Bijlenga, Philippe; Ebeling, Christian; Jaegersberg, Max; Summers, Paul; Rogers, Alister; Waterworth, Alan; Iavindrasana, Jimison; Macho, Juan; Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Bukovics, Peter; Vivas, Elio; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M; Wright, Jessica; Friedrich, Christoph M; Frangi, Alejandro; Byrne, James; Schaller, Karl; Rufenacht, Daniel
According to the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms (ISUIA), anterior circulation (AC) aneurysms of <7 mm in diameter have a minimal risk of rupture. It is general experience, however, that anterior communicating artery (AcoA) aneurysms are frequent and mostly rupture at <7 mm. The aim of the study was to assess whether AcoA aneurysms behave differently from other AC aneurysms. Information about 932 patients newly diagnosed with intracranial aneurysms between November 1, 2006, and March 31, 2012, including aneurysm status at diagnosis, its location, size, and risk factors, was collected during the multicenter @neurIST project. For each location or location and size subgroup, the odds ratio (OR) of aneurysms being ruptured at diagnosis was calculated. The OR for aneurysms to be discovered ruptured was significantly higher for AcoA (OR, 3.5 [95% confidence interval, 2.6-4.5]) and posterior circulation (OR, 2.6 [95% confidence interval, 2.1-3.3]) than for AC excluding AcoA (OR, 0.5 [95% confidence interval, 0.4-0.6]). Although a threshold of 7 mm has been suggested by ISUIA as a threshold for aggressive treatment, AcoA aneurysms <7 mm were more frequently found ruptured (OR, 2.0 [95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.0]) than AC aneurysms of 7 to 12 mm diameter as defined in ISUIA. We found that AC aneurysms are not a homogenous group. Aneurysms between 4 and 7 mm located in AcoA or distal anterior cerebral artery present similar rupture odds to posterior circulation aneurysms. Intervention should be recommended for this high-risk lesion group.
Eftekhar, Behzad; Morgan, Michael Kerin
We retrospectively investigated preoperative variables contributing to adverse surgical outcome for repair of unruptured posterior circulation aneurysms on data collected prospectively between October 1989 and March 2010. Putative risk factors including age, sex, smoking status, positive family history, modified Rankin Score prior to the surgery, size of the aneurysm, specific site (basilar caput and trunk, vertebral artery and posterior inferior cerebellar artery), midline location, presence of calcium, thrombus or irregularity in the aneurysm on preoperative imaging, associated arteriovenous malformation and preoperative coiling were investigated using regression analyses. In a total of 121 operations, surgical mortality and morbidity was 16.3%. For patients with aneurysms less than 9mm this rate was 3.2%. Among the investigated variables we found that size, calcification of the aneurysm and age were each predictors of surgical outcome of unruptured posterior circulation aneurysms.
deSouza, Ruth-Mary; Shah, Munirih; Koumellis, Panayiotis; Foroughi, Mansoor
To identify the clinical features, rebleed risk, timing and method of diagnosis, complications and outcome for subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) from traumatic intracranial aneurysm (TICA) of the posterior circulation. Subjects included 26 patients aged 3-54 (mean 24.8). Case series and literature search to identify all reported cases. In our series, two of three cases were fatal as a result of rebleed, and one case had a good outcome with no deficit, following prompt diagnosis and embolisation. Our key findings from the literature review were: 30.7 % of patients were age 16 and under; 88 % had an acute drop in consciousness, 46 % in a delayed manner; the mean time to diagnosis was 7.5 days; initial cerebrovascular imaging was normal in 23 %; the rebleed rate was 23 %; 61 % required emergency diversion of cerebrospinal fluid; 11 % developed vasospasm requiring treatment; 19.2 % had deficits that rendered them unable to live independently. The mortality rate was 27 %. SAH from ruptured posterior circulation TICA is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A high index of suspicion as well as prompt diagnosis, repeat imaging in selected cases, and treatment of any associated TICA can be crucial to a favourable outcome.
Approximately 20-25% of all acute strokes occur in the posterior circulation. These strokes can be rather difficult to diagnose because they present in such diverse ways, and can easily be mistaken for more benign entities. A fastidious history, physical exam, high clinical suspicion, and appropriate use of imaging are essential for the emergency physician to properly diagnose and treat these patients. Expert stroke neurologist consultation should be utilized liberally.
Tang, Chao; Sun, Jun; Xue, Hongli; Yu, Yong; Xu, Feng
Supraorbital keyhole approach provides access to the major part of the anterior circulation aneurysms. Herein, our surgical experience of supraorbital keyhole approach and its some modification have been proposed. Out of a series of 76 patients harboring 80 aneurysms operated on via a supraorbital keyhole approach with a superciliar or front wrinkle skin incision, there are 70 patients with subarachnoidal bleeding, others are nonruptured aneurysms, Intraoperative rupture occurred in 8 cases, and 4 had multiple aneurysms. There was a good cosmetic results with less approach-related complications .Of 80 aneurysms, 75 aneurysms were clipped successfully by the supraorbital route. Good Glasgow Outcome Scale scores of 4 or 5 were achieved in 95% of the patients at the time of discharge. 2 patients of Grade IV died in the postoperative period due vasospasm. The supraorbital route is recommended for selected anterior circulation aneurysms based on the improved surgical instruments and microsurgical skills.
Park, Jeong Woo; Choi, Kyu Sun; Park, Dong Woo; Ryu, Je Il; Kim, Jae Min; Kim, Choong Hyun
Endovascular coil embolization using a balloon- or stent-assisted technique for the treatment of wide-necked posterior communicating artery (PcomA) aneurysms is well established. However, complete aneurysm occlusion with preservation of the PcomA can be difficult in case of wide-neck aneurysms with a PcomA incorporation. We present two cases of stent-assisted coil embolization using a retrograde approach through the posterior circulation for wide-neck or branch-incorporated PcomA aneurysms. Retrograde stenting was successful without periprocedural complications. These aneurysms were completely occluded. The patency of the PcomA was maintained in all cases. PMID:27790404
Ayad, Micheal; Whisenhunt, Anumeha; Hong, EnYaw; Heller, Josh; Salvatore, Dawn; Abai, Babak; DiMuzio, Paul J
Tarsal tunnel syndrome is a compressive neuropathy of the posterior tibial nerve within the tarsal tunnel. Its etiology varies, including space occupying lesions, trauma, inflammation, anatomic deformity, iatrogenic injury, and idiopathic and systemic causes. Herein, we describe a 46-year-old man who presented with left foot pain. Work up revealed a venous aneurysm impinging on the posterior tibial nerve. Following resection of the aneurysm and lysis of the nerve, his symptoms were alleviated. Review of the literature reveals an association between venous disease and tarsal tunnel syndrome; however, this report represents the first case of venous aneurysm causing symptomatic compression of the nerve.
O'Shaughnessy, Brian A; Getch, Christopher C; Bendok, Bernard R; Batjer, H Hunt
Intracranial aneurysms arising from the posterior wall of the supraclinoid carotid artery are extremely common lesions. The aneurysm dilation typically occurs in immediate proximity to the origin of the posterior communicating artery and, less commonly, the anterior choroidal artery (AChA). Because of the increasingly widespread use of noninvasive neuroimaging methods to evaluate patients believed to harbor cerebral lesions, many of these carotid artery aneurysms are now documented in their unruptured state, prior to occurrence of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Based on these factors, the management of unruptured posterior carotid artery (PCA) wall aneurysms is an important element of any neurosurgical practice. Despite impressive recent advances in endovascular therapy, the placement of microsurgical clips to exclude aneurysms with preservation of all afferent and efferent vasculature remains the most efficacious and durable therapy. To date, an optimal outcome is only achieved when the neurosurgeon is able to combine systematic preoperative neurovascular assessment with meticulous operative technique. In this report, the authors review their surgical approach to PCA wall aneurysms, which is greatly based on the extensive neurovascular experience of the senior author. Focus is placed on their methods of preoperative evaluation and operative technique, with emphasis on neurovascular anatomy and the significance of oculomotor nerve compression. They conclude by discussing surgery-related complications, with a particular focus on intraoperative rupture of aneurysms and their management, and the postoperative ischemic AChA syndrome.
Matsushita, Yoko; Kawabata, Shinji; Kamo, Masatsugu; Yamada, Makoto; Matsukawa, Masanori; Taniguchi, Hirokatsu; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko
We report a rare case of a ruptured aneurysm at the cortical segment of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) with a branching complex that was feeding the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres. A 70-year-old woman suddenly sustained a severe headache and vomiting. CT scan revealed diffuse subarachnoid haemorrhage with fourth and lateral ventricular haemorrhage, which suggested typical aneurysmal bleeding in the posterior circulation. No aneurysm was detected on the initial angiogram. This angiogram also showed no significant evidence of other lesions that could be the origin of the bleeding. A third angiogram was performed 15 days from the ictus and revealed a distal PICA saccular aneurysm. The aneurysm was located at the cortical segment, and the artery was branching to both of the cerebellar hemispheres. This could be more clearly visualised during the ensuing operation, and neck clipping was performed. The patient recovered without neurological deterioration. Subarachnoid haemorrhage with blood in the fourth ventricle may indicate a ruptured aneurysm on the distal segment of the PICA with a branching variation, feeding the contra-lateral hemisphere, which is rarely located in this position.
Kim, Ji Soo; Lee, Hyung
Stroke in the distribution of the posterior circulation may present as acute onset spontaneous vertigo and imbalance. Although vertigo due to posterior circulation stroke is usually associated with other neurologic symptoms or signs, small infarcts in the cerebellum or brainstem can present with vertigo without other localizing symptoms. Approximately 17% of patients with isolated posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory infarction presented with isolated vertigo, nystagmus, and postural unsteadiness. A head impulse test can differentiate acute isolated vertigo associated with cerebellar stroke from more benign disorders involving the inner ear. Sometimes acute isolated audiovestibular loss can be the initial symptom of impending posterior circulation ischemic stroke (particularly within the territory of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery). In this case, evaluation of isolated audiovestibular loss may prevent the progression of acute vertigo and hearing loss into more widespread areas of infarction in the posterior circulation. In this article, the clinical syndromes and signs of acute vestibular syndrome due to posterior circulation stroke involving the brainstem and cerebellum are summarized.
Wallace, Adam N; Kayan, Yasha; Austin, Matthew J; Delgado Almandoz, Josser E; Kamran, Mudassar; Cross, DeWitte T; Moran, Christopher J; Osbun, Joshua W; Kansagra, Akash P
Flow diversion may have advantages in the treatment of posterior communicating artery (PComA) aneurysms associated with a fetal origin posterior cerebral artery (PCA), which can be challenging to treat with conventional techniques. However, a PComA incorporated into the aneurysm may prevent or delay aneurysm occlusion. Also, coverage of a fetal origin PCA risks infarction of a large vascular territory. The purpose of this study was to examine the safety and effectiveness of using the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) to treat PComA aneurysms associated with a fetal origin PCA. Retrospective review of PComA aneurysms associated with a fetal origin PCA treated with the PED at two neurovascular centers was performed. Periprocedural complications and clinical and angiographic outcomes were reviewed. Seven female patients underwent a total of seven PED procedures to treat seven PcomA aneurysms associated with a fetal origin PCA. The symptomatic complication rate was 14% (1/7) per patient and 13% (1/8) per procedure. Angiographic follow up was obtained for 6 of 7 aneurysms. Follow-up DSA at 5-7 months after treatment demonstrated complete occlusion of 17% (1/6) of aneurysms. One aneurysm was retreated with a second PED and occlusion was demonstrated 36 months after the second treatment, yielding an overall complete occlusion rate of 33% (2/6). PED treatment was largely ineffective at treating PComA aneurysms associated with a fetal origin PCA, and should only be considered when conventional treatment options, including microsurgical clipping, are not feasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Welch, Babu G
The case is a 55-year-old female who presented with dizziness as the chief complaint. She has a family history of two relatives with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Digital subtraction angiography revealed the presence of a left-sided posterior communicating artery aneurysm and an ipsilateral superior cerebellar artery (SCA) aneurysm. Due to the smaller nature of the SCA, a decision was made to proceed with surgical clipping of both lesions through a pterional approach. A narrated video with illustrations depicts the intraoperative management of these lesions with postoperative angiography results. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/HCHToSsXv-4 .
Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Seno, Soichiro; Takeuchi, Satoru; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro
True posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm is an aneurysm that originates from the PCoA, and large or giant true PCoA aneurysms are rare. We report a case of a large true PCoA aneurysm successfully clipped after anterior clinoidectomy and discuss the diagnostic pitfalls associated with this rare clinical entity.
Fung, Arthur Man Yuen; Tsang, Frederick Chun Pong; Leung, Gilberto Ka Kit; Lee, Raymand; Lui, Wai Man
Purpose The pipeline embolization device (PED) is a flow diverter that has shown promise in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Close to one-fifth of aneurysms, however, fail to occlude after PED placement. This study aims to identify anatomical features and clinicopathologic factors that may predispose failed aneurysm occlusion with the PED. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed all anterior circulation unruptured saccular aneurysms treated with the PED in a single-center. The primary outcome measure was angiographic occlusion. Anatomical features and potential predictors, including gender, aneurysm location, size, height, aspect ratio, neck width, prior treatment and the number of PED, were studied using binary logistic regression. Results 29 anterior circulation unruptured saccular aneurysms with a mean size of 6.99 mm treated with the PED in a single center were retrospectively studied. The overall occlusion rate was 79.3% after a mean follow-up of 9.2 months. Four aneurysms were related to the fetal-type posterior communicating artery (PComA), and all were refractory to flow diverter treatment. Female gender was significantly associated with a higher occlusion rate. We present the anatomical features and propose possible pathophysiological mechanisms of these PComA aneurysms that failed flow diverter treatment. Conclusion A PComA aneurysm with persistent fetal-type circulation appears to be particularly refractory to flow diverter treatment, especially when the aneurysm incorporates a significant portion of the PComA. Our experience suggested that flow diverting stents alone may not be the ideal treatment for this subgroup of aneurysms, and alternative modalities should be considered. Female patients were found to have a significantly higher rate of treatment success. PMID:26389008
Nery, Breno; Araujo, Ricardo; Burjaili, Bruno; Smith, Timothy R.; Rodrigues, Jose Carlos; Silva, Marcelo Nery
Background: The authors provide a review of true aneurysms of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA). Three cases admitted in our hospital are presented and discussed as follows. Case Descriptions: First patient is a 51-year-old female presenting with a Fisher II, Hunt-Hess III (headache and confusion) subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a ruptured true aneurysm of the right PCoA. She underwent a successful ipsilateral pterional craniotomy for aneurysm clipping and was discharged on postoperative day 4 without neurological deficit. Second patient is a 53-year-old female with a Fisher I, Hunt-Hess III (headache, mild hemiparesis) SAH and multiple aneurisms, one from left ophthalmic carotid artery and one (true) from right PCoA. These lesions were approached and successfully treated by a single pterional craniotomy on the left side. The patient was discharged 4 days after surgery, with complete recovery of muscle strength during follow-up. Third patient is a 69-year-old male with a Fisher III, Hunt-Hess III (headache and confusion) SAH, from a true PCoA on the right. He had a left subclavian artery occlusion with flow theft from the right vertebral artery to the left vertebral artery. The patient underwent endovascular treatment with angioplasty and stent placement on the left subclavian artery that resulted in aneurysm occlusion. Conclusion: In conclusion, despite their seldom occurrence, true PCoA aneurysms can be successfully treated with different strategies. PMID:26862441
Johnson, Jeremiah; Patel, Shnehal; Saraf-Lavi, Efrat; Aziz-Sultan, Mohammad Ali; Yavagal, Dileep R
Posterior spinal artery (PSA) aneurysms are a rare cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The commonly abused street drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or 'Ecstasy' has been linked to both systemic and neurological complications. A teenager presented with neck stiffness, headaches and nausea after ingesting 'Ecstasy'. A brain CT was negative for SAH but a CT angiogram suggested cerebral vasculitis. A lumbar puncture showed SAH but a cerebral angiogram was negative. After a spinal MR angiogram identified abnormalities on the dorsal surface of the cervical spinal cord, a spinal angiogram demonstrated a left PSA 2 mm fusiform aneurysm. The patient underwent surgery and the aneurysmal portion of the PSA was excised without postoperative neurological sequelae. 'Ecstasy' can lead to neurovascular inflammation, intracranial hemorrhage, SAH and potentially even de novo aneurysm formation and subsequent rupture. PSA aneurysms may be treated by endovascular proximal vessel occlusion or open surgical excision. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Wakamoto, Hirooki; Orii, Maaya; Miyazaki, Hiromichi; Ishiyama, Naomi
We report here a case of a patient with a dissecting aneurysm of the anterior medullary segment of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) which presented with Wallenberg's syndrome. A 32-year-male presented with an unusual case of Wallenberg's syndrome due to a dissecting aneurysm of the PICA manifesting as a sensation of heaviness in the occipital region and vertigo. The occipital symptoms persisted and vertigo and vomiting developed after 6 days. Numbness developed on the left side of the patient's face, and hyperalgesia on the right side of the body. The diagnosis of Wallenberg's syndrome was based on the above findings. MRI revealed infarction of the lateral aspect of the medulla oblongata and MR angiography revealed dilatation in the proximal portion of the left PICA. Digital subtraction angiography revealed that the left vertebral artery was essentially normal, but there was a spindle-shaped dilatation in the proximal portion of the left PICA. We carried out conservative therapy at the patient's request and 3D-CTA revealed that the dissecting aneurysm was markedly reduced in size seven months after the onset. Dissecting aneurysms of the intracranial posterior circulation have been shown to be less uncommon than previously thought. However, those involving the PICA without involvement of the vertebral artery at all are extremely rare. The natural history of the dissecting PICA aneurysm was unknown, and the indication for surgical treatment of such aneurysms remains controversial. Management options are conservative treatment, open surgical treatment including wrapping, trapping, and resection with reconstruction, but almost all of the patients underwent radical treatment to prevent rupture of the aneurysm. However we had no knowledge of the risk of rupture of a PICA dissecting aneurysm presenting with ischemic symptoms. We have reviewed the well-documented 15 cases of dissecting aneurysms of the PICA reported in the literature and we discuss the
Golshani, Kiarash; Ferrell, Andrew; Zomorodi, Ali; Smith, Tony P.; Britz, Gavin W.
Background: Technical advancements have significantly improved surgical and endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms. In this paper, we review the literature with regard to treatment of one of the most common intra-cranial aneurysms encountered by neurosurgeons and interventional radiologists. Conclusions: Anterior clinoidectomy, temporary clipping, adenosine-induced cardiac arrest, and intraoperative angiography are useful adjuncts during surgical clipping of these aneurysms. Coil embolization is also an effective treatment alternative particularly in the elderly population. However, coiled posterior communicating artery aneurysms have a particularly high risk of recurrence and must be followed closely. Posterior communicating artery aneurysms with an elongated fundus, true posterior communicating artery aneurysms, and aneurysms associated with a fetal posterior communicating artery may have better outcome with surgical clipping in terms of completeness of occlusion and preservation of the posterior communicating artery. However, as endovascular technology improves, endovascular treatment of posterior communicating artery aneurysms may become equivalent or preferable in the near future. One in five patients with a posterior communicating artery aneurysm present with occulomotor nerve palsy with or without subarachnoid hemorrhage. Factors associated with a higher likelihood of recovery include time to treatment, partial third nerve deficit, and presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Both surgical and endovascular therapy offer a reasonable chance of recovery. Based on level 2 evidence, clipping appears to offer a higher chance of occulomotor nerve palsy recovery; however, coiling will remain as an option particularly in elderly patients or patients with significant comorbidity. PMID:21206898
Chankaew, Ekawut; Sitthinamsuwan, Bunpot; Srirabheebhat, Prajak; Aurboonyawat, Thaweesak; Nunta-aree, Sarun
De novo aneurysm formation is a rare entity of cerebral aneurysms. The authors describe a 19-year-old man presenting with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage of unknown etiology. The initial cerebral angiography revealed no identifiable vascular lesion. A few weeks following a surgical evacuation of the hematoma, a tiny saccular aneurysm was incidentally found on the distal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) remote from the site of the primary ictus. Several rationales indicated that it was compatible with a cerebral aneurysm of infective etiology. The aneurysm was successfully treated by antibiotic therapy alone. To the authors' knowledge, de novo aneurysm on the PCA has rarely been reported.
Gabrieli, Joseph; Sourour, Nader-Antoine; Chauvet, Dorian; Di Maria, Federico; Chiras, Jacques; Clarençon, Frédéric
The posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is a vessel located between the intra- and extracranial circulation. The artery is characterized by a complex embryological development and numerous anatomical variants. The authors present a case of the PICA supplied by both a hypertrophic anterior spinal artery and a hypoplastic bulbar artery. This unusual arrangement somehow completes the list of previously published variants, and the spontaneous rupture of a related aneurysm confirmed the fragility of this network. The authors discuss anatomical and treatment considerations.
Takeshita, Tomonori; Nagamine, Tomoaki; Ishihara, Kohei; Kaku, Yasuhiko
Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysms are rare, and direct surgery of these is considered difficult. Coil embolization of PCA aneurysms is becoming popular. However, it is difficult to completely obliterate the aneurysm while preserving the flow of the parent artery in large or giant PCA aneurysms with a wide neck with this technique. We report a case of a large and wide-necked PCA aneurysm with multiple recurrences following successful surgical clipping and coil embolization. A 77-year-old man with a large unruptured right PCA (P2) aneurysm was successfully treated by surgical clipping. Postoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed complete aneurismal occlusion. Four years afterward, the aneurysm recurred and grew toward the contralateral. Surgical retreatment of this complicated aneurysm was considered difficult, with a substantial risk of complications. Therefore, the aneurysm was treated with an endovascular procedure. Because simple coil embolization was not expected to achieve satisfactory obliteration of the aneurysm with preservation of parent artery patency, we used stent-assisted coil embolization. The patient tolerated the treatment well. On DSA obtained six months after the first endovascular treatment, coil compaction and recanalization of the aneurysm were detected. A second coil embolization was successfully performed without any complications. The aneurysm was stable during the next six-month follow-up. Stent-assisted coil embolization may be feasible and effective for such postoperatively complicated aneurysms.
Park, Heung Sik; Park, Sang Kyu; Han, Young Min
Conventional pterional approach is a commonly used neurosurgical technique for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. However, this technique requires more extensive brain exposure than other key hole approaches and is sometimes associated with surgical traumatization or cosmetic problems. The aim of this study was to compare the postoperative outcome between pterional and supraorbital keyhole approaches in the patients with anterior circulation aneurysms. The authors reviewed patients with anterior circulation aneurysms who underwent aneurysm clipping via pterional or supraorbital keyhole approach at a single institute over a period of 2 years. Ninety-eight patients harboring 108 aneurysms were included in this study. Various outcomes were recorded, which included clinical grade, cosmetic problems, patients' satisfaction and complications such as chewing discomfort, frontal muscle weakness, hyposmia, infection. The supraorbital approach exhibited a shorter operation time compared with the pterional approach. Complications such as chewing discomfort occurred less frequently in the supraorbital approach group. Moreover, the cosmetic outcome was significantly better in the supraorbital group than in the pterional group. The supraorbital keyhole approach reduced intra- and postoperative complications, including chewing discomfort and cosmetic disturbances, compared with the conventional pterional approach.
Park, Heung Sik; Park, Sang Kyu
Objective Conventional pterional approach is a commonly used neurosurgical technique for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. However, this technique requires more extensive brain exposure than other key hole approaches and is sometimes associated with surgical traumatization or cosmetic problems. The aim of this study was to compare the postoperative outcome between pterional and supraorbital keyhole approaches in the patients with anterior circulation aneurysms. Methods The authors reviewed patients with anterior circulation aneurysms who underwent aneurysm clipping via pterional or supraorbital keyhole approach at a single institute over a period of 2 years. Ninety-eight patients harboring 108 aneurysms were included in this study. Various outcomes were recorded, which included clinical grade, cosmetic problems, patients' satisfaction and complications such as chewing discomfort, frontal muscle weakness, hyposmia, infection. Results The supraorbital approach exhibited a shorter operation time compared with the pterional approach. Complications such as chewing discomfort occurred less frequently in the supraorbital approach group. Moreover, the cosmetic outcome was significantly better in the supraorbital group than in the pterional group. Conclusion The supraorbital keyhole approach reduced intra- and postoperative complications, including chewing discomfort and cosmetic disturbances, compared with the conventional pterional approach. PMID:19763211
Takeda, Nobuaki; Oishi, Hidenori; Arai, Hajime
A case of a patient with a ruptured true posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm is reported, who had been managed by early endovascular parent artery occlusion with coils. The small blister aneurysm was located at the proximal PCoA itself and directed superiorly. Postoperative course was uneventful. During 1-month follow-up, the patient recovered well and could care for herself. Aneurysms of the PCoA itself are very rare. As reported to date, surgical procedures would favor microsurgical clipping over endovascular coil embolization. Endovascular treatment may be a good alternative to surgical trapping for true PCoA blister aneurysm. PMID:25953771
Johnson, Andrew K.; Lopes, Demetrius K.; Moftakhar, Roham
Progressive deconstruction is an endovascular technique for aneurysm treatment that utilizes flow diverting stents to promote progressive thrombosis by diverting blood flow away from the aneurysm's parent vessel. While the aneurysm thromboses, collateral blood vessels develop over time to avoid infarction that can often accompany acute parent vessel occlusion. We report a 37-year-old woman with a left distal posterior cerebral artery aneurysm that was successfully treated with this strategy. The concept and rationale of progressive deconstruction are discussed in detail. PMID:26958413
Unger, Philippe; Antoine, Martine; Hastir, Delfyne; Dedobbeleer, Chantal; Leeman, Marc
We describe the case of a 64-year-old woman in whom an aneurysm located on the posterior mitral leaflet was detected. Blood cultures grew methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus epidermidis, and histologic examination of the operative specimen showed polymorphonuclear neutrophilic infiltration of the valve wall associated with fibrin and necrosis, consistent with a diagnosis of endocarditis. The posterior mitral location of the aneurysm and the absence of vegetation are exceptionally rare in this setting. This case demonstrates that a mitral aneurysm may be the sole cardiac presentation of infective endocarditis. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Qin, Bin; Ying, Guang-yu; Hu, Hua; Chen, Gao; Zhang, Jian-min; Wang, Lin
To evaluate the efficacy of the surgery with lateral supraorbital approach for clipping anterior circulation aneurysms. The clinical data of 99 patients with anterior circulation aneurysms who underwent a clipping via lateral supraorbital approach from October 2012 to September 2014 and 75 patients, who underwent a clipping via pterional approach from January 2010 to December 2011 in the second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine were reviewed. The operative duration, prognosis, residual rate and rupture rate during surgery were compared between two groups. The patients by lateral supraorbital approach had a shorter operative duration, namely 37~61 min less than that in the patients by pterional approach. No difference were found in residual rate and rupture rate between two groups. The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at 3 months after surgery showed no significant difference between two groups. The lateral supraorbital approach can be used safely and effectively with shorter operative duration and less tissue damage for treatment of patients with anterior circulation aneurysms.
Karmonik, Christof; Fang, Yibin; Xu, Jinyu; Yu, Ying; Cao, Wei; Liu, Jianmin; Huang, Qinghai
Background and Purpose The conflicting findings of previous morphological and hemodynamic studies on intracranial aneurysm rupture may be caused by the relatively small sample sizes and the variation in location of the patient-specific aneurysm models. We aimed to determine the discriminators for aneurysm rupture status by focusing on only posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms. Materials and Methods In 129 PCoA aneurysms (85 ruptured, 44 unruptured), clinical, morphological and hemodynamic characteristics were compared between the ruptured and unruptured cases. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the discriminators for rupture status of PCoA aneurysms. Results While univariate analyses showed that the size of aneurysm dome, aspect ratio (AR), size ratio (SR), dome-to-neck ratio (DN), inflow angle (IA), normalized wall shear stress (NWSS) and percentage of low wall shear stress area (LSA) were significantly associated with PCoA aneurysm rupture status. With multivariate analyses, significance was only retained for higher IA (OR = 1.539, p < 0.001) and LSA (OR = 1.393, p = 0.041). Conclusions Hemodynamics and morphology were related to rupture status of intracranial aneurysms. Higher IA and LSA were identified as discriminators for rupture status of PCoA aneurysms. PMID:26910518
Hagspiel, Klaus D.; Bonatti, Hugo; Sabri, Saher; Arslan, Bulent; Harthun, Nancy L.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV is a life-threatening genetic connective tissue disorder. We report a 24-year-old woman with EDS-IV who presented with metachronous bilateral aneurysms/pseudoaneurysms of the posterior tibial arteries 15 months apart. Both were treated successfully with transarterial coil embolization from a distal posterior tibial approach.
Purpose The goal of this study was to directly measure the association between the internal carotid artery (ICA) morphometry and the presence of ICA-posterior communicating artery (PCOM) aneurysm. Materials and Methods The authors intraoperatively measured the length of the supraclinoid ICA because it is impossible to radiologically determine the exact location of the anterior clinoid process. We used an image analyzer with a CT angiogram to measure the angle between the skull midline and the terminal segment of the ICA (ICA angle), as well as the diameter of the ICA. The lengths and diameters of the supraclinoid ICA and the ICA angle were compared among PCOM aneurysms, anterior communicating artery (ACOM) aneurysms, and middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation aneurysms (n = 27 each). Additionally, the lengths and the diameters of M1 and A1 were compared for each aneurysm. Results The lengths of the supraclinoid ICA were 11.9 ± 2.3mm. The lengths of the supraclinoid ICA in patients with ICA-PCOM aneurysms (9.7 ± 2.8mm) were shorter than those of patients with ACOM aneurysms (13.8 ± 2.2mm, Student's t-test, p < 0.001) and with MCA bifurcation aneurysms (12.2 ± 1.9 mm, Student's t-test, p < 0.001). The diameters of the supraclinoid ICA and A1 in patients with ACOM aneurysms were larger than those in patients with MCA bifurcation aneurysms (Student's t-test, p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the lengths of M1 and A1, ICA angle, or diameter of M1 for each aneurysm. Conclusion These results suggest that the relatively shorter length of the supraclinoid ICA may be a novel risk factor for the development of ICA-PCOM aneurysm with higher hemodynamic stress. PMID:17722235
Reynolds, Matthew R; Roland, Jarod L; Kamath, Ashwin A; Cross, DeWitte T; Dacey, Ralph G
Perforating arteries rarely project from the fundus of an aneurysm. We present the case of a 35-year-old woman who was found to have a right posterior communicating artery (PCOM) aneurysm via catheter angiography. Superselective microcatheter angiography revealed that perforating arteries arose from the aneurysm fundus that supplied the anterolateral thalamus. Microsurgical exploration confirmed several small perforating arteries arising from the aneurysm dome as well as an atretic distal PCOM artery. Given the complex anatomy, the lesion was unsuitable for clipping. We propose that this aneurysm represents a developmental variant whereby the proximal PCOM artery becomes atretic and terminates in PCOM perforators. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/iDcp9fsDjq4.
Su, Tsung-Ming; Cheng, Ching-Hsiao; Chen, Wu-Fu; Hsu, Shih-Wei
A 7-month-old baby presented with a 4-day history of drowsiness and vomiting after a falling accident. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, and variable stages of subdural hematoma in bilateral occipital and left temporal subdural spaces. A partially thrombosed aneurysm was noted in the right craniocervical junction. Ophthalmological examination revealed bilateral retinal petechial hemorrhages. Conventional cerebral angiography revealed a dissecting aneurysm in the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). Endovascular embolization was suggested, but the family refused. After conservative treatment, follow-up MRI revealed that the PICA aneurysm had remodeled and ultimately disappeared completely at the 10th month. This case illustrates the relatively plastic nature of intracranial aneurysms in pediatric patients. More studies are necessary to clarify the natural history of spontaneously thrombosed aneurysms to assist in their overall management.
Roh, Hong Gee; Choi, Jin Woo; Cho, Joon; Moon, Won-Jin; Solander, Sten
Wide-necked aneurysms of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) are infrequently encountered in cerebrovascular practice, and endovascular treatment is difficult or impossible even with the use of several neck remodeling techniques. We present the case of a patient with a wide-necked aneurysm of the PICA, which was treated by the retrograde stenting through the contralateral vertebral artery and vertebrobasilar junction with antegrade coil embolization. PMID:22778576
JIANG, Hao; SHEN, Jian; WENG, Yu-Xiang; PAN, Jian-Wei; YU, Jian-Bo; WAN, Zi-Ang; ZHAN, Renya
Recent studies have shown that posterior communicating artery (PComA) aneurysms are more likely to rupture. However, surgical intervention for PComA aneurysms may be associated with increased treatment-related morbidity rate. Therefore, it is meaningful to investigate the factors related to PComA aneurysm rupture. The purpose of this study was to identify morphological parameters that significantly correlate with PComA aneurysm rupture. We divided 14 pairs of mirror posterior communicating artery aneurysms (PComA-MANs) into ruptured and unruptured groups. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) imaging was evaluated with three-dimensional (3D) Slicer to generate models of the aneurysms and surrounding vasculature. Nine morphological parameters [size, height, width, neck width, aspect ratio (AR), bottleneck factor (BNF), height/width ratio (H/W), size ratio (SR), and bleb formation] were examined in the two groups for significance with respect to rupture. By contrast, statistically significant differences were found in ruptured and unruptured group for size, AR, BNF, SR, and bleb formation (P < 0.05). Parameters that had no significant differences between the two groups were height (P = 0.103), width (P = 0.078), neck width (P = 0.808), and H/W (P = 0.417). We conclude that MANs may be a useful model for the morphological analysis of intracranial aneurysm rupture. Larger size, higher AR, BNF, SR, and bleb formation may be related to rupture of PComA aneurysms. Larger sample studies minimizing the interference from patient-related factors and aneurysm type were expected for acquiring more accurate assessment of the relationship between these parameters and PComA aneurysm rupture. PMID:26041624
Yamashita, Y; Hayashi, S; Saitho, H; Teramoto, A
We report the case of a 34-year-old male with cerebellar hemorrhagic infarction caused by a dissecting aneurysm of the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). The patient suffered from a headache and vomiting for two days and was transferred to our hospital with sudden deterioration of consciousness. On admission, he was semicomatose. A CT scan revealed hemorrhagic infarction in the left cerebellum and upward herniation. The emergency operation for posterior fossa decompression was performed. Postoperatively, his consciousness level improved promptly and he had no neurological deficits except for slight gait disturbance. The first vertebral angiography was performed on Day 27. It showed a sausage-like dissecting aneurysm of the left distal PICA. We planned conservative therapy with careful observation because of there being no indication for an operation. Serial angiography was performed and demonstrated the regression of the dissecting aneurysm on Day 258. Dissecting aneurysms of the distal PICA are rare and their natural history is not well understood. Conservative therapy for vertebrobasilar dissecting aneurysms has often been reported. We suggest that conservative therapy with serial angiography is the treatment of choice especially for ischemic-type dissecting aneurysms. We review 17 cases of dissecting aneurysm of the distal PICA in this study.
Quach, Eric T; Gonzalez, Andres A; Shilian, Parastou; Russin, Jonathan J
We present the first report, to our knowledge, in which revascularization of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) with a high flow extracranial-intracranial procedure resulted in symptomatic hyperemia of the posterior circulation. Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is a poorly understood phenomenon that is classically seen in the distribution of a revascularized artery. A 37-year-old woman presented with a 3 month history of cognitive and speech difficulties, persistent headaches, weakness, numbness, and paresthesia which was worse in the right extremities and face. She was found to have bilateral watershed infarcts worse in the left cerebral hemisphere, severe bilateral stenosis of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery, and a small left superior hypophyseal aneurysm. The patient underwent left cerebral hemisphere revascularization with a high flow external carotid artery to MCA bypass with aneurysm trapping. During skin closure, significant changes were seen in her bilateral upper extremity motor-evoked potentials. The patient's postoperative exam was noted for an intermittent inability to follow commands, bilateral upper extremity weakness, vertical nystagmus, and alogia that all dramatically improved with strict blood pressure control. Postoperative perfusion imaging revealed posterior circulation hyperemia. This patient highlights the potential for hyperemic complications outside the revascularized arterial territory. Strict blood pressure control is recommended in order to prevent and manage hyperemia-associated symptoms. Improving our understanding of CHS may assist in identifying at risk patients and at risk arterial territories in order to optimize CHS prevention and management strategies.
Almeida-Pérez, Rafael; Espinosa-García, Héctor; Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel; de la Rosa-Manjarréz, Ginna; Orozco-Gómez, Fernando
True posterior communicating artery aneurysms originate exclusively from the wall of this artery and should be differentiated from aneurysms of the posterior communicating segment of the distal carotid artery. As these lesions are rare, their anatomical relationships have been poorly described; likewise, reports concerning their endovascular treatment are extremely rare and the technical aspects poorly detailed. A case of a patient with a true aneurysm of the left posterior communicating artery treated by endovascular coiling is presented. A literature review was also conducted to illustrate the anatomical and technical details relevant to achieving its successful treatment. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Nossek, Erez; Setton, Avi; Dehdashti, Amir R; Chalif, David J
Proximally located posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms, projecting postero-laterally in proximity to the tentorium, may pose a technical challenge for microsurgical clipping due to obscuration of the proximal aneurysmal neck by the anterior petroclinoid fold. We describe an efficacious technique utilizing fenestration of the anterior petroclinoid fold to facilitate visualization and clipping of PCoA aneurysms abutting this aspect of the tentorium. Of 86 cases of PCoA aneurysms treated between 2003 and 2013, the technique was used in nine (10.5 %) patients to allow for adequate clipping. A 3 mm fenestration in the anterior petroclinoid ligament is created adjacent and lateral to the anterior clinoid process. This fenestration is then widened into a small wedge corridor by bipolar coagulation. In all cases, the proximal aneurysm neck was visualized after the wedge fenestration. Additionally, an adequate corridor for placement of the proximal clip blade was uniformly established. All cases were adequately clipped, with complete occlusion of the aneurysm neck and fundus with preservation of the PCoA. There were two intraoperative ruptures not related to creation of the wedge fenestration. One patient experienced post-operative partial third nerve palsy, which resolved during follow-up. We describe a technique of fenestration of the anterior petroclinoid fold to establish a critical and safe corridor for both visualization and clipping of PCoA aneurysms.
Mélot, A; Chazot, J-V; Troude, L; De la Rosa, S; Brunel, H; Roche, P-H
The association between Moyamoya disease and intracranial aneurysms is well described. In our case, we describe a unique aneurismal location and its management. We report the case of a 74-year-old woman affected by a Moyamoya disease who displayed a frontal lobe hematoma. The origin of the bleeding came from the rupture of a posterior ethmoidal artery aneurysm that was treated surgically with favourable outcome. This case of a ruptured posterior ethmoidal artery aneurysm in a Moyamoya patient illustrates the polymorphism of the vascular complications encountered in this disease. It stresses the need to obtain information from an angiographic investigation in order to select the best therapeutic option and to reduce procedural complications.
Lee, Ji Yeoun; Choi, Young-Hun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Paeng, Jin Chul; Ryu, Hye Won; Kim, Ki Joong; Phi, Ji Hoon; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Chae, Jong-Hee; Kim, Seung-Ki
Approximately 30% of patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) have presented with involvement of the posterior circulation, mainly the posterior cerebral artery (PCA). Diagnosis of delayed progression of PCA stenosis in MMD may be difficult due to the diversity in clinical features. The goal of this study was to evaluate pediatric MMD patients with delayed PCA involvement after completion of revascularization of the anterior circulation. Forty-one pediatric MMD patients who underwent revascularization of the PCA territory due to delayed posterior circulation insufficiency MMD from 2006 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The average interval between the initial operation and the occipital artery (OA) procedure was 5.0 years. Common symptoms were headaches and transient visual symptoms. The decision to operate was made based on a combination of diagnostic tools. The results obtained with perfusion MRI, SPECT, MR angiography, and EEG supported posterior circulation insufficiency in 78, 41, 73, and 71% of patients, respectively. Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) using the OA was performed in 15 patients, and 26 patients received multiple burr hole trephination of the occipital area. All patients showed clinical improvement. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of delayed involvement of the PCA in pediatric MMD patients. The clinical decision regarding treatment should be based on a combination of symptomatology and the results obtained with various tools to assess whether the blood flow in the PCA territory is insufficient. Surgical treatment using indirect revascularization appears to be effective for patients with delayed PCA involvement.
Giant intracranial aneurysms account for only about 5% of all intracranial aneurysms. Giant intradural aneurysms are associated with severe natural history, yet remain potentially curable. These aneurysms cause symptoms due to their mass effect, and only 14-35% of cases present with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). The present case report is an imaging evolution of a giant posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysm in a patient who was lost on follow-up from 1992 to 2008 giving insight into the natural history and morphologic evolution of giant serpentine aneurysms. Attempted surgery 16 years previously for a saccular PCA aneurysm produced encephalomalacia and created a more spacious perianeurysmal environment, preventing any mass effect on vital structures in its vicinity. This allowed the patient to have a long symptom-free period and also allowed the aneurysm to follow a morphologic evolution over a long period without causing symptoms which would have called for intervention. This unusual development gave a unique opportunity to study the evolution of a gaint serpentine aneurysm from a saccular aneurysm and also the clinical and morphologic changes in an aneurysm if it can be prevented from producing mass effect. The Coanda effect, or boundary wall effect, has been considered responsible for the development of the serpentine channel in the original globular aneurysm . However many Authors conclude that giant serpentine aneurysms are not derived from saccular aneurysms.
Cheong, Jin Hwan; Kim, Jae Min; Kim, Choong Hyun
Traumatic intracranial aneurysms are rare, comprising 1% or less of all cerebral aneurysms. The majority of these aneurysms arise at the skull base or in the distal anterior and middle cerebral arteries or their branches following direct mural injury or acceleration-induced shearing force. We present a 50-year-old patient in whom subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was developed as a result of traumatic aneurysm rupture after a closed craniofacial injury. Through careful evaluation of the three-dimensional computed tomography and conventional angiographies, the possible mechanism of the traumatic internal carotid artery trunk aneurysm is correlated with a hit injury by the bony protuberances on the anterior and posterior clinoid processes. This traumatic aneurysm was successfully obliterated with clipping and wrapping technique. The possibility of a traumatic intracranial aneurysm should be considered when patient with SAH demonstrates bony protuberances on the clinoid process as a traumatic aneurysm may result from mechanical injury by the sharp bony edges.
Toyota, Shingo; Taki, Takuyu; Wakayama, Akatsuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki
Internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (IC-PC) aneurysms account for more than 20% of all intracranial aneurysms. As a result of the increase in coiling, there has also been an increase in recurrent IC-PC aneurysms after coiling. We present our experience of 10 recurrent IC-PC aneurysms after coiling that were retreated using surgical or endovascular techniques in order to discuss the choice of treatment and the points of clipping without removal of coils. From 2007 to 2014, 10 recurrent IC-PC aneurysms after coiling were retreated. When the previous frames covered the aneurysms all around or almost around except a part of the neck, coiling was chosen. In other cases, clipping was chosen. Clipping was attempted without removal of coils when it was technically feasible. Among the 10 IC-PC aneurysms retreated, 3 were retreated with coiling and 7 were retreated with clipping. In all three cases retreated with coiling, almost complete occlusion was accomplished. In the seven cases retreated with clipping, coil extrusion was observed during surgery in six cases. In most of them, it was necessary to dissect strong adhesions around the coiled aneurysms and to utilize temporary occlusion of the internal carotid artery. In all seven cases, neck clipping was accomplished without the removal of coils. There were no neurological complications in any cases. The management of recurrent lesions of embolized IC-PC aneurysms requires appropriate choice of treatment using both coiling and clipping. Clipping, especially without the removal of coils, plays an important role in safe treatment.
TOYOTA, Shingo; TAKI, Takuyu; WAKAYAMA, Akatsuki; YOSHIMINE, Toshiki
Internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (IC-PC) aneurysms account for more than 20% of all intracranial aneurysms. As a result of the increase in coiling, there has also been an increase in recurrent IC-PC aneurysms after coiling. We present our experience of 10 recurrent IC-PC aneurysms after coiling that were retreated using surgical or endovascular techniques in order to discuss the choice of treatment and the points of clipping without removal of coils. From 2007 to 2014, 10 recurrent IC-PC aneurysms after coiling were retreated. When the previous frames covered the aneurysms all around or almost around except a part of the neck, coiling was chosen. In other cases, clipping was chosen. Clipping was attempted without removal of coils when it was technically feasible. Among the 10 IC-PC aneurysms retreated, 3 were retreated with coiling and 7 were retreated with clipping. In all three cases retreated with coiling, almost complete occlusion was accomplished. In the seven cases retreated with clipping, coil extrusion was observed during surgery in six cases. In most of them, it was necessary to dissect strong adhesions around the coiled aneurysms and to utilize temporary occlusion of the internal carotid artery. In all seven cases, neck clipping was accomplished without the removal of coils. There were no neurological complications in any cases. The management of recurrent lesions of embolized IC-PC aneurysms requires appropriate choice of treatment using both coiling and clipping. Clipping, especially without the removal of coils, plays an important role in safe treatment. PMID:26437796
Baek, Hyoungsu; Jayaraman, Mahesh V; Karniadakis, George Em
A growing number of cases of rupture at an infundibulum, progression of infundibulum to a frank aneurysm, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) have been reported. Using patient-specific geometric models of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) with PCoA infundibulum or aneurysm, high-resolution computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed by solving the Navier-Stokes equations with a spectral/hp element method. Simulation results show that the flow impinges at the distal wall of infundibulum near the outside of the ICA bend and creates a region of higher pressure (4-5 mmHg) surrounded by a band of a high wall shear stress (WSS) (20-30 N/m(2) on average). At the proximal end of the infundibulum, another stagnation area is formed characterized by low WSS (<1 N/m(2)) and high oscillating shear index. This impingement region seems to coincide with the locations of the rupture of infundibulae or progression to aneurysms. In addition, the pulsatile flow becomes unstable due to the presence of aneurysms or aneurysm-like infundibulae, and this leads to WSS temporal fluctuations inside the aneurysm, which may accelerate the degenerative processes in the vessel walls.
Ji, Shishun; Shi, Xiaodong; Chu, Xiaoshuai; Yuan, Xunhui; Sun, Gaoling; Bai, Yun'an; Liang, Aijun
The anterior petroclinoid fold (APF) is a ligamentous structure consisting of collagen fiber and extends from the petrous apex to the anterior clinoid process. During the surgical clipping of some posterolaterally projecting posterior communicating artery aneurysms, it may pose a technical challenge due to obscuration of the aneurismal neck by the APF. Herein, the authors describe a simple and effective technique utilizing fenestration of the APF to facilitate visualization and surgical clipping of these aneurysms. To the best knowledge of us, this technique of the APF fenestration has been reported in only a few patients.
Alliez, B; Du Lac, P; Trabulsi, R
A case is presented of an aneurysm arising in an extracranial loop of the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery (P.I.C.A.). Two similar cases can be found in a review of the literature. It is essential to obtain clear visualization of both P.I.C.A.s. in the evaluation of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Surgical treatment of this aneurysm, located distal to the lateral medullary segment, involves a midline approach with retraction or subpial resection of the tonsillar tip.
Phair, Alison; Hajibandeh, Shahin; Hajibandeh, Shahab; Kelleher, Damian; Ibrahim, Riza; Antoniou, George A
Popliteal artery aneurysm is an uncommon vascular disease but one that can cause significant morbidity, the most severe being limb loss reported in 20% to 59% of cases. Two approaches to repair are described in the literature, the posterior and the medial; however, the "gold standard" method of repair remains controversial. A systematic review of electronic information sources was undertaken to identify papers comparing outcomes of posterior repair vs medial repair. The methodologic quality of the papers was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Fixed-effect or random-effects models were applied to synthesize data. The search yielded seven articles eligible for inclusion. The total population comprised 1427 patients; 338 had posterior repair and 1089 had medial repair. There was no difference in the two groups in terms of postoperative nerve damage (odds ratio [OR], 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24-4.2) and 30-day postoperative complications (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.43-1.77). Limb loss at 30 days occurred more frequently in the medial approach group, but the difference was not statistically significant (risk difference [RD], 0.02; 95% CI, -0.04 to 0.00). Thirty-day primary patency was not statistically different between groups (RD, -0.01; 95% CI, -0.04 to 0.02), but the 30-day secondary patency suggested superiority of the posterior approach (RD, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.02-0.07). Long-term primary and secondary patency both favored the posterior approach (OR, 1.61 [95% CI, 1.06-2.43] and OR, 1.73 [95% CI, 0.91-3.30], respectively). Aneurysm exclusion was also superior with the posterior approach (OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.40-12.60). The rate of reoperation favored the posterior approach (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.09-0.72). Long-term risk of limb loss favored posterior repair, but no statistically significant difference was found (OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.43-1.77). High-level comparative data comparing posterior and medial repair for popliteal artery aneurysms are not available
Tanaka, Satoshi; Sagiuchi, Takao; Kobayashi, Ikuo
A 12-year-old boy who had a history of Kawasaki disease 9 years ago experienced a subarachnoid hemorrhage by ruptured right posterior cerebral artery aneurysm. On day 1 operation, as the aneurysm was very fragile and bled easily, two intraoperative ruptures, including a very premature rupture, were encountered. As a result, a left hemiparesis especially severe in the left hand was caused by the right anterior thalamic infarction due to the occlusion of a thalamo-perforating artery arising near the neck of the aneurysm. The histopathological examination of the intraoperative excised aneurysmal dome disclosed the thickening of the endothelial inner due to the endothelial hypertrophy and the invasion of inflammatory cells. This finding of the aneurysm was partially mimicking the finding of the coronary artery of the patients with Kawasaki disease. The combination of cerebral aneurysm and Kawasaki disease has never been reported until now, and the etiology of the aneurysm of this patient is unclear.
Khatibi, Kasra; Heit, Jeremy J; Telischak, Nicholas A; Elbers, Jorina M; Do, Huy M
A young patient with PAPA (pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne) syndrome developed an unusual cerebral arterial vasculopathy/vasculitis (CAV) that resulted in subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured dissecting posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysm. This aneurysm was successfully treated by endovascular coil sacrifice of the affected segment of the PCA. The patient made an excellent recovery with no significant residual neurologic deficit.
Khatibi, Kasra; Heit, Jeremy J; Telischak, Nicholas A; Elbers, Jorina M; Do, Huy M
A young patient with PAPA (pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne) syndrome developed an unusual cerebral arterial vasculopathy/vasculitis (CAV) that resulted in subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured dissecting posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysm. This aneurysm was successfully treated by endovascular coil sacrifice of the affected segment of the PCA. The patient made an excellent recovery with no significant residual neurologic deficit.
Padovani Trivelato, F.; Salles Rezende, M.T.; Brito Santos, R.; Hilton Vieira Madeira, T.; Cardoso Campos, R.; Cordeiro Ulhûa, A.
Summary The posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) frequently has a variable course and target territory. However, double origin PICA is a rare finding. Its significance is uncertain, but it has been associated with intracranial aneurysms localized at the PICA proper or at a distant site. The presence of this variation imposes specific challenges. We describe two cases of double origin PICA, one of them associated with an ipsilateral PICA aneurysm. The role of this finding was critically reviewed. A literature search identified 23 cases of double origin PICA, including both cases reported in this paper. Intracranial aneurysms were strongly associated with double origin PICA (71% in 21 detailed cases of double origin PICA). The current patient harboring a PICA aneurysm was successfully treated by endovascular trapping. In the setting of double origin PICA aneurysms, this variation beneficially affects the treatment choice once the two limbs enable the safe sacrifice of the channel involved, with preservation of blood flow through the other channel. PMID:22005699
Behari, Sanjay; Krishna, Himanshu; Kumar, Marakani V Kiran; Sawlani, Vijay; Phadke, Rajendra V; Jain, Vijendra K
Basilar artery (BA) aplasia when unaccompanied by a primitive carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis is exceedingly rare. The association of BA aplasia with two aneurysms on the dominant posterior communicating artery (PCoA) has not been previously reported. This 40-year-old man presented in a state of drowsiness and responded to simple commands only after being coaxed. He had complete left cranial third nerve palsy, right hemiparesis, and persisting signs of meningeal irritation. A computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage. An angiogram revealed BA aplasia. The right PCoA followed a sinuous course with multiple loops and provided the dominant supply to the posterior circulation. This vessel harbored two aneurysms, one at the origin of the PCoA from the internal carotid artery and the other at the looping segment just proximal to the brainstem. The left PCoA was extremely thin. The pterional transsylvian approach was used to clip the two aneurysms on the PCoA. The hemodynamic changes produced by the BA aplasia may have produced alterations in the cerebral vasculature leading to aneurysm formation and consequent subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Adorno, Juan Oscar Alarcón; de Andrade, Guilherme Cabral
The intracranial aneurysms of the posterior circulation have been reported between 5 and 10% of all cerebral aneurysms and the aneurysms of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) are considered rare, can cause cerebello pontine angle (CPA) syndrome with or without subarachnoid hemorrhage. Since 1948 few cases were described in the literature. We report on a 33 year-old female patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to sacular aneurysm of the left AICA. She was submitted to clipage of the aneurysm without complications.
Lin, Ning; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Lopes, Demetrius K; Arthur, Adam S; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Ecker, Robert D; Dumont, Travis M; Turner, Raymond D; Gooch, M Reid; Boulos, Alan S; Kan, Peter; Snyder, Kenneth V; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H
Utilization of the Pipeline embolization device (PED) to treat distal carotid circulation aneurysms has not been well studied. To report the collective experience of using PED to treat distal anterior circulation aneurysms. We retrospectively reviewed clinical and radiographic records of all patients who underwent Pipeline embolization of distal anterior circulation aneurysms at 10 US neurosurgical centers between 2011 and 2013. Twenty-eight patients (mean age 51.7 years; 18 women) with 28 aneurysms were included in the analyses. Fifteen aneurysms were fusiform, 5 dissecting, and 8 saccular. Average aneurysm size was 12.3 mm; 7 were giant. Twenty aneurysms were located along the middle cerebral artery, 6 along the anterior cerebral artery, and 2 along the anterior communicating artery. PED deployment was successful in 27 patients, with coils utilized in 6 cases. Clinical follow-up was available for an average of 10.7 months (range 3-26). Twenty-seven patients had follow-up neurovascular imaging: 21 aneurysms had complete occlusion, 4 had residual neck filling, and 2 had residual dome filling. Periprocedural complications (<30 days) occurred in 3 patients (10.7%), including 1 case of device failure resulting in stroke. Outcomes were good (modified Rankin Scale score 0 to 2) in 27 patients (96.4%) and fair (modified Rankin Scale 3) in 1. PED can be utilized in the treatment of distal anterior circulation aneurysms with difficult anatomy for conventional surgical or endovascular techniques. Larger-scale studies with long-term follow-up are needed to further elucidate the durability of PED treatment and its effect on perforator-rich vascular segments. ACA, anterior cerebral arteryAcomA, anterior communicating arteryDSA, digital subtraction angiographyMCA, middle cerebral arterymRS, modified Rankin scalePED, Pipeline embolization device.
Bartoli, Andrea; Kotowski, Marc; Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Schaller, Karl
We describe an unusual presentation of a ruptured aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery with an acute intracranial hematoma between the dural layers associated with an acute spinal epidural hematoma descending to L1. A 35-year-old woman presented 3 hours after ictus with a postcoital headache, neck stiffness, and bilateral abducens cranial nerve palsy. No other neurological deficits were present. Clinically, she had a subarachnoid hemorrhage World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade 1. CT scan demonstrates an acute subdural hematoma, extending from the right parasellar region, around the clivus, tentorium, and falx. Angio-CT showed a posterior communicating artery aneurysm and an anterior communicating artery aneurysm and an extension of the hematoma to the cervical spine. This justified a spinal and cerebral MRI that confirmed an extension of the hematoma to the epidural space at the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar levels. Three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography confirmed aneurysms on the right posterior communicating artery and on the anterior communicating artery. Both aneurysms were completely occluded by coiling. With reference to the concept of the cranial subdural compartment described in studies conducted using an electron microscope, this group of hematomas was classified as interdural. Ruptured aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery may cause cranial acute interdural hematoma with a typical subarachnoid hemorrhage clinical presentation, and it rarely can extend to spinal epidural space.
Hetts, S W; English, J D; Dowd, C F; Higashida, R T; Scanlon, J T; Halbach, V V
Children with brain aneurysms may be at higher risk than adults to develop new or enlarging aneurysms in a relatively short time. We sought to identify comorbidities and angiographic features in children that predict new aneurysm formation or enlargement of untreated aneurysms. Retrospective analysis of the University of California-San Francisco Pediatric Aneurysm Cohort data base including medical records and imaging studies was performed. Of 83 patients harboring 114 intracranial aneurysms not associated with brain arteriovenous malformations or intracranial arteriovenous fistulas, 9 (8.4%) developed new or enlarging brain aneurysms an average of 4.2 years after initial presentation. Comorbidities that may be related to aneurysm formation were significantly higher in patients who developed new aneurysms (89%) as opposed to patients who did not develop new or enlarging aneurysms (41%; RR, 9.5; 95% CI, 1.9%-48%; P = .0099). Patients with multiple aneurysms at initial presentation were more likely than patients with a single aneurysm at presentation to develop a new or enlarging aneurysm (RR, 6.2; 95% CI, 2.1%-185; P = .0058). Patients who initially presented with at least 1 fusiform aneurysm were more likely to develop a new or enlarging aneurysm than patients who did not present with a fusiform aneurysm (RR, 22; 95% CI, 3.6%-68%; P = .00050). Index aneurysm treatment with parent artery occlusion also was associated with higher risk of new aneurysm formation (RR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.3%-13%; P = .024). New aneurysms did not necessarily arise near index aneurysms. The only fatality in the series was due to subarachnoid hemorrhage from a new posterior circulation aneurysm arising 20 months after index anterior circulation aneurysm treatment in an immunosuppressed patient. Patients who presented with a fusiform aneurysm had a significantly greater incidence of developing a new aneurysm or enlargement of an index aneurysm than did those who presented with a saccular aneurysm
Saleh, E; Dawson, R C
Although the general principles of endovascular aneurysm treatment in adults hold true in children, these young patients pose unique challenges: small anatomy, longer life expectancy, associated conditions and morphological characteristics of the aneurysms. Few publications in the literature address the role of endovascular treatment for pediatric aneurysms; including series by Agid et al. (2005) (1) revisiting the Toronto series, Lasjaunias et al. (2005) (2) updating the Bicêtre series and Sanai et al (2006) (8) presenting the San Francisco series. In their conclusions, the authors of the former two publications favored endovascular treatment over microsurgery. On the other hand, the authors of the latter publication favored microsurgery over endovascular treatment. The authors reviewed Louisiana State University experience regarding endovascular treatment of pediatric aneurysms focusing on outcomes. A retrospective chart review was performed of children under 18, who underwent endovascular treatment for intracranial aneurysms between 2000 and 2009 in our institution. Twelve patients harboring seventeen aneurysms were identified. The patients ranged in age from seventeen months to seventeen years. Complete aneurysm obliteration following endovascular treatment was around 95%. Our results showed unique features for pediatric aneurysms when compared to adult aneurysms. No intra operative mortality was recorded. One aneurysm recurred (5% recurrence rate among total number of aneurysms). In this case, six months after treatment, a control angiogram showed that the coils were displaced toward the dome of the aneurysm. This recurrence occurred before the introduction of the hydro coils. One patient died during the post intervention period (8% occurrence rate among total number of patients). Outcomes were better in anterior circulation aneurysms than in posterior circulation lesions. We had no mortality, morbidity or disability in the anterior circulation aneurysm group
Shi, Lei; Xu, Kan; Sun, Xiaofeng; Yu, Jinlu
Among the variations of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VDAs), VDAs involving the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), especially ruptured and high-risk unruptured aneurysms, are the most difficult to treat. Because the PICA is an important structure, serious symptoms may occur after its occlusion. Retained PICAs are prone to re-bleeding because VDAs are difficult to completely occlude. There is therefore confusion regarding the appropriate treatment for VDAs involving the PICA. Here, we used the PubMed database to review recent research concerning VDAs that involve the PICA, and we found that treatments for VDAs involving the PICA include (i) endovascular treatment involving the reconstruction of blood vessels and blood flow, (ii) occluding the aneurysm using an internal coil trapping or an assisted bypass, (iii) inducing reversed blood flow by occluding the proximal VDA or forming an assisted bypass, or (iv) the reconstruction of blood flow via a craniotomy. Although the above methods effectively treat VDAs involving the PICA, each method is associated with both a high degree of risk and specific advantages and disadvantages. The core problem when treating VDAs involving the PICA is to retain the PICA while occluding the aneurysm. Therefore, the method is generally selected on a case-by-case basis according to the characteristics of the aneurysm. In this study, we summarize the various current methods that are used to treat VDAs involving the PICA and provide schematic diagrams as our conclusion. Because there is no special field of research concerning VDAs involving the PICA, these cases are hidden within many multiple-cases studies. Therefore, this study does not review all relevant documents and may have some limitations. Thus, we have focused on the mainstream treatments for VDAs that involve the PICA. PMID:27429591
Ueki, K; Teraoka, A; Yoshida, S; Hori, T
The authors present a case of dissecting aneurysm of the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) in a 47-year-old female, who suffered from mild subarachnoid hemorrhage. Right vertebral angiogram showed typical "pearl and string" sign of the PICA, but we could not fully understand the condition until a surgical exposure revealed a purple sausage-like dissecting aneurysm of the PICA. The aneurysm was wrapped with muscle pieces. Postoperatively she developed Wallenberg's syndrome, but it subsided gradually. No specific disorder concerning the mural dissection was found in this patient, except for a history of mild hypertension. This case is unusual because it affected not an arterial trunk but a small branch and we could find only one other case reported in the literature. Other formerly reported cases were of arterial trunks. The intracranial dissecting aneurysm has been known as a rare cause of cerebral infarct in children and adolescents. Infants are also affected and referred to as "infantile hemiplegia". It mainly affects one of the trunk arteries and cause a severe ischemic stroke, and surgically treatable case is rare. But as the typical angiographic findings are commonly known the number of the reported cases is increasing at an accelerating rate, and some of them are being noted to need surgical treatment because they cause subarachnoid hemorrhage. We here emphasize that not only trunk arteries but also small branch arteries can develop mural dissection, leading to subarachnoid hemorrhage. Dissecting aneurysm of a smaller artery would be milder in symptom, and would give more chance for surgical intervention.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Chwajol, Markus; Hage, Ziad A; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Charbel, Fady T
Extracranial aneurysms of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) are rare, with only 22 reported cases in the English literature. For saccular extracranial distal PICA aneurysms not amenable to coiling, a surgically placed clip is not protected by the cranium postoperatively, and can be subject to movement in the mobile cervical region. Furthermore, fusiform or complex aneurysms cannot be clipped primarily. Resection and primary reanastomosis is a useful surgical approach not previously described for these extracranial lesions. We report three cases of extracranially located distal PICA aneurysms successfully treated with this surgical strategy at our center. One patient harboring a broad necked saccular aneurysm originally underwent successful primary clipping of the aneurysm but sustained a second subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) on postoperative day 25 due to clip dislodgement from vigorous neck movement. The other two patients were found to have fusiform and complex aneurysms, respectively. All three patients were ultimately treated with resection and end-to-end PICA anastomosis, which successfully obliterated their aneurysms. Resection and primary reanastomosis of extracranial distal PICA aneurysms averts the risk of clip dislodgement due to neck movement and/or compression by soft tissues in the upper cervical region. It is a safe and efficacious technique, which we propose as the preferred management strategy for these rare vascular lesions.
Uohara, Michael Y.; Beslow, Lauren A.; Billinghurst, Lori; Jones, Brianna M.; Kessler, Sudha K.; Licht, Daniel J.; Ichord, Rebecca N.
