge PMMA IOL (Aurolab SQ3602, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India) was performed. Group B comprised 15 eyes of 15 children in which the posterior capsule was left intact. Postoperative visual acuity, visual axis opacification (VAO) and possible complications were analyzed. Results: Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/40 or better was achieved in 12 of 15 eyes in both groups. Amblyopia was the cause of no improvement in visual acuity in the remaining eyes. Visual axis opacification was significantly high in Group B as compared to Group A (P=0.001). Postoperative fibrinous uveitis occurred in most of the eyes in both groups. Pupillary capture was observed in one eye in each group. Conclusion: Primary posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy with capsular bag implantation of square-edge PMMA significantly helps to maintain a clear visual axis in children with traumatic cataract. PMID:21836338

  11. Radiation-Induced Middle Ear and Mastoid Opacification in Skull Base Tumors Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Gary V.; Ahmed, Salmaan; Allen, Pamela; Gidley, Paul W.; Woo, Shiao Y.; DeMonte, Franco; Chang, Eric L.; Mahajan, Anita

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To assess the incidence of middle ear (ME) pathology in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) for skull base tumors. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of 61 patients treated with RT between 2003 and 2008 for skull base tumors was conducted. Clinical outcomes and demographics were reviewed. Dose-volume histogram analysis was performed on the eustachian canal (EC), ME, mastoid air cells, vestibular apparatus, cochlea, internal auditory canal, lateral and posterior nasopharynx, and temporal lobes to relate doses to symptoms and radiographic change. Otomastoid opacification was rated 0 (none), 1 (mild), 2 (moderate), and 3 (severe) by a neuroradiologist blinded to clinical outcomes and doses. Results: The median prescribed dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 14-74 Gy). The ME mean dose was 14 Gy and 34 Gy for Grade 0-1 and 2-3 opacification, respectively (p < 0.0001). The mean mastoid dose was 10 Gy and 26 Gy for Grade 0-1 and 2-3, respectively (p < 0.0001). The mean EC dose was 17 Gy and 32 Gy for Grade 0-1 and 2-3, respectively (p = 0.0001). Otomastoid opacification resolved in 17 of 40 patients (42.5%), at a mean of 17 months after RT (range, 2-45 months). Otomastoid opacification persisted in 23 of 40 patients (57.5%), with a mean follow-up of 23 months (range, 2-55 months). Multivariate analysis showed that mastoid dose >30 Gy (odds ratio = 28.0, p < 0.001) and posterior nasopharynx dose of >30 Gy (odds ratio = 4.9, p = 0.009) were associated with Grade 2-3 effusions, whereas other factors including dose to EC and ME were not significant. Conclusions: A mean RT dose >30 Gy to the mastoid air cells or posterior nasopharynx is associated with increased risk of moderate to severe otomastoid opacification, which persisted in more than half of patients at 2-year follow-up.

  12. Ocular Penetration and Efficacy of Levofloxacin Using Different Drug-Delivery Techniques for the Prevention of Endophthalmitis in Rabbit Eyes with Posterior Capsule Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Uda, Takahiro; Mitani, Arisa; Tasaka, Yoshitaka; Kawasaki, Shiro; Mito, Tsuyoshi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of different drug-delivery techniques for levofloxacin (LVFX) in ocular penetration and the prevention of endophthalmitis using an aphakic rabbit model with posterior capsule rupture (PCR). Methods: LVFX was administered to aphakic rabbit eyes with or without PCR using eye drops (EDs), subconjunctival injection (SCI), or intracameral (IC) injection. The concentration of the drug in the vitreous and aqueous humors was estimated at 2 h after injection. In another study, aphakic rabbit eyes with PCR were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, immediately followed by 0.5% LVFX ED, 0.5% moxifloxacin (MFLX) ED, LVFX IC (500 μg/0.1 mL), or IC saline. EDs were administered 0, 3, and 6 h after surgery. Changes on electroretinography (ERG) and intraocular bacterial growth were determined sequentially until 48 h after inoculation. Results: The concentrations of LVFX at 2 h after IC were higher in the aqueous humor and the vitreous cavity of eyes with or without PCR, compared with EDs or SCI. Eyes treated with LVFX ED, MFLX ED, or IC saline showed a significantly greater reduction in b-wave amplitude on ERG at 48 h compared with eyes treated with LVFX IC. The number of bacteria recovered from the vitreous humor in eyes treated with IC LVFX at 48 h was significantly less than from eyes that received other treatments. Conclusion: The LVFX IC was effective at suppressing endophthalmitis caused by E. faecalis in eyes with a PCR. PMID:24410272

  13. Interlenticular opacification in piggyback AcrySof intraocular lenses: explantation technique and laboratory investigations

    PubMed Central

    Eleftheriadis, H.; Marcantonio, J.; Duncan, G.; Liu, C.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Interlenticular opacification (ILO) is a recognised complication of piggyback intraocular lenses (IOLs). The aetiology, histopathology, and treatment are not clearly defined, however.
METHODS—Two pairs of AcrySof IOLs were explanted from a patient with bilateral ILO. The explantation technique and surgical challenges of IOL exchanges are described. The explanted IOL complexes and a sample of the anterior capsule were examined by phase, polarising, and immunofluorescence microscopy.
RESULTS—A 50 year old man developed ILO bilaterally after piggyback AcrySof IOL implantation. A central contact zone was surrounded by a homogeneous paracentral opacity possibly consisting of extracellular matrix previously laid down by proliferating lens epithelial cells (LECs). These opacities were in turn surrounded by interlenticular Elschnig pearl-type opacities contiguous with the same material filling the periphery of the capsular bag. The IOL complexes were very adherent to the capsular bag and they had to be separated with the help of high viscosity viscoelastic before a single one piece PMMA IOL implantation via large limbal incisions. The sample of anterior capsule showed a ridge configuration from the piling of LECs in the site of apposition with the anterior capsule and cells showing different characteristics on either side of the ridge.
CONCLUSION—Cellular proliferation, deposition of ECM from proliferating LECs, and capsular changes induced by cell metaplasia may lead to ILO formation in piggyback AcrySof IOLs. Careful separation of the AcrySof IOL complex from the capsule, meticulous clean up of the proliferating material, and implantation of single or dual in the bag PMMA IOLs through a large incision with capsulorrhexis enlargement may help in the prevention of recurrence of interface opacification.

 PMID:11423458

  14. Anterior capsule cleaning with an ultrasound irrigating scratcher.

    PubMed

    Meucci, G; Esente, S; Esente, I

    1991-01-01

    Ultrasound anterior capsule cleaning was performed in 22 intercapsular cataract extraction cases. These eyes were compared with 24 others which had the intercapsular procedure performed by the same surgeon without ultrasound capsule cleaning. Eyes were randomly assigned to one procedure from a group of 62 cataract patients. Histologic specimens of the anterior capsule flap removed from the optical zone at the end of the procedure were examined. The anterior capsules cleaned by ultrasound appeared more transparent, without residual lens fibers with fewer epithelial cells. Ultrasound cleaning seems effective in preventing anterior capsular fibrosis and opacification.

  15. Perception of difficulties with vision-related activities of daily living among patients undergoing unilateral posterior capsulotomy.

    PubMed

    Senne, Firmani M B de; Temporini, Edméa R; Arieta, Carlos E L; Pacheco, Karla D

    2010-05-01

    To assess the influence of Nd:YAG (neodymium: yttrium-aluminum- garnet) laser unilateral posterior capsulotomy on visual acuity and patients' perception of difficulties with vision-related activities of daily life. We conducted an interventional survey that included 48 patients between 40 and 80 years of age with uni- or bilateral pseudophakia, posterior capsule opacification, and visual acuity posterior capsulotomy using an Nd:YAG laser. Before and after the intervention, patients were asked to complete a questionnaire that was developed in an exploratory study. Before posterior capsulotomy, the median visual acuity (logMAR) of the included patients was 0.52 (range 0.30-1.60). After posterior capsulotomy, the median visual acuity of the included patients improved to 0.10 (range 0.0-0.52). According to the subjects' perceptions, their ability to perform most of their daily life activities improved after the intervention (p<0.05). After patients underwent posterior capsulotomy with an Nd:YAG laser, a significant improvement in the visual acuity of the treated eye was observed. Additionally, subjects felt that they experienced less difficulty performing most of their vision-dependent activities of daily living.

  16. Perception of difficulties with vision-related activities of daily living among patients undergoing unilateral posterior capsulotomy

    PubMed Central

    de Senne, Firmani M. B.; Temporini, Edméa R.; Arieta, Carlos E. L.; Pacheco, Karla D.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the influence of Nd:YAG (neodymium: yttrium-aluminum- garnet) laser unilateral posterior capsulotomy on visual acuity and patients’ perception of difficulties with vision-related activities of daily life. METHODS We conducted an interventional survey that included 48 patients between 40 and 80 years of age with uni- or bilateral pseudophakia, posterior capsule opacification, and visual acuity ≤0.30 (logMAR) in one eye who were seen at a Brazilian university hospital. All patients underwent posterior capsulotomy using an Nd:YAG laser. Before and after the intervention, patients were asked to complete a questionnaire that was developed in an exploratory study. RESULTS Before posterior capsulotomy, the median visual acuity (logMAR) of the included patients was 0.52 (range 0.30–1.60). After posterior capsulotomy, the median visual acuity of the included patients improved to 0.10 (range 0.0–0.52). According to the subjects’ perceptions, their ability to perform most of their daily life activities improved after the intervention (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS After patients underwent posterior capsulotomy with an Nd:YAG laser, a significant improvement in the visual acuity of the treated eye was observed. Additionally, subjects felt that they experienced less difficulty performing most of their vision-dependent activities of daily living. PMID:20535363

  17. Sinus opacification in the intensive care unit patient.

    PubMed

    Huyett, Phillip; Lee, Stella; Ferguson, Berrylin J; Wang, Eric W

    2016-11-01

    The significance of sinus opacification in intensive care unit (ICU) patients remains uncertain. Our objectives were to determine the baseline incidence and risk factors associated with the development of radiographic sinus abnormalities in the ICU population. A retrospective study of head computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging from April 2013 through April 2014 of 612 neurologic ICU patients at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Presbyterian Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was performed. Images were scored by the Lund-Mackay system (LMS). Exclusion criteria included prior sinus or skull base surgery, history of sinonasal malignancy, facial fractures, ICU admission less than 3 days, or inadequate imaging. At the time of admission, 40.7% of patients had a LMS greater than zero (mean 2.2). Worsening sinus opacification occurred in 42.6% of patients (mean highest LMS 4.6) during ICU admission. There was a peak between days 8 and 10, during which 65% of scans exhibited worsening opacification compared to baseline. On multivariate analysis, risk factors associated with increased sinus opacification (higher LMS) included the presence of an endotracheal tube (odds ration [OR] 3.28, P < .001) or nasogastric tube (OR 3.34, P < .001) and increased length of stay (OR 2.50, P < .001). Age greater than 60 was found to be protective for the development of worsening sinus opacification (OR 0.57, P = .007). Using serial imaging and comparison control groups, this study finds that there is a high baseline incidence of sinus opacification in the ICU population. Prolonged length of stay, younger age, and presence of nasogastric or endotracheal tubes all corresponded to worsening LMS. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:2433-2438, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Combined posterior Bankart lesion and posterior humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligaments associated with recurrent posterior shoulder instability.

    PubMed

    Hill, J David; Lovejoy, John F; Kelly, Robert A

    2007-03-01

    Recurrent posterior glenohumeral instability is uncommon and is often misdiagnosed. Damage to the posterior capsule, posteroinferior glenohumeral ligament, and posterior labrum have all been implicated as sources of traumatic posterior instability. We describe a case of traumatic recurrent posterior instability resulting from a posterior Bankart lesion accompanied by posterior humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligaments. The Bankart lesion was repaired using a single arthroscopic suture anchor at the glenoid articular margin. The posterior humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligaments was addressed with 3 suture anchors placed at the capsular origin at the posterior humeral head. Using these anchors, the posterior capsule was advanced laterally and superiorly for a secure repair. Arthroscopic anatomic reconstruction of both lesions resulted in an excellent clinical outcome.

  19. Dense opacification of the optical component of a hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: a clinicopathological analysis of 9 explanted lenses.

    PubMed

    Werner, L; Apple, D J; Kaskaloglu, M; Pandey, S K

    2001-09-01

    To report clinical, pathological, histochemical, ultrastructural, and spectrographic analyses of explanted hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) obtained from patients who had visual disturbances caused by postoperative opacification of the lens optic. Center for Research on Ocular Therapeutics and Biodevices, Storm Eye Institute, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA, and Ege University, Alsancak Izmir, Turkey. Nine hydrophilic IOLs (SC60B-OUV, MDR Inc.) were explanted from 9 patients with decreased visual acuity. Most patients became symptomatic approximately 24 months after uneventful phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. Opacification was noted and appeared clinically to be associated with a fine granularity within the substance of the IOL optic. The IOLs were forwarded to the center and examined by gross and light microscopy. Full-thickness cut sections of the optics were stained with 1% alizarin red and the von Kossa method (special stains for calcium). Some were submitted for scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Microscopic analyses revealed multiple fine, granular deposits of variable sizes within the lens optics, usually distributed in a line parallel to the anterior and posterior curvatures of the optic, with a clear zone just beneath the optic surface. The deposits stained positive with alizarin red and the von Kossa method. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy of the internal substance of sectioned IOLs demonstrated the presence of calcium within the deposits. This is the first clinicopathological report of optic opacification occurring with this hydrophilic acrylic IOL model. Studies of similar cases with this lens should be done to determine the incidence and possible mechanisms of the phenomenon.

  20. Posterior capsulorhexis combined with optic buttonholing: an alternative to standard in-the-bag implantation of sharp-edged intraocular lenses? A critical analysis of 1000 consecutive cases

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    . Results A low rate of vitreous complications was found, which can be avoided by appropriate surgery. Vitreous entanglement occurred in six eyes, and vitreous herniation after PPCCC over-sizing in two. In three, anterior vitrectomy was performed. There was only one single case of retinal detachment—supposedly unrelated to the technique itself—and no case of cystoid macular edema. Retro-optical regenerate formation was completely abolished, while fibrosis was drastically reduced by the posterior capsule sandwiched in between the anterior LEC layer on the backside of the anterior capsule and the anterior optic surface, thereby blocking contact-mediated myofibroblastic LEC transdifferentiation. Additional capsular polishing further reduced residual fibrosis emerging from the anterior capsule contacting the optic adjacent to the haptic junction, as well as regeneratory LEC re-proliferation on the posterior capsule overlying the optic. Postoperative pressure course was almost identical to that found after standard in-the-bag implantation of the IOL, as was flare, and macular thickness and morphology. As opposed to bag-fixated IOLs, no axial movement of the optic was detected. IOL optics always perfectly centered even when the capsular opening was not optimally centered. Due to the exquisite stretchability and elasticity of the posterior capsule, the 6-mm IOL optic could safely be buttoned-in in a posterior capsulorhexis of 4 mm and smaller. Conclusions Posterior optic buttonholing (POBH) is a safe and effective technique which not only excludes retro-optical opacification, but also withholds capsular fibrosis by obviating direct contact between the anterior capsular leaf and the optic surface. Anterior LEC abrasion significantly reduced both the residual fibrosis and regeneratory LEC proliferation. Apart from pediatric cataract, POBH is currently recommended for eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome, high axial myopia, peripheral retinal disease, and multifocal IOL

  1. Polycythemia causing posterior segment vascular occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Suganeswari; Raman, Rajiv; Sharma, Tarun

    2017-01-01

    A 44-year-old male patient presented with features suggestive of transient central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) followed by permanent CRAO and lateral posterior ciliary artery occlusion. He had diagnostic features of polycythemia vera (PV). When presented for the first time, the patient had features of ocular ischemia such as ocular pain, conjunctival congestion, and retinal opacification but with normal arm-to-retina time and normal arteriovenous transit time. During the second presentation, he had ocular pain, congested conjunctiva, retinal opacification, cherry red spot with box-carrying of retinal vessels, and choroidal infarct (Amalric's sign). He had lost light perception in that eye. Patients with polycythemia are prone to multifocal vascular occlusions and this can be the presenting feature in PV. A timely diagnosis and prompt management can prevent these repeated thromboembolic occlusive episodes. PMID:28298862

  2. Prospective estimation of mean axon diameter and extra-axonal space of the posterior limb of the internal capsule in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus before and after a lumboperitoneal shunt by using q-space diffusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Hori, Masaaki; Kamiya, Kouhei; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Fukunaga, Issei; Miyajima, Masakazu; Nakajima, Madoka; Suzuki, Michimasa; Suzuki, Yuriko; Irie, Ryusuke; Kamagata, Koji; Arai, Hajime; Aoki, Shigeki

    2016-09-01

    To prospectively estimate the mean axon diameter (MAD) and extracellular space of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) before and after a lumboperitoneal (LP) shunting operation using q-space diffusion MRI analysis. We studied 12 consecutive patients with iNPH and 12 controls at our institution. After conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), q-space image (QSI) data were acquired with a 3-T MRI scanner. The MAD and extra-axonal space of the PLIC before and after LP shunting were calculated using two-component q-space imaging analyses; the before and after values were compared. After LP shunt surgery, the extracellular space of the PLIC was significantly higher than that of the same patients before the operation (one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Scheffé's post-hoc test, P = 0.024). No significant differences were observed in the PLIC axon diameters among normal controls or in patients before and after surgery. Increases in the root mean square displacement in the extra-axonal space of the PLIC in patients with iNPH after an LP shunt procedure are associated with the microstructural changes of white matter and subsequent abatement of patient symptoms. • Q-space diffusion MRI provides information on microstructural changes in the corticospinal tract • Lumboperitoneal (LP) shunting operation is useful for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus • Q-space measurement may be a biomarker for the effect of the LP shunt procedure.

  3. Influence of size of neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser posterior capsulotomy on visual function.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Nakao, F; Hayashi, H

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence that the size of a neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser capsulotomy performed for posterior capsule opacification (PCO) has on visual acuity (VA), and on contrast VA and that in the presence of glare (glare VA). A total of 41 consecutive eyes with PCO first underwent Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy of smaller than pupillary size, after which the capsulotomy was secondarily enlarged, 2 weeks later, to greater than pupillary size. Best-corrected VA, and contrast VA and glare VA under photopic and mesopic conditions were measured after the small and large capsulotomies were made. After enlargement, the mean capsulotomy area increased significantly from 4.8 to 15.3 mm(2) (P<0.0001). Best-corrected VA did not improve significantly after enlargement (P=0.1282). However, photopic contrast VA and glare VA at moderate to low contrast visual target before enlargement were significantly worse than those after enlargement (P

  4. A study of lens opacification for a Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, J. L.; Wilson, J. W.; Cox, A. B.; Lett, J. T.

    1991-01-01

    A method based on risk-related cross sections is used to estimate risks of 'stationary' cataracts caused by radiation exposures during extended missions in deep space. Estimates of the even more important risk of late degenerative cataractogenesis are made on the basis of the limited data available. Data on lenticular opacification in the New Zealand white rabbit, an animal model from which such results can be extrapolated to humans, are analyzed by the Langley cosmic ray shielding code (HZETRN) to generate estimates of stationary cataract formation resulting from a Mars mission. The effects of the composition of shielding material and the relationship between risk and LET are given, and the effects of target fragmentation on the risk coefficients are evaluated explicitly.

  5. A study of lens opacification for a Mars mission

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.L.; Wilson, J.W.; Cox, A.B.; Lett, J.T. USAF, School of Aerospace Medicine, Radiation Science Div., Brooks AFB, TX Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CL )

    1991-07-01

    A method based on risk-related cross sections is used to estimate risks of 'stationary' cataracts caused by radiation exposures during extended missions in deep space. Estimates of the even more important risk of late degenerative cataractogenesis are made on the basis of the limited data available. Data on lenticular opacification in the New Zealand white rabbit, an animal model from which such results can be extrapolated to humans, are analyzed by the Langley cosmic ray shielding code (HZETRN) to generate estimates of stationary cataract formation resulting from a Mars mission. The effects of the composition of shielding material and the relationship between risk and LET are given, and the effects of target fragmentation on the risk coefficients are evaluated explicitly. 12 refs.

  6. Chromosome abnormalities and the genetics of congenital corneal opacification

    PubMed Central

    Mataftsi, A.; Islam, L.; Kelberman, D.; Sowden, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital corneal opacification (CCO) encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders that have different etiologies, including genetic and environmental. Terminology used in clinical phenotyping is commonly not specific enough to describe separate entities, for example both the terms Peters anomaly and sclerocornea have been ascribed to a clinical picture of total CCO, without investigating the presence or absence of iridocorneal adhesions. This is not only confusing but also unhelpful in determining valid genotype-phenotype correlations, and thereby revealing clues for pathogenesis. We undertook a systematic review of the literature focusing on CCO as part of anterior segment developmental anomalies (ASDA), and analyzed its association specifically with chromosomal abnormalities. Genes previously identified as being associated with CCO are also summarized. All reports were critically appraised to classify phenotypes according to described features, rather than the given diagnosis. Some interesting associations were found, and are discussed. PMID:21738392

  7. Chromosome abnormalities and the genetics of congenital corneal opacification.

    PubMed

    Mataftsi, A; Islam, L; Kelberman, D; Sowden, J C; Nischal, K K

    2011-01-01

    Congenital corneal opacification (CCO) encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders that have different etiologies, including genetic and environmental. Terminology used in clinical phenotyping is commonly not specific enough to describe separate entities, for example both the terms Peters anomaly and sclerocornea have been ascribed to a clinical picture of total CCO, without investigating the presence or absence of iridocorneal adhesions. This is not only confusing but also unhelpful in determining valid genotype-phenotype correlations, and thereby revealing clues for pathogenesis. We undertook a systematic review of the literature focusing on CCO as part of anterior segment developmental anomalies (ASDA), and analyzed its association specifically with chromosomal abnormalities. Genes previously identified as being associated with CCO are also summarized. All reports were critically appraised to classify phenotypes according to described features, rather than the given diagnosis. Some interesting associations were found, and are discussed.

  8. A study of lens opacification for a Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, J. L.; Wilson, J. W.; Cox, A. B.; Lett, J. T.

    1991-01-01

    A method based on risk-related cross sections is used to estimate risks of 'stationary' cataracts caused by radiation exposures during extended missions in deep space. Estimates of the even more important risk of late degenerative cataractogenesis are made on the basis of the limited data available. Data on lenticular opacification in the New Zealand white rabbit, an animal model from which such results can be extrapolated to humans, are analyzed by the Langley cosmic ray shielding code (HZETRN) to generate estimates of stationary cataract formation resulting from a Mars mission. The effects of the composition of shielding material and the relationship between risk and LET are given, and the effects of target fragmentation on the risk coefficients are evaluated explicitly.

  9. Reversible opacification of a hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Park, Choul Yong; Chuck, Roy S

    2012-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman with diabetic retinopathy and chronic myelogenous leukemia had phacoemulsification cataract removal and hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) (Akreos MI-60) implantation in both eyes. One month after surgery, significant IOL opacity and severe cystoid macular edema were observed in both eyes. After bilateral intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (Avastin) to control macular edema, central clearing of the IOL opacity was observed in both eyes. Two months after the injection, the IOL opacity had almost disappeared from both eyes. To our knowledge, this is the first case of early postoperative bilateral IOL opacity in a hydrophilic acrylic IOL cleared after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) intravitreal injection. The role of anti-VEGF therapy in clearing IOL opacification requires further investigation.

  10. Egg capsules of the dusky catshark Bythaelurus canescens (Carcharhiniformes, Scyliorhinidae) from the south-eastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Concha, F; Bustamante, C; Oddone, M C; Hernández, S; Lamilla, J

    2010-09-01

    The external morphology of the egg capsule of Bythaelurus canescens and its fixation to the substratum are described. Bythaelurus canescens egg capsules are typically vase-shaped, dorso-ventrally flattened, pale yellow in colour when fresh and covered by 12-15 longitudinal ridges. The anterior border of the capsule is straight, whereas the posterior border is semicircular. Two horns bearing long, coiled tendrils arise from the anterior and posterior ends of the capsule. The presence of longitudinal ridges and long coiled tendrils at both anterior and posterior ends of the capsule readily distinguish these egg capsules from those of other chondrichthyans occurring in the south-east Pacific Ocean.

  11. [Serum antiretinal antibodies (ARA) in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) treated with transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) alone and with transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) combined with injection of triamcinolone acetonide (sTTA) under posterior Tenon's capsule].

    PubMed

    Kubicka-Trzaska, Agnieszka; Wilańska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    To assess serum level changes of antiretinal antibodies (ARA) in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD), treated with transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) alone and with TTT combined with injection of triamcinolone acetonide (sTTA) under posterior Tenon's capsule and to compare the efficacy of TTT and TTT+sTTA. The purpose of the study was also to estimate if serum ARA may act as the biomarker of AMD. This prospective study comprised 46 patients (46 eyes) with exudative AMD. Patients were assigned into: group I (n = 24) received TTT alone and group II (n = 20) received TTT with sTTA. Follow-up was at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, when best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Amsler grid-test, intraocular pressure (IOP), fluorescein angiography (FA) and central retinal thickness (CRT) by optical coherence tomography (OCT) were assessed. In all patients serum ARA was determined using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) method on normal monkey retina as antigens substrate and FITC--labelled goat's anti-human IgA, G, M serum as the secondary antibody. Baseline serum ARA titres in group I ranged from 1: 40 to 1: 5120 and in group II--1: 40 to 1: 1280 (p = 0.1). In control group serum ARA was present in 46.4% of sera in titres from 1: 10 to 1: 40. These differences were statistcally significant (p < 0.001). Nine fluorescence patterns of ARA were detected by IIF method in both groups of AMD patients, while control sera showed only three types of reaction. Statistically significant correlation was found between CNV size, CRT and serum ARA titres in both groups of patients (p < 0.01). In a follow-up period decreasing serum ARA titres were noted, specially for subjects treated with combined therapy, however it was not statistically significant at 3, 6 and 9 months while achieved significance (p < 0.01) at month 12. BCVA improvement or stabilization was observed in 64% of eyes in group I and in 75%--in group II (p = 0.1). No leakage on FA was found in 66.7% and 70

  12. Temperature Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    An ingestible mini-thermometer capable of measuring and relaying internal body temperatures is marketed by Human Technologies, Inc. The CorTemp system, developed by Goddard Space Flight Center and Applied Physics Lab, incorporates space technologies, among them telemetry and microminiaturized circuit, sensor and battery technologies. The capsule is ingested and continually monitors temperature with a vibrating quartz crystal sensor, which telemeters signals to a recorder, where data is displayed and stored. The system is very accurate, and because it does not require wires, allows patients to be monitored in everyday situations. The industrial variant (CSC-100) has wide utility in commercial applications.

  13. Tissue Culture and in Vivo Modeling of Corneal Opacification and Ocular Injuries Induced by Pulsed Millimeter Waves.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    A179 878 TISSUE CULTURE AND IN VIVO MODELING OF COREL OPACIFICATION AND OCULAR I (U) UNIVERSITY OF NESTERN ONTARIO LONDON DEPT OF BIOCHEMISTRY J R...NATIONAL AiURfAU IF ;’ANUAI ,f’ 1q% A ’ , %’- . II AD _ _ _ _ TISSUE CULTURE AND IN VIVO MODELLING OF CORNEAL OPACIFICATION AND OCULAR INJURIES...Tissue Culture and In Vivo Modeling of Corneal Annual and Final Report Opacification and Ocular Injuries by Pulsed Oct. 1980 - 31 May 1984 Millimeter

  14. Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation animation

    This animation shows the return capsule separating from the Stardust spacecraft.

  15. Opacification of hydrophilic intraocular lenses after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Warren, Peter J; Andreatta, Walter; Patel, Amit K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Opacification of hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) is an emerging complication following Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). We report six cases and review the current literature. Methods In this retrospective, noncomparative, observational case series, patients with IOL opacification after previous DSAEK surgery were identified from corneal clinic records. Case notes were reviewed for demographic details, indication for DSAEK, IOL model, incidence of rebubbling, and postoperative course. Results Six patients developed IOL opacification after DSAEK. All patients had Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy and had previously received hydrophilic acrylic IOL models. Central anterior IOL opacification was noted in all six cases. Five cases (83%) had required rebubbling due to dislocated graft tissue, and one had an early postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) rise. Five cases (83%) were managed conservatively, and one case with a failed graft underwent redo DSAEK and IOL exchange. Conclusion Repeated exposure to intracameral air, raised IOP, and other patient influences may be major etiological factors for IOL opacification after DSAEK. We advise avoiding hydrophilic acrylic IOL models in patients who may require future endothelial keratoplasty. PMID:25709389

  16. Elastic Changes of Capsule in a Rat Knee Contracture Model Assessed by Scanning Acoustic Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Y.; Chimoto, E.; Ando, A.; Saijo, Y.; Itoi, E.

    Sound speed of a capsule in a rat knee contracture model was measured by scanning acoustic microscopy. There was no statistical significant difference in the anterior capsule compared with the control group. However, the sound speed of the posterior capsule was significantly greater compared with the control group after prolonged immobilization.

  17. BASICS OF COMPOUNDING: Capsules.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V

    2016-01-01

    Capsules have been used for administering medications to patients more than a century and have an important role in drug delivery. When a primary care provider prescribes a tablet, the choice is usually, but not always, limited to commercially available products. A capsule, however, can be prepared extemporaneously, which provides dosing flexibility for the primary care provider and the pharmacist. This article discusses the definitions/types of capsules, their applications, composition, preparation, capsule sizes, the encapsulation process, capsule cleaning, physiochemical considerations, quality control in the preparation of capsules, packaging/storage, stability, and patient counseling to determine the proper capsule size. Also, provided are sample formulations.

  18. Influence of bladder distension on opacification of urinary collecting system during CT urography.

    PubMed

    Curić, Josip; Vukelić-Marković, Mirjana; Marusić, Petar; Hrkać-Pustahija, Ana; Brkljacić, Boris

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare opacification of the renal collecting system and ureters detected by computed tomographic urography (CTU) performed 20 min and 1 h after the ingestion of 1,000 ml of water. CTU was performed on 89 patients (55 men, 34 women; age 28-77 years) and 168 collecting systems and ureters were evaluated. A 16-detector-row scanner (Sensation 16, Siemens) was used; a two-phase protocol with a split bolus of contrast agent (total 120 ml) was applied. A combined nephrographic-excretory phase was obtained 100 s after the second injection. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the excretory phase were created and used to evaluate the degree of opacification of the collecting system and ureters. In 44 patients, water was administered 20 min before examination, and in 45 patients, 1 h before examination. CTU performed 1 h after water ingestion demonstrated complete opacification of calices in 87.5%, of renal pelvis in 97.5%, of upper ureter in 91.8% and of lower ureter in 87.5% of patients. CTU performed 20 min after water ingestion demonstrated complete opacification of calices in 79.5%, of renal pelvis in 85%, of upper ureter in 62.5% and of lower ureter in 54.5% of patients. Complete opacification of the proximal and distal ureter in the group with a 1-h delay was statistically higher (P<0.01). CTU performed on the distended bladder, 1 h after the oral ingestion of water, enables excellent opacification of collecting system, including distal ureters.

  19. Parenchymal opacification in chronic infiltrative lung diseases: CT-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Leung, A N; Miller, R R; Müller, N L

    1993-07-01

    To correlate areas of parenchymal opacification on thin-section computed tomographic (CT) scans with histologic findings in patients with chronic infiltrative lung disease, the CT and histologic findings were evaluated in 29 patients with 11 such diseases. Open-lung biopsy was performed after CT. The area of predominant involvement was classified as air space, interstitium, or a mixture of both. A pathologic score of disease activity was assigned, and the extent of fibrosis was assessed whenever fibrosis was present. Parenchymal opacification on CT scans corresponded to abnormalities that affected mainly the air spaces in three patients (10%), the interstitium in 13 patients (45%), or both to a similar degree in 13 patients (45%). In 25 of 29 patients (86%), parenchymal opacification was associated with potentially treatable or reversible disease. Abnormalities considered irreversible were seen in three patients with end-stage fibrosis and one patient with talcosis. Parenchymal opacification on thin-section CT scans is a nonspecific finding in diseases that affect the air spaces, interstitium, or both but usually indicates potentially treatable or reversible disease.

  20. Neodymium:YAG treatment of interlenticular opacification in a secondary piggyback case.

    PubMed

    Gayton, J L; Van der Karr, M; Sanders, V

    2001-09-01

    Interlenticular opacification (ILO) developed 7 months after secondary acrylic piggyback lens implantation in which the anterior lens was placed in the bag. This resulted in glare and a hyperopic shift. Treating the ILO with the neodymium:YAG laser successfully reduced the glare and corrected the hyperopic shift.

  1. Hydrophilic Acrylic Intraocular Lens Opacification after Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Norouzpour, Amir; Zarei-Ghanavati, Siamak

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report hydrophilic acylic intraocular lens (IOL) opacification after Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSAEK) in an eye with multiple prior intraocular surgeries and iatrogenic aniridia. Case Report: A 34-year-old woman with history of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) for advanced keratoconus and subsequent Urrets-Zavalia Syndrome (UZS) underwent phacoemulsification and hydrophilic acrylic IOL implantation for her cataract. In order to control post-PKP glaucoma, multiple glaucoma surgeries including two glaucoma drainage implants were performed. As the original corneal graft failed, the patient subsequently underwent re-PKP. Four years later, she underwent DSAEK for treatment of the second graft failure. Ten months after DSAEK, a double semi-circular pattern of IOL opacification was observed on the anterior surface of the IOL. The patient did not report any complaints and we decided not to exchange the IOL. Conclusion: In an eye with UZS and iatrogenic aniridia, IOL opacification may result from direct contact between the IOL surface and exogenous air. Aniridia can be a risk factor for development of IOL opacification after DSAEK. Further studies are required to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27413506

  2. Opacification of hydrophilic MemoryLens U940A intraocular lenses: analysis of 2 explanted lenses.

    PubMed

    Mattová, Jana; Bohácová, Eulália; Murgasová, Zuzana; Kadlec, Róbert; Forgác, Frantisek; Klobusická, Erika; Durcanský, Dusan

    2004-09-01

    To determine the rate of opacification of hydrophilic MemoryLens U940A intraocular lenses (IOLs) (Mentor Ophthalmics, Inc.) in the given cohort and perform a histopathological and spectrophotometer analysis of 2 explanted opacified IOLs. Ophthalmology Department, Faculty Hospital, Nitra, Slovakia. This retrospective study comprised 182 patients (205 eyes) who had implantation of a MemoryLens U940A IOL from June 1997 to June 2000. The patients were examined using a slitlamp to detect the presence of IOL opacification. In 4 cases, the lenses were explanted because of significant opacification and patient-reported problems; 2 lenses were provided for further analysis. One unused reference MemoryLens U940A IOL was also evaluated. All IOL were stained with von Kossa to determine the presence of calcium in the opacification. To confirm the components presence of an ultraviolet (UV) absorber, the IOLs were examined with an Avatar 330 Fourier transfer infrared (IR) spectroscope and a UV visible spectrophotometer (Philips). The IR spectrums for the IOL were identified using an IR spectrum atlas. The opacified IOLs, reference IOL, and the IOL packaging were further examined to determine the presence of silicone. Various amounts of opacification were found on the MemoryLens U940A IOL in 30 eyes (30 patients) (14.63%). Two explanted IOLs were positive for von Kossa staining, proving the presence of calcium deposits; the reference lens staining was negative. Spectrophotometry showed that the reference IOL and opacified IOLs were of the same polymer. The presence of the UV absorber on the benzophenone base was seen in the reference lens but not the opacified IOLs. In contrast, an increased concentration of low-molecular-weight components generated during the degradation of the polymer was present in the opacified lenses. The white cover pf the IOL is of polydimethyl siloxane, a silicone rubber. However, no silicone rubber was present in any examined lens, perhaps because the

  3. Gross anatomy of the elbow capsule: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Lee M; Morales, Omar A

    2013-01-01

    The elbow is an inherently stable joint because of its bony articulation and surrounding capsuloligamentous structures. Anatomic and biomechanical studies have focused on the medial and lateral collateral ligamentous contributions to stability. In 1918, Gray provided a qualitative description of the elbow capsule and its fibers. Our study was performed to detail the gross anatomy of the elbow capsule. We evaluated the elbow capsule of 6 paired, fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens to detail gross capsular anatomy. We identified 3 distinct bands within the anterior capsule and 3 distinct bands within the posterior capsule. Further study is needed to delineate the functional meaning of these anatomic findings. Greater understanding of elbow capsule gross anatomy may lead to improved understanding of acute and chronic elbow pathoanatomy and treatment modalities. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sweat collection capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaplaine, R. W.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Capsule, with filter paper insert, is used to collect sweat for rate monitoring, chromatographic analysis, or active sweat gland location within specified area. Construction of capsule allows change of inserts while device remains strapped in place.

  5. Lifting Sample Return Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Stardust sample return capsule successfully landed at the U.S. Air Force Utah Test and Training Range at 2:10 a.m. Pacific time (3:10 a.m. Mountain time). The capsule contains cometary and interstellar samples gathered by the Stardust spacecraft.

    Here, the capsule is being lifted at the landing site.

  6. Posterior scleritis.

    PubMed

    Benson, W E

    1988-01-01

    Posterior scleritis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of many ocular conditions, including angle closure glaucoma, choroidal folds, optic disk edema, circumscribed fundus mass, choroidal detachment, and exudative retinal detachment. Because it is rare, a high index of suspicion is necessary. Anterior scleritis, pain, or a history of collagen-vascular disease, when present, help to alert the clinician to the correct diagnosis. Posterior scleritis affects women more often than men, but annular ciliochoroidal effusion and choroidal folds are more common in men. Exudative macular detachment and a circumscribed fundus mass are more common in women. This paper reviews the world literature on posterior scleritis and describes findings in a series of 43 patients seen at Wills Eye Hospital. It stresses the clinical features and ancillary diagnostic tests that help to establish the diagnosis.

  7. Patency and Agile capsules.

    PubMed

    Caunedo-Alvarez, Angel; Romero-Vazquez, Javier; Herrerias-Gutierrez, Juan-M

    2008-09-14

    Small bowel strictures can be missed by current diagnostic methods. The Patency capsule is a new non-endoscopic dissolvable capsule which has as an objective of checking the patency of digestive tract, in a non-invasive manner. The available clinical trials have demonstrated that the Patency capsule is a good tool for assessment of the functional patency of the small bowel, and it allows identification of those patients who can safely undergo a capsule endoscopy, despite clinical and radiographic evidence of small-bowel obstruction. Some cases of intestinal occlusion have been reported with the Patency capsule, four of them needed surgery. So, a new capsule with two timer plugs (Agile capsule) has been recently developed in order to minimize the risk of occlusion. This new device stars its dissolution process earlier (30 h after ingestion) and its two timer plugs have been designed to begin the disintegration even when the device is blocked in a tight stricture.

  8. Stability of Betaine Capsules

    PubMed Central

    Boily, Stéphanie; Forest, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Betaine is used to treat homocystinuria and is not available in Canada as a formulated drug. In order to facilitate the administration of this compound to patients, a capsule formulation and an evaluation of its stability were required. Capsule formulations of betaine were developed (160 mg and 625 mg of betaine per capsule). As betaine has no chromophore, an HPLC-ELSD analytical method was also developed. The critical quality attributes of these formulations were evaluated (content assay, content uniformity, and dissolution) as well as their stability. Capsules with acceptable quality attributes were produced. These capsules remained stable for 1 year when stored in airtight containers at controlled room temperature. However, shelf life decreased dramatically in nonairtight containers at 30°C (3 months for the lactose-containing capsules of 160 mg and 6 months for the capsules of 625 mg). PMID:23862077

  9. Agar blue localization of small pulmonary nodules and ground glass opacifications for thoracoscopic resection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening for lung cancer using high resolution computed tomography (CT) has produced encouraging early results. Extremely small nodules and non-palpable areas of opacifications are able to be detected, but pose a challenge to the thoracic surgeon trying to resect these areas. Methods Forty five patients with ground glass opacifications (GGOs) or small pulmonary nodules underwent pre-operative CT-guided placement of methylene blue dyed agar and/or hook wire needle localization prior to thoracoscopic resection. Progel was applied to any intraoperative air leaks observed after successful resection. Results All lesions were successfully excised thoracoscopically. The blue agar aided in localization of these areas and did not affect the histological architecture during pathologic evaluation. Conclusions Careful pre-operative evaluation and planning, including use of selective CT-guided blue agar localization and hook wire placement, may greatly assist in thoracoscopically locating and resecting these often difficult-to-visualize lesions. PMID:28066669

  10. Opacification of hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens attributable to calcification: investigation on mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gartaganis, Sotirios P; Kanellopoulou, Dimitra G; Mela, Ephigenia K; Panteli, Vassiliki S; Koutsoukos, Petros G

    2008-09-01

    To identify the nature and to investigate the biochemical mechanisms leading to late opacification of implanted hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs). Retrospective laboratory investigation. setting: Department of Ophthalmology, Medical School, Department of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Patras and FORTH-ICEHT, Greece. study population: Thirty IOLs were explanted one to 12 years postimplantation attributable to gradual opacification of the lens material. observation procedures: Materials analysis was done using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with a microanalysis probe (EDS), confocal microscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) for the identification of the substances involved in the opacified lenses. SEM investigation showed plate-like as well as prismatic nanoparticle deposits of calcium phosphate crystallites on the surface and in the interior of opacified IOLs. The plate-like deposits exhibited morphology and particle size typical for octacalcium phosphate (OCP), while the respective characteristics of the prismatic nanocrystals were typical of hydroxyapatite (HAP). EDS analysis confirmed the chemical composition of the deposits. Aqueous humor analysis showed that the humor is supersaturated with respect to both OCP and HAP, favoring the formation of the thermodynamically more stable HAP, while the formation and kinetic stabilization of other transient phases is also very likely. In vitro experiments using polyacrylic materials confirmed the clinical findings. Hydrophilic acrylic IOLs' opacification may be attributed to the deposition of calcium phosphate crystallites. HAP is the predominant crystalline phase of these crystallites. Surface hydroxyl groups of the polyacrylic materials facilitate surface nucleation and growth.

  11. Bimatoprost 0.03% versus brimonidine 0.2% in the prevention of intraocular pressure spike following neodymium:yttrium–aluminum–garnet laser posterior capsulotomy.

    PubMed

    Artunay, Ozgur; Yuzbasioglu, Erdal; Unal, Mustafa; Rasier, Rifat; Sengul, Alper; Bahcecioglu, Halil

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of bimatoprost 0.03% with brimonidine 0.2% in preventing intraocular pressure (IOP) elevations after neodymium:yttrium–aluminum–garnet (Nd:YAG) laser posterior capsulotomy. In this prospective, randomized, double-masked study, 195 eyes of 195 consecutive patients who had YAG laser capsulotomy for posterior capsule opacification were recruited. Eyes received either 1 drop of bimatoprost 0.03% (98 patients) or brimonidine 0.2% (97 patients) at 1h before laser surgery. A masked observer measured IOP by Goldmann applanation tonometry before treatment and after treatment at 1h, 3h, 24h, and 7 days. Inflammation was evaluated after surgery. Formation of cystoid macular edema was assessed by measuring the macular thickness before and after laser surgery. The average peak of postoperative IOP elevation was 2.2±3.9mm Hg in the bimatoprost 0.03% and 3.6±3.1mm Hg in the brimonidine 0.2% group. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Postoperative IOP elevations of 10mm Hg or more occurred in 1 eye (1.56%) in the bimatoprost 0.03% group and 5 eyes (7.35%) in the brimonidine 0.2%. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Macular edema and anterior chamber reaction were not observed related to bimatoprost. No clinically significant side effects were noted in either group. Our results indicate that prophylactic use of bimatoprost 0.03% is more effective than brimonidine 0.2% in preventing IOP elevation immediately after YAG laser capsulotomy. Bimatoprost 0.03% as a prostamide analog may provide new option for preventing IOP elevation after YAG laser capsulotomy.

  12. Mercury Capsule Separation Tests

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1960-04-01

    Mercury capsule separation from Redstone booster in the Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT): NASA Lewis conducted full-scale separation tests of the posigrade rockets that were fired after the Redstone rockets burned out. The researchers studied the effect of the posigrade rockets firing on the Redstone booster and retrograde package. This film shows the Mercury capsule being mounted to the Redstone missile model in the Altitude Wind Tunnel. The capsule's engines are fired and it horizontally separates from the Atlas. After firing the capsule swings from an overhead crane.

  13. 21 CFR 886.4392 - Nd:YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy and peripheral iridotomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nd:YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy and...:YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy and peripheral iridotomy. (a) Identification. The Nd:YAG laser for... laser intended for disruption of the posterior capsule or the iris via optical breakdown. The Nd:YAG...

  14. 21 CFR 886.4392 - Nd:YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy and peripheral iridotomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nd:YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy and...:YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy and peripheral iridotomy. (a) Identification. The Nd:YAG laser for... laser intended for disruption of the posterior capsule or the iris via optical breakdown. The Nd:YAG...

  15. 21 CFR 886.4392 - Nd:YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy and peripheral iridotomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nd:YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy and...:YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy and peripheral iridotomy. (a) Identification. The Nd:YAG laser for... laser intended for disruption of the posterior capsule or the iris via optical breakdown. The Nd:YAG...

  16. 21 CFR 886.4392 - Nd:YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy and peripheral iridotomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nd:YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy and...:YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy and peripheral iridotomy. (a) Identification. The Nd:YAG laser for... laser intended for disruption of the posterior capsule or the iris via optical breakdown. The Nd:YAG...

  17. 21 CFR 886.4392 - Nd:YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy and peripheral iridotomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nd:YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy and...:YAG laser for posterior capsulotomy and peripheral iridotomy. (a) Identification. The Nd:YAG laser for... laser intended for disruption of the posterior capsule or the iris via optical breakdown. The Nd:YAG...

  18. Sample Return Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Stardust sample return capsule successfully landed at the U.S. Air Force Utah Test and Training Range at 2:10 a.m. Pacific time (3:10 a.m. Mountain time). The capsule contains cometary and interstellar samples gathered by the Stardust spacecraft.

  19. NIF symmetry capsule modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Pino, J. E.; Rowley, D. P.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Spears, B. K.; Tipton, R. E.

    2013-10-01

    NIF CH ablator symmetry capsules are filled with hydrogen or helium gas. SymCaps have more moderate convergence ratios ~ 15 as opposed to ~ 35 for ignition capsules with DT ice layers, and better agreement has been achieved between simulations and experimental data. We will present modeling of capsules with CD layers and tritium fill, for which we are able to match the dependence of DT yield on recession distance of the CD layer from the gas. We can also match the performance of CH capsules with D3 He fill. The simulations include surface roughness, drive asymmetry, a mock-up of modulation introduced by the tent holding the capsule, and an empirical prescription for ablator-gas atomic mix. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Identification of a Novel Virulence Determinant with Serum Opacification Activity in Streptococcus suis

    PubMed Central

    Baums, Christoph G.; Kaim, Ute; Fulde, Marcus; Ramachandran, Girish; Goethe, Ralph; Valentin-Weigand, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is a porcine and human pathogen with adhesive and invasive properties. In other streptococci, large surface-associated proteins (>100 kDa) of the MSCRAMM family (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules) are key players in interactions with host tissue. In this study, we identified a novel opacity factor of S. suis (OFS) with structural homology to members of the MSCRAMM family. The N-terminal region of OFS is homologous to the respective regions of fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBA) of Streptococcus dysgalactiae and the serum opacity factor (SOF) of Streptococcus pyogenes. Similar to these two proteins, the N-terminal domain of OFS opacified horse serum. Serum opacification activity was detectable in sodium dodecyl sulfate extracts of wild-type S. suis but not in extracts of isogenic ofs knockout mutants. Heterologous expression of OFS in Lactococcus lactis demonstrated that a high level of expression of OFS is sufficient to provide surface-associated serum opacification activity. Furthermore, serum opacification could be inhibited by an antiserum against recombinant OFS. The C-terminal repetitive sequence elements of OFS differed significantly from the respective repeat regions of FnBA and SOF as well as from the consensus sequence of the fibronectin-binding repeats of MSCRAMMs. Accordingly, fibronectin binding was not detectable in recombinant OFS. To investigate the putative function of OFS in the pathogenesis of invasive S. suis diseases, piglets were experimentally infected with an isogenic mutant strain in which the ofs gene had been knocked out by an in-frame deletion. The mutant was severely attenuated in virulence but not in colonization, demonstrating that OFS represents a novel virulence determinant of S. suis. PMID:17057090

  1. Use of iris recognition camera technology for the quantification of corneal opacification in mucopolysaccharidoses.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Tariq Mehmood; Shakir, Savana; Wong, James; Au, Leon; Ashworth, Jane

    2012-12-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) can cause corneal opacification that is currently difficult to objectively quantify. With newer treatments for MPS comes an increased need for a more objective, valid and reliable index of disease severity for clinical and research use. Clinical evaluation by slit lamp is very subjective and techniques based on colour photography are difficult to standardise. In this article the authors present evidence for the utility of dedicated image analysis algorithms applied to images obtained by a highly sophisticated iris recognition camera that is small, manoeuvrable and adapted to achieve rapid, reliable and standardised objective imaging in a wide variety of patients while minimising artefactual interference in image quality.

  2. Ligamentous and capsular restraints to experimental posterior elbow joint dislocation.

    PubMed

    Deutch, Søren R; Olsen, Bo S; Jensen, Steen L; Tyrdal, Stein; Sneppen, Otto

    2003-10-01

    Pathological external forearm rotation (PEFR) relates to posterolateral elbow joint instability, and is considered a possible requisite step in a simple posterior elbow joint dislocation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capsuloligamentous restraint to PEFR. In all, 18 elbow joint specimens were examined in a joint analysis system developed for experimental elbow dislocation. Sequential cutting of capsule and ligaments followed by stability testing provided specific data relating to each capsuloligamentous structure. The primary stabilizers against PEFR in the extended elbow were the anterior capsule and the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC), whereas in the flexed elbow the anterior capsule did not have a stabilizing effect. In flexed joint positions, the LCLC seems to be the only immediate stabilizer against PEFR, and thereby against posterolateral instability and possibly against posterior dislocation. The medial collateral ligament did not have any immediate stabilizing effect, but it prevented the final step of the posterior dislocation.

