Sample records for posterior corneal elevation

  1. Scheimpflug imaged corneal changes on anterior and posterior surfaces after collagen cross-linking

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ziad; Modis, Laszlo; Szalai, Eszter; Berta, Andras; Nemeth, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    AIM To compare the anterior and posterior corneal parameters before and after collagen cross-linking therapy for keratoconus. METHODS Collagen cross-linking was performed in 31 eyes of 31 keratoconus patients (mean age 30.6±8.9y). Prior to treatment and an average 7mo after therapy, Scheimpflug analysis was performed using Pentacam HR. In addition to corneal thickness assessments, corneal radius, elevation, and aberrometric measurements were performed both on anterior and posterior corneal surfaces. Data obtained before and after surgery were statistically analyzed. RESULTS In terms of horizontal and vertical corneal radius, and central corneal thickness no deviations were observed an average 7mo after operation. Corneal higher order aberration showed no difference neither on anterior nor on posterior corneal surfaces. During follow-up period, no significant deviation was detected regarding elevation values obtained by measurement in mm units between the 3.0-8.0 mm-zones. CONCLUSION Corneal stabilization could be observed in terms of anterior and posterior corneal surfaces, elevation and higher order aberration values 7mo after collagen cross-linking therapy for keratoconus. PMID:24790876

  2. Posterior corneal topographic changes after partial flap during laser in situ keratomileusis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, N; Rani, A; Balasubramanya, R; Vajpayee, R B; Pandey, R M

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To study the posterior corneal topographic changes in eyes with partial flaps during laser assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Methods: Case records of 16 patients, who had partial flap in one eye during LASIK (group 1) and uncomplicated surgery in the other eye (group 2), were studied. Following occurrence of partial flap intraoperatively, laser ablation was abandoned in all the eyes. A 160/180 μm flap was attempted during the initial procedure using the Hansatome microkeratome (Bausch & Lomb Surgicals, Munich, Germany). LASIK surgery in all cases was performed using a 180 μm plate, at the mean interval of 4.16 (SD 1.5) months following the initial procedure. None of the eyes had intraoperative complication during LASIK. Relative posterior corneal surface elevation above the best fit sphere (BFS) before the initial procedure, before, and after LASIK were compared using the Orbscan slit scanning corneal topography/pachymetry system. Results: Posterior corneal elevation was comparable in the two groups, both preoperatively (group 1; 16.4 (4.8) μm, group 2; 16.1 (4.8) μm) and after final surgery (group 1; 57.2 (15.6) μm, group 2; 54.3 (13.1) μm). In group 1 after occurrence of partial flap, the posterior corneal elevation was 16.9 (4.4) μm, and this increase was not significant statistically (p=0.4). On multiple linear regression analysis, residual bed thickness (p<0.001) was independently the significant determinant of final posterior corneal elevation in both groups. Conclusion: The inadvertent occurrence of partial flap during LASIK procedure does not contribute to the increase in posterior corneal elevation. PMID:12543743

  3. Measurement of Posterior Corneal Astigmatism by the IOLMaster 700.

    PubMed

    LaHood, Benjamin R; Goggin, Michael

    2018-05-01

    To provide the first description of posterior corneal astigmatism as measured by the IOLMaster 700 (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany) and assess how its characteristics compare to previous measurements from other devices. A total of 1,098 routine IOLMaster 700 biometric measurements were analyzed to provide magnitudes and orientation of steep and flat axes of anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism. Subgroup analysis was conducted to assess correlation of posterior corneal astigmatism characteristics to anterior corneal astigmatism and describe the distribution of posterior corneal astigmatism with age. Mean posterior corneal astigmatism was 0.24 ± 0.15 diopters (D). The steep axis of posterior corneal astigmatism was vertically oriented in 73.32% of measurements. Correlation between the magnitude of anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism was greatest when the steep axis of the anterior corneal astigmatism was oriented vertically (r = 0.68, P < .0001). Vertical orientation of the steep axis of anterior corneal astigmatism became less common as age increased, whereas for posterior corneal astigmatism it remained by far the most common orientation. This first description of posterior corneal astigmatism measurement by the IOLMaster 700 found the average magnitude of posterior corneal astigmatism and proportion of vertical orientation of steep axis was lower than previous estimates. The IOLMaster 700 appears capable of providing enhanced biometric measurement for individualized surgical planning. [J Refract Surg. 2018;34(5):331-336.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Anterior Corneal, Posterior Corneal, and Lenticular Contributions to Ocular Aberrations.

    PubMed

    Atchison, David A; Suheimat, Marwan; Mathur, Ankit; Lister, Lucas J; Rozema, Jos

    2016-10-01

    To determine the corneal surfaces and lens contributions to ocular aberrations. There were 61 healthy participants with ages ranging from 20 to 55 years and refractions -8.25 diopters (D) to +3.25 D. Anterior and posterior corneal topographies were obtained with an Oculus Pentacam, and ocular aberrations were obtained with an iTrace aberrometer. Raytracing through models of corneas provided total corneal and surface component aberrations for 5-mm-diameter pupils. Lenticular contributions were given as differences between ocular and corneal aberrations. Theoretical raytracing investigated influence of object distance on aberrations. Apart from defocus, the highest aberration coefficients were horizontal astigmatism, horizontal coma, and spherical aberration. Most correlations between lenticular and ocular parameters were positive and significant, with compensation of total corneal aberrations by lenticular aberrations for 5/12 coefficients. Anterior corneal aberrations were approximately three times higher than posterior corneal aberrations and usually had opposite signs. Corneal topographic centers were displaced from aberrometer pupil centers by 0.32 ± 0.19 mm nasally and 0.02 ± 0.16 mm inferiorly; disregarding corneal decentration relative to pupil center was significant for oblique astigmatism, horizontal coma, and horizontal trefoil. An object at infinity, rather than at the image in the anterior cornea, gave incorrect aberration estimates of the posterior cornea. Corneal and lenticular aberration magnitudes are similar, and aberrations of the anterior corneal surface are approximately three times those of the posterior surface. Corneal decentration relative to pupil center has significant effects on oblique astigmatism, horizontal coma, and horizontal trefoil. When estimating component aberrations, it is important to use correct object/image conjugates and heights at surfaces.

  5. Posterior Corneal Characteristics of Cataract Patients with High Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Qinghe; Tang, Yating; Qian, Dongjin; Lu, Yi; Jiang, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the characteristics of the posterior corneal surface in patients with high myopia before cataract surgery. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study at the Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Corneal astigmatism and axial length were measured with a rotating Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam) and partial coherence interferometry (IOLMaster) in a high-myopia study group of 167 eyes (axial length ≥ 26 mm) and a control group of 150 eyes (axial length > 20 mm and < 25 mm). Results Total corneal astigmatism and anterior corneal astigmatism values were higher in the high-myopia group than in the control group. There was no significant difference in posterior corneal astigmatism between the high-myopia study group and the control group. In the study group, the mean posterior corneal astigmatism (range 0 – −0.9 diopters) was –0.29 diopters (D) ± 0.17 standard deviations (SD). The steep corneal meridian was aligned vertically (60°–120°) in 87.43% of eyes for the posterior corneal surface, and did not change with increasing age. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.235, p = 0.002) between posterior corneal astigmatism and anterior corneal astigmatism, especially when the anterior corneal surface showed with-the-rule (WTR) astigmatism (r = 0.452, p = 0.000). There was a weak negative correlation between posterior corneal astigmatism and age (r = –0.15, p = 0.053) in the high-myopia group. Compared with total corneal astigmatism values, the anterior corneal measurements alone overestimated WTR astigmatism by a mean of 0.27 ± 0.18 D in 68.75% of eyes, underestimated against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism by a mean of 0.41 ± 0.28 D in 88.89% of eyes, and underestimated oblique astigmatism by a mean of 0.24 ± 0.13 D in 63.64% of eyes. Conclusions Posterior corneal astigmatism decreased with age and remained as ATR astigmatism in most cases of high myopia. There was a significant correlation between posterior corneal

  6. Posterior Corneal Characteristics of Cataract Patients with High Myopia.

    PubMed

    Jing, Qinghe; Tang, Yating; Qian, Dongjin; Lu, Yi; Jiang, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the characteristics of the posterior corneal surface in patients with high myopia before cataract surgery. We performed a cross-sectional study at the Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Corneal astigmatism and axial length were measured with a rotating Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam) and partial coherence interferometry (IOLMaster) in a high-myopia study group of 167 eyes (axial length ≥ 26 mm) and a control group of 150 eyes (axial length > 20 mm and < 25 mm). Total corneal astigmatism and anterior corneal astigmatism values were higher in the high-myopia group than in the control group. There was no significant difference in posterior corneal astigmatism between the high-myopia study group and the control group. In the study group, the mean posterior corneal astigmatism (range 0 - -0.9 diopters) was -0.29 diopters (D) ± 0.17 standard deviations (SD). The steep corneal meridian was aligned vertically (60°-120°) in 87.43% of eyes for the posterior corneal surface, and did not change with increasing age. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.235, p = 0.002) between posterior corneal astigmatism and anterior corneal astigmatism, especially when the anterior corneal surface showed with-the-rule (WTR) astigmatism (r = 0.452, p = 0.000). There was a weak negative correlation between posterior corneal astigmatism and age (r = -0.15, p = 0.053) in the high-myopia group. Compared with total corneal astigmatism values, the anterior corneal measurements alone overestimated WTR astigmatism by a mean of 0.27 ± 0.18 D in 68.75% of eyes, underestimated against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism by a mean of 0.41 ± 0.28 D in 88.89% of eyes, and underestimated oblique astigmatism by a mean of 0.24 ± 0.13 D in 63.64% of eyes. Posterior corneal astigmatism decreased with age and remained as ATR astigmatism in most cases of high myopia. There was a significant correlation between posterior corneal astigmatism and anterior corneal astigmatism

  7. Posterior corneal astigmatism in refractive lens exchange surgery.

    PubMed

    Rydström, Elin; Westin, Oscar; Koskela, Timo; Behndig, Anders

    2016-05-01

    To assess the anterior, posterior and total corneal spherical and astigmatic powers in patients undergoing refractive lens exchange (RLE) surgery. In 402 consecutive patients planned for RLE at Koskelas Eye Clinic, Luleå, Sweden, right eye data from pre- and postoperative subjective refraction, preoperative IOLMaster(®) biometry and Pentacam HR(®) measurements were collected. Postoperative Pentacam HR(®) data were collected for 54 of the patients. The spherical and astigmatic powers of the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces and for the total cornea were assessed and compared, and surgically, induced astigmatism was calculated using vector analysis. The spherical power of the anterior corneal surface was 48.18 ± 1.69D with an astigmatic power of 0.83 ± 0.54D. The corresponding values for the posterior surface were -6.05 ± 2,52D and 0.26 ± 0.15D, respectively. The total corneal spherical power calculated with ray tracing was 42.47 ± 2.89D with a 0.72 ± 0.48D astigmatic power, and the corresponding figures obtained by estimating the posterior corneal surface were 43.25 ± 1.51D (p < 0.001) with a 0.75 ± 0.49D astigmatic power (p = 0.003). In eyes with anterior astigmatism with-the-rule, the total corneal astigmatism is overestimated if the posterior corneal surface is estimated; in eyes, with against-the-rule astigmatism it is underestimated. Had the posterior corneal surface been measured in this material, 14.7% of the patients would have received a spheric instead of a toric IOL, or vice versa. Estimating the posterior corneal surface in RLE patients leads to systematic measurement errors that can be reduced by measuring the posterior surface. Such an approach can potentially increase the refractive outcome accuracy in RLE surgery. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Thick keratoconic cornea associated with posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Zaarour, K; Slim, E; Antoun, J; Waked, N

    2017-03-01

    We herein report a case of bilateral unusually thick non-edematous keratoconic corneas with associated endothelial features of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD). We report the case of a 27-year-old myopic woman who presented for refractive surgery. Slit lamp exam showed bilateral corneal protrusion with diffuse deep stromal and endothelial vesicular opacities and small paracentral bands. Topography showed generalized advanced corneal steepening in both eyes with increased anterior and posterior central corneal elevations in comparison to the best fit sphere. Ultrasound pachymetry showed central corneal thickness of 605μm (RE) and 612μm (LE). On specular biomicroscopy, cell density of 2503 cells/mm 2 RE and 1526 cells/mm 2 LE with significant cellular pleomorphism and polymegathism were noted. Clinical and paraclinical findings together suggest the presence of simultaneous keratoconus and PPCD. The literature has suggested an association between PPCD and steep cornea. Moreover, many reports have also described cases of associated PPCD and keratoconus with characteristic thinning and ectasia, in comparison to the unusual thick corneas noted in our patient, despite the absence of edema. Identification of genetics factors is further needed to clarify this association. This case describes a patient whose corneas present features of both keratoconus and PPCD and is unique due to the presence of increased corneal thickness despite the absence of edema. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a program for toric intraocular lens calculation considering posterior corneal astigmatism, incision-induced posterior corneal astigmatism, and effective lens position.

    PubMed

    Eom, Youngsub; Ryu, Dongok; Kim, Dae Wook; Yang, Seul Ki; Song, Jong Suk; Kim, Sug-Whan; Kim, Hyo Myung

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the toric intraocular lens (IOL) calculation considering posterior corneal astigmatism, incision-induced posterior corneal astigmatism, and effective lens position (ELP). Two thousand samples of corneal parameters with keratometric astigmatism ≥ 1.0 D were obtained using bootstrap methods. The probability distributions for incision-induced keratometric and posterior corneal astigmatisms, as well as ELP were estimated from the literature review. The predicted residual astigmatism error using method D with an IOL add power calculator (IAPC) was compared with those derived using methods A, B, and C through Monte-Carlo simulation. Method A considered the keratometric astigmatism and incision-induced keratometric astigmatism, method B considered posterior corneal astigmatism in addition to the A method, method C considered incision-induced posterior corneal astigmatism in addition to the B method, and method D considered ELP in addition to the C method. To verify the IAPC used in this study, the predicted toric IOL cylinder power and its axis using the IAPC were compared with ray-tracing simulation results. The median magnitude of the predicted residual astigmatism error using method D (0.25 diopters [D]) was smaller than that derived using methods A (0.42 D), B (0.38 D), and C (0.28 D) respectively. Linear regression analysis indicated that the predicted toric IOL cylinder power and its axis had excellent goodness-of-fit between the IAPC and ray-tracing simulation. The IAPC is a simple but accurate method for predicting the toric IOL cylinder power and its axis considering posterior corneal astigmatism, incision-induced posterior corneal astigmatism, and ELP.

  10. Posterior corneal surface differences between non-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and 10-year post-LASIK myopic eyes.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ma-Li; Wang, Qin-Mei; Lin, Zu-Shun; Yu, Ye; Huang, Jin-Hai; Savini, Giacomo; Zhang, Jia; Wang, Ling; Xu, Chen-Chen

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the posterior corneal surface differences between non-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and 10-year post-LASIK myopic eyes. The study included 130 eyes from 65 patients, who were treated with myopic LASIK 10 years ago. In addition, 130 eyes from 65 unoperated myopic patients of matching present age and preoperative refraction were divided into control group. Data on the posterior corneal surface and anterior chamber were obtained from Pentacam software and compared between the groups. Postoperative visual acuity (VA) and refractive error were also analysed. The mean preoperative spherical equivalent (SE) was -6.99 ± 1.78 dioptre (D) in the LASIK group. Ten years after surgery, the mean SE was -0.45 ± 1.22 D, the efficacy index was 0.98, and the safety index was 1.01. The posterior corneal elevations of the LASIK group at 2 mm corneal diameter were significantly lower than those of the control group. However, posterior corneal elevations at 6 mm corneal diameter were higher in the LASIK group than the controls (p < 0.01 for all). The mean Q-values of posterior corneal surface demonstrated significant positive direction compared to that of control eyes at 6 and 7 mm corneal diameters (p < 0.05 for both). At the thinnest point of the cornea, the anterior chamber depths were shallower in the LASIK group than in controls. Meanwhile, the anterior chamber volumes (ACV) were smaller in the LASIK group than in the control group. Our results demonstrated that the posterior corneal surface tends to show signs of central flattening and peripheral steepening 10 years after myopic LASIK surgery compared to that of non-operated myopic eyes. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Mean Posterior Corneal Power and Astigmatism in Normal Versus Keratoconic Eyes.

    PubMed

    Feizi, Sepehr; Delfazayebaher, Siamak; Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Karimian, Farid; Ownagh, Vahid; Sadeghpour, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    To compare mean posterior corneal power and astigmatism in normal versus keratoconus affected eyes and determine the optimal cut-off points to maximize sensitivity and specificity in discriminating keratoconus from normal corneas. A total of 204 normal eyes and 142 keratoconus affected eyes were enrolled in this prospective comparative study. Mean posterior corneal power and astigmatism were measured using a dual Scheimpflug camera. Correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the relationship between the magnitudes of keratometric and posterior corneal astigmatism in the study groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the measured parameters and to identify the optimal cut-off points for discriminating keratoconus from normal corneas. The mean posterior corneal power was -6.29 ± 0.20 D in the normal group and -7.77 ± 0.87 D in the keratoconus group ( P < 0.001). The mean magnitudes of the posterior corneal astigmatisms were -0.32 ± 0.15 D and -0.94 ± 0.39 D in the normal and keratoconus groups, respectively ( P < 0.001). Significant correlations were found between the magnitudes of keratometric and posterior corneal astigmatism in the normal (r=-0.76, P < 0.001) and keratoconus (r=-0.72, P < 0.001) groups. The mean posterior corneal power and astigmatism were highly reliable characteristics that distinguished keratoconus from normal corneas (area under the curve, 0.99 and 0.95, respectively). The optimal cut-off points of mean posterior corneal power and astigmatism were -6.70 D and -0.54 D, respectively. Mean posterior corneal power and astigmatism measured using a Galilei analyzer camera might have potential in diagnosing keratoconus. The cut-off points provided can be used for keratoconus screening.

  12. Characteristics of Posterior Corneal Astigmatism in Different Stages of Keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Aslani, Fereshteh; Khorrami-Nejad, Masoud; Aghazadeh Amiri, Mohammad; Hashemian, Hesam; Askarizadeh, Farshad; Khosravi, Bahram

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the magnitudes and axis orientation of anterior corneal astigmatism (ACA) and posterior corneal astigmatism (PCA), the ratio of ACA to PCA, and the correlation between ACA and PCA in the different stages of keratoconus (KCN). This retrospective case series comprised 161 eyes of 161 patients with KCN (104 men, 57 women; mean age, 22.35 ± 6.10 years). The participants were divided into four subgroups according to the Amsler-Krumeich classification. A Scheimpflug imaging system was used to measure the magnitude and axis orientation of ACA and PCA. The posterior-anterior corneal astigmatism ratio was also calculated. The results were compared among different subgroups. The average amounts of anterior, posterior, and total corneal astigmatism were 4.08 ± 2.21 diopters (D), 0.86 ± 0.46 D, and 3.50 ± 1.94 D, respectively. With-the-rule, against-the-rule, and oblique astigmatisms of the posterior surface of the cornea were found in 61 eyes (37.9%), 67 eyes (41.6%), and 33 eyes (20.5%), respectively; corresponding figures in the anterior corneal surface were 55 eyes (32.4%), 56 eyes (34.8%), and 50 eyes (31.1%), respectively. A strong correlation ( P ≤ 0.001, r = 0.839) was found between ACA and PCA in the different stages of KCN; the correlation was weaker in eyes with grade 3 ( P ≤ 0.001, r = 0.711) and grade 4 ( P ≤ 0.001, r = 0.717) KCN. The maximum posterior-anterior corneal astigmatism ratio (PCA/ACA, 0.246) was found in patients with stage 1 KCN. Corneal astigmatism in anterior surface was more affected than posterior surface by increasing in the KCN severity, although PCA was more affected than ACA in an early stage of KCN.

  13. Distribution of the anterior, posterior, and total corneal astigmatism in healthy eyes.

    PubMed

    Feizi, Sepehr; Naderan, Mohammad; Ownagh, Vahid; Sadeghpour, Fatemeh

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the magnitude and axis orientation of the anterior, posterior, and total corneal astigmatism in normal healthy eyes of an Iranian population. In a prospective cross-sectional study, ophthalmic and anterior segment parameters of 153 healthy eyes of 153 subjects were evaluated by Galilei dual Scheimpflug analyzer. The magnitude and axis orientation [with-the-rule (WTR), against-the-rule (ATR), and oblique] of the anterior, posterior, and total corneal astigmatism measurements (ACA, PCA, and TCA) were compared according to the age, sex, and other ophthalmic parameters. The mean ± SD age of the study population was 30 ± 5.9 years. The mean magnitude was 1.09 ± 0.76 diopters (D) for ACA, 0.30 ± 0.13 D for PCA, and 1.08 ± 0.77 D for TCA. Males had a significantly higher magnitude of PCA than females (p = 0.041). Most eyes had a WTR anterior astigmatism and an ATR posterior astigmatism. The WTR astigmatism had a higher mean magnitude compared to the ATR and oblique astigmatism in all the astigmatism groups, with a significant difference in the ACA and TCA groups (p < 0.05). PCA magnitude exceeded 0.50 D in only 7.8% of the subjects. ACA, PCA, and TCA were significantly correlated with each other and also had a significant correlation with the anterior and posterior maximum corneal elevation measurements (p < 0.001). The results of this study although are limited due to the small number of participants and confined to our demographics, provided information regarding a population that was not described before and may be helpful in obtaining optimum results in astigmatism correction in refractive surgery or designing new intraocular lenses.

  14. Posterior corneal curvature changes following Refractive Small Incision Lenticule Extraction.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Sri; Patel, Utsav; Brar, Sheetal

    2015-01-01

    To compare the posterior corneal curvature changes, in terms of corneal power and asphercity, following Refractive Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (ReLEx SMILE) procedure for low, moderate, and high myopia. This retrospective, non randomized, comparative, interventional trial; included 52 eyes of 26 patients, divided in three groups: low myopia (myopia ≤3 D [diopters] spherical equivalent [SE]), moderate myopia (myopia >3 D and <6 D SE), and high myopia (myopia ≥6 D SE). All patients were treated for myopia and myopic astigmatism using ReLEx SMILE. The eyes were examined pre-operatively and 3 months post-operatively using SCHWIND SIRIUS, a three-dimensional rotating Scheimpflug camera with a Placido disc topographer to assess corneal changes with regard to keratometric power and asphericity of the cornea. A statistically significant increase in mean keratometric power in the 3, 5, and 7 mm zones of the posterior corneal surface compared with its pre-ReLEx SMILE value was detected after 3 months in the moderate myopia group (pre-operative [pre-op] -6.14±0.23, post-operative [post-op] -6.29±0.22, P<0.001) and high myopia group (pre-op -6.19±0.16, post-op -6.4±0.18, P<0.001), but there was no significant change in keratometric power of the posterior surface in the low myopia group (pre-op -5.87±0.17, post-op -6.06±0.29, P=0.143). Asphericity (Q-value) of the posterior surface changed significantly (P<0.001) after ReLEx SMILE in the moderate myopia group in the 3, 5, and 7 mm zones, and in the high myopia group in the 3 and 7 mm zones; but there was no significant change in the Q-value in the low myopia group in all three zones (pre-op 0.23±0.43, post-op -0.40±0.71, P=0.170), and in the high myopia group in the 5 mm zone (P=0.228). ReLEx SMILE causes significant changes in posterior corneal keratometric power and asphericity in moderate and high myopia, but the effect is subtle and insignificant in low myopia.

  15. Posterior corneal curvature changes following Refractive Small Incision Lenticule Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Sri; Patel, Utsav; Brar, Sheetal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the posterior corneal curvature changes, in terms of corneal power and asphercity, following Refractive Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (ReLEx SMILE) procedure for low, moderate, and high myopia. Methods This retrospective, non randomized, comparative, interventional trial; included 52 eyes of 26 patients, divided in three groups: low myopia (myopia ≤3 D [diopters] spherical equivalent [SE]), moderate myopia (myopia >3 D and <6 D SE), and high myopia (myopia ≥6 D SE). All patients were treated for myopia and myopic astigmatism using ReLEx SMILE. The eyes were examined pre-operatively and 3 months post-operatively using SCHWIND SIRIUS, a three-dimensional rotating Scheimpflug camera with a Placido disc topographer to assess corneal changes with regard to keratometric power and asphericity of the cornea. Results A statistically significant increase in mean keratometric power in the 3, 5, and 7 mm zones of the posterior corneal surface compared with its pre-ReLEx SMILE value was detected after 3 months in the moderate myopia group (pre-operative [pre-op] −6.14±0.23, post-operative [post-op] −6.29±0.22, P<0.001) and high myopia group (pre-op −6.19±0.16, post-op −6.4±0.18, P<0.001), but there was no significant change in keratometric power of the posterior surface in the low myopia group (pre-op −5.87±0.17, post-op −6.06±0.29, P=0.143). Asphericity (Q-value) of the posterior surface changed significantly (P<0.001) after ReLEx SMILE in the moderate myopia group in the 3, 5, and 7 mm zones, and in the high myopia group in the 3 and 7 mm zones; but there was no significant change in the Q-value in the low myopia group in all three zones (pre-op 0.23±0.43, post-op −0.40±0.71, P=0.170), and in the high myopia group in the 5 mm zone (P=0.228). Conclusion ReLEx SMILE causes significant changes in posterior corneal keratometric power and asphericity in moderate and high myopia, but the effect is subtle and insignificant in low

  16. Inverse cutting of posterior lamellar corneal grafts by a femtosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Hjortdal, Jesper; Nielsen, Esben; Vestergaard, Anders; Søndergaard, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Posterior lamellar grafting of the cornea has become the preferred technique for treatment of corneal endothelial dysfunction. Posterior lamellar grafts are usually cut by a micro-keratome or a femto-second laser after the epithelial side of the donor cornea has been applanated. This approach often results in variable central graft thickness in different grafts and an increase in graft thickness towards the periphery in every graft. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if posterior lamellar grafts can be prepared from the endothelial side by a femto-second laser, resulting in reproducible, thin grafts of even thickness. A CZM 500 kHz Visumax femto-second laser was used. Organ cultured donor grafts were mounted in an artifical anterior chamber with the endothelial side up and out. Posterior grafts of 7.8 mm diameter and 130 micron thickness were prepared by femto-second laser cutting. A standard DSAEK procedure was performed in 10 patients with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy. Patients were followed-up regularly and evaluated by measurement of complications, visual acuity, corneal thickness (Pentacam HR), and endothelial cell density. Femto-laser cutting of grafts and surgery was uncomplicated. Rebubbling was necessary in 5 of 10 cases (normally only in 1 of 20 cases). All grafts were attached and cleared up during the first few weeks. After six months, the average visual acuity was 0.30 (range: 0.16 to 0.50), corneal thickness was 0.58 mm (range 0.51 to 0.63), and endothelial cell density was 1.570 per sq. mm (range: 1.400 to 2.000 cells per sq. mm). The grafts were of uniform thickness, but substantial interface haze was present in most grafts. Posterior lamellar corneal grafts can be prepared from the endothelial side using a femto-second laser. All grafts were clear after 6 months with satisfying endothelial cell counts. Poor visual acuity caused by interface scatter was observed in most patients. Femto-second laser cutting parameters needs to be optimised to

  17. Inverse Cutting of Posterior Lamellar Corneal Grafts by a Femtosecond Laser

    PubMed Central

    Hjortdal, Jesper; Nielsen, Esben; Vestergaard, Anders; Søndergaard, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Posterior lamellar grafting of the cornea has become the preferred technique for treatment of corneal endothelial dysfunction. Posterior lamellar grafts are usually cut by a micro-keratome or a femto-second laser after the epithelial side of the donor cornea has been applanated. This approach often results in variable central graft thickness in different grafts and an increase in graft thickness towards the periphery in every graft. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if posterior lamellar grafts can be prepared from the endothelial side by a femto-second laser, resulting in reproducible, thin grafts of even thickness. Methods A CZM 500 kHz Visumax femto-second laser was used. Organ cultured donor grafts were mounted in an artifical anterior chamber with the endothelial side up and out. Posterior grafts of 7.8 mm diameter and 130 micron thickness were prepared by femto-second laser cutting. A standard DSAEK procedure was performed in 10 patients with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy. Patients were followed-up regularly and evaluated by measurement of complications, visual acuity, corneal thickness (Pentacam HR), and endothelial cell density. Results Femto-laser cutting of grafts and surgery was uncomplicated. Rebubbling was necessary in 5 of 10 cases (normally only in 1 of 20 cases). All grafts were attached and cleared up during the first few weeks. After six months, the average visual acuity was 0.30 (range: 0.16 to 0.50), corneal thickness was 0.58 mm (range 0.51 to 0.63), and endothelial cell density was 1.570 per sq. mm (range: 1.400 to 2.000 cells per sq. mm). The grafts were of uniform thickness, but substantial interface haze was present in most grafts. Conclusions Posterior lamellar corneal grafts can be prepared from the endothelial side using a femto-second laser. All grafts were clear after 6 months with satisfying endothelial cell counts. Poor visual acuity caused by interface scatter was observed in most patients. Femto-second laser cutting

  18. Influence of posterior corneal astigmatism on postoperative refractive astigmatism in pseudophakic eyes after cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Sano, Maki; Hiraoka, Takahiro; Ueno, Yuta; Itagaki, Hideo; Ogami, Tomohiro; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2016-12-01

    To examine the influence of posterior corneal astigmatism on postoperative refractive astigmatism in pseudophakic eyes after cataract surgery. The study enrolled 64 pseudophakic eyes of 50 patients (71.8 ± 9.9 years old, mean ± standard deviation) who had undergone phacoemulsification with non-toric IOL implantation. Refractive astigmatism was measured using an auto ref-keratometer with a 0.01- diopter (D) scale. Two types of corneal astigmatism were calculated using anterior segment optical coherence tomography; keratometric and total corneal astigmatism. Keratometric astigmatism was obtained based on anterior corneal curvature alone and total corneal astigmatism was calculated using both anterior and posterior corneal curvatures. The difference between refractive and corneal astigmatism was computed as the vector difference using 1) refractive and keratometric astigmatism and 2) refractive and total corneal astigmatism. The mean refractive, keratometric, and total corneal astigmatism was 0.92 ± 0.48 D, 0.87 ± 0.44 D, and 0.94 ± 0.46 D, respectively. The difference between refractive and keratometric astigmatism (0.70 ± 0.40 D, mean vector of 0.30 D axis 164°) was significantly larger than the difference between refractive and total corneal astigmatism (0.63 ± 0.38 D, mean vector of 0.12 D axis 137°) (P = .019). The difference between refractive and total corneal astigmatism, calculated using both anterior and posterior corneal curvatures, was significantly smaller than the difference between refractive and keratometric astigmatism using anterior corneal astigmatism alone, implying that the latter overestimates the true postoperative refractive astigmatism and can cause cylindrical inaccuracy after cataract surgery.

  19. Corneal thickness and elevation measurements using swept-source optical coherence tomography and slit scanning topography in normal and keratoconic eyes.

    PubMed

    Jhanji, Vishal; Yang, Bingzhi; Yu, Marco; Ye, Cong; Leung, Christopher K S

    2013-11-01

    To compare corneal thickness and corneal elevation using swept source optical coherence tomography and slit scanning topography. Prospective study. 41 normal and 46 keratoconus subjects. All eyes were imaged using swept source optical coherence tomography and slit scanning tomography during the same visit. Mean corneal thickness and best-fit sphere measurements were compared between the instruments. Agreement of measurements between swept source optical coherence tomography and scanning slit topography was analyzed. Intra-rater reproducibility coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient were evaluated. In normal eyes, central corneal thickness measured by swept source optical coherence tomography was thinner compared with slit scanning topography (p < 0.0001) and ultrasound pachymetry (p = < .0001). Ultrasound pachymetry readings had better 95% limits of agreement with swept source optical coherence tomography than slit scanning topography. In keratoconus eyes, central corneal thickness was thinner on swept source optical coherence tomography than slit scanning topography (p = 0.081) and ultrasound pachymetry (p = 0.001). There were significant differences between thinnest corneal thickness, and, anterior and posterior best-fit sphere measurements between both instruments (p < 0.05 for all). Overall, reproducibility coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficients were significantly better with swept source optical coherence tomography for measurement of central corneal thickness, anterior best-fit sphere and, posterior best-fit sphere (all p < 0.001). Corneal thickness and elevation measurements were significantly different between swept source optical coherence tomography and slit scanning topography. With better reproducibility coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficients, swept source optical coherence tomography may provide a reliable alternative for measurement of corneal parameters. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical

  20. Comparison of Anterior, Posterior, and Total Corneal Astigmatism Measured Using a Single Scheimpflug Camera in Healthy and Keratoconus Eyes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young; Eom, Youngsub; Song, Jong Suk; Kim, Hyo Myung

    2018-05-15

    To compare the effect of posterior corneal astigmatism on the estimation of total corneal astigmatism using anterior corneal measurements (simulated keratometry [K]) between eyes with keratoconus and healthy eyes. Thirty-three eyes of 33 patients with keratoconus of grade I or II and 33 eyes of 33 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled. Anterior, posterior, and total corneal cylinder powers and flat meridians measured by a single Scheimpflug camera were analyzed. The difference in corneal astigmatism between the simulated K and total cornea was evaluated. The mean anterior, posterior, and total corneal cylinder powers of the keratoconus group (4.37 ± 1.73, 0.95 ± 0.39, and 4.36 ± 1.74 CD, respectively) were significantly greater than those of the control group (1.10 ± 0.68, 0.39 ± 0.18, and 0.97 ± 0.63 CD, respectively). The cylinder power difference between the simulated K and total cornea was positively correlated with the posterior corneal cylinder power and negatively correlated with the absolute flat meridian difference between the simulated K and total cornea in both groups. The mean magnitude of the vector difference between the astigmatism of the simulated K and total cornea of the keratoconus group (0.67 ± 0.67 CD) was significantly larger than that of the control group (0.28 ± 0.12 CD). Eyes with keratoconus had greater estimation errors of total corneal astigmatism based on anterior corneal measurement than did healthy eyes. Posterior corneal surface measurement should be more emphasized to determine the total corneal astigmatism in eyes with keratoconus. © 2018 The Korean Ophthalmological Society.

  1. Comparison of Anterior, Posterior, and Total Corneal Astigmatism Measured Using a Single Scheimpflug Camera in Healthy and Keratoconus Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young; Song, Jong Suk; Kim, Hyo Myung

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effect of posterior corneal astigmatism on the estimation of total corneal astigmatism using anterior corneal measurements (simulated keratometry [K]) between eyes with keratoconus and healthy eyes. Methods Thirty-three eyes of 33 patients with keratoconus of grade I or II and 33 eyes of 33 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled. Anterior, posterior, and total corneal cylinder powers and flat meridians measured by a single Scheimpflug camera were analyzed. The difference in corneal astigmatism between the simulated K and total cornea was evaluated. Results The mean anterior, posterior, and total corneal cylinder powers of the keratoconus group (4.37 ± 1.73, 0.95 ± 0.39, and 4.36 ± 1.74 cylinder diopters [CD], respectively) were significantly greater than those of the control group (1.10 ± 0.68, 0.39 ± 0.18, and 0.97 ± 0.63 CD, respectively). The cylinder power difference between the simulated K and total cornea was positively correlated with the posterior corneal cylinder power and negatively correlated with the absolute flat meridian difference between the simulated K and total cornea in both groups. The mean magnitude of the vector difference between the astigmatism of the simulated K and total cornea of the keratoconus group (0.67 ± 0.67 CD) was significantly larger than that of the control group (0.28 ± 0.12 CD). Conclusions Eyes with keratoconus had greater estimation errors of total corneal astigmatism based on anterior corneal measurement than did healthy eyes. Posterior corneal surface measurement should be more emphasized to determine the total corneal astigmatism in eyes with keratoconus. PMID:29770640

  2. Use of the Posterior/Anterior Corneal Curvature Radii Ratio to Improve the Accuracy of Intraocular Lens Power Calculation: Eom's Adjustment Method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mingue; Eom, Youngsub; Lee, Hwa; Suh, Young-Woo; Song, Jong Suk; Kim, Hyo Myung

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of IOL power calculation using adjusted corneal power according to the posterior/anterior corneal curvature radii ratio. Nine hundred twenty-eight eyes from 928 reference subjects and 158 eyes from 158 cataract patients who underwent phacoemulsification surgery were enrolled. Adjusted corneal power of cataract patients was calculated using the fictitious refractive index that was obtained from the geometric mean posterior/anterior corneal curvature radii ratio of reference subjects and adjusted anterior and predicted posterior corneal curvature radii from conventional keratometry (K) using the posterior/anterior corneal curvature radii ratio. The median absolute error (MedAE) based on the adjusted corneal power was compared with that based on conventional K in the Haigis and SRK/T formulae. The geometric mean posterior/anterior corneal curvature radii ratio was 0.808, and the fictitious refractive index of the cornea for a single Scheimpflug camera was 1.3275. The mean difference between adjusted corneal power and conventional K was 0.05 diopter (D). The MedAE based on adjusted corneal power (0.31 D in the Haigis formula and 0.32 D in the SRK/T formula) was significantly smaller than that based on conventional K (0.41 D and 0.40 D, respectively; P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). The percentage of eyes with refractive prediction error within ± 0.50 D calculated using adjusted corneal power (74.7%) was significantly greater than that obtained using conventional K (62.7%) in the Haigis formula (P = 0.029). IOL power calculation using adjusted corneal power according to the posterior/anterior corneal curvature radii ratio provided more accurate refractive outcomes than calculation using conventional K.

  3. Assessment of eye bank-prepared posterior lamellar corneal tissue for endothelial keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Rose, Linda; Briceño, César A; Stark, Walter J; Gloria, Dante G; Jun, Albert S

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate eye bank-prepared tissue for Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). Experimental study and retrospective case series. Seventeen human donor corneas and 4 recipient patients undergoing DSAEK surgery. Corneal-scleral discs were obtained. Specular microscopy and pachymetry were performed. A designated Tissue Banks International technician used a microkeratome to prepare a flap. Posterior bed thickness was measured. The sectioned tissue was stored, and at 24 and 48 hours, pachymetry was repeated. At 48 hours, specular microscopy was repeated, and endothelial cell viability was assessed with trypan blue. Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty was performed in 4 patients using eye bank-prepared posterior lamellar tissue. Corneal tissue was assessed with the following parameters: corneal thickness measured with ultrasonic pachymetry, cell density counts measured with a keratoanalyzer, and cell viability as observed with trypan blue exclusion. Patient outcomes were measured by changes in visual acuity (VA) and the presence of a clear graft. Donor corneal pachymetry before sectioning averaged 599+/-52 microm. Immediately after sectioning with a microkeratome set at a depth of 300 microm, mean posterior bed thickness was 328+/-95 microm. Thus, the mean cutting depth achieved by the microkeratome when set at 300 micrometers averaged 271+/-83 microm. After storage for 24 hours, the posterior beds measured 352 microm, an average swelling of 24 (7%) microm (P = 0.14). After 48 hours, the posterior beds measured 382 microm, an average swelling of 54 (16%) microm (P = 0.02). Cell counts 48 hours after sectioning decreased by an average of 11% (P = 0.10). Endothelial cell staining confirmed improvement in postsectioning morphology and survival with increased technician experience. All 4 patients receiving eye bank-prepared DSAEK tissue showed uncomplicated postoperative results, with improvement in VA. The microkeratome cutting

  4. Influence of Posterior Corneal Astigmatism on Total Corneal Astigmatism in Eyes With Keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Savini, Giacomo; Næser, Kristian; Schiano-Lomoriello, Domenico; Mularoni, Alessandro

    2016-11-01

    To measure posterior corneal astigmatism (PCA) and investigate its influence on total corneal astigmatism (TCA) in eyes with keratoconus. Keratometric astigmatism (KA), PCA, and TCA were investigated by means of a dual Scheimpflug analyzer in patients with keratoconus. Vector analysis was carried out with the Næser polar value method. We enrolled 119 eyes. PCA magnitude averaged 0.77 ± 0.43 diopters (D) and exceeded 0.50, 1.00, and 2.00 D in 73.9%, 21.8%, and 16.8% of eyes, respectively. PCA averaged 0.95 ± 0.48, 0.55 ± 0.28, and 0.70 ± 0.35 D in eyes with with-the-rule (WTR), against-the-rule (ATR), and oblique astigmatism. The steepest posterior meridian was oriented vertically (between 61 and 119 degrees) in 55.5% of eyes, thus generating ATR astigmatism. The difference between the location of the steepest meridian of KA and that of TCA was >10 degrees in 8.4% of eyes. On average, KA overestimated TCA in eyes with WTR astigmatism by 0.16 D and underestimated TCA in eyes with ATR astigmatism by 0.22 D. The PCA power oriented along the steeper anterior corneal meridian averaged -0.83 ± 0.40, -0.40 ± 0.37, and -0.53 ± 0.43 D for WTR, ATR, and obliquely astigmatic eyes, respectively. Linear regression disclosed a statistically significant correlation (P < 0.0001, r = 0.16) between the meridional powers of TCA and PCA. In eyes with keratoconus, PCA displays large, variable values and is correlated to TCA. The influence of PCA on TCA cannot be disregarded when planning astigmatism correction by toric intraocular lenses.

  5. Contact lens fitting in a patient with Alport syndrome and posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Juliana Maria da Silva; Andrade Sobrinho, Marcelo Vicente de; Lipener, César

    2016-02-01

    Alport Syndrome is a hereditary disease that is caused by a gene mutation and affects the production of collagen in basement membranes; this condition causes hemorrhagic nephritis associated with deafness and ocular changes. The X-linked form of this disease is the most common and mainly affects males. Typical ocular findings are dot-and-fleck retinopathy, anterior lenticonus, and posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy. Some cases involving polymorphous corneal dystrophy and corneal ectasia have been previously described. Here we present a case report of a 33-year-old female with Alport syndrome, posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy, and irregular astigmatism, whose visual acuity improved with a rigid gas permeable contact lens.

  6. Posterior axial corneal malformation and uveoretinal angiodysgenesis--a neurocristopathy?

    PubMed

    Mooy, C M; Clark, B J; Lee, W R

    1990-01-01

    This clinicopathological report describes an unusual combination of axial corneal malformation and angiodysgenesis in the uvea, retina and optic nerve in three eyes. In each specimen there was hypocellularity in the posterior axial stroma, with corresponding loss of the corneal endothelium. The vascular malformation consisted of numerous telangiectatic endothelium-lined tubes with inconspicuous or absent media. One globe was obtained from a stillborn fetus (36 weeks) in which renal agenesis and a sireniform malformation (mermaid fetus) occurred in conjunction with a Fallot's tetralogy, pulmonary hypoplasia and atresia of the trachea and duodenum. Eyes with almost identical malformations were obtained from a 39-week female neonate who died after 5 h as a consequence of renal agenesis and pulmonary hypoplasia. This combination of ocular tissue malformations can be explained by embryological studies, which have shown that the corneal stroma and endothelium and the ocular periendothelial vascular tissues are derived from the neural crest.