IMPORTANCE Childhood arterial ischemic stroke (CAIS) affects approximately 1.6 per 100 000 children per year, while stroke recurs in up to 20%of patients at 5 years. Factors determining the risk of recurrence are incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE To investigate the incidence of the recurrence of CAIS in the posterior and anterior circulations to determine if the risk differs between the 2 locations. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective analysis of CAIS was conducted among children enrolled in a single-center prospective consecutive cohort at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia between January 1, 2006, and January 1, 2015. Children with confirmed CAIS occurring between 29 days and 17.99 years were evaluated for inclusion. Patients were excluded if infarcts were located in both the anterior and posterior distributions or if CAIS occurred as a complication of intracranial surgery or brain tumor. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Stroke recurrence. RESULTS The study population included 107 patients (75 boys [70.1%] and 32 girls [29.9%]; median age at AIS, 7.7 years [interquartile range, 3.1–13.6 years]). Sixty-one children had anterior circulation CAIS (ACAIS) and 46 had posterior circulation CAIS (PCAIS). Median follow-up was 20.9 months (interquartile range, 8.7–40.4 months). For ACAIS, recurrence-free survival was 100% at 1 month and 96%(95%CI, 85%–99%) at 1 and 3 years. For PCAIS, recurrence-free survival was 88%(95%CI, 75%–95%) at 1 month and 81%(95% CI, 66%–90%) at 1 and 3 years. The hazard ratio for recurrence after PCAIS compared with ACAIS was 6.4 (95%CI, 1.4–29.8; P = .02) in univariable analysis and 5.3 (95%CI, 1.1–26.4; P = .04) after adjusting for sex and cervical dissection. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE We identified a subgroup of patients that comprise more than 80% of recurrences of CAIS. Three years after incident stroke, 19% of children with PCAIS had a recurrence compared with 4%of patients with ACAIS. Different mechanisms of
Motoyama, Yasushi; Takamura, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Shuichi; Park, Young-Su; Nakase, Hiroyuki
Fusiform aneurysms in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) are rare and challenging to treat. Surgical treatment options for a fusiform aneurysm in the PICA include trapping with/without bypass and wrap-clipping, when elimination of the pathological wall from the systemic circulation and prevention of perforator injury are important. In addition, lower cranial nerve impairment due to surgical manipulation should also be avoided. A fusiform-shaped aneurysm was found in a proximal part of the PICA by magnetic resonance angiography undertaken for evaluation of repeated vertigo in a 36-year-old man. The patient underwent direct surgery via a lateral suboccipital transcondylar fossa approach. The entrance of the pseudolumen was the only part to be wrapped and obstructed by clip application, through the corridor between the acoustic and glossopharyngeal nerves to avoid lower cranial nerve injury. Indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography demonstrated obliteration of pseudolumen and patency of peripheral PICA and perforator contributing to the medulla oblongata. The postoperative course was uneventful without periprocedural complications, including dysphagia and hoarseness. Partial wrap-clipping technique for obstruction of the entrance into a pseudolumen is one of alternatives for dissecting fusiform-shaped aneurysm in the PICA. ICG videoangiography was helpful to confirm the obliteration of the pseudolumen and patency of parent vessel and perforators.
Meng, Q H; Xu, J J; Wei, S C; Yu, R; Jiang, J; Wang, J; Qu, C C
Objective: To explore the safety and efficiency of lateral supraorbital (LSO) approach for the ruptured anterior circulation aneurysm. Methods: The clinical data of 23 patients with grade Ⅰ-Ⅲ ruptured anterior circulation aneurysm via LSO at the Second Hospital of Shandong University from February 2016 to December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical data included their clinical manifestations, radiological finding, microsurgical techniques and follow-up results. Results: All patients were diagnosed as anterior circulation aneurysm by preoperative CT angiography (CTA) or Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA). They all accepted aneurysm clipping via LSO. The operations carried out smoothly, with no operation related complications. They were followed up for 2 to 12 months, and the Glasgow outcome scales (GOS) were 5 in 18 patients (78.3%), 4 in 2 patients (8.7%), 3 in 2 patients (8.7%), and 1 in 1 patient (4.3%). Conclusion: LSO could provide adequate exposure for the anterior circulation aneurysm, so the clipping could be carried out safely and effectively. LSO is a simple and minimally invasive surgical approach, and when it is used by the skilled master of pterion approach, its advantage could be fully played.
Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; Welling, Leonardo C; Preul, Mark C; Sakaya, Gabriel Reis; Neville, Iuri; Spetzler, Robert F; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen
The pterional approach was described in the 1970s and has become the most utilized cranial approach with many variations described, including the minipterional technique. Although described recently as an alternative to the pterional approach for anterior circulation aneurysms, to our knowledge a large series of cases using the minipterional approach in both ruptured and unruptured aneurysms has not been described. We present our clinical experience with the minipterional craniotomy in more than 100 ruptured and unruptured anterior circulation aneurysms. The results of 86 consecutive patients with 102 ruptured non-giant, anterior circulation aneurysms treated with early surgery utilizing the minipterional craniotomy were analyzed. Postoperative angiography was carried out in all cases. Outcome results were classified as excellent in 67 (77.9%), and good in seven (8.1%), while 16 (13.9%) patients died. The minipterional technique provides adequate surgical exposure and excellent outcomes for both ruptured and unruptured anterior circulation aneurysm clipping. It constitutes a safe and effective alternative to the pterional approach, with equivalent or potentially better aesthetic and functional outcomes.
Abla, Adib A; McDougall, Cameron M; Breshears, Jonathan D; Lawton, Michael T
OBJECT Intracranial-to-intracranial (IC-IC) bypasses are alternatives to traditional extracranial-to-intracranial (EC-IC) bypasses to reanastomose parent arteries, reimplant efferent branches, revascularize branches with in situ donor arteries, and reconstruct bifurcations with interposition grafts that are entirely intracranial. These bypasses represent an evolution in bypass surgery from using scalp arteries and remote donor sites toward a more local and reconstructive approach. IC-IC bypass can be utilized preferentially when revascularization is needed in the management of complex aneurysms. Experiences using IC-IC bypass, as applied to posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms in 35 patients, were reviewed. METHODS Patients with PICA aneurysms and vertebral artery (VA) aneurysms involving the PICA's origin were identified from a prospectively maintained database of the Vascular Neurosurgery Service, and patients who underwent bypass procedures for PICA revascularization were included. RESULTS During a 17-year period in which 129 PICA aneurysms in 125 patients were treated microsurgically, 35 IC-IC bypasses were performed as part of PICA aneurysm management, including in situ p3-p3 PICA-PICA bypass in 11 patients (31%), PICA reimplantation in 9 patients (26%), reanastomosis in 14 patients (40%), and 1 V3 VA-to-PICA bypass with an interposition graft (3%). All aneurysms were completely or nearly completely obliterated, 94% of bypasses were patent, 77% of patients were improved or unchanged after treatment, and good outcomes (modified Rankin Scale ≤ 2) were observed in 76% of patients. Two patients died expectantly. Ischemic complications were limited to 2 patients in whom the bypasses occluded, and permanent lower cranial nerve morbidity was limited to 3 patients and did not compromise independent function in any of the patients. CONCLUSIONS PICA aneurysms receive the application of IC-IC bypass better than any other aneurysm, with nearly one
Kim, Yuhee; Yoo, Chan-Jong; Park, Cheol Wan; Kim, Myeong Jin; Choi, Dae Han; Kim, Yeon Jun; Park, Kawngwoo
To select a surgical approach for aneurysm clipping by comparing 2 approaches. 204 patients diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage treated by the same neurosurgeon at a single institution from November 2011 to October 2013, 109 underwent surgical clipping. Among these, 40 patients with Hunt and Hess or Fisher grades 2 or lower were selected. Patients were assigned to Group 1 (supraorbital keyhole approach) or Group 2 (modified supraorbital approach). The prognosis according to the difference between the two surgical approaches was retrospectively compared. Supraorbital keyhole approach (Group 1) was performed in 20 aneurysms (50%) and modified supraorbital approach (Group 2) was used in 20 aneurysms. Baseline characteristics of patients did not differ significantly between two groups. Total operative time (p = 0.226), early ambulation time (p = 0.755), length of hospital stay (p = 0.784), Glasgow Coma Scale at discharge (p = 0.325), and Glasgow Outcome Scale scores (p = 0.427) did not show statistically significant differences. The amount of intraoperative hemorrhage was significantly lower in the supraorbital keyhole approach (p < 0.05). The present series demonstrates the safety and feasibility of the two minimal invasive surgical techniques for clipping the intracranial aneurysms. The modified supraorbital keyhole approach was associated with more hemorrhage than the previous supraorbital keyhole approach, but did not exhibit differences in clinical results, and provided a better surgical view and convenience for surgeons in patients with Hunt and Hess or Fisher grades 2 or lower.
Kim, Yuhee; Park, Cheol Wan; Kim, Myeong Jin; Choi, Dae Han; Kim, Yeon Jun; Park, Kawngwoo
Objective To select a surgical approach for aneurysm clipping by comparing 2 approaches. Materials and Methods 204 patients diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage treated by the same neurosurgeon at a single institution from November 2011 to October 2013, 109 underwent surgical clipping. Among these, 40 patients with Hunt and Hess or Fisher grades 2 or lower were selected. Patients were assigned to Group 1 (supraorbital keyhole approach) or Group 2 (modified supraorbital approach). The prognosis according to the difference between the two surgical approaches was retrospectively compared. Results Supraorbital keyhole approach (Group 1) was performed in 20 aneurysms (50%) and modified supraorbital approach (Group 2) was used in 20 aneurysms. Baseline characteristics of patients did not differ significantly between two groups. Total operative time (p = 0.226), early ambulation time (p = 0.755), length of hospital stay (p = 0.784), Glasgow Coma Scale at discharge (p = 0.325), and Glasgow Outcome Scale scores (p = 0.427) did not show statistically significant differences. The amount of intraoperative hemorrhage was significantly lower in the supraorbital keyhole approach (p < 0.05). Conclusion The present series demonstrates the safety and feasibility of the two minimal invasive surgical techniques for clipping the intracranial aneurysms. The modified supraorbital keyhole approach was associated with more hemorrhage than the previous supraorbital keyhole approach, but did not exhibit differences in clinical results, and provided a better surgical view and convenience for surgeons in patients with Hunt and Hess or Fisher grades 2 or lower. PMID:27114960
Ab Ghani, Ailani; Nayan, Saiful Azli Mat; Kandasamy, Regunath; Rosman, Azmin Kas; Ghani, Abdul Rahman Izani
The annual incidence of intracranial aneurysm in Malaysia is estimated to be 1.1-1.7 per 100,000 population based on a study done conducted in 1988. Since then, little epidemiological research has been conducted in Malaysia, and the real incidence is therefore probably unreported despite advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder. Intracranial aneurysm may be treated by microsurgical clipping or embolisation depending on its location and the surgeon's preference. This study aims to report the characteristics and outcomes of patients with a clipped anterior circulation aneurysm in Hospital Sungai Buloh. We retrospectively collected the data of patients with anterior circulation aneurysms who underwent clipping from 1 January 2013 until 30 June 2014 in Hospital Sungai Buloh. The mean age of the patients was 48.9 years old, and 56.7% of the study population were male and 63.3% were Malay. There were almost equal numbers of patients with (46.7%) and without (53.3%) co-morbidities such as hypertension and ischaemic heart disease. Half of the study population fell under Fisher grade 3 (50.0%), whereas 46.7% were Fisher grade 4. With respect to the Navarro score, 20% of patients scored 10, 16.7% scored 5 or 7, 13.3% scored 11, 10% scored 9, 6.7% scored 1 and 3.3% scored 2, 3 or 8. Most of the patients fell under grade I (33.3%) of the World Federation of Neurological Societies grading (WFNS), and the fewest number of patients were grade III (3.3%). Most (56.7%) patients had an intracranial aneurysm located at the anterior communicating artery (ACOM), followed by the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA) (16.7% each), the posterior communicating artery (PCOM) (6.7%) and, finally, the internal carotid artery (ICA) (3.3%). Neurological outcomes at three and six months were assessed using the Modified Rankin Scale (mRS). At three months follow-up, the majority of the participants (33.3%) scored 0 or 6, whereas at six months
Kumar, Vikas; Jagetia, Anita; Singh, Daljit; Srivastava, Arvind Kumar; Tandon, Monica Sehgal
The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of intraoperative indocyanine green videoangiography (ICG-VA) using postoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in clipped anterior circulation aneurysms. A prospective study was conducted for 1 year which included thirty patients of anterior circulation aneurysm treated by clipping of aneurysm. Intraoperative ICG-VA was performed on all the patients. Postoperative DSA was performed to assess the efficacy of ICG-VA. Intraoperative ICG-VA revealed the occlusion of aneurysm in all the thirty patients. Postoperative DSA revealed aneurysm neck remnant in two patients and demonstrated no branch occlusion. Intraoperative ICG-VA is useful in assessing the completeness of clipping of cerebral aneurysms and ensures patency of branch vessels, thus providing a better postoperative outcome. It replaces the need for invasive postoperative angiographic imaging in a selected group of patients and is also cost effective.
Kurokawa, R; Saito, R; Nakamura, Y; Kagami, H; Ichikizaki, K
An 81-year-old female presented with severe headache. Computed tomography revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage. She developed right facial nerve paresis on the next day. Angiography revealed a right vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. The aneurysm was successfully occluded with interlocking detachable coils (IDCs) on the 7th day. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging 1 month after IDC placement showed partially thrombosed aneurysm near the internal acoustic meatus. Ten months after the ictus, MR imaging revealed marked resolution of the intra-aneurysmal thrombus and reduction of the aneurysm size. Her facial nerve function gradually recovered during this period. Her facial nerve paresis was probably caused by acute stretching of the facial nerve by the ruptured aneurysm that was in direct contact with the nerve. Intra-aneurysmal thrombosis using coils can reduce aneurysm size and alleviate cranial nerve symptoms.
Chung, Chih-Ping; Yong, Chin-Sern; Chang, Feng-Chi; Sheng, Wen-Yung; Huang, Hui-Chi; Tsai, Jui-Yao; Hsu, Hung-Yi; Hu, Han-Hwa
Objective Stroke research and clinical trials have focused mainly on anterior circulation stroke (ACS). Since clinical characteristics, mechanisms, and outcomes of posterior circulation stroke (PCS) have been reported different from ACS, more PCS studies are required, particularly researching the etiologies, to help establish an optimal management strategy. Methods The present study analyzed patients of PCS who were consecutively admitted and registered in Taipei Veterans General Hospital Stroke Registry between 1 January 2012 to 28 February 2014. We demonstrated the distribution of etiologies, compared the clinical characteristics/outcomes among different etiology groups, and used univariate/multivariate analyses to identify the predictors for poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale ≥5) at discharge and 3 month. Results About 286 patients of PCS were included for analyses. Basilar artery atheromatous branch occlusive disease (BABO, 28.0%) and large artery dissection (25.9%) were the two most common etiologies, followed by large artery atherosclerotic stenosis/occlusion (LAA, 20.6%), cardioembolism (CE, 18.5%) and small vessel disease (7.0%). Age, vascular risk factors, infarct locations and patterns, and outcomes were different among these five etiology groups. Multivariate analyses showed that age >70 y/o (discharge/3 month, OR, 95% CI: 3.05, 1.23–7.56/8.39, 2.32–30.33), admission NIH Stroke Scale >9 (19.50, 8.69–43.75/13.45, 5.59–32.39), and etiology (LAA versus BABO: 5.00, 1.58–15.83/4.00, 1.19–13.4; CE versus BABO: 3.36, 1.02–11.09/4.66, 1.40–15.46) were independently associated with poor functional outcome. Interpretation The etiologies of PCS are heterogeneous and shown to be associated with functional outcomes. Our results have shed lights on future pathophysiological research and designs of clinical trials for PCS. PMID:26000323
Zheng, Shu-Fa; Yao, Pei-Sen; Yu, Liang-Hong; Kang, De-Zhi
Abstract Poor-grade ruptured anterior circulation cerebral aneurysms are frequently associated with severe vasospasm and high morbidity rates despite recent remarkable advances in endovascular coiling. Here, we explored the feasibility of keyhole approach combined with external ventricular drainage for ruptured, poor-grade, anterior circulation cerebral aneurysms. We retrospectively assessed the records of 103 patients with ruptured, Hunt and Hess grade IV or V, anterior circulation cerebral aneurysms. The patients were divided into 2 groups (conservative group and surgical group). In surgical group, patients were divided into 2 subgroups according to surgical time (within 24 hours and at 24–48 hours). Clinical outcome was assessed at the 6-month follow-up and categorized according to modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score. Twenty percent of patients (9/44) in conservative group obtained good outcome, while 54% (32/54) in surgical group (P < 0.05). Mortality was 73% in conservative group and 40% in surgical group, respectively. In surgical group, age, Hunt and Hess grade (IV or V), and timing of intervention (<24 hours or later) influenced the clinical outcome of the patients (P < 0.05), while sex, Fisher grade, hydrocephalus, the location of aneurysms, and cerebral vasospasm (CVS) not (P > 0.05). Furthermore, 65% of patients (22/34) operated within 24 hours after onset of hemorrhage had a good outcome compared with 20% of patients (5/25) operated at 24 to 48 hours in surgical group (P < 0.05). The results indicate that keyhole approach combined with external ventricular drainage is a safe and reliable treatment for ruptured, poor-grade, anterior circulation cerebral aneurysms in early stage, which will reduce mortality. PMID:26705215
Neurosurgeons have been trying to reduce surgical invasiveness by applying minimally invasive keyhole approaches. Therefore, this paper clarifies the detailed surgical technique, its limitations, proper indications, and contraindications for a superciliary keyhole approach as a minimally invasive modification of a pterional approach. Successful superciliary keyhole surgery for unruptured aneurysms requires an understanding of the limitations and the use of special surgical techniques. Essentially, this means the effective selection of surgical indications, usage of the appropriate surgical instruments with a tubular shaft, and refined surgical techniques, including straightforward access to the aneurysm, clean surgical dissection, and the application of clips with an appropriate configuration. A superciliary keyhole approach allows unruptured anterior circulation aneurysms to be clipped safely, rapidly, and less invasively on the basis of appropriate surgical indications. PMID:25535512
... is thought to play a role in abdominal aortic aneurysms. Atherosclerotic disease (cholesterol buildup in arteries) may also ... not it is painful and throbbing. With an aortic aneurysm, go to the emergency room or call 911 ...
Alurkar, Anand; Karanamm, Lakshmi Sudha Prasanna; Oak, Sagar
Aneurysms in the pediatric age group are rare and have preponderance for the posterior circulation. These aneurysms are more commonly large, giant, and complex. We present two case reports of saccular aneurysms in pediatric patients who were treated successfully by endovascular technique. PMID:23393631
Kan, Peter; Mokin, Maxim; Puri, Ajit S; Wakhloo, Ajay K
Fusiform aneurysms present a unique challenge to traditional microsurgical and endovascular treatment because of the lack of a discernible neck and the involvement of parent vessel. Flow diversion has increasingly become the treatment of choice for fusiform aneurysms in the anterior circulation, but its results in the posterior circulation are variable. We report successful treatment of a giant fusiform upper basilar trunk aneurysm with the Surpass flow diverter in an adolescent, and discuss the potential advantages of this emerging technology in the treatment of fusiform posterior circulation aneurysms. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
van de Pol, Daan; Maas, Mario; Terpstra, Aart; Pannekoek-Hekman, Marja; Alaeikhanehshir, Sena; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Planken, R Nils
To determine the prevalence of posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) aneurysms and vessel characteristics of the PCHA and deep brachial artery (DBA) in elite volleyball players. Two-hundred and eighty players underwent standardized ultrasound assessment of the dominant arm by a vascular technologist. Assessment included determination of PCHA aneurysms (defined as segmental vessel dilatation ≥150 %), PCHA and DBA anatomy, branching pattern, vessel course and diameter. The PCHA and DBA were identified in 100 % and 93 % (260/280) of cases, respectively. The prevalence of PCHA aneurysms was 4.6 % (13/280). All aneurysms were detected in proximal PCHA originating from the axillary artery (AA). The PCHA originated from the AA in 81 % of cases (228/280), and showed a curved course dorsally towards the humeral head in 93 % (211/228). The DBA originated from the AA in 73 % of cases (190/260), and showed a straight course parallel to the AA in 93 % (177/190). PCHA aneurysm prevalence in elite volleyball players is high and associated with a specific branching type: a PCHA that originates from the axillary artery. Radiologists should have a high index of suspicion for this vascular overuse injury. For the first time vessel characteristics and reference values are described to facilitate ultrasound assessment. • Prevalence of PCHA aneurysms is 4.6 % among elite volleyball players. • All aneurysms are in proximal PCHA that originates directly from AA. • Vessel characteristics and reference values are described to facilitate US assessment. • Mean PCHA and DBA diameters can be used as reference values. • Radiologists need a high index of suspicion for this vascular overuse injury.
Akhtar, Saad; Azeem, Abdul; Jiwani, Amyna; Javed, Gohar
Introduction There are variations in the anatomy of the vertebrobasilar system amongst which the Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery-Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery (AICA-PICA) variant is thought to have a prevalence of 20–24% (based on retrospective studies). Despite this, aneurysms of the AICA-PICA variant are rare. We present a case of an AICA-PICA aneurysm and discuss its presentation and management, along with a review of literature. Presentation of case We describe the case of a 35 year old female who presented with signs of meningismus. On the basis of radiological imaging it was initially misdiagnosed as a thrombosed arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The patient was eventually discharged with a plan of interval imaging and interventional radiology (if required). The patient presented again with similar signs and symptoms. Re-evaluation of imaging revealed an aneurysm of the AICA-PICA variant which was managed surgically. Discussion Aneurysms of the AICA-PICA variant are rare. The radiological features and surgical management represent a unique clinical entity and are discussed below. Conclusion The prevalence of the AICA-PICA variant might be high but aneurysms in this vessel are rare. The scant knowledge available on this subject makes it a diagnostic difficulty. PMID:27017276
Kim, Daehwan; Chung, Jung Kee; Park, Hyung Sub; Jung, In Mok; Lee, Taeseung
To report experiences of the sandwich technique (ST) for preservation of pelvic flow during endovascular repair of complex aortic or aortoiliac aneurysms. Eight patients underwent elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) using the ST between March 2013 and February 2017. The anatomic indications for the ST were complex aortoiliac aneurysms (5 cases), abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) with non-diseased short common iliac arteries (2 cases) and AAA with unilateral occluded iliac artery (1 case). The ST was performed through both femoral and brachial approach. Patient clinical and radiologic data were collected and analyzed. Eight patients (7 male; mean age, 73.4 years) were followed over a mean period of 277 days (range, 9-1,106 days). The technical success rate was 100%. The primary patency rate of the iliac stent-grafts was 88% (14/16 cases). One internal iliac and 1 external iliac stent-graft occlusion was observed during the early postoperative period. There was 1 gutter endoleak which disappeared spontaneously within 4 days, and there were 2 type II endoleaks: one treated by coil embolization after 13 months, and the other observed without treatment. There were no cases of sac growth or aneurysm-related deaths, and no cases of buttock claudication or impotence. The ST is a safe and feasible technique to preserve pelvic circulation during endovascular treatment of complex aortoiliac aneurysms. The need to expand the indications for complex EVARs with adjunctive procedures, such as the ST is highlighted in situations where branched/fenestrated device availability is limited.
Ueda, Kayo; Hoshi, Takuo; Yorozu, Shinko; Okazaki, Junko; Motomura, Yuji; Masumoto, Tomohiko; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Tanaka, Makoto
A 73-year-old patient developed convulsion and prolonged disturbance of consciousness after clipping surgery for unruptured cerebral aneurysm. The patient's consciousness improved four days after surgery, and radiological findings suggested posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). The cause of PRES is thought to be dysfunction of blood brain barrier by a sudden increase in blood pressure. In case of unexplained convulsion and decreased level of consciousness, PRES should be considered with radiographic examinations including CT and MRI.
Saraf, Rashmi; Shrivastava, Manish; Siddhartha, Wuppalapati; Limaye, Uday
The aim of this study was to analyze the location, clinical presentation, and morphological characteristics of pediatric aneurysms and the safety, feasibility, and durability of endovascular treatment. The authors conducted a retrospective study of all cases involving patients 18 years old or younger who underwent endovascular treatment for pediatric aneurysms at their institution between July 1998 and July 2010. The clinical presentation, aneurysm location, endovascular management, and treatment outcome were studied. During the study period, 23 pediatric patients (mean age 13 years, range 2 months-18 years) were referred to the authors' department and underwent endovascular treatment for aneurysms. The aneurysms were saccular in 6 cases, dissecting in 4, infectious in 5, and giant partially thrombosed lesions in 8. Fourteen of the aneurysms were ruptured, and 9 were unruptured. Thirteen were in the anterior circulation and 10 in the posterior circulation. The most common location in the anterior circulation was the anterior communicating artery; in the posterior circulation, the most common location was the basilar artery. Saccular aneurysms were the most common type in the anterior circulation; and giant partially thrombosed and dissecting aneurysms were the most common types in the posterior circulation. Coil embolization was performed in 7 cases, parent vessel sacrifice in 10, flow reversal in 3, glue embolization in 2, and stent placement in 1. Immediate angiographic cure was seen in 21 (91%) of 23 patients. Complications occurred in 4 patients, 3 of whom eventually had a good outcome. No patient died. Overall, a favorable outcome was seen in 22 (96%) of 23 patients. Follow-up showed stable occlusion of aneurysms in 96% of the patients. Pediatric aneurysms are rare. Their clinical presentation varies from intracranial hemorrhage to mass effect. They may also be found incidentally. Among pediatric patients with aneurysms, giant aneurysms are relatively common
Chalouhi, Nohra; Jabbour, Pascal; Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Starke, Robert M; Younes, Philippe; El Hage, Gilles; Samaha, Elie
Recent advancements in microsurgical techniques and instrumentation have allowed the development of the keyhole approach in aneurysm surgery. To compare the safety, efficacy, and 1-year clinical outcome of supraorbital keyhole and standard pterional approaches for ruptured anterior circulation aneurysms. A total of 87 patients underwent surgical clipping, 40 through the pterional and 47 through the supraorbital keyhole approach. Baseline demographics, operative time, procedural complications, and 1-year patient outcome were retrospectively compared. The 2 groups were comparable with respect to baseline characteristics, with the exception of a higher proportion of small aneurysms (<7 mm) in the supraorbital group (70.2% vs. 37.5%, P = .002). Total operative time was significantly shorter in the supraorbital group (205 minutes, P < .001) compared with the pterional group (256 minutes). The rate of procedural complications was lower in patients treated through the pterional (17.5%) vs the supraorbital approach (23.4%, P = .4). Intraoperative aneurysm ruptures occurred more frequently in the supraorbital group (10.6% vs. 2.5%). No patient experienced early or late rebleeding in either group. One year after treatment, 75% (30/40) of patients achieved a favorable outcome (Glasgow outcome scale IV or V) in the pterional group vs 76.6% (36/47) in the supraorbital group (P = .8). The rate of procedural complications may be higher with the supraorbital keyhole approach, but overall patient outcomes appear to be comparable. The pterional approach is a simple, reliable, and efficient procedure. The keyhole approach may be an acceptable alternative for neurosurgeons who have gained sufficient experience with the technique, especially for small noncomplex aneurysms.
González-Darder, José M.; Quilis-Quesada, Vicent; Talamantes-Escribá, Fernando; Botella-Maciá, Laura; Verdú-López, Francisco
Purpose The study of the clinical, anatomic, imaging, and microsurgical characteristics of the aneurysms of the internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (ICA-PComA) segment and their relationships with the skull base structures. Methods The anatomic relationships of PComA with neurovascular elements and skull base structures were studied in cadavers. The clinical, imaging, and microsurgical findings of 84 microsurgically treated ICA-PComA aneurysms compiled in a prospective database were reviewed. Results The most important anatomic relations of the PComA and ICA-PComA aneurysms are with the oculomotor nerve around the oculomotor triangle that forms the roof of the cavernous sinus. Aneurysms of the ICA-PComA are classified according to the orientation of the aneurysmal sac in infratentorial, supratentorial, and tentorial. Infratentorial aneurysms frequently present with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and oculomotor nerve paralysis. They have relations with skull base structures that often make it necessary to totally or partially resect the anterior clinoid process (6.7%) or anterior petroclinoid dural fold (15%). Supratentorial aneurysms course with SAH and without oculomotor nerve involvement, but they often are associated with intracranial hematoma. Conclusion ICA-PComA aneurysms have complex anatomic relations. The orientation of the aneurysmal fundus induces relevant differences in the anatomic relations, clinical presentation, and microsurgical approach to ICA-PComA aneurysms. PMID:24083126
Yu, Liang-Hong; Yao, Pei-Sen; Zheng, Shu-Fa; Kang, De-Zhi
Brain retraction is required during many intracranial procedures to provide more working space. However, it is difficult to avoid brain retraction injury. Here, we report on retractorless surgery for anterior circulation aneurysms via a pterional keyhole approach. All patients undergoing a minimally invasive pterional keyhole approach within 3 days after hemorrhage by the same surgeon were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned into group I (with the retractorless technique) and group II (with fixed retractors). Data on adequate clipping level, intraoperative ischemia induced by retraction, operation time, brain retraction injury, intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative aneurysm rupture, and modified Rankin Scale were collected for the 2 groups. A consecutive series of 47 patients (21 patients in group I, 26 patients in group II) successfully underwent a minimally invasive pterional keyhole approach. Statistical analysis revealed no significant between-group differences with regard to sex, age, Hunt-Hess grade, adequate clipping level, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and aneurysm rupture (P > 0.05). However, no intraoperative ischemia was detected in group I, whereas 23.1% (6 of 26) of patients in group II had reversible ischemia. Furthermore, the proportion of brain retraction injuries in group I (5.3%) was lower than that in group II (34.6%). In addition, a better prognosis was obtained in patients who underwent retractorless surgery. With the careful and accurate use of a handheld suction device and operating instruments, the retractorless technique can replace fixed retraction, reduce brain retraction injury, and is applicable to surgeries on anterior circulation aneurysms via pterional keyhole approaches.
Ab. Ghani, Ailani; Nayan, Saiful Azli Mat; Kandasamy, Regunath; Rosman, Azmin Kas; Ghani, Abdul Rahman Izani
Introduction The annual incidence of intracranial aneurysm in Malaysia is estimated to be 1.1–1.7 per 100,000 population based on a study done conducted in 1988. Since then, little epidemiological research has been conducted in Malaysia, and the real incidence is therefore probably unreported despite advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder. Intracranial aneurysm may be treated by microsurgical clipping or embolisation depending on its location and the surgeon’s preference. This study aims to report the characteristics and outcomes of patients with a clipped anterior circulation aneurysm in Hospital Sungai Buloh. Methods We retrospectively collected the data of patients with anterior circulation aneurysms who underwent clipping from 1 January 2013 until 30 June 2014 in Hospital Sungai Buloh. Results The mean age of the patients was 48.9 years old, and 56.7% of the study population were male and 63.3% were Malay. There were almost equal numbers of patients with (46.7%) and without (53.3%) co-morbidities such as hypertension and ischaemic heart disease. Half of the study population fell under Fisher grade 3 (50.0%), whereas 46.7% were Fisher grade 4. With respect to the Navarro score, 20% of patients scored 10, 16.7% scored 5 or 7, 13.3% scored 11, 10% scored 9, 6.7% scored 1 and 3.3% scored 2, 3 or 8. Most of the patients fell under grade I (33.3%) of the World Federation of Neurological Societies grading (WFNS), and the fewest number of patients were grade III (3.3%). Most (56.7%) patients had an intracranial aneurysm located at the anterior communicating artery (ACOM), followed by the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA) (16.7% each), the posterior communicating artery (PCOM) (6.7%) and, finally, the internal carotid artery (ICA) (3.3%). Neurological outcomes at three and six months were assessed using the Modified Rankin Scale (mRS). At three months follow-up, the majority of the participants (33.3%) scored 0
Lochner, Piergiorgio; Golaszewski, Stefan; Caleri, Francesca; Ladurner, Gunther; Tezzon, Frediano; Zuccoli, Giulio; Nardone, Raffaele
Little attention has been given to the fetal-type posterior circle of Willis (FTP) in the literature; also symptomatic basilar artery (BA) hypoplasia has been rarely reported. We aimed to illustrate that the association of a hypoplastic vertebrobasilar system (VBS) with the FTP may lead to posterior circulation ischemia. Magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography were performed in 88 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke or TIA in the VBS. Thirteen patients were identified with either stroke or TIA in the context of a hypoplastic VBS and a fetal origin of the posterior cerebral arteries. All patients had unilateral or bilateral FTP, hypoplastic BA and at least one hypoplastic vertebral artery. Transcranial color-coded duplex revealed decreased flow velocity and increased pulsatility index along the BA. A hypoplastic VBS may be accompanied by the FTP and its simultaneous occurrence can predispose to ischemic events in the posterior circulation.
Moxon, Joseph V; Ng, Eugene; Lazzaroni, Sharon M; Boult, Margaret; Velu, Ramesh; Fitridge, Robert A; Golledge, Jonathan
Endoleak is a common complication of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) but can be detected only through prolonged follow-up with repeated aortic imaging. This study examined the potential for circulating matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), osteoprotegerin (OPG), D-dimer, homocysteine (HCY), and C-reactive protein (CRP) to act as diagnostic markers for endoleak in AAA patients undergoing elective EVAR. Linear mixed-effects models were constructed to assess differences in AAA diameter after EVAR between groups of patients who did and did not develop endoleak during follow-up, adjusting for potential confounders. Circulating MMP9, OPG, D-dimer, HCY, and CRP concentrations were measured in preoperative and postoperative plasma samples. The association of these markers with endoleak diagnosis was assessed using linear mixed effects adjusted as before. The potential for each marker to diagnose endoleak was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves. Seventy-five patients were included in the study, 24 of whom developed an endoleak during follow-up. Patients with an endoleak had significantly larger AAA sac diameters than those who did not have an endoleak. None of the assessed markers showed a significant association with endoleak. This was confirmed through receiver operating characteristic curve analyses indicating poor diagnostic ability for all markers. Circulating concentrations of MMP9, OPG, D-dimer, HCY, and CRP were not associated with endoleak in patients undergoing EVAR in this study. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Toyota, Shingo; Taki, Takuyu; Wakayama, Akatsuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki
Objective To report a rare case of unruptured internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (IC-PC) aneurysm splitting the oculomotor nerve treated by clipping and to review the previously published cases. Case Presentation A 42-year-old man suddenly presented with left oculomotor paresis. Three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography (3D DSA) demonstrated a left IC-PC aneurysm with a bulging part. During surgery, it was confirmed that the bulging part split the oculomotor nerve. After the fenestrated oculomotor nerve was dissected from the bulging part with a careful microsurgical technique, neck clipping was performed. After the operation, the symptoms of oculomotor nerve paresis disappeared within 2 weeks. Conclusions We must keep in mind the possibility of an anomaly of the oculomotor nerve, including fenestration, and careful observation and manipulation should be performed to preserve the nerve function during surgery, even though it is very rare.
Toyota, Shingo; Taki, Takuyu; Wakayama, Akatsuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki
Objective To report a rare case of unruptured internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (IC-PC) aneurysm splitting the oculomotor nerve treated by clipping and to review the previously published cases. Case Presentation A 42-year-old man suddenly presented with left oculomotor paresis. Three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography (3D DSA) demonstrated a left IC-PC aneurysm with a bulging part. During surgery, it was confirmed that the bulging part split the oculomotor nerve. After the fenestrated oculomotor nerve was dissected from the bulging part with a careful microsurgical technique, neck clipping was performed. After the operation, the symptoms of oculomotor nerve paresis disappeared within 2 weeks. Conclusions We must keep in mind the possibility of an anomaly of the oculomotor nerve, including fenestration, and careful observation and manipulation should be performed to preserve the nerve function during surgery, even though it is very rare. PMID:25083381
Levy, E I; Horowitz, M B; Koebbe, C J; Jungreis, C C; Pride, G L; Dutton, K; Purdy, P D
Symptomatic vertebrobasilar artery stenosis portends a poor prognosis, even with medical therapy. Surgical intervention is associated with considerable morbidity, and percutaneous angioplasty alone has demonstrated mixed results, with significant complications. Recent advances in stent technology have allowed for a novel treatment of symptomatic, medically refractory, vertebrobasilar artery stenosis. We report on a series of patients with medically refractory, posterior circulation stenosis who were treated with transluminal angioplasty and stenting at two medical centers in the United States. A retrospective analysis of data for 11 consecutive patients with symptomatic, medically refractory, intracranial, vertebral or basilar artery stenosis was performed. All patients were treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting. Short-term clinical and angiographic follow-up data were obtained. Among 11 patients who were treated with stent-assisted angioplasty of the basilar or vertebral arteries, there were three periprocedural deaths and one delayed death after a pontine stroke. Other complications included a second pontine infarction, with subsequent residual diplopia. The remaining seven patients (64%) experienced symptom resolution and have resumed their preprocedural activities of daily living. Angiographic follow-up examinations demonstrated good patency of the stented lesions for five of seven survivors (71%); one patient exhibited minimal intrastent intimal hyperplasia, and another patient developed new stenosis proximal to the stent and also developed an aneurysm within the stented portion of the basilar artery. The last patient exhibited 40% narrowing of the treated portion of the vessel lumen. Recent advances in stent technology allow negotiation of the proximal posterior circulation vasculature. Although the treatment of vertebrobasilar artery stenosis with angioplasty and stenting is promising, long-term angiographic and clinical follow
de Carvalho, Fernando Mota; Caroff, Jildaz; Pereira Dos Santos Neto, Elizeu; Chalumeau, Vanessa; Abdel Khalek, Hazem; Neki, Hiroaki; Saliou, Guillaume; Rouchaud, Aymeric; Moret, Jacques; Spelle, Laurent
Flow-diverter stent (FDS) placement for treatment of intracranial aneurysms can cause flow changes in the covered branches. To assess the impact of the treatment of carotid siphon aneurysms with FDS on the posterior communicating artery (PComA) flow. Between February 2011 and January 2015, 125 carotid siphon aneurysms were treated with FDS. We retrospectively analyzed all cases with PComA ostial coverage. The circle of Willis anatomy was also studied as the flow changes in PComA postoperatively and during angiographic follow-up. Data from neurological examination were also collected. Eighteen aneurysms of the carotid siphon in 17 patients were treated with FDS covering the ostium of the PComA. Based on the initial angiography, patients were divided into two groups: the first with a P1/PComA size ratio >1 (10 cases) and the second with a ratio ≤1 (8 cases). Follow-up angiography (mean time of 10 months) showed 90% of PComA flow changes in group 1 but only 12.5% in group 2. There was a significant difference between the two groups (p=0.002). Nevertheless, no patient had new symptoms related to these flow changes during the follow-up period. In our experience, covering the PComA by FDS when treating carotid siphon aneurysms appeared safe and the P1/PComA ratio is a good predictor of flow changes in PComA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Abla, Adib A; Smith, Kris A; Nakaji, Peter
We report a 23-year-old man with intractable epilepsy and an incidental posterior communicating artery aneurysm who was treated simultaneously for both pathologies. He was counseled regarding the potential to treat both pathologies with one procedure. He elected to undergo a simultaneous approach. The patient was doing well at his 5-month follow-up examination with no residual seizures or neurologic deficits. We conclude that access to aneurysms within the basal cisterns is viable with transchoroidal approaches through the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle. Anterior extension through portions of the amygdala further increases access. In our patient, selective amygdalohippocampectomy and posterior communicating artery aneurysm clipping were performed during the same surgical setting/approach. This directly lateral corridor allowed our young patient with an incidental aneurysm to undergo a less invasive combined operation rather than two separate procedures.
Shinagawa, Katsuhiro; Matsushige, Toshinori; Okazaki, Takahito; Ishii, Daizo; Ichinose, Nobuhiko; Sakamoto, Shigeyuki; Kurisu, Kaoru
The ischemic risk in prophylactic treatments of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) is a serious health concern. The aim of this study was to elucidate the incidence and characteristics of ischemic events in microsurgical clipping (MC) of anterior circulation UIAs. Ischemic events were prospectively evaluated before and after surgery between April 2011 and March 2017. The location, volume, minimum value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCMIN) in high-intensity spots (HIS) on 3T MR Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and radiographic outcomes were analyzed. The relationships between DWI positivity and patient demographics, surgical procedures, and intraoperative vessel features were assessed. Overall, 78 consecutive patients including 29 males and 49 females (median age: 62 years, range: 24 - 77 years) with 99 UIAs were analyzed. A total of 10 in 78 craniotomies (13%) detected HIS on DWI, which were all asymptomatic. Seventeen HIS were demonstrated with 5 located in the basal ganglia, 6 in the white matter, and 6 in the cortex. The volume and ADCMIN were 180.4 ± 31.2 mm(3) and 0.56 ± 0.03 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, respectively. Radiographic outcomes at follow-up showed 71% of HIS on DWI led to irreversible brain ischemia. The maximum diameter of aneurysms, atherosclerotic features of the aneurysm wall and procedure-related factors were associated with DWI positivity. The asymptomatic ischemic risk associated with microsurgical clipping was not low and most lesions were irreversible. Although the mechanism of it could be various, the use of clips for atherosclerotic the aneurysm and/or parental vessels would require much attention. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Zhang, Changqing; Wang, Yilong; Zhao, Xingquan; Liu, Liping; Wang, ChunXue; Pu, Yuehua; Zou, Xinying; Pan, Yuesong; Wong, Ka Sing; Wang, Yongjun
Posterior circulation ischemic stroke (IS) is generally considered an illness with a poor prognosis. However, there are no effective rating scales to predict recurrent stroke following it. Therefore, our aim was to identify clinical or radiological measures that could assist in predicting recurrent cerebral ischemic episodes. We prospectively enrolled 723 noncardiogenic posterior circulation IS patients with onset of symptoms <7 days. Stroke risk factors, admission symptoms and signs, topographical distribution and responsible cerebral artery of acute infarcts, and any recurrent IS or transient ischemic attack (TIA) within 1 year were assessed. Cox regression was used to identify risk factors associated with recurrent IS or TIA within the year after posterior circulation IS. A total of 40 patients (5.5%) had recurrent IS or TIA within 1 year of posterior circulation IS. Multivariate Cox regression identified chief complaint with dysphagia (hazard ratio [HR], 4.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-10.2; P=0.002), repeated TIAs within 3 months before the stroke (HR, 15.4; 95% CI, 5.55-42.5; P<0.0001), responsible artery stenosis ≥70% (HR, 7.91; 95% CI, 1.00-62.6; P=0.05), multisector infarcts (HR, 5.38; 95% CI, 1.25-23.3; P=0.02), and not on antithrombotics treatment at discharge (HR, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.09-8.58; P=0.03) as independent predictors of recurrent IS or TIA. Some posterior circulation IS patients are at higher risk for recurrent IS or TIA. Urgent assessment and preventive treatment should be offered to these patients as soon as possible. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Otsuka, Hiroaki; Fukuda, Yuhtaka; Yoshimura, Shouta; Somagawa, Chika; Hiu, Takeshi; Ono, Tomonori; Ushijima, Ryujirou; Toda, Keisuke; Tsutsumi, Keisuke
A 69-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of a sudden severe headache without a history of head trauma. CT and MRI revealed an acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) extending from the right interhemispheric space to the posterior fossa bilaterally, with a small amount of subarachnoid hemorrhage that was predominantly localized to the left side of the basal cistern. CT angiogram demonstrated a long protruding ruptured aneurysm at the junction of the right internal carotid and posterior communicating arteries (IC/PC AN) with a posteroinferior projection, associated with a small bleb located near the tentorial edge close to the ipsilateral posterior clinoid process, for which she received clipping surgery. Though rare, IC/PC AN could cause pure or nearly pure ASDH in the above-mentioned distribution. Therefore, in patients with such ASDH, especially without a history of head injury or precise information regarding the situation at the time of onset, urgent imaging evaluation and early intervention are essential to prevent devastating re-rupture events.
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Tymko, Michael M; Rickards, Caroline A; Skow, Rachel J; Ingram-Cotton, Nathan C; Howatt, Michael K; Day, Trevor A
Steady-state tilt has no effect on cerebrovascular reactivity to increases in the partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2). However, the anterior and posterior cerebral circulations may respond differently to a variety of stimuli that alter central blood volume, including lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Little is known about the superimposed effects of head-up tilt (HUT; decreased central blood volume and intracranial pressure) and head-down tilt (HDT; increased central blood volume and intracranial pressure), and LBNP on cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses. We hypothesized that (a) cerebral blood velocity (CBV; an index of CBF) responses during LBNP would not change with HUT and HDT, and (b) CBV in the anterior cerebral circulation would decrease to a greater extent compared to posterior CBV during LBNP when controlling PETCO2 In 13 male participants, we measured CBV in the anterior (middle cerebral artery, MCAv) and posterior (posterior cerebral artery, PCAv) cerebral circulations using transcranial Doppler ultrasound during LBNP stress (-50 mmHg) in three body positions (45°HUT, supine, 45°HDT). PETCO2 was measured continuously and maintained at constant levels during LBNP through coached breathing. Our main findings were that (a) steady-state tilt had no effect on CBV responses during LBNP in both the MCA (P = 0.077) and PCA (P = 0.583), and (b) despite controlling for PETCO2, both the MCAv and PCAv decreased by the same magnitude during LBNP in HUT (P = 0.348), supine (P = 0.694), and HDT (P = 0.407). Here, we demonstrate that there are no differences in anterior and posterior circulations in response to LBNP in different body positions.
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a worldwide health burden with high fatality and permanent disability rates. The overall prognosis depends on the volume of the initial bleed, rebleeding, and degree of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Cardiac manifestations and neurogenic pulmonary edema indicate the severity of SAH. The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) reported a favorable neurological outcome with the endovascular coiling procedure compared with surgical clipping at the end of 1 year. The ISAT trial recruits were primarily neurologically good grade patients with smaller anterior circulation aneurysms, and therefore the results cannot be reliably extrapolated to larger aneurysms, posterior circulation aneurysms, patients presenting with complex aneurysm morphology, and poor neurological grades. The role of hypothermia is not proven to be neuroprotective according to a large randomized controlled trial, Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysms Surgery Trial (IHAST II), which recruited patients with good neurological grades. Patients in this trial were subjected to slow cooling and inadequate cooling time and were rewarmed rapidly. This methodology would have reduced the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Adenosine is found to be beneficial for transient induced hypotension in 2 retrospective analyses, without increasing the risk for cardiac and neurological morbidity. The neurological benefit of pharmacological neuroprotection and neuromonitoring is not proven in patients undergoing clipping of aneurysms. DCI is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following SAH, and the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial and not yet understood. At present, oral nimodipine has an established role in the management of DCI, along with maintenance of euvolemia and induced hypertension. Following SAH, hypernatremia, although less common than hyponatremia, is a predictor of poor neurological outcome. PMID:25272066
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a worldwide health burden with high fatality and permanent disability rates. The overall prognosis depends on the volume of the initial bleed, rebleeding, and degree of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Cardiac manifestations and neurogenic pulmonary edema indicate the severity of SAH. The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) reported a favorable neurological outcome with the endovascular coiling procedure compared with surgical clipping at the end of 1 year. The ISAT trial recruits were primarily neurologically good grade patients with smaller anterior circulation aneurysms, and therefore the results cannot be reliably extrapolated to larger aneurysms, posterior circulation aneurysms, patients presenting with complex aneurysm morphology, and poor neurological grades. The role of hypothermia is not proven to be neuroprotective according to a large randomized controlled trial, Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysms Surgery Trial (IHAST II), which recruited patients with good neurological grades. Patients in this trial were subjected to slow cooling and inadequate cooling time and were rewarmed rapidly. This methodology would have reduced the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Adenosine is found to be beneficial for transient induced hypotension in 2 retrospective analyses, without increasing the risk for cardiac and neurological morbidity. The neurological benefit of pharmacological neuroprotection and neuromonitoring is not proven in patients undergoing clipping of aneurysms. DCI is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following SAH, and the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial and not yet understood. At present, oral nimodipine has an established role in the management of DCI, along with maintenance of euvolemia and induced hypertension. Following SAH, hypernatremia, although less common than hyponatremia, is a predictor of poor neurological outcome.
Marutani, Akiko; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Park, Hun Soo; Tamura, Kentaro; Motoyama, Yasushi; Nakase, Hiroyuki
Background: A distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) de novo aneurysm at the cortical segment after atherosclerotic basilar artery occlusion is extremely rare. Here, we report the case of a ruptured distal PICA de novo aneurysm 8 years after basilar artery occlusion. Case Description: A 75-year-old man experienced sudden disturbance of consciousness; computed tomography demonstrated cerebellar and subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured distal PICA aneurysm. Neck clipping of the aneurysm prevented re-rupture initially, and superficial temporal artery-superior cerebellar artery (STA-SCA) bypass was performed 3 months after admission. Postoperative angiography confirmed patency of the bypass, and the patient was discharged without any new neurological deficits. Conclusion: This report describes a case of de novo development of a saccular distal PICA aneurysm after atherosclerotic basilar artery occlusion. We believe that increased hemodynamic stress at the PICA might have contributed to the occurrence and rupture of the aneurysm. STA-SCA bypass, introduced in the territory of the cerebellar hemisphere, reduces hemodynamic stress, which would prevent the occurrence of de novo aneurysm and recurrent bleeding. PMID:28144485
Aldea, Sorin; Guedin, Pierre; Roccatagliata, Luca; Boulin, Anne; Auliac, Stéphanie; Dupuy, Michel; Cerf, Charles; Gaillard, Stéphan; Rodesch, Georges
Intracavernous carotid artery aneurysms (ICCAs) are rarely associated with life-threatening complications. We describe a 55-year-old woman who, after the rupture of an intracavernous carotid artery aneurysm, presented with a contralateral cavernous sinus syndrome and severe posterior fossa and spinal cord symptoms. Following parent artery occlusion, thrombosis of the posterior fossa and spinal cord veins caused a progressive worsening of the neurological status to a "locked-in" state. The patient fully recovered with anticoagulation therapy. Comprehension of the pathophysiological mechanism associated with the rupture of ICCA and early diagnosis of the related symptoms are essential in order to plan a correct treatment that includes the management of the aneurysm rupture and of possible complications related to venous thrombosis.
Liang, Jiantao; Bao, Yuhai; Zhang, Hongqi; Wrede, Karsten Henning; Zhi, Xinglong; Li, Meng; Ling, Feng
Intracranial aneurysms are relatively rare in the pediatric population. The objective of this study was to highlight the clinical and radiological features and the therapeutic outcome and clarify the choice of therapeutic strategies for pediatric intracranial aneurysms. Twenty-four consecutive children (age
Davis, S M; Tress, B M; Dowling, R; Donnan, G A; Kiers, L; Rossiter, S C
To compare the diagnostic yield of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with computed tomography (CT) in posterior circulation infarction, we used proton MRI with a 0.3 Tesla magnet and a 3rd generation CT scanner in 25 patients. Age-matched controls were compared in a blinded fashion. Seventeen patients (68%) showed relevant pathology on MRI not seen on CT, 11 with normal CT and six with more extensive lesions, chiefly in the brain stem. Evidence of abnormal vertebrobasilar blood flow was seen in 8/25 (32%) of patients, suggested by vascular high intensity signals on MRI. Two tissue and one flow abnormality were seen in the control group. MRI provides additional information concerning infarct site, extent and pathogenesis in posterior circulation infarction.
Hwang, Jaechun; Kim, Suk Jae; Hong, Ji Man; Bang, Oh Young; Chung, Chin-Sang; Lee, Kwang Ho; Kim, Gyeong-Moon
The clinical significance of microembolic signals (MES) in the posterior circulation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the sources and consequences of MES in acute posterior circulation cerebral ischemia. We evaluated a total of 140 consecutive patients (93 males, mean age 62.9 years) who had acute posterior circulation cerebral ischemia. The MES monitoring was conducted at the basilar artery through the suboccipital window for a 30-minute period. MES were detected in 18 (12.9%) of the 140 patients. Clinical characteristics and laboratory data did not differ between the MES-positive and MES-negative groups. Intracranial vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) stenosis was independently associated with the presence of MES (odds ratio, 9.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-79.48; P=0.032), whereas the patients with vertebral artery stenosis that was limited to the extracranial portion did not show an association. Microembolic signals occurred significantly more frequently in patients with severe degree of VBA stenosis compared to those with nonsignificant stenosis (odds ratio, 9.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-79.07; P=0.031). In a subgroup analysis of the 79 patients who had lesions on diffusion-weighted images and relevant VBA stenosis, the MES-positive group showed more frequent embolic infarction (P=0.010) and multiple lesion patterns (P=0.007) than single perforating infarctions. In acute posterior circulation cerebral ischemia, intracranial and severe VBA stenosis is associated with MES and may be its root causes. The presence of MES in VBA stenosis suggests that multiple and embolic type infarctions are the mechanisms of stroke.
Wen, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Xiao-feng; Deng, Shi-zhe; He, Si; Huang, Ling-hui; Tian, Guang; Meng, Zhi-hong
Acupuncture at Fengchi (GB20) in the posterior neck improves vertigo. However, subarachnoid hemorrhage and spinal epidural hematoma have been reported to occur after acupuncture in the posterior neck. Therefore, in the present study, we assessed the safety of acupuncture at Fengchi. Laboratory tests and adverse event reports were used to evaluate the safety of different acupuncture manipulations for the treatment of posterior circulation ischemia with vertigo. A total of 136 patients were randomly assigned to four groups. Verum acupuncture was conducted with different needle insertion directions (contralateral paropia or prominentia laryngea) and different needle twisting frequencies (60 or 120 times/minute) at Fengchi and matching acupoints (for example, Zhongwan [CV12], Qihai [CV6], Zusanli [ST36], and Fenglong [ST40]). The patients received 14 treatments over 3–4 weeks. Routine blood analysis, hepatic and renal function tests, urine and feces tests and electrocardiography were performed before the first treatment session and after the final session. Adverse events were recorded after every session. Of the 136 patients, 120 completed the study. There were no significant differences between pretreatment and posttreatment test results in any of the groups. Only five patients suffered from minor adverse events (needling pain, slight hematoma and transient chest tightness). No serious adverse events were found. Our results indicate that a 14-session course of needling at Fengchi is relatively safe for treating posterior circulation ischemia with vertigo. PMID:27651774
Wen, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Shi-Zhe; He, Si; Huang, Ling-Hui; Tian, Guang; Meng, Zhi-Hong
Acupuncture at Fengchi (GB20) in the posterior neck improves vertigo. However, subarachnoid hemorrhage and spinal epidural hematoma have been reported to occur after acupuncture in the posterior neck. Therefore, in the present study, we assessed the safety of acupuncture at Fengchi. Laboratory tests and adverse event reports were used to evaluate the safety of different acupuncture manipulations for the treatment of posterior circulation ischemia with vertigo. A total of 136 patients were randomly assigned to four groups. Verum acupuncture was conducted with different needle insertion directions (contralateral paropia or prominentia laryngea) and different needle twisting frequencies (60 or 120 times/minute) at Fengchi and matching acupoints (for example, Zhongwan [CV12], Qihai [CV6], Zusanli [ST36], and Fenglong [ST40]). The patients received 14 treatments over 3-4 weeks. Routine blood analysis, hepatic and renal function tests, urine and feces tests and electrocardiography were performed before the first treatment session and after the final session. Adverse events were recorded after every session. Of the 136 patients, 120 completed the study. There were no significant differences between pretreatment and posttreatment test results in any of the groups. Only five patients suffered from minor adverse events (needling pain, slight hematoma and transient chest tightness). No serious adverse events were found. Our results indicate that a 14-session course of needling at Fengchi is relatively safe for treating posterior circulation ischemia with vertigo.
Vlak, Monique H M; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Greebe, Paut; van der Bom, Johanna G; Algra, Ale
Female gender, age above 60 years, and an aneurysm larger than 5 mm or location on the posterior circulation are associated with a higher rupture risk of intracranial aneurysms. We hypothesized that this association is explained by a higher susceptibility to (one of) the eight trigger factors that were recently identified. We included 250 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We calculated relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of aneurysmal rupture for trigger factors according to sex, age, site, and size of the aneurysms by means of the case-crossover design. None of the triggers except for physical exercise differed according to patient and aneurysm characteristics. In the hour after exposure to physical exercise: (1) patients over the age of 60 have a six-times-higher risk of rupture (RR 13; 95% CI 6.3-26) than those of 60 years of age and under (RR 2.3; 1.3-4.1); (2) aneurysms at the internal carotid artery have a higher risk than those at other locations (RR 17; 7.8-37), but this was only statistically significant when compared to anterior communicating artery aneurysms (RR 3.2; 1.6-6.1); (3) aneurysms 5 mm or smaller had a higher risk of rupture (RR 9.5; 4.6-19) than larger aneurysms (RR 2.4; 1.3-4.3); and (4) women and men had similar risks. A higher susceptibility to exercise might explain part of the higher risk of rupture in older patients. Why women and patients with aneurysms larger than 5 mm or posterior circulation aneurysms have a higher risk of rupture remains to be settled.
Nakai, H; Yamamoto, K; Sako, K; Tanikawa, R; Kunimoto, M; Hashimoto, M; Tomabechi, M; Ohgami, S; Yonemasu, Y; Muraoka, S
This 42-year-old man experienced a sudden onset of occipital headache. Neurological examination revealed a moderately disturbed consciousness and a moderate left hemiparesis. CT scan disclosed a hugh hematoma in the right temporo parietal lobe without intraventricular hemorrhage. A cerebral angiography demonstrated typical findings of moyamoya disease and a small saccular aneurysm at the peripheral portion of the right anterior choroidal artery, which was dilated at the collateral circulation to the parietal lobe. The hematoma was removed at once by a craniotomy. He became alert but mild hemiparesis persisted. MRI disclosed a small signal-void lesion lateral to the trigone of the right lateral ventricle. The angiography repeated three weeks after the removal of the hematoma showed the unchanged size of the aneurysm. Direct surgery for the aneurysm was performed via the right parietal transcortical approach. The aneurysm was reached under the guidance of the intraoperative angiography. Trapping of the parent artery and the excision of the aneurysm were performed. On the basis of the presence of an internal elastic lamina at the neck of the aneurysm, the surgical specimen was histologically verified to be a true aneurysm. Since the collateral circulation was well preserved during surgery, no worsening of the neurological manifestation was observed. In view of the unfavorable prognosis for a moyamoya patient with this type of the aneurysm, which often results in a massive ventricular or intracerebral hemorrhage, surgery directed to the aneurysm itself should be considered.
Park, Woong Bae; Huh, Joon; Cho, Chul Bum; Yang, Seung Ho; Kim, Il Sup; Hong, Jae Taek; Lee, Sang Won
Basilar artery fenestration is infrequent and even rarer in association with a large aneurysm. With proximity to brain stem and vital perforators, endovascular coiling can be considered first. If the large ruptured aneurysm with a wide neck originated from fenestra of the proximal basilar artery and the fenestration loop has branches of posterior circulation, therapeutic consideration should be thorough and fractionized. We report endovascular therapeutic details for a case of a ruptured large saccular aneurysm in proximal basilar artery fenestration. PMID:26523257
Takemoto, Koichiro; Tateshima, Satoshi; Golshan, Ali; Gonzalez, Nestor; Jahan, Reza; Duckwiler, Gary; Vinuela, Fernando
Pediatric intracranial aneurysms are rare and not well characterized in comparison with those in adults. To analyze our institution's longitudinal experience of endovascular treatment for pediatric aneurysms to better understand this rare condition. A retrospective record review was performed of patients aged <20 years treated with endovascular methods for intracranial aneurysms between 1995 and 2012. There were 31 patients (average 14.4±4.2 years; 20 male, 11 female) with 35 intracranial aneurysms. The rate of subarachnoid hemorrhage as the initial presentation was 48% and the rates of multiple and giant aneurysms were 13% and 31%, respectively; 28.5% of the cases were posterior circulation aneurysms. Fifteen saccular aneurysms occurred in 14 patients and 17 fusiform aneurysms were noted in 14 patients. Two infectious aneurysms were diagnosed in two patients and one traumatic aneurysm occurred in another patient. Thirty-four aneurysms were treated endovascularly and one had thrombosed spontaneously on a follow-up angiogram. Of the 15 saccular aneurysms, 11 were treated with conventional coiling, one was treated with stent-assisted coiling, one was treated with a flow-diverting stent and two were treated with parent vessel occlusion (PVO). Of the 17 fusiform aneurysms, 15 were treated with PVO with or without prior bypass surgery and one was treated with a flow-diverting stent. The rate of permanent complications and a favorable outcome were 2.9% and 87%, respectively. Endovascular treatment of pediatric aneurysms is technically feasible with an acceptable complication rate despite the high incidence of fusiform aneurysms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Yamada, Makiko; Nishikawa, Koichi; Kawahara, Fuminori; Yoshikawa, Daisuke; Saito, Shigeru; Goto, Fumio
A 65-year-old female patient underwent surgery to clip a giant basilar artery aneurysm with closed-chest extracorporeal circulation using femorofemoral bypass. Moderate hypothermia (27 degrees C-30 degrees C), retention of spontaneous circulation, and propofol infusion (3-5 mg. kg(-1). h(-1)) were used under general anesthesia. Blood outflow via femoral vein was sufficient to maintain cardiopulmonary bypass and to induce hypothermia. Hemodynamics were controlled with dopamine and noradrenaline. In this case, extracorporeal circulation under moderate hypothermia was used to assist rather than substitute for spontaneous circulation, and spontaneous circulation was maintained at all times. We think that this method had advantages over deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with regard to intraoperative risks and postoperative complications.
Komatsu, Kenichi; Ozaki, Akihiko; Iwasaki, Koichi; Matsumoto, Sadayuki
Vertebral arteries (VAs) are vulnerable to mechanical stress between the atlas and axis, and subsequent VA dissection can cause posterior circulation infarction. We herein present a rare but informative case of bilateral VA aneurysms that caused recurrent stroke. The localization of the aneurysms and dynamic angiography with neck movement suggested a pathogenesis related to chronic mechanical injury of the VAs, though no skeletal abnormality was detected. The recurrences stopped and both aneurysms shrank after neck collar fixation and after the combination use of antithrombotics. For patients with posterior circulation infarction of unknown origin, a careful evaluation of VAs with physicians paying special attention to the atlantoaxial joint level is therefore recommended. PMID:27853085
Zhu, Wei; Wang, Ya-Fang; Dong, Xiao-Feng; Feng, Hong-Xuan; Zhao, He-Qing; Liu, Chun-Feng
Vertebral artery dominance (VAD), which is a common congenital variation of vertebral artery, may be associated with an increased risk of cerebral posterior circulation infarction (PCI). The aims of this study were to investigate the correlation of VAD with incidence and laterality of PCI, and oblige the correlation of VAD and basilar artery (BA) curvature. Incidence of separate territory infarction in posterior circulation and incidence of BA curvature were compared between 78 VAD patients and 68 controls. VA dominance, laterality of BA curvature and separate territory infarction, and their directional relationships were observed in VAD group. The incidence of BA curvature in VAD group was significantly higher than that in controls (P = 0.000). 89.7 % (35/39) of patients had an opposite directional relationship between dominant VA and BA curvature. The total incidence of PCI in VAD group was significantly higher than that in controls (P = 0.001). The incidences of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and BA territory infarction were both significantly higher than those in controls [11.5 % (9/78) vs. 1.5 % (1/68), P = 0.016; 20.5 % (16/78) vs. 7.4 % (5/68), P = 0.024]. No differences were found in superior cerebellar artery and posterior cerebral artery territory infarction between two groups. 77.8 % (7/9) of PICA infarction were on the opposite side of dominant VA. 75.0 % (12/16) of BA infarction were on the side of dominant VA. The incidence of PCI in BA curvature patients was significantly higher than that in BA straight patients. The incidence of BA curvature is higher in VAD patients, and BA usually bends to the opposite side of dominant VA. The incidence of PCI is higher in VAD patients, especially in PICA infarction and BA infarction patients.
Strbian, Daniel; Seiffge, David J; Breuer, Lorenz; Numminen, Heikki; Michel, Patrik; Meretoja, Atte; Coote, Skye; Bordet, Régis; Obach, Victor; Weder, Bruno; Jung, Simon; Caso, Valeria; Curtze, Sami; Ollikainen, Jyrki; Lyrer, Philippe A; Eskandari, Ashraf; Mattle, Heinrich P; Chamorro, Angel; Leys, Didier; Bladin, Christopher; Davis, Stephen M; Köhrmann, Martin; Engelter, Stefan T; Tatlisumak, Turgut
The DRAGON score predicts functional outcome in the hyperacute phase of intravenous thrombolysis treatment of ischemic stroke patients. We aimed to validate the score in a large multicenter cohort in anterior and posterior circulation. Prospectively collected data of consecutive ischemic stroke patients who received intravenous thrombolysis in 12 stroke centers were merged (n=5471). We excluded patients lacking data necessary to calculate the score and patients with missing 3-month modified Rankin scale scores. The final cohort comprised 4519 eligible patients. We assessed the performance of the DRAGON score with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve in the whole cohort for both good (modified Rankin scale score, 0-2) and miserable (modified Rankin scale score, 5-6) outcomes. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.84 (0.82-0.85) for miserable outcome and 0.82 (0.80-0.83) for good outcome. Proportions of patients with good outcome were 96%, 93%, 78%, and 0% for 0 to 1, 2, 3, and 8 to 10 score points, respectively. Proportions of patients with miserable outcome were 0%, 2%, 4%, 89%, and 97% for 0 to 1, 2, 3, 8, and 9 to 10 points, respectively. When tested separately for anterior and posterior circulation, there was no difference in performance (P=0.55); areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.84 (0.83-0.86) and 0.82 (0.78-0.87), respectively. No sex-related difference in performance was observed (P=0.25). The DRAGON score showed very good performance in the large merged cohort in both anterior and posterior circulation strokes. The DRAGON score provides rapid estimation of patient prognosis and supports clinical decision-making in the hyperacute phase of stroke care (eg, when invasive add-on strategies are considered).