  3. The Lens Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Danysh, Brian P.; Duncan, Melinda K.

    2009-01-01

    The lens capsule is a modified basement membrane that completely surrounds the ocular lens. It is known that this extracellular matrix is important for both the structure and biomechanics of the lens in addition to providing informational cues to maintain lens cell phenotype. This review covers the development and structure of the lens capsule, lens diseases associated with mutations in extracellular matrix genes and the role of the capsule in lens function including those proposed for visual accommodation, selective permeability to infectious agents, and cell signaling. PMID:18773892

  4. Absence of Cortical Vein Opacification Is Associated with Lack of Intra-arterial Therapy Benefit in Stroke.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Ivo G H; van Vuuren, Annemieke B; van Zwam, Wim H; van den Wijngaard, Ido R; Berkhemer, Olvert A; Lingsma, Hester F; Slump, Cornelis H; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; Treurniet, Kilian M; Dippel, Diederik W J; van Walderveen, Marianne A A; van der Lugt, Aad; Roos, Yvo B W E M; Marquering, Henk A; Majoie, Charles B L M; van den Berg, René

    2017-08-11

    Purpose To assess the degree of cortical vein opacification in patients with internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke and to evaluate the relationship with treatment benefit from intra-arterial therapy (IAT). Materials and Methods Written informed consent was obtained from all patients in the Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands. From the trial's database, all patients (recruited from December 2010 until March 2014) with baseline computed tomographic (CT) angiograms were retrospectively included. Enhancement of the vein of Labbé, sphenoparietal sinus, and superficial middle cerebral vein was graded by one neuroradiologist, as follows: 0, not visible; 1, moderate opacification; and 2, full opacification. The sum for the ipsilateral hemisphere was calculated, resulting in the cortical vein opacification score (COVES) (range, 0-6). Primary outcome was the modified Rankin Scale score at 90 days. Association with treatment according to full cortical vein score and different dichotomized cutoff points was estimated with ordinal logistic regression. Interobserver agreement was assessed by two separate observers who reviewed 100 studies each. Results In total, 397 patients were analyzed. Interaction of the cortical vein score with treatment was significant (P = .044) when dichotomized COVES was 0 versus more than 0. The adjusted odds ratio for shift toward better functional outcome was 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5, 2.0) for a COVES of 0 (n = 123) and 2.2 (95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) for a COVES greater than 0 (n = 274). The multirater κ value was 0.73. Conclusion In this study, patients with acute middle cerebral artery stroke with absence of cortical vein opacification in the affected hemisphere (COVES = 0) appeared to have no benefit from IAT, whereas patients with venous opacification (COVES >0) were shown to benefit from IAT. (©) RSNA, 2017 Clinical trial registration nos

  5. The Palisades of Vogt in Congenital Corneal Opacification (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    PubMed

    Nischal, Ken K; Lathrop, Kira L

    2016-08-01

    The purposes of this study are first, to determine if the palisades of Vogt (POV) are present or absent in cases of congenital corneal opacification (CCO) by using spectral domain ocular coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and second, in those cases already undergoing penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), to see whether the absence or presence of POV corresponds to re-epithelialization following transplant. This was a retrospective case review of 20 eyes (10 normal, 10 with CCO) evaluated with SD-OCT. The operator was masked to the clinician's assessment of the ocular surface. In those cases where the decision to perform PKP had already been made, the correlation between POV presence or absence and posttransplant graft epithelialization was determined. All cases were imaged without adverse event. Nine eyes showed some evidence of POV and corresponding vasculature. Eight of 10 affected eyes underwent PKP, and subsequently 7 eyes epithelialized and 2 showed some peripheral neovascularization. The one eye that showed no signs of POV was the one that failed to epithelialize. All control subjects had consistent and regular POV. Congenital corneal opacification is rare, and this study shows that at least some POV are present in the majority of cases of CCO. However, the palisades may not be entirely normal compared to age-matched controls. When there was absence of POV in a case of CCO, there was immediate and complete failure of epithelialization.

  6. The Palisades of Vogt in Congenital Corneal Opacification (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Nischal, Ken K.; Lathrop, Kira L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purposes of this study are first, to determine if the palisades of Vogt (POV) are present or absent in cases of congenital corneal opacification (CCO) by using spectral domain ocular coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and second, in those cases already undergoing penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), to see whether the absence or presence of POV corresponds to re-epithelialization following transplant. Methods This was a retrospective case review of 20 eyes (10 normal, 10 with CCO) evaluated with SD-OCT. The operator was masked to the clinician’s assessment of the ocular surface. In those cases where the decision to perform PKP had already been made, the correlation between POV presence or absence and posttransplant graft epithelialization was determined. Results All cases were imaged without adverse event. Nine eyes showed some evidence of POV and corresponding vasculature. Eight of 10 affected eyes underwent PKP, and subsequently 7 eyes epithelialized and 2 showed some peripheral neovascularization. The one eye that showed no signs of POV was the one that failed to epithelialize. All control subjects had consistent and regular POV. Conclusions Congenital corneal opacification is rare, and this study shows that at least some POV are present in the majority of cases of CCO. However, the palisades may not be entirely normal compared to age-matched controls. When there was absence of POV in a case of CCO, there was immediate and complete failure of epithelialization. PMID:28042184

  7. Spermidine delays eye lens opacification in vitro by suppressing transglutaminase-catalyzed crystallin cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Lentini, Alessandro; Tabolacci, Claudio; Mattioli, Palma; Provenzano, Bruno; Beninati, Simone

    2011-02-01

    A Ca(2+)-dependent TG activity, identified in the eye lens of several mammalian species, has long been implicated in cataract formation. The precise mechanism of the involvement of this enzyme in this process remains unclear. The purpose of this work was to investigate the modulatory effect of polyamines on TG activity during rabbit eye lens in vitro opacification. We observed, in an in vitro Ca(2+)-induced cataract model, a rapid decrease of the endogenous levels of SPD with the progression of opacification, paralleled by an increase of crystallin cross-linking by bis(γ-glutamyl)SPD. This pattern was reversed adding exogenous SPD to the incubation medium. Indeed, endogenous SPD levels were restored and cross-linking by bis(γ-glutamyl)SPD were drastically reduced. Surprisingly, under this experimental condition, the loss of transparency of lens was delayed. We found that exogenous SPD incubation led to a remarkable increase of mono(γ-glutamyl)SPD, likely responsible of the inhibition of cross-linking of lens crystallins and of the transparency persistence.

  8. Stennis time capsule

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-15

    Stennis Space Center Director Patrick Scheuermann (right) and Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command Chief of Staff James Pettigrew drop the first shovelfuls of dirt on a time capsule to be opened on the rocket engine test facility's 100th anniversary in 2061. The time capsule was placed in front of the Roy S. Estess Building on Oct. 25 as Stennis concluded celebrations of its 50th anniversary. NASA publicly announced plans to build the rocket engine test site Oct. 25, 1961.

  9. Stennis time capsule

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-15

    Stennis Space Center Director Patrick Scheuermann (right) and Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command Chief of Staff James Pettigrew drop the first shovelfuls of dirt on a time capsule to be opened on the rocket engine test facility's 100th anniversary in 2061. The time capsule was placed in front of the Roy S. Estess Building on Oct. 25 as Stennis concluded celebrations of its 50th anniversary.

  10. Assessment of the ability of CT urography with low-dose multi-phasic excretory phases for opacification of the urinary system

    PubMed Central

    Juri, Hiroshi; Tsuboyama, Takahiro; Koyama, Mitsuhiro; Yamamoto, Kiyohito; Nakai, Go; Nakamoto, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Azuma, Haruhito; Narumi, Yoshifumi

    2017-01-01

    Objective To prospectively evaluate the ability of CT urography with a low-dose multi-phasic excretory phase for opacification of the urinary system. Materials and methods Thirty-two patients underwent CT urography with low-dose multi-phasic s using adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D acquired at 5-, 10-, and 15-minute delays. Opacification scores of the upper urinary tracts and the urinary bladder were assigned for each excretory phase by two radiologists, who recorded whether adequate (>75%) or complete (100%) opacification of the upper urinary tract and urinary bladder was achieved in each patient. Adequate and complete opacification rates of the upper urinary tracts and the urinary bladder were compared among three excretory phases and among combined multi-phasic excretory phases using Cochran's Q test. Results There was no significant difference among three excretory phases with 5-, 10-, and 15-minute delays in adequate (56.3, 43.8, and 63.5%, respectively; P = 0.174) and complete opacification rates (9.3, 15.6, and 18.7%, respectively; P = 0.417) of the upper urinary tracts. Combined tri-phasic excretory phases significantly improved adequate and complete opacification rates to 84.4% and 43.8%, respectively (P = 0.002). In contrast, there were significant differences among three excretory phases for the rate of adequate (31.3, 84.4, and 93.8%, respectively; P<0.001) and complete opacification (21.9, 53.1, and 81.3%, respectively; P<0.001) of the urinary bladder. Multi-phasic excretory phases did not improve these rates because opacification was always better with a longer delay. Conclusion Although multi-phasic acquisition of excretory phases is effective at improving opacification of the upper urinary tracts, complete opacification is difficult even with tri-phasic acquisition. PMID:28384174

  11. Adhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder Joint: Value of Glenohumeral Distance on Magnetic Resonance Arthrography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu Hong; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, So Yeon; Youn, In Young; Kim, Eugene; Park, Jai Hyung; Park, Se Jin

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of glenohumeral distance (GHD) on axial images of magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography for diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis and to compare this finding with previously reported classic MR arthrographic findings of adhesive capsulitis. Our study was approved by the institutional ethical review board of our institute. We evaluated 41 patients (M-F, 35:6; mean age, 46 years; adhesive capsulitis, 21; no adhesive capsulitis, 20) who underwent MR arthrography. Two radiologists measured GHD, width of the axillary recess, and capsular thickness in consensus. The GHD was measured from the subchondral bone of the glenoid fossa to the subchondral bone of the humeral head at the level of the midline of the humeral head. Glenohumeral distance (anterior, middle, posterior, and mean), width of the axillary recess, and capsular thickness (anterior, posterior, and mean) were compared in the adhesive capsulitis and no adhesive capsulitis groups using the Mann-Whitney U test. The mean GHD of the no adhesive capsulitis group was longer than that of the adhesive capsulitis group. The length differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The mean width of the axillary recess of the no adhesive capsulitis group was significantly wider than that of the adhesive capsulitis group (P < 0.001). The mean capsular thickness of the no adhesive capsulitis group was significantly thinner than that in the adhesive capsulitis group (P = 0.001). A decreased GHD on MR arthrography can be another useful feature to diagnose adhesive capsulitis in addition to previously presented radiologic features such as capsular thickening and reduced axillary recess capacity.

  12. Oral contrast media for body CT: Comparison of diatrizoate sodium and iohexol for patient acceptance and bowel opacification.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Michelle M; Lockhart, Mark E; Fineberg, Naomi S; Berland, Lincoln L

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether a difference in patient preference exists between iohexol (Omnipaque) and diatrizoate sodium (Gastroview) as oral contrast medium for abdominal-pelvic CT. A secondary objective was to evaluate whether there are significant differences in bowel opacification and adverse effect profile for the two agents. From August 2007 through March 2009, 300 patients were enrolled in this prospective study after informed consent was obtained. Eligible patients were identified from those scheduled for outpatient abdominal-pelvic CT. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive one of two oral contrast agents in a double-blinded fashion. Subjects graded the taste using a 5-point scale, and data regarding demographics, total volume, and adverse effects were collected. A direct comparison of 30 mL of each of the two diluted agents in randomized order was then performed. CT images were graded for bowel opacification by two blinded abdominal radiologists. Of 287 subjects who expressed a preference, 233 patients (81%) preferred dilute iohexol compared with 54 patients (19%) who preferred dilute diatrizoate sodium (p < 0.001). Ten patients had no preference, and three patients did not complete the taste comparison study. No difference in bowel opacification was identified between the oral contrast agents (p = 0.27), nor was there a significant difference in adverse effects (p = 0.352). Patents preferred dilute iohexol over dilute diatrizoate sodium for oral contrast for abdominal-pelvic CT. There was no significant difference in bowel opacification or adverse effect profile.

  13. Aldose reductase deficiency protects sugar-induced lens opacification in rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Aramati B M; Tammali, Ravinder; Mishra, Rakesh; Srivastava, Shriram; Srivastava, Satish K; Ramana, Kota V

    2011-05-30

    Aldose reductase (AKR1B1), which catalyzes the reduction of glucose to sorbitol and lipid aldehydes to lipid alcohols, has been shown to be involved in secondary diabetic complications including cataractogenesis. Rats have high levels of AKR1B1 in lenses and readily develop diabetic cataracts, whereas mice have very low levels of AKR1B1 in their lenses and are not susceptible to hyperglycemic cataracts. Studies with transgenic mice that over-express AKR1B1 indicate that it is the key protein for the development of diabetic complications including diabetic cataract. However, no such studies were performed in genetically altered AKR1B1 rats. Hence, we developed siRNA-based AKR1B1 knockdown rats (ARKO) using the AKR1B1-siRNA-pSuper vector construct. Genotyping analysis suggested that more than 90% of AKR1B1 was knocked down in the littermates. Interestingly, all the male animals were born dead and only 3 female rats survived. Furthermore, all 3 female animals were not able to give birth to F1 generation. Hence, we could not establish an AKR1B1 rat knockdown colony. However, we examined the effect of AKR1B1 knockdown on sugar-induced lens opacification in ex vivo. Our results indicate that rat lenses obtained from AKR1B1 knockdown rats were resistant to high glucose-induced lens opacification as compared to wild-type (WT) rat lenses. Biochemical analysis of lens homogenates showed that the AKR1B1 activity and sorbitol levels were significantly lower in sugar-treated AKR1B1 knockdown rat lenses as compared to WT rat lenses treated with 50mM glucose. Our results thus confirmed the significance of AKR1B1 in the mediation of sugar-induced lens opacification and indicate the use of AKR1B1 inhibitors in the prevention of cataractogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Advances in Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive technology that has revolutionized the approach to small intestinal disease investigation and management. Designed primarily to provide diagnostic imaging of the small intestine, VCE is used predominantly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected Crohn’s disease; however, numerous other indications have been established, including the assessment of celiac disease, investigation of small bowel tumors, and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes. Since the introduction of small bowel VCE in 2000, more than 1600 articles have been published describing the evolution of this technology. The main adverse outcome is capsule retention, which can potentially be avoided by careful patient selection or by using a patency capsule. Despite the numerous advances in the past 15 years, limitations such as incomplete VCE studies, missed lesions, and time-consuming reporting remain. The inability to control capsule movement for the application of targeted therapy or the acquisition of tissue for histologic analysis remains among the greatest challenges in the further development of capsule technology. This article outlines the recent technological and clinical advances in VCE and the future directions of research in this field. PMID:27482183

  15. Advances in Capsule Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ryan; Enns, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive technology that has revolutionized the approach to small intestinal disease investigation and management. Designed primarily to provide diagnostic imaging of the small intestine, VCE is used predominantly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected Crohn's disease; however, numerous other indications have been established, including the assessment of celiac disease, investigation of small bowel tumors, and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes. Since the introduction of small bowel VCE in 2000, more than 1600 articles have been published describing the evolution of this technology. The main adverse outcome is capsule retention, which can potentially be avoided by careful patient selection or by using a patency capsule. Despite the numerous advances in the past 15 years, limitations such as incomplete VCE studies, missed lesions, and time-consuming reporting remain. The inability to control capsule movement for the application of targeted therapy or the acquisition of tissue for histologic analysis remains among the greatest challenges in the further development of capsule technology. This article outlines the recent technological and clinical advances in VCE and the future directions of research in this field.

  16. Hollow Microporous Organic Capsules

    PubMed Central

    Li, Buyi; Yang, Xinjia; Xia, Lingling; Majeed, Muhammad Irfan; Tan, Bien

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication of hollow microporous organic capsules (HMOCs) could be very useful because of their hollow and porous morphology, which combines the advantages of both microporous organic polymers and non-porous nanocapsules. They can be used as storage materials or reaction chambers while supplying the necessary path for the design of controlled uptake/release systems. Herein, the synthesis of HMOCs with high surface area through facile emulsion polymerization and hypercrosslinking reactions, is described. Due to their tailored porous structure, these capsules possessed high drug loading efficiency, zero-order drug release kinetics and are also demonstrated to be used as nanoscale reactors for the prepareation of nanoparticles (NPs) without any external stabilizer. Moreover, owing to their intrinsic biocompatibility and fluorescence, these capsules exhibit promising prospect for biomedical applications. PMID:23820511

  17. Light scattering and light transmittance in intraocular lenses explanted because of optic opacification.

    PubMed

    Michelson, Jennifer; Werner, Liliana; Ollerton, Andrew; Leishman, Lisa; Bodnar, Zachary

    2012-08-01

    To assess light scattering and light transmittance in intraocular lenses (IOLs) explanted because of optic opacification. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) IOLs with snowflake degeneration, hydrophilic acrylic IOLs with different calcification patterns, and 1 calcified silicone IOL explanted from an eye with asteroid hyalosis were studied with gross and light microscopy. Light scattering was measured with an EAS-1000 Scheimpflug camera. Light transmittance was measured with a Lambda 35 UV/Vis spectrophotometer (single-beam configuration with RSA-PE-20 integrating sphere). Analyses were performed at room temperature in the hydrated state and compared with controls. The study evaluated 8 PMMA IOLs, 22 hydrophilic acrylic IOLs, and 1 silicone IOL. Light scattering was as follows: 208 to 223 computer-compatible tapes (CCTs) for PMMA IOLs with snowflake degeneration (control = 9 CCTs); 90 to 227 CCTs for calcified hydrophilic acrylic IOLs (controls = 12 to 23 CCTs); 223 CCTs for the calcified silicone IOL (control = 5 CCTs). The mean light transmittance in the visible light spectrum was 81.08% to 97.10% for PMMA IOLs (control = 98.80%); 78.94% to 97.32% for hydrophilic acrylic IOLs (controls = 97.32% to 98.66%); 94.68% for the silicone IOL (control = 97.74%). Intraocular lens opacification led to very high levels of light scattering and a potential for decreased light transmittance, which play a role in the development of symptoms such as glare and halos, decreased contrast sensitivity, and eventually decreased visual acuity. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stardust Capsule Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Stardust Capsule Return as seen from NASA's DC-8 Airborne Laboratory with a mission to explore the conditions during reentry from the light emitted by the fireball caused when the capsule streaked through the sky. The aircraft was located near the end of the trajectory, just outside of UTTR. The participating researchers are from NASA Ames, the SETI Institute, the University of Alaska, Utah State University, Lockheed Martin, U.S. Air Force Academy, the University of Kobe (Japan), and Stuttgart University (Germany).

  19. Inhibition of lens epithelial cell migration at the intraocular lens optic edge: role of capsule bending and contact pressure.

    PubMed

    Nagamoto, Toshiyuki; Fujiwara, Takaaki

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate the inhibitory effect of a sharp intraocular lens (IOL) optic edge, a sharp capsule bend, and contact pressure between the optic edge and posterior capsule on lens epithelial cell (LEC) migration. Department of Ophthalmology, Kyorin University, Tokyo, Japan. This in vitro laboratory study evaluated a tumble-polished convex-plano IOL (CP group), an AcrySof IOL (Alcon) with a sharp edge (AS group), a new IOL with a round ridge (RR group), and a new IOL with a sharp ridge (SR group). The 2 new IOLs have high ridges and high angled loops that create firm contact between the ridge and posterior capsule. After sham cataract surgery, an IOL and a capsular tension ring (CTR) were implanted in the capsular bag of rabbit eyes. The extracted capsular bags containing the CTR and IOL were cultured. The inhibitory effect of each IOL on cell migration was analyzed. Furthermore, LEC migration on the posterior capsule was compared in culture between capsules having a sharp right angle and those with gradually curving bends. The inhibitory effect on cell migration was statistically greatest in the SR group followed by the RR, AS, and CP groups. A sharp capsule bend did not inhibit cell migration. The results suggest that inhibition of cell migration at the optic edge is regulated by the degree of contact pressure between the optic edge and posterior capsule. A sharp capsule bend might indicate strong contact but does not in itself inhibit cell migration.

  20. Gelatin capsule in stomach (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... detect the presence of intestinal parasites. A weighted gelatin capsule attached to a string is swallowed and left in place. After about 4 hours, the gelatin capsule is pulled out of the stomach by ...

  1. Big Joe Capsule Assembly Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-08-01

    Big Joe Capsule Assembly Activities in 1959 at NASA Glenn Research Center (formerly NASA Lewis). Big Joe was an Atlas missile that successfully launched a boilerplate model of the Mercury capsule on September 9, 1959.

  2. Trypan blue-assisted posterior capsulorhexis in pediatric cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lotfy, Ayman; Abdelrahman, Ayman

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the safety and efficacy of staining the posterior capsule with trypan blue during capsulorhexis in pediatric cataract surgery. Patients and methods This was a prospective randomized comparative study carried out at Alpha Vision Center, Zagazig, Egypt. This study included 2 groups of children with pediatric cataract randomly allocated to undergo irrigation and aspiration. In the trypan group, which included 11 eyes, trypan blue was used to stain the posterior capsule during posterior capsulorhexis. In the control group, which included 10 eyes, no staining was performed. All surgeries were performed by the same surgeon. The 2 groups were compared for criteria such as completion of capsulorhexis, disruption of vitreous face and in-the-bag intraocular lens implantation. Results This study included 21 eyes of 16 patients (age range: 6 months–4 years). A statistically significant difference was observed for the following parameters between the 2 groups: capsulorhexis completion (P=0.04), vitreous face disruption (P=0.01) and in-the-bag intraocular lens implantation (P=0.022). Conclusion This study suggests that staining of the posterior capsule during capsulorhexis in pediatric cataract operation gives better results than capsulorhexis without staining. The stain changes the capsule texture making capsulorhexis easier with fewer complications. PMID:28182152

  3. Posterior ankle impingement.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Sandro; Buda, Roberto; Mosca, Massimiliano; Parma, Alessandro; Di Caprio, Francesco

    2013-03-01

    Posterior ankle impingement is a common cause of chronic ankle pain and results from compression of bony or soft tissue structures during ankle plantar flexion. Bony impingement is most commonly related to an os trigonum or prominent trigonal process. Posteromedial soft tissue impingement generally arises from an inversion injury, with compression of the posterior tibiotalar ligament between the medial malleolus and talus. Posterolateral soft tissue impingement is caused by an accessory ligament, the posterior intermalleolar ligament, which spans the posterior ankle between the posterior tibiofibular and posterior talofibular ligaments. Finally, anomalous muscles have also been described as a cause of posterior impingement.

  4. Capsule injection system for a hydraulic capsule pipelining system

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Henry

    1982-01-01

    An injection system for injecting capsules into a hydraulic capsule pipelining system, the pipelining system comprising a pipeline adapted for flow of a carrier liquid therethrough, and capsules adapted to be transported through the pipeline by the carrier liquid flowing through the pipeline. The injection system comprises a reservoir of carrier liquid, the pipeline extending within the reservoir and extending downstream out of the reservoir, and a magazine in the reservoir for holding capsules in a series, one above another, for injection into the pipeline in the reservoir. The magazine has a lower end in communication with the pipeline in the reservoir for delivery of capsules from the magazine into the pipeline.

  5. Hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens optic and haptics opacification in a diabetic patient: bilateral case report and clinicopathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Suresh K; Werner, Liliana; Apple, David J; Kaskaloglu, Mahmut

    2002-11-01

    To report clinicopathologic and ultrastructural features of two opacified single-piece hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) explanted from a diabetic patient. Interventional case report with clinicopathologic correlation. A 64-year-old white female underwent phacoemulsification and implantation of a single-piece hydrophilic acrylic lens (SC60B-OUV; Medical Developmental Research, Inc., Clear Water, FL) in October 1998 in the left eye and in July 1999 in the right eye. The best-corrected visual acuity after surgery was 20/60 in the left eye and 20/50 in the right eye. The patient had a marked decrease in visual acuity in June 2000 as a result of a milky, white opalescence of both lenses. Intraocular lens explantation and exchange was performed in both eyes and the explanted IOLs were submitted to our center for detailed pathologic, histochemical, and ultrastructural evaluation. They were stained with alizarin red and the von Kossa method for calcium, and also underwent scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive radiograph spectroscopy to ascertain the nature of the deposits leading to opacification. Documentation of calcium deposits confirmed by histochemical stains and surface analyses. Opacification of the IOL was found to be the cause of decreased visual acuity. The opacification involved both the IOL optic and the haptics in the left eye and was confined to the IOL optic in the right eye. Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses revealed that the opacity was caused by deposition of calcium and phosphate within the lens optic and haptics. There are two features that distinguish this case from those reported earlier. This is the first clinicopathologic report of lens opacification that has involved completely the lens optic and the haptics. Second, these two explanted IOLs document the first bilateral case. This process of intraoptic and haptic opacification represents dystrophic calcification of unknown cause. Diabetic patients appear to be

  6. Posterior shoulder tightness and rotator cuff strength assessments in painful shoulders of amateur tennis players.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, Freddy B; de Jesus, Julio F; Bryk, Flavio F; de Vasconcelos, Rodrigo A; Fukuda, Thiago Y

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between shoulder posterior capsule tightness and shoulder pain in overhead athletes. However, this relationship has not been studied in tennis players. Assessment of the shoulder range of motion (ROM), strength and posterior capsule tightness of skilled amateur tennis players who had complaints of dominant shoulder pain in comparison with tennis players without pain. Forty-nine skilled amateur tennis players were distributed in 2 groups: Control Group (n=22) and Painful Group (n=27). The first group was composed of asymptomatic subjects, and the second was composed of subjects with shoulder pain on the dominant side. These groups were evaluated to determine the dominant and non-dominant shoulder ROM (internal and external rotation), isometric shoulder strength (internal and external rotation) and posterior shoulder tightness by blind evaluators. The ANOVA results indicated significant differences between the groups in the dominant shoulder ROM, posterior capsule tightness, external rotation strength and strength ratio (p<0.05). The intragroup analysis (dominant versus non-dominant) in the Painful Group displayed a significant difference for ROM, posterior capsule tightness and external rotation strength (p<0.05). The tennis players with pain in the dominant shoulder presented greater posterior capsule tightness, internal rotation deficit (ROM), external rotation gain (ROM) and deficits in external rotation strength than the tennis players without pain.

  7. DNA damage is involved in the induction of opacification and neovascularization of the cornea by ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Applegate, L A; Ley, R D

    1991-04-01

    Studies were conducted to examine ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced alterations of the cornea of the gray, short-tailed opossum. Monodelphis domestica, and the effect of post-UVR illumination to photoreactivation light (PRL, 320-500 nm). As photoreactivation treatment specifically monomerizes pyrimidine dimers, an amelioration of the UVR-induced biological end-point would implicate DNA as being a primary chromophore for induction of that end-point. Corneas of anesthetized, four-month-old, opossums were exposed to 250 J m-2 (0.025 J cm-2) from a Westinghouse FS20 sunlamp either one or three times a week for up to 13 exposures. The corneas of 4-5 animals received either: (a) 90 min of PRL immediately prior to UVR; (b) PRL immediately following UVR; (c) PRL alone; or (d) UVR alone. Eyes were examined with a slit lamp microscope 24 hr following each exposure and scored for the appearance of opacification and neovascularization of the cornea. In animals exposed to UVR alone, 2-5 exposures, depending on whether the exposures were given once or three times per week, were required to obtain opacification and neovascularization in 50% of the irradiated corneas. The onset of both opacification and neovascularization in 50% of the corneas required 8-11 exposures when the UVR was immediately followed by PRL. Based on the specificity of photoreactivation repair to act solely on pyrimidine dimers, these observations suggest that UVR-induced pyrimidine dimers in corneal DNA are involved in UVR-induced opacification and neovascularization of the cornea of Monodelphis domestica.

  8. Sweat collection capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Delaplaine, R. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A sweat collection capsule permitting quantitative collection of sweat is described. The device consists of a frame held immobile on the skin, a closure secured to the frame and absorbent material located next to the skin in a cavity formed by the frame and the closure. The absorbent material may be removed from the device by removing the closure from the frame while the frame is held immobile on the skin.

  9. Capsule-train stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryngelson, Spencer H.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2016-07-01

    Elastic capsules flowing in small enough tubes, such as red blood cells in capillaries, are well known to line up into regular single-file trains. The stability of such trains in somewhat wider channels, where this organization is not observed, is studied in a two-dimensional model system that includes full coupling between the viscous flow and suspended capsules. A diverse set of linearly amplifying disturbances, both long-time asymptotic (modal) and transient (nonmodal) perturbations, is identified and analyzed. These have a range of amplification rates and their corresponding forms are wavelike, typically dominated by one of five principal perturbation classes: longitudinal and transverse translations, tilts, and symmetric and asymmetric shape distortions. Finite-amplitude transiently amplifying perturbations are shown to provide a mechanism that can bypass slower asymptotic modal linear growth and precipitate the onset of nonlinear effects. Direct numerical simulations are used to verify the linear analysis and track the subsequent transition of the regular capsule trains into an apparently chaotic flow.

  10. Percutaneous Posterior Calcaneal Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-01-01

    Different types of posterior calcaneal osteotomy are used for calcaneal realignment in the management of hindfoot deformity. We describe a percutaneous technique of posterior calcaneal osteotomy that can be either a Dwyer-type closing wedge osteotomy or displacement osteotomy.

  11. Accidental macular hole following neodymium:YAG posterior capsulotomy.

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Mihnea; Petrović, Zarko; Stanca, Horia; Rosca, Cosmin; Jianu, Adelina; Boruga, Ovidiu

    2014-01-01

    Posterior capsular opacification (PCO) is the commonest complication of cataract surgery, occurring in up to one-third of patients in a period of five years. The treatment of choice is the Neodymium:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy. This treatment can be associated with several complications, some of them severe. A rare complication of this procedure is the accidental induced macular hole. A 54-year-old female patient was referred to our Department because of a severe loss of vision and a central scotoma at the right eye. The patient underwent a Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy 2 days ago, for a PCO. The fundus examination at presentation revealed a round retinal defect in the macular region, a massive inferior preretinal hemorrhage and a mild vitreous hamorrhage. A 6-months follow-up of the case, including retinography and fluorescein angiography, is presented. Although the Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy is a safe, noninvasive, and effective outpatient procedure to improve vision hindered by PCO, it must be recognized that it carries a low but definite risk of serious complications. Physicians and patients should be aware of these rare but severe complications regarding this otherwise safe procedure. Fortunately, most of the complications related to this procedure are transient and can be managed by proper medication.

  12. The posterior talofibular ligament: an anatomical study with clinical implication in clubfoot surgery.

    PubMed

    Courvoisier, Aurélien; Vialle, Raphaël; Thévenin-Lemoine, Camille; Mary, Pierre; Damsin, Jean-Paul

    2008-11-01

    The role of the posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL) in the clubfoot deformity remains unclear. We conducted an anatomical study to precise its topography and role in maintaining tibiotalar equinus in patients with clubfoot deformity. Ten ankles were dissected using a wide posterior exposure. The PTFL was identified at the posterior aspect of the ankle and its relations with other anatomical structures were noted. After opening of the tibiotalar and subtalar joints, the superior aspect of the PTFL was clearly seen, running horizontally from the fibula to a prominent tubercle on the posterior surface of the talus. The tibiotalar and subatalar joint capsules joined together laterally on the posterior edge of the PTFL and medially on the posterior part of the talus. A fibrous structure identified as being the "tibial slip" was noted in four cases between the posterior medial aspect of the lateral malleolus and the tibiotalar posterior capsule. Two different groups of fibers were identified inside the PTFL. Correcting the equinus and inversion of the talus needed an extensive release of soft tissues of the posterior part of the ankle. Our description of both short anterior and long posterior fibers of the PTFL improved our comprehension of functional anatomy of this ligament. We have found that PTFL is part of a posterior joint complex between the tibiotalar and subtalar joint. The posterior joint complex is a heritage of ankle evolution from a prehensile to a weight-bearing joint pattern. The inferior tibiofibular transverse ligament, the tibial slip and the calcaneofibular ligament are interpreted as derivatives of this ancestral meniscus and stabilize the weight-bearing ankle. Because the posterior fibers of the PTFL and the tibial slip are part of the complex, they should be excised like the posterior capsules during clubfoot surgery.

  13. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Neviaser, Andrew S; Neviaser, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is characterized by painful, gradual loss of active and passive shoulder motion resulting from fibrosis and contracture of the joint capsule. Other shoulder pathology can produce a similar clinical picture, however, and must be considered. Management is based on the underlying cause of pain and stiffness, and determination of the etiology is essential. Subtle clues in the history and physical examination can help differentiate adhesive capsulitis from other conditions that cause a stiff, painful shoulder. The natural history of adhesive capsulitis is a matter of controversy. Management of true capsular restriction of motion (ie, true adhesive capsulitis) begins with gentle, progressive stretching exercises. Most patients improve with nonsurgical treatment. Indications for surgery should be individualized. Failure to obtain symptomatic improvement and continued functional disability following ≥6 months of physical therapy is a general guideline for surgical intervention. Diligent postoperative therapy to maintain motion is required to minimize recurrence of adhesive capsulitis.

  14. Hohlraum Simulations for Symergy Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, S. R.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kyrala, G. A.; Wilson, D. C.

    2006-10-01

    The use of a single capsule implosion within a hohlraum to provide information on both the asymmetry of the radiation drive impinging on the capsule and the total energy absorbed by it has led to the concept of experiments with ``symergy'' capsules. We present simulations for planned shots at Omega with hohlraum drive approximating the first 6 ns of the actual NIF ignition drive and surrogate capsules for the NIF ignition capsule. The hohlraum modeling can assess the effects of hohlraum gas fill, laser timing variations and beam pointings. In addition to its immediate design use, it should be useful in validating both the predictive capability for observed symergy capsule responses and the modeling of the initial stage of the NIF ignition process. N.M. Hoffman, D. C. Wilson, and G. A. Kyrala, 2006 High-Temperature Diagnostics Conference, May 2006, Williamsburg, VA USA, to appear in Rev Sci Inst. 77 (2006)

  15. Lens capsule structure assessed with atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sueiras, Vivian M.; Moy, Vincent T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To image the ultrastructure of the anterior lens capsule at the nanoscale level using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Methods Experiments were performed on anterior lens capsules maintained in their in situ location surrounding the lens from six human cadavers (donor age range: 44–88 years), four cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis age range: 4.83–8.92 years), and seven pigs (<6 months). Hydration of all samples was maintained using Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM). Whole lenses were removed from the eye and placed anterior side up in agarose gel before gel hardening where only the posterior half of the lens was contained within the gel. After the gel hardened, the Petri dish was filled with DMEM until the point where the intact lens was fully submerged. AFM was used to image the anterior lens surface in contact mode. An integrated analysis program was used to calculate the interfibrillar spacing, fiber diameter, and surface roughness of the samples. Results The AFM images depict a highly ordered fibrous structure at the surface of the lens capsule in all three species. The interfibrillar spacing for the porcine, cynomolgus monkey, and human lens capsules was 0.68±0.25, 1.80±0.39, and 1.08±0.25 μm, respectively. In the primate, interfibrillar spacing significantly decreased linearly as a function of age. The fiber diameters ranged from 50 to 950 nm. Comparison of the root mean square (RMS) and average deviation demonstrate that the surface of the porcine lens capsule is the smoothest, and that the human and cynomolgus monkey capsules are significantly rougher. Conclusions AFM was successful in providing high-resolution images of the nanostructure of the lens capsule samples. Species-dependent differences were observed in the overall structure and surface roughness. PMID:25814829

  16. Noncontact optical measurement of lens capsule thickness ex vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziebarth, Noel M.; Manns, Fabrice; Uhlhorn, Stephen; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2004-07-01

    Purpose: To design a non-contact optical system to measure lens capsule thickness in cadaver eyes. Methods: The optical system uses a 670nm laser beam delivered to a single-mode fiber coupler. The output of the fiber coupler is focused onto the tissue using an aspheric lens (NA=0.68) mounted on a motorized translation stage. Light reflected from the sample is collected by the fiber coupler and sent to a silicon photodiode connected to a power meter. Peaks in the power signal are detected when the focal point of the aspheric lens coincides with the capsule boundaries. The capsule thickness is proportional to the distance between successive peaks. Anterior and posterior lens capsule thickness measurements were performed on 13 human, 10 monkey, and 34 New Zealand white rabbit lenses. The cadaver eyes were prepared for optical measurements by bonding a PMMA ring on the sclera. The posterior pole was sectioned, excess vitreous was removed, and the eye was placed on a Teflon slide. The cornea and iris were then sectioned. After the experiments, the lenses were excised, placed in 10% buffered formalin, and prepared for histology. Results: Central anterior lens capsule thickness was 9.4+/-2.9μm (human), 11.2+/-6.6μm (monkey), and 10.3+/-3.6μm (rabbit) optically and 14.9+/-1.6μm (human), 17.7+/-4.9μm (monkey), and 12.6+/-2.3μm (rabbit) histologically. The values for the central posterior capsule were 9.4+/-2.9μm (human), 6.6+/-2.5μm (monkey), and 7.9+/-2.3μm (rabbit) optically and 4.6+/-1.4μm (human), 4.5+/-1.2μm (monkey), and 5.7+/-1.7μm (rabbit) histologically. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a non-contact optical system can successfully measure lens capsule thickness in cadaver eyes.

  17. Capsule endoscopy in celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Spada, Cristiano; Riccioni, Maria Elena; Urgesi, Riccardo; Costamagna, Guido

    2008-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy is an attractive and patient-friendly tool that provides high quality images of the small bowel. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding is the primary and most evaluated indication to capsule endoscopy; however, indications are expanding and a small number of preliminary reports have been presented concerning the role of video capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis of celiac disease. The purpose of this review is to update the current knowledge and to hypothesize on future perspectives of the use of video capsule endoscopy in patients with celiac disease. PMID:18636659

  18. Capsule endoscopy in portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rondonotti, Emanuele; Villa, Federica; Dell' Era, Alessandra; Tontini, Gian Eugenio; de Franchis, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Since the introduction of small bowel capsule endoscopy, and more recently of esophageal capsule endoscopy, these diagnostic tools have become available for the evaluation of the consequences of portal hypertension in the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine. The main advantage of the esophageal and the small bowel capsule is the relatively less invasiveness that could potentially increase patients' adherence to endoscopic screening/surveillance programs. When esophageal capsule endoscopy was compared with traditional gastroscopy, it showed good sensitivity and specificity in recognizing the presence and the size of esophageal varices. However, the results are not consistent among studies, and more data are needed.

  19. Magnetism in metal-organic capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, Jerry L.; Brechin, Euan K; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Inglis, Ross; Jones, Leigh F.; Mossine, Andrew; Paterson, Martin J.; Power, Nicholas P.; Teat, Simon J.

    2010-01-07

    Nickel and cobalt seamed metal-organic capsules have been isolated and studied using structural, magnetic and computational approaches. Antiferromagnetic exchange in the Ni capsule results from coordination environments enforced by the capsule framework.

  20. Spacecraft Escape Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Charles, Dingell W.; Bufkin, Ann L.; Rodriggs, Liana M.; Peterson, Wayne; Cuthbert, Peter; Lee, David E.; Westhelle, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    A report discusses the Gumdrop capsule a conceptual spacecraft that would enable the crew to escape safely in the event of a major equipment failure at any time from launch through atmospheric re-entry. The scaleable Gumdrop capsule would comprise a command module (CM), a service module (SM), and a crew escape system (CES). The CM would contain a pressurized crew environment that would include avionic, life-support, thermal control, propulsive attitude control, and recovery systems. The SM would provide the primary propulsion and would also supply electrical power, life-support resources, and active thermal control to the CM. The CES would include a solid rocket motor, embedded within the SM, for pushing the CM away from the SM in the event of a critical thermal-protection-system failure or loss of control. The CM and SM would normally remain integrated with each other from launch through recovery, but could be separated using the CES, if necessary, to enable the safe recovery of the crew in the CM. The crew escape motor could be used, alternatively, as a redundant means of de-orbit propulsion for the CM in the event of a major system failure in the SM.

  1. Epidemiological assessment of lens opacifications that impaired vision in patients injected with radium-224

    SciTech Connect

    Chmelevsky, D.; Mays, C.W.; Spiess, H.; Stefani, F.H.; Kellerer, A.M.

    1988-08-01

    The incidence of lens opacifications that impaired vision (cataract) was analyzed among 831 patients who were injected with known dosages of /sup 224/Ra in Germany shortly after World War II. The dependence of the incidence on dosage, i.e., injected activity per unit body weight, and on time after treatment was determined. The observations are equally consistent with proportionality of the incidence of cataract to the square of dosage or with a linear dependence beyond a threshold of 0.5 MBq/kg. The possibility of a linear dependence without threshold was strongly rejected (P less than 0.001). The analysis of temporal dependences yielded a component that was correlated with the injected amount of /sup 224/Ra and a component that was uncorrelated. The former was inferred by a maximum likelihood analysis to increase approximately as the square of the time after treatment. The component unrelated to the treatment was found to increase steeply with age and to become dominant within the collective of patients between age 50 and 60. The relative magnitudes of the two components were such that a fraction of 55 to 60% of the total of 58 cataracts had to be ascribed to the dose-related incidence. Impaired vision due to cataract was diagnosed before age 54 in 25 cases. In terms of injected activity per unit body weight no dependence of the sensitivity on age was found; specifically there was no indication of a faster occurrence of the treatment-related cataracts in patients treated at older ages.

  2. Complicated posterior capsulorhexis: aetiology, management, and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Van Cauwenberge, F.; Rakic, J.; Galand, A.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND—A 1 year retrospective analysis of 650 patients, who underwent a posterior capsulorhexis on their intact capsules, was performed to examine the incidence of complications, their aetiologies, and the outcome.
METHODS—Data were analysed on 32 patients with complicated capsulorhexis for type of surgery, preoperative and postoperative factors, and relative risk factors for vitreous issue.
RESULTS—There were six patients with vitreous loss. The posterior capsulorhexis was uncontrolled in 14 cases and difficult to perform in 12 cases. Implantation into the capsular bag was possible in all cases. Systemic vascular hazard and old age (over 80 years) were found to be statistically significant risk factors for vitreous loss (p=0.002 and p=0.03 respectively). The mean follow up was 13.5 months (range 4-25 months). One patient developed a retinal detachment and two had a transient clinical cystoid macular oedema. Visual acuity of ≥ 20/40 was obtained in 93% of the patients.
CONCLUSION—Loss of control of the posterior capsulorhexis has a low incidence but can lead to serious problems during surgery. A good knowledge of the technique is necessary to complete the procedure with a posterior capsulorhexis of the optimum size without vitreous loss.

 PMID:9135382

  3. Pupil block glaucoma after neodymium:YAG capsulotomy in a patient with a partially subluxated posterior chamber intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Kersey, James P; McMullan, Tristan F W; Broadway, David C

    2005-07-01

    A 73-year-old-woman presented following neodymium:YAG capsulotomy for posterior capsular opacification with acute glaucoma. Previous cataract surgery had left her with a subluxated lens. Cornea edema obscured detail of the anterior chamber, but the edge of the lens could be seen clearly within the pupillary space. This produced a diagnostic dilemma because no obvious cause for pupil block could be seen. She failed to respond to medical therapy and had a laser iridotomy, following which her symptoms resolved. We believe this case demonstrates the importance of a laser iridotomy to exclude pupil block glaucoma when adequate visualization of the pupillary space is obscured.

  4. Magneto-responsive alginate capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degen, Patrick; Zwar, Elena; Schulz, Imke; Rehage, Heinz

    2015-05-01

    Upon incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) into gels, composite materials called ferrogels are obtained. These magneto-responsive systems have a wide range of potential applications including switches and sensors as well as drug delivery systems. In this article, we focus on the properties of calcium alginate capsules, which are widely used as carrier systems in medicine and technology. We studied the incorporation of different kinds of mNPs in matrix capsules and in the core and the shell of hollow particles. We found out that not all particle-alginate or particle-CaCl2 solution combinations were suitable for a successful capsule preparation on grounds of a destabilization of the nanoparticles or the polymer. For those systems allowing the preparation of switchable beads or capsules, we systematically studied the size and microscopic structure of the capsules, their magnetic behavior and mechanical resistance.

  5. Impulse-driven Micromechanism Capsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takahiro; Ishimori, Shohei; Hayashi, Teru

    We have developed a traveling small capsule, which has a smooth outer surface and is driven by inertia force and friction force. Measuring only 7 mm in diameter and 12 mm in length, it is sufficiently small to be placed in the human gullet or intestines. The capsule contains a small magnet and a coil, and an electric pulse drives the magnet to move the capsule. We performed an experimental investigation on making our capsule travel on a plastic material, which has similar elasticity characteristics to the living body. We also showed that it can travel on the surface of a pig's intestine. Our capsule may be useful for medical treatments such as inspection, drug delivery and operation.

  6. Effect of soft-tissue impingement on range of motion during posterior approach Total Hip Arthroplasty: an in vivo measurement study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nobuo; Maeda, Yuki; Hamawaki, Makoto; Sakai, Takashi; Sugano, Nobuhiko

    2016-12-01

    While implant impingement and bony impingement have been recognized as causes of poor outcomes in total hip arthroplasty (THA), reports of soft-tissue impingement are rare. To clarify the issue, the effect of anterior capsule resection on hip range of motion (ROM) was quantitatively measured in vivo during posterior approach THA using a CT-based hip navigation system. For 47 patients (51 hips), hip ROM was measured intraoperatively before and after resection of the anterior hip capsule, and the difference was compared. Resection of the anterior hip capsule brought about an average 6° increase of ROM in the direction of flexion with internal rotation and did not markedly change ROM in other directions. During THA through a posterior approach, soft-tissue impingement by the anterior hip capsule can occur. Clinically, we expect that resection of the anterior hip capsule can reduce the risk of posterior instability without increasing the risk of anterior instability.

  7. Polymethyl methacrylate intraocular lens opacification 20 years after cataract surgery: A case report in a tertiary eye hospital in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Otaibi, Abdullah G.; Al-Qahtani, Elham S.

    2011-01-01

    Snowflake degeneration is a slow progressive opacification of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) intraocular lenses (IOLs). This late postoperative complication can occur a decade or later after implantation. The deposits are composed of IOL materials that tend to aggregate centrally. There is a relative paucity of the literature on snowflake degeneration of IOLs. Symptoms can range from mild visual disturbance to significant loss of visual acuity. In cases of opacification after IOL implantation, the different diagnosis should include snowflake degeneration to prevent surgical intervention such as lens exchange or explantation unless clinically warranted. We report a case of late optical opacification of a PMMA IOL, the clinical diagnosis and treatment that increased best corrected vision. PMID:23960977

  8. Relationship Between the Middle Genicular Artery and the Posterior Structures of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; Ramos, Leonardo Addêo; Novaretti, João Victor; Ribeiro, Leandro Masini; Szeles, Paulo Roberto de Queiroz; Ingham, Sheila Jean McNeill; Abdalla, Rene Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Background: The middle genicular artery (MGA) is responsible for the blood supply to the cruciate ligaments and synovial tissue. Traumatic sports injuries and surgical procedures (open and arthroscopic) can cause vascular damage. Little attention has been devoted to establish safe parameters for the MGA. Purpose: To investigate the anatomy of the MGA and its relation to the posterior structures of the knees, mainly the posterior capsule and femoral condyles, and to establish safe parameters to avoid harming the MGA. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Dissection of the MGA was performed in 16 fresh, unpaired adult human cadaveric knees with no macroscopic degenerative or traumatic changes and no previous surgeries. The specimens were meticulously evaluated with emphasis on preservation of the MGA. The distances from the MGA to the medial and lateral femoral condyles were measured. The Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis. Results: In all specimens, the MGA emerged from the anterior aspect of the popliteal artery, distal to the superior genicular arteries, and had a short distal trajectory toward the posterior capsule where it entered proximal to the oblique popliteal ligament. The artery lay in the midportion between the condyles. The distance between the posterior aspect of the tibia and the point of entry of the MGA into the posterior joint capsule was 23.8 ± 7.3 mm (range, 14.72-35.68 mm). There was no correlation between an individual’s height and the distance of the entrance point of the MGA into the posterior joint capsule to the posterior superior corner of the tibia. Conclusion: The middle genicular artery lies in the midportion between the medial and lateral femoral condyles. Clinical Relevance: This knowledge is important for the preservation of the blood supply during posterior knee surgical procedures and to settle a secure distance between the posterior aspect of the tibia and the MGA input. This could decrease and

  9. Influence of capsule shell composition on the performance indicators of hypromellose capsule in comparison to hard gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Al-Tabakha, Moawia M; Arida, Adi Issam; Fahelelbom, Khairi M S; Sadek, Bassem; Saeed, Dima Ahmed; Abu Jarad, Rami A; Jawadi, Jeevani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro performances of "vegetable" capsules in comparison to hard gelatin capsules in terms of shell weight variation, reaction to different humidity conditions, resistance to stress in the absence of moisture, powder leakage, disintegration and dissolution. Two types of capsules made of HPMC produced with (Capsule 2) or without (Capsule 3) a gelling agent and hard gelatin capsules (Capsule 1) were assessed. Shell weight variability was relatively low for all tested capsules shells. Although Capsule 1 had the highest moisture content under different humidity conditions, all capsule types were unable to protect the encapsulated hygroscopic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) powder from surrounding humidity. The initial disintegration for all Capsule 1 occurred within 3 min, but for other types of capsules within 6 min (n = 18). Dissolution of acetaminophen was better when the deionized water (DIW) temperature increased from 32 to 42 °C in case of Capsule 1, but the effect of temperature was not significant for the other types of capsules. Acetaminphen dissolution from Capsule 1 was the fastest (i.e. >90% in 10 min) and independent of the media pH or contents unlike Capsule 2 which was influenced by the pH and dissolution medium contents. It is feasible to use hypromellose capsules shells with or without gelling agent for new lines of pharmaceutical products, however, there is a window for capsule shells manufacturing companies to improve the dissolution of their hypromellose capsules to match the conventional gelatin capsule shells and eventually replace them.

  10. Orion Capsule Mockup is Dropped

    NASA Image and Video Library

    An Orion capsule mockup is dropped from a plane 25,000 feet above the Arizona desert to test its parachute design. Orion will return to Earth at speeds faster than previous human spacecraft, and wi...