  7. A case of unilateral circumscribed posterior keratoconus evaluated by three different imaging tools: optical coherence tomography, videokeratography, and Scheimpflug corneal tomography.

    PubMed

    Spadea, Leopoldo; Maraone, Giorgia; Cagini, Carlo

    2017-02-01

    Posterior keratoconus is a rare corneal anomaly which is part of the ectatic corneal disorders. We report a clinical presentation of a unilateral posterior keratoconus in a 42-year-old man. At the time of presentation, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was 20/20 with a correction of +2.50 +2.50 × 90° in the right eye and 20/40 with +1 +3.00 × 105° in the left eye. Slit lamp microscopy showed in the left eye an evidence of corneal thinning with a mild anterior protrusion and a remarkable posterior excavation. The intraocular pressure was 19 mmHg in right eye and 16 mmHg in left eye. Ultrasound pachymetry showed a minimum corneal thickness of 556 μ in right eye and 289 μ in left eye. The anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) revealed central corneal thinning and showed a reduced epithelial thickness. Videokeratography showed an increase of the corneal curvature in a defined area with central steepening in the area of the posterior corneal depression with gradual paracentral flattening. The description of this case underlines the importance of this instruments such us AS-OCT and corneal topography in diagnosis of posterior keratoconus. It can also be observed that in the contralateral eye there are no signs of ectasia as in the rare condition of unilateral keratoconus.

  8. Effect of posterior corneal astigmatism on refractive outcomes after toric intraocular lens implantation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijun; Sy, Mary Ellen; Mai, Harry; Yu, Fei; Hamilton, D Rex

    2015-01-01

    To compare the prediction error after toric intraocular lens (IOL) (Acrysof IQ) implantation using corneal astigmatism measurements obtained with an IOLMaster automated keratometer and a Galilei dual rotating camera Scheimpflug-Placido tomographer. Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA. Retrospective case series. The predicted residual astigmatism after toric IOL implantation was calculated using preoperative astigmatism values from an automated keratometer and the total corneal power (TCP) determined by ray tracing through the measured anterior and posterior corneal surfaces using dual Scheimpflug-Placido tomography. The prediction error was calculated as the difference between the predicted astigmatism and the manifest astigmatism at least 1 month postoperatively. The calculations included vector analysis. The study evaluated 35 eyes (35 patients). The preoperative corneal posterior astigmatism mean magnitude was 0.33 diopter (D) ± 0.16 (SD) (vector mean 0.23 × 176). Twenty-six eyes (74.3%) had with-the-rule (WTR) posterior astigmatism. The postoperative manifest refractive astigmatism mean magnitude was 0.38 ± 0.18 D (vector mean 0.26 × 171). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean magnitude prediction error between the automated keratometer and TCP techniques. However, the automated keratometer method tended to overcorrect WTR astigmatism and undercorrect against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism. The TCP technique lacked these biases. The automated keratometer and TCP methods for estimating the magnitude of corneal astigmatism gave similar results. However, the automated keratometer method tended to overcorrect WTR astigmatism and undercorrect ATR astigmatism. Dr. Hamilton has received honoraria for educational lectures from Ziemer Ophthalmic Systems. No other author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published

  9. Characteristic of entire corneal topography and tomography for the detection of sub-clinical keratoconus with Zernike polynomials using Pentacam.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhe; Li, Weibo; Jiang, Jun; Zhuang, Xiran; Chen, Wei; Peng, Mei; Wang, Jianhua; Lu, Fan; Shen, Meixiao; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2017-11-28

    The study aimed to characterize the entire corneal topography and tomography for the detection of sub-clinical keratoconus (KC) with a Zernike application method. Normal subjects (n = 147; 147 eyes), sub-clinical KC patients (n = 77; 77 eyes), and KC patients (n = 139; 139 eyes) were imaged with the Pentacam HR system. The entire corneal data of pachymetry and elevation of both the anterior and posterior surfaces were exported from the Pentacam HR software. Zernike polynomials fitting was used to quantify the 3D distribution of the corneal thickness and surface elevation. The root mean square (RMS) values for each order and the total high-order irregularity were calculated. Multimeric discriminant functions combined with individual indices were built using linear step discriminant analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves determined the diagnostic accuracy (area under the curve, AUC). The 3rd-order RMS of the posterior surface (AUC: 0.928) obtained the highest discriminating capability in sub-clinical KC eyes. The multimeric function, which consisted of the Zernike fitting indices of corneal posterior elevation, showed the highest discriminant ability (AUC: 0.951). Indices generated from the elevation of posterior surface and thickness measurements over the entire cornea using the Zernike method based on the Pentacam HR system were able to identify very early KC.

  10. Fourier analysis algorithm for the posterior corneal keratometric data: clinical usefulness in keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Sideroudi, Haris; Labiris, Georgios; Georgantzoglou, Kimon; Ntonti, Panagiota; Siganos, Charalambos; Kozobolis, Vassilios

    2017-07-01

    To develop an algorithm for the Fourier analysis of posterior corneal videokeratographic data and to evaluate the derived parameters in the diagnosis of Subclinical Keratoconus (SKC) and Keratoconus (KC). This was a cross-sectional, observational study that took place in the Eye Institute of Thrace, Democritus University, Greece. Eighty eyes formed the KC group, 55 eyes formed the SKC group while 50 normal eyes populated the control group. A self-developed algorithm in visual basic for Microsoft Excel performed a Fourier series harmonic analysis for the posterior corneal sagittal curvature data. The algorithm decomposed the obtained curvatures into a spherical component, regular astigmatism, asymmetry and higher order irregularities for averaged central 4 mm and for each individual ring separately (1, 2, 3 and 4 mm). The obtained values were evaluated for their diagnostic capacity using receiver operating curves (ROC). Logistic regression was attempted for the identification of a combined diagnostic model. Significant differences were detected in regular astigmatism, asymmetry and higher order irregularities among groups. For the SKC group, the parameters with high diagnostic ability (AUC > 90%) were the higher order irregularities, the asymmetry and the regular astigmatism, mainly in the corneal periphery. Higher predictive accuracy was identified using diagnostic models that combined the asymmetry, regular astigmatism and higher order irregularities in averaged 3and 4 mm area (AUC: 98.4%, Sensitivity: 91.7% and Specificity:100%). Fourier decomposition of posterior Keratometric data provides parameters with high accuracy in differentiating SKC from normal corneas and should be included in the prompt diagnosis of KC. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  11. Long-Term Observation of Coexistence of Posterior Polymorphous Corneal Dystrophy, Resultant High Myopia and Nonkeratoconic Developing Corneal Astigmatism: A Case Report of 7-Year Tracking in a Chinese Boy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianqin; Chixin, Du; Gu, Yangshun

    2015-06-01

    Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) is an extremely rare, bilateral, and inherited disorder, which affects the corneal endothelium and Descemet's membrane. Few PPCD cases in Chinese patients have been published so far. As far as we know, there are few studies which focused on the associations between PPCD and high myopia either. Here we report a rare case of coexistence of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy, resultant high myopia and with-the-rule developing corneal astigmatism in a young Chinese boy. A 6-year-old boy was first referred to our department 7 years ago, complaining of bilateral poor vision. Examinations of both eyes including ophthalmologic examination, cycloplegic refraction examination, confocal microscopy findings, and corneal topography were performed. Bilateral small aggregates of vesicular lesions and patchy hyperreflectivity were observed at the level of the Descemet's membrane on confocal microscopy, which is consistent with typical PPCD. Optometry and corneal topography examinations showed a resultant high myopia. Ocular examinations were performed annually to follow up with the patient in the past 7 years. The corneal lesions remained stable whereas an axial elongation and a sharp increase in both spherical and cylindrical equivalent power were observed. Close follow-ups including thorough scrutiny of the endothelium and systematic ocular ancillary examinations are essential for patients with PPCD. The pathological coexistence of PPCD and high myopia in our case is possibly due to a shared etiological pathway or genetic background. Advanced genetic analysis on similar cases is expected if more samples can be provided.

  12. Evaluation of a new method for the measurement of corneal thickness in eye bank posterior corneal lenticules using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Amato, Domenico; Lombardo, Marco; Oddone, Francesco; Nubile, Mario; Colabelli Gisoldi, Rossella A M; Villani, Carlo M; Yoo, Sonia; Parel, Jean-Marie; Pocobelli, Augusto

    2011-04-01

    To preliminarily evaluate the repeatability of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements performed with Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (AS-OCT) on eye bank posterior corneal lenticules. Six donor lenticules were created with a 350 μm head microkeratome (Moria, Antony, France). All donor tissues were stored at 4°C in Eusol-C solution (Alchimia S.r.l, Ponte S. Nicolò, Italy), without the anterior cornea lamella. The CCT of each lenticule, maintained in the glass phial, was measured using a commercial AS-OCT instrument (Visante, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, California, USA) and a specially designed adaptor immediately and 4, 24 and 48 hours after dissection. Immediately after AS-OCT, CCT values were measured with the ultrasound pachymetry method used at the Eye Bank. The mean donor cornea central thickness was 647±36 μm and 660 ± 38 μm (p=0.001) as measured by AS-OCT and ultrasound, respectively; immediately after dissection, CCT values of posterior lenticules were 235 ± 43 μm and 248 ± 44 μm, respectively (p=0.001). No statistically significant changes in CCT values of donor lenticules were assessed over the 48 h period with both methods. There was a high level of agreement, evidenced by Bland-Altman analysis, between the two methods of pachymetry. AS-OCT, with the corneal tissue in the vial, was revealed to be a repeatable and reliable method for measuring posterior donor lenticule central thickness. Lenticule CCT values measured with the investigational AS-OCT method were on average 10 μm thinner than those measured with the established ultrasound method.

  13. Serial corneal endothelial cell loss with lathe-cut and injection-molded posterior chamber intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Kraff, M C; Sanders, D R; Lieberman, H L

    1983-01-01

    We compared endothelial cell loss of patients implanted with lathe-cut posterior chamber lenses and those implanted with injection-molded lenses over a three-year postoperative period. Results were based on more than 2,500 measurements of corneal endothelial density. Although the technique of cataract extraction (anterior chamber phacoemulsification, posterior chamber phacoemulsification, or planned extracapsular extraction) significantly affected cell loss (P less than .01), the type of implant (lathe-cut or injection-molded) did not. Significant continuing endothelial cell loss did not occur during the first three postoperative years with injection-molded lenses. There was, however, a statistically significant 7% to 15% additional cell loss after surgery over the first two to three postoperative years with lathe-cut implants. There have been no cases of corneal endothelial decompensation developing after implantation of injection-molded or lathe-cut lenses. Because a standard field clinical specular microscope was used in this study, cell counting errors cannot be ruled out as a cause of these findings.

  14. Modification of the Miyake-Apple technique for simultaneous anterior and posterior video imaging of wet laboratory-based corneal surgery.

    PubMed

    Tan, Johnson C H; Meadows, Howard; Gupta, Aanchal; Yeung, Sonia N; Moloney, Gregory

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a modification of the Miyake-Apple posterior video analysis for the simultaneous visualization of the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces during wet laboratory-based deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). A human donor corneoscleral button was affixed to a microscope slide and placed onto a custom-made mounting box. A big bubble DALK was performed on the cornea in the wet laboratory. An 11-diopter intraocular lens was positioned over the aperture of the back camera of an iPhone. This served to video record the posterior view of the corneoscleral button during the big bubble formation. An overhead operating microscope with an attached video camcorder recorded the anterior view during the surgery. The anterior and posterior views of the wet laboratory-based DALK surgery were simultaneously captured and edited using video editing software. The formation of the big bubble can be studied. This video recording camera system has the potential to act as a valuable research and teaching tool in corneal lamellar surgery, especially in the behavior of the big bubble formation in DALK.

  15. Applications of corneal topography and tomography: a review.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rachel; Chan, Tommy Cy; Prakash, Gaurav; Jhanji, Vishal

    2018-03-01

    Corneal imaging is essential for diagnosing and management of a wide variety of ocular diseases. Corneal topography is used to characterize the shape of the cornea, specifically, the anterior surface of the cornea. Most corneal topographical systems are based on Placido disc that analyse rings that are reflected off the corneal surface. The posterior corneal surface cannot be characterized using Placido disc technology. Imaging of the posterior corneal surface is useful for diagnosis of corneal ectasia. Unlike corneal topographers, tomographers generate a three-dimensional recreation of the anterior segment and provide information about the corneal thickness. Scheimpflug imaging is one of the most commonly used techniques for corneal tomography. The cross-sectional images generated by a rotating Scheimpflug camera are used to locate the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces. The clinical uses of corneal topography include, diagnosis of corneal ectasia, assessment of corneal astigmatism, and refractive surgery planning. This review will discuss the applications of corneal topography and tomography in clinical practice. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  16. Confirmation and refinement of the heterozygous deletion of the small leucine-rich proteoglycans associated with posterior amorphous corneal dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Aleck E; Gee, Katherine M; Whiting, Martha F; Frausto, Ricardo F; Aldave, Anthony J

    2018-04-19

    To present the clinical and cytogenetic features of a previously unreported family with posterior amorphous corneal dystrophy (PACD) associated with a heterozygous deletion of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SRLP) genes on chromosome 12. Clinical characterization was performed using slit lamp biomicroscopic and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Genomic DNA was collected from affected and unaffected family members, and a cytogenomic array was used to identify copy number variations (CNV) present in the PACD locus. Three members of a Guatemalan family presented with clinical characteristics consistent with PACD: bilateral posterior stromal lamellar opacification, decreased corneal curvature, and iridocorneal adhesions. OCT imaging demonstrated decreased corneal thickness and hyperreflectivity of the posterior third of the corneal stroma. CNV analysis confirmed the presumed clinical diagnosis of PACD by revealing a 0.304 Mb heterozygous deletion in the PACD locus on chromosome 12 that included the four SLRP genes (KERA, LUM, DCN, and EPYC) deleted in each of the PACD families in which CNV analysis has been reported. This is the first report of the OCT appearance of PACD and the second confirmation of a heterozygous deletion of chromosome 12q21.33 as the cause of PACD, highlighting the utility of array-based cytogenomics to confirm the suspected clinical diagnosis of PACD. As the smallest previously reported pathogenic deletion was 0.701 Mb, the 0.304-Mb deletion we report is the smallest identified to date and reduces the size of the PACD locus to 0.275 Mb.

  17. Aberration compensation between anterior and posterior corneal surfaces after Small incision lenticule extraction and Femtosecond laser-assisted laser in-situ keratomileusis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Yan; Dou, Rui

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the aberration compensation between anterior and posterior corneal surfaces after SMILE and FS-LASIK. Fifty-five subjects (55 eyes) undergoing SMILE and 51 subjects (51 eyes) undergoing FS-LASIK were enrolled in this study. Wavefront aberrations of anterior and posterior corneal surfaces and the whole cornea at 6 mm in diameter were measured using a Scheimpflug Camera preoperatively and one, three and 6 months postoperatively. The compensation factor (CF), where CF = 1 - (aberration of the whole cornea/aberration of anterior corneal surface), was calculated. Spherical aberration of the posterior surface and the whole cornea remained stable after SMILE. However, spherical aberration of posterior surface increased significantly at 6 months in the FS-LASIK group. The total higher-order aberration (tHOA) of the anterior surface and the whole cornea was lower at 6 months than at one and 3 months (p = 0.001 and 0.001, respectively) in the FS-LASIK group. Meanwhile, in the SMILE group, no significant difference in tHOA was found between various postoperative time points. There were significant decreases in the CF of tHOA compared with preoperative values in both groups. The CF of spherical aberration reduced significantly in both groups at 3 and 6 mm in diameter one, three and 6 months postoperatively. Significant decreases in the CF of vertical coma were found at three and 6 months postoperatively in the FS-LASIK group compared with preoperative values at 6 mm in diameter (p = 0.021 and 0.008, respectively). The change in CF (ΔCF) of spherical aberration was smaller in the SMILE group than in the FS-LASIK group at one and 3 months postoperatively (p = 0.003 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The ΔCF of spherical aberration was significantly lower in moderately myopic subjects than in subjects with high myopia at 1 month in the SMILE group (p = 0.041) and at one, three and 6 months in the FS-LASIK group (p = 0.014, 0.020, and 0.004, respectively). The

  18. Orbscan II anterior elevation changes following corneal collagen cross-linking treatment for keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Tu, Kyaw Lin; Aslanides, Ioannis M

    2009-08-01

    To analyze anterior corneal elevation changes on Orbscan II following corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) with riboflavin. This retrospective study included 8 patients (14 eyes) with keratoconus who underwent CXL, with a mean follow-up of 7 months (range: 5 to 10 months). Pre- and postoperative (at last clinic attendance) anterior elevation difference maps were examined for overall patterns of change. On preoperative maps, distances from maximum anterior elevation to pupil center and to topographic geometric center were compared between the two patterns identified. Pre- and postoperative topography, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), and refraction were also compared between the two patterns. Two patterns of anterior elevation change were visually identified: (1) paracentral steepening, no change, or flattening centrally; and (2) central steepening. The preoperative maps of eyes that manifested pattern 1 had shorter mean distances for maximum anterior elevation to pupil center (1.70 vs. 2.27 mm) and maximum anterior elevation to geometric center (1.45 vs. 1.99 mm) than those that resulted in pattern 2. Mean maximum topographic simulated keratometry decreased (P = .004) and mean irregularity indices at 3 mm (P =.03) and 5 mm (P =.04) were reduced postoperatively in pattern 1 eyes; all increased in pattern 2 eyes. Mean BSCVA improved postoperatively for both patterns. Mean preoperative myopia decreased in pattern 1 eyes by 0.44 diopters (D), whereas it increased for pattern 2 eyes by 1.83 D. Corneal shape change influenced by anisotropy of collagen distribution is a factor in the outcome of CXL treatment for keratoconus.

  19. Irregularity of the posterior corneal surface during applanation using a curved femtosecond laser interface and microkeratome cutting head.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Jan M; Holtz, Carsten; Vossmerbaeumer, Urs; Pfeiffer, Norbert

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the irregularity of the posterior corneal surface and intrastromal dissection during the preparation of donor tissue for Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) using a curved interface femtosecond laser and microkeratome. Sixteen human donor corneas unsuitable for transplantation were divided into two groups: a femtosecond (FS) laser group (n=7) using the VisuMax femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec) and a microkeratome group (n=9) using the Amadeus II microkeratome (Ziemer Ophthalmic Group). The corneas were fixed on artificial anterior chambers. Horizontal cross-sections were obtained using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography prior to applanation, during applanation, as well as during and after intrastromal dissection at 450-μm corneal depth. The posterior surface and the dissection line were evaluated for irregularity by fitting a second-order polynomial curve using regression analysis and obtaining the root-mean-square error (RMSE). Groups were compared using analysis of variance. The RMSE of the posterior surface prior to applanation was 9.7 ± 3.1 μm in the FS laser group and 10.2 ± 2.3 μm in the microkeratome group. The RMSE increased to 50.7 ± 9.4 μm and 20.9 ± 6.1 μm during applanation and decreased again to 10.6 ± 1.4 μm and 8.1 ± 1.8 μm after applanation in the FS laser and microkeratome groups, respectively. The RMSE of the intrastromal cut was 19.5 ± 5.7 μm in the FS laser group and 7.7 ± 3.0 μm in the microkeratome group (P<.001). Our results show significantly greater irregularity with the curved interface femtosecond laser-assisted cleavage compared to microkeratome-assisted corneal dissection, possibly due to applanation-derived deformation of the posterior cornea. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Age-Related Changes in Corneal Astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xu; Zhou, Kai-Jing; Pan, An-Peng; Cheng, Xue-Ying; Cai, He-Xie; Huang, Jin-Hai; Yu, A-Yong

    2017-10-01

    To analyze the changes in corneal astigmatism as a function of age and develop a novel model to estimate corneal astigmatic change according to age. This was a cross-sectional study of right eyes of 3,769 individuals. Total corneal astigmatism, keratometric astigmatism, anterior corneal astigmatism, and posterior corneal astigmatism were measured by a Scheimpflug tomographer. Smoothing fitting curves of polar values of corneal astigmatism as a function of age were drawn and average changes in corneal astigmatism at different ages were calculated. Two turning points of age on total corneal astigmatism were 36 and 69 years. The average change of total corneal astigmatism toward against-the-rule astigmatism was 0.13 diopters (D)/10 years from 18 to 35 years, 0.45 D/10 years from 36 to 68 years, and decreased after 69 years, mainly caused by anterior corneal astigmatism. The mean magnitude of posterior corneal astigmatism was -0.33 D and exceeded 0.50 D in 14.27% of eyes. The vectorial difference between total corneal astigmatism and keratometric astigmatism was correlated with posterior corneal astigmatism, polar value of anterior corneal astigmatism, age, and corneal higher order aberrations (r = 0.636; standard partial regression coefficients were 0.479, -0.466, 0.282, and 0.196, respectively; all P < .001). Based on the non-linear model to estimate corneal astigmatic change with age, a formula was developed to calculate recommended correction of astigmatism according to age and astigmatic type. The rate of change of total corneal astigmatism showed a non-linear trend toward against-the-rule astigmatism, which was low at young and old age, high at middle age, and should be taken into account when performing surgery to correct astigmatism. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(10):696-703.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Corneal donor tissue preparation for endothelial keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Maria A; Titus, Michael; Mavin, Kyle; Shtein, Roni M

    2012-06-12

    Over the past ten years, corneal transplantation surgical techniques have undergone revolutionary changes. Since its inception, traditional full thickness corneal transplantation has been the treatment to restore sight in those limited by corneal disease. Some disadvantages to this approach include a high degree of post-operative astigmatism, lack of predictable refractive outcome, and disturbance to the ocular surface. The development of Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK), transplanting only the posterior corneal stroma, Descemet's membrane, and endothelium, has dramatically changed treatment of corneal endothelial disease. DSEK is performed through a smaller incision; this technique avoids 'open sky' surgery with its risk of hemorrhage or expulsion, decreases the incidence of postoperative wound dehiscence, reduces unpredictable refractive outcomes, and may decrease the rate of transplant rejection. Initially, cornea donor posterior lamellar dissection for DSEK was performed manually resulting in variable graft thickness and damage to the delicate corneal endothelial tissue during tissue processing. Automated lamellar dissection (Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty, DSAEK) was developed to address these issues. Automated dissection utilizes the same technology as LASIK corneal flap creation with a mechanical microkeratome blade that helps to create uniform and thin tissue grafts for DSAEK surgery with minimal corneal endothelial cell loss in tissue processing. Eye banks have been providing full thickness corneas for surgical transplantation for many years. In 2006, eye banks began to develop methodologies for supplying precut corneal tissue for endothelial keratoplasty. With the input of corneal surgeons, eye banks have developed thorough protocols to safely and effectively prepare posterior lamellar tissue for DSAEK surgery. This can be performed preoperatively at the eye bank. Research shows no significant difference in

  2. Changes in shape and astigmatism of total, anterior, and posterior cornea after long versus short clear corneal incision cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ken; Yoshida, Motoaki; Hirata, Akira; Yoshimura, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    To compare changes in the shape and astigmatism of the total, anterior, and posterior cornea between eyes with long-length clear corneal incisions (CCIs) and eyes with short-length CCIs in cataract surgery. Hayashi Eye Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan. Prospective case series. Both eyes of patients having phacoemulsification with temporal CCIs were randomized to have a long-length (≥1.75 mm) or short-length (<1.75 mm) CCI. Corneal astigmatic changes were decomposed to vertical/horizontal (Jackson cross-cylinder, axes at 180 degrees and 90 degrees [J0]) and oblique changes (Jackson cross-cylinder, axes at 45 degrees and 135 degrees [J45]) using power vector analysis. Corneal shape changes were assessed using the average of the difference map on videokeratography 2 days and 2, 4, and 8 weeks postoperatively. The mean J0 and J45 values of the total cornea in the 120 eyes evaluated were significantly greater in the long CCI group than in the short CCI group at all follow-ups (P ≤ .0290). The videokeratography showed a wedge-shaped flattening in the total and anterior cornea and a steepening in the posterior cornea around the CCI 2 days postoperatively in both groups. This wound-related flattening of the total and anterior cornea rapidly reduced but persisted until 8 weeks, whereas the steepening of the posterior cornea disappeared within 4 weeks. These changes extended closer to the central cornea in the long CCI group than in the short CCI group. Corneal astigmatic changes were significantly greater after long CCI than after short CCI. The wound-related shape changes occurred immediately postoperatively but rapidly diminished. Copyright © 2018 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Corneal clouding in Alport syndrome.

    PubMed

    Herwig, Martina C; Eter, Nicole; Holz, Frank G; Loeffler, Karin U

    2011-03-01

    Alport syndrome is a hereditary basement membrane disease that typically involves the kidney, the cochlea, and the eyes. Characteristic ocular problems include posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy, lenticonus, and dot-and-fleck retinopathy. A 48-year-old male patient with Alport syndrome presented with corneal and retinal changes. In 2003, he was diagnosed with posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy and received a corneal transplant in his left eye in 2007 because of progressive deterioration in visual acuity. At this time, a lamellar macular hole was diagnosed in his right eye. The removed corneal button was examined by light and electron microscopy and by immunohistochemistry. Histology revealed not only endothelial changes but also a marked irregular thickening of the epithelial basement membrane and of Bowman layer. Alcian blue staining demonstrated an accumulation of mucopolysaccharides in the Bowman layer. The presented changes underline the great variation of ocular disorders related to Alport syndrome. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reports describing histologic corneal findings in Alport syndrome. Only a few cases with accumulation of mucopolysaccharides in the Bowman layer have been described previously, none of them being associated with Alport syndrome. Besides, anterior corneal alterations and corneal clouding seem to be uncommon in patients suffering from Alport syndrome.

  4. Measurement centration and zone diameter in anterior, posterior and total corneal astigmatism in keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Fredriksson, Anneli; Behndig, Anders

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the central and paracentral astigmatism and the significance of centration and measurement zone diameter compared to a 3-mm pupil-centred measurement zone in keratoconus and in healthy eyes. Twenty-eight right eyes from 28 KC patients with an inferotemporal cone were selected according to specified criteria based on Oculus Pentacam HR ® measurements and were matched with healthy control eyes. The flat (K1) and steep (K2) keratometry readings were registered from the 'Total Corneal Refractive Power' (TCRP) display as well as the anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism displays (ACA and PCA, respectively). Astigmatic power vectors KP0 and KP45 were calculated and analysed for a 6-mm and two 3-mm zones centred on the corneal apex and the pupil, and for 8 paracentral 3-mm zones. The astigmatism was generally higher in KC. Many astigmatic values in KC differed between the 3-mm pupil-centred and the 3- and 6-mm apex-centred zones in KC. In the controls, no corresponding differences between measurement zones were seen, apart from PCA, which differed. The magnitude and direction of KP0 and KP45 varied greatly between the paracentral measurements in KC. Centration and measurement zone diameter have great impacts on the astigmatic values in KC. A small pupil-centred measurement zone should be considered when evaluating the astigmatism in KC. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effect of Cycloplegia on Corneal Biometrics and Refractive State

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Abbas; Feizi, Mohadeseh; Shafii, Aliakbar; Faramarzi, Amir; Tavakoli, Mehdi; Yazdani, Shahin

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To determine changes in refractive state and corneal parameters after cycloplegia with cyclopentolate hydrochloride 1% using a dual Scheimpflug imaging system. Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study patients aged 10 to 40 years who were referred for optometric evaluation enrolled and underwent autorefraction and corneal imaging with the Galilei dual Scheimpflug system before and 30 minutes after twice instillation of medication. Changes in refraction and astigmatism were investigated. Corneal biometrics including anterior and posterior corneal curvatures, total corneal power and corneal pachymetry were compared before and after cycloplegia. Results: Two hundred and twelve eyes of 106 subjects with mean age of 28 ± 5 years including 201 myopic and 11 hyperopic eyes were evaluated. Mean spherical equivalent refractive error before cycloplegia was -3.4 ± 2.6 D. A mean hyperopic shift of 0.4 ± 0.5 D occurred after cycloplegia (P < 0.001). The astigmatism power did not significantly change (P = 0.8), however, 26.8% of eyes with significant astigmatism experienced a change of more than 5 degrees in the axis of astigmatism. Changes in posterior corneal curvature were scant but statistically significant (P = 0.001). Moreover, corneal thickness was slightly increased in the central and paracentral regions (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Cycloplegia causes a hyperopic shift and astigmatism axis changes, along with an increase in central and paracentral corneal thickness and change in posterior corneal curvature. The effects of cycloplegia on refraction and corneal biometrics should be considered before cataract and refractive surgeries. PMID:29719636

  6. Effect of Cycloplegia on Corneal Biometrics and Refractive State.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Abbas; Feizi, Mohadeseh; Shafii, Aliakbar; Faramarzi, Amir; Tavakoli, Mehdi; Yazdani, Shahin

    2018-01-01

    To determine changes in refractive state and corneal parameters after cycloplegia with cyclopentolate hydrochloride 1% using a dual Scheimpflug imaging system. In this prospective cross-sectional study patients aged 10 to 40 years who were referred for optometric evaluation enrolled and underwent autorefraction and corneal imaging with the Galilei dual Scheimpflug system before and 30 minutes after twice instillation of medication. Changes in refraction and astigmatism were investigated. Corneal biometrics including anterior and posterior corneal curvatures, total corneal power and corneal pachymetry were compared before and after cycloplegia. Two hundred and twelve eyes of 106 subjects with mean age of 28 ± 5 years including 201 myopic and 11 hyperopic eyes were evaluated. Mean spherical equivalent refractive error before cycloplegia was -3.4 ± 2.6 D. A mean hyperopic shift of 0.4 ± 0.5 D occurred after cycloplegia ( P < 0.001). The astigmatism power did not significantly change ( P = 0.8), however, 26.8% of eyes with significant astigmatism experienced a change of more than 5 degrees in the axis of astigmatism. Changes in posterior corneal curvature were scant but statistically significant ( P = 0.001). Moreover, corneal thickness was slightly increased in the central and paracentral regions ( P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Cycloplegia causes a hyperopic shift and astigmatism axis changes, along with an increase in central and paracentral corneal thickness and change in posterior corneal curvature. The effects of cycloplegia on refraction and corneal biometrics should be considered before cataract and refractive surgeries.

  7. [Correlation between axial length and corneal curvature and spherical aberration].

    PubMed

    Wang, X J; Bao, Y Z

    2017-04-11

    Objective: To discuss the correlation between axial length and corneal curvature and corneal spherical aberration in a group of cataract patients with axial length greater than 24 mm. Methods: Retrospective case series. This study comprised 117 (234 eyes) age-related cataract patients. There were 51 men (43.59%) and 66 women (56.41%) with mean age of (69.0±8.7) years (range from 52.0 to 85.0 years). The average axial length was 27.6±1.8 (range from 24.2 to 31.9 mm). We devided them into four groups according to the axial length. A-scan was used to measure the axial length and Pentacam was used to get the corneal curvature and corneal spherical aberration of both anterior and posterior surface. kolmogorov-smirnov test was used to check the normal distribution. ANOVA test was used to compare eachcorneal parameter among different groups. Pearson correlation analysis was used to obtain the correlation of corneal parameters in groups. Results: There were correlations between the axial length and the anterior and posterior corneal curvature ( r=- 0.213, r= 0.174, respectively, P< 0.05). No correlation was found between the axial length and anterior or posterior corneal spherical aberration ( r=- 0.114, 0.055, respectively, P> 0.05). Mean values of corneal anterior surface curvature were (45.26±1.60) D (group 1), (44.17±1.45) D (group 2), (44.40±1.99)D (group 3), and (44.53±1.69) D (group 4) respectively. Mean values of corneal posterior surface curvature were(-6.57±0.26)D (group 1), ( - 6.40±0.24)D (group 2), ( - 6.41±0.38)D (group 3), and (-6.43±0.26)D (group 4) respectively. There were significant difference of corneal anterior and posterior surface curvature among 4 groups ( P= 0.004, P= 0.001). There was significant difference of corneal curvature of anterior surface in group 1 compared to group 2 and group 3( P< 0.01, P= 0.01). There was significant difference of curvature of posterior surface in group 1 compared to group 2 and group 3, respectively ( P< 0

  8. Effect of Misalignment between Successive Corneal Videokeratography Maps on the Repeatability of Topography Data

    PubMed Central

    Bao, FangJun; Wang, JunJie; Huang, JinHai; Yu, Ye; Deng, ManLi; Li, LinNa; Yu, AYong; Wang, QinMei; Davey, Pinakin Gunvant; Elsheikh, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To improve the reliability of corneal topographic data through the development of a method to estimate the magnitude of misalignment between successive corneal videokeratography (VK) maps and eliminate the effect of misalignment on the repeatability of topography data. Methods Anterior and posterior topography maps were recorded twice for 124 healthy eyes of 124 participants using a Pentacam, and the repeatability of measurements was assessed by calculating the differences in elevation between each two sets of data. The repeatability of measurements was re-assessed following the determination of the magnitude of misalignment components (translational displacements: x0, y0 and z0, and rotational displacements: α, β and γ) between each two data sets and using them to modify the second data set within each pair based on an Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The method simultaneously considered the anterior and posterior maps taken for the same eye since they were assumed to have the same set of misalignment components. A new parameter, named Combined Misalignment parameter (CM), has been developed to combine the effect of all six misalignment components on topography data and so enable study of the association between misalignment and the data repeatability test results. Results The repeatability tests resulted in average root mean square (RMS) differences in elevation data of 8.46±2.75 μm before ICP map matching when simultaneously considering anterior and posterior surfaces. With map matching and misalignment correction, the differences decreased to 7.28±2.58 μm (P = 0.00). When applied to only the anterior maps, misalignment correction led to a more pronounced reduction in elevation data differences from 4.58±1.84 μm to 2.97±1.29 μm (P = 0.00). CM was found to be associated with the repeatability error (P = 0.00), with posterior maps being responsible for most of the error due to their relatively lower accuracy compared to anterior maps

  9. Corneal dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Klintworth, Gordon K

    2009-01-01

    The term corneal dystrophy embraces a heterogenous group of bilateral genetically determined non-inflammatory corneal diseases that are restricted to the cornea. The designation is imprecise but remains in vogue because of its clinical value. Clinically, the corneal dystrophies can be divided into three groups based on the sole or predominant anatomical location of the abnormalities. Some affect primarily the corneal epithelium and its basement membrane or Bowman layer and the superficial corneal stroma (anterior corneal dystrophies), the corneal stroma (stromal corneal dystrophies), or Descemet membrane and the corneal endothelium (posterior corneal dystrophies). Most corneal dystrophies have no systemic manifestations and present with variable shaped corneal opacities in a clear or cloudy cornea and they affect visual acuity to different degrees. Corneal dystrophies may have a simple autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X-linked recessive Mendelian mode of inheritance. Different corneal dystrophies are caused by mutations in the CHST6, KRT3, KRT12, PIP5K3, SLC4A11, TACSTD2, TGFBI, and UBIAD1 genes. Knowledge about the responsible genetic mutations responsible for these disorders has led to a better understanding of their basic defect and to molecular tests for their precise diagnosis. Genes for other corneal dystrophies have been mapped to specific chromosomal loci, but have not yet been identified. As clinical manifestations widely vary with the different entities, corneal dystrophies should be suspected when corneal transparency is lost or corneal opacities occur spontaneously, particularly in both corneas, and especially in the presence of a positive family history or in the offspring of consanguineous parents. Main differential diagnoses include various causes of monoclonal gammopathy, lecithin-cholesterol-acyltransferase deficiency, Fabry disease, cystinosis, tyrosine transaminase deficiency, systemic lysosomal storage diseases (mucopolysaccharidoses

  10. Comparison of parametric methods for modeling corneal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouazizi, Hala; Brunette, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean

    2017-02-01

    Corneal topography is a medical imaging technique to get the 3D shape of the cornea as a set of 3D points of its anterior and posterior surfaces. From these data, topographic maps can be derived to assist the ophthalmologist in the diagnosis of disorders. In this paper, we compare three different mathematical parametric representations of the corneal surfaces leastsquares fitted to the data provided by corneal topography. The parameters obtained from these models reduce the dimensionality of the data from several thousand 3D points to only a few parameters and could eventually be useful for diagnosis, biometry, implant design etc. The first representation is based on Zernike polynomials that are commonly used in optics. A variant of these polynomials, named Bhatia-Wolf will also be investigated. These two sets of polynomials are defined over a circular domain which is convenient to model the elevation (height) of the corneal surface. The third representation uses Spherical Harmonics that are particularly well suited for nearly-spherical object modeling, which is the case for cornea. We compared the three methods using the following three criteria: the root-mean-square error (RMSE), the number of parameters and the visual accuracy of the reconstructed topographic maps. A large dataset of more than 2000 corneal topographies was used. Our results showed that Spherical Harmonics were superior with a RMSE mean lower than 2.5 microns with 36 coefficients (order 5) for normal corneas and lower than 5 microns for two diseases affecting the corneal shapes: keratoconus and Fuchs' dystrophy.

  11. Corneal biomechanical data and biometric parameters measured with Scheimpflug-based devices on normal corneas.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Gabor; Szalai, Eszter; Hassan, Ziad; Lipecz, Agnes; Flasko, Zsuzsa; Modis, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the correlations between ocular biomechanical and biometric data of the eye, measured by Scheimpflug-based devices on healthy subjects. Three consecutive measurements were carried out using the corneal visualization Scheimpflug technology (CorVis ST) device on healthy eyes and the 10 device-specific parameters were recorded. Pentacam HR-derived parameters (corneal curvature radii on the anterior and posterior surfaces; apical pachymetry; corneal volume; corneal aberration data; depth, volume and angle of the anterior chamber) and axial length (AL) from IOLMaster were correlated with the 10 specific CorVis ST parameters. Measurements were conducted in 43 eyes of 43 volunteers (age 61.24±15.72y). The 10 specific CorVis ST data showed significant relationships with corneal curvature radii both on the anterior and posterior surface, pachymetric data, root mean square (RMS) data of lower-order aberrations, and posterior RMS of higher-order aberrations and spherical aberration of the posterior cornea. Anterior chamber depth showed a significant relationship, but there were no significant correlations between corneal volume, anterior chamber volume, mean chamber angle or AL and the 10 specific CorVis ST parameters. CorVis ST-generated parameters are influenced by corneal curvature radii, some corneal RMS data, but corneal volume, anterior chamber volume, chamber angle and AL have no correlation with the biomechanical parameters. The parameters measured by CorVis ST seem to refer mostly to corneal properties of the eye.

  12. Corneal biomechanical data and biometric parameters measured with Scheimpflug-based devices on normal corneas

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Gabor; Szalai, Eszter; Hassan, Ziad; Lipecz, Agnes; Flasko, Zsuzsa; Modis, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    AIM To analyze the correlations between ocular biomechanical and biometric data of the eye, measured by Scheimpflug-based devices on healthy subjects. METHODS Three consecutive measurements were carried out using the corneal visualization Scheimpflug technology (CorVis ST) device on healthy eyes and the 10 device-specific parameters were recorded. Pentacam HR-derived parameters (corneal curvature radii on the anterior and posterior surfaces; apical pachymetry; corneal volume; corneal aberration data; depth, volume and angle of the anterior chamber) and axial length (AL) from IOLMaster were correlated with the 10 specific CorVis ST parameters. RESULTS Measurements were conducted in 43 eyes of 43 volunteers (age 61.24±15.72y). The 10 specific CorVis ST data showed significant relationships with corneal curvature radii both on the anterior and posterior surface, pachymetric data, root mean square (RMS) data of lower-order aberrations, and posterior RMS of higher-order aberrations and spherical aberration of the posterior cornea. Anterior chamber depth showed a significant relationship, but there were no significant correlations between corneal volume, anterior chamber volume, mean chamber angle or AL and the 10 specific CorVis ST parameters. CONCLUSIONS CorVis ST-generated parameters are influenced by corneal curvature radii, some corneal RMS data, but corneal volume, anterior chamber volume, chamber angle and AL have no correlation with the biomechanical parameters. The parameters measured by CorVis ST seem to refer mostly to corneal properties of the eye. PMID:28251079

  13. Correlation between apical protrusion in the Scheimflug imaging and Corneal Hysteresis and Corneal Resistance factor by Ocular Response Analyzer, among refractive non-keratoconic Egyptian patients.