Lekic, Tim; Krafft, Paul R.; Coats, Jacqueline S.; Obenaus, Andre; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.
Approximately 20 percent of all strokes will occur in the Infratentorial brain. This is within the vascular territory of the posterior vascular circulation. Very few clinical specifics are known about the therapeutic needs of this patient sub-population. Most evidence-based practices are founded from research about the treatment of anterior circulatory stroke. As a consequence, little is known about how stroke in the Infratentorial brain region would require a different approach. We characterized the neurovascular features of Infratentorial stroke, pathophysiological responses, and experimental models for further translational study. PMID:23060944
Treatment of a partially thrombosed giant aneurysm of the vertebral artery by aneurysm trapping and direct vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery end-to-end anastomosis: technical case report.
Benes, Ludwig; Kappus, Christoph; Sure, Ulrich; Bertalanffy, Helmut
The purpose of this article is to focus for the first time on the operative management of a direct vertebral artery (VA)-posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) end-to-end anastomosis in a partially thrombosed giant VA-PICA-complex aneurysm and to underline its usefulness as an additional treatment option. The operative technique of a direct VA-PICA end-to-end anatomosis is described in detail. The VA was entering the large aneurysm sack. Distally, the PICA originated from the aneurysm sack-VA-complex. The donor and recipient vessel were cut close to the aneurysm. Whereas the VA was cut in a straight manner, the PICA was cut at an oblique 45-degree angle to enlarge the vascular end diameter. Vessel ends were flushed with heparinized saline and sutured. The thrombotic material inside the aneurysm sack was removed and the distal VA clipped, leaving the anterior spinal artery and brainstem perforators free. The patient regained consciousness without additional morbidity. Magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed a completely decompressed brainstem without infarction. The postoperative angiograms demonstrated a good filling of the anastomosed PICA. Despite the caliber mistmatch of these two vessels the direct VA-PICA end-to-end anastomosis provides an accurate alternative in addition to other anastomoses and bypass techniques, when donor and recipient vessels are suitable and medullary perforators do not have to be disrupted.
Palombo, D; Valenti, D; Gaggiano, A; Lupo, M; Borin, P
The purpose of this report is to describe our early experience with a minimal extracorporeal circulation system (MECC), a compact closed heparin coated system consisting of a centrifugal pump and a membrane oxygenator, during thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) repair. Between January and December 2002 the MECC system was employed in seven consecutive patients (four TAAA type II, two TAAA type I and one TAAA type III according to the Crawford classification). In all patients distal aortic, selective renal and visceral perfusion was performed with this compact closed heparin coated system consisting of a centrifugal pump and a membrane oxygenator. The MECC system was used in all cases with no technical malfunctions. Six out seven patients were discharged from the unit. One patient developed paraplegia after TAAA repair and died on the third post-operative day from multi-organ failure. In this case the total spinal ischaemic time was 120 min and the distal aortic perfusion pressure was <50 mmHg. No cardiac, cerebral, renal, hepatic or bleeding complications were recorded in the remaining six patients. Our early experience with MECC during TAAA repair showed that it is feasible for distal aortic spinal and visceral selective perfusion. Further large clinical trials are required to determine the efficacy of this technique.
Fotakopoulos, George; Tsianaka, Eleni; Fountas, Kostas; Makris, Demosthenes; Spyrou, Michael; Hernesniemi, Juha
To evaluate open surgical versus endovascular repair of anterior circulation ruptured intracranial aneurysms based on operative mortality, permanent neurologic deficit, late mortality, and need for reintervention. This meta-analysis included articles published since December 6, 2016, that compared outcomes of the 2 methods. Extracted data were organized in a standard table format, including first author, country, covered study period, publication year, number of patients and patients at follow-up, operative mortality rate (with 30 days from treatment), permanent neurologic deficit (appearing after surgery), late mortality (after 1 month), and reintervention (surgery or coiling) for both groups of patients. Follow-up was at least 1 year. There were 8 articles that matched our study criteria. The study population was 628 patients; 374 were treated with surgical clipping, and 254 were treated with endovascular coiling. Pooled results showed no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of operative mortality, permanent neurologic deficit, late mortality, and need for reintervention. Selection of the appropriate procedure must be made on the basis of the special characteristics of each case. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Pengxiang; Zhang, Qunye; Wu, Xiao; Yang, Xinjian; Zhang, Yun; Li, Youxiang; Jiang, Fan
Background Biological markers that can be used to predict the risk of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are not available. Methods and Results To clarify whether circulating microRNAs could be used as biomarkers for IA, we carried out microarray assays in a screening cohort of 40 IA patients (20 unruptured and 20 ruptured) and 20 healthy volunteers. We identified 20 microRNAs that were unanimously changed in both ruptured and unruptured patients. We confirmed 60% of these changed microRNAs by a separate microarray test with an independent validation cohort (n=143 including 93 IA patients). To identify potential biomarkers, we combined the 2 cohorts and performed quantitative real‐time polymerase chain reactions for selected target microRNAs. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that miR‐16 and miR‐25 were independent factors for IA occurrence (P<0.001). After controlling for age, sex, smoking, and history of hypertension, the contributions of miR‐16 and miR‐25 were still highly significant (P<0.001). The adjusted odds ratio values for miR‐16 and miR‐25 were 1.52 (95% CI 1.31 to 1.77) and 1.53 (1.30 to 1.79). Combining both miR‐16 and miR‐25 in a single model did not improve the performance of risk association. Conclusions Our data suggest that circulating miRNAs may be novel biological markers that are useful in assessing the likelihood of IA occurrence. PMID:25249297
Krings, Timo; Geibprasert, Sasikhan; terBrugge, Karel G
Pediatric aneurysms are rare diseases distinct from classical adult aneurysms and therefore require different treatment strategies. Apart from saccular aneurysms that are more commonly found in older children, three major pathomechanisms may be encountered: trauma, infection, and dissection. The posterior circulation and more distal locations are more commonly encountered in children compared to adults, and there is an overall male predominance. Clinical findings are not only confined to subarachnoid hemorrhage but may also comprise mass effects, headaches or neurological deficits. In traumatic aneurysms, the skull base and distal anterior communicating artery are commonly affected, and the hemorrhage occurs often delayed (2-4 weeks following the initial trauma). Infectious aneurysms are mostly bacterial in origin, and hemorrhage occurs early after a septic embolic shower. Dissecting aneurysms are the most often encountered aneurysm type in children and can lead to mass effect, hemorrhage, or ischemia depending on the fate of the intramural hematoma. Treatment strategies in pediatric aneurysms include endosaccular coil treatment only for the "classical berry-type" aneurysms; in the other instances, parent vessel occlusion, flow reversal, surgical options, or a combined treatment with bypass and parent vessel occlusion have to be contemplated.
Garg, Kanwaljeet; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar; Chandra, Poodipedi Sarat; Suri, Ashish; Singh, Manmohanjit; Kumar, Rajinder; Kale, Shashank Sarad; Mishra, Nalin Kumar; Gaikwad, Shailesh K; Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar
Intracranial aneurysms in children are not as common as in adults and there are many differences in the etiology, demographic variables, aneurysm location, aneurysm morphological characteristics, clinical presentation, and outcome in pediatric and adult intracranial aneurysms. All children (≤18 years) suffering from intracranial aneurysm managed at our center from July 2001 through June 2013 were included in the study, and the details of these patients were retrieved from the computerized database of our hospital. A total of 62 pediatric patients were treated for 74 aneurysms during the study period and constituted 2.3% of all intracranial aneurysms treated during the same period. The mean age at presentation was 13.5 years. Headache (82%) was the commonest presenting feature; other symptoms included seizures (21%), ictal loss of consciousness (27%), and motor/cranial nerve deficits (22.6%). Computed tomogram revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage in 58% of patients. Eighty-two percent of aneurysms were in anterior circulation. Sixty-seven percent of aneurysms were complex aneurysms. Fifty-eight percent of patients underwent surgical intervention while 30% underwent endovascular procedures. Twenty-one percent of the patients developed vasospasm. There was no postoperative mortality. Favorable outcome was seen in 72% of the patients. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms are uncommon as compared to in adult patients. Seizures and cranial nerve involvement are seen more often as the presenting features in children. Posterior circulation aneurysms are more common in children, as are the internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysms. There is high incidence of giant, posttraumatic, and mycotic aneurysms in children.
Sorteberg, Angelika; Dahlberg, Daniel
An intracranial aneurysm in a child or adolescent is a rare, but potentially devastating condition. As little as approximately 1200 cases are reported between 1939 and 2011, with many of the reports presenting diverting results. There is consensus, though, in that pediatric aneurysms represent a pathophysiological entity different from their adult counterparts. In children, there is a male predominance. About two-thirds of pediatric intracranial aneurysms become symptomatic with hemorrhage and the rate of re-hemorrhage is higher than in adults. The rate of hemorrhage from an intracranial aneurysm peaks in girls around menarche. The most common aneurysm site in children is the internal carotid artery, in particular at its terminal ending. Aneurysms in the posterior circulation are more common in children than adults. Children more often develop giant aneurysms, and may become symptomatic from the mass effect of the aneurysm (tumorlike symptoms). The more complex nature of pediatric aneurysms poses a larger challenge to treatment alongside with higher demands to the durability of treatment. Outcome and mortality are similar in children and adults, but long-term outcome in the pediatric population is influenced by the high rate of aneurysm recurrences and de novo formation of intracranial aneurysms. This urges the need for life-long follow-up and screening protocols. PMID:24696670
Baldi, Sebastian Zander, Tobias; Rabellino, Martin; Maynar, Manuel
Persistent primitive hypoglossal artery (PPHA) represents the second most common carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis. The association of PPHA with intracranial aneurysms is not unusual. Treatment of aneurysms located on the PPHA itself is challenging due to the increased risk of ischemic complications secondary to the hypoglossal artery often being the sole contributor of flow to the posterior circulation. We report a case of a wide-neck aneurysm in a PPHA successfully treated using a stent-assisted coil embolization technique.
Fang, Yi-Bin Zhao, Kai-Jun Wu, Yi-Na Zhou, Yu Li, Qiang Yang, Peng-Fei Huang, Qing-Hai Zhao, Wen-Yuan Xu, Yi Liu, Jian-Min
PurposeThe treatment of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) continues to be controversial. Our goal was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and long-term outcomes of internal trapping and stent-assisted coiling (SAC) for ruptured VADAs distal to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (supra-PICA VADAs), which is the most common subset.MethodsA retrospective review was conducted of 39 consecutive ruptured supra-PICA VADAs treated with internal trapping (n = 20) or with SAC (n = 19) at our institution. The clinical and angiographic data were retrospectively compared.ResultsThe immediate total occlusion rate of the VADAs was 80 % in the trapping group, which improved to 88.9 % at the follow-ups (45 months on average). Unwanted occlusions of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were detected in three trapped cases. Incomplete obliteration of the VADA or unwanted occlusions of the PICA were detected primarily in the VADAs closest to the PICA. In the stenting group, the immediate total occlusion rate was 47.4 %, which improved to 100 % at the follow-ups (39 months on average). The immediate total occlusion rate of the VADAs was higher in the trapping group (p < 0.05), but the later total occlusion was slightly higher in the stenting group (p > 0.05).ConclusionsOur preliminary results showed that internal trapping and stent-assisted coiling are both technically feasible for treating ruptured supra-PICA VADAs. Although not statistically significant, procedural related complications occurred more frequently in the trapping group. When the VADAs are close to the PICA, we suggest that the lesions should be treated using SAC.
van der Hoeven, Erik J R J; Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Algra, Ale; Vos, Jan Albert; Niesten, Joris M; van Seeters, Tom; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Schonewille, Wouter J; Kappelle, L Jaap; Velthuis, Birgitta K
Detection of acute infarction in the posterior circulation is challenging. We aimed to determine the additional value of tomograpy (CT) perfusion to noncontrast CT and CT angiography source images for infarct detection and localization in patients suspected of acute ischemic posterior circulation stroke. Patients with suspected acute ischemic posterior circulation stroke were selected from the Dutch acute Stroke Trial (DUST) study. Patients underwent noncontrast CT, CT angiography, and CT perfusion within 9 hours after stroke onset and CT or MRI on follow-up. Images were evaluated for signs and location of ischemia. Discrimination of 3 hierarchical logistic regression models (noncontrast CT [A], added CT angiography source images [B], and CT perfusion [C]) was compared with C-statistics. Of 88 patients, 76 (86%) had a clinical diagnosis of ischemic stroke on discharge and 42 patients (48%) showed a posterior circulation infarct on follow-up imaging. Model C (area under the curve from the receiver operating characteristic curve=0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-0.94) predicted an infarct in the posterior circulation territory better than models A (area under the curve from the receiver operating characteristic curve=0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.53-0.76; P(C versus A)<0.001) and B (area under the curve from the receiver operating characteristic curve=0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.79; P(C versus B)<0.001). CT perfusion has significant additional diagnostic values to noncontrast CT and CT angiography source images for detecting ischemic changes in patients suspected of acute posterior circulation stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Zhang, Dao Pei; Lu, Gui Feng; Zhang, Jie Wen; Zhang, Shu Ling; Ma, Qian Kun; Yin, Suo
We aimed in this study to investigate the prevalence of vertebral artery hypoplasia (VAH) in a population with isolated vertigo in association with stroke risk factors, to determine whether VAH is an independent risk factor for posterior circulation infarction (PCI). We sequentially enrolled 245 patients with isolated vertigo with at least 1 vascular risk factor, who were divided into PCI and non-PCI groups, according to present signs of acute infarction on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. All patients underwent magnetic resonance angiography and cervical contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography to screen for VAH. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the significant risk factors for PCI. VAH was found in 64 of 245 patients (26%). VAH (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70, 95%confidence interval [CI] 1.17-6.23, P = .020), median stenosis of the posterior circulation (OR = 7.09, 95%CI = 2.54-19.79, P < .001), and diabetes mellitus (OR = 3.13, 95%CI 1.38-7.12, P = .006) were independent risk factors for PCI. The predominant Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment subtype in our patients with isolated vertigo with PCI complicated by VAH was mainly small-artery occlusion. Our findings suggest that VAH is an independent risk factor for PCI in patients with isolated vertigo with confirmed risk from stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Uçeyler, Nurcan; Homola, György A; Guerrero González, Hans; Kramer, Daniela; Wanner, Christoph; Weidemann, Frank; Solymosi, László; Sommer, Claudia
A high load of white matter lesions and enlarged basilar arteries have been shown in selected patients with Fabry disease, a disorder associated with an increased stroke risk. We studied a large cohort of patients with Fabry disease to differentially investigate white matter lesion load and cerebral artery diameters. We retrospectively analyzed cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans of 87 consecutive Fabry patients, 20 patients with ischemic stroke, and 36 controls. We determined the white matter lesion load applying the Fazekas score on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences and measured the diameters of cerebral arteries on 3D-reconstructions of the time-of-flight-MR-angiography scans. Data of different Fabry patient subgroups (males-females; normal-impaired renal function) were compared with data of patients with stroke and controls. A history of stroke or transient ischemic attacks was present in 4/30 males (13%) and 5/57 (9%) females with Fabry disease, all in the anterior circulation. Only one man with Fabry disease showed confluent cerebral white matter lesions in the Fazekas score assessment (1%). Male Fabry patients had a larger basilar artery (p<0.01) and posterior cerebral artery diameter (p<0.05) compared to male controls. This was independent of disease severity as measured by renal function and did not lead to changes in arterial blood flow properties. A basilar artery diameter of >3.2 mm distinguished between men with Fabry disease and controls (sensitivity: 87%, specificity: 86%, p<0.001), but not from stroke patients. Enlarged arterial diameters of the posterior circulation are present only in men with Fabry disease independent of disease severity.
Üçeyler, Nurcan; Homola, György A.; Guerrero González, Hans; Kramer, Daniela; Wanner, Christoph; Weidemann, Frank; Solymosi, László; Sommer, Claudia
A high load of white matter lesions and enlarged basilar arteries have been shown in selected patients with Fabry disease, a disorder associated with an increased stroke risk. We studied a large cohort of patients with Fabry disease to differentially investigate white matter lesion load and cerebral artery diameters. We retrospectively analyzed cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans of 87 consecutive Fabry patients, 20 patients with ischemic stroke, and 36 controls. We determined the white matter lesion load applying the Fazekas score on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences and measured the diameters of cerebral arteries on 3D-reconstructions of the time-of-flight-MR-angiography scans. Data of different Fabry patient subgroups (males – females; normal – impaired renal function) were compared with data of patients with stroke and controls. A history of stroke or transient ischemic attacks was present in 4/30 males (13%) and 5/57 (9%) females with Fabry disease, all in the anterior circulation. Only one man with Fabry disease showed confluent cerebral white matter lesions in the Fazekas score assessment (1%). Male Fabry patients had a larger basilar artery (p<0.01) and posterior cerebral artery diameter (p<0.05) compared to male controls. This was independent of disease severity as measured by renal function and did not lead to changes in arterial blood flow properties. A basilar artery diameter of >3.2 mm distinguished between men with Fabry disease and controls (sensitivity: 87%, specificity: 86%, p<0.001), but not from stroke patients. Enlarged arterial diameters of the posterior circulation are present only in men with Fabry disease independent of disease severity. PMID:24475221
Cianfoni, Alessandro; Pravatà, Emanuele; De Blasi, Roberto; Tschuor, Costa Silvia; Bonaldi, Giuseppe
Presentation of a cerebral aneurysm can be incidental, discovered at imaging obtained for unrelated causes, can occur in the occasion of imaging obtained for symptoms possibly or likely related to the presence of an unruptured aneurysm, or can occur with signs and symptoms at the time of aneurismal rupture. Most unruptured intracranial aneurysms are thought to be asymptomatic, or present with vague or non-specific symptoms like headache or dizziness. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsies, however, may typically indicate the presence of a posterior circulation aneurysm. Ruptured intracranial aneurysms are by far the most common cause of non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and represent a neurological emergency with potentially devastating consequences. Subarachnoid hemorrhage may be easily suspected in the presence of sudden and severe headache, vomiting, meningism signs, and/or altered mental status. However, failure to recognize milder and more ambiguous clinical pictures may result in a delayed or missed diagnosis. In this paper we will describe the clinical spectrum of unruptured and ruptured intracranial aneurysms by discussing both typical and uncommon clinical features emerging from the literature review. We will additionally provide the reader with descriptions of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, and main diagnostic pitfalls.
Martin, P; Chang, H; Wityk, R; Caplan, L
Most reports of midbrain infarction have described clinicoanatomical correlations rather than associations and aetiologies. Thirty nine patients with midbrain infarction (9.4%) are described out of a series of 415 patients with vertebrobasilar ischaemic lesions in the New England Medical Center Posterior Circulation Registry. Patients were categorised according to the rostral-caudal extent of infarction. The "proximal" vertebrobasilar territory includes the medulla and posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory. The "middle" territory includes the pons and anterior inferior cerebellar artery territory. The "distal" territory includes the rostral midbrain, thalami, superior cerebellum, and medial temporal and occipital lobes. Midbrain infarction was accompanied by "proximal" territory infarcts in four patients, and by "middle" territory infarction in 19 patients. Thirteen patients had associated "distal" territory infarcts, three of whom had occipital or temporal lobe infarcts. Only three patients had isolated midbrain infarcts. Cardioembolism (n=11), in situ thrombosis (n=9), large artery to artery embolism (n=7), and intrinsic branch penetrator disease (n=5) were the most common aetiologies. Bilateral infarction and accompanying pontine infarction were associated with the most extensive vertebrobasilar occlusive disease. Midbrain infarction was 10-fold more likely to be accompanied by ischaemia of neighbouring structures than it was to occur in isolation. Recognition of the different patterns of infarction may act as a guide to the underlying aetiology and vascular lesions. PMID:9527158
Zijlmans, M; Huibers, C J A; Huiskamp, G J; de Kort, G A P; Alpherts, W C J; Leijten, F S S; Hendrikse, J
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of posterior circulation to memory function by comparing memory scores between patients with and without a foetal-type posterior cerebral artery (FTP) during the intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP) in epilepsy patients. Patients undergoing bilateral IAP between January 2004 and January 2010 were retrospectively included. Pre-test angiograms were assessed for the presence of a FTP. Memory function scores (% correct) after right and left injections were obtained. Functional significance of FTP was affirmed by relative occipital versus parietal EEG slow-wave increase during IAP. Memory and EEG scores were compared between patients with and without FTP (Mann-Whitney U test). A total of 106 patients were included, 73 with posterior cerebral arteries (PCA) without FTP ('non-FTP'), 28 patients with unilateral FTP and 5 with a bilateral FTP. Memory scores were lower when amytal was injected to the hemisphere contralateral to the presumed seizure focus (on the right decreasing from 98.3 to 59.1, and on the left decreasing from 89.1 to 72.4; p < 0.001). When IAP was performed on the side of FTP memory scores were significantly lower (70.8) compared to non-FTP (82.0; p = 0.02). Relative occipital EEG changes were 0.44 for FTP cases and 0.36 for non-FTP patients (p = 0.01). A relationship between vasculature and brain function was demonstrated by lower memory scores and more slow-wave activity on occipital EEG during IAP in patients with foetal-type PCA compared to patients with non-FTP. This suggests an important contribution of brain areas supplied by the PCA to memory function.
Kan, Peter; Mokin, Maxim; Puri, Ajit S; Wakhloo, Ajay K
Fusiform aneurysms present a unique challenge to traditional microsurgical and endovascular treatment because of the lack of a discernible neck and the involvement of parent vessel. Flow diversion has increasingly become the treatment of choice for fusiform aneurysms in the anterior circulation, but its results in the posterior circulation are variable. We report successful treatment of a giant fusiform upper basilar trunk aneurysm with the Surpass flow diverter in an adolescent, and discuss the potential advantages of this emerging technology in the treatment of fusiform posterior circulation aneurysms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Aydin, I H; Kadioğlu, H H; Tüzün, Y; Kayaoğlu, C R; Takçi, E
The anatomical variations of Sylvian vein and cistern were investigated during the pterional approach in 230 patients with 276 aneurysms of anterior circulation arteries, that were operated on at the Neurosurgical Department of Atatürk University Medical School. Erzurum, Türkiye. All patients underwent radical surgery for aneurysm by the right or left pterional approach. The findings were recorded during surgical intervention and observed through the slides and videotapes of the operations. In our study, we surgically classified the variations of the Sylvian vein, according to its branching and draining patterns. Type I: The fronto-orbital (frontosylvian), fronto-parietal (parietosylvian) and anterior temporal (temporosylvian) veins drain into one sylvian vein. Type II: Two superficial Sylvian veins with separated basal vein draining into the sphenoparietal and Rosenthal's basal vein. Type III: Two superficial Sylvian veins draining into the sphenoparietal and the superior petrosal veins. Type IV: Hypoplastic superficial Sylvian vein and the deep one. Four types of Sylvian vein variations were defined as follows. The Type I was seen in 45% (n = 103), the Type II was found in 29% (n = 67), Type III was recorded in 15% (n = 34) and Type IV, or hypoplastic and deep form was discovered in 11% (n = 26) of patients. The course of the Sylvian vein was on the temporal side (Temporal Coursing) in 70 percent of the cases (n = 160), on the frontal side (Frontal Coursing) in 19% of the patients (n = 45) and in 8 percent of the cases (n = 18) in the deep localization (Deep Coursing). Only 3 percent of the cases (n = 7) showed a mixed course. The variations of the Sylvian cisterns were classified into three types, according to the relationships between the lateral fronto-orbital gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus. In Sylvian Type, the frontal and temporal lobes are loosely (Sylvian Type A, Large) or tightly (Sylvian Type B, Close and Narrow) approximated on the surface
Gordon Perue, Gillian L; Narayan, Ram; Zangiabadi, Amir H; Romano, Jose G; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L; Koch, Sebastian
Vertebral artery origin stenosis is an important etiology for stroke in the posterior circulation. Data from the Oxford Vascular Study and New England Registry show a prevalence of vertebral artery origin disease of 26-32%. These populations are largely comprised of Caucasians. The prevalence of vertebral artery origin disease in multirace-ethnic stroke population is unknown. The study aims to assess the prevalence of vertebral artery origin stenosis in a multirace population with posterior circulation stroke. The Miami Stroke Registry is a prospective registry which offers enrollment to consecutive patients admitted with a diagnosis of stroke/transient ischemic attack. Baseline demographics, vascular risk factors, and stroke topography in the posterior circulation were analyzed. All vascular imaging studies were reviewed for the presence of vertebral artery origin stenosis, and stroke etiology was adjudicated by TOAST classification. Mean age of the population was 63 ± 13 years; 149 (70%) were men. Among cases, 123 were Hispanic (58%), almost one third 70 (32%) were of African descent, and 15 (7%) were white. The most common stroke etiology was small vessel occlusion (27%), followed by large artery intracranial disease 25% (posterior cerebral arteries, basilar and vertebral arteries), cardioembolic 19%, and cryptogenic 16%. Vertebral artery origin stenosis/occlusion was present in 28 (13.1%) patients, of whom only 2 (0.9%) were bilateral; it was attributed as the direct cause of stroke in 11 (5.2%) patients. We found a lower prevalence of vertebral artery origin stenosis in a predominately non-white population with posterior circulation stroke than previously reported. Vertebral artery origin stenosis was a direct cause of posterior circulation stroke in only 5.2% of patients. © 2014 World Stroke Organization.
Park, Ki-Su; Son, Won-Soo; Park, Jaechan; Kim, Young-Sun; Kim, Byung Moon
Blood-blister like aneurysms (BBAs) are challenging lesions because of their wide fragile neck. Flow-diverting stents (FDSs), such as the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED), have been applied to treat BBAs less amenable to more established techniques of treatment. However, the use of FDSs, including the PED, in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) still remains controversial. We report a case of aneurysm regrowth following PED application for a ruptured BBA that overlapped the origin of the dominant posterior communicating artery (PCoA), which was successfully treated after coil trapping of the origin of the fetal-type PCoA. And, we discuss the clinical significance of the fetal-type PCoA communicating with a BBA in terms of PED failure. PMID:28316868
Jia, Zhen Yu; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Young Eun; Choi, Joon Ho; Hwang, Sun Moon; Lee, Ga Young; Youn, Jin Ho
Purpose To determine the minimum required guiding catheter length for embolization of various intracranial aneurysms in anterior circulation and to analyze the effect of various patient factors on the required catheter length and potential interaction with its stability. Materials and Methods From December 2016 to March 2017, 90 patients with 93 anterior circulation aneurysms were enrolled. Three types of guiding catheters (Envoy, Envoy DA, and Envoy DA XB; Codman Neurovascular, Raynham, MA, USA) were used. We measured the in-the-body length of the catheter and checked the catheter tip location in the carotid artery. We analyzed factors affecting the in-the-body length and stability of the guiding catheter system. Results The average (±standard deviation) in-the-body length of the catheter was 84.2±5.9 cm. The length was significantly longer in men (89.1±5.6 vs. 82.1±4.6 cm, P<0.001), patients older than 65 years (87.7±7.8 vs. 82.7±4.2 cm, P<0.001), patients with a more tortuous arch (arch type 2 and 3) (87.5±7.4 vs. 82.7±4.4 cm, P<0.001), and patients with a distal aneurysm location (distal group) (86.2±5.0 vs. 82.7±6.1 cm, P=0.004). A shift in the tip location was noted in 19 patients (20.4%); there was no significant different among the 3 catheters (P=0.942). Conclusion The minimum required length of a guiding catheter was 84 cm on average for elective anterior-circulation aneurysm embolization. The length increased in men older than 65 years with a more tortuous arch. We could reach a higher position with distal access catheters with little difference in the stability once we reached the target location. PMID:28955511
Thaler, C J; Korell, M; Klinner, U; Reichart, B; Hepp, H
We report on a 24 + 2 weeks pregnant woman with Marfan's syndrome, who acutely developed a dissecting aortic aneurysm with aortic valve insufficiency. Emergency surgery was performed by using hypothermic extracorporeal circulation, whilst the aortic valve and ascending aorta were replaced by a synthetic graft. Foetal heart rates, continuously monitored by using Doppler ultrasound, were shown to be closely correlated with perfusion pressures. By applying perfusion pressures of 90-100 mmHg, we were able to maintain foetal heart rates of approximately 100/min. During the first postoperative day, the CTG was normal for gestational age and no contractions were noted. During the second postoperative night, the patient prematurely delivered a dead 820 g infant (Apgar score 0/0/0/0). In view of this case report, opportunities and problems associated with an application of extracorporeal circulation during pregnancy are discussed.
Bergman, Taylor J.; Saporito, Rachael C.; Hope, Thomas
Bilateral infarction of the superior cerebellar arteries with sparing of the rest of the posterior circulation, particularly the posterior cerebral arteries, is an uncommon finding in neurological practice. Most commonly, the deficits of the superior cerebellar arteries and posterior cerebral arteries occur together due to the close proximity of their origins at the top of the basilar artery. A patient was transferred to the neurological intensive care unit with a history of recent-onset falls from standing, profound hypertension, dizziness, and headaches. The neurological exam revealed cerebellar signs, including dysmetria of the right upper extremity and a decreased level of consciousness. Computed tomography of the head and neck revealed decreased attenuation throughout most of the cerebellar hemispheres suggestive of ischemic injury with sparing of the rest of the brain. Further investigation with a computed tomography angiogram revealed a fetal-type posterior cerebral artery on the right side that was providing collateral circulation to the posterior brain. Due to this embryological anomaly, the patient was spared significant morbidity and mortality that would have likely occurred had the circulation been more typical of an adult male. PMID:28203181
Bergman, Taylor J; Saporito, Rachael C; Hope, Thomas
Bilateral infarction of the superior cerebellar arteries with sparing of the rest of the posterior circulation, particularly the posterior cerebral arteries, is an uncommon finding in neurological practice. Most commonly, the deficits of the superior cerebellar arteries and posterior cerebral arteries occur together due to the close proximity of their origins at the top of the basilar artery. A patient was transferred to the neurological intensive care unit with a history of recent-onset falls from standing, profound hypertension, dizziness, and headaches. The neurological exam revealed cerebellar signs, including dysmetria of the right upper extremity and a decreased level of consciousness. Computed tomography of the head and neck revealed decreased attenuation throughout most of the cerebellar hemispheres suggestive of ischemic injury with sparing of the rest of the brain. Further investigation with a computed tomography angiogram revealed a fetal-type posterior cerebral artery on the right side that was providing collateral circulation to the posterior brain. Due to this embryological anomaly, the patient was spared significant morbidity and mortality that would have likely occurred had the circulation been more typical of an adult male.
Goehre, Felix; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Elsharkawy, Ahmed; Lehto, Hanna; Shekhtman, Oleg; Andrade-Barazarte, Hugo; Munoz, Francisco; Hijazy, Ferzat; Makhkamov, Makhkam; Hernesniemi, Juha
Background: Aneurysms of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) are rare and often associated with anterior circulation aneurysms. The lateral supraorbital approach allows for a very fast and safe approach to the ipsilateral lesions Circle of Willis. A technical note on the successful clip occlusion of two aneurysms in the anterior and posterior Circle of Willis via this less invasive approach has not been published before. The objective of this technical note is to describe the simultaneous microsurgical clip occlusion of an ipsilateral PCA-P1 and an internal carotid artery - posterior communicating artery (ICA-PCoA) aneurysm via the lateral supraorbital approach. Case Description: The authors present a technical report of successful clip occlusions of ipsilateral located PCA-P1 and ICA-PCoA aneurysms. A 59-year-old female patient was diagnosed with a PCA-P1 and an ipsilateral ICA-PCoA aneurysm by computed tomography angiography (CTA) after an ischemic stroke secondary to a contralateral ICA dissection. The patient underwent microsurgical clipping after a lateral supraorbital craniotomy. The intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography and the postoperative CTA showed a complete occlusion of both aneurysms; the parent vessels (ICA and PCA) were patent. The patient presents postoperative no new neurologic deficit. Conclusion: The lateral supraorbital approach is suitable for the simultaneous microsurgical treatment of proximal anterior circulation and ipsilateral proximal PCA aneurysms. Compared to endovascular treatment, direct visual control of brainstem perforators is possible. PMID:26060600
Goehre, Felix; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Elsharkawy, Ahmed; Lehto, Hanna; Shekhtman, Oleg; Andrade-Barazarte, Hugo; Munoz, Francisco; Hijazy, Ferzat; Makhkamov, Makhkam; Hernesniemi, Juha
Aneurysms of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) are rare and often associated with anterior circulation aneurysms. The lateral supraorbital approach allows for a very fast and safe approach to the ipsilateral lesions Circle of Willis. A technical note on the successful clip occlusion of two aneurysms in the anterior and posterior Circle of Willis via this less invasive approach has not been published before. The objective of this technical note is to describe the simultaneous microsurgical clip occlusion of an ipsilateral PCA-P1 and an internal carotid artery - posterior communicating artery (ICA-PCoA) aneurysm via the lateral supraorbital approach. The authors present a technical report of successful clip occlusions of ipsilateral located PCA-P1 and ICA-PCoA aneurysms. A 59-year-old female patient was diagnosed with a PCA-P1 and an ipsilateral ICA-PCoA aneurysm by computed tomography angiography (CTA) after an ischemic stroke secondary to a contralateral ICA dissection. The patient underwent microsurgical clipping after a lateral supraorbital craniotomy. The intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography and the postoperative CTA showed a complete occlusion of both aneurysms; the parent vessels (ICA and PCA) were patent. The patient presents postoperative no new neurologic deficit. The lateral supraorbital approach is suitable for the simultaneous microsurgical treatment of proximal anterior circulation and ipsilateral proximal PCA aneurysms. Compared to endovascular treatment, direct visual control of brainstem perforators is possible.
Harteveld, Anita A; van der Kolk, Anja G; van der Worp, H Bart; Dieleman, Nikki; Zwanenburg, Jaco J M; Luijten, Peter R; Hendrikse, Jeroen
Vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging sequences have been developed to directly visualize the intracranial vessel wall, enabling detection of vessel wall changes, including those that have not yet caused luminal narrowing. In this study, vessel wall lesion burden was assessed in patients with recent posterior circulation ischemia using 7T-magnetic resonance imaging and compared with matched healthy controls. Fifty subjects (25 patients and 25 matched healthy controls) underwent 7T-magnetic resonance imaging with an intracranial vessel wall sequence before and after contrast administration. Two raters scored the presence and contrast enhancement of arterial wall lesions in individual segments of the circle of Willis and its primary branches. Total burden and distribution of vessel wall lesions and lesion characteristics (configuration, thickening pattern, and contrast enhancement) were compared both between and within both groups. Overall, vessel wall lesion burden and distribution were comparable between patients and controls. Regarding individual arterial segments, only vessel wall lesions in the posterior cerebral artery were more frequently observed in patients (18.0%) than in controls (5.4%; P=0.003). Many of these lesions showed enhancement, both in patients (48.9%) and in controls (43.5%; P=0.41). In patients, the proportion of enhancing lesions was higher in the posterior circulation (53.3%) than in the anterior circulation (20.6%; P=0.008). Although overall intracranial vessel wall lesion burden and contrast enhancement were comparable between patients with recent posterior circulation ischemia and healthy controls, this study also revealed significant differences between the 2 groups, suggesting an association between posterior circulation lesion burden/enhancement and ischemic events. URL: http://www.trialregister.nl. Unique identifier: NTR5688. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Ruptured Distal Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery (PICA) Aneurysms Associated with Cerebellar Arterial Venous Malformations (AVMs): A Case Series and Review of the Literature Demonstrating the Need for Angiographic Evaluation and Feasibility of Endovascular Treatment.
Case, David; Kumpe, David; Cava, Luis; Neumann, Robert; White, Andrew; Roark, Christopher; Seinfeld, Joshua
The characteristics, diagnosis, and preferred management strategies for distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms associated with cerebellar arteriovenous malformation (AVMs) are poorly understood. We present a case series with attention to aneurysm angioarchitecture, diagnostic imaging, treatment approaches, and a thorough review of the literature. With this information, we demonstrate a specific anatomical pattern for these aneurysms, an underreported need for conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) during evaluation, along with the utility of endovascular treatment with liquid embolic agents. Neurosurgical patients from 2005 to 2016 were reviewed to identify PICA aneurysms along with distal PICA aneurysms. Details of their presentation, imaging studies, associated AVMs and treatment were recorded. A thorough literature search of previous case series and case reports of distal PICA aneurysms with and without associated small cerebellar AVMs was performed with PubMed and Google Scholar. Thirty-four patients with PICA aneurysms were identified at our institution, 12 of which were in a distal segment. All 12 of these patients underwent DSA as a part of their evaluation. Of the 12 patients with distal PICA aneurysms, 9 presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage. Five of these patients had a small occult cerebellar AVM. All nine patients presenting with a ruptured distal PICA aneurysm had a Fischer grade 4 subarachnoid hemorrhage. Of the five patients with a small occult cerebellar AVM, the AVM nidus was missed on computed tomography angiogram (CTA) interpretation but easily visualized with DSA. CTA followed by DSA with concurrent endovascular treatment was performed in 9 of the 12 patients with distal PICA aneurysms. Two of the 12 patients were treated with microsurgical clip ligation, and one mycotic aneurysm was identified and treated with antibiotics. Parent vessel sacrifice was used distal to the aneurysm
Rao, V. R. K.; Mathuriya, S. N.
Pediatric aneurysms are different from adult aneurysms – they are more rare, are giant and in the posterior circulation more frequently than in adults and may be associated with congenital disorders. Infectious and traumatic aneursyms are also seen more frequently. Vein of Galen malformations are even rarer entities. They may be of choroidal or mural type. Based on the degree of AV shunting they may present with failure to thrive, with hydrocephalus or in severe cases with heart failure. The only possible treatment is by endovascular techniques – both transarterial and transvenous routes are employed. Rarely transtorcular approach is needed. These cases should be managed by an experienced neurointerventionist. PMID:22069420
Kalavakonda, Chandrasekar; Sekhar, Laligam N; Ramachandran, Pranatartiharan; Hechl, Peter
We discuss the role of the endoscope in the microsurgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms, analyzing its benefits, risks, and disadvantages. This was a prospective study of 55 patients with 79 aneurysms, treated between July 1998 and June 2001, for whom the endoscope was used as an adjunct in the microsurgical treatment of their lesions. Seventy-one aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation, and eight were located in the posterior circulation. Thirty-seven patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Eighteen patients had unruptured aneurysms, of whom 5 presented with mass effect, 2 presented with transient ischemic attacks, and 11 were without symptoms. In all cases, the endoscope was used in addition to microsurgical dissection and clipping (sometimes before clipping, sometimes during clipping, and always after clipping), for observation of the neck anatomic features and perforators and verification of the optimal clip position. Intraoperative angiography was performed for all patients after aneurysm clipping. In the majority of cases, the endoscope was very useful for the assessment of regional anatomic features. It allowed better observation of anatomic features, compared with the microscope, for 26 aneurysms; in 15 cases, pertinent anatomic information could be obtained only with the endoscope. The duration of temporary clipping of the parent artery was significantly reduced for two patients. The clip was repositioned because of a residual neck or inclusion of the parent vessel during aneurysm clipping in six cases, and the clip position was readjusted because of compression of the optic nerve in one case. One patient experienced a small aneurysm rupture that was directly related to use of the endoscope, but this was easily controlled, with no sequelae. For many patients, the combination of the neuro-endoscope and the micro-Doppler probe made intraoperative angiography redundant. "Endoscope-assisted microsurgery" is a major advance in the
Wang, Junjun; Wu, Jimin; Liu, Rongyi; Gao, Feng; Hu, Haitao; Yin, Xinzhen
Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) are divided into anterior and posterior circulation types (AC-TIA, PC-TIA, respectively). In the present study, we sought to evaluate the ABCD2 score for predicting stroke in either AC-TIA or PC-TIA. We prospectively studied 369 consecutive patients who presented with TIA between June 2009 and December 2012. The 7 d occurrence of stroke after TIA was recorded and correlated with the ABCD2 score with regards to AC-TIA or PC-TIA. Overall, 273 AC-TIA and 96 PC-TIA patients were recruited. Twenty-one patients with AC-TIA and seven with PC-TIA developed a stroke within the subsequent 7 d (7.7% vs. 7.3%, p = 0.899). The ABCD2 score had a higher predictive value of stroke occurrence in AC-TIA (the AUC was 0.790; 95% CI, 0.677-0.903) than in PC-TIA (the AUC was 0.535; 95% CI, 0.350-0.727) and the z-value of two receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves was 2.24 (p = 0.025). AC-TIA resulted in a higher incidence of both unilateral weakness and speech disturbance and longer durations of the symptoms. Inversely, PC-TIA was associated with a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus (19.8% vs. 10.6%, p = 0.022). Evaluating each component of scores, age ≥ 60 yr (OR = 7.010, 95% CI 1.599-30.743), unilateral weakness (OR = 3.455, 95% CI 1.131-10.559), and blood pressure (OR = 9.652, 95% CI 2.202-42.308) were associated with stroke in AC-TIA, while in PC-TIA, diabetes mellitus (OR = 9.990, 95% CI 1.895-52.650) was associated with stroke. In our study, the ABCD2 score could predict the short-term risk of stroke after AC-TIA, but might have limitation for PC-TIA.
Ikeda, K; Iwasaki, Y; Murakami, S; Ichikawa, Y
A 75-year-old woman with hypertension suddenly developed ptosis in the left eyelid. Neurological examination revealed left oculomotor nerve palsy. Brain T 2-weighted imaging showed abnormal flow void sign in the proximal portion of left middle cerebral artery. Other MRIs, including gadolinium enhancement, were normal. However, brain 3 D-MRA, using time-of-flight sequence, did not disclose any intracranial aneurysms. 3 D-CT angiography revealed left internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (IC-PC) aneurysm. Maximum intensity projection display of CT angiography demonstrated the neck and head portions of IC-PC aneurysm (size = 8 mm). Furthermore, 3 D-CT angiography was beneficial for anatomical evaluation of the aneurysm and the surrounding bony structures. The false negative 3 D-MRA of our patient was thought to result from flow-related artifacts, slow blood flow in the aneurysm, the surrounding noise and the localization of aneurysm. False negative findings of cerebral aneurysms occasionally occur on 3 D-MRA or 3 D-CT angiography, in comparison with digital subtraction angiography. Thus, we should pay more attention to assessment of 3 D-MRA and 3 D-CT angiography in patients who have high risks of cerebral aneurysms.
Perez-Arjona, Eimir; Fessler, Richard D
Endovascular reconstruction of basilar artery (BA) apex aneurysms has been augmented by adjunctive techniques such as balloon and stent assistance. We present three cases of a wide-necked BA apex aneurysm involving the bilateral P1 segments of both posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs) treated by placement of BA to PCA stents bilaterally in a 'Y' configuration to reconstruct the BA apex for effective coil embolization. Three patients (aged 70, 65 and 37 years) with wide-necked basilar artery aneurysms presented for endovascular treatment. All aneurysms had necks that involved the bilateral P1 segments. Each patient was deemed an appropriate candidate for endovascular reconstruction. Patients were pretreated with clopidogrel (75 mg) and aspirin (325 mg) each day for 3 days prior to the procedure. Following induction of general anesthesia, access to the right femoral artery was obtained by placement of a 6F sheath. Intravenous heparin was administered to achieve an activated coagulation time (ACT) of approximately 300 seconds. A 6F guide catheter was placed within the left vertebral artery (VA) in two patients, the right VA in a third. Utilizing over-the-wire (OTW) technique, a microcatheter was advanced into the left P2-P3 junction of the PCA. A 300-cm 0.014-inch microwire was passed through the microcatheter into the distal PCA and the microcatheter was removed. In each case, two neuroform stents were prepared (SMART Therapeutics Inc., San Leandro, CA) and advanced OTW into the PCA with the most acute angle relative to the BA. The initial stent placed was 20 mm in length and was deployed from the P1 segment into the BA. The microwire was pulled retrograde into the BA apex, then advanced though the stent struts and into the right PCA. A second stent, 15 mm in length, was advanced OTW through the struts of the previously placed stent. It was then deployed from the P1 into the BA where it overlapped the first stent, resulting in a stent-in-stent 'Y' configuration at the
Takano, N; Suzuki, M; Irie, R; Yamamoto, M; Teranishi, K; Yatomi, K; Hamasaki, N; Kumamaru, K K; Hori, M; Oishi, H; Aoki, S
The Low-Profile Visualized Intraluminal Support Device comprises a small-cell nitinol structure and a single-wire braided stent that provides greater metal coverage than previously reported intracranial stents, as well as assumed strong susceptibility artifacts. This study aimed to assess the benefits of non-contrast-enhanced MRA by using a Silent Scan (Silent MRA) for intracranial anterior circulation aneurysms treated with Low-Profile Visualized Intraluminal Support Device stents. Thirty-one aneurysms treated with Low-Profile Visualized Intraluminal Support Device stents were assessed by using Silent MRA, 3D TOF-MRA, and x-ray DSA. The quality of MRA visualization of the reconstructed artery was graded on a 4-point scale from 1 (not visible) to 4 (excellent). Aneurysm occlusion status was evaluated by using a 2-grade scale (total occlusion/remnant [neck or aneurysm]). Weighted κ statistics were used to evaluate interobserver and intermodality agreement. The mean scores ± SDs for Silent MRA and 3D TOF-MRA were 3.16 ± 0.79 and 1.48 ± 0.67 (P < .05), respectively, with substantial interobserver agreement (κ = 0.66). The aneurysm occlusion rates of the 2-grade scale (total occlusion/remnant [neck or aneurysm]) were 69%/31% for DSA, 65%/35% for Silent MRA, and 92%/8% for 3D TOF-MRA, respectively. The intermodality agreements were 0.88 and 0.30 for DSA/Silent MRA and DSA/3D TOF-MRA, respectively. Silent MRA seems to be useful for visualizing intracranial anterior circulation aneurysms treated with Low-Profile Visualized Intraluminal Support Device stents. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
Brouillard, Adam M; Sun, Xingwen; Siddiqui, Adnan H
Flow diversion is a novel concept for treating anatomically challenging intracranial aneurysms and has gained increasing acceptance. Flow diverter stents, such as the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) (ev3-Covidien, Irvine, CA, USA), are approved for treating unruptured large and giant aneurysms from the internal carotid artery between the superior hypophyseal and cavernous segments. However, technological advances and recent clinical results suggest that flow diversion can be safely and effectively used in treating ruptured aneurysms, posterior circulation aneurysms, and distal anterior circulation aneurysms. In this brief review, we aim to investigate the recent evidence on the utilization of PEDs in these controversial vascular territories and to discuss whether the indications for flow diversion can be expanded. PMID:26973807
Remes Troche, J M; Zuñiga, J; Rebollar, V; Hernández, P; Narváez, R; Téllez Zenteno, J F; García Ramos, G
Although cardiac tumours are infrequent, over half are myxomas. Most are situated in the cavities of the heart and exceptionally on the valves. Embolism towards the arteries of the anterior circulation of the central nervous system is the commonest neurological finding, but rarely involves the posterior circulation. A 79 year old woman who one year before admission had had a right hemiparesia of the face and body, from which she had made a complete recovery. Three months later she had a sudden onset of unsteady gait which was deviated towards the right and vertigo. She attended our institution where magnetic resonance (MR) studies showed that there were infarcts in the territory of the right anterior and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries. Four months later she had a further episode of unsteady gait, vertigo and right hemiparesia of face and body for which she was admitted to hospital. On physical examination there was dysmetry, dysdiadokokinesia and involvement of the third cranial nerve. Further MR studies showed the previous lesions and also a new ischaemic lesion of the mesencephalum. A transoesophagic echocardiogram showed a tumour of approximately 18 x 20 mm, implanted in the mitral valve. Study of the resected tumour showed it to be a myxoma. Six months later the patient was asymptomatic and had not relapsed. Although the association of vascular events of the posterior circulation with myxomas of the mitral valve is rare, its clinical importance cannot be overlooked.
Turan, Nefize; Butler, Shannon; Larson, Theodore C.; Mason, Alexander
Background: Intracranial pseudoaneurysms are rare vascular defects of arterial walls that are classically the result of traumatic injury, iatrogenic causes, or infection. Idiopathic pseudoaneurysms are seen even less frequently and are often related to atherosclerosis. Pseudoaneurysms are most commonly found along the distal wall of the internal carotid artery, however, can occur at any location in the cerebrovascular circulation. Treatment of these arterial defects is often challenging due to their frail nature. Case Description: A 61-year-old male with a history of hypertension presented with a severe, atypical headache without history of trauma. Computed tomography (CT) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) demonstrated diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Imaging demonstrated a 3.5 mm pseudoaneurysm projecting distally from the basilar artery at the apex. Repeated imaging (CTA, digital subtraction angiography) demonstrated decreased size and flow associated within the aneurysm over the following 2 weeks; as such, the patient was managed conservatively. The patient was discharged in neurologically intact condition when imaging at 14 days confirmed complete and spontaneous resolution of the pseudoaneurysm. Conclusion: Idiopathic pseudoaneurysms that are commonly associated with atherosclerosis are most commonly managed surgically or endovascularly. Conservative approach may be considered in a select group of patients that exhibit decreased size and/or flow within the aneurysm in repeated imaging; spontaneous resolution was seen in the present case. PMID:28480112
Chen, Chih-Chi; Chung, Chia-Ying; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Chang, Wei-Han; Tang, Simon FT; Pei, Yu-Cheng
Background Cervical spondylosis is one of the extrinsic factors causing vertebral artery stenosis. Several case studies have reported compression of the vertebral artery induced by cervical osteophytes that has resulted in posterior circulation infarcts (POCI). However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have yet analyzed differences in the risk factors and stroke subtypes between ischemic stroke patients with cervical spondylosis and those without. Purpose In the case-controlled study reported here, we analyzed the risk factors and stroke subtypes in ischemic stroke patients with and without cervical spondylosis. Characteristics in all the recruited patients with POCI and non-POCI were further compared to extract other risk factors that could predict the occurrence of POCI. Methods and patients We filtered out ischemic stroke patients with cervical spondylosis (“Stroke+C” group) by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. We analyzed the data of 38 subjects in the Stroke+C group and 152 sex- and age-comparable ischemic stroke patients without cervical spondylosis (“Stroke−C” group). We recorded the demographic characteristics including sex and age, and stroke risk factors, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, hyperlipidemia, and smoking habits. The stroke classifications were defined by the Oxford Community Stroke Project classification. All subjects were further categorized into POCI or non-POCI groups. The ultrasound findings of the vertebral arteries (extracranial and intracranial) in the Stroke+C group were also recorded. Results More patients in the Stroke+C group tended to have POCI (34.2%) than patients in the Stroke−C group (17.5%) (odds ratio [OR] =2.41, P<0.05). Furthermore, hypertension (OR=3.41, P<0.01) and cervical spondylosis (OR=2.41, P<0.05) were two independent risk factors for POCI in ischemic stroke patients. Conclusion Ischemic stroke patients with cervical spondylosis are more prone
Eddleman, Christopher; Nikas, Dimitrios; Shaibani, Ali; Khan, Pervez; Dipatri, Arthur J; Tomita, Tadanori
Intracranial infectious aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare. Although surgery has been the traditional treatment of ruptured pediatric infectious aneurysms, endovascular coil embolization has become an attractive alternative due to its low rate of morbidity and mortality. A 9-year-old boy with a significant medical history of aortic valve replacement, antibiotic-treated infective endocarditis, and multiple embolic cerebral infarcts presented with a high-grade intraventricular hemorrhage due to the rupture of a large infectious proximal posterior circulation aneurysm. Computed tomography and cerebral angiogram demonstrated a right crural/ambient cistern hematoma and an associated infectious aneurysm of the right proximal posterior cerebral artery. The ruptured infectious aneurysm was coil-embolized with hydrogel-coated platinum coils without sacrifice of the distal parent artery. The aneurysm was completely occluded, and the patient regained all neurological function. Ruptured infectious aneurysms in the pediatric population occur despite aggressive medical therapy. Patients with infective endocarditis and embolic infarcts should be followed closely due to the risk of major hemorrhagic events, including aneurysm rupture. Hybrid coil embolization of ruptured infectious aneurysms with preservation of the distal parent artery is exceedingly rare and effective in the management of ruptured infectious aneurysms in the pediatric population.
Tong, Xu; Liao, Xiaoling; Pan, Yuesong; Cao, Yibin; Wang, Chunjuan; Liu, Liping; Zheng, Huaguang; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Chunxue; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun
Abstract We aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with alteplase for anterior circulation stroke (ACS) and posterior circulation stroke (PCS). From a large multicenter prospective registry—the Thrombolysis Implementation and Monitor of Acute Ischemic Stroke in China database—all patients who received IVT within 4.5 hours after stroke onset was reviewed. According to the clinical presentations and imaging findings, the eligible patients were divided into ACS and PCS groups. The safety and efficacy outcome measures included post-IVT symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH), parenchymal hematoma, and all intracranial hemorrhage (aICH) within 7 days, mortality within 90 days, excellent recovery (modified Rankin Scale 0–1), and functional independence (modified Rankin Scale 0–2) at 90 days. For comparing the outcomes between both groups, the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the adjusted ORs with 95% CIs were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Of 953 patients enrolled, 829 patients had ACS and 124 had PCS. The patients with PCS had less often atrial fibrillation (11.3% vs 19.8%; P = 0.02), higher blood glucose level (8.31 vs 7.63 mmol/L; P = 0.02), and more white blood cell counts (8.79 vs 7.75 × 109/L; P = 0.001) than those with ACS. After adjustment for the potential confounders, multivariate logistic analysis showed that PCS patients had not only lower rates of sICH (3.2% vs 7.7%; OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09–0.90), parenchymal hematoma (1.6% vs 9.2%; OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03–0.57), and aICH (8.1% vs 20.4%; OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.12–0.54), but also higher proportions of excellent recovery (55.7% vs 41.6%; OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.42–3.61) and functional independence (63.9% vs 53.0%; OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.40–3.89) compared with ACS patients. However, there was no significant difference in the occurrence of mortality (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.39–1.91) between both groups in the
Nakahara, I; Pile-Spellman, J; Hacein-Bey, L; Crowell, R M; Gress, D
An endovascular non-detachable balloon technique was used to treat 14 patients with cerebral aneurysms. Eight patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and six others presented with headache or mass effect. Six aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation and eight in the posterior circulation. Seven aneurysms were giant, three were large, and four were small. All target aneurysms or vessels were occluded successfully. Parent vessel was successfully spared in seven cases. There were no procedural complications related to the non-detachable nature of the balloon used. Follow-up angiography detected refilling of aneurysms in three of 11 patients, two with small ruptured aneurysms that bled again following partial deflation or balloon movement. The other aneurysms tested remained occluded, as demonstrated on follow-up angiograms, for up to 15 months. Outcomes were good to excellent in 10 patients, poor in one, and three died. Non-detachable balloons might be preferred for treatment of certain types of cerebral aneurysms including those where intraaneurysmal maneuvers might be considered dangerous, for example, with recent bleeding or intraluminal fresh clots; where precise placement of the balloon is required, for example, in the vicinity of perforators or collaterals emerging near the neck; and where detachment could be dangerous or difficult in broad neck and fusiform aneurysms or in tortuous parent vessels.
Sughrue, Michael E.; Saloner, David; Rayz, Vitaliy L.; Lawton, Michael T.
BACKGROUND Many significant microsurgical series of patients with giant aneurysms predate changes in practice during the endovascular era. OBJECTIVE A contemporary surgical experience is presented to examine changes in management relative to earlier reports, to establish the role of open microsurgery in the management strategy, and to quantify results for comparison with evolving endovascular therapies. METHODS During a 13-year period, 140 patients with 141 giant aneurysms were treated surgically. 100 aneurysms (71%) were located in the anterior circulation, and 41 aneurysms were located in the posterior circulation. RESULTS 108 aneurysms (77%) were completely occluded, 14 aneurysms (10%) had minimal residual aneurysm, and 16 aneurysms (11%) were incompletely occluded with reversed or diminished flow. 3 patients with calcified aneurysms were coiled after unsuccessful clipping attempts. 18 patients died in the perioperative period (surgical mortality, 13%). Bypass-related complications resulted from bypass occlusion (7 patients), aneurysm hemorrhage due to incomplete aneurysm occlusion (4 patients), or aneurysm thrombosis with perforator or branch artery occlusion (4 patients). 13 patients were worse at late follow-up (permanent neurological morbidity, 9%; mean length of follow-up, 23±1.9 months). Overall, good outcomes (GOS 5 or 4) were observed in 114 patients (81%) and 109 patients (78%) were improved or unchanged after therapy. CONCLUSION A heavy reliance on bypass techniques plus indirect giant aneurysm occlusion distinguishes this contemporary surgical experience from earlier ones, and obviates the need for hypothermic circulatory arrest. Experienced neurosurgeons can achieve excellent results with surgery as the “first-line” management approach and endovascular techniques as adjuncts to surgery. PMID:21734614
Purrucker, Jan C; Herrmann, Oliver; Lutsch, Julia K; Zorn, Markus; Schwaninger, Markus; Bruckner, Tom; Auffarth, Gerd U; Veltkamp, Roland
In patients presenting with acute vertigo or dizziness, identifying the posterior fossa stroke as the underlying cause can be a major challenge. We therefore evaluated the serum biomarkers for the differential diagnosis of nonvascular vertigo and posterior circulation stroke. Of a total of 80 patients, 31 patients had an ischemic stroke in the posterior circulation and 12 infratentorial hemorrhage. Findings in these patients were compared with those in 22 patients with vertigo of nonvascular origin and 15 matched control patients without neurological symptoms. Blood samples drawn <24 h after symptom onset were analyzed for S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100β), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Serum levels of S100β were significantly higher in stroke patients than in nonvascular vertigo patients. Serum concentrations of MMP-9 tended to be higher in stroke patients, whereas no significant differences among groups were found for sVCAM-1 and GFAP. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis revealed a sensitivity of 94.4% and a specificity of 31.8% for detecting stroke in patients presenting with vertigo for S100β. S100β may serve as a biomarker for distinguishing between vertigo of vascular causes and nonvascular, acute vertigo. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Boyajian, R A; Schwend, R B; Wolfe, M M; Bickerton, R E; Otis, S M
Ultrasound-derived volumetric flow analysis may be useful in answering questions of basic physiological interest in the cerebrovascular circulation. Using this technique, the authors have sought to describe quantitatively the complete concurrent flow relations among all four arteries supplying the brain. The aim of this study of normal subjects was to determine the relative flow contributions of the anterior (internal carotid arteries) and posterior (vertebral arteries) cerebral circulation. Comparisons between the observed and theoretically expected anterior and posterior flow distribution would provide an opportunity to assess traditional rheological conceptions in vivo. Pulsed color Doppler ultrasonography was used to measure mean flow rates in the internal carotid and vertebral arteries in 21 normal adults. The anterior circulation (internal carotid arteries bilaterally) carried 82% of the brain's blood supply and comprised 67% of the total vascular cross-sectional area. These values demonstrate precise concordance between observations in vivo and the theoretically derived (Hagen-Poiseuille) expected flow distribution. These cerebrovascular findings support the traditional conception of macroscopic blood flow. Further studies using ultrasound-derived volumetric analysis of the brain's arterial flow relations may illuminate the vascular pathophysiology underlying aging, cerebral ischemia, and dementias.
Groeneveld, M E; van der Reijden, J J; Tangelder, G J; Westin, L C; Renwarin, L; Musters, R J P; Wisselink, W; Yeung, K K
Extensive reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (also reactive species) production is a mechanism involved in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development. White blood cells (WBCs) are a known source of reactive species. Their production may be decreased by statins, thereby reducing the AAA growth rate. Reactive species production in circulating WBCs of AAA patients and the effect of statins on their production was investigated. This observational study investigated reactive species production in vivo and ex vivo in circulating WBCs of AAA patients, using venous blood from patients prior to elective AAA repair (n = 34; 18 statin users) and from healthy volunteers (n = 10). Reactive species production was quantified in circulating WBCs using immunofluorescence microscopy: nitrotyrosine (footprint of peroxynitrite, a potent reactive nitrogen species) in snap frozen blood smears; mitochondrial superoxide and cytoplasmic hydrogen peroxide (both reactive oxygen species) by live cell imaging. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes were examined individually. In AAA patients using statins, the median nitrotyrosine level in neutrophils was 646 (range 422-2059), in lymphocytes 125 (range 74-343), and in monocytes 586 (range 291-663). Median levels in AAA patients not using statins were for neutrophils 928 (range 552-2095, p = .03), lymphocytes 156 (101-273, NS), and for monocytes 536 (range 535-1635, NS). The statin dose tended to correlate negatively with nitrotyrosine in neutrophils (Rs -0.32, p = .06). The median levels in controls were lower for neutrophils 466 (range 340-820, p < .01) and for monocytes 191 (range 102-386, p = .03), but similar for lymphocytes 99 (range 82-246) when compared to the AAA patients. There were no differences in mitochondrial superoxide and cytoplasmic hydrogen peroxide between statin and non-statin users within AAA patients. It was found that the peroxynitrite footprint in circulating neutrophils and monocytes of AAA patients
Meling, T. R.; Sorteberg, W.; Bakke, S. J.; Jacobsen, E. A.; Lane, P.; Vajkoczy, P.
Objective and Importance When treating large unruptured ophthalmic artery (OA) aneurysms causing progressive blindness, surgical clipping is still the preferred method because aneurysm sac decompression may relieve optic nerve compression. However, endovascular treatment of OA aneurysms has made important progress with the introduction of stents. Although this development is welcomed, it also makes the choice of treatment strategy less straightforward than in the past, with the potential of missteps. Clinical Presentation A 56-year-old woman presented with a long history of progressive unilateral visual loss and magnetic resonance imaging showing a 20-mm left-sided OA aneurysm. Intervention Because of her long history of very poor visual acuity, we considered her left eye to be irredeemable and opted for endovascular therapy. The OA aneurysms was treated with stent and coils but continued to grow, threatening the contralateral eye. Because she failed internal carotid artery (ICA) balloon test occlusion, we performed a high-flow extracranial-intracranial bypass with proximal ICA occlusion in the neck. However, aneurysm growth continued due to persistent circulation through reversed blood flow in distal ICA down to the OA and the cavernous portion of the ICA. Due to progressive loss of her right eye vision, we surgically occluded the ICA proximal to the posterior communicating artery and excised the coiled, now giant, OA aneurysm. This improved her right eye vision, but her left eye was permanently blind. Conclusion This case report illustrates complications of the endovascular and surgical treatment of a large unruptured OA aneurysm. PMID:25485220
Star, Ava; Fuller, Christine E; Landas, Steve K
We present a comprehensive review of intracranial aneurysms in Klippel-Trenaunay and Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndromes (KTS/KTWS), and examine factors influencing the risks of surgery vs conservative management. A 58-year-old physician with KTS affecting the right extremities presented with left hemispheric cerebellar stroke and was discovered to harbor four intracranial aneurysms of the posterior circulation: fusiform mid and distal BA (2.6 x 2 x 2 cm), fusiform right proximal P1 (2 x 1.3 x 1.3 cm), fusiform right distal P1 (2.8 x 2.7 x 2 cm), and saccular left distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery (2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5 cm). Ten years later he had an infarct in the paramedian distribution of the basilar artery and a right internal capsule stroke. Two months later, he developed hydrocephalus, ultimately presenting in status epilepticus 4 months later secondary to ongoing aneurysm expansion and mass effect. Systemic anticoagulation for acute thrombosis with possible distal arterioarterial embolization from giant P1 aneurysms. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting for hydrocephalus. The patient died within 9 days after admission and 10 years after the initial discovery of aneurysms. Strict control of modifiable risk factors compromising vascular integrity and periodic neuroimaging are warranted in KTS/KTWS patients. KTS/KTWS patients are hypercoagulable, and may be predisposed to aneurysm thrombosis with increased risk for distal arterial microembolization. Stroke-related morbidity secondary to distal arterioarterial aneurysm thrombus embolization and acute aneurysm thrombosis may be decreased with systemic anticoagulation in this patient population. KTS/KTWS patients have significantly higher rates of DVT and PE than the general population, and should be classified in the high-risk category for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis. Both endovascular and open cerebrovascular techniques have been used successfully in KTS/KTWS patients with intracranial aneurysms.