  11. BENCAP, LLC: CAPSULE VELOCITY TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Meidinger, Brian

    2005-09-07

    Ben Cap, LLC, has a technology that utilizes bebtonite to plug wells. The bentonite is encapsulated in a cardboard capsule, droped down to the bottom of the well where it is allowed to hydrate, causing the bentonite to expand and plug the well. This method of plugging a well is accepted in some, but not all states. This technology can save a significant amount of money when compared to cementing methods currently used to plug and abandon wells. The test objective was to obtain the terminal velocity of the capsule delivery system as it drops through a column of water in a wellbore. Once the terminal velocity is known, the bentonite swelling action can be timed not to begin swelling until it reaches the bottom of the well bore. The results of the test showed that an average speed of 8.93 plus or minus 0.12 ft/sec was achieved by the capsule as it was falling through a column of water. Plotting the data revealed a very linear function with the capsules achieving terminal velocity shortly after being released. The interference of the capsule impacting the casing was not readily apparent in any of the runs, but a siginal sampling anomaly was present in one run. Because the anomaly was so brief and not present in any of the other runs, no solid conclusions could be drawn. Additional testing would be required to determine the effects of capsules impacting a fluid level that is not at surface.

  12. Contraindications for video capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bandorski, Dirk; Kurniawan, Niehls; Baltes, Peter; Hoeltgen, Reinhard; Hecker, Matthias; Stunder, Dominik; Keuchel, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has been applied in the last 15 years in an increasing field of applications. Although many contraindications have been put into perspective, some precautions still have to be considered. Known stenosis of the gastrointestinal tract is a clear contraindication for VCE unless surgery is already scheduled or at least has been considered as an optional treatment modality. In patients with a higher incidence of stenosis, as in an established diagnosis of Crohn’s disease, clinical signs of obstruction, prior radiation or surgical small bowel resection, a preceding test with the self-dissolving patency capsule can override this contraindication. Endoscopic placement of the capsule should be considered in patients with swallowing disorders to avoid aspiration. Esophageal or gastric motility disorders may require endoscopic capsule transport or application of prokinetics if the real-time viewer proofs delayed transit. In pregnant women, VCE should be restricted to urgent cases where diagnosis cannot be postponed after delivery, as data on safety are missing. There is theoretical and clinical evidence that patients with implanted cardiac devices such as a pacemaker, cardioverters or left heart assist devices, can safely undergo VCE in spite of still existing contraindication by manufacturers. Children from the age of 2 years have safely undergone VCE. Although video capsules are not proven safe with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), first single cases of patients incidentally undergoing MRI with an incorporated capsule have been reported, showing susceptibility artifacts but no signs of clinical harm. PMID:28018097

  13. Deformability-based capsule sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, Anne; Munier, Nadege; Maire, Pauline; Edwards-Levy, Florence; Salsac, Anne-Virginie

    2015-11-01

    Many microfluidic devices have been developed for cancer diagnosis applications, most of which relying on costly antibodies. Since some cancer cells display abnormal mechanical properties, new sorting tools based on mechanical sensing are of particular interest. We present a simple, passive pinched flow microfluidic system for capsule sorting. The device consists of a straight microchannel containing a cylindrical obstacle. Thanks to a flow-focusing module placed at the channel entrance, capsules arrive well-centered in the vicinity of the obstacle. Pure size-sorting can be achieved at low shear rate. When increasing the shear rate, capsules are deformed in the narrow space between the pillar and the wall. The softer the capsule, the more tightly it wraps around the obstacle. After the obstacle, streamlines diverge, allowing for the separation between soft capsules, that follow central streamlines, and stiff capsules, that drift away from the obstacle with a wider angle. This proves that we have developed a flexible multipurpose sorting microsystem based on a simple design.

  14. Posterior ankle impingement syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maquirriain, Javier

    2005-10-01

    Posterior ankle impingement syndrome is a clinical disorder characterized by posterior ankle pain that occurs in forced plantar flexion. The pain may be acute as a result of trauma or chronic from repetitive stress. Pathology of the os trigonum-talar process is the most common cause of this syndrome, but it also may result from flexor hallucis longus tenosynovitis, ankle osteochondritis, subtalar joint disease, and fracture. Patients usually report chronic or recurrent posterior ankle pain caused or exacerbated by forced plantar flexion or push-off maneuvers, such as may occur during dancing, kicking, or downhill running. Diagnosis of posterior ankle impingement syndrome is based primarily on clinical history and physical examination. Radiography, scintigraphy, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging depict associated bone and soft-tissue abnormalities. Symptoms typically improve with nonsurgical management, but surgery may be required in refractory cases.

  15. Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... tear. Contact sports. Athletes in sports such as football and soccer can tear their posterior cruciate ligament ... vehicle accident and participating in sports such as football and soccer are the most common risk factors ...

  16. Characterization of High Density Lipoprotein Particles in Familial Apolipoprotein A-I Deficiency With Premature Coronary Atherosclerosis, Corneal Arcus and Opacification, and Tubo-Eruptive and Planar Xanthomas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We describe two male siblings with homozygous familial apolipoprotein (apo) A-I deficiency, markedly decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, undetectable plasma apoA-1, tubo-eruptive and planar xanthomas, and mild corneal arcus and opacification. Sequencing of the apoA-I gene re...

  17. Summary Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04

    There are 1.936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP) is conducted under the assumption the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. A cut away drawing of a typical cesium chloride (CsCI) capsule and the capsule property and geometry information are provided in Figure 1.1. Strontium fluoride (SrF{sub 2}) capsules are similar in design to CsCl capsules. Further details of capsule design, current state, and reference information are given later in this report and its references. Capsule production and life history is covered in WMP-16938, Capsule Characterization Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project, and is briefly summarized in Section 5.2 of this report.

  18. Equilibrium ignition for ICF capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Colgate, S.A.; Johnson, N.L.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Menikoff, R.; Petschek, A.G.

    1993-12-31

    There are two fundamentally different approaches to igniting DT fuel in an ICF capsule which can be described as equilibrium and hot spot ignition. In both cases, a capsule which can be thought of as a pusher containing the DT fuel is imploded until the fuel reaches ignition conditions. In comparing high-gain ICF targets using cryogenic DT for a pusher with equilibrium ignition targets using high-Z pushers which contain the radiation. The authors point to the intrinsic advantages of the latter. Equilibrium or volume ignition sacrifices high gain for lower losses, lower ignition temperature, lower implosion velocity and lower sensitivity of the more robust capsule to small fluctuations and asymmetries in the drive system. The reduction in gain is about a factor of 2.5, which is small enough to make the more robust equilibrium ignition an attractive alternative.

  19. The tibialis posterior tendon.

    PubMed

    Lhoste-Trouilloud, A

    2012-02-01

    The tibialis posterior tendon is the largest and anteriormost tendon in the medial ankle. It produces plantar flexion and supination of the ankle and stabilizes the plantar vault. Sonographic assessment of this tendon is done with high-frequency, linear-array transducers; an optimal examination requires transverse retromalleolar, longitudinal retromalleolar, and distal longitudinal scans, as well as dynamic studies. Disorders of the posterior tibial tendon include chronic tendinopathy with progressive rupture, tenosynovitis, acute rupture, dislocation and instability, enthesopathies. The most common lesion is a progressive "chewing gum" lesion that develops in a setting of chronic tendinopathy; it is usually seen in overweight women over 50 years of age with valgus flat feet. Medial ankle pain must also be carefully investigated, and the presence of instability assessed with dynamic maneuvers (forced inversion, or dorsiflexion) of the foot. Sonography plays an important role in the investigation of disorders involving the posterior tibial tendon.

  20. [Hemiplegia in posterior cerebral artery infarctions: analysis of various responsible mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Ortiz, N; Barraquer Bordas, L; Dourado, M; Rey, A; Avila, A

    1993-01-01

    When cerebral infarction determines hemiplegia or hemiparesia which accompany a hemilateral sensitive deficit and hemianopsia and even neuropsychologic symptoms (aphasic alterations in the case of injury to the left hemisphere, heminegligence and anosognosy in the case of injury to the right hemisphere) the involvement of a sylvian artery syndrome is usually considered. Nonetheless, recent contributions have reported that such symptoms may appear in infarctions of the territory of the posterior cerebral artery. Two clinical-radiologic observations in this line are presented. Nuclear magnetic resonance demonstrated injury to the posterior arm of the internal capsule in one case and in the other the lesion developed over three times, in the latter of which injury to the cerebral peduncle was produced causing hemiparesia. The authors emphasize that hemiplegia or hemiparesia in some infarctions of the posterior cerebral artery may be due to 1) mesencephalic infarction in the posterior plane of the retromamillar Foix and Hillemand pediculum (or G. Lazorthes interpedunculum), 2) infarction or "ischemic penumbra" in the internal capsule by involvement of any of the perforating branches of the posterior cerebrum irrigating the thalamus, except for the medial posterior choroid artery or even of the Foix and Hillemand thalamus-tuberian pediculum (or Lazorthes inferior and anterior) which principally initiates at the posterior communicating branch with a fragment of the posterior branch of the internal capsule perhaps not always being under its control. In this case, the thrombus occupying the posterior cerebrum may extend to the cited communicating branch or a hemodynamic deficit may be produced in the territory of the same.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P.; Odom, Susan A.; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  2. Glenn Enters his Mercury Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. enters his Mercury capsule, 'Friendship 7' as he prepares for launch of the Mercury-Atlas rocket. On February 20, 1962 Glenn lifted off into space aboard his Mercury Atlas 6 (MA-6) rocket and became the first American to orbit the Earth. After orbiting the Earth 3 times, Friendship 7 landed in the Atlantic Ocean 4 hours, 55 minutes and 23 seconds later, just East of Grand Turk Island in the Bahamas. Glenn and his capsule were recovered by the Navy Destroyer Noa, 21 minutes after splashdown.

  3. Posterior vitreous detachment.

    PubMed

    Thimons, J J

    1992-01-01

    Posterior vitreous detachment is an expected consequence of aging, but it can also be the initiating cause of a retinal detachment. To understand the mechanism of posterior vitreous detachment and its sequelae, it is necessary to appreciate the anatomy of the vitreous, its development, and the pathogenesis of vitreous degeneration. This paper is a discussion of these considerations, the types of complications that may result from vitreous detachment, the proper examination of patients who present with the symptoms of vitreous detachment, and appropriate patient management.

  4. Posterior crossbites in children.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J F; Crevoisier, R; King, D L; Henry, R; Mills, C M

    1996-11-01

    Posterior crossbite, the most common malocclusion in young children, can be caused by a variety of skeletal, muscular, or dental factors. This condition produces insufficient maxillary arch width and is frequently associated with various oral sucking and postural habits. If left untreated, this problem can result in adverse skeletal growth changes. Various mechanical treatment modalities designed to expand the posterior maxillary arch width are available to correct this problem. The appropriate treatment method depends on the patient's age and level of cooperation as well as the determined etiology of the constriction.

  5. Posterior Fossa Tumors.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Lara A; Young Poussaint, Tina

    2017-02-01

    Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of death from solid tumors in childhood. The most common posterior fossa tumors in children are medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymoma, and brainstem glioma. Location, and imaging findings on computed tomography (CT) and conventional MR (cMR) imaging may provide important clues to the most likely diagnosis. Moreover, information obtained from advanced MR imaging techniques increase diagnostic confidence and help distinguish between different histologic tumor types. Here we discuss the most common posterior fossa tumors in children, including typical imaging findings on CT, cMR imaging, and advanced MR imaging studies.

  6. Tibialis Posterior Tendon Entrapment Within Posterior Malleolar Fracture Fragment.

    PubMed

    Fantry, Amanda; Lareau, Craig; Vopat, Bryan; Blankenhorn, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Management of posterior malleolus fractures continues to be controversial, with respect to both need for fixation and fixation methods. Fixation methods include an open posterior approach to the ankle as well as percutaneous reduction and fixation with or without arthroscopy for visualization of the articular surface. Plain radiographs are unreliable in identifying fracture pattern and intraoperative reduction, making arthroscopy a valuable adjunct to posterior malleolus fracture management. In this article, we report a case of tibialis posterior tendon entrapment within a posterior malleolus fracture, as identified by arthroscopy and managed with open reduction. Tibialis posterior tendon entrapment within a posterior malleolus has not been previously reported. Ankle arthroscopy for posterior malleolus fractures provides an opportunity to identify soft-tissue or tendinous entrapment, articular surface reduction, and articular cartilage injuries unlikely to be identified with fluoroscopy alone and should be considered in reduction and fixation of posterior malleolus fractures.

  7. Posterior Knee Loose Bodies: Treated by Posterior Knee Arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Ho Lam; Lui, Tun Hing

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The posterior portion of the knee joint, which includes the tibial attachment of the posterior cruciate ligament and the posterior horn of the menisci, has been called a “blind spot” because it is difficult to observe this area under arthroscopy through standard anterior portals. Posteromedial, posterolateral, and posterior transseptal portals have been developed for visualization and instrumentation of the posteromedial and posterolateral compartments of the knee joint. Case Report: A 57-year-old man presented of persistent left posterior knee pain for 1 year. Radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging showed posterior knee encapsulated loose bodies. The symptoms did not respond to physiotherapy and analgesics. The loose bodies were removed via posterior knee arthroscopy. The symptoms subsided afterward. Conclusion: Lateral portal of the knee allows establishment of the posterolateral portal under endoscopic visualization, and the loose bodies of the posterior compartment of the knee can be effectively removed via the posterior knee arthroscopy. PMID:28819604

  8. Closeup View - Sigma "7" Capsule - Recovery Ship

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-10-03

    S62-06175 (3 Oct. 1962) --- Closeup view of the Mercury-Atlas 8 (MA-8) Sigma 7 capsule being lowered to recovery ship's deck. Navy personnel remove the floatation device before opening the capsule. Photo credit: NASA

  9. New frontiers in capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Fireman, Zvi; Kopelman, Yael

    2007-08-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) was launched at the beginning of this millennium and has since become a well-established tool for evaluating the entire small bowel for manifold pathologies. CE far exceeded our early expectations by providing us with a tool to establish the correct diagnosis for elusive gastrointestinal (GI) conditions such as obscure GI bleeding, Crohn's disease, polyposis syndrome, and others. Recent evidence has shown CE to be superior to other imaging modalities, such as small bowel follow-through X-ray, colonoscopy with ileoscopy, computerized tomographic enterography, magnetic resonance enteroclysis, and push enteroscopy, for diagnosing small bowel pathologies. Gastroenterologists would prefer the convenience of a single capsule that can create images of the area from the oral cavity to the anal canal in one 'shot'. Because of anatomic and physiologic differences in the GI tract, however, it may not be possible to use the same capsule and so we would need a different one for each organ. In addition to the pioneer small bowel capsule, there is now an esophageal capsule, and a colonoscopy capsule will soon be available. The ideal CE should be capable of performing a biopsy or carrying out an online analysis (an 'optical' biopsy) and 'stop' bleeding by an epinephrine injection, a heat probe, argon plasma coagulation, etc. The ultimate capsule would include special detectors for white blood cells, and it would check oncological markers (e.g. CEA, CA 19-9), perform serology tests (e.g. antiendomysial, IgE), and measure various cytokines, pH levels, temperature and pressure, as well as deliver drugs. The capsule's motility feature in the small bowel may open a window to study the pathophysiology of relatively elusive medical entities, such as irritable bowel syndrome. The optimal capsule needs to contain an automatic computerized system for automatic detection of pathologies, such as that present in the ECG-Holter recording, in order to overcome the drawback

  10. Sensor capsule for diagnosis of gastric disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holen, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Motility and pH sensor capsule is developed to monitor gastric acidity, pressure, and temperature. Capsule does not interfere with digestion. Sensor is capsule which includes pH electrode, Pitran pressure transducer, and thermistor temperature sensor all potted in epoxy and enclosed in high density polyethylene sheath.

  11. Mentoring. Information Capsule. Volume 0603

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2006-01-01

    Mentoring is a structured one-on-one relationship between an adult and youth that focuses on the needs of the youth, providing him or her with support, guidance, and assistance. This information capsule summarizes research findings on the impact of mentoring on factors such as academic achievement, social behaviors, attitudes, drug and alcohol…

  12. Capsulitis of the Second Toe

    MedlinePlus

    ... supportive ligaments weaken, leading to failure of the joint to stabilize the toe. The unstable toe drifts toward the big toe and eventually crosses over and lies on top of the big toe—resulting in crossover toe, the end stage of capsulitis. The symptoms of crossover toe ...

  13. Osmotic buckling of spherical capsules.

    PubMed

    Knoche, Sebastian; Kierfeld, Jan

    2014-11-07

    We study the buckling of elastic spherical shells under osmotic pressure with the osmolyte concentration of the exterior solution as a control parameter. We compare our results for the bifurcation behavior with results for buckling under mechanical pressure control, that is, with an empty capsule interior. We find striking differences for the buckling states between osmotic and mechanical buckling. Mechanical pressure control always leads to fully collapsed states with opposite sides in contact, whereas uncollapsed states with a single finite dimple are generic for osmotic pressure control. For sufficiently large interior osmolyte concentrations, osmotic pressure control is qualitatively similar to buckling under volume control with the volume prescribed by the osmolyte concentrations inside and outside the shell. We present a quantitative theory which also captures the influence of shell elasticity on the relationship between osmotic pressure and volume. These findings are relevant for the control of buckled shapes in applications. We show how the osmolyte concentration can be used to control the volume of buckled shells. An accurate analytical formula is derived for the relationship between the osmotic pressure, the elastic moduli and the volume of buckled capsules. This also allows use of elastic capsules as osmotic pressure sensors or deduction of elastic properties and the internal osmolyte concentration from shape changes in response to osmotic pressure changes. We apply our findings to published experimental data on polyelectrolyte capsules.

  14. Neonatal Microstructural Development of the Internal Capsule on Diffusion Tensor Imaging Correlates with Severity of Gait and Motor Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Jessica; Mirmiran, Majid; Butler, Erin E.; Lin, Cindy Y.; Barnes, Patrick D.; Kermoian, Rosanne; Stevenson, David K.

    2007-01-01

    Neonatal microstructural development in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule (PLIC) was assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fractional anisotropy (FA) in 24 very-low-birthweight preterm infants at 37 weeks' gestational age and compared with the children's gait and motor deficits at 4 years of age. There were 14 participants with…

  15. Neonatal Microstructural Development of the Internal Capsule on Diffusion Tensor Imaging Correlates with Severity of Gait and Motor Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Jessica; Mirmiran, Majid; Butler, Erin E.; Lin, Cindy Y.; Barnes, Patrick D.; Kermoian, Rosanne; Stevenson, David K.

    2007-01-01

    Neonatal microstructural development in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule (PLIC) was assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fractional anisotropy (FA) in 24 very-low-birthweight preterm infants at 37 weeks' gestational age and compared with the children's gait and motor deficits at 4 years of age. There were 14 participants with…

  16. Differential staining of bacteria: capsule stain.

    PubMed

    Breakwell, Donald P; Moyes, Rita B; Reynolds, Jackie

    2009-11-01

    Bacterial capsules are composed of high-molecular-weight polysaccharides and/or polypeptides, and are associated with virulence and biofilm formation. Unfortunately, capsules do not stain well with crystal violet, methylene blue, or other simple stains. This unit describes two methods of capsule staining. The first is a wet-mount method using india ink; the capsule is visualized as a refractile zone surrounding a cell. The second is a direct-staining dry-mount method that precipitates copper sulfate and leaves the capsule as a pale blue zone. Both methods are easily performed within approximately 5 min.

  17. Posterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Go, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 20-25% of all acute strokes occur in the posterior circulation. These strokes can be rather difficult to diagnose because they present in such diverse ways, and can easily be mistaken for more benign entities. A fastidious history, physical exam, high clinical suspicion, and appropriate use of imaging are essential for the emergency physician to properly diagnose and treat these patients. Expert stroke neurologist consultation should be utilized liberally.

  18. Anterior limb of the internal capsule in schizophrenia: a diffusion tensor tractography study.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Gudrun; Nestor, Paul G; Oh, Jungsu S; Levitt, James J; Kindleman, Gordon; Bouix, Sylvain; Fitzsimmons, Jennifer; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Kikinis, Ron; McCarley, Robert W; Shenton, Martha E; Kubicki, Marek

    2012-09-01

    Thalamo-cortical feedback loops play a key role in the processing and coordination of processing and integration of perceptual inputs and outputs, and disruption in this connection has long been hypothesized to contribute significantly to neuropsychological disturbances in schizophrenia. To test this hypothesis, we applied diffusion tensor tractography to 18 patients suffering schizophrenia and 20 control subjects. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was evaluated in the bilateral anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule, and correlated with clinical and neurocognitive measures. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia showed significantly reduced FA bilaterally in the anterior but not the posterior limb of the internal capsule, compared with healthy control subjects. Lower FA correlated with lower scores on tests of declarative episodic memory in the patient group only. These findings suggest that disruptions, bilaterally, in thalamo-cortical connections in schizophrenia may contribute to disease-related impairment in the coordination of mnemonic processes of encoding and retrieval that are vital for efficient learning of new information.

  19. [Posterior cortical atrophy].

    PubMed

    Solyga, Volker Moræus; Western, Elin; Solheim, Hanne; Hassel, Bjørnar; Kerty, Emilia

    2015-06-02

    Posterior cortical atrophy is a neurodegenerative condition with atrophy of posterior parts of the cerebral cortex, including the visual cortex and parts of the parietal and temporal cortices. It presents early, in the 50s or 60s, with nonspecific visual disturbances that are often misinterpreted as ophthalmological, which can delay the diagnosis. The purpose of this article is to present current knowledge about symptoms, diagnostics and treatment of this condition. The review is based on a selection of relevant articles in PubMed and on the authors' own experience with the patient group. Posterior cortical atrophy causes gradually increasing impairment in reading, distance judgement, and the ability to perceive complex images. Examination of higher visual functions, neuropsychological testing, and neuroimaging contribute to diagnosis. In the early stages, patients do not have problems with memory or insight, but cognitive impairment and dementia can develop. It is unclear whether the condition is a variant of Alzheimer's disease, or whether it is a separate disease entity. There is no established treatment, but practical measures such as the aid of social care workers, telephones with large keypads, computers with voice recognition software and audiobooks can be useful. Currently available treatment has very limited effect on the disease itself. Nevertheless it is important to identify and diagnose the condition in its early stages in order to be able to offer patients practical assistance in their daily lives.

  20. Posterior Shoulder Instability.

    PubMed

    Brelin, Alaina; Dickens, Jonathan F

    2017-09-01

    Posterior shoulder instability is a relatively uncommon condition, occurring in ∼10% of those with shoulder instability. Because of the rarity of the condition and the lack of knowledge in treatment, it is often misdiagnosed or patients experience a delay in diagnosis. Posterior instability typically affects athletes participating in contact or overhead sports and is usually the result of repetitive microtrauma or blunt force with the shoulder in the provocative position of flexion, adduction, and internal rotation, leading to recurrent subluxation events. Acute traumatic posterior dislocations are rare injuries with an incidence rate of 1.1 per 100,000 person years. This rate is ∼20 times lower than that of anterior shoulder dislocations. Risk factors for recurrent instability are: (1) age below 40 at time of first instability; (2) dislocation during a seizure; (3) a large reverse Hill-Sachs lesion; and (4) glenoid retroversion. A firm understanding of the pathoanatomy, along with pertinent clinical and diagnostic modalities is required to accurately diagnosis and manage this condition.

  1. Persistent occiput posterior.

    PubMed

    Barth, William H

    2015-03-01

    Persistent occiput posterior (OP) is associated with increased rates of maternal and newborn morbidity. Its diagnosis by physical examination is challenging but is improved with bedside ultrasonography. Occiput posterior discovered in the active phase or early second stage of labor usually resolves spontaneously. When it does not, prophylactic manual rotation may decrease persistent OP and its associated complications. When delivery is indicated for arrest of descent in the setting of persistent OP, a pragmatic approach is suggested. Suspected fetal macrosomia, a biparietal diameter above the pelvic inlet or a maternal pelvis with android features should prompt cesarean delivery. Nonrotational operative vaginal delivery is appropriate when the maternal pelvis has a narrow anterior segment but ample room posteriorly, like with anthropoid features. When all other conditions are met and the fetal head arrests in an OP position in a patient with gynecoid pelvic features and ample room anteriorly, options include cesarean delivery, nonrotational operative vaginal delivery, and rotational procedures, either manual or with the use of rotational forceps. Recent literature suggests that maternal and fetal outcomes with rotational forceps are better than those reported in older series. Although not without significant challenges, a role remains for teaching and practicing selected rotational forceps operations in contemporary obstetrics.

  2. Reactor for making uniform capsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Anikumar, Amrutur V. (Inventor); Lacik, Igor (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel reactor for making capsules with uniform membrane. The reactor includes a source for providing a continuous flow of a first liquid through the reactor; a source for delivering a steady stream of drops of a second liquid to the entrance of the reactor; a main tube portion having at least one loop, and an exit opening, where the exit opening is at a height substantially equal to the entrance. In addition, a method for using the novel reactor is provided. This method involves providing a continuous stream of a first liquid; introducing uniformly-sized drops of the second liquid into the stream of the first liquid; allowing the drops to react in the stream for a pre-determined period of time; and collecting the capsules.

  3. Capsule endoscopy: The road ahead

    PubMed Central

    Singeap, Ana-Maria; Stanciu, Carol; Trifan, Anca

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction into clinical practice 15 years ago, capsule endoscopy (CE) has become the first-line investigation procedure in some small bowel pathologies, and more recently, dedicated esophageal and colon CE have expanded the fields of application to include the upper and lower gastrointestinal disorders. During this time, CE has become increasingly popular among gastroenterologists, with more than 2 million capsule examinations performed worldwide, and nearly 3000 PubMed-listed studies on its different aspects published. This huge interest in CE may be explained by its non-invasive nature, patient comfort, safety, and access to anatomical regions unattainable via conventional endoscopy. However, CE has several limitations which impede its wider clinical applications, including the lack of therapeutic capabilities, inability to obtain biopsies and control its locomotion. Several research groups are currently working to overcome these limitations, while novel devices able to control capsule movement, obtain high quality images, insufflate the gut lumen, perform chromoendoscopy, biopsy of suspect lesions, or even deliver targeted drugs directly to specific sites are under development. Overlooking current limitations, especially as some of them have already been successfully surmounted, and based on the tremendous progress in technology, it is expected that, by the end of next 15 years, CE able to perform both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures will remain the major form of digestive endoscopy. This review summarizes the literature that prognosticates about the future developments of CE. PMID:26755883

  4. Effect of posteroinferior capsule tightness on contact pressure and area beneath the coracoacromial arch during pitching motion.

    PubMed

    Muraki, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Zhao, Kristin D; Sperling, John W; Steinmann, Scott P; Cofield, Robert H; An, Kai-Nan

    2010-03-01

    Tightness of the posteroinferior capsule is assumed to be the cause of internal rotation loss in baseball pitchers. Although the relationship between posterior capsule and subacromial impingement has been recognized, this relationship during the baseball-pitching motion is unclear. Contact pressure during baseball-pitching motion increases with posterior capsule tightness. Controlled laboratory study. Eight fresh-frozen shoulders were used. The peak contact pressure and area on the coracoacromial arch were measured on a custom-designed shoulder experimental device capable of 6 degrees of freedom motion. Simultaneously, the sites of peak pressure on the coracoacromial arch and humerus were observed from various angles. The posteroinferior capsule tightness was simulated by plicating the capsule in the region from 6 to 8 o'clock. The static testing positions correlated to the early cocking, late cocking, acceleration, deceleration, and follow-through phases of the pitching motion. The peak contact pressure during the follow-through phase (0.63 + or - 0.50 MPa) significantly increased with posteroinferior capsule tightness (1.00 + or - 0.65 MPa) (P = .014). Additionally, the contact area on the coracoacromial ligament during the follow-through phase (0.98 + or - 0.67 cm(2)) significantly increased with posteroinferior capsule tightness (1.47 + or - 0.91 cm(2)) (P < .001). The site of the peak contact pressure did not change between the 2 conditions. Our findings demonstrate that posteroinferior capsule tightness leads to higher contact pressure under the subacromial arch and increased contact area, particularly on the coracoacromial ligament during the follow-through phase. This tightness may affect risk of injury of the rotator cuff and its surrounding tissues by increasing subacromial contact during pitching.

  5. Corrected coronary opacification decrease from coronary computed tomography angiography: Validation with quantitative 13N-ammonia positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Benz, Dominik C; Gräni, Christoph; Ferro, Paola; Neumeier, Luis; Messerli, Michael; Possner, Mathias; Clerc, Olivier F; Gebhard, Catherine; Gaemperli, Oliver; Pazhenkottil, Aju P; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Buechel, Ronny R

    2017-07-06

    To assess the functional relevance of a coronary artery stenosis, corrected coronary opacification (CCO) decrease derived from coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has been proposed. The present study aims at validating CCO decrease with quantitative 13N-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). This retrospective study consists of 39 patients who underwent hybrid CCTA/PET-MPI. From CCTA, attenuation in the coronary lumen was measured before and after a stenosis and corrected to the aorta to calculate CCO and its decrease. Relative flow reserve (RFR) was calculated by dividing the stress myocardial blood flow (MBF) of a vessel territory subtended by a stenotic coronary by the stress MBF of the reference territories without stenoses. RFR was abnormal in 11 vessel territories (27%). CCO decrease yielded a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and accuracy for prediction of an abnormal RFR of 73%, 70%, 88%, 47%, and 70%, respectively. CCTA-derived CCO decrease has moderate diagnostic accuracy to predict an abnormal RFR in PET-MPI. However, its high negative predictive value to rule out functional relevance of a given lesion may confer clinical implications in the diagnostic work-up of patients with a coronary stenosis.

  6. Effect of primary posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis with posterior optic buttonholing on pilocarpine-induced IOL shift.

    PubMed

    Leydolt, Christina; Menapace, Rupert; Stifter, Eva-Maria; Prinz, Ana; Neumayer, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    To assess intraocular lens (IOL) shift along the visual axis induced by ciliary muscle contraction with pilocarpine after cataract surgery and to compare primary posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis (CCC) and posterior optic buttonholing with IOLs implanted in the bag. Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Clinical trial. Eyes with age-related cataract had cataract surgery with implantation of a nonaccommodating IOL (AF-1 YA-60BB). Surgery was performed with primary posterior CCC and posterior buttonholing in 1 eye (study eyes) and with conventional in-the-bag implantation in the contralateral eye (control eyes). After a minimum of 6 months postoperatively, the anterior chamber depth was assessed with partial coherence interferometry before and after application of pilocarpine 2.0% and, after a washout interval of 1 week, before and after the application of cyclopentolate 1.0%. Forty eyes of 20 patients were enrolled. A slight backward shift of the IOL (+78 μm) in study eyes and in control eyes (+118 μm) was detected after pilocarpine application (both P<.05). No significant difference in IOL shift was found between study eyes and control eyes (P=.19). Combined primary posterior CCC and posterior optic buttonholing did not affect IOL shift during pharmacologically stimulated ciliary muscle contraction compared with in-the-bag implanted IOLs. Capsule fibrosis diminished with primary posterior CCC but did not seem to be the only limiting factor in the accommodative IOL shift. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Posterior interosseous neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kele, Henrich; Xia, Annie; Weiler, Markus; Schwarz, Daniel; Bendszus, Martin; Pham, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the spatial pattern of lesion dispersion in posterior interosseous neuropathy syndrome (PINS) by high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography. Methods: This prospective study was approved by the local ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. In 19 patients with PINS and 20 healthy controls, a standardized magnetic resonance neurography protocol at 3-tesla was performed with coverage of the upper arm and elbow (T2-weighted fat-saturated: echo time/repetition time 52/7,020 milliseconds, in-plane resolution 0.27 × 0.27 mm2). Lesion classification of the radial nerve trunk and its deep branch (which becomes the posterior interosseous nerve) was performed by visual rating and additional quantitative analysis of normalized T2 signal of radial nerve voxels. Results: Of 19 patients with PINS, only 3 (16%) had a focal neuropathy at the entry of the radial nerve deep branch into the supinator muscle at elbow/forearm level. The other 16 (84%) had proximal radial nerve lesions at the upper arm level with a predominant lesion focus 8.3 ± 4.6 cm proximal to the humeroradial joint. Most of these lesions (75%) followed a specific somatotopic pattern, involving only those fascicles that would form the posterior interosseous nerve more distally. Conclusions: PINS is not necessarily caused by focal compression at the supinator muscle but is instead frequently a consequence of partial fascicular lesions of the radial nerve trunk at the upper arm level. Neuroimaging should be considered as a complementary diagnostic method in PINS. PMID:27683851

  8. Symptomatic posterior mediastinal angioleiomyoma.

    PubMed

    I, Hoseok; Jeong, Yeon Joo; Choi, Kyung Un; Kim, Yeong-Dae

    2008-08-30

    We report a case of a symptomatic angioleiomyoma in the left posterior mediastinum. A 66-year-old woman presented with left back and flank pain for 6 months. Chest computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a well-circumscribed 4.3 cm round mass. The mass was initially diagnosed as nerve sheath tumor, because of her symptoms and its close location to the sympathetic trunk and intercostal nerve. It was uneventfully removed through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. The pathology revealed an angioleiomyoma.

  9. Posterior Urethral Strictures

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Joel; Wisenbaugh, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic fracture urethral injuries are typically partial and more often complete disruptions of the most proximal bulbar and distal membranous urethra. Emergency management includes suprapubic tube placement. Subsequent primary realignment to place a urethral catheter remains a controversial topic, but what is not controversial is that when there is the development of a stricture (which is usually obliterative with a distraction defect) after suprapubic tube placement or urethral catheter removal, the standard of care is delayed urethral reconstruction with excision and primary anastomosis. This paper reviews the management of patients who suffer pelvic fracture urethral injuries and the techniques of preoperative urethral imaging and subsequent posterior urethroplasty. PMID:26691883

  10. Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens versus extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with posterior chamber intraocular lens for age-related cataract.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Samantha R; Riaz, Yasmin; Evans, Jennifer R

    2014-01-29

    ). Studies varied in visual acuity assessment methods and time frames at which outcomes were reported. Participants in the phacoemulsification group were more likely to achieve UCVA of 6/12 or more at three months (risk ratio (RR) 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36 to 2.41, two studies, 492 participants) and one year (RR 1.99, 95% CI 1.45 to 2.73, one study, 439 participants). People in the phacoemulsification group were also more likely to achieve BCVA of 6/12 or more at three months (RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.22, four studies, 645 participants) and one year (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.14, one study, 439 participants), but the difference between the two groups was smaller. No trials reported BCVA less than 6/60 but three trials reported BCVA worse than 6/9 and 6/18: there were fewer events of this outcome in the phacoemulsification group than the ECCE group at both the three-month (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.55, three studies, 604 participants) and 12-month time points (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.05, one study, 439 participants). Three trials reported posterior capsule rupture: this occurred more commonly in the ECCE group than the phacoemulsification group but small numbers of events mean the true effect is uncertain (Peto odds ratio (OR) 0.56, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.22, three studies, 688 participants). Iris prolapse, cystoid macular oedema and posterior capsular opacification were also higher in the ECCE group than the phacoemulsification group. Phacoemulsification surgical costs were higher than ECCE in two studies. A third study reported similar costs for phacoemulsification and ECCE up to six weeks postoperatively, but following this time point ECCE incurred additional costs due to additional visits, spectacles and laser treatment to achieve a similar outcome. Removing cataract by phacoemulsification may result in a better visual acuity compared to ECCE, with a lower complication rate. The review is currently underpowered to detect differences for rarer outcomes

  11. Capsule-Transmitted Gut Symbiotic Bacterium of the Japanese Common Plataspid Stinkbug, Megacopta punctatissima

    PubMed Central

    Fukatsu, Takema; Hosokawa, Takahiro

    2002-01-01

    The Japanese common plataspid stinkbug, Megacopta punctatissima, deposits small brown particles, or symbiont capsules, on the underside of the egg mass for the purpose of transmission of symbiotic bacteria to the offspring. We investigated the microbiological aspects of the bacteria contained in the capsule, such as microbial diversity, phylogenetic placement, localization in vivo, and fitness effects on the host insect. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA clones revealed that a single bacterial species dominates the microbiota in the capsule. The bacterium was not detected in the eggs but in the capsules, which unequivocally demonstrated that the bacterium is transmitted to the offspring of the insect orally rather than transovarially, through probing of the capsule content. Molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that the bacterium belongs to the γ-subdivision of the Proteobacteria. In adult insects the bacterium was localized in the posterior section of the midgut. Deprivation of the bacterium from the nymphs resulted in retarded development, arrested growth, abnormal body coloration, and other symptoms, suggesting that the bacterium is essential for normal development and growth of the host insect. PMID:11772649

  12. Capsule-transmitted gut symbiotic bacterium of the Japanese common plataspid stinkbug, Megacopta punctatissima.

    PubMed

    Fukatsu, Takema; Hosokawa, Takahiro

    2002-01-01

    The Japanese common plataspid stinkbug, Megacopta punctatissima, deposits small brown particles, or symbiont capsules, on the underside of the egg mass for the purpose of transmission of symbiotic bacteria to the offspring. We investigated the microbiological aspects of the bacteria contained in the capsule, such as microbial diversity, phylogenetic placement, localization in vivo, and fitness effects on the host insect. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA clones revealed that a single bacterial species dominates the microbiota in the capsule. The bacterium was not detected in the eggs but in the capsules, which unequivocally demonstrated that the bacterium is transmitted to the offspring of the insect orally rather than transovarially, through probing of the capsule content. Molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that the bacterium belongs to the gamma-subdivision of the Proteobacteria. In adult insects the bacterium was localized in the posterior section of the midgut. Deprivation of the bacterium from the nymphs resulted in retarded development, arrested growth, abnormal body coloration, and other symptoms, suggesting that the bacterium is essential for normal development and growth of the host insect.

  13. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/poly(dopamine) capsules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Teo, Boon M; Goldie, Kenneth N; Städler, Brigitte

    2014-05-20

    Polymer capsules are an interesting concept considered in nanobiotechnology. Approaches that facilitate their assembly remain sought after. Poly(dopamine) (PDA) has been considered and successfully applied in this context. We recently demonstrated that PDA could be copolymerized with different types of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNiPAAm) to assemble mixed films on planar substrates. Herein, we transferred this approach onto colloidal substrates and characterized the film thickness depending on the film composition and template particles size. While the membrane of capsules assembled using 5 μm template particles exhibited strong dependency on the film composition, smaller templates led to capsules with similar membrane thickness. We then compared the permeability of different capsules using fluorescently labeled dextran and fluorescein. We found that the permeability of capsules was heavily dependent on the polymer composition and the template particle size. These fundamental findings contribute to the potential of these capsules, assembled in one-step, for biomedical applications.

  14. Capsule endoscopy in 2005: facts and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Delvaux, Michel; Gérard Gay

    2006-02-01

    Capsule endoscopy has recently been introduced to explore endoscopically the whole small intestine, fulfilling a gap between examinations of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. The technique consists of a miniaturized endoscope, embedded in a swallowable capsule that is propulsed by peristalsis and achieves the journey to the right colon in five to eight hours. Images captured by the capsule are recorded on a hard drive worn in a belt by the patient. The main indication for capsule examination is the examination of the small bowel to find a bleeding lesion in patients with obscure bleeding. Several studies have shown that the diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy is superior to that of push enteroscopy in this indication. Other possible indications are patients with suspected intestinal location of Crohn's disease, familial adenomatous polyposis, complicated coeliac disease and lesions due NSAIDs. The review contains information on the technical aspects of capsule endoscopy and discusses the indications. Issues of safety and tolerance are also discussed.

  15. Posterior Cortical Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Lehmann, Manja; Schott, Jonathan M; Rabinovici, Gil D; Rossor, Martin N; Fox, Nick C

    2013-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome that is characterized by a progressive decline in visuospatial, visuoperceptual, literacy and praxic skills. The progressive neurodegeneration affecting parietal, occipital and occipito-temporal cortices which underlies PCA is attributable to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the majority of patients. However, alternative underlying aetiologies including Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB), corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and prion disease have also been identified, and not all PCA patients have atrophy on clinical imaging. This heterogeneity has led to diagnostic and terminological inconsistencies, caused difficulty comparing studies from different centres, and limited the generalizability of clinical trials and investigations of factors driving phenotypic variability. Significant challenges remain in identifying the factors associated with both the selective vulnerability of posterior cortical regions and the young age of onset seen in PCA. Greater awareness of the syndrome and agreement over the correspondence between syndrome-and disease-level classifications are required in order to improve diagnostic accuracy, research study design and clinical management. PMID:22265212

  16. Posterior Fossa Meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Essam A.; Taibah, Abdel Kader; Achilli, Vittorio; Aristegui, Miguel; Mazzoni, Antonio; Sanna, Mario

    1994-01-01

    Posterior fossa meningioma is the second most common tumor in the cerebellopontine angle. It has a higher rate of postoperative morbidity and mortality compared to acoustic neuroma. Forty posterior fossa meningioma patients managed in our centers were reviewed. Thirty-nine patients were managed surgically with 42 surgical procedures. The approaches used were the translabyrinthine approach in 18 patients (43%), the modified transcochlear in 11 cases (26%), the petro-occipital transsigmoid in 5 cases (12%), the suboccipital in 4 cases (10%), the petro-occipital trassigmoid transcervical in 2 cases (5%), the petro-occipital transsigmoid transtentorial in 1 case (2%), and a subtemporal transtentorial for another case (2%). Facial nerve anatomical integrity was preserved in 87% of procedures but was interrupted in 5 cases, with 4 of the latter subsequently repaired. Total tumor removal was accomplished in 38 cases. A second-stage total tumor removal is planned for the remaining case. There was only one case of perioperative death and no cases of radiological recurrence so far. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4p206-bFigure 5p207-bFigure 5 PMID:17171173

  17. Perform Ultrasonic Testing on Cs Capsule Overpacks

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS, S.J.

    2000-04-06

    This procedure provides a safe, uniform method for the performance of the ultrasonic weld inspection of the Cesium capsule overpacks. The inspection system will detect cracks, lack of fusion, and lack of penetration. This computer controlled automated system will perform the examination once the capsule overpack has been placed in the pool cell. Examination of the capsule overpacks will be in accordance with drawing H-283014, REV. 0 ,and a certified NDE examiner will perform the test procedure, provide analysis, and test documentation.

  18. Postoperative radiation and implant capsule contraction

    SciTech Connect

    Caffee, H.H.; Mendenhall, N.P.; Mendenhall, W.M.; Bova, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    Occasionally radiation is required as adjunctive therapy following mastectomy for breast cancer. The effects of radiation on a developing implant capsule are unknown, but they are very important in relation to the increased use of immediate reconstruction. Experiments were performed on rabbits to study the effects of postoperative radiation therapy on capsule contraction and thickness. The results of these experiments suggest that radiation has no effect on implant capsules.

  19. Temporal gene expression profiling of the rat knee joint capsule during immobilization-induced joint contractures.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kayleigh; Sun, Fangui; Trudel, Guy; Sebastiani, Paola; Laneuville, Odette

    2015-05-26

    Contractures of the knee joint cause disability and handicap. Recovering range of motion is recognized by arthritic patients as their preference for improved health outcome secondary only to pain management. Clinical and experimental studies provide evidence that the posterior knee capsule prevents the knee from achieving full extension. This study was undertaken to investigate the dynamic changes of the joint capsule transcriptome during the progression of knee joint contractures induced by immobilization. We performed a microarray analysis of genes expressed in the posterior knee joint capsule following induction of a flexion contracture by rigidly immobilizing the rat knee joint over a time-course of 16 weeks. Fold changes of expression values were measured and co-expressed genes were identified by clustering based on time-series analysis. Genes associated with immobilization were further analyzed to reveal pathways and biological significance and validated by immunohistochemistry on sagittal sections of knee joints. Changes in expression with a minimum of 1.5 fold changes were dominated by a decrease in expression for 7732 probe sets occurring at week 8 while the expression of 2251 probe sets increased. Clusters of genes with similar profiles of expression included a total of 162 genes displaying at least a 2 fold change compared to week 1. Functional analysis revealed ontology categories corresponding to triglyceride metabolism, extracellular matrix and muscle contraction. The altered expression of selected genes involved in the triglyceride biosynthesis pathway; AGPAT-9, and of the genes P4HB and HSP47, both involved in collagen synthesis, was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Gene expression in the knee joint capsule was sensitive to joint immobility and provided insights into molecular mechanisms relevant to the pathophysiology of knee flexion contractures. Capsule responses to immobilization was dynamic and characterized by modulation of at least three

  20. Duodenum identification mechanism for capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sang Hyo; Mohy-Ud-Din, Zia; Cho, Jin Ho

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study is to implement a duodenum identification mechanism for capsule endoscopes because commercially available capsule endoscopes sometimes present a false negative diagnosis of the duodenum. One reason for the false negative diagnosis is that the duodenum is the fastest moving part within the gastrointestinal tract and the current frame rate of the capsule is not fast enough. When the capsule can automatically identify that it is in the duodenum, the frame rate of the capsule can be temporarily increased to reduce the possibility of a false negative diagnosis. This study proposes a mechanism to identify the duodenum using capacitive proximity sensors that can distinguish the surrounding tissue and transmit data using RF communication. The implemented capsule (D11 mm × L22 mm) was smaller than the commercially available capsule endoscopes, and power consumption was as low as 0.642 mW. Preexperiments were conducted to select an appropriate electrode width in order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and in vitro experiments were conducted to verify whether the implemented capsule could identify the duodenum within 3 s. The experiment showed that the identification rate of duodenum was 93% when the velocity of the capsule was less than 1 cm/s.

  1. A Laboratory Exercise in Capsule Making

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To create and implement a compounding laboratory exercise utilizing a variety of techniques and equipment. Design A 3-hour laboratory exercise on preparing compound prescriptions for capsules was developed and taught to first-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students. Students completed appropriate preparations and calculation of ingredients and prepared capsules using a hand-packing technique and a capsule-filling machine. The students then individually weighed the capsules and performed batch testing for uniformity. Assessment Ninety-six percent of the students who completed the laboratory performed the necessary calculations for machine-prepared capsules correctly and 100% completed the calculations for the hand-filled capsules correctly. With the hand-filled capsules, 100% of the students processed all 4 units within ±5% of the stated capsule weight and capsules were deemed successful and accurate. Conclusion Students acquired a firm grasp of basic compounding techniques and the skills to prepare accurate, safe, and uniform dosage forms for patients. PMID:19214273

  2. Equilibrium ignition for ICF capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Colgate, S.A.; Johnson, N.L.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Menikoff, R.; Petschek, A.G. )

    1994-10-05

    In comparing high-gain ICF targets using cryogenic DT for a pusher with equilibrium ignition targets using high-[ital Z] pushers which contain the radiation, we point to the intrinsic advantages of the latter. Equilibrium or volume ignition sacrifices high gain for lower losses, lower ignition temperature, lower implosion velocity, and lower sensitivity of the more robust capsule to small fluctuations and asymmetries in the drive system. The reduction in gain is about a factor of 2.5, which is small enough to make the more robust equilibrium ignition an atractive alternative. [copyright] 1994 [ital American] [ital Institute] [ital of] [ital Physics

  3. Genesis Sample Return Capsule Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willcockson, Bill

    2005-01-01

    I. Simple Entry Capsule Concept: a) Spin-Stabilized/No Active Control Systems; b) Ballistic Entry for 11.04 km/sec Velocity; c) No Heatshield Separation During Entry; d) Parachute Deploy via g-Switch + Timer. II. Stardust Design Inheritance a) Forebody Shape; b) Seal Concepts; c) Parachute Deploy Control; d) Utah Landing Site (UTTR). III. TPS Systems a) Heatshield - Carbon-Carbon - First Planetary Entry; b) Backshell - SLA-561V - Flight Heritage from Pathfinder, MER; d) Forebody Structural Penetrations Aerothermal and TPS Design Process has the Same Methodology as Used for Pathfinder, MER Flight Vehicles.

  4. Critical swelling of fluctuating capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamant, Haim; Haleva, Emir

    2009-03-01

    In many natural transport processes the solute molecules to be transported are encapsulated in semipermeable, flexible membrane vesicles of micron size. We study the swelling of such fluctuating capsules, as the number of encapsulated particles is increased, or the concentration of the outer solution is decreased. The approach to the maximum volume-to-area ratio and the associated buildup of membrane tension involve a continuous phase transition and follow universal scaling laws. The criticality and its features are model-independent, arising solely from the interplay between volume and surface degrees of freedom.ootnotetextE. Haleva and H. Diamant, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 078104 (2008).

  5. Novel posterior fixation keratoprosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacombe, Emmanuel

    1992-08-01

    The keratoprosthesis is the last solution for corneally blind patients that cannot benefit from corneal transplants. Keratoprostheses that have been designed to be affixed anteriorly usually necessitate multi-step surgical procedures and are continuously subjected to the extrusion forces generated by the positive intraocular pressure; therefore, clinical results in patients prove inconsistent. We proposed a novel keratoprosthesis concept that utilizes posterior corneal fixation which `a priori' minimizes the risk of aqueous leakage and expulsion. This prosthesis is implanted in a single procedure thereby reducing the number of surgical complications normally associated with anterior fixation devices. In addition, its novel design makes this keratoprosthesis implantable in phakic eyes. With an average follow-up of 13 months (range 3 to 25 months), our results on 21 cases are encouraging. Half of the keratoprostheses were implanted in severe burn cases, with the remainder in cases of pseudo- pemphigus. Good visual results and cosmetic appearance were obtained in 14 of 21 eyes.

  6. [Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome].

    PubMed

    Petrović, Branko; Kostić, Vladimir; Sternić, Nadezda; Kolar, Jovo; Tasić, Nebojsa

    2003-01-01

    Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome was introduced into clinical practice in 1996 in order to describe unique syndrome, clinically expressed during hypertensive and uremic encephalopathy, eclampsia and during immunosuppressive therapy [1]. First clinical investigations showed that leucoencephalopathy is major characteristic of the syndrome, but further investigations showed no significant destruction in white cerebral tissue [2, 3, 4]. In majority of cases changes are localise in posterior irrigation area of the brain and in the most severe cases anterior region is also involved. Taking into consideration all above mentioned facts, the suggested term was Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) for the syndrome clinically expressed by neurological manifestations derived from cortical and subcortical changes localised in posterior regions of cerebral hemispheres, cerebral trunk and cerebellum [5]. Patient, aged 53 years, was re-hospitalized in Cardiovascular Institute "Dediwe" two months after successful aorto-coronary bypass performed in June 2001 due to the chest bone infection. During the treatment of the infection (according to the antibiogram) in September 2001, patient in evening hours developed headache and blurred vision. The recorded blood pressure was 210/120 mmHg so antihypertensive treatment was applied (Nifedipin and Furosemid). After this therapy there was no improvement and intensive headache with fatigue and loss of vision developed. Neurological examination revealed cortical blindness and left hemiparesis. Manitol (20%, 60 ccm every 3 hours) and i.v. Nytroglicerin (high blood pressure). Brain CT revealed oedema of parieto-occipital regions of both hemispheres, more emphasized on the right. (Figure 1a, b, c). There was no sign of focal ischemia even in deeper sections (Figure 1d, e, f). Following three days enormous high blood pressure values were registered. On the fourth day the significant clinical improvement occurred

  7. Posterior pole tumor update.

    PubMed

    Ou, Judy I; Wheeler, Sharon M; O'Brien, Joan M

    2002-12-01

    This chapter focuses on the diagnosis and management of choroidal melanoma in light of recent findings from the COMS. Retinoblastoma is emphasized to describe recent trends in primary treatment away from EBRT and toward chemoreduction with local therapy. In addition, vascular and glial tumors of the retina and tumors of the retinal pigment epithelium are described because of the association between these lesions and systemic disease. Recent advances in treatment and genetic testing for these diseases are discussed. Finally, ocular metastasis, intraocular lymphoid tumors, and intraocular leukemia are included because of their importance in determining systemic treatment and prognosis. The chapter gives an overview of important posterior pole tumors and highlights recent developments in the management of each intraocular disease process.