    PubMed

    Refai, Tamer Adel

    2015-10-01

    Apical protrusion in the central 4-mm ring in the Scheimflug imaging (Pentacam), both for the anterior and posterior floats as well as Corneal Hysteresis and Corneal Resistance Factor by Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA), generally are considered important predictors for post-Lasik ectasia. The aim of this work was to find out if there is a statistically significant correlation between these different predictors and their correlation with the central corneal thickness for refractive non-keratoconic Egyptian patients trying to achieve a better decision and avoiding ectasia. This case-control study involved 142 eyes (of 77 patients with various refractive errors) arriving at the refractive surgery unit in the Research Institute of Ophthalmology in Giza (Egypt) in 2014-2015 seeking excimer laser ablation. The flattest, steepest keratometry readings, central corneal thickness as well as the apical protrusion in the central 4-mm ring, both for the anterior and posterior floats, in microns were measured by Scheimflug imaging. The Corneal Hysteresis and Corneal Resistance Factor were measured by the ocular response analyzer. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS, using the Pearson correlation test. The spherical refractive error ranged from +7.00 to -13.00 diopters (-3.80 ± 2.89). The central pachymetry ranged from 494 to 634 μm (550.35 ± 32.13). For the central 4-mm ring, the apical protrusion ranged from 0 to +15 μ (6.93 ± 2.99) for the anterior float and from -3 to +20 μ (9.33 ± 4.55) for the posterior float. The Corneal Hysterisis (CH) ranged from 7 to 14.8 mmHg (10.18±1.44), while the Corneal Resistance Factor (CRF) ranged from 7.5 to 14.9 mmHg (10.58 ± 1.67). There was a strong positive correlation between the central corneal thickness and both Corneal Hysteresis (CH: r = 0.56, P ≤ 0.01) and Corneal Resistance Factor (r = 0.46, P ≤ 0.01). A significant correlation (P < 0.05, r = 0.15) existed between apical protrusion in the posterior float and the

  14. Correction of irregular and induced regular corneal astigmatism with toric IOL after posterior segment surgery: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kolozsvári, Bence L; Losonczy, Gergely; Pásztor, Dorottya; Fodor, Mariann

    2017-01-13

    Toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation can be an effective method for correcting corneal astigmatism in patients with vitreoretinal diseases and cataract. Our purpose is to report the outcome of toric IOL implantation in two cases - a patient with scleral-buckle-induced regular corneal astigmatism and a patient with keratoconus following pars plana vitrectomy. As far as we are aware, there are no reported cases of toric IOL implantation in a vitrectomized eye with keratoconus nor of toric IOL implantation in patients with scleral-buckle-induced regular corneal astigmatism. Two patients with myopia and high corneal astigmatism underwent cataract operation with toric IOL implantation after posterior segment surgery. Myopia and high astigmatism (>2.5 diopter) were caused by previous scleral buckling in one case and by keratoconus in the other case. Pre- and postoperative examinations during the follow-up of included uncorrected and spectacle corrected distance visual acuity (UCDVA/CDVA), automated kerato-refractometry (Topcon), Pentacam HR, IOL Master (Zeiss) axial length measurements and fundus optical coherence tomography (Zeiss). One year postoperatively, the UCDVA and CDVA were 20/25 and 20/20 in both cases, respectively. The absolute residual refractive astigmatism was 1.0 and 0.75 Diopters, respectively. The IOL rotation was within 3° in both eyes, therefore IOL repositioning was not necessary. Complications were not observed in our cases. These cases demonstrate that toric IOL implantation is a predictable and safe method for the correction of high corneal astigmatism in complicated cases with different origins. Irregular corneal astigmatism in keratoconus or scleral-buckle-induced regular astigmatisms can be equally well corrected with the use of toric IOL during cataract surgery. Previous scleral buckling or pars plana vitrectomy seem to have no impact on the success of the toric IOL implantation, even in keratoconus. IOL rotational stability and

  15. Corneal Irregular Astigmatism and Curvature Changes After Small Incision Lenticule Extraction: Three-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Sideroudi, Haris; Lazaridis, Apostolos; Messerschmidt-Roth, Anke; Labiris, Georgios; Kozobolis, Vassilios; Sekundo, Walter

    2018-04-27

    To evaluate the long-term changes in anterior and posterior corneal irregular astigmatism and curvatures after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). Fifty eyes of 28 patients underwent SMILE for myopic astigmatism. All procedures were performed using the VisuMax® femtosecond laser. A Scheimpflug camera was used for preoperative and 3-year postoperative tomography. Anterior and posterior corneal Fourier parameters (spherical component, regular astigmatism, asymmetry, and irregularity) and curvature data were evaluated and compared within 2 subgroups according to the magnitude of the refractive correction (low myopia group: spherical equivalent (SEQ) ≥ -6 D; high myopia group: (SEQ) < -6 D). Associations between all studied parameters were examined. Three years postoperatively, an increase in anterior corneal curvatures and Fourier parameters was detected and the results were strongly correlated with the preoperative SEQ, lenticule thickness, and volume. At the posterior cornea, the flattest radius, corneal astigmatism, spherical component, regular astigmatism, and irregularity decreased only in the high myopia group. A correlation was found between changes in posterior astigmatism and changes in anterior radii (R = 0.349, P = 0.014), SEQ (R = 0.396, P = 0.0049), and lenticule thickness (R = -0.414, P = 0.0031). Moreover, changes in posterior corneal irregularity correlated with the changes in anterior and posterior radii (R = -0.3, P = 0.034, and R = 0.449, P = 0.0012, respectively), changes in preoperative SEQ (R = 0.284, P = 0.0477), and lenticule thickness (R = -0.311, P = 0.0298). Three years after SMILE, there was a reduction of posterior astigmatism in high refractive corrections. This could result in undercorrection in high refractive treatments. Total irregularities increased despite the compensatory effect of the posterior corneal surface.

  16. Changes in corneal topography and biomechanical properties after collagen cross linking for keratoconus: 1-year results.

    PubMed

    Sedaghat, Mohammadreza; Bagheri, Mansooreh; Ghavami, Shahri; Bamdad, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate changes in corneal topography and biomechanical properties after collagen cross-linking (CXL) for progressive keratoconus. Collagen cross-linking was performed on 97 eyes. We assessed uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Corneal topography indices were evaluated using placido disc topography, scanning slit anterior topography (Orbscan II), and rotating Scheimpflug topography (Pentacam). Specular microscopy and corneal biomechanics were evaluated. A 1-year-follow-up results revealed that UCVA improved from 0.31 to 0.45 and BCVA changed from 0.78 to 0.84 (P < 0.001). The mean of average keratometry value decreased from 49.62 to 47.95 D (P < 0.001). Astigmatism decreased from 4.84 to 4.24 D (P < 0.001). Apex corneal thickness decreased from 458.11 to 444.46 μm. Corneal volume decreased from 56.66 to 55.97 mm(3) (P < 0.001). Posterior best fit sphere increased from 55.50 to 46.03 mm (P = 0.025). Posterior elevation increased from 99.2 to 112.22 μm (P < 0.001). Average progressive index increased from 2.26 to 2.56 (P < 0.001). A nonsignificant decrease was observed in mean endothelial count from 2996 to 2928 cell/mm(2) (P = 0.190). Endothelial coefficient of variation (CV) increased nonsignificantly from 18.26 to 20.29 (P = 0.112). Corneal hysteresis changed from 8.18 to 8.36 (P = 0.552) and corneal resistance factor increased from 6.98 to 7.21 (P = 0.202), so these changes were not significant. Visual acuity and K values improved after CXL. In spite of the nonsignificant increase in endothelial cell count and increase in the CV, CLX seems to be a safe treatment for keratoconus. Further studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods are recommended.

  17. A comprehensive analysis of eye bank-prepared posterior lamellar corneal tissue for use in endothelial keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Kelliher, Clare; Engler, Christoph; Speck, Caroline; Ward, Don; Farazdaghi, Sameera; Jun, Albert S

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess eye bank-prepared corneal tissue with regards to the accuracy of postcut tissue thickness, endothelial cell loss, and rate of successful processing. Details of all 913 corneal tissues processed with an automated microkeratome for use in posterior lamellar transplantation, over a 1-year period, were obtained from a large eye bank. The number and success rate of all attempted cutting procedures were analyzed. The thickness of the corneal button obtained after cutting was compared with the graft thickness requested by the operating surgeon. Changes in endothelial cell density (ECD) during tissue processing were evaluated. The rate of successful tissue preparation increased over the time period examined, from 95% in the first quarter to 99.5% in the fourth quarter. Graft material was frequently slightly thicker than requested by the operating surgeon with 28.3% of tissues cut thicker than requested. Postcut ECD over the entire period increased by an average of 4.7% and was closely related to the starting ECD. There was a very high rate of successful tissue preparation (98.5%), and early failed attempts at tissue cutting were likely the result of the initial learning curve of the involved technicians. Practical considerations resulted in tissue being cut marginally thicker than requested; this is an issue about which the operating surgeon should be aware, because it may possibly influence tissue handling. The quality of the obtained material, as measured by ECD, was excellent, although the calculated ECD may be prone to measurement artifact.

  18. Mouse genetic corneal disease resulting from transgenic insertional mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, J S; Gregory-Evans, K; Huxley, C; Seabra, M C

    2004-01-01

    Background/aims: To report the generation of a new mouse model for a genetically determined corneal abnormality that occurred in transgenesis experiments. Methods: Transgenic mice expressing mutant forms of Rab27a, a GTPase that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of choroideremia, were generated. Results: Only one transgenic line (T27aT15) exhibited an unexpected eye phenotype. T27aT15 mice developed corneal opacities, usually unilateral, and cataracts, resulting in some cases in phthisical eyes. Histologically, the corneal stroma was thickened and vacuolated, and both epithelium and endothelium were thinned. The posterior segment of the eye was also affected with abnormal pigmentation, vessel narrowing, and abnormal leakage of dye upon angiography but was histologically normal. Conclusion: Eye abnormality in T27aT15 mice results from random insertional mutagenesis of the transgene as it was only observed in one line. The corneal lesion observed in T27aT15 mice most closely resembles posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy and might result from the disruption of the equivalent mouse locus. PMID:14977782

  19. Agreement between total corneal astigmatism calculated by vector summation and total corneal astigmatism measured by ray tracing using Galilei double Scheimpflug analyzer.

    PubMed

    Feizi, Sepehr; Delfazayebaher, Siamak; Ownagh, Vahid; Sadeghpour, Fatemeh

    To evaluate the agreement between total corneal astigmatism calculated by vector summation of anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism (TCA Vec ) and total corneal astigmatism measured by ray tracing (TCA Ray ). This study enrolled a total of 204 right eyes of 204 normal subjects. The eyes were measured using a Galilei double Scheimpflug analyzer. The measured parameters included simulated keratometric astigmatism using the keratometric index, anterior corneal astigmatism using the corneal refractive index, posterior corneal astigmatism, and TCA Ray . TCA Vec was derived by vector summation of the astigmatism on the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces. The magnitudes and axes of TCA Vec and TCA Ray were compared. The Pearson correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the relationship and agreement between TCA Vec and TCA Ray , respectively. The mean TCA Vec and TCA Ray magnitudes were 0.76±0.57D and 1.00±0.78D, respectively (P<0.001). The mean axis orientations were 85.12±30.26° and 89.67±36.76°, respectively (P=0.02). Strong correlations were found between the TCA Vec and TCA Ray magnitudes (r=0.96, P<0.001). Moderate associations were observed between the TCA Vec and TCA Ray axes (r=0.75, P<0.001). Bland-Altman plots produced the 95% limits of agreement for the TCA Vec and TCA Ray magnitudes from -0.33 to 0.82D. The 95% limits of agreement between the TCA Vec and TCA Ray axes was -43.0 to 52.1°. The magnitudes and axes of astigmatisms measured by the vector summation and ray tracing methods cannot be used interchangeably. There was a systematic error between the TCA Vec and TCA Ray magnitudes. Copyright © 2017 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Corneal Curvature, Astigmatism, and Aberrations in Marfan Syndrome with Lens Subluxation: Evaluation by Pentacam HR System.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiahui; Jing, Qinghe; Tang, Yating; Qian, Dongjin; Lu, Yi; Jiang, Yongxiang

    2018-03-06

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is associated with abnormalities of corneal biometric characteristics. We conducted a retrospective case-control study including 55 eyes of the MFS patients with lens subluxation and 53 normal eyes of the control subjects to evaluate the corneal curvature, astigmatism and aberrations using a rotating Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam HR). Compared with the control group, the anterior, posterior, and total corneal curvature were flatter in the MFS group. The anterior and total corneal astigmatism were higher in the MFS patients, whereas the posterior corneal astigmatism was not significantly different between the two groups. Regarding the total corneal aberrations, the root mean square (RMS) aberrations, RMS higher-order aberrations and RMS lower-order aberrations increased, whereas the spherical aberration decreased in the MFS patients. Corneal parameters had potential diagnostic values for MFS patients with lens subluxation and the more reasonable cutoffs were the values of corneal curvature <41.35 D, corneal astigmatism >0.85 D and spherical aberration <0.188 μm. Corneal biometric characteristics of MFS patients with lens subluxation include decreased corneal curvature, higher corneal astigmatism, larger corneal aberrations, and lower spherical aberration. Corneal curvature, corneal astigmatism, and spherical aberration are better diagnostic tools for suspicious MFS.

  1. New algorithm for toric intraocular lens power calculation considering the posterior corneal astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Canovas, Carmen; Alarcon, Aixa; Rosén, Robert; Kasthurirangan, Sanjeev; Ma, Joseph J K; Koch, Douglas D; Piers, Patricia

    2018-02-01

    To assess the accuracy of toric intraocular lens (IOL) power calculations of a new algorithm that incorporates the effect of posterior corneal astigmatism (PCA). Abbott Medical Optics, Inc., Groningen, the Netherlands. Retrospective case report. In eyes implanted with toric IOLs, the exact vergence formula of the Tecnis toric calculator was used to predict refractive astigmatism from preoperative biometry, surgeon-estimated surgically induced astigmatism (SIA), and implanted IOL power, with and without including the new PCA algorithm. For each calculation method, the error in predicted refractive astigmatism was calculated as the vector difference between the prediction and the actual refraction. Calculations were also made using postoperative keratometry (K) values to eliminate the potential effect of incorrect SIA estimates. The study comprised 274 eyes. The PCA algorithm significantly reduced the centroid error in predicted refractive astigmatism (P < .001). With the PCA algorithm, the centroid error reduced from 0.50 @ 1 to 0.19 @ 3 when using preoperative K values and from 0.30 @ 0 to 0.02 @ 84 when using postoperative K values. Patients who had anterior corneal against-the-rule, with-the-rule, and oblique astigmatism had improvement with the PCA algorithm. In addition, the PCA algorithm reduced the median absolute error in all groups (P < .001). The use of the new PCA algorithm decreased the error in the prediction of residual refractive astigmatism in eyes implanted with toric IOLs. Therefore, the new PCA algorithm, in combination with an exact vergence IOL power calculation formula, led to an increased predictability of toric IOL power. Copyright © 2018 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Posterior polymorphous dystrophy, case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Adam, G; Hernandez-Camarena, J C; Valdez-García, J E

    2015-09-01

    Posterior Polymorphous Dystrophy (DPP) is a rare posterior corneal dystrophy that is genetically transmitted as autosomal dominant. Corneal structures affected in this dystrophy are Descemet membrane and the endothelium. A case is presented on a 47 years old woman with no relevant history, with typical findings of DPP (vesicular and band lesions at the endothelium and posterior Descemet). To our knowledge there are no reported cases of DPP in Latin-American patients in the literature. The clinical manifestations in our patient were found to be very similar to the cases reported in other populations. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Crystalline Subtype of Pre-Descemetic Corneal Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto; Pinazo-Durán, María Dolores; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report corneal findings in a familial case of the crystalline subtype of pre-Descemetic corneal dystrophy. Case Report A 19-year-old girl and her 44-year-old mother were found to have asymptomatic, bilateral, punctiform and multi-colored crystalline opacities across the whole posterior layer of the corneas. Endothelial specular microscopy revealed the presence of white round flecks located at different levels anterior to the endothelium. No systemic abnormalities or medications could be related to account for these findings. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the third familial report of this rare corneal disorder. Differential diagnosis may include Schnyder corneal dystrophy, cystinosis, Bietti´s dystrophy and monoclonal gammopathy. PMID:25279130

  4. Corneal densitometry and its correlation with age, pachymetry, corneal curvature, and refraction.

    PubMed

    Garzón, Nuria; Poyales, Francisco; Illarramendi, Igor; Mendicute, Javier; Jáñez, Óscar; Caro, Pedro; López, Alfredo; Argüeso, Francisco

    2017-12-01

    To determine normative corneal densitometry values in relation to age, sex, refractive error, corneal thickness, and keratometry, measured using the Oculus Pentacam system. Three hundred and thirty-eight healthy subjects (185 men; 153 women) with no corneal disease underwent an exhaustive ocular examination. Corneal densitometry was expressed in standardized grayscale units (GSU). The mean corneal densitometry over the total area was 16.46 ± 1.85 GSU. The Pearson correlation coefficient for total densitometry was r = 0.542 (p < 0.001). Statistically significant differences were found between men and women for the total area (p = 0.006), with readings of 16.22 ± 1.54 GSU and 16.60 ± 1.83 GSU, respectively. When the cornea was divided into layers of different depths, a significant correlation was found for all layers and age: r = 0.447 (p < 0.001), r = 0.563 (p < 0.001), and r = 0.520 (p < 0.001) for the anterior, central, and posterior layers, respectively. However, when the cornea was divided into concentric annuli starting from the center of the cornea, densitometry was strongly correlated only with age in the 6-10-mm annulus (p < 0.001). Neither mean keratometry nor spherical equivalent was correlated with corneal densitometry in any zone of the cornea (p > 0.05). This is the first report of normative corneal densitometry values in relation to keratometry, corneal thickness, and spherical equivalent measured with the latest Oculus Pentacam software. Corneal densitometry increases with age, but corneal keratometry and refractive parameters do not affect light scattering in the human cornea.

  5. Corneal Anterior Power Calculation for an IOL in Post-PRK Patients.

    PubMed

    De Bernardo, Maddalena; Iaccarino, Stefania; Cennamo, Michela; Caliendo, Luisa; Rosa, Nicola

    2015-02-01

    After corneal refractive surgery, there is an overestimation of the corneal power with the devices routinely used to measure it. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether, in patients who underwent photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), it is possible to predict the earlier preoperative anterior corneal power from the postoperative (PO) posterior corneal power. A comparison is made using a formula published by Saiki for laser in situ keratomileusis patients and a new one calculated specifically from PRK patients. The Saiki formula was tested in 98 eyes of 98 patients (47 women) who underwent PRK for myopia or myopic astigmatism. Moreover, anterior and posterior mean keratometry (Km) values from a Scheimpflug camera were measured to obtain a specific regression formula. The mean (±SD) preoperative Km was 43.50 (±1.39) diopters (D) (range, 39.25 to 47.05 D). The mean (±SD) Km value calculated with the Saiki formula using the 6 months PO posterior Km was 42.94 (±1.19) D (range, 40.34 to 45.98 D) with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). Six months after PRK in our patients, the posterior Km was correlated with the anterior preoperative one by the following regression formula: y = -4.9707x + 12.457 (R² = 0.7656), where x is PO posterior Km and y is preoperative anterior Km, similar to the one calculated by Saiki. Care should be taken in using the Saiki formula to calculate the preoperative Km in patients who underwent PRK.

  6. [Influence AquaLase at corneal endothelial cells].

    PubMed

    Jirásková, N; Rozsíval, P; Ludvíková, M; Burova, M; Nekolová, J

    2009-07-01

    To assess the effect of the cleaning of the posterior capsule using pulses of balanced salt solution (BSS) on the corneal endothelial cells. This pilot study involves 43 patients with bilateral cataracts having lens removal using torsional phacoemulsification (Ozil, Infiniti, Alcon) and bimanul irrigation/aspiration (I/A). Posterior capsule of the right eye of each patient was cleaned using pulses of BSS (AquaLase, Infiniti, Alcon). Surgery was performed by one of 2 surgeons (NJ, PR), both eyes of each patient was operated on by the same surgeon. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), endotelial cell count and pachymetry were evaluated pre- and postoperatively as well as occurence af peri- and postoperative complications. Preoperative mean pachymetry (P) was 566 +/- 45 microm in the right eye (RE) and 562 +/- 42 microm in the left eye (LE), mean endotelial cell count (ECC) 2541 +/- 317 cells/mm2 (RE) and 2567 +/- 311 cells/mm2 (LE). Three months after surgery P was 557 +/- 43 microm (RE) and 558 +/- 45 microm (LE) and ECC 2368 +/- 416 cells/mm2 (RE) and 2396 +/- 417 cells/mm2 (LE). There was no statistical difference in postoperative changes of both corneal parameters between right and left eyes. Best corrected visual acuity improved in all eyes and no peri-or postoperative complications occured. Cleaning of the posterior capsule using AquaLase is safe for corneal endothelial cells.

  7. Complete Metabolome and Lipidome Analysis Reveals Novel Biomarkers in the Human Diabetic Corneal Stroma

    PubMed Central

    Priyadarsini, Shrestha; McKay, Tina B; Sarker-Nag, Akhee; Allegood, Jeremy; Chalfant, Charles; Ma, Jian-Xing; Karamichos, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged hyperglycemia during diabetes mellitus can cause severe ophthalmic complications affecting both the anterior and posterior ocular segments leading to impaired vision or blindness. Diabetes-induced corneal pathologies are associated with decreased wound healing capacity, corneal edema, and altered epithelial basement membrane. The mechanism by which diabetes modulates structure and function within the corneal stroma are unknown. In our study, we characterized the effects of diabetes on extracellular matrix, lipid transport, and cellular metabolism by defining the entire metabolome and lipidome of Type 1 and Type 2 human diabetic corneal stroma. Significant increases in Collagen I and III were found in diabetic corneas suggesting that diabetes promotes defects in matrix structure leading to scarring. Furthermore, increased lipid content, including sphingosine-1-phosphate and dihydrosphingosine, in diabetic corneas compared to healthy controls were measured suggesting altered lipid retention. Metabolomics analysis identified elevated tryptophan metabolites, independent of glucose metabolism, which correlated with upregulation of the Kynurenine pathway in diabetic corneas. We also found significant upregulation of novel biomarkers aminoadipic acid, D,L-pipecolic acid, and dihydroorotate. Our study links aberrant tryptophan metabolism to end-stage pathologies associated with diabetes indicating the potential of the Kynurenine pathway as a therapeutic target for inhibiting diabetes-associated defects in the eye. PMID:27742548

  8. Endothelial quality of pre-cut posterior corneal lamellae for Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty with a stromal rim (DMEK-S): two-year outcome of manual preparation in an ocular tissue bank.

    PubMed

    Krabcova, Ivana; Studeny, Pavel; Jirsova, Katerina

    2013-06-01

    To assess the quantitative and qualitative parameters of pre-cut posterior corneal lamellae for Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty with a stromal rim (DMEK-S) prepared manually in the Ocular Tissue Bank Prague. All 65 successfully prepared pre-cut posterior corneal lamellae provided for grafting during a 2-year period were analyzed retrospectively. The lamellae, consisting of a central zone of endothelium-Descemet membrane surrounded by a supporting peripheral stromal rim, were prepared manually from corneoscleral buttons having an endothelial cell density higher than 2,500 cells/mm(2). The live endothelial cell density, the percentage of dead cells, the hexagonality and the coefficient of variation were assessed before and immediately after preparation as well as after 2 days of organ culture storage at 31 °C. Altogether, the endothelium of 57 lamellae was assessed. Immediately after preparation, the mean live endothelial cell density was 2,835 cells/mm(2) and, on average, 1.8 % of dead cells were found. After 2 days of storage, the cell density decreased significantly to 2,757 cells/mm(2) and the percentage of dead cells to 1.0 %. There was a significant change in the mean hexagonality and the coefficient of variation after lamellar preparation and subsequent storage. The amount of tissue wasted during the preparation was 23 %. The endothelial cell density of posterior corneal lamellae sent for DMEK-S was higher than 2,700 cells/mm(2) in average with a low percentage of dead cells; 65 pre-cut tissues were used for grafting during a 2-year period.

  9. Comparative Confocal and Histopathological Study of Corneal Changes in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Micali, Antonio; Roszkowska, Anna M; Postorino, Elisa I; Rania, Laura; Aragona, Emanuela; Wylegala, Edward; Nowinska, Anna; Ieni, Antonio; Calimeri, Sebastiano; Pisani, Antonina; Aragona, Pasquale; Puzzolo, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Corneal opacities rarely occur in multiple myeloma (MM). Our study correlates the findings of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM), a useful diagnostic tool, with histopathological features of corneal opacities appearing in a patient with MM. Case report. A 53-year-old man developed corneal opacities in both eyes, more pronounced in the left eye. After IVCM examination, he underwent penetrating keratoplasty in the left eye, and the button was processed for light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The diagnosis of MM was made, as confirmed by the elevation of IgGk light chains. IVCM demonstrated hyperreflective areas at the epithelial level, hyperreflective keratocytes of dendritic and lamellar morphology in whole stroma, and hyperreflective endothelial cells. Histopathological examination disclosed many vacuoles in the epithelial cell cytoplasm and a homogenous granular material in the Bowman layer. In stroma, keratocytes of different shape and size, with vesicles laden with an abnormal material, were evident. In Descemet membrane, the posterior nonbanded zone had a honeycomb appearance because of the presence of many roundish spaces among wide-spaced collagen fibers. Endothelial cells demonstrated vesicles filled with a material of uneven electron density. Immunohistochemical analysis showed strong positivity for IgGk light chains in keratocytes and among stromal lamellae. This is the first study describing a correspondence between IVCM features and histopathological alterations observed in corneal opacities in MM. The results of this study improve the current understanding of the pictures obtained by IVCM studies.

  10. Corneal fibrosarcoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Strong, Travis D; Tangeman, Sarah; Ben-Shlomo, Gil; Haynes, Joseph; Allbaugh, Rachel A

    2016-07-01

    To present the clinicopathologic features of a Domestic Short-haired cat with spontaneous, intermediate-grade corneal fibrosarcoma, possibly secondary to chronic corneal irritation associated with a corneal sequestrum. A 12-year-old, spayed female Domestic Short-haired cat was evaluated for a slowly growing, pink, exophytic mass affecting the left cornea. The cat had presented 6 years previously for bilateral brown corneal sequestra, as well as 3 years previously for a small pale growth on the left cornea hypothesized to be an epithelial inclusion cyst and a corneal ulcer affecting the right eye. Incisional biopsy of the corneal mass indicated intermediate-grade corneal fibrosarcoma within the corneal stroma. Owing to the potential for malignant behavior, the left globe was enucleated. Routine systemic staging was performed prior to surgery with no evidence of metastasis. Definitive diagnosis of corneal fibrosarcoma was made through histopathologic examination of the incisional biopsy. There was an elevated mitotic index, indicating an intermediate-grade phenotype. Histopathology of the enucleated globe substantiated the initial findings, and complete tumor resection was confirmed. Subjacent to the corneal fibrosarcoma, there was a region of necrotic tissue suggestive of a corneal sequestrum. Six months after diagnosis and enucleation, the patient remained healthy with no signs of local spread or distant metastasis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first documented case of a corneal fibrosarcoma in a cat. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  11. Elevated IGFBP3 levels in diabetic tears: a negative regulator of IGF-1 signaling in the corneal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Chieh; Buckner, Benjamin R; Zhu, Meifang; Cavanagh, H Dwight; Robertson, Danielle M

    2012-04-01

    To determine the ratio of IGFBP3:IGF-1 in normal and diabetic human tears, and in telomerase-immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (hTCEpi) cultured under elevated glucose conditions and to correlate these changes with total and phosphorylated levels of IGF-1R. Tear samples were collected noninvasively from diabetic subjects and non-diabetic controls; corneal sensitivity was assessed using a Cochet-Bonnet Aesthesiometer. Conditioned media were collected following culture of hTCEpi cells in normal (5 mM) and elevated (25 mM) glucose conditions; mannitol was used as an osmotic control. IGFBP3, IGF-1, and phosphorylated IGF-1R levels were assessed by ELISA. IGFBP3 and IGF-1R mRNA were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Total and phosphorylated IGF-1R expression in whole cell lysates was assessed by western blot. There was a 2.8-fold increase in IGFBP3 in diabetic tears compared to non-diabetic controls (P=0.006); IGF-1 levels were not significantly altered. No difference in corneal sensitivity was detected between groups. The concentration of IGFBP3 in tears was independent of IGF-1. Consistent with human tear measurements in vivo, IGFBP3 secretion was increased 2.2 fold (P<0.001) following culture of hTCEpi cells under elevated glucose conditions in vitro. Treatment with glucose and the mannitol control reduced IGFBP3 mRNA (P<0.001). Total IGF-1R levels were unchanged. The increase in the IGFBP3:IGF-1 ratio detected in diabetic tears compared to normal controls blocked phosphorylation of the IGF-1R by IGF-1 (P<0.001) when tested in vitro. Taken together, these in vivo and confirmatory in vitro findings suggest that the observed increase in IGFBP3 found in human tears may attenuate IGF-1R signaling in the diabetic cornea. A long-term increase in IGFBP3 may contribute to epithelial compromise and the pathogenesis of ocular surface complications reported in diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Elevated IGFBP3 levels in diabetic tears: a negative regulator of IGF-1 signaling in the corneal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Chieh; Buckner, Benjamin R.; Zhu, Meifang; Cavanagh, H. Dwight; Robertson, Danielle M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine the ratio of IGFBP3:IGF-1 in normal and diabetic human tears, and in telomerase-immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (hTCEpi) cultured under elevated glucose conditions and to correlate these changes with total and phosphorylated levels of IGF-1R. Methods Tear samples were collected noninvasively from diabetic subjects and non-diabetic controls; corneal sensitivity was assessed using a Cochet-Bonnet Aesthesiometer. Conditioned media were collected following culture of hTCEpi cells in normal (5 mM) and elevated (25 mM) glucose conditions; mannitol was used as an osmotic control. IGFBP3, IGF-1, and phosphorylated IGF-1R levels were assessed by ELISA. IGFBP3 and IGF-1R mRNA were assessed by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Total and phosphorylated IGF-1R expression in whole cell lysates was assessed by western blot. Results There was a 2.8-fold increase in IGFBP3 in diabetic tears compared to non-diabetic controls (P=0.006); IGF-1 levels were not significantly altered. No difference in corneal sensitivity was detected between groups. The concentration of IGFBP3 in tears was independent of IGF-1. Consistent with human tear measurements in vivo, IGFBP3 secretion was increased 2.2 fold (P<0.001) following culture of hTCEpi cells under elevated glucose conditions in vitro. Treatment with glucose and the mannitol control reduced IGFBP3 mRNA (P<0.001). Total IGF-1R levels were unchanged. The increase in the IGFBP3:IGF-1 ratio detected in diabetic tears compared to normal controls blocked phosphorylation of the IGF-1R by IGF-1 (P<0.001) when tested in vitro. Conclusions Taken together, these in vivo and confirmatory in vitro findings suggest that the observed increase in IGFBP3 found in human tears may attenuate IGF-1R signaling in the diabetic cornea. A long-term increase in IGFBP3 may contribute to epithelial compromise and the pathogenesis of ocular surface complications reported in diabetes. PMID:22482470

  13. Corneal thickness: measurement and implications.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Niels; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2004-03-01

    The thickness of the cornea was reported in more than 100-year-old textbooks on physiological optics (Helmholtz, Gullstrand). Physiological interest was revived in the 1950s by David Maurice, and over the next 50 years, this 'simple' biological parameter has been studied extensively. Several techniques for its measurement have been described and physiological and clinical significance have been studied. In this review, the different methods and techniques of measurement are briefly presented (optical, ultrasound). While the corneal thickness of many animals are the same over a considerable part of the surface, in the human cornea anterior and posterior curvature are not concentric giving rise to a problem of definition. Based on this the precision and accuracy of determining the central corneal thickness are discussed. Changes in corneal thickness reflects changes in function of the boundary layers, in particular the endothelial barrier. The absolute value of thickness is of importance for the estimation of IOP but also in diagnosis of corneal and systemic disorders. Finally it is discussed to what extent the thickness is a biometric parameter of significance, e.g. in the progression of myopia or in the development of retinal detachment.

  14. Corneal confocal microscopy following conventional, transepithelial, and accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking procedures for keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Touboul, David; Efron, Nathan; Smadja, David; Praud, Delphine; Malet, Florence; Colin, Joseph

    2012-11-01

    To compare early corneal healing following conventional, transepithelial, and accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) protocols. Twenty-four patients with progressive keratoconus were divided into three groups to receive conventional, transepithelial, or accelerated CXL. In vivo corneal confocal microscopy was performed on each patient preoperatively and at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Closure of the epithelial wound was complete 3 days following conventional and accelerated CXL. The subbasal nerve plexus was essentially obliterated immediately following conventional and accelerated CXL, and virtually no nerve fibers had regenerated by 6 months. The anterior stroma showed significant changes 1 month following conventional CXL; these changes were similar but more pronounced following accelerated CXL. Observed stromal changes included complete obliteration of keratocytes, increased tissue reflectivity, a honeycomb-like appearance, and circular lacunae. Some recovery of keratocyte density was noted after 6 months. These changes were less pronounced in the mid-stroma, and there were no apparent changes to the posterior stroma or endothelium. The cornea appeared to be unaltered following transepithelial CXL. In vivo corneal confocal microscopy analysis of the postoperative impact of CXL on the cornea revealed clear differences among conventional, accelerated, and transepithelial CXL protocols. Accelerated CXL had a greater impact than conventional CXL on the anterior cornea, whereas transepithelial CXL did not appear to alter corneal morphology. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. A New Approach for the Calculation of Total Corneal Astigmatism Considering the Magnitude and Orientation of Posterior Corneal Astigmatism and Thickness.

    PubMed

    Piñero, David P; Caballero, María T; Nicolás-Albujer, Juan M; de Fez, Dolores; Camps, Vicent J

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate a new method of calculation of total corneal astigmatism based on Gaussian optics and the power design of a spherocylindrical lens (C) in the healthy eye and to compare it with keratometric (K) and power vector (PV) methods. A total of 92 healthy eyes of 92 patients (age, 17-65 years) were enrolled. Corneal astigmatism was calculated in all cases using K, PV, and our new approach C that considers the contribution of corneal thickness. An evaluation of the interchangeability of our new approach with the other 2 methods was performed using Bland-Altman analysis. Statistically significant differences between methods were found in the magnitude of astigmatism (P < 0.001), with the highest values provided by K. These differences in the magnitude of astigmatism were clinically relevant when K and C were compared [limits of agreement (LoA), -0.40 to 0.62 D), but not for the comparison between PV and C (LoA, -0.03 to 0.01 D). Differences in the axis of astigmatism between methods did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.408). However, they were clinically relevant when comparing K and C (LoA, -5.48 to 15.68 degrees) but not for the comparison between PV and C (LoA, -1.68 to 1.42 degrees). The use of our new approach for the calculation of total corneal astigmatism provides astigmatic results comparable to the PV method, which suggests that the effect of pachymetry on total corneal astigmatism is minimal in healthy eyes.

  16. Corneal changes with accommodation using dual Scheimpflug photography.

    PubMed

    Sisó-Fuertes, Irene; Domínguez-Vicent, Alberto; del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2015-05-01

    To assess whether corneal parameters and aberrations are affected by accommodation. Optics Department, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Prospective cross-sectional study. The Galilei G4 dual Scheimpflug device was used to obtain data on the anterior and posterior axial curvatures, total corneal power (TCP), and corneal pachymetry from 3 corneal zones (central: 0.0 up to 4.0 mm; paracentral or mid: 4.0 up to 7.0 mm; peripheral: 7.0 up to 10.0 mm) in young emmetropic eyes in the unaccommodated and 4 accommodated states (from -1.0 to -4.0 diopters [D] in 1.0 D steps). The 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-order aberrations as well as the root mean square (RMS) were also determined for the entire cornea at the same accommodative demands. The study evaluated 7 subjects (12 eyes). No significant changes in any measured parameter were found during accommodation for any corneal zone (P > .05). Statistically significant differences were found in the various corneal zones when it was assumed they were constant with accommodation (P < .01). A stable linear trend with accommodation was also found for corneal aberrations, although individual variations existed because of the high standard deviation values. Different parameters in various zones of the cornea as well as corneal aberrations were stable during accommodation. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel posterior fixation keratoprosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacombe, Emmanuel

    1992-08-01

    The keratoprosthesis is the last solution for corneally blind patients that cannot benefit from corneal transplants. Keratoprostheses that have been designed to be affixed anteriorly usually necessitate multi-step surgical procedures and are continuously subjected to the extrusion forces generated by the positive intraocular pressure; therefore, clinical results in patients prove inconsistent. We proposed a novel keratoprosthesis concept that utilizes posterior corneal fixation which `a priori' minimizes the risk of aqueous leakage and expulsion. This prosthesis is implanted in a single procedure thereby reducing the number of surgical complications normally associated with anterior fixation devices. In addition, its novel design makes this keratoprosthesis implantable in phakic eyes. With an average follow-up of 13 months (range 3 to 25 months), our results on 21 cases are encouraging. Half of the keratoprostheses were implanted in severe burn cases, with the remainder in cases of pseudo- pemphigus. Good visual results and cosmetic appearance were obtained in 14 of 21 eyes.

  18. Analysis of age-dependence of the anterior and posterior cornea with scheimpflug imaging.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Gabor; Hassan, Ziad; Szalai, Eszter; Berta, Andras; Modis, Laszlo

    2013-05-01

    To assess keratometric and higher-order aberrations of the anterior and posterior cornea and their age-related changes. This study investigated one healthy eye of 227 patients (mean age: 55.15 ± 21.2 years; range: 16 to 90 years; 135 right eyes, 92 left eyes). Images were captured from each eye with Pentacam HR (Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany) using automatic mode. Keratometric, astigmatism data, and corneal higher-order aberrations were analyzed. With respect to laterality, no deviance was found in any of the parameters (P > .05). Mean refractive error was 0.52 ± 0.23 diopters. The level of astigmatism decreased significantly with advancing age for both the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces (P < .05). The overall root mean square of the higher-order aberration increased continuously with age (r = 0.517; P < .01), which can be explained by the combined effect of the increased in both the anterior and posterior corneal root mean square higher-order aberrations. Of the higher-order aberrations, the constant increase of the primary and secondary spherical aberration with aging (P < .01) is caused by the spherical aberration growth of the anterior surface. Apart from these, only the vertical coma aberration of the posterior surface and the vertical trefoil aberrations of both the anterior and posterior surfaces showed a significantly positive correlation with aging (P < .05). Corneal astigmatism showed a significant decrease with aging. Of the higher-order aberrations, primary and secondary spherical aberrations, vertical coma, and vertical trefoil significantly increase with age, whereas other higher-order aberrations show no correlation with aging. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Corneal approach 20 Guage vitrectomy system for the management of congenital cataract

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Mariya Nazish; Bukhari, Sadia; Bhutto, Israr Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and complications of 20 gauge vitrectomy via corneal approach for the management of congenital cataract. Method: We performed anterior capsular vitreorhexis, lens matter aspiration (LMA), primary posterior vitrectorhexis and anterior vitrectomy via corneal approach using 20 gauge vitrectomy system in children younger than two years of age with congenital cataract between January 2014 to December 2014. The intra and postoperative complications were observed. Results: Twenty nine eyes of 21 children were included in this study. Congenital cataract surgery using 20 gauge vitrectomy system via corneal approach did not reveal any intra operative complication. Post operatively all children were able to freely open their operated eyes. Conjunctival congestion at the incision site in four eyes and mild anterior chamber reaction in 8 eyes were seen on 1st daywhich resolved at one week follow up. Other major post operative complications such as inflammatory membrane, irregular pupil, posterior/anterior syneache and opacification of visual axis were not seen during follow up period. Conclusion: The 20-gauge vitrectomy system via corneal approach is easy to perform, is less time consuming, safe and effective for the management of congenital cataract in younger children. PMID:27182257

  20. Corneal approach 20 Guage vitrectomy system for the management of congenital cataract.

    PubMed

    Memon, Mariya Nazish; Bukhari, Sadia; Bhutto, Israr Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and complications of 20 gauge vitrectomy via corneal approach for the management of congenital cataract. We performed anterior capsular vitreorhexis, lens matter aspiration (LMA), primary posterior vitrectorhexis and anterior vitrectomy via corneal approach using 20 gauge vitrectomy system in children younger than two years of age with congenital cataract between January 2014 to December 2014. The intra and postoperative complications were observed. Twenty nine eyes of 21 children were included in this study. Congenital cataract surgery using 20 gauge vitrectomy system via corneal approach did not reveal any intra operative complication. Post operatively all children were able to freely open their operated eyes. Conjunctival congestion at the incision site in four eyes and mild anterior chamber reaction in 8 eyes were seen on 1(st) daywhich resolved at one week follow up. Other major post operative complications such as inflammatory membrane, irregular pupil, posterior/anterior syneache and opacification of visual axis were not seen during follow up period. The 20-gauge vitrectomy system via corneal approach is easy to perform, is less time consuming, safe and effective for the management of congenital cataract in younger children.

  1. [Control of corneal astigmatism following IOL implantation by Nd:YAG laser selective suture cutting].

    PubMed

    Liu, Y Z; Li, S Z

    1991-09-01

    Nd:YAG laser was used to cut the sutures selectively to reduce the postoperative corneal with-the-rule astigmatism in 48 eyes that underwent posterior chamber IOL implantation. A significant decrease in corneal astigmatism with visual improvement was affected, and the manipulation was simple. The actual procedure with its advantages and disadvantages was discussed.

  2. Optical coherence tomography-based topography determination of corneal grafts in eye bank cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damian, Angela; Seitz, Berthold; Langenbucher, Achim; Eppig, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Vision loss due to corneal injuries or diseases can be treated by transplantation of human corneal grafts (keratoplasty). However, quality assurance in retrieving and cultivating the tissue transplants is confined to visual and microbiological testing. To identify previous refractive surgery or morphological alterations, an automatic, noncontact, sterile screening procedure is required. Twenty-three corneal grafts have been measured in organ culture with a clinical spectral-domain optical coherence tomographer. Employing a biconic surface fit with 10 degrees of freedom, the radii of curvature and conic constants could be estimated for the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces. Thereupon, central corneal thickness, refractive values, and astigmatism have been calculated. Clinical investigations are required to elaborate specific donor-host matching in the future.

  3. Femtosecond laser–assisted cataract surgery in vitrectomized eye with posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens

    PubMed Central

    Anisimova, Natalia; Malyugin, Boris; Arbisser, Lisa B.; Sobolev, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Summary We describe a case of femtosecond laser–assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) in an eye with multiple comorbidities, including retinal detachment surgery, high myopia, posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens (PC pIOL) and residual, emulsified, silicone oil located in the anterior chamber. FLACS was affected by the optical blockage, but the incomplete capsular tear was recoverable. The case suggests that silicone oil bubbles concentrated at the dome of the posterior corneal surface, along with the PC pIOL optic edges and scars after corneal astigmatic relaxing incisions can lead to incomplete anterior capsulotomy. PMID:28924422

  4. Corneal power evaluation after myopic corneal refractive surgery using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Robert; Lanza, Michele; Irregolare, Carlo

    2016-11-15

    Efficacy and high availability of surgery techniques for refractive defect correction increase the number of patients who undergo to this type of surgery. Regardless of that, with increasing age, more and more patients must undergo cataract surgery. Accurate evaluation of corneal power is an extremely important element affecting the precision of intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation and errors in this procedure could affect quality of life of patients and satisfaction with the service provided. The available device able to measure corneal power have been tested to be not reliable after myopic refractive surgery. Artificial neural networks with error backpropagation and one hidden layer were proposed for corneal power prediction. The article analysed the features acquired from the Pentacam HR tomograph, which was necessary to measure the corneal power. Additionally, several billion iterations of artificial neural networks were conducted for several hundred simulations of different network configurations and different features derived from the Pentacam HR. The analysis was performed on a PC with Intel ® Xeon ® X5680 3.33 GHz CPU in Matlab ® Version 7.11.0.584 (R2010b) with Signal Processing Toolbox Version 7.1 (R2010b), Neural Network Toolbox 7.0 (R2010b) and Statistics Toolbox (R2010b). A total corneal power prediction error was obtained for 172 patients (113 patients forming the training set and 59 patients in the test set) with an average age of 32 ± 9.4 years, including 67% of men. The error was at an average level of 0.16 ± 0.14 diopters and its maximum value did not exceed 0.75 dioptres. The Pentacam parameters (measurement results) providing the above result are tangential anterial/posterior. The corneal net power and equivalent k-reading power. The analysis time for a single patient (a single eye) did not exceed 0.1 s, whereas the time of network training was about 3 s for 1000 iterations (the number of neurons in the hidden layer was 400).