Laborda, Alicia; Tejero, Carlos; Fredes, Arturo; Cebrian, Luis; Guelbenzu, Santiago; Gregorio, Miguel Angel de
Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is the treatment of choice for massive hemoptysis with rare complications that generally are mild and transient. There are few references in the medical literature with acute cerebral embolization as a complication of BAE. We report a case of intracranial posterior territory infarctions as a complication BAE in a patient with hemoptysis due to bronchiectasis.
I, Cristea; C, Popa
The article represents a case of a young patient with atypical clinical and paraclinical presentation of vertebral artery dissection by multiple cerebral infarcts, localized at the supratentorial and infratentorial levels in the posterior circulation. A case of a 21-year-old man, without a history of trauma in the cervical area or at the cranial level, without recent chiropractic maneuvers or practicing a sport, which required rapid, extreme, rotational movements of the neck, was examined. He presented to the emergency room with nausea, numbness of the left limbs, dysarthria, and incoordination of walking, with multiple objective signs at the neurological examination, which revealed right vertebral artery subacute dissection after the paraclinical investigations. The case was particular due to the atypical debut symptomatology, through the installation of the clinical picture in stages, during 4 hours and by multiple infarcts through the artery-to-artery embolic mechanism in the posterior cerebral territory. Abbreviations: PICA = posterior inferior cerebellar artery, CT = computed tomography, MRI = magnetic resonance imaging, angio MRI = mangnetic resonance angiography, FLAIR = fluid attenuated inversion recovery, FS = fat suppression, ADC = apparent diffusion coefficient, DWI = diffusion weighted imaging, T1/ T2 = T1/ T2 weighted image-basic pulse sequences in MRI, VA = vertebral artery, 3D-TOF = 3D Time of Flight.
Cristea, I; Popa, C
The article represents a case of a young patient with atypical clinical and paraclinical presentation of vertebral artery dissection by multiple cerebral infarcts, localized at the supratentorial and infratentorial levels in the posterior circulation. A case of a 21-year-old man, without a history of trauma in the cervical area or at the cranial level, without recent chiropractic maneuvers or practicing a sport, which required rapid, extreme, rotational movements of the neck, was examined. He presented to the emergency room with nausea, numbness of the left limbs, dysarthria, and incoordination of walking, with multiple objective signs at the neurological examination, which revealed right vertebral artery subacute dissection after the paraclinical investigations. The case was particular due to the atypical debut symptomatology, through the installation of the clinical picture in stages, during 4 hours and by multiple infarcts through the artery-to-artery embolic mechanism in the posterior cerebral territory. Abbreviations: PICA = posterior inferior cerebellar artery, CT = computed tomography, MRI = magnetic resonance imaging, angio MRI = mangnetic resonance angiography, FLAIR = fluid attenuated inversion recovery, FS = fat suppression, ADC = apparent diffusion coefficient, DWI = diffusion weighted imaging, T1/ T2 = T1/ T2 weighted image-basic pulse sequences in MRI, VA = vertebral artery, 3D-TOF = 3D Time of Flight PMID:27974938
Cremers, Charlotte H P; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Rinkel, Gabriel J E
The cause of perimesencephalic hemorrhage is unknown, but a venous source is suggested. If perimesencephalic hemorrhage is of venous origin, less elevation of the intracranial pressure and less perfusion deficits are expected than after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We compared perfusion in the acute stage after perimesencephalic hemorrhage and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We included 45 perimesencephalic hemorrhage patients and 45 aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients, who were matched on clinical condition at admission and underwent computerized tomographic scanning <72 h after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral blood flow was assessed in 12 predefined regions of interest. Differences in cerebral blood flow values with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Sub-group analyses were performed stratified on comparable amounts of blood and location of blood (posterior circulation aneurysms and additionally in infratentorial and supratentorial aneurysms). Cerebral blood flow was higher in perimesencephalic hemorrhage patients (mean: 63·8) than in aneurysmal sub-arachnoid hemorrhage patients (mean: 55·9; difference of means: -7·9 [95% confidence interval: -10·7 to -5·2]) and also in the sub-group with comparable amounts of blood (mean cerebral blood flow: 56·4; difference of means: -7·4 [95% confidence interval: -10·4 to -4·3]). Cerebral blood flow was comparable with perimesencephalic hemorrhage patients for the sub-group with posterior circulation aneurysms (difference of means: -0·7 [95% confidence interval: -5·2 to 3·8]); however, differences diverged after stratifying posterior circulation aneurysms into supratentorial (difference of means -3·9 [95% confidence interval: -9·3 to 1·4]) and infratentorial aneurysms (difference of means 3·0 [95% confidence interval: -2·8 to 8·8]). Perimesencephalic hemorrhage patients have a higher cerebral blood flow than aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. The findings
Schuster, Sergio; Biagini, Roberto; Casadei, Roberto; De Paolis, Massimiliano; Bertoni, Franco; Boriani, Stefano; Mercuri, Mario
We report a case of ABC in a child where, after resection of the posterior spinal column of L1, we did a biological reconstruction using a posterior tension band with a segment of fascia lata allograft in tension between T12 and L2. After the long term follow up, X-ray and MRI controls showed a satisfactory alignment of the spine and no local recurrence. The patient now has no sign of spinal instability or deviation, with no kind of discomfort or pain, and has a normal life. In our experience this biological tension band interferes minimally with the growth of the spine, and has a less number of complications in comparison with other more aggressive methods and so is a good option for restoring the stability in young patients with benign spinal tumors that arises on the posterior column without having any kind of potential deviations. PMID:17426986
Kubota, Hisashi; Tanikawa, Rokuya; Katsuno, Makoto; Noda, Kosumo; Ota, Nakao; Miyata, Shiro; Yabuuchi, Tomonari; Izumi, Naoto; Bulsara, Ketan R; Hashimoto, Masaaki
Symptomatic fusiform intracranial vertebral artery aneurysms pose a formidable treatment challenge when not amenable to endovascular treatment. In this paper, we illustrate the microsurgical management of such an aneurysm. To prevent neurological deterioration, anatomical reconstruction preserving all vessels including posterior inferior cerebellar artery and perforators is essential. In this case illustration, the occipital artery was used as a donor to a perforator originating from the aneurysmal segment. This bypass was performed in an end-to-side fashion. Subsequently, the aneurysmal component of the vertebral artery was resected and an end-to-side (V4 to V3) bypass was performed using a radial artery graft. The patient achieved complete resection of the aneurysm preserving normal anatomy of the posterior circulation without any ischemic complications. Complex cerebral artery bypass techniques are essential in the armamentarium of cerebrovascular for the treatment of complex lesions not amenable to endovascular therapy.
Objective To investigate warning effect of serum miRNA for intracranial aneurysm rupture through microarray hybridization. Methods 24 were selected from 560 patients in our department and divided into group A, B, C and D. They are aneurysms with daughter aneurysms group, aneurysm without daughter aneurysms group, ruptured aneurysms group and angiography negative group. Then a microarray study was carried out using serum miRNA. Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified. Cluster analysis was performed in order to make the results looks more intuitive and potential gene targets were retrieved from miRNA target prediction databases. Results Microarray study identified 86 miRNAs with significantly different (p < 0.05) expression levels between three experimental groups and control group. Among them 69 are up-regulated and 17 are down-regulated. All miRNAs in group A are up-regulated, while there are up and down-regulated in group B and C. A total of 8291 predicted target genes are related to these miRNAs. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that several target genes are involved in apoptosis and activation of cells associated with function of vascular wall. Conclusion Our gene level approach reveals several different serum miRNAs between normal people and aneurysm patients, as well as among different phases of aneurysm, suggesting that miRNA may participate in the regulation of the occurrence and development of intracranial aneurysm, and also have warning effect for intracranial aneurysm rupture. All differently expressed miRNA in group A are up-regulated, which may suggesting protective function of miRNA for intracranial vascular wall. PMID:24279374
Chen, Karen; Schneider, Andrea L C; Llinas, Rafael H; Marsh, Elisabeth B
Dizziness is a common chief complaint of patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED). Physicians must quickly and accurately identify patients whose etiology is most likely ischemia. Additional tools are available, but often require further training (vestibular testing) or are costly and not always readily available (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)). This study evaluates the ability of a routine history and simple physical examination to correctly identify dizzy patients with posterior circulation ischemia, and the added utility of CT angiography (CTA). We performed a retrospective analysis of all individuals presenting to the ED with a reported chief complaint of dizziness. Neurology was consulted and CTA ordered at the discretion of the ED provider. Demographic, medical, and radiographic variables were evaluated along with final diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression and ROC analysis were used to determine factors associated with ischemia, the sensitivity of vascular risk factors and focal exam findings in predicting ischemia, and the additional benefit, if any, of CTA. One thousand two-hundred sixteen individuals meeting inclusion criteria presented to the ED over a 2 year period and were included in analysis. One hundred (8.2 %) were diagnosed with posterior circulation ischemia. For the entire cohort, age (OR 1.4 per 10 years, p < 0.0001), systolic blood pressure (OR 1.3 per 10 mmHg, p < 0.0001), and focal exam findings (OR 28.69, p < 0.0001) were most significantly associated with ischemia in multivariable modeling. When age, race, sex, presence of vascular risk factors, and focal neurologic findings were entered into ROC analysis, the AUC for correctly identifying posterior circulation ischemia was 0.90. In the subset of patients who underwent CTA (n = 87), the AUC did not improve (0.78 with and without CTA in ROC analysis, p = 0.52). A vascular risk assessment and neurological examination are adequate for risk
He, Zijun; Luo, Yongchun; Zhang, Zhenhai; Liang, Chunyang; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Ruxiang; Shen, Chunsen
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of mechanical thrombectomy with the Solitaire AB device in recanalization of patients with acute ischemic stroke of posterior circulation. The clinical data of 17 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke of posterior circulation, treated with the Solitaire AB device from August 2011 to August 2015 in Department of Neurosurgery, the Military General Hospital of Beijing People's Liberation Army, were extracted and then retrospectively analyzed. There were 12 male and 5 female patients with a median age of 60 years (ranging from 44 to 75 years). Among them, 8 cases occluded in basilar artery, 4 cases occluded in vertebral artery and 5 cases occluded in vertebral plus basilar artery. Recanalization rate as well as complications after treatment were analysized. Also, neurological functions of the patients before and after treatment, measured by National Institute of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) score, were compared via t test and the clinical outcomes were assessed by modified Rankin score (mRS) at 90 days after treatment. Fifteen patients resulted in successfully recanalization, and 2 cases failed both of whose onset to sheath time were above 7.5 hours. The NIHSS score at 7 days was 11±10, which was significantly decreased compared to the admission NIHSS score 17±5 (t=2.949, P=0.009). No symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage case was found after thrombectomy. At 90 days, one patient died(mRS 6), one patient seriously disabled (mRS 5), two patients moderately seriously disabled (mRS 4), four patients resulted in moderate outcome (mRS 3) and the other 9 patients achieved good outcome (mRS 0 to 2). The dead and seriously disabled cases were both due to failure in recanalization. Two moderately seriously disabled cases were probably attributed to their severe admission condition (NIHSS >20) and prolonged time (onset to sheath time >6 hours). Mechanical thrombectomy with the Solitaire AB device contributes to a high rate of
Chernyshev, Oleg Y; Bir, Shyamal C; Maiti, Tanmoy K; Patra, Devi Prasad; Liendo, Cesar; Cuellar, Hugo; Minagar, Alireza; Nanda, Anil
Optimal treatment of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) in elderly patients has not yet been well established. We have investigated the clinical and radiological outcomes and predictors of unfavorable outcome of IAs in elderly patients. Radiological and clinical data of 85 elderly patients from 2010 through 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Significant differences between the groups were determined by a chi-square test. Regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of unfavorable outcome. Among the 85 patients with IAs, the number of patients with >7mm size aneurysm (p=0.01), diabetes mellitus (DM) (p=0.02), smoking (0.009) and Hunt and Hess grade 4-5 (p=0.003) was significantly higher in the ruptured group compared to the unruptured group. Similarly, the number of patients who underwent clipping was higher in the ruptured aneurysm group (p=0.01). The overall clinical outcome was comparatively better in the unruptured group (p=0.03); however, microsurgical clipping of aneurysms provides a significantly higher rate of complete aneurysmal occlusion (p=0.008). Overall, there was no significant difference in outcome in respect to treatment approach. In regression analysis, hypertension (HTN), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), prior stroke, ruptured aneurysms and partial occlusion of aneurysms were identified as predictors of unfavorable outcome of IAs. Intracranial aneurysms in elderly patients reveals that endovascular treatment provides better clinical outcome; however, microsurgical clipping yields higher complete occlusion. Retreatment of residual aneurysms was comparatively more in the coiling group. Practice pattern has shifted from clipping to coiling for aneurysms in posterior circulation but not for aneurysms in anterior circulation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Mohammad, Laila M; Coon, Alexander L; Carlson, Andrew P
The authors present an unusual case of a 15-year-old boy in whom sensorineural hearing loss and disequilibrium developed in the setting of a giant basilar artery aneurysm. This patient was treated with a flow-diverting stent and had complete resolution of his clinical symptoms including hearing loss. This case demonstrates the efficacy of flow diversion in select pediatric patients with posterior circulation aneurysms. The features that are thought to result in successful treatment are discussed.
Kim, Chulho; Sohn, Jong-Hee; Jang, Min Uk; Hong, Sung-Kwang; Lee, Joong-Seob; Kim, Hyung-Jong; Choi, Hui-Chul; Lee, Jun Ho
The association between idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) and the radiologic characteristics of the vertebrobasilar artery is unclear. We hypothesized that the degree and direction of vertebrobasilar artery curvature in the posterior circulation contribute to the occurrence of ISSNHL. We consecutively enrolled patients diagnosed with unilateral ISSNHL in two tertiary hospitals. Magnetic resonance images were performed in all patients to exclude specific causes of ISSNHL, such as vestibular schwannoma, chronic mastoiditis, and anterior inferior cerebellar artery infarct. We measured the following parameters of posterior circulation: vertebral and basilar artery diameter, the degree of basilar artery curvature (modified smoker criteria), and vertebral artery dominance. Pure tone audiometries were performed at admission and again 1 week and 3 months later. A total of 121 ISSNHL patients (mean age, 46.0 ± 17.3 years; 48.8% male) were included in these analyses. The proportion of patients with the left side hearing loss was larger than the proportion with the right side hearing loss (left, 57.9%; right, 42.1%). The majority of patients were characterized by a left dominant vertebral artery and right-sided basilar artery curvature. The direction of the basilar artery curvature was significantly associated with hearing loss lateralization (p = 0.036). Age and sex matched multivariable analyses revealed the absence of diabetes and right-sided basilar artery curvature as significant predictors for left sided hearing loss. There was no statistical difference between atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk score (high versus low) and hearing outcomes at 3 months. In ISSNHL, the laterality of hearing loss was inversely associated with the direction of basilar artery curvature. Our results, therefore, indicate the importance of vascular assessment when evaluating ISSNHL.
Kim, Bum Joon; Kim, Na-Young; Kang, Dong-Wha; Kim, Jong S; Kwon, Sun U
Right-to-left shunt (RLS) via the patent foramen ovale is an important cause of cryptogenic stroke. The Valsalva maneuver provokes or enhances RLS, but RLS can also occur during normal respiration. This study examined whether the ischemic lesion pattern differs depending on the character of RLS. All consecutive patients with a patent foramen ovale (diagnosed by transesophageal echocardiography) who had a cryptogenic stroke and underwent transcranial Doppler-patent foramen ovale test (monitoring of microbubbles in the right middle cerebral artery by transcranial Doppler after hand-agitated saline injection) were divided according to whether RLS was constant (microbubbles detected both at baseline and after the Valsalva maneuver) or provoked (microbubbles detected only after the Valsalva maneuver). The groups were compared in terms of clinical and imaging characteristics. Seventy-six patients met the eligibility criteria: 50 had constant RLS and 26 had provoked RLS. Provoked RLS patients were significantly younger. The ischemic lesions in provoked RLS patients were located predominantly in the vertebro-basilar circulation (73.1% versus 28.0%; P=0.002), whereas constant RLS patients were more likely to have multicirculatory lesions (16.0% versus 0.0%; P=0.045). After adjusting for confounders, provoked RLS associated independently with a vertebro-basilar lesion location (OR=3.306; P=0.03). The predominance of posterior-circulatory infarction in provoked RLS patients suggests that the Valsalva maneuver may promote RLS and paradoxical embolization to the posterior circulation. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Yang, Jun-xiong; Jing, Li-jun; Yu, Jian-chun; Han, Jing-xian
To compare the clinical efficacy difference between electroacupuncture (EA) at qijie area combined with spine balance-regulating massage and medication for posterior circulation ischemia (PCI). One hundred cases of PCI were randomly divided into a treatment group (50 cases) and a medication group (50 cases). The treatment group was treated with EA at Baihui (GV 20), Sishencong (EX-HN 1), Fengchi (GB 20), Shenshu (BL 23), Danzhong (CV 17), etc. in qijie area combined with spine muscle-relieving massage and comprehensive chiropractic. The medication group was treated with oral administration of nimodipine (30 mg per time, three treatments per day) and vinpocetine injection with 500 mL of glucose injection or intravenous drip of 500 mL 0.9% sodium chloride injection, once a day. Ten treatments were taken as one course in both groups, and two courses were given. The symptom score, mean resistance index (RI) of vertebral artery (VA) and basilar artery (BA), mean velocity of blood flow (Vm) and comprehensive clinical efficacy were compared before and after treatment in two groups. The cured and markedly effective rate was 79.6% (39/49) in the treatment group, which was superior to 54.7% (23/42) in the medication group (P<0.05). The symptom score was both significantly improved after treatment in two groups (both P<0.05), which was more obvious in the treatment group (P<0.05). The RI of VA and BA, Vm of VA and BA were significantly improved after treatment in two groups (all P<0.05), which were more obvious in the treatment group (all P<0.05). The electroacupuncture combined with spine balance-regulating massage has superior effect on improving mean velocity of blood flow and resistance index of vertebral artery and basilar artery as well as symptom score to medication, and is believed to be a safe and effective treatment for posterior circulation ischemia.
Executive Summary Objective To determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of coil embolization compared with surgical clipping to treat intracranial aneurysms. The Technology Endovascular coil embolization is a percutaneous approach to treat an intracranial aneurysm from within the blood vessel without the need of a craniotomy. In this procedure, a microcatheter is inserted into the femoral artery near the groin and navigated to the site of the aneurysm. Small helical platinum coils are deployed through the microcatheter to fill the aneurysm, and prevent it from further expansion and rupture. Health Canada has approved numerous types of coils and coil delivery systems to treat intracranial aneurysms. The most favoured are controlled detachable coils. Coil embolization may be used with other adjunct endovascular devices such as stents and balloons. Background Intracranial Aneurysms Intracranial aneurysms are the dilation or ballooning of part of a blood vessel in the brain. Intracranial aneurysms range in size from small (<12 mm in diameter) to large (12–25 mm), and to giant (>25 mm). There are 3 main types of aneurysms. Fusiform aneurysms involve the entire circumference of the artery; saccular aneurysms have outpouchings; and dissecting aneurysms have tears in the arterial wall. Berry aneurysms are saccular aneurysms with well-defined necks. Intracranial aneurysms may occur in any blood vessel of the brain; however, they are most commonly found at the branch points of large arteries that form the circle of Willis at the base of the brain. In 85% to 95% of patients, they are found in the anterior circulation. Aneurysms in the posterior circulation are less frequent, and are more difficult to treat surgically due to inaccessibility. Most intracranial aneurysms are small and asymptomatic. Large aneurysms may have a mass effect, causing compression on the brain and cranial nerves and neurological deficits. When an intracranial aneurysm ruptures and bleeds
Suzuki, Kengo; Mikami, Takeshi; Sugino, Toshiya; Wanibuchi, Masahiko; Miyamoto, Susumu; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Mikuni, Nobuhiro
Various modalities have been used to confirm the blood flow through parent arteries or surrounding perforating arteries during surgical aneurysm clipping, including motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), Doppler ultrasound, and indocyanine green videoangiography. Nonetheless, contralateral hemiparesis due to arterial blood flow insufficiency may arise because of false-positive or false-negative errors. By performing controlled intraoperative awakening during aneurysm clipping, we compared patients' voluntary movements with simultaneous MEP. Four patients with anterior choroidal artery aneurysms and one patient with a dorsal internal carotid artery aneurysm were included in this study. MEP and intraoperative voluntary movements under awake craniotomy were assessed simultaneously during and after the clipping procedure. Aneurysms were safely and successfully clipped in all patients, with no evidence of postoperative neurological deficits. Voluntary movements and MEP findings did not differ from the control state in three patients. In the other two patients, we observed a discrepancy between MEP amplitudes and voluntary movements. In one patient, deterioration and subsequent improvement in voluntary movements were preceded by MEP amplitude reduction during clipping. In the other patient, MEP amplitude did not change although voluntary movement deteriorated during temporary occlusion of the internal carotid artery. Intraoperative neurological assessment during aneurysmal clipping under awake craniotomy is feasible and safe, and should be valuable for the assessment of ischemia, especially in the anterior choroidal artery. From a neurophysiologic viewpoint, MEP may be insufficiently sensitive for evaluating voluntary movement under ischemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kalani, M Yashar S; Spetzler, Robert F; Wanebo, John E
In 3%-15% of patients with moyamoya disease, aneurysms occur throughout the circle of Willis. In moyamoya patients treated with a superficial temporal artery-to-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass, treatment of a new or an enlarging aneurysm can be complicated by the presence of the bypass and by limitations on the use of standard frontotemporal craniotomies to gain access to the aneurysm. Furthermore, endovascular access can be limited by the presence of fragile moyamoya vessels and precluded by atresia of large vessels. A 45-year-old female patient with a history of moyamoya disease and previous left STA-MCA bypass presented with an enlarging left superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. We used a keyhole supraorbital craniotomy as a minimally invasive route to treat this aneurysm of the circle of Willis, with minimal interruption to the existing bypass or collateral circulation. In patients with moyamoya disease who have existing STA-MCA bypass and de novo or expanding aneurysms, treatment is fraught with challenges. We advocate the use of a minimally invasive keyhole supraorbital craniotomy with an eyebrow incision for aneurysms associated with moyamoya disease occurring on the proximal anterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries, the anterior communicating artery, the basilar apex, the posterior communicating artery, the proximal superior cerebellar artery, and the posterior cerebral artery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Kocaeli, Hasan; Yildirim, Nalan; Cebeci, Hakan; Erdogan, Cüneyt; Hakyemez, Bahattin
Summary This study describes the peri-procedural and late complications and angiographic follow-up results of 32 patients with 34 complex aneurysms treated with flow diverter Silk stents in a single centre. In this retrospective study, 40 Silk stents (SS) were implanted in 34 complex intracranial aneurysms in 32 patients. In our series, 20 (58.8%) carotid-ophthalmic internal carotid artery (ICA), six (17.6%) cavernous ICA, two (5.9%) supraclinoid ICA, two (5.9%) petrosal ICA (the same patient- bilateral) and four (11.8%) posterior circulation aneurysms were treated. One of the posterior circulation lesions was a fenestrated-type aneurysm. Twenty wide-necked, saccular; eight neck remnant; four fusiform and two blister-like aneurysms were included in our series. SS were successfully implanted in all patients (100%). Misdeployment occurred in 17.6% of patients. In two of these patients adequate stent openness was achieved via Hyperglide balloon dilatation. Coil embolization in addition to SS placement was utilized in four aneurysms. One patient (3%) experienced transient morbidity due to a thromboembolic event and there was one mortality (3%) due to remote intraparenchymal haemorrhage. Complete occlusion of 27/33 (81.8 %) and 29/33 (87.9 %) aneurysms was achieved six and 12 months after the procedure, respectively. In-stent intimal hyperplasia was detected in 6.1 % patients. Flow-diverter Silk stent implantation is an effective method of treating complex aneurysms with acceptable mortality and morbidity rates. Complete occlusion is achieved in most of the complex aneurysms. PMID:25496683
Anami, Hidenori; Aihara, Yasuo; Kawashima, Akitsugu; Yamaguchi, Koji; Nagahara, Ayumi; Okada, Yoshikazu
Traumatic intracranial aneurysms (TICAs) are rare, representing less than 5 % of all intracranial aneurysms. Most TICAs are located within the anterior circulation, and less than 10 % of TICAs occur in the posterior circulation. Histopathologically, most TICAs are false aneurysms and have a high risk of rupture or re-bleeding. When they are discovered, careful observation or treatment may be required. Once they are enlarged, they have a high risk of rupture, and immediate treatment is essential. For the first time in the literature, we report a rare case of an 8-year-old boy with a TICA in anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) and arteriovenous (A-V) fistula after severe head trauma. Trapping of AICA and resection of the aneurysm was performed. Postoperatively, he has peripheral facial palsy but is otherwise neurologically normal. Surgical treatment for traumatic aneurysms is challenging because most of TICAs are histopathologically pseudoaneurysms. It may be technically difficult to perform direct surgery of aneurysms especially located in the posterior circulation, but when the treatment is successful, the outcome was favorable.
Almeida, Joao P; Reghin Neto, Matheus; Chaddad Neto, Feres; DE Oliveira, Evandro
Comprehensive understanding of the vascular anatomy, including anatomic variations, anatomy of the perforators, and areas of irrigation for each specific vascular trunk is relevant for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Understanding the microanatomy of the cerebral vessels helps surgeons to select the most appropriate microsurgical approach for each case. Anterior circulation aneurysms may be originated from the internal carotid artery and its branches, anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery and anterior communicating artery. Although presenting different surgical nuances, we favor the use of the pterional approach for most anterior circulation aneurysms. In some instances, extensions of the pterional approach improve the surgical exposure and may be selected. In its turn, posterior fossa aneurysms remain a challenge to the neurosurgeon. The exquisite eloquence and complexity of posterior fossa contents require a through knowledge of microsurgical anatomy of this region. Such anatomic background guides the surgeon to the most appropriate approach, which may vary dependind on the size, position of the aneuryms and its relatonship to the surrounding structures.
Alemán-Rivera, A; Camacho-Gómez, A
Rupture of intracranial aneurysms causes nearly 80% of all spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhages. To determine the variables with prognostic value in view of the results of patients operated on for intracranial aneurysms. Patients and methods. The sample was made up of 100 patients from whose clinical histories useful data was obtained. This data was then fed into a database using DBASE111 and discriminant analysis made to determine the variables of predictive value regarding mortality. The average age was 45 years, with a predominance of women. Arterial hypertension was observed in 52.9% of the patients. The patients with the best pre operative evaluation on the WFNS scale obtained the best results. Correct evaluation of 97% of the cases was done on discriminant analysis of certain variables studied. Excellent results were obtained by 75% of the patients, 10% had a slight degree of disability, four patients had severe disability and 11 patients died, five of them of non neurological conditions. The application of discriminant analysis made it possible to determine amongst over 50 variables studied, a group which by themselves lead to the definite classification of our patients regarding survival. These were: the state of the brain during operation, number of post operative complications, difficulty in dissecting the sac of the aneurysm, early rupture of the aneurysm, pre operative neurological state and action on the aneurysm.
Cıkla, Ulas; Uluç, Kutluay; Baskaya, Mustafa K
Giant posterior circulation aneurysms pose a significant challenge to neurovascular surgeons. Among various treatment methods that have been applied individually or in combination, clipping under hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) is rarely used. We present a 62-year-old man who initially underwent coil occlusion of the right vertebral artery (VA) for a 2.5 cm giant vertebrobasilar junction (VBJ) aneurysm. His neurological condition had declined gradually and the aneurysm grew to 4 cm in size. The patient underwent clip reconstruction of giant VBJ aneurysm under HCA. His postoperative course was prolonged due to his preexisting neurological deficits. His preoperative Modified Rankin Score was 5, and improved postoperatively to 3 at three and six months, and to 2 at one year. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/L53SiLV8eJY.
Galzio, Renato J.; Di Cola, Francesco; Raysi Dehcordi, Soheila; Ricci, Alessandro; De Paulis, Danilo
Background: The endovascular techniques has widely changed the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. However surgery still represent the best therapeutic option in case of broad-based and complex lesions. The combined use of endoscopic and microsurgical techniques (EAM) may improve surgical results. Objective: The purpose of our study is to evaluate the advantages and limits of EAM for intracranial aneurysms. Methods: Between January 2002 and December 2012, 173 patients, harboring 206 aneurysms were surgically treated in our department with the EAM technique. One hundred and fifty-seven aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation and 49 were in the posterior circulation. Standard tailored approaches, based on skull base surgery principles, were chosen. The use of the endoscope included three steps: initial inspection, true operative time, and final inspection. For each procedure, an intraoperative video and an evaluation schedule were prepared, to report surgeons’ opinions about the technique itself. In the first cases, we always used the endoscope during surgical procedures in order to get an adequate surgical training. Afterwards we became aware in selecting cases in which to apply the endoscopy, as we started to become familiar with its advantages and limits. Results: After clipping, all patients were undergone postoperative cerebral angiography. No surgical mortality related to EAM were observed. Complications directly related to endoscopic procedures were rare. Conclusion: Our retrospective study suggests that endoscopic efficacy for aneurysms is only scarcely influenced by the preoperative clinical condition (Hunt–Hess grade), surgical timing, presence of blood in the cisterns (Fisher grade) and/or hydrocephalus. However the most important factors contributing to the efficacy of EAM are determined by the anatomical locations and sizes of the lesions. Furthermore, the advantages are especially evident using dedicated scopes and holders, after an
Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Kocaeli, Hasan; Yildirim, Nalan; Cebeci, Hakan; Erdogan, Cüneyt; Hakyemez, Bahattin
This study describes the peri-procedural and late complications and angiographic follow-up results of 32 patients with 34 complex aneurysms treated with flow diverter Silk stents in a single centre. In this retrospective study, 40 Silk stents (SS) were implanted in 34 complex intracranial aneurysms in 32 patients. In our series, 20 (58.8%) carotid-ophthalmic internal carotid artery (ICA), six (17.6%) cavernous ICA, two (5.9%) supraclinoid ICA, two (5.9%) petrosal ICA (the same patient- bilateral) and four (11.8%) posterior circulation aneurysms were treated. One of the posterior circulation lesions was a fenestrated-type aneurysm. Twenty wide-necked, saccular; eight neck remnant; four fusiform and two blister-like aneurysms were included in our series. SS were successfully implanted in all patients (100%). Misdeployment occurred in 17.6% of patients. In two of these patients adequate stent openness was achieved via Hyperglide balloon dilatation. Coil embolization in addition to SS placement was utilized in four aneurysms. One patient (3%) experienced transient morbidity due to a thromboembolic event and there was one mortality (3%) due to remote intraparenchymal haemorrhage. Complete occlusion of 27/33 (81.8 %) and 29/33 (87.9 %) aneurysms was achieved six and 12 months after the procedure, respectively. In-stent intimal hyperplasia was detected in 6.1 % patients. Flow-diverter Silk stent implantation is an effective method of treating complex aneurysms with acceptable mortality and morbidity rates. Complete occlusion is achieved in most of the complex aneurysms.
Ibeh, Chinwe; Shah, Qaisar A.
Background Aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar junction (VBJ) are especially uncommon but carry a significant risk of hemorrhage and historically have been difficult to treat. In recent years, however, advancements in stent-assisted embolization have allowed better access and stabilization of complicated posterior circulation aneurysms. Methods We describe a novel approach in the treatment of a wide-neck aneurysm at the terminus of the left vertebral artery by a contralateral approach in a patient with ipsilateral subclavian artery occlusion. Results A complex, wide-neck aneurysm at the verterbrobasilar junction hindered by ipsilateral subclavian occlusion can successfully be treated with stent-assisted coil embolization using a contralateral approach. Conclusion Contralateral U-shaped stenting offers a viable endovascular option for patients with complex aneurysms of the vertebral basilar junction but should be reserved for appropriate cases with favorable anatomy when the ipsilateral approach from the subclavian artery is unobtainable. PMID:26060520
de Notaris, Matteo; Enseñat, Joaquim; Alobid, Isam; San Molina, Joan; Berenguer, Joan; Cappabianca, Paolo
Introduction. The purpose of the present contribution is to perform a detailed anatomic and virtual reality three-dimensional stereoscopic study in order to test the effectiveness of the extended endoscopic endonasal approaches for selected anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms. Methods. The study was divided in two main steps: (1) simulation step, using a dedicated Virtual Reality System (Dextroscope, Volume Interactions); (2) dissection step, in which the feasibility to reach specific vascular territory via the nose was verified in the anatomical laboratory. Results. Good visualization and proximal and distal vascular control of the main midline anterior and posterior circulation territory were achieved during the simulation step as well as in the dissection step (anterior communicating complex, internal carotid, ophthalmic, superior hypophyseal, posterior cerebral and posterior communicating, basilar, superior cerebellar, anterior inferior cerebellar, vertebral, and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries). Conclusion. The present contribution is intended as strictly anatomic study in which we highlighted some specific anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms that can be reached via the nose. For clinical applications of these approaches, some relevant complications, mainly related to the endonasal route, such as proximal and distal vascular control, major arterial bleeding, postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak, and olfactory disturbances must be considered. PMID:24575410
Daou, Badih; Chalouhi, Nohra; Starke, Robert M; Barros, Guilherme; Ya'qoub, Lina; Do, John; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula; Rosenwasser, Robert H; Jabbour, Pascal
OBJECTIVE With the increasing number of aneurysms treated with endovascular coiling, more recurrences are being encountered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of microsurgical clipping in the treatment of recurrent, previously coiled cerebral aneurysms and to identify risk factors that can affect the outcomes of this procedure. METHODS One hundred eleven patients with recurrent aneurysms whose lesions were managed by surgical clipping between January 2002 and October 2014 were identified. The rates of aneurysm occlusion, retreatment, complications, and good clinical outcome were retrospectively determined. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify factors associated with these outcomes. RESULTS The mean patient age was 50.5 years, the mean aneurysm size was 7 mm, and 97.3% of aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation. The mean follow-up was 22 months. Complete aneurysm occlusion, as assessed by intraoperative angiography, was achieved in 97.3% of aneurysms (108 of 111 patients). Among patients, 1.8% (2 of 111 patients) had a recurrence after clipping. Retreatment was required in 4.5% of patients (5 of 111) after clipping. Major complications were observed in 8% of patients and mortality in 2.7%. Ninety percent of patients had a good clinical outcome. Aneurysm size (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.08-1.7; p = 0.009) and location in the posterior circulation were significantly associated with higher complications. All 3 patients who had coil extraction experienced a postoperative stroke. Aneurysm size (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.02-1.45; p = 0.025) and higher number of interventions prior to clipping (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.3-21.4; p = 0.019) were significant predictors of poor outcome. An aneurysm size > 7 mm was a significant predictor of incomplete obliteration and retreatment (p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS Surgical clipping is safe and effective in treating recurrent, previously coiled cerebral aneurysms. Aneurysm size, location
Lan, Qing; Zhang, Hengzhu; Zhu, Qing; Chen, Ailin; Chen, Yanming; Xu, Liang; Wang, Zhongyong; Yuan, Liqun; Liu, Shihai
The aim of this research was to compare the functional outcome and safety between supraorbital keyhole approach (SKA) and pterional keyhole approach (PKA) for clipping intracranial aneurysms. This is a retrospective study involving 318 patients with a total of 365 aneurysms who underwent keyhole surgery, comprising 195 cases in SKA group and 123 cases in PKA group. The outcome measures include Glasgow Outcome Scale, complete clipping rate, adverse events incidence, operation view angle, working distance, and surgical incision condition. Of a total of 356 aneurysms that were clipped and 9 trapped, no significant difference was observed in Glasgow Outcome Scale score, adverse events incidence, or complete clipping rate between the SKA and PKA groups. The distance from skin incision to anterior clinoid process was 5.87 ± 0.24 cm in SKA and 5.12 ± 0.27 cm in PKA. The operation view angle (from midline to the operating channel in sagittal plane) was 30°-40° in the SKA group and 60°-68° in the PKA group. Our research demonstrates that both SKA and PKA are safe and effective for most anterior circulation aneurysms and parts of posterior circulation aneurysms. The SKA exposures aneurysm better on deep and sagittal directions and is more suitable for clipping aneurysms by the contralateral approach due to the short distance. The PKA has a good exposure on the neck of aneurysm with dorsal direction of parent artery and can be used to evacuate hematoma in the temporal lobe when clipping the aneurysm. Integrating multimodal 3-dimensional images could help neurosurgeon in selecting an appropriate and effective approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lin, Ning; Brouillard, Adam M; Keigher, Kiffon M; Lopes, Demetrius K; Binning, Mandy J; Liebman, Kenneth M; Veznedaroglu, Erol; Magarik, Jordan A; Mocco, J; Duckworth, Edward A; Arthur, Adam S; Ringer, Andrew J; Snyder, Kenneth V; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H
Utilization of the Pipeline embolization device (PED) in complex ruptured aneurysms has not been well studied. We evaluated the safety and effectiveness data from five participating US centers. Records of patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysms who underwent PED treatment between 2011 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. 26 patients with ruptured aneurysms underwent PED treatment (mean age 51.4 ± 13.2 years;16 women). At presentation, 8 patients (30.8%) had a Hunt-Hess grade of IV or above; 11 required extraventricular drain placement. Aneurysm morphologies were: 8 dissecting, 8 blister-like, 6 fusiform, and 4 saccular. There were 22 anterior circulation and 4 posterior circulation aneurysms. PED deployment was successful in all patients, with adjunctive coiling utilized in 12. Periprocedural complications occurred in 5 (19.2%), including 3 inhospital deaths. 23 patients (88.5%) had postoperative angiography at a mean of 5.9 months: 18 aneurysms (78.3%) were completely occluded, 3 (13.0%) had residual neck filling, and 2 (8.7%) had residual dome filling. All blister-type aneurysms were completely occluded at follow-up. Clinical follow-up was available for an average of 10.1 months (range 2-21 months), with one asymptomatic in-stent stenosis and one asymptomatic thromboembolic stroke noted. Good outcome (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0-2) was achieved in 20 patients (76.9%), fair (mRS 3-4) in 3 (11.5%), and 3 died (11.5%). The PED can be utilized for ruptured aneurysms and is a good option for blister-type aneurysms. However, due to periprocedural complications, it should be reserved for lesions that are difficult to treat by conventional clipping or coiling. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Meljnikov, Igor; Vuleković, Petar; Cigić, Tomislav; Borisev, Vladimir; Milojević, Aleksandar; Iduski, Stevan
Despite the contemporary diagnostics of intracranial aneurysms their treatment is still a great challenge. The decision when and if to apply a surgical or endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms should be made by a team of medical specialists which consists of a cerebrovascular neurosurgeon, neuro-radiologist and neuro-anesthesiologist. We report a case of a patient aged 16 who was admitted because of a sudden intensive headache followed by sickness, vomiting, and loss of consciousness. On admission the patient was conscious but sleepy. Glasgow Coma Scale score was 14 and the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons Scale grade was I. The computed tomography scan showed a massive subarachnoid haemorrhage. The computed tomography angiography and digital subtraction angiography revealed a ruptured saccular aneurysm in the left vertebral artery. An early treatment with the coiling of the lumen of the aneurysm was performed under general anaesthesia. On the tenth day the boy was discharged in good condition and without any neurological deficits. Six months after the intervention the patient was without symptoms and the control digital subtraction angiography showed the complete occlusion of the aneurysm. Intracranial aneurysms in children are more common in males and are predominantly localized in the posterior circulation. In addition, they are frequently of greater size and more complex architecture and they are associated with a lower incidence of clinically manifest vasospasm. According to previous experience, endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms in paediatric patients has proven to be a safe and efficient method with a small number of complications.
Toma, Ahmed K; Robertson, Fergus; Wong, Ken; Joshi, Yogish; Haridas, Avinash; Grieve, Joan; Watkins, Laurence D; Kitchen, Neil D; Brew, Stefan
The flow diverting stent (FDS) is a relatively new endovascular therapeutic tool specifically designed to reconstruct the parent artery and divert blood flow along the normal anatomical course and away from the aneurysm neck and dome. Retrospective review of prospectively built clinical and imaging database of patients treated with FDS at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, UK was done. Between 18/03/2008 and 10/11/2011, 80 patients underwent 84 FDS insertion procedures for various indications. Mean duration of clinical follow-up was 11.3 ± 9.3 months and of imaging follow-up was 10.6 ± 9.3 months. Sixty-seven had anterior circulation aneurysms while 17 had posterior circulation aneurysms. Seven (8.3%) patients died (two probably not related, giving a procedure-related mortality of 5.9%), eight had permanent new deficit (9.5%), 20 had transient deficit (23%) and 49 (58%) had no complications. There was a trend towards bad outcome with larger posterior circulation aneurysms. Angiographic follow-up showed 38% cure rate at 6 months and 61% at 12 months. FDS should only be used following multidisciplinary discussion in selected patients. Further data is required regarding long-term safety, efficacy and indications.
Iwamuro, Y; Miyake, H; Ito, T; Kumai, J; Kuroda, T; Sugino, T
The patient was a 71-year-old female. On December 20, 1995, she suddenly developed a severe headache with vomiting and was transferred to our hospital. On admission, her conciousness level was 1-2 on the Japan Coma Scale, but there was no neurological deficit except for right oculomotor palsy. Computed tomography showed subarachnoid hemorrhage which had permeated the right lateral ventricle. On cerebral angiography, a giant fusiform aneurysm in the right internal carotid artery was recognized. During the emergency operation, neither neck clipping nor carotid reconstruction was possible because of the tight adhesion of the aneurysm to the peripheral tissue. On account of this, proximal clipping of the carotid artery with external carotid-middle cerebral artery anastomosis with saphenous vein graft was selected. This patient had had an episode of subarachnoid hemorrhage owing to rupture of the right internal carotid-posterior communicating artery aneurysm ten years earlier. At that time, the aneurysmal neck was clipped with a slight residual neck and she left the hospital on foot. Five days later, when the aneurysm was found to be completely thrombosed on CT scan, antiplatelet therapy was started. Although low density areas which corresponded to the regions fed by the right anterior choroidal artery were presented, re-rupture did not occur. Follow-up angiography showed that the aneurysm was completely thrombosed and that the right middle cerebral and the anterior cerebral artery blood was circulated via the vein graft. Among recurrent cases of aneurysm after neck clipping, it is unusual for a giant fusiform aneurysm to be recognized. The growth may have been caused by sclerotic change of the arterial wall. Oculomotor palsy may have delayed the detection of the recurrence of the aneurysm. When residual neck is presented on follow-up angiography, the next angiography should be carried out within at least three years. In this case, antiplatelet therapy was effective to
... chest and abdomen. There are two types of aortic aneurysm: Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) - these occur in the part of the aorta running through the chest Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) - these occur in the part of the ...
Davidovic, L B; Lotina, S I; Kostic, D M; Cinara, I S; Cvetkovic, S D; Markovic, D M; Vojnovic, B R
Altogether 59 patients with 76 popliteal artery aneurysms were treated during the last 36 years. There were 50 (85%) male and 9 (15%) female patients with an average age of 61 years. Nineteen (32%) patients had bilateral aneurysms. The clinical manifestations of the aneurysms included ruptures 4 (5.3%); deep venous thrombosis 4 (5.3%); sciatic nerve compression 1 (1.3%); leg ischemia 52 (68.4%), and asymptomatic pulsatile masses 15 (19.7%). Seventy (92%) aneurysms were atherosclerotic, one (1.3%) mycotic, and four (5.3%) traumatic; one (1.3%) developed owing to fibromuscular displasia. Seven (9.2%) small, asymptomatic aneurysms were not operated on. Reconstructive procedures end-to-end anastomosis, graft interposition, bypass) after aneurysmal resection or exclusion using a medial or posterior approach were done in 59 cases. An autologous saphenous vein graft was used in 49 cases, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) in 5, and heterograft in 2 cases. The in-hospital mortality rate was 2.9%, the early patency rate 93.3%, and limb salvage 95%. The long-term patency rate after a mean follow-up of 4 years was 78% and long-term limb salvage 89%. The total limb salvage was 73%, and the total amputation rate was 27%. The dangerous complications associated with popliteal artery aneurysms and the good results after elective procedures suggest that operative treatment is appropriate.
Jiang, Hanqiang; Ni, Wei; Lei, Yu; Li, Yanjiang; Gu, Yuxiang
A ruptured wide-necked basilar trunk aneurysm is uncommon in patients with moyamoya disease. The optimal treatment is unclear. We report a safe and beneficial treatment modality for moyamoya disease with aneurysms located in the posterior circulation. A 37-year-old man presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage was admitted to our hospital. Emergent cerebral angiography demonstrated moyamoya disease associated with a wide-necked basilar trunk aneurysm. We performed bilateral extracranial-intracranial bypass surgeries prior to stent-assisted coil embolization of the aneurysm after the acute phase. No complication occurred and the patient was discharged with no neurological deficit. Follow-up digital subtraction angiography (DSA) performed 6 months after the surgery showed that all the anastomosises were patent and bilateral collateral vascular compensation was fully established with no recanalization of the basilar trunk aneurysm post embolization.We also found that high-flow bypass did not contribute to cerebral revascularization as imagined despite the good patency. Combined extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery with endovascular treatment proved to be an efficient therapeutic modality for moyamoya disease with aneurysms located in the posterior circulation. High-flow bypass surgery was not essential due to the inefficiency and the high risk of postoperative cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome.
Ghigliotti, Giorgio; Barisione, Chiara; Garibaldi, Silvano; Brunelli, Claudio; Palmieri, Daniela; Spinella, Giovanni; Pane, Bianca; Spallarossa, Paolo; Altieri, Paola; Fabbi, Patrizia; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Palombo, Domenico
Proinflammatory components are present in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Circulating monocytes display heterogeneity, and three subsets have been identified, based on the differential expression for CD14 and CD16 receptors: CD14(+)CD16(−), classical, CD14(+)CD16(+), intermediate and CD14(dim)CD16(+), non-classical monocytes. Increased proinflammatory CD16+ monocytes with high expression of CD143 are present in CKD patients. D-dimer is increased in AAA patients, and might contribute to the pro-inflammatory response associated to circulating monocytes. We aimed to investigate the frequency of CD14(+)CD16(+), CD14(dim)CD16(+) monocytes and monocyte CD143 expression in AAA patients, and their relationship with Ddimer, eGFR and other inflammatory parameters. Blood from 74 AAA patients and 30 healthy controls was analyzed to determine the frequency of CD14(+)CD16(+), CD14(dim)CD16(+) monocytes and the monocyte CD143 expression by means of flow-cytometry. AAA patients had expanded CD16+ subsets (CD14(+)CD16(+): 7.66 ± 0.31% vs 5.42 ± 0.27%; CD14(dim)CD16(+): 7.43 ± 0.48% vs 5.54 ± 0.38%, AAA vs controls, mean ± SE, both p < 0.05). CD14(+)CD16(+) cells were associated to D-dimer and age, and to reduced eGFR. CD14(dim)CD16(+) cells were associated to uric acid, surface CD143, and reduced count of total leukocytes and neutrophils. Within AAA patients, the two CD16(+) subsets and the monocyte CD143 expression display different relationships with D-dimer, parameters of renal function and circulating biochemical and inflammatory biomarkers.
Ren, Yuan; Chen, Qiang; Li, Zhi-Yong
The Circle of Willis (CoW) is the most important collateral pathway of the cerebral artery. The present study aims to investigate the collateral capacity of CoW with anatomical variation when unilateral internalcarotid artery (ICA) is occluded. Basing on MRI data, we have reconstructed eight 3D models with variations in the posterior circulation of the CoW and set four different degrees of stenosis in the right ICA, namely 24%, 43%, 64% and 79%, respectively. Finally, a total of 40 models are performed with computational fluid dynamics simulations. All of the simulations share the same boundary condition with static pressure and the volume flow rate (VFR) are obtained to evaluate their collateral capacity. As for the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), the transitional-type model possesses the best collateral capacity. But for the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), unilateral stenosis of ICA has the weakest influence on the unilateral posterior communicating artery (PCoA) absent model. We also find that the full fetal-type posterior circle of Willis is an utmost dangerous variation which must be paid more attention. The results demonstrate that different models have different collateral capacities in coping stenosis of unilateral ICA and these differences can be reflected by different outlets. The study could be used as a reference for neurosurgeon in choosing the best treatment strategy.
Mizuno, Ju; Senda, Masahiro; Asahara, Miho; Yamada, Yoshitsugu; Arita, Hideko; Hanaoka, Kazuo
A 79-year-old man underwent aortic arch replacement for thoracic aortic aneurysm. He had a history of smoking, coronary stenting for ischemic heart disease and replacement with artificial blood vessel for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with midazolam, fentanyl, sevoflurane, and vecuronium. A 20 gage catheter was placed in the right radial artery and a 22 gage catheter in the left posterior tibial artery. Total circulatory arrest under profound hypothermia and retrograde cerebral perfusion were performed using extracorporeal circulation. After finishing anastomosis with artificial blood vessel, he was weaned from extracorporeal circulation. The pressure in the left posterior tibial artery was maintained at 15 mmHg, although the blood pressure in the right radial artery increased gradually. Then, the pressure in the left femoral artery in the operative field was the same as the pressure in the right radial artery. Therefore, we suspected the arterial line occlusion of the left posterior tibial artery. After the operation, we found the left leg and foot pale and cold with no pulsation on the left popliteal, dorsal pedis, and posterior tibial arteries. Further, acute left popliteal arterial occlusion was assessed by means of Doppler and left lower extremity angiography. We immediately performed the balloon-catheter embolectomy. However, as he developed compartment syndrome on the left lower limb due to reperfusion injury postoperatively, fascitomy was performed. On the 58th postoperative day, he was discharged from our hospital. Measurement by Doppler is useful for the early diagnosis of the lower leg arterial occlusion.
Mehrotra, Anant; Nair, Anup P; Das, Kuntal Kanti; Srivastava, Arun; Sahu, Rabi Narayan; Kumar, Raj
Intracranial aneurysms are extremely uncommon in the pediatric population, their characteristics are not well studied, and certain features make them unique. The authors analyzed pediatric patients with aneurysms to try to understand their clinical, radiological, and outcome profile. Sixty-three pediatric patients (≤ 18 years of age) with ages ranging from 4 to 18 years and features (clinical and radiological) suggestive of aneurysm presented to, and were treated at, the authors' center in the past 20 years (1991-2011). Included in the present study were only those patients who underwent surgical intervention, and thus data for 57 patients were analyzed. Seventy-three aneurysms in 57 patients were surgically treated. There was a slight female predominance (M/F 1:1.2), and the mean age among all patients was 12.69 ± 3.75 years. Fifty patients (87.72%) presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage, 4 (7.02%) with mass effect, and 3 (5.26%) with seizure. On presentation the majority of patients (45 [78.95%]) had a good clinical grade. Eleven patients had multiple aneurysms. The internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation was the most common aneurysm site (18 cases [24.66%]), followed by the middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation (11 cases [15.07%]). At a mean follow-up of 18.58 ± 10.71 months (range 1.5-44 months), 44 patients (77.19%) had a favorable outcome, and 5 patients had died. Pediatric patients with intracranial aneurysms most commonly presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and there was a slight female predominance. The ICA bifurcation followed by the MCA bifurcation was the most common aneurysm site. The incidence of posterior circulation and giant aneurysms is higher in pediatric patients than in the adult population. Children tend to present with better clinical grades and have better overall survival results and good functional outcomes.
Gonçalves, Vítor M; Cristino, N; Cunha E Sá, M
Intracranial aneurysms are rare in the pediatric population, especially in infancy, representing less than 1% of all aneurysms. In this age group, they are more frequent at the carotid bifurcation and in the posterior circulation, with a greater number of giant aneurysms and spontaneous aneurysm thrombosis when compared with the adults. They are life-threatening, and, therefore, early investigation, characterization of the lesion, and treatment are essential. The appropriate management depends on the child's condition, aneurysm characteristics, and the experience of a multidisciplinary team. Noninvasive and radiation-free imagiological studies play an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of these young patients. We present the case of a 3-month-old boy with an intracranial hemorrhage secondary to the rupture of a giant aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery complex, with spontaneous thrombosis, which is a rare situation due to its location. A conservative approach was assumed and noninvasive evolutive imagiological studies revealed a reduction in the thrombosed aneurysm size and no signs of recanalization. The child recovered to his baseline neurological condition and has had no rehemorrhage until 5 years of follow-up.
Kim, Seul Kee; Baek, Byung Hyun; Heo, Tae Wook
Acute ischemic stroke due to embolic occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in patients with chronic ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion is quite rare. Several previous reports demonstrated that intra-arterial (IA) thrombolytic therapy or aspiration thrombectomy using the cross-circulation technique via an alternative collateral pathway is feasible in acute stroke patients with an unfavorable direct route to the occluded sites. However, stent-retriever embolectomy via the cross-circulation approach has not been reported in the literature. The present paper reports the first case of successful stent-retriever embolectomy for acute MCA occlusion via the patent posterior communicating artery (PComA) by using Trevo XP ProVue stent-retriever in a patient with acute MCA stroke and chronic occlusion at the origin site of the ipsilateral ICA. PMID:26958415
Rivero Rodríguez, Dannys; Scherle Matamoros, Claudio; Fernández Cúe, Leda; Miranda Hernández, José Luis; Pernas Sánchez, Yanelis; Pérez Nellar, Jesús
To evaluate the re-bleeding predictors in patients with delayed treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A prospective cohort study enrolled 261 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, attending in Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital from October 2005, and June 2014. An increased re-bleeding risk in the multivariate analysis was associated with grade III (OR 2.01; 95% CI; 1.06-3.84) and grade IV (OR 3.84; 95% CI; 2.06-7.31) on World Federation Neurological Surgeon (WFNS) scale; grade III (OR 2.04; 95% CI; 1.01-4.13) and grade IV (OR 2.12, 95% CI; 1.05-4.28) on the Fischer scale, aneurism location in posterior circulation (OR 2.45, 95% CI; 1.33-4.44), and anterior communicant artery (OR 1.57, 95% CI;1.00-2.46). Hypertension history was present in 60.9% (159 patients) and was also associated with risk of re-bleeding (OR 2.70, 95% CI; 1.00-7.30). Blood pressure, haematocrit, glycemic, aneurysm size, multiple aneurysms, and location in the middle cerebral artery, do not show any relationship. Hypertension history, poor grade (III and IV) on WFNS and Fisher scale and aneurysm location were independent risks factors of re-bleeding in patients with delayed aneurysmal treatment. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Briganti, Francesco; Leone, Giuseppe; Ugga, Lorenzo; Marseglia, Mariano; Macera, Antonio; Manto, Andrea; Delehaye, Luigi; Resta, Maurizio; Resta, Mariachiara; Burdi, Nicola; Nuzzi, Nunzio Paolo; Divenuto, Ignazio; Caranci, Ferdinando; Muto, Mario; Solari, Domenico; Cappabianca, Paolo; Maiuri, Francesco
Background Experience with the endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms using the p64 Flow Modulation Device is still limited. This study discusses the results and complications of this new flow diverter device. Methods 40 patients (30 women, 10 men) with 50 cerebral aneurysms treated in six Italian neurointerventional centers with the p64 Flow Modulation Device between April 2013 and September 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Results Complete occlusion was obtained in 44/50 aneurysms (88%) and partial occlusion in 3 (6%). In the other three aneurysms (6%), two cases of asymptomatic in-stent thrombosis and one intraprocedural occlusion of the parent vessel occurred. Technical complications were observed in eight procedures (16%). Permanent morbidity due to acute in-stent thrombosis and consequent ischemic stroke occurred in one patient (2.5%). No delayed aneurysm rupture, subarachnoid or intraparenchymal hemorrhage, or ischemic complications occurred and there were no deaths. Conclusions Endovascular treatment with the p64 Flow Modulation Device is a safe treatment for unruptured cerebral aneurysms, resulting in a high rate of occlusion. As with other flow diverter devices, we recommend this treatment mainly for large-necked aneurysms of the internal carotid artery siphon. However, endovascular treatment with the p64 device should also be encouraged in difficult cases such as aneurysms of the posterior circulation and beyond the circle of Willis. PMID:27439887
Suzuki, Hidenori; Shimizu, Shigetoshi; Maki, Hiroaki; Maeda, Masayuki; Sakaida, Hiroshi; Trousset, Yves; Taki, Waro
The goal of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a recently developed image fusion of three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography (3D DSA) and magnetic resonance (MR) images, DSA-MR fusion, in the pre-treatment assessment of cerebral aneurysm. Eighteen patients with 21 unruptured anterior or posterior circulation aneurysms underwent pre-treatment DSA-MR fusion. The authors independently assessed whether DSA-MR fusion images provided any useful additional information compared with analysing 3D DSA and MR images separately, and if this had an impact on the therapeutic decision-making of unruptured aneurysms. DSA-MR fusion images were obtained within 30 minutes for all patients. In 19 of 21 aneurysms, it provided the following additional information to the findings of 3D DSA, MR images or both: the passing course in the brain tissues of perforating arteries near or originating from an aneurysm, and/or the spatial relationship between an aneurysm and an oculomotor nerve. This information from DSA-MR fusion images was useful for diagnosis, therapeutic decision-making and the risk assessment associated with the treatment, as well as patient education regarding cerebral aneurysm. DSA-MR fusion images were useful for the pre-treatment evaluation of unruptured cerebral aneurysms as a supplement to DSA and MR images.
Briganti, Francesco; Leone, Giuseppe; Ugga, Lorenzo; Marseglia, Mariano; Macera, Antonio; Manto, Andrea; Delehaye, Luigi; Resta, Maurizio; Resta, Mariachiara; Burdi, Nicola; Nuzzi, Nunzio Paolo; Divenuto, Ignazio; Caranci, Ferdinando; Muto, Mario; Solari, Domenico; Cappabianca, Paolo; Maiuri, Francesco
Experience with the endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms using the p64 Flow Modulation Device is still limited. This study discusses the results and complications of this new flow diverter device. 40 patients (30 women, 10 men) with 50 cerebral aneurysms treated in six Italian neurointerventional centers with the p64 Flow Modulation Device between April 2013 and September 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Complete occlusion was obtained in 44/50 aneurysms (88%) and partial occlusion in 3 (6%). In the other three aneurysms (6%), two cases of asymptomatic in-stent thrombosis and one intraprocedural occlusion of the parent vessel occurred. Technical complications were observed in eight procedures (16%). Permanent morbidity due to acute in-stent thrombosis and consequent ischemic stroke occurred in one patient (2.5%). No delayed aneurysm rupture, subarachnoid or intraparenchymal hemorrhage, or ischemic complications occurred and there were no deaths. Endovascular treatment with the p64 Flow Modulation Device is a safe treatment for unruptured cerebral aneurysms, resulting in a high rate of occlusion. As with other flow diverter devices, we recommend this treatment mainly for large-necked aneurysms of the internal carotid artery siphon. However, endovascular treatment with the p64 device should also be encouraged in difficult cases such as aneurysms of the posterior circulation and beyond the circle of Willis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Gupta, Mihir; Cheung, Vincent J; Abraham, Peter; Wali, Arvin R; Gabel, Brandon C; Almansouri, Abdulrahman; Pannell, J. Scott; Khalessi, Alexander A
Objective: Early case series suggest that the recently introduced Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support Junior (LVIS Jr.) device (MicroVention-Terumo, Inc., Tustin, CA) may be used to treat wide-necked aneurysms that would otherwise require treatment with intrasaccular devices or open surgery. We report our single-center experience utilizing LVIS Jr. to treat intracranial aneurysms involving 1.8-2.5 mm parent arteries. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed records of patients treated with the LVIS Jr. device for intracranial aneurysms at a single center. A total of 21 aneurysms were treated in 18 patients. Aneurysms were 2-25 mm in diameter; one was ruptured, while three had recurred after previous rupture and treatment. Lesions were distributed across the anterior (n=12) and posterior (n=9) circulations. Three were fusiform morphology. Results: Stent deployment was successful in 100% of cases with no immediate complications. Seventeen aneurysms were treated with stent-assisted coil embolization resulting in immediate complete occlusion in 94% of cases. Two fusiform aneurysms arising from the posterior circulation were further treated with elective clip ligation after delayed expansion and recurrence; no lesions required further endovascular treatment. Four aneurysms were treated by flow diversion with stand-alone LVIS Jr. stent, and complete occlusion was achieved in three cases. Small foci of delayed ischemic injury were noted in two patients in the setting of antiplatelet medication noncompliance. No in-stent stenosis, migration, hemorrhage, or permanent deficits were observed. Good functional outcome based on the modified Rankin Scale score (mRS ≤ 2) was achieved in 100% of cases. Conclusion: Our midterm results suggest that the LVIS Jr. stent may be used for a variety of intracranial aneurysms involving small parent arteries (1.8-2.5 mm) with complete angiographic occlusion, parent vessel preservation, and functional clinical outcomes. This off
Yalo, Bertrand; Pop, Raoul; Zinchenko, Ielyzaveta; Diaconu, Mihaela; Chibbaro, Salvatore; Manisor, Monica; Wolff, Valerie; Beaujeux, Remy
We report a case of interhemispheric and bifrontal cortical superficial siderosis in association with two intracranial aneurysms. The patient had no clinical history suggestive of aneurysm rupture, no feature of amyloid angiopathy or other apparent etiology for cortical siderosis. We performed high resolution brain MRI with dark blood T1 sequences before and after IV contrast injection. An anterior communicating aneurysm showed partial wall enhancement on the posterior wall whereas a left posterior communicating aneurysm did not. In the light of recent reports of the association of wall enhancement with unstable aneurysms, we considered wall enhancement to be a marker of inflammation and remodeling of the aneurysm wall, resulting in chronic hemorrhagic suffusion in the subarachnoid spaces. To our knowledge, this is the first report offering proof for a possible link between apparently unruptured aneurysms and cortical siderosis.
Wu, Xiaoyu; Cakmak, Sinan; Wortmann, Markus; Hakimi, Maani; Zhang, Jian; Böckler, Dittmar; Dihlmann, Susanne
Male sex is a risk factor for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Within the AAA adventitia, infiltrating leukocytes express high levels of inflammasome components. To further elucidate the role of inflammatory cells in the pathogenesis of AAA, we here addressed expression and functionality of inflammasome components in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of AAA patients in association with sex. PBMC and plasma were isolated from 100 vascular patients, including 34 pairs of AAA patients and age/sex-matched non-AAA patients. Male PBMC were found to express significantly higher mRNA levels of AIM2, NLRP3, ASC (PYCARD), CASP1, CASP5, and IL1B (all P < 0.0001) than female PBMC. Within the male patients, PBMC of AAA patients displayed increased mRNA levels of NLRP3 (P = 0.044), CASP1 (P = 0.032) and IL1B (P = 0.0004) compared with matched non-AAA PBMC, whereas there was no difference between female AAA and non-AAA patients. The relative protein level of NLRP3 was significantly lower in PBMC lysates from all AAA patients than in matched controls (P = 0.038), whereas AIM2 and active Caspase-1 (p10) protein levels were significantly increased (P = 0.014 and P = 0.049). ELISA revealed significantly increased IL-1α (mean = 6.34 versus 0.01 pg/mL) and IL-1β plasma levels (mean = 12.07 versus 0.04 pg/mL) in AAA patients. The data indicate that male PBMC display a systemic proinflammatory state with primed inflammasomes that may contribute to AAA-pathogenesis. The AAA-specific inflammasome activation pattern suggests differential regulation of the sensors AIM2 and NLRP3 in inflammatory cells of AAA patients. PMID:27474483
Diogo, Cláudia; Baltazar, José; Fernandes, Mário
The association between intracranial and visceral aneurysms is very rare, with a bad prognosis. The rupture usually appears in the Emergency Room, and it implies an immediate treatment. We describe the case of a woman with rupture of an anterior communicant artery aneurysm and rupture of a pancreatic duodenal artery aneurysm. The actuation of all specialties allowed the direct surgical treatment of the visceral aneurysm, without the aggravation of the cerebral hemorrhage that the eventual Aorta Artery clamping could provoke. The maintenance of the hemodynamic stability was essential for the posterior treatment of the intracranial aneurysm.
... cerebral aneurysm may be required to restore deteriorating respiration and reduce abnormally high pressure within the brain. ... cerebral aneurysm may be required to restore deteriorating respiration and reduce abnormally high pressure within the brain. ...
... tests don't provide enough information. Screening for brain aneurysms The use of imaging tests to screen ... and occupational therapy to relearn skills. Treating unruptured brain aneurysms Surgical clipping or endovascular coiling can be ...