  8. Clinical analysis of contributors to the delayed gallbladder opacification following the use of water-soluble contrast medium

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Ming-Chang; Kok, Victor C; Lee, Ming-Yung; Hsu, Soa-Min; Lee, Pei-Yu; Chang, Che-Wei; Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Juan, Chi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Gallbladder opacification (GBO) on computed tomography (CT) imaging may obscure certain pathological or emergent conditions in the gallbladder, such as neoplasms, stones, and hemorrhagic cholecystitis. This study aimed to investigate the clinical contributing factors that could predict the presence of delayed GBO determined by CT. Methods This study retrospectively evaluated 243 consecutive patients who received enhanced CT or intravenous pyelography imaging and then underwent abdominal CT imaging within 5 days. According to the interval between imaging, the patients were divided into group A (1 day), group B (2 or 3 days), and group C (4 or 5 days). Three radiologists evaluated CT images to determine GBO. Fisher’s exact test and multivariate backward stepwise elimination logistic regression were performed. Results Positive GBO was significantly associated with the interval between imaging studies, contrast type, contrast volume, renal function, and hypertransaminasemia (P<0.05). Multivariate backward stepwise elimination logistic regression analysis of the three groups identified contrast type and hypertransaminasemia as independent predictors of GBO in group B patients (odds ratio [OR], 13.52, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72–106.38 and OR, 3.43, 95% CI, 1.31–8.98, respectively; P<0.05). Hypertransaminasemia was the only independent predictor of GBO in group C patients with an OR of 7.2 (95% CI, 1.62–31.73). Hypertransaminasemia was noted in three patients (100%) who initially underwent imaging 5 days prior to GBO. Conclusion Delayed GBO on CT imaging may be associated with laboratory hypertransaminasemia, particularly in patients receiving contrast medium over a period of ≥4 days. A detailed clinical history, physical examination, and further workup are of paramount importance for investigating the underlying cause behind the hypertransaminasemia. PMID:27660453

  9. Modified posterior-assisted levitation with intraocular lens scaffold and glued IOL for sinking nucleus in eyes with inadequate sulcus support.

    PubMed

    Narang, Priya; Agarwal, Amar

    2017-07-01

    Posterior-assisted levitation is used to retrieve and levitate a sinking nucleus in cataract surgery associated with posterior capsule rupture. After the nucleus is levitated in the anterior chamber, the intraocular lens (IOL) scaffold procedure helps emulsify the nuclear remnants with the phacoemulsification probe and glue-assisted intrascleral haptic fixation (glued IOL) enables appropriate placement of an IOL in cases with insufficient capsule support. We describe a triumvirate procedure for a sinking nucleus in the absence of capsule support that combines modified posterior-assisted levitation, in which the nucleus is levitated from the existing sclerotomy sites of glued IOL surgery, with the IOL scaffold technique, enabling a closed-chamber approach when performed concurrently. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. In Vivo Cervical Facet Joint Capsule Deformation During Flexion-Extension

    PubMed Central

    Anderst, William J; Lee, Joon Y; Kang, James D

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Non-randomized controlled cohort. Objective To characterize subaxial cervical facet joint kinematics and facet joint capsule (FJC) deformation during in vivo, dynamic flexion-extension. To assess the effect of single-level anterior arthrodesis on adjacent segment FJC deformation. Summary of Background Data The cervical facet joint has been identified as the most common source of neck pain and it is thought to play a role in chronic neck pain related to whiplash injury. Our current knowledge of cervical facet joint kinematics is based on cadaveric mechanical testing. Methods 14 asymptomatic controls and 9 C5-C6 arthrodesis patients performed full range of motion (ROM) flexion-extension while biplane radiographs were collected at 30 Hz. A volumetric model-based tracking process determined 3D vertebral position with sub-millimeter accuracy. FJC fibers were modeled and grouped into anterior, lateral, posterior-lateral, posterior, and posterior-medial regions. FJC fiber deformations (total, shear and compression-distraction) relative to the static position were determined for each cervical motion segment (C2-C3 through C6-C7) during flexion-extension. Results No significant differences in the rate of fiber deformation in flexion were identified among motion segments (p = .159), however, significant differences were observed among fiber regions (p < .001). Significant differences in the rate of fiber deformation in extension were identified among motion segments (p < .001) and among fiber regions (p = .001). The rate of FJC deformation in extension adjacent to the arthrodesis was 45% less than in corresponding motion segments in control subjects (p = .001). Conclusion In control subjects, facet joint capsule deformations are significantly different among vertebral levels and capsule regions when vertebrae are in an extended orientation. In a flexed orientation, FJC deformations are only different among capsule regions. Single-level anterior arthrodesis is

  11. Clinical significance of blood supply to the internal capsule and basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Djulejić, Vuk; Marinković, Slobodan; Georgievski, Biljana; Stijak, Lazar; Aksić, Milan; Puškaš, Laslo; Milić, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    Although the general vascular supply of the basal ganglia and internal capsule is well known, precise data are lacking regarding the variations of the vascular territories in the two regions. Twelve hemispheres were studied following an injection of coloured ink into the main cerebral arteries, namely the anterior cerebral (ACA), middle cerebral (MCA), anterior choroidal (AChA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA). Serial sections of the injected hemispheres were taken in the axial or coronal plane. In 75% of the hemispheres, ACA perforators were seen to supply the inferomedial part of the head of the caudate nucleus and the anterior limb of the internal capsule, as well as the anterior and inferior portions of the putamen and globus pallidus. The MCA vessels perfused the superolateral part of the head and body of the caudate nucleus, the superior part of the entire internal capsule, most of the putamen and part of the globus pallidus. The AChA perforators perfused the medial segment of the globus pallidus, the inferior part of the posterior limb, the retrolenticular and sublenticular portions of the internal capsule, and occasionally its genu. The same segment of the globus pallidus and the inferior part of the genu of the internal capsule were most likely supplied by the perforators of the internal carotid artery. A predominance of ACA territory was noticed in one specimen (8.33%) and a predominance of MCA territory in two specimens (16.67%). The obtained anatomical data may help radiologic determination of perforators involved in ischemic events, as well as a better understanding of the neurological deficits in the same events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The disintegration behaviour of capsules in fed subjects: a comparison of hypromellose (carrageenan) capsules and standard gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Jones, B E; Basit, A W; Tuleu, C

    2012-03-15

    Two-piece hard shell capsules made from hypromellose (or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, HPMC) containing carrageenan as a gelling agent have been proposed as an alternative to conventional gelatin capsules for oral drug delivery. We have previously compared the disintegration of hypromellose(carrageenan) (Quali-V(®)) and gelatin capsules (Qualicaps) in fasted human subjects using the technique of gamma scintigraphy. This second study used the same technique with both fasted and fed human subjects. Size 0 capsules were filled with powder plugs made from lactose and did not contain croscarmellose as in the original study. The capsules were separately radiolabelled with indium-111 and technetium-99m. Both capsules were administered simultaneously with 180ml water to eight healthy male subjects following an overnight fast. Each volunteer was positioned in front of the gamma camera and sequential 60s images were acquired in a continuous manner for 30min. The mean (±S.D.) disintegration time in the fasted state for the hypromellose(carrageenan) capsules was 8±2min and for gelatin 7±3min. These results were not statistically different from the data in the original study and show that the removal of the croscarmellose had no effect on the results. The mean (±S.D.) disintegration time in the fed state for the hypromellose(carrageenan) capsules was 16±5min and for the gelatin capsules was 12±4min. There was no statistical difference between the hypromellose(carrageenan) and gelatin capsules in either the fed or fasted state.

  13. Photodisruption of a thin membrane near a solid boundary: an in vitro study of laser capsulotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawlina, G.; Drnovšek-Olup, B.; Možina, J.; Gregorčič, P.

    2016-02-01

    A Nd:YAG laser photodisruption is a well-established tool for intraocular surgery, such as treatment of posterior capsule opacification that affects the visual function. During the intraocular procedure, called laser capsulotomy, the excitation pulse is focused several times just behind the posterior capsule and intraocular lens to create the central opening in the opacified capsule. We built an in vitro experiment to (1) clarify the influence of the distance between the intraocular lens and the posterior capsule on the total pulse energy required for the capsulotomy, and (2) investigate the main mechanisms responsible for the posterior capsule opening. In our in vitro model, different distances between the solid boundary (imitating an intraocular lens) and the membrane (imitating the posterior capsule) simulate different types of posterior capsule opacification. Our results show that procedure efficiency decreases by decreasing distance between the lens and the capsule. We also explain that for smaller distances between the pulse focus and the membrane, plasma and shock wave are responsible for the capsule disruption. Here, a risk of collateral damage significantly increases. On contrary, the membrane and the bubble jet disrupt the membrane, when pulse focus is moved away and the risk of intraocular lens damage decreases. However, the membrane disruption is not very effective, if it is placed near the solid boundary that inhibits the membrane jet.

  14. Preparation of polyurea capsules using electrocapillary emulsification.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hideki; Tanaka, Keisuke; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Koji; Sakai, Kenichi; Kondo, Tamotsu; Abe, Masahiko

    2008-10-15

    Polyurea capsules have been prepared using the electrocapillary emulsification method in order to control the particle size within the submicron range. The polyurea capsules have been synthesized via the interfacial polycondensation between tetraethylenepentamine (TEP) dissolved in an aqueous phase and toluenediisocyanate (TDI) dissolved in a mixture of cyclohexane and chloroform. The oil phase contains a lipophilic nonionic surfactant (sorbitan sesquioleate, SO-15) as an emulsion stabilizer. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations reveal that the capsule size is decreased as (i) the amount of the aqueous phase injected into the oil phase is decreased and (ii) the dropping rate of the aqueous phase is decreased. Indeed, the mole ratio of the two monomers makes a significant impact on the capsule size. Under the best experimental condition examined in this study, we obtained polyurea capsules with a diameter of approximately 200nm, which should be useful in developing bioreactors or carriers.

  15. Thermoregulation of Capsule Production by Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Song Ok; Wright, Jordan O.; Tesorero, Rafael A.; Lee, Hyunwoo; Beall, Bernard; Cho, Kyu Hong

    2012-01-01

    The capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes serves as an adhesin as well as an anti-phagocytic factor by binding to CD44 on keratinocytes of the pharyngeal mucosa and the skin, the main entry sites of the pathogen. We discovered that S. pyogenes HSC5 and MGAS315 strains are further thermoregulated for capsule production at a post-transcriptional level in addition to the transcriptional regulation by the CovRS two-component regulatory system. When the transcription of the hasABC capsular biosynthetic locus was de-repressed through mutation of the covRS system, the two strains, which have been used for pathogenesis studies in the laboratory, exhibited markedly increased capsule production at sub-body temperature. Employing transposon mutagenesis, we found that CvfA, a previously identified membrane-associated endoribonuclease, is required for the thermoregulation of capsule synthesis. The mutation of the cvfA gene conferred increased capsule production regardless of temperature. However, the amount of the capsule transcript was not changed by the mutation, indicating that a post-transcriptional regulator mediates between CvfA and thermoregulated capsule production. When we tested naturally occurring invasive mucoid strains, a high percentage (11/53, 21%) of the strains exhibited thermoregulated capsule production. As expected, the mucoid phenotype of these strains at sub-body temperature was due to mutations within the chromosomal covRS genes. Capsule thermoregulation that exhibits high capsule production at lower temperatures that occur on the skin or mucosal surface potentially confers better capability of adhesion and invasion when S. pyogenes penetrates the epithelial surface. PMID:22615992

  16. Thermoregulation of capsule production by Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Song Ok; Wright, Jordan O; Tesorero, Rafael A; Lee, Hyunwoo; Beall, Bernard; Cho, Kyu Hong

    2012-01-01

    The capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes serves as an adhesin as well as an anti-phagocytic factor by binding to CD44 on keratinocytes of the pharyngeal mucosa and the skin, the main entry sites of the pathogen. We discovered that S. pyogenes HSC5 and MGAS315 strains are further thermoregulated for capsule production at a post-transcriptional level in addition to the transcriptional regulation by the CovRS two-component regulatory system. When the transcription of the hasABC capsular biosynthetic locus was de-repressed through mutation of the covRS system, the two strains, which have been used for pathogenesis studies in the laboratory, exhibited markedly increased capsule production at sub-body temperature. Employing transposon mutagenesis, we found that CvfA, a previously identified membrane-associated endoribonuclease, is required for the thermoregulation of capsule synthesis. The mutation of the cvfA gene conferred increased capsule production regardless of temperature. However, the amount of the capsule transcript was not changed by the mutation, indicating that a post-transcriptional regulator mediates between CvfA and thermoregulated capsule production. When we tested naturally occurring invasive mucoid strains, a high percentage (11/53, 21%) of the strains exhibited thermoregulated capsule production. As expected, the mucoid phenotype of these strains at sub-body temperature was due to mutations within the chromosomal covRS genes. Capsule thermoregulation that exhibits high capsule production at lower temperatures that occur on the skin or mucosal surface potentially confers better capability of adhesion and invasion when S. pyogenes penetrates the epithelial surface.

  17. Hydrodynamick instabilities on ICF capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Haan, S.W.

    1991-06-07

    This article summarizes our current understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities as relevant to ICF. First we discuss classical, single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and nonlinear effects in the evolution of a single mode. Then we discuss multimode systems, considering: (1) the onset of nonlinearity; (2) a second order mode coupling theory for weakly nonlinear effects, and (3) the fully nonlinear regime. Two stabilization mechanisms relevant to ICF are described next: gradient scale length and convective stabilization. Then we describe a model which is meant to estimate the weakly nonlinear evolution of multi-mode systems as relevant to ICF, given the short-wavelength stabilization. Finally, we discuss the relevant code simulation capability, and experiments. At this time we are quite optimistic about our ability to estimate instability growth on ICF capsules, but further experiments and simulations are needed to verify the modeling. 52 refs.

  18. Frequency of adequate contrast opacification of the major intracranial venous structures with CT angiography in the setting of intracerebral hemorrhage: comparison of 16- and 64-section CT angiography techniques.

    PubMed

    Delgado Almandoz, J E; Su, H S; Schaefer, P W; Goldstein, J N; Pomerantz, S R; Lev, M H; González, R G; Romero, J M

    2011-05-01

    DVST is an important cause of ICH because its treatment may require anticoagulation or mechanical thrombectomy. We aimed to determine the frequency of adequate contrast opacification of the major intracranial venous structures in CTAs performed for ICH evaluation, which is an essential factor in excluding DVST as the ICH etiology. Two readers retrospectively reviewed CTAs performed in 170 consecutive patients with ICH who presented to our emergency department during a 1-year period to determine by consensus whether qualitatively, contrast opacification in each of the major intracranial venous structures was adequate to exclude DVST. "Adequate contrast opacification" was defined as homogeneous opacification of the venous structure examined. "Inadequate contrast opacification" was defined as either inhomogeneous opacification or nonopacification of the venous structure examined. Delayed scans, if obtained, were reviewed by the same readers blinded to the first-pass CTAs to determine the adequacy of contrast opacification in the venous structures according to the same criteria. In patients who did not have an arterial ICH etiology, the same readers determined if thrombosis of an inadequately opacified intracranial venous structure could have potentially explained the ICH by correlating the presumed venous drainage path of the ICH with the presence of inadequate contrast opacification within the venous structure draining the venous territory of the ICH. CTAs were performed in 16- or 64-section CT scanners with bolus-tracking, scanning from C1 to the vertex. Patients with a final diagnosis of DVST were excluded. We used the Pearson χ(2) test to determine the significance of the differences in the frequency of adequate contrast opacification within each of the major intracranial venous structures in scans obtained using either a 16- or 64-section MDCTA technique. Fifty-eight patients were evaluated with a 16-section MDCTA technique (34.1%) and 112 with a 64-section

  19. Lightweight, highly compressible, noncrystalline cellulose capsules.

    PubMed

    Carrick, Christopher; Lindström, Stefan B; Larsson, Per Tomas; Wågberg, Lars

    2014-07-08

    We demonstrate how to prepare extraordinarily deformable, gas-filled, spherical capsules from nonmodified cellulose. These capsules have a low nominal density, ranging from 7.6 to 14.2 kg/m(3), and can be deformed elastically to 70% deformation at 50% relative humidity. No compressive strain-at-break could be detected for these dry cellulose capsules, since they did not rupture even when compressed into a disk with pockets of highly compressed air. A quantitative constitutive model for the large deformation compression of these capsules is derived, including their high-frequency mechanical response and their low-frequency force relaxation, where the latter is governed by the gas barrier properties of the dry capsule. Mechanical testing corroborated these models with good accuracy. Force relaxation measurements at a constant compression rendered an estimate for the gas permeability of air through the capsule wall, calculated to 0.4 mL μm/m(2) days kPa at 50% relative humidity. These properties taken together open up a large application area for the capsules, and they could most likely be used for applications in compressible, lightweight materials and also constitute excellent model materials for adsorption and adhesion studies.

  20. [Evaluation of nopal capsules in diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Frati Munari, A C; Vera Lastra, O; Ariza Andraca, C R

    1992-01-01

    To find out if commercial capsules with dried nopal (prickle-pear cactus, Opuntia ficus indica may have a role in the management of diabetes mellitus, three experiments were performed: 30 capsules where given in fasting condition to 10 diabetic subjects and serum glucose was measured through out 3 hours; a control test was performed with 30 placebo capsules. OGTT with previous intake of 30 nopal or placebo capsules was performed in ten healthy individuals. In a crossover and single blinded study 14 diabetic patients withdrew the oral hypoglycemic treatment and received 10 nopal or placebo capsules t.i.d. during one week; serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels were measured before and after each one-week period. Five healthy subjects were also studied in the same fashion. Opuntia capsules did not show acute hypoglycemic effect and did not influence OGTT. In diabetic patients serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels did not change with Opuntia, but they increased with placebo (P < 0.01 glucose and cholesterol, P = NS triglycerides). In healthy individuals glycemia did not change with nopal, while cholesterol and triglycerides decreased (P < 0.01 vs. placebo). The intake of 30 Opuntia capsules daily in patients with diabetes mellitus had a discrete beneficial effect on glucose and cholesterol. However this dose is unpractical and at present it is not recommended in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  1. Oxygen fugacity and piston cylinder capsule assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, S.

    2011-12-01

    A double capsule assembly designed to control oxygen fugacity in piston cylinder experiments has been tested at 1200 °C and 10 kbar. The assembly consists of an outer Pt-capsule containing a solid buffer (Ni-NiO or Co-CoO plus H2O) and an inner AuPd-capsule containing the sample, H2O and a Pt-wire. To prevent direct contact with the buffer phases the AuPd-capsule is embedded in finely ground Al2O3 along with some coarser, fractured Al2O3 facilitating fluid inclusion formation. No water loss is observed in the sample even after 48 hrs but a slight increase in water content is observed in longer duration runs due to oxygen and hydrogen diffusion into the AuPd-capsule. Carbon from the furnace also diffuses through the outer Pt-capsule but reacts with H2O in the outer capsule to form CO2 and never reaches the inner capsule. Oxygen fugacity of runs in equilibrium with the Ni-NiO and Co-CoO buffers was measured by analyzing the Fe content of the Pt-wire in the sample1 and by analyzing Fe dissolved in the AuPd capsule2. The second method gives values that are in good agreement with established buffer whereas results from the first method are one half to one log units higher than the established values. References 1. E. Medard, C. A. McCammon, J. A. Barr, T. L. Grove, Am. Mineral. 93, 1838 (2008). 2. J. Barr, T. Grove, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 160, 631 (2010)

  2. Asymmetric membrane osmotic capsules for terbutaline sulphate.

    PubMed

    Gobade, N G; Koland, Marina; Harish, K H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate.

  3. Asymmetric Membrane Osmotic Capsules for Terbutaline Sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Gobade, N. G.; Koland, Marina; Harish, K. H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate. PMID:23204625

  4. Fabrication of capsule assemblies, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, A. R.; Stemann, L. G.

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen capsule assemblies were fabricated for evaluation of fuel pin design concepts for a fast spectrum lithium cooled compact space power reactor. These instrumented assemblies were designed for real time test of prototype fuel pins. Uranium mononitride fuel pins were encased in AISI 304L stainless steel capsules. Fabrication procedures were fully qualified by process development and assembly qualification tests. Instrumentation reliability was achieved utilizing specially processed and closely controlled thermocouple hot zone fabrication and by thermal screening tests. Overall capsule reliability was achieved with an all electron beam welded assembly.

  5. Tag gas capsule with magnetic piercing device

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Ira V.

    1976-06-22

    An apparatus for introducing a tag (i.e., identifying) gas into a tubular nuclear fuel element. A sealed capsule containing the tag gas is placed in the plenum in the fuel tube between the fuel and the end cap. A ferromagnetic punch having a penetrating point is slidably mounted in the plenum. By external electro-magnets, the punch may be caused to penetrate a thin rupturable end wall of the capsule and release the tag gas into the fuel element. Preferably the punch is slidably mounted within the capsule, which is in turn loaded as a sealed unit into the fuel element.

  6. Posterior sampling with improved efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

    1998-12-01

    The Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique provides a means to generate a random sequence of model realizations that sample the posterior probability distribution of a Bayesian analysis. That sequence may be used to make inferences about the model uncertainties that derive from measurement uncertainties. This paper presents an approach to improving the efficiency of the Metropolis approach to MCMC by incorporating an approximation to the covariance matrix of the posterior distribution. The covariance matrix is approximated using the update formula from the BFGS quasi-Newton optimization algorithm. Examples are given for uncorrelated and correlated multidimensional Gaussian posterior distributions.

  7. Opacification of a hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens with a hydrophobic surface after air injection in Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty in a patient with Fuchs dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Mojzis, Peter; Studeny, Pavel; Werner, Liliana; Piñero, David P

    2016-03-01

    A 71-year-old woman with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy in the right eye had uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery with implantation of a single-piece intraocular lens (IOL) (CT47S) in January 2012. Because of corneal problems and vision loss, uneventful Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) was performed in May 2013. Four months later, a new corneal lamella (repeat DSAEK) was implanted with reinjection of an air bubble into the anterior chamber. Six months after the initial DSAEK, the patient complained of blurred vision. On examination, the cornea was transparent but the IOL presented opacification in the central area. The opacified IOL was explanted and analyzed by light microscopy, which showed the presence of thin granular deposits distributed in an overall round pattern that stained positive for calcium. The opacification of hydrophilic acrylic IOLs is a complication that can occur after uneventful endothelial keratoplasty, especially when rebubbling is necessary. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Required Be Capsule Strength For Room Temperature Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, B

    2005-03-21

    The purpose of this memo is to lay out the criteria for the Be capsule strength necessary for room temperature transport. Ultimately we will test full thickness capsules by sealing high pressures inside, but currently we are limited to both thinner capsules and alternative measures of capsule material strength.

  9. 21 CFR 520.2100 - Selenium, vitamin E capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... E capsules. (a) Specifications. The capsules contain 2.19 milligrams of sodium selenite (equivalent... succinate) or 0.548 milligram of sodium selenite (equivalent to .25 milligram of selenium and 14 milligrams... capsule per 20 pounds of body weight to a maximum of 5 capsules with the dosage repeated at 3 day...

  10. 21 CFR 520.2100 - Selenium, vitamin E capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... E capsules. (a) Specifications. The capsules contain 2.19 milligrams of sodium selenite (equivalent... succinate) or 0.548 milligram of sodium selenite (equivalent to .25 milligram of selenium and 14 milligrams... capsule per 20 pounds of body weight to a maximum of 5 capsules with the dosage repeated at 3 day...

  11. Does magnetically assisted capsule endoscopy improve small bowel capsule endoscopy completion rate? A randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Melissa F.; Drew, Kaye; Sidhu, Reena; McAlindon, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Delayed gastric emptying is a significant factor in incomplete small bowel capsule examinations. Gastric transit could be hastened by external magnetic control of the capsule. We studied the feasibility of this approach to improve capsule endoscopy completion rates. Patients and methods: Prospective, single-center, randomized controlled trial involving 122 patients attending for small bowel capsule endoscopy using MiroCam Navi. Patients were randomized to either the control group (mobilisation for 30 minutes after capsule ingestion, followed by intramuscular metoclopramide 10 mg if the capsule failed to enter the small bowel) or the intervention group (1000 mL of water prior to capsule ingestion, followed by positional change and magnetic steering). Outcome measures were capsule endoscopy completion rate, gastric clarity and distention, relationship of body habitus to capsule endoscopy completion rate (CECR), and patient comfort scores. Results: 122 patients were recruited (61 each to the control and intervention groups: mean age 49 years [range 21 – 85], 61 females). There was no significant difference in CECR between the two groups (P = 0.39). Time to first pyloric image was significantly shorter in the intervention group (P = 0.03) but there was no difference in gastric transit times (P = 0.12), suggesting that magnetic control hastens capsular transit to the gastric antrum but does not influence duodenal passage. Gastric clarity and distention were significantly better in the intervention group (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001 respectively). Conclusions: Magnetic steering of a small bowel capsule is unable to overcome pyloric contractions to enhance gastric emptying and improve capsule endoscope completion rate. Excellent mucosal visualisation within the gastric cavity suggests this technique could be harnessed for capsule examination of the stomach. PMID:26878053

  12. [Treatment of recurrent posterior epistaxis].

    PubMed

    Bro, Søren Pauli; Bille, Jesper; Petersen, Kristian Bruun

    2017-08-21

    30% of the patients presenting with epistaxis at emergency wards and otorhinolaryngeal specialist departments have posterior bleeding. Traditional treatment with packing often leads to initial treatment failure, and many patients experience recurrent bleeding within the following month. Recurrent posterior epistaxis should be treated with local electrocautery or endoscopic ligation of the sphenopalatine artery to reduce patient discomfort, hospital stay, risk of treatment failure and recurrence.

  13. Sample Return Capsule Landing (Artist's Concept)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Artist's rendering of the Stardust capsule's return to Earth. The Stardust spacecraft will bring back samples of interstellar dust, including recently discovered dust streaming into our Solar System from the direction of Sagittarius.

  14. Sample Return Capsule Landing Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-11-03

    Artist rendering of NASA Stardust capsule returning to Earth. The Stardust spacecraft will bring back samples of interstellar dust, including recently discovered dust streaming into our Solar System from the direction of Sagittarius.

  15. LITTLE JOE 5A - CAPSULE 14

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-01-01

    S61-01372 (21 Feb. 1961) --- Launch of the unmanned Mercury-Atlas 2 (MA-2) vehicle for a suborbital test flight of the Mercury capsule. The upper part of Atlas is stengthened by an eight-inch wide stainless steel band. The capsule was recovered less than one hour after launch. The altitude was 108 miles. Speed was 13,000 mph. Recovered 1,425 miles downrange. Photo credit: NASA

  16. Towards Polymer-Based Capsules with Drastically Reduced Controlled Permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Daria V.; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.

    Small molecules (dyes, therapeutics, etc.) could be easily handled, stored, delivered, and released by polyelectrolyte capsules. To make the polyelectrolyte capsule more efficient for small molecule encapsulation, capsule permeability should be significantly decreased. Here, we demonstrate the possibility to entrap water-soluble molecular species into polyelectrolyte capsules modified by a low permeable dense polymer (polypyrrole). Possible future areas in PE capsule application as carriers for gases and volatiles in the pharmaceutical, food, and gases industry, agriculture and cosmetology are discussed.

  17. Dynamics of nonspherical compound capsules in simple shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zheng Yuan; Bai, Bo Feng

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of an initially ellipsoidal compound capsule in a simple shear flow is investigated numerically using a three-dimensional front-tracking finite-difference model. Membrane bending resistance is included based on Helfrich's energy function besides the resistances against shear deformation and area dilatation governed by the constitutive law of Skalak et al. In this paper, we focus specifically on how the presence of a spherical inner capsule and its size affects the characteristics and transition of various dynamical states of nonspherical compound capsules (i.e., the outer capsule). Significant differences in the dynamical characteristics are observed between compound capsules and homogeneous capsules in both qualitative and quantitative terms. We find the transition from swinging to tumbling can occur at vanishing viscosity mismatch through increasing the inner capsule size alone to a critical value regardless of the initial shape of the nonspherical compound capsule (i.e., prolate or oblate). Besides, for compound capsules with viscosity mismatch, the critical viscosity ratio for the swinging-to-tumbling transition remarkably decreases by increasing the inner capsule size. It is thus concluded that the inner capsule size is a key governing parameter of compound capsule dynamics apart from the capillary number, aspect ratio, and viscosity ratio that have been long identified for homogeneous capsules. Further, we discuss the mechanisms underlying the effects of the inner capsule on the compound capsule dynamics from the viewpoint of the effective viscosity of internal fluid and find that the effects of the inner capsule on compound capsule dynamics are qualitatively similar to that of increasing the internal viscosity on homogeneous capsule dynamics. However, in quantitative terms, the compound capsule cannot be viewed as a homogeneous capsule with higher viscosity as obvious inhomogeneity in fluid stress distribution is induced by the inner membrane.

  18. Capsule production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, associated almost exclusively with chronic respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis, possess a capsule composed of alginic acid similar to one produced by Azotobacter vinelandii. Recent reports have provided evidence that the biosynthetic pathway for alginate in P. aeruginosa may differ from the pathway proposed for A. vinelandii in that synthesis in P. aeruginosa may occur by way of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Incorporation of isotope from (6-/sup 14/C)glucose into alginate by both P. aueroginosa and A. vinelandii was 10-fold greater than that from either (1-/sup 14/C)/sup -/ or (2-/sup 14/C)glucose, indicating preferential utilization of the bottom half of the glucose molecule for alginate biosynthesis. These data strongly suggest that the Entner-Doudoroff pathway plays a major role in alginate synthesis in both P. aeruginosa and A. vinelandii. The enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa appear to be unchanged whether alignate is actively produced or not and activities do not differ significantly from nonmucoid strain PAO.

  19. CAPSULE REPORT: HARD CHROME FUME ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    All existing information which includes the information extrapolated from the Hard Chrome Pollution Prevention Demonstration Project(s) and other sources derived from plating facilities and industry contacts, will be condensed and featured in this document. At least five chromium emission prevention/control devices have been tested covering a wide spectrum of techniques currently in use at small and large-sized chrome metal plating shops. The goal for limiting chromium emissions to levels specified in the MACT Standards are: (1) 0.030 milligrams per dry standard cubic meter of air (mg/dscm) for small facilities with existing tanks, (2) 0.015 mg/dscm for small facilities with new tanks or large facilities with existing or new tanks. It should be emphasized that chemical mist suppressants still have quality issues and work practices that need to be addressed when they are used. Some of the mist suppressants currently in use are: one-, two-, and three-stage mesh pad mist eliminators; composite mesh pad mist eliminators; packed-bed scrubbers and polyballs. This capsule report should, redominantly, emphasize pollution prevention techniques and include, but not be restricted to, the afore-mentioned devices. Information

  20. Light weight escape capsule for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robert, James A.

    1988-01-01

    Emergency crew escape capabilities have been less than adequate for fighter aircraft since before WW II. From the over-the-side bailout of those days through the current ejection seat with a rocket catapult, escaping from a disabled aircraft has been risky at best. Current efforts are underway toward developing a high-tech, smart ejection seat that will give fighter pilots more room to live in the sky, but an escape capsule is needed to meet current and future fighter envelopes. Escape capsules have a bad reputation due to past examples of high weight, poor performance and great complexity. However, the advantages available demand that a capsule be developed. This capsule concept will minimize the inherent disavantages and incorporate the benefits while integrating all aspects of crew station design. The resulting design is appropriate for a crew station of the year 2010 and includes improved combat acceleration protection, chemical or biological combat capability, improved aircraft to escape system interaction, and the highest level of escape performance achievable. The capsule is compact, which can allow a reduced aircraft size and weighs only 1200 lb. The escape system weight penalty is only 120 lb higher than that for the next ejection seat and the capsule has a corresponding increase in performance.

  1. Capsule Implosion Symmetry in OMEGA Tetrahedral Hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnittman, J. D.; Craxton, R. S.; Pollaine, S. M.; Turner, R. E.; Wallace, J. M.; Murphy, T. J.; Delamater, N. D.; Oertel, J. A.; Hauer, A. A.; Klare, K. A.

    1998-11-01

    The 3-D time-dependent capsule implosion symmetry has been calculated for spherical hohlraums with four laser entrance holes. The code BUTTERCUP calculates the locations of beam spots on the hohlraum wall and includes a model for the absorption and x-ray conversion of the laser energy. The gold wall is heated by 1-D radiation diffusion, and radiation transport is carried out with a 3-D view-factor algorithm. A simple hydrodynamic calculation of the imploding capsule gives the resulting 3-D time-dependent drive symmetry. The predicted radiation uniformity incident on the capsule is very good ( ~1% rms) throughout the laser pulse. Experimental images of the capsule show round implosions with convergence ratios of 10 for standard capsules,(T. J. Murphy, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 42), 2008 (1997). in agreement with predictions. Radiation temperatures and capsule trajectories are calculated and show good agreement with experiment. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460.

  2. Capsule endoscopy in neoplastic diseases.

    PubMed

    Pennazio, Marco; Rondonotti, Emanuele; de Franchis, Roberto

    2008-09-14

    Until recently, diagnosis and management of small-bowel tumors were delayed by the difficulty of access to the small bowel and the poor diagnostic capabilities of the available diagnostic techniques. An array of new methods has recently been developed, increasing the possibility of detecting these tumors at an earlier stage. Capsule endoscopy (CE) appears to be an ideal tool to recognize the presence of neoplastic lesions along this organ, since it is non-invasive and enables the entire small bowel to be visualized. High-quality images of the small-bowel mucosa may be captured and small and flat lesions recognized, without exposure to radiation. Recent studies on a large population of patients undergoing CE have reported small-bowel tumor frequency only slightly above that reported in previous surgical series (range, 1.6%-2.4%) and have also confirmed that the main clinical indication to CE in patients with small-bowel tumors is obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. The majority of tumors identified by CE are malignant; many were unsuspected and not found by other methods. However, it remains difficult to identify pathology and tumor type based on the lesion's endoscopic appearance. Despite its limitations, CE provides crucial information leading in most cases to changes in subsequent patient management. Whether the use of CE in combination with other new diagnostic (MRI or multidetector CT enterography) and therapeutic (Push-and-pull enteroscopy) techniques will lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment of these neoplasms, ultimately resulting in a survival advantage and in cost savings, remains to be determined through carefully-designed studies.

  3. Posterior Glottic Insufficiency in Children.

    PubMed

    Padia, Reema; Smith, Marshall E

    2017-04-01

    Dysphonia secondary to posterior glottic insufficiency (PGI) can be difficult to identify and correct. Inadequate arytenoid approximation from medial arytenoid erosion results in a breathy, soft voice. The anatomical location of the gap is difficult to correct by vocal fold injection laryngoplasty. This study reviews the presentation, evaluation, and treatment for pediatric patients who were identified with PGI. An Institutional Review Board-approved chart review was performed on all patients who were diagnosed with PGI at our institution from 2013 to 2015. We studied the presentation, workup, and treatment for these patients, including laryngoscopy, parent or patient-based voice impairment ratings, and response to treatment. Seven patients were identified. Erosion of the medial arytenoid was identified on microlaryngoscopy for all of these patients. The patients had suboptimal improvement from injection laryngoplasty. Three patients underwent surgical correction with an endoscopic posterior cricoid reduction laryngoplasty (EPCRL) with significant improvement in voice, assessed by perceptual, laryngoscopic, and patient-based measures. The key diagnostic procedures to identify posterior glottic insufficiency include laryngoscopic findings of a posterior glottal gap, microlaryngoscopy with close inspection of the posterior glottis and medial arytenoids, and suboptimal response to injection laryngoplasty. The EPCRL is an effective procedure to treat dysphonia from PGI.

  4. Intrinsic innervation of the rat knee joint articular capsule and ligaments.

    PubMed

    Marinozzi, G; Ferrante, F; Gaudio, E; Ricci, A; Amenta, F

    1991-01-01

    In spite of the practical importance of having a detailed knowledge of knee joint innervation to understand the pathophysiologic aspects, little information is now available concerning the density and pattern of the nerve fibres which are distributed to it. The present study has been designed to investigate the density and distribution of nerve fibres and receptor corpuscles in the knee joint articular capsule, cruciate and collateral ligaments in the rat, using the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemical in toto staining technique. The investigation was performed on male Wistar rats of 3 months of age, some of which had been treated with capsaicin to deplete their afferent 'C' fibres of their content of neuropeptides. AChE-positive nerve fibres and different types of receptor corpuscle endings were found within articular capsule and ligaments. The highest density of AChE-positive nerve fibres was noticeable in the fibular collateral ligament followed by the tibial collateral ligament, the posterior cruciate ligament, the anterior cruciate ligament and the articular capsule. In the articular capsule the number of type I endings was higher than in the ligaments. The opposite is true for the other type of receptor corpuscles found as well as for nerve endings. Capsaicin treatment significantly reduced the density of AChE-positive nerve fibres in knee joint ligaments but did not affect nerve fibres in the articular capsule. Moreover, it caused the disappearance of some kind of receptor corpuscles within the collateral and cruciate ligaments. The above data collectively suggest that the AChE in toto staining technique may represent a good method for investigating joint innervation and that a significant percentage of nerve fibres supplying knee joint ligaments is represented by C fibre afferents.

  5. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Maneesh K; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C

    2015-08-12

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic-abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) "on the fly" programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients.

  6. Capsule endoscopy in refractory celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Daum, S; Wahnschaffe, U; Glasenapp, R; Borchert, M; Ullrich, R; Zeitz, M; Faiss, S

    2007-05-01

    Patients with refractory celiac disease (RCD) are at risk of intestinal T-cell lymphoma, which is difficult to diagnose because it often develops in the small bowel. We therefore studied whether wireless capsule endoscopy was able to detect ulcerative jejunitis or intestinal T-cell lymphomas that were missed by standard endoscopic and imaging procedures in patients with RCD. Detection of ulcerative jejunitis and overt T-cell lymphoma by capsule endoscopy or by upper and lower endoscopy, abdominal computed tomography (CT) or abdominal magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) was compared in 14 consecutive patients with RCD: in seven patients who showed loss of T-cell antigens on intraepithelial lymphocytes and/or clonality of the T-cell receptor gene (i. e. type II RCD) and in seven patients who did not have these features (i. e. type I RCD). Complete evaluation of the small bowel by capsule endoscopy was achieved in 9/14 patients. Signs of ulcerative jejunitis or intestinal T-cell lymphoma, affecting further clinical management, were found in two patients with type II RCD: in one patient these signs were found only by capsule endoscopy (ulcerations and stenosis) and in another patient the abnormalities were identified by CT/MRT (mesenteric lymph nodes harboring lymphoma). No clinically relevant abnormalities were found in patients with type I RCD by lower endoscopy or by small-bowel imaging (capsule endoscopy, CT, or MRT). In patients with type II RCD, capsule endoscopy can detect additional cases with ulcerative jejunitis and could be included in the diagnostic armamentarium, subject to confirmation by larger series. In patients with type I RCD, our study confirmed the low diagnostic yield of imaging procedures, including wireless capsule endoscopy.

  7. Rethinking "posterior" tongue-tie.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela Sylvia

    2013-12-01

    Currently, many clinicians who help with breastfeeding problems are diagnosing "posterior" tongue-tie in infants and performing or referring for frenotomy. In this "Speaking Out" article, I argue that the diagnosis of "posterior" tongue-tie has successfully raised awareness of the importance of impaired tongue function in breastfeeding difficulty. However, the diagnosis of "posterior" tongue-tie also applies a reductionist, medicalized theoretical frame to the complex problem of impaired tongue function, risking unintended outcomes. Impaired tongue function arises out of multiple interacting and co-evolving factors, including the interplay between social behaviors concerning breastfeeding and mother-infant biology. Consideration of theoretical frames is vital if we are to build an evidence base through efficient use of the scarce resources available for clinical breastfeeding research and minimize unintended outcomes.

  8. Scaling effects in spiral capsule robots.

    PubMed

    Liang, Liang; Hu, Rong; Chen, Bai; Tang, Yong; Xu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Spiral capsule robots can be applied to human gastrointestinal tracts and blood vessels. Because of significant variations in the sizes of the inner diameters of the intestines as well as blood vessels, this research has been unable to meet the requirements for medical applications. By applying the fluid dynamic equations, using the computational fluid dynamics method, to a robot axial length ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-2) m, the operational performance indicators (axial driving force, load torque, and maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall) of the spiral capsule robot and the fluid turbulent intensity around the robot spiral surfaces was numerically calculated in a straight rigid pipe filled with fluid. The reasonableness and validity of the calculation method adopted in this study were verified by the consistency of the calculated values by the computational fluid dynamics method and the experimental values from a relevant literature. The results show that the greater the fluid turbulent intensity, the greater the impact of the fluid turbulence on the driving performance of the spiral capsule robot and the higher the energy consumption of the robot. For the same level of size of the robot, the axial driving force, the load torque, and the maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall of the outer spiral robot were larger than those of the inner spiral robot. For different requirements of the operating environment, we can choose a certain kind of spiral capsule robot. This study provides a theoretical foundation for spiral capsule robots.

  9. Capsule HRB-21 postirradiation examination plan

    SciTech Connect

    Packan, N.H.; Kania, M.J.; Shrader, L.G.

    1990-03-01

    Irradiation capsule HRB-21 is a test capsule designed to provide Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) coated particle fuel performance data under test reactor conditions representative of normal MHTGR operation. The irradiated fuel will also be used for postirradiation heating in a controlled atmosphere allowing acquisition of fission product release data at sustained high temperatures. The in-reactor performance data, the postirradiation examination data, and the postirradiation heating data will be used for the validation of fuel performance models under normal and off-normal operating conditions. The accelerated irradiation is to take place in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL. This report identifies the procedures to be followed in carrying out the postirradiation disassembly and examination of HRB-21. Included is a description of the capsule, a detailed sequence of steps for disassembly of the capsule, a description of the postirradiation examination techniques to be employed, and specifications for the storage of capsule components and the reporting of results. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. A scintigraphic investigation of the disintegration behaviour of capsules in fasting subjects: a comparison of hypromellose capsules containing carrageenan as a gelling agent and standard gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Tuleu, C; Khela, M K; Evans, D F; Jones, B E; Nagata, S; Basit, A W

    2007-03-01

    Two-piece hard shell capsules made from hypromellose (or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, HPMC) have been proposed as an alternative to conventional gelatin capsules for oral drug delivery; however, little is known about their in vivo behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the disintegration of HPMC and gelatin capsules in fasted human subjects using the technique of gamma scintigraphy. HPMC capsules containing carrageenan as a gelling agent (QUALI-V(R), Qualicaps) and gelatin capsules (Qualicaps) of size 0 were filled with a lactose-based mixture. The capsules were separately radiolabelled with indium-111 and technetium-99m. Both capsules were administered simultaneously with 180ml water to eight healthy male subjects following an overnight fast. Each volunteer was positioned in front of the gamma camera and sequential 60s images were acquired in a continuous manner for 30min. No differences in the oesophageal transit of the two types of capsules were noted, with the capsules arriving in the stomach in a matter of seconds. All the capsules disintegrated in the stomach. The mean (+/-S.D.) disintegration time for the HPMC capsules was 9+/-2min (range 6-11min). The corresponding mean time for the gelatin capsules was 7+/-4min (range 3-13min). These disintegration times were not significantly different (P=0.108, paired t-test). In conclusion, HPMC and gelatin capsules show rapid and comparable in vivo disintegration times in the fasted state. HPMC capsules containing carrageenan as a gelling agent therefore offer a practical alternative to gelatin capsules as an oral drug delivery carrier.

  11. Adhesive capsulitis: a review of current treatment.

    PubMed

    Neviaser, Andrew S; Hannafin, Jo A

    2010-11-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is characterized by a painful, gradual loss of both active and passive glenohumeral motion resulting from progressive fibrosis and ultimate contracture of the glenohumeral joint capsule. Variable nomenclature, inconsistent reporting of disease staging, and a multitude of different treatments have created a confusing and contradictory body of literature about this condition. Our purpose is to review the evidence for both nonsurgical and surgical management of adhesive capsulitis with an emphasis on level I and II studies when available. Significant deficits in the literature include a paucity of randomized controlled trials, failure to report response to treatment in a stage-based fashion, and an incomplete understanding of the disease's natural course. Recognition that the clinical stages reflect a progression in the underlying pathological changes should guide future treatments.

  12. Spectral measurements of asymmetrically irradiated capsule backlighters

    DOE PAGES

    Keiter, P. A.; Drake, R. P.

    2016-09-09

    Capsule backlighters provide a quasi-continuum x-ray spectrum over a wide range of photon energies. Ideally one irradiates the capsule backlighter symmetrically, however, in complex experimental geometries, this is not always possible. In recent experiments we irradiated capsule backlighters asymmetrically and measured the x-ray spectrum from multiple directions. We will present time-integrated spectra over the photon energy range of ~2-13 keV and time-resolved spectra over the photon energy range of ~2-3 keV. Lastly, we will compare the spectra from different lines of sight to determine if the laser asymmetry results in an angular dependence in the x-ray emission.

  13. Capsule endoscopy—A mechatronics perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lin; Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Tan, Su Lim; Wong, Kai Juan; Ho, Khek Yu; Phee, Soo Jay

    2011-03-01

    The recent advances in integrated circuit technology, wireless communication, and sensor technology have opened the door for development of miniature medical devices that can be used for enhanced monitoring and treatment of medical conditions. Wireless capsule endoscopy is one of such medical devices that has gained significant attention during the past few years. It is envisaged that future wireless capsule endoscopies replace traditional endoscopy procedures by providing advanced functionalities such as active locomotion, body fluid/tissue sampling, and drug delivery. Development of energy-efficient miniaturized actuation mechanisms is a key step toward achieving this goal. Here, we review some of the actuators that could be integrated into future wireless capsules and discuss the existing challenges.

  14. Unsteady Pressures on a Generic Capsule Shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, Nathan; Ross, James C.

    2015-01-01

    While developing the aerodynamic database for the Orion spacecraft, the low-speed flight regime (transonic and below) proved to be the most difficult to predict and measure accurately. The flow over the capsule heat shield in descent flight was particularly troublesome for both computational and experimental efforts due to its unsteady nature and uncertainty about the boundary layer state. The data described here were acquired as part of a study to improve the understanding of the overall flow around a generic capsule. The unsteady pressure measurements acquired on a generic capsule shape are presented along with a discussion about the effects of various flight conditions and heat-shield surface roughness on the resulting pressure fluctuations.

  15. Spectral measurements of asymmetrically irradiated capsule backlighters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiter, P. A.; Drake, R. P.

    2016-11-01

    Capsule backlighters provide a quasi-continuum x-ray spectrum over a wide range of photon energies [J. F. Hansen et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 013504 (2008)]. Ideally one irradiates the capsule backlighter symmetrically, however, in complex experimental geometries, this is not always possible. In recent experiments we irradiated capsule backlighters asymmetrically and measured the x-ray spectrum from multiple directions. We will present time-integrated spectra over the photon energy range of 2-13 keV and time-resolved spectra over the photon energy range of 2-3 keV. We will compare the spectra from different lines of sight to determine if the laser asymmetry results in an angular dependence in the x-ray emission.

  16. Spectral measurements of asymmetrically irradiated capsule backlighters

    SciTech Connect

    Keiter, P. A.; Drake, R. P.

    2016-09-09

    Capsule backlighters provide a quasi-continuum x-ray spectrum over a wide range of photon energies. Ideally one irradiates the capsule backlighter symmetrically, however, in complex experimental geometries, this is not always possible. In recent experiments we irradiated capsule backlighters asymmetrically and measured the x-ray spectrum from multiple directions. We will present time-integrated spectra over the photon energy range of ~2-13 keV and time-resolved spectra over the photon energy range of ~2-3 keV. Lastly, we will compare the spectra from different lines of sight to determine if the laser asymmetry results in an angular dependence in the x-ray emission.

  17. The Simplified Posterior Interosseous Flap.

    PubMed

    Cavadas, Pedro C; Thione, Alessandro; Rubí, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Several technical modifications have been described to avoid complications and simplify dissection. The authors describe some technical tips that make posterior interosseous flap dissection safer and more straightforward. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Children's Understanding of Posterior Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girotto, Vittorio; Gonzalez, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Do young children have a basic intuition of posterior probability? Do they update their decisions and judgments in the light of new evidence? We hypothesized that they can do so extensionally, by considering and counting the various ways in which an event may or may not occur. The results reported in this paper showed that from the age of five,…

  19. Children's Understanding of Posterior Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girotto, Vittorio; Gonzalez, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Do young children have a basic intuition of posterior probability? Do they update their decisions and judgments in the light of new evidence? We hypothesized that they can do so extensionally, by considering and counting the various ways in which an event may or may not occur. The results reported in this paper showed that from the age of five,…

  20. Stereolithography for Posterior Fossa Cranioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Agner, Celso; Dujovny, Manuel; Evenhouse, Raymond; Charbel, Fady T.; Sadler, Lewis

    1998-01-01

    Posterior fossa cranioplasty has been suggested for improvement of neurological symptoms following craniectomy. However, there is no particular recommendation in the literature about techniques for prosthesis manufacture and implantation. We report our experience using rapid prototyping technology and stereolithography for pre-surgical implant design and production of cranioplasties. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17171056

  1. Water Landing Characteristics of a Reentry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations have been made to determine the water-landing characteristics of a conical-shaped reentry capsule having a segment of a sphere as the bottom. For the experimental portion of the investigation, a 1/12-scale model capsule and a full-scale capsule were tested for nominal flight paths of 65 deg and 90 deg (vertical), a range of contact attitudes from -30 deg to 30 deg, and a full-scale vertical velocity of 30 feet per second at contact. Accelerations were measured by accelerometers installed at the centers of gravity of the model and full-scale capsules. For the model test the accelerations were measured along the X-axis (roll) and Z-axis (yaw) and for the full-scale test they were measured along the X-axis (roll), Y-axis (pitch), and Z-axis (yaw). Motions and displacements of the capsules that occurred after contact were determined from high-speed motion pictures. The theoretical investigation was conducted to determine the accelerations that might occur along the X-axis when the capsule contacted the water from a 90 deg flight path at a 0 deg attitude. Assuming a rigid body, computations were made from equations obtained by utilizing the principle of the conservation of momentum. The agreement among data obtained from the model test, the full-scale test, and the theory was very good. The accelerations along the X-axis, for a vertical flight path and 0 deg attitude, were in the order of 40g. For a 65 deg flight path and 0 deg attitude, the accelerations along the X-axis were in the order of 50g. Changes in contact attitude, in either the positive or negative direction from 0 deg attitude, considerably reduced the magnitude of the accelerations measured along the X-axis. Accelerations measured along the Y- and Z-axes were relatively small at all test conditions.