  5. Topographic corneal changes after collagen cross-linking in patients with corneal keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Razmjoo, Hasan; Nasrollahi, Alireza Peyman Kobra; Salam, Hasan; Karbasi, Najmeh; Najarzadegan, Mohammad Reza

    2013-10-01

    Corneal collagen cross-linking with riboflavin, also known as collagen cross-linking (CXL), involves the application of riboflavin solution to the eye that is activated by illumination with ultraviolet A (UVA) light. We survey here the topographic corneal changes one year after CXL in patients with corneal keratoconus. This prospective randomized clinical trial study comprised 66 patients with progression of keratoconus during one year who were enrolled at Feiz University Referral Eye Center in Isfahan. Before and after the operation, patients were examined with slit lamp and funduscopic examinations and measurement of uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) was done with a logarithm of minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) scale. Corneal topographic and pachymetry values were derived from Orbscan II. The paired t-test test was used for statistical analyses with SPSS software version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). All 66 patients completed postoperative follow-up at 12 months. The mean age of the patients was 22.4 ± 5.4 years (range: 18-29 years). Thirty-six (54.55%) subjects were men and 30 (45.45%) were women. The mean preoperative sphere was -2.66 ± 2.14 diopter (D), the mean cylinder was -3.97 ± 2.29, and the mean spherical equivalent (SE) was -4.64 ± 2.56. Postoperatively, the mean sphere was -2.22 ± 2.57 D, the mean cylinder was -3.60 ± 2.40 D, and SE was -4.02 ± 2.93 D (P = 0.037). SE also demonstrated a mean difference of 0.62 ± 0.37 D significantly (P = 0.006). The mean diameter of preoperative posterior best-fit sphere (BFS) was 6.33 ± 0.35mm (range: 5.51-7.73 mm) before operation, and it improved to 6.28 ± 0.34mm (range: 4.36-6.13 mm) after operation; the difference was significant (P = 0.039). Our study showed a significant improvement in topographic corneal changes and refractive results in patients with corneal ectasia after CXL.

  6. Apparent Corneal Ectasia After Bilateral Intrastromal Femtosecond Laser Treatment for Presbyopia.

    PubMed

    Dukic, Adrijana; Bohac, Maja; Pasalic, Adi; Koncarevic, Mateja; Anticic, Marija; Patel, Sudi

    2016-11-01

    To report a case of apparent corneal ectasia after intrastromal femtosecond laser treatment for presbyopia (INTRACOR). A healthy 56-year-old male with low hyperopia underwent an unremarkable bilateral INTRACOR procedure in March/April 2011. The patient was discharged after follow-up and returned 5 years later. Before discharge, the monocular logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) values were R, 0.0 and L, 0.10. In both eyes near (UNVA) visual acuities were 0.0. There were signs of slight posterior central corneal steepening without loss of corneal stability. Five years postop, monocular UDVA and UNVA values were 0.4 and 0.0, respectively. Ectasia was observed in both eyes, and the centrally placed 5 concentric rings after the INTRACOR procedure were visible under slit-lamp biomicroscopy. There is no clear reason to explain why the patient developed bilateral corneal steepening. It could be that the patient's corneal stromal fibers gradually weakened over this 5-year period.

  7. Correlation Between Biomechanical Responses of Posterior Sclera and IOP Elevations During Micro Intraocular Volume Change

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Hugh J.; Tang, Junhua; Cruz Perez, Benjamin; Pan, Xueliang; Hart, Richard T.; Weber, Paul A.; Liu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. This study tested the hypothesis that intraocular pressure (IOP) elevations, induced by controlled increase of intraocular volume, are correlated with the biomechanical responses of the posterior sclera. Methods. Porcine globes were tested within 48 hours postmortem. The first group of globes (n = 11) was infused with 15 μL of phosphate-buffered saline at three different rates to investigate rate-dependent IOP elevations. The second group (n = 16) was first infused at the fast rate and then underwent inflation tests to investigate the relationship between IOP elevations (ΔIOP) and scleral strains. The strains in the superotemporal region of the posterior sclera were measured by ultrasound speckle tracking. Linear regression was used to examine the association between ΔIOP due to micro-volumetric infusion and the scleral strains at a specific inflation pressure. Results. The average ΔIOP was 14.9 ± 4.3 mm Hg for the infusion of 15 μL in 1 second. The ΔIOP was greater for the faster infusion rates but highly correlated across different rates (P < 0.001). A significant negative association was found between the ΔIOP and the tangential strains in both the circumferential (R2 = 0.54, P = 0.003) and meridian (R2 = 0.53, P = 0.002) directions in the posterior sclera. Conclusions. This study showed a substantial increase in IOP, with a large intersubject variance during micro-volumetric change. A stiffer response of the sclera was associated with larger IOP spikes, providing experimental evidence linking corneoscleral biomechanics to IOP fluctuation. In vivo measurement of corneoscleral biomechanics may help better predict the dynamic profile of IOP. PMID:24130185

  8. Isolated corneal papilloma-like lesion associated with human papilloma virus type 6.

    PubMed

    Park, Choul Yong; Kim, Eo-Jin; Choi, Jong Sun; Chuck, Roy S

    2011-05-01

    To report a case of a corneal papilloma-like lesion associated with human papilloma virus type 6. A 48-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of ocular discomfort and gradual visual deterioration in her right eye. Ophthalmic examination revealed an elevated, semitranslucent, well-defined vascularized mass approximately 4 × 2.5 mm in size localized to the right cornea. The surface of the mass appeared smooth and many small, shallow, and irregular elevations were noted. An excisional biopsy was performed. The underlying cornea was markedly thinned, and fine ramifying vasculature was also noted on the exposed corneal stroma. Typical koilocytic change was observed on the histopathologic examination. Polymerase chain reaction revealed the existence of human papilloma virus type 6 DNA. Here we describe a case of an isolated corneal papilloma-like lesion. Although the corneal extension of the limbal or the conjunctival papillomas has been commonly observed, an isolated corneal papilloma-like lesion with underlying stromal destruction has only rarely been reported.

  9. A hybrid technique for sinus floor elevation in the severely resorbed posterior maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ui-Won; Hong, Ji-Youn; Lee, Jung-Seok; Kim, Chang-Sung; Cho, Kyoo-Sung

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the modified sinus floor elevation technique described hereafter as a "hybrid technique," in 11 patients with severely resorbed posterior maxillae. Methods Eleven patients who received 22 implants in the maxillary premolar and molar areas by the hybrid technique were enrolled in this study. A slot-shaped osteotomy for access was prepared on the lateral wall along the lower border of the sinus floor. The Schneiderian membrane was fully reflected through the lateral slot. Following drilling with the membrane protected by a periosteal elevator, the bone was grafted. All implants were placed simultaneously with sinus augmentation. The cumulative success rate was calculated and clinical parameters were recorded. Radiographic measurements were performed. Results All implants were well maintained at last follow up (cumulative success rate=100%). The mean residual bone height, augmented bone height, crown-to-implant ratio, and marginal bone loss were 4.1±1.64 mm, 8.76±1.77 mm, 1.21±0.33 mm, and 0.34±0.72 mm, respectively. Conclusions Simultaneous implant placement with sinus augmentation by hybrid technique showed successful clinical results over a 2-year observation period and may be a reliable modality for reconstruction of a severely resorbed posterior maxilla. PMID:20498764

  10. Glaucoma and Corneal Transplant Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mahmood, Ammar M.; Al-Swailem, Samar A.; Edward, Deepak P.

    2012-01-01

    Glaucoma after corneal transplantation is a leading cause of ocular morbidity after penetrating keratoplasty. The incidence reported is highly variable and a number of etiologic factors have been identified. A number of treatment options are available; surgical intervention for IOP control is associated with a high incidence of graft failure. IOP elevation is less frequently seen following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty. Descemet's striping-automated endothelial keratoplasty is also associated with postprocedure intraocular pressure elevation and secondary glaucoma and presents unique surgical challenges in patients with preexisting glaucoma surgeries. Glaucoma exists in up to three-quarters of patients who undergo keratoprosthesis surgery and the management if often challenging. The aim of this paper is to highlight the incidence, etiology, and management of glaucoma following different corneal transplant procedures. It also focuses on the challenges in the diagnosis of glaucoma and intraocular pressure monitoring in this group of patients. PMID:22315661

  11. How normal is the transparent cornea? Effects of aging on corneal morphology.

    PubMed

    Hillenaar, Toine; van Cleynenbreugel, Hugo; Remeijer, Lies

    2012-02-01

    To ascertain the effects of aging on corneal morphology and to illustrate the morphologic diversity of the different layers in the normal cornea as seen by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Observational cross-sectional study. A total of 150 healthy subjects, evenly distributed over 5 age categories, comprising 75 men and 75 women. Both transparent corneas (n = 300) of all subjects were examined in duplicate by white light IVCM (Confoscan 4, NIDEK Technologies, Albignasego, Padova, Italy). After reviewing the IVCM examinations for morphologic variations of the corneal layers, we selected the 8 most common features to illustrate the morphologic diversity. Subsequently, all 600 IVCM examinations were assessed for the presence of these features. We used binary logistic regression analyses to assess the age-relatedness of each feature. Age distribution of bright superficial epithelial cells, dendriform cells, alterations characteristic of epithelial basement membrane dystrophy (EBMD), tortuous stromal nerves, stromal microdots in the anterior stroma, folds in the posterior stroma, opacification of Descemet's membrane, and corneal guttae. Four features were found characteristic of the aging cornea: stromal microdots in the anterior stroma (P<0.0001), folds in the posterior stroma (P<0.0001), opacification of Descemet's membrane (P<0.0001), and corneal guttae (P<0.0001). Alterations characteristic of EBMD were found in 3% of all eyes and only detected in subjects aged ≥40 years, suggesting age-relatedness (P = 0.09). Other features, such as bright superficial epithelial cells (n = 38, 13%), dendriform cells (n = 42, 14%), and tortuous stromal nerves (n = 115, 38%), were age-independent. We also found a novel phenotype of corneal endothelium in 4 normal eyes of 2 subjects, which we coined "salt and pepper endothelium." We could not establish whether this novel phenotype represented a morphologic variant of normal endothelium, an early stage of a known corneal

  12. Hydrogel Ring for Topical Drug Delivery to the Ocular Posterior Segment.

    PubMed

    Shikamura, Yuko; Yamazaki, Yoshiko; Matsunaga, Toru; Sato, Takao; Ohtori, Akira; Tojo, Kakuji

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the efficacy of a topical hydrogel ring for drug delivery to the posterior segment of the rabbit eye. Novel hydrogel corneal lenses (CL), scleral/corneal lenses (S/CL), and rings were prepared using poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate). The devices were immersed in 0.3% ofloxacin ophthalmic solution (OOS) to homogeneously distribute the drug throughout the hydrogel. The medicated CL, S/CL, Ring 1 (standard ring), or Ring 2 (shape-optimized ring) was applied to the surface of the cornea, cornea/bulbar conjunctiva, or bulbar conjunctiva of albino rabbits, respectively. Medicated rings did not touch the corneal surface. In another group, one OOS drop was administered to the eye. After 0.25-8 hours, the hydrogel devices were removed and ocular tissues were harvested. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure the ofloxacin concentration in the devices and tissues. The drug concentrations in the posterior segment tissues were compared among ofloxacin delivery methods. One hour after placement, eyes treated with Ring 1 or S/CL had markedly higher ofloxacin levels in the posterior segment tissues (conjunctiva, sclera, and retina/choroid) than eyes treated with topical OOS or a CL. Lower levels of ofloxacin were found in anterior segment tissues (cornea and aqueous humor) in eyes treated with Ring 1 compared to those treated with S/CL. Ring 2 most effectively delivered ofloxacin to the retina/choroid. The tissue ofloxacin concentration in the fellow eye was markedly lower than the eye treated with Ring 2. Our results suggest that hydrogel rings are effective in delivering topical ophthalmic drugs to the posterior segment. The drugs are most likely delivered via the transconjunctival/scleral route by lateral diffusion across the bulbar conjunctiva and through the sclera. Systemic drug delivery to the posterior segment is minimal.

  13. Topographic corneal changes after collagen cross-linking in patients with corneal keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Razmjoo, Hasan; Nasrollahi, Alireza Peyman Kobra; Salam, Hasan; Karbasi, Najmeh; Najarzadegan, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Corneal collagen cross-linking with riboflavin, also known as collagen cross-linking (CXL), involves the application of riboflavin solution to the eye that is activated by illumination with ultraviolet A (UVA) light. We survey here the topographic corneal changes one year after CXL in patients with corneal keratoconus. Materials and Methods: This prospective randomized clinical trial study comprised 66 patients with progression of keratoconus during one year who were enrolled at Feiz University Referral Eye Center in Isfahan. Before and after the operation, patients were examined with slit lamp and funduscopic examinations and measurement of uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) was done with a logarithm of minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) scale. Corneal topographic and pachymetry values were derived from Orbscan II. The paired t-test test was used for statistical analyses with SPSS software version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: All 66 patients completed postoperative follow-up at 12 months. The mean age of the patients was 22.4 ± 5.4 years (range: 18-29 years). Thirty-six (54.55%) subjects were men and 30 (45.45%) were women. The mean preoperative sphere was −2.66 ± 2.14 diopter (D), the mean cylinder was −3.97 ± 2.29, and the mean spherical equivalent (SE) was −4.64 ± 2.56. Postoperatively, the mean sphere was −2.22 ± 2.57 D, the mean cylinder was −3.60 ± 2.40 D, and SE was −4.02 ± 2.93 D (P = 0.037). SE also demonstrated a mean difference of 0.62 ± 0.37 D significantly (P = 0.006). The mean diameter of preoperative posterior best-fit sphere (BFS) was 6.33 ± 0.35mm (range: 5.51-7.73 mm) before operation, and it improved to 6.28 ± 0.34mm (range: 4.36-6.13 mm) after operation; the difference was significant (P = 0.039). Conclusion: Our study showed a significant improvement in topographic corneal changes and refractive results in patients with corneal ectasia after CXL

  14. Corneal perforation during Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Yüksel, Harun; Cingü, Kürşat; Cınar, Yasin; Murat, Mehmet; Caça, Ihsan

    2013-02-01

    We report a case where corneal perforation developed during Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. We present a 20-year-old male with the complaint of impaired vision in the right eye. Leukoma consistent with the incision line in the cornea and opacity in the posterior capsule were observed.

  15. Preliminary study of the association between corneal histocytological changes and surgically induced astigmatism after phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Du, Xing; Zhao, Guiqiu; Wang, Qing; Yang, Xian; Gao, Ang; Lin, Jing; Wang, Qian; Xu, Qiang

    2014-11-20

    Surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) was one of the factors that influences the desirable refractive outcome, and it was related to the length, type, location, structure of the incision and to the suture closure technique, etc. The aim was to evaluate the association of corneal histocytological changes with SIA after phacoemulsification. The study enrolled 68 cases of cataract patient (68 eyes). Corneal histocytological parameters at corneal incision, central cornea and contralateral incision obtained by confocal microscope through focusing (CMTF) were compared preoperatively and 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months postoperatively. These biometric parameters included the endothelial cell density, keratocyte density of posterior stromal layer, and the morphological changes. SIA was calculated by Jaffe's vector analysis. 1 From preoperatively to 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months postoperatively, the endothelail cell density was decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Keratocyte density of posterior stroma layer was increased significantly only at 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months postoperatively (p <0.05), but not statistically significant (p = 0.173) at 6 months postoperatively compared to preoperative values. 2 The histocytological observations indicated that the morphology changed significantly postoperatively at the corneal incision, including the cell absent area, wave-like area, dot-like and mass-like hyperreflection, stripe-like absent area, in the endothelial layer, and the keratocyte activation, microfolds, irregular hyporeflective or hyperreflective belt, and a little dot-like hyperreflection in the posterior stroma layer. 3 The reduction of the endothelial cell density at the corneal incision at 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month postoperatively, were positively correlated with SIA (P1 week = 0.003, P2 weeks = 0.003, P1 month = 0.032), while others were not associated with SIA statistically. The reduction of endothelail cell density and the

  16. Calculations of actual corneal astigmatism using total corneal refractive power before and after myopic keratorefractive surgery.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kyoung Yul; Yang, Hun; Kim, Wook Kyum; Nam, Sang Min

    2017-01-01

    To calculate actual corneal astigmatism using the total corneal refractive astigmatism for the 4-mm apex zone of the Pentacam (TCRP4astig) and keratometric astigmatism (Kastig) before and after photorefractive keratectomy or laser in situ keratomileusis. Uncomplicated 56 eyes after more than 6 months from the surgery were recruited by chart review. Various corneal astigmatisms were measured using the Pentacam and autokeratometer before and after surgery. Three eyes were excluded and 53 eyes of 38 subjects with with-the-rule astigmatism (WTR) were finally included. The astigmatisms were investigated using polar value analysis. When TCRP4astig was set as an actual astigmatism, the efficacy of arithmetic or coefficient adjustment of Kastig was evaluated using bivariate analysis. The difference between the simulated keratometer astigmatism of the Pentacam (SimKastig) and Kastig was strongly correlated with the difference between TCRP4astig and Kastig. TCRP4astig was different from Kastig in magnitude rather than meridian before and after surgery; the preoperative difference was due to the posterior cornea only; however, the postoperative difference was observed in both anterior and posterior parts. For arithmetic adjustment, 0.28 D and 0.27 D were subtracted from the preoperative and postoperative magnitudes of Kastig, respectively. For coefficient adjustment, the preoperative and postoperative magnitudes of Kastig were multiplied by 0.80 and 0.66, respectively. By arithmetic or coefficient adjustment, the difference between TCRP4astig and adjusted Kastig would be less than 0.75 D in magnitude for 95% of cases. Kastig was successfully adjusted to TCPR4astig before and after myopic keratorefractive surgery in cases of WTR. For use of TCRP4astig directly, SimKastig and Kastig should be matched.

  17. Calculations of actual corneal astigmatism using total corneal refractive power before and after myopic keratorefractive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Kyoung Yul; Yang, Hun; Kim, Wook Kyum; Nam, Sang Min

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To calculate actual corneal astigmatism using the total corneal refractive astigmatism for the 4-mm apex zone of the Pentacam (TCRP4astig) and keratometric astigmatism (Kastig) before and after photorefractive keratectomy or laser in situ keratomileusis Methods Uncomplicated 56 eyes after more than 6 months from the surgery were recruited by chart review. Various corneal astigmatisms were measured using the Pentacam and autokeratometer before and after surgery. Three eyes were excluded and 53 eyes of 38 subjects with with-the-rule astigmatism (WTR) were finally included. The astigmatisms were investigated using polar value analysis. When TCRP4astig was set as an actual astigmatism, the efficacy of arithmetic or coefficient adjustment of Kastig was evaluated using bivariate analysis. Results The difference between the simulated keratometer astigmatism of the Pentacam (SimKastig) and Kastig was strongly correlated with the difference between TCRP4astig and Kastig. TCRP4astig was different from Kastig in magnitude rather than meridian before and after surgery; the preoperative difference was due to the posterior cornea only; however, the postoperative difference was observed in both anterior and posterior parts. For arithmetic adjustment, 0.28 D and 0.27 D were subtracted from the preoperative and postoperative magnitudes of Kastig, respectively. For coefficient adjustment, the preoperative and postoperative magnitudes of Kastig were multiplied by 0.80 and 0.66, respectively. By arithmetic or coefficient adjustment, the difference between TCRP4astig and adjusted Kastig would be less than 0.75 D in magnitude for 95% of cases. Conclusions Kastig was successfully adjusted to TCPR4astig before and after myopic keratorefractive surgery in cases of WTR. For use of TCRP4astig directly, SimKastig and Kastig should be matched. PMID:28403194

  18. Selective corneal optical aberration (SCOA) for customized ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Benedikt J.; Bende, Thomas

    2001-06-01

    Wavefront analysis still have some technical problems which may be solved within the next years. There are some limitations to use wavefront as a diagnostic tool for customized ablation alone. An ideal combination would be wavefront and topography. Meanwhile Selective Corneal Aberration is a method to visualize the optical quality of a measured corneal surface. It is based on a true measured 3D elevation information of a video topometer. Thus values can be interpreted either using Zernike polynomials or visualized as a so called color coded surface quality map. This map gives a quality factor (corneal aberration) for each measured point of the cornea.

  19. Fusarium dimerum Species Complex (Fusarium penzigii) Keratitis After Corneal Trauma.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Anália; Costa, Esmeralda; Marques, Marco; Quadrado, Maria João; Tomé, Rui

    2016-12-01

    We report a case of a keratitis associated with a Fusarium penzigii-a Fusarium dimerum species complex (FDSC)-in a 81-year-old woman after a corneal trauma with a tree branch. At patient admittance, slit lamp biomicroscopy revealed an exuberant chemosis, an inferior corneal ulcer with an associated inflammatory infiltrate, a central corneal abscess, bullous keratopathy and posterior synechiae. Corneal scrapes were obtained for identification of bacteria and fungi, and the patient started antibiotic treatment on empirical basis. Few days later, the situation worsened with the development of hypopyon. By that time, Fusarium was identified in cultures obtained from corneal scrapes and the patient started topical amphotericin B 0.15 %. Upon the morphological identification of the Fusarium as a FDSC, and since there was no clinical improvement, the treatment with amphotericin B was suspended and the patient started voriconazole 10 mg/ml, eye drops, hourly and voriconazole 200 mg iv, every 12 h for 1 month. The hypopyon resolved and the inflammatory infiltrate improved, but the abscess persisted at the last follow-up visit. The molecular identification revealed that the FDSC was a F. penzigii.

  20. Novel Mutations in the ZEB1 Gene Identified in Czech and British Patients With Posterior Polymorphous Corneal Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Liskova, Petra; Tuft, Stephen J.; Gwilliam, Rhian; Ebenezer, Neil D.; Jirsova, Katerina; Prescott, Quincy; Martincova, Radka; Pretorius, Marike; Sinclair, Neil; Boase, David L.; Jeffrey, Margaret J.; Deloukas, Panos; Hardcastle, Alison J.; Filipec, Martin; Bhattacharya, Shomi S.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the search for mutations in six unrelated Czech and four unrelated British families with posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD); a relatively rare eye disorder. Coding exons and intron/exon boundaries of all three genes (VSX1, COL8A2, and ZEB1/TCF8) previously reported to be implicated in the pathogenesis of this disorder were screened by DNA sequencing. Four novel pathogenic mutations were identified in four families; two deletions, one nonsense, and one duplication within exon 7 in the ZEB1 gene located at 10p11.2. We also genotyped the Czech patients to test for a founder haplotype and lack of disease segregation with the 20p11.2 locus we previously described. Although a systematic clinical examination was not performed, our investigation does not support an association between ZEB1 changes and self reported non-ocular anomalies. In the remaining six families no disease causing mutations were identified thereby indicating that as yet unidentified gene(s) are likely to be responsible for PPCD. PMID:17437275

  1. The relationship between corneal biomechanical properties and confocal microscopy findings in normal and keratoconic eyes.

    PubMed

    Hurmeric, Volkan; Sahin, Afsun; Ozge, Gokhan; Bayer, Atilla

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between corneal biomechanical properties and confocal microscopy (CM) findings in normal and keratoconic eyes. The study consisted of 28 eyes of 28 healthy volunteers and 23 eyes of 15 patients with keratoconus. The diagnosis of keratoconus was made with corneal topography and clinical findings. The corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were measured by the ocular response analyzer. In vivo CM was performed with NIDEK Confoscan 3. CH and CRF were compared with corneal morphological findings (detailed cell counts of endothelial, stromal, and epithelial cells) in vivo. CH was 10.1 +/- 1.3 mm Hg in normal eyes and 7.4 +/- 1.5 mm Hg in keratoconic eyes (P < 0.0001). CRF was 10.1 +/- 1.8 mm Hg in normal eyes and 6.2 +/- 1.4 mm Hg in keratoconic eyes (P < 0.0001). CH and CRF were negatively correlated with full-thickness stromal keratocyte density (P < 0.01; r = -0.52 and P < 0.001; r = -0.67, respectively) in healthy eyes. Keratocyte density of the posterior half of the stroma was found to be significantly related with CRF in healthy eyes (beta = -0.404; P = 0.01). There was no significant relationship among CH, CRF, and CM findings in eyes with keratoconus. There is a significant relationship between CRF and keratocyte density of the posterior half of the stroma in healthy eyes. Our results suggest that corneal elasticity is related to not only stromal matrix but also cellular structure of the cornea.

  2. Evaluation of Corneal Neovascularization Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Patients With Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Oie, Yoshinori; Nishida, Kohji

    2017-11-01

    Detection of the exact area of corneal neovascularization using slit-lamp photography is often difficult. Thus, we evaluated corneal neovascularization in patients with limbal stem cell deficiency using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Five patients with 5 eyes showing partial or total limbal stem cell deficiency were enrolled. Three eyes had severe corneal scarring. Five 6- × 6-mm images (frontal, upper, lower, nasal, and temporal) were obtained by OCTA. Slit-lamp photography was performed for all patients on the same day. OCTA has 2 advantages over slit-lamp photography for clear demonstration of corneal neovascularization. First, OCTA can show neovascularization in cases with severe corneal opacification. Second, OCTA can detect not only large vessels but also small vessels that cannot be seen by slit-lamp photography. OCTA is a powerful tool for objective evaluation of vascularization in the anterior and posterior segments of the eye. We have demonstrated that OCTA can visualize corneal neovascularization in patients with corneal diseases more clearly than slit-lamp photography.

  3. Segmentation of 830- and 1310-nm LASIK corneal optical coherence tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Shekhar, Raj; Huang, David

    2002-05-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides a non-contact and non-invasive means to visualize the corneal anatomy at micron scale resolution. We obtained corneal images from an arc-scanning (converging) OCT system operating at a wavelength of 830nm and a fan-shaped-scanning high-speed OCT system with an operating wavelength of 1310nm. Different scan protocols (arc/fan) and data acquisition rates, as well as wavelength dependent bio-tissue backscatter contrast and optical absorption, make the images acquired using the two systems different. We developed image-processing algorithms to automatically detect the air-tear interface, epithelium-Bowman's layer interface, laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flap interface, and the cornea-aqueous interface in both kinds of images. The overall segmentation scheme for 830nm and 1310nm OCT images was similar, although different strategies were adopted for specific processing approaches. Ultrasound pachymetry measurements of the corneal thickness and Placido-ring based corneal topography measurements of the corneal curvature were made on the same day as the OCT examination. Anterior/posterior corneal surface curvature measurement with OCT was also investigated. Results showed that automated segmentation of OCT images could evaluate anatomic outcome of LASIK surgery.

  4. Surgically induced astigmatism after phacoemulsification by temporal clear corneal and superior clear corneal approach: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Nikose, Archana Sunil; Saha, Dhrubojyoti; Laddha, Pradnya Mukesh; Patil, Mayuri

    2018-01-01

    Cataract surgery has undergone various advances since it was evolved from ancient couching to the modern phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) remains one of the most common complications. The introduction of sutureless clear corneal incision has gained increasing popularity worldwide because it offers several advantages over the traditional sutured limbal incision and scleral tunnel. A clear corneal incision has the benefit of being bloodless and having an easy approach, but SIA is still a concern. In this study, we evaluated the SIA in clear corneal incisions with temporal approach and superior approach phacoemulsification. Comparisons between the two incisions were done using keratometric readings of preoperative and postoperative refractive status. It was a hospital-based prospective interventional comparative randomized control trial of 261 patients conducted in a rural-based tertiary care center from September 2012 to August 2014. The visual acuity and detailed anterior segment and posterior segment examinations were done and the cataract was graded according to Lens Opacification Classification System II. Patients were divided for phacoemulsification into two groups, group A and group B, who underwent temporal and superior clear corneal approach, respectively. The patients were followed up on day 1, 7, 30, and 90 postoperatively. The parameters recorded were uncorrected visual acuity, best-corrected visual acuity, slit lamp examination, and keratometry. The mean difference of SIA between 30th and 90th day was statistically evaluated using paired t -test, and all the analyses were performed using SPSS 18.0 (SPSS Inc.) software. The mean postoperative SIA in group A was 0.998 D on the 30th day, which reduced to 0.768 D after 90 days, and in group B the SIA after 30 days was 1.651 D, whereas it reduced to 1.293 D after 90 days. Temporal clear corneal incision is evidently better than superior clear corneal incision as far as

  5. Applications of Biomaterials in Corneal Endothelial Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsung-Jen; Wang, I-Jong; Hu, Fung-Rong; Young, Tai-Horng

    2016-11-01

    When corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are diseased or injured, corneal endothelium can be surgically removed and tissue from a deceased donor can replace the original endothelium. Recent major innovations in corneal endothelial transplantation include replacement of diseased corneal endothelium with a thin lamellar posterior donor comprising a tissue-engineered endothelium carried or cultured on a thin substratum with an organized monolayer of cells. Repairing CECs is challenging because they have restricted proliferative ability in vivo. CECs can be cultivated in vitro and seeded successfully onto natural tissue materials or synthetic polymeric materials as grafts for transplantation. The optimal biomaterials for substrata of CEC growth are being investigated. Establishing a CEC culture system by tissue engineering might require multiple biomaterials to create a new scaffold that overcomes the disadvantages of single biomaterials. Chitosan and polycaprolactone are biodegradable biomaterials approved by the Food and Drug Administration that have superior biological, degradable, and mechanical properties for culturing substratum. We successfully hybridized chitosan and polycaprolactone into blended membranes, and demonstrated that CECs proliferated, developed normal morphology, and maintained their physiological phenotypes. The interaction between cells and biomaterials is important in tissue engineering of CECs. We are still optimizing culture methods for the maintenance and differentiation of CECs on biomaterials.

  6. Post DSAEK Optical Changes: A Comprehensive Prospective Analysis on the Role of Ocular Wavefront Aberrations, Haze, and Corneal Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Hindman, Holly B.; Huxlin, Krystel R.; Pantanelli, Seth M.; Callan, Christine L.; Sabesan, Ramkumar; Ching, Steven S.T.; Miller, Brooke E.; Martin, Tim; Yoon, Geunyoung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the visual impact of ocular wavefront aberrations, corneal thickness, and corneal light scatter prospectively after Descemet’s Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSAEK) in humans. Methods Data were obtained prospectively from 20 eyes pre-operatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post- DSAEK. At each visit, best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) and visual acuity with glare (Brightness Acuity Testing - BAT) were recorded and ocular wavefront measurements and corneal Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) performed. Magnitude and sign of individual Zernike terms (higher order aberrations HOA) were determined. Epithelial, host stromal, donor stromal, and total corneal thickness were quantified. Brightness, intensity profiles of OCT images were generated to quantify light scatter in the whole cornea, subepithelial region, anterior and posterior host stroma, interface, and donor stroma. Results Mean BSCVA and glare disability at low light levels improved from 1 to 12 months post-DSAEK. All corneal thicknesses and ocular lower- and HOAs were stable from 1 through 12 months, whereas total corneal, host stromal, and interface brightness intensities decreased significantly over the same period. A repeated measures ANOVA across the follow up period found that the change in scatter, but not the change in higher order aberrations, could account for the variability occurring in acuity from 1 to 12 months post-DSAEK. Conclusions While ocular HOAs and scatter are both elevated over normal post-DSAEK, our results demonstrate that improvements in visual performance occurring over the first year post-DSAEK are associated with decreasing light scatter. In contrast, there were no significant changes in ocular HOAs during this time. Because corneal light scatter decreased between 1 and 12 months despite stable corneal thicknesses over the same period, we conclude that factors that induced light scatter, other than tissue thickness or swelling (corneal

  7. THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: Electromagnetic Modeling and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Zachary D.; Garritano, James; Sung, Shijun; Bajwa, Neha; Bennett, David B.; Nowroozi, Bryan; Tewari, Priyamvada; Sayre, James; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Deng, Sophie; Brown, Elliott R.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectral properties of human cornea are explored as a function of central corneal thickness (CCT) and corneal water content, and the clinical utility of THz-based corneal water content sensing is discussed. Three candidate corneal tissue water content (CTWC) perturbations, based on corneal physiology, are investigated that affect the axial water distribution and total thickness. The THz frequency reflectivity properties of the three CTWC perturbations were simulated and explored with varying system center frequency and bandwidths (Q-factors). The modeling showed that at effective optical path lengths on the order of a wavelength the cornea presents a lossy etalon bordered by air at the anterior and the aqueous humor at the posterior. The simulated standing wave peak-to-valley ratio is pronounced at lower frequencies and its effect on acquired data can be modulated by adjusting the bandwidth of the sensing system. These observations are supported with experimental spectroscopic data. The results suggest that a priori knowledge of corneal thickness can be utilized for accurate assessments of corneal tissue water content. The physiologic variation of corneal thickness with respect to the wavelengths spanned by the THz band is extremely limited compared to all other structures in the body making CTWC sensing unique amongst all proposed applications of THz medical imaging. PMID:26322247

  8. Huge corneal dermoid in a well-formed eye: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Abd-Elnasser A; Kroosh, Sana S

    2002-12-01

    A 25-day-old boy presented with a left corneal mass and left nasal obstruction. The mass involved the entire cornea with a skin-like surface and protruded outside the palpebral fissure. CT of the orbits disclosed a large cyst coating the entire left cornea, in an eye with a well-formed anterior chamber and a clearly evident lens. CT also revealed left nasal meningo-encephalocele. The eye with the mass was excised. The histopathologic report confirmed the diagnosis of corneal dermoid in an otherwise normally developed eye. This report of a huge dermoid involving the entire corneal diameter and extending into the sclera without ocular alteration posterior to Descemet's membrane is the first such report in the literature. The literature on corneal dermoids is also reviewed.

  9. [Recurrent Corneal Erosions in Epithelial Corneal Dystrophies].

    PubMed

    Geerling, Gerd; Lisch, Walter; Finis, David

    2018-06-01

    The corneal epithelium is the most important structure of the ocular optical system. Recurrent corneal erosions can result from inflammation, trauma, degeneration and dystrophies. Epithelial basement membrane dystrophy (EBMD), epithelial recurrent erosion dystrophy (ERED) and Francheschetti and Meesmann's epithelial corneal dystrophy (MECD) can all - besides other signs and symptoms - result in more or less frequent corneal erosions. The pathomechanisms involved however are different. In EBMD, corneal erosions are facultative and clinical signs are often subtle. Aberrant basement membrane structures are associated with thinning of the epithelium and can be clinically identified as maps or fingerprints. In ERED, recurrent corneal erosions are - predominantly in the first decades of life - always present. A defect in the COL17A1 gene results in a dysfunctional hemidesmosome. In MECD, punctate corneal erosions are less frequent and result from intraepithelial microcysts which open spontaneously onto the ocular surface. Usually lubricants, therapeutic contact lenses and sometimes epithelial debridement and phototherapeutic keratectomy are the mainstay for treating corneal erosions in these three dystrophies. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. The Influence of Lamellar Orientation on Corneal Material Behavior: Biomechanical and Structural Changes in an Avian Corneal Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Elsheikh, Ahmed; Kassem, Wael; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S.; Hocking, Paul M.; White, Nick; Inglehearn, Chris F.; Ali, Manir; Meek, Keith M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Retinopathy, globe enlarged (RGE) is an inherited genetic disease of chickens with a corneal phenotype characterized by loss of tissue curvature and changes in peripheral collagen fibril alignment. This study aimed to characterize the material behavior of normal and RGE chicken corneas under inflation and compare this with new spatial- and depth-resolved microstructural information to investigate how stromal fibril architecture determines corneal behavior under intraocular pressure (IOP). Methods. Six RGE chicken corneas and six age-matched normal controls were tested using trephinate inflation and their stress-strain behavior determined as a function of posterior pressure. Second harmonic generation mulitphoton microscopy was used to compare the in-plane appearance and degree of through-plane interlacing of collagen lamellae between normal and mutant corneas. Results. RGE corneas displayed a 30–130% increase in material stiffness [Etangent(RGE) = 0.94 ± 0.18 MPa to 3.09 ± 0.66 MPa; Etangent(normals) = 0.72 ± 0.13 MPa to 1.34 ± 0.35 MPa] (P ≤ 0.05). The normal in-plane disposition of anterior collagen in the peripheral cornea was altered in RGE but through-plane lamellar interlacing was unaffected. Conclusions. This article demonstrates changes in corneal material behavior in RGE that are qualitatively consistent with microstructural collagen alterations identified both herein and previously. This study indicates that, in general, changes in stromal fibril orientation may significantly affect corneal material behavior and thereby its response to IOP. PMID:21051696

  11. A new approach to keratoconus detection based on corneal morphogeometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bataille, Laurent; Fernández-Pacheco, Daniel G.; Cañavate, Francisco J. F.; Alió, Jorge L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To characterize corneal structural changes in keratoconus using a new morphogeometric approach and to evaluate its potential diagnostic ability. Methods Comparative study including 464 eyes of 464 patients (age, 16 and 72 years) divided into two groups: control group (143 healthy eyes) and keratoconus group (321 keratoconus eyes). Topographic information (Sirius, CSO, Italy) was processed with SolidWorks v2012 and a solid model representing the geometry of each cornea was generated. The following parameters were defined: anterior (Aant) and posterior (Apost) corneal surface areas, area of the cornea within the sagittal plane passing through the Z axis and the apex (Aapexant, Aapexpost) and minimum thickness points (Amctant, Amctpost) of the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces, and average distance from the Z axis to the apex (Dapexant, Dapexpost) and minimum thickness points (Dmctant, Dmctpost) of both corneal surfaces. Results Significant differences among control and keratoconus group were found in Aapexant, Aapexpost, Amctant, Amctpost, Dapexant, Dapexpost (all p<0.001), Apost (p = 0.014), and Dmctpost (p = 0.035). Significant correlations in keratoconus group were found between Aant and Apost (r = 0.836), Amctant and Amctpost (r = 0.983), and Dmctant and Dmctpost (r = 0.954, all p<0.001). A logistic regression analysis revealed that the detection of keratoconus grade I (Amsler Krumeich) was related to Apost, Atot, Aapexant, Amctant, Amctpost, Dapexpost, Dmctant and Dmctpost (Hosmer-Lemeshow: p>0.05, R2 Nagelkerke: 0.926). The overall percentage of cases correctly classified by the model was 97.30%. Conclusions Our morphogeometric approach based on the analysis of the cornea as a solid is useful for the characterization and detection of keratoconus. PMID:28886157

  12. A new approach to keratoconus detection based on corneal morphogeometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Cavas-Martínez, Francisco; Bataille, Laurent; Fernández-Pacheco, Daniel G; Cañavate, Francisco J F; Alió, Jorge L

    2017-01-01

    To characterize corneal structural changes in keratoconus using a new morphogeometric approach and to evaluate its potential diagnostic ability. Comparative study including 464 eyes of 464 patients (age, 16 and 72 years) divided into two groups: control group (143 healthy eyes) and keratoconus group (321 keratoconus eyes). Topographic information (Sirius, CSO, Italy) was processed with SolidWorks v2012 and a solid model representing the geometry of each cornea was generated. The following parameters were defined: anterior (Aant) and posterior (Apost) corneal surface areas, area of the cornea within the sagittal plane passing through the Z axis and the apex (Aapexant, Aapexpost) and minimum thickness points (Amctant, Amctpost) of the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces, and average distance from the Z axis to the apex (Dapexant, Dapexpost) and minimum thickness points (Dmctant, Dmctpost) of both corneal surfaces. Significant differences among control and keratoconus group were found in Aapexant, Aapexpost, Amctant, Amctpost, Dapexant, Dapexpost (all p<0.001), Apost (p = 0.014), and Dmctpost (p = 0.035). Significant correlations in keratoconus group were found between Aant and Apost (r = 0.836), Amctant and Amctpost (r = 0.983), and Dmctant and Dmctpost (r = 0.954, all p<0.001). A logistic regression analysis revealed that the detection of keratoconus grade I (Amsler Krumeich) was related to Apost, Atot, Aapexant, Amctant, Amctpost, Dapexpost, Dmctant and Dmctpost (Hosmer-Lemeshow: p>0.05, R2 Nagelkerke: 0.926). The overall percentage of cases correctly classified by the model was 97.30%. Our morphogeometric approach based on the analysis of the cornea as a solid is useful for the characterization and detection of keratoconus.

  13. Scleral Shape and Its Correlations With Corneal Astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Consejo, Alejandra; Rozema, Jos J

    2018-03-06

    To assess the correlation between the scleral shape and corneal astigmatism. Twenty-two participants (11 nonastigmatic and 11 astigmatic) aged from 19 to 36 years and with no previous ocular surgeries were included in this study. Three-dimensional (3D) corneoscleral maps from both eyes (44 eyes) were acquired using a corneoscleral topographer (Eye Surface Profiler). Each 3D map was split into 13 concentric annuli, each 0.5-mm wide, starting at 1.0-mm radius from the corneal apex to the scleral periphery at 7.5 mm from the apex. Each ring was fitted to a quadratic function of the radial distance to the apex, to calculate the elevation difference between the raw data and the fitting surface ring. For each ring, the resulting elevation difference between the original and fit data profile was fit to a sum of sine function. Decentration and astigmatic terms obtained from the sinusoidal fit were analyzed and compared between nonastigmatic and astigmatic groups. In astigmatic eyes, corneal and scleral asymmetry are highly correlated, but both appear independent of each other in nonastigmatic eyes. No significant difference between astigmatic and nonastigmatic eyes was found for the decentration term [P > 0.05/N (Bonferroni)], whereas for the astigmatic component, the differences were statistically significant [P < 0.05/N (Bonferroni)]. Corneal and scleral shapes are correlated in astigmatic eyes, which suggests that astigmatism is not restricted to the cornea but should rather be considered a property of the entire eye globe.

  14. Glaucoma tube shunt implantation through the ciliary sulcus in pseudophakic eyes with high risk of corneal decompensation.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Asher; Cohn, Aaron D; Balasubramaniam, Mamtha; Weiner, Adam J

    2010-08-01

    To summarize our clinical experience with implanting Baerveldt glaucoma tube shunts through the ciliary sulcus in eyes with a posterior chamber intraocular lens and shallow anterior chambers, corneal transplants, guttata or edema. A retrospective interventional nonrandomized noncomparative case series. Main outcome measure was postoperative corneal status. Secondary outcome measures included postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity and complications. Thirty-six eyes of 32 patients were identified through chart review. Follow-up period was 21.8+/-16.6 months (mean+/-standard deviation, range: 4.0 to 58.5 mo). At final visit, all 23 preoperative clear native corneas and 6 of 7 corneal transplants remained clear. Thus, of the 30 preoperative clear corneas, only 1 decompensated. Preoperative IOP was 27.9+/-11.8 mm Hg (range: 12 to 59 mm Hg), reduced postoperatively to 10.1+/-3.9 mm Hg (range: 2 to 21 mm Hg, P=0.0001), a reduction of 58.2%+/-19.3% (range: 5.0% to 95.4%). Final IOP was >or=5 and corneal decompensation after angle or pars plana tube implantation, our clinical experience suggests that ciliary sulcus tube implantation in eyes with a posterior chamber intraocular lens is a safe and effective procedure even in eyes with high risk of corneal decompensation.