Natarajan, Sabareesh K; Lin, Ning; Sonig, Ashish; Rai, Ansaar T; Carpenter, Jeffrey S; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H
OBJECT Pessimism exists regarding flow diversion for posterior circulation aneurysms because of reports of perforator territory infarcts and delayed ruptures. The authors report the results of patients who underwent Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) flow diversion using novel strategies for treatment of fusiform posterior circulation aneurysms, and compare these results with those from previously reported series. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective review of data from consecutive patients with fusiform vertebrobasilar artery aneurysms treated with the PED. RESULTS This review resulted in the identification of 12 such patients (mean [± SD] age 55.1 ± 14.1 years). Eleven patients had symptoms; 1 had a dissecting aneurysm identified on imaging for neck pain. The average aneurysm size was 13.25 ± 4.5 mm. None of the aneurysms were ruptured or previously treated. The average clinical follow-up duration was 22.1 ± 10.7 months and radiological follow-up was 14.5 ± 11.1 months from the index PED treatment. One patient suffered a perforator stroke and had a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 4 at last follow-up. Another patient had a retained stent pusher requiring retrieval via surgical cut-down but recovered to an mRS score of 0 at last follow-up. Eleven (91.7%) of 12 patients recovered to an mRS score of 0 or 1. Two patients had aneurysmal remnants at 7 and 10 months, respectively, after the index PED, which were retreated with PEDs. At last follow-up, all 12 aneurysms were occluded and PEDs were patent. The minimum follow-up duration was 12 months from the index PED treatment; no patient experienced delayed hemorrhage, stroke, or in-stent stenosis. CONCLUSIONS Flow diversion with selective adjunctive techniques is evolving to become a safer treatment option for posterior circulation aneurysms. This is the longest clinical follow-up duration reported for a single-center experience of flow-diversion treatment of these aneurysms.
Jaja, Blessing N R; Lingsma, Hester; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Schweizer, Tom A; Thorpe, Kevin E; Macdonald, R Loch
OBJECT Neuroimaging characteristics of ruptured aneurysms are important to guide treatment selection, and they have been studied for their value as outcome predictors following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Despite multiple studies, the prognostic value of aneurysm diameter, location, and extravasated SAH clot on computed tomography scan remains debatable. The authors aimed to more precisely ascertain the relation of these factors to outcome. METHODS The data sets of studies included in the Subarachnoid Hemorrhage International Trialists (SAHIT) repository were analyzed including data on ruptured aneurysm location and diameter (7 studies, n = 9125) and on subarachnoid clot graded on the Fisher scale (8 studies; n = 9452) for the relation to outcome on the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at 3 months. Prognostic strength was quantified by fitting proportional odds logistic regression models. Univariable odds ratios (ORs) were pooled across studies using random effects models. Multivariable analyses were adjusted for fixed effect of study, age, neurological status on admission, other neuroimaging factors, and treatment modality. The neuroimaging predictors were assessed for their added incremental predictive value measured as partial R(2). RESULTS Spline plots indicated outcomes were worse at extremes of aneurysm size, i.e., less than 4 or greater than 9 mm. In between, aneurysm size had no effect on outcome (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.98-1.09 for 9 mm vs 4 mm, i.e., 75th vs 25th percentile), except in those who were treated conservatively (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.35). Compared with anterior cerebral artery aneurysms, posterior circulation aneurysms tended to result in slightly poorer outcome in patients who underwent endovascular coil embolization (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.82-1.57) or surgical clipping (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10-1.57); the relation was statistically significant only in the latter. Fisher CT subarachnoid clot burden was related to outcome in a gradient manner. Each
Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Elgalal, Marcin; Papiewski, Andrzej; Szubert, Wojciech; Szopinski, Piotr
Osteolysis of vertebrae due to inflammatory aortic aneurysm is rarely observed. However, it is estimated that up to 10 % of infectious aneurysms coexist with bone tissue destruction, most commonly the vertebrae. Inflammatory aneurysms with no identified infection factor, along with infiltration of adjacent muscle and in particular extensive destruction of bone tissue have rarely been described in the literature. A case of inflammatory aneurysm with posterior wall rupture and inflammatory infiltration of the iliopsoas muscle and spine, together with extensive vertebral body destruction, is presented. The aneurysm was successfully treated with endovascular aneurysm repair EVAR.
A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...
Ishimaru, Hideki; Nakashima, Kazuaki; Takahata, Hideaki; Matsuoka, Yohjiro
Although stenting for stenotic vertebral artery dissection (VAD) improves compromised blood flow, subsequent peri-stent aneurysm (PSA) formation is not well-known. We report two cases with PSA successfully treated with coil embolization. Three patients with stenotic intracranial VAD underwent endovascular angioplasty at our institution because they had acute infarction in posterior circulation territory and clinical evidence of hemodynamic insufficiency. In two of three patients balloon angioplasty at first session failed to relieve the stenosis, and a coronary stent was implanted. Angiography immediately after stenting showed no abnormality in case 1 and minimal slit-like projection at proximal portion of the stent in case 2. Angiography obtained 16 months after the stenting revealed PSA in case 1. In case 2, angiography performed 3 months later showed that the projection at proximal portion enlarged and formed an aneurysm outside the stent. Because follow-up angiographies showed growth of the aneurysm in both cases, endovascular aneurysmal embolization was performed. We advanced a microcatheter into the aneurysm through the strut of existing stent and delivered detachable coils into the aneurysm lumen successfully in both cases. The post-procedural course was uneventful, and complete obliteration of aneurysm was confirmed on angiography in both cases. Stenting for stenotic intracranial VAD may result in delayed PSA; therefore, follow-up angiographies would be necessary after stenting for stenotic intracranial arterial dissection. Coil embolization through the stent strut would be a solution for enlarging PSA.
Frijns, C J M; Fijnheer, R; Algra, A; van Mourik, J A; van Gijn, J; Rinkel, G J E
Objective To investigate the relation of endothelial cell activation with delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI) and outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Methods Concentrations of soluble (s) intercellular adhesion molecule‐1, sE‐selectin, sP‐selectin, ED1‐fibronectin, von Willebrand Factor (vWf), and vWf propeptide were measured within three days of SAH onset. The associations with poor outcome were investigated at three months in 106 patients. In 90 patients in whom the occurrence of cerebral ischaemia could be dated accurately, two analyses were undertaken: one for all ischaemic events (n = 32), including those related to treatment, and another for spontaneous DCI (n = 11). Concentrations of markers were dichotomised at their medians. The associations of endothelial cell activation markers with outcome were expressed as odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression and those with ischaemic events as hazard ratios (HR) derived from Cox regression. Results Early vWf concentrations were associated with poor outcome (crude OR = 4.6 (95% CI, 2.0 to 10.9; adjusted OR = 3.3 (1.1 to 9.8). Early levels of vWf were also positively related to occurrence of all ischaemic events (crude HR = 2.3 (1.1 to 4.9); adjusted HR = 1.8 (0.8 to 3.9) and with occurrence of spontaneous DCI (crude HR = 3.5 (0.9 to 13.1); adjusted HR = 2.2 (0.5 to 9.8). None of the other markers showed any associations. Conclusions Concentrations of sICAM‐1, sP‐selectin, sE‐selectin, and ED1‐fibronectin do not predict the occurrence of DCI or outcome. The positive associations of raised early vWf concentrations with ischaemic events and poor outcome after SAH may reflect a predisposition to further ischaemic injury through formation of microthrombi in the cerebral circulation. PMID:16361599
Batjer, H H; Kopitnik, T A; Giller, C A; Samson, D S
Aneurysms arising from the proximal carotid artery between the roof of the cavernous sinus and the origin of the posterior communicating artery pose conceptual and technical surgical problems with regard to acquisition of proximal control and safe intracranial exposure. Over the past 3 1/2 years, 89 patients with paraclinoidal aneurysms have been treated at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. Thirty-nine (44%) of these patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. A total of 149 aneurysms and six arteriovenous malformations have been identified in this patient group such that 38 (43%) of the patients suffered multiple vascular anomalies. Temporary artery occlusion has been employed during operation in 48 cases (54%), permanent carotid artery occlusion in four (4%), and hypothermic circulatory arrest in two (2%). Twenty-two patients harbored giant aneurysms, seven of which had ruptured. Outcome was considered good in 77 patients (86.5%), fair in eight (9%), and poor in three (3%); one patient died. This concentrated experience permitted a practical anatomical grouping of aneurysms into three types: carotid-ophthalmic artery aneurysms with a superior or superomedial projection (44 cases); superior hypophyseal aneurysms with a medial or inferomedial projection (26 cases); and proximal posterior carotid artery wall aneurysms projecting posteriorly or posterolaterally (19 cases). Despite the fact that paraclinoidal aneurysms often disobey the traditional teachings of aneurysm development, having no vessel of origin or clear hemodynamic cause, this practical grouping has allowed individualized and focused operative approaches unique to each aneurysm projection with good visual function and outcome in most patients.
Rey, Jorge; Golpanian, Samuel; Yang, Jane K; Moreno, Enrique; Velazquez, Omaida C; Goldstein, Lee J; Chahwala, Veer
Abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by a horseshoe kidney (HSK, fused kidney) represents a unique challenge for repair. Renal arteries arising from the aneurysmal aorta can further complicate intervention. Reports exist describing the repair of these complex anatomies using fenestrated endografts, hybrid open repairs (debranching), and open aneurysmorrhaphy with preservation of renal circulation. We describe an extra-anatomic, fully endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a HSK partially supplied by a renal artery arising from the aneurysm. We successfully applied aortouni-iliac endografting, femorofemoral bypass, and retrograde renal artery perfusion via the contralateral femoral artery to exclude the abdominal aortic aneurysm and preserve circulation to the HSK.
McLaughlin, Nancy; Bojanowski, Michel W
Patients harboring an unruptured cerebral aneurysm may present with ischemic events. The goal of this study is to assess the clinical and radiological characteristics and the outcome following treatment of these patients. The study population included 463 patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms treated between January 2000 and November 2006. Patients with aneurysms manifesting with ischemic events were included. Outcome was assessed 12 months following aneurysm treatment using the modified Rankin scale. Eleven patients were included in this series. An acute ischemic lesion in the symptomatic territory was demonstrated in six patients. The aneurysms were located on the internal carotid artery (n=4), middle cerebral artery (n=4), superior cerebellar artery (n=2) and basilar artery (n=1). They measured 10 mm or less (n=7); 11-20 mm (n=2); more than 21 mm (n=2). Five aneurysms were partially thrombosed on imaging. Five patients were referred for coiling. Of these, one patient had an unsuccessful coiling attempt, one had a residual neck, and three presented an aneurysm recurrence. Six patients were treated surgically. Symptomatic thromboembolism occurred after surgery in three patients. Complete aneurysm exclusion was documented in five of six operated patients. Nine of the ten treated patients had a favorable outcome. Even though aneurysms presenting with ischemic events are often small and located on the anterior circulation, in this series the risk of thromboembolic events following aneurysm treatment is noteworthy. This information is relevant given the possible benign natural history in terms of stroke and risk of bleeding for some of these aneurysms.
Feng, Xin; Ji, Wenjun; Qian, Zenghui; Liu, Peng; Kang, Huibin; Wen, Xiaolong; Xu, Wenjuan; Li, Youxiang; Jiang, Chuhan; Wu, Zhongxue; Liu, Aihua
Patients with small (<5 mm) unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) are at risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage, but risk assessment of these patients remains controversial in daily clinical practice. We aimed to identify the risk factors of aneurysmal rupture in these patients. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients with small UIAs who were admitted to our center between February 2009 and December 2014. The enrolled patients were divided into ruptured and unruptured groups. The risk factors for aneurysmal rupture were determined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 548 patients with 618 small intracranial aneurysms (267 ruptured and 351 unruptured) were included. Univariate analysis showed that rupture of small aneurysms was related to sex, age, smoking, hypertension, aspect ratio, size ratio, irregular shape, aneurysm width, height, and neck diameter, and location at bifurcation or posterior circulation. Multivariate logistic regression showed that rupture was associated with bifurcation location (odds ratio [OR], 5.409; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.656-8.001; P < 0.001), size ratio (OR, 3.092; 95% CI, 2.002-4.774; P < 0.001), location (OR, 2.624; 95% CI, 1.428-4.824; P = 0.002), hypertension (OR, 1.698; 95% CI, 1.1140-2.527; P = 0.009), and age at diagnosis of UIA (OR, 1.826; 95% CI, 1.225-2.723; P = 0.003). This study showed that 70.4% of small ruptured intracranial aneurysms (<5 mm) were located at parent artery bifurcations and that bifurcation location was a significant independent factor for the risk of rupture of small UIAs (<5 mm). Prophylactic treatment should be recommended for small UIAs in this location. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
von der Emde, J; Cesnjevar, R A; Kretschmer, S; Janssen, G H; Wittekind, C
We report on an acquired right atrial false aneurysm, which was removed under extracorporeal circulation. The patient remembered three occasions of blunt chest trauma with rib fractures. Clinical symptoms were ongoing dyspnea, chest pain, and atrial fibrillation.
Szentirmai, Oszkar; Hong, Yuan; Mascarenhas, Lino; Salek, Al Amin; Stieg, Philip E; Anand, Vijay K; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Schwartz, Theodore H
The expansion of endovascular procedures for obliteration of cerebral aneurysms highlights one of the drawbacks of clip ligation through the transcranial route, namely brain retraction or brain transgression. Sporadic case reports have emerged over the past 10 years describing endonasal endoscopic clip ligation of cerebral aneurysms. The authors present a detailed anatomical study to evaluate the feasibility of an endoscopic endonasal approach for application of aneurysm clips. Nine human cadaveric head specimens were used to evaluate operative exposures for clip ligation of aneurysms in feasible anterior and posterior circulation locations. Measurements of trajectories were completed using a navigation system to calculate skull base craniectomy size, corridor space, and the surgeon's ability to gain proximal and distal control of parent vessels. In each of the 9 cadaveric heads, excellent exposure of the target vessels was achieved. The transplanum, transtuberculum, and transcavernous approaches were used to explore the feasibility of anterior circulation access. Application of aneurysm clips was readily possible to the ophthalmic artery, A1 and A2 segments of the anterior cerebral artery, anterior communicating artery complex, and the paraclinoid and paraclival internal carotid artery. The transclival approach was explored, and clips were successfully deployed along the proximal branches of the vertebrobasilar system and basilar trunk and bifurcation. The median sizes of skull base craniectomy necessary for exposure of the anterior communicating artery complex and basilar tip were 3.24 cm(2) and 4.62 cm(2), respectively. The mean angles of surgical corridors to the anterior communicating artery complex and basilar tip were 11.4° and 14°, respectively. Although clip placement was feasible on the basilar artery and its branches, the associated perforating arteries were difficult to visualize, posing unexpected difficulty for safe clip application, with the
Assessment of Pre- and Post-Operative Cerebral Perfusion in Anterior Circulation Intracranial Aneurysm Clipping Patients at Hospital Sungai Buloh Using CT Perfusion Scan and Correlations to Fisher, Navarro and WFNS Scores.
Ghani, Ailani Ab; Nayan, Saiful Azli Mat; Kandasamy, Regunath; Ghani, Abdul Rahman Izani; Rosman, Azmin Kass
Intracranial aneurysms may rupture and are typically associated with high morbidity and mortality, commonly due to vasospasm after rupture. Once the aneurysm ruptures, the patient's cerebral blood flow may be disturbed during the acute phase, affecting cerebral circulation and thus cerebral perfusion prior to the onset of vasospasm. Fisher and Navarro scores are used to predict vasospasm, while World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) scores are used to predict patient outcomes. Several score modifications are available to obtain higher sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of vasospasm development, but these scores are still unsuccessful. Alternatively, cerebral CT perfusion scan (CTP) is a non-invasive method for measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) in regions of interests (ROI) to obtain the cerebral perfusion status as well as detecting vasospasm. A total of 30 patients' data with clipped anterior circulation intracranial aneurysms admitted to the hospital between 1 January 2013 and 30 June 2014, were collected from the hospital's electronic database. The data collected included patients' admissions demographic profiles, Fisher, Navarro and WFNS scores; and their immediate pre- and post-operative CTP parameters. This study found a significant increase in post-operative MTT (pre- and post-operative MTT) were 9.75 (SD = 1.31) and 10.44 (SD = 1.56) respectively, (P < 0.001)) as well as a significant reduction in post-operative CBF (pre- and post-operative mean CBF were 195.29 (SD = 24.92) and 179.49 (SD = 31.17) respectively (P < 0.001)). There were no significant differences in CBV. There were no significant correlations between the pre- and post-operative CTP parameters and Fisher, Navarro or WFNS scores. Despite the interest in using Fisher, Navarro and WFNS scores to predict vasospasm and patient outcomes for ruptured intracranial aneurysms, this study found no significant correlations
Puskar, G; Ruggieri, P M
MR angiography provides a rapid, accurate, and extremely flexible noninvasive evaluation of intracranial aneurysms without the cost and risk of conventional angiography. TOF and phase contrast techniques each have specific advantages and disadvantages that can be selectively exploited to optimize aneurysm evaluation. Present indications for MR angiography in aneurysm evaluation include: (1) the presence of incidental findings on a CT or MR examination that suggest the possibility of aneurysm (Figs. 7 and 8), (2) when angiography is contraindicated or when the risk is too high, (3) non-invasive follow-up of patients with known aneurysms, (4) patient refusal of contrast angiography, and (5) evaluation of patients with specific clinical symptoms (i.e., third cranial nerve palsy) or patients with non-specific subacute symptoms in whom an aneurysm might explain the clinical presentation. Although MR angiography certainly can detect aneurysms with a high rate of sensitivity and specificity, detailed decision analyses generally have not supported the overall benefit of this type of screening. Future technical advances as well as advances in the overall understanding of aneurysms may one day prove unequivocally the benefit of MR angiography in screening high-risk patient groups. MR angiography has not yet been clinically evaluated as a tool in the evaluation of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. Potential obstacles to such an evaluation include the clinical instability of SAH patients, limited spatial resolution of the MR angiography acquisitions, the potential for subarachnoid blood or focal intraparenchymal hematomas to obscure or mimic small aneurysms, and the unreliability of MR angiography in demonstrating vasospasm. Currently these factors continue to provide an integral role for contrast angiography in aneurysm evaluation.
Aortic aneurysm - thoracic; Syphilitic aneurysm; Aneurysm - thoracic aortic ... The most common cause of a thoracic aortic aneurysm is hardening of ... high cholesterol, long-term high blood pressure, or who smoke. ...
... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...
Kalani, M Yashar S; Elhadi, Ali M; Ramey, Wyatt; Nakaji, Peter; Albuquerque, Felipe C; McDougall, Cameron G; Zabramski, Joseph M; Spetzler, Robert F
Aneurysms are relatively rare in the pediatric population and tend to include a greater proportion of large and giant lesions. A subset of these large and giant aneurysms are not amenable to direct surgical clipping and require complex treatment strategies and revascularization techniques. There are limited data available on the management of these lesions in the pediatric population. This study was undertaken to evaluate the outcome of treatment of large and giant aneurysms that required microsurgical revascularization and vessel sacrifice in this population. The authors retrospectively identified all cases in which pediatric patients (age < 18 years) with aneurysms were treated using cerebral revascularization in combination with other treatment modalities at their institution between 1989 and 2013. The authors identified 27 consecutive patients (19 male and 8 female) with 29 aneurysms. The mean age of the patients at the time of treatment was 11.5 years (median 13 years, range 1-17 years). Five patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage, 11 with symptoms related to mass effect, 2 with stroke, and 3 with seizures; in 6 cases, the aneurysms were incidental findings. Aneurysms were located along the internal carotid artery (n = 7), posterior cerebral artery (PCA) (n = 2), anterior cerebral artery (n = 2), middle cerebral artery (MCA) (n = 14), basilar artery (n = 2), vertebral artery (n = 1), and at the vertebrobasilar junction (n = 1). Thirteen were giant aneurysms (45%). The majority of the aneurysms were fusiform (n = 19, 66%), followed by saccular (n = 10, 34%). Three cases were previously treated using microsurgery (n = 2) or an endovascular procedure (n = 1). A total of 28 revascularization procedures were performed, including superficial temporal artery (STA) to MCA (n = 6), STA to PCA (n = 1), occipital artery to PCA (n = 1), extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass using radial artery graft (n = 3), EC-IC using a saphenous vein graft (n = 7), STA
Yasui, T; Sakamoto, H; Kishi, H; Komiyama, M; Iwai, Y; Yamanaka, K; Nishikawa, M; Nakajima, H
The authors report four cases of patients with documented asymptomatic intact aneurysms that subsequently ruptured. Case 1 involves a 64-year-old woman who had two unruptured aneurysms, i.e., an anterior communicating artery aneurysm and a posterior inferior cerebellar aneurysm, both were discovered during evaluation of cerebral ischemic symptoms. At that time, only the posterior inferior cerebellar aneurysm was clipped. Seven years later, the patient bled fatally from a 5-mm untreated anterior communicating artery aneurysm that had measured approximately 3 mm on an angiogram obtained 7 years earlier. Case 2 is that of a 50-year-old woman who bled from an anterior communicating artery aneurysm that had been discovered 6 years earlier when she suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a left middle cerebral artery aneurysm. At that time, she had refused surgery for the anterior communicating artery aneurysm. She recovered well from the second SAH. Case 3 is that of a 74-year-old woman who bled from a left paraclinoid internal carotid artery aneurysm that had been discovered incidentally 3 years earlier during evaluation of vertigo. She had not agreed to have a clipping at that time the aneurysm was first discovered because of her age and the difficult location of the aneurysm. She eventually made an uneventful recovery. In the fourth case, during evaluation of cerebral ischemic symptoms, a 59-year-old man was discovered to have a large basilar bifurcation aneurysm. He underwent a craniotomy for clipping of the aneurysm. The aneurysm, however, was unclippable and was instead coated with Bemsheet. Four months later, the patient bled from the aneurysm and entered a vegetative state. The indications for surgery on unruptured asymptomatic cerebral aneurysms are still unclear. The cases reported herein show that asymptomatic aneurysms, especially anterior communicating aneurysms and aneurysms once exposed surgically, do carry a certain risk for future hemorrhage and
Tong, Xu; Liao, Xiaoling; Pan, Yuesong; Cao, Yibin; Wang, Chunjuan; Liu, Liping; Zheng, Huaguang; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Chunxue; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun
We aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with alteplase for anterior circulation stroke (ACS) and posterior circulation stroke (PCS). From a large multicenter prospective registry-the Thrombolysis Implementation and Monitor of Acute Ischemic Stroke in China database-all patients who received IVT within 4.5 hours after stroke onset was reviewed. According to the clinical presentations and imaging findings, the eligible patients were divided into ACS and PCS groups. The safety and efficacy outcome measures included post-IVT symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH), parenchymal hematoma, and all intracranial hemorrhage (aICH) within 7 days, mortality within 90 days, excellent recovery (modified Rankin Scale 0-1), and functional independence (modified Rankin Scale 0-2) at 90 days. For comparing the outcomes between both groups, the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the adjusted ORs with 95% CIs were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Of 953 patients enrolled, 829 patients had ACS and 124 had PCS. The patients with PCS had less often atrial fibrillation (11.3% vs 19.8%; P = 0.02), higher blood glucose level (8.31 vs 7.63 mmol/L; P = 0.02), and more white blood cell counts (8.79 vs 7.75 × 10/L; P = 0.001) than those with ACS. After adjustment for the potential confounders, multivariate logistic analysis showed that PCS patients had not only lower rates of sICH (3.2% vs 7.7%; OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09-0.90), parenchymal hematoma (1.6% vs 9.2%; OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03-0.57), and aICH (8.1% vs 20.4%; OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.12-0.54), but also higher proportions of excellent recovery (55.7% vs 41.6%; OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.42-3.61) and functional independence (63.9% vs 53.0%; OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.40-3.89) compared with ACS patients. However, there was no significant difference in the occurrence of mortality (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.39-1.91) between both groups in the multivariate model, although
Li, Shengjie; Wang, Dehui; Tian, Ye; Wei, Huijie; Zhou, Ziwei; Liu, Li; Wang, Dong; Dong, Jing-Fei; Jiang, Rongcai; Zhang, Jianning
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage still has a high mortality and morbidity despite notable advances in surgical approaches to cerebral aneurysm (CA). We examined the role of aspirin in vascular inflammation and degeneration. CA was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by ligating left common carotid artery and bilateral posterior renal arteries with or without aspirin treatment. The right anterior cerebral artery/olfactory artery (ACA/OA) bifurcations were stripped and assessed morphologically after Verhoeff's Van Gieson staining. Blood sample was obtained to examine circulating CD34(+) CD133(+) endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), platelet aggregation and platelet counts. Macrophages infiltration in aneurysmal wall was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 (MMP-2 and 9), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was examined by RT-PCR. 2 months after CA induction, surgically treated rats manifested aneurysmal degeneration in ACA/OA bifurcations. Aspirin-treated rats exhibited a significant decrease in degradation of internal elastic lamina (IEL), medial layer thinning, CA size and macrophages infiltration with reduced expression of MMP-2 and 9 compared with rats in the CA group. RT-PCR demonstrated that the upregulation of NF-κB, MCP-1 and VCAM-1 after CA induction was reversed by aspirin treatment. Aspirin treatment following CA induction increased circulating EPCs to near control levels and reduced platelet aggregation without changing platelet counts. The evidence suggested that aspirin significantly reduced degeneration of aneurysm walls by inhibiting macrophages-mediated chronic inflammation and mobilizing EPCs.
Park, Hyun-Seok; Choi, Jae-Hyung; Kang, Myongjin
Objective Aneurysms originating from the proximal segment (A1) of the anterior cerebral artery are rare; however, because of their small size, the risk of injury of perforating arteries, and the location of the aneurysm in the surgical field, they are challenging to treat. We report on 15 patients with A1 aneurysms and review surgical views according to the direction of aneurysms. Methods Fifteen patients were diagnosed with A1 aneurysms and underwent surgical clipping or endovascular coiling at our institution between January 2006 and March 2012. We conducted a retrospective review of clinical and radiological features of all patients with A1 aneurysms. Results Nine patients underwent surgical clipping, and six patients received endovascular coiling. Six patients (40%) had multiple aneurysms. A1 aneurysms ranged in size from 1.5 to 8.2 mm, with an average size of 3.26 mm. Most A1 aneurysms (73%) had a posterior direction. In the surgical view, A1 aneurysms projecting posteriorly were located behind the A1 trunk. The A1 aneurysm projecting posteroinferiorly was completely eclipsed by the parent artery. In A1 aneurysms with a posterosuperior or superior direction, finding and clipping the aneurysm neck was relatively easy. Thirteen patients (87%) had an excellent outcome, one had moderate disability, and one died. Conclusion A1 aneurysms have certain characteristics; small size, multiple aneurysms, and, usually, a posterior direction. A1 aneurysms with a posterosuperior or superior direction are relatively easy to assess, however, clipping of A1 aneurysms with a posterior or posteroinferior direction is more difficult. Endovascular coiling is an alternative therapeutic option when surgical clipping is expected to be difficult. PMID:23593600
Wrede, Karsten H.; Dammann, Philipp; Mönninghoff, Christoph; Johst, Sören; Maderwald, Stefan; Sandalcioglu, I. Erol; Müller, Oliver; Özkan, Neriman; Ladd, Mark E.; Forsting, Michael; Schlamann, Marc U.; Sure, Ulrich; Umutlu, Lale
Purpose To prospectively evaluate 7 Tesla time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in comparison to 1.5 Tesla TOF MRA and 7 Tesla non-contrast enhanced magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MPRAGE) for delineation of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA). Material and Methods Sixteen neurosurgical patients (male n = 5, female n = 11) with single or multiple UIA were enrolled in this trial. All patients were accordingly examined at 7 Tesla and 1.5 Tesla MRI utilizing dedicated head coils. The following sequences were obtained: 7 Tesla TOF MRA, 1.5 Tesla TOF MRA and 7 Tesla non-contrast enhanced MPRAGE. Image analysis was performed by two radiologists with regard to delineation of aneurysm features (dome, neck, parent vessel), presence of artifacts, vessel-tissue-contrast and overall image quality. Interobserver accordance and intermethod comparisons were calculated by kappa coefficient and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. Results A total of 20 intracranial aneurysms were detected in 16 patients, with two patients showing multiple aneurysms (n = 2, n = 4). Out of 20 intracranial aneurysms, 14 aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation and 6 aneurysms in the posterior circulation. 7 Tesla MPRAGE imaging was superior over 1.5 and 7 Tesla TOF MRA in the assessment of all considered aneurysm and image quality features (e.g. image quality: mean MPRAGE7T: 5.0; mean TOF7T: 4.3; mean TOF1.5T: 4.3). Ratings for 7 Tesla TOF MRA were equal or higher over 1.5 Tesla TOF MRA for all assessed features except for artifact delineation (mean TOF7T: 4.3; mean TOF1.5T 4.4). Interobserver accordance was good to excellent for most ratings. Conclusion 7 Tesla MPRAGE imaging demonstrated its superiority in the detection and assessment of UIA as well as overall imaging features, offering excellent interobserver accordance and highest scores for all ratings. Hence, it may bear the potential to serve as a high
Wrede, Karsten H; Dammann, Philipp; Mönninghoff, Christoph; Johst, Sören; Maderwald, Stefan; Sandalcioglu, I Erol; Müller, Oliver; Özkan, Neriman; Ladd, Mark E; Forsting, Michael; Schlamann, Marc U; Sure, Ulrich; Umutlu, Lale
To prospectively evaluate 7 Tesla time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in comparison to 1.5 Tesla TOF MRA and 7 Tesla non-contrast enhanced magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MPRAGE) for delineation of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA). Sixteen neurosurgical patients (male n = 5, female n = 11) with single or multiple UIA were enrolled in this trial. All patients were accordingly examined at 7 Tesla and 1.5 Tesla MRI utilizing dedicated head coils. The following sequences were obtained: 7 Tesla TOF MRA, 1.5 Tesla TOF MRA and 7 Tesla non-contrast enhanced MPRAGE. Image analysis was performed by two radiologists with regard to delineation of aneurysm features (dome, neck, parent vessel), presence of artifacts, vessel-tissue-contrast and overall image quality. Interobserver accordance and intermethod comparisons were calculated by kappa coefficient and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. A total of 20 intracranial aneurysms were detected in 16 patients, with two patients showing multiple aneurysms (n = 2, n = 4). Out of 20 intracranial aneurysms, 14 aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation and 6 aneurysms in the posterior circulation. 7 Tesla MPRAGE imaging was superior over 1.5 and 7 Tesla TOF MRA in the assessment of all considered aneurysm and image quality features (e.g. image quality: mean MPRAGE7T: 5.0; mean TOF7T: 4.3; mean TOF1.5T: 4.3). Ratings for 7 Tesla TOF MRA were equal or higher over 1.5 Tesla TOF MRA for all assessed features except for artifact delineation (mean TOF7T: 4.3; mean TOF1.5T 4.4). Interobserver accordance was good to excellent for most ratings. 7 Tesla MPRAGE imaging demonstrated its superiority in the detection and assessment of UIA as well as overall imaging features, offering excellent interobserver accordance and highest scores for all ratings. Hence, it may bear the potential to serve as a high-quality diagnostic tool for pretherapeutic assessment and
Yang, Yang; Liang, Chunyang; Shen, Chunsen; Tang, Hao; Ma, Shang; Zhang, Qiang; Gao, Mou; Dong, Qin; Xu, Ruxiang
The treatment method for acute ischemic stroke is rapidly developing, and the effects of endovascular modalities, when used alone or in combination, needs to be studied. We aimed to identify the difference between pharmaceutical thrombolysis and multi-modal therapy (MMT) used in acute posterior circulation ischemic stroke (APCIS) patients and also to detect the predictors for successful recanalization and favorable outcomes. A retrospective analysis of patients with APCIS who received thrombolytic pharmaceuticals and MMT from 2011 to 2016 was performed at the stroke center. Demographic information, therapeutic methods and the results were recorded. Logistic regression model was constructed in variables to determine the predictors of outcome. A total of 124 patients were included in this study, the mean age was 59.6 ± 9.5 years and the mean admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was 15.1 ± 6.6. Recanalization was achieved in 87 (70.2%) patients and favorable outcomes were observed in 65 (52.4%) patients. Patients treated with MMT demonstrated a higher recanalization rate, especially the use of stent placement and thrombectomy device, which were also related to the favorable outcome three months post-stroke. Logistic regression showed that stent placement and thrombectomy were the predictors of recanalization, and a favorable outcome was associated with coronary artery disease, MMT methods as well as recanalization. MMT methods, especially stent placement and thrombectomy device may be the first recommended for patients with a delayed admission time, and it may have the advantage of better perfusion and neurological outcomes. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In general, vertebro-basilar aneurysms are good indications for endovascular treatment. However, basilar artery (BA) bifurcation aneurysms, BA-superior cerebellar artery (SCA) aneurysms, and sometimes mid-basilar aneurysms are also good indications for clipping. In this paper, conditions for safe and secure clipping for distal basilar aneurysms are discussed.There are several tips for the clipping of distal BA aneurysms. Among them, the following are very important: patency of the perforators, posterior cerebral artery (P1), and SCA must always be maintained. Several modalities including micro-Doppler ultrasonography and indocyanine green video-angiography (ICGVA) should be used to confirm the patency of these vessels. Each confirmation of patency of the vessels after clipping must be compared to those from before the clipping. Intra-operative digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is needed for large or giant aneurysms.
Lee, Jae Whan; Lee, Kyu Chang; Kim, Yong Bae; Huh, Seung Kon
Because DACA aneurysms are located in the narrow interhemispheric space surrounded by the corpus callosum and bilateral cingulate gyri with intervening falx cerebri, they are considered some of the most difficult anterior circulation aneurysms to surgically treat. Moreover, because of their rare occurrence and the emerging nonsurgical treatment options, neurosurgeons are limited in their ability to surgically treat DACA aneurysms due to their lack of experience. This article describes details of the preoperative considerations, operative techniques, and surgical results for DACA aneurysms. Medical records, including imaging studies, surgeon's hand drawings and descriptions of microsurgical findings, microphotographs, and video records of operative procedures, were reviewed. Among 3577 patients with intracranial aneurysms treated since 1975, 126 (3.5%) patients with DACA aneurysms were identified. They were treated either by surgery (117 patients) or endovascular treatment (9 patients). The results of surgical treatment for the 117 patients with DACA aneurysms were favorable in 94% (90.6% good and 3.4% fair) and unfavorable in 6% (5.1% poor and 0.9% dead). All unfavorable outcomes occurred in patients who were of preoperative grades 4 or 5. Successful surgical management of DACA aneurysms depends on precise understanding of their unique microsurgical anatomy, avoidance of pitfalls, and the surgeon's experience. Sufficient brain relaxation, accurate localization of the aneurysm, early identification of the proximal A2 segment, and preservation of the major draining veins are necessary for a safe surgery.
Haley, Mark Daniel; Henderson, Duncan Bruce Henry; Nowell, Mark; Adams, William M; Whitfield, Peter C
We report a case of central sleep apnoea (CSA) due to a giant vertebrobasilar aneurysm with brainstem compression. A flow diverter stent was deployed with coil embolization of the right vertebral artery distal to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) to occlude the aneurysm. The patient's symptoms improved following therapy.
Lee, Siwoo; Lee, Yong-Woo; Kim, Hyo-Joon; Kweon, Chang-young
Objective Researchers and clinicians have been unable to fully elucidate the natural course of and proper treatment for unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) smaller than or equal to 5 mm, particularly with regard to whether close observation or surgery is more appropriate. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of endovascular coil embolization of small (≤ 5 mm) asymptomatic UIAs by analyzing outcomes and complications associated with the procedure. Materials and Methods We analyzed data from 150 patients with small asymptomatic UIAs (≤ 5 mm) treated with coil embolization between January 2011 and December 2015. Three-dimensional angiography was used to measure aneurysm size. We evaluated procedure-related morbidity and mortality, immediate post-operative angiographic results, brain computed thomography follow-up results on post-operative day one, and clinical progress. Results UIAs occurred primarily in the anterior circulation area (142 cases, 94.67%), though eight patients exhibited UIAs of the posterior circulation. Following coil embolization, aneurysms with complete occlusion were observed in 137 cases (91.3%). Partial occlusion occurred in five cases (3.33%), while the procedure had failed in eight cases (5.33%). Procedure-related morbidity and mortality were five cases (3.33%) and zero cases, respectively. Conclusion The endovascular treatment of small asymptomatic UIAs is associated with good short-term outcomes without permanent neurologic complications as well as low overall complication and morbidity rates. Thus, the procedure should be considered for patients with smaller asymptomatic UIAs. PMID:27847766
Wang, Wen-Xin; Xue, Zhe; Li, Lin; Wu, Chen; Zhang, Yan-Yang; Lou, Xin; Ma, Lin; Sun, Zheng-Hui
Intracranial mirror aneurysms are clinically rare and uncommonly reported in the literature. Therefore, the present study evaluated a series of mirror aneurysm cases with respect to the clinical features of the patients and the treatment strategies that were used. This study retrospectively reviewed and systematically analyzed the clinical features, imaging data, treatment methods, and treatment outcomes of 68 cases of mirror aneurysms (a total of 70 pairs) in patients who were admitted to our department between November 2007 and May 2016. The patient population included 24 male and 44 female patients, with a mean age of 52 years. The mirror aneurysms were primarily located in posterior communicating artery and middle cerebral artery and 65 of the aneurysms were large or giant (≧10 mm). Of the 68 patients, 28 were treated by the clipping or embolization of all aneurysms in one stage, 16 were treated in 2 stages, 16 were treated by treating part of the aneurysms, and 8 were observed. The modified Rankin Scale scores of the 60 patients that were treated indicated that 52 had a good recovery (modified Rankin Scale score ≦2; 86.7%), and 1 patient died. Treatment strategies for mirror aneurysms should be determined individually according to the location, size, and morphology of the aneurysm, as well as the clinical manifestations of each patient. Furthermore, the responsible ruptured aneurysm should be given treatment priority, whereas the contralateral unruptured aneurysm should be observed or treated in either 1 or 2 stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Leung, H K; Lam, Y; Cheng, K M; Chan, C M; Cheung, Y L
Intracranial aneurysm in twins is a rare clinical disease entity. Only 15 cases have been described in the literature. We report on a pair of identical twins with intracranial aneurysms. One presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage; digital subtraction angiography showed a left posterior communicating artery aneurysm, which was treated by coiling. The patient's twin sister was called for screening, whereupon digital subtraction angiography revealed a right ophthalmic internal carotid artery aneurysm that was treated conservatively.
Deng, Shi-Zhe; Zhao, Xiao-Feng; Huang, Ling-Hui; He, Si; Wen, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Tian, Guang; Wang, Tian; Wu, Fen-Fen; Meng, Zhi-Hong; Shi, Xue-Min
Recent experiments have demonstrated that different needling manipulations may induce variable effects via diverse physiological mechanisms. A previous study indicated that needling at Fengchi (GB 20) improved cerebral blood flow in patients with vertigo induced by posterior circulation ischemia (PCI). In this study, we aim to explore the quantity-effect relationship and the physiological mechanisms underlying different acupuncture manipulations in PCI patients with vertigo. We propose a pragmatic randomized and controlled trial. All participants, outcome assessors, and statisticians will be blinded. A total of 144 eligible participants will be randomized into one of four treatment groups receiving acupuncture at Fengchi (GB 20) with different one-minute manipulation parameters. Group 1 will receive twirling at a frequency of 60 times per minute toward the contralateral outer canthus at a depth of 0.5 to 0.8 cun. Group 2 will receive twirling at a frequency of 60 times per minute toward the Adam's apple at a depth of 0.5 to 0.8 cun. Group 3 will receive twirling at a frequency of 120 times per minute toward the contralateral outer canthus at a depth of 0.5 to 0.8 cun. Group 4 will receive twirling at a frequency of120 times per minute toward the Adam's apple at a depth of 0.5 to 0.8 cun. Additional points will be added based on individualized pattern diagnoses. The participants will receive 14 acupuncture sessions over 3 to 4 weeks. The subjects will be assessed at two time points: baseline and post-treatment. The primary outcome measurements will include subjective measurements (Vertebrobasilar System Ischemic Neurological Impairment Scale, UCLA Dizziness Questionnaire, Activities of Daily Living Scale, and Psychological and Social Adaptation Scale) and objective measurements (Transcranial Doppler, carotid ultrasonography and changes in cerebral oxygenation) to reduce bias arising from the placebo effect. We will use metabolomics to investigate the mechanisms
Kang, Huibin; Ji, Wenjun; Qian, Zenghui; Li, Youxiang; Jiang, Chuhan; Wu, Zhongxue; Wen, Xiaolong; Xu, Wenjuan; Liu, Aihua
This study analyzed the rupture risk of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) according to aneurysm characteristics by comparing the differences between two aneurysms in different locations within the same patient. We utilized this self-controlled model to exclude potential interference from all demographic factors to study the risk factors related to IA rupture. A total of 103 patients were diagnosed with IAs between January 2011 and April 2015 and were enrolled in this study. All enrolled patients had two IAs. One IA (the case) was ruptured, and the other (the control) was unruptured. Aneurysm characteristics, including the presence of a daughter sac, the aneurysm neck, the parent artery diameter, the maximum aneurysm height, the maximum aneurysm width, the location, the aspect ratio (AR, maximum perpendicular height/average neck diameter), the size ratio (SR, maximum aneurysm height/average parent diameter) and the width/height ratio (WH ratio, maximum aneurysm width/maximum aneurysm height), were collected and analyzed to evaluate the rupture risks of the two IAs within each patient and to identify the independent risk factors associated with IA rupture. Multivariate, conditional, backward, stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent risk factors associated with IA rupture. The multivariate analysis identified the presence of a daughter sac (odds ratio [OR], 13.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-115.87), a maximum aneurysm height ≥7 mm (OR, 4.80; 95% CI, 1.21-18.98), location on the posterior communicating artery (PCOM) or anterior communicating artery (ACOM; OR, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.34-7.11) and SR (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.16-3.91) as factors that were significantly associated with IA rupture. The presence of a daughter sac, the maximum aneurysm height, PCOM or ACOM locations and SR (>1.5±0.7) of unruptured IAs were significantly associated with IA rupture.
Objective There is no clear treatment strategy for the management of multiple intracranial aneurysms because of variable anatomical distribution, difficult identification of the aneurysm ruptured, and poor overall outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of single-session coil embolization for multiple intracranial aneurysms. Methods Between September 2008 and December 2012, 209 aneurysms in 117 patients were treated at our institute. Twenty eight among the 117 patients had multiple aneurysms with a total of 71, and 60 of the 71 aneurysms underwent coil embolization in a single-session. Results A total of 60 aneurysms were treated with a single-session coil embolization, of which the most frequent locations were in the posterior communicating artery, followed by the middle cerebral artery. Immediate post-embolization angiographies showed total occlusion in 49 (81.7%) aneurysms, remnant neck in 6 (10%), and body-filling in 5 (8.3%). Procedure-related complications had developed in 2 (3.3%) of the 60 embolized aneurysms: an asymptomatic thromboembolic event, and a partial coil protrusion without a subsequent thromboembolic complication. Conclusion With careful evaluation of individual aneurysm characteristics and configuration, multiple intracranial aneurysms previously thought to require multimodality therapy can be safely treated in a single-session coil embolization. PMID:24167798
Barrow, Daniel L; Pradilla, Gustavo; McCracken, D Jay
Intracranial blister aneurysms are difficult to treat cerebrovascular lesions that typically affect the anterior circulation. These rare aneurysms can lead to acute rupture which usually cannot be treated via endovascular methods, but still require urgent surgical intervention. Surgical options are limited given their unique pathology and often require a combination of wrapping and clip reconstruction. In this video we present two patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to ruptured blister aneurysms. We demonstrate several surgical techniques for repairing the vascular defect with and without intraoperative rupture. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/nz-JM45uKQU.
Serrone, Joseph C; Tackla, Ryan D; Gozal, Yair M; Hanseman, Dennis J; Gogela, Steven L; Vuong, Shawn M; Kosty, Jennifer A; Steiner, Calen A; Krueger, Bryan M; Grossman, Aaron W; Ringer, Andrew J
OBJECTIVE Many low-risk unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) are followed for growth with surveillance imaging. Growth of UIAs likely increases the risk of rupture. The incidence and risk factors of UIA growth or de novo aneurysm formation require further research. The authors retrospectively identify risk factors and annual risk for UIA growth or de novo aneurysm formation in an aneurysm surveillance protocol. METHODS Over an 11.5-year period, the authors recommended surveillance imaging to 192 patients with 234 UIAs. The incidence of UIA growth and de novo aneurysm formation was assessed. With logistic regression, risk factors for UIA growth or de novo aneurysm formation and patient compliance with the surveillance protocol was assessed. RESULTS During 621 patient-years of follow-up, the incidence of aneurysm growth or de novo aneurysm formation was 5.0%/patient-year. At the 6-month examination, 5.2% of patients had aneurysm growth and 4.3% of aneurysms had grown. Four de novo aneurysms formed (0.64%/patient-year). Over 793 aneurysm-years of follow-up, the annual risk of aneurysm growth was 3.7%. Only initial aneurysm size predicted aneurysm growth (UIA < 5 mm = 1.6% vs UIA ≥ 5 mm = 8.7%, p = 0.002). Patients with growing UIAs were more likely to also have de novo aneurysms (p = 0.01). Patient compliance with this protocol was 65%, with younger age predictive of better compliance (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Observation of low-risk UIAs with surveillance imaging can be implemented safely with good adherence. Aneurysm size is the only predictor of future growth. More frequent (semiannual) surveillance imaging for newly diagnosed UIAs and UIAs ≥ 5 mm is warranted.
... Endovascular aneurysm repair - aorta; AAA repair - endovascular; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular ... leaking or bleeding. You may have an abdominal aortic aneurysm that is not causing any symptoms or problems. ...
Paterson, H M; Holdsworth, R J
Crescendo transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) should be regarded as a medical emergency. Patients require hospitalisation with urgent assessment and symptom control with anticoagulant therapy. We report on three patients, all of whom had atherosclerotic aneurysmal disease of the extracranial arterial circulation who presented with crescendo TIAs. The possibility of extracranial aneurysmal disease should always be considered and excluded.
Benson, P.J.; Sung, J.H.
Three patients, two males and one female aged 21, 14, and 31 years, respectively, developed cerebral saccular aneurysms several years after undergoing radiotherapy for cerebellar medulloblastoma at 2, 5, and 14 years of age, respectively. Following surgery, all three received combined cobalt-60 irradiation and intrathecal colloidal radioactive gold (/sup 198/Au) therapy, and died from rupture of the aneurysm 19, 9, and 17 years after the radiotherapy, respectively. Autopsy examination revealed no recurrence of the medulloblastoma, but widespread radiation-induced vasculopathy was found at the base of the brain and in the spinal cord, and saccular aneurysms arose from the posterior cerebral arteries at the basal cistern or choroidal fissure. The aneurysms differed from the ordinary saccular aneurysms of congenital type in their location and histological features. Their locations corresponded to the areas where intrathecally administered colloidal /sup 198/Au is likely to pool, and they originated directly from a segment of the artery rather than from a branching site as in congenital saccular aneurysms. It is, therefore, concluded that the aneurysms in these three patients were most likely radiation-induced.
Kamide, Tomoya; Mohri, Masanao; Misaki, Kouichi; Uchiyama, Naoyuki; Nakada, Mitsutoshi
Background: The development of an intracranial aneurysm after radiotherapy is rare but secondary effect of cranial irradiation in a primary disease treatment. Case Description: The patient was a 17-year-old male adolescent who was diagnosed as having a posterior fossa medulloblastoma when he was 8 years old. He had undergone tumor resection with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm was identified by magnetic resonance imaging 8 years after radiotherapy and grew rapidly throughout the next 1 year. The patient underwent microsurgical clipping and was discharged without deficit. Conclusion: This experience demonstrates that physicians caring for patients who have undergone intracranial radiotherapy should carefully consider the possibility of an aneurysmal formation when conducting follow-up imaging. PMID:27999713
Korja, Miikka; Kivisaari, Riku; Rezai Jahromi, Behnam; Lehto, Hanna
OBJECTIVE Large consecutive series on the size and location of ruptured intracranial aneurysms (RIAs) are limited, and therefore it has been difficult to estimate population-wide effects of size-based treatment strategies of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The authors' aim was to define the size and location of RIAs in patients diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysm rupture in a high-volume academic center. METHODS Consecutive patients admitted to a large nonprofit academic hospital with saccular RIAs between 1995 and 2009 were identified, and the size, location, and multiplicity of RIAs were defined and reported by patient sex. RESULTS In the study cohort of 1993 patients (61% women) with saccular RIAs, the 4 most common locations of RIAs were the middle cerebral (32%), anterior communicating (32%), posterior communicating (14%), and pericallosal arteries (5%). However, proportional distribution of RIAs varied considerably by sex; for example, RIAs of the anterior communicating artery were more frequently found in men than in women. Anterior circulation RIAs accounted for 90% of all RIAs, and 30% of the patients had multiple intracranial aneurysms. The median size (measured as maximum diameter) of all RIAs was 7 mm (range 1-43 mm), but the size varied considerably by location. For example, RIAs of the ophthalmic artery had a median size of 11 mm, whereas the median size of RIAs of the pericallosal artery was 6 mm. Of all RIAs, 68% were smaller than 10 mm in maximum diameter. CONCLUSIONS In this large consecutive series of RIAs, 83% of all RIAs were found in 4 anterior circulation locations. The majority of RIAs were small, but the size and location varied considerably by sex. The presented data may be of help in defining effective prevention strategies.
Koroknay-Pál, Päivi; Lehto, Hanna; Niemelä, Mika; Kivisaari, Riku; Hernesniemi, Juha
Population-based data on pediatric patients with aneurysms are limited. The aim of this study is to clarify the characteristics and long-term outcomes of pediatric patients with aneurysms. All pediatric patients (≤ 18 years old) with aneurysms among the 8996 aneurysm patients treated at the Department of Neurosurgery in Helsinki from 1937 to 2009 were followed from admission to the end of 2010. There were 114 pediatric patients with 130 total aneurysms during the study period. The mean patient age was 14.5 years (range 3 months to 18 years). The male:female ratio was 3:2. Eighty-nine patients (78%) presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The majority of the aneurysms (116 [89%]) were in the anterior circulation, and the most common location was the internal carotid artery bifurcation (36 [28%]). The average aneurysm diameter was 11 mm (range 2-55 mm) with 16 giant aneurysms (12%). Eighty aneurysms (62%) were treated microsurgically, and 37 (28%) were treated conservatively due to poor medical and neurological status of the patient or due to technical reasons during the early years of the patient series. No connective tissue disorders common to pediatric aneurysm patients were diagnosed in this series, with the exception of 1 patient with tuberous sclerosis complex. The mean follow-up duration was 24.8 years (range 0-55.8 years). At the end of follow-up, 71 patients (62%) had a good outcome, 3 (3%) were dependent, and 40 (35%) had died. Twenty-seven deaths (68%) were assessed to be aneurysm-related. Factors correlating with a favorable long-term outcome were good neurological condition of the patient on admission, aneurysm location in the anterior circulation, complete aneurysm closure, and absence of vasospasm. Six patients developed symptomatic de novo aneurysms after a median of 25 years (range 11-37 years). Fourteen patients (12%) had a family history of aneurysms. There was no increased incidence for cardiovascular diseases in long-term follow-up. Most
López, María Teresa González; Dorgham, Ali Sadek; Rosas, Fernando Calleja; de Loma, Julio Gutiérrez
True aneurysm formation in arterialized autologous veins is an unusual complication. A saccular aneurysmal degeneration of 53 mm (maximal diameter) of a saphenous vein graft inserted for repair of a popliteal aneurysm, four years after implantation, is reported. The patient (with prior history of abdominal aortic aneurysm) had been initially treated through a posterior approach. A new saphenous vein bypass grafting (medial approach) was performed. Histological examination revealed myointimal fibrosis, medial degeneration and inflammation. In spite of the widespread use of the autologous saphenous vein as an arterial substitute, this complication is extremely rare and its etiology remains unclear. Atherosclerosis is considered to be the main cause of aneurysm formation in vein grafts, but current data suggest that additional etiopathogenic factors should be further investigated. We note the rarity of this finding and review the literature for true aneurysm formation within vein grafts used for bypass procedures.
Castro, Marcelo A.; Peloc, Nora L.; Chien, Aichi; Goldberg, Ezequiel; Putman, Christopher M.; Cebral, Juan R.
Cerebral aneurysms may rarely coexist with a proximal artery stenosis. In that small percent of patients, such coexistence poses a challenge for interventional neuroradiologists and neurosurgeons to make the best treatment decision. According to previous studies, the incidence of cerebral aneurysms in patients with internal carotid artery stenosis is no greater than five percent, where the aneurysm is usually incidentally detected, being about two percent for aneurysms and stenoses in the same cerebral circulation. Those cases pose a difficult management decision for the physician. Case reports showed patients who died due to aneurysm rupture months after endarterectomy but before aneurysm clipping, while others did not show any change in the aneurysm after plaque removal, having optimum outcome after aneurysm coiling. The aim of this study is to investigate the intra-aneurysmal hemodynamic changes before and after treatment of stenotic plaque. Virtually created moderate stenoses in vascular models of internal carotid artery aneurysm patients were considered in a number of cases reconstructed from three dimensional rotational angiography images. The strategy to create those plaques was based on parameters analyzed in a previous work where idealized models were considered, including relative distance and stenosis grade. Ipsilateral and contralateral plaques were modeled. Wall shear stress and velocity pattern were computed from finite element pulsatile blood flow simulations. The results may suggest that wall shear stress changes depend on relative angular position between the aneurysm and the plaque.
Orz, Yasser; AlYamany, Mahmoud
For effective management of patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms, prognostic criteria for rupture, of which aneurysm size, location, and multiplicity are key factors. The aim of this study is to determine the correlation between the aneurysm size, location, and multiplicity, and their effect on aneurysmal rupture. Eighty one patients with diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms were managed at our center from January 2008 through July 2011. The characteristics of aneurysms, such as size, location, multiplicity, and presentation were retrospectively reviewed from their charts and radiological findings. Eighty one patients harboring 104 aneurysms were diagnosed, of them 45 were males (55.5%) and 36 were females (44.5%). Seventy-six patients (94%) presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to ruptured aneurysm. Thirty-three patients who were presented with SAH (43%) had their ruptured aneurysm located at the anterior communicating artery with a mean size 5.8 mm. Most of the small (<7 mm) ruptured aneurysms were located at the anterior communicating artery, distal anterior cerebral arteries, posterior communicating arteries, and internal carotid artery bifurcation (51%, 13%, 11%, and 11%), respectively. There were 24 small unruptured aneurysms, 10 of them (42%) located at the middle cerebral arteries, while only 2 of them (8%) located at the anterior communicating artery. The aneurysm size and location play a substantial role in determining the risk of rupture. The most common location of rupture of small aneurysms was the anterior communicating artery, while the middle cerebral artery was the commonest site for small unrupured aneurysms.
Lee, Sang Kook
Objective Although surgical techniques for clipping paraclinoid aneurysms have evolved significantly in recent times, direct microsurgical clipping of large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms remains a formidable surgical challenge. We review here our surgical experiences in direct surgical clipping of large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms, especially in dealing with anterior clinoidectomy, distal dural ring resection, optic canal unroofing, clipping techniques, and surgical complications. Methods Between September 2001 and February 2012, we directly obliterated ten large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms. In all cases, tailored orbito-zygomatic craniotomies with extradural and/or intradural clinoidectomy were performed. The efficacy of surgical clipping was evaluated with postoperative digital subtraction angiography and computed tomographic angiography. Results Of the ten cases reported, five each were of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. Five aneurysms occurred in the carotid cave, two in the superior hypophyseal artery, two in the intracavernous, and one in the posterior wall. The mean diameter of the aneurysms sac was 18.8 mm in the greatest dimension. All large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms were obliterated with direct neck clipping without bypass. With the exception of the one intracavenous aneurysm, all large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms were occluded completely. Conclusion The key features of successful surgical clipping of large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms include enhancing exposure of proximal neck of aneurysms, establishing proximal control, and completely obliterating aneurysms with minimal manipulation of the optic nerve. Our results suggest that internal carotid artery reconstruction using multiple fenestrated clips without bypass may potentially achieve complete occlusion of large paraclinoid aneurysms. PMID:24527189
Mazighi, M.; Porter, P. J.; Rodesch, G.; Alvarez, H.; Aghakhani, N.; Lasjaunias, P.
Summary The pathogenesis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is still debated and the prognosis remains severe, especially in multiple aneurysms, where the therapeutic management is complex. The aim of this study was to look for vascular anomalies and assess their relationship with aneurysm formation and bleeding in patients with multiple intracranial aneurysms. A prospective angiographical review was performed on 141 patients with multiple intracranial aneurysms seen from 1992 to 2000. Three hundred and fifty three aneurysms were studied. In 88% of the patients vascular anomalies were found. The most common were: asymmetric caudal basilar fusion (43.2%), variations of the anterior communicating artery (AcoA) complex (31.2%), symmetric caudal basilar fusion (26.2%), antero-inferior cerebellar artery-postero-inferior cerebellar artery (AICA-PICA) (15.6%), extradural origin of the PICA (10.6%), cavernous origin of the ophthalmic artery or dorsal ophthalmic artery (dOPH) (3.5%). Some aneurysm locations were associated with a high rate of vascular anomalies, e.g.: posterior cerebral aneurysm with asymmetric caudal fusion, AcoA aneurysm with AcoA complex variation, basilar tip aneurysm with extradural PICA or symmetric caudal fusion, PI-CA aneurysm with AICA-PICA, para-ophthalmic aneurysm with dOPH. These aneurysm locations bled proportionally more frequently when associated with the related vascular anomaly. In conclusion, these results suggest that vascular anomalies are associated with aneurysm development and bleeding. PMID:20594507
Albanese, Erminia; Russo, Antonino; Ulm, Arthur J
Vertebrobasilar junction (VBJ) aneurysms are uncommon and are often found in association with basilar artery (BA) fenestration. The complex anatomical environment of the VBJ, and the complicated geometry of the fenestration make clipping of these aneurysms difficult. Therefore, endovascular treatment of these aneurysms is now widely accepted. The authors describe the case of a 43-year-old woman with sickle cell anemia. She presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Digital subtraction angiography was performed and depicted multiple intracranial aneurysms. The patient had a left superior hypophysial artery aneurysm, a right superior cerebellar artery-posterior cerebral artery aneurysm, and a VBJ aneurysm associated with a fenestration of the BA. The VBJ aneurysm was not identified on the initial angiogram and was only revealed after 3D rotational angiography was performed. The 3D reconstruction was critical to the understanding of the complex geometry associated with the fenestrated BA. The VBJ was reconstructed using a combination endovascular technique. The dominant limb of the fenestration was stented and balloon-assisted coiling was performed, followed by sacrifice of the nondominant vertebral artery using coils and the embolic agent Onyx. Postoperative angiography demonstrated successful occlusion of the aneurysm with reconstruction of the VBJ. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a fenestrated VBJ aneurysm treated with the combination of stenting, balloon remodeling, coiling, and vessel sacrifice. Three-dimensional angiography was critical in making the correct diagnosis of the source of the subarachnoid hemorrhage and with operative planning.
Navarro, Ramon; Brown, Benjamin L; Beier, Alexandra; Ranalli, Nathan; Aldana, Philipp; Hanel, Ricardo A
Pediatric intracranial aneurysms are exceedingly rare and account for less than 5% of all intracranial aneurysms. Open surgery to treat such aneurysms has been shown to be more durable than endovascular techniques, and durability of treatment is particularly important in the pediatric population. Over the past 2 decades, however, a marked shift in aneurysm treatment from open surgery toward endovascular procedures has occurred for adults. The authors describe their early experience in treating 3 unruptured pediatric brain aneurysms using the Pipeline embolization device (PED). The first patient, a girl with Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism Type II who was harboring multiple intracranial aneurysms, underwent two flow diversion procedures for a vertebrobasilar aneurysm and a supraclinoid internal carotid artery aneurysm. The second patient underwent PED placement on a previously coiled but enlarging posterior communicating artery aneurysm. All procedures were uneventful, with no postsurgical complications, and led to complete angiographic obliteration of the aneurysms. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first series of flow diversion procedures in children reported in the medical literature. While flow diversion is a new and relatively untested technology in children, outcomes in adults have been promising. For challenging lesions in the pediatric population, flow diversion may have a valuable role as a well-tolerated, safe treatment with durable results. Many issues remain to be addressed, such as the durability of flow diverters over a very long follow-up and vessel response to growth in the presence of an endoluminal device.
Crusius, Cassiano U.; de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique P.; Crusius, Marcelo U.
Background: Mixed intracranial aneurysms are vascular lesions appearing in the ruptured saccular aneurysms whose blood is contained by perivascular tissues forming another cavity called pseudoaneurysm. All cases until now have been reported in the literature with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Case Description: A 65-year-old woman presented with multiple brain aneurysms with no history of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Endovascular treatment was chosen for left-sided aneurysms [lateral carotid wall (LCW) and posterior communicating (PCom)]. After the embolization of the LCW aneurysm, the patient developed a left third nerve palsy. A head computed tomography scan was immediately performed which did not show any SAH. The control angiography demonstrated PCom aneurysm with intraaneurysmal contrast retention even in the venous phase, along with modification of the aneurismal sac format, leading to diagnoses of mixed aneurysm. The PCom aneurysm was successfully coiled and an operation was performed to clip the right side aneurysms. The patient was discharged after 10 postoperative days. Conclusion: Mixed intracranial aneurysm has special radiological characteristics that should be promptly recognized to offer the best treatment. PMID:28303209
Hutchinson, DP; Sampson, AJ
The ductus arteriosus holds major functional importance within the fetal circulation, and anomalies within the ductus arteriosus may interfere with the integrity of the fetal circulation. Ductus arteriosus aneurysm, previously considered a rare lesion, is now a well-reported finding in infancy with some reports describing this finding in the prenatal period. Postnatally, most ductus arteriosus aneurysms resolve spontaneously; however, a small group of infants show complications such as connective-tissue disorders, thrombo-embolism, compression of surrounding thoracic structures and life-threatening spontaneous rupture requiring surgical correction. As such, postnatal assessment in this group is recommended. PMID:27433265
Palcau, Laura; Gouicem, Djelloul; Joguet, Etienne; Cameliere, Lucie; Berger, Ludovic
A 22-year-old pregnant female with pyelonephritis was found to have a 26-mm left renal artery aneurysm with unknown right kidney agenesis diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. Computed tomographic angiography with 3-dimensional reconstructions confirmed a saccular aneurysm localized at the bifurcation of the left posterior segmental artery. The patient ultimately underwent successful ex vivo left renal artery aneurysm repair with autotransplantation. Pathologic evaluation of the resected aneurysm confirmed the diagnosis of fibromuscular dysplasia. Fibromuscular dysplasia is the most common cause of renal artery stenosis and renovascular hypertension and can, in rare cases, be associated with the development of renal artery aneurysms.
Lazzaro, Marc A; Ouyang, Bichun; Chen, Michael
Limited data exist to guide patient selection for preventive treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms. Cerebral aneurysms have been associated with circle of Willis anomalies but whether this association is also related to aneurysm rupture is not known. The occurrence of cerebral aneurysm rupture when a circle of Willis anomaly was present or absent was compared. Patients admitted over a 2 year period with a diagnosis of a cerebral aneurysm and an anterior communicating artery (ACoA) or posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm were included in the analysis. Brain vascular imaging was reviewed for aneurysm size, morphology and presence of circle of Willis anomaly. Relevant medical history and demographics were obtained from the medical records. Of the 113 patients with ACoA or PCoA aneurysms, 85 (75.2%) cases were ruptured. There were 49 (43.4%) PCoA aneurysms and 64 (56.6%) ACoA aneurysms. Mean aneurysm size was 5.65 mm (SD 3.31). A circle of Willis anomaly was identified in 46 (40.7%) of all patients. Circle of Willis anomalies were present in 38 (46.9%) ruptured aneurysm cases and eight (29.6%) unruptured aneurysm cases. Multivariate analysis revealed a higher risk of aneurysm rupture when a circle of Willis anomaly was present (p=0.0245, OR 3.72 (CI 1.18 to 11.66)). This series shows that circle of Willis anomalies are more commonly found in ruptured as opposed to unruptured cerebral aneurysms of the anterior and posterior communicating arteries. The presence of a circle of Willis anomaly may be an important characteristic for selecting patients for preventive aneurysm treatment.
... NHLBI on Twitter. How Is an Aneurysm Treated? Aortic aneurysms are treated with medicines and surgery. Small aneurysms ... doing your normal daily activities Treatment for an aortic aneurysm is based on its size. Your doctor may ...