  2. Video capsule endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has evolved to become an important tool for the non-invasive examination of the small bowel, which hitherto had been relatively inaccessible to direct visualisation. VCE has been shown to play a role in monitoring the activity of small bowel Crohn’s disease and can be used to assess the response to anti-inflammatory treatment in Crohn’s disease. For those patients with Crohn’s disease who have undergone an intestinal resection, VCE has been assessed as a tool to detect post-operative recurrence. VCE may also aid in the reclassification of patients with a diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Unclassified to Crohn’s disease. The evolution of colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) has expanded the application of this technology further. The use of CCE to assess the activity of ulcerative colitis has been described. This advance in capsule technology has also fuelled interest in its potential role as a minimally invasive tool to assess the whole of GI tract opening the possibility of its use for the panenteric assessment of Crohn’s disease. VCE is a safe procedure. However, the risk of a retained capsule is higher in patients with suspected or confirmed Crohn’s disease compared with patients having VCE examination for other indications. A retained video capsule is rare after successful passage of a patency capsule which may be utilised to pre-screen patients undergoing VCE. This paper describes the use of VCE in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27499830

  3. Remobilization does not restore immobilization-induced adhesion of capsule and restricted joint motion in rat knee joints.

    PubMed

    Ando, Akira; Suda, Hideaki; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Onoda, Yoshito; Chimoto, Eiichi; Itoi, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Joint immobilization, which is used in orthopaedic treatments and observed in bedridden people, usually causes restricted joint motion. Decreased joint motion diminishes activities of daily living and increases burden of nursing-care. The purpose of this study was to clarify the reversibility of immobilization-induced capsular changes and restricted joint motion in rat knee joints. The unilateral knee joints of adult male rats were immobilized with an internal fixator for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks as a model of immobilization after surgery or disuse of the joint. After the fixation devices were removed, the rats were allowed to move freely for 16 weeks. Sham-operated rats were used as controls. Sagittal sections at medial midcondylar regions were made and assessed with histological, histomorphometric, and immunohistochemical methods. Joint motion was measured using a custom-made device under x-ray control after removal of the periarticular muscles. In the 1/16-week and 2/16-week immobilization-remobilization (Im-Rm) groups, cord-like structures connecting the superior and inferior portions of the posterior capsule (partial adhesion) were observed without restricted joint motion. In the 4/16-, 8/16-, and 16/16-week Im-Rm groups, global adhesion of the posterior capsule and restricted joint motion were observed. The restricted joint motion was not completely restored after incision of the posterior capsule. These data indicate that immobilization alone causes irreversible capsular changes and arthrogenic restricted joint motion. Besides the joint capsule, other arthrogenic factors such as ligaments might influence the restricted joint motion. Prolonged immobilization over 4 weeks should be avoided to prevent irreversible joint contracture.

  4. Multicomponent, hydrogen-bonded cylindrical capsules.

    PubMed

    Ajami, Dariush; Rebek, Julius

    2009-09-04

    Self-assembled, hydrogen-bonded capsules emerge from synthetic resorcinarene-derived cavitands and soluble glycolurils when appropriate guest molecules are present. The assembly consists of 2 cavitands, 4 glycolurils and guest(s), and the arrangement of glycolurils leads to a chiral structure. The capsule features a space of approximately 620 A(3) and accommodates narrow guests such as n-alkanes from C(14) to C(19), or other molecules (e.g., capsaicin) and combinations of molecules of up to approximately 22 A in length (e.g., two p-methylstyrene molecules). Positions of encapsulated nuclei can be predicted from NMR chemical shifts, with intense shielding of deltaDelta = -5 ppm near the resorcinarene ends and mild deshielding of +0.5 to 1 ppm near the glycolurils at the capsule's center. Computational methods using nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS) were used to map the induced magnetic shielding/deshielding for the inner space of the cavity. The asymmetric arrangement of the spacers creates a chiral steric and magnetic environment in the capsule and the geminal hydrogen atoms of encapsulated alkanes show diastereotopic proton signals. The two enantiomers interconvert (racemize) through an achiral intermediate involving a slight rotation of the spacers and lengthening of the cavity. Accordingly, longer, compressed alkanes accelerate the racemization by applying pressure from the inside on the capsule's ends. Guests that place hydrogen bond donors and acceptors near the glycolurils in the middle (e.g., p-isopropylbenzyl alcohol) also accelerate the racemization by facilitating the rotation of the glycolurils. Slow tumbling of guest on the NMR time scale inside the capsule leads to social isomerism of para-disubstituted benzenes such as p-methylstyrene. Flexible guests such as hexane tumble inside the cavity with an activation barrier of DeltaG(++) =16.2 kcal/mol. The middle of the extended capsule is narrow, but still accommodates phenyl groups such as those

  5. Pulsed electron avalanche knife: new technology for cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Priglinger, Siegfried G; Palanker, Daniel; Alge, Claudia S; Kreutzer, Thomas C; Haritoglou, Christos; Grueterich, Martin; Kampik, Anselm

    2007-01-01

    Background The pulsed electron avalanche knife (PEAK‐fc) is a new pulsed electrosurgical device that allows for precise, “cold” and traction‐free tissue dissection. Aim To evaluate the surgical applicability, safety and potential complications of PEAK‐fc in complicated cataract surgery. Methods The study included five children with congenital cataracts, two patients with advanced senile cataracts, six adults with mature cataracts, three of them with posterior iris synechia, three patients with post‐traumatic cataracts with zonulolysis, one patient with intumescent traumatic cataract and three patients with massive anterior capsule opacification. Anterior and posterior capsulotomies, iris synechiolysis, dissection of anterior capsule opacification and fibrotic scar tissue were performed. PEAK‐fc was set at voltages of 500–700 V, pulse duration of 0.1 m and repetition rate of 40–100 Hz. Results Anterior and posterior capsulotomies were successfully and safely performed in all eyes. The edges of capsulotomies appeared sharp, showing only limited collateral damage. PEAK‐fc worked best by just gently touching the capsule, thereby avoiding tractional forces or pressure on the lens capsule. Posterior iris synechiae could be released and anterior capsule opacification was dissected without complications. Conclusions PEAK‐fc is a very helpful cutting device for complicated cases of cataract surgery, especially for mature and congenital cataracts, traumatic zonulolysis or anterior segment complications after intraocular inflammation. PMID:17229798

  6. Capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans grows by enlargement of polysaccharide molecules.

    PubMed

    Frases, Susana; Pontes, Bruno; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Viana, Nathan B; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Casadevall, Arturo

    2009-01-27

    The human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans has a distinctive polysaccharide (PS) capsule that enlarges during infection. The capsule is essential for virulence, but the mechanism for capsular growth is unknown. In the present study, we used dynamic light scattering (LS) analysis of capsular PS and optical tweezers (OT) to explore the architecture of the capsule. Analysis of capsular PS from cells with small and large capsules by dynamic LS revealed a linear correlation between PS effective diameter and microscopic capsular diameter. This result implied that capsule growth was achieved by the addition of molecules with larger effective diameter, such that some molecules can span the entire diameter of the capsule. Measurement of polystyrene bead penetration of C. neoformans capsules by using OT techniques revealed that the outer regions were penetrable, but not the inner regions. Our results provide a mechanism for capsular enlargement based on the axial lengthening of PS molecules and suggest a model for the architecture of a eukaryotic microbial capsule.

  7. Generic omeprazole delayed-release capsules: in vitro performance evaluations.

    PubMed

    Moore, Terry; Smith, Anjanette; Ye, Wei; Toler, Duckhee Y; Westenberger, Benjamin J; Lionberger, Robert; Raw, Andre; Yu, Lawrence; Buhse, Lucinda F

    2009-08-01

    After the patent on omeprazole delayed-release capsules expired, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved several generic omeprazole delayed-release capsule applications. FDA has received some complaints concerning a lack of therapeutic effect of the generic omeprazole delayed-release capsules. To investigate the quality of five different marketed generic omeprazole delayed-release capsules. The dissolution characteristics of these generic omeprazole delayed-release capsules were determined according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Additional dissolution studies under simulated in vivo physiological conditions were also conducted to determine whether generic omeprazole capsules would perform similarly under these conditions. The experimental data show that all the generic omeprazole delayed-release capsules met the USP standards. The in vitro dissolution of generic drugs is similar to that of the brand omeprazole product. There is no scientific evidence to support the claims that the generic omeprazole delayed-release capsules perform differently from the brand omeprazole product in vitro.

  8. Biodistribution of polymer hydrogel capsules for the delivery of therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Tracey M; Monaghan, Paul; Green, Diane; Kooijmans, Sander A A; Shi, Shuning; Breheney, Kerry; Tizard, Mark; Nicolazzo, Joseph A; Zelikin, Alexander N; Wark, Kim

    2012-09-01

    A key phase in the development of intelligently designed nanoparticle delivery vehicles for new therapeutic agents is to gain an understanding of their interaction with tissues and cells. We report a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments aimed at tracking a potential delivery vehicle for therapeutic agents, including vaccine peptides and drugs derived from poly(methacrylic acid) hydrogel capsules in certain organs and cell types. For the in vitro studies, two immortal liver-derived cell lines (Huh7 and Hepa1-6) and primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes were incubated with Alexa 647 labelled fluorescent capsules to track their internalization and intracellular distribution by confocal microscopy. Capsules, 500nm in diameter, were taken up into the cells in a time-dependent manner in all three cell lines. Capsules were observed in plasma membrane-derived vesicles within the cells. After 24h a significant proportion of the capsules was observed in lysosomes. To understand the behaviour of the capsules in vivo, Alexa 488 labelled fluorescent capsules were intravenously injected into Sprague-Dawley rats and after 24h the fate of the capsules in a number of organs was determined by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. By flow cytometry, the majority of the capsules were detected in the spleen whilst similar numbers were found in the lung and liver. By confocal microscopy, the majority of the capsules were found in the liver and spleen with significantly less capsules in the lung, heart and kidney. Colocalization of capsules with cell-type specific markers indicated that in lung, heart and kidney, the majority of the capsules were located in endothelial cells. In the spleen ~50% of the capsules were found in CD163-positive cells, whereas in the liver, almost all capsules were located in CD163-positive cells, indicating uptake by Kupffer cells. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of capsules within Kupffer cells. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by

  9. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification. A dental amalgam capsule is a container device in which silver alloy is intended to be mixed with...

  10. 21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dichlorophene and toluene capsules. 520.580... Dichlorophene and toluene capsules. (a) Specifications. Each soft gelatin capsule contains 50 milligrams of dichlorophene and 60 milligrams of toluene or multiples thereof. (b) Sponsor. (1) For single dose only, see...

  11. 21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dichlorophene and toluene capsules. 520.580... Dichlorophene and toluene capsules. (a) Specifications. Each soft gelatin capsule contains 50 milligrams of dichlorophene and 60 milligrams of toluene or multiples thereof. (b) Sponsor. (1) For single dose only, see...

  12. 21 CFR 520.446 - Clindamycin capsules and tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... capsules and tablets. (a) Specifications(1) Each capsule contains the equivalent of 25, 75, 150, or 300 milligrams (mg) clindamycin as the hydrochloride salt. (2) Each tablet contains the equivalent of 25, 75, or 150 mg clindamycin as the hydrochloride salt. (3) Each capsule contains the equivalent of 25, 75, or...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine phosphate monohydrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine phosphate monohydrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine phosphate monohydrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine phosphate monohydrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine phosphate monohydrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1...

  18. 21 CFR 520.608 - Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. 520.608 Section 520.608 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains dicloxacillin...

  19. 21 CFR 520.260 - n-Butyl chloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false n-Butyl chloride capsules. 520.260 Section 520.260... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.260 n-Butyl chloride capsules. (a)(1) Specifications. n-Butyl chloride capsules, veterinary contain 272 milligrams or 816 milligrams...

  20. 21 CFR 520.622d - Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules. 520.622d... Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 12.5, 50, 200, or 400 milligrams (mg) diethylcarbamazine citrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 011014 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use...

  1. Capsule endoscopy of the small bowel

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Hey-Long; Yung, Diana; Sidhu, Reena; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios

    2016-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a first line small bowel investigative modality which provides more sensitive mucosal imaging than comparators. It is a non-invasive, non-irradiating tool well tolerated by patients. The risk of retention of the capsule can be minimised by ensuring luminal patency using the Agile patency device. Research continues into how to minimise missed pathology and variability in the identification of pathology or interpretation of images. The consensus is that bowel preparation using laxatives improves visibility and diagnostic yield. Research includes the development of image recognition software, both to eliminate sequentially identical images to improve viewing speed and to select or enhance images likely to represent pathology. However, careful reading by experienced capsule endoscopists remains the benchmark. This should be performed at a speed comfortable to the viewer, probably at a maximum of 15 frames per second. Some prior experience of endoscopy appears to be helpful for novice capsule endoscopists and formal training on a hands-on training course seems to improve pathology recognition, for novices and for those with CE experience. PMID:27826572

  2. Design of Endoscopic Capsule With Multiple Cameras.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yingke; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Dan; Yin, Zheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhihua

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the miss rate of the wireless capsule endoscopy, in this paper, we propose a new system of the endoscopic capsule with multiple cameras. A master-slave architecture, including an efficient bus architecture and a four level clock management architecture, is applied for the Multiple Cameras Endoscopic Capsule (MCEC). For covering more area of the gastrointestinal tract wall with low power, multiple cameras with a smart image capture strategy, including movement sensitive control and camera selection, are used in the MCEC. To reduce the data transfer bandwidth and power consumption to prolong the MCEC's working life, a low complexity image compressor with PSNR 40.7 dB and compression rate 86% is implemented. A chipset is designed and implemented for the MCEC and a six cameras endoscopic capsule prototype is implemented by using the chipset. With the smart image capture strategy, the coverage rate of the MCEC prototype can achieve 98% and its power consumption is only about 7.1 mW.

  3. Capsule endoscopy in patients refusing conventional endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Vázquez, Javier; Argüelles-Arias, Federico; García-Montes, Josefa Maria; Caunedo-Álvarez, Ángel; Pellicer-Bautista, Francisco Javier; Herrerías-Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy is nowadays the diagnostic technique of choice in the study of small bowel pathologies, allowing the non-invasive study of the entire mucosa. This has led, together with new technical advances, to the creation of two new models (PillCam ESO and PillCam Colon) for the study of esophageal and colonic diseases. These two new capsules offer an interesting alternative to conventional endoscopy in the study of the upper and lower digestive tracts, because traditional endoscopy is often unpleasant and uncomfortable for the patient, can be painful, often requires moderate or deep sedation and is not without complications (hemorrhage, perforation, etc.). PillCam Colon is particularly important for its usefulness in the diagnosis of colonic polyps, and is a potentially useful tool in cases of incomplete colonoscopy or in colorectal cancer screening, even more when most patients are reluctant to undergo screening programs due to the said disadvantages of conventional colonoscopy. This article discusses the advantages of capsule endoscopy over conventional endoscopy, its current application possibilities and indications in routine clinical practice. In the various sections of the work, we assess the application of endoscopic capsule in different sections of the digestive tract (esophagus, stomach, and colon) and finally the potential role of panendoscopy with PillCam Colon. PMID:24966612

  4. Extended School Year. Information Capsule. Volume 0910

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    Extended school years are being considered by districts around the country as educators search for new ways to raise student achievement. The addition of time to the school calendar is also supported by President Barack Obama, who recently stated that American students do not spend enough time in school. This Information Capsule addresses research…

  5. Reciprocal Teaching. Information Capsule. Volume 0609

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2007-01-01

    Reciprocal teaching is an instructional approach designed to increase students' reading comprehension at all grade levels and in all subject areas. Students are taught cognitive strategies that help them construct meaning from text and simultaneously monitor their reading comprehension. This Information Capsule summarizes reciprocal teaching's…

  6. Release of Boilerplate Mercury Capsule Sequence

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1958-12-16

    Photographed on: 12 16 58. -- L58-1083a caption: Sequenced pictures showing events from release of boilerplate Mercury capsule from C-130 airplane to opening of recovery parachute, December 1958. Photograph published in A New Dimension Wallops Island Flight Test Range: The First Fifteen Years by Joseph Shortal. A NASA publication, page 644.

  7. Wireless capsule endoscopy: Perspectives beyond gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Redondo-Cerezo, Eduardo; Sánchez-Capilla, Antonio Damián; De La Torre-Rubio, Paloma; De Teresa, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) is a technology developed for the endoscopic exploration of the small bowel. The first capsule model was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2001, and its first and essential indication was occult gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Over subsequent years, this technology has been refined to provide superior resolution, increased battery life, and capabilities to view different parts of the GI tract. Indeed, cases for which CE proved useful have increased significantly over the last few years, with new indications for the small bowel and technical improvements that have expanded its use to other parts of the GI tract, including the esophagus and colon. The main challenges in the development of CE are new devices with the ability to provide therapy, air inflation for a better vision of the small bowel, biopsy sampling systems attached to the capsule and the possibility to guide and move the capsule with an external motion control. In this article we review the current and new indications of CE, and the evolving technological changes shaping this technology, which has a promising potential in the coming future of gastroenterology. PMID:25400450

  8. Reduced scale National Ignition Facility capsule design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, T. R.; Haan, S. W.; Marinak, M. M.; Pollaine, S. M.; McEachern, R.

    1998-10-01

    In this article we describe the design and simulated performance characteristics of an indirectly-driven inertial confinement fusion capsule which utilizes only 900 kJ of laser energy and 250 TW of laser power from the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Paisner et al., Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)]. This intentional reduction in laser performance from the nominal NIF specifications of 1.8 MJ and 500 TW results in lowering the hohlraum x-ray drive temperature from 300 eV to 250 eV. These energy and radiation temperature reductions are believed to define a "lower bound" on the successful implosion of an ignition capsule. This reduced scale capsule has a beryllium ablator containing a radially varying copper dopant, and a cryogenic solid deuterium-tritium fuel layer surrounding a cavity filled with equilibrium vapor pressure gaseous deuterium and tritium. Two-dimensional simulations predict ignition and propagated burn from this capsule when either Rayleigh-Taylor instability or time-dependent drive asymmetry effects are included.

  9. Student Mobility. Information Capsule. Volume 0608

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2007-01-01

    Mobility, rather than stability, has become the norm for students in schools across the United States. The student mobility rate is now higher in the United States than in any other industrialized country. This Information Capsule discusses the reasons for student mobility and the characteristics of highly mobile students and families. Research…

  10. Posterior-assisted levitation: outcomes in the retrieval of nuclear fragments and subluxated intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Por, Yong Ming; Chee, Soon-Phaik

    2006-12-01

    To report the outcomes of posterior-assisted levitation (PAL) to retrieve nuclear fragments and subluxated intraocular lenses (IOLs). Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore. In a retrospective series, the case notes of consecutive surgeries performed by a single surgeon between 1999 and 2006 were reviewed. Posterior-assisted levitation was performed for intraoperative posterior capsule rupture with nucleus-IOL dislocation or for late subluxation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOLs). This was accomplished by the pars plana insertion of a needle followed by levitation of the subluxated object. Ophthalmic viscosurgical device injection was not used as an adjunct for levitation. Fourteen patients with PAL were followed for a mean of 18.71 months (range 1 to 79 months). There were 3 cases of dropped nucleus/nuclear fragments, 1 case of intraoperative subluxated PC IOL, and 10 cases of late subluxated PC IOLs. Complications included 1 case of retinal detachment occurring 20 months after PAL and 1 case of cystoid macular edema in a patient with previous anterior uveitis. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/40 or better in all except 3 patients (1 retinal detachment, 1 corneal edema/scarring, 1 unspecified). Posterior-assisted levitation provided an effective, relatively noninvasive means of levitating nuclear fragments and PC IOLs with few complications.

  11. Clear Corneal Phacovitrectomy with Posterior Capsulorhexis and IOL Implantation in Management of Selective Vitreoretinal Cases

    PubMed Central

    Boiko, Ernest V.; Churashov, Sergey V.; Kulikov, Alexei N.; Maltsev, Dmitrii S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To describe our technique, clear corneal phacovitrectomy with posterior capsulorhexis (CCPV), for the management of selected posterior segment intraocular foreign body (IOFB), posteriorly dislocated lens fragments (PDLF), and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) cases. Methods. This was a single-center retrospective interventional case series. In 21 patients (21 eyes) we performed phacovitrectomy through three clear corneal tunnel incisions (CCTI) and posterior capsulorhexis to remove IOFB (n = 8), PDLF from the vitreous cavity after complicated phacoemulsification (n = 6), and vitreous hemorrhage and epiretinal membranes in PDR (n = 7). The procedure was completed with implantation of a hydrophobic acrylic IOL through the CCTI. Results. The mean visual acuity (logMAR) was 0.90 preoperative and improved to 0.26 over a mean follow-up of 8.7 months (range, 6–12 months). The intraocular lens was implanted into the capsular bag (n = 12) or onto the anterior capsule (n = 9). One PDR patient experienced an intraprocedural complication, hemorrhage from isolated fibrovascular adhesions. One IOFB patient developed apparent anterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy and required a repeat intervention. Conclusion. Selected vitreoretinal IOFB, PDLF, and PDR cases can be successfully managed by a combined surgical approach involving clear corneal phacovitrectomy with posterior capsulorhexis and implantation of an IOL, with good visual outcome and a low complication rate. PMID:26587281

  12. Water Landing Characteristics of a Reentry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Water Landing Characteristics of a Reentry Capsule. Experimental and theoretical investigations have been made to determine the water-landing characteristics of a conical-shaped reentry capsule having a segment of a sphere as the bottom. For the experimental portion of the investigation, a 1/12-scale model capsule and a full-scale capsule were tested for nominal flight paths of 65 deg and 90 deg (vertical), a range of contact attitudes from -30 deg to 30 deg, and a full-scale vertical velocity of 30 feet per second at contact. Accelerations were measured by accelerometers installed at the centers of gravity of the model and full-scale capsules. For the model test the accelerations were measured along the X-axis (roll) and Z-axis (yaw) and for the full-scale test they were measured along the X-axis (roll), Y-axis (pitch), and Z-axis (yaw). Motions and displacements of the capsules that occurred after contact were determined from high-speed motion pictures. The theoretical investigation was conducted to determine the accelerations that might occur along the X-axis when the capsule contacted the water from a 90 deg flight path at a 0 deg attitude. Assuming a rigid body, computations were made from equations obtained by utilizing the principle of the conservation of momentum. The agreement among data obtained from the model test, the full-scale test, and the theory was very good. The accelerations along the X-axis, for a vertical flight path and 0 deg attitude, were in the order of 40g. For a 65 deg flight path and 0 deg attitude, the accelerations along the X-axis were in the order of 50g. Changes in contact attitude, in either the positive or negative direction from 0 deg attitude, considerably reduced the magnitude of the accelerations measured along the X-axis. Accelerations measured along the Y- and Z-axes were relatively small at all test conditions. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030955. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  13. Posterior Capsular Plication Constrains the Glenohumeral Joint by Drawing the Humeral Head Closer to the Glenoid and Resisting Abduction.

    PubMed

    DeAngelis, Joseph P; Hertz, Benjamin; Wexler, Michael T; Patel, Nehal; Walley, Kempland C; Harlow, Ethan R; Manoukian, Ohan S; Masoudi, Aidin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Ramappa, Arun J; Nazarian, Ara

    2015-08-01

    Shoulder pain is a common problem, with 30% to 50% of the American population affected annually. While the majority of these shoulder problems improve, there is a high rate of recurrence, as 54% of patients experience persistent symptoms 3 years after onset. Posterior shoulder tightness has been shown to alter glenohumeral (GH) kinematics. Clinically, posterior shoulder contractures result in a significant loss of internal rotation and abduction (ABD). In this study, the effect of a posterior capsular contracture on GH kinematics was investigated using an intact cadaveric shoulder without violating the joint capsule or the rotator cuff. Controlled laboratory study. Glenohumeral motion, humeral load, and subacromial contact pressure were measured in 6 fresh-frozen left shoulders during passive ABD from 60° to 100° using an automated robotic upper extremity testing system. Baseline values were compared with the experimental condition in which the full thickness of posterior tissues was plicated without decompressing the joint capsule. Posterior soft tissue plication resulted in increased compression between the humeral head and the glenoid (axial load) at 90° of ABD. Throughout ABD, the posterior contracture increased the anterior and superior moment on the humeral head, but it did not change the GH kinematics in this intact model. As a result, there was no increase in the subacromial contact pressure during ABD with posterior plication. In an intact cadaveric shoulder, posterior contracture does not alter GH motion or subacromial contact pressure during passive ABD. By tightening the soft tissue envelope posteriorly, there is an increase in compressive load on the articular cartilage and anterior/superior force on the humeral head. These findings suggest that subacromial impingement in the setting of a posterior soft tissue contracture may result from alterations in scapulothoracic motion, not changes in GH kinematics. This investigation demonstrates that

  14. Posterior Capsular Plication Constrains the Glenohumeral Joint by Drawing the Humeral Head Closer to the Glenoid and Resisting Abduction

    PubMed Central

    DeAngelis, Joseph P.; Hertz, Benjamin; Wexler, Michael T.; Patel, Nehal; Walley, Kempland C.; Harlow, Ethan R.; Manoukian, Ohan S.; Masoudi, Aidin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Ramappa, Arun J.; Nazarian, Ara

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shoulder pain is a common problem, with 30% to 50% of the American population affected annually. While the majority of these shoulder problems improve, there is a high rate of recurrence, as 54% of patients experience persistent symptoms 3 years after onset. Purpose: Posterior shoulder tightness has been shown to alter glenohumeral (GH) kinematics. Clinically, posterior shoulder contractures result in a significant loss of internal rotation and abduction (ABD). In this study, the effect of a posterior capsular contracture on GH kinematics was investigated using an intact cadaveric shoulder without violating the joint capsule or the rotator cuff. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Glenohumeral motion, humeral load, and subacromial contact pressure were measured in 6 fresh-frozen left shoulders during passive ABD from 60° to 100° using an automated robotic upper extremity testing system. Baseline values were compared with the experimental condition in which the full thickness of posterior tissues was plicated without decompressing the joint capsule. Results: Posterior soft tissue plication resulted in increased compression between the humeral head and the glenoid (axial load) at 90° of ABD. Throughout ABD, the posterior contracture increased the anterior and superior moment on the humeral head, but it did not change the GH kinematics in this intact model. As a result, there was no increase in the subacromial contact pressure during ABD with posterior plication. Conclusion: In an intact cadaveric shoulder, posterior contracture does not alter GH motion or subacromial contact pressure during passive ABD. By tightening the soft tissue envelope posteriorly, there is an increase in compressive load on the articular cartilage and anterior/superior force on the humeral head. These findings suggest that subacromial impingement in the setting of a posterior soft tissue contracture may result from alterations in scapulothoracic motion, not

  15. Presence of a capsule in Neisseria lactamica, antigenically similar to the capsule of N. meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Martin, P V; Laviotola, A; Ohayon, H; Riou, J Y

    1986-01-01

    Three of thirteen strains of Neisseria lactamica, a species closely related to N. meningitidis, were selected on the basis of their ability to be strongly agglutinated by serogroup B antimeningococcal serum. The presence of a capsule was demonstrated using Alcian blue as a stain for acidic polysaccharide. When reacted with serogroup B antimeningococcal sera, 2 out of 3 N. lactamica B-coagglutanating strains exhibited an extracellular material comparable in size, antigenicity and staining properties to the capsule of serogroup B N. meningitidis.

  16. Distortions of posterior visual space.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Flip; Voshell, Martin G

    2009-01-01

    The study of spatial vision is a long and well traveled road (which, of course, converges to a vanishing point at the horizon). Its various distortions have been widely investigated empirically, and most concentrate, pragmatically, on the space anterior to the observer. The visual world behind the observer has received relatively less attention and it is this perspective the current experiments address. Our results show systematic perceptual distortions in the posterior visual world when viewed statically. Under static viewing conditions, observer's perceptual representation was consistently 'spread' in a hyperbolic fashion. Directions to distant, peripheral locations were consistently overestimated by about 11 degrees from the ground truth and this variability increased as the target was moved toward the center of the observer's back. The perceptual representation of posterior visual space is, no doubt, secondary to the more immediate needs of the anterior visual world. Still, it is important in some domains including certain sports, such as rowing, and in vehicular navigation.

  17. Kinetic simulation of hydrodynamic equivalent capsule implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Thomas; Le, Ari; Schmitt, Mark; Herrmann, Hans

    2016-10-01

    We have carried out simulations of direct-drive hydrodynamic equivalent capsule implosion experiments conducted on Omega laser facility at the Laboratory of Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester. The capsules had a glass shell (SiO2) 4.87 μm with an inner diameter of 1086 μm. One was filled with deuterium (D) and tritium (T) at 6.635 and 2.475 atmospheric pressure respectively. The other capsule with D, T, and He-3 at 2.475, 2.475, and 5.55 atmospheric pressure respectively. The capsules were imploded with 60 laser beams with a square pulse length of 0.6ns of total energy of 15.6 kJ. One-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic calculations with HYDRA and kinetic particle/hybrid simulations with LSP are carried out for the post-shot analysis. HYDRA outputs at 0.6ns are linked to LSP, in which the electrons are treated as a fluid while all the ion dynamics is simulated by the standard particle-in-cell technique. Additionally, simulations with the new photon package in LSP are initiated at the beginning of the implosion to include the implosion phase of the capsule. The simulation results of density, temperature, and velocity profiles of the electrons, D, T, He-3, and SiO2species are compared with HYDRA. Detail comparisons among the kinetic simulations, rad-hydro simulations, and experimental results of neutron yield, yield ratio, fusion burn histories, and shell convergence will be presented to assess plasma kinetic effects. Work performed under the auspices of the US DOE by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W7405-ENG-36.

  18. Repairing the Capsule to the Transferred Coracoid Preserves External Rotation in the Modified Latarjet Procedure.

    PubMed

    Itoigawa, Yoshiaki; Hooke, Alexander W; Sperling, John W; Steinmann, Scott P; Zhao, Kristin D; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Itoi, Eiji; An, Kai-Nan

    2016-09-07

    It is not clear whether the anterior capsule should be repaired to the coracoid process or to the native glenoid during the modified Latarjet procedure. We investigated joint stability and range of motion of the shoulder after the modified Latarjet procedure with both of these methods of capsular repair. Eighteen fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were used. After a Bankart lesion and 6-mm glenoid defect were created, the coracoid process was transferred to the glenoid and fixed with screws. The anterior capsule was repaired either to the coracoid process (coracoid group) or to the native glenoid (glenoid group). The ranges of internal and external axial rotation were measured with the arm at 0° and 60° of glenohumeral abduction. The range of motion was measured with a constant torque of 200 N-mm. Joint stability was measured using a custom stability testing device. The stability ratio in the anterior-posterior direction was measured with the arm at maximal external rotation and neutral rotation. The range of external rotation was greater at both 0° and 60° of abduction in the coracoid group compared with the glenoid group (p < 0.05). The range of internal rotation was not significantly different between groups. The end-range stability ratio was not significantly different between groups, but the mid-range stability ratio was significantly greater in the glenoid group. Because the difference in the mid-range stability may not be clinically relevant, we recommend repairing the capsule to the coracoid, as that preserves the range of motion in external rotation. Repairing the capsule to the transferred coracoid during the modified Latarjet procedure appears to be beneficial to avoid the limited range of motion in external rotation, but the direct contact of the humeral head and the transferred coracoid might confer a risk of osteoarthritis. Long-term consequences in the clinical setting need to be clarified. Copyright © 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery

  19. [Improvement of Digital Capsule Endoscopy System and Image Interpolation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shaopeng; Yan, Guozheng; Liu, Gang; Kuang, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Traditional capsule image collects and transmits analog image, with weak anti-interference ability, low frame rate, low resolution. This paper presents a new digital image capsule, which collects and transmits digital image, with frame rate up to 30 frames/sec and pixels resolution of 400 x 400. The image is compressed in the capsule, and is transmitted to the outside of the capsule for decompression and interpolation. A new type of interpolation algorithm is proposed, which is based on the relationship between the image planes, to obtain higher quality colour images. capsule endoscopy, digital image, SCCB protocol, image interpolation

  20. Capsule staining as an adjunct to cataract surgery: a report from the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Deborah S; Cox, Terry A; Wagoner, Michael D; Ariyasu, Reginald G; Karp, Carol L

    2006-04-01

    This document evaluates currently available data in the published literature to answer the question of whether the use of dye such as indocyanine green or trypan blue to stain the lens capsule to improve visualization is safe and effective as an adjunct to cataract surgery. Literature searches conducted in March 2003 and May 2004 retrieved 139 citations. The panel members reviewed the abstracts and selected 47 of possible clinical relevance for review. An additional 14 articles were identified for evaluation. Of the 61 articles reviewed, the panel members selected 36 for the panel methodologist to review and rate according to the strength of the evidence. A level I rating was assigned to properly conducted, well-designed, randomized clinical trials; a level II rating was assigned to well-designed cohort and case-control studies; and a level III rating was assigned to case series and case reports. There is level III evidence that indocyanine green, trypan blue, and fluorescein are each effective in staining the lens capsule and that indocyanine green and trypan blue provide better ease of use and visualization of the capsule than fluoroscein. There is level II evidence that staining the capsule is helpful in completing capsulorrhexis and that it is helpful for pediatric patients under age 5 years and in cases of white cataract. The overall surgical advantage of a completed continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis using dye has not been demonstrated, but this may be related to the outcome measures chosen rather than a failure to confer advantage. There are substantial data indicating that trypan blue 0.1% is not toxic to the cornea. There are limited data suggesting that indocyanine green 0.125% to 0.5% is not toxic to anterior segment structures. There are data confirming that dye is safe and effective as an adjunct for capsule visualization in cataract surgery. It is reasonable to use dye when inadequate capsule visualization may compromise the outcome in cataract

  1. Preparation of green and gelatin-free nanocrystalline cellulose capsules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yapei; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Huashan; Jiang, Xingyu; Cha, Ruitao

    2017-05-15

    The ambiguous source and uncontrolled solubility of gelatin make it crucial to develop gelatin capsule substitutes. Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) of excellent mechanical performance, good biocompatibility and green origin has drawn many attentions as a new class of biomaterials. In this work, NCC capsule was prepared by dipping method with PEG and glycerol as plasticizer. The effect of PEG and glycerol on the rheological property of NCC gel and the surface morphology of NCC capsule was evaluated. The disintegration time of NCC capsule meet the criteria in United States Pharmacopoeia (USP32-701).There is no significant difference in the release of sulfuric acid between gelatin capsule and NCC capsule. NCC capsule thus has the potential as a green platform for biomedical applications in drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental measurement on movement of spiral-type capsule endoscope

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wanan; Dai, Houde; He, Yong; Qin, Fengqing

    2016-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscope achieved great success, however, the maneuvering of wireless capsule endoscope is challenging at present. A magnetic driving instrument, including two bar magnets, a stepper motor, a motor driver, a motor controller, and a power supplier, was developed to generate rotational magnetic fields. Permanent magnet ring, magnetized as S and N poles radially and mounted spiral structure on the surface, acted as a capsule. The maximum torque passing to the capsule, rotational synchronization of capsule and motor, and the translational speed of capsule, were measured in ex vivo porcine large intestine. The experimental results illustrate that the rotational movement of the spiral-type capsule in the intestine is feasible and the cost of the magnetic driving equipment is low. As a result, the solution is promising in the future controllability. PMID:26848279

  3. Experimental measurement on movement of spiral-type capsule endoscope.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanan; Dai, Houde; He, Yong; Qin, Fengqing

    2016-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscope achieved great success, however, the maneuvering of wireless capsule endoscope is challenging at present. A magnetic driving instrument, including two bar magnets, a stepper motor, a motor driver, a motor controller, and a power supplier, was developed to generate rotational magnetic fields. Permanent magnet ring, magnetized as S and N poles radially and mounted spiral structure on the surface, acted as a capsule. The maximum torque passing to the capsule, rotational synchronization of capsule and motor, and the translational speed of capsule, were measured in ex vivo porcine large intestine. The experimental results illustrate that the rotational movement of the spiral-type capsule in the intestine is feasible and the cost of the magnetic driving equipment is low. As a result, the solution is promising in the future controllability.

  4. Posterior commissure of the human larynx revisited.

    PubMed

    Tucker, John A; Tucker, Sean T

    2010-05-01

    The existence of the posterior commissure (PC) of the human larynx has been disputed (Hirano M, Sato K, et al. The posterior glottis. Trans Am Laryngol Assoc. 1986;107:70-75). "The term posterior commissure has no relevance to anatomical structure. The term commissure means a joining together. The bilateral vocal folds never join at their posterior ends. The posterior aspect of the glottis is a wall. The posterior lateral aspect of the posterior glottis is also the lateral wall of the posterior glottis" (Hirano M, Sato K, et al. The posterior glottis. Trans Am Laryngol Assoc. 1986;107:70-75). This study is intended to clarify the development of anatomical and morphological aspects of the PC in conjunction with a clinical classification of the larynx in sagittal view. This study uses human embryo and fetal laryngeal sections from the Carnegie Collection of Human Embryos (the world standard) and whole organ laryngeal sections from the Tucker Laryngeal Fetal Collection. Correlation of histologic and gross anatomical structure is made with the Hirano et al atlas, the Vidić Photographic Atlas of the Human Body, and the O'Rahilly Embryonic Atlas. Embryologic data clearly describe and illustrate the posterior union of the cricoid cartilage with formation of the PC. The anatomical functional aspects of the posterior lateral cricoid lamina as the supporting buttress of the articulating arytenoid cartilages are illustrated.

  5. An important cause of pes planus: the posterior tibial tendon dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Erol, Kemal; Karahan, Ali Yavuz; Kerimoğlu, Ülkü; Ordahan, Banu; Tekin, Levent; Şahin, Muhammed; Kaydok, Ercan

    2015-01-28

    Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is an important cause of acquired pes planus that frequently observed in adults. Factors that play a role in the development of PTTD such as age-related tendon degeneration, inflammatory arthritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, peritendinous injections and more rarely acute traumatic rupture of the tendon. PTT is the primary dynamic stabilizer of medial arch of the foot. Plantar flexion and inversion of the foot occurs with contraction of tibialis posterior tendon, and arch of the foot becomes elaveted while midtarsal joints are locked and midfoot-hindfoot sets as rigid. Thus, during the walk gastrocnemius muscle works more efficiently. If the PTT does not work in the order, other foot ligaments and joint capsule would be increasingly weak and than pes planus occurs. We present a 10-year-old female patient diagnosed as PTTD and conservative treatment with review of the current literature.

  6. Isolated posterior cruciate ligament calcification

    PubMed Central

    Koukoulias, Nikolaos E; Papastergiou, Stergios G

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a case of calcified posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). A 61-year-old female presented in our department reporting 12 months history of knee pain that was getting worse during the night. The patient was under medication for epileptic seizure, osteoporosis and hyperthyroidism. X-rays demonstrated calcification of the PCL. CT and MRI excluded any other intra-articular and extra-articular pathology. Arthroscopic debridement of the calcium deposits was performed and the symptoms resolved immediately, while the postoperative x-rays were normal. Histological examination confirmed the calcium nature of the lesion. Two years postoperatively the patient remains asymptomatic. PMID:22669889

  7. Electroformation of Janus and patchy capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozynek, Zbigniew; Mikkelsen, Alexander; Dommersnes, Paul; Fossum, Jon Otto

    2014-05-01

    Janus and patchy particles have designed heterogeneous surfaces that consist of two or several patches with different materials properties. These particles are emerging as building blocks for a new class of soft matter and functional materials. Here we introduce a route for forming heterogeneous capsules by producing highly ordered jammed colloidal shells of various shapes with domains of controlled size and composition. These structures combine the functionalities offered by Janus or patchy particles, and those given by permeable shells such as colloidosomes. The simple assembly route involves the synergetic action of electro-hydrodynamic flow and electro-coalescence. We demonstrate that the method is robust and straightforwardly extendable to production of multi-patchy capsules. This forms a starting point for producing patchy colloidosomes with domains of anisotropic chemical surface properties, permeability or mixed liquid-solid phase domains, which could be exploited to produce functional emulsions, light and hollow supra-colloidosome structures, or scaffolds.

  8. Electroformation of Janus and patchy capsules

    PubMed Central

    Rozynek, Zbigniew; Mikkelsen, Alexander; Dommersnes, Paul; Fossum, Jon Otto

    2014-01-01

    Janus and patchy particles have designed heterogeneous surfaces that consist of two or several patches with different materials properties. These particles are emerging as building blocks for a new class of soft matter and functional materials. Here we introduce a route for forming heterogeneous capsules by producing highly ordered jammed colloidal shells of various shapes with domains of controlled size and composition. These structures combine the functionalities offered by Janus or patchy particles, and those given by permeable shells such as colloidosomes. The simple assembly route involves the synergetic action of electro-hydrodynamic flow and electro-coalescence. We demonstrate that the method is robust and straightforwardly extendable to production of multi-patchy capsules. This forms a starting point for producing patchy colloidosomes with domains of anisotropic chemical surface properties, permeability or mixed liquid–solid phase domains, which could be exploited to produce functional emulsions, light and hollow supra-colloidosome structures, or scaffolds. PMID:24853057

  9. Capsule- and disk-filter procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skrobialowski, Stanley C.

    2016-01-01

    Capsule and disk filters are disposable, self-contained units composed of a pleated or woven filter medium encased in a polypropylene or other plastic housing that can be connected inline to a sample-delivery system (such as a submersible or peristaltic pump) that generates sufficient pressure (positive or negative) to force water through the filter. Filter media are available in several pore sizes, but 0.45 µm is the pore size used routinely for most studies at this time. Capsule or disk filters (table 5.2.1.A.1) are required routinely for most studies when filtering samples for trace-element analyses and are recommended when filtering samples for major-ion or other inorganic-constituent analyses.

  10. Adhesive capsulitis of the hip: a review.

    PubMed

    Looney, Colin G; Raynor, Brett; Lowe, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    Adhesive capsulitis of the hip (ACH) is a rare clinical entity. Similar to adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder, ACH is characterized by a painful decrease in active and passive range of motion as synovial inflammation in the acute stages of the disease progresses to capsular fibrosis in the chronic stages. Once other diagnoses have been ruled out, management of ACH is tailored to reduce inflammation in the acute stages with NSAIDs, intra-articular steroid injections, and targeted physical therapy while biomechanical dysfunction in the spine, hip, sacroiliac joint, or lower limb joints is addressed. In chronic stages of the disease, intervention should focus on decreasing the progression of fibrotic changes and regaining range of motion through aggressive physical therapy. Interventions described for chronic ACH include manipulation under anesthesia; pressure dilatation; and open or arthroscopic synovectomy, lysis of adhesions, and capsular release. Surgical intervention should be considered only after failure of a minimum 3-month course of nonsurgical treatment.

  11. Posterior tibial slope and femoral sizing affect posterior cruciate ligament tension in posterior cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Shinichi; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Furu, Moritoshi; Ito, Hiromu; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2015-08-01

    During cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty, surgeons sometimes encounter increased tension of the posterior cruciate ligament. This study investigated the effects of femoral size, posterior tibial slope, and rotational alignment of the femoral and tibial components on forces at the posterior cruciate ligament in cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty using a musculoskeletal computer simulation. Forces at the posterior cruciate ligament were assessed with the standard femoral component, as well as with 2-mm upsizing and 2-mm downsizing in the anterior-posterior dimension. These forces were also determined with posterior tibial slope angles of 5°, 7°, and 9°, and lastly, were measured in 5° increments when the femoral (tibial) components were positioned from 5° (15°) of internal rotation to 5° (15°) of external rotation. Forces at the posterior cruciate ligament increased by up to 718N with the standard procedure during squatting. The 2-mm downsizing of the femoral component decreased the force at the posterior cruciate ligament by up to 47%. The 2° increment in posterior tibial slope decreased the force at the posterior cruciate ligament by up to 41%. In addition, posterior cruciate ligament tension increased by 11% during internal rotation of the femoral component, and increased by 18% during external rotation of the tibial component. These findings suggest that accurate sizing and bone preparation are very important to maintain posterior cruciate ligament forces in cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty. Care should also be taken regarding malrotation of the femoral and tibial components because this increases posterior cruciate ligament tension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rest and stress transluminal attenuation gradient and contrast opacification difference for detection of hemodynamically significant stenoses in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Ko, Brian S; Seneviratne, Sujith; Cameron, James D; Gutman, Sarah; Crossett, Marcus; Munnur, Kiran; Meredith, Ian T; Wong, Dennis T L

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of stress 320 detector CT coronary angiography (CTA) derived transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG320) and contrast opacification (CO) difference to detect hemodynamically significant stenoses as determined by invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR ≤ 0.80). Twenty-seven patients, including 51 vessels on rest CTA were studied. 16 (31 %) vessels were not interpretable on stress CTA largely secondary to motion artefacts. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed a comparable area under the curve (AUC) for rest and stress TAG320 (0.78 and 0.75) which was higher than CTA alone (0.68), and rest and stress CO difference (0.76 and 0.67). Compared with rest CTA, stress CTA demonstrated inferior image quality (Median Likert score 4 vs. 3, P < 0.0001) and required a higher mean radiation exposure (3.2 vs. 5.1 mSv, P < 0.0001). Stress TAG320 and CO difference is less feasible and was not superior in diagnostic performance when compared with rest TAG320 and CO difference.

  13. Capsule endoscopy: Present status and future expectation

    PubMed Central

    Goenka, Mahesh K; Majumder, Shounak; Goenka, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (CE) since its introduction 13 years back, has revolutionized our approach to small intestinal diseases. Obscure gastrointestinal bleed (OGIB) continues to be the most important indication for CE with a high sensitivity, specificity as well as positive and negative predictive values. It is best performed during ongoing bleed or immediately thereafter. Overt OGIB has a higher diagnostic yield than occult OGIB. However, even in iron deficiency anemia, CE is emerging as important investigation after initial negative work up. In suspected Crohn’s disease (CD), CE has been shown superior to traditional imaging and endoscopic technique and should be considered after a negative ileocolonoscopy. Although CE has also been used for evaluating established CD, a high capsule retention rate precludes its use ahead of cross-sectional imaging. Celiac disease, particularly where gastro-duodenoscopy cannot be performed or is normal, can also be investigated by CE. Small bowel tumor, hereditary polyposis syndrome, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induced intestinal damage are other indications for CE. Capsule retention is the only significant adverse outcome of CE and occurs mostly in presence of intestinal obstruction. This can be prevented by use of Patency capsule prior to CE examination. Presence of cardiac pacemaker and intracardiac devices continue to be relative contraindications for CE, though data do not suggest interference of CE with these devices. Major limitations of CE today include failure to control its movement from outside, inability of CE to acquire tissue for diagnosis, and lack of therapeutic help. With ongoing interesting and exciting developments taking place in these areas, these issues would be solved in all probability in near future. CE has the potential to become one of the most important tools in diagnostic and possibly in the therapeutic field of gastrointestinal disorder. PMID:25110430

  14. [Quality control of zhuanggu shenjin capsules].

    PubMed

    Ni, G; Chen, X; Zhang, Y; Liu, Z; Gao, Y; Quan, R; Sun, Q; Ni, H

    1996-01-01

    Studies have been made on the microscopic identification of red jinseng, dog bone, indian bread, yanhusuo and datura flower in Zhuanggu Shenjin Capsules, as well as on the identification of ginsengside and tetrahydropalmatine by TLC and the determination of icariin by dual wavelength TLC-scanning. The content of the latter compound should be no less than 0.380mg/g and the average rate of recovery 97.62% (n = 5).

  15. Rarefied Flows of Planetary Entry Capsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, James N.

    1997-01-01

    The impact of rarefaction on entry capsules and spacecraft aerothermodynamics is emphasized for various aeroassist missions. The capability of the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to simulate such flows is demonstrated through examples of validation studies and applications. Several space flight projects and ground-based experiments are reviewed for which rarefaction effects have significant effect on spacecraft performance or experimental measurements. This review clearly demonstrates the significant role that the DSMC method plays in characterizing such flows.

  16. Effects of food on a gastrically degraded drug: azithromycin fast-dissolving gelatin capsules and HPMC capsules.

    PubMed

    Curatolo, William; Liu, Ping; Johnson, Barbara A; Hausberger, Angela; Quan, Ernest; Vendola, Thomas; Vatsaraj, Neha; Foulds, George; Vincent, John; Chandra, Richa

    2011-07-01

    Commercial azithromycin gelatin capsules (Zithromax®) are known to be bioequivalent to commercial azithromycin tablets (Zithromax®) when dosed in the fasted state. These capsules exhibit a reduced bioavailability when dosed in the fed state, while tablets do not. This gelatin capsule negative food effect was previously proposed to be due to slow and/or delayed capsule disintegration in the fed stomach, resulting in extended exposure of the drug to gastric acid, leading to degradation to des-cladinose-azithromycin (DCA). Azithromycin gelatin capsules were formulated with "superdisintegrants" to provide fast-dissolving capsules, and HPMC capsule shells were substituted for gelatin capsule shells, in an effort to eliminate the food effect. Healthy volunteers were dosed with these dosage forms under fasted and fed conditions; pharmacokinetics were evaluated. DCA pharmacokinetics were also evaluated for the HPMC capsule subjects. In vitro disintegration of azithromycin HPMC capsules in media containing food was evaluated and compared with commercial tablets and commercial gelatin capsules. When the two fast-dissolving capsule formulations were dosed to fed subjects, the azithromycin AUC was 38.9% and 52.1% lower than after fasted-state dosing. When HPMC capsules were dosed to fed subjects, the azithromycin AUC was 65.5% lower than after fasted-state dosing. For HPMC capsules, the absolute fasting-state to fed-state decrease in azithromycin AUC (on a molar basis) was similar to the increase in DCA AUC. In vitro capsule disintegration studies revealed extended disintegration times for commercial azithromycin gelatin capsules and HPMC capsules in media containing the liquid foods milk and Ensure®. Interaction of azithromycin gelatin and HPMC capsules with food results in slowed disintegration in vitro and decreased bioavailability in vivo. Concurrent measurement of serum azithromycin and the acid-degradation product DCA demonstrates that the loss of azithromycin

  17. Capsule Design for Hybrid Shock Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgaertel, J. A.; Dodd, E. S.; Loomis, E. N.