  15. Ocular forward light scattering and corneal backward light scattering in patients with dry eye.

    PubMed

    Koh, Shizuka; Maeda, Naoyuki; Ikeda, Chikako; Asonuma, Sanae; Mitamura, Hayato; Oie, Yoshinori; Soma, Takeshi; Tsujikawa, Motokazu; Kawasaki, Satoshi; Nishida, Kohji

    2014-09-18

    To evaluate ocular forward light scattering and corneal backward light scattering in patients with dry eye. Thirty-five eyes in 35 patients with dry eye and 20 eyes of 20 healthy control subjects were enrolled. The 35 dry eyes were classified into two groups according to whether superficial punctate keratopathy in the central 6-mm corneal zone (cSPK) was present or not. Ocular forward light scattering was quantified with a straylight meter. Corneal backward light scattering from the anterior, middle, and posterior corneal parts was assessed with a corneal densitometry program using the Scheimpflug imaging system. Both dry eye groups had significantly higher intraocular forward light scattering than the control group (both P<0.05). The dry eye group with cSPK had significantly higher values in anterior and total corneal backward light scattering than the other two groups. Moderate positive correlations were observed between the cSPK score and corneal backward light scattering from the anterior cornea (R=0.60, P<0.001) and corneal backward light scattering from the total cornea (R=0.54, P<0.001); however, no correlation was found between cSPK score and ocular forward light scattering (R=0.01, P=0.932). Ocular forward light scattering and corneal backward light scattering from the anterior cornea were greater in dry eyes than in normal eyes. Increased corneal backward light scattering in dry eye at least partially results from cSPK overlying the optical zone. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  16. Spontaneous Corneal Hydrops in a Patient with a Corneal Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Batawi, Hatim; Kothari, Nikisha; Camp, Andrew; Bernhard, Luis; Karp, Carol L.; Galor, Anat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We report the case of a 77-year-old man with no history of keratoconus or other ectatic disorders who presented with corneal hydrops in the setting of a corneal ulcer. The risk factors, pathogenesis and treatment options of corneal hydrops are discussed. Method This is an observational case report study. Results A 77-year-old man presented with a 1-day history of severe pain, redness, mucous discharge and photophobia in the right eye. A slit-lamp examination of the right eye showed an area of focal corneal edema and protrusion. Within the area of edema and protrusion, there was an infiltrate with an overlying epithelial defect consistent with an infectious corneal ulcer. The Seidel test showed no leakage, so a clinical diagnosis of corneal hydrops associated with nonperforated corneal ulcer was made. With appropriate antibiotic treatment, the corneal ulcer and hydrops both resolved over a 1-month period. Conclusion Corneal hydrops can occur in the setting of corneal infections. PMID:26889160

  17. Spontaneous Corneal Hydrops in a Patient with a Corneal Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Batawi, Hatim; Kothari, Nikisha; Camp, Andrew; Bernhard, Luis; Karp, Carol L; Galor, Anat

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 77-year-old man with no history of keratoconus or other ectatic disorders who presented with corneal hydrops in the setting of a corneal ulcer. The risk factors, pathogenesis and treatment options of corneal hydrops are discussed. This is an observational case report study. A 77-year-old man presented with a 1-day history of severe pain, redness, mucous discharge and photophobia in the right eye. A slit-lamp examination of the right eye showed an area of focal corneal edema and protrusion. Within the area of edema and protrusion, there was an infiltrate with an overlying epithelial defect consistent with an infectious corneal ulcer. The Seidel test showed no leakage, so a clinical diagnosis of corneal hydrops associated with nonperforated corneal ulcer was made. With appropriate antibiotic treatment, the corneal ulcer and hydrops both resolved over a 1-month period. Corneal hydrops can occur in the setting of corneal infections.

  18. Corneal biomechanical properties from air-puff corneal deformation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos, Susana; Kling, Sabine; Bekesi, Nandor; Dorronsoro, Carlos

    2014-02-01

    The combination of air-puff systems with real-time corneal imaging (i.e. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), or Scheimpflug) is a promising approach to assess the dynamic biomechanical properties of the corneal tissue in vivo. In this study we present an experimental system which, together with finite element modeling, allows measurements of corneal biomechanical properties from corneal deformation imaging, both ex vivo and in vivo. A spectral OCT instrument combined with an air puff from a non-contact tonometer in a non-collinear configuration was used to image the corneal deformation over full corneal cross-sections, as well as to obtain high speed measurements of the temporal deformation of the corneal apex. Quantitative analysis allows direct extraction of several deformation parameters, such as apex indentation across time, maximal indentation depth, temporal symmetry and peak distance at maximal deformation. The potential of the technique is demonstrated and compared to air-puff imaging with Scheimpflug. Measurements ex vivo were performed on 14 freshly enucleated porcine eyes and five human donor eyes. Measurements in vivo were performed on nine human eyes. Corneal deformation was studied as a function of Intraocular Pressure (IOP, 15-45 mmHg), dehydration, changes in corneal rigidity (produced by UV corneal cross-linking, CXL), and different boundary conditions (sclera, ocular muscles). Geometrical deformation parameters were used as input for inverse finite element simulation to retrieve the corneal dynamic elastic and viscoelastic parameters. Temporal and spatial deformation profiles were very sensitive to the IOP. CXL produced a significant reduction of the cornea indentation (1.41x), and a change in the temporal symmetry of the corneal deformation profile (1.65x), indicating a change in the viscoelastic properties with treatment. Combining air-puff with dynamic imaging and finite element modeling allows characterizing the corneal biomechanics in-vivo.

  19. Investigation of Overrun-Processed Porous Hyaluronic Acid Carriers in Corneal Endothelial Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jui-Yang; Cheng, Hsiao-Yun; Ma, David Hui-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a linear polysaccharide naturally found in the eye and therefore is one of the most promising biomaterials for corneal endothelial regenerative medicine. This study reports, for the first time, the development of overrun-processed porous HA hydrogels for corneal endothelial cell (CEC) sheet transplantation and tissue engineering applications. The hydrogel carriers were characterized to examine their structures and functions. Evaluations of carbodiimide cross-linked air-dried and freeze-dried HA samples were conducted simultaneously for comparison. The results indicated that during the fabrication of freeze-dried HA discs, a technique of introducing gas bubbles in the aqueous biopolymer solutions can be used to enlarge pore structure and prevent dense surface skin formation. Among all the groups studied, the overrun-processed porous HA carriers show the greatest biological stability, the highest freezable water content and glucose permeability, and the minimized adverse effects on ionic pump function of rabbit CECs. After transfer and attachment of bioengineered CEC sheets to the overrun-processed HA hydrogel carriers, the therapeutic efficacy of cell/biopolymer constructs was tested using a rabbit model with corneal endothelial dysfunction. Clinical observations including slit-lamp biomicroscopy, specular microscopy, and corneal thickness measurements showed that the construct implants can regenerate corneal endothelium and restore corneal transparency at 4 weeks postoperatively. Our findings suggest that cell sheet transplantation using overrun-processed porous HA hydrogels offers a new way to reconstruct the posterior corneal surface and improve endothelial tissue function. PMID:26296087

  20. Fully automated corneal endothelial morphometry of images captured by clinical specular microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucht, Curry; Söderberg, Per; Manneberg, Göran

    2009-02-01

    The corneal endothelium serves as the posterior barrier of the cornea. Factors such as clarity and refractive properties of the cornea are in direct relationship to the quality of the endothelium. The endothelial cell density is considered the most important morphological factor. Morphometry of the corneal endothelium is presently done by semi-automated analysis of pictures captured by a Clinical Specular Microscope (CSM). Because of the occasional need of operator involvement, this process can be tedious, having a negative impact on sampling size. This study was dedicated to the development of fully automated analysis of images of the corneal endothelium, captured by CSM, using Fourier analysis. Software was developed in the mathematical programming language Matlab. Pictures of the corneal endothelium, captured by CSM, were read into the analysis software. The software automatically performed digital enhancement of the images. The digitally enhanced images of the corneal endothelium were transformed, using the fast Fourier transform (FFT). Tools were developed and applied for identification and analysis of relevant characteristics of the Fourier transformed images. The data obtained from each Fourier transformed image was used to calculate the mean cell density of its corresponding corneal endothelium. The calculation was based on well known diffraction theory. Results in form of estimated cell density of the corneal endothelium were obtained, using fully automated analysis software on images captured by CSM. The cell density obtained by the fully automated analysis was compared to the cell density obtained from classical, semi-automated analysis and a relatively large correlation was found.

  1. Corneal hemangiosarcoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Cazalot, G; Regnier, A; Deviers, A; Serra, F; Lucas, M N; Etienne, C L; Letron, I Raymond

    2011-09-01

    A 10 year-old castrated male Domestic Short-hair cat with a history of chronic bilateral keratitis was referred for assessment of a red, elevated mass involving the left cornea. The rapid growth of the mass, over a month period in combination with pronounced vascularization and invasion of the corneal surface suggested an aggressive inflammatory or neoplastic process. Following keratectomy, the lesion was diagnosed histopathologically as a hemangiosarcoma. The tumor recurred locally within 3 weeks and enucleation was performed. Histopathologic examination of the globe confirmed the diagnosis and did not reveal infiltration of the limbus and conjunctiva. No signs of local recurrence or metastatic disease have been observed 18 months following enucleation. To the authors' knowledge this is the first case of primary corneal hemangiosarcoma described in the feline species. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  2. Simultaneous Bilateral Anterior and Posterior Lenticonus in Alport Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bamotra, Ravi Kant; Meenakshi; Kesarwani, Prem Chandra; Qayum, Shazia

    2017-08-01

    Alport syndrome is an inherited disease characterized by progressive renal failure, hearing loss, and ocular abnormalities like anterior lenticonus, corneal opacities, cataract, central perimacular and peripheral coalescing fleck retinopathies, and temporal retinal thinning. Although anterior lenticonus is common in Alport syndrome, simultaneous anterior and posterior lenticonus is a rare presentation. We report a case of a 22-year-old female with simultaneous anterior and posterior lenticonus presentation in which ocular examination lead to the detection of Alport syndrome. The patient had sensorineural deafness as well as microscopic haematuria. Clear lens extraction was performed in both eyes to eliminate lenticular irregular astigmatism for visual rehabilitation.

  3. Oral azithromycin for treatment of posterior blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Igami, Thais Zamudio; Holzchuh, Ricardo; Osaki, Tammy Hentona; Santo, Ruth Miyuki; Kara-Jose, Newton; Hida, Richard Y

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral azithromycin in patients with posterior blepharitis. Twenty-six eyes of 13 patients with posterior blepharitis diagnosed by a qualified ophthalmologist were enrolled in this study. Patients were instructed to use oral azithromycin 500 mg per day for 3 days in 3 cycles with 7-day intervals. Subjective clinical outcomes were graded and scored 1 day before and 30 days after the end of the treatment (53 days after initiating the treatment) based on severity scores of: (1) eyelid debris; (2) eyelid telangiectasia; (3) swelling of the eyelid margin; (4) redness of the eyelid margin; and (5) ocular mucus secretion. For the assessment of global efficacy, patients were asked by the investigator to rate the subjective symptoms (eyelid itching, ocular itching, eyelid hyperemia, ocular hyperemia, ocular mucus secretion, photophobia, foreign body sensation, and dry eye sensation) on a scale of 0 (no symptoms) to 5 (severe symptoms). Break-up time, Schirmer I test, corneal fluorescein staining score, and rose bengal staining score were also performed in all patients. All clinical outcomes scoring showed statistically significant improvement after oral azithromycin, except for eyelid swelling. Average subjective symptom grading improved statistically after treatment with oral azithromycin, except for eyelid hyperemia, photophobia, and foreign body sensation. Average tear film break-up time values showed statistically significant improvement after the treatment with oral azithromycin. No statistically significant improvement was observed on average values of Schirmer I test, corneal fluorescein staining score, and rose bengal staining score. The combination of multiple clinical parameters shown in this study supports the clinical efficacy of pulsed oral azithromycin therapy for the management of posterior blepharitis.

  4. Three-dimensional OCT based guinea pig eye model: relating morphology and optics.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Velasco-Ocana, Miriam; Martinez-Enriquez, Eduardo; Revuelta, Luis; McFadden, Sally A; Marcos, Susana

    2017-04-01

    Custom Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography (SOCT) provided with automatic quantification and distortion correction algorithms was used to measure the 3-D morphology in guinea pig eyes (n = 8, 30 days; n = 5, 40 days). Animals were measured awake in vivo under cyclopegia. Measurements showed low intraocular variability (<4% in corneal and anterior lens radii and <8% in the posterior lens radii, <1% interocular distances). The repeatability of the surface elevation was less than 2 µm. Surface astigmatism was the individual dominant term in all surfaces. Higher-order RMS surface elevation was largest in the posterior lens. Individual surface elevation Zernike terms correlated significantly across corneal and anterior lens surfaces. Higher-order-aberrations (except spherical aberration) were comparable with those predicted by OCT-based eye models.

  5. Evaluation of the Safety and Tolerability of Conjunctival Ring for Posterior Segment of the Eye.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Satoshi; Ohguchi, Takeshi; Noda, Kousuke; Murata, Miyuki; Yasueda, Shin-Ichi; Obata, Haruka; Matsunaga, Toru; Fukushima, Tsutomu; Kanda, Atsuhiro; Ishida, Susumu

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the safety and tolerability of conjunctival rings (CRs), a novel device for drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye. In animal studies, CRs containing 5% dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DSP) or vehicle solution were placed on the right and left eyes of C57BL/6J mice, respectively. Contact lenses (CLs) containing vehicle solution were used as a control. Twenty-four hours after placement of the CRs, corneal fluorescein staining was graded based on the McDonald-Shadduck scoring system, ranging from 0 to 4. In humans, CRs containing vehicle solution were placed on the right eye of healthy volunteers for 9 hours. The corneal curvature, corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, visual acuity, tear production (Schirmer I test), tear film break-up time and fluorescein staining scores of the cornea (scores ranging from 0 to 3) and conjunctiva (scores ranging from 0 to 6) were assessed before and after wearing the CRs. The release characteristics of DSP from CRs were also evaluated. In animal experiments, corneal fluorescein staining scores were 1 or less in all the groups, and there was no significant difference between the CR group and the CL group. In the preclinical safety evaluation of CR for humans, ophthalmic examination revealed that CR caused no significant changes in all the parameters investigated including corneal curvature (p = 0.77), corneal thickness (p = 0.96), intraocular pressure (p = 0.59), visual acuity (p = 0.14), Schirmer I test results (p = 0.76), tear film break-up time (p = 0.68), corneal fluorescein staining scores (p = 0.64), and conjunctival fluorescein staining scores (p = 0.52). The DSP release from CRs occurs within a few hours, which is similar to the drug-release property of medicated CL, as reported previously. The current data showed the safety and tolerability of CR as a drug delivery device for the treatment of posterior segment diseases.

  6. The Auckland Cataract Study: 2 year postoperative assessment of aspects of clinical, visual, corneal topographic and satisfaction outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, A M; Sachdev, N; Wong, T; Riley, A F; Grupcheva, C N; McGhee, C N

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To assess clinical, visual, computerised corneal topographic, and subjective satisfaction with visual acuity, in a cohort of subjects 2 years after phacoemulsification surgery in a public hospital in New Zealand. Methods: Prospective study of a representative sample of 97 subjects (20%) randomly selected from 480 subjects in the original Auckland Cataract Study (ACS) cohort. The clinical assessment protocol was identical to the ACS and included an extensive questionnaire to enable direct comparisons to be made between the two groups. Results: The study population was predominantly female (66%) with a mean age of 76.3 (SD 9.9) years. New systemic and ocular disease affected 18.4% and 10.3% of subjects respectively, and 10.3% required referral to either a general practitioner (2.1%) or ophthalmologist (8.2%). Mean best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) was 0.2 (0.2) logMAR units (6/9 Snellen equivalent), with mean spherical equivalent −0.37 (1.01) dioptres (D) and astigmatism −1.07 (0.70) D 2 years postoperatively, compared to mean BSCVA 0.1 (0.2) logMAR units (6/7.5 Snellen equivalent), spherical equivalent −0.59 (1.07) D, and astigmatism −1.14 (0.77) D 4 weeks after surgery. 94.9% of subjects retained a BSCVA of 6/12 or better, irrespective of pre-existing ocular disease. The overall posterior capsule opacification (PCO) rate was 20.4% and this was visually insignificant in all but 3.1% of eyes that had already undergone Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy. Orbscan II elevation technology demonstrated corneal stability 2 years after uncomplicated phacoemulsification. Although corneal astigmatism was eliminated in approximately half of the subjects 1 month postoperatively, astigmatism showed a tendency to regress towards the preoperative level with local corneal thickening at the site of incision 2 years after cataract surgery. Of fellow eyes, 61.2% had undergone cataract surgery. Overall, 75.3% of subjects were moderately to very satisfied with their

  7. Corneal refractive index-hydration relationship by objective refractometry.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sudi; Alió, Jorge L

    2012-11-01

    To compare an objective (VCH-1) with a manual subjective Abbé refractometer (MSAR) and evaluate the refractive index (RI)-hydration (H) relationship for the corneal stroma. Epithelial and endothelial layers were removed from a fresh postmortem ovine corneal buttons. RI was measured at both surfaces using (i) MSAR then (ii) VCH-1. The sample was weighed, slowly dehydrated under controlled conditions (2 h), and RI measures were repeated. Sample was oven dried (90°C) for 3 d to obtain dry weight and hydration at each episode of RI measurement. Average difference between individual pairs of measurements obtained using the two refractometers (ΔRI) was 0.00071 (standard deviation ± 0.0029, 95% confidence interval ± 0.0058). Root mean square difference between measurements obtained by the refractometers was 0.0024. There was no relationship between ΔRI and the mean of each measurement pair (r = 0.201, n = 40, p = 0.214). Linear regression revealed a significant relationship between RI and reciprocal of H at both surfaces as follows: anterior (i) RI = 1.355 + 0.111/H (r = -0.852, n = 20, p = <0.001), (ii) RI = 1.357 + 0.105/H (r = -0.849, n = 20, p = <0.001) and posterior (i) RI = 1.353 + 0.085/H (r = -0.882, n = 20, p = <0.001), (ii) RI = 1.350 + 0.088/H (r = -0.813, n = 20, p = <0.001). VCH-1 measurements are in good agreement with MSAR. RI at the anterior stroma was consistently higher suggesting hydration is lower by 1.10 units (6%) compared with the posterior stroma. Dehydration increased RI at both surfaces by similar rates. Current hypothetical models are useful for predicting RI from H for the posterior, but not the anterior, stroma.

  8. Comparison of the effects of intraocular irrigating solutions on the corneal endothelium in intraocular lens implantation.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, M; Kinoshita, S; Ohashi, Y; Shimomura, Y; Ohguro, N; Okamoto, H; Omoto, T; Hosotani, H; Yoshida, H

    1991-01-01

    We conducted a randomised prospective controlled study to determine the effects of a glucose glutathione bicarbonate solution (BSS Plus) and a citrate acetate bicarbonate solution (S-MA2) on the corneal endothelium in patients undergoing extracapsular cataract extraction with posterior chamber lens implantation. One eye of each patient was randomly assigned to receive BSS Plus, and the other eye to receive S-MA2. BSS Plus caused significantly less corneal swelling on the first postoperative day than did S-MA2. There was no difference between the two solutions in their effect on corneal thickness one week and one month postoperatively. Computer assisted morphometric analysis of wide-field specular microscopic photographs demonstrated minimal changes in endothelial morphological characteristics in the eyes irrigated with BSS Plus. By comparison S-MA2, caused a significant loss of endothelial cells and a marked reduction in the figure coefficient. These results indicated that BSS Plus has a clinical advantage over S-MA2 with respect to the corneal endothelium. PMID:1873266

  9. Corneal Structural Changes in Nonneoplastic and Neoplastic Monoclonal Gammopathies.

    PubMed

    Aragona, Pasquale; Allegra, Alessandro; Postorino, Elisa Imelde; Rania, Laura; Innao, Vanessa; Wylegala, Edward; Nowinska, Anna; Ieni, Antonio; Pisani, Antonina; Musolino, Caterina; Puzzolo, Domenico; Micali, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    To investigate corneal confocal microscopic changes in nonneoplastic and neoplastic monoclonal gammopathies. Three groups of subjects were considered: group 1, twenty normal subjects; group 2, fifteen patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS); group 3, eight patients with smoldering multiple myeloma and eight patients with untreated multiple myeloma. After hematologic diagnosis, patients underwent ophthalmologic exam and in vivo confocal microscopic study. The statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls tests and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Epithelial cells of gammopathic patients showed significantly higher reflectivity than controls, demonstrated by optical density (P < 0.001). Subbasal nerve density, branching, and beading were significantly altered in gammopathic patients (P = 0.01, P = 0.02, P = 0.02, respectively). The number of keratocytes was significantly reduced in neoplastic patients (P < 0.001 versus both normal and MGUS) in the anterior, medium, and posterior stroma. The ROC curve analysis showed good sensitivity and specificity for this parameter. Group 2 and 3 keratocytes showed higher nuclear and cytoplasmatic reflectivity in the medium and posterior stroma. Endothelial cells were not affected. Patients with neoplastic gammopathies showed peculiar alterations of the keratocyte number, which appeared significantly reduced. A follow-up with corneal confocal microscopy of patients with MGUS is suggested as a useful tool to identify peripheral tissue alterations linked to possible neoplastic disease development.

  10. Intraocular lens bioactivity tested using rabbit corneal tissue cultures.

    PubMed

    Linnola, R J; Salonen, J I; Happonen, R P

    1999-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of different intraocular lens (IOL) materials on epithelial cell growth to test the sandwich theory; i.e., a bioactivity-based explanation of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) after cataract surgery. Central Hospital, Vaasa, and Institute of Dentistry and Turku Center for Biomaterials, University of Turku, Finland. Rabbit corneal tissue cultures were set up on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), heparin-surface-modified (HSM) PMMA, silicone, acrylate, and hydrogel IOLs for 1 week. The tissue consisted of intact epithelium and half the thickness of the corneal stroma, which was placed against the IOL. The growth of the epithelium was examined by light microscopy to evaluate the attachment of the corneal explant to the IOL surface. All tissue samples grew well under the culture conditions. When grown on PMMA, HSM PMMA, silicone, and hydrogel, the tissue did not attach to the IOL or the epithelium grew around the explant, suggesting that the attachment of the stroma to the IOL was poor or nonexistent. Some explants on acrylate IOLs attached directly to the IOL surface with no epithelial ingrowth between the stroma and the IOL. This tissue culture method can be used to examine the behavior of corneal tissue in contact with different IOL materials. The results suggest that the acrylate IOL may have bioactive properties. This, with the lens optic's square edge, may hinder lens epithelial cell proliferation and thus prevent PCO.

  11. Confocal microscopy and electrophysiological study of single patient corneal endothelium cell cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatini, Francesca; Rossi, Francesca; Coppi, Elisabetta; Magni, Giada; Fusco, Irene; Menabuoni, Luca; Pedata, Felicita; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Pini, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of the ion channels in corneal endothelial cells and the elucidation of their involvement in corneal pathologies would lead to the identification of new molecular target for pharmacological treatments and to the clarification of corneal physiology. The corneal endothelium is an amitotic cell monolayer with a major role in preserving corneal transparency and in regulating the water and solute flux across the posterior surface of the cornea. Although endothelial cells are non-excitable, they express a range of ion channels, such as voltage-dependent Na+ channels and K+ channels, L-type Ca2 channels and many others. Interestingly, purinergic receptors have been linked to a variety of conditions within the eye but their presence in the endothelium and their role in its pathophysiology is still uncertain. In this study, we were able to extract endothelial cells from single human corneas, thus obtaining primary cultures that represent the peculiarity of each donor. Corneas were from tissues not suitable for transplant in patients. We characterized the endothelial cells by confocal microscopy, both within the intact cornea and in the primary endothelial cells cultures. We also studied the functional role of the purinergic system (adenosine, ATP and their receptors) by means of electrophysiological recordings. The experiments were performed by patch clamp recordings and confocal time-lapse microscopy and our results indicate that the application of purinergic compounds modulates the amplitude of outward currents in the isolated endothelial cells. These findings may lead to the proposal of new therapies for endothelium-related corneal diseases.

  12. Fully automated corneal endothelial morphometry of images captured by clinical specular microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucht, Curry; Söderberg, Per; Manneberg, Göran

    2010-02-01

    The corneal endothelium serves as the posterior barrier of the cornea. Factors such as clarity and refractive properties of the cornea are in direct relationship to the quality of the endothelium. The endothelial cell density is considered the most important morphological factor of the corneal endothelium. Pathological conditions and physical trauma may threaten the endothelial cell density to such an extent that the optical property of the cornea and thus clear eyesight is threatened. Diagnosis of the corneal endothelium through morphometry is an important part of several clinical applications. Morphometry of the corneal endothelium is presently carried out by semi automated analysis of pictures captured by a Clinical Specular Microscope (CSM). Because of the occasional need of operator involvement, this process can be tedious, having a negative impact on sampling size. This study was dedicated to the development and use of fully automated analysis of a very large range of images of the corneal endothelium, captured by CSM, using Fourier analysis. Software was developed in the mathematical programming language Matlab. Pictures of the corneal endothelium, captured by CSM, were read into the analysis software. The software automatically performed digital enhancement of the images, normalizing lights and contrasts. The digitally enhanced images of the corneal endothelium were Fourier transformed, using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and stored as new images. Tools were developed and applied for identification and analysis of relevant characteristics of the Fourier transformed images. The data obtained from each Fourier transformed image was used to calculate the mean cell density of its corresponding corneal endothelium. The calculation was based on well known diffraction theory. Results in form of estimated cell density of the corneal endothelium were obtained, using fully automated analysis software on 292 images captured by CSM. The cell density obtained by the

  13. Corneal scarring from laser in situ keratomileusis after epikeratoplasty: Clinical and histopathologic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Sumitra S.; Randleman, J. Bradley; Grossniklaus, Hans E.

    2015-01-01

    A 47-year-old woman required penetrating keratoplasty in the right eye after developing delayed visually significant corneal scarring bilaterally after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in 1997 following epikeratoplasty in 1987. Spectral domain ocular coherence tomography of the left cornea showed a 100 μm lenticule with a LASIK flap posterior to the host Bowman layer at 250 μm. Histopathology and electron microscopy of the right corneal button showed a 120 μm lenticule with a LASIK flap within the lenticule at 100 μm. Clinically significant scarring was present within the LASIK flap interface, within the lenticule stroma, and within the area of the underlying host Bowman layer. There were keratocytes at the junction between the LASIK flap and lenticule stromal bed. Although epikeratoplasty is no longer practiced, post-epikeratoplasty patients may present for refractive surgical options and LASIK carries significant risks for corneal scarring in these individuals, especially when using flap-creating devices that may create thin LASIK flaps. PMID:23506924

  14. Measure the spatial distribution of corneal elasticity by combining femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and acoustic radiation force elasticity microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hui; Li, Xin; Hu, Mingyong

    2017-08-01

    The unique spatial distribution of corneal elasticity is shown by the nonhomogeneous structure of the cornea. It is critical to understanding how biomechanics control corneal stability and refraction and one way to do this job is non-invasive measurement of this distribution. Femtosecond laser pulses have the ability to induce optical breakdown and produced cavitation in the anterior and posterior cornea. A confocal ultrasonic transducer applied 6.5 ms acoustic radiation forcechirp bursts to the bubble at 1.5 MHz while monitoring bubble position using pulse-echoes at 20 MHz. The laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) were measured in the anterior and posterior cornea with the plasmas that induced by the same femtosecond laser to see whether the laser induced plasmas signals will show relationship to Young's modulus.

  15. Late onset of a persistent, deep stromal scarring after PRK and corneal cross-linking in a patient with forme fruste keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Güell, Jose L; Verdaguer, Paula; Elies, Daniel; Gris, Oscar; Manero, Felicidad

    2014-04-01

    To present a case of a late, deep stromal scar in a 22-year-old patient with forme fruste keratoconus who underwent combined corneal cross-linking and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Topography-guided corneal cross-linking combined with corneal PRK (without complications) was performed in both eyes with a delay of 2 weeks between each eye. At the 5-month postoperative examination of the right eye, a localized corneal haze was circumscribed to the posterior deep stroma, signifying a decrease of visual acuity. However, this improved partially and temporarily when treated with topical corticoids during 2 years of follow-up and then reoccurred, affecting the corrected distance visual acuity. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first documented, clinical case presenting a deep stromal affectation without endothelial decompensation and visual acuity affectation as a postoperative complication following topography-guided PRK and corneal cross-linking. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Corneal Confocal Microscopy Detects Corneal Nerve Damage in Patients Admitted With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Khan, Adnan; Akhtar, Naveed; Kamran, Saadat; Ponirakis, Georgios; Petropoulos, Ioannis N; Tunio, Nahel A; Dargham, Soha R; Imam, Yahia; Sartaj, Faheem; Parray, Aijaz; Bourke, Paula; Khan, Rabia; Santos, Mark; Joseph, Sujatha; Shuaib, Ashfaq; Malik, Rayaz A

    2017-11-01

    Corneal confocal microscopy can identify corneal nerve damage in patients with peripheral and central neurodegeneration. However, the use of corneal confocal microscopy in patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke is unknown. One hundred thirty patients (57 without diabetes mellitus [normal glucose tolerance], 32 with impaired glucose tolerance, and 41 with type 2 diabetes mellitus) admitted with acute ischemic stroke, and 28 age-matched healthy control participants underwent corneal confocal microscopy to quantify corneal nerve fiber density, corneal nerve branch density, and corneal nerve fiber length. There was a significant reduction in corneal nerve fiber density, corneal nerve branch density, and corneal nerve fiber length in stroke patients with normal glucose tolerance ( P <0.001, P <0.001, P <0.001), impaired glucose tolerance ( P =0.004, P <0.001, P =0.002), and type 2 diabetes mellitus ( P <0.001, P <0.001, P <0.001) compared with controls. HbA1c and triglycerides correlated with corneal nerve fiber density ( r =-0.187, P =0.03; r =-0.229 P =0.01), corneal nerve fiber length ( r =-0.228, P =0.009; r =-0.285; P =0.001), and corneal nerve branch density ( r =-0.187, P =0.033; r =-0.229, P =0.01). Multiple linear regression showed no independent associations between corneal nerve fiber density, corneal nerve branch density, and corneal nerve fiber length and relevant risk factors for stroke. Corneal confocal microscopy is a rapid noninvasive ophthalmic imaging technique that identifies corneal nerve fiber loss in patients with acute ischemic stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Determination of corneal elasticity coefficient using the ORA database.

    PubMed

    Avetisov, Sergei E; Novikov, Ivan A; Bubnova, Irina A; Antonov, Alexei A; Siplivyi, Vladimir I

    2010-07-01

    To propose a new approach for the study of corneal biomechanics using the Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) database, which is based on changes in velocity retardation in the central cornea at the peak of flattening. The ORA applanation curve was analyzed using a mathematical technique, which allowed calculation of the elasticity coefficient (Ke), which is primarily characteristic of the elastic properties of the cornea. Elasticity coefficient values were obtained in patients with presumably different biomechanical properties of the cornea: "normal" cornea (71 eyes, normal group), keratoconus (34 eyes, keratoconus group), LASIK (36 eyes, LASIK group), and glaucoma with elevated and compensated intraocular pressure (lOP) (38 eyes, glaucoma group). The mean Ke value in the normal group was 11.05 +/- 1.6, and the corneal thickness correlation coefficient r2 was 0.48. In the keratoconus group, the mean Ke value was 4.91 +/- 1.87 and the corneal thickness correlation coefficient r2 was 0.47. In the LASIK group, Ke and r2 were 5.99 +/- 1.18 and 0.39, respectively. In the glaucoma group, the same eyes that experienced a two-fold reduction in lOP developed a statistically significant reduction in the Ke (1.06 times lower), whereas their corneal hysteresis value increased 1.25 times. The elasticity coefficient calculated using the ORA applanation curve can be used in the evaluation of corneal biomechanical properties.

  18. Cornea and anterior eye assessment with placido-disc keratoscopy, slit scanning evaluation topography and scheimpflug imaging tomography

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Raul

    2018-01-01

    Current corneal assessment technologies make the process of corneal evaluation extremely fast and simple and several devices and technologies allow to explore and to manage patients. The purpose of this special issue is to present and also to update in the evaluation of cornea and ocular surface and this second part, reviews a description of the corneal topography and tomography techniques, providing updated information of the clinical recommendations of these techniques in eye care practice. Placido-based topographers started an exciting anterior corneal surface analysis that allows the development of current corneal tomographers that provide a full three-dimensional reconstruction of the cornea including elevation, curvature, and pachymetry data of anterior and posterior corneal surfaces. Although, there is not an accepted reference standard technology for corneal topography description and it is not possible to determine which device produces the most accurate topographic measurements, placido-based topographers are a valuable technology to be used in primary eye care and corneal tomograhers expanding the possibilities to explore cornea and anterior eye facilitating diagnosis and follow-up in several situations, raising patient follow-up, and improving the knowledge regarding to the corneal anatomy. Main disadvantages of placido-based topographers include the absence of information about the posterior corneal surface and limited corneal surface coverage without data from the para-central and/or peripheral corneal surface. However, corneal tomographers show repeatable anterior and posterior corneal surfaces measurements, providing full corneal thickness data improving cornea, and anterior surface assessment. However, differences between devices suggest that they are not interchangeable in clinical practice. PMID:29480244

  19. Cornea and anterior eye assessment with placido-disc keratoscopy, slit scanning evaluation topography and scheimpflug imaging tomography.

    PubMed

    Martin, Raul

    2018-03-01

    Current corneal assessment technologies make the process of corneal evaluation extremely fast and simple and several devices and technologies allow to explore and to manage patients. The purpose of this special issue is to present and also to update in the evaluation of cornea and ocular surface and this second part, reviews a description of the corneal topography and tomography techniques, providing updated information of the clinical recommendations of these techniques in eye care practice. Placido-based topographers started an exciting anterior corneal surface analysis that allows the development of current corneal tomographers that provide a full three-dimensional reconstruction of the cornea including elevation, curvature, and pachymetry data of anterior and posterior corneal surfaces. Although, there is not an accepted reference standard technology for corneal topography description and it is not possible to determine which device produces the most accurate topographic measurements, placido-based topographers are a valuable technology to be used in primary eye care and corneal tomograhers expanding the possibilities to explore cornea and anterior eye facilitating diagnosis and follow-up in several situations, raising patient follow-up, and improving the knowledge regarding to the corneal anatomy. Main disadvantages of placido-based topographers include the absence of information about the posterior corneal surface and limited corneal surface coverage without data from the para-central and/or peripheral corneal surface. However, corneal tomographers show repeatable anterior and posterior corneal surfaces measurements, providing full corneal thickness data improving cornea, and anterior surface assessment. However, differences between devices suggest that they are not interchangeable in clinical practice.

  20. New histopathologic and ultrastructural findings in Reis-Bücklers corneal dystrophy caused by the Arg124Leu mutation of TGFBI gene.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wen-Ya; Zheng, Li-Bin; Pan, Fei; Wang, Bei-Bei; Yao, Yu-Feng

    2016-09-02

    Reis-Bücklers corneal dystrophy (RBCD) was consistently reported as a corneal dystrophy only affected Bowman's layer and superficial corneal stroma, and superficial keratectomy was a recommendation surgery for treatment in literatures. The study reported new histopathological and ultrastructural findings in RBCD caused by the Arg124Leu mutation of transforming growth factor induced (TGFBI) gene in a four-generation Chinese pedigree. Subjects including eight patients and seven unaffected family members received slit-lamp biomicroscopy and photography. DNA was obtained from all subjects, and exons 4 and 11 to 14 of TGFBI gene were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and the products were sequenced. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS OCT) and in vivo confocal microscopy were conducted for ten eyes of five patients. Based on the results of AS OCT and in vivo confocal microscopy, deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DLKP) using cryopreserved donor cornea was applied for four eyes of four patients. Four lamellar dystrophic corneal buttons were studied by light and transmission electron microscopy, and TGFBI immunohistochemistry. Eight patients had typical clinical manifestations of RBCD presenting recurrent painful corneal erosion starting in their early first decades, along with age-dependent progressive geographic corneal opacities. TGFBI sequencing revealed a heterozygous mutation, Arg124Leu in all eight patients. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography and in vivo confocal microscopy showed the dystrophic deposits involved not only in subepithelial and superficial stroma, but also in mid- or posterior stroma in four examined advanced eyes. Light microscopy showed Bowman's layer was absent, replaced by abnormal deposits stain bright red with Masson's trichrome. In superficial cornea, the deposits stacked and produced three to five continuous bands parallel to the corneal collagen lamellae. In mid- to posterior stroma, numerous granular or dot

  1. Intraoperative corneal thickness measurements during corneal collagen cross-linking with isotonic riboflavin solution without dextran in corneal ectasia.

    PubMed

    Cınar, Yasin; Cingü, Abdullah Kürşat; Sahin, Alparslan; Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Yüksel, Harun; Caca, Ihsan

    2014-03-01

    Abstract Objective: To monitor the changes in corneal thickness during the corneal collagen cross-linking procedure by using isotonic riboflavin solution without dextran in ectatic corneal diseases. The corneal thickness measurements were obtained before epithelial removal, after epithelial removal, following the instillation of isotonic riboflavin solution without dextran for 30 min, and after 10 min of ultraviolet A irradiation. Eleven eyes of eleven patients with progressive keratoconus (n = 10) and iatrogenic corneal ectasia (n = 1) were included in this study. The mean thinnest pachymetric measurements were 391.82 ± 30.34 µm (320-434 µm) after de-epithelialization of the cornea, 435 ± 21.17 µm (402-472 µm) following 30 min instillation of isotonic riboflavin solution without dextran and 431.73 ± 20.64 µm (387-461 µm) following 10 min of ultraviolet A irradiation to the cornea. Performing corneal cross-linking procedure with isotonic riboflavin solution without dextran might not induce corneal thinning but a little swelling throughout the procedure.

  2. A Comparative Study of Vertebrate Corneal Structure: The Evolution of a Refractive Lens

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Moritz; Shoa, Golroxan; Tran, Stephanie T.; Xie, Yilu; Thomasy, Sarah; Raghunathan, Vijay K.; Murphy, Christopher; Brown, Donald J.; Jester, James V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Although corneal curvature plays an important role in determining the refractive power of the vertebrate eye, the mechanisms controlling corneal shape remain largely unknown. To address this question, we performed a comparative study of vertebrate corneal structure to identify potential evolutionarily based changes that correlate with the development of a corneal refractive lens. Methods. Nonlinear optical (NLO) imaging of second-harmonic–generated (SHG) signals was used to image collagen and three-dimensionally reconstruct the lamellar organization in corneas from different vertebrate clades. Results. Second-harmonic–generated images taken normal to the corneal surface showed that corneal collagen in all nonmammalian vertebrates was organized into sheets (fish and amphibians) or ribbons (reptiles and birds) extending from limbus to limbus that were oriented nearly orthogonal (ranging from 77.7°–88.2°) to their neighbors. The slight angular offset (2°–13°) created a rotational pattern that continued throughout the full thickness in fish and amphibians and to the very posterior layers in reptiles and birds. Interactions between lamellae were limited to “sutural” fibers in cartilaginous fish, and occasional lamellar branching in fish and amphibians. There was a marked increase in lamellar branching in higher vertebrates, such that birds ≫ reptiles > amphibians > fish. By contrast, mammalian corneas showed a nearly random collagen fiber organization with no orthogonal, chiral pattern. Conclusions. Our data indicate that nonmammalian vertebrate corneas share a common orthogonal collagen structural organization that shows increased lamellar branching in higher vertebrate species. Importantly, mammalian corneas showed a different structural organization, suggesting a divergent evolutionary background. PMID:26066606

  3. A Comparative Study of Vertebrate Corneal Structure: The Evolution of a Refractive Lens.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Moritz; Shoa, Golroxan; Tran, Stephanie T; Xie, Yilu; Thomasy, Sarah; Raghunathan, Vijay K; Murphy, Christopher; Brown, Donald J; Jester, James V

    2015-04-01

    Although corneal curvature plays an important role in determining the refractive power of the vertebrate eye, the mechanisms controlling corneal shape remain largely unknown. To address this question, we performed a comparative study of vertebrate corneal structure to identify potential evolutionarily based changes that correlate with the development of a corneal refractive lens. Nonlinear optical (NLO) imaging of second-harmonic-generated (SHG) signals was used to image collagen and three-dimensionally reconstruct the lamellar organization in corneas from different vertebrate clades. Second-harmonic-generated images taken normal to the corneal surface showed that corneal collagen in all nonmammalian vertebrates was organized into sheets (fish and amphibians) or ribbons (reptiles and birds) extending from limbus to limbus that were oriented nearly orthogonal (ranging from 77.7°-88.2°) to their neighbors. The slight angular offset (2°-13°) created a rotational pattern that continued throughout the full thickness in fish and amphibians and to the very posterior layers in reptiles and birds. Interactions between lamellae were limited to "sutural" fibers in cartilaginous fish, and occasional lamellar branching in fish and amphibians. There was a marked increase in lamellar branching in higher vertebrates, such that birds ≫ reptiles > amphibians > fish. By contrast, mammalian corneas showed a nearly random collagen fiber organization with no orthogonal, chiral pattern. Our data indicate that nonmammalian vertebrate corneas share a common orthogonal collagen structural organization that shows increased lamellar branching in higher vertebrate species. Importantly, mammalian corneas showed a different structural organization, suggesting a divergent evolutionary background.

  4. In-vivo corneal pulsation in relation to in-vivo intraocular pressure and corneal biomechanics assessed in-vitro. An animal pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rogala, Maja M; Danielewska, Monika E; Antończyk, Agnieszka; Kiełbowicz, Zdzisław; Rogowska, Marta E; Kozuń, Marta; Detyna, Jerzy; Iskander, D Robert

    2017-09-01

    The aim was to ascertain whether the characteristics of the corneal pulse (CP) measured in-vivo in a rabbit eye change after short-term artificial increase of intraocular pressure (IOP) and whether they correlate with corneal biomechanics assessed in-vitro. Eight New Zealand white rabbits were included in this study and were anesthetized. In-vivo experiments included simultaneous measurements of the CP signal, registered with a non-contact method, IOP, intra-arterial blood pressure, and blood pulse (BPL), at the baseline and short-term elevated IOP. Afterwards, thickness of post-mortem corneas was determined and then uniaxial tensile tests were conducted leading to estimates of their Young's modulus (E). At the baseline IOP, backward stepwise regression analyses were performed in which successively the ocular biomechanical, biometric and cardiovascular predictors were separately taken into account. Results of the analysis revealed that the 3rd CP harmonic can be statistically significantly predicted by E and central corneal thickness (Models: R 2  = 0.662, p < 0.005 and R 2  = 0.832, p < 0.001 for the signal amplitude and power, respectively). The 1st CP harmonic can be statistically significantly predicted by the amplitude and power of the 1st BPL harmonic (Models: R 2  = 0.534, p = 0.015 and R 2  = 0.509, p < 0.018, respectively). For elevated IOP, non-parametric analysis indicated significant differences for the power of the 1st CP harmonic (Kruskal-Wallis test; p = 0.031) and for the mean, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.025, p = 0.019, p = 0.033, respectively). In conclusion, for the first time, the association between parameters of the CP signal in-vivo and corneal biomechanics in-vitro was confirmed. In particular, spectral analysis revealed that higher amplitude and power of the 3rd CP harmonic indicates higher corneal stiffness, while the 1st CP harmonic correlates positively with the corresponding harmonic of the BPL

  5. [Design and Realization of Personalized Corneal Analysis Software Based on Corneal Topography System].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xueping; Xie, Zhonghao; Cen, Qin; Zheng, Suilian

    2016-08-01

    As the most important refraction part in the optical system,cornea possesses characteristics which are important parameters in ophthalmology clinical surgery.During the measurement of the cornea in our study,we acquired the corneal data of Orbscan Ⅱ corneal topographer in real time using the Hook technology under Windows,and then took the data into the corneal analysis software.We then further analyzed and calculated the data to obtain individual Q-value of overall corneal 360semi-meridian.The corneal analysis software took Visual C++ 6.0as development environment,used OpenGL graphics technology to draw three-dimensional individual corneal morphological map and the distribution curve of the Q-value,and achieved real-time corneal data query.It could be concluded that the analysis would further extend the function of the corneal topography system,and provide a solid foundation for the further study of automatic screening of corneal diseases.