Ikeda, Osamu Tamura, Yoshitaka; Nakasone, Yutaka; Kawanaka, Kohichi; Yamashita, Yasuyuki
Aneurysms of the pancreaticoduodenal artery are rare. Degeneration of pancreaticoduodenal arcade vessels due to these aneurysms is associated with celiac artery stenosis or occlusion. Untreated lesions enlarge progressively and may rupture spontaneously. As the location of aneurysms of pancreaticoduodenal arcade vessels renders their surgical extirpation a challenge, we examined whether endovascular techniques offer a treatment alternative. We report on 3 patients with aneurysms of the pancreaticoduodenal arcade vessels and concomitant celiac artery stenosis/occlusion due to compression by the median arcuate ligament or chronic pancreatitis. All patients were treated by percutaneous coil embolization of the aneurysm. The aneurysmal sac was successfully excluded and the native circulation was preserved. Endovascular surgery can be used to treat these aneurysms safely and permits retention of the native circulation.
Goedee, H S; Depauw, P R A M; vd Zwam, B; Temmink, A H
Aneurysms of the intracranial arteries in the pediatric population are reportedly rare. There is a male predominance, association with connective tissue disorders, as well as bacterial, mycotic infections, and trauma. Common sites of presentation are the internal carotid artery bifurcation, posterior circulation, and distal segment of middle cerebral artery. Clinical manifestations can vary from seizures and subarachnoidal hemorrhage to headache, irritability, lethargy, vomiting, or focal motor deficits. Current treatment modalities encompass endovascular or surgical approach. We present a case report on an 11-year-old girl with migraine-like episodes due to an underlying giant fusiform middle cerebral artery aneurysm treated successfully with two superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypasses.
See, Alfred P.; Penn, David L.; Du, Rose; Frerichs, Kai U
The dynamic, hemodynamic impact of a cervical dissection on an ipsilateral, intracranial saccular aneurysm has not been well illustrated. This 45-year-old female was found to have a small, supraclinoid aneurysm ipsilateral to a spontaneous cervical internal carotid artery dissection. With healing of the dissection, the aneurysm appeared to have significantly enlarged. Retrospective review of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the time of the initial dissection demonstrated thrombus, similar in overall morphology to the angiographic appearance of the "enlarged" aneurysm. As the dissection healed far proximal to the intradural portion of the internal carotid artery, this suggested that the aneurysm was likely a typical, saccular posterior communicating artery aneurysm that had thrombosed and then recanalized secondary to flow changes from the dissection. The aneurysm was coiled uneventfully, in distinction from more complex treatment approaches such as flow diversion or proximal occlusion to treat an enlarging, dissecting pseudoaneurysm. This case illustrates that flow changes from cervical dissections may result in thrombosis of downstream saccular aneurysms. With healing, these aneurysms may recanalize and be misidentified as enlarging dissecting pseudoaneurysms. Review of an MRI from the time of the dissection facilitated the conclusion that the aneurysm was a saccular posterior communicating artery aneurysm, influencing treatment approach. PMID:27790401
Vaquero Morillo, F; Zorita Calvo, A; Fernández-Samos Gutiérrez, R; García Vázquez, J; Ortega Martín, J M; Fernández Morán, C
We presented the review of 22 cases of popliteal aneurysms with a follow-time of three years. One case was a woman and 5 cases were bilaterals. The most part of cases begun as a latter acute ischemia. Sixteen cases were treated surgically, with a null rate of mortality, 2 amputations, 4 cases of residual intermittent claudication and 10 no-symptomatic patients, with present distal pulses. Etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, technics and results are presented and a comparison with other authors is made. Our experience support an interventionist attitude in cases of elderly nonsymptomatic patients, performed by internal way and saphenous vein substitution.
Villar, Fernando; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Vila, Ramón; Lahoz, Carlos
Aortic aneurysm is one important cause of death in our country. The prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurism (AAA) is around 5% for men older than 50 years of age. Some factors are associated with increased risk for AAA: age, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular disease and, in particular, smoking. The medical management of patients with an AAA includes cardiovascular risk treatment, particularly smoking cessation. Most of major societies guidelines recommend ultrasonography screening for AAA in men aged 65 to 75 years who have ever smoked because it leads to decreased AAA-specific mortality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.
Left ventricular aneurysms are a frequent and serious complication following acute transmural myocardial infarction and are most commonly located at the ventricular apex. The majority of these patients presents with severe mitral insufficiency, congestive heart failure, systemic embolism and sudden cardiac death. Giant aneurysms occurring in a submitral position between anterior and posterior papillary muscles on the lateral ventricular wall constitute a minor entity and those leaving the mitral apparatus intact are extremely rare. Herein, we report the case of a 57 y/o Caucasian male patient with a past medical history of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction with a giant left ventricular aneurysm measuring 15x10x8 cm in diameter. Despite the size of the aneurysm and its close topographical relation to the posterior mitral annulus the mitral apparatus was intact with a competent valve and normal left atrial size. He underwent successful surgical ventricular restoration. PMID:24172071
Peruvumba, Jayakumar Narayan; Paul, Divyan; Verghese, Renjan
The growth of a ruptured small saccular aneurysm has rarely been documented. Also rare are reports of spontaneous thrombosis of ruptured small intracranial saccular aneurysms. However, there are no reported instances of ruptured small saccular aneurysms that have demonstrated an increase in size after rupture, subsequently thrombosed and disappeared from circulation. We report one such aneurysm in a patient who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured small saccular aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. The possible reasons for the initial growth and subsequent thrombosis of the aneurysm from morphometric and flow dynamic points of view are discussed.
Barr, James; Kourliouros, Antonios
Giant coronary artery aneurysms are rare clinical entities. We report the case of a 49-year-old man who presented with dyspnoea and exertional chest pain. Investigations confirmed an aneurysmal right coronary artery measuring 4 cm with a fistulous communication to the right atrium. Following right atriotomy, the fistula was oversewn and the aneurysmal right coronary artery ligated at its origin and at several points along its course. A saphenous vein graft was anastomosed to the posterior descending artery. Persistent ventricular fibrillation occurred upon chest closure, attributed to ischaemia following ligation of the aneurysmal coronary artery. Emergent resternotomy and internal defibrillation were successfully performed. The sternum was stented open to reduce right ventricular strain and closed the following day. The patient made an unremarkable recovery. We here address the technical challenges associated with surgical repair of right coronary aneurysms and the physiology and management of potential complications. PMID:28018699
Kanematsu, Masayuki; Kato, Hiroki; Kondo, Hiroshi; Goshima, Satoshi; Tsuge, Yusuke; Kojima, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Haruo
Two cases of ruptured aneurysms in the posterior cervical regions associated with type-1 neurofibromatosis treated by transcatheter embolization are reported. Patients presented with acute onset of swelling and pain in the affected areas. Emergently performed contrast-enhanced CT demonstrated aneurysms and large hematomas widespread in the posterior cervical regions. Angiography revealed aneurysms and extravasations of the occipital artery. Patients were successfully treated by percutaneous transcatheter arterial microcoil embolization. Transcatheter arterial embolization therapy was found to be an effective method for treating aneurysmal rupture in the posterior cervical regions occurring in association with type-1 neurofibromatosis. A literature review revealed that rupture of an occipital arterial aneurysm, in the setting of neurofibromatosis type 1, has not been reported previously.
Meyer, Carsten; Verrel, Frauke; Weyer, Gunther Wilhelm, Kai
Since its approval as an innovative stent system for peripheral aneurysm management in May 2009, the Cardiatis Multilayer Stent (Cardiatis, Isnes, Belgium) has been applied in several clinical cases. The unique design of this multilayer stent decreases mean velocity and vorticity within the aneurysm sac immediate and causes thrombus to form, resulting in physiological exclusion of the aneurysm from the circulation, whereas branches and collaterals sprouting from the aneurysm remain patent. Here we present a case of a complex renal artery aneurysm successfully treated with a 6 Multiplication-Sign 30-mm Cardiatis Multilayer Stent.
Rouer, Martin; Meilhac, Olivier; Delbosc, Sandrine; Louedec, Liliane; Pavon-Djavid, Graciela; Cross, Jane; Legagneux, Josette; Bouilliant-Linet, Maxime; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Alsac, Jean-Marc
Endovascular aneurysm exclusion is a validated technique to prevent aneurysm rupture. Long-term results highlight technique limitations and new aspects of Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) pathophysiology. There is no abdominal aortic aneurysm endograft exclusion model cheap and reproducible, which would allow deep investigations of AAA before and after treatment. We hereby describe how to induce, and then to exclude with a covered coronary stentgraft an abdominal aortic aneurysm in a rat. The well known elastase induced AAA model was first reported in 19901 in a rat, then described in mice2. Elastin degradation leads to dilation of the aorta with inflammatory infiltration of the abdominal wall and intra luminal thrombus, matching with human AAA. Endovascular exclusion with small covered stentgraft is then performed, excluding any interactions between circulating blood and the aneurysm thrombus. Appropriate exclusion and stentgraft patency is confirmed before euthanasia by an angiography thought the left carotid artery. Partial control of elastase diffusion makes aneurysm shape different for each animal. It is difficult to create an aneurysm, which will allow an appropriate length of aorta below the aneurysm for an easy stentgraft introduction, and with adequate proximal and distal neck to prevent endoleaks. Lots of failure can result to stentgraft introduction which sometimes lead to aorta tear with pain and troubles to stitch it, and endothelial damage with post op aorta thrombosis. Giving aspirin to rats before stentgraft implantation decreases failure rate without major hemorrhage. Clamping time activates neutrophils, endothelium and platelets, and may interfere with biological analysis. PMID:23851958
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000162.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm To use the sharing features on this page, ... to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ...
... small number of these aneurysms cause symptoms or rupture. Risk factors include: Family history of cerebral aneurysms ... could be a warning sign of a future rupture that may occur days to weeks after the ...
... Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis or plaque buildup causes the ... weak and bulge outward like a balloon. An AAA develops slowly over time and has few noticeable ...
... loss of nerve function may indicate that an aneurysm may be causing pressure on adjacent brain tissue. ... changes or other neurological changes can indicate the aneurysm has ruptured and is bleeding into the brain. ...
Under the title of anterior circulation aneurysms and the pterional approach, followings are presented and emphasized along with mentioning their historical development in our present performance status. Pterional approach: head positioning with Mayfield-Kees fixation apparatus using one pin around the processus matoideus and the other 2 pins on the contralateral side behind the hair line the head turned 30 degrees and reclined chin-up l5-20 grade. Skin incision beginning just in front of the tragus ending up at the midline hair line in a curvilinear fashion always including the superficial temporal artery STA in its frontal branch and the facial nerve (frontal branch) in the skin flap. A muscle fascial preparation is so fashioned such that a strip of myofascial cuff is left at the linea temporalis and the temporal musculature is reflected and retracted towards the postero-basal direction in order to expose the pterion, for which a small short myofascial incision is added parallel to the skin incision towards the tragus up to several cm above it to prevent postoperative trismus. Bone flap is sawed out usually using three burr holes, at the key hole just at the proximal part of the linea temporalis, frontomedially on the squama frontalis and on the sutura squamosa, so that the Sylvian fissure and the superior temporal gyrus are exposed enough for further procedure. The sphenoid ridge is drilled away until the most lateral corner of the superior orbital fissure comes into view. Thus one has drilled away enough to do surgery in question at the skull base even at the time of "angry brain" due to subarachnoid hemorrhage SAH. This procedure can be followed by selective extradural anterior clinoidectomy SEAC in case of necessity. The dura is opened in a curvilinear fashion so that the dura can be reflected over the drilled sphenoid wing and so that the Sylvian fissure and the superior temporal gyrus is exposed for the treatment of aneurysms of the internal carotid artery
Youssef, A Samy; van Loveren, Harry R
The posterior clinoid process, a bony prominence at the superolateral aspect of the dorsum sellae, has a strategic importance in a transcavernous approach to basilar tip aneurysms. To further optimize this microsurgical technique during posterior clinoidectomy, we performed a cadaveric study of this regional anatomy, describe a technique called dural tailoring, and report initial results in the surgical treatment of upper basilar artery (BA) aneurysm. After 10 adult cadaver heads (silicone-injected) were prepared for dissection, a posterior clinoidectomy with dural tailoring was performed. The dura overlying the upper clivus was coagulated with bipolar electrocoagulation and incised. Stripping dura off the clivus and lateral reflection then exposed the ipsilateral posterior clinoid process and dorsum sellae, thus creating a dural flap. Posterior clinoidectomy with dural tailoring was then used in seven patients with upper BA aneurysms. Our stepwise modification of the posterior clinoidectomy with dural tailoring created a flap that afforded protection of the cavernous sinus and oculomotor nerve. During surgery, there were no recorded intraoperative injuries to neurovascular structures. One patient died postoperatively from morbidity related to severe-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage. Postoperative oculomotor nerve palsy occurred in 3 patients (43%). In all cases, the nerve was anatomically preserved and partial to complete recovery was recorded during the first postoperative year. This technique effectively provided exposure of retrosellar upper basilar aneurysms in seven patients (basilar tip 43% and superior cerebellar artery aneurysms 57%). Outcomes and safety are at least equivalent to or better than basilar aneurysm surgery performed without surgical adjuncts, presumably a less complex subset.
Nabaweesi-Batuka, Jennifer; Kitunguu, Peter Kithikii; Kiboi, Julius G
Intracranial aneurysms constitute a significant part of the caseload for any neurosurgical service. Despite the occurrence of intracranial aneurysms and the availability of advanced diagnostic tools and management options, there is a paucity of published data concerning aneurysm patterns in Kenya. This was a combined retrospective and prospective quantitative descriptive study. Following ethical approval, all patients with cerebral aneurysms seen on computed tomography angiography who presented at Nairobi Hospital between May 2010 and June 2014 were included. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data on patient characteristics, indications for imaging, and radiologic findings. Analysis was carried out SPSS for Windows version 15.0. The study included 121 patients with a female (71.9%) predominance; most (30.58%) of the patients were aged 50-59 years. There were 151 aneurysms observed, with 85.95% of patients having solitary aneurysms and 14.05% having multiple aneurysms; 82.1% of the aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation. Mean aneurysm size was 6.92 mm, mean neck diameter was 2.79 mm, and the range of diameter/neck ratio was 1-11.88 (mean 1.16). The rate of subarachnoid bleeding displayed an exponential increase with aneurysms 3 mm in size and appeared to plateau thereafter despite increasing aneurysm size. Most (78.8%) of the observed anterior communicating artery aneurysms were ruptured. Most patients were postmenopausal women, who had a higher rate of aneurysms with an elevated risk of rupture for small aneurysms; this suggests that clinicians need to be more vigilant and have a higher index of suspicion in such patients with subtle clinical signs. This study revealed a pattern of aneurysms in accord with previous reports and is expected to serve as a basis for further research on aneurysm management, outcome, and prognostic indicators in the Kenyan population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shapiro, Maksim; Becske, Tibor; Nelson, Peter K
OBJECTIVE A detailed analysis was performed of anterior circulation aneurysms treated with a Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) that did not progress to complete occlusion by 1-year follow-up. Angiography was performed with the purpose of identifying specific factors potentially responsible for these failed outcomes. METHODS From among the first 100 patients with anterior circulation aneurysms, 92 underwent 1-year follow-up angiography and were individually studied through review of their pre- and postembolization studies. RESULTS Nineteen aneurysms (21%) remained unoccluded at 12 months. Independent predictors of treatment failure, identified by logistic regression analysis, were found to be fusiform aneurysm morphology, decreasing dome-to-neck ratio, and the presence of a preexisting laser-cut stent. Further examination of individual cases identified several common mechanisms-device malapposition, inadequate coverage of the aneurysm neck with persistent exchange across the device, and the incorporation of a branch vessel into the aneurysm fundus-potentially contributing to failed treatment in these settings. CONCLUSIONS Attention to specific features of the aneurysm and device construct can frequently identify cases predisposed to treatment failure and suggest strategies to maximize favorable outcomes.
Ito, N; Shiokawa, Y; Ide, K; Takahashi, H; Yamakawa, K; Saito, I
A P4 segment aneurysm of the posterior cerebral artery has rarely been described. A case of ruptured P4 segment aneurysm, which re-ruptured after clipping procedure for unruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm, was reported. A 57-old-man had sudden onset of severe headache and vomiting and was transferred to our hospital. CT scan on admission showed diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage dominantly extending to the tentorial surface and the occipital interhemispheric tissue. Four-vessel angiography demonstrated a right internal carotid-posterior communicating artery junction aneurysm, and its neck clipping was performed on day 5. Intraoperative inspection of the whole appearance of the aneurysm was difficult because of the aneurysm existing on the ventral portion of the internal carotid artery and definite diagnosis of the bleeding source was not obtained. On day 23, he complained of severe headache and restricted vision and CT scan showed intracerebral hematoma in the left occipital lobe with intraventricular hemorrhage. The angiograms and CT scan on admission were reexamined, and another aneurysm on the left parieto-occipital artery (P4 segment) was retrospectively identified. The ruptured P4 segment aneurysm was obliterated via the interhemispheric approach and the patient enjoyed an uneventful postoperative course. When a thick subarachnoid hemorrhage distributed in the occipital interhemispheric fissure, quadrigeminal cistern, and ambient cistern is encountered, the existence of a possible P4 segment aneurysm should be suspected. Correct initial diagnosis and definite treatment of the ruptured lesion in the acute stage is essential in dealing with SAH-patient with multiple aneurysms. When they are unruptured lesions at a common aneurysm site, the existence of an unusually located aneurysm should not be overlooked as the possible source responsible for symptoms.
Malacrida, G.; Dalainas, Ilias Medda, Massimo; Nano, Giovanni; Inglese, Luigi
A 58-year-old woman was admitted to our institution because of a left renal artery branch saccular aneurysm with a 2 cm diameter. Due to a hostile abdomen and the infrarenal location, an endovascular approach was chosen. A Jostent Peripheral Stent-Graft was placed under angiographic control, excluding the aneurysm from the circulation. No peri- or postprocedural complications were observed. At 6 months follow-up, the endograft is patent, excluding the aneurysm. Endovascular treatment may represent an alternative to surgery, especially in the distal infraparenchymal location.
Firsching, R; Synowitz, H J; Hanebeck, J
Inadvertent narrowing of parent or branching vessels is one major cause of unfavorable outcome from aneurysm surgery. Intraoperative micro-Doppler sonography of arterial brain vessels during surgery for cerebral aneurysms of the anterior circulation was performed in 50 patients and compared retrospectively with 50 patients, who were operated upon without micro-Doppler sonography. Intraoperative micro-Doppler sonography demonstrated the need for repositioning of the clip in 12 instances. Outcome after surgery with micro-Doppler sonography appeared slightly better than without. Micro-Doppler sonography is concluded to be a practicable adjunct to routine aneurysm surgery.
Chalouhi, Nohra; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula; Gonzalez, L Fernando; Hasan, David; Alkhalili, Kenan; Dumont, Aaron S; Rosenwasser, Robert; Jabbour, Pascal
Surgical clipping and coil embolization of distally located intracranial aneurysms can be challenging. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of treatment of distal aneurysms with the liquid embolic agent Onyx 18/34. Sixteen patients were treated with Onyx 18/34 for distally located aneurysms in our institution between March 2009 and September 2012. The technique consists of occluding the aneurysm as well as the parent vessel at the level of aneurysm with Onyx 18 or 34. Candidates for this treatment were patients with distal aneurysms including mycotic aneurysms, dissecting aneurysms, and pseudoaneurysms in which coiling was considered impossible. Of the 16 patients, 12 presented with subarachnoid and/or intracerebral hemorrhage. Median aneurysm size was 4.6mm. Aneurysm locations were as follows: Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (n=5), distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (n=3), distal pericallosal (n=3), distal anterior cerebral artery (n=3), lenticulostriate artery (n=1), and anterior ethmoidal artery (n=1). There were 4 mycotic aneurysms. Complete aneurysm obliteration was achieved in all 6 patients with available angiographic follow-up. There was only 1 (6.3%) symptomatic complication in the series. There were no instances of reflux or accidental migration of embolic material. Favorable outcomes were noted in 82% of patients at discharge. Two patients with mycotic aneurysms died from cardiac complications of endocarditis. No aneurysm recanalization or rehemorrhage were seen. Parent vessel trapping with Onyx 18/34 offers a simple, safe, and effective means of achieving obliteration of distal challenging aneurysms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Chao; Tian, Zhongbin; Liu, Jian; Jing, Linkai; Paliwal, Nikhil; Wang, Shengzhang; Zhang, Ying; Xiang, Jianping; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Meng, Hui; Yang, Xinjian
Background Stent-assisted coiling technology has been widely used in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. In current study, we investigated the intra-aneurysmal hemodynamic alterations after stent implantation and its association with aneurysm location. Methods We first retrospectively studied 15 aneurysm cases (8 internal carotid artery-ophthalmic artery (ICA-OphA) aneurysms and 7 posterior communicating artery (PcoA) aneurysms) treated with Enterprise stents and coils. Then based on patient-specific geometries before and after stenting, we built virtual stenting computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation models. Results Before and after stent deployment, the average Wall Shear Stress (WSS) on the aneurysmal sac at systolic peak changed from 7.04 Pa (4.14 Pa, 15.77 Pa) to 6.04 Pa (3.86 Pa, 11.13 Pa), P = 0.001; and the spatially averaged value of flow velocity in the perpendicular plane of aneurysm dropped from 0.5 m/s (0.28 m/s, 0.7 m/s) to 0.33 m/s (0.25 m/s, 0.49 m/s), P = 0.001, respectively. Post-stent implantation, WSS in ICA-OphA aneurysms and PcoA aneurysms decreased by 14.4% (P = 0.012) and 16.6% (P = 0.018) respectively, and flow velocity also reduced by 10.3% (P = 0.029) and 10.5% (P = 0.013), respectively. Changes in WSS, flow velocity, and pressure were not significantly different between ICA-OphA aneurysms and PcoA aneurysms (P > 0.05). Stent implantation did not significantly change the peak systolic pressure in both aneurysm types. Conclusion After stent implantation, intra-aneurysmal flow velocity and WSS decreased independent of aneurysm type (ICA-OphA and PcoA). Little change was observed on peak systolic pressure. PMID:26746828
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a systematic review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm in comparison to open surgical repair. An abdominal aortic aneurysm [AAA] is the enlargement and weakening of the aorta (major blood artery) that may rupture and result in stroke and death. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair [EVAR] is a procedure for repairing abdominal aortic aneurysms from within the blood vessel without open surgery. In this procedure, an aneurysm is excluded from blood circulation by an endograft (a device) delivered to the site of the aneurysm via a catheter inserted into an artery in the groin. The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this technology. The review included 44 eligible articles out of 489 citations identified through a systematic literature search. Most of the research evidence is based on non-randomized comparative studies and case series. In the short-term, EVAR appears to be safe and comparable to open surgical repair in terms of survival. It is associated with less severe hemodynamic changes, less blood transfusion and shorter stay in the intensive care and hospital. However, there is concern about a high incidence of endoleak, requiring secondary interventions, and in some cases, conversion to open surgical repair. Current evidence does not support the use of EVAR in all patients. EVAR might benefit individuals who are not fit for surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and whose risk of rupture of the aneurysm outweighs the risk of death from EVAR. The long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of EVAR cannot be determined at this time. Further evaluation of this technology is required. OBJECTIVE The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of
Calvo Cascallo, J; Mundi Salvadó, N; Cardona Fontanet, M
Mycotic aneurysms of the femoral artery is rare. We report a new case with a mycotic aneurysm of the femoral artery by "Salmonella typhimurium". The surgical operation was performed as surgical emergence for ruptured aneurysm. We did not know the aneurysm infection origin. The treatment of lesions was resection and femoro-femoral bypass with PTFE. The microbiological examination discovered infection material. A posterior bypass infection required a exeresis bypass and new revascularization with iliofemoral saphenous vein bypass by obturator foramen, and antibiotic treatment prolonged.
Benson, W E
Posterior scleritis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of many ocular conditions, including angle closure glaucoma, choroidal folds, optic disk edema, circumscribed fundus mass, choroidal detachment, and exudative retinal detachment. Because it is rare, a high index of suspicion is necessary. Anterior scleritis, pain, or a history of collagen-vascular disease, when present, help to alert the clinician to the correct diagnosis. Posterior scleritis affects women more often than men, but annular ciliochoroidal effusion and choroidal folds are more common in men. Exudative macular detachment and a circumscribed fundus mass are more common in women. This paper reviews the world literature on posterior scleritis and describes findings in a series of 43 patients seen at Wills Eye Hospital. It stresses the clinical features and ancillary diagnostic tests that help to establish the diagnosis.
Castro, Marcelo A.; Putman, Christopher M.; Cebral, Juan R.
It is widely accepted that complexity in the flow pattern at the anterior communicating artery (AComA) is associated with the high rate of aneurysm formation at that location observed in large studies. The purpose of this work is to study associations between hemodynamic patterns, and AComA aneurysm initiation by comparing hemodynamics in the aneurysm and the normal model where the aneurysm was computationally removed. Vascular models of both right and left circulation were independently reconstructed from three-dimensional rotational angiography images using deformable models after image registration of both images, and fused using a surface merging algorithm. The geometric models were then used to generate high-quality volumetric finite element grids of tetrahedra with an advancing front technique. For each patient, the second anatomical model was created by digitally removing the aneurysm. It was iteratively achieved by applying a Laplacian smoothing filter and remeshing the surface. Finite element blood flow numerical simulations were performed for both the pathological and normal models under the same personalized pulsatile flow conditions imposed at the inlets of both models. The Navier-Stokes equations were numerically integrated by using a finite-element formulation. It was observed that aneurysms initiated in regions of high and moderate WSS in the counterpart normal models. Adjacent or close to those regions, low WSS portions of the arterial wall were not affected by the disease. These results are in line with previous observations at other vascular locations.
Vindlacheruvu, R; Mendelow, A; Mitchell, P
Objectives: To determine under what circumstances repair of unruptured intracranial aneurysms may be beneficial. Methods: A life expectancy analysis of patients with unruptured aneurysms with and without repair based on prospective data from the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms (ISUIA). Results: Life years are lost at all ages by repairing anterior circulation aneurysms under 7 mm in diameter in patients with no history of a subarachnoid haemorrhage from another aneurysm (incidental). For all other aneurysms the number of life years saved by repair is dependent on the patient's age at the time when repair is undertaken. Between 2 and 40 years are saved by repairing aneurysms in patients aged 20 years. These benefits fall to 0 when remaining life expectancy falls below 15–35 years, corresponding to the age range of 45–70 years. Conclusions: Repair of unruptured aneurysms benefits patients harbouring them by improving life expectancy except in certain circumstances. The exceptions are patients with remaining life expectancy less than 15–35 years or aged 45–70 (depending on aneurysm size and location) and patients with aneurysms of the anterior circulation under 7 mm in diameter with no history of a previous subarachnoid haemorrhage. These results are based on the findings of the ISUIA and are dependent on their accuracy. PMID:15654039
... Is an Aneurysm Diagnosed? If you have an aortic aneurysm but no symptoms, your doctor may find it ... or abdominal pain. If you have an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), your doctor may feel a throbbing mass ...
... Statistics and Facts A- A A+ Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts An estimated 6 million people in ... Understanding the Brain Warning Signs/ Symptoms Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Risk Factors Aneurysm ...
Hirota, Yuki; Ikeda, Naokado; Tamura, Yoji; Yokoyama, Kunio; Yamada, Yoshitaka; Kuroiwa, Terumasa; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko
Distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery (dPICA) aneurysms are rare with an incidence of approximately 1% of all intracranial aneurysms. The frequent reports of the non-branching aneurysms or tandem aneurysms in an identical artery may be related to the embryology of dPICA and the anterior inferior cerebellar artery which is distinct from other cerebral arteries, as characterized by a thin vessel wall and tortuous course. In this paper, the authors present a case of a 67-year-old man with a ruptured de novo dPICA aneurysm in the tonsillomedullary segment, which occurred 3 years after clipping of a ruptured aneurysm in the identical segment of the dPICA. The patient had a history of smoking and uncontrolled hypertension. He presented with a sudden onset of severe headache and vomiting. On admission computed tomography demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage in the left cerebello-medullary cistern with intra-forth ventricular clots. Vertebral angiography demonstrated a saccular dPICA aneurysm just distal from the previous clip. Based on the angiographic characteristics of the aneurysm and the potential difficulty of a second clipping operation, coil embolization of the parent artery was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful except for the presence of hoarseness. The unusual development and location of ruptured de novo dPICA aneurysm may be explainable by uncontrollable risk factors, as well as by the embryological features of dPICA. Careful follow-up neuroimaging studies and management of risk factors should be continued even after complete neck clipping or coil embolization in cases of dPICA aneurysm.
Kobayashi, Toshihiko; Uenoyama, Shoichi; Isogai, Satoshi
A case of inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (IPDA) aneurysm associated with celiac axis stenosis was successfully treated using only transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). A 57-year-old woman was urgently referred to our hospital with sudden abdominal pain; computed tomography revealed retroperitoneal hematoma due to bleeding from an aneurysm around the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). Selective angiography into the SMA showed an aneurysm derived from the IPDA posterior branch; the IPDA anterior branch was intact and contrast medium flowed into the common hepatic artery territory through the pancreatic arcade because of celiac axis stenosis. We subsequently performed TAE on the lesion. Arteriography after TAE showed that the aneurysm had disappeared and that the IPDA anterior branch was intact. She had no aneurysm recurrence for about two years after the treatment. We believe that TAE is effective even for a PDA aneurysm with celiac axis stenosis or occlusion. However, it is important to perform embolization precisely and over a long period.
Shin, S.H.; Choi, I.S.; Thomas, K.; David, C.A.
Summary Treatment of intracranial giant aneurysms presents is challenging. In the case of pediatric giant aneurysm, more challenges arise. We describe our experience with a 17-year-old pediatric patient who presented with severe headache. She was diagnosed as having a giant fusiform aneurysm at the right P1-P2-Pcom junction. The aneurysm was treated with superficial temporal artery-posterior cerebral artery bypass and subsequent coil embolization of the aneurysm with parent artery occlusion. The patient had an excellent outcome at one-year follow-up. Our case suggests a combined approach of surgical and endovascular management may yield a better outcome than surgery or endovascular management alone in the treatment of pediatric giant aneurysm. PMID:23693047
De Santis, Francesco; Bruni, Antonio; Da Ros, Valerio; Chaves Brait, Cristina Margot; Scevola, Germano; Di Cintio, Vincenzo
A 57-year-old woman was admitted to our unit suffering from hemorrhagic shock and upper abdominal pain. An enhanced computerized tomography (CT) scan evidenced a large retroperitoneal hematoma due to visceral arteries aneurysm rupture and a significant celiac axis root segmental stenosis due to median arcuate ligament compression. A selective splanchnic arteries angiography showed 3 saccular pancreaticoduodenal artery arcade aneurysm (PDAAs), 2 in the inferior posterior pancreaticoduodenal artery, and 1 smaller in the superior anterior pancreaticoduodenal artery. The largest aneurysm showed evident rupture signs. Both inferior PDAAs were successfully treated via endovascular coil embolization. The celiac trunk stenosis and small inferior PDAA did not require treatment. A CT scan control at 1-year follow-up did not reveal any new PDAAs. In cases of celiac artery trunk (CAT) steno-occlusive lesions, multiple aneurysms can develop in the pancreaticoduodenal arcade. PDAAs should be treated because of high rupture risk, regardless of diameter. Although endovascular treatment via coil embolization represents the treatment of choice nowadays, a simultaneous treatment of the associated CAT lesions is still debated. However, in cases of aneurysm embolization alone, one cannot exclude that other PDAAs might develop in these patients in the future. Close monitoring and accurate long-term follow-up is highly recommended in these cases.
Fukuda, Ikuo; Yanaoka, H
Since the advent of extracorporeal circulation in 1954, its technique has developed rapidly owing to the progress of technology. Although it facilitated better outcome of cardiac surgery, lack of knowledge and malpractice of extracorporeal circulation may lead to serious complications. This article introduces different types of cannulae and their hydrodynamics during extracorporeal circulation. Characteristics of cannulae for extracorporeal circulation are described from viewpoints of material, requirements and technological background. Arterial perfusion cannulae have various flow patterns and affect shear stress on the aortic wall depending on the shape of each cannula exit. Technological background of venous drainage is also described. As a cardiovascular surgeon, it is important to understand the characteristics of each cannula in order to accomplish successful operation. Safe and effective means of providing sufficient arterial inflow in the presence of extensive aortic disease, such as atherosclerosis with aneurysm or dissections needs to be solved.
Shutze, Ryan A.; Liechty, Joseph
Aneurysms of the hand are rarely encountered and more rarely reported. The least common locations of these aneurysms are the palmar and digital arteries. The etiologies of these entities are quite varied, although they usually present as a pulsatile mass. Following a thorough evaluation, including arterial anatomic imaging, they should be repaired. The reported results following repair have been good. Herein we report a girl with a spontaneous palmar artery aneurysm and its management. PMID:28127131
Komiyama, M.; Nakajima, H.; Nishikawa, M.; Yamanaka, K.; Iwai, Y.; Yasui, T.; Morikawa, T.; Kitano, S.; Sakamoto, H.; Nishio, A.
Summary Eleven patients with so-called “vein of Galen aneurysms ” are reported, six of whom presented with vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (four with choroidal type and two with mural type malformations). The remaining five patients presented with vein of Galen aneurysmal dilatations secondarily due to an arteriovenous malformation in one patient, an arteriovenous fistula in another, dural arteriovenous fistulas in two patients, and a varix in another. Treatments for these patients were individualised with consideration given to the clinical manifestations and the angioarchitecture of their lesions. Endovascular intervention played a critical role in the treatment of these vein of Galen aneurysms. PMID:20663385
Gupta, Vivek; Ahuja, Chirag K; Khandelwal, N; Kumar, Ajay; Gupta, S K
Summary Fenestration of the intracranial arteries is a relatively common occurrence. This anatomic variation may predispose to aneurysm formation at certain sites. Treatment of such aneurysms is difficult as it may occlude one of the limbs of fenestration with resultant deficit. Thus, preservation of both the limbs with adequate exclusion of the aneurysm from the circulation should be the aim of any treatment. We describe a series of four cases of ruptured aneurysms arising from a fenestrated vertebrobasilar junction treated with endovascular balloon remodeling technique. PMID:24070077
Vernhet, Helene; Bousquet, Claudine; Jean, Betty; Lesnik, Alvian; Durand, Gerard; Giron, Jacques; Senac, Jean Paul
Bronchial artery dilatation and aneurysm formation is a potential complication of local inflammation, especially in bronchiectasis. When the bronchial artery has an ectopic origin from the inferior segment of the aortic arch, aneurysms may mimick aortic aneurysms. Despite this particular location, endovascular treatment is possible. We report two such aneurysms that were successfully embolized with steel coils.
Davis, Frank M; Eliason, Jonathan L; Ganesh, Santhi K; Blatt, Neal B; Stanley, James C; Coleman, Dawn M
Pediatric arterial aneurysms are extremely uncommon. Indications for intervention remain poorly defined and treatments vary. The impetus for this study was to better define the contemporary surgical management of pediatric nonaortic arterial aneurysms. A retrospective analysis was conducted of 41 children with 61 aneurysms who underwent surgical treatment from 1983 to 2015 at the University of Michigan. Arteries affected included: renal (n = 26), femoral (n = 7), iliac (n = 7), superior mesenteric (n = 4), brachial (n = 3), carotid (n = 3), popliteal (n = 3), axillary (n = 2), celiac (n = 2), ulnar (n = 2), common hepatic (n = 1), and temporal (n = 1). Intracranial aneurysms and aortic aneurysms treated during the same time period were not included in this study. Primary outcomes analyzed were postoperative complications, mortality, and freedom from reintervention. The study included 27 boys and 14 girls, with a median age of 9.8 years (range, 2 months-18 years) and a weight of 31.0 kg (range, 3.8-71 kg). Multiple aneurysms existed in 14 children. Obvious factors that contributed to aneurysmal formation included: proximal juxta-aneurysmal stenoses (n = 14), trauma (n = 12), Kawasaki disease (n = 4), Ehlers-Danlos type IV syndrome (n = 1), and infection (n = 1). Preoperative diagnoses were established using arteriography (n = 23), magnetic resonance angiography (n = 6), computed tomographic arteriography (n = 5), or ultrasonography (n = 7), and confirmed during surgery. Indications for surgery included risk of expansion and rupture, potential thrombosis or embolization of aneurysmal thrombus, local soft tissue and nerve compression, and secondary hypertension in the case of renal artery aneurysms. Primary surgical techniques included: aneurysm resection with reanastomsis, reimplantation, or angioplastic closure (n = 16), interposition (n = 10) or bypass grafts (n = 2), ligation (n = 9), plication (n = 8), endovascular occlusion (n = 3), and nephrectomy (n = 4) in
... Aneurysm? An aneurysm (AN-u-rism) is a balloon-like bulge in an artery. Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to your body. Arteries have thick walls to withstand normal blood pressure. However, certain medical problems, genetic conditions, and trauma can damage or ...
Taylor, C; Sinha, A; Nightingale, J
Two elderly patients who presented with gradually progressive dysphagia are described. Investigations excluded an intraluminal obstruction and showed extrinsic compression of the oesophagus by an aneurysmal aorta. Surgery was not performed and they were successfully managed with a liquid diet. Keywords: dysphagia; aortic aneurysm; vascular compression PMID:11264491
Stein, Klaus-Peter; Wanke, Isabel; Forsting, Michael; Oezkan, Neriman; Huetter, Bernd-Otto; Sandalcioglu, Ibrahim Erol; Sure, Ulrich
The natural history and treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is the object of ongoing debates and discussions. To capture the entirety of these complex lesions, associated vascular pathologies, such as associated aneurysms (AAs), have to be implemented in future risk stratification models, as they are believed to represent additional risk factors for intracranial hemorrhage. The present study aims to determine AA characteristics in posterior fossa AVMs and to compare with AAs accompanying supratentorial AVMs, with special focus on aneurysm size. Patients with cerebral AVMs, treated in our department between 1990 and 2013, were analyzed retrospectively. Only patients with flow-related AAs of the feeding arteries were evaluated. Thus, patients harboring intranidal, venous or remote aneurysms were excluded. Of 485 patients with cerebral AVM, 76 patients harbored an AVM of the posterior fossa. Among those, 22 individuals exhibited a total of 35 AAs (n = 8 patients with multiple AAs). Most common location of AAs was the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (n = 20, 57%) and mean AA diameter was 7.9 mm (SD 5.5). In the subgroup of patients with a single AA, mean aneurysm size in posterior fossa AVMs was with 7.8 mm (SD 6.0; range 2-25 mm) significantly larger than the mean size of AAs with supratentorial AVMs (4.8 mm, SD 3.0; range 2-20 mm; p = 0.048). Intracranial hemorrhage was found in 18 of 22 patients (82%) with infratentorial AVMs, and of these, 11 patients suffered from aneurysm rupture. In 14 patients bearing a single AA, 8 (57%) had sustained hemorrhage from aneurysm rupture. The mean diameter of AAs was as supposed in the ruptured group with 9.8 mm (SD 6.9; range 4-25 mm) significantly larger than in the unruptured AA group exhibiting a mean of 5.0 mm (SD 3.3; range 2-10 mm; p = 0.038). Patients with posterior fossa AVMs and AAs were significantly older as compared to those patients with supratentorial lesions (57.1, SD 12.6 vs. 45.8 years, SD
Ivanov, Dmitry; Dol, Aleksandr; Polienko, Asel
Approximately 5% of the adult population has one or more cerebral aneurysm. Aneurysms are one of the most dangerous cerebral vascular pathologies. Aneurysm rupture leads to a subarachnoid hemorrhage with a very high mortality rate of 45-50%. Despite the high importance of this disease there are no criteria for assessing the probability of aneurysm rupture. Moreover, mechanisms of aneurysm development and rupture are not fully understood until now. Biomechanical and numerical computer simulations allow us to estimate the behavior of vessels in normal state and under pathological conditions as well as to make a prediction of their postoperative state. Biomechanical studies may help clinicians to find and investigate mechanical factors which are responsible for the initiation, growth and rupture of the cerebral aneurysms. In this work, biomechanical and numerical modeling of healthy and pathological cerebral arteries was conducted. Patient-specific models of the basilar and posterior cerebral arteries and patient-specific boundary conditions at the inlet were used in numerical simulations. A comparative analysis of the three vascular wall models (rigid, perfectly elastic, hyperelastic) was performed. Blood flow and stress-strain state of the two posterior cerebral artery aneurysm models was compared. Numerical simulations revealed that hyperelastic material most adequately and realistically describes the behavior of the cerebral vascular walls. The size and shape of the aneurysm have a significant impact on the blood flow through the affected vessel and on the effective stress distribution in the aneurysm dome. It was shown that large aneurysm is more likely to rupture than small aneurysm.
Chithra, R; Sundar, R Ajai; Velladuraichi, B; Sritharan, N; Amalorpavanathan, J; Vidyasagaran, T
Aneurysms are rare in children. Isolated iliac artery aneurysms are very rare, especially bilateral aneurysms. Pediatric aneurysms are usually secondary to connective tissue disorders, arteritis, or mycotic causes. We present a case of a 3-year-old child with bilateral idiopathic common iliac aneurysms that were successfully repaired with autogenous vein grafts. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Karthikesalingam, Alan; Vidal-Diez, Alberto; Holt, Peter J; Loftus, Ian M; Schermerhorn, Marc L; Soden, Peter A; Landon, Bruce E; Thompson, Matthew M
and a larger mean aneurysm diameter at the time of repair in England than in the United States and lower rates of aneurysm rupture and aneurysm-related death in the United States than in England. (Funded by the Circulation Foundation and others.).
Ortega, J.; Hartman, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Maitland, D.
To investigate whether or not a successful aneurysm treatment procedure can subject a parent artery to harmful hemodynamic stresses, computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed on a patient-specific basilar aneurysm and bifurcation before and after a virtual endovascular treatment. Prior to treatment, the aneurysm at systole is filled with a periodic train of vortex tubes, which form at the aneurysm neck and advect upwards into the dome. Following the treatment procedure however, the motion of the vortex train is inhibited by the aneurysm filling material, which confines the vortex tubes to the region beneath the aneurysm neck. Analysis of the post-treatment flow field indicates that the impingement of the basilar artery flow upon the treated aneurysm neck and the close proximity of a vortex tube to the parent artery wall increase the maximum wall shear stresses to values approximately equal to 50 Pa at systole. Calculation of the time-averaged wall shear stresses indicates that there is a 1.4 × 9 10−7 m2 area on the parent artery exposed to wall shear stresses greater than 37.9 Pa, a value shown by Fry [Circ. Res. 22(2):165–197, 1968] to cause severe damage to the endothelial cells that line the artery wall. The results of this study demonstrate that it is possible for a treatment procedure, which successfully isolates the aneurysm from the circulation and leaves no aneurysm neck remnant, to elevate the hemodynamic stresses to levels that are injurious to the artery wall. PMID:18629647
... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Embolization of Brain Aneurysms and Arteriovenous Malformations/Fistulas Embolization of brain ... Brain Aneurysms and Fistulas? What is Embolization of Brain Aneurysms and Fistulas? Embolization of brain aneurysms and ...
Bahar, Ilknur G; Tutun, Ufuk; Iscan, Zafer; Ayabakan, Nurcan; Ozdemir, Mustafa
We present a case of aneurysm rupture from severe blunt abdominal trauma due to fight in a patient who had endovascular aneurysm repair. The patient presented to the emergency service with computed tomography evidence of an endoleak and a large retroperitoneal hematoma. The contrast abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a type Ib endoleak, increase in the aneurysm diameter and hematoma in the retroperitoneum. The patient has been taken under interventional procedure for endovascular aneurysm repair revision under urgent condition. Type Ib endoleak was treated by placement of a covered iliac extension limb, but a second leakage from graft body was found in control computed tomography images and open surgical conversion was necessary. Operative findings included a type III endoleak from graft body, defect on fabric. It was seen that the aneurysm sac anterior and posterior parts were ruptured. Upon reviewing the literature, we found that it was an interesting case as the first rupture case which had been developed after severe blunt abdominal trauma during the follow-up period of a patient on which endovascular aneurysm repair procedure had been performed and progressed in this manner. © The Author(s) 2016.
Katsuno, Makoto; Tanikawa, Rokuya; Izumi, Naoto; Hashimoto, Masaaki
Background: Although surgery for aneurysms of the upper basilar complex is generally accomplished by a pterional or subtemporal approach, both techniques have disadvantages. Therefore, attempts have been made to combine both the approaches, such as an anterior temporal approach, which exposes the anterior aspect of the temporal lobe during standard fronto-temporal craniotomy. However, in all these techniques, the temporal vein is sacrificed to allow posterior retraction of the temporal lobe, which may cause venous infarction in the temporal lobe. Methods: Our institutional review board approved this prospective study. We modified the anterior temporal approach for low-position aneurysms of the upper basilar complex by performing posterior clinoidectomy as necessary, thereby preventing the sacrifice of all vessels. Results: From 2007 to 2014, seven patients were operated on using this modified approach, and four patients underwent additional posterior clinoidectomy. Complete clip ligation was performed for all aneurysms without sacrificing any vessels, and there were no permanent complications attributable to manipulation for clipping or posterior clinoidectomy. Conclusions: The modified anterior temporal approach allows a wider operating field within the retro-carotid space, without sacrificing any vessels, and permits safer posterior clinoidectomy and aneurysm clipping in patients with low-position aneurysms of the basilar complex. PMID:25657863
Chang, Hyuk Won; Youn, Sung Won; Jung, Cheolkyu; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Sohn, Chul Ho; Kwon, Bae Ju; Han, Moon Hee
There have been few reports on the endovascular treatment of aneurysms arising from A1 due to their rarity. We report the angiographic results, clinical outcomes, and technical aspects of endovascular treatment for 13 A1 aneurysms in 12 patients. From January 2002 to November 2007, 12 patients (9 females and 3 males) with 13 A1 aneurysms underwent endovascular treatment. Three of these patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 10 unruptured aneurysms were detected in 9 patients. All of the aneurysms were successfully treated with coil embolization. Most of the aneurysms projected posteriorly (61.5%) and were located in the proximal A1 segment (69.2%). Procedural, clinical, and radiological follow-up data were reviewed. Procedure-related complications occurred in 3 patients (25%) and included 1 non-leaking aneurysmal perforation and 2 thromboembolic events; none of them were clinically significant. No bleeding or rebleeding occurred during the follow-up period in this cohort of patients. Endovascular coil embolization is an effective treatment modality for A1 aneurysms. Tailored microcatheter shaping according to aneurysm projection and location is necessary. Long-term follow-up studies involving a larger number of patients and further comparisons with surgical data are needed.
Pérez, Marta Aguilar; Henkes, Hans; Bouillot, Pierre; Brina, Olivier; Slater, Lee-Anne; Pereira, Vitor Mendes
Implantation of self-expanding stents from the parent artery into the sac of a bifurcation aneurysm is regularly used to facilitate endovascular coil occlusion with the so-called waffle cone technique (WCT). Self-expanding aneurysm bridging stents like Solitaire AB, can be used; however, bifurcation devices like pCONus and pCANvas are especially designed for WCT. These devices provide additional support for coil implantation owing to intraluminal nylon fibers (pCONus) or membranes (pCANvas) covering the intracranial aneurysm neck. Assessment of the intra-aneurysmal hemodynamic impact of these three devices: a regular intracranial stent (Solitaire AB) and two bifurcation devices (pCONus and pCANvas). An in vitro experiment was set up using a silicone model of a basilar tip aneurysm filled with blood mimicking fluid under a pulsatile circulation. Solitaire AB, pCONus, and pCANvas were successively implanted in the model for hemodynamic evaluation. High frame rate DSA series were acquired under various conditions. Intra-aneurysmal flow changes, including mean aneurysm flow amplitude ratio (R), were subsequently assessed by the optical flow method, measuring the detector velocity field before and after device implantations. pCONus and Solitaire minimally reduced the intra-aneurysmal flow (R=0.96, p=0.17 and R=0.91, p=0.01, respectively), whereas pCANvas strongly diminished the intra-aneurysmal flow (R=0.41, p=5×10(-12)). Waffle cone deployment of stents and technique-specific devices had no undesirable effect on the intra-aneurysmal flow. In particular, no increased flow was redirected into the aneurysm sac. The intraluminal membrane of the pCANvas strongly reduced the intra-aneurysmal flow, potentially preventing recanalization problems. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Shobayashi, Yasuhiro; Tateshima, Satoshi; Kakizaki, Ryuichi; Sudo, Ryo; Tanishita, Kazuo; Viñuela, Fernando
Little is known about how much protection a flow diversion stent provides to a non-thrombosed aneurysm without the adjunctive use of coils. A three-dimensional anatomically realistic computation aneurysm model was created from the digital subtraction angiogram of a large internal carotid artery-ophthalmic artery aneurysm which could have been treated with either a neck bridging stent or a flow diversion stent. Three-dimensional computational models of the Neuroform EZ neck bridging stent and Pipeline embolization device were created based on measurements with a stereo-microscope. Each stent was placed in the computational aneurysm model and intra-aneurysmal flow structures were compared before and after placement of the stents. Computational fluid dynamics were performed by numerically solving the continuity and Navier-Stokes momentum equations for a steady blood flow based on the finite volume method. Blood was assumed as an incompressible Newtonian fluid. Vessel walls were assumed to be rigid, and no-slip boundary conditions were applied at the lumens. To estimate the change in the intra-aneurysmal pressures we assumed that, at the inlets, the intra-arterial pressure at peak systole was 120 mm Hg both before and after stent placement Without any stent, the blood flow entered into the aneurysm dome from the mid to proximal neck area and ascended along the distal wall of the aneurysm. The flow then changed its direction anteriorly and moved along the proximal wall of the aneurysm dome. In addition to the primary intra-aneurysmal circulation pattern, a counterclockwise vortex was observed in the aneurysm dome. The placement of a Neuroform EZ stent induced a mean reduction in flow velocity of 14% and a small change in the overall intra-aneurysmal flow pattern. The placement of a Pipeline device induced a mean reduction in flow velocity of 74% and a significant change in flow pattern. Despite the flow velocity changes, Neuroform EZ and Pipeline devices induced
Cura, Marco; Elmerhi, Fadi; Bugnogne, Alejandro; Palacios, Raul; Suri, Rajeev; Dalsaso, Timothy
Pseudoaneurysms and aneurysms are abnormal dilatations of the vessel lumen. Pseudoaneurysm is a perfused hematoma contained by the adventitia and perivascular tissues that is in communication with the lumen of an adjacent artery or vein. Aneurysm is a dilatation of the vessel lumen involving all three layers of the blood vessel wall. Renal artery aneurysms (RAA) are uncommon but the widespread use of cross-sectional imaging and incidental detection of RAA may result in an increasing number of cases diagnosed. Renal artery pseudoaneurysms are suspected in bleeding patients after penetrating renal trauma. Imaging plays a major role in the detection of renal pseudoaneurysms and aneurysms and diagnoses aneurysm rupture and active bleeding. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and digital subtraction angiography can characterize lesion size, shape, and location and identify other aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms, helping to narrow the differential diagnosis and to understand the vascular anatomy for guiding proper treatment. Endovascular treatments have contributed considerably in the management of renal pseudoaneurysms and aneurysms. The use of coil embolization or covered stent placement prevents the mortality and mobility of surgery. The article describes imaging features and the endovascular therapies to treat these vascular processes and their possible complications. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Savarese, R P; Rosenfeld, J C; DeLaurentis, D A
Between January 1976 and December 1982, 181 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms were treated surgically, and in 13 patients the aneurysms were found to be inflammatory. Inflammatory aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (IAAA) share important characteristics with typical atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysms. Diagnosis and surgical management of IAAA are distinctive which suggests that IAAA should be considered separately, as a varient of typical abdominal aortic aneurysms. IAAA occur predominantly in males. The presenting symptoms are often idiosyncratic and include severe abdominal or back pain, or both, and ureteral obstruction; the diagnosis of IAAA should be considered when these symptoms are present. Although grossly and microscopically, the perianeurysmal fibrosis resembles idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, the two conditions can be differentiated. At the present time, ultrasonography and computed tomography appear to offer reliable means for diagnosing IAAA. The presence of IAAA, whether established preoperatively or discovered unexpectedly at operation, necessitate certain modifications in the surgical approach, in order to avoid injuring the duodenum and the venous structures. Most patients can be successfully treated by resection and graft replacement. Rupture of the aneurysm in IAAA appears to be less frequent than in typical atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm.
Safavi-Abbasi, Sam; Moron, Felix; Sun, Hai; Wilson, Christopher; Frock, Ben; Oppenlander, Mark E; Xu, David S; Ghafil, Cameron; Zabramski, Joseph M; Spetzler, Robert F; Nakaji, Peter
Some aneurysms without a definable neck and associated parent vessel pathology are particularly difficult to treat and may require clipping with circumferential wrapping. We report the largest available contemporary series examining the techniques of Gore-Tex clip-wrapping of ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms and patient outcomes. The presentation, location, and shape of the aneurysm; wrapping technique; outcome at discharge and last follow-up; and any change in the aneurysm at last angiographic follow-up were reviewed retrospectively in 30 patients with Gore-Tex clip-wrapped aneurysms. Gore-Tex clip-wrapping was used in 8 patients with ruptured aneurysms and 22 patients with unruptured aneurysms. Aneurysms included 23 fusiform, 3 blister, and 4 otherwise complex, multilobed, or giant aneurysms. Of the 30 aneurysms, 63% were in the anterior circulation. The overall mean patient age was 52.5 years (range, 17-80 years). Postoperatively, there were no deaths or worsening of neurologic status and no parent vessel stenoses or strokes. The mean Glasgow Outcome Scale score at last follow-up was 4.7. The mean follow-up time was 42.3 months (median, 37.0 months; range, 3-96 months). There were 105.8 patient follow-up years. Aneurysms recurred in 2 patients with Gore-Tex clip-wrapping. No patients developed rehemorrhage. Overall risk of recurrence was 1.9% annually. Gore-Tex has excellent material properties for circumferential wrapping of aneurysms and parent arteries. It is inert and does not cause a tissue reaction or granuloma formation. Gore-Tex clip-wrapping can be used safely for microsurgical management of ruptured and unruptured cerebral aneurysms with acceptable recurrence and rehemorrhage rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Drazin, Doniel; Alexander, Michael J
Drug abuse represents a significant health issue. Evidence suggests that recreational drug use has a direct effect on the cerebral vasculature and is of greater concern in those with undiagnosed aneurysms or vascular malformations. The authors report a case of thunderclap headache with a negative head CT and equivocal lumbar puncture after a drug-fueled weekend. The patient underwent diagnostic cerebral angiogram which demonstrated multisegmental, distal areas of focal narrowing of the middle, anterior, posterior, and posterior inferior cerebral artery and an incidental aneurysm. It is often difficult to determine the exact origin of symptoms; thus we were left with a bit of a chicken or the egg debate, trying to decipher which part came first. Either the aneurysm ruptured with associated concomitant vasospasm or it is a case of Call-Fleming syndrome (reversible cerebral artery vasoconstriction) with an incidental aneurysm. The authors proposed their management and rationale of this complex case.
González, J; Esteban, M; Andrés, G; Linares, E; Martínez-Salamanca, J I
A renal artery aneurysm is defined as a dilated segment of renal artery that exceeds twice the diameter of a normal renal artery. Although rare, the diagnosis and incidence of this entity have been steadily increasing due to the routine use of cross-sectional imaging. In certain cases, renal artery aneurysms may be clinically important and potentially lethal. However, knowledge of their occurrence, their natural history, and their prognosis with or without treatment is still limited. This article aims to review the recent literature concerning renal artery aneurysms, with special consideration given to physiopathology, indications for treatment, different technical options, post-procedure complications and treatment outcomes.
Chiaradia, M; Novelli, L; Deux, J-F; Tacher, V; Mayer, J; You, K; Djabbari, M; Luciani, A; Rahmouni, A; Kobeiter, H
Visceral artery aneurysms are rare but their estimated mortality due to rupture ranges between 25 and 70%. Treatment of visceral artery aneurysm rupture is usually managed by interventional radiology. Specific embolization techniques depend on the location, affected organ, locoregional arterial anatomy, and interventional radiologist skill. The success rate following treatment by interventional radiology is greater than 90%. The main complication is recanalization of the aneurysm, showing the importance of post-therapeutic monitoring, which should preferably be performed using MR imaging. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Gemmete, Joseph J; Toma, Ahmed K; Davagnanam, Indran; Robertson, Fergus; Brew, Stefan
Childhood intracranial aneurysms differ from those in the adult population in incidence and gender prevalence, cause, location, and clinical presentation. Endovascular treatment of pediatric aneurysms is the suggested approach because it offers both reconstructive and deconstructive techniques and a better clinical outcome compared with surgery; however, the long-term durability of endovascular treatment is still questionable, therefore long-term clinical and imaging follow-up is necessary. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of intracranial aneurysms in children are discussed, and data from endovascular treatments are presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mitsuhara, Takafumi; Sakamoto, Shigeyuki; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Kurisu, Kaoru
Fenestration of intracranial arteries is a rare anomaly, and is frequently associated with cerebral aneurysms. In this paper, we report rare kissing aneurysms associated with A1 fenestration. A 71-year-old woman presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Diagnostic digital subtraction angiography revealed two saccular aneurysms at the proximal junction of a fenestration and posterior aspect of the fenestration that appeared to be 'kissing' each other. Emergent endovascular coil embolization was performed. Kissing aneurysms associated with fenestration of the horizontal segment in the anterior cerebral artery are rare, and have not been reported. During treatment of such specific types of aneurysms by endovascular treatment, three-dimensional rotational digital subtraction angiography was very useful for deciding the appropriate working angles.
Kanamori, Fumiaki; Kawabata, Teppei; Muraoka, Shinsuke; Kojima, Takao; Watanabe, Tadashi; Hatano, Norikazu; Seki, Yukio
ABSTRACT Aneurysms arising from the distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) are very rare. When the parent artery is an AICA−posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) variant, occlusion of the artery, even distal to the meatal loop, leads to a significant area of cerebellar infarction. We report two cases of ruptured partially thrombosed distal AICA aneurysms. In both cases, the parent artery was an AICA−PICA variant. The aneurysms were clipped in one case and trapped following occipital artery (OA)−AICA anastomosis in another case. It is important to keep the OA as a donor artery for revascularization in the treatment of the AICA−PICA variant aneurysms, especially when the absence of intra-aneurysmal thrombus is not comfirmed preoperatively. PMID:28008208
Daou, Badih; Chalouhi, Nohra; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula; Rosenwasser, Robert H; Jabbour, Pascal
We report a woman who presented with an intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Her cerebral angiogram showed a middle cerebral artery (MCA) M1 occlusion with multiple collaterals supplying the distal MCA territory, compatible with moyamoya disease. Also, an associated 8 mm dysplastic distal aneurysm fed by a left-sided P2 perforator was seen, collateral from the posterior cerebral artery. The aneurysm was successfully occluded with Onyx (ev3 Endovascular, Plymouth, MN, USA) embolization. The woman had an uneventful postoperative course. Aneurysm formation in patients with moyamoya disease represents a major hemorrhagic risk. Several treatment strategies exist including endovascular and surgical approaches. Patients with moyamoya disease who present with aneurysmal intracerebral hemorrhage should be treated to prevent rebleeding. Onyx embolization can be an effective treatment of aneurysms that are associated with moyamoya disease and would otherwise be difficult to treat surgically.
Shin, S H; Choi, I S; Thomas, K; David, C A
Treatment of intracranial giant aneurysms presents is challenging. In the case of pediatric giant aneurysm, more challenges arise. We describe our experience with a 17-year-old pediatric patient who presented with severe headache. She was diagnosed as having a giant fusiform aneurysm at the right P1-P2-Pcom junction. The aneurysm was treated with superficial temporal artery-posterior cerebral artery bypass and subsequent coil embolization of the aneurysm with parent artery occlusion. The patient had an excellent outcome at one-year follow-up. Our case suggests a combined approach of surgical and endovascular management may yield a better outcome than surgery or endovascular management alone in the treatment of pediatric giant aneurysm.
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Costa, Sílvia; Costa, Alexandre; Pereira, Tiago; Maciel, Jorge
Visceral artery aneurysms (VAAs), unlike aortic aneurysms, are very rare, but are also a potentially lethal vascular disease. Jejunal artery aneurysms only account for less than 3% of VAAs, but have a 30% risk of rupture, with 20% death rate, presenting with only few and vague symptoms. We report the case of a 76-year-old man presenting at the emergency department (ED) with a crampy epigastric pain and vomiting. An ultrasound performed diagnosed free abdominal fluid and immediate CT scan diagnosed jejunal artery aneurysm spontaneously rupturing, followed by hypovolaemic shock. Emergent surgery was undertaken, and aneurysmectomy, followed by partial enterectomy with primary anastomosis were performed, because of segmentary jejunal ischaemia. The patient's recovery was unremarkable. High level of suspicion, rapid diagnosis capability and prompt surgical or endovascular intervention, as well as an effective teamwork in the ED are critical to avoid the devastating consequences of ruptured VAAs. PMID:23771962
... material, online resources and webinars. Learn More Raise Awareness Raise Awareness We work with the medical communities to provide ... In this role, Kevan, 29, will help raise awareness about brain aneurysms through attendance at select BAF ...
Chiriac, A; Poeată, I; Baldauf, J; Schroeder, H W
Nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage is a neurosurgical emergency characterized by the extravasation of blood into the spaces covering the central nervous system that are filled with cerebrospinal fluid. The leading cause of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage is rupture of an intracranial aneurysm, which accounts for about 80 percent of cases and has a high rate of death and complications. The management of aneurysmal SAH has changed significantly over the past few years. This change is mostly due to the demonstration of the superiority of early diagnosis, surgical clipping or endovascular embolization of ruptured aneurysms. This superiority derives from the relative safety of early aneurysm occlusion and the major threat of early rebleeding (approximately 25% in three weeks after SAH).
... US) : Ultrasound is a highly accurate way to measure the size of an aneurysm. A physician may also use a special technique called Doppler ultrasound to examine blood flow through the aorta. Occasionally the aorta may not ...
Mikami, Y; Kyogoku, M
Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is a distinct clinicopathological entity, characterized by: (1) clinical presentation, such as back pain, weight loss, and increased ESR, (2) patchy and/or diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, and (3) marked periaortic fibrosis resulting in thickening of the aneurysmal wall and occasional retroperitoneal fibrosis. Its pathogenesis is unknown, but some authors support the theory that IAAA is a subtype of atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm because of close relationship between IAAA and atherosclerotic change. In this article, we describe clinical and histological features of IAAA on the basis of the literature and our review of 6 cases of IAAA, emphasizing the similarity and difference between IAAA and atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm. Our review supports that marked lamellar fibrosis completely replacing the media and adventitia, patchy lymphocytic infiltration (mostly B cells) and endarteritis obliterans are characteristic features of IAAA.
Dupont, Stefan A; Wijdicks, Eelco F M; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Rabinstein, Alejandro A
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) accounts for ~5% of strokes, but causes high rates of morbidity and mortality and occurs at a relatively young age. The rupture of an intracranial aneurysm is the leading cause of nontraumatic SAH and will be the subject of this review. Rebleeding remains the most imminent danger until the aneurysm is secured (i.e., excluded from the cerebral circulation). Therefore, prompt aneurysm treatment is crucial to minimize this risk. Endovascular occlusion of the aneurysm with coils has been shown to be associated with better short- and long-term outcomes than surgical clipping in select patients. Yet, angiographic surveillance is necessary after endovascular treatment and retreatment with additional coiling may be required. Delayed cerebral vasospasm is the leading cause of brain damage once the aneurysm has been treated. Hemodynamic augmentation therapy remains the mainstay of medical treatment, but various agents are being tested as means to prevent or ameliorate vasospasm, including magnesium sulfate, statins, and an endothelin antagonist. Medically refractory vasospasm demands angioplasty of the affected vessel or intraarterial infusion of vasodilators. In this review, the authors provide an overview of the diagnosis and management of aneurysmal SAH with an emphasis on these main topics. © Thieme Medical Publishers.
Van Petersen, A; Meerwaldt, R; Geelkerken, R; Zeebregts, C
Visceral artery aneurysm (VAA) is a rare entity but increased use of abdominal imaging has led to an increased prevalence. Rupture is related to a high mortality rate. Open repair, endovascular treatment and laparoscopic techniques have been described as treatment options. In this systematic review we describe the surgical options for treating VAA. A literature search identified articles focussing on the key issues of visceral artery aneurysms and surgical options using the Pubmed and Cochrane databases. Case reports dominate the literature about VAA. Twenty-seven small case series and ten review articles have been published in the last 20 years concerning the surgical options for VAA. The evidence does not exceed level 3. Surgical treatment is dictated by both patient and aneurysm characteristics. Whether VAA should be treated largely depends upon age, gender, presence of hypertension (e.g. in renal aneurysm), aneurysm size and presentation. Aneurysm size and characteristics, anatomical location and presence of collateral circulation dictate the surgical option to be chosen. The mortality and morbidity rates after elective open repair are low. Literature about surgical options for treating VAA remains scarce. Only a few clinical trials have shown the possibilities and results of open surgical repair. In general, there is no consensus on the surgical treatment of VAA and the highest level of evidence is based upon expert opinions.