    2014-10-01

    Hybrid Shock-Ignition (HSI) is an alternate fusion energy concept that combines indirect drive and shock ignition schemes in order to access new regimes in National Ignition Facility (NIF) hohlraum physics. Building off of tetrahedral hohlraum experiments at the OMEGA laser facility, we have preliminary designs for spherical hohlraums that combine symmetrically arranged laser entrance holes for indirect-drive beams (to initially compress the capsule) and holes for direct-drive beams to drive a strong ignitor shock (to further compress and ignite the fuel). A LANL Eulerian hydrodynamic code is being used to find optimal laser drive, hohlraum, and capsule specifications, via criteria such as implosion symmetry, implosion time, and neutron yield. At first, drive will be modeled using a radiation source to mimic the hohlraum drive, and later, ignitor beams will be added. Initial capsule designs will be presented for experiments to develop the HSI platform on the sub-ignition scale OMEGA laser facility in FY15. Supported under the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. LA-UR-14-25071.

  18. Aerodynamics for the Mars Phoenix Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Desai, Prasun N.; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Pre-flight aerodynamics data for the Mars Phoenix entry capsule are presented. The aerodynamic coefficients were generated as a function of total angle-of-attack and either Knudsen number, velocity, or Mach number, depending on the flight regime. The database was constructed using continuum flowfield computations and data from the Mars Exploration Rover and Viking programs. Hypersonic and supersonic static coefficients were derived from Navier-Stokes solutions on a pre-flight design trajectory. High-altitude data (free-molecular and transitional regimes) and dynamic pitch damping characteristics were taken from Mars Exploration Rover analysis and testing. Transonic static coefficients from Viking wind tunnel tests were used for capsule aerodynamics under the parachute. Static instabilities were predicted at two points along the reference trajectory and were verified by reconstructed flight data. During the hypersonic instability, the capsule was predicted to trim at angles as high as 2.5 deg with an on-axis center-of-gravity. Trim angles were predicted for off-nominal pitching moment (4.2 deg peak) and a 5 mm off-axis center-ofgravity (4.8 deg peak). Finally, hypersonic static coefficient sensitivities to atmospheric density were predicted to be within uncertainty bounds.

  19. Analysis of 2011 Defect Imaging Capsule Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Paul; Cobble, James; Hsu, Scott; Magelssen, Glenn; Murphy, Thomas; Obery, Kimberly; Schmitt, Mark; Tregillis, Ian; Krasheninnikova, Natalia; Wysocki, Frederick

    2011-10-01

    Los Alamos is engaged in a project to design high neutron fluence feature-driven mix experiments for the National Ignition Facility in 2012. These results will be relevant for determining how much imperfection capsules can have in inertial fusion energy. To prepare for NIF, we fielded shots on the Omega laser in January and July 2011 with a 40 beam polar direct drive configuration similar to what we will employ on NIF. The capsules were 15 to 17 micron CH plastic shells about 880 microns in diameter filled with 5 atm of D2 gas. We fielded capsules with different dopant layers and different depth equatorial grooves that were about 30 microns wide. We obtained radius versus time plots, radiographs, neutron yields, ion temperatures, burn widths, streak spectra, among other data. Preliminary calculations show that we match the radius versus time plots within about the data error and we have reasonable matches to the other data. We will will present these results and additional detailed comparisons of calculations to data. Work performed by Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396 for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. Basic ammonothermal GaN growth in molybdenum capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimputkar, S.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.

    2016-12-01

    Single crystal, bulk gallium nitride (GaN) crystals were grown using the basic ammonothermal method in a high purity growth environment created using a non-hermetically sealed molybdenum (Mo) capsule and compared to growths performed in a similarly designed silver (Ag) capsule and capsule-free René 41 autoclave. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis revealed transition metal free (<1×1017 cm-3) GaN crystals. Anomalously low oxygen concentrations ((2-6)×1018 cm-3) were measured in a {0001} seeded crystal boule grown using a Mo capsule, despite higher source material oxygen concentrations ((1-5)×1019 cm-3) suggesting that molybdenum (or molybdenum nitrides) may act to getter oxygen under certain conditions. Total system pressure profiles from growth runs in a Mo capsule system were comparable to those without a capsule, with pressures peaking within 2 days and slowly decaying due to hydrogen diffusional losses. Measured Mo capsule GaN growth rates were comparable to un-optimized growth rates in capsule-free systems and appreciably slower than in Ag-capsule systems. Crystal quality replicated that of the GaN seed crystals for all capsule conditions, with high quality growth occurring on the (0001) Ga-face. Optical absorption and impurity concentration characterization suggests reduced concentrations of hydrogenated gallium vacancies (VGa-Hx).

  1. Characterization of novel lactoferrin loaded capsules prepared with polyelectrolyte complexes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qing-Xi; Zhang, Qi-Lei; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2013-10-15

    Novel capsules loaded with lactoferrin (LF) were prepared using polyelectrolyte complexes that were formed by water soluble chitosan (WSC), sodium cellulose sulfate (NaCS) and sodium polyphosphate (PPS). Normal chitosan (soluble in acidic conditions) was chosen as a control to prepare similar capsules with NaCS and PPS. (1)H NMR and FTIR spectra analysis showed that WSC was in a form of chitosan hydrochloride which can be directly dissolved and protonated in acid-free water. SEM results showed that the capsules had a typical wall-capsule structure with a regular spherical shape and an average diameter of 1.97 mm. TGA studies revealed that the thermal stability of the capsules were enhanced and the moisture content of the drug-free/loaded capsules were 6.3% and 3.2%. SDS-PAGE results showed that the primary structures of the processed LF in the capsules were unchanged. Drug loading (LE%) and encapsulation efficiency (EE%) analysis showed that the capsules had a higher LE% (45.6%) and EE% (70.7%) than that of the control. In vitro release studies showed that the capsules had a regular and sustainable release profiles in simulated colonic fluid. All of these results indicated that the capsules prepared could be used as a candidate protein drug carrier for colon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. High-speed precision weighing of pharmaceutical capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürmen, Miran; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we present a cost-effective method for fast and accurate in-line weighing of hard gelatin capsules based on the optimized capacitance sensor and real-time processing of the capsule capacitance profile resulting from 5000 capacitance measurements per second. First, the effect of the shape and size of the capacitive sensor on the sensitivity and stability of the measurements was investigated in order to optimize the performance of the system. The method was tested on two types of hard gelatin capsules weighing from 50 mg to 650 mg. The results showed that the capacitance profile was exceptionally well correlated with the capsule weight with the correlation coefficient exceeding 0.999. The mean precision of the measurements was in the range from 1 mg to 3 mg, depending on the size of the capsule and was significantly lower than the 5% weight tolerances usually used by the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, the method was found feasible for weighing pharmaceutical hard gelatin capsules as long as certain conditions are met regarding the capsule fill properties and environment stability. The proposed measurement system can be calibrated by using only two or three sets of capsules with known weight. However, for most applications it is sufficient to use only empty and nominally filled capsules for calibration. Finally, a practical application of the proposed method showed that a single system is capable of weighing around 75 000 capsules per hour, while using multiple systems could easily increase the inspection rate to meet almost any requirements.

  3. Huge interparietal posterior fontanel meningohydroencephalocele

    PubMed Central

    Dos Santos, Manuel Filipe Dias; de Santa Barbara, Rita de Cassia

    2015-01-01

    Congenital encephalocele is a neural tube defect characterized by a sac-like protrusion of the brain, meninges, and other intracranial structures through the skull, which is caused by an embryonic development abnormality. The most common location is at the occipital bone, and its incidence varies according to different world regions. We report a case of an 1-month and 7-day-old male child with a huge interparietal-posterior fontanel meningohydroencephalocele, a rare occurrence. Physical examination and volumetric computed tomography were diagnostic. The encephalocele was surgically resected. Intradural and extradural approaches were performed; the bone defect was not primarily closed. Two days after surgery, the patient developed hydrocephaly requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunting. The surgical treatment of the meningohydroencephalocele of the interparietal-posterior fontanel may be accompanied by technical challenges and followed by complications due to the presence of large blood vessels under the overlying skin. In these cases, huge sacs herniate through large bone defects including meninges, brain, and blood vessels. The latter present communication with the superior sagittal sinus and ventricular system. A favorable surgical outcome generally follows an accurate strategy taking into account individual features of the lesion. PMID:26484324

  4. Longevity of Posterior Composite Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Opdam, N.J.M.; van de Sande, F.H.; Bronkhorst, E.; Cenci, M.S.; Bottenberg, P.; Pallesen, U.; Gaengler, P.; Lindberg, A.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; van Dijken, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis, based on individual participant data from several studies, was to investigate the influence of patient-, materials-, and tooth-related variables on the survival of posterior resin composite restorations. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a search resulting in 12 longitudinal studies of direct posterior resin composite restorations with at least 5 years’ follow-up. Original datasets were still available, including placement/failure/censoring of restorations, restored surfaces, materials used, reasons for clinical failure, and caries-risk status. A database including all restorations was constructed, and a multivariate Cox regression method was used to analyze variables of interest [patient (age; gender; caries-risk status), jaw (upper; lower), number of restored surfaces, resin composite and adhesive materials, and use of glass-ionomer cement as base/liner (present or absent)]. The hazard ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals were determined, and annual failure rates were calculated for subgroups. Of all restorations, 2,816 (2,585 Class II and 231 Class I) were included in the analysis, of which 569 failed during the observation period. Main reasons for failure were caries and fracture. The regression analyses showed a significantly higher risk of failure for restorations in high-caries-risk individuals and those with a higher number of restored surfaces. PMID:25048250

  5. Structure and Composition of the Bacillus anthracis Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Avakyan, A. A.; Katz, L. N.; Levina, K. N.; Pavlova, I. B.

    1965-01-01

    Avakyan, A. A. (Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, USSR), L. N. Katz, K. N. Levina, and I. B. Pavlova. Structure and composition of the Bacillus anthracis capsule. J. Bacteriol. 90:1082–1095. 1965.—Observations by various methods of light microscopy (phase contrast, dark-field, and fluorescence) revealed the complex structure of the Bacillus anthracis capsule, which changes regularly during the growth cycle of the culture. Special cytological methods of staining the capsule made it possible to study its fine structure, which is not revealed by negative staining with India ink. For example, the capsule shows a membranelike outline, fine transverse lines, and interruptions and transverse septa traversing the entire capsule. By using cytochemical methods, it was found that the capsule has a stratified structure and that the various layers of the capsule differ as to the value of the isoelectric point, metachromatic ability, sensitivity to various enzymes, and, consequently, chemical composition. It was thus shown that the membranelike outline of the capsule consists of peptides and neutral mucopolysaccharides. The middle part of the capsule consists of a complex of substances of both polysaccharide and protein nature, and the inner part consists of acid mucopolysaccharides. Observation of the capsular forms of B. anthracis by means of an electron microscope revealed differences in the osmiophilia and submicroscopic structure of the membranelike outline and the middle and inner parts of the capsule. Immunochemical studies conducted by the fluorescent-antibody method revealed localization of antigens in different parts of the capsule, and made it possible to differentiate the capsular antigens according to their serum-staining ability and according of their relations to enzymes, i.e., their chemical composition. This paper concerns the possibility of studying the fine structure of bacterial capsules in fixed preparations, and the differences and similarities of

  6. Motion of an elastic capsule in a square microfluidic channel.

    PubMed

    Kuriakose, S; Dimitrakopoulos, P

    2011-07-01

    In the present study we investigate computationally the steady-state motion of an elastic capsule along the centerline of a square microfluidic channel and compare it with that in a cylindrical tube. In particular, we consider a slightly over-inflated elastic capsule made of a strain-hardening membrane with comparable shearing and area-dilatation resistance. Under the conditions studied in this paper (i.e., small, moderate, and large capsules at low and moderate flow rates), the capsule motion in a square channel is similar to and thus governed by the same scaling laws with the capsule motion in a cylindrical tube, even though in the channel the cross section in the upstream portion of large capsules is nonaxisymmetric (i.e., square-like with rounded corners). When the hydrodynamic forces on the membrane increase, the capsule develops a pointed downstream edge and a flattened rear (possibly with a negative curvature) so that the restoring tension forces are increased as also happens with droplets. Membrane tensions increase significantly with the capsule size while the area near the downstream tip is the most probable to rupture when a capsule flows in a microchannel. Because the membrane tensions increase with the interfacial deformation, a suitable Landau-Levich-Derjaguin-Bretherton analysis reveals that the lubrication film thickness h for large capsules depends on both the capillary number Ca and the capsule size a; our computations determine the latter dependence to be (in dimensionless form) h ~ a(-2) for the large capsules studied in this work. For small and moderate capsule sizes a, the capsule velocity Ux and additional pressure drop ΔP+ are governed by the same scaling laws as for high-viscosity droplets. The velocity and additional pressure drop of large thick capsules also follow the dynamics of high-viscosity droplets, and are affected by the lubrication film thickness. The motion of our large thick capsules is characterized by a Ux-U ~ h ~ a(-2

  7. Motion of an elastic capsule in a square microfluidic channel

    PubMed Central

    Kuriakose, S.; Dimitrakopoulos, P.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we investigate computationally the steady-state motion of an elastic capsule along the centerline of a square microfluidic channel and compare it with that in a cylindrical tube. In particular, we consider a slightly over-inflated elastic capsule made of a strain-hardening membrane with comparable shearing and area-dilatation resistance. Under the conditions studied in this paper (i.e. small, moderate and large capsules at low and moderate flow rates), the capsule motion in a square channel is similar to, and thus governed by the same scaling laws with the capsule motion in a cylindrical tube, even though in the channel the cross-section in the upstream portion of large capsules is non-axisymmetric (i.e. square-like with rounded corners). When the hydrodynamic forces on the membrane increase, the capsule develops a pointed downstream edge and a flattened rear (possibly with a negative curvature) so that the restoring tension forces are increased as also happens with droplets. Membrane tensions increase significantly with the capsule size while the area near the downstream tip is the most probable to rupture when a capsule flows in a microchannel. Because the membrane tensions increase with the interfacial deformation, a suitable Landau-Levich-Derjaguin-Bretherton analysis reveals that the lubrication film thickness h for large capsules depends on both the capillary number Ca and the capsule size a; our computations determine the latter dependence to be (in dimensionless form) h ~ a−2 for the large capsules studied in this work. For small and moderate capsule sizes a, the capsule velocity Ux and additional pressure drop ΔP+ are governed by the same scaling laws as for high-viscosity droplets. The velocity and additional pressure drop of large thick capsules also follow the dynamics of high-viscosity droplets, and are affected by the lubrication film thickness. The motion of our large thick capsules is characterized by a Ux−u~h~a−2

  8. Recurrent late-onset fibrotic capsular block syndrome after neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser anterior capsulotomy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Koh, Joong Sik; Song, Young Bin; Wee, Won Ryang; Han, Young Keun

    2016-06-11

    Capsular block syndrome is an uncommon complication that occurs after cataract surgery. It is characterized by capsular distension, anterior intraocular lens displacement, anterior chamber shallowing, and unexpected myopic shifts. We report a case of recurrent fibrotic capsular block syndrome with Elschnig's pearl-type posterior capsule opacification 10 months after neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser anterior capsulotomy. A 72-year-old Asian man complained of decreased visual acuity 5 years after undergoing phacoemulsification with posterior chamber lens implantation. Under slit-lamp examination, late postoperative capsular block syndrome was diagnosed and Nd:YAG laser anterior capsulotomy was performed. Ten months after anterior capsulotomy, the patient returned with decreased visual acuity and was diagnosed with recurrent fibrotic capsular block syndrome. Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy was performed. We found that fibrotic capsular block syndrome could recur with Elschnig's pearl-type posterior capsule opacification after Nd:YAG laser anterior capsulotomy for late postoperative capsular block syndrome without posterior capsule opacification.

  9. Strain and load thresholds for cervical muscle recruitment in response to quasi-static tensile stretch of the caprine C5-C6 facet joint capsule.

    PubMed

    Azar, Nadia R; Kallakuri, Srinivasu; Chen, Chaoyang; Lu, Ying; Cavanaugh, John M

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the response of cervical muscles to physiologic tensile stretch of cervical facet joint capsule (FJC) at a quasi-static displacement rate of 0.5mm/s. In vivo caprine left C5-C6 FJC preparations were subjected to an incremental tensile displacement paradigm. EMG activity was recorded during FJC stretch from the right trapezius (TR) and multifidus (MF) muscle groups at the C5 and C6 levels and bilaterally from the sternomastoid (SM) and longus colli (LC) muscle groups at the C5-C6 level. Onset of muscular activity was later analyzed using visual and computer-based methods. Capsule load and strain at the time of onset were recorded and compared between the muscle groups. Results indicated capsule load was a better indicator of the tensile stretch thresholds for muscular recruitment than capsule strain. MF responded at significantly smaller capsule loads than TR and LC, while TR and LC activation loads were not significantly different. SM did not respond to physiologic FJC stretch. Muscle group recruitment order reflected the muscles' fiber type compositions and functional roles in the spine. This study provides the first evidence that the cervical ligamento-muscular reflex pathways are activated via tensile FJC stretch and extend to superficial and deep musculature on the anterior and posterior aspects of the neck, ipsilateral and contralateral to the side of FJC stretch.

  10. Analysis Of Wetted-Foam ICF Capsule Perormance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, R.; Olson, R.; Zylstra, A.; Haines, B.; Yi, A.; Bradley, P.; Yin, L.; Leeper, R.; Kline, J.

    2016-10-01

    The performance of wetted-foam ICF capsules is investigated with the RAGE Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamics computer code. We are developing an experimental platform on NIF that employs a wetted foam liquid DT fuel layer ICF capsules. By varying the capsule temperature, the vapor density in the capsule can be prescribed, and the hot spot convergence ratio (CR) of the capsule implosion can be controlled. This allows us to investigate the fidelity of RAGE in modeling of capsule implosions as the value of CR is varied. In the NIF experiments, CR can be varied from 12 to 25. This presentation will cover simulations with RAGE of three NIF shots performed in 2016; a DD and a DT liquid fuel shot with CR =14 and a DT shot with CR =16. It will also discuss analysis of future experiments. This work was performed under auspices of the U. S. DOE by LANL.

  11. Comprehensive and Systematic Analysis of the Immunocompatibility of Polyelectrolyte Capsules.

    PubMed

    Zyuzin, Mikhail V; Díez, Paula; Goldsmith, Meir; Carregal-Romero, Susana; Teodosio, Cristina; Rejman, Joanna; Feliu, Neus; Escudero, Alberto; Almendral, María Jesús; Linne, Uwe; Peer, Dan; Fuentes, Manuel; Parak, Wolfgang J

    2017-02-15

    The immunocompability of polyelectrolyte capsules synthesized by layer-by-layer deposition has been investigated. Capsules of different architecture and composed of either non-degradable or biodegradable polymers, with either positively or negatively charged outer surface, and with micrometer size, have been used, and the capsule uptake by different cell lines has been studied and quantified. Immunocompatibility studies were performed with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Data demonstrate that incubation with capsules, at concentrations relevant for practical applications, did not result in a reduced viability of cells, as it did not show an increased apoptosis. Presence of capsules also did not result in an increased expression of TNF-α, as detected with antibody staining, as well as at mRNA level. It also did not result in increased expression of IL-6, as detected at mRNA level. These results indicate that the polyelectrolyte capsules used in this study are immunocompatible.

  12. Reorientation of a Nonspherical Capsule in Creeping Shear Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Toshihiro; Imai, Yohsuke; Yamaguchi, Takami; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2012-03-01

    The dynamics of a capsule and a biological cell is of great interest in chemical engineering and bioengineering. Although the dynamics of a rigid spheroid is well understood by Jeffery’s theory, that of a spheroidal capsule remains unclear. In this Letter, the motion of a spheroidal capsule or a red blood cell in creeping shear flow is investigated. The results show that the orientation of a nonspherical capsule is variant under time reversal, though that of a rigid spheroid is invariant. Surprisingly, the alignment of a nonspherical capsule over a long time duration shows a transition depending on the shear rate, which can be utilized for a particle-alignment technique. These findings form a fundamental basis of the suspension mechanics of capsules and biological cells.

  13. Role of shocks and mix caused by capsule defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, P. A.; Cobble, J. A.; Tregillis, I. L.; Schmitt, M. J.; Obrey, K. D.; Glebov, V.; Batha, S. H.; Magelssen, G. R.; Fincke, J. R.; Hsu, S. C.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Murphy, T. J.; Wysocki, F. J.

    2012-09-01

    An Eulerian code with a turbulent mix model is used to model a set of plastic (CH) ablator capsules with and without equatorial grooves. The "perfect" capsule results were used to calibrate simulations of capsules with equatorial grooves of different depths that provided information on increasingly perturbed implosions. Simulations with a turbulence model were able to calculate the same yield over mix (YOM) ratio (experiment/mix simulation) of 0.2 to 0.3 for thin (8-μm thick) and thick shell (15-μm thick) capsules with no grooves and thin capsules with shallow grooves. When the capsules have deep grooves, the YOM ratio increases to greater than unity, probably because the deformed shocks focus too strongly on the symmetry axis in our two-dimensional simulations. This is supported by a comparison of simulated and experimental x-ray images.

  14. [The release of immobilized substances from Symplex capsules].

    PubMed

    Götze, M; Torner, H; Kauffold, P; König, I; Dautzenberg, H; Loth, F

    1986-04-01

    A new procedure of microencapsulation was studied with regard to substance release and quantification of diffusion processes on the capsule membrane. The permeability behaviour on the capsule membrane was especially studied in metabolites, which are essential for immobilized biological objects (i.g. preimplantative mammal embryos). Peptide and proteohormones, cyanmethemoglobin and proteins were enclosed in simple and multiple Symplex Capsules. All substances examined are able to pass the Symplex membrane. The speed of release is influenced by the size of the capsule, the ion force, temperature, concentration of immobilized substances as well as their linear and globular structur. Compared with simple capsules the release of substances from multiple capsules was delayed. Corresponding to the results found under the experimental design described the Symplex membrane can be considered as coating for the compartmentation of cells, that allows the passage of essential substances for the immobilized objects. The method of microencapsulation used and described has various ways of application.

  15. Wireless communication link for capsule endoscope at 600 MHz.

    PubMed

    Khaleghi, A; Balasingham, I

    2015-01-01

    Simulation of a wireless communication link for a capsule endoscopy is presented for monitoring of small intestine in humans. The realized communication link includes the transmitting capsule antenna, the outside body receiving antenna and the model of the human body. The capsule antenna is designed for operating at the frequency band of 600 MHz with an impedance bandwidth of 10 MHz and omnidirectional radiation pattern. The quality of the communication link is improved by using directive antenna outside body inside matching layer for electromagnetic wave tuning to the body. The outside body antenna has circular polarization that guaranteeing the communication link for different orientations of the capsule inside intestine. It is shown that the path loss for the capsule in 60 mm from the abdomen surface varies between 37-47 dB in relation to the antenna orientation. This link can establish high data rate wireless communications for capsule endoscopy.

  16. Design of a slow-release capsule using laser drilling.

    PubMed

    Jain, N K; Naik, S U

    1984-12-01

    Conventional hard gelatin capsules were made GI-tract resistant by formalin vapor treatment. The residual formalin content was 80 micrograms/capsule 24 h after treatment, which decreased with increased storage time. An in vitro GI-tract resistance test was performed by exposing the capsules to simulated gastric fluid for 4 h and then to simulated intestinal fluid for 4 h at 37 degrees C. The resistance was further confirmed by in vivo X-ray studies in human volunteers. Minute pores were drilled on the hardened shells of the capsules with a carbon dioxide gas laser. This permitted the slow passage of the encapsulated tetracycline hydrochloride when subjected to 0.1 M HCl in in vitro dissolution studies. In vitro drug release from these capsules followed zero-order kinetics after an initial lag period of 30 min. The factors influencing the in vitro release rate of tetracycline hydrochloride from these capsules are discussed.

  17. Role of shocks and mix caused by capsule defects

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, P. A.; Cobble, J. A.; Tregillis, I. L.; Schmitt, M. J.; Obrey, K. D.; Batha, S. H.; Magelssen, G. R.; Fincke, J. R.; Hsu, S. C.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Murphy, T. J.; Wysocki, F. J.; Glebov, V.

    2012-09-15

    An Eulerian code with a turbulent mix model is used to model a set of plastic (CH) ablator capsules with and without equatorial grooves. The 'perfect' capsule results were used to calibrate simulations of capsules with equatorial grooves of different depths that provided information on increasingly perturbed implosions. Simulations with a turbulence model were able to calculate the same yield over mix (YOM) ratio (experiment/mix simulation) of 0.2 to 0.3 for thin (8-{mu}m thick) and thick shell (15-{mu}m thick) capsules with no grooves and thin capsules with shallow grooves. When the capsules have deep grooves, the YOM ratio increases to greater than unity, probably because the deformed shocks focus too strongly on the symmetry axis in our two-dimensional simulations. This is supported by a comparison of simulated and experimental x-ray images.

  18. Polar tent for reduced perturbation of NIF ignition capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, B. A.; Pickworth, L.; Stadermann, M.; Field, J.; Robey, H.; Scott, H. A.; Smalyuk, V.

    2016-10-01

    In simulations, a tent that contacts the capsule near the poles and departs tangential to the capsule surface greatly reduces the capsule perturbation, and the resulting mass injected into the hot-spot, compared to current capsule support methods. Target fabrication appears feasible with a layered tent (43-nm polyimide + 8-nm C) for increased stiffness. We are planning quantitative measurements of the resulting shell- ρR perturbation near peak implosion velocity (PV) using enhanced self-emission backlighting, achieved by adding 1% Ar to the capsule fill in Symcaps (4He + H). Layered DT implosions are also planned for an integrated test of capsule performance. We will describe the design and simulation predictions. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. Posterior peritoneal recesses: assessment using CT

    SciTech Connect

    Rubenstein, W.A.; Auh, Y.H.; Zirinsky, K.; Kneeland, J.B.; Whalen, J.P.; Kazam, E.

    1985-08-01

    Intraperitoneal compartments may extend posteriorly to the level of known retroperitoneal structures at several locations within the abdomen. These locations include the posterior subhepatic or hepatorenal space, the splenorenal space, the retropancreatic recess, the paracolic gutters, and the pararectal fossae. Because of their posterior location, fluid collections within these compartments may be mistaken radiologically for retroperitoneal masses. The sectional anatomy of these spaces and particularly their appearance on computed tomographic scans, are illustrated in this paper.

  20. Posterior ankle impingement in the dancer.

    PubMed

    Moser, Brad R

    2011-01-01

    Dancers spend a lot of time in the relevé position in demi-pointe and en pointe in their training and their careers. Pain from both osseous and soft tissue causes may start to occur in the posterior aspect of their ankle. This article reviews the potential causes of posterior ankle impingement in dancers. It will discuss the clinical evaluation of a dancer and the appropriate workup and radiographic studies needed to further evaluate a dancer with suspected posterior ankle impingement.

  1. Imaging of the Posterior Skull Base.

    PubMed

    Job, Joici; Branstetter, Barton F

    2017-01-01

    The posterior skull base can be involved by a variety of pathologic processes. They can be broadly classified as: traumatic, neoplastic, vascular, and inflammatory. Pathology in the posterior skull base usually involves the lower cranial nerves, either as a source of pathology or a secondary source of symptoms. This review will categorize pathology arising in the posterior skull base and describe how it affects the skull base itself and surrounding structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sanjay, K Mandal; Partha, P Chakraborty

    2008-09-01

    The posterior/potentially reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a unique syndrome encountered commonly in hypertensive encephalopathy. A 13-year-old boy presented with of intermittent high grade fever, throbbing headache and non-projective vomiting for 5 days. The patient had a blood pressure of 120/80 mmHg but fundoscopy documented grade 3 hypertensive retinopathy. The patient improved symptomatically following conservative management. However, on the 5(th) post-admission day headache reappeared, and blood pressure measured at that time was 240/120 mmHg. Neuroimaging suggested white matter abnormalities. Search for the etiology of secondary hypertension led to the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Repeated MRI after successful surgical excision of the tumor patient showed reversal of white matter abnormalities. Reversible leucoencephalopathy due to pheochromocytoma have not been documented in literature previously.

  3. Scanning Parameter Space for NIF capsules in HYDRA

    SciTech Connect

    Fetterman, A; Herrmann, M C; Haan, S

    2004-11-10

    The authors have implemented an automated pulse shaper for NIF capsules in HYDRA. We have developed the infrastructure to do scans using the automatic pulse shaper across any n-dimensions of capsule parameter space. Using this infrastructure, we have performed several scans examining parameters for uniformly doped Beryllium capsules. To coordinate more closely with the anticipated experimental shock timing strategy, we have started to develop an automated pulse shaper which uses planar geometry and liquid DD.

  4. Multicomposite ultrathin capsules for sustained ocular delivery of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Bhadra, Dipankar; Gupta, Girish; Bhadra, Sulekha; Umamaheshwari, R B; Jain, Narendra

    2004-07-16

    The present work is intended to develop a sustained bioadhesive drug delivery system for delivery of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride in Cul-de-Sac for sustained and effective antimicrobial chemotherapy. For this, ultrathin multicomposite capsular systems were selected. Multicomposite ultrathin capsules are molecular assemblies of tailored architecture having layer-by-layer adsorption of oppositely charged macromolecules onto colloidal particles. In the present study colloidal calcium phosphate core and gluateraldehyde fixed RBCs were used as core on which alginate (-vely charged) and polyallylamine hydrochloride (+vely charged) polyelectrolyte coating was deposited alternatively upto 10th layer. The coating in each subsequent layer was determined by changes in zeta potential. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride was loaded in the capsules by incubation with the capsules suspended in phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4. The cores of the capsules were then removed by treatment with 0.1N HCl for calcium phosphate core and by sodium hypochlorite for RBC cored capsules. The hollow ciprofloxacin HCl loaded capsules were the evaluated in-vitro for pattern of layer-by-layer drug loading, drug release, stability at various temperatures and ionic concentrations and corneal retention. The core removal process was found to have minimal effects on drug loading in capsules. The drug loading was found to be higher for RBC cored hollow capsules and hence release rate was lower as compared to calcium cored hollow capsules. Draize test for corneal irritancy proved that the capsules were not irritating. The capsules were found to deliver the ciprofloxacin in cul-de-sac of rabbit's eyes for prolonged period. Based on corneal retention studies and tear drug concentration, the capsules can be considered for suitable and safe use for sustained ocular delivery of drugs.

  5. Multiple internalization pathways of polyelectrolyte multilayer capsules into mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Kastl, Lena; Sasse, Daniel; Wulf, Verena; Hartmann, Raimo; Mircheski, Josif; Ranke, Christiane; Carregal-Romero, Susana; Martínez-López, José Antonio; Fernández-Chacón, Rafael; Parak, Wolfgang J; Elsasser, Hans-Peter; Rivera Gil, Pilar

    2013-08-27

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) capsules are carrier vehicles with great potential for biomedical applications. With the future aim of designing biocompatible, effective therapeutic delivery systems (e.g., for cancer), the pathway of internalization (uptake and fate) of PEM capsules was investigated. In particular the following experiments were performed: (i) the study of capsule co-localization with established endocytic markers, (ii) switching-off endocytotic pathways with pharmaceutical/chemical inhibitors, and (iii) characterization and quantification of capsule uptake with confocal and electron microscopy. As result, capsules co-localized with lipid rafts and with phagolysosomes, but not with other endocytic vesicles. Chemical interference of endocytosis with chemical blockers indicated that PEM capsules enter the investigated cell lines through a mechanism slightly sensitive to electrostatic interactions, independent of clathrin and caveolae, and strongly dependent on cholesterol-rich domains and organelle acidification. Microscopic characterization of cells during capsule uptake showed the formation of phagocytic cups (vesicles) to engulf the capsules, an increased number of mitochondria, and a final localization in the perinuclear cytoplasma. Combining all these indicators we conclude that PEM capsule internalization in general occurs as a combination of different sequential mechanisms. Initially, an adsorptive mechanism due to strong electrostatic interactions governs the stabilization of the capsules at the cell surface. Membrane ruffling and filopodia extensions are responsible for capsule engulfing through the formation of a phagocytic cup. Co-localization with lipid raft domains activates the cell to initiate a lipid-raft-mediated macropinocytosis. Internalization vesicles are very acidic and co-localize only with phagolysosome markers, excluding caveolin-mediated pathways and indicating that upon phagocytosis the capsules are sorted to

  6. Polymer Capsules for Plaque-Targeted In Vivo Delivery.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Joseph J; Choy, Mei Y; Guo, Junling; Liang, Kang; Alt, Karen; Ping, Yuan; Cui, Jiwei; Law, Lok S; Hagemeyer, Christoph E; Caruso, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Targeted polymer capsules can selectively bind to unstable plaques in mice after intravenous injection. Different formulations of the capsules are explored with a synthetic/biopolymer hybrid capsule showing the best stability and small-molecule drug retention. The synthetic polymer is composed of pH-sensitive blocks (PDPA), low-binding blocks (PEG), and click-groups for postfunctionalization with targeting peptides specific to plaques. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Demonstration of a Capsule Plasmid in Bacillus anthracis,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-16

    certain avirulent strains of Bacillus anthracis harbor a plasmid, designated pXO2, which is involved in the synthesis of capsules. Two classes of rougv...ABSTRACT (cont’d) acquired pXO2 produced capsules under the same conditions required for capsule synthesis by B. anthracis. SEUIYCASFCTO.FTMSP4~e mmEtrd a...4 ABSTRACT irulent and certain avirulent strains of Bacillus anthracis harbor a plasmid, designated pXO2, which is involved in the synthesis of

  8. Detection of Capsule Tampering by Near-Infrared Reflectance Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    nondestructive methods of screening over-the-counter drugs. In 1982 potassium cyanide appeared in capsules of Extra Strength Tylenol in the Chicago area, and...to grow; earlier this year cyanide-laced Tylenol capsules caused the death of a woman in the New York area (5,6), and even more recently Excedrin...cost to Johnson and Johnson alone, the maker of Tylenol , is estimated to be $150 million (10) for the most recent recall of capsules. Litigation

  9. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) singly encapsulated cesium chloride capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Smyth, W.W.

    1997-05-22

    Three nonstandard Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) cesium chloride capsules are being shipped from WESF (225B building) to the 324 building. They would normally be shipped in the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) cask under its US Department of Energy (DOE) license (DOE 1996), but these capsules are nonstandard: one has a damaged or defective weld in the outer layer of encapsulation, and two have the outer encapsulation removed. The 3 capsules, along with 13 other capsules, will be overpacked in the 324 building to meet the requirements for storage in WESF`s pool.

  10. Procedures For Making Precision CH Bumps On Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Letts, S; Fearon, E; Buckley, S; Klingmann, J; Cook, B

    2004-11-10

    Recently we were asked to produce target capsules with bumps on the surface. The bumps were to test the effects of fill tubes in future targets. The bumps desired were to be Gaussian in shape and from 60 to 40 {micro}m in diameter and from 1 to 6 {micro}m high. The capsules had a nominal diameter of 500 {micro}m. The approach we used was to align a precision aperture to the capsule and coat through the aperture onto the capsule surface using plasma polymer coating. The bumps were characterized using optical microscopy, Wyko interferometry, and AFM sphere mapping.

  11. Method of forming capsules containing a precise amount of material

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Maya, Jakob

    1986-01-01

    A method of forming a sealed capsule containing a submilligram quantity of mercury or the like, the capsule being constructed from a hollow glass tube, by placing a globule or droplet of the mercury in the tube. The tube is then evacuated and sealed and is subsequently heated so as to vaporize the mercury and fill the tube therewith. The tube is then separated into separate sealed capsules by heating spaced locations along the tube with a coiled heating wire means to cause collapse spaced locations therealong and thus enable separation of the tube into said capsules.

  12. Method of forming capsules containing a precise amount of material

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1986-06-24

    A method of forming a sealed capsule containing a submilligram quantity of mercury or the like, the capsule being constructed from a hollow glass tube, by placing a globule or droplet of the mercury in the tube. The tube is then evacuated and sealed and is subsequently heated so as to vaporize the mercury and fill the tube therewith. The tube is then separated into separate sealed capsules by heating spaced locations along the tube with a coiled heating wire means to cause collapse spaced locations there along and thus enable separation of the tube into said capsules. 7 figs.

  13. Small intestinal model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to propose a small intestine model for electrically propelled capsule endoscopy. The electrical stimulus can cause contraction of the small intestine and propel the capsule along the lumen. The proposed model considered the drag and friction from the small intestine using a thin walled model and Stokes' drag equation. Further, contraction force from the small intestine was modeled by using regression analysis. From the proposed model, the acceleration and velocity of various exterior shapes of capsule were calculated, and two exterior shapes of capsules were proposed based on the internal volume of the capsules. The proposed capsules were fabricated and animal experiments were conducted. One of the proposed capsules showed an average (SD) velocity in forward direction of 2.91 ± 0.99 mm/s and 2.23 ± 0.78 mm/s in the backward direction, which was 5.2 times faster than that obtained in previous research. The proposed model can predict locomotion of the capsule based on various exterior shapes of the capsule. PMID:22177218

  14. Mine rescue capsule dynamics modeling and stress analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuyi; Li, Jingjing; Sun, Yaobin

    2013-10-01

    Mine rescue capsule is used for emergency mine shelter. It should meet the impact of anti- explosion, water pressure of anti-static load, fire prevention and good air tightness performance. At present, mine rescue capsule design is mainly based on traditional experience design of sealed pressure vessels. In-depth theoretical analysis on structure and mechanical calculation for rescue capsule is lack. The structure deformation and distribution of equivalent stress were investigated under different explosion pressure conditions based on the elastic-plastic finite element theory and software ANSYS. The results provide certain design basis for the mine rescue capsule structural design.

  15. General route for the assembly of functional inorganic capsules.

    PubMed

    Akartuna, Ilke; Tervoort, Elena; Studart, André R; Gauckler, Ludwig J

    2009-11-03

    Semipermeable, hollow capsules are attractive materials for the encapsulation and delivery of active agents in food processing, pharmaceutical and agricultural industries, and biomedicine. These capsules can be produced by forming a solid shell of close packed colloidal particles, typically polymeric particles, at the surface of emulsion droplets. However, current methods to prepare such capsules may involve multistep chemical procedures to tailor the surface chemistry of particles or are limited to particles that exhibit inherently the right hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance to adsorb around emulsion droplets. In this work, we describe a general and simple method to fabricate semipermeable, inorganic capsules from emulsion droplets stabilized by a wide variety of colloidal metal oxide particles. The assembly of particles at the oil-water interface is induced by the in situ hydrophobization of the particle surface through the adsorption of short amphiphilic molecules. The adsorption of particles at the interface leads to stable capsules comprising a single layer of particles in the outer shell. Such capsules can be used in the wet state or can be further processed into dry capsules. The permeability of the capsules can be modified by filling the interstices between the shell particles with polymeric or inorganic species. Functional capsules with biocompatible, bioresorbable, heat-resistant, chemical-resistant, and magnetic properties were prepared using alumina, silica, iron oxide, or tricalcium phosphate as particles in the shell.

  16. Campylobacter Polysaccharide Capsules: Virulence and Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Guerry, Patricia; Poly, Frédéric; Riddle, Mark; Maue, Alexander C.; Chen, Yu-Han; Monteiro, Mario A.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni remains a major cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is associated with numerous sequelae, including Guillain Barré Syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, and irritable bowel syndrome. C. jejuni is unusual for an intestinal pathogen in its ability to coat its surface with a polysaccharide capsule (CPS). These capsular polysaccharides vary in sugar composition and linkage, especially those involving heptoses of unusual configuration and O-methyl phosphoramidate linkages. This structural diversity is consistent with CPS being the major serodeterminant of the Penner scheme, of which there are 47 C. jejuni serotypes. Both CPS expression and expression of modifications are subject to phase variation by slip strand mismatch repair. Although capsules are virulence factors for other pathogens, the role of CPS in C. jejuni disease has not been well defined beyond descriptive studies demonstrating a role in serum resistance and for diarrhea in a ferret model of disease. However, perhaps the most compelling evidence for a role in pathogenesis are data that CPS conjugate vaccines protect against diarrheal disease in non-human primates. A CPS conjugate vaccine approach against this pathogen is intriguing, but several questions need to be addressed, including the valency of CPS types required for an effective vaccine. There have been numerous studies of prevalence of CPS serotypes in the developed world, but few studies from developing countries where the disease incidence is higher. The complexity and cost of Penner serotyping has limited its usefulness, and a recently developed multiplex PCR method for determination of capsule type offers the potential of a more rapid and affordable method. Comparative studies have shown a strong correlation of the two methods and studies are beginning to ascertain CPS-type distribution worldwide, as well as examination of correlation of severity of illness with specific CPS types. PMID:22919599

  17. Chromoendoscopy in magnetically guided capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia via conventional endoscopy is characterized by low interobserver agreement and poor correlation with histopathologic findings. Chromoendoscopy significantly enhances the visibility of mucosa irregularities, like metaplasia and dysplasia mucosa. Magnetically guided capsule endoscopy (MGCE) offers an alternative technology for upper GI examination. We expect the difficulties of diagnosis of neoplasm in conventional endoscopy to transfer to MGCE. Thus, we aim to chart a path for the application of chromoendoscopy on MGCE via an ex-vivo animal study. Methods We propose a modified preparation protocol which adds a staining step to the existing MGCE preparation protocol. An optimal staining concentration is quantitatively determined for different stain types and pathologies. To that end 190 pig stomach tissue samples with and without lesion imitations were stained with different dye concentrations. Quantitative visual criteria are introduced to measure the quality of the staining with respect to mucosa and lesion visibility. Thusly determined optimal concentrations are tested in an ex-vivo pig stomach experiment under magnetic guidance of an endoscopic capsule with the modified protocol. Results We found that the proposed protocol modification does not impact the visibility in the stomach or steerability of the endoscopy capsule. An average optimal staining concentration for the proposed protocol was found at 0.4% for Methylene blue and Indigo carmine. The lesion visibility is improved using the previously obtained optimal dye concentration. Conclusions We conclude that chromoendoscopy may be applied in MGCE and improves mucosa and lesion visibility. Systematic evaluation provides important information on appropriate staining concentration. However, further animal and human in-vivo studies are necessary. PMID:23758801

  18. Introduction to the physics of ICF capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Lindl, J.D.

    1989-03-13

    Inertial Confinement Fusion is an approach to fusion which relies on the inertia of the fuel mass to provide confinement. To achieve conditions under which this confinement is sufficient for efficient thermonuclear burn, high gain ICF targets designed to be imploded directly by laser light. These capsules are generally a spherical shell which is filled with low density DT gas. The shell is composed of an outer region which forms the ablator and an inner region of frozen or liquid DT which forms the main fuel. Energy from the driver is delivered to the ablator which heats up and expands. As the ablator expands and blows outward, the rest of the shell is forced inward to conserve momentum. In this implosion process, several features are important. We define the in-flight-aspect-ratio (IFAR) as the ratio of the shell radius R as it implodes to its thickness {Delta}R. Hydrodynamic instabilities during the implosion impose limits on this ratio which results in a minimum pressure requirement of about 100 Mbar. The convergence ratio is defined as the ratio of the initial outer radius of the ablator to the final compressed radius of the hot spot. This hot spot is the central region of the compressed fuel which is required to ignite the main fuel in high gain designs. Typical convergence ratios are 30--40. To maintain a nearly spherical shape during the implosion, when convergence ratios are this large, the flux delivered to the capsule must be uniform to a few percent. The remainder of this paper discusses the conditions necessary to achieve thermonuclear ignition in these ICF capsules.

  19. Characterization of an aged WESF capsule

    SciTech Connect

    Kenna, B.T.; Schultz, F.J.

    1983-07-01

    A joint effort by SNLA and ORNL was initiated for a detailed characterization of an 18-year-old WESF /sup 137/Cs source which has been used in the Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids. The study included evaluation of the inner and outer stainless steel capsules by optical metallography, electron microprobe, and physical testing. Analysis of the residual atmospheres within the two containers was also done. The CsCl was analyzed for isotopic content and impurities. No potential problem areas, including corrosion, were found.

  20. Automatic blood detection in capsule endoscopy video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novozámský, Adam; Flusser, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Sulík, Lukáš; Bureš, Jan; Krejcar, Ondřej

    2016-12-01

    We propose two automatic methods for detecting bleeding in wireless capsule endoscopy videos of the small intestine. The first one uses solely the color information, whereas the second one incorporates the assumptions about the blood spot shape and size. The original idea is namely the definition of a new color space that provides good separability of blood pixels and intestinal wall. Both methods can be applied either individually or their results can be fused together for the final decision. We evaluate their individual performance and various fusion rules on real data, manually annotated by an endoscopist.

  1. The skewer technique for anterior capsule remnants.

    PubMed

    Hecht, S D; McCarthy, E F

    1984-07-01

    A technique has been developed which enables the removal of a narrow, long remnant of anterior capsule which is connected inferiorly and inadvertently left during planned extracapsular cataract surgery. The technique is especially useful when the wound has already been partly or completely closed. A partial thickness incision is made at the limbus and a short 30-gauge needle is inserted through the incision into the anterior chamber. The needle then skewers the remnant, tearing it along its edge. The end of the capsular remnant is put on stretch by grasping its edge with a small forceps. This results in a transverse tear, with amputation of the remnant.

  2. Dopant Distribution in NIF Beryllium Ablator Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.; Xu, H. W.; Youngblood, K. P.; Wall, D. R.; Stephens, R. B.; Moreno, K. A.; Nikroo, A.; Salmonson, J. D.; Haan, S. W.; Wu, K. J.; Wang, Y. M.; Hamza, A. V.

    2012-10-01

    Good implosion performance requires capsule ablator material with spherically uniform x-ray opacity, which is controlled by one of several dopants (Cu, Si, Al, etc.) in the Be shell. During production, the dopant concentration is radially stepped. However, the various Be-dopant interactions result in vastly different dopant distribution patterns, some quite inhomogeneous. We have characterized these structures and established the phenomenological basis and the magnitudes of the inhomogeneity both in spatial length scales and in atomic percent. We will discuss the case of inhomogeneous Cu diffusion in detail, followed by discussions of other dopants and the estimate of the impact of these structures on target implosion.

  3. Multiple angiodysplasia diagnosed by capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Diamantini, Giulia; Procacciante, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    A 28-year-old Caucasian man was admitted in our unit for acute massive rectal bleeding. Past medical and family history was unremarkable. Hemoglobin was 7.6 g/dL. Blood transfusions were required. Computed tomography and gastrointestinal endoscopy were negative for active bleeding. When patient’s hemoglobin was normalized and stable, a video capsule endoscopy was performed. Video relieved the presence of multiple digiunal and ileal angiodysplastic lesions. A double endoscopic argon plasma coagulation procedure was planned on general anaesthesia. Upper and rectal operative approach were performed. Procedure was uneventful. After 2 years follow-up patient had no recurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  4. Unstable Binary Capsulated Transformants in Pneumococcus

    PubMed Central

    Bernheimer, Harriet P.; Wermundsen, Ingbritt E.

    1969-01-01

    Through transformation reactions, binary capsulated SI-III strains of pneumococci have been isolated that are unstable and lose the SI capsular genome at high frequency. The instability is caused by the specific mutation in the SIII capsular genome common to all of the unstable strains. In the family of strains studied, the SI capsular genome was integrated into the recipient chromosome in at least two loci: one apparently adjacent to the resident capsular genome and a second some distance from it. A hypothesis is presented to explain the instability of the strains on the basis of redundancy of genetic information. PMID:4389232

  5. Postirradiation examination of capsule GF-4. [HTGR

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacs, W.J.; Sedlak, B.J.

    1980-10-01

    The GF-4 capsule test was irradiated in the SILOE reactor at Grenoble, France between April 8, 1975 and July 26, 1976. High-enriched uranium (HEU) UC/sub 2/ and weak acid resin (WAR) UC/sub x/O/sub y/ fissile and ThO/sub 2/ fertile particles were tested. Postirradiation examination of cured-in-place fuel rods showed no fuel rod/graphite element interaction. In addition, all rods exhibited adequate structural integrity. Irradiation-induced dimensional changes for rods containing all TRISO-coated fuel were consistent with model predictions; however, rods containing BISO-coated fuel exhibited greater volumetric contractions than predicted.

  6. The iliotibial band and anterolateral capsule have a combined attachment to the Segond fracture.

    PubMed

    Albers, Marcio; Shaikh, Humza; Herbst, Elmar; Onishi, Kentaro; Nagai, Kanto; Musahl, Volker; Fu, Freddie H

    2017-04-26

    The purpose of this report was to describe the injury mechanism, surgical findings, and outcomes in a 21-year-old professional female football player who presented with a complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and Segond fracture. Interview and video analysis were performed to elicit the injury mechanism. Clinical examination and imaging revealed a complete ACL tear, Segond fracture, lateral meniscus tear, MCL sprain, and posterolateral corner sprain. Examination under anaesthesia revealed Grade 2 pivot shift and varus/valgus instability. Surgical examination revealed attachment of the posterior fibres of the iliotibial band and the lateral capsule to the Segond fragment. The fracture was reduced with suture fixation, and an anatomic ACL reconstruction was performed. Follow-up demonstrated rotatory and anterior tibial translation stability, and imaging at 7 months post-operatively revealed no movement and continued osseous integration of the Segond fragment. Level of evidence V.