  6. New approach for correction of error associated with keratometric estimation of corneal power in keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Camps, Vicente J; Piñero, David P; Caravaca-Arens, Esteban; de Fez, Dolores; Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J; Artola, Alberto

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain the exact value of the keratometric index (nkexact) and to clinically validate a variable keratometric index (nkadj) that minimizes this error. The nkexact value was determined by obtaining differences (ΔPc) between keratometric corneal power (Pk) and Gaussian corneal power ((Equation is included in full-text article.)) equal to 0. The nkexact was defined as the value associated with an equivalent difference in the magnitude of ΔPc for extreme values of posterior corneal radius (r2c) for each anterior corneal radius value (r1c). This nkadj was considered for the calculation of the adjusted corneal power (Pkadj). Values of r1c ∈ (4.2, 8.5) mm and r2c ∈ (3.1, 8.2) mm were considered. Differences of True Net Power with (Equation is included in full-text article.), Pkadj, and Pk(1.3375) were calculated in a clinical sample of 44 eyes with keratoconus. nkexact ranged from 1.3153 to 1.3396 and nkadj from 1.3190 to 1.3339 depending on the eye model analyzed. All the nkadj values adjusted perfectly to 8 linear algorithms. Differences between Pkadj and (Equation is included in full-text article.)did not exceed ±0.7 D (Diopter). Clinically, nk = 1.3375 was not valid in any case. Pkadj and True Net Power and Pk(1.3375) and Pkadj were statistically different (P < 0.01), whereas no differences were found between (Equation is included in full-text article.)and Pkadj (P > 0.01). The use of a single value of nk for the calculation of the total corneal power in keratoconus has been shown to be imprecise, leading to inaccuracies in the detection and classification of this corneal condition. Furthermore, our study shows the relevance of corneal thickness in corneal power calculations in keratoconus.

  7. [Clinical observation on corneal transparency after small incision lenticule extraction surgery].

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Wang, Y; Cui, T; Zhao, W; Cheng, W B

    2018-01-11

    Objective: To evaluate the changes of corneal transparency over the 1-year period after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) according to corneal Scheimpflug densitometry. Methods: Prospective cohort study. Fifty-five patients (100 eyes) with myopia (19 male and 36 female, aged 18 to 39 years with average of 24) who underwent SMILE and regular follow-up for at least 1 year at Tianjin Eye Hospital were enrolled. Examinations took place before SMILE and postoperatively at 1 day, 1 week, and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. The preoperative spherical equivalent of surgical refractive correction was (-5.75±1.64) D. Corneal densitometry (CD) data were calculated automatically by the Pentacam Scheimpflug system and expressed in gray scale units (GSU), from 0 (completely transparent) to 100 (completely opaque). During the analysis of corneal densitometry, the average corneal optical density of three concentric radial zones centered on the apex of the cornea ≤2 mm, >2 mm and ≤6 mm, >6 mm and ≤10 mm diameter) were applied, and three layers were defined according to different corneal depths (the anterior 120 μm as 1st layer, and the posterior 60 μm as 3rd layer, and the center part between them of the cornea as 2nd layer). The automatic release mode was applied in order to avoid operator-induced errors. The preoperative and postoperative values in different corneal layers and different concentric radial zones were compared using Kruskal-Wallis. Results: Ninty-three eyes(93%) of all eyes achieved uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCVA) of 0.8 or better on the first day postoperatively, and 96% (96 of 100 eyes) achieved UCVA of 0.8 or better in the first week postoperatevely, and all eyes 100% (100 of 100 eyes) achieved UCVA 0.8 or better until the end of our follow-up (in 1 year postoperatively). In general, the difference preoperative and postoperative corneal average optical density is of no statistical significance (χ(2)=8.446, P =0.207), specifically, the

  8. [The relationship between corneal lymphangiogenesis and inflammation index after corneal alkali injury].

    PubMed

    Ling, Shi-qi; Li, Wei-hua; Xu, Jian-gang; Kuang, Wen-hui; Li, Chao-yang

    2010-11-01

    To discuss the relationship between corneal lymphangiogenesis and inflammation index (IF) in alkali burned corneas. Experimental research. Rat corneal hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis were examined by 5'-nase-alkaline phosphatase (5'-NA-ALP) double enzyme-histochemistry and whole mount immunofluorescence at 1 day, 3 days, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 weeks after alkaline burns, and the blood vessel counting (BVC) and the lymphatic vessel counting (LVC) were recorded. The state of corneal inflammation was observed under the slit lamp and evaluated by inflammation index (IF) grading at the same time. Then, the association of LVC with IF was examined. In addition, eleven human alkali burned corneas were obtained from 11 patients undergoing corneal transplantation in Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center from January 2005 to June 2008. Corneal lymphangiogenesis was examined by lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor (LYVE-1) immunohistochemistry. The significance of the differences in IF, inflammatory cells counting, burn history, and age between two groups was analyzed by using paired student's t-test. New lymphatic vessels were present in rat alkali burned corneas. Corneal lymphangiogenesis developed 3 days after alkaline burns, reached the top 2 weeks after the injury, then decreased gradually, and disappeared at the end of the 5th week. Corneal lymphatics occurred behind corneal inflammation, but disappeared before corneal inflammation and hemangiogenesis. LVC was strongly and positively correlated with IF (r = 0.572, P < 0.01) after corneal alkaline burns. Among eleven human alkali burned corneas, corneal lymphatic vessels were present in 3 corneas. Compared with the other 8 cases without corneal lymphangiogenesis, the scores of IF was significantly higher (t = 3.28, P < 0.05), the inflammatory cells counting dramatically increased (t = 2.42, P < 0.05), but the age decreased significantly (t = 2.62, P < 0.05). However, the difference in burn history between two groups was

  9. Peroxynitrite Upregulates Angiogenic Factors VEGF-A, BFGF, and HIF-1α in Human Corneal Limbal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ashki, Negin; Chan, Ann M.; Qin, Yu; Wang, Wei; Kiyohara, Meagan; Lin, Lin; Braun, Jonathan; Wadehra, Madhuri; Gordon, Lynn K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Corneal neovascularization (NV) is a sight-threatening condition often associated with infection, inflammation, prolonged contact lens use, corneal burns, and acute corneal graft rejection. Macrophages recruited to the cornea release nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion (O2−), which react together to form the highly toxic molecule peroxynitrite (ONOO−). The role of ONOO− in upregulating multiple angiogenic factors in cultured human corneal limbal epithelial (HCLE) cells was investigated. Methods. Human corneal limbal epithelial cells were incubated with 500 μM of ONOO− donor for various times. VEGF-A, BFGF, and hypoxic-inducible factor-alpha (HIF-1α) were investigated via Western blot and RT-PCR was performed for VEGF. Functional assays using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) used conditioned media from ONOO−-exposed HCLE cells. Secreted VEGF from conditioned media was detected and analyzed using ELISA. Results. Increased angiogenic factors were observed as early as 4 hours after HCLE exposure to ONOO−. HIF-1 expression was seen at 4, 6, and 8 hours post-ONOO− exposure (P < 0.05). BFGF expression was elevated at 4 hours and peaked at 8 hours after treatment with ONOO− (P < 0.005). Increased VEGF-A gene expression was observed at 6 and 8 hours post-ONOO− treatment. Functional assays using conditioned media showed increased HUVEC migration and tube formation. Conclusions. Exposure to elevated extracellular concentrations of ONOO− results in upregulation of angiogenic factors in HCLE cells. It is possible that, in the setting of inflammation or infection, that exposure to ONOO− could be one contributor to the complex initiators of corneal NV. Validation in vivo would identify an additional potential control point for corneal NV. PMID:24398102

  10. Peroxynitrite upregulates angiogenic factors VEGF-A, BFGF, and HIF-1α in human corneal limbal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ashki, Negin; Chan, Ann M; Qin, Yu; Wang, Wei; Kiyohara, Meagan; Lin, Lin; Braun, Jonathan; Wadehra, Madhuri; Gordon, Lynn K

    2014-03-19

    Corneal neovascularization (NV) is a sight-threatening condition often associated with infection, inflammation, prolonged contact lens use, corneal burns, and acute corneal graft rejection. Macrophages recruited to the cornea release nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion (O2(-)), which react together to form the highly toxic molecule peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). The role of ONOO(-) in upregulating multiple angiogenic factors in cultured human corneal limbal epithelial (HCLE) cells was investigated. Human corneal limbal epithelial cells were incubated with 500 μM of ONOO(-) donor for various times. VEGF-A, BFGF, and hypoxic-inducible factor-alpha (HIF-1α) were investigated via Western blot and RT-PCR was performed for VEGF. Functional assays using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) used conditioned media from ONOO(-)-exposed HCLE cells. Secreted VEGF from conditioned media was detected and analyzed using ELISA. Increased angiogenic factors were observed as early as 4 hours after HCLE exposure to ONOO(-). HIF-1 expression was seen at 4, 6, and 8 hours post-ONOO(-) exposure (P < 0.05). BFGF expression was elevated at 4 hours and peaked at 8 hours after treatment with ONOO(-) (P < 0.005). Increased VEGF-A gene expression was observed at 6 and 8 hours post-ONOO(-) treatment. Functional assays using conditioned media showed increased HUVEC migration and tube formation. Exposure to elevated extracellular concentrations of ONOO(-) results in upregulation of angiogenic factors in HCLE cells. It is possible that, in the setting of inflammation or infection, that exposure to ONOO(-) could be one contributor to the complex initiators of corneal NV. Validation in vivo would identify an additional potential control point for corneal NV.

  11. Corneal cell culture models: a tool to study corneal drug absorption.

    PubMed

    Dey, Surajit

    2011-05-01

    In recent times, there has been an ever increasing demand for ocular drugs to treat sight threatening diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. As more drugs are developed, there is a great need to test in vitro permeability of these drugs to predict their efficacy and bioavailability in vivo. Corneal cell culture models are the only tool that can predict drug absorption across ocular layers accurately and rapidly. Cell culture studies are also valuable in reducing the number of animals needed for in vivo studies which can increase the cost of the drug developmental process. Currently, rabbit corneal cell culture models are used to predict human corneal absorption due to the difficulty in human corneal studies. More recently, a three dimensional human corneal equivalent has been developed using three different cell types to mimic the human cornea. In the future, human corneal cell culture systems need to be developed to be used as a standardized model for drug permeation.

  12. SURGICAL REMOVAL OF DENSE POSTERIOR CAPSULE OPACIFICATION AND VITREOUS FLOATERS IN ADULTS BY POSTERIOR CONTINUOUS CURVILINEAR CAPSULORHEXIS THROUGH THE PARS PLANA AND 23-GAUGE VITRECTOMY.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jijian; Su, Zhitao; Huang, Xiaodan; Ji, Xian; Yao, Ke

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis through the pars plana and 23-gauge vitrectomy in surgical management of dense posterior capsule opacification and vitreous floaters. Fifteen pseudophakic eyes of 15 patients with dense posterior capsule opacification and vitreous floaters between September 2012 and June 2014 were included; after vitrectomy, posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis through the pars plana was performed. Data were collected, including baseline preoperative characteristics, postoperative outcomes, complications, and a modified quality-of-life survey that patients completed. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were encountered in any of the 15 cases. Mean Snellen best-corrected visual acuity was 20/250 preoperatively and improved to 20/32 postoperatively (P < 0.001). All patients showed normal intraocular pressure 7 days after the procedure. The mean overall corneal endothelial cell loss at postoperative Month 3 was 1.2%. Approximately 80% of the patients had no complaint of vitreous floaters after the procedure. Except for 1 patient (7%) diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration, the rest of the patients (93%) were satisfied with the procedure and would recommend it to friends with dense posterior capsule opacification and vitreous floaters. Posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis through the pars plana combined with 23-gauge vitrectomy may be used to remove dense posterior capsule opacification and vitreous floaters in pseudophakic eyes.

  13. In situ ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography characterization of eye bank corneal tissue processed for lamellar keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jamin S; Wang, Danling; Li, Xiaoli; Baluyot, Florence; Iliakis, Bernie; Lindquist, Thomas D; Shirakawa, Rika; Shen, Tueng T; Li, Xingde

    2008-08-01

    To use optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a noninvasive tool to perform in situ characterization of eye bank corneal tissue processed for lamellar keratoplasty. A custom-built ultrahigh-resolution OCT (UHR-OCT) was used to characterize donor corneal tissue that had been processed for lamellar keratoplasty. Twenty-seven donor corneas were analyzed. Four donor corneas were used as controls, whereas the rest were processed into donor corneal buttons for lamellar transplantation by using hand dissection, a microkeratome, or a femtosecond laser. UHR-OCT was also used to noninvasively characterize and monitor the viable corneal tissue immersed in storage medium over 3 weeks. The UHR-OCT captured high-resolution images of the donor corneal tissue in situ. This noninvasive technique showed the changes in donor corneal tissue morphology with time while in storage medium. The characteristics of the lamellar corneal tissue with each processing modality were clearly visible by UHR-OCT. The in situ characterization of the femtosecond laser-cut corneal tissue was noted to have more interface debris than shown by routine histology. The effects of the femtosecond laser microcavitation bubbles on the corneal tissue were well visualized at the edges of the lamellar flap while in storage medium. The results of our feasibility study show that UHR-OCT can provide superb, in situ microstructural characterization of eye bank corneal tissue noninvasively. The UHR-OCT interface findings and corneal endothelial disc thickness uniformity analysis are valuable information that may be used to optimize the modalities and parameters for lamellar tissue processing. The UHR-OCT is a powerful approach that will allow us to further evaluate the tissue response to different processing techniques for posterior lamellar keratoplasty. It may also provide information that can be used to correlate with postoperative clinical outcomes. UHR-OCT has the potential to become a routine part of tissue

  14. Component corneal surgery: An update

    PubMed Central

    Maharana, Prafulla K.; Sahay, Pranita; Singhal, Deepali; Garg, Itika; Titiyal, Jeewan S.; Sharma, Namrata

    2017-01-01

    Several decades ago, penetrating keratoplasty was a challenge to corneal surgeons. Constant effort by the corneal surgeon to improve the outcomes as well as utilization of the available resources has led to a revolutionary change in the field of keratoplasty. All these efforts have led to the evolution of techniques that allow a corneal surgeon to disease-specific transplant of individual layers of corneal “so-called component corneal surgery” depending on the layer of cornea affected. This has led to an improvement in corneal graft survival as well as a better utilization of corneal tissues. This article reviews the currently available literature on component corneal surgeries and provides an update on the available techniques. PMID:28820150

  15. Corneal-shaping electrode

    DOEpatents

    Doss, James D.; Hutson, Richard L.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a circulating saline electrode for changing corneal shape in eyes. The electrode comprises a tubular nonconductive electrode housing having an annular expanded base which has a surface substantially matched to a subject corneal surface. A tubular conductive electrode connected to a radiofrequency generating source is disposed within the electrode housing and longitudinally aligned therewith. The electrode has a generally hemispherical head having at least one orifice. Saline solution is circulated through the apparatus and over the cornea to cool the corneal surface while radiofrequency electric current emitted from the electrode flows therefrom through the cornea to a second electrode, on the rear of the head. This current heats the deep corneal stroma and thereby effects corneal reshaping as a biological response to the heat.

  16. Corneal Equilibrium Flux as a Function of Corneal Surface Oxygen Tension.

    PubMed

    Compañ, Vicente; Aguilella-Arzo, Marcel; Weissman, Barry A

    2017-06-01

    Oxygen is essential for aerobic mammalian cell physiology. Oxygen tension (PO2) should reach a minimum at some position within the corneal stroma, and oxygen flux should be zero, by definition, at this point as well. We found the locations and magnitudes of this "corneal equilibrium flux" (xmin) and explored its physiological implications. We used an application of the Monod kinetic model to calculate xmin for normal human cornea as anterior surface PO2 changes from 155 to 20 mmHg. We find that xmin deepens, broadens, and advances from 1.25 μm above the endothelial-aqueous humor surface toward the epithelium (reaching a position 320 μm above the endothelial-aqueous humor surface) as anterior corneal surface PO2 decreases from 155 to 20 mmHg. Our model supports an anterior corneal oxygen flux of 9 μL O2 · cm · h and an epithelial oxygen consumption of approximately 4 μL O2 · cm · h. Only at the highest anterior corneal PO2 does our model predict that oxygen diffuses all the way through the cornea to perhaps reach the anterior chamber. Of most interest, corneal oxygen consumption should be supported down to a corneal surface PO2 of 60 to 80 mmHg but declines below this range. We conclude that the critical oxygen tension for hypoxia induced corneal swelling is more likely this range rather than a fixed value.

  17. Automated Decision Tree Classification of Corneal Shape

    PubMed Central

    Twa, Michael D.; Parthasarathy, Srinivasan; Roberts, Cynthia; Mahmoud, Ashraf M.; Raasch, Thomas W.; Bullimore, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The volume and complexity of data produced during videokeratography examinations present a challenge of interpretation. As a consequence, results are often analyzed qualitatively by subjective pattern recognition or reduced to comparisons of summary indices. We describe the application of decision tree induction, an automated machine learning classification method, to discriminate between normal and keratoconic corneal shapes in an objective and quantitative way. We then compared this method with other known classification methods. Methods The corneal surface was modeled with a seventh-order Zernike polynomial for 132 normal eyes of 92 subjects and 112 eyes of 71 subjects diagnosed with keratoconus. A decision tree classifier was induced using the C4.5 algorithm, and its classification performance was compared with the modified Rabinowitz–McDonnell index, Schwiegerling’s Z3 index (Z3), Keratoconus Prediction Index (KPI), KISA%, and Cone Location and Magnitude Index using recommended classification thresholds for each method. We also evaluated the area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for each classification method. Results Our decision tree classifier performed equal to or better than the other classifiers tested: accuracy was 92% and the area under the ROC curve was 0.97. Our decision tree classifier reduced the information needed to distinguish between normal and keratoconus eyes using four of 36 Zernike polynomial coefficients. The four surface features selected as classification attributes by the decision tree method were inferior elevation, greater sagittal depth, oblique toricity, and trefoil. Conclusions Automated decision tree classification of corneal shape through Zernike polynomials is an accurate quantitative method of classification that is interpretable and can be generated from any instrument platform capable of raw elevation data output. This method of pattern classification is extendable to other classification

  18. Recurrent Corneal Erosions in Corneal Dystrophies: a Review of the Pathogenesis, Differential Diagnosis, and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Omari, Amro A; Mian, Shahzad I

    2018-06-01

    Recurrent corneal erosions in corneal dystrophies are visually significant and bothersome to patients. The goal of this article is to review the pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, and management of recurrent corneal erosions in corneal dystrophies. Forty-eight articles and 1 textbook recently published on corneal erosions in corneal dystrophies were reviewed. The findings on the pathogenesis and clinical characteristics of erosions in each dystrophy were summarized. Any contradicting opinions for which the literature was unclear were either omitted or recorded as lacking strong evidence. The epithelial-stromal complex plays an important role in the pathogenesis of erosions in corneal dystrophies. The clinical features of each corneal dystrophy guide their diagnosis and management. A better understanding of the pathogenesis and clinical features of erosions in corneal dystrophies can lead to better clinical outcomes. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Ocular dimensions, corneal thickness, and corneal curvature in quarter horses with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia.

    PubMed

    Badial, Peres R; Cisneros-Àlvarez, Luis Emiliano; Brandão, Cláudia Valéria S; Ranzani, José Joaquim T; Tomaz, Mayana A R V; Machado, Vania M; Borges, Alexandre S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare ocular dimensions, corneal curvature, and corneal thickness between horses affected with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) and unaffected horses. Five HERDA-affected quarter horses and five healthy control quarter horses were used. Schirmer's tear test, tonometry, and corneal diameter measurements were performed in both eyes of all horses prior to ophthalmologic examinations. Ultrasonic pachymetry was performed to measure the central, temporal, nasal, dorsal, and ventral corneal thicknesses in all horses. B-mode ultrasound scanning was performed on both eyes of each horse to determine the dimensions of the ocular structures and to calculate the corneal curvature. Each corneal region examined in this study was thinner in the affected group compared with the healthy control group. However, significant differences in corneal thickness were only observed for the central and dorsal regions. HERDA-affected horses exhibited significant increases in corneal curvature and corneal diameter compared with unaffected animals. The ophthalmologic examinations revealed mild corneal opacity in one eye of one affected horse and in both eyes of three affected horses. No significant between-group differences were observed for Schirmer's tear test, intraocular pressure, or ocular dimensions. Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia-affected horses exhibit decreased corneal thickness in several regions of the cornea, increased corneal curvature, increased corneal diameter, and mild corneal opacity. Additional research is required to determine whether the increased corneal curvature significantly impacts the visual accuracy of horses with HERDA. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  20. Normal and keratoconic corneal epithelial thickness mapping using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Tan, Ou; Huang, David

    2011-03-01

    The detection of early-stage keratoconus is one of the most important safety issues in screening candidates for corneal refractive surgeries. We propose to use epithelial thickness maps to assist the diagnosis of keratoconus. The corneal epithelial thickness in normal and keratoconic eyes was mapped with optical coherence tomography (OCT). A Fourier-domain OCT system capable of acquiring 26,000 axial-scans per second was used. It has an axial resolution of 5μm in cornea. A pachymetry scan pattern (8 radials, 1024 axial-scans each, 6mm diameter, repeat 3 times) centered at the pupil center was used to image the cornea. The 3 repeated radial scans on each meridian were registered and averaged. Then the anterior corneal, posterior corneal and epithelial boundaries were segmented automatically with a computer algorithm by increased signal intensity at corresponding boundaries. The epithelial thickness map was generated by interpolating epithelial thickness profile calculated from each meridian. Normal and keratoconic eyes (24 eyes each) were scanned 3 times. The central epithelial thickness in normal eyes was thicker than those of keratoconic eyes (mean difference 2.1 μm, t-test p=0.05). The epithelium was thinner superiorly than inferiorly in normal eyes (mean difference -1.4+/-1.1μm, p<0.001) while thicker superiorly than inferiorly in keratoconic eyes (2.0+/-4.1 μm, p=0.02).

  1. Electrolysis for corneal opacities in a young patient with superficial variant of granular corneal dystrophy (Reis-Bücklers corneal dystrophy).

    PubMed

    Kamoi, Mizuka; Mashima, Yukihiko; Kawashima, Motoko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2005-06-01

    To report the efficacy of electrolysis as a treatment of corneal opacities in a young patient with the superficial variant of granular corneal dystrophy. Interventional case report. An 11-year-old boy presented with subepithelial opacities in both eyes. His visual acuity was 0.2 in the left eye; he received corneal electrolysis under topical anesthesia. The electrolysis, which required only 5 minutes, resulted in the disappearance of the subepithelial opacities. His visual acuity improved to 0.4 on the next day and was 1.0 eight months later. The corneal curvature and thickness were not altered by the electrolysis. Corneal electrolysis proved to be an effective treatment for subepithelial opacities, and we recommend electrolysis as an effective and simple treatment for young patients with SGCD.

  2. Role of computer-assisted analysis of the corneal endothelium in vitreoretinal surgery with intraocular silicone oil injection: a technical report.

    PubMed

    Fruschelli, M; Esposti, P; Caporossi, A

    1998-01-01

    The innermost lining of the cornea consists of a single layer of cells called the endothelium. Despite its name, the endothelium of the cornea differs considerably from the vascular endothelium, both functionally and morphologically. The corneal endothelium plays a fundamental role in maintaining the transparency of the corneal membrane, as the result of both its function as a barrier against penetration of the aqueous humor in the parenchyma and its ability to remove water from the stroma (usually referred to as the endothelial "pump" function). Any abnormality in the corneal endothelium causes, first, the impairment of its function as a barrier and pump due to the loss of stromal anti-turgor mechanisms, followed by edema and possible development into keratopathy. The specular microscope is an instrument which makes it possible to see the endothelial "mosaic" in the reflected image of the posterior corneal surface. A large variety of clinical specular microscopes is presently available, both contact and non-contact, which allow, for easy and rapid photography of the corneal endothelium "in vivo". In the present case, we used a non-contact computerized specular microscope to analyze the corneal endothelium in a group of patients affected by retinal detachment who needed to undergo vitreoretinal surgery with immission of silicone oil into the vitreal chamber.

  3. Construction of a human corneal stromal equivalent with non-transfected human corneal stromal cells and acellular porcine corneal stromata.

    PubMed

    Diao, Jin-Mei; Pang, Xin; Qiu, Yue; Miao, Ying; Yu, Miao-Miao; Fan, Ting-Jun

    2015-03-01

    A tissue-engineered human corneal stroma (TE-HCS) has been developed as a promising equivalent to the native corneal stroma for replacement therapy. However, there is still a crucial need to improve the current approaches to render the TE-HCS equivalent more favorable for clinical applications. At the present study, we constructed a TE-HCS by incubating non-transfected human corneal stromal (HCS) cells in an acellular porcine corneal stromata (aPCS) scaffold in 20% fetal bovine serum supplemented DMEM/F12 (1:1) medium at 37 °C with 5% CO2in vitro. After 3 days of incubation, the constructed TE-HCS had a suitable tensile strength for transplantation, and a transparency that is comparable to native cornea. The TE-HCS had a normal histological structure which contained regularly aligned collagen fibers and differentiated HCS cells with positive expression of marker and functional proteins, mimicking a native HCS. After transplantation into rabbit models, the TE-HCS reconstructed normal corneal stroma in vivo and function well in maintaining corneal clarity and thickness, indicating that the completely biological TE-HCS could be used as a HCS equivalent. The constructed TE-HCS has promising potentials in regenerative medicine and treatment of diseases caused by corneal stromal disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of deacetylated gellan gum on aesculin distribution in the posterior segment of the eye after topical administration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiuhong; Zheng, Yu; Li, Ye; Zeng, Ying; Kuang, Jianchao; Hou, Shixiang; Li, Xiaohui

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of deacetylated gellan gum on delivering hydrophilic drug to the posterior segment of the eye. An aesculin-containing in situ gel based on deacetylated gellan gum (AG) was prepared and characterized. In vitro corneal permeation across isolated rabbit cornea of aesculin between AG and aesculin solution (AS) was compared. The results showed that deacetylated gellan gum promotes corneal penetration of aesculin. Pharmacokinetics and ocular tissue distribution of aesculin after topical administration in rabbit eye showed that AG greatly improved aesculin accumulation in posterior segmentsrelative to AS, which was probably attributed to conjunctivital/sclera pathway. The area-under-the-curve (AUC) for AG in aqueous humor, choroid-retina, sclera and iris-ciliary body were significantly larger than those of AS. AG can be used as a potential carrier for broading the application of aesculin.

  5. Methotrimeprazine-induced Corneal Deposits and Cataract Revealed by Urine Drug Profiling Test

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Taeck; Kim, Joon Mo; Kim, Won Young; Choi, Gwang Ju

    2010-01-01

    Two schizophrenic patients who had been taking medication for a long period presented with visual disturbance of 6-month duration. Slit-lamp examination revealed fine, discrete, and brownish deposits on the posterior cornea. In addition, bilateral star-shaped anterior subcapsular lens opacities, which were dense, dust-like granular deposits, were noted. Although we strongly suspected that the patient might have taken one of the drugs of the phenothiazine family, we were unable to obtain a history of medications other than haloperidol and risperidone, which were taken for 3 yr. We performed a drug profiling test using urine samples and detected methotrimeprazine. The patient underwent surgery for anterior subcapsular lens opacities. Visual acuity improved in both eyes, but the corneal deposits remained. We report an unusual case of methotrimeprazine-induced corneal deposits and cataract in a patient with psychosis, identified by using the urine drug profiling test. PMID:21060765

  6. The Effect of Corneal Epithelium on Corneal Curvature in Patients with Keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Akcay, Emine Kalkan; Uysal, Betul Seher; Sarac, Ozge; Ugurlu, Nagehan; Yulek, Fatma; Cagil, Nurullah; Aslan, Nabi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of corneal epithelium on corneal curvature in patients with keratoconus. This is a prospective, nonrandomized study. Fifty-nine eyes of 47 patients diagnosed as keratoconus and for whom corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) was recruited in this study. This study is a single-center clinical trial. Pregnancy, lactation, connective tissue disease, corneal thickness below 350 μm, severe dry eyes, or scar of corneal surgery were exclusion criteria. Before and during CXL procedure after removing the corneal epithelium, maximum values of corneal apical curvature, simulated keratometry 1 (Sim-K1), simulated keratometry 2 (Sim-K2), temporal and inferior curvature values, all of which are 1.5 mm from the corneal center, were calculated. These values before and after removal of epithelium were compared statistically. Mean age of patients was 23.30 ± 5.5 (12-38) years. Twenty-eight (59%) were male while 19 (41%) were female. Mean values measured before and after removing the corneal epithelium were: apical curvature; 59.19 ± 7.2 (47.06-82.40) diopter (D) and 61.70 ± 8.8 (49.19-92.66) D (p = 0.001), SimK1; 47.57 ± 4.3 (39.14-64.57) D and 48.23 ± 4.3 (41.89-66.70) D (p = 0.001), SimK2; 52.04 ± 5.3 (43.56-69.34) D and 53.34 ± 5.6 (43.73-70.89) D (p = 0.001), inferior curvature; 53,85 ± 5.2 (43.47-76.56) D and 55.05 ± 5.8 (44.56-81.93) D (p = 0.002), temporal curvature 49.49 ± 5.1 (41.50-71.03) D and 51.53 ± 5.4 (41.58-73.34) D (p = 0.001), respectively. In keratoconus patients during CXL treatment, after removing the corneal epithelium, more steepness is detected in the curvature of the steeper area of the cornea. When evaluating patients with keratoconus, the masking effect of corneal epithelium on values of curvature should be taken into consideration.

  7. The analysis of corneal asphericity (Q value) and its related factors of 1,683 Chinese eyes older than 30 years.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ying; Li, Jing; Wang, Ningli; Liu, Xue; Wang, Zhao; Tsai, Frank F; Wan, Xiuhua

    2017-01-01

    To determine corneal Q value and its related factors in Chinese subjects older than 30 years. Cross sectional study. 1,683 participants (1,683 eyes) from the Handan Eye Study were involved, including 955 female and 728 male with average age of 53.64 years old (range from 30 to 107 years). The corneal Q values of anterior and posterior surfaces were measured at 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0mm aperture diameters using Bausch & Lomb Orbscan IIz (software version 3.12). Age, gender and refractive power were recorded. The average Q values of the anterior surface at 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0mm aperture diameters were -0.28±0.18, -0.28±0.18, and -0.29±0.18, respectively. The average Q value of the anterior surface at the 5.0mm aperture diameter was negatively correlated with age (B = -0.003, p<0.01) and the refractive power (B = -0.013, p = 0.016). The average Q values of the posterior surface at 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0mm were -0.26±0.216, -0.26±0.214, and -0.26±0.215, respectively. The average Q value of the posterior surface at the 5.0mm aperture diameter was positively correlated with age (B = 0.002, p = 0.036) and the refractive power (B = 0.016, p = 0.043). The corneal Q value of the elderly Chinese subjects is different from that of previously reported European and American subjects, and the Q value appears to be correlated with age and refractive power.

  8. Short-term effects of overnight orthokeratology on corneal cell morphology and corneal thickness.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Bona, Amelia; González-Mesa, Ana; Nieto-Bona, Ma Paz; Villa-Collar, César; Lorente-Velázquez, Amalia

    2011-06-01

    To examine the morphological and biometric corneal changes produced over periods of 15 days and 1 month after overnight orthokeratology (OK). Prospective, single-center, longitudinal trial. Twenty-seven right eyes of 27 subjects (group 1) with low to moderate myopia wore OK lenses for 1 month. Ten right eyes of 10 subjects (group 2) with emmetropia to low myopia who did not wear any type of contact lens served as controls. Corneal morphometric measurements were obtained in vivo using a confocal microscope to examine the central and midperipheral cornea. Thickness measurements in the peripheral cornea were obtained by optical coherence tomography. Changes in visual acuity, refractive error, and corneal topography were also analyzed. No significant changes in either endothelial cell or stromal cell density were observed after 1 month of OK. Basal epithelial cells were, however, significantly reduced (P < 0.01), and epithelial wing and superficial cells showed enhanced visibility (P < 0.05). Superficial cells increased in height and width, the width increase after 1 month being significant (P < 0.01). Epithelial thickness was significantly reduced in the central cornea and 2 mm around the center. Corneal pachymetry increased significantly in the band from 5 to 10 mm from the corneal apex (P < 0.01). OK lenses for myopia induce significant structural and optical changes particularly in the central epithelium after 15 days or 1 month of wear. The central corneal epithelium responds to OK wear by undergoing significant epithelial cell shape and size alterations with no effects, however, on the cells of the corneal endothelium or the corneal stroma. Peripheral corneal thickness increased with respect to baseline values. These findings suggest that the corneal epithelium is the principal structure affected by the mechanical forces exerted by the OK lenses.

  9. Corneal Astigmatism Stability in Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty for Fuchs Corneal Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Yokogawa, Hideaki; Sanchez, P James; Mayko, Zachary M; Straiko, Michael D; Terry, Mark A

    2016-07-01

    To calculate the magnitude and angle of the shift in corneal astigmatism associated with Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) surgery to determine the feasibility of concurrent astigmatism correction at the time of DMEK triple procedures. Retrospective study. Forty-seven eyes that previously underwent the DMEK procedure for Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy and that had more than 1.0 diopter (D) of front corneal astigmatism preoperatively were identified. All DMEK surgeries used a clear corneal temporal incision of 3.2 mm. Surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) was evaluated 6 months postsurgery with vector analysis using Scheimpflug image reading. We did not find a difference between pre- and postoperative magnitude of front astigmatism (P = 0.88; paired t test). The magnitude of the SIA front surface was 0.77 ± 0.63 D (range, 0.10-3.14 D). The centroid vector of the SIA front surface was 0.14 at 89.3°. A hyperopic corneal power shift was noted in both the front surface by 0.26 ± 0.74 D (range, 0.45-3.05 D) (P = 0.018; paired t test) and back surface by 0.56 ± 0.55 D (range, 0.25-2.40 D) (P < 0.01; paired t test). DMEK surgery induces minimal amounts of corneal astigmatism that is a with-the-rule shift associated with a temporal clear corneal incision. The stability of these data from preop to postop supports the plausibility of incorporating astigmatism correction with the cautious use of toric intraocular lenses for patients with Fuchs corneal dystrophy and cataract.

  10. Effect of corneal wetting solutions on corneal thickness during ophthalmic surgery.

    PubMed

    Emre, Sinan; Akkin, Cezmi; Afrashi, Filiz; Yağci, Ayşe

    2002-01-01

    To measure the changes in corneal thickness with wetting solutions used in ophthalmic surgery. Ege University, School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Izmir, Turkey. Thirty-one adult pigmented rabbits that weighed about 2.5 kg each were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. The rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups to receive 3 wetting solutions: Group 1, Ringer's lactate; Group 2, balanced salt solution (BSS); and Group 3, BSS with glutation (BSS Plus). The solutions were dropped on the right cornea of the rabbits at a rate of 6.0 cc in 12 minutes using an intravenous infusion pump. Corneal thickness was measured by ultrasonic pachymetry before and after the procedure, and the between-group changes in corneal thickness were compared. The corneal thickness before and after the procedure was 361.27 microm +/- 19.3 (SD) and 380.00 +/- 25.0 microm, respectively, in Group 1 (P =.000); 372.10 +/- 18.8 microm and 388.60 +/- 24.1 microm, respectively, in Group 2 (P =.003); and 358.10 +/- 26.5 microm and 360.10 +/- 24.1 microm, respectively, in Group 3 (P =.316). As a corneal wetting solution, BSS Plus resulted in significantly fewer changes in corneal thickness than Ringer's lactate or BSS. This should be considered in cases involving long intraocular surgery.

  11. Corneal electrolysis for recurrence of corneal stromal dystrophy after keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mashima, Y; Kawai, M; Yamada, M

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate corneal electrolysis as a treatment for recurrent diffuse corneal opacities at the host-graft interface of the stroma or at the subepithelial region in two types of granular corneal dystrophy (GCD). Methods: Recurrence developed at the host-graft interface of the stroma after lamellar keratoplasty in a patient with Avellino corneal dystrophy (ACD). At surgery, the deep aspect of the graft in this patient was partially separated from host tissue to expose the deposits, with one third of the host-graft junction left intact. The graft was everted, and electrolysis was applied directly to remove the deposits attached to both surfaces of the host and the graft. Then the graft was returned to its place and sutured. In two patients with homozygous ACD and one patient with the superficial variant of GCD, diffuse subepithelial opacities developed following penetrating keratoplasty. Electrolysis was applied directly to the corneal surface. Results: Deposits at the host-graft interface of the stroma and in the subepithelial region disappeared following treatment, and vision recovered in all patients. Conclusions: This method is a simple, easy, and inexpensive way to remove deposits that recur after lamellar or penetrating keratoplasty. PMID:11864880

  12. Corneal electrolysis for recurrence of corneal stromal dystrophy after keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Mashima, Y; Kawai, M; Yamada, M

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate corneal electrolysis as a treatment for recurrent diffuse corneal opacities at the host-graft interface of the stroma or at the subepithelial region in two types of granular corneal dystrophy (GCD). Recurrence developed at the host-graft interface of the stroma after lamellar keratoplasty in a patient with Avellino corneal dystrophy (ACD). At surgery, the deep aspect of the graft in this patient was partially separated from host tissue to expose the deposits, with one third of the host-graft junction left intact. The graft was everted, and electrolysis was applied directly to remove the deposits attached to both surfaces of the host and the graft. Then the graft was returned to its place and sutured. In two patients with homozygous ACD and one patient with the superficial variant of GCD, diffuse subepithelial opacities developed following penetrating keratoplasty. Electrolysis was applied directly to the corneal surface. Deposits at the host-graft interface of the stroma and in the subepithelial region disappeared following treatment, and vision recovered in all patients. This method is a simple, easy, and inexpensive way to remove deposits that recur after lamellar or penetrating keratoplasty.

  13. Corneal wound healing after photorefractive keratectomy: a 3-year confocal microscopy study.

    PubMed Central

    Erie, Jay C

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To perform a sequential quantitative analysis of corneal wound healing after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) by using confocal microscopy in vivo. METHODS: In a prospective, nonrandomized, comparative trial performed in an institutional setting, 24 eyes of 14 patients received PRK to correct refractive errors between -1.25 and -5.75 D. Central corneas were examined preoperatively and at 1 day, 5 days, and 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after PRK by using confocal microscopy. A masked observer randomly examined 3 to 6 confocal scans per eye per visit to determine epithelial and stromal thickness, keratocyte density in 5 anterior-posterior stromal layers, corneal nerve density in the subbasal region and the stroma, and corneal light backscattering (corneal haze). RESULTS: Epithelial thickness increased 21% (P < .001) by 12 months after PRK and thereafter remained unchanged to 36 months after PRK. There was no change in stromal thickness between 1 and 36 months after PRK (P = .35). The dense keratocyte population in the preoperative anterior 10% of the stroma (32,380 +/- 5,848 cells/mm3) that was partially or completely removed during photoablation was not reconstituted at 36 months in the anterior 10% of the post-PRK stroma (17,720 +/- 4,308 cells/mm3, P < .001). Subbasal nerve fiber bundle density was decreased 60% at 12 months after PRK (P < .001) before returning to densities at 24 and 36 months after PRK that were not significantly different from preoperative values (P = 1.0). Activated keratocytes and corneal haze peaked at 3 months after PRK. CONCLUSIONS: Wounding of the cornea by PRK alters the normal structure, cellularity, and innervation of the cornea for up to 36 months. PMID:14971584

  14. Association between culture results of corneal scrapings and culture and histopathology results of corneal tissues in therapeutic keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Das, Sujata; Sharma, Savitri; Priyadarshini, Omega; Sahu, Srikant K; Kar, Sarita; Vemuganti, Geeta K

    2011-09-01

    To correlate the culture results of corneal scrapings with culture and histopathology results of corneal tissues in therapeutic keratoplasty. A retrospective analysis of the culture results of corneal scrapings and corneal tissues of eyes that received therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty at a tertiary eye care center between December 2006 and November 2008 was conducted. As per the preferred practice, those cases that did not respond to appropriate antimicrobial therapy and/or presented with a large infiltrate/perforation received therapeutic keratoplasty. The microbiology and histopathology findings of the corneal tissues were compared. Thirty-eight therapeutic keratoplasties were performed on 36 patients. Although all cases had histopathology and culture of the corneal tissue, corneal scrapings were not performed in 4 cases. Corneal scrapings and corneal tissues were culture-positive in 76% (26 of 34) and 60% (23 of 38) of cases, respectively. In 8 cases, the corneal scrapings and corneal tissues yielded identical organisms, whereas different organisms grew in 4 cases. In 6 cases, the corneal tissues were culture-positive but the corneal scrapings were sterile. In 20 cases, the corneal tissues were culture-positive for fungus and also showed fungal filaments in their corresponding histopathology specimens. Corneal tissue culture can provide additional information in cases undergoing therapeutic keratoplasty. It helps to determine the management of patients after keratoplasty.