Wang, Anthony C; Gemmete, Joseph J; Keegan, Catherine E; Witt, Cordelie E; Muraszko, Karin M; Than, Khoi D; Maher, Cormac O
Roberts/SC phocomelia syndrome (RBS) is a rare but distinct genetic disorder with an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. It has been associated with microcephaly, craniofacial malformation, cavernous hemangioma, encephalocele, and hydrocephalus. There are no previously reported cases of RBS with intracranial aneurysms. The authors report on a patient with a history of RBS who presented with a spontaneous posterior fossa hemorrhage. Multiple small intracranial aneurysms were noted on a preoperative CT angiogram. The patient underwent emergency craniotomy for evacuation of the hemorrhage. A postoperative angiogram confirmed the presence of multiple, distal small intracranial aneurysms.
Genizi, Jacob; Srugo, Isaac; Isaac, Srugo; Attias, Dina; Dina, Attias; Ben-Sira, Liat; Liat, Ben-Sira; Braun, Jacob; Jacob, Braun; Bamberger, Ellen S; Ellen, Bamberger S; Margalit, Nevo; Nevo, Margalit; Constantini, Shlomi; Shlomi, Constantini
Cranial aneurysmal bone cysts are uncommon. Cranial aneurysmal bone cysts of the occipital bone are exceedingly rare. A 2-year-old toddler with this rare cyst presented with a large space-occupying lesion of the posterior fossa, with cerebellar tonsillar herniation. The patient experienced complete recovery after total excision of the lesion. We review the literature regarding this rare presentation, and discuss the origin, pathogenesis, pathologic features, imaging characteristics, and treatment of cranial aneurysmal bone cysts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tcbc-Rj, Rui Antônio Ferreira; Ferreira, Myriam Christina Lopes; Ferreira, Daniel Antônio Lopes; Ferreira, André Gustavo Lopes; Ramos, Flávia Oliveira
Splenic artery aneurysms - the most common visceral artery aneurysms - are found most often in multiparous women and in patients with portal hypertension. Indications for treatment of splenic artery aneurysm or pseudoaneurysm include specific symptoms, female gender and childbearing age, presence of portal hypertension, planned liver transplantation, a pseudoaneurysm of any size, and an aneurysm with a diameter of more than 2.5cm. Historically, the treatment of splenic artery aneurysm has been surgical ligation of the splenic artery, ligation of the aneurysm, or aneurysmectomy with or without splenectomy, depending on the aneurysm location. There are other percutaneous interventional techniques. The authors present a case of a splenic artery aneurysm in a 51-year-old woman, detected incidentally. RESUMO Aneurismas da artéria esplênica - os aneurismas arteriais viscerais mais comuns - são encontrados mais frequentemente em mulheres multíparas e em pacientes com hipertensão portal. As indicações para o seu tratamento incluem sintomas específicos, sexo feminino e idade fértil, presença de hipertensão portal, paciente em fila de transplante hepático, um pseudoaneurisma de qualquer tamanho, e um aneurisma com um diâmetro superior a 2,5cm. Historicamente, o tratamento do aneurisma da artéria esplênica tem sido a ligadura cirúrgica da artéria esplênica, a ligadura do aneurisma ou a aneurismectomia, com ou sem esplenectomia, dependendo do local do aneurisma. Existem outras técnicas intervencionistas percutâneas. Os autores apresentam o caso de um aneurisma de artéria esplênica em uma mulher de 51 anos de idade, diagnosticado incidentalmente.
Castro, Marcelo A.; Peloc, Nora L.; Putman, Christopher M.; Cebral, Juan R.
Intracranial aneurysms and artery stenosis are vascular diseases with different pathophysiological characteristics. However, although unusual, aneurysms may coexist in up to 5% of patients with stenotic plaque, according to a previous study. Another study showed that incidental detection of cerebral aneurysm in the same cerebral circulation as the stenotic plaque was less than 2%. Patients with concomitant carotid artery stenosis and unruptured intracranial aneurysms pose a difficult management decision for the physician. Case reports showed patients who died due to aneurysm rupture months after endarterectomy but before aneurysm clipping, while others did not show any change in the aneurysm after plaque removal, having optimum outcome after aneurysm coiling. The purpose of this study is to investigate the intraaneurysmal hemodynamic changes before and after treatment of stenotic plaque. Idealized models were constructed with different stenotic grade, distance and relative position to the aneurysm. Digital removal of the stenotic plaque was performed in the reconstructed model of a patient with both pathologies. Computational fluid dynamic simulations were performed using a finite element method approach. Blood velocity field and hemodynamic forces were recorded and analyzed. Changes in the flow patterns and wall shear stress values and distributions were observed in both ideal and image-based models. Detailed investigation of wall shear stress distributions in patients with both pathologies is required to make the best management decision.
Yamaguchi, Ryuhei; Ujiie, Hiroshi; Haida, Sayaka; Nakazawa, Nobuhiko; Hori, Tomokatsu
It has recently been shown that the aspect ratio (dome/neck) of an aneurysm correlates well with intraaneurysmal blood flow. Aneurysms with an aspect ratio larger than 1.6 carry a higher risk of rupture. We examined the effect of aspect ratio (AR) on intra-aneurysmal flow using experimental models. Flow visualization with particle imaging velocimetry and measurement of wall shear stress using laser Doppler anemometry were performed on three different aneurysm models: AR 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. Intraaneurysmal flow consists of inflow, circulation, and outflow. Rapid inflow impinged on the distal neck creating a stagnant point. Rapid flow and maximum wall shear stress were observed in the vicinity of the stagnant point. By changing the Reynold's number, the stagnant point moved. By increasing the AR of the aneurysm, vortices inside the aneurysm sac closed and very slow flow was observed, resulting in very low shear stress markedly at a Reynold's number of 250, compatible with the diastolic phase. In the aneurysm model AR 2.0, both rapid flow at the neck and vortices inside the aneurysm are sufficient to activate platelets, making a thrombus that may anchor on the dome where very slow flow takes place. Hemodynamics in aneurysms larger than AR 2.0 definitely contribute to thrombus formation.
Morales, Hernán G; Larrabide, Ignacio; Geers, Arjan J; Aguilar, Martha L; Frangi, Alejandro F
Endovascular coiling aims to isolate the aneurysm from blood circulation by altering hemodynamics inside the aneurysm and triggering blood coagulation. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques have the potential to predict the post-operative hemodynamics and to investigate the complex interaction between blood flow and coils. The purpose of this work is to study the influence of blood viscosity on hemodynamics in coiled aneurysms. Three image-based aneurysm models were used. Each case was virtually coiled with a packing density of around 30%. CFD simulations were performed in coiled and untreated aneurysm geometries using a Newtonian and a Non-Newtonian fluid models. Newtonian fluid slightly overestimates the intra-aneurysmal velocity inside the aneurysm before and after coiling. There were numerical differences between fluid models on velocity magnitudes in coiled simulations. Moreover, the non-Newtonian fluid model produces high viscosity (>0.007 [Pas]) at aneurysm fundus after coiling. Nonetheless, these local differences and high-viscous regions were not sufficient to alter the main flow patterns and velocity magnitudes before and after coiling. To evaluate the influence of coiling on intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics, the assumption of a Newtonian fluid can be used.
Rahmathulla, Gazanfar; Kamian, Kambiz
We present the case of a 55-year-old woman with diffuse adhesive arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa and cervicothoracic spine following posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). She underwent aneurysm clipping with subsequent gradual neurologic decline associated with sensory disturbances, gait ataxia, and spastic paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse adhesive arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa and cervicothoracic spine, syringobulbia, and multiple arachnoid cysts in the cervicothoracic spine along with syringohydromyelia. Early surgical intervention with microlysis of the adhesions and duraplasty at the clinically relevant levels resulted in clinical improvement. Although adhesive arachnoiditis, secondary arachnoid cysts, and cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities resulting in syrinx are rare following aneurysmal SAH, early recognition and appropriate intervention lead to good clinical outcomes. PMID:25083391
Rahmathulla, Gazanfar; Kamian, Kambiz
We present the case of a 55-year-old woman with diffuse adhesive arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa and cervicothoracic spine following posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). She underwent aneurysm clipping with subsequent gradual neurologic decline associated with sensory disturbances, gait ataxia, and spastic paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse adhesive arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa and cervicothoracic spine, syringobulbia, and multiple arachnoid cysts in the cervicothoracic spine along with syringohydromyelia. Early surgical intervention with microlysis of the adhesions and duraplasty at the clinically relevant levels resulted in clinical improvement. Although adhesive arachnoiditis, secondary arachnoid cysts, and cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities resulting in syrinx are rare following aneurysmal SAH, early recognition and appropriate intervention lead to good clinical outcomes.
Fiori, Roberto; Chiappa, Roberto; Gaspari, Eleonora; Simonetti, Giovanni
We report a case of a 21-year-old man with a popliteal venous aneurysm of the left popliteal fossa, with local symptoms and pain during palpation. Early diagnosis is fundamental in order to prevent the thromboembolic events or other major complications. Duplex scanning, Computed Tomography scanning, and Magnetic Resonance imaging are considered to be important non-invasive diagnostic methods for the diagnosis of PVA. The Angio Computed Tomography acquisition confirmed a 36 mm × 17 mm oval mass in the left popliteal fossa continuous with the popliteal veins. This lesion had presented contrast enhancement only in delayed acquisition (180 sec) and so appeared to be a true venous aneurysm and no arterial. The PVA was repaired surgically via a posterior approach to the popliteal fossa. A 4 × 2 aneurysm was identified. In the same time open tangential aneurysmectomy and lateral vein reconstruction were realised. This case is interesting because the Angio Computed Tomography study, in delayed acquisition, has allowed a correct diagnostic assessment of PVA and the surgical treatment. PMID:20224754
AAA - open; Repair - aortic aneurysm - open ... Open surgery to repair an AAA is sometimes done as an emergency procedure when there is bleeding inside your body from the aneurysm. You may have an ...
Walcott, Brian P; Reinshagen, Clemens; Stapleton, Christopher J; Choudhri, Omar; Rayz, Vitaliy; Saloner, David; Lawton, Michael T
Cerebral aneurysms are weakened blood vessel dilatations that can result in spontaneous, devastating hemorrhage events. Aneurysm treatment aims to reduce hemorrhage events, and strategies for complex aneurysms often require surgical bypass or endovascular stenting for blood flow diversion. Interventions that divert blood flow from their normal circulation patterns have the potential to result in unintentional ischemia. Recent developments in computational modeling and in vivo assessment of hemodynamics for cerebral aneurysm treatment have entered into clinical practice. Herein, we review how these techniques are currently utilized to improve risk stratification and treatment planning.
Chatterjee, Kshitij; Colaco, Brendon; Colaco, Clinton; Hellman, Michael; Meena, Nikhil
Rasmussen's aneurysm is an inflammatory pseudo-aneurysmal dilatation of a branch of pulmonary artery adjacent to a tuberculous cavity. Life threatening massive hemoptysis from the rupture of a Rasmussen's aneurysm is an uncommon yet life threatening complication of cavitary tuberculosis (TB). We present a case of a young woman who presented with low-grade fever and hemoptysis. Computed tomographic (CT) angiography showed biapical cavitary lesions and actively bleeding aneurysms involving pulmonary artery, which successfully underwent glue embolization. PMID:26744661
Noda, Kazuyuki; Fukae, Jiro; Fujishima, Kenji; Mori, Kentaro; Urabe, Takao; Hattori, Nobutaka; Okuma, Yasuyuki
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by acute severe headache with or without additional neurological symptoms and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction. Unruptured aneurysm has been reported in some cases with RCVS. We report a severe case of a 53-year-old woman with RCVS having an unruptured cerebral aneurysm and presenting as cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome, and cerebral infarction. She was successfully treated with corticosteroids and a calcium channel blocker and the aneurysm was clipped. Her various complications are due to the responsible vasoconstriction that started distally and progressed towards proximal arteries. This case demonstrates the spectrum of presentations of RCVS, a clinically complicated condition.
Petridis, Athanasios K; Kaschner, Marius; Cornelius, Jan F; Kamp, Marcel A; Tortora, Angelo; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Turowski, Bernd
With modern imaging modalities of the brain a significant number of unruptured aneurysms are detected. However, not every aneurysm is prone to rupture. Because treatment morbidity is about 10% it is crucial to identify unstable aneurysms for which treatment should be discussed. Recently, new imaging tools allow analysis of flow dynamics and wall stability have become available. It seems that they might provide additional data for better risk profiling. In this study we present a new imaging tool for analysis of flow dynamics, which calculates fluid velocity in an aneurysm (Phillips Electronics, N.V.). It may identify regions with high flow and calculate flow reduction after stenting of aneurysms. Contrast is injected with a stable injection speed of 2 mL/sec for 3 sec. Two clinical cases are illustrated. Velocity in aneurysms and areas of instability can be identified and calculated during angiography in real-time. After stenting and flow diverter deployment flow reduction in the internal carotid aneurysm was reduced by 60% and there was a reduction of about 65% in the posterior cerebral artery in the second case we are reporting. The dynamic flow software calculates the flow profile in the aneurysm immediately after contrast injection. It is a real-time, patient specific tool taking into account systole, diastole and flexibility of the vasculature. These factors are an improvement as compared to current models of computational flow dynamics. We think it is a highly efficient, user friendly tool. Further clinical studies are on their way.
Kim, Hak Jin; Lee, Sang Won; Lee, Tae Hong; Kim, Young Soo
We describe a case of a huge intramural hematoma in a thrombosed middle cerebral artery aneurysm. A 47-year-old female patient with liver cirrhosis and thrombocytopenia presented to the neurosurgical unit with a 5-day history of headache and cognitive dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography of the brain showed a thrombosed aneurysm located in the right middle cerebral artery with a posteriorly located huge intramural hematoma mimicking an intracerebral hematoma. Imaging studies and cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed no evidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography showed a partially thrombosed aneurysm at the origin of the right anterior temporal artery and an incidental aneurysm at the bifurcation of the right middle cerebral artery. Both aneurysms were embolized by coiling. After embolization, the thrombosed aneurysmal sac and intramural hematoma had decreased in size 4 days later and almost completely disappeared 8 months later. This is the first reported case of a nondissecting, nonfusiform aneurysm with a huge intramural hematoma, unlike that of a dissecting aneurysm.
Petridis, Athanasios K.; Kaschner, Marius; Cornelius, Jan F.; Kamp, Marcel A.; Tortora, Angelo; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Turowski, Bernd
With modern imaging modalities of the brain a significant number of unruptured aneurysms are detected. However, not every aneurysm is prone to rupture. Because treatment morbidity is about 10% it is crucial to identify unstable aneurysms for which treatment should be discussed. Recently, new imaging tools allow analysis of flow dynamics and wall stability have become available. It seems that they might provide additional data for better risk profiling. In this study we present a new imaging tool for analysis of flow dynamics, which calculates fluid velocity in an aneurysm (Phillips Electronics, N.V.). It may identify regions with high flow and calculate flow reduction after stenting of aneurysms. Contrast is injected with a stable injection speed of 2 mL/sec for 3 sec. Two clinical cases are illustrated. Velocity in aneurysms and areas of instability can be identified and calculated during angiography in real-time. After stenting and flow diverter deployment flow reduction in the internal carotid aneurysm was reduced by 60% and there was a reduction of about 65% in the posterior cerebral artery in the second case we are reporting. The dynamic flow software calculates the flow profile in the aneurysm immediately after contrast injection. It is a real-time, patient specific tool taking into account systole, diastole and flexibility of the vasculature. These factors are an improvement as compared to current models of computational flow dynamics. We think it is a highly efficient, user friendly tool. Further clinical studies are on their way. PMID:28839527
Wang, Yutang; Emeto, Theophilus I; Lee, James; Marshman, Laurence; Moran, Corey; Seto, Sai-wang; Golledge, Jonathan
Subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to rupture of an intracranial aneurysm is a highly lethal medical condition. Current management strategies for unruptured intracranial aneurysms involve radiological surveillance and neurosurgical or endovascular interventions. There is no pharmacological treatment available to decrease the risk of aneurysm rupture and subsequent subarachnoid hemorrhage. There is growing interest in the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysm focused on the development of drug therapies to decrease the incidence of aneurysm rupture. The study of rodent models of intracranial aneurysms has the potential to improve our understanding of intracranial aneurysm development and progression. This review summarizes current mouse models of intact and ruptured intracranial aneurysms and discusses the relevance of these models to human intracranial aneurysms. The article also reviews the importance of these models in investigating the molecular mechanisms involved in the disease. Finally, potential pharmaceutical targets for intracranial aneurysm suggested by previous studies are discussed. Examples of potential drug targets include matrix metalloproteinases, stromal cell-derived factor-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, the renin-angiotensin system and the β-estrogen receptor. An agreed clear, precise and reproducible definition of what constitutes an aneurysm in the models would assist in their use to better understand the pathology of intracranial aneurysm and applying findings to patients.
Jeong, Young Ha; Koo, Youn Moo; Choi, Jong Wook; Whang, Kum; Hu, Chul; Cho, Sung Min
Giant serpentine aneurysms are uncommon types of aneurysmal disease and have angiographically authentic features. We report a case of a 44-year-old male with headache and seizure. He presented a giant serpentine aneurysm arising from the middle cerebral artery (MCA). It was a large intracranial aneurysm thrombosed as a mass-like lesion while it maintained its outflow drainage into the distal MCA branches. The balloon occlusion test (BOT) was performed to test the tolerance of temporary collateral circulation. Following routine cerebral angiography, we performed an endovascular embolization on the proximal artery of MCA. He was discharged from the hospital with alert mental status and mild Gerstmann syndrome. The short-term follow-up imaging studies showed the decreased mass effect, and the patient presented an improved Gerstmann syndrome. After a careful evaluation of BOT, an endovascular embolization can be one of the powerful therapeutic instruments for giant serpentine aneurysm. PMID:27847772
Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Goodin, Sean; Charbel, Fady T.; Alaraj, Ali
Background: Management of aneurysms associated with deep collateral vessels in moyamoya disease is challenging both from an endovascular and a surgical standpoint. Difficulties with access or localization, and compromise of the collateral circulation with subsequent ischemia are the primary concerns, making direct obliteration potentially unfeasible or risky. Alternatively, superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery bypass is another potential strategy for resolution of these aneurysms. Case Description: Presented are the findings and management for a patient with moyamoya disease and bilateral deep collateral vessel aneurysms, successfully treated with endovascular obliteration following a right-sided hemorrhage and subsequently with bypass for an unruptured but growing contralateral aneurysm. Conclusions: A rationale and approach to management is outlined, as derived from review of the current literature and the illustrative case with bilateral collateral vessel aneurysms. PMID:25071939
Wanhainen, Anders; Mani, Kevin; Golledge, Jonathan
The natural course of many abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is to gradually expand and eventually rupture and monitoring the disease progression is essential to their management. In this publication, we review surrogate markers of AAA progression. AAA diameter remains the most widely used and important marker of AAA growth. Standardized reporting of reproducible methods of measuring AAA diameter is essential. Newer imaging assessments, such as volume measurements, biomechanical analyses, and functional and molecular imaging, as well as circulating biomarkers, have potential to add important information about AAA progression. Currently, however, there is insufficient evidence to recommend their routine use in clinical practice.
Siebenmann, R; Schneider, K; von Segesser, L; Turina, M
348 cases of abdominal aortic aneurysm were reviewed for typical features of inflammatory aneurysm (IAAA) (marked thickening of aneurysm wall, retroperitoneal fibrosis and rigid adherence of adjacent structures). IAAA was present in 15 cases (14 male, 1 female). When compared with patients who had ordinary aneurysms, significantly more patients complained of back or abdominal pain (p less than 0.01). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was highly elevated. Diagnosis was established in 7 of 10 computed tomographies. 2 patients underwent emergency repair for ruptured aneurysm. Unilateral ureteral obstruction was present in 4 cases and bilateral in 1. Repair of IAAA was performed by a modified technique. Histological examination revealed thickening of the aortic wall, mainly of the adventitial layer, infiltrated by plasma cells and lymphocytes. One 71-year-old patient operated on for rupture of IAAA died early, and another 78-year-old patient after 5 1/2 months. Control computed tomographies revealed spontaneous regression of inflammatory infiltration after repair. Equally, hydronephrosis due to ureteral obstruction could be shown to disappear or at least to decrease. IAAA can be diagnosed by computed tomography with high sensitivity. Repair involves low risk, but modification of technique is necessary. The etiology of IAAA remains unclear.
Ziaja, K; Sedlak, L; Urbanek, T; Kostyra, J; Ludyga, T
The reported incidence of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is from 2% to 14% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and the etiology of this disease is still discussed--according to the literature several pathogenic theories have been proposed. From 1992 to 1997 32 patients with IAAA were operated on. The patients were mostly symptomatic--abdominal pain was present in 68.75% cases, back pain in 31.25%, fever in 12.5% and weight loss in 6.25% of the operated patients. In all the patients ultrasound examination was performed, in 4 patients CT and in 3 cases urography. All the patients were operated on and characteristic signs of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm like: thickened aortic wall, perianeurysmal infiltration or retroperitoneal fibrosis with involvement of retroperitoneal structures were found. In all cases surgery was performed using transperitoneal approach; in three cases intraoperatively contiguous abdominal organs were injured, which was connected with their involvement into periaortic inflammation. In 4 cases clamping of the aorta was done at the level of the diaphragmatic hiatus. 3 patients (9.37%) died (one patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm). Authors present diagnostic procedures and the differences in the surgical tactic, emphasizing the necessity of the surgical therapy in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.
van Rijn, M J E; Ten Raa, S; Hendriks, J M; Verhagen, H J M
True visceral artery aneurysms (VAAs) are a rare entity with an incidence of 0.01-2%. The risk of rupture varies amongst the different types of VAAs and is higher for pseudo aneurysms compared with true aneurysms. Size, growth, symptoms, underlying disease, pregnancy and liver transplantation have all been associated with increased risk of rupture. Mortality rates after rupture are around 25%. The splenic artery is most commonly affected and the etiology is predominantly atherosclerosis. Open repair can be done by simple ligation or reconstruction of the artery, while endovascular options include embolization or using a stent graft. Location, collateral circulation and medical condition of the patient should all be taken into account when an intervention is planned. We compared types of treatment and searched for risk factors for rupture but unfortunately, the level of evidence found in the literature is low. Therefore, deciding when and how to treat a patient with a VAA based on the current literature, remains challenging for clinicians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mounayer, Charbel; Seruga, Tomaz
Abstract Background Intra-arterial treatment of aneurysms by redirecting blood flow is a newer method. The redirection is based on a significantly more densely braided wire stent. The stent wall keeps the blood in the lumen of the stent and slows down the turbulent flow in the aneurysms. Stagnation of blood in the aneurysm sac leads to the formation of thrombus and subsequent exclusion of the aneurysm from the circulation. The aim of the study was to evaluate flow diverter device Pipeline for broad neck and giant aneurysm treatment. Methods Fifteen patients with discovered aneurysm of the internal carotid artery were treated between November 2010 and February 2014. The majority of aneurysms of the internal carotid artery were located intradural at the ophthalmic part of the artery. The patients were treated using a flow diverter device Pipeline, which was placed over the aneurysm neck. Treatment success was assessed clinically and angiographically using O’Kelly Marotta scale. Results Control angiography immediately after the release of the stent showed stagnation of the blood flow in the aneurysm sac. In none of the patients procedural and periprocedural complications were observed. 6 months after the procedure, control CT or MR angiography showed in almost all cases exclusion of the aneurysm from the circulation and normal blood flow in the treated artery. Neurological status six months after the procedure was normal in all patients. Conclusions Treatment of aneurysms with flow diverter Pipeline device is a safe and significantly less time consuming method in comparison with standard techniques. This new method is a promising approach in treatment of broad neck aneurysms. PMID:27904445
Alnæs, Martin Sandve; Mardal, Kent-Andre; Bakke, Søren; Sorteberg, Angelika
Therapeutic parent artery flow reversal is a treatment option for giant, partially thrombosed basilar tip aneurysms. The effectiveness of this treatment has been variable and not yet studied by applying computational fluid dynamics. Computed tomography images and blood flow velocities acquired with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography were obtained prior to and after bilateral endovascular vertebral artery occlusion for a giant basilar tip aneurysm. Patient-specific geometries and velocity waveforms were used in computational fluid dynamics simulations in order to determine the velocity and wall shear stress changes induced by treatment. Therapeutic parent artery flow reversal lead to a dramatic increase in aneurysm inflow and wall shear stress (30 to 170 Pa) resulting in an increase in intra-aneurysmal circulation. The enlargement of the circulated area within the aneurysm led to a re-normalization of the wall shear stress and the aneurysm remained stable for more than 8 years thereafter. Therapeutic parent artery flow reversal can lead to unintended, potentially harmful changes in aneurysm inflow which can be quantified and possibly predicted by applying computational fluid dynamics. © The Author(s) 2015.
Giannini, Sandro; Buda, Roberto; Mosca, Massimiliano; Parma, Alessandro; Di Caprio, Francesco
Posterior ankle impingement is a common cause of chronic ankle pain and results from compression of bony or soft tissue structures during ankle plantar flexion. Bony impingement is most commonly related to an os trigonum or prominent trigonal process. Posteromedial soft tissue impingement generally arises from an inversion injury, with compression of the posterior tibiotalar ligament between the medial malleolus and talus. Posterolateral soft tissue impingement is caused by an accessory ligament, the posterior intermalleolar ligament, which spans the posterior ankle between the posterior tibiofibular and posterior talofibular ligaments. Finally, anomalous muscles have also been described as a cause of posterior impingement.
MacVicar, Stephen; Huynh, Sophia; Rossmann, Jenn
Rupture of intracranial aneurysms is the leading cause of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage, with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Numerical simulations of flow in a variety of two-dimensional and three-dimensional saccular aneurysm geometries were performed to evaluate possible sites and mechanisms for aneurysm growth and rupture. The governing equations were solved in their finite volume formulation for both steady and pulsatile flows. Recirculation zones and secondary flows were observed in aneurysms and arteries. Regions of elevated and oscillating shear stress were observed, often at the aneurysm's distal shoulder. The influence of several geometric factors, including vessel curvature, branching angle, and aneurysm shape, on flow patterns and fluid mechanical forces was studied, with the goal of assessing the risks posed by given aneurysm geometry.
Rizzo, M; Dellaero, D T; Harrelson, J M; Scully, S P
Aneurysmal bone cysts are benign primary or secondary lesions that commonly arise in long bones and often before skeletal maturity. Little has been written about aneurysmal bone cysts that abut the physeal plate. The records of 15 patients with juxtaphyseal aneurysmal bone cysts were reviewed. Fourteen of the patients were referred with abnormal radiographs after evaluation for pain in the affected limb. One patient presented with abnormal radiographs after fracture about the aneurysmal bone cyst. None of the patients had evidence of growth plate disruption. The children's ages ranged from 2 to 14 years, with a mean of 9.8 years. There were 10 boys and five girls. Lesion locations included: six in the proximal tibia, three in the distal fibula, two in the distal tibia, two in the proximal femur, one in the distal femur, and one in the distal radius. All of the lesions abutted the physeal plate and fell into one of the types in Campanacci's classification of juxtaphyseal aneurysmal bone cysts. Three lesions were classified as Type 1, eight were Type 2, and four were Type 3. This study included no cases of Type 4 or 5 lesions. Treatment of all lesions consisted of excision, curettage, and bone grafting with care taken to preserve the growth plate. Adjunctive cauterization was performed in two cases. There were no incidences of postoperative physeal plate arrest. Overgrowth of the fibula occurred in one patient. Three patients experienced recurrent lesions. One of the children underwent repeat curettage and bone grafting with no additional recurrence. In the other two children with recurrence, the lesion had grown away from the physeal plate while remaining static in size and asymptomatic. Based on this study, juxtaphyseal aneurysmal bone cysts may be treated satisfactorily with intralesional surgery and bone grafting with expectation of normal physeal growth.
Passerini, Tiziano; Veneziani, Alessandro; Sangalli, Laura; Secchi, Piercesare; Vantini, Simone
In cerebral blood circulation, the interplay of arterial geometrical features and flow dynamics is thought to play a significant role in the development of aneurysms. In the framework of the Aneurisk project, patient-specific morphology reconstructions were conducted with the open-source software VMTK (www.vmtk.org) on a set of computational angiography images provided by Ospedale Niguarda (Milano, Italy). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed with a software based on the library LifeV (www.lifev.org). The joint statistical analysis of geometries and simulations highlights the possible association of certain spatial patterns of radius, curvature and shear load along the Internal Carotid Artery (ICA) with the presence, position and previous event of rupture of an aneurysm in the entire cerebral vasculature. Moreover, some possible landmarks are identified to be monitored for the assessment of a Potential Rupture Risk Index.
The aneurysms of the Basilar Artery apex (ABA) are not very common. My personal experience derives from having performed surgery on a number of 3340 patients with cerebral aneurysms at the Department of Vascular Neurosurgery II in Bucharest between 1979 and 2010. In 234 (7%) of the aneurysms they were located in the posterior vasculature. In 146 patients, representing 4.37% of the total number of patients with cerebral aneurysms and 62.39% of those with aneurysms of posterior vasculature, the location was in the basilar artery apex. The mean age of the 146 patients with aneurysms of the basilar artery apex (ABA) was 45.2 years, varying between 34 and 71 years old. Most cases (69 -47.26%) were in the 41-50 years age group. Aneurysms were found in 68 males (46.57%) and 78 females (53.42%) suggesting a slight predominance in female patients. The main reason for hospitalization was subarachnoid haemorrhage. There were four reports of patients having three episodes of subarachnoid bleeding in the three months preceding the surgery. The mean time between the last subarachnoid bleeding and the hospital admission was 26 days, ranging between 1 and 62 days. On admission three patients were in a severe general and neurological state (Hunt IV and V, respectively). The diagnostic assessment for those patients started with computer tomography (CT) followed by brain angiogram for the four main vessels. The main challenges for the surgical treatment of such lesions are due to the complex vascular anatomy of the basilar artery apex, to the direct vicinity of these aneurysms with the base of the skull and with vital neural structures in the interpeduncular fossa as well as due to difficulties in gaining proximal control over them. The post-surgical evolution was excellent and good in 131 (89.72%) of patients, unsatisfactory in 8 patients (5.48%), while 8 patients (5.48%) died. Three of the 8 patients marked by an unsatisfactory evolution presented with right-side hemiballismus and
Marder, Carrie P; Narla, Vinod; Fink, James R; Tozer Fink, Kathleen R
Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) typically prompts a search for an underlying ruptured saccular aneurysm, which is the most common nontraumatic cause. Depending on the clinical presentation and pattern of SAH, the differential diagnosis may include a diverse group of causes other than aneurysm rupture. For the purposes of this review, we classify SAH into three main patterns, defined by the distribution of blood on unenhanced CT: diffuse, perimesencephalic, and convexal. The epicenter of the hemorrhage further refines the differential diagnosis and guides subsequent imaging. Additionally, we review multiple clinical conditions that can simulate the appearance of SAH on CT or MRI, an imaging artifact known as pseudo-SAH.
Tripathy, L N; Singh, S N
The incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage from intracranial aneurysms in the paediatric age group is extremely rare. Interestingly, occurrence of vasospasm has been reported to be less in comparison to the adults. Both coiling and clipping have been advocated in selected cases. Because of the thinness of the wall of the arteries, utmost care should be taken while handling these arteries during surgery. The overall results of surgery in children have been reported to be better than their adult counterparts. We present four such cases from our own experience. All these children were operated upon, where the solitary aneurysm in each case was clipped and all of them made a good recovery.
Peruzzotti-Jametti, Luca; Fanelli, Giovanna; Simionato, Franco; Chiesa, Roberto; Rinaldi, Enrico; Comi, Giancarlo; Sessa, Maria
Background. Extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms are a rare cause of embolic stroke; surgical and endovascular therapy options are debated and long-term complication may occur. Case Report. A 53-year-old man affected by neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) came to our attention for recurrent vertebrobasilar embolic strokes, caused by a primary giant, partially thrombosed, fusiform aneurysm of the left extracranial vertebral artery. The aneurysm was treated by endovascular approach through deposition of Guglielmi Detachable Coils in the proximal segment of the left vertebral artery. Six years later the patient presented stroke recurrence. Cerebral angiography and Color Doppler Ultrasound well characterized the unique hemodynamic condition developed over the years responsible for the new embolic event: the aneurysm had been revascularized from its distal portion by reverse blood flow coming from the patent vertebrobasilar axis. A biphasic Doppler signal in the left vertebral artery revealed a peculiar behavior of the blood flow, alternately directed to the aneurysm and backwards to the basilar artery. Surgical ligation of the distal left vertebral artery and excision of the aneurysm were thus performed. Conclusion. This is the first described case of NF1-associated extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm presenting with recurrent embolic stroke. Complete exclusion of the aneurysm from the blood circulation is advisable to achieve full resolution of the embolic source. PMID:28168068
Castro, MA; Putman, CM; Sheridan, M; Cebral, JR
Background and Purpose The purpose of this study is to characterize the different flow types present at anterior communicating artery aneurysms and investigate possible associations with rupture. Methods Patient-specific computational models of 26 anterior communicating artery aneurysms were constructed from 3D rotational angiography images. Bilateral images were acquired in 15 patients who had both A1 segments of the anterior cerebral arteries and models of the whole anterior circulation were created by fusing the reconstructed left and right arterial trees. Computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed under pulsatile flow conditions measured on a healthy subject. Visualizations of flow velocity, instantaneous streamlines, and wall shear stress were performed. These were analyzed for flow patterns, size of the impaction zone, and peak wall shear stress (WSS) and then correlations made with prior history of rupture. Results Aneurysms with small impaction zones were more likely to have ruptured than those with large impaction zones (83% vs. 63%). Maximum intra-aneurysmal WSS (MWSS) for the unruptured aneurysms ranged from 10 to 230 dyn/cm2 (mean 114 dyn/cm2) compared with ruptured aneurysms from 35–1500 dyn/cm2 (mean 271 dyn/cm2). This difference in MWSS was statistically significant at 90% confidence levels (p=0.10). Conclusions Aneurysms with small impaction zones, higher flow rates entering the aneurysm, and elevated maximum wall shear stress are associated with a clinical history of previous rupture. PMID:19131411
Grinberg, Leopold; Fedosov, Dmitry A; Karniadakis, George Em
Cardiovascular pathologies, such as a brain aneurysm, are affected by the global blood circulation as well as by the local microrheology. Hence, developing computational models for such cases requires the coupling of disparate spatial and temporal scales often governed by diverse mathematical descriptions, e.g., by partial differential equations (continuum) and ordinary differential equations for discrete particles (atomistic). However, interfacing atomistic-based with continuum-based domain discretizations is a challenging problem that requires both mathematical and computational advances. We present here a hybrid methodology that enabled us to perform the first multi-scale simulations of platelet depositions on the wall of a brain aneurysm. The large scale flow features in the intracranial network are accurately resolved by using the high-order spectral element Navier-Stokes solver εκαr . The blood rheology inside the aneurysm is modeled using a coarse-grained stochastic molecular dynamics approach (the dissipative particle dynamics method) implemented in the parallel code LAMMPS. The continuum and atomistic domains overlap with interface conditions provided by effective forces computed adaptively to ensure continuity of states across the interface boundary. A two-way interaction is allowed with the time-evolving boundary of the (deposited) platelet clusters tracked by an immersed boundary method. The corresponding heterogeneous solvers ( εκαr and LAMMPS) are linked together by a computational multilevel message passing interface that facilitates modularity and high parallel efficiency. Results of multiscale simulations of clot formation inside the aneurysm in a patient-specific arterial tree are presented. We also discuss the computational challenges involved and present scalability results of our coupled solver on up to 300K computer processors. Validation of such coupled atomistic-continuum models is a main open issue that has to be addressed in future
Grinberg, Leopold; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Karniadakis, George Em
Cardiovascular pathologies, such as a brain aneurysm, are affected by the global blood circulation as well as by the local microrheology. Hence, developing computational models for such cases requires the coupling of disparate spatial and temporal scales often governed by diverse mathematical descriptions, e.g., by partial differential equations (continuum) and ordinary differential equations for discrete particles (atomistic). However, interfacing atomistic-based with continuum-based domain discretizations is a challenging problem that requires both mathematical and computational advances. We present here a hybrid methodology that enabled us to perform the first multiscale simulations of platelet depositions on the wall of a brain aneurysm. The large scale flow features in the intracranial network are accurately resolved by using the high-order spectral element Navier–Stokes solver NεκTαr. The blood rheology inside the aneurysm is modeled using a coarse-grained stochastic molecular dynamics approach (the dissipative particle dynamics method) implemented in the parallel code LAMMPS. The continuum and atomistic domains overlap with interface conditions provided by effective forces computed adaptively to ensure continuity of states across the interface boundary. A two-way interaction is allowed with the time-evolving boundary of the (deposited) platelet clusters tracked by an immersed boundary method. The corresponding heterogeneous solvers (NεκTαr and LAMMPS) are linked together by a computational multilevel message passing interface that facilitates modularity and high parallel efficiency. Results of multiscale simulations of clot formation inside the aneurysm in a patient-specific arterial tree are presented. We also discuss the computational challenges involved and present scalability results of our coupled solver on up to 300 K computer processors. Validation of such coupled atomistic-continuum models is a main open issue that has to be addressed in
Grinberg, Leopold; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Karniadakis, George Em
Cardiovascular pathologies, such as a brain aneurysm, are affected by the global blood circulation as well as by the local microrheology. Hence, developing computational models for such cases requires the coupling of disparate spatial and temporal scales often governed by diverse mathematical descriptions, e.g., by partial differential equations (continuum) and ordinary differential equations for discrete particles (atomistic). However, interfacing atomistic-based with continuum-based domain discretizations is a challenging problem that requires both mathematical and computational advances. We present here a hybrid methodology that enabled us to perform the first multi-scale simulations of platelet depositions on the wall of a brain aneurysm. The large scale flow features in the intracranial network are accurately resolved by using the high-order spectral element Navier-Stokes solver εκ αr. The blood rheology inside the aneurysm is modeled using a coarse-grained stochastic molecular dynamics approach (the dissipative particle dynamics method) implemented in the parallel code LAMMPS. The continuum and atomistic domains overlap with interface conditions provided by effective forces computed adaptively to ensure continuity of states across the interface boundary. A two-way interaction is allowed with the time-evolving boundary of the (deposited) platelet clusters tracked by an immersed boundary method. The corresponding heterogeneous solvers ( εκ αr and LAMMPS) are linked together by a computational multilevel message passing interface that facilitates modularity and high parallel efficiency. Results of multiscale simulations of clot formation inside the aneurysm in a patient-specific arterial tree are presented. We also discuss the computational challenges involved and present scalability results of our coupled solver on up to 300K computer processors. Validation of such coupled atomistic-continuum models is a main open issue that has to be addressed in future
Grinberg, Leopold; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Karniadakis, George Em
Cardiovascular pathologies, such as a brain aneurysm, are affected by the global blood circulation as well as by the local microrheology. Hence, developing computational models for such cases requires the coupling of disparate spatial and temporal scales often governed by diverse mathematical descriptions, e.g., by partial differential equations (continuum) and ordinary differential equations for discrete particles (atomistic). However, interfacing atomistic-based with continuum-based domain discretizations is a challenging problem that requires both mathematical and computational advances. We present here a hybrid methodology that enabled us to perform the first multiscale simulations of platelet depositions on the wall of a brain aneurysm. The large scale flow features in the intracranial network are accurately resolved by using the high-order spectral element Navier-Stokes solver NɛκTαr. The blood rheology inside the aneurysm is modeled using a coarse-grained stochastic molecular dynamics approach (the dissipative particle dynamics method) implemented in the parallel code LAMMPS. The continuum and atomistic domains overlap with interface conditions provided by effective forces computed adaptively to ensure continuity of states across the interface boundary. A two-way interaction is allowed with the time-evolving boundary of the (deposited) platelet clusters tracked by an immersed boundary method. The corresponding heterogeneous solvers (NɛκTαr and LAMMPS) are linked together by a computational multilevel message passing interface that facilitates modularity and high parallel efficiency. Results of multiscale simulations of clot formation inside the aneurysm in a patient-specific arterial tree are presented. We also discuss the computational challenges involved and present scalability results of our coupled solver on up to 300 K computer processors. Validation of such coupled atomistic-continuum models is a main open issue that has to be addressed in future
Gaberel, T; Rochey, A; di Palma, C; Lucas, F; Touze, E; Emery, E
Osteogenesis imperfecta is an inherited connective tissue disorder that causes bone fragility. Vascular complications have been described, but only few cases of ruptured intracranial aneurysm have been reported. We first described 2 familial cases of ruptured intracranial aneurysm and then conducted a systematic review of the literature. A mother and her daughter with a typical history of osteogenesis imperfecta presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage, which was related to a posterior communicating artery aneurysm in both cases. The mother had early rebleeding and died. The aneurysm was excluded by coiling in the daughter. Despite occurrence of hydrocephalus and delayed cerebral ischemia, she had an excellent functional outcome. A systematic review of the literature identified seven additional cases. None of the cases were in fact familial. All patients had a previous medical history of multiple fractures. Seven aneurysms were resolved, three by surgical clipping and four by endovascular procedure. No periprocedural complication was reported. One patient died prematurely and 6 experienced good functional outcome. We report the first familial cases of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in osteogenesis imperfecta patients. Intracranial aneurysms are probably linked to a collagen pathology, which is at the origin of osteogenesis imperfecta. In cases of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in an osteogenesis imperfecta family, intracranial aneurysm screenings in the relatives showing osteogenesis imperfecta should be considered. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Krylov, V V; Lemenev, V L; Dashyan, V G; Lukyanchikov, V A; Tokarev, A S; Nakhabin, O Yu; Polunina, N A; Senko, I V; Dalibaldyan, V A; Grigorieva, E V; Klimov, A B; Ryabukhin, V E
Surgical revascularization of the brain is one of the most important trends in the development of neurosurgery. Restoration of adequate blood flow through pre- and intracerebral arteries promotes prevention and treatment of ischaemic lesions of the brain in various pathology. The present work was aimed at analysing the experience gained in performing revascularizing operations in patients with cerebral aneurysms at the department of neurosurgery. The authors analysed therapeutic outcomes in a total of 45 patients presenting with giant and complex aneurysms of cerebral arteries and treated from 2009 to 2014. Of the 45 patients with giant and complex aneurysms of cerebral arteries, 31 (68.8%) patients underwent open microsurgical interventions (including 10 patients with the use of different variants of revascularizing operation) and 14 (31.2%) patients were subjected to endovascular exclusion of the aneurysm from the blood flow. It was shown that performing revascularizing operations in patients with complex and giant aneurysms of cerebral arteries makes it possible to compensate circulation in the interested arterial basin and to obtain good functional results.
Ding, YongHong; Dai, Daying; Kallmes, David F.; Schroeder, Dana; Kealey, Colin P.; Gupta, Vikas; Johnson, A. David; Kadirvel, Ramanathan
Purpose Thin Film Nitinol (TFN) can be processed to produce a thin microporous sheet with low percent metal coverage (<20%) and high pore density (~70 pores/mm2) for flow diversion. We present in vivo results from treatment of experimental rabbit aneurysms using a TFN-based flow diversion device. Materials and Methods Nineteen aneurysms in the rabbit elastase aneurysm model were treated with a single TFN flow diverter. Devices were also placed over 17 lumbar arteries to model peri-aneurysmal branch arteries of the intracranial circulation. Angiography was performed at 2 weeks (n=7), 1 month (n=8) and 3 months (n=4) immediately before sacrifice. Aneurysm occlusion was graded on a 3-point scale (Grade 1, complete occlusion; Grade 2, near-complete occlusion; Grade 3, incomplete occlusion). Toluidine blue staining was used for histologic evaluation. En face CD31 immunofluorescent staining was performed to quantify neck endothelialization. Results Markedly reduced intra-aneurysmal flow was observed on angiography immediately after device placement in all aneurysms. Grade 1 or 2 occlusion was noted in four (57%) aneurysms at 2-week, in six (75%) aneurysms at 4-week and in three (75%) aneurysms at 12-week follow-up. All 17 lumbar arteries were patent. CD31 staining showed that 75 ± 16% of the aneurysm neck region was endothelialized. Histopathology demonstrated incorporation of the TFN flow diverter into the vessel wall and no evidence of excessive neointimal hyperplasia. Conclusion In this rabbit model, the TFN flow diverter achieved high rates of aneurysm occlusion and promoted tissue in-growth and aneurysm neck healing, even early after implantation. PMID:26494695
Zhang, Jifang; Wang, Donghai; Li, Xingang
Recent advances in neuroradiological techniques have increasingly improved the diagnosis rate for very small aneurysms, particularly with the widespread use of three-dimensional cerebral angiography. However, the treatment of very small aneurysms remains a considerable challenge for neurosurgeons. Endovascular coiling has emerged as a potential treatment option for intracranial aneurysms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Solitaire AB stent-assisted coiling embolization for the treatment of ruptured very small intracranial aneurysms. This retrospective study included nine consecutive patients with ruptured very small intracranial aneurysms (≤3 mm) that underwent Solitaire AB stent-assisted coiling embolization. The aneurysms were located in the ophthalmic branch of the internal carotid artery (n=2), the posterior communicating branch of the internal carotid artery (n=4), the top of the basilar artery (n=1) and the middle cerebral artery (n=2). Solitaire AB stents were successfully implanted in all nine patients. Of the nice individuals, six patients exhibited complete occlusion at Raymond grade I and three patients exhibited occlusion at Raymond grade II. No aneurysm rupture was observed during the surgery. During the follow-up period of 8-13 months, no intracranial hemorrhage occurred. A total of seven patients underwent follow-up digital subtraction angiography at 5-10 months post-intervention. No recurrence of the aneurysms and no stenosis or occlusion of the parent arteries was observed. Therefore, Solitaire AB stent-assisted coil embolization was demonstrated to be a safe and effective treatment for ruptured very small intracranial aneurysms. The long-term efficacy of this technique may be improved by increasing the packing density around the aneurysmal neck and improving the hemodynamics.
Pierot, L; Biondi, A; Narata, A-P; Mihalea, C; Januel, A-C; Metaxas, G; Bibi, R; Caroff, J; Soize, S; Cognard, C; Spelle, L; Herbreteau, D
Flow disruption with the WEB device is an innovative technique for the endovascular treatment of wide neck bifurcation aneurysms. Good clinical practice trials have shown high safety of this treatment with good efficacy. Technical developments (single layer devices and smaller microcatheters) facilitate the treatment, potentially leading to enlargement of indications. This series is collecting aneurysms in "atypical" locations for WEB treatment and analyzing safety and efficacy of this treatment. In each participating center, patients with aneurysms treated with WEB were prospectively included in a local database. Patients treated for aneurysms in "atypical" locations were extracted. Patient and aneurysm characteristics, intraoperative complications, and anatomical results at the end of the procedure and at last follow-up were collected and analyzed. Five French neurointerventional centers included 20 patients with 20 aneurysms in "atypical" locations for WEB treatment treated with WEB. Aneurysm locations were ICA carotid-ophthalmic in 9 aneurysms (45.0%), ICA posterior communicating in 4 (20.0%), Pericallosal artery in 5 (25.0%), and basilar artery between P1 and superior cerebellar artery in 2 (10.0%). There were no complications (thromboembolic or intraoperative rupture) in this series. At follow-up (mean: 7.4 months), adequate occlusion was obtained in 100.0% of aneurysms. This series confirms that it is possible to enlarge indications of WEB treatment to "atypical" locations with good safety and efficacy. These data have to be confirmed in large prospective series. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Kinouchi, Hiroyuki; Futawatari, Katsuya; Mizoi, Kazuo; Higashiyama, Naoki; Kojima, Hisashi; Sakamoto, Tetsuya
A 47-year-old man presented with a superior hypophyseal artery aneurysm and an ipsilateral posterior communicating artery aneurysm. Both lesions were successfully clipped without removal of the anterior clinoid process or retraction of the optic nerve by using endoscopic guidance. The endoscope was introduced into the prechiasmatic cistern and provided a clear visual field around the aneurysm that could not be seen via the operating microscope. The endoscope was useful in the identification of the medially projecting lesion and the small perforating branches of the ophthalmic segment of the internal carotid artery. A fenestrated clip could be introduced around the neck of the aneurysm and placed in the best position under endoscopic guidance. Endoscopy-assisted clipping is potentially a very useful procedure for aneurysm surgery.
We describe a technique to clip a large internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm via a retrograde suction decompression (RSD). A large aneurysm in the right distal ICA involving the bifurcation region measuring 1.2×1.1×0.7 cm with posterior projection was managed with assisted RSD technique. The anterior choroidal artery emerged from the side wall of the aneurysm. An Inahara shunt was inserted into the ICA with neck dissection, and RSD was applied after completely clipping the aneurysm. RSD with an Inahara carotid shunt is useful for complete visualization of the aneurysm, including its surrounding structures, and for proximal control of the parent vessels, subsequently achieving satisfactory clip placement. PMID:28120578
Verta, M J; Dean, R H; Yao, J S; Conn, J; Mehn, W H; Bergan, J J
Experience with four aneurysms of the pancreaticoduodenal artery is reviewed and compared to the reported experience of 19 other cases. In view of the common presentation of such lesions as intra-abdominal hemorrhage preceded by non-specific abdominal pain and other digestive symptoms, it is suggested that angiography perfomed preoperatively or intraoperatively allows definitive diagnosis and leads to specific therapy. PMID:406863
Kannoth, Sudheeran; Iyer, Rajesh; Thomas, Sanjeev V; Furtado, Sunil V; Rajesh, B J; Kesavadas, C; Radhakrishnan, V V; Sarma, P S
Intracranial infectious aneurysms (IA) are infrequent, but can be fatal. To compare the clinical profile of IAs associated with intravascular/systemic infection like infective endocarditis with that associated with local infections like meningitis, orbital cellulitis and cavernous sinus thrombosis. We analysed all cases of IA, treated in this Institute from 1976 to 2003, in order to identify prognostic factors. There were 25 persons (mean age 24.8+/-17.3 years, males 17) with 29 IA (carotid circulation 19, vertebrobasilar circulation 10). Headache (83%) and fever (67%) were the most common presenting symptoms. In contrast to noninfectious aneurysms, intracerebral haemorrhage (60%) and focal signs were more common than subarachnoid haemorrhage (7%) with IA. Sources of infection were cardiac (10), meningitis (12), orbital cellulitis (2) or uncertain (1). Infective agents included bacteria (18), fungi (4), and tubercle bacilli (3). Fifteen IA were distal and 14 were proximal. IAs associated with meningitis were proximal (75%) while those associated with cardiac diseases preferentially involved carotid territory and were distal (p=0.013). The overall mortality was 32%. Survivors were younger than those who expired (p=0.015). Of the sixteen patients treated medically, seven recovered (44%), others (56%) had treatment failure (three died and six required surgery later). Another five patients underwent early surgery (one died). Mortality of IA was significantly higher with meningitis, fungal aetiology and vertebrobasilar location. IAs associated with local infections like meningitis had different clinical profile as compared to IAs associated with intravascular/systemic infections like infective endocarditis.
Song, Ren-Xing; Wang, Dao-Kui; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Zeng-Wu; Wang, Shou-Xian; Wei, Guang-Xin; Li, Xin-Gang
A ruptured aneurysm associated with a pituitary apoplexy is rare. We present the first case report of the coexistence of a ruptured posterior communicating aneurysm with a surgically discovered pituitary apoplexy where the pituitary apoplexy had not been diagnosed by a pre-operative computerized tomography scan. A 31-year-old right-handed Chinese woman began to experience severe headache, vomiting and blurred vision which continued for two days. On admission to the hospital, a brain computerized tomography scan demonstrated a small amount of increased signal in the basal cisterns; no evidence of intrasellar and suprasellar lesions was seen. The appearance of her brain suggested aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. She had nuchal rigidity and reduced vision. There was no extra-ocular palsy and no other neurological deficit. Our patient had no stigmata of Cushing's syndrome or acromegaly. During an interview for further history, she reported normal menses and denied reduced vision.Cerebral digital subtraction angiography was subsequently performed, which revealed a 6mm left posterior communicating aneurysm. Urgent left pterional craniotomy was performed. The left ruptured posterior communicating artery aneurysm was completely dissected prior to clipping. At surgery, a suprasellar mass was discovered, the tumor bulging the diaphragma sella and projecting anteriorly under the chiasm raising suspicion of a pituitary tumor. The anterior part of the tumor capsule was opened and a necrotic tumor mixed with dark old blood was removed. The appearance suggested pituitary apoplexy.Histopathology revealed pituitary adenoma with evidence of hemorrhagic necrosis. Our patient made a good recovery. Our case report proves that pituitary apoplexy can be coexistent with the rupture of a posterior communicating aneurysm. This association should be considered when evaluating any case of aneurysm. A normal computerized tomography scan does not exclude pituitary apoplexy. Pre
Kubo, Yoshitaka; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Kurose, Akira; Kakino, Shunsuke; Tomitsuka, Nobuhiko; Ogawa, Akira
Although aortic or cardiac complications are common in patients with Marfan syndrome, the presence of an intracranial aneurysm is comparatively rare. In this study, the authors report on their experience with resection of a ruptured fusiform aneurysm of the posterior cerebral artery in a 30-year-old woman with Marfan syndrome. Microscopic examination of the resected tissue showed many Alcian blue-staining deposits, consistent with the presence of mucopolysaccharide in the tunica media and focal fragmentation of the internal elastic lamina.
Cabrilo, Ivan; Bijlenga, Philippe; Schaller, Karl
Augmented reality is the overlay of computer-generated images on real-world structures. It has previously been used for image guidance during surgical procedures, but it has never been used in the surgery of cerebral aneurysms. To report our experience of cerebral aneurysm surgery aided by augmented reality. Twenty-eight patients with 39 unruptured aneurysms were operated on in a prospective manner with augmented reality. Preoperative 3-dimensional image data sets (angio-magnetic resonance imaging, angio-computed tomography, and 3-dimensional digital subtraction angiography) were used to create virtual segmentations of patients' vessels, aneurysms, aneurysm necks, skulls, and heads. These images were injected intraoperatively into the eyepiece of the operating microscope. An example case of an unruptured posterior communicating artery aneurysm clipping is illustrated in a video. The described operating procedure allowed continuous monitoring of the accuracy of patient registration with neuronavigation data and assisted in the performance of tailored surgical approaches and optimal clipping with minimized exposition. Augmented reality may add to the performance of a minimally invasive approach, although further studies need to be performed to evaluate whether certain groups of aneurysms are more likely to benefit from it. Further technological development is required to improve its user friendliness.
Ohmoto, T; Nagao, S; Mino, S; Ito, T; Honma, Y; Fujiwara, T
The pterional intradural approach was used in five cases of large and giant carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms and in two cases of intracavernous aneurysms that arose from the anterior siphon knee in the cavernous sinus (CS) and extended into the carotid cistern. In four cases of large carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms removal of the anterior clinoid process and the roof of the optic canal gave easy access to the pericarotid ring. The anteromedial part of the pericarotid ring was dissected to expose the extradural portion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) proximal to the neck and to make enough room between the wall of the CS and the extradural portion of the ICA, thus allowing easy clipping of the neck. In one case of a giant carotid-ophthalmic aneurysm extending into the CS with an extradural origin of the ophthalmic artery and in two cases of an intracavernous aneurysm arising from the siphon knee, neck clipping was performed by opening the lateral wall and roof of the CS after removal of the optic strut. The opening of the lateral wall anterior to the 3rd nerve facilitated wide exposure of the anterior siphon knee. The horizontal portion of the intracavernous ICA as well as the whole aspect of the aneurysm could be exposed as a result of the extended opening of the cavernous roof anterior to the posterior clinoid process. Successful operative results were obtained in all seven patients. A visual field detect as an operative complication was noted in one patient. No disturbance of ocular movements was noted.
Spetzler, Robert F; Zabramski, Joseph M; McDougall, Cameron G; Albuquerque, Felipe C; Hills, Nancy K; Wallace, Robert C; Nakaji, Peter
OBJECTIVE The Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial (BRAT) is a prospective, randomized trial in which treatment with clipping was compared to treatment with coil embolization. Patients were randomized to treatment on presentation with any nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Because all other randomized trials comparing these 2 types of treatments have been limited to saccular aneurysms, the authors analyzed the current BRAT data for this subgroup of lesions. METHODS The primary BRAT analysis included all sources of SAH: nonaneurysmal lesions; saccular, blister, fusiform, and dissecting aneurysms; and SAHs from an aneurysm associated with either an arteriovenous malformation or a fistula. In this post hoc review, the outcomes for the subgroup of patients with saccular aneurysms were further analyzed by type of treatment. The extent of aneurysm obliteration was adjudicated by an independent neuroradiologist not involved in treatment. RESULTS Of the 471 patients enrolled in the BRAT, 362 (77%) had an SAH from a saccular aneurysm. Patients with saccular aneurysms were assigned equally to the clipping and the coiling cohorts (181 each). In each cohort, 3 patients died before treatment and 178 were treated. Of the 178 clip-assigned patients with saccular aneurysms, 1 (1%) was crossed over to coiling, and 64 (36%) of the 178 coil-assigned patients were crossed over to clipping. There was no statistically significant difference in poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale score > 2) between these 2 treatment arms at any recorded time point during 6 years of follow-up. After the initial hospitalization, 1 of 241 (0.4%) clipped saccular aneurysms and 21 of 115 (18%) coiled saccular aneurysms required retreatment (p < 0.001). At the 6-year follow-up, 95% (95/100) of the clipped aneurysms were completely obliterated, compared with 40% (16/40) of the coiled aneurysms (p < 0.001). There was no difference in morbidity between the 2 treatment groups (p = 0.10). CONCLUSIONS In the
Lui, Tun Hing
Different types of posterior calcaneal osteotomy are used for calcaneal realignment in the management of hindfoot deformity. We describe a percutaneous technique of posterior calcaneal osteotomy that can be either a Dwyer-type closing wedge osteotomy or displacement osteotomy.
Takagi, Hisato; Umemoto, Takuya
To summarize the association of vitamins (B6, B12, C, D, and E) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), we reviewed clinical studies with a comprehensive literature research and meta-analytic estimates. To identify all clinical studies evaluating the association of vitamins B6/B12/C/D/E and AAA, databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched through April 2015, using Web-based search engines (PubMed and OVID). For each case-control study, data regarding vitamin levels in both the AAA and control groups were used to generate standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Pooled analyses of the 4 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin B6 levels (SMD, -0.33; 95% CI, -0.55 to -0.11; P=0.003) but non-significantly lower vitamin B12 levels (SMD, -0.42; 95% CI, -1.09 to 0.25; P=0.22) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Pooled analyses of the 2 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower levels of circulating vitamins C (SMD, -0.71; 95% CI, -1.23 to -0.19; P=0.007) and E (SMD, -1.76; 95% CI, -2.93 to 0.60; P=0.003) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Another pooled analysis of the 3 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels (SMD, -0.25; 95% CI, -0.50 to -0.01; P=0.04) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. In a double-blind controlled trial, 4.0-year treatment with a high-dose folic acid and vitamin B6/B12 multivitamin in kidney transplant recipients did not reduce a rate of AAA repair despite significant reduction in homocysteine level. In another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 5.8-year supplementation with α-tocopherol (vitamin E) had no preventive effect on large AAA among male smokers. In clinical setting, although low circulating vitamins B6/C/D/E (not B12) levels are associated with AAA presence, vitamins B6/B12/E
Garg, S. K.; Dash, R. J.
A 32 year old female with hyperprolactinaemia-galactorrhoea-amenorrhoea due to a right internal carotid artery aneurysm just before its bifurcation is described. She had two episodes of subarachnoid haemorrhage necessitating an emergency internal carotid artery ligation. She responded to bromocriptine treatment with restoration of her menses, normalization of circulating prolactin and disappearance of galactorrhoea. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:4040632
Shi, Chaoyang; Kojima, Masahiro; Anzai, Hitomi; Tercero, Carlos; Ikeda, Seiichi; Ohta, Makoto; Fukuda, Toshio; Arai, Fumihito; Najdovski, Zoran; Negoro, Makoto; Irie, Keiko
The development of new diagnostic technologies for cerebrovascular diseases requires an understanding of the mechanism behind the growth and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. To provide a comprehensive diagnosis and prognosis of this disease, it is desirable to evaluate wall shear stress, pressure, deformation and strain in the aneurysm region, based on information provided by medical imaging technologies. In this research, we propose a new cyber-physical system composed of in vitro dynamic strain experimental measurements and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation for the diagnosis of cerebral aneurysms. A CFD simulation and a scaled-up membranous silicone model of a cerebral aneurysm were completed, based on patient-specific data recorded in August 2008. In vitro blood flow simulation was realized with the use of a specialized pump. A vision system was also developed to measure the strain at different regions on the model by way of pulsating blood flow circulating inside the model. Experimental results show that distance and area strain maxima were larger near the aneurysm neck (0.042 and 0.052), followed by the aneurysm dome (0.023 and 0.04) and finally the main blood vessel section (0.01 and 0.014). These results were complemented by a CFD simulation for the addition of wall shear stress, oscillatory shear index and aneurysm formation index. Diagnosis results using imaging obtained in August 2008 are consistent with the monitored aneurysm growth in 2011. The presented study demonstrates a new experimental platform for measuring dynamic strain within cerebral aneurysms. This platform is also complemented by a CFD simulation for advanced diagnosis and prediction of the growth tendency of an aneurysm in endovascular surgery. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Saponiero, R; Toriello, A; Locatelli, G; Pugliese, N D; Napoli, A N; Napoli, M; Siani, A; Cuomo, G; Panza, M P; Narciso, N; Posteraro, L
Cerebral aneurysms are occasionally associated with anomalies of the cerebral arteries. Most reports on anomalies of the anterior cerebral artery have been concerned with hypoplasia, fenestration and the infra-optic course of the A1, variant A1 perforators or Heubner's artery, multi-channeled anterior communicating artery, and azygos anterior cerebral artery. Distal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) aneurysms are known to have a poor clinical course and prognosis compared to other supratentorial aneurysms. The presence of the unpaired, distal, postcommunicating (A2) segment of the ACA is very rare in adults. We describe a patient with a ruptured aneurysm arising from the proximal end of the azygos ACA, first surgically treated with clipping and then with endovascular coiling. A 37-year-old woman at 34 weeks' gestation was transferred to our emergency room with sudden onset of severe headache and vomiting. Computed tomography (CT) revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage in the basal cisterna and the sylvian and interhemispheric fissures. Cerebral angiography showed an azygos ACA, a saccular aneurysm at the junction of the azygos ACA and the right A1 segment. A right fronto-temporal craniotomy was performed in the day of admission, and the neck of the aneurysm was clipped. One year later, an angiographic control examination revealed a regrowth of the aneurysm. The patient underwent endovascular treatment with coiling. Aneurysms of the azygos ACA are rare and their pathogenesis and course are still a matter of discussion. Developmental abnormalities or dynamic vessel wall stresses can explain the high incidence of aneurysms in these cases. The association of a rare anatomical variant with an aneurysm in the same location may suggest an embryogenesis alteration in the Willis circulation.
Lehecka, Martin; Dashti, Reza; Lehto, Hanna; Kivisaari, Riku; Niemelä, Mika; Hernesniemi, Juha
Distal anterior cerebral artery (DACA) aneurysms, also known as pericallosal artery aneurysms, represent about 6% of all intracranial aneurysms. They are located on the A2-A5 segments of the anterior cerebral artery and on its distal branches. This paper summarizes present knowledge on radiological features, treatment options, treatment results, and long-term follow-up of DACA aneurysms. Typical features of DACA aneurysms are small size, broad base, and branches originating from the base. When ruptured, they cause intracerebral hematoma in nearly half of the cases. DACA aneurysms are nowadays more often treated with microsurgical clipping than endovascular coiling due to their distal location and morphologic features. With clipping the results are same or slightly better than for aneurysms at other locations, coiling is often associated with more complications than in other aneurysms. Clipping is a long-lasting treatment with very small recurrence rate, there is no long-term data available on efficacy of coiling yet. For ruptured DACA aneurysms the most important factors affecting outcome is the severity of initial bleeding and patient's age.
Ding, Y; Dai, D; Kallmes, D F; Schroeder, D; Kealey, C P; Gupta, V; Johnson, A D; Kadirvel, R
Thin film nitinol can be processed to produce a thin microporous sheet with a low percentage of metal coverage (<20%) and high pore attenuation (∼70 pores/mm(2)) for flow diversion. We present in vivo results from the treatment of experimental rabbit aneurysms by using a thin film nitinol-based flow-diversion device. Nineteen aneurysms in the rabbit elastase aneurysm model were treated with a single thin film nitinol flow diverter. Devices were also placed over 17 lumbar arteries to model perianeurysmal branch arteries of the intracranial circulation. Angiography was performed at 2 weeks (n = 7), 1 month (n = 8), and 3 months (n = 4) immediately before sacrifice. Aneurysm occlusion was graded on a 3-point scale (grade I, complete occlusion; grade II, near-complete occlusion; grade III, incomplete occlusion). Toluidine blue staining was used for histologic evaluation. En face CD31 immunofluorescent staining was performed to quantify neck endothelialization. Markedly reduced intra-aneurysmal flow was observed on angiography immediately after device placement in all aneurysms. Grade I or II occlusion was noted in 4 (57%) aneurysms at 2-week, in 6 (75%) aneurysms at 4-week, and in 3 (75%) aneurysms at 12-week follow-up. All 17 lumbar arteries were patent. CD31 staining showed that 75% ± 16% of the aneurysm neck region was endothelialized. Histopathology demonstrated incorporation of the thin film nitinol flow diverter into the vessel wall and no evidence of excessive neointimal hyperplasia. In this rabbit model, the thin film nitinol flow diverter achieved high rates of aneurysm occlusion and promoted tissue in-growth and aneurysm neck healing, even early after implantation. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
Ye, Gengfan; Zhang, Meng; Deng, Lin; Chen, Xiaohui; Wang, Yunyan
Flow diverter devices (FDDs) are increasingly used in the treatment of intracranial aneurysm. The safety and feasibility of FDD were assessed in published literature. In accordance with strict inclusion criteria, Medline, Embase, Cochrane, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Web of Science databases were searched for literature that covers a period until February 2015. The baseline characteristics of patients, aneurysms, aneurysm occlusion, morbidity, and mortality were also collected. A meta-analysis was conducted using STATA 12.0, and a chi-squared test was performed to evaluate whether statistically significant differences existed between complications and mortality of aneurysm patients. Finally, a total of 48 studies were selected, including 2508 patients with 2826 aneurysm cases. The mean follow-up interval is 6.3 months, and the aneurysm occlusion rate is 77.9 % (95 % CI 73.8-81.9, I (2) = 43.4 %). The total morbidity and mortality rates are 9.8 and 3.8 %, respectively. The rates of spontaneous rupture and intraparenchymal hemorrhage are 2.0 and 2.5 %, respectively. The rate of ischemic stroke is 5.5 %. The morbidity and mortality rates of giant aneurysms are significantly higher than those of small and large aneurysms (χ (2) = 56.96, p < 0.05; χ (2) = 14.88, p < 0.05). The morbidity rates of posterior aneurysms are significantly higher than those of anterior (χ (2) = 11.29, p < 0.05) and unruptured aneurysms (χ (2) = 10.36, p < 0.05), respectively. The publication bias of aneurysm occlusion was detected by Begg's rank, and the corrected result is less than 0.05. Our meta-analysis suggests that the treatment of intracranial aneurysm with FDD is feasible and effective with a high occlusion rate, acceptable morbidity, and mortality. However, the morbidity or mortality of giant aneurysms is still high.
Juszkat, R.; Nowak, S.; Smól, S.; Kociemba, W.; Blok, T.; Zarzecka, A.
Summary The advent of intracranial stents has widened the indications for endovascular treatment of broad-necked and fusiform aneurysms. Leo stent is a self-expandable, nitinol, braided stent dedicated to intracranial vessels. The aim of this study is to present our experience in endovascular treatment of broad-necked and fusiform intracranial aneurysms using self-expanding, nitinol Leo stents. Between February 2004 and November 2006, 25 broad-necked and three fusiform aneurysms in 28 patients were treated using Leo stents in our centre. There were 18 patients who experienced acute subarachnoid haemorrhage due to aneurysm rupture, two patients who experienced SAH at least 12 months ago and in eight patients aneurysms were found incidentally. Aneurysms were located as follows: internal carotid artery15, basilar artery5, basilar tip3, posterior inferior cerebral artery2, M1/M2 segment1, A2 segment1 and vertebral artery1. There were no difficulties with stent deployment and delivery. All patients after acute SAH (n=18) underwent stent implantation and coil embolization in one procedure. The remaining patients underwent coil embolization in a staged procedure. Immediate aneurysm occlusion of more than 95% was achieved in all patients who underwent stent placement and coil embolization in one procedure. There were three thromboembolic complications encountered in patients in an acute setting of SAH, preloaded only on acetylsalicylic acid. Use of abciximab led to patency within the stent and parent vessel. However, one of these patients presented rebleeding from the aneurysm during administration of abciximab and died. Application of Leo stents in cases of broadnecked and fusiform intracranial aneurysms is safe and effective with a low complication rate. PMID:20566117
Casana, R; Nano, G; Dalainas, I; Stegher, S; Bianchi, P; Tealdi, D G
The aim of this retrospective, single institution study was to describe our 4-year experience with the endovascular repair of isolated iliac artery aneurysms. Between May 1997 and June 2001, 16 patients (15 males; mean age 64+/-9 years), were treated with covered stent grafts. Twelve of the endovascular procedures were performed under epidural and 4 under local anaesthesia. The percutaneous approach was employed in 13 cases and the femoral artery had to be exposed in 3 cases that demanded simultaneous revascularization of the peripheral circulation (n=2) or required a 16 F sheath to employ a Baxter Lifepath stent graft (n=1). The mean size of the iliac aneurysms was 4.5 cm (range 3.5 to 5.2 cm). Four aneurysms involved the hypogastric ostium in absence of any distal neck. All the patients underwent initially successful endovascular treatment of isolated iliac aneurysms and were followed from 3 to 52 months (mean 18 months). No procedural deaths and no acute or late graft thrombosis occurred. The perioperative complications included 1 dissection of the external iliac artery that required a further endovacular procedure and 1 case of endovascular leak fed to the hypogastric artery. A CT scan 4 months later showed spontaneous thrombosis of aneurysm and no further leakage. Two patients had undergone combinated femoro-popliteal arterial bypass. In our early clinical experience the use of self-expandable covered stent graft successful treated isolated iliac artery aneurysms. Endovascular repair is a safe and effective technique with good midterm results in patients at standard and high risk.
Cheng-Ching, Esteban; John, Seby; Bain, Mark; Toth, Gabor; Masaryk, Thomas; Hui, Ferdinand; Hussain, Muhammad Shazam
Introduction Mycotic aneurysms are a serious complication of infective endocarditis with increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Patients undergoing open heart surgery for valve repair or replacement are exposed to anticoagulants, increasing the risk of aneurysm bleeding. These patients may require endovascular or surgical aneurysm treatment prior to heart surgery, but data on this approach are scarce. Methods Retrospective review of consecutive patients with infectious endocarditis and mycotic aneurysms treated endovascularly with Trufill n-butyl cyanoacrylate (n-BCA) at the Cleveland Clinic between January 2013 and December 2015. Results Nine patients underwent endovascular treatment of mycotic aneurysms with n-BCA (mean age of 39 years). On imaging, 4 patients had intracerebral hemorrhage, 2 had multiple embolic infarcts, and the rest had no imaging findings. Twelve mycotic aneurysms were detected (3 patients with 2 aneurysms). Seven aneurysms were in the M4 middle cerebral artery segment, 4 in the posterior cerebral artery distribution, and 1 in the callosomarginal branch. n-BCA was diluted in ethiodized oil (1:1 to 1:2). Embolization was achieved in a single rapid injection with immediate microcatheter removal. Complete aneurysm exclusion was achieved in all cases without complications. All patients underwent open heart surgery and endovascular embolization within a short interval, 2 with both procedures on the same day. There were no new hemorrhages after aneurysm embolization. Conclusions Endovascular embolization of infectious intracranial aneurysms with liquid embolics can be performed successfully in critically ill patients requiring immediate open heart surgery and anticoagulation. Early embolization prior to and within a short interval from open heart surgery is feasible. PMID:28611838
Sachs, T; Schermerhorn, M
Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) continues to be one of the most lethal vascular pathologies we encounter. Its management demands prompt and efficient evaluation and repair. Open repair has traditionally been the mainstay of treatment. However, the introduction of endovascular techniques has altered the treatment algorithm for ruptured AAA in most major medical centers. We present recent literature and techniques for ruptured AAA and its surgical management.
Antoniak, Robert; Grabowska-Derlatka, Laretta; Nawrot, Ireneusz; Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Rowiński, Olgierd
Introduction. True aneurysms of peripancreatic arterial arcades (PAAAs) are rare. Most of them coexist with celiac axis stenosis/occlusion due to median arcuate ligament (MAL) compression or atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cause of celiac axis lesion and characterize the anatomy of the aneurysms. These findings may have important management implications. Material and Methods. A retrospective analysis of 15 patients with true PAAAs was performed. The diagnosis was established by contrast-enhanced CT, using a 64-MDCT scanner. We evaluated the most probable cause of celiac axis lesion. Aneurysms were characterized by their number, location, size, and morphology. Location of the aneurysms was classified either as pancreaticoduodenal arteries (PDA) or as dorsal pancreatic arteries (DPA) as they may represent different collateral pathways between superior mesenteric artery and celiac trunk. Results. A total of 32 true PAAAs were identified. Celiac trunk was occluded in 12 patients and critically narrowed in 3 patients. Celiac axis lesion was categorized as secondary to MAL compression in 14 cases and due to atherosclerosis in 1 case. The most common location of the aneurysms was inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries. Only in 1 case aneurysms involved both PDA and DPA. Conclusions. Coexistence of PAAAs with celiac axis compression as well as involvement of either PDAs or DPAs has important therapeutic implications. The uninvolved collateral pathway may be sufficient to preserve effective circulation in celiac trunk branches in case of resection or embolization of the aneurysms. However, further studies are crucial to confirm our findings.
Antoniak, Robert; Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Rowiński, Olgierd
Introduction. True aneurysms of peripancreatic arterial arcades (PAAAs) are rare. Most of them coexist with celiac axis stenosis/occlusion due to median arcuate ligament (MAL) compression or atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cause of celiac axis lesion and characterize the anatomy of the aneurysms. These findings may have important management implications. Material and Methods. A retrospective analysis of 15 patients with true PAAAs was performed. The diagnosis was established by contrast-enhanced CT, using a 64-MDCT scanner. We evaluated the most probable cause of celiac axis lesion. Aneurysms were characterized by their number, location, size, and morphology. Location of the aneurysms was classified either as pancreaticoduodenal arteries (PDA) or as dorsal pancreatic arteries (DPA) as they may represent different collateral pathways between superior mesenteric artery and celiac trunk. Results. A total of 32 true PAAAs were identified. Celiac trunk was occluded in 12 patients and critically narrowed in 3 patients. Celiac axis lesion was categorized as secondary to MAL compression in 14 cases and due to atherosclerosis in 1 case. The most common location of the aneurysms was inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries. Only in 1 case aneurysms involved both PDA and DPA. Conclusions. Coexistence of PAAAs with celiac axis compression as well as involvement of either PDAs or DPAs has important therapeutic implications. The uninvolved collateral pathway may be sufficient to preserve effective circulation in celiac trunk branches in case of resection or embolization of the aneurysms. However, further studies are crucial to confirm our findings. PMID:28286755
Li, Fang; Downing, Brandon D.; Smiley, Lucy C.; Mund, Julie A.; DiStasi, Matthew R.; Bessler, Waylan K.; Sarchet, Kara N.; Hinds, Daniel M.; Kamendulis, Lisa M.; Hingtgen, Cynthia M.; Case, Jamie; Clapp, D. Wade; Conway, Simon J.; Stansfield, Brian K.; Ingram, David A.
Background Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder resulting from mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene. Neurofibromin, the protein product of NF1, functions as a negative regulator of Ras activity in circulating hematopoietic and vascular wall cells, which are critical for maintaining vessel wall homeostasis. NF1 patients have evidence of chronic inflammation resulting in development of premature cardiovascular disease, including arterial aneurysms, which may manifest as sudden death. However, the molecular pathogenesis of NF1 aneurysm formation is unknown. Method and Results Utilizing an angiotensin II-induced aneurysm model, we demonstrate that heterozygous inactivation of Nf1 (Nf1+/−) enhanced aneurysm formation with myeloid cell infiltration and increased oxidative stress in the vessel wall. Using lineage-restricted transgenic mice, we show loss of a single Nf1 allele in myeloid cells is sufficient to recapitulate the Nf1+/− aneurysm phenotype in vivo. Finally, oral administration of simvastatin or the antioxidant apocynin, reduced aneurysm formation in Nf1+/− mice. Conclusion These data provide genetic and pharmacologic evidence that Nf1+/− myeloid cells are the cellular triggers for aneurysm formation in a novel model of NF1 vasculopathy and provide a potential therapeutic target. PMID:24370551
Li, Fang; Downing, Brandon D; Smiley, Lucy C; Mund, Julie A; Distasi, Matthew R; Bessler, Waylan K; Sarchet, Kara N; Hinds, Daniel M; Kamendulis, Lisa M; Hingtgen, Cynthia M; Case, Jamie; Clapp, D Wade; Conway, Simon J; Stansfield, Brian K; Ingram, David A
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder resulting from mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene. Neurofibromin, the protein product of NF1, functions as a negative regulator of Ras activity in circulating hematopoietic and vascular wall cells, which are critical for maintaining vessel wall homeostasis. NF1 patients have evidence of chronic inflammation resulting in the development of premature cardiovascular disease, including arterial aneurysms, which may manifest as sudden death. However, the molecular pathogenesis of NF1 aneurysm formation is unknown. With the use of an angiotensin II-induced aneurysm model, we demonstrate that heterozygous inactivation of Nf1 (Nf1(+/-)) enhanced aneurysm formation with myeloid cell infiltration and increased oxidative stress in the vessel wall. Using lineage-restricted transgenic mice, we show that loss of a single Nf1 allele in myeloid cells is sufficient to recapitulate the Nf1(+/-) aneurysm phenotype in vivo. Finally, oral administration of simvastatin or the antioxidant apocynin reduced aneurysm formation in Nf1(+/-) mice. These data provide genetic and pharmacological evidence that Nf1(+/-) myeloid cells are the cellular triggers for aneurysm formation in a novel model of NF1 vasculopathy and provide a potential therapeutic target.
Wilson, Richard Scott; Bennett, Kenneth R
After several weeks of fever and chills, a 31-year-old logger developed pain in his right thigh. Upon examination a tender, pulsating upper thigh mass was found with a long loud bruit arising from it. Severe aortic insufficiency was present; however, blood cultures were negative. An angiogram, captured blood with contrast spewing from the profunda femoral artery to fill a 5 x 10 cm sac. A false aneurysm was diagnosed and resected; numerous gram positive cocci were present in cut sections, but cultures from the cavity grew the gram negative bacteria Salmonella and Alcaligenes. After one month of intravenous ampicillin the aortic valve was replaced after being destroyed by endocarditis. Ampicillin was continued and recovery was uneventful. Mycotic aneurysms are commonly caused by Salmonella (10%), which was second only to Staphylococcus (30%). The femoral artery accounts for 38% of all mycotic aneurysms. They typically present with a pulsatile mass (52%), bruit (50%), and fever (48%). This diagnosis can be supported by leukocytosis (64-71%), positive blood cultures (50-85%), and a history of arterial trauma (51%) (injection drug use, intravascular procedure, or trauma) or endocarditis (10%).
Manuel, Valdano; Sousa-Uva, Miguel; Miguel, Gade; Magalhães, Manuel Pedro; Pedro, Albino; Júnior, António Pedro Filipe; Morais, Humberto
We report a surgical series of submitral aneurysm in children. Between March 2011 and December 2015, eight consecutive patients less than 18 years old with submitral aneurysm underwent surgical correction. Six patients were female, the mean age was 7 ± 3.8 years old, and mean weight was 21.4 kg. Six patients were in NYHA functional class III or IV. Six patients underwent repair via a transatrial approach, another with a transatrial combined with transaneurysmal approach, and another with a transventricular approach. There were no in-hospital deaths but one 30-day mortality. One patient required reoperation. Two patients required mitral valve replacement. At discharge, one patient had severe and another had moderate mitral regurgitation. The mean follow-up time was 26.4 months and five patients were alive. No reintervention was required. Submitral aneurysm is not restricted to adults. Heart failure is the commonest clinical presentation in the pediatric age. The transatrial approach is feasible, safe, and associated with good short-term results. The mitral valve can be preserved in the majority of cases. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5200 Aneurysm clip. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip is a device used to occlude an intracranial aneurysm (a balloonlike sac formed on a blood vessel... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aneurysm clip. 882.5200 Section 882.5200 Food...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aneurysm clip. 882.5200 Section 882.5200 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5200 Aneurysm clip. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip is a device used to occlude an intracranial aneurysm (a balloonlike sac formed on a blood...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aneurysm clip. 882.5200 Section 882.5200 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5200 Aneurysm clip. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip is a device used to occlude an intracranial aneurysm (a balloonlike sac formed on a blood...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aneurysm clip. 882.5200 Section 882.5200 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5200 Aneurysm clip. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip is a device used to occlude an intracranial aneurysm (a balloonlike sac formed on a blood...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aneurysm clip. 882.5200 Section 882.5200 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5200 Aneurysm clip. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip is a device used to occlude an intracranial aneurysm (a balloonlike sac formed on a blood...
Sa-Kong, Heon; Seol, Sang-Hoon; No, Tae-Hoon; Park, Dong-Hee; Jeong, Na-Ri; Jeong, Su-Jin; Kim, Doo-Il
A pulmonary artery aneurysm is an uncommon anomaly. The clinical manifestations are mostly nonspecific, and management is controversial. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman with a main pulmonary artery aneurysm who did not take surgical intervention. Subsequently, there was no increase in size for 3 years.
Kim, Ha Won
Aneurysms are characterized by structural deterioration of the vascular wall leading to progressive dilatation and, potentially, rupture of the aorta. While aortic aneurysms often remain clinically silent, the morbidity and mortality associated with aneurysm expansion and rupture are considerable. Over 13,000 deaths annually in the United States are attributable to aortic aneurysm rupture with less than 1 in 3 persons with aortic aneurysm rupture surviving to surgical intervention. Environmental and epidemiologic risk factors including smoking, male gender, hypertension, older age, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and family history are highly associated with abdominal aortic aneurysms, while heritable genetic mutations are commonly associated with aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. Similar to other forms of cardiovascular disease, family history, genetic variation, and heritable mutations modify the risk of aortic aneurysm formation and provide mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis of human aortic aneurysms. This review will examine the relationship between heritable genetic and epigenetic influences on thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysm formation and rupture. PMID:28116311
Sung, Tony H T; Leung, Warren K W; Lai, Bill M H; Khoo, Jennifer L S
Isolated spinal artery aneurysm is a rare lesion which could be accountable for spontaneous spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage. We describe the case of a 74-year-old man presenting with sudden onset of chest pain radiating to the neck and back, with subsequent headache and confusion. Initial computed tomography aortogram revealed incidental finding of subtle acute spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage. A set of computed tomography scans of the brain showed further acute intracranial subarachnoid haemorrhage with posterior predominance, small amount of intraventricular haemorrhage, and absence of intracranial vascular lesions. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a thrombosed intradural spinal aneurysm with surrounding sentinel clot, which was trapped and excised during surgical exploration. High level of clinical alertness is required in order not to miss this rare but detrimental entity. Its relevant aetiopathological features and implications for clinical management are discussed.
Yoon, Seon Jin; Shin, Na-Young; Lee, Jae Whan; Huh, Seung Kon
Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of proton density magnetic resonance (PD MR) imaging for localization of paraclinoid internal carotid artery aneurysms. Materials and Methods From April 2014 to April 2015, 76 unruptured paraclinoid aneurysms in 66 patients were evaluated using PD MR and angiography (CT/MR angiography or digital subtraction angiography). The locations (extradural, transdural, intradural) in relation to the distal dural ring (DDR) and projection (superior, inferior/posterior, medial, lateral) of the aneurysms were assessed and compared. Results The most common location of paraclinoid aneurysms was extradural (n = 48, 63.2%), followed by intradural (n = 18, 23.7%), and transdural (n = 10, 13.2%). In the medial projection group (n = 49, 64.5%), 31 were extradural (63.3%), 5 were transdural (10.2%), and 13 were intradural (26.5%). In the inferior/posterior projection group (n = 19, 25.0%), there were 14 extradural (73.7%), 4 transdural (21.0%), and 1 intradural (5.3%). In the superior (n = 4, 5.3%)/lateral (n = 4, 5.3%) projection groups, there were 0/3 extradural (0/75.0%), 1/0 transdural (25.0/0%), and 3/1 intradural (75.0/25.0%). Conclusion PD MR showed sufficient contrast difference to distinguish paraclinoid aneurysms from surrounding dural structures. PMID:26523253
Peitz, Geoffrey W; Sy, Christopher A; Grandhi, Ramesh
Blister aneurysms are rare cerebrovascular lesions for which the treatment methods are reviewed here, with a focus on endovascular options. The reported pathogenesis of blister aneurysms varies, and hemodynamic stress, arterial dissection, and arteriosclerotic ulceration have all been described. There is consensus on the excessive fragility of blister aneurysms and their parent vessels, which makes clipping technically difficult. Open surgical treatment is associated with high rates of complications, morbidity, and mortality; endovascular treatment is a promising alternative. Among endovascular treatment options, deconstructive treatment has been associated with higher morbidity compared with reconstructive methods such as direct embolization, stent- or balloon-assisted direct embolization, stent monotherapy, and flow diversion. Flow diversion has been associated with higher technical success rates and similar clinical outcomes compared with non-flow diverting treatment methods. However, delayed aneurysm occlusion and the need for antiplatelet therapy are potential drawbacks to flow diversion that must be considered when choosing among treatment methods for blister aneurysms.
Benet, Arnau; Plata-Bello, Julio; Abla, Adib A.; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Saloner, David; Lawton, Michael T.
Aim. To evaluate the feasibility of implanting 3D-printed brain aneurysm model in human cadavers and to assess their utility in neurosurgical research, complex case management/planning, and operative training. Methods. Two 3D-printed aneurysm models, basilar apex and middle cerebral artery, were generated and implanted in four cadaveric specimens. The aneurysms were implanted at the same anatomical region as the modeled patient. Pterional and orbitozygomatic approaches were done on each specimen. The aneurysm implant, manipulation capabilities, and surgical clipping were evaluated. Results. The 3D aneurysm models were successfully implanted to the cadaveric specimens' arterial circulation in all cases. The features of the neck in terms of flexibility and its relationship with other arterial branches allowed for the practice of surgical maneuvering characteristic to aneurysm clipping. Furthermore, the relationship of the aneurysm dome with the surrounding structures allowed for better understanding of the aneurysmal local mass effect. Noticeably, all of these observations were done in a realistic environment provided by our customized embalming model for neurosurgical simulation. Conclusion. 3D aneurysms models implanted in cadaveric specimens may represent an untapped training method for replicating clip technique; for practicing certain approaches to aneurysms specific to a particular patient; and for improving neurosurgical research. PMID:26539542
Liou, Tong-Miin; Liou, Shun-Nan; Chu, Kai-Lung
Pulsatile flow fields in a cerebrovascular side-wall aneurysm model with a wide ostium after stenting are presented in terms of particle tracking velocimetry measurements and flow visualization. Among the stent parameters the shape, helix versus mesh, was selected to study its effect on the changes of intraaneurysmal hemodynamics for the reference of minimally invasive endovascular aneurysm treatment. The blocking ratio of the stents was fixed at 30%. The Womersley number was 3.9 and the mean, peak, and minimal Reynolds numbers based on the bulk average velocity and diameter of the parent vessel were 600, 850, and 300, respectively. Four consecutive flow-rate phases were selected to characterize the intra-aneurysmal flow. The results are characterized in terms of velocity vector field, regional average velocity, and intra-aneurysmal vorticity/circulation/wall shear stress. It is found that the hemodynamic features inside the aneurysm alter markedly with the shape of the stent and the size of the orifice. Both stents investigated induce favorable changes in the intra-aneurysmal flow stasis as well as direction and undulation of wall shear stresses. A comparison of the results of the helix to mesh stent shows that the former is more favorable for endovascular treatment.
Daou, Badih; Valle-Giler, Edison P; Chalouhi, Nohra; Starke, Robert M; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula; Hasan, David; Rosenwasser, Robert H; Hebert, Ryan; Jabbour, Pascal
OBJECTIVE The Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) has become an effective treatment strategy for some cerebral aneurysms. Concerns regarding the patency of branch arteries have been raised. The objective of this study was to assess the patency of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) following treatment of PCoA aneurysms using the PED. METHODS All patients with PCoA aneurysms treated with the PED who had angiographic follow-up were retrospectively identified. The patency of the PCoA at follow-up was evaluated by 2 authors who were not involved in the intervention. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the following: 1) PCoA patency versus no or diminished flow, and 2) PCoA patency and diminished flow versus PCoA occlusion. RESULTS Thirty patients with an angiographic follow-up of 6 months were included. Aneurysm obliteration was achieved in 25 patients (83.3%). The PCoA was patent in 7 patients (23.3%), had diminished flow in 7 patients (23.3%), and was occluded in 16 patients (53.3%). In the univariate analysis of outcome, there was a trend for aneurysms with incomplete occlusion, aneurysms not previously treated, those with presence of a fetal PCoA, and those with an artery coming from the aneurysm to have higher odds of the PCoA remaining patent. In univariate and multivariate analyses of factors associated with outcome, fetal PCoA and presence of an artery coming from the aneurysm were associated with the PCoA remaining open with or without diminished flow. No patients had symptoms related to PCoA occlusion. CONCLUSIONS Occlusion and diminished flow through the PCoA is common following PED treatment of PCoA aneurysms. However, it is clinically insignificant in most cases.
Xu, David S; Levitt, Michael R; Kalani, M Yashar S; Rangel-Castilla, Leonardo; Mulholland, Celene B; Abecassis, Isaac J; Morton, Ryan P; Nerva, John D; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Levy, Elad I; Spetzler, Robert F; Albuquerque, Felipe C; McDougall, Cameron G
OBJECTIVE Fusiform dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar aneurysms are rare, challenging lesions. The natural history of these lesions and medium- and long-term patient outcomes are poorly understood. The authors sought to evaluate patient prognosis after diagnosis of fusiform dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar aneurysms and to identify clinical and radiographic predictors of neurological deterioration. METHODS The authors reviewed multiple, prospectively maintained, single-provider databases at 3 large-volume cerebrovascular centers to obtain data on patients with unruptured, fusiform, basilar artery dolichoectatic aneurysms diagnosed between January 1, 2000, and January 1, 2015. RESULTS A total of 50 patients (33 men, 17 women) were identified; mean clinical follow-up was 50.1 months and mean radiographic follow-up was 32.4 months. At last follow-up, 42% (n = 21) of aneurysms had progressed and 44% (n = 22) of patients had deterioration of their modified Rankin Scale scores. When patients were dichotomized into 2 groups- those who worsened and those who did not-univariate analysis showed 5 variables to be statistically significantly different: sex (p = 0.007), radiographic brainstem compression (p = 0.03), clinical posterior fossa compression (p < 0.001), aneurysmal growth on subsequent imaging (p = 0.001), and surgical therapy (p = 0.006). A binary logistic regression was then created to evaluate these variables. The only variable found to be a statistically significant predictor of clinical worsening was clinical symptoms of posterior fossa compression at presentation (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Fusiform dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar aneurysms carry a poor prognosis, with approximately one-half of the patients deteriorating or experiencing progression of their aneurysm within 5 years. Despite being high risk, intervention-when carefully timed (before neurological decline)-may be beneficial in select patients.
Mitchell, Patrick; Gholkar, Anil; Vindlacheruvu, Raghu R; Mendelow, A David
15 years ago, the treatment of incidentally discovered intracranial aneurysms was straightforward with a good evidence base behind it. When intracranial aneurysms were identified, people were referred to neurosurgeons who would offer surgical repair if the patient was in reasonable health and had a good life expectancy. Since that time, several studies have given contradictory evidence for what should be done with these lesions, and a new technique for the repair of aneurysms, endovascular coil embolisation, has been developed. Here we review the research and make several recommendations. First, incidentally discovered aneurysms in the anterior circulation less than 7 mm in size in people with no personal or family history of subarachnoid haemorrhage should be left untreated. Second, people with remaining life expectancy of less than 20 years or so (ie, those over age 60 years) should be informed that from a statistical point of view the benefits of treatment do not outweigh the risks. Third, in all other cases treatment with surgical clipping or coil embolisation should be advised. And finally, if surgical treatment is not feasible then medical hypotensive treatment may be a viable alternative.
Flores, Bruno C; Patel, Ankur R; Braga, Bruno P; Weprin, Bradley E; Batjer, H Hunt
Infectious intracranial aneurysms (IIAs) account for approximately 15 % of all pediatric intracranial aneurysms. Histologically, they are pseudoaneurysms that develop in response to an inflammatory reaction within the adventitia and muscularis layers, ultimately resulting in disruption of both the internal elastic membrane and the intima. The majority of pediatric IIAs are located within the anterior circulation, and they can be multiple in 15-25 % of cases. The most common presentation for an IIA is intracerebral and/or subarachnoid hemorrhage. In children with a known diagnosis of infective endocarditis who develop new neurological manifestations, it is imperative to exclude the existence of an IIA. The natural history of untreated infectious aneurysms is ominous; they demonstrate a high incidence of spontaneous rupture. High clinical suspicion, prompt diagnosis, and adequate treatment are of paramount importance to prevent devastating neurological consequences. The prompt initiation of intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics represents the mainstay of treatment. Three questions should guide the management of pediatric patients with IIAs: (a) aneurysm rupture status, (b) the presence of intraparenchymal hemorrhage or elevated intracranial pressure, and (c) relationship of the parent vessel to eloquent brain tissue. Those three questions should orient the treating physician into either antibiotic therapy alone or in combination with microsurgical or endovascular interventions. This review discusses important aspects of the epidemiology, the diagnosis, and the management of IIAs in the pediatric population.
Igarashi, Takashi; Takase, Shinya; Satokawa, Hirono; Misawa, Yukitoki; Wakamatsu, Hiroki; Yokoyama, Hitoshi
Aortic repair for severely atheromatous aneurysm remains a challenge. We used an intermittent clamp technique for all visceral arteries during thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for a thoracic aortic aneurysm with a "shaggy aorta" to prevent systemic thromboembolism. In addition, we applied an extracorporeal circulation circuit to trap the thrombi during the endovascular repair. Postoperatively, no embolic complications were seen, and microscopic examination showed trapped plaques on the filter. We conclude that this technique is an option for preventing thromboembolism in aortic aneurysm repair in the context of a shaggy aorta when substantial concern of distal diffuse atheromatous emboli is raised based on clinical history or clear evidence on imaging.
Damascelli, Bruno; Bartorelli, Antonio L.; Ticha, Vladimira; Trabattoni, Daniela; Lanocita, Rodolfo
A large aneurysm of the left renal artery was found incidentally during abdominal ultrasound in a 39-year-old woman with no medical or family history of cardiovascular disease. Vascular pathology with a dysplastic appearance was confirmed by magnetic resonance angiography and the patient was offered transcatheter embolization. Since the position and size of the neck of the aneurysm could not be determined at angiography, detachable platinum coils were used for occlusion. The procedure was performed without complications. During a 4-year follow-up no alterations of renal function, recanalization of the aneurysm, or perfusion defects in the rest of the left renal circulation were noted.
Liao, Chih-Hsiang; Lin, Chung-Jung; Lin, Chun-Fu; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Min-Hsiung; Hsu, Sanford P C; Shih, Yang-Hsin
OBJECTIVE The treatment of paraclinoid aneurysms remains challenging. It is important to determine the exact location of the paraclinoid aneurysm when considering treatment options. The authors herein evaluated the effectiveness of using the optic strut (OS) and tuberculum sellae (TS) as radiographic landmarks for distinguishing between intradural and extradural paraclinoid aneurysms on source images from CT angiography (CTA). METHODS Between January 2010 and September 2013, a total of 49 surgical patients with the preoperative diagnoses of paraclinoid aneurysm and 1 symptomatic cavernous-clinoid aneurysm were retrospectively identified. With the source images from CTA, the OS and the TS were used as landmarks to predict the location of the paraclinoid aneurysm and its relation to the distal dural ring (DDR). The operative findings were examined to confirm the definitive location of the paraclinoid aneurysm. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the diagnostic effectiveness of the landmarks. RESULTS Nineteen patients without preoperative CTA were excluded. The remaining 30 patients comprised the current study. The intraoperative findings confirmed 12 intradural, 12 transitional, and 6 extradural paraclinoid aneurysms, the diagnoses of which were significantly related to the type of aneurysm (p < 0.05) but not factors like sex, age, laterality of aneurysm, or relation of the aneurysm to the ophthalmic artery on digital subtraction angiography. To measure agreement with the correct diagnosis, the OS as a reference point was far superior to the TS (Cohen's kappa coefficients 0.462 and 0.138 for the OS and the TS, respectively). For paraclinoid aneurysms of the medial or posterior type, using the base of the OS as a reference point tended to overestimate intradural paraclinoid aneurysms. The receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that if the aneurysmal neck traverses the axial plane 2 mm above the base of the OS, the aneurysm is most likely to grow
Hassani, Kamran; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Rostami, Mostafa
The aortic aneurysm is a dilatation of the aortic wall which occurs in the saccular and fusiform types. The aortic aneurysms can rupture, if left untreated. The renal stenosis occurs when the flow of blood from the arteries leading to the kidneys is constricted by atherosclerotic plaque. This narrowing may lead to the renal failure. Previous works have shown that, modelling is a useful tool for understanding of cardiovascular system functioning and pathophysiology of the system. The present study is concerned with the modelling of aortic aneurysms and renal artery stenosis using the cardiovascular electronic system. The geometrical models of the aortic aneurysms and renal artery stenosis, with different rates, were constructed based on the original anatomical data. The pressure drop of each section due to the aneurysms or stenosis was computed by means of computational fluid dynamics method. The compliance of each section with the aneurysms or stenosis is also calculated using the mathematical method. An electrical system representing the cardiovascular circulation was used to study the effects of these pressure drops and the compliance variations on this system. The results showed the decreasing of pressure along the aorta and renal arteries lengths, due to the aneurysms and stenosis, at the peak systole. The mathematical method demonstrated that compliances of the aorta sections and renal increased with the expansion rate of the aneurysms and stenosis. The results of the modelling, such as electrical pressure graphs, exhibited the features of the pathologies such as hypertension and were compared with the relevant experimental data. We conclude from the study that the aortic aneurysms as well as renal artery stenosis may be the most important determinant of the arteries rupture and failure. Furthermore, these pathologies play important rules in increase of the cardiovascular pulse pressure which leads to the hypertension.
Carlson, Andrew P
Ruptured fusiform aneurysms of the vertebral artery involving posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) origin are difficult to manage without sacrificing PICA. In this report, two very unusual cases are described which highlight different revascularization strategies that may be required. The first case initially appeared to be a small saccular PICA origin aneurysm, but detailed angiography showed a serpentine recanalization of a fusiform aneurysm. This was treated with PICA-PICA anastomosis and trapping of the aneurysm. The second case is a dissecting vertebral aneurysm with both PICA and the anterior spinal artery originating from the dome. PICA was found to be a bihemispheric variant, so no in situ bypass was available, and an occipital artery to PICA bypass was performed. The vertebral artery was occluded proximally only and follow-up angiography showed remodeling of the distal vertebral artery with the anterior spinal artery filling by retrograde flow from the distal vertebral artery. These cases illustrate both the anatomic variability of this region as well as the need to be familiar with multiple treatment strategies including revascularization techniques to be able to successfully treat these aneurysms.
Stamatopoulos, Ch.; Mathioulakis, D. S.; Papaharilaou, Y.; Katsamouris, A.
The velocity field in a patient-specific abdominal aneurysm model including the aorto-iliac bifurcation was measured by 2D PIV. Phase-averaged velocities obtained in 14 planes reveal details of the flow evolution during a cycle. The aneurysm expanding asymmetrically toward the anterior side of the aorta causes the generation of a vortex at its entrance, covering the entire aneurysm bulge progressively before flow peak. The fluid entering the aneurysm impinges on the left side of its distal end, following the axis of the upstream aorta segment, causing an increased flow rate in the left (compared to the right) common iliac artery. High shear stresses appear at the aneurysm inlet and outlet as well as along the posterior wall, varying proportionally to the flow rate. At the same regions, elevated flow disturbances are observed, being intensified at flow peak and during the deceleration phase. Low shear stresses are present in the recirculation region, being two orders of magnitude smaller than the previous ones. At flow peak and during the deceleration phase, a clockwise swirling motion (viewed from the inlet) is present in the aneurysm due to the out of plane curvature of the aorta.
Sharples, Alistair; Kay, Mark; Sykes, Timothy; Fox, Anthony; Houghton, Andrew
True infrainguinal vein graft aneurysms are reported infrequently in the literature. We sought to identify the true incidence of these graft aneurysms after popliteal aneurysm repair and identify factors which may increase the risk of such aneurysms developing. Using a prospectively compiled database, we identified patients who underwent a popliteal aneurysm repair between January 1996 and January 2011 at a single district general hospital. Patients were routinely followed up in a graft surveillance programme. Out of 45 patients requiring repair of a popliteal aneurysm over a 15-year period, four (8.8%) patients developed aneurysmal graft disease. Of the patients who developed graft aneurysms, all had aneurysmal disease at other sites compared with 18 (45.0%) patients who did not develop graft aneurysms. Patients with graft aneurysms had a mean of 1.60 aneurysms elsewhere compared to 0.58 in patients with non-aneurysmal grafts (P = 0.005). True vein graft aneurysms occur in a significant number of patients following popliteal aneurysm repair. Our data would suggest this to be more likely in patients who have aneurysms elsewhere and therefore a predisposition to aneurysmal disease. It may be appropriate for patients with aneurysms at other sites to undergo more prolonged post-operative graft surveillance.
El Refaee, Ehab Ahmed; Baldauf, Jörg; Balau, Valentin; Rosenstengel, Christian; Schroeder, Henry
Clipping of paraclinoid internal carotid artery aneurysms related to the superior hypophyseal artery (SHA) carries risk of occlusion of this artery when originating distal to the neck of the aneurysm. Sometimes it is inevitable to sacrifice the artery to achieve total aneurysm occlusion. Otherwise a residual aneurysm would remain, which may lead to aneurysm regrowth and subsequent rupture. However, consequences of SHA sacrifice are rarely reported in the literature. In the two presented cases, the SHA was found originating distal to the neck and within the wall of the aneurysm, making the optimal clipping of the aneurysm at the neck unfeasible without trapping of the SHA. Intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) angiography revealed a retrograde blood flow in the SHA distal to the clip in both patients, indicating some collateral circulation. No endocrinologic deficits were encountered after surgery. The vision was not affected in one patient. In the other patient, bilateral visual field defects occurred, which improved partially in the follow-up 2 months after surgery. The consequences of SHA occlusion are difficult to predict. A large variety of anatomical variations of the vascular anatomy exists. Intraoperative ICG angiography may help to estimate collateral blood flow but is not able to predict visual decline. Although final conclusions cannot be drawn from two patients, it seems that in case of multiplicity of superior hypophyseal complex, sacrifice of one even larger branch is safe. However, visual sequelae have to be taken into consideration when a single SHA has to be sacrificed for total aneurysm clipping.
Raymond, J.; Guillemin, F.; Proust, F.; Molyneux, A.J.; Fox, A.J.; Claiborne, J.S.; Meder, J.-F.; Rouleau, I.
Summary The preventive treatment of unruptured aneurysms has been performed for decades despite the lack of evidence of a clinical benefit. Reports of observational studies such as the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms (ISUIA) suggest that preventive treatments are rarely justified. Are these reports compelling enough to guide clinical practice? The ISUIA methods and data are reviewed and analysed in a more conventional manner. The design of the appropriate clinical research program is approached by steps, reviewing potential problems, from the formulation of the precise research question to the interpretation of subgroup analyses, including sample size, representativity, duration of observation period, blinding, definition of outcome events, analysis of cross-overs, losses to follow-up, and data reporting. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms observed in ISUIA ruptured at a minimal annual rate of 0.8% (0.5-1%), despite multiple methodological difficulties biased in favour of a benign natural history. Available registries do not have the power or the design capable of providing normative guidelines for clinical decisions. The appropriate method to solve the clinical dilemma is a multicentric trial comparing the incidence of a hard clinical outcome events in approximately 2000 patients randomly allocated to a treatment group and a deferred treatment group, all followed for ten years or more. Observational studies have failed to provide reliable evidence in favour or against the preventive treatment of unruptured aneurysms. A randomized trial is in order to clarify what is the role of prevention in this common clinical problem. PMID:20557790
Kotwica, Tomasz; Szumarska, Joanna; Staniszewska-Marszalek, Edyta; Mazurek, Walentyna; Kosmala, Wojciech
Pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) is an uncommon lesion, which may be associated with different etiologies including congenital cardiovascular diseases, systemic vasculitis, connective tissue diseases, infections, and trauma. Idiopathic PAA is sporadically diagnosed by exclusion of concomitant major pathology. We report a case of a 56-year-old female with an idiopathic pulmonary artery dilatation identified fortuitously by echocardiography and confirmed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Neither significant pulmonary valve dysfunction nor pulmonary hypertension and other cardiac abnormalities which might contribute to the PAA development were found. Here, we describe echocardiographic and computed tomography findings and review the literature on PAA management.
Bernal, Astrid Del Pilar Ardila; Loures, Paulo; Calle, Juan Cristóbal Ospina; Cunha, Beatriz; Córdoba, Juan Camilo
We report a case of an aneurysm of the right hepatic artery and its multidisciplinary management by general surgery, endoscopy and radiology services. Being a case of extremely low incidence, it is important to show its diagnostic and therapeutic approach. RESUMO Relatamos um caso de aneurisma da artéria hepática direita conduzido de forma multidisciplinar pelos Serviços de Cirurgia Geral, Endoscopia e Radiologia. Em se tratando de caso de incidência baixíssima, é importante mostrar o enfoque diagnóstico e terapêutico usado em seu manejo.
Whittle, I R; Dorsch, N W; Besser, M
Twelve patients in a series of 22 with giant intracranial aneurysms demonstrated neuroradiological features of partial or total spontaneous intra-aneurysmal thrombosis. The presence of this intra-aneurysmal clot significantly altered the computed tomographic appearance of the giant aneurysm. Massive intra-aneurysmal thrombosis did not protect against subarachnoid haemorrhage and the likelihood of rupture of a clot containing giant aneurysm was not significantly different from that of a non-thrombosed giant aneurysm. Although parent artery occlusion from a thrombosed giant aneurysm, and massive aneurysmal thrombosis leading to the formation of giant serpentine aneurysm were documented, these are rare epiphenomena. The risk of embolisation from a partially thrombosed giant aneurysm, which was documented in one case, would appear to be greater than that from a non-thrombosed giant aneurysm. The findings in this series, and a review of literature, suggest that the presence of intra-aneurysmal clot in giant intracranial aneurysms has little prognostic significance and does not alter the management or outcome after treatment. Images PMID:7175528
Hindersin, P; Heidrich, R
Pathogenetic, diagnostic, and therapeutic problems and questions associated with ruptured cerebral aneurysms assume good knowledge of hemostatic processes. The three factors affecting hemostasia, namely, vasoactive, coagulative, and fibrinolytic risk factors in the blood, cerebro--spinal fluid, and at the site of damage to the vessel wall, are discussed withparticular reference to a thrombosing aneurysm. In the case of secondary hemorrhages it is necessary to determine the cause or pathogenesis, respectively, of the disturbance of coagulation or increase in fibrinolysis in order to be able to take suitable therapeutic measures and reduce the risk of secondary bleeding occurring within the first critical weeks after aneurysmal rupture.
Phade, Sachin V.; Garcia-Toca, Manuel; Kibbe, Melina R.
Endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVARs) has revolutionized the treatment of aortic aneurysms, with over half of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs performed endoluminally each year. Since the first endografts were placed two decades ago, many changes have been made in graft design, operative technique, and management of complications. This paper summarizes modern endovascular grafts, considerations in preoperative planning, and EVAR techniques. Specific areas that are addressed include endograft selection, arterial access, sheath delivery, aortic branch management, graft deployment, intravascular ultrasonography, pressure sensors, management of endoleaks and compressed limbs, and exit strategies. PMID:22121487
Lee, J.K.T.; Ling, D.; Heiken, J.P.; Glazer, H.S.; Sicard, G.A.; Totty, W.G.; Levitt, R.G.; Murphy, W.A.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 20 patients with radiologically or surgically proven abdominal aortic aneurysms using a Siemens Magnetom scanner with a 0.35-T superconductive magnet. Of nine patients who underwent surgical repair, MRI correctly demonstrated the origin of the aortic aneurysm in nine and accurately determined the status of the iliac arteries in eight. Of 11 patients who did not have surgical repair, MRI findings correlated well with other radiologic studies. MRI was found to be more reliable than sonography in determining the relation between the aneurysm and the renal arteries as well as the status of the iliac arteries. Despite these advantages, the authors still advocate sonography as the screening procedure of choice in patients with suspected abdominal aortic aneurysms because of its lower cost and ease of performance. MRI should be reserved for patients who have had unsuccessful or equivocal sonographic examinations.
Dengler, Julius; Maldaner, Nicolai; Gläsker, Sven; Endres, Matthias; Wagner, Martin; Malzahn, Uwe; Heuschmann, Peter U; Vajkoczy, Peter
Designing treatment strategies for unruptured giant intracranial aneurysms (GIA) is difficult as evidence of large clinical trials is lacking. We examined the outcome following surgical or endovascular GIA treatment focusing on patient age, GIA location and unruptured GIA. Medline and Embase were searched for studies reporting on GIA treatment outcome published after January 2000. We calculated the proportion of good outcome (PGO) for all included GIA and for unruptured GIA by meta-analysis using a random effects model. We included 54 studies containing 64 study populations with 1,269 GIA at a median follow-up time (FU-T) of 26.4 months (95% CI 10.8-42.0). PGO was 80.9% (77.4-84.4) in the analysis of all GIA compared to 81.2% (75.3-86.1) in the separate analysis of unruptured GIA. For each year added to patient age, PGO decreased by 0.8%, both for all GIA and unruptured GIA. For all GIA, surgical treatment resulted in a PGO of 80.3% (95% CI 76.0-84.6) compared to 84.2% (78.5-89.8, p = 0.27) after endovascular treatment. In unruptured GIA, PGO was 79.7% (95% CI 71.5-87.8) after surgical treatment and 84.9% (79.1-90.7, p = 0.54) after endovascular treatment. PGO was lower in high quality studies and in studies presenting aggregate instead of individual patient data. In unruptured GIA, the OR for good treatment outcome was 5.2 (95% CI 2.0-13.0) at the internal carotid artery compared to 0.1 (0.1-0.3, p < 0.1) in the posterior circulation. Patient sex, FU-T and prevalence of ruptured GIA were not associated with PGO. We found that the chances of good outcome after surgical or endovascular GIA treatment mainly depend on patient age and aneurysm location rather than on the type of treatment conducted. Our analysis may inform future research on GIA. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Ohshima, Tomotaka; Nagakura, Masamune; Nishizawa, Toshihisa; Kato, Kyozo
ABSTRACT Here we describe a novel technique for single stent horizontal reconstruction and coil embolization for a broad-necked large basilar artery (BA) apex aneurysm. A previously healthy 77-year-old woman presented with a broad-necked large BA apex aneurysm. Due to difficulty accessing the right posterior cerebral artery (PCA), we abandoned the Y-stent technique. Instead, we decided to navigate the stent through the BA to the left PCA making a loop of the stent delivery catheter inside the aneurysm in an "alpha" fashion. The procedure outcome was excellent without any complications. Alpha horizontal stent delivery via an antegrade approach for coil embolization of broad-necked large BA apex aneurysms may provide an effective therapeutic alternative, if other techniques are not feasible. PMID:26663945
Schneider, K W; Jesse, R; Deeg, P
In a 49-year-old man with crescendo angina, elevated serum cholesterol level and an old posterior myocardial infarction, selective coronary arteriography showed multiple arteriosclerotic aneurysms of the right coronary artery associated with extensive and severe arteriosclerotic disease of the left coronary artery. The patient's mother and brother have both died of a myocardial infarction. Another brother suffers from angina and has documented arteriosclerotic coronary artery disease. Two sisters suffer from angina as well. The possibility of embolization of distal vessels from a friable clot of the aneurysms as a cause of the patient's infarction is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the tenth patient with nonfistulous arteriosclerotic coronary artery aneurysm diagnosed and documented angiographically ante mortem. Including the present case and reviewing the literature, the prevalence of this condition among nonfistulous coronary aneurysms diagnosed ante mortem is 35 per cent and henceforth cannot be regarded as an incidental autopsy finding in cardiac asymptomatic patients.
Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Toyooka, Terushige; Fujii, Kazuya; Ueno, Hideaki; Tomura, Satoshi; Tomiyama, Arata; Nakao, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Takuji; Mori, Kentaro
Surgical clipping of complicated internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms can be very difficult because strong adhesion may hinder dissection of the perforators and surrounding anatomical structures from the aneurysm dome. We describe our experience in the clipping of these aneurysms using retrograde suction decompression (RSD) combined with extradural temporopolar approach (ETA) and discuss its advantages and pitfalls. This retrospective study included 30 consecutive patients with complicated ICA aneurysms treated by direct clipping with RSD assistance between March 2004 and March 2015. The aneurysms were located on the paraclinoid ICA in 20 cases, the posterior communicating artery bifurcation in 8, ICA bifurcation in 1, and the anterior wall of the ICA in 1. No patient suffered any complication related to the puncture of the common carotid artery. Surgical outcome was good recovery in 20 patients, moderate disability in 4, severe disability in 4, and vegetative state in 1. One patient died of re-rupture of the aneurysm caused by incomplete dome clipping. Two patients suffered cerebral infarction, caused by anterior choroidal artery infarction in 1 patient. Retrograde suction decompression combined with ETA is a useful technique for clipping of complicated ICA aneurysms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cebral, Juan R.; Hernandez, Monica; Frangi, Alejandro; Putman, Christopher; Pergolizzi, Richard; Burgess, James
Characterization of the blood flow patterns in cerebral aneurysms is important to explore possible correlations between the hemodynamics conditions and the morphology, location, type and risk of rupture of intracranial aneurysms. For this purpose, realistic patient-specific models are constructed from computed tomography angiography and 3D rotational angiography image data. Visualizations of the distribution of hemodynamics forces on the aneurysm walls as well as the intra-aneurysmal flow patterns are presented for a number of cerebral aneurysms of different sizes, types and locations. The numerical models indicate that there are different classes of intra-aneurysmal flow patterns, that may carry different risks of rupture.
... MRI scan Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular Aortic angiography Hardening of ... Center-Shreveport, Shreveport, LA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla ...
... signs or symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The final recommendation statement summarizes what the Task ... the potential benefits and harms of screening for AAA: (1) Men ages 65 to 75 who smoke ...
Serbinenko, F A; Filatov, J M; Spallone, A; Tchurilov, M V; Lazarev, V A
Nine patients with giant internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms (greater than 2.5 cm in diameter) were subjected to a combined extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass procedure and endovascular ICA occlusion during 1987 and 1988. The procedures were performed under one anesthetic. In all cases the collateral circulation had been judged insufficient on the basis of a strict preoperative testing protocol including: cerebral panangiography, electroencephalography, somatosensory potential recording, and cerebral blood flow monitoring during manual compression of the ICA in the neck. There were four intracavernous ICA aneurysms, four carotid-ophthalmic artery aneurysms, and one supraclinoid ICA aneurysm. All patients showed symptoms and signs of compression of the surrounding nervous structures. In the five cases of intradural lesions, the artery was occluded at the level of the aneurysm neck, so the ophthalmic artery had to be occluded. There was, nevertheless, no case of worsening of vision following surgery, and all nine patients showed significant improvement following the combined procedure. A combined EC-IC bypass procedure and endovascular ICA occlusion allows for immediate verification of the surgical results and appears to be a worthwhile method for treating giant intracranial aneurysms.
For centuries, physicians have recognized aortic aneurysms as an acute threat to life. Therapeutic approaches to the disease began in the 18th century when leading physicians, such as René Laennec and Antonio Valsalva, applied research on circulation and blood coagulation to devise whole-body fasting and bleeding regimens to prevent rupture. After John Hunter's success in ligating arteries to treat peripheral aneurysms, surgeons attempted analogous operations on the aorta, but even the renowned Sir Astley Cooper and William Halsted met with disastrous results. Other clinicians tried various methods of creating intraluminal clots, including the application of such new technologies as electricity and plastic. Vessel repair techniques, pioneered by Alexis Carrel and others in the 20th century, eventually provided a reliably effective treatment. In the past few decades, minimally invasive methods that approach aneurysms endovascularly through small groin incisions have been adopted. A successful 2005 congressional campaign to fund screening for aortic aneurysms brought the disease to national attention and symbolizes current confidence in curing it. Drawing on various published and unpublished sources, this paper elucidates the development of specific treatments for aortic aneurysms over time and more broadly addresses how medicine and surgery apply the knowledge and technology available in particular eras to treat a specific, identifiable, and lethal disease. Examining the evolution of these therapeutic efforts unveils broader trends in the history of medicine. This allows aortic aneurysms to serve as a case study for exploring shifting philosophies in medical history.
Cantón, Gádor; Lasheras, Juan C.; Levy, David I.
The last fifteen years have seen the development of new materials and devices for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms via an endovascular approach. In this study we aim to investigate, from the hemodynamical point of view, the effect of the deployment of multiple Neuroform stents (without the use of any coils or other packing agents) in the flow inside the aneurysmal sac. Although there are reports concerning the favorable clinical output after using this new technique, there is not a complete quantitative study of the changes in the flow and hemodynamic forces inside the aneurysmal pouch resulting from the placement of multiple stents across its neck. For this purpose, a Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) technique is used to measure the pulsatile blood velocity field at the entrance and inside the sac of silicone models of sidewall and bifurcating aneurysms with prototypical shapes. Measurements of the circulation inside the sac show that the use of multiple flexible intravascular stents can effectively reduce the strength of the vortex forming inside the aneurysmal sac with subsequent decrease in the magnitude of the shear stresses acting on the aneurysmal wall.
Wong, George K C; Zhu, Canon X L; Ahuja, Anil T; Poon, Wai S
The release of results of International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial in 2003 caused a shift in the paradigm of management of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The cases selected for microsurgical clipping nowadays are usually those patients with aneurysms that are not suitable for embolization, and are often complex and difficult. We devised an innovative application of operative planning and training for craniotomy and microsurgical clipping of intracranial aneurysms in a stereoscopic virtual reality environment. Patient-specific Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine data from computed tomographic angiography of the intracranial circulation and cranium were transferred to the workstation (Dextroscope; Volume Interactions Pte. Ltd., Singapore, Singapore). An aneurysm clip database was loaded into the patient data set. Three-dimensional volume rendering was followed by data coregistration and fusion. Virtual head positioning and craniotomy were carried out to simulate the microscopic visualization. Clip selection could be carried out with reference to the angle of application. This allows one to see the exposure and degree of obliteration of an aneurysm with the various angles of approach. The virtual craniotomy and microsurgical clipping application simulated the operative environment. Its role in neurosurgical training is encouraging and should be further developed.
Silveira, Pierre Galvagni; Cunha, Josué Rafael Ferreira; Lima, Guilherme Baumgardt Barbosa; Franklin, Rafael Narciso; Bortoluzzi, Cristiano Torres; Galego, Gilberto do Nascimento
A ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA), complicated by an aortocaval fistula (ACF), is usually associated with high morbidity and mortality during open operative repair. We report a case of endovascular treatment of an RAAA with ACF. After accessing both common femoral arteries, a bifurcated aortic stent graft was placed. Subsequently, we accessed the fistula from the right femoral vein and a cava vein angiography showed a persistent massive flow from the cava to the excluded aneurysm sac. We proceeded by covering the fistula with an Excluder aortic stent-graft cuff to prevent pressurization of the aneurysm sac and secondary endoleaks. This procedure is feasible and may reduce the chances of posterior endoleaks.
Cerebral aneurysm is a pathological vascular response to hemodynamic stimuli. Endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms essentially alters the blood flow to stop them from continued growth and eventual rupture. Compared to surgical clipping, endovascular methods are minimally invasive and hence rapidly gaining popularity. However, they are not always effective with risks of aneurysm regrowth and various complications. We aim at developing a Virtual Intervention (VI) platform that allows: patient-specific flow calculation and risk prediction as well as recommendation of tailored intervention based on quantitative analysis. This is a lofty goal requiring advancement in three areas of research: (1). Advancement of image-based CFD; (2) Understanding the biological/pathological responses of tissue to hemodynamic factors in the context of cerebral aneurysms; and (3) Capability of designing and testing patient-specific endovascular devices. We have established CFD methodologies based on anatomical geometry obtained from 3D angiographic or CT images. To study the effect of hemodynamics on aneurysm development, we have created a canine model of a vascular bifurcation anastomosis to provide the hemodynamic environment similar to those in CA. Vascular remodeling was studied using histology and compared against the flow fields obtained from CFD. It was found that an intimal pad, similar to those frequently seen clinically, developed at the flow impingement site, bordering with an area of `groove' characteristic of an early stage of aneurysm, where the micro environment exhibits an elevated wall shear stresses. To further address the molecular mechanisms of the flow-mediated aneurysm pathology, we are also developing in vitro cell culture systems to complement the in vivo study. Our current effort in endovascular device development focuses on novel stents that alters the aneurysmal flow to promote thrombotic occlusion as well as favorable remodeling. Realization of an
Stone, William M; Fankhauser, Grant T
Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms (IAAA) are being treated more frequently by endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Some authors caution against treating IAAA by EVAR because retroperitoneal inflammation may not subside post-operatively. A recent experience of 69 IAAA treated by open and endovascular methods is presented with results supporting the use of EVAR for IAAA. Several other studies evaluating EVAR in the treatment of IAAA are discussed.
Couldwell, William T; Neil, Jayson A
Ruptured fusiform posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms can be technically challenging lesions. Surgeons must be ready to employ a variety of strategies in the successful treatment of these aneurysms. Strategies include complex clip techniques including clip-wrapping or trapping and revascularization. The case presented here is of a man with subarachnoid hemorrhage from a fusiform ruptured PICA aneurysm. The technique demonstrated is a far-lateral approach and a clip-wrap technique using muslin gauze. The patient was given aspirin preoperatively in preparation for possible occipital-PICA bypass if direct repair was not feasible. It is the authors' preference to perform direct vessel repair as a primary goal and use bypass techniques when this is not possible. Vessel patency was evaluated after clip-wrapping using intraoperative Doppler. Intraoperative somatosensory and motor evoked potential monitoring is used in such cases. The patient recovered well. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/iwLqufH47Ds .
Munekata, K; Omori, H; Kanazawa, Y; Miyazaki, S; Fukushima, H; Kamata, K
A case of accessory middle cerebral artery associated with internal carotid artery aneurysm was reported. A 50-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with complaints of headache, nausea, vomiting and conciousness disturbance. Lumbar puncture showed bloody CSF. Right carotid angiogram revealed saccular aneurysm of the internal carotid-posterior communicating artery and accessory middle cerebral artery originating from the horizontal portion of the right anterior cerebral artery. No other vascular lesion was observed on other angiograms. Operation was performed 2 days after admission. The neck of the aneurysm was clipped. Postoperative aseptic meningitis was cured by frequent lumbar punctures, and her course was uneventful. The etiological hypothesis of these cerebral vascular anomalies was briefly discussed.
Lim, Dong-Ho; Jung, Tae-Young; Kim, Tae-Sun
A 64-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with a one-month history of progressive headache. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a hemorrhagic mass adjacent to the left inferior cerebellar hemisphere associated with a peripheral rim of signal void. Angiography demonstrated an avascular mass and the provisional diagnosis was a large cavernous angioma in the cerebellum. Intraoperative findings revealed a thrombosed giant aneurysm of the left distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). We report an unusual case of a completely thrombosed giant aneurysm simulating a large cavernous angioma in the cerebellum. The cerebellar cisternal location of the mass may be a clue for the pre-operative diagnosis of an aneurysm. PMID:19096624
Doustkami, Hossein; Maleki, Nasrollah; Tavosi, Zahra
Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic. PMID:27403190
Rolland, J M; Bical, O; Laradi, A; Robinault, J; Benzidia, R; Vanetti, A; Herreman, G
A false left ventricular aneurysm and coronary artery aneurysm were discovered in a 29 year old patient with Behçet's syndrome. The operation under cardiopulmonary bypass consisted of closing the neck of the false aneurysm by an endo-aneurysmal approach with a Gore-Tex patch. The coronary artery aneurysms were respected. There were no postoperative complications. Cardiac involvement is rare in Behçet's syndrome (6%). The originality of this case is the association of two aneurysmal pathologies: the coronary and ventricular aneurysms due to the angiitis and the myocardial fragility induced by ischaemia.
Sadato, Akiyo; Adachi, Kazuhide; Hayakawa, Motoharu; Kato, Yoko; Hirose, Yuichi
When embolizing cerebral aneurysms, dense coil packing may prevent recanalization but this may be influenced by the aneurysm morphology. We have analyzed retrospectively the relationship between anatomic features and the volumetric coil packing density. We analyzed 452 aneurysms in 434 patients treated by coil embolization without stenting, expressing packing density as volume embolization ratio (VER, volume of inserted coils/aneurysm volume). Six morphological variables (neck width, height, maximum diameter, dome to neck ratio (DNR), and aspect ratio), aneurysm location, and whether the aneurysm was ruptured or unruptured were analyzed with respect to dense (VER ≥20%) or loose (VER <20%) packing densities, using logistic regression analysis and ROC analysis. Among 452 aneurysms, VERs >20% were achieved for 272 aneurysms, with a mean VER of 24.7%. The mean VER of the remaining 180 aneurysms was 15.6%. In univariate analyses, the predictors for dense packing were having an anterior circulation, DNR, aspect ratio, and neck width. In multivariate analysis, the independent predictors were smaller neck width (odds ratio (OR) 0.8735; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7635-0.9993) and larger aspect ratio (OR 1.6679; 95% CI 1.0460-2.6594). ROC analysis showed optimal cutoff values for an aspect ratio of 1.35 (sensitivity 69.5%, specificity 51.7%) and a neck width of 3.13 mm (sensitivity 51.1%, specificity 27.8%). Although dense coil packing is still difficult to achieve in wide-necked aneurysms without the use of stents, packing with VER >20% is expected to be achieved when the height is 1.35 times larger than the neck width.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is believed to occur when the mechanical stress acting on the wall exceeds the strength of the wall tissue. Therefore, knowledge of the AAA wall stress distribution could be useful in assessing its risk of rupture. In our research, a finite element analysis was used to determine the wall stresses both in idealized models and in a real clinical model in which the aorta was considered isotropic with nonlinear material properties and was loaded with a given pressure. In the idealized models, both maximum diameter and asymmetry were found to have substantial influence on the distribution of the wall stress. The thrombus inside the AAA was also found to help protecting the walls from high stresses. Using CT scans of the AAA, the actual geometry of the aneurysm was reconstructed and we found that wall tension increases on the flatter surface (typically corresponds to the posterior surface) and at the inflection points of the bulge. In addition to the static analysis, we also performed simulations of the effect of unsteady pressure wave propagation inside the aneurysm.
Hernandez, Juan L; Bélanger, Marie-Claude; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile; Girard, Christiane; Pibarot, Philippe
A 6-month-old German shepherd dog was referred for evaluation of a cardiac murmur. Upon physical examination, the auscultated heart rate was 120 beats/min, and a grade IV/VI systolic heart murmur with a point of maximal intensity over the left heart base radiating up the neck was heard. The standard echocardiographic examination showed subaortic stenosis and an anechoic tubular structure extending from the sinus of Valsalva to the left ventricular posterior wall. Aneurysmal left coronary artery (CA) was confirmed by angiography. The dog was euthanized and post-mortem examination showed severe dilatation of the proximal left CA and confirmed the subaortic stenosis. Histopathology did not demonstrate abnormalities in the walls of the CA, aorta or pulmonary artery. The exact cause of the CA aneurysmal dilation remains unknown. Subaortic stenosis, elevated coronary vascular resistance or a congenital anomaly may have contributed to the dilation. To our knowledge, coronary aneur