  7. Deep brain stimulation of the ventral internal capsule/ventral striatum for obsessive-compulsive disorder: worldwide experience

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, BD; Gabriels, LA; Malone, DA; Rezai, AR; Friehs, GM; Okun, MS; Shapira, NA; Foote, KD; Cosyns, PR; Kubu, CS; Malloy, PF; Salloway, SP; Giftakis, JE; Rise, MT; Machado, AG; Baker, KB; Stypulkowski, PH; Goodman, WK; Rasmussen, SA; Nuttin, BJ

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric neurosurgery teams in the United States and Europe have studied deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule and adjacent ventral striatum (VC/VS) for severe and highly treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. Four groups have collaborated most closely, in small-scale studies, over the past 8 years. First to begin was Leuven/Antwerp, followed by Butler Hospital/Brown Medical School, the Cleveland Clinic and most recently the University of Florida. These centers used comparable patient selection criteria and surgical targeting. Targeting, but not selection, evolved during this period. Here, we present combined long-term results of those studies, which reveal clinically significant symptom reductions and functional improvement in about two-thirds of patients. DBS was well tolerated overall and adverse effects were overwhelmingly transient. Results generally improved for patients implanted more recently, suggesting a ‘learning curve’ both within and across centers. This is well known from the development of DBS for movement disorders. The main factor accounting for these gains appears to be the refinement of the implantation site. Initially, an anterior–posterior location based on anterior capsulotomy lesions was used. In an attempt to improve results, more posterior sites were investigated resulting in the current target, at the junction of the anterior capsule, anterior commissure and posterior ventral striatum. Clinical results suggest that neural networks relevant to therapeutic improvement might be modulated more effectively at a more posterior target. Taken together, these data show that the procedure can be successfully implemented by dedicated interdisciplinary teams, and support its therapeutic promise. PMID:18490925

  8. Deep brain stimulation of the ventral internal capsule/ventral striatum for obsessive-compulsive disorder: worldwide experience.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, B D; Gabriels, L A; Malone, D A; Rezai, A R; Friehs, G M; Okun, M S; Shapira, N A; Foote, K D; Cosyns, P R; Kubu, C S; Malloy, P F; Salloway, S P; Giftakis, J E; Rise, M T; Machado, A G; Baker, K B; Stypulkowski, P H; Goodman, W K; Rasmussen, S A; Nuttin, B J

    2010-01-01

    Psychiatric neurosurgery teams in the United States and Europe have studied deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule and adjacent ventral striatum (VC/VS) for severe and highly treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. Four groups have collaborated most closely, in small-scale studies, over the past 8 years. First to begin was Leuven/Antwerp, followed by Butler Hospital/Brown Medical School, the Cleveland Clinic and most recently the University of Florida. These centers used comparable patient selection criteria and surgical targeting. Targeting, but not selection, evolved during this period. Here, we present combined long-term results of those studies, which reveal clinically significant symptom reductions and functional improvement in about two-thirds of patients. DBS was well tolerated overall and adverse effects were overwhelmingly transient. Results generally improved for patients implanted more recently, suggesting a 'learning curve' both within and across centers. This is well known from the development of DBS for movement disorders. The main factor accounting for these gains appears to be the refinement of the implantation site. Initially, an anterior-posterior location based on anterior capsulotomy lesions was used. In an attempt to improve results, more posterior sites were investigated resulting in the current target, at the junction of the anterior capsule, anterior commissure and posterior ventral striatum. Clinical results suggest that neural networks relevant to therapeutic improvement might be modulated more effectively at a more posterior target. Taken together, these data show that the procedure can be successfully implemented by dedicated interdisciplinary teams, and support its therapeutic promise.

  9. An Alternative and Validated Injection Method for Accessing the Subretinal Space via a Transcleral Posterior Approach.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Sachin; Le, Andrew; Davenport, Julian; Gorin, Michael B; Nusinowitz, Steven; Matynia, Anna

    2016-12-07

    Subretinal injections have been successfully used in both humans and rodents to deliver therapeutic interventions of proteins, viral agents, and cells to the interphotoreceptor/subretinal compartment that has direct exposure to photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Subretinal injections of plasminogen as well as recent preclinical and clinical trials have demonstrated safety and/or efficacy of delivering viral vectors and stem cells to individuals with advanced retinal disease. Mouse models of retinal disease, particularly hereditary retinal dystrophies, are essential for testing these therapies. The most common injection procedure in rodents is to use small transcorneal or transcleral incisions with an anterior approach to the retina. With this approach, the injection needle penetrates the neurosensory retina disrupting the underlying RPE and on insertion can easily nick the lens, causing lens opacification and impairment of noninvasive imaging. Accessing the subretinal space via a transcleral, posterior approach avoids these problems: the needle crosses the sclera approximately 0.5 mm from the optic nerve, without retinal penetration and avoids disrupting the vitreous. Collateral damage is limited to that associated with the focal sclerotomy and the effects of a transient, serous retinal detachment. The simplicity of the method minimizes ocular injury, ensures rapid retinal reattachment and recovery, and has a low failure rate. The minimal damage to the retina and RPE allows for clear assessment of the efficacy and direct effects of the therapeutic agents themselves. This manuscript describes a novel subretinal injection technique that can be used to target viral vectors, pharmacological agents, stem cells or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to the subretinal space in mice with high efficacy, minimal damage, and fast recovery.

  10. Shapes of sedimenting soft elastic capsules in a viscous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltz, Horst-Holger; Kierfeld, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Soft elastic capsules which are driven through a viscous fluid undergo shape deformation coupled to their motion. We introduce an iterative solution scheme which couples hydrodynamic boundary integral methods and elastic shape equations to find the stationary axisymmetric shape and the velocity of an elastic capsule moving in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds numbers. We use this approach to systematically study dynamical shape transitions of capsules with Hookean stretching and bending energies and spherical rest shape sedimenting under the influence of gravity or centrifugal forces. We find three types of possible axisymmetric stationary shapes for sedimenting capsules with fixed volume: a pseudospherical state, a pear-shaped state, and buckled shapes. Capsule shapes are controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the Föppl-von-Kármán number characterizing the elastic properties and a Bond number characterizing the driving force. For increasing gravitational force the spherical shape transforms into a pear shape. For very large bending rigidity (very small Föppl-von-Kármán number) this transition is discontinuous with shape hysteresis. The corresponding transition line terminates, however, in a critical point, such that the discontinuous transition is not present at typical Föppl-von-Kármán numbers of synthetic capsules. In an additional bifurcation, buckled shapes occur upon increasing the gravitational force. This type of instability should be observable for generic synthetic capsules. All shape bifurcations can be resolved in the force-velocity relation of sedimenting capsules, where up to three capsule shapes with different velocities can occur for the same driving force. All three types of possible axisymmetric stationary shapes are stable with respect to rotation during sedimentation. Additionally, we study capsules pushed or pulled by a point force, where we always find capsule shapes to transform smoothly without bifurcations.

  11. Reinforcing effects of caffeine in coffee and capsules.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, R R; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A

    1989-01-01

    In a residential research ward the reinforcing and subjective effects of caffeine were studied under double-blind conditions in volunteer subjects with histories of heavy coffee drinking. In Experiment 1, 6 subjects had 13 opportunities each day to self-administer either a caffeine (100 mg) or a placebo capsule for periods of 14 to 61 days. All subjects developed a clear preference for caffeine, with intake of caffeine becoming relatively stable after preference had been attained. Preference for caffeine was demonstrated whether or not preference testing was preceded by a period of 10 to 37 days of caffeine abstinence, suggesting that a recent history of heavy caffeine intake (tolerance/dependence) was not a necessary condition for caffeine to function as a reinforcer. In Experiment 2, 6 subjects had 10 opportunities each day to self-administer a cup of coffee or (on different days) a capsule, dependent upon completing a work requirement that progressively increased and then decreased over days. Each day, one of four conditions was studied: caffeinated coffee (100 mg/cup), decaffeinated coffee, caffeine capsules (100 mg/capsule), or placebo capsules. Caffeinated coffee maintained the most self-administration, significantly higher than decaffeinated coffee and placebo capsules but not different from caffeine capsules. Both decaffeinated coffee and caffeine capsules were significantly higher than placebo capsules but not different from each other. In both experiments, subject ratings of "linking" of coffee or capsules covaried with the self-administration measures. These experiments provide the clearest demonstrations to date of the reinforcing effects of caffeine in capsules and in coffee. PMID:2794839

  12. Consistently inconsistent, the posterior vaginal wall.

    PubMed

    Hale, Douglass S; Fenner, Dee

    2016-03-01

    Posterior vaginal wall prolapse is one of the most common prolapses encountered by gynecological surgeons. What appears to be a straightforward condition to diagnose and treat surgically for physicians has proven to be frustratingly unpredictable with regard to symptom relief for patients. Functional disorders such as dyssynergic defecation and constipation are often attributed to posterior vaginal wall prolapse. Little scientific evidence supports this assumption, emphasizing that structure and function are not synonymous when treating posterior vaginal wall prolapse. Rectoceles, enteroceles, sigmoidoceles, peritoneoceles, rectal and intraanal intussusception, rectal prolapse, and descending perineal syndrome are all conditions that have an impact on the posterior vaginal wall. All too often these different anatomic conditions are treated with the same surgical approach, addressing a posterior vaginal wall bulge with a traditional posterior colporrhaphy. Studies that examine the correlation between stage of posterior wall prolapse and patient symptoms have failed to reliably do so. Surgical outcomes measured by prolapse staging appear successful, yet patient expectations are often not met. As increasing attention is being placed on patient satisfaction outcomes concerning surgical treatments, this fact will need to be addressed. Surgeons will have to clearly communicate what can and what cannot be expected with surgical repair of posterior vaginal wall prolapse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Developmental abnormalities of the posterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    di Iorgi, Natascia; Secco, Andrea; Napoli, Flavia; Calandra, Erika; Rossi, Andrea; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2009-01-01

    While the molecular mechanisms of anterior pituitary development are now better understood than in the past, both in animals and in humans, little is known about the mechanisms regulating posterior pituitary development. The posterior pituitary gland is formed by the evagination of neural tissue from the floor of the third ventricle. It consists of the distal axons of the hypothalamic magnocellular neurones that shape the neurohypophysis. After its downward migration, it is encapsulated together with the ascending ectodermal cells of Rathke's pouch which form the anterior pituitary. By the end of the first trimester, this development is completed and vasopressin and oxytocin can be detected in neurohypophyseal tissue. Abnormal posterior pituitary migration such as the ectopic posterior pituitary lobe appearing at the level of median eminence or along the pituitary stalk have been reported in idiopathic GH deficiency or in subjects with HESX1, LHX4 and SOX3 gene mutations. Another intriguing feature of abnormal posterior pituitary development involves genetic forms of posterior pituitary neurodegeneration that have been reported in autosomal-dominant central diabetes insipidus and Wolfram disease. Defining the phenotype of the posterior pituitary gland can have significant clinical implications for management and counseling, as well as providing considerable insight into normal and abnormal mechanisms of posterior pituitary development in humans.

  14. Isotretinoin Oil-Based Capsule Formulation Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Pi-Ju; Huang, Chi-Te; Lee, Chen-Chou; Li, Chi-Lin; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Tsai, Yi-Hung; Wu, Pao-Chu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize an isotretinoin oil-based capsule with specific dissolution pattern. A three-factor-constrained mixture design was used to prepare the systemic model formulations. The independent factors were the components of oil-based capsule including beeswax (X1), hydrogenated coconut oil (X2), and soybean oil (X3). The drug release percentages at 10, 30, 60, and 90 min were selected as responses. The effect of formulation factors including that on responses was inspected by using response surface methodology (RSM). Multiple-response optimization was performed to search for the appropriate formulation with specific release pattern. It was found that the interaction effect of these formulation factors (X1X2, X1X3, and X2X3) showed more potential influence than that of the main factors (X1, X2, and X3). An optimal predicted formulation with Y10 min, Y30 min, Y60 min, and Y90 min release values of 12.3%, 36.7%, 73.6%, and 92.7% at X1, X2, and X3 of 5.75, 15.37, and 78.88, respectively, was developed. The new formulation was prepared and performed by the dissolution test. The similarity factor f2 was 54.8, indicating that the dissolution pattern of the new optimized formulation showed equivalence to the predicted profile. PMID:24068886

  15. Physics Considerations for Double-Shell Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daughton, W.; Montgomery, D. S.; Wilson, D.; Simakov, A.; Dodd, E.; Merritt, L.; Cardenas, T.; Kline, J. L.; Batha, S.

    2016-10-01

    Double-shell capsules offer an alternative approach for achieving burn on the National Ignition Facility. These capsules consist of a low-Z ablatively driven outer shell that converges a factor of 3 before colliding with a high-Z inner shell filled with liquid DT. Such targets permit short simple laser pulses using near vacuum hohlraum conditions, which have been shown to eliminate laser plasma instabilities, resulting in good coupling efficiency. The adiabat of the fuel is set predominantly by a single strong shock, followed by the nearly adiabatic compression of the fuel volume by a convergence ratio of 9 . In this talk, we present some key physics consideration for double-shell targets, including design constraints for optimizing the kinetic energy transfer to the inner shell. These basics considerations are confirmed by a series of 1D simulations, resulting in several optimized point designs. Two-dimensional simulations are employed to evaluate the influence of low-mode asymmetries, as well as the stability of both the outer and inner shells as the implosion proceeds.

  16. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  17. Orbital Thermal Control of the Mercury Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, Kenneth C.

    1960-01-01

    The approach to orbital thermal control of the Project Mercury capsule environment is relatively unsophisticated compared with that for many unmanned satellites. This is made possible by the relatively short orbital flight of about 4 1/2 hours and by the presence of the astronaut who is able to monitor the capsule systems and compensate for undesirable thermal conditions. The general external features of the Mercury configuration as it appears in the orbital phase of flight are shown. The conical afterbody is a double-wall structure. The inner wall serves as a pressure vessel for the manned compartment, and the outer wall, of shingle type construction, acts as a radiating shield during reentry. Surface treatment of the shingles calls for a stably oxidized surface to minimize reentry temperatures. The shingles are supported by insulated stringers attached to the inner skin. Areas between stringers are insulated by blankets of Thermoflex insulation. This insulation is especially effective at high altitude due to the reduction of its thermal conductivity with decreasing pressure. As a result of the design of the afterbody for the severe reentry conditions, the heat balance on the manned compartment indicates the necessity for moderate internal cooling to compensate for the heat generation due to human and electrical sources. This cooling is achieved by the controlled vaporization of water in the cabin and astronaut-suit heat exchangers.

  18. Orbital Thermal Control of the Mercury Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, Kenneth C.

    1960-01-01

    The approach to orbital thermal control of the Project Mercury capsule environment is relatively unsophisticated compared with that for many unmanned satellites. This is made possible by the relatively short orbital flight of about 4 1/2 hours and by the presence of the astronaut who is able to monitor the capsule systems and compensate for undesirable thermal conditions. The general external features of the Mercury configuration as it appears in the orbital phase of flight are shown. The conical afterbody is a double-wall structure. The inner wall serves as a pressure vessel for the manned compartment, and the outer wall, of shingle type construction, acts as a radiating shield during reentry. Surface treatment of the shingles calls for a stably oxidized surface to minimize reentry temperatures. The shingles are supported by insulated stringers attached to the inner skin. Areas between stringers are insulated by blankets of Thermoflex insulation. This insulation is especially effective at high altitude due to the reduction of its thermal conductivity with decreasing pressure. As a result of the design of the afterbody for the severe reentry conditions, the heat balance on the manned compartment indicates the necessity for moderate internal cooling to compensate for the heat generation due to human and electrical sources. This cooling is achieved by the controlled vaporization of water in the cabin and astronaut-suit heat exchangers.

  19. Potassium iodide capsule treatment of feline sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Reis, Erica G; Gremião, Isabella D F; Kitada, Amanda A B; Rocha, Raphael F D B; Castro, Verônica S P; Barros, Mônica B L; Menezes, Rodrigo C; Pereira, Sandro A; Schubach, Tânia M P

    2012-06-01

    Sporotrichosis is a mycosis caused by Sporothrix schenckii. The most affected animal is the cat; it has played an important role in the zoonotic transmission of this disease, especially in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, since 1998. In order to evaluate the treatment of feline sporotrichosis with potassium iodide, an observational cohort was conducted in 48 cats with sporotrichosis at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Fiocruz. All cats received potassium iodide capsules, 2.5 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg q24h. The cure rate was 47.9%, treatment failure was 37.5%, treatment abandonment was 10.4% and death was 4.2%. Clinical adverse effects were observed in 52.1% of the cases. Thirteen cats had a mild increase in hepatic transaminase levels during the treatment, six of them presented clinical signs suggestive of hepatotoxicity. Compared to previous studies with itraconazole and iodide in saturated solution, potassium iodide capsules are an alternative for feline sporotrichosis treatment.

  20. Unilateral posterior crossbite and mastication.

    PubMed

    Rilo, Benito; da Silva, José Luis; Mora, María Jesús; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen; Santana, Urbano

    2007-05-01

    This study was designed to characterize masticatory-cycle morphology, and distance of the contact glide in the closing masticatory stroke, in adult subjects with uncorrected unilateral posterior crossbite (UPXB), comparing the results obtained with those obtained in a parallel group of normal subjects. Mandibular movements (masticatory movements and laterality movements with dental contact) were registered using a gnathograph (MK-6I Diagnostic System) during unilateral chewing of a piece of gum. Traces were recorded on the crossbite and non-crossbite sides in the crossbite group, and likewise on both sides in the non-crossbite group. Mean contact glide distance on the crossbite side in the UPXB group was significantly lower than in the control group (p<0.001), and mean contact glide distance on the non-crossbite side in the UPXB group was significantly lower than in the control group (p=0.042). Cycle morphology was abnormal during chewing on the crossbite side, with the frequency distribution of cycle types differing significantly from that for the noncrossbite side and that for the control group (p<0.001). Patients with crossbite showed alterations in both contact glide distances and masticatory cycle morphology. These alterations are probably adaptive responses allowing maintenance of adequate masticatory function despite the crossbite.

  1. [Posterior uveitis: sarcoidosis or tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Ness, T; Virchow, J C

    2001-02-01

    To demonstrate the difficulties of the differential diagnosis between tuberculosis and sarcoidosis as the cause of posterior uveitis. A 56-year-old woman suffered from bilateral anterior uveitis, snow-ball like infiltrates in the vitreous, and peripheral retinochoroidal granulomas with marked exudation shown in fluorescein angiography. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, as a marker of sarcoidosis, was elevated; the tuberculin test, however, was negative. Chest X-ray revealed an infiltrate and numerous smaller granulomas. The presumptive diagnosis was sarcoidosis. Surprisingly, in the biopsy of the pulmonal lesion tubercle bacilli were detected by Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Thus, a diagnosis of pulmonal and also retinochoroidal tuberculosis was made. After tuberculostatic therapy the choroidal lesions healed off. In a second case, a 30-year-old man suffered from bilateral panuveitis with candle wax exudates near the retinal vessels. Chest X-ray revealed lymphomas in the hilus, and the lymph node biopsy showed granulomas with epitheloid cells, indicating sarcoidosis. Detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis by culture or histological criteria was negative. Only in the PCR was mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA detectable. Tuberculostatic therapy had no benefit. Under therapy with steroids, however, pulmonal and ophthalmologic findings rapidly disappeared. The difficult differential diagnosis between sarcoidosis and tuberculosis cannot always be made by laboratory tests or diagnostic imaging alone. Clinical manifestations, including response to therapy, are essential.

  2. Posterior repair and sexual function

    PubMed Central

    Komesu, Yuko M.; Rogers, Rebecca G.; Kammerer-Doak, Dorothy N.; Barber, Matthew D.; Olsen, Ambre L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of posterior repair (PR) on sexual function in patients who have undergone incontinence and/or pelvic reconstructive surgery. STUDY DESIGN A cohort study of women who underwent incontinence and/or prolapse surgery was performed. Participants completed the pelvic organ prolapse urinary incontinence sexual questionnaire (PISQ) before and after the operation. PISQ scores were compared between women who underwent PR and women who did not. RESULTS Of 73 study participants, 30 women underwent PR; 43 women did not (no PR). Although there was no difference in dyspareunia between groups pre-op, dyspareunia prevalence post-op was significantly lower in the no PR group. Preoperative PISQ scores were similar between groups. After the operation, both groups significantly improved their PISQ scores, without a difference between groups. CONCLUSION Although the incidence of dyspareunia differed between PR and no PR groups, overall improvement in sexual function was reflected in improved total PISQ scores that occurred irrespective of PR performance. PMID:17618777

  3. Reconstruction of posterior trunk defects.

    PubMed

    Ramasastry, S S; Schlechter, B; Cohen, M

    1995-01-01

    A high rate of success can be expected in the management of posterior trunk defects with muscle flaps. The surgeon has to adhere closely to the basic reconstructive principles of adequate debridement of all necrotic or devitalized tissues; management of infection with local wound care and appropriate antibiotic therapy; and coverage with well-vascularized tissue to obliterate any residual dead space and to cover bone grafts, orthopedic hardware, and vital structures such as the dura and spinal cord. Flap selection is also of paramount importance for success, and only muscles with appropriate arc of rotation, vascularity (vascular pedicles outside the field of radiation injury, or intact vascularity following previous procedures) and bulk should be used. Adequate flap mobilization to obtain a tension-free closure and judicious use of drains and perioperative antibiotic agents are essential. Occasionally, microvascular free-tissue transfer may be necessary if local flaps are unavailable. The complications of flap reconstruction include partial flap loss, persistent dead space for lack of adequate muscle bulk, and persistent infection. Debridement and re-advancement of the flap is adequate in most cases. If there is significant or total flap loss, however, a second flap reconstruction is often necessary to obliterate the dead space and protect vital structures.

  4. Meibography for eyes with posterior blepharitis.

    PubMed

    AlDarrab, Abdulrahman; Alrajeh, Mohammed; Alsuhaibani, Adel H

    2017-01-01

    To study the effect of posterior blepharitis on meibomian glands using infrared meibography and to correlate the results with tear film parameters. This is a prospective cohort study. The study included eyes from two groups: 86 eyes of healthy volunteers' eyes and 72 eyes with posterior blepharitis. Participants were examined, and diagnosis of posterior blepharitis was achieved clinically based on signs of posterior blepharitis. Clinical assessment of dryness was performed including slit lamp examination looking for signs of posterior blepharitis, tear breakup time (TBUT), superficial punctate keratopathy (SPK), Schirmer II test (with anesthesia) and meibum score. Non-contact meibography was performed for both upper and lower eyelids using the meibo-grade system which involved distortion of meibomian gland, shortening and dropout. Lid margin abnormalities (Telangiectasia, lid margin swelling and hyperemia) were all significantly higher in the posterior blepharitis group. SPK, meibum score, meibography dropout, distortion, shortening, and total meibography were all significantly higher in the posterior blepharitis group as well as meibum score (P value < 0.001). TBUT was significantly shorter in the posterior blepharitis group (P value < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups in Schirmer's II test. Meibography can be a helpful non-invasive tool for the clinical evaluation of the extent of the anatomical damage in patients having meibomian glands loss due to posterior blepharitis. Knowing the extent of damage in meibomian glands may help in selecting the appropriate treatment modality and expect the response to treatment in patients with posterior blepharitis.

  5. Agile patency system eliminates risk of capsule retention in patients with known intestinal strictures who undergo capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Herrerias, Juan M; Leighton, Jonathan A; Costamagna, Guido; Infantolino, Anthony; Eliakim, Rami; Fischer, Doron; Rubin, David T; Manten, Howard D; Scapa, Eitan; Morgan, Douglas R; Bergwerk, Ari J; Koslowsky, Binyamin; Adler, Samuel N

    2008-05-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) of the small bowel has become a standard diagnostic tool, but there have been concerns regarding the risk of capsule retention in certain high-risk groups. The Agile patency system, an ingestible and dissolvable capsule with an external scanner, was developed to allow physicians to perform CE with greater confidence that the capsule will be safely excreted in patients at risk for capsule retention. Our purpose was to assess the ability of the device to help physicians identify which patients with known strictures may safely undergo CE. Patients with known strictures ingested the new patency capsule and underwent periodic scanning until it was excreted. The intestinal tract was considered to be sufficiently patent if the capsule was excreted intact or if the capsule was not detected by the scanner at 30 hours after ingestion. If patency was established, then standard CE was performed. International multicenter study. A total of 106 patients with known strictures. Agile patency system. Performance and safety of Agile patency system. A total of 106 patients ingested the patency capsule. Fifty-nine (56%) excreted it intact and subsequently underwent CE. There were no cases of capsule retention. Significant findings on CE were found in 24 (41%). There were 3 severe adverse events. These results suggest that the Agile patency system is a useful tool for physicians to use before CE in patients with strictures to avoid retention. This group of patients may have a high yield of clinically significant findings at CE. This capsule may determine whether patients who have a contraindication to CE may safely undergo CE and obtain useful diagnostic information.

  6. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification....

  7. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification....

  8. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification....

  9. 21 CFR 872.3110 - Dental amalgam capsule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental amalgam capsule. 872.3110 Section 872.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3110 Dental amalgam capsule. (a) Identification....

  10. Development of three-layered rumen escapable capsules for cattle

    PubMed Central

    SEYAMA, Tomohiro; HIRAYASU, Hirofumi; YAMAWAKI, Kenji; ADACHI, Takuhiko; SUGIMOTO, Takayuki; KASAI, Koji

    2016-01-01

    A new rumen escapable tool is presented for cattle in prospect of developing medical treatment or supplementing trace elements for disease prevention. This tool consists of a three-layered capsule that dissolves in the lower digestive tract, but not in the rumen. The capsule was manufactured by capsule-forming techniques through the use of liquid surface tension. This method does not involve high-temperature treatment, so the capsule can contain not only lipophilic substances but also hydrophilic or heat-sensitive substances. Furthermore, the capsule has a specific gravity of 1.3 and diameter of 6.0 mm, which were previously shown to be appropriate to avoid rumination. The objective of this study was to confirm the effectiveness of the capsule pertinent to rumen escaping. In order to validate rumen escape, capsules containing 30 g of water-soluble vitamin (thiamine hydrochloride) per head were administered to four lactating cows assigned in a crossover trial. In the group administered encapsulated thiamine hydrochloride, blood thiamine levels increased from 12.4 ± 1.03 ng/ml before administration to 54.8 ± 2.21 ng/ml at 6 hr following administration, whereas the level remained at 13.3 ± 2.05 ng/ml in the control group administered via aqueous solution. This indicates that the three-layered capsules passed through the rumen and dissolved in the lower digestive tract, thus functioning as a rumen escapable tool. PMID:27546371

  11. Diamagnetically stabilized levitation control of an intraluminal magnetic capsule.

    PubMed

    Lam, Michael; Mintchev, Martin

    2009-08-01

    Controlled navigation promotes full utilization of capsule endoscopy for reliable real-time diagnosis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but intermittent natural peristalsis can disturb the navigational control, destabilize the capsule and take it out of levitation. The focus of the present work was to develop an economical and effective real-time magnetic capsule-guiding system that can operate in the presence of naturally existing peristalsis while retaining navigational control. A real-size magnetic navigation system that can handle peristaltic forces of up to 1.5 N was designed utilizing the computer-aided design (CAD) system Maxwell 3D (Ansoft, Pittsburg, PA) and was verified using a small-size physical experimental setup. The proposed system contains a pair of 50 cm diameter, 10,000-turn copper electromagnets with a 10 cm x 10 cm ferrous core driven by currents of up to 300 A and can successfully maintain position control over the levitating capsule during peristalsis. The addition of bismuth diamagnetic casing for stabilizing the levitating capsule was also studied. A modeled magnetic field around the diamagnetically cased permanent magnet was shown to be redistributed aligning its interaction with the external electromagnets, thus stabilizing the levitating capsule. In summary, a custom-designed diamagnetically facilitated capsule navigation system can successfully steer an intraluminal magnet-carrying capsule.

  12. [A review on liquid-filled hard gelatin capsules].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jia-Hua; Yang, Ming; Zeng, Min; Chen, Xue-Mei; Lan, Jie

    2008-03-01

    Novel dosage forms emerges more and more in recent years. One of them is liquid-filled hard gelatin capsules, which adopt gelatin or the hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as capsule shell. The liquid-filled hard gelatin capsule is increasingly getting attention because of its new-concept dosage form design, which deliver liquid drugs by solid form. The paper mainly introduces application, pharmaceutical manufacturing, quality assessment, prospect of liquid-filled hard gelatin capsules, and focuses on the application and pharmaceutical manufacturing (preparation) of liquid-filled capsule. It is suggested that the capsule is suitable for various liquid or semi-solid natural plant extract and achieve different release profiles. The preparation adopted liquid-filled hard capsules technology. The influence factors concluded property of shell and device of filling. The quality was often evaluated by moisture content of capsule shell, dissolution rate etc. At the same time, it was pointed out that the new dosage form has remarkable marketing prospect and bring profits for enterprises.

  13. Ignition scaling laws and their application to capsule design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Mark C.; Tabak, Max; Lindl, John D.

    2001-05-01

    This paper investigates the amount of energy required to ensure the ignition of an inertial confinement fusion capsule. First, a series of one-dimensional LASNEX [G. B. Zimmerman and W. L. Kruer, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 2, 51 (1975)] simulations are performed to create a database of barely ignited capsules that span the parameter regime of interest. This database is used to develop scaling laws for the ignition energy in terms of both the stagnated capsule parameters and the in-flight capsule parameters, and to explore the connection between these two parameter sets. We then examine how much extra energy is required to overcome the effect of the inevitable surface imperfections that are amplified during the implosion process. These perturbations can lead to break up of the capsule in flight or to mix of cold fuel into the hot spot, both of which can cause the capsule to fail. As an example, a family of capsules with fixed adiabat, drive pressure, and absorbed energy is studied; the capsule from this family that is maximally robust to these failure modes is found.

  14. Streptococcus pneumoniae capsule determines disease severity in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Grandgirard, Denis; Valente, Luca G.; Täuber, Martin G.; Leib, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria can be characterized into over 90 serotypes according to the composition of their polysaccharide capsules. Some serotypes are common in nasopharyngeal carriage whereas others are associated with invasive disease, but when carriage serotypes do invade disease is often particularly severe. It is unknown whether disease severity is due directly to the capsule type or to other virulence factors. Here, we used a clinical pneumococcal isolate and its capsule-switch mutants to determine the effect of capsule, in isolation from the genetic background, on severity of meningitis in an infant rat model. We found that possession of a capsule was essential for causing meningitis. Serotype 6B caused significantly more mortality than 7F and this correlated with increased capsule thickness in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a stronger inflammatory cytokine response in the CSF and ultimately more cortical brain damage. We conclude that capsule type has a direct effect on meningitis severity. This is an important consideration in the current era of vaccination targeting a subset of capsule types that causes serotype replacement. PMID:27009189

  15. Improving ICF implosion performance with alternative capsule supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, C. R.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; MacPhee, A.; Milovich, J.; Martinez, D.; Robey, H. F.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Stadermann, M.; Amendt, P.; Bhandarkar, S.; Chang, B.; Choate, C.; Crippen, J.; Felker, S. J.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Johnson, S.; Kroll, J. J.; Landen, O. L.; Marinak, M.; Mcinnis, M.; Nikroo, A.; Rice, N.; Sepke, S. M.

    2017-05-01

    The thin membrane that holds the capsule in-place in the hohlraum is recognized as one of the most significant contributors to reduced performance in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments on the National Ignition Facility. This membrane, known as the "tent," seeds a perturbation that is amplified by Rayleigh-Taylor and can rupture the capsule. A less damaging capsule support mechanism is under development. Possible alternatives include the micron-scale rods spanning the hohlraum width and supporting either the capsule or stiffening the fill-tube, a larger fill-tube to both fill and support the capsule, or a low-density foam layer that protects the capsule from the tent impact. Experiments are testing these support features to measure their imprint on the capsule. These experiments are revealing unexpected aspects about perturbation development in indirect drive ICF, such as the importance of shadows coming from bright spots in the hohlraum. Two dimensional and 3D models are used to explain these features and assess the impact on implosion performance. Experiments and modeling suggest that the fill-tube supported by a perpendicular rod can mount the capsule without any additional perturbation beyond that of the fill tube.

  16. 21 CFR 520.622d - Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 12.5, 50, 200, or 400 milligrams (mg... dogs—(1) Amount/indications for use. 3 mg per pound (/lb) body weight daily for prevention of heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis); 25 to 50 mg/lb body weight in a single dose as an aid in the treatment...

  17. 21 CFR 520.622d - Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Diethylcarbamazine citrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 12.5, 50, 200, or 400 milligrams (mg... dogs—(1) Amount/indications for use. 3 mg per pound (/lb) body weight daily for prevention of heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis); 25 to 50 mg/lb body weight in a single dose as an aid in the treatment...

  18. Analysing intracellular deformation of polymer capsules using structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Cui, Jiwei; Sun, Huanli; Müllner, Markus; Yan, Yan; Noi, Ka Fung; Ping, Yuan; Caruso, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the behaviour of therapeutic carriers is important in elucidating their mechanism of action and how they are processed inside cells. Herein we examine the intracellular deformation of layer-by-layer assembled polymer capsules using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM). Spherical- and cylindrical-shaped capsules were studied in three different cell lines, namely HeLa (human epithelial cell line), RAW264.7 (mouse macrophage cell line) and differentiated THP-1 (human monocyte-derived macrophage cell line). We observed that the deformation of capsules was dependent on cell line, but independent of capsule shape. This suggests that the mechanical forces, which induce capsule deformation during cell uptake, vary between cell lines, indicating that the capsules are exposed to higher mechanical forces in HeLa cells, followed by RAW264.7 and then differentiated THP-1 cells. Our study demonstrates the use of super-resolution SIM in analysing intracellular capsule deformation, offering important insights into the cellular processing of drug carriers in cells and providing fundamental knowledge of intracellular mechanobiology. Furthermore, this study may aid in the design of novel drug carriers that are sensitive to deformation for enhanced drug release properties.Understanding the behaviour of therapeutic carriers is important in elucidating their mechanism of action and how they are processed inside cells. Herein we examine the intracellular deformation of layer-by-layer assembled polymer capsules using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM). Spherical- and cylindrical-shaped capsules were studied in three different cell lines, namely HeLa (human epithelial cell line), RAW264.7 (mouse macrophage cell line) and differentiated THP-1 (human monocyte-derived macrophage cell line). We observed that the deformation of capsules was dependent on cell line, but independent of capsule shape. This suggests that the mechanical forces

  19. Analysis of Fission Products on the AGR-1 Capsule Components

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Demkowicz; Jason M. Harp; Philip L. Winston; Scott A. Ploger

    2013-03-01

    The components of the AGR-1 irradiation capsules were analyzed to determine the retained inventory of fission products in order to determine the extent of in-pile fission product release from the fuel compacts. This includes analysis of (i) the metal capsule components, (ii) the graphite fuel holders, (iii) the graphite spacers, and (iv) the gas exit lines. The fission products most prevalent in the components were Ag-110m, Cs 134, Cs 137, Eu-154, and Sr 90, and the most common location was the metal capsule components and the graphite fuel holders. Gamma scanning of the graphite fuel holders was also performed to determine spatial distribution of Ag-110m and radiocesium. Silver was released from the fuel components in significant fractions. The total Ag-110m inventory found in the capsules ranged from 1.2×10 2 (Capsule 3) to 3.8×10 1 (Capsule 6). Ag-110m was not distributed evenly in the graphite fuel holders, but tended to concentrate at the axial ends of the graphite holders in Capsules 1 and 6 (located at the top and bottom of the test train) and near the axial center in Capsules 2, 3, and 5 (in the center of the test train). The Ag-110m further tended to be concentrated around fuel stacks 1 and 3, the two stacks facing the ATR reactor core and location of higher burnup, neutron fluence, and temperatures compared with Stack 2. Detailed correlation of silver release with fuel type and irradiation temperatures is problematic at the capsule level due to the large range of temperatures experienced by individual fuel compacts in each capsule. A comprehensive Ag 110m mass balance for the capsules was performed using measured inventories of individual compacts and the inventory on the capsule components. For most capsules, the mass balance was within 11% of the predicted inventory. The Ag-110m release from individual compacts often exhibited a very large range within a particular capsule.

  20. [Acute caffeine intoxication after intake of 'herbal energy capsules'].

    PubMed

    Kromhout, H E; Landstra, A M; van Luin, M; van Setten, P A

    2008-07-12

    Two males, 15 and 17 years old respectively, presented at the Emergency Department complaining of cramping abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting after ingestion of energy capsules. Physical examination revealed sinus tachycardia and slight abdominal pain. Laboratory examination showed substantial hypokalaemia and mild hyperglycaemia. Questioning revealed that they had taken 5 and 3 'herbal energy capsules' respectively and that these capsules supposedly contained 200 mg of caffeine each. Toxicological analysis showed a greatly increased serum caffeine concentration in both patients. The peak concentrations calculated were in the highly toxic range and could have led to severe acute complications such as convulsions. Pharmaceutical analysis demonstrated that these 'Supercap Xtreme'-capsules contained 700 mg caffeine or more. All symptoms presented were compatible with caffeine intoxication. The content of these capsules is not reliable and could lead to life-threatening intoxication.

  1. Three-dimensional simulations of Nova capsule implosion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Marinak, M.M.; Tipton, R.E.; Landen, O.L.

    1995-11-01

    Capsule implosion experiments carried out on the Nova laser are simulated with the three-dimensional HYDRA radiation hydrodynamics code. Simulations of ordered near single mode perturbations indicate that structures which evolve into round spikes can penetrate farthest into the hot spot. Bubble-shaped perturbations can burn through the capsule shell fastest, however, causing even more damage. Simulations of a capsule with multimode perturbations shows spike amplitudes evolving in good agreement with a saturation model during the deceleration phase. The presence of sizable low mode asymmetry, caused either by drive asymmetry or perturbations in the capsule shell, can dramatically affect the manner in which spikes approach the center of the hot spot. Three-dimensional coupling between the low mode shell perturbations intrinsic to Nova capsules and the drive asymmetry brings the simulated yields into closer agreement with the experimental values.

  2. Modulation of Kingella kingae Adherence to Human Epithelial Cells by Type IV Pili, Capsule, and a Novel Trimeric Autotransporter

    PubMed Central

    Porsch, Eric A.; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E.; Geme, Joseph W. St.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kingella kingae is an emerging bacterial pathogen that is being recognized increasingly as an important etiology of septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and bacteremia, especially in young children. Colonization of the posterior pharynx is a key step in the pathogenesis of K. kingae disease. Previous work established that type IV pili are necessary for K. kingae adherence to the respiratory epithelium. In this study, we set out to identify additional factors that influence K. kingae interactions with human epithelial cells. We found that genetic disruption of the gene encoding a predicted trimeric autotransporter protein called Knh (Kingella NhhA homolog) resulted in reduced adherence to human epithelial cells. In addition, we established that K. kingae elaborates a surface-associated polysaccharide capsule that requires a predicted ABC-type transporter export operon called ctrABCD for surface presentation. Furthermore, we discovered that the presence of a surface capsule interferes with Knh-mediated adherence to human epithelial cells by nonpiliated organisms and that maximal adherence in the presence of a capsule requires the predicted type IV pilus retraction machinery, PilT/PilU. On the basis of the data presented here, we propose a novel adherence mechanism that allows K. kingae to adhere efficiently to human epithelial cells while remaining encapsulated and more resistant to immune clearance. PMID:23093386

  3. Toward an Integrated Model of Capsule Regulation in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Brian C.; Skowyra, Michael L.; Spencer, Sarah J.; Gish, Stacey R.; Williams, Matthew; Held, Elizabeth P.; Brent, Michael R.; Doering, Tamara L.

    2011-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes serious human disease in immunocompromised populations. Its polysaccharide capsule is a key virulence factor which is regulated in response to growth conditions, becoming enlarged in the context of infection. We used microarray analysis of cells stimulated to form capsule over a range of growth conditions to identify a transcriptional signature associated with capsule enlargement. The signature contains 880 genes, is enriched for genes encoding known capsule regulators, and includes many uncharacterized sequences. One uncharacterized sequence encodes a novel regulator of capsule and of fungal virulence. This factor is a homolog of the yeast protein Ada2, a member of the Spt-Ada-Gcn5 Acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex that regulates transcription of stress response genes via histone acetylation. Consistent with this homology, the C. neoformans null mutant exhibits reduced histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation. It is also defective in response to a variety of stress conditions, demonstrating phenotypes that overlap with, but are not identical to, those of other fungi with altered SAGA complexes. The mutant also exhibits significant defects in sexual development and virulence. To establish the role of Ada2 in the broader network of capsule regulation we performed RNA-Seq on strains lacking either Ada2 or one of two other capsule regulators: Cir1 and Nrg1. Analysis of the results suggested that Ada2 functions downstream of both Cir1 and Nrg1 via components of the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway. To identify direct targets of Ada2, we performed ChIP-Seq analysis of histone acetylation in the Ada2 null mutant. These studies supported the role of Ada2 in the direct regulation of capsule and mating responses and suggested that it may also play a direct role in regulating capsule-independent antiphagocytic virulence factors. These results validate our experimental approach to dissecting capsule

  4. Stability assessment of chitosan-sodium hexametaphosphate capsules.

    PubMed

    Angelova, N; Hunkeler, D

    2001-01-01

    The assessment of the stability of capsules based on chitosan-sodium hexametaphosphate complex formation has been carried out using two independent methods--compression and osmotic swelling, and the influence of the preparation variables was evaluated. The formulation containing 1.5% core polymer (chitosan) and 1.5% oligophosphate, in the absence of salt or at low ionic strength (0.15% NaCl) was found to provide the best membrane resistance. A higher concentration of cross-linker (2.25%) produced stable capsules only in absence of electrolyte. Mannitol, a porogen added to the preparation solutions, did not affect the stability of the obtained membranes. At elevated polyol (1%) and cross-linker levels (2.25%), and at 0% salt, membranes with decreased elasticity were obtained, having lower compression and osmotic bursting values and lower deformation at the breaking points. A significant influence of salt amount on the capsule stability was also found. This was attributed to changes in the membrane formation process resulting in membranes with different thickness and structure. Membrane compression stability was found to be dependent on the pH of both oligophosphate and chitosan solutions, as well as on the reaction time. The bursting force values decreased for capsule diameters below 1.6 mm. The increased membrane/capsule volume ratio for the small capsules decreased the capsule deformation freedom and caused capsule rupture at low force values. The capsules made at low salt amounts showed very good storage stability over time and at elevated temperatures. The results demonstrated that the capsules could be formulated with controlled properties for various biomedical applications.

  5. Primate lens capsule elasticity assessed using Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ziebarth, Noël M.; Arrieta, Esdras; Feuer, William J.; Moy, Vincent T.; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to measure the elasticity of the human and non-human primate lens capsule at the microscopic scale using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Elasticity measurements were performed using AFM on the excised anterior lens capsule from 9 cynomolgus monkey (5.9–8.0 years), 8 hamadryas baboon (2.8–10.1 years), and 18 human lenses (33–79 years). Anterior capsule specimens were obtained by performing a 5mm continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis and collecting the resulting disk of capsular tissue. To remove the lens epithelial cells the specimen was soaked in 0.1% trypsin and 0.02% EDTA for five minutes, washed, and placed on a Petri dish and immersed in DMEM. Elasticity measurements of the capsule were performed with a laboratory-built AFM system custom designed for force measurements of ophthalmic tissues. The capsular specimens were probed with an AFM cantilever tip to produce force-indentation curves for each specimen. Young’s modulus was calculated from the force-indentation curves using the model of Sneddon for a conical indenter. Young’s modulus of elasticity was 20.1–131kPa for the human lens capsule, 9.19–117kPa for the cynomolgus lens capsule, and 13.1–62.4kPa for the baboon lens capsule. Young’s modulus increased significantly with age in humans (p=0.03). The age range of the monkey and baboon samples was not sufficient to justify an analysis of age dependence. The capsule elasticity of young humans (<45 years) was not statistically different from that of the monkey and baboon. In humans, there is an increase in lens capsule stiffness at the microscale that could be responsible for an increase in lens capsule bulk stiffness. PMID:21420953

  6. Alkaline phosphatase encapsulated in gellan-chitosan hybrid capsules.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toshihiro; Ogiwara, Daisuke; Ohkawa, Kousaku; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki

    2005-05-23

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was encapsulated in gellan-chitosan polyion complex (PIC) capsules using a convenient procedure. The recovery of ALP was about 50% when the capsules were prepared by dropping a solution of ALP and gellan mixture (ALP/gellan) into a chitosan solution. When p-nitrophenyl phosphate (p-NPP) and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (BCIP) were incubated with ALP/gellan-chitosan capsules as substrates for ALP, the transparent colorless capsules changed to yellow and blue, respectively. The encapsulation of ALP into the PIC capsules was also confirmed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses. The ALP and polypeptides of more than 30 kDa remained without release even after incubation at 4 degrees C for 14 d. The biochemical properties of the encapsulated ALP activity were similar to those of the intact enzyme. When the solution containing p-NPP was loaded on a column packed with ALP/gellan-chitosan capsules at 27 degrees C, approximately 75% of p-NPP was hydrolyzed by passing through the column. No significant leakage of ALP was observed during the procedure, indicating that the capsules were resistant to pressure in the chromatographic operation. Furthermore, 70% of the hydrolytic activity of the packed capsules remained after storage at 4 degrees C for one month. These results suggest that the polyion complex capsules could be useful materials for protein fixation without chemical modification. [Diagram: see text] Encapsulation of ALP into PIC capsules and the morphological changes seen in the absence of the ALP substrate and in the presence of p-NPP and BICP.

  7. Performance qualification of a new hypromellose capsule: Part II. Disintegration and dissolution comparison between two types of hypromellose capsules.

    PubMed

    Ku, M Sherry; Lu, Qinghong; Li, Weiyi; Chen, Yansong

    2011-09-15

    This Part II paper describes the disintegration and dissolution aspects of the qualification of a new hypromellose capsule (HPMC Shell 2). This new capsule does not contain any gelling agent, and is manufactured by a thermal gelation process. Rupture time of the carrageenan-containing capsule (HPMC Shell 1) and HPMC Shell 2, as measured by an improved real-time detection method, showed only slight differences that did not manifest in vivo. The absence of a gelling agent appeared to give HPMC Shell 2 advantages in dissolution in acidic media and in buffers containing potassium ions. Slow drug release of HPMC Shell 1 in 0.1M HCl was attributed to the interaction of carrageenan with drug compounds; whereas the presence of potassium ions, a gelling promoter for carrageenan, caused delay in capsule opening and larger capsule-to-capsule variation. Disintegration and dissolution performances of both hypromellose capsules are comparable in other dissolution media tested. Based on the superior dissolution performances and quality attributes in terms of physical, mechanical and processability that were detailed in Paper I, the new hypromellose capsule was satisfactorily qualified and has since been used in nearly 20 investigational new drug (IND) compounds.

  8. RAMA Surveillance Capsule and Component Activation Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Kenneth E.; Jones, Eric N.; Carter, Robert G.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the calculated-to-measured ratios associated with the application of the RAMA Fluence Methodology software to light water reactor surveillance capsule and reactor component activation evaluations. Comparisons to measurements are performed for pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor surveillance capsule activity specimens from seventeen operating light water reactors. Comparisons to measurements are also performed for samples removed from the core shroud, top guide, and jet pump brace pads from two reactors. In conclusion: The flexible geometry modeling capabilities provided by RAMA, combined with the detailed representation of operating reactor history and anisotropic scattering detail, produces accurate predictions of the fast neutron fluence and neutron activation for BWR and PWR surveillance capsule geometries. This allows best estimate RPV fluence to be determined without the need for multiplicative bias corrections. The three-dimensional modeling capability in RAMA provides an accurate estimate of the fast neutron fluence for regions far removed from the core mid-plane elevation. The comparisons to activation measurements for various core components indicate that the RAMA predictions are reasonable, and notably conservative (i.e., C/M ratios are consistently greater than unity). It should be noted that in the current evaluations, the top and bottom fuel regions are represented by six inch height nodes. As a result, the leakage-induced decrease in power near the upper and lower edges of the core are not well represented in the current models. More precise predictions of fluence for components that lie above and below the core boundaries could be obtained if the upper and lower fuel nodes were subdivided into multiple axial regions with assigned powers that reflect the neutron leakage at the top and bottom of the core. This use of additional axial sub-meshing at the top and bottom of the core is analogous to the use of pin

  9. Recurrent posterior shoulder instability. Diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Pollock, R G; Bigliani, L U

    1993-06-01

    Recurrent posterior glenohumeral instability is regarded as a difficult problem to diagnose and treat. A careful history and physical examination are the most helpful tools in making this diagnosis. A positive posterior stress test, demonstrable posterior subluxation, and a sulcus sign are frequently present on examination. Special roentgenographic studies, such as the computerized arthrotomography (arthro-CT) scan, may be used in cases in which plain roentgenographs suggest bony glenoid abnormalities. When conservative therapy fails, there is no consensus on the operative treatment. Procedures that address the soft tissues, such as capsulorrhaphy and posterior labral repair, as well as those that alter the bony geometry of the joint, such as posterior bone blocks and glenoid or humeral osteotomies, have been described. Capsular laxity is the most common pathologic finding in the authors' experience, and they favor the use of a posterior-inferior capsular shift procedure to correct this problem. Augmentation of the repair with a posterior bone block is reserved for unusual cases, such as when glenoid hypoplasia is present or in certain revision situations.

  10. Posterior labral injury in contact athletes.

    PubMed

    Mair, S D; Zarzour, R H; Speer, K P

    1998-01-01

    Nine athletes (seven football offensive linemen, one defensive lineman, and one lacrosse player) were found at arthroscopy to have posterior labral detachment from the glenoid. In our series, this lesion is specific to contact athletes who engage their opponents with arms in front of the body. All patients had pain with bench pressing and while participating in their sport, diminishing their ability to play effectively. Conservative measures were ineffective in relieving their symptoms. Examination under anesthesia revealed symmetric glenohumeral translation bilaterally, without evidence of posterior instability. Treatment consisted of glenoid rim abradement and posterior labral repair with a bioabsorbable tack. All patients returned to complete at least one full season of contact sports and weightlifting without pain (minimum follow-up, > or = 2 years). Although many injuries leading to subluxation of the glenohumeral joint occur when an unanticipated force is applied, contact athletes ready their shoulder muscles in anticipation of impact with opponents. This leads to a compressive force at the glenohumeral joint. We hypothesize that, in combination with a posteriorly directed force at impact, the resultant vector is a shearing force to the posterior labrum and articular surface. Repeated exposure leads to posterior labral detachment without capsular injury. Posterior labral reattachment provides consistently good results, allowing the athlete to return to competition.