  15. Age Differences in Axial Length, Corneal Curvature, and Corneal Astigmatism in Marfan Syndrome with Ectopia Lentis

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Qinghe; Tang, Yating; Qian, Dongjin

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the differences in axial length, corneal curvature, and corneal astigmatism with age in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) and ectopia lentis. Methods A retrospective case series study was conducted. MFS patients with ectopia lentis were divided into groups according to age. Axial length, corneal curvature, and corneal astigmatism were measured. Results This study included 114 MFS patients (215 eyes) with a mean age of 19.0 ± 13.9 years. Axial length differed significantly across age groups in MFS patients (P < 0.001), whereas corneal curvature did not (P = 0.767). Corneal astigmatism was statistically significant throughout the MFS cohort (P = 0.009), but no significant difference was found in young MFS patients (P = 0.838). With increasing age, the orientation of the corneal astigmatism changed from with-the-rule astigmatism to against-the-rule or oblique astigmatism (P < 0.001). A linear correlation analysis showed weak correlations between age and axial length for both eyes and with corneal astigmatism for the left eye, but there was no correlation between age and corneal curvature. Conclusions In MFS, axial length varies with age, corneal curvature remains stable, and corneal astigmatism is higher in young patients and tends to shift toward against-the-rule or oblique astigmatism. Therefore, it is important to consider age when diagnosing MFS with ocular biometric data. PMID:29854424

  16. Clinical validation of an algorithm to correct the error in the keratometric estimation of corneal power in normal eyes.

    PubMed

    Piñero, David P; Camps, Vicente J; Mateo, Verónica; Ruiz-Fortes, Pedro

    2012-08-01

    To validate clinically in a normal healthy population an algorithm to correct the error in the keratometric estimation of corneal power based on the use of a variable keratometric index of refraction (n(k)). Medimar International Hospital (Oftalmar) and University of Alicante, Alicante, Spain. Case series. Corneal power was measured with a Scheimpflug photography-based system (Pentacam software version 1.14r01) in healthy eyes with no previous ocular surgery. In all cases, keratometric corneal power was also estimated using an adjusted value of n(k) that is dependent on the anterior corneal radius (r(1c)) as follows: n(kadj) = -0.0064286 r(1c) +1.37688. Agreement between the Gaussian (P(c)(Gauss)) and adjusted keratometric (P(kadj)) corneal power values was evaluated. The study evaluated 92 eyes (92 patients; age range 15 to 64 years). The mean difference between P(c)(Gauss) and P(kadj) was -0.02 diopter (D) ± 0.22 (SD) (P=.43). A very strong, statistically significant correlation was found between both corneal powers (r = .994, P<.01). The range of agreement between P(c)(Gauss) and P(kadj) was 0.44 D, with limits of agreement of -0.46 and +0.42 D. In addition, a very strong, statistically significant correlation of the difference between P(c)(Gauss) and P(kadj) and the posterior corneal radius was found (r = 0.96, P<.01). The imprecision in the calculation of corneal power using keratometric estimation can be minimized in clinical practice by using a variable keratometric index that depends on the radius of the anterior corneal surface. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anterior segment parameters of rabbits with rotating Scheimpflug camera.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Harun; Türkcü, Fatih M; Ari, Şeyhmus; Çinar, Yasin; Cingü, Abdullah K; Şahin, Muhammed; Şahin, Alparslan; Özkurt, Zeynep; Çaça, İhsan

    2015-05-01

    Rabbit is one of the most commonly used experimental animals for corneal studies due to similarity of size to human cornea and ease of manipulation. In this study, we assessed anterior segment parameters of the healthy rabbit eyes with Pentacam HR (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany). Six-month-old, approximately 2.5-3 kg weighted, 30 female New Zealand rabbits were used in the study. Right eye of the each rabbit was imaged with Pentacam HR under intramuscular ketamine hydrochloride (Ketalar; Eczacibasi, Turkey) anesthesia (50 mg/kg). After the imaging, the rabbits with blinking errors, which results in low-quality images, were excluded from the study. Keratometric readings, central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and anterior and posterior elevation values, and lens density were noted. In this study, the flattest and the steepest keratometric values were found as 43.34 ± 1.86, 42.7 ± 2.0, and 43.9 ± 1.9 diopters, respectively. The mean CCT and ACD of rabbits were found as 388 ± 39 μm and 2.08 ± 0.16 mm, respectively. Mean of the anterior and posterior elevation at thinnest point was found as 1.29 ± 4.28 and 3.91 ± 6.17 μm, respectively. Keratometric readings and anterior and posterior elevation values of rabbits were similar to human; however, corneal thickness and anterior chamber depth (ACD) values were lower than humans. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  18. Corneal tissue welding with infrared laser irradiation after clear corneal incision.

    PubMed

    Rasier, Rfat; Ozeren, Mediha; Artunay, Ozgür; Bahçecioğlu, Halil; Seçkin, Ismail; Kalaycoğlu, Hamit; Kurt, Adnan; Sennaroğlu, Alphan; Gülsoy, Murat

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of infrared lasers for corneal welding to seal corneal cuts done in an experimental animal model. Full-thickness corneal cuts on freshly enucleated bovine eyes were irradiated with infrared (809-nm diode, 980-nm diode, 1070-nm YLF, and 1980-nm Tm:YAP) lasers to get immediate laser welding. An 809-nm laser was used with the topical application of indocyanine green to enhance the photothermal interaction at the weld site. In total, 60 bovine eyes were used in this study; 40 eyes were used in the first part of the study for the determination of optimal welding parameters (15 eyes were excluded because of macroscopic carbonization, opacification, or corneal shrinkage; 2 eyes were used for control), and 20 eyes were used for further investigation of more promising lasers (YLF and Tm:YAP). Laser wavelength, irradiating power, exposure time, and spot size were the dose parameters, and optimal dose for immediate closure with minimal thermal damage was estimated through histological examination of welded samples. In the first part of the study, results showed that none of the applications was satisfactory. Full-thickness success rates were 28% (2 of 7) for 809-nm and for 980-nm diode lasers and 67% (2 of 3) for 1070-nm YLF and (4 of 6) for 1980-nm Tm:YAP lasers. In the second part of the study, YLF and Tm:YAP lasers were investigated with bigger sample size. Results were not conclusive but promising again. Five corneal incisions were full-thickness welded out of 10 corneas with 1070-nm laser, and 4 corneal incisions were partially welded out of 10 corneas with 1980-nm laser in the second part of the study. Results showed that noteworthy corneal welding could be obtained with 1070-nm YLF laser and 1980-nm Tm:YAP laser wavelengths. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies will shed light on the potential usage of corneal laser welding technique.

  19. Age-related changes in with-the-rule and oblique corneal astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Naeser, Kristian; Savini, Giacomo; Bregnhøj, Jesper Flethøj

    2018-01-25

    To describe the age-related changes in with-the-rule (WTR) and oblique keratometric astigmatism (KA), posterior corneal astigmatism (PCA) and total corneal astigmatism (TCA). We used a Pentacam HR (high-resolution) rotating Scheimpflug camera to determine the KA, PCA and TCA in the right eyes of 710 patients, aged from 20 to 88 years. The age-related changes along the vertical, horizontal and oblique meridians were analyzed with Naeser's polar value method in a cross-sectional study. In the whole group, all meridional astigmatic powers and polar values were stable in the age groups from 20 to 49 years, followed by a 1.0 dioptre (D) against-the-rule (ATR) change in KA and TCA, and a 0.12 D reduction in against-the-rule PCA. A nasal rotation of the steep meridian in KA and TCA was noted in the 70-88 years old. The PCA averaged approximately 0.25 D ATR in all age groups. Females displayed the same early astigmatic stability as in the whole group, while male eyes demonstrated a linear decay from 1.5 D WTR at 20 years to 0.5 D ATR astigmatism for the oldest patients. Corneal astigmatism is stable until the age of 50 years; thereafter both keratometric and total corneal astigmatism show a 0.25 D ATR change per 10 years. The average 0.25 D ATR PCA compensates the predominant keratometric WTR astigmatism in the younger patients and increases the TCA in the elderly with keratometric ATR astigmatism. The gender-based differences in age-related astigmatism require further studies. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Femtosecond laser cutting of multiple thin corneal stromal lamellae for endothelial bioengineering.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Aurélien; He, Zhiguo; Forest, Fabien; Gauthier, Anne-Sophie; Peocʼh, Michel; Dumollard, Jean-Marc; Acquart, Sophie; Montard, Romain; Delbosc, Bernard; Gain, Philippe; Thuret, Gilles

    2015-02-01

    To assess the feasibility of cutting multiple thin stromal lamellae in human donor corneas using a commercial femtosecond laser (FSL) to provide cell carriers for future endothelial graft bioengineering. Eight edematous organ-cultured corneas not suitable for grafting for endothelial reasons were mounted on a Ziemer anterior chamber and cut with a Z6 FSL with 6 successive parallel cuts, from depth to surface. Target thickness of each lamella ranged from 100 to 150 μm depending on initial corneal thickness. Thickness was measured using anterior segment optical coherence tomography before and after cutting on mounted corneas, and on each stromal lamella after detachment. Scanning electron microscopy observation was performed on 4 lamellae and histological cross sections on 1 cornea before detachment. A median of 5 (minimum 3, maximum 7) lamellae was obtained per cornea. All lamellae still attached were the most posterior ones, suggesting that FSL was less efficient because of light scattering by edematous stroma. Cut precision and postdetachment swelling were correlated with anterior-posterior position within the cornea. Median lamella thickness was 127 μm (56-222 μm) before detachment and 196 μm (80-304 μm) after detachment. Surface state was consistent with previously reported FSL lamellar cuts during Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty. Up to 7 thin lamellae can be cut in stored corneas with an FSL. This method, once optimized primarily by using deswelled, more transparent corneas, could prove effective for recycling unsuitable donor corneas in corneal bioengineering processes.

  1. Corneal repair by human corneal keratocyte-reprogrammed iPSCs and amphiphatic carboxymethyl-hexanoyl chitosan hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yueh; Liao, Yi-Wen; Liu, Dean-Mo; Lin, Heng-Liang; Chen, Shih-Jen; Chen, Hen-Li; Peng, Chi-Hsien; Liang, Chang-Min; Mou, Chung-Yuan; Chiou, Shih-Hwa

    2012-11-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have promising potential in regenerative medicine, but whether iPSCs can promote corneal reconstruction remains undetermined. In this study, we successfully reprogrammed human corneal keratocytes into iPSCs. To prevent feeder cell contamination, these iPSCs were cultured onto a serum- and feeder-free system in which they remained stable through 30 passages and showed ESC-like pluripotent property. To investigate the availability of iPSCs as bioengineered substitutes in corneal repair, we developed a thermo-gelling injectable amphiphatic carboxymethyl-hexanoyl chitosan (CHC) nanoscale hydrogel and found that such gel increased the viability and CD44+proportion of iPSCs, and maintained their stem-cell like gene expression, in the presence of culture media. Combined treatment of iPSC with CHC hydrogel (iPSC/CHC hydrogel) facilitated wound healing in surgical abrasion-injured corneas. In severe corneal damage induced by alkaline, iPSC/CHC hydrogel enhanced corneal reconstruction by downregulating oxidative stress and recruiting endogenous epithelial cells to restore corneal epithelial thickness. Therefore, we demonstrated that these human keratocyte-reprogrammed iPSCs, when combined with CHC hydrogel, can be used as a rapid delivery system to efficiently enhance corneal wound healing. In addition, iPSCs reprogrammed from corneal surgical residues may serve as an alternative cell source for personalized therapies for human corneal damage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparing non-invasive scapular tracking methods across elevation angles, planes of elevation and humeral axial rotations.

    PubMed

    Grewal, T-J; Cudlip, A C; Dickerson, C R

    2017-12-01

    Altered scapular motions premeditate shoulder impingement and other musculoskeletal disorders. Divergent experimental conditions in previous research precludes rigorous comparisons of non-invasive scapular tracking techniques. This study evaluated scapular orientation measurement methods across an expanded range of humeral postures. Scapular medial/lateral rotation, anterior/posterior tilt and protraction/retraction was measured using an acromion marker cluster (AMC), a scapular locator, and a reference stylus. Motion was captured using reflective markers on the upper body, as well as on the AMC, locator and stylus. A combination of 5 arm elevation angles, 3 arm elevation planes and 3 arm axial rotations was examined. Measurement method interacted with elevation angle and plane of elevation for all three scapular orientation directions (p < 0.01). Method of measurement interacted with axial rotation in anterior/posterior tilt and protraction/retraction (p < 0.01). The AMC had strong agreement with the reference stylus than the locator for the majority of humeral elevations, planes and axial rotations. The AMC underestimated lateral rotation, with the largest difference of ∼2° at 0° elevation. Both the locator and AMC overestimated posterior tilt at high arm elevation by up to 7.4°. Misestimations from using the locator could be enough to potentially obscure meaningful differences in scapular rotations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Induction of FGF-2 synthesis by IL-1beta in aqueous humor through P13-kinase and p38 in rabbit corneal endothelium.

    PubMed

    Song, Jong-Suk; Lee, Jeong Goo; Kay, EunDuck P

    2010-02-01

    To determine whether the elevated level of interleukin (IL)-1beta in aqueous humor after transcorneal freezing upregulates FGF-2 synthesis in rabbit corneal endothelium through PI3-kinase and p38 pathways. Transcorneal freezing was performed in New Zealand White rabbits to induce an injury-mediated inflammation. The concentration of IL-1beta was measured, and the expression of FGF-2, p38, and Akt underwent Western blot analysis. Intracellular location of FGF-2 and actin cytoskeleton was determined by immunofluorescence staining. Massive infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to the corneal endothelium was observed after freezing, and IL-1beta concentration in the aqueous humor was elevated in a time-dependent manner after freezing. Similarly, FGF-2 expression was increased in a time-dependent manner. When corneal endothelium was stained with anti-FGF-2 antibody, the nuclear location of FGF-2 was observed primarily in the cornea after cryotreatment, whereas FGF-2 in normal corneal endothelium was localized at the plasma membrane. Treatment of the ex vivo corneal tissue with IL-1beta upregulated FGF-2 and facilitated its nuclear location in corneal endothelium. Transcorneal freezing disrupted the actin cytoskeleton at the cortex, and cell shapes were altered from cobblestone morphology to irregular shape. Topical treatment with LY294002 and SB203580 on the cornea after cryotreatment blocked the phosphorylation of Akt and p38, respectively, in the corneal endothelium. These inhibitors also reduced FGF-2 levels and partially blocked morphologic changes after freezing. These data suggest that after transcorneal freezing, IL-1beta released by PMNs into the aqueous humor stimulates FGF-2 synthesis in corneal endothelium via PI3-kinase and p38.

  4. Corneal markers of diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Nicola; Edwards, Katie; Shahidi, Ayda M; Sampson, Geoff P; Russell, Anthony W; Malik, Rayaz A; Efron, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is a significant clinical problem that currently has no effective therapy, and in advanced cases, leads to foot ulceration and lower limb amputation. The accurate detection, characterization and quantification of this condition are important in order to define at-risk patients, anticipate deterioration, monitor progression, and assess new therapies. This review evaluates novel corneal methods of assessing diabetic neuropathy. Two new noninvasive corneal markers have emerged, and in cross-sectional studies have demonstrated their ability to stratify the severity of this disease. Corneal confocal microscopy allows quantification of corneal nerve parameters and noncontact corneal esthesiometry, the functional correlate of corneal structure, assesses the sensitivity of the cornea. Both these techniques are quick to perform, produce little or no discomfort for the patient, and are suitable for clinical settings. Each has advantages and disadvantages over traditional techniques for assessing diabetic neuropathy. Application of these new corneal markers for longitudinal evaluation of diabetic neuropathy has the potential to reduce dependence on more invasive, costly, and time-consuming assessments, such as skin biopsy.

  5. Quantitative 3-D Corneal Imaging In Vivo Using a Modified HRT- RCM Confocal Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Petroll, W. Matthew.; Weaver, Matthew; Vaidya, Saurabh; McCulley, James P.; Cavanagh, H. Dwight

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop and test hardware and software modifications to allow quantitative full-thickness corneal imaging using the HRT Rostock Corneal Module. Methods A PC-controlled motor drive with positional feedback was integrated into the system to allow automated focusing through the entire cornea. The left eyes of ten New Zealand White rabbits were scanned from endothelium to epithelium. Image sequences were read into a custom-developed program for depth calculation and measurement of sub-layer thicknesses. 3-D visualizations were also generated using Imaris. In six rabbits, stack images were registered, and depth-dependent counts of keratocyte nuclei were made using Metamorph. Results The mean epithelial and corneal thicknesses measured in the rabbit were 47 ± 5 μm and 373 ± 25 μm, respectively (N = 10 corneas); coefficients of variation for repeated scans were 8.2% and 2.1%. Corneal thickness measured using ultrasonic pachymetry was 374 ± 17 μm. The mean overall keratocyte density measured in the rabbit was 43,246 ± 5,603 cells/mm3 in vivo (N = 6 corneas). There was a gradual decrease in keratocyte density from the anterior to posterior cornea (R = 0.99), consistent with previous data generated in vitro. Conclusions This modified system allows high resolution 3-D image stacks to be collected from the full thickness rabbit cornea in vivo. These datasets can be used for interactive visualization of corneal cell layers, measurement of sub-layer thickness, and depth-dependent keratocyte density measurements. Overall, the modifications significantly expand the potential quantitative research applications of the HRT-RCM microscope. PMID:23051907

  6. Drug-induced corneal damage.

    PubMed

    2014-04-01

    Corneal damage can have a variety of causes, including infections, chemical splashes, environmental factors (radiation, trauma, contact lenses, etc.), and systemic diseases (genetic, autoimmune, inflammatory, metabolic, etc.). A wide range of drugs can also damage the cornea. The severity of drug-induced corneal changes can range from simple asymptomatic deposits to irreversible, sight-threatening damage. Several factors can influence the onset of corneal lesions. Some factors, such as the dose, are treatment-related, while others such as contact lenses, are patient-related. A variety of mechanisms may be involved, including corneal dryness, changes in the corneal epithelium, impaired wound healing and deposits. Many drugs can damage the cornea through direct contact, after intraocular injection or instillation, including VEGF inhibitors, anti-inflammatory drugs, local anaesthetics, glaucoma drugs, fluoroquinolones, and preservatives. Some systemically administered drugs can also damage the cornea, notably cancer drugs, amiodarone and isotretinoin. Vulnerable patients should be informed of this risk if they are prescribed a drug with the potential to damage the cornea so that they can identify problems in a timely manner. It may be necessary to discontinue the suspect drug when signs and symptoms of corneal damage occur.

  7. The Role of the Reactive Oxygen Species and Oxidative Stress in the Pathomechanism of the Age-Related Ocular Diseases and Other Pathologies of the Anterior and Posterior Eye Segments in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nita, Małgorzata; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The reactive oxygen species (ROS) form under normal physiological conditions and may have both beneficial and harmful role. We search the literature and current knowledge in the aspect of ROS participation in the pathogenesis of anterior and posterior eye segment diseases in adults. ROS take part in the pathogenesis of keratoconus, Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy, and granular corneal dystrophy type 2, stimulating apoptosis of corneal cells. ROS play a role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma stimulating apoptotic and inflammatory pathways on the level of the trabecular meshwork and promoting retinal ganglion cells apoptosis and glial dysfunction in the posterior eye segment. ROS play a role in the pathogenesis of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and traumatic optic neuropathy. ROS induce apoptosis of human lens epithelial cells. ROS promote apoptosis of vascular and neuronal cells and stimulate inflammation and pathological angiogenesis in the course of diabetic retinopathy. ROS are associated with the pathophysiological parainflammation and autophagy process in the course of the age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26881021

  8. A prospective randomized controlled trial of two-window versus solo-window technique by lateral sinus floor elevation in atrophic posterior maxilla: Results from a 1-year observational phase.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huajie; Qiu, Lixin

    2017-10-01

    Implant failures are more common when multiple missing posterior teeth need lateral sinus floor elevation owing to inadequate tissue maturation after grafting. Effects of lateral window dimensions on vital bone formation have rarely been compared. To compare endo-sinus bone formation between two- and solo-window techniques to rehabilitate multiple missing posterior teeth that need substantial augmentation. Patients with severely atrophic posterior maxilla were randomized to receive lateral sinus floor elevation via solo or two bony windows. Bone core specimens harvested from lateral aspect of the augmentation sites were histomorphometrically analyzed. Proportions of mineralized bone (MB), bone substitute materials (BS), and nonmineralized tissue (NMT) were quantified. Twenty-one patients underwent 23 maxillary sinus augmentations. One patient in each group dropped out during the follow-up period. Lateral window dimensions were 81.65 ± 4.59 and 118.04 ± 19.53 mm 2 in the test and control groups, respectively. Histomorphometric analysis revealed mean MB of 42.32% ± 13.07% and 26.00% ± 15.23%, BS of 40.34% ± 9.52% and 60.03% ± 10.13%, and NMT of 18.14% ± 14.24% and 14.75% ± 10.38% in test and control groups, respectively, with significant differences. The two-window technique could facilitate faster maturation and consolidation of the grafted volume and is an effective alternative for rehabilitation of severely atrophic posterior maxilla with multiple missing posterior teeth. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Neurotrophic factors and corneal nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sacchetti, Marta; Lambiase, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    The cornea has unique features that make it a useful model for regenerative medicine studies. It is an avascular, transparent, densely innervated tissue and any pathological changes can be easily detected by slit lamp examination. Corneal sensitivity is provided by the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve that elicits protective reflexes such as blinking and tearing and exerts trophic support by releasing neuromediators and growth factors. Corneal nerves are easily evaluated for both function and morphology using standard instruments such as corneal esthesiometer and in vivo confocal microscope. All local and systemic conditions that are associated with damage of the trigeminal nerve cause the development of neurotrophic keratitis, a rare degenerative disease. Neurotrophic keratitis is characterized by impairment of corneal sensitivity associated with development of persistent epithelial defects that may progress to corneal ulcer, melting and perforation. Current neurotrophic keratitis treatments aim at supporting corneal healing and preventing progression of corneal damage. Novel compounds able to stimulate corneal nerve recovery are in advanced development stage. Among them, nerve growth factor eye drops showed to be safe and effective in stimulating corneal healing and improving corneal sensitivity in patients with neurotrophic keratitis. Neurotrophic keratitis represents an useful model to evaluate in clinical practice novel neuro-regenerative drugs. PMID:28966630

  10. The effect of posterior tibial slope on knee flexion in posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaojun; Shen, Bin; Kang, Pengde; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Zongke; Pei, Fuxing

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate and quantify the effect of the tibial slope on the postoperative maximal knee flexion and stability in the posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Fifty-six patients (65 knees) who had undergone TKA with the posterior-stabilized prostheses were divided into the following 3 groups according to the measured tibial slopes: Group 1: ≤4°, Group 2: 4°-7° and Group 3: >7°. The preoperative range of the motion, the change in the posterior condylar offset, the elevation of the joint line, the postoperative tibiofemoral angle and the preoperative and postoperative Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) scores were recorded. The tibial anteroposterior translation was measured using the Kneelax 3 Arthrometer at both the 30° and the 90° flexion angles. The mean values of the postoperative maximal knee flexion were 101° (SD 5), 106° (SD 5) and 113° (SD 9) in Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. A significant difference was found in the postoperative maximal flexion between the 3 groups (P < 0.001). However, no significant differences were found between the 3 groups in the postoperative HSS scores, the changes in the posterior condylar offset, the elevation of the joint line or the tibial anteroposterior translation at either the 30° or the 90° flexion angles. A 1° increase in the tibial slope resulted in a 1.8° flexion increment (r = 1.8, R (2) = 0.463, P < 0.001). An increase in the posterior tibial slope can significantly increase the postoperative maximal knee flexion. The tibial slope with an appropriate flexion and extension gap balance during the operation does not affect the joint stability.

  11. [To Protect Corneal Transparency against Diseases].

    PubMed

    Usui, Tomohiko

    2016-03-01

    To protect corneal transparency, we tried to develop a new therapeutic strategy for corneal neovascularization, corneal scar, and TGFBI-related corneal dystrophy using nucleic acid drug. 1. The expression of angiopietin-like protein 2 (Angptl2) markedly increased in the neovascularized corneas compared to the normal cornea, and Angtpl2 was(a potent inducer of inflammatory corneal neovascularization. We have produced a single-stranded proline-modified short hairpin anti-Angptl2 ribonucleric acid interference (RNAi) molecule that is carried in a lipid nanoparticle for topical application. We have found this agent can penetrate all layers of the cornea. Angptl2 mRNA expression and corneal neovascularization were inhibited in a mouse alkari injury model by topical application of this agent. Thus, this modified RNAi agent is a new topical formulation for use against corneal neovascularization and scar. 2. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured with human corneal keratocytes under serum-free conditions. We performed microarray gene-expression analysis in the coculture system and selected angiopoietin-like protein 7 (Angptl7). In vivo, intrastromal injections of an anti-Angptl7 RNAi agent into the avascular corneal stroma of mice resulted in the growth of blood vessels. Further, we examined the effects of Angptl7 on corneal nerves using culture rat trigeminal cells and this molecule had neurotrophic property on the cornea. Thus, Angpt17 is a unique molecule, which contain its bilateral character (anti-angiogenic and neurotrophic) in the cornea; an agonistic nucleic acid drug for Angptl7 may be a new therapeutic tool for protecting corneal transparency. 3. We examined local gene editing for TGFBI-related corneal dystrophy using CRISPR-Cas9 mediated homology directed repair (HDR). Cultured corneal keratocytes were obtained from a patient of R124H granular dystrophy. The R124H gene arrangement was corrected by a tranfection of guide RNA and HDR repair

  12. CTCF-Mediated and Pax6-Associated Gene Expression in Corneal Epithelial Cell-Specific Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Shanli; Wang, Jie; Wang, Ling; Dai, Wei; Lu, Luo

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study is to elicit the epigenetic mechanism involving CCCTC binding factor (CTCF)-mediated chromatin remodeling that regulates PAX6 gene interaction with differentiation-associated genes to control corneal epithelial differentiation. Methods Cell cycle progression and specific keratin expressions were measured to monitor changes of differentiation-induced primary human limbal stem/progenitor (HLS/P), human corneal epithelial (HCE) and human telomerase-immortalized corneal epithelial (HTCE) cells. PAX6-interactive and differentiation-associated genes in chromatin remodeling mediated by the epigenetic factor CTCF were detected by circular chromosome conformation capture (4C) and ChIP (Chromatin immunoprecipitation)-on-chip approaches, and verified by FISH (Fluorescent in situ hybridization). Furthermore, CTCF activities were altered by CTCF-shRNA to study the effect of CTCF on mediating interaction of Pax6 and differentiation-associated genes in corneal epithelial cell fate. Results Our results demonstrated that differentiation-induced human corneal epithelial cells expressed typical corneal epithelial characteristics including morphological changes, increased keratin12 expression and G0/G1 accumulations. Expressions of CTCF and PAX6 were suppressed and elevated following the process of differentiation, respectively. During corneal epithelial cell differentiation, differentiation-induced RCN1 and ADAM17 were found interacting with PAX6 in the process of CTCF-mediated chromatin remodeling detected by 4C and verified by ChIP-on-chip and FISH. Diminished CTCF mRNA with CTCF-shRNA in HTCE cells weakened the interaction of PAX6 gene in controlling RCN1/ADAM17 and enhanced early onset of the genes in cell differentiation. Conclusion Our results explain how epigenetic factor CTCF-mediated chromatin remodeling regulates interactions between eye-specific PAX6 and those genes that are induced/associated with cell differentiation to modulate

  13. Yellow corneal ring associated with vitamin supplementation for age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Eller, Andrew W; Gorovoy, Ian R; Mayercik, Vera A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report the first described cases of peripheral yellow corneal rings secondary to vitamin supplementation for age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Design Retrospective single-center case series. Participants The eyes of four patients taking vitamin supplementation for ARMD were examined at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) Department of Ophthalmology between January 2010 and April 2011. Methods We reviewed the medical records of four patients with peripheral corneal rings receiving vitamin supplementation for ARMD. Main Outcome Measures the presence of peripheral yellow corneal rings, skin findings, and serum carotene levels. Results Each patient had circumferential yellow peripheral corneal rings and exhibited subtle yellowing of the skin most notable on the palms. Serum carotene levels were normal in two of the three cases and markedly elevated in the last case in which it was measured. Conclusion It is unclear at this time how to counsel patients with this ocular finding. We suspect that these rings are more common than generally appreciated as they can have a subtle appearance or may be misdiagnosed as arcus senilis. We suggest that a formal study be performed on a cohort of patients taking macular degeneration vitamin supplementation that specifically screens for yellow rings and measures serum carotene levels when they are identified. PMID:22330962

  14. Corneal blindness: a global perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Whitcher, J. P.; Srinivasan, M.; Upadhyay, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    Diseases affecting the cornea are a major cause of blindness worldwide, second only to cataract in overall importance. The epidemiology of corneal blindness is complicated and encompasses a wide variety of infectious and inflammatory eye diseses that cause corneal scarring, which ultimately leads to functional blindness. In addition, the prevalence of corneal disease varies from country to country and even from one population to another. While cataract is responsible for nearly 20 million of the 45 million blind people in the world, the next major cause is trachoma which blinds 4.9 million individuals, mainly as a result of corneal scarring and vascularization. Ocular trauma and corneal ulceration are significant causes of corneal blindness that are often underreported but may be responsible for 1.5-2.0 million new cases of monocular blindness every year. Causes of childhood blindness (about 1.5 million worldwide with 5 million visually disabled) include xerophthalmia (350,000 cases annually), ophthalmia neonatorum, and less frequently seen ocular diseases such as herpes simplex virus infections and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Even though the control of onchocerciasis and leprosy are public health success stories, these diseases are still significant causes of blindness--affecting a quarter of a million individuals each. Traditional eye medicines have also been implicated as a major risk factor in the current epidemic of corneal ulceration in developing countries. Because of the difficulty of treating corneal blindness once it has occurred, public health prevention programmes are the most cost-effective means of decreasing the global burden of corneal blindness. PMID:11285665

  15. Effects of artificial tear treatment on corneal epithelial thickness and corneal topography findings in dry eye patients.

    PubMed

    Çakır, B; Doğan, E; Çelik, E; Babashli, T; Uçak, T; Alagöz, G

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the effects of artificial tear treatment on central corneal epithelial thickness, and central, mid-peripheral and peripheral corneal thicknesses in patients with dry eye disease (DED). Patients with DED underwent ocular examinations, including Schirmer-2 test, slit lamp examination for tear break-up time (BUT), corneal topography (CT) for measuring mean central, mid-peripheral and peripheral corneal thickness values and anterior segment optic coherence tomography (AS-OCT) for obtaining central corneal epithelial thickness. After artificial tear treatment (carboxymethylcellulose and sodium hyaluronate formulations) for one month, patients were examined again at a second visit and the results were compared. Sixty-one eyes of 33 female dry eye patients (mean age: 38.3±5.7 years) were enrolled. The mean follow-up time was 36.4±3.3 days. The mean tear BUT and Schirmer-1 tests revealed significant improvement after treatment (P=0.000, P=0.000, respectively). Central corneal epithelium and mean mid-peripheral corneal thicknesses measured significantly higher after treatment (P=0.001, P=0.02). Changes in central and peripheral corneal thicknesses were not statistically significant. Artificial tear treatment in dry eye patients seems to increase central corneal epithelial and mid-peripheral corneal thicknesses. Measurement of corneal epithelial thickness can be a useful tool for evaluation of treatment response in dry eye patients. Further long-term prospective studies are needed to investigate this item. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes the activation of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and accelerates corneal epithelial wound healing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qingjun; Chen, Peng; Di, Guohu; Zhang, Yangyang; Wang, Yao; Qi, Xia; Duan, Haoyun; Xie, Lixin

    2015-05-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a well-known neuroprotective cytokine, has been found to play an important role in neurogenesis and functional regulations of neural stem cells. As one of the most innervated tissue, however, the role of CNTF in cornea epithelium remains unclear. This study was to explore the roles and mechanisms of CNTF in the activation of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and wound healing of both normal and diabetic mouse corneal epithelium. In mice subjecting to mechanical removal of corneal epithelium, the corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cell activation and wound healing were promoted by exogenous CNTF application, while delayed by CNTF neutralizing antibody. In cultured corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells, CNTF enhanced the colony-forming efficiency, stimulated the mitogenic proliferation, and upregulated the expression levels of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cell-associated transcription factors. Furthermore, the promotion of CNTF on the corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cell activation and wound healing was mediated by the activation of STAT3. Moreover, in diabetic mice, the content of CNTF in corneal epithelium decreased significantly when compared with that of normal mice, and the supplement of CNTF promoted the diabetic corneal epithelial wound healing, accompanied with the advanced activation of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and the regeneration of corneal nerve fibers. Thus, the capability of expanding corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and promoting corneal epithelial wound healing and nerve regeneration indicates the potential application of CNTF in ameliorating limbal stem cell deficiency and treating diabetic keratopathy. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  17. Topical Drug Formulations for Prolonged Corneal Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqiang; Shankarappa, Sahadev A.; Tong, Rong; Ciolino, Joseph B.; Tsui, Jonathan H.; Chiang, Homer H.; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Ocular local anesthetics (OLA’s) currently used in routine clinical practice for corneal anesthesia are short acting and their ability to delay corneal healing makes them unsuitable for long-term use. In this study, we examined the effect on the duration of corneal anesthesia of the site-1 sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), applied with either proparacaine or the chemical permeation enhancer OTAB. The effect of test solutions on corneal healing was also studied. Methods Solutions of TTX, proparacaine, and OTAB, singly or in combination were applied topically to the rat cornea. The blink response, an indirect measure of corneal sensitivity, was recorded using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer, and the duration of corneal anesthesia calculated. The effect of test compounds on the rate of corneal epithelialization was studied in vivo following corneal debridement. Results Combination of TTX and proparacaine resulted in corneal anesthesia that was 8–10 times longer in duration than that from either drug administered alone, while OTAB did not prolong anesthesia. The rate of corneal healing was moderately delayed following co-administration of TTX and proparacaine. Conclusion Co-administration of TTX and proparacaine significantly prolonged corneal anesthesia but in view of delayed corneal re-epithelialization, caution is suggested in use of the combination. PMID:23615270

  18. Spring-assisted posterior skull expansion without osteotomies.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Eric; Marchac, Alexandre; Jeblaoui, Yassine; Renier, Dominique; Di Rocco, Federico

    2012-09-01

    A posterior flatness of the skull vault can be observed in infants with brachycephaly. Such posterior deformation favours the development of turricephaly which is difficult to correct. To reduce the risk of such deformation, an early posterior skull remodelling has been suggested. Translambdoid springs can be used to allow for a distraction through the patent lambdoid sutures and obtain a progressive increase of the posterior skull volume. The procedure consists in a posterior scalp elevation, the patient being on a prone position. Springs made of stainless steel wire (1.5 mm in diameter) are bent in a U-type fashion, and strategically positioned across both lambdoid sutures. No drilling is usually necessary, as the lambdoid suture can be gently forced with a subperiosteal elevator in its middle and an indentation can be created with a bony rongeur on each side of the open suture to allow for a self-retention of bayonet-shaped extremity of the spring. Careful attention is addressed to the favoured prone position during the post-operative period. After a delay of 3-6 months, the springs can be removed during a second uneventful procedure, with limited incisions, usually as a preliminary step of the subsequent frontal remodelling. The concept of spring-assisted expansion across patent sutures under 6 months of age was confirmed in our experience (19 cases). Insertion of the springs allowed for immediate distraction across the suture. A posterior remodelling of the skull could be achieved with minimal morbidity allowing to delay safely a radical anterior surgery.

  19. Corneal surface temperature change as the mode of stimulation of the non-contact corneal aesthesiometer.

    PubMed

    Murphy, P J; Morgan, P B; Patel, S; Marshall, J

    1999-05-01

    The non-contact corneal aesthesiometer (NCCA) assesses corneal sensitivity by using a controlled pulse of air, directed at the corneal surface. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether corneal surface temperature change was a component in the mode of stimulation. Thermocouple experiment: A simple model corneal surface was developed that was composed of a moistened circle of filter paper placed on a thermocouple and mounted on a glass slide. The temperature change produced by different stimulus pressures was measured for five different ambient temperatures. Thermal camera experiment: Using a thermal camera, the corneal surface temperature change was measured in nine young, healthy subjects after exposure to different stimulus air pulses. Pulse duration was set at 0.9 s but was varied in pressure from 0.5 to 3.5 millibars. Thermocouple experiment: An immediate drop in temperature was detected by the thermocouple as soon as the air flow was incident on the filter paper. A greater temperature change was produced by increasing the pressure of the incident air flow. A relationship was found and a calibration curve plotted. Thermal camera experiment: For each subject, a drop in surface temperature was detected at each stimulus pressure. Furthermore, as the stimulus pressure increased, the induced reduction in temperature also increased. A relationship was found and a calibration curve plotted. The NCCA air-pulse stimulus was capable of producing a localized temperature change on the corneal surface. The principal mode of corneal nerve stimulation, by the NCCA air pulse, was the rate of temperature change of the corneal surface.

  20. Transverse depth-dependent changes in corneal collagen lamellar orientation and distribution

    PubMed Central

    Abass, Ahmed; Hayes, Sally; White, Nick; Sorensen, Thomas; Meek, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that corneal surface topography may be stabilized by the angular orientation of out-of plane lamellae that insert into the anterior limiting membrane. In this study, micro-focus X-ray scattering data were used to obtain quantitative information about lamellar inclination (with respect to the corneal surface) and the X-ray scatter intensity throughout the depth of the cornea from the centre to the temporal limbus. The average collagen inclination remained predominantly parallel to the tissue surface at all depths. However, in the central cornea, the spread of inclination angles was greatest in the anterior-most stroma (reflecting the increased lamellar interweaving in this region), and decreased with tissue depth; in the peripheral cornea inclination angles showed less variation throughout the tissue thickness. Inclination angles in the deeper stroma were generally higher in the peripheral cornea, suggesting the presence of more interweaving in the posterior stroma away from the central cornea. An increase in collagen X-ray scatter was identified in a region extending from the sclera anteriorly until about 2 mm from the corneal centre. This could arise from the presence of larger diameter fibrils, probably of scleral origin, which are known to exist in this region. Incorporation of this quantitative information into finite-element models will further improve the accuracy with which they can predict the biomechanical response of the cornea to pathology and refractive procedures. PMID:25631562

  1. Corneal Toxicity Following Exposure to Asclepias Tuberosa

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Lauge Hjorth; Hamoudi, Hassan; Gül, Cigdem Altuntas; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To present a case of corneal toxicity following exposure to milky plant latex from Asclepias tuberosa. Methods: A 70-year-old female presented with blurred vision and pain in her left eye after handling an Ascepias tuberosa. Clinical examination revealed a corneal stromal oedema with small epithelial defects. The corneal endothelium was intact and folds in Descemets membrane were observed. The oedema was treated with chloramphenicol, dexamethasone and scopolamine. Results: The corneal oedema had appeared after corneal exposure to the plant, Asclepias tuberosa, whose latex contains cardenolides that inhibit the Na+/ K+-ATPase in the corneal endothelium. The oedema resolved after 96 hours. After nine months the best corrected visual acuity was 20/20. Conclusion: Corneal toxicity has previously been reported for plants of the Asclepias family. This is a rare case describing severe corneal toxicity caused by exposure to latex from Asclepias tuberosa. Handling of plants of the Asclepias family should be kept as a differential diagnosis in cases of acute corneal toxicity. PMID:28400886

  2. Corneal Toxicity Following Exposure to Asclepias Tuberosa.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Lauge Hjorth; Hamoudi, Hassan; Gül, Cigdem Altuntas; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    To present a case of corneal toxicity following exposure to milky plant latex from Asclepias tuberosa. A 70-year-old female presented with blurred vision and pain in her left eye after handling an Ascepias tuberosa . Clinical examination revealed a corneal stromal oedema with small epithelial defects. The corneal endothelium was intact and folds in Descemets membrane were observed. The oedema was treated with chloramphenicol, dexamethasone and scopolamine. The corneal oedema had appeared after corneal exposure to the plant, Asclepias tuberosa , whose latex contains cardenolides that inhibit the Na + / K + -ATPase in the corneal endothelium. The oedema resolved after 96 hours. After nine months the best corrected visual acuity was 20/20. Corneal toxicity has previously been reported for plants of the Asclepias family. This is a rare case describing severe corneal toxicity caused by exposure to latex from Asclepias tuberosa . Handling of plants of the Asclepias family should be kept as a differential diagnosis in cases of acute corneal toxicity.

  3. Changes in the retrobulbar arterial circulation after decrease of elevated intraocular pressue in patients with primary open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Marjanović, Ivan; Sundić, Ana; Mijajlović, Milija; Covicković-Sternić, Nadezda; Kontić, Djordje; Hentova-Senćanić, Paraskeva; Marković, Vujica; Bozić, Marija; Knezević, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    An altered perfusion of the optic nerve head has been proposed as a pathogenic factor in glaucoma. To evaluate changes of haemodynamic parameters in the retrobulbar arterial circulation after a decrease of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Twenty-six patients were examined, 14 men and 12 women, 21 up to 50 years old and 5 below, all with previously diagnosed and treated POAG, and all examined at the Eye Clinic, Clinical Centre of Serbia. IOP was measured both with a Goldmann aplanation tonometer and dynamic contour tonometer. Central corneal thickness was measured with ultrasound pachymeter. Imaging of the retrobulbar arterial circulation by colour Doppler was performed at the Neurology Clinic, Clinical Centre of Serbia. It involved measuring of haemodynamic parameters of the ophthalmic artery, central retinal artery, and posterior ciliary arteries. Peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end-diastolic velocity (EDV) were measured, and resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) were calculated. Haemodynamic arterial parameters PSV and EDV in the ophthalmic and central retinal artery after decrease of IOP were lower, while RI and PI were higher. In the posterior ciliary arteries PSV, EDV and PI were lower, and RI was higher. Changes of the retrobulbar arterial circulation after elevated LOP in POAG patients are important for approach and treatment, while the role of vascular factors in the supplement of the optic disc neuroretinal rim could be a key for progression backlash of glaucoma and the radix of neuroprotection.

  4. History of corneal transplantation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Coster, Douglas J

    2015-04-01

    Corneal transplantation is a triumph of modern ophthalmology. The possibility of corneal transplantation was first raised in 1797 but a century passed before Zirm achieved the first successful penetrating graft in 1905. Gibson reported the first corneal graft in Australia from Brisbane in 1940 and English established the first eye bank there a few years later. Corneal transplantation evolved steadily over the twentieth century. In the second half of the century, developments in microsurgery, including surgical materials such as monofilament nylon and strong topical steroid drops, accounted for improvements in outcomes. In 2013, approximately 1500 corneal transplants were done in Australia. Eye banking has evolved to cope with the rising demands for donor corneas. Australian corneal surgeons collaborated to establish and support the Australian Corneal Graft Registry in 1985. It follows the outcomes of their surgery and has become an important international resource for surgeons seeking further improvement with the procedure. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  5. Corneal Nerves in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, Brittany; Bakir, May; Jain, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Corneal nerves are responsible for the sensations of touch, pain, and temperature and play an important role in the blink reflex, wound healing, and tear production and secretion. Corneal nerve dysfunction is a frequent feature of diseases that cause opacities and result in corneal blindness. Corneal opacities rank as the second most frequent cause of blindness. Technological advances in in vivo corneal nerve imaging, such as optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning, have generated new knowledge regarding the phenomenological events that occur during reinnervation of the cornea following disease, injury, or surgery. The recent availability of transgenic neurofluorescent murine models has stimulated the search for molecular modulators of corneal nerve regeneration. New evidence suggests that neuro-regenerative and inflammatory pathways in the cornea are intertwined. Evidence-based treatment of neurotrophic corneal diseases includes using neuro-regenerative (blood component-based and neurotrophic factors), neuroprotective, and ensconcing (bandage contact lens and amniotic membrane) strategies and avoiding anti-inflammatory therapies, such as cyclosporine and corticosteroids. PMID:24461367

  6. Alarmins from corneal epithelial cells upregulate CCL11 and VCAM-1 in corneal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Ken; Ishida, Waka; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Harada, Yosuke; Matsuda, Akira; Ebihara, Nobuyuki; Fukushima, Atsuki

    2013-08-27

    Severe ocular allergic diseases are characterized by pronounced conjunctival inflammation triggered by T helper 2 (Th2) cells and corneal epithelial damage induced by eosinophils. To examine the role of alarmins released by damaged corneal epithelial cells in tissue eosinophilia, we investigated the effects of a supernatant derived from necrotic human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells on expression of the chemokine CCL11 (eotaxin) and the adhesion molecule VCAM-1 in human corneal fibroblasts. An alarmin preparation was obtained as the material released from HCE cells after three cycles of freezing and thawing. CCL11 released into culture medium and cell surface expression of VCAM-1 were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and the amounts of CCL11 and VCAM-1 mRNAs were quantitated by reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Signaling by the transcription factor NF-κB was evaluated by immunoblot and immunofluorescence analyses. The combination of the necrotic HCE cell supernatant and either interleukin (IL)-4 or IL-13 induced synergistic increases in CCL11 release, VCAM-1 expression, and the abundance of CCL11 and VCAM-1 mRNAs in corneal fibroblasts. The necrotic HCE cell supernatant also induced NF-κB activation in corneal fibroblasts, whereas an inhibitor of NF-κB and IL-1 receptor antagonist each attenuated CCL11 release induced by the alarmin preparation and either IL-4 or IL-13. Alarmins including IL-1 released from necrotic corneal epithelial cells cooperate with Th2 cytokines to induce CCL11 production and VCAM-1 expression in corneal fibroblasts, and may thereby play an important role in tissue eosinophilia associated with ocular allergic diseases.

  7. Frequency of Complications During Preparation of Corneal Lamellae Used in Posterior Lamellar Keratoplasty Using the Pneumodissection Technique (Big Bubble).

    PubMed

    Studeny, Pavel; Netukova, Magdalena; Hlozanek, Martin; Bednar, Jan; Jirsova, Katerina; Krizova, Deli

    2018-04-26

    To determine the frequency of formation of various types of bubbles and the potential impact of donor and lamella parameters on this frequency, and to identify possible risk factors of unsuccessful "big-bubble" creation in preparation of pre-Descemet endothelial keratoplasty and Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty with peripheral stromal support. Donor age and sex, death to preservation time (DPT), storage time, presence of corneal scars (mainly a condition after cataract surgery), and endothelial cell density of 256 donor corneas were assessed before Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty with peripheral stromal support or pre-Descemet endothelial keratoplasty lamella preparation using the big-bubble technique. Mean donor age was 62.3 ± 8.5 years (28.3% women and 71.7% men). Mean endothelial cell density of the donor graft was 2866 ± 255 cells/mm. Mean DPT was 10.12 ± 4.88 hours, and mean storage time of the transplant before surgery was 6.5 ± 4.8 days. Corneal scars were present in 17 donor grafts (6.6%) after cataract surgery. Eleven corneas were devalued because of Descemet membrane rupture during preparation (4.3%). In 182 corneas, standard bubble type I was created (71.7%); in 27 corneas, bubble type II was created; eventually, both types of bubbles formed simultaneously (10.5%); in 47 corneas, no bubble was created (18.4%). We identified higher endothelial cell density, shorter DPT, and the presence of corneal scars after cataract surgery as risk factors threatening successful bubble formation. The only risk factor for creating type II bubbles was higher donor age in our study.

  8. Glaucoma after corneal replacement.

    PubMed

    Baltaziak, Monika; Chew, Hall F; Podbielski, Dominik W; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    Glaucoma is a well-known complication after corneal transplantation surgery. Traditional corneal transplantation surgery, specifically penetrating keratoplasty, has been slowly replaced by the advent of new corneal transplantation procedures: primarily lamellar keratoplasties. There has also been an emergence of keratoprosthesis implants for eyes that are high risk of failure with penetrating keratoplasty. Consequently, there are different rates of glaucoma, pathogenesis, and potential treatment in the form of medical, laser, or surgical therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Correlations between corneal and total wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrochen, Michael; Jankov, Mirko; Bueeler, Michael; Seiler, Theo

    2002-06-01

    Purpose: Corneal topography data expressed as corneal aberrations are frequently used to report corneal laser surgery results. However, the optical image quality at the retina depends on all optical elements of the eye such as the human lens. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations and to discuss the importance of corneal aberrations for representing corneal laser surgery results. Methods: Thirty three eyes of 22 myopic subjects were measured with a corneal topography system and a Tschernig-type wavefront analyzer after the pupils were dilated to at least 6 mm in diameter. All measurements were centered with respect to the line of sight. Corneal and total wavefront aberrations were calculated up to the 6th Zernike order in the same reference plane. Results: Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations were found for the astigmatism (C3,C5) and all 3rd Zernike order coefficients such as coma (C7,C8). No statistically significant correlations were found for all 4th to 6th order Zernike coefficients except for the 5th order horizontal coma C18 (p equals 0.003). On average, all Zernike coefficients for the corneal aberrations were found to be larger compared to Zernike coefficients for the total wavefront aberrations. Conclusions: Corneal aberrations are only of limited use for representing the optical quality of the human eye after corneal laser surgery. This is due to the lack of correlation between corneal and total wavefront aberrations in most of the higher order aberrations. Besides this, the data present in this study yield towards an aberration balancing between corneal aberrations and the optical elements within the eye that reduces the aberration from the cornea by a certain degree. Consequently, ideal customized ablations have to take both, corneal and total wavefront aberrations, into consideration.

  10. Instillation of Sericin Enhances Corneal Wound Healing through the ERK Pathway in Rat Debrided Corneal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Noriaki; Fukuoka, Yuya; Ishii, Miyu; Otake, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Taga, Atsushi; Okamoto, Norio; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2018-01-01

    Sericin is a major constituent of silk produced by silkworms. We previously found that the instillation of sericin enhanced the proliferation of corneal epithelial cells, and acted to promote corneal wound healing in both normal and diabetic model rats. However, the mechanisms by which sericin promotes the proliferation of corneal cells have not been established. In this study, we investigated the effects of sericin on Akt and ERK activation in a human corneal epithelial cell line (HCE-T cells) and rat debrided corneal epithelium. Although Akt phosphorylation was not detected following the treatment of HCE-T cells with sericin, ERK1/2 phosphorylation was enhanced. The growth of HCE-T cells treated with sericin was significantly increased, with the cell growth of sericin-treated HCE-T cells being 1.7-fold higher in comparison with vehicle-treated HCE-T cells. On the other hand, both of an ERK inhibitor U0126 (non-specific specific inhibitor) and SCH772984 (specific inhibitor) attenuated the enhanced cell growth by sericin, and the growth level in the case of co-treatment with sericin and ERK1/2 inhibitor was similar to that of cells treated with ERK1/2 inhibitor alone. In an in vivo study using rat debrided corneal epithelium, the corneal wound healing rate was enhanced by the instillation of sericin, and this enhancement was also attenuated by the instillation of U0126. In addition, the corneal wound healing rate in rats co-instilled with sericin and U0126 was similar to that following the instillation of U0126 alone. In conclusion, we found that the instillation of sericin enhanced cell proliferation via the activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway, resulting in the promotion of corneal wound healing in rat eyes. These findings provide significant information for designing further studies to develop potent corneal wound-healing drugs. PMID:29642540

  11. Organ transplantation scandal influencing corneal donation rate.

    PubMed

    Röck, Tobias; Bramkamp, Matthias; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Röck, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In the majority of countries, there is a shortage of donor corneas for corneal transplantations. This study investigated the impact of organ transplantation scandals on corneal donation rate at the University Hospital Tübingen. Each deceased patient was considered as a potential corneal donor. An ophthalmic resident handled with stable methods of procedures the corneal donor procurement from 2009 to 2015. The rates of corneal donation were examined and analyzed. Among the 5712 hospital deaths, consent for corneal donation was obtained in 711 cases. The mean annual corneal donation rate was 12.4%. Since 2009, the donation rate per year could be increased with exception of 2013 and 2015. In the end of 2012 and 2014 two huge organ donation scandals were known in Germany. In the following years 2013 and 2015 corneal donation rate decreased significantly ( P =0.0181 and P =0.0006). We concluded that transplantation scandals have a significant impact on corneal donation rate. Improving professional's performance through full transparency and honesty is very important to earn trust of potential donors and their families.

  12. Organ transplantation scandal influencing corneal donation rate

    PubMed Central

    Röck, Tobias; Bramkamp, Matthias; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Röck, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In the majority of countries, there is a shortage of donor corneas for corneal transplantations. This study investigated the impact of organ transplantation scandals on corneal donation rate at the University Hospital Tübingen. Each deceased patient was considered as a potential corneal donor. An ophthalmic resident handled with stable methods of procedures the corneal donor procurement from 2009 to 2015. The rates of corneal donation were examined and analyzed. Among the 5712 hospital deaths, consent for corneal donation was obtained in 711 cases. The mean annual corneal donation rate was 12.4%. Since 2009, the donation rate per year could be increased with exception of 2013 and 2015. In the end of 2012 and 2014 two huge organ donation scandals were known in Germany. In the following years 2013 and 2015 corneal donation rate decreased significantly (P=0.0181 and P=0.0006). We concluded that transplantation scandals have a significant impact on corneal donation rate. Improving professional's performance through full transparency and honesty is very important to earn trust of potential donors and their families. PMID:28730094

  13. Topical treatment of corneal alkali burns with Gly-thymosin β4 solutions and in situ hydrogels via inhibiting corneal neovascularization and improving corneal epidermal recovery in experimental rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weili; Nie, Liya; Du, Lina; Chen, Wenyang; Wu, Zhihong; Jin, Yiguang

    2017-12-01

    Corneal alkali burns are a severe disease and commonly encountered in the emergent clinic. A rapid medical treatment for the burn is very important. Gly-thymosin β 4 (Gly-Tβ 4 ) is a biomimic derivative of natural thymosin β 4 . The aim of this study is to evaluate the corneal recovery effects of Gly-Tβ 4 topical therapy on alkali burns in rabbit corneas. Rabbit alkali burns were induced with NaOH-contained filter paper. Phosphate-buffered solutions at pH 7.0, Gly-Tβ 4 solutions, blank in situ hydrogels, and Gly-Tβ 4 in situ hydrogels were dropped on the burned corneas. The treatments were continued for 14 days. Conjunctiva hyperemia, corneal edema, intraeye extravasation, hemorrhaging, corneal neovascularization (CNV), and corneal opacity were observed. Corneal immunohistochemistry and histopathology were performed. Gly-Tβ 4 solutions led to a lower corneal burn index than the other regimens. Hydrogels may stimulate the burned corneas due to the direct contact of them, and prevent the rapid release of Gly-Tβ 4 . Gly-Tβ 4 significantly inhibited CNV according to the images of the corneas, CNV areas, and CD31 expression. Furthermore, Gly-Tβ 4 improved corneal epidermal recovery according to the histopathological result. Gly-Tβ 4 solutions are a promising formulation for topical treatment of corneal alkali burns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Corneal protection by the ocular mucin secretagogue 15(S)-HETE in a rabbit model of desiccation-induced corneal defect.

    PubMed

    Gamache, Daniel A; Wei, Zhong-You; Weimer, Lori K; Miller, Steven T; Spellman, Joan M; Yanni, John M

    2002-08-01

    The mucin secretagogue 15(S)-HETE was found to stimulate glycoprotein secretion in human ocular tissue at submicromolar concentrations in the present studies. Therefore, the ability of topically applied 15(S)-HETE to preserve corneal integrity was investigated in a rabbit model of desiccation-induced corneal defect. Desiccation-induced corneal injury was elicited in anesthetized rabbits by maintaining one eye open with a speculum. Corneal staining and corneal thickness changes were determined immediately following desiccation. 15(S)-HETE dose-dependently reduced corneal damage (ED50 = 120 nM) during a two-hour desiccation. Corneal staining was unchanged relative to control using a 1 microM dose of 15(S)-HETE. Through four hours of desiccation, 15(S)-HETE (500 nM) decreased corneal staining by 71% and completely prevented corneal thinning. 15(S)-HETE (1 microM) was significantly more efficacious than an artificial tear product over the 4-hour desiccation period. There was no evidence of tachyphylaxis following repeated topical ocular dosing of 15(S)-HETE. These studies demonstrate that 15(S)-HETE stimulates ocular mucin secretion in vitro and effectively protects the cornea in a rabbit model of desiccation-induced injury. The results suggest that the ocular mucin secretagogue 15(S)-HETE may have therapeutic utility in dry eye patients, alleviating corneal injury and restoring corneal integrity.

  15. Reconstruction of corneal epithelium with cryopreserved corneal limbal stem cells in a goat model.

    PubMed

    Mi, Shengli; Yang, Xueyi; Zhao, Qingmei; Qu, Lei; Chen, Shuming; M Meek, Keith; Dou, Zhongying

    2008-11-01

    We describe a procedure to construct an artificial corneal epithelium from cryopreserved limbal stem cells (LSCs) for corneal transplantation. The LSCs were separated from limbal tissue of male goats. The primary LSCs were identified by flow cytometry and were expanded. They were examined for stem cell-relevant properties and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. Cryopreserved LSCs were thawed and then transplanted onto human amniotic membrane, framed on a nitrocellulose sheet, to construct corneal epithelium sheets. The artificial corneal epithelium was transplanted into the right eye of pathological models of total limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Then, the effects of reconstruction were evaluated by clinical observation and histological examination. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to detect the SRY gene. The data showed that transplantation of cryopreserved LSCs, like fresh LSCs, successfully reconstructed damaged goat corneal surface gradually, but the SRY gene expression from male goat cells could only be detected in the first 2 months after transplantation. The therapeutic effect of the transplantation may be associated with the inhibition of inflammation-related angiogenesis after transplantation of cryopreserved LSCs. This study provides the first line of evidence that cryopreserved LSCs can be used for reconstruction of damaged corneas, presenting a remarkable potential source for transplantation in the treatment of corneal disorders.

  16. Multiscale Investigation of the Depth-Dependent Mechanical Anisotropy of the Human Corneal Stroma

    PubMed Central

    Labate, Cristina; Lombardo, Marco; De Santo, Maria P.; Dias, Janice; Ziebarth, Noel M.; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the depth-dependent mechanical anisotropy of the human corneal stroma at the tissue (stroma) and molecular (collagen) level by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Methods. Eleven human donor corneas were dissected at different stromal depths by using a microkeratome. Mechanical measurements were performed in 15% dextran on the surface of the exposed stroma of each sample by using a custom-built AFM in force spectroscopy mode using both microspherical (38-μm diameter) and nanoconical (10-nm radius of curvature) indenters at 2-μm/s and 15-μm/s indentation rates. Young's modulus was determined by fitting force curve data using the Hertz and Hertz-Sneddon models for a spherical and a conical indenter, respectively. The depth-dependent anisotropy of stromal elasticity was correlated with images of the corneal stroma acquired by two-photon microscopy. Results. The force curves were obtained at stromal depths ranging from 59 to 218 μm. At the tissue level, Young's modulus (ES) showed a steep decrease at approximately 140-μm stromal depth (from 0.8 MPa to 0.3 MPa; P = 0.03) and then was stable in the posterior stroma. At the molecular level, Young's modulus (EC) was significantly greater than at the tissue level; EC decreased nonlinearly with increasing stromal depth from 3.9 to 2.6 MPa (P = 0.04). The variation of microstructure through the thickness correlated highly with a nonconstant profile of the mechanical properties in the stroma. Conclusions. The corneal stroma exhibits unique anisotropic elastic behavior at the tissue and molecular levels. This knowledge may benefit modeling of corneal behavior and help in the development of biomimetic materials. PMID:26098472

  17. Corneal collagen crosslinking and pigment dispersion syndrome.

    PubMed

    LaHood, Benjamin R; Moore, Sacha

    2017-03-01

    We describe the case of a keratoconus patient with pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) who was treated for progressive corneal ectasia with corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL). Pigment dispersion syndrome has been shown to have associated morphologic changes of the corneal endothelium. Corneal CXL has the potential to cause toxicity to the corneal endothelium, and adjacent pigment might increase the likelihood of damage. In this case, the presence of PDS had no detrimental effect on the outcome of treatment, and no complications were observed at 12 months follow-up, indicating that it may be safe to perform corneal CXL in the setting of PDS. This is an important observation as the number of indications for corneal CXL grows. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of Methodologies Using Estimated or Measured Values of Total Corneal Astigmatism for Toric Intraocular Lens Power Calculation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Tiago B; Ribeiro, Paulo; Ribeiro, Filomena J; O'Neill, João G

    2017-12-01

    To compare the prediction error in the calculation of toric intraocular lenses (IOLs) associated with methods that estimate the power of the posterior corneal surface (ie, Barrett toric calculator and Abulafia-Koch formula) with that of methods that consider real measures obtained using Scheimpflug imaging: a software that uses vectorial calculation (Panacea toric calculator: http://www.panaceaiolandtoriccalculator.com) and a ray tracing software (PhacoOptics, Aarhus Nord, Denmark). In 107 eyes of 107 patients undergoing cataract surgery with toric IOL implantation (Acrysof IQ Toric; Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX), predicted residual astigmatism by each calculation method was compared with manifest refractive astigmatism. Prediction error in residual astigmatism was calculated using vector analysis. All calculation methods resulted in overcorrection of with-the-rule astigmatism and undercorrection of against-the-rule astigmatism. Both estimation methods resulted in lower mean and centroid astigmatic prediction errors, and a larger number of eyes within 0.50 diopters (D) of absolute prediction error than methods considering real measures (P < .001). Centroid prediction error (CPE) was 0.07 D at 172° for the Barrett toric calculator and 0.13 D at 174° for the Abulafia-Koch formula (combined with Holladay calculator). For methods using real posterior corneal surface measurements, CPE was 0.25 D at 173° for the Panacea calculator and 0.29 D at 171° for the ray tracing software. The Barrett toric calculator and Abulafia-Koch formula yielded the lowest astigmatic prediction errors. Directly evaluating total corneal power for toric IOL calculation was not superior to estimating it. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(12):794-800.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Influence of corneal hydration on optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twa, Michael D.; Vantipalli, Srilatha; Singh, Manmohan; Li, Jiasong; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    Corneal biomechanical properties are influenced by several factors, including intraocular pressure, corneal thickness, and viscoelastic responses. Corneal thickness is directly proportional to tissue hydration and can influence corneal stiffness, but there is no consensus on the magnitude or direction of this effect. We evaluated the influence of corneal hydration on dynamic surface deformation responses using optical coherence elastography (OCE). Fresh rabbit eyes (n=10) were prepared by removing the corneal epithelium and dropping with 0.9% saline every 5 minutes for 1 hour, followed by 20% dextran solution every 5 minutes for one hour. Corneal thickness was determined from structural OCT imaging and OCE measurements were performed at baseline and every 20 minutes thereafter. Micron-scale deformations were induced at the apex of the corneal tissue using a spatially-focused (150μm) short-duration (<1ms) air-pulse delivery system. These dynamic tissue responses were measured non-invasively with a phase-stabilized swept source OCT system. The tissue surface deformation response (Relaxation Rate: RR) was quantified as the time constant, over which stimulated tissue recovered from the maximum deformation amplitude. Elastic wave group velocity (GV) was also quantified and correlated with change in corneal thickness due to hydration process. Corneal thickness rapidly increased and remained constant following epithelium removal and changed little thereafter. Likewise, corneal stiffness changed little over the first hour and then decreased sharply after Dextran application (thickness: -46% [-315/682 μm] RR: - 24% [-0.7/2.88 ms-1]; GV: -19% [-0.6/3.2 m/s]). Corneal thickness and corneal stiffness (RR) were well correlated (R2 = .66). Corneal biomechanical properties are highly correlated with tissue hydration over a wide range of corneal thickness and these changes in corneal stiffness are quantifiable using OCE.

  20. Diffusion and Monod kinetics model to determine in vivo human corneal oxygen-consumption rate during soft contact lens wear.

    PubMed

    Del Castillo, Luis F; da Silva, Ana R Ferreira; Hernández, Saul I; Aguilella, M; Andrio, Andreu; Mollá, Sergio; Compañ, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the corneal oxygen consumption Qc from non-linear models, using data of oxygen partial pressure or tension (P(O2) ) obtained from in vivo estimation previously reported by other authors. (1) METHODS: Assuming that the cornea is a single homogeneous layer, the oxygen permeability through the cornea will be the same regardless of the type of lens that is available on it. The obtention of the real value of the maximum oxygen consumption rate Qc,max is very important because this parameter is directly related with the gradient pressure profile into the cornea and moreover, the real corneal oxygen consumption is influenced by both anterior and posterior oxygen fluxes. Our calculations give different values for the maximum oxygen consumption rate Qc,max, when different oxygen pressure values (high and low P(O2)) are considered at the interface cornea-tears film. Present results are relevant for the calculation on the partial pressure of oxygen, available at different depths into the corneal tissue behind contact lenses of different oxygen transmissibility. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  1. Diffusion and Monod kinetics model to determine in vivo human corneal oxygen-consumption rate during soft contact lens wear

    PubMed Central

    Del Castillo, Luis F.; da Silva, Ana R. Ferreira; Hernández, Saul I.; Aguilella, M.; Andrio, Andreu; Mollá, Sergio; Compañ, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We present an analysis of the corneal oxygen consumption Qc from non-linear models, using data of oxygen partial pressure or tension (pO2) obtained from in vivo estimation previously reported by other authors.1 Methods Assuming that the cornea is a single homogeneous layer, the oxygen permeability through the cornea will be the same regardless of the type of lens that is available on it. The obtention of the real value of the maximum oxygen consumption rate Qc,max is very important because this parameter is directly related with the gradient pressure profile into the cornea and moreover, the real corneal oxygen consumption is influenced by both anterior and posterior oxygen fluxes. Results Our calculations give different values for the maximum oxygen consumption rate Qc,max, when different oxygen pressure values (high and low pO2) are considered at the interface cornea-tears film. Conclusion Present results are relevant for the calculation on the partial pressure of oxygen, available at different depths into the corneal tissue behind contact lenses of different oxygen transmissibility. PMID:25649636

  2. Corneal endothelium: developmental strategies for regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zavala, J; López Jaime, G R; Rodríguez Barrientos, C A; Valdez-Garcia, J

    2013-01-01

    The main treatment available for restoration of the corneal endothelium is keratoplasty. This procedure is faced with several difficulties, including the shortage of donor tissue, post-surgical complications associated with the use of drugs to prevent immune rejection, and a significant increase in the occurrence of glaucoma. Recently, surgical procedures such as Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty have focused on the transplant of corneal endothelium, yielding better visual results but still facing the need for donor tissue. The emergent strategies in the field of cell biology and tissue cultivation of corneal endothelial cells aim at the production of transplantable endothelial cell sheets. Cell therapy focuses on the culture of corneal endothelial cells retrieved from the donor, in the donor's cornea, followed by transplantation into the recipient. Recently, research has focused on overcoming the challenge of harvesting human corneal endothelial cells and the generation of new biomembranes to be used as cell scaffolds in surgical procedures. The use of corneal endothelial precursors from the peripheral cornea has also demonstrated to be effective and represents a valuable tool for reducing the risk of rejection in allogeneic transplants. Several animal model reports also support the use of adult stem cells as therapy for corneal diseases. Current results represent important progresses in the development of new strategies based on alternative sources of tissue for the treatment of corneal endotheliopathies. Different databases were used to search literature: PubMed, Google Books, MD Consult, Google Scholar, Gene Cards, and NCBI Books. The main search terms used were: ‘cornea AND embryology AND transcription factors', ‘human endothelial keratoplasty AND risk factors', ‘(cornea OR corneal) AND (endothelium OR endothelial) AND cell culture', ‘mesenchymal stem cells AND cell therapy', ‘mesenchymal stem cells AND cornea', and ‘stem cells AND

  3. Heterogeneity in macular corneal dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Edward, D P; Yue, B Y; Sugar, J; Thonar, E J; SunderRaj, N; Stock, E L; Tso, M O

    1988-11-01

    Macular corneal dystrophy is an autosomal recessive disorder in which abnormal deposits in the corneal stroma have been identified. We examined the corneal buttons of 12 patients, who had clinical features of macular dystrophy, by histochemical staining, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemical techniques. All corneas exhibited positive staining with Muller Mowry's colloidal iron. Using monoclonal antibodies 1/20/5-D-4, J-10, J-19, and J-36 that recognize specific sites on the sulfated keratan sulfate molecule, we stained corneal sections by an avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method and identified two groups of macular corneal dystrophy. One group consisting of four corneas reacted positively with all four antibodies, and the other group consisting of eight corneas did not react with any of the antibodies used. These results confirmed those recently presented by Yang et al that there may be subgroups of macular dystrophy that can be identified by immunohistochemical methods. Also, serum levels of sulfated keratan sulfate were determined in seven patients. One patient who displayed a normal level of serum keratan sulfate had positive corneal immunoreactivity. Of the six patients who lacked serum keratan sulfate, four showed negative and two had positive corneal immunostaining, suggesting at least three subgroups in the disease. An attempt was made to correlate the clinical features, histochemical-staining characteristics, and ultrastructural morphology with the immunoreactivity to keratan sulfate antibodies, but no correlations could be made.

  4. The Evolution of Corneal Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Röck, Tobias; Landenberger, Johanna; Bramkamp, Matthias; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Röck, Daniel

    2017-12-15

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of surgical methods in and leading indications for corneal transplantation from 2005 to 2016. MATERIAL AND METHODS Data from the corneal graft waiting list and from all keratoplasties carried out between 2005 and 2016 at the University Eye Hospital Tübingen were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS A total of 1259 keratoplasties were performed between 2005 and 2016 at the University Eye Hospital Tübingen. The most common surgical indications for corneal transplantation were Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (45.5%) and keratoconus (14.2%). The mean rate of corneal transplantations almost doubled from 71 keratoplasties per year in the first 6-year period to 139 keratoplasties per year in the second 6-year period (P=0.005). The number of penetrating keratoplasties remained similar. The number of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasties (DMEK) increased significantly from 2008 to 2016 (P<0.0001). One DMEK procedure was performed in 2008 (representing 1.4% of all transplantations), while 75 DMEK procedures were performed in 2016 (representing 60.5% of all transplantations) (P<0.0001). DMEK became the favored surgical method for endothelial disorders, exceeding penetrating keratoplasty in 2013. CONCLUSIONS Our study shows evolutionary changes in preferred corneal transplantation techniques and leading indications for keratoplasty from 2005 to 2016. Since its introduction a decade ago, DMEK is currently the golden standard in the management of corneal endothelial dysfunction.

  5. Glutaminolysis is Essential for Energy Production and Ion Transport in Human Corneal Endothelium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenlin; Li, Hongde; Ogando, Diego G; Li, Shimin; Feng, Matthew; Price, Francis W; Tennessen, Jason M; Bonanno, Joseph A

    2017-02-01

    Corneal endothelium (CE) is among the most metabolically active tissues in the body. This elevated metabolic rate helps the CE maintain corneal transparency by its ion and fluid transport properties, which when disrupted, leads to visual impairment. Here we demonstrate that glutamine catabolism (glutaminolysis) through TCA cycle generates a large fraction of the ATP needed to maintain CE function, and this glutaminolysis is severely disrupted in cells deficient in NH 3 :H + cotransporter Solute Carrier Family 4 Member 11 (SLC4A11). Considering SLC4A11 mutations leads to corneal endothelial dystrophy and sensorineural deafness, our results indicate that SLC4A11-associated developmental and degenerative disorders result from altered glutamine catabolism. Overall, our results describe an important metabolic mechanism that provides CE cells with the energy required to maintain high level transport activity, reveal a direct link between glutamine metabolism and developmental and degenerative neuronal diseases, and suggest an approach for protecting the CE during ophthalmic surgeries. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Healed corneal ulcer with keloid formation.

    PubMed

    Alkatan, Hind M; Al-Arfaj, Khalid M; Hantera, Mohammed; Al-Kharashi, Soliman

    2012-04-01

    We are reporting a 34-year-old Arabic white female patient who presented with a white mass covering her left cornea following multiple ocular surgeries and healed corneal ulcer. The lesion obscured further view of the iris, pupil and lens. The patient underwent penetrating keratoplasty and the histopathologic study of the left corneal button showed epithelial hyperplasia, absent Bowman's layer and subepithelial fibrovascular proliferation. The histopathologic appearance was suggestive of a corneal keloid which was supported by further ultrastructural study. The corneal graft remained clear 6 months after surgery and the patient was satisfied with the visual outcome. Penetrating keratoplasty may be an effective surgical option for corneal keloids in young adult patients.

  7. Corneal Regeneration After Photorefractive Keratectomy: A Review☆

    PubMed Central

    Tomás-Juan, Javier; Murueta-Goyena Larrañaga, Ane; Hanneken, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) remodels corneal stroma to compensate refractive errors. The removal of epithelium and the ablation of stroma provoke the disruption of corneal nerves and a release of several peptides from tears, epithelium, stroma and nerves. A myriad of cytokines, growth factors, and matrix metalloproteases participate in the process of corneal wound healing. Their balance will determine if reepithelization and stromal remodeling are appropriate. The final aim is to achieve corneal transparency for restoring corneal function, and a proper visual quality. Therefore, wound-healing response is critical for a successful refractive surgery. Our goal is to provide an overview into how corneal wounding develops following PRK. We will also review the influence of intraoperative application of mitomycin C, bandage contact lenses, anti-inflammatory and other drugs in preventing corneal haze and post-PRK pain. PMID:25444646

  8. Prevalence and causes of corneal blindness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haijing; Zhang, Yaoguang; Li, Zhijian; Wang, Tiebin; Liu, Ping

    2014-04-01

    The study aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of corneal blindness in a rural northern Chinese population. Cross-sectional study. The cluster random sampling method was used to select the sample. This population-based study included 11 787 participants of all ages in rural Heilongjiang Province, China. These participants underwent a detailed interview and eye examination that included the measurement of visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy and direct ophthalmoscopy. An eye was considered to have corneal blindness if the visual acuity was <9/18 because of corneal diseases. The main outcome measure was prevalence rates of corneal blindness and low vision. Among the 10 384 people enrolled in the study, the prevalence of corneal blindness is 0.3% (95% confidence interval 0.2-0.4%). The leading cause was keratitis in childhood (40.0%), followed by ocular trauma (33.3%) and keratitis in adulthood (20.0%). Age and illiteracy were found to be associated with an increased prevalence of corneal blindness. Blindness because of corneal diseases in rural areas of Northern China is a significant public health problem that needs to be given more attention. © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  9. Ab interno management of blocked Ahmed valve in the posterior segment.

    PubMed

    Odrich, Steven; Wald, Kenneth; Sperber, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    To report a case of late failure of a posterior segment placed Ahmed valve in a uveitic eye with a corneal graft and a minimally invasive, ab interno approach in restoring valve function, pressure control, and preservation of vision. Case report. A 25 gauge trans-conjunctival 3-port pars plana vitrectomy was performed to inspect and clean the ostium of the Ahmed valve of any vitreous debris. The Ahmed valve was not disturbed externally and conjunctival dissection was not performed. A 27-gauge blunt cannula was introduced through the vitrector site and used to cannulate the tube and flush it with balanced salt solution. A bleb was immediately re-established and all instruments were removed requiring no sutures. Intraocular pressure returned to target levels and a filtration bleb was re-established. Corneal graft clarity was restored with resolution of preoperative microcystic edema. Postoperative inflammation was minimal and vision was restored. A nonfunctioning tube shunt residing in the vitreous cavity may be revised ab interno without disturbing the shunt placement or the conjunctiva under which it resides to re-establish filtration.

  10. Spry1 and Spry2 Are Necessary for Lens Vesicle Separation and Corneal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kuracha, Murali R.; Burgess, Daniel; Siefker, Ed; Cooper, Jake T.; Licht, Jonathan D.; Robinson, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. The studies reported here were performed to analyze the roles of Sproutys (Sprys), downstream targets and negative feedback regulators of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathway, in lens and corneal differentiation. Methods. Spry1 and -2 were conditionally deleted in the lens and corneal epithelial precursors using the Le-Cre transgene and floxed alleles of Spry1 and -2. Alterations in lens and corneal development were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. Results. Spry1 and -2 were upregulated in the lens fibers at the onset of fiber differentiation. FGF signaling was both necessary and sufficient for induction of Spry1 and -2 in the lens fiber cells. Spry1 and -2 single- or double-null lenses failed to separate from the overlying ectoderm and showed persistent keratolenticular stalks. Apoptosis of stalk cells, normally seen during lens vesicle detachment from the ectoderm, was inhibited in Spry mutant lenses, with concomitant ERK activation. Prox1 and p57KIP2, normally upregulated at the onset of fiber differentiation were prematurely induced in the Spry mutant lens epithelial cells. However, terminal differentiation markers such as β- or γ-crystallin were not induced. Corneal epithelial precursors in Spry1 and -2 double mutants showed increased proliferation with elevated expression of Erm and DUSP6 and decreased expression of the corneal differentiation marker K12. Conclusions. Collectively, the results indicate that Spry1 and -2 (1) through negative modulation of ERKs allow lens vesicle separation, (2) are targets of FGF signaling in the lens during initiation of fiber differentiation and (3) function redundantly in the corneal epithelial cells to suppress proliferation. PMID:21743007

  11. Correlation Between Corneal Button Size and Intraocular Pressure During Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mihyun; Lee, Yong Eun; Whang, Woong-Joo; Yoo, Young-Sik; Na, Kyung-Sun; Joo, Choun-Ki

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) in recipient and donor eyes during femtosecond laser-assisted keratoplasty (FLAK) and to assess for differences in the diameter of trephinated corneal buttons according to changes in pressure. Twenty porcine whole eyes (recipient model) and 20 porcine-corneoscleral rims (donor model) were prepared, and anterior chamber pressures were measured using a fiberoptic sensing device (Opsens, Quebec, Canada) during the femtosecond laser corneal cutting process. To determine the diameter of corneal buttons, 10 porcine whole eyes (recipient model) and 12 corneoscleral rims (donor model) of each baseline IOP were cut with the femtosecond laser programmed to the following pattern: "vertical side cut"; 1200 μm (depth), 8 mm (diameter). Digital photographs were obtained using microscopy and subsequently analyzed. The IOP (mean ± SD) for the recipient model was 10.2 (±0.9) mm Hg at baseline and ranged from 96.6 (±4.5) to ∼138.4 (±3.8) mm Hg during the corneal cutting process. This shows that the maximum IOP during FLAK increased 13.5 times compared with baseline. In the donor model, the mean pressure elevation from baseline artificial anterior chamber (AAC) pressure to corneal cutting was 15.8 (±5.4) mm Hg. This showed a positive correlation with baseline IOP [correlation coefficient (CC) = 0.827, P = 0.006]. As the baseline IOP in the recipient eye increased, trephinated corneal button size was reduced by up to 3.9% in diameter (CC = -0.945, P = 0.015). In addition, in donor eyes, the diameter was decreased by up to 11.7% as the baseline AAC pressure increased (CC = -0.934, P = 0.006). During the FLAK procedure, the IOP increases in both recipient and donor eyes. The diameter of the trephinated donor and recipient corneal buttons was decreased as the initial baseline IOP increased. Ophthalmic surgeons can determine the AAC pressure based on the baseline IOP in the recipient patient.

  12. Using genipin-crosslinked acellular porcine corneal stroma for cosmetic corneal lens implants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao; Zhou, Qiang; Zhu, Jixiang; Xiao, Jianhui; Wan, Pengxia; Zhou, Chenjing; Huang, Zheqian; Qiang, Na; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Zheng; Quan, Daping; Wang, Zhichong

    2012-10-01

    Acellular porcine corneal stroma (APCS) has been proven to maintain the matrix microenvironment and is therefore an ideal biomaterial for the repair and reconstruction of corneal stroma. This study aims to develop a method to prepare cosmetic corneal lens implants for leukoma using genipin-crosslinked APCS (Gc-APCS). The Gc-APCS was prepared from APCS immersed in 1.0% genipin aqueous solution (pH 5.5) for 4 h at 37 °C, followed by lyophilization at -10 °C. The color of the Gc-APCS gradually deepened to dark-blue. The degree of crosslinking was 45.7 ± 4.6%, measured by the decrease of basic and hydroxy amino acids. The porous structure and ultrastructure of collagenous lamellae were maintained, and the porosity and BET SSA were 72.7 ± 4.6% and 23.01 ± 3.45 m(2)/g, respectively. The Gc-APCS rehydrated to the physiological water content within 5 min and was highly resistant to collagenase digestion. There were no significant differences in the areal modulus and curvature variation between Gc-APCS and nature porcine cornea. The dark-blue pigments were stable to pH, light and implantation in vivo. Gc-APCS extracts had no inhibitory effects on the proliferation of keratocytes. Corneal neovascularization, graft degradation and corneal rejection were not observed within 6 months. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Corneal Regeneration After Photorefractive Keratectomy: A Review.

    PubMed

    Tomás-Juan, Javier; Murueta-Goyena Larrañaga, Ane; Hanneken, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) remodels corneal stroma to compensate refractive errors. The removal of epithelium and the ablation of stroma provoke the disruption of corneal nerves and a release of several peptides from tears, epithelium, stroma and nerves. A myriad of cytokines, growth factors, and matrix metalloproteases participate in the process of corneal wound healing. Their balance will determine if reepithelization and stromal remodeling are appropriate. The final aim is to achieve corneal transparency for restoring corneal function, and a proper visual quality. Therefore, wound-healing response is critical for a successful refractive surgery. Our goal is to provide an overview into how corneal wounding develops following PRK. We will also review the influence of intraoperative application of mitomycin C, bandage contact lenses, anti-inflammatory and other drugs in preventing corneal haze and post-PRK pain. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Global Survey of Corneal Transplantation and Eye Banking.

    PubMed

    Gain, Philippe; Jullienne, Rémy; He, Zhiguo; Aldossary, Mansour; Acquart, Sophie; Cognasse, Fabrice; Thuret, Gilles

    2016-02-01

    Corneal transplantation restores visual function when visual impairment caused by a corneal disease becomes too severe. It is considered the world's most frequent type of transplantation, but, to our knowledge, there are no exhaustive data allowing measurement of supply and demand, although such data are essential in defining local, national, and global strategies to fight corneal blindness. To describe the worldwide situation of corneal transplantation supply and demand. Data were collected between August 2012 and August 2013 from a systematic review of published literature in parallel with national and international reports on corneal transplantation and eye banking. In a second step, eye bank staff and/or corneal surgeons were interviewed on their local activities. Interviews were performed during international ophthalmology or eye-banking congresses or by telephone or email. Countries' national supply/demand status was classified using a 7-grade system. Data were collected from 148 countries. Corneal transplantation and corneal procurements per capita in each country. In 2012, we identified 184,576 corneal transplants performed in 116 countries. These were procured from 283,530 corneas and stored in 742 eye banks. The top indications were Fuchs dystrophy (39% of all corneal transplants performed), a primary corneal edema mostly affecting elderly individuals; keratoconus (27%), a corneal disease that slowly deforms the cornea in young people; and sequellae of infectious keratitis (20%). The United States, with 199.10-6 corneal transplants per capita, had the highest transplantation rate, followed by Lebanon (122.10-6) and Canada (117.10-6), while the median of the 116 transplanting countries was 19.10-6. Corneas were procured in only 82 countries. Only the United States and Sri Lanka exported large numbers of donor corneas. About 53% of the world's population had no access to corneal transplantation. Our survey globally quantified the considerable shortage of

  15. Interventions for recurrent corneal erosions.

    PubMed

    Watson, Stephanie L; Lee, Ming-Han H; Barker, Nigel H

    2012-09-12

    Recurrent corneal erosion is a common cause of disabling ocular symptoms and predisposes the cornea to infection. It may follow corneal trauma. Measures to prevent the development of recurrent corneal erosion following corneal trauma have not been firmly established. Once recurrent corneal erosion develops simple medical therapy (standard treatment) may lead to resolution of the episode. However, some patients continue to suffer when such therapy fails and once resolved further episodes of recurrent erosion may occur. A number of treatment and prophylactic options are then available but there is no agreement as to the best option. To assess the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic and treatment regimens for recurrent corneal erosion. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 6), MEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 13 June 2012. We also contacted researchers in the field. We included randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared a prophylactic or treatment regimen with another prophylaxis/treatment or no prophylaxis/treatment for patients with recurrent corneal erosion. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. We contacted study authors for additional information. Seven randomised and one quasi-randomised controlled trial were included in the review. The trials were heterogenous and of poor quality. Safety data presented were incomplete. For the treatment of recurrent

  16. OCT-based crystalline lens topography in accommodating eyes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Velasco-Ocana, Miriam; Martinez-Enriquez, Eduardo; Marcos, Susana

    2015-12-01

    Custom Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) provided with automatic quantification and distortion correction algorithms was used to measure anterior and posterior crystalline lens surface elevation in accommodating eyes and to evaluate relationships between anterior segment surfaces. Nine young eyes were measured at different accommodative demands. Anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature decreased at a rate of 0.78 ± 0.18 and 0.13 ± 0.07 mm/D, anterior chamber depth decreased at 0.04 ± 0.01 mm/D and lens thickness increased at 0.04 ± 0.01 mm/D with accommodation. Three-dimensional surface elevations were estimated by subtracting best fitting spheres. In the relaxed state, the spherical term accounted for most of the surface irregularity in the anterior lens (47%) and astigmatism (70%) in the posterior lens. However, in accommodated lenses astigmatism was the predominant surface irregularity (90%) in the anterior lens. The RMS of high-order irregularities of the posterior lens surface was statistically significantly higher than that of the anterior lens surface (x2.02, p<0.0001). There was significant negative correlation in vertical coma (Z3 (-1)) and oblique trefoil (Z3 (-3)) between lens surfaces. The astigmatic angle showed high degree of alignment between corneal surfaces, moderate between corneal and anterior lens surface (~27 deg), but differed by ~80 deg between the anterior and posterior lens surfaces (including relative anterior/posterior lens astigmatic angle shifts (10-20 deg).

  17. OCT-based crystalline lens topography in accommodating eyes

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Velasco-Ocana, Miriam; Martinez-Enriquez, Eduardo; Marcos, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Custom Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) provided with automatic quantification and distortion correction algorithms was used to measure anterior and posterior crystalline lens surface elevation in accommodating eyes and to evaluate