  11. Congenital basis of posterior fossa anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Cotes, Claudia; Bonfante, Eliana; Lazor, Jillian; Jadhav, Siddharth; Caldas, Maria; Swischuk, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    The classification of posterior fossa congenital anomalies has been a controversial topic. Advances in genetics and imaging have allowed a better understanding of the embryologic development of these abnormalities. A new classification schema correlates the embryologic, morphologic, and genetic bases of these anomalies in order to better distinguish and describe them. Although they provide a better understanding of the clinical aspects and genetics of these disorders, it is crucial for the radiologist to be able to diagnose the congenital posterior fossa anomalies based on their morphology, since neuroimaging is usually the initial step when these disorders are suspected. We divide the most common posterior fossa congenital anomalies into two groups: 1) hindbrain malformations, including diseases with cerebellar or vermian agenesis, aplasia or hypoplasia and cystic posterior fossa anomalies; and 2) cranial vault malformations. In addition, we will review the embryologic development of the posterior fossa and, from the perspective of embryonic development, will describe the imaging appearance of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. Knowledge of the developmental bases of these malformations facilitates detection of the morphological changes identified on imaging, allowing accurate differentiation and diagnosis of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. PMID:26246090

  12. Treatment implications of posterior fossa ependymoma subgroups.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Vijay; Taylor, Michael D

    2016-11-15

    Posterior fossa ependymoma comprises two distinct molecular entities, ependymoma_posterior fossa A (EPN_PFA) and ependymoma_posterior fossa B (EPN_PFB), with differentiable gene expression profiles. As yet, the response of the two entities to treatment is unclear. To determine the relationship between the two molecular subgroups of posterior fossa ependymoma and treatment, we studied a cohort of 820 patients with molecularly profiled, clinically annotated posterior fossa ependymomas. We found that the strongest predictor of poor outcome in patients with posterior fossa ependymoma across the entire age spectrum was molecular subgroup EPN_PFA, which was recently reported in the paper entitled "Therapeutic impact of cytoreductive surgery and irradiation of posterior fossa ependymoma in the molecular era: a retrospective multicohort analysis" in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Patients with incompletely resected EPN_PFA tumors had a very poor outcome despite receiving adjuvant radiation therapy, whereas a substantial proportion of patients with EPN_PFB tumors can be cured with surgery alone.

  13. Segmentation of a class of ophthalmological images using a directional variance operator and co-occurrence arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paplinski, Andrew P.; Boyce, James F.

    1997-11-01

    The posterior capsule opacification images considered are images of the membrane encapsulating an artificial lens implanted during cataract surgery in place of the natural lens. The images are taken to monitor the state of the patient's vision after the surgery. Subsequent to the surgery, the membrane of the posterior capsule may become opacified, thus degrading the patient's vision. We discuss the methodology used and the results obtained in the segmentation of the images into transparent and opacified regions. The opacification is primarily characterized by its texture, therefore a directional standard deviation operator is applied to an image giving rise to a family of 'conjugate' images. From these images, the multi-dimensional histogram (co- occurrence) array is calculated and subsequently approximated by Gaussian distributions to form the basis for the segmentation step.

  14. Outcome of Posterior Tibial Plateau Fixation.

    PubMed

    Jiwanlal, Aneel; Jeray, Kyle James

    2016-01-01

    Isolated posterior tibial plateau fractures are rare injuries that encompass a wide variety of fracture patterns. Based on the variation in fracture pattern, the surgical approach varies, with both anterior and posterior approaches described for surgical fixation. Postoperative protocol also varies among studies. The aim of this article is to summarize the outcomes related to posterior column tibial plateau fractures. The papers reviewed, primarily small retrospective case series, showed functional knee range of motion is preserved, a low incidence of wound complications, and patient outcome scores comparable to other reported lower extremity injury outcome scores. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Photophysics Applied to Cavitands and Capsules

    PubMed Central

    Berryman, Orion B.; Dube, Henry; Rebek, Julius

    2013-01-01

    The use of light as a stimulus to control functional materials or nano-devices is appealing as it provides convenient control of triggering events where and when they are desired without introducing extra components to the system. Many photophysical and photochemical processes are extremely fast, giving rise to nearly instantaneous onset of events. However, these fast processes can be challenging to engineer into chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry offers a convenient way to study and control photoprocesses. Given the reversible and self-programmed nature of modern host-guest systems, a modular approach can be considered in which different photoprocesses are coupled to obtain complex functions that emerge and are controlled solely by light inputs. In this review, we highlight recent examples of photoswitching and photophysics applied in the context of supramolecular host-guest systems, with a particular emphasis on resorcinarene based cavitands and hydrogen bonded capsules. PMID:24009399

  16. Environmental Fluid Dynamics in Space Capsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhaohua

    Environmental fluid dynamics began to get more and more concern recently because of its effects on indoor air quality and ventilation strategy. Our research is trying to use the tools of Environmental fluid dynamics to investigate the life support system (LSS) for manned space flight, especially for future long-term planetary exploration flight (permanent space station and lunar base, space greenhouse of controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) etc.). The PIV technique will be adopted to obtain the velocity of the flow field and dyed fluids to capture the temperature field. On the other hand, we will use the commercial software (FLUENT) to numerical simulate the same problem. The results in this work can be used to improve the ventilation efficiency, reduce the energy costs and try to make the air in space capsule less effluvial.

  17. High speed receiver for capsule endoscope.

    PubMed

    Woo, S H; Yoon, K W; Moon, Y K; Lee, J H; Park, H J; Kim, T W; Choi, H C; Won, C H; Cho, J H

    2010-10-01

    In this study, a high-speed receiver for a capsule endoscope was proposed and implemented. The proposed receiver could receive 20 Mbps data that was sufficient to receive images with a higher resolution than conventional receivers. The receiver used a 1.2 GHz band to receive radio frequency (RF) signal, and demodulated the signal to an intermediate frequency (IF) stage (150 MHz). The demodulated signal was amplified, filtered, and under-sampled by a high-speed analog-to-digital converter (ADC). In order to decode the under-sampled data in real time, a simple frequency detection algorithm was selected and was implemented by using a FPGA. The implemented system could receive 20 Mbps data.

  18. Multilevel wireless capsule endoscopy video segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sae; Celebi, M. Emre

    2010-03-01

    Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a relatively new technology (FDA approved in 2002) allowing doctors to view most of the small intestine. WCE transmits more than 50,000 video frames per examination and the visual inspection of the resulting video is a highly time-consuming task even for the experienced gastroenterologist. Typically, a medical clinician spends one or two hours to analyze a WCE video. To reduce the assessment time, it is critical to develop a technique to automatically discriminate digestive organs and shots each of which consists of the same or similar shots. In this paper a multi-level WCE video segmentation methodology is presented to reduce the examination time.

  19. Dissolution test for silymarin tablets and capsules.

    PubMed

    Campodónico, A; Collado, E; Ricci, R; Pappa, H; Segall, A; Pizzorno, M T

    2001-01-01

    Silybine (SBN), isosilybine (ISBN), silycristine (SCN), silydianine (SDN), and taxifoline (TXF) are the main active flavonoids commonly found in the dried fruits of Silybum marianum, Gaertner (Compositae). Concentrations of these compounds, except TXF, are usually expressed together as silymarin content. This paper describes a simple dissolution test developed to estimate silymarin (Sl) in pharmaceutical formulations. Five commercial products were tested using this new method (including tablets, sugar tablets, and capsules): two from Argentina, one from Brazil, one from Spain, and one from Italy. Results demonstrated that, provided the dosage form disintegrates, amounts dissolved range from 50 to 90% of the labeled value. Products were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV spectrophotometry.

  20. Genesis Capsule Yields Solar Wind Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, Roger C.; Burnett, Donald S.; Stansbery, Eileen K.; McNamara, Karen M.

    2004-11-01

    NASA's Genesis capsule, carrying the first samples ever returned from beyond the Moon, took a hard landing in the western Utah desert on 8 September after its parachutes failed to deploy. Despite the impact, estimated at 310 km per hour, some valuable solar wind collector materials have been recovered. With these samples, the Genesis team members are hopeful that nearly all of the primary science goals may be met. The Genesis spacecraft was launched in August 2001 to collect and return samples of solar wind for precise isotopic and elemental analysis. The spacecraft orbited the Earth-Sun Lagrangian point (L1), ~1.5 million km sunward of the Earth, for 2.3 years. It exposed ultrapure materials-including wafers of silicon, silicon carbide, germanium, chemically deposited diamond, gold, aluminum, and metallic glass-to solar wind ions, which become embedded within the substrates' top 100 nm of these materials.

  1. Optimal Bowel Preparation for Video Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun Joo; Moon, Jeong Seop; Shim, Ki-Nam

    2016-01-01

    During video capsule endoscopy (VCE), several factors, such as air bubbles, food material in the small bowel, and delayed gastric and small bowel transit time, influence diagnostic yield, small bowel visualization quality, and cecal completion rate. Therefore, bowel preparation before VCE is as essential as bowel preparation before colonoscopy. To date, there have been many comparative studies, consensus, and guidelines regarding different kinds of bowel cleansing agents in bowel preparation for small bowel VCE. Presently, polyethylene glycol- (PEG-) based regimens are given primary recommendation. Sodium picosulphate-based regimens are secondarily recommended, as their cleansing efficacy is less than that of PEG-based regimens. Sodium phosphate as well as complementary simethicone and prokinetics use are considered. In this paper, we reviewed previous studies regarding bowel preparation for small bowel VCE and suggested optimal bowel preparation of VCE. PMID:26880894

  2. Capsule HRB-15B postirradiation examination report

    SciTech Connect

    Ketterer, J.W.; Bullock, R.E.

    1981-06-01

    Capsule HRB-15B design tested 184 thin graphite trays containing unbonded fuel particles to peak exposures of 6.6 x 10/sup 25/ n/m/sup 2/ (E > 29 fJ)/sub HTGR/ fast fluence, approx. 27% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA) fissile burnup, and 6% FIMA fertile burnup at nominal time-averaged temperatures of 815 to 915/sup 0/C. The capsule tested a variety of low-enriched uranium (approx. 19.5% U-235) fissile particle types, including UC/sub 2/, UC/sub x/O/sub y/, UO/sub 2/, zirconium-buffered UO/sub 2/ (referred to in this report as UO/sub 2//sup *), and 1:1(Th,U)O/sub 2/ with both TRISO and silicon-BISO coatings. All fertile particles were ThO/sub 2/ with BISO, silicon-BISO, or TRISO coatings. The findings indicated that all TRISO particles retained virtually all of their fission product inventories, except small quantities of silver, at these irradiation temperatures, while some of the silicon-BISO particles released significant amounts of both silver and cesium. No kernel migration, pressure vessel, or outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) failures were observed in the fuel particles, which had total diameters of < 900 ..mu..m; however, the incidence of failed OPyC coatings was found to increase with particle size in the TRISO inert particles, which had diameters of 1000 to 1200 ..mu..m. UO/sub 2//sup */ particles exhibited no detrimental irradiation effects, but they contained pure carbon precipitates in the kernels after irradiation which were not observed in the undoped UO/sub 2/ particles. Postirradiation examination revealed no differences in the irradiation performance of three UC/sub x/O/sub y/ kernel types with varying oxygen/uranium ratios.

  3. A comparative study on liquid core formulation on the diameter on the alginate capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Hui-Yen; Lee, Boon-Beng; Radzi, AkmalHadi Ma'; Zakaria, Zarina; Chan, Eng-Seng

    2015-08-01

    Liquid core capsule has vast application in biotechnology related industries such as pharmaceutical, medical, agriculture and food. Formulation of different types of capsule was important to determine the performance of the capsule. Generally, the liquid core capsule with different formulations generated different size of capsule.Therefore, the aim of this project is to investigate the effect of different liquid core solution formulations on the diameter of capsule. The capsule produced by extruding liquid core solutions into sodium alginate solution. Three types of liquid core solutions (chitosan, xanthan gum, polyethylene glycol (PEG)) were investigated. The results showed that there is significant change in capsule diameter despite in different types of liquid core solution were used and a series of capsule range in diameter of 3.1 mm to 4.5 mm were produced. Alginate capsule with chitosan formulation appeared to be the largest capsule among all.

  4. Results of cataract surgery and plasma ablation posterior capsulotomy in anterior persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajesh; Bali, Shveta Jindal; Kumar, Chandrashekhar; Shekhar, Himanshu; Sharma, Namrata; Titiyal, Jeewan S; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2013-01-01

    To report the feasibility and outcome of lens aspiration, and Fugo blade-assisted capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy in eyes with anterior persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV). In this case series, 10 eyes of 10 patients with anterior PHPV underwent lens aspiration. The vascularized posterior capsule was cut with a Fugo blade (plasma knife) and removed with a vitrector. A foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) was implanted in eight eyes and the outcomes were evaluated. The mean age of patients was 16.8 ± 6.37 months (range: 5 to 28 months). The surgery was completed successfully in all eyes. There were no cases of intraocular hemorrhage intraoperatively. Foldable acrylic IOL was implanted in the bag in 3 eyes and in the sulcus in 5 eyes. Two eyes were microphthalmic and did no undergo IOL implantation (aphakic). None of the eyes had a significant reaction or elevated intraocular pressure postoperatively. The follow-up ranged from 4 to 21 months. All the pseudophakic eyes achieved a best corrected visual acuity of ≥20/200 with 50% (4/8) of these eyes with ≥20/60 vision. Lens aspiration followed by posterior capsulotomy with Fugo blade-assisted plasma ablation is a feasible technique for performing successful lens surgery in cases with florid anterior PHPV.

  5. Comparison of therapeutic effects of topical azithromycin solution and systemic doxycycline on posterior blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Zandian, Mehdi; Rahimian, Neda; Soheilifar, Sanaz

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the effect of azithromycin drop and doxycycline capsule on treatment of posterior blepharitis. METHODS Fifty patients (100 eyes) with moderate posterior blepharitis, randomly divided into two therapeutic groups; all the patients got warm eyelid compress and massage three times a day for 3wk. In addition the first group got azithromycin 1% drop, twice daily for 1wk and then one drop daily for 2wk. The second group got oral doxycycline 100 mg daily for 3wk. At the end of the research, patients' signs and symptoms were compared together. ANOVA, Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS Topical therapy with azithromycin and oral therapy with doxycycline relieved signs and symptoms after 3wk. There were no significant differences between symptoms healing rate and foreign body sensation healing in these two groups (P>0.05). However, azithromycin drop was more effective in reduction of eye redness and doxycycline was more effective in meibomian glands plugging healing and reducing the corneal staining. CONCLUSION Topical azithromycin could have similar effects as oral doxycycline on posterior blepharitis in improving subjective symptoms. However, doxycycline can reduce objective signs such as ocular surface staining and meibomian gland plugging more than azithromycin. PMID:27500111

  6. Closed-system phacoemulsification and posterior chamber implant combined with penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Malbran, E S; Malbran, E; Buonsanti, J; Adrogué, E

    1993-06-01

    The main intraoperative difficulties of performing a procedure combining open-sky extracapsular cataract extraction, implantation of posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL), and penetrating keratoplasty ("triple procedure"), most frequently caused by the uncompensated posterior pressure created when the cornea is open, include incomplete capsulorhexis, incomplete aspiration-irrigation of the cortex, uncertain placing of the IOL, posterior capsule rupture, choroidal effusion, and even expulsive hemorrhage. We recommend a two-step procedure that eliminates these problems: The first step begins with removal of epithelium, half-thickness trephining of the cornea, and capsulorhexis; proceeds through phacoemulsification and aspiration-irrigation; and ends with implantation of the PC-IOL, using a pressurized system. The second step is penetrating keratoplasty. In the six cases undergoing this procedure, none of these complications developed or even tended to develop. Although the follow up in these six cases is very short (from 1 to 6 months), the advantage of the technique is that it effectively precludes the above mentioned intraoperative complications, which could affect late results.

  7. Effects of two different mobilization techniques on pain, range of motion and functional disability in patients with adhesive capsulitis: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Surabhi; Raza, Shahid; Moiz, Jamal Ali; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad H.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare the effects of two different mobilization techniques in the management of patients with adhesive capsulitis. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty non-diabetic men and women with adhesive capsulitis were randomly allocated to the reverse distraction group (n=15) or Kaltenborn group (n=15). The reverse distraction technique and Kaltenborn’s caudal and posterior glides (grades III and IV) were applied 10–15 times along with conventional physical therapy for 18 treatment sessions in 6 weeks. Pain was measured with a visual analog scale, abduction and external rotation range of motion with goniometry, hand behind back reach with inch tape, and functional disability with the Flexilevel scale of shoulder function before and after the treatment. [Results] Although all the variables improved significantly in both groups after 18 intervention sessions, reverse distraction was significantly better than Kaltenborn’s caudal and posterior glides in decreasing pain and improving abduction range of motion and functional scores. [Conclusion] This study supports the clinical use of reverse distraction as an alternative to conventional mobilization techniques to decrease pain and improve range of motion and functional scores in patients with adhesive capsulitis. PMID:28174448

  8. Effects of two different mobilization techniques on pain, range of motion and functional disability in patients with adhesive capsulitis: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Surabhi; Raza, Shahid; Moiz, Jamal Ali; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad H

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare the effects of two different mobilization techniques in the management of patients with adhesive capsulitis. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty non-diabetic men and women with adhesive capsulitis were randomly allocated to the reverse distraction group (n=15) or Kaltenborn group (n=15). The reverse distraction technique and Kaltenborn's caudal and posterior glides (grades III and IV) were applied 10-15 times along with conventional physical therapy for 18 treatment sessions in 6 weeks. Pain was measured with a visual analog scale, abduction and external rotation range of motion with goniometry, hand behind back reach with inch tape, and functional disability with the Flexilevel scale of shoulder function before and after the treatment. [Results] Although all the variables improved significantly in both groups after 18 intervention sessions, reverse distraction was significantly better than Kaltenborn's caudal and posterior glides in decreasing pain and improving abduction range of motion and functional scores. [Conclusion] This study supports the clinical use of reverse distraction as an alternative to conventional mobilization techniques to decrease pain and improve range of motion and functional scores in patients with adhesive capsulitis.

  9. Closed Loop Control of a Tethered Magnetic Capsule Endoscope

    PubMed Central

    Taddese, Addisu Z.; Slawinski, Piotr R.; Obstein, Keith L.; Valdastri, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic field gradients have repeatedly been shown to be the most feasible mechanism for gastrointestinal capsule endoscope actuation. An inverse quartic magnetic force variation with distance results in large force gradients induced by small movements of a driving magnet; this necessitates robotic actuation of magnets to implement stable control of the device. A typical system consists of a serial robot with a permanent magnet at its end effector that actuates a capsule with an embedded permanent magnet. We present a tethered capsule system where a capsule with an embedded magnet is closed loop controlled in 2 degree-of-freedom in position and 2 degree-of-freedom in orientation. Capitalizing on the magnetic field of the external driving permanent magnet, the capsule is localized in 6-D allowing for both position and orientation feedback to be used in a control scheme. We developed a relationship between the serial robot's joint parameters and the magnetic force and torque that is exerted onto the capsule. Our methodology was validated both in a dynamic simulation environment where a custom plug-in for magnetic interaction was written, as well as on an experimental platform. The tethered capsule was demonstrated to follow desired trajectories in both position and orientation with accuracy that is acceptable for colonoscopy. PMID:28286886

  10. The capsule of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Zaragoza, Oscar; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; De Jesus, Magdia; Frases, Susana; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    The capsule of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans has been studied extensively in recent decades, and a large body of information is now available to the scientific community. Well-known aspects of the capsule include its structure, antigenic properties and its function as a virulence factor. The capsule is composed primarily of two polysaccharides, glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) and galactoxylomannan (GalXM), in addition to a smaller proportion of mannoproteins (MP). Most of the studies on the composition of the capsule have focused on GXM, which comprises more than 90% of the capsule's polysaccharide mass. It is GalXM, however, that is of particular scientific interest because of its immunological properties. The molecular structure of these polysaccharides is very complex and has not yet been fully elucidated. Both GXM and GalXM are high molecular mass polymers with the mass of GXM equaling roughly 10 times that of GalXM. Recent findings suggest, however, that the actual Mw might be different to what it has traditionally been thought to be. In addition to their structural roles in the polysaccharide capsule, these molecules have been associated with many deleterious effects on the immune response. Capsular components are therefore considered key virulence determinants in Cryptococcus neoformans, which has motivated their use in vaccines and made them targets for monoclonal antibody treatments. In this review we will provide an update on the current knowledge of the C. neoformans capsule, covering aspects related to its structure, synthesis, and particularly, its role as a virulence factor. PMID:19426855

  11. Emerging Issues and Future Developments in Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Slawinski, Piotr R.; Obstein, Keith L.; Valdastri, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) has transformed from a research venture into a widely used clinical tool and the primary means for diagnosing small bowel pathology. These orally administered capsules traverse passively through the gastrointestinal tract via peristalsis and are used in the esophagus, stomach, small bowel, and colon. The primary focus of CE research in recent years has been enabling active CE manipulation and extension of the technology to therapeutic functionality; thus, widening the scope of the procedure. This review outlines clinical standards of the technology as well as recent advances in CE research. Clinical capsule applications are discussed with respect to each portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Promising research efforts are presented with an emphasis on enabling active capsule locomotion. The presented studies suggest, in particular, that the most viable solution for active capsule manipulation is actuation of a capsule via exterior permanent magnet held by a robot. Developing capsule procedures adhering to current healthcare standards, such as enabling a tool channel or irrigation in a therapeutic device, is a vital phase in the adaptation of CE in the clinical setting. PMID:26028956

  12. Tuning the Properties of Polymer Capsules for Cellular Interactions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huanli; Cui, Jiwei; Ju, Yi; Chen, Xi; Wong, Edgar H H; Tran, Jenny; Qiao, Greg G; Caruso, Frank

    2017-07-19

    Particle-cell interactions are governed by, among other factors, the composition and surface properties of the particles. Herein, we report the preparation of various polymer capsules with different compositions and properties via atom transfer radical polymerization mediated continuous assembly of polymers (CAPATRP), where the cellular interactions of these capsules, particularly fouling and specific targeting, are examined by flow cytometry and deconvolution microscopy. Acrylated eight-arm poly(ethylene glycol) (8-PEG) and poly(N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamide) (PHPMA) as well as methacrylated hyaluronic acid (HA), poly(glutamic acid) (PGA), and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) are used as macro-cross-linkers to obtain a range of polymer capsules with different compositions (PEG, PHPMA, HA, PGA, and PMA). Capsules composed of low-fouling polymers, PEG and PHPMA, show negligible association with macrophage Raw 264.7, monocyte THP-1, and HeLa cells. HA capsules, although moderately low-fouling (<22%) to HeLa, BT474, Raw 264.7, and THP-1 cells, exhibit high targeting specificity to CD44-over-expressing MDA-MB-231 cells. In contrast, PGA and PMA capsules show high cellular association toward phagocytic Raw 264.7 and THP-1 cells. These findings demonstrate the capability of the CAPATRP technique in preparing polymer capsules with specific cellular interactions.

  13. Can sonication increase the release from alginate capsules?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liguo; Salsac, Anne-Virginie

    2012-05-01

    The objective is to investigate the influence of sonication on the mechanical and release properties of capsules made of a soft membrane in hydrogel. If high sonication may lead to the capsule rupture induced by a fatigue phenomenon, no influence of sonication is measured on the capsule mechanical properties below the breakup threshold. The release is studied by sonicating capsules filled with blue dextran suspended in an aqueous solution. The step in mass release that results from sonication is found to be proportional to the sonication duration time and pressure wave amplitude. The passive release subsequent to a low-intensity sonication is on average identical to the one measured on non-sonicated capsules. From these results, one can hypothesize that the high frequency ultrasonic stimulation leads to an acoustic streaming flow that enhances convection in the vicinity of the capsule membrane and hence drives out the encapsulated molecules. Sonication could also lead to a higher porosity of the capsule membrane; if so the phenomenon is reversible, as the membrane overall recovers its physical and mechanical properties after sonication.

  14. Emerging Issues and Future Developments in Capsule Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Slawinski, Piotr R; Obstein, Keith L; Valdastri, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) has transformed from a research venture into a widely used clinical tool and the primary means for diagnosing small bowel pathology. These orally administered capsules traverse passively through the gastrointestinal tract via peristalsis and are used in the esophagus, stomach, small bowel, and colon. The primary focus of CE research in recent years has been enabling active CE manipulation and extension of the technology to therapeutic functionality; thus, widening the scope of the procedure. This review outlines clinical standards of the technology as well as recent advances in CE research. Clinical capsule applications are discussed with respect to each portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Promising research efforts are presented with an emphasis on enabling active capsule locomotion. The presented studies suggest, in particular, that the most viable solution for active capsule manipulation is actuation of a capsule via exterior permanent magnet held by a robot. Developing capsule procedures adhering to current healthcare standards, such as enabling a tool channel or irrigation in a therapeutic device, is a vital phase in the adaptation of CE in the clinical setting.

  15. Albumin/asparaginase capsules prepared by ultrasound to retain ammonia.

    PubMed

    Tinoco, Ana; Ribeiro, Artur; Oliveira, César; Parpot, Pier; Gomes, Andreia; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2016-11-01

    Asparaginase reduces the levels of asparagine in blood, which is an essential amino acid for the proliferation of lymphoblastic malign cells. Asparaginase converts asparagine into aspartic acid and ammonia. The accumulation of ammonia in the bloodstream leads to hyperammonemia, described as one of the most significant side effects of asparaginase therapy. Therefore, there is a need for asparaginase formulations with the potential to reduce hyperammonemia. We incorporated 2 % of therapeutic enzyme in albumin-based capsules. The presence of asparaginase in the interface of bovine serum albumin (BSA) capsules showed the ability to hydrolyze the asparagine and retain the forming ammonia at the surface of the capsules. The incorporation of Poloxamer 407 in the capsule formulation further increased the ratio aspartic acid/ammonia from 1.92 to 2.46 (and 1.10 from the free enzyme), decreasing the levels of free ammonia. This capacity to retain ammonia can be due to electrostatic interactions and retention of ammonia at the surface of the capsules. The developed BSA/asparaginase capsules did not cause significant cytotoxic effect on mouse leukemic macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. The new BSA/asparaginase capsules could potentially be used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia preventing hyperammonemia associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment with asparaginase.

  16. Patency© and agile© capsules

    PubMed Central

    Caunedo-Álvarez, Ángel; Romero-Vazquez, Javier; Herrerias-Gutierrez, Juan M

    2008-01-01

    Small bowel strictures can be missed by current diagnostic methods. The Patency capsule is a new non-endoscopic dissolvable capsule which has as an objective of checking the patency of digestive tract, in a non-invasive manner. The available clinical trials have demonstrated that the Patency© capsule is a good tool for assessment of the functional patency of the small bowel, and it allows identification of those patients who can safely undergo a capsule endoscopy, despite clinical and radiographic evidence of small-bowel obstruction. Some cases of intestinal occlusion have been reported with the Patency© capsule, four of them needed surgery. So, a new capsule with two timer plugs (Agile© capsule) has been recently developed in order to minimize the risk of occlusion. This new device stars its dissolution process earlier (30 h after ingestion) and its two timer plugs have been designed to begin the disintegration even when the device is blocked in a tight stricture. PMID:18785278

  17. Magnetic robotic manoeuvring of gastrointestinal video capsules: preliminary phantom tests.

    PubMed

    Carpi, Federico; Pappone, Carlo

    2008-10-01

    Ingestible video capsules enable today non-invasive and comfortable gastrointestinal explorations. As such, capsule endoscopy is progressively emerging as an attractively simple wireless technology for optical investigations of the digestive tube and, in particular, as a useful complementary diagnostic tool with respect to traditional probe endoscopy. In spite of this, capsule endoscopes still show at present a major technical lack, capable of seriously limiting their clinical efficacy: their motion cannot be controlled by an external operator. In fact, the lack of a navigation control system makes their movements and orientations totally random, being exclusively driven by visceral peristalsis and gravity. In order to provide motion control properties, a technique based on the application of external magnetic fields, capable of manoeuvring a capsule previously equipped with a magnetic component, was recently proposed. This paper presents preliminary results of the first experimental implementation of this concept with a magnetic robotic system recently introduced in the clinical practice, although for different applications in the field of cardiology. The potentialities offered by this robotic system for magnetic controls of gastrointestinal capsules were preliminarily assessed in this work with manoeuvring tests of a video capsule inside a plastic replica of a human bust. Results showed the possibility of magnetically guiding the navigation of an endoscopic capsule within the considered experimental set-up, by advantageously using the reliable robotic navigation system already employed for clinical applications. Such an outcome encourages further investigations within more challenging experimental conditions.

  18. Process for overcoming drug retention in hard gelatin inhalation capsules.

    PubMed

    Saim, Said; Horhota, Stephen T

    2002-07-01

    The quantity and consistency of drug delivery from dry powder inhalation devices that incorporate a pre-measured dose in a hard shell capsule of gelatin or other compatible material can be negatively affected by mold release lubricants used in capsule manufacturing. This paper describes a novel process employing supercritical CO2 for selective extraction of the fraction of lubricant responsible for the observed high and inconsistent drug retention in capsules and the ensuing lack of reproducibility of drug delivery. The process allows for lubricant removal from seemingly inaccessible interior surfaces of assembled capsule shells without altering the structural or chemical properties of the capsules. Diffusion limitations are overcome through repeated pressure increase and decrease to generate significant convective flow of dissolved lubricant out of the capsule. Drug retention is alleviated only if nearly all the retentive fraction of the lubricant is removed. The effect of extraction with supercritical CO2 on the structure of the internal surfaces of the capsules is investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Key performance parameters such as drug and carrier retention and fine particle mass are investigated using simulated inhalation tests. Laboratory and pilot scale extractions yielded similar results.

  19. Posterior retroperitoneoscopic approach to the adrenal arteries.

    PubMed

    Lotti, Marco; Giulii Capponi, Michela

    2016-12-01

    Differently from transperitoneal adrenalectomy, with the posterior retroperitoneoscopic approach adrenal arteries are dissected first [1, 2]. Knowledge of their position is pivotal as they are covered by peri-adrenal fat [3, 4]. Four posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomies were selected, in which adrenal arteries are dissected to show their path and how they can be localized among peri-adrenal fat. A video is presented herein, which focuses on surgical anatomy of adrenal arteries when approached during a posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy. Details about relative positions between adrenal arteries and adjacent structures are considered and shown during their dissection. The posterior retroperitoneoscopic approach offers a direct view of adrenal arteries and allows for their exposure and safe division in the early steps of adrenalectomy.

  20. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Adib F, Curtis C, Bienkowski P Micheli LJ. Posterior cruciate ligament sprain. In: Frontera WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD Jr, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, ...

  1. Posterior Hip Pain in an Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Rachel M.; Slabaugh, Mark A.; Grumet, Robert C.; Virkus, Walter W.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Posterior hip pain is a relatively uncommon but increasingly recognized complaint in the orthopaedic community. Patient complaints and presentations are often vague or nonspecific, making diagnosis and subsequent treatment decisions difficult. The purposes of this article are to review the anatomy and pathophysiology related to posterior hip pain in the athletic patient population. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature via a MEDLINE search of all relevant articles between 1980 and 2010. Results: Many patients who complain of posterior hip pain actually have pain referred from another part of the body—notably, the lumbar spine or sacroiliac joint. Treatment options for posterior hip pain are typically nonoperative; however, surgery is warranted in some cases. Conclusions: Recent advancements in the understanding of hip anatomy, pathophysiology, and treatment options have enabled physicians to better diagnosis athletic hip injuries and select patients for appropriate treatment. PMID:23015944

  2. Solid State Stability of Extemporaneously Prepared Levothyroxine Aliquots and Capsules.

    PubMed

    Fortner, Jeff; Salton, Jason; Carlson, Christie; Wheeler, Rich; Cote, Brianna; Rao, Deepa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to collect, analyze, and compare stability data for levothyroxine (T4) powder in the anhydrous and pentahydrate form when prepared as an aliquot and in capsules. Two different compounding pharmacies, Central Iowa Compounding and Gateway Medical Pharmacy, used different forms of T4 and aliquot formulations, which were studied to determine the beyond-use date at ±5% or ±10% of labeled strength. T4 was extracted from aliquot and capsule formulations and assessed using reverse-phase high- performance liquid chromatography validated to differentiate between the degraded and original forms of T4. The results indicate that T4 1:100 aliquot formulation prepared with silica gel or Avicel as filler are stable for 120 days at ±10% labeled potency, but at ±5% labeled potency, the silica gel and Avicel aliquot formulations are stable for 45 and 30 days, respectively. The silica gel capsules prepared from fresh aliquot were stable for 120 days at ±10% labeled potency and 90 days at ±5% labeled potency, while the Avicel capsules prepared from fresh aliquot were stable for 180 days at both ±10% and ±5% labeled potency. Avicel capsules prepared from old aliquot (120 days) and fresh aliquot (1 day) were also compared for stability. The old aliquot Avicel capsules were stable for 14 days at ±5% labeled potency and 150 days at ±10% labeled potency, while new aliquot Avicel capsules were stable for 180 days at both ±10% and ±5% labeled potency. Based on our data, there can be significant variation in the beyond-use dates assigned to T4 capsules based on the diluents used for aliquots, the final capsule formulations, and the potency standards applied. These results also indicate that pharmacists must exercise caution when using older aliquots and may have to assign shorter beyond-use dates.

  3. [Posterior cortical atrophy (Benson-syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Rózsa, Anikó; Szilvássy, Ildikó; Kovács, Krisztina; Boór, Krisztina; Gács, Gyula

    2010-01-30

    We present the characteristics of posterior cortical atrophy--a very rare cortical dementia--in a 69 year old woman's case. Our patient's symptoms began with a visual problem which was initially explained by ophthalmological disorder. After neurological exam visual agnosia was diagnosed apart from other cognitive disorder (alexia without agraphia, acalculia, prosopagnosia, constructional disorder, clock-time recognition disorder, dressing apraxia, visuospatial disorientation). The brain MRI showed bilateral asymmetric parieto-occipital atrophy which is characteristic of posterior cortical atrophy.

  4. Gibbs Sampling for Marginal Posterior Expectations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-19

    Achcar and Smith (1989) shows that performance of the Laplace method is often very sensitive to parametrization. Morris (1988) offers expansions based on...Berkeley Symp. 1, 453-468. Lindley, D.V. (1980). "Approximate Bayesian Methods" in Bayesian Statistics, J.M. Bernardo, M.H. DeGroot , D.V. Lindley...A.F.M. Smith, University Press, Valencia, Spain. Morris , C. "Approximating Posterior Distributions and Posterior Moments" In: Bayesian Statistics 3, J.M

  5. Posterior Wnts Have Distinct Roles in Specification and Patterning of the Planarian Posterior Region.

    PubMed

    Sureda-Gómez, Miquel; Pascual-Carreras, Eudald; Adell, Teresa

    2015-11-05

    The wnt signaling pathway is an intercellular communication mechanism essential in cell-fate specification, tissue patterning and regional-identity specification. A βcatenin-dependent signal specifies the AP (Anteroposterior) axis of planarians, both during regeneration of new tissues and during normal homeostasis. Accordingly, four wnts (posterior wnts) are expressed in a nested manner in central and posterior regions of planarians. We have analyzed the specific role of each posterior wnt and the possible cooperation between them in specifying and patterning planarian central and posterior regions. We show that each posterior wnt exerts a distinct role during re-specification and maintenance of the central and posterior planarian regions, and that the integration of the different wnt signals (βcatenin dependent and independent) underlies the patterning of the AP axis from the central region to the tip of the tail. Based on these findings and data from the literature, we propose a model for patterning the planarian AP axis.

  6. Vertigo due to posterior circulation stroke.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Soo; Lee, Hyung

    2013-07-01

    Stroke in the distribution of the posterior circulation may present as acute onset spontaneous vertigo and imbalance. Although vertigo due to posterior circulation stroke is usually associated with other neurologic symptoms or signs, small infarcts in the cerebellum or brainstem can present with vertigo without other localizing symptoms. Approximately 17% of patients with isolated posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory infarction presented with isolated vertigo, nystagmus, and postural unsteadiness. A head impulse test can differentiate acute isolated vertigo associated with cerebellar stroke from more benign disorders involving the inner ear. Sometimes acute isolated audiovestibular loss can be the initial symptom of impending posterior circulation ischemic stroke (particularly within the territory of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery). In this case, evaluation of isolated audiovestibular loss may prevent the progression of acute vertigo and hearing loss into more widespread areas of infarction in the posterior circulation. In this article, the clinical syndromes and signs of acute vestibular syndrome due to posterior circulation stroke involving the brainstem and cerebellum are summarized.

  7. Localization of orofacial representation in the corona radiata, internal capsule and cerebral peduncle in Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Morecraft, R J; Binneboese, A; Stilwell-Morecraft, K S; Ge, J

    2017-11-01

    Subcortical white matter injury is often accompanied by orofacial motor dysfunction, but little is known about the structural substrates accounting for these common neurological deficits. We studied the trajectory of the corticobulbar projection from the orofacial region of the primary (M1), ventrolateral (LPMCv), supplementary (M2), rostral cingulate (M3) and caudal cingulate (M4) motor regions through the corona radiata (CR), internal capsule (IC) and crus cerebri of the cerebral peduncle (ccCP). In the CR each pathway was segregated. Medial motor area fibers (M2/M3/M4) arched over the caudate and lateral motor area fibers (M1/LPMCv) curved over the putamen. At superior IC levels, the pathways were widespread, involving the anterior limb, genu and posterior limb with the M3 projection located anteriorly, followed posteriorly by projections from M2, LPMCv, M4 and M1, respectively. Inferiorly, all pathways maintained this orientation but shifted posteriorly, with adjacent fiber bundles overlapping minimally. In the ccCP, M3 fibers were located medially and M1 fibers centromedially, with M2, LPMCv, and M4 pathways overlapping in between. Finally, at inferior ccCP levels, all pathways overlapped. Following CR and superior IC lesions, the dispersed pathway distribution may correlate with acute orofacial dysfunction with spared pathways contributing to orofacial motor recovery. In contrast, the gradually commixed nature of pathway representation inferiorly may enhance fiber vulnerability and correlate with severe, prolonged deficits following lower subcortical and midbrain injury. Additionally, in humans these findings may assist in interpreting orofacial movements evoked during deep brain stimulation, and neuroimaging tractography efforts to localize descending orofacial motor pathways. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. OdoCapsule: next-generation wireless capsule endoscopy with accurate lesion localization and video stabilization capabilities.

    PubMed

    Karargyris, Alexandros; Koulaouzidis, Anastastios

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a platform to achieve accurate localization of small-bowel lesions and endoscopic video stabilization in wireless capsule endoscopy. Current research modules rely on the use of external magnetic fields and triangulation methods to calculate the position vector of the capsule, leading to considerable error margins. Our platform, entitled OdoCapsule (a synthesis of the words Odometer and Capsule), provides real-time distance information from the point of duodenal entry to the point of exit from the small bowel. To achieve this, OdoCapsule is equipped with three miniature legs. Each leg carries a soft rubber wheel, which is made with human-compliant material. These legs are extendable and retractable thanks to a micromotor and three custom-made torsion springs. The wheels are specifically designed to function as microodometers: each rotation they perform is registered. Hence, the covered distance is measured accurately in real time. Furthermore, with its legs fully extended, OdoCapsule can stabilize itself inside the small-bowel lumen thus offering smoother video capture and better image processing. Recent ex vivo testing of this concept, using porcine small bowel and a commercially available (custom-modified) capsule endoscope, has proved its viability.

  9. Posterior urethral polyp with type I posterior urethral valves: a rare association in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Kesan, Krushnakumar V; Gupta, Rahul Kumar; Kothari, Paras; Gupta, Abhaya; Mudkhedkar, Kedar; Kamble, Ravikiran; Dikshit, K Vishesh

    2014-06-01

    Urethral polyp is a rare cause of bladder outlet obstruction, voiding dysfunction, and hematuria in the pediatric age group. Urethral polyps are rarely associated with other congenital urinary tract anomalies. In this study, we report a case of solitary posterior urethral polyp with type I posterior urethral valve in a 7-day-old neonate presented with urinary retention and deranged renal function. The polyp was diagnosed on cystoscopy. Transurethral resection of the polyp with posterior urethral valve fulguration was performed. Pathologic assessment revealed a fibroepithelial lesion, which was consistent with congenital posterior urethral polyp.

  10. Design and synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid capsules for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiafu; Jiang, Yanjun; Wang, Xiaoli; Wu, Hong; Yang, Dong; Pan, Fusheng; Su, Yanlei; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2014-08-07

    Organic-inorganic hybrid capsules, which typically possess a hollow lumen and a hybrid wall, have emerged as a novel and promising class of hybrid materials and have attracted enormous attention. In comparison to polymeric capsules or inorganic capsules, the hybrid capsules combine the intrinsic physical/chemical properties of the organic and inorganic moieties, acquire more degrees of freedom to manipulate multiple interactions, create hierarchical structures and integrate multiple functionalities. Thus, the hybrid capsules exhibit superior mechanical strength (vs. polymeric capsules) and diverse functionalities (vs. inorganic capsules), which may give new opportunities to produce high-performance materials. Much effort has been devoted to exploring innovative and effective methods for the synthesis of hybrid capsules that exhibit desirable performance in target applications. This tutorial review firstly presents a brief description of the capsular structure and hybrid materials in nature, then classifies the hybrid capsules into molecule-hybrid capsules and nano-hybrid capsules based upon the size of the organic and inorganic moieties in the capsule wall, followed by a detailed discussion of the design and synthesis of the hybrid capsules. For each kind of hybrid capsule, the state-of-the-art synthesis methods are described in detail and a critical comment is embedded. The applications of these hybrid capsules in biotechnological areas (biocatalysis, drug delivery, etc.) have also been summarized. Hopefully, this review will offer a perspective and guidelines for the future research and development of hybrid capsules.

  11. Arthroscopic classification of posterior labrum glenoid insertion.

    PubMed

    Nourissat, G; Radier, C; Aim, F; Lacoste, S

    2014-04-01

    We performed a prospective arthroscopic study to explore the variability of the posterior labrum glenoid insertion. We aimed to classify the insertions and to explore whether these insertions can be identified by pre-operative arthro-CT scan. From January to December 2011, 86 patients were prospectively included in the current study. During arthroscopy, anterior labrum was evaluated and posterior labrum was assessed in 3 different locations: superior, medial, and inferior. For each segment, the labrum was considered normally inserted (directly to the glenoid cartilage), medialized (inserted at the posterior part of the glenoid bone, without direct contact with the cartilage), torn (macroscopic degenerative changes, tears, fragments) or absent (agenesis). Imaging was analyzed segment by segment by an experienced osteoarticular radiologist, using the same classification. Four types of posterior labrum insertions were identified. Type 1, 60% of the cases, corresponded to a posterior labrum totally inserted in the glenoid, with direct contact with the cartilage. Type 2, 20% of the cases, represented medialized insertion of the superior segment. Type 3, 15% of the cases, represented an associated medialization of the superior and medial segment of the posterior labrum. Type 4 is a medialized insertion of the all-posterior labrum. Fifty-six shoulders were used for arthro-CT and arthroscopy correlation: for the superior segment (n=22/56), the sensitivity of arthro-CT to identify an abnormal insertion when the labrum is medialized was 68.18%, specificity 70.59%, positive predictive value (PPV) 60%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 77.42%. For the medial segment (n=16/56), the sensitivity of arthro-CT to identify an abnormal insertion when the labrum is medialized was 81.25%, specificity 57.50%, PPV 43.33% and NPV 88.46%. For the inferior segment (n=5/56), the sensitivity was 100%, specificity 47.60%, PPV 15.63% and NPV 100%. The current study points out the high

  12. Medial capsule reefing in patellar instability.

    PubMed

    Cerciello, Simone; Vasso, Michele; Corona, Katia; Del Regno, Chiara; Panni, Alfredo Schiavone

    2014-10-01

    The efficacy of medial capsule reefing in the treatment of patellar instability is well documented. Aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the outcomes of an all-arthroscopic medial capsule reefing technique in young patients with painful patella syndrome and potential patellar instability. Thirty patients with painful patellar syndrome and potential patellar instability having undergone a minimum of 6 months of intensive rehabilitation were enrolled in the present study. All subjects were evaluated with physical examination, clinical and functional outcomes and complete imaging study. All patients were reviewed at an intermediate follow-up of 72 months. Average Kujala score improved from 72.9±15.0 to 88.4±7.6 (p<0.0001), average Larsen score from 15.0±2.5 to 17.2±2.2 (p<0.002), average Lysholm from 63.8±16.7 to 87.9±11.7 (p<0.0001) and average Fulkerson score from 69.5±21.5 to 90.8±9.8 (p<0.0001). No intraoperative or postoperative complications were recorded. Ninety per cent of patients were very satisfied or satisfied with their functional result. Twenty-eight patients were reviewed at the final follow-up, 120 months after surgery. Average Kujala was 87.7±8.8 (p<0.0001), average Larsen was 16.8±2.7 (p<0.01), average Lysholm was 87.6±14.3 (p<0.0001), and average Fulkerson was 87.2±13.9 (p<0.0001). Almost 86% of patients were very satisfied or satisfied with their result. However, slight deterioration of the outcomes over time was observed. At the final follow-up, the outcomes of all-arthroscopic technique were significantly improved from preoperative values; however, they were slightly inferior at the 72 months follow-up. This slight deterioration of the outcomes may be the consequence of the reduction in physical activities. Case series, Level IV.

  13. Liberty Bell 7 Space Capsule Exhibit previews at Visitor Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Children on a tour at the KSC Visitor Complex get an early look at the Discovery Channel's Liberty Bell 7 Space Capsule Exhibit, which opens to the public on Saturday, June 17. They are on a re- creation of the deck of Ocean Project, the ship that located and recovered the space capsule from the floor of the Atlantic Ocean. Liberty Bell 7 launched U.S. Air Force Captain Virgil '''Gus''' Grissom July 21, 1961, on a mission that lasted 15 minutes and 37 seconds before sinking. It lay undetected for nearly four decades before a Discovery Channel expedition located it and recovered it. The space capsule, now restored and preserved, is part of an interactive exhibit touring science centers and museums in 12 cities throughout the United States until 2003. The exhibit also includes hands-on elements such as a capsule simulator, a centrifuge, and ROV pilot.

  14. Feasibility of High Yield / High Gain NIF Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, L.; Rothenberg, J.; Munro, D.; Van Wonterghem, B.; Haan, S.; Lindl, J.

    1999-12-06

    Our original ignition ''point designs'' (circa 1992) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) were made energetically conservative to provide margin for uncertainties in laser absorption, x-ray conversion efficiency and hohlraum-capsule coupling. Since that time, extensive experiments on Nova and Omega and their related analysis indicate that NIF coupling efficiency may be almost ''as good as we could hope for''. Given close agreement between experiment and theory/modeling, we can credibly explore target enhancements which couple more of NIF's energy to an ignition capsule. We find that 3-4X increases in absorbed capsule energy appear possible, providing a potentially more robust target and {approx}10X increase in capsule yield.

  15. The longest duration of retention of a video capsule.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Chris; Rodgers, Colin

    2014-07-08

    An underweight 15-year-old boy had a video capsule endoscopy (VCE) to investigate iron deficient anaemia associated with elevated platelet and white cell counts. The suspicion was of subclinical small bowel Crohn's disease after the findings of a radiolabelled white cell scan. The VCE in May 2007 found patchy inflammation and superficial ulcers in the terminal ileum consistent with Crohn's disease. By March 2008, the patient remained asymptomatic but the capsule had not passed. He was treated with steroids to improve the inflammation and allow the capsule to pass. This was unsuccessful. Abdominal X-rays appeared to show that it was in the rectum. CT of the abdomen and pelvis in July 2012 showed that it was actually in the mid-distal ileum within a mass of inflamed and matted small bowel loops. He was last reviewed in March 2014. He has now retained the capsule asymptomatically for 6 years and 10 months.

  16. Diamagnetically-stabilized levitation control of an intraluminal magnetic capsule.

    PubMed

    Lam, Michael; Mintchev, Martin P

    2008-01-01

    Controlled navigation promotes full utilization of capsule endoscopy for reliable real-time diagnosis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but intermittent natural peristalsis can disturb the navigational control, destabilize the capsule and take it out of levitation. A real-size magnetic navigation system that can handle peristaltic forces of up to 1.5 N was designed utilizing the computer-aided design (CAD) system Maxwell 3D (Ansoft, Pittsburg, PA), and was verified using a small-size physical experimental setup. The proposed system contains a pair of 50-cm in diameter, 10,000-turns copper electromagnets with a 10-cm by 10-cm ferrous core driven by currents of up to 300 Amperes and can successfully maintain position control over the levitating capsule during peristalsis. The addition of Bismuth diamagnetic casing for stabilizing the levitating capsule was also studied.

  17. Sample Return Capsule Parachuting Down To Earth (Artist's Concept)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Artist's rendering of the Stardust capsule returning to Earth. The Stardust spacecraft will bring back samples of interstellar dust, including recently discovered dust streaming into our Solar System from the direction of Sagittarius.

  18. Emerging methods for the fabrication of polymer capsules.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jiwei; van Koeverden, Martin P; Müllner, Markus; Kempe, Kristian; Caruso, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Hollow polymer capsules are attracting increasing research interest due to their potential application as drug delivery vectors, sensors, biomimetic nano- or multi-compartment reactors and catalysts. Thus, significant effort has been directed toward tuning their size, composition, morphology, and functionality to further their application. In this review, we provide an overview of emerging techniques for the fabrication of polymer capsules, encompassing: self-assembly, layer-by-layer assembly, single-step polymer adsorption, bio-inspired assembly, surface polymerization, and ultrasound assembly. These techniques can be applied to prepare polymer capsules with diverse functionality and physicochemical properties, which may fulfill specific requirements in various areas. In addition, we critically evaluate the challenges associated with the application of polymer capsules in drug delivery systems. © 2013.

  19. Perforation forces of the intact porcine anterior lens capsule.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Franziska; Lussi, Jonas; Felekis, Dimitrios; Michels, Stephan; Petruska, Andrew J; Nelson, Bradley J

    2016-09-01

    During the first step of cataract surgery, the lens capsule is perforated and a circular hole is created with a sharp instrument, a procedure called capsulorhexis. To develop automated systems that can assist ophthalmologists during capsulorhexis, the forces required must be quantified. This study investigates perforation forces of the central anterior lens capsule in porcine eyes, which are used as a conservative model for the human eye. A micro-mechanical characterisation method is presented that measures capsular bag perforation forces with a high precision positioning and high-resolution force sensing system. The force during perforation of the anterior lens capsule was measured with various sized needles and indentation speeds and is found to be 15-35mN. A bio-mechanical model is identified that describes an exponential correlation between indentation force and depth, indicating strain hardening behaviour of the porcine anterior lens capsule.

  20. 24. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ENTRANCE TO ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. SHOCK ISOLATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ENTRANCE TO ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. SHOCK ISOLATOR AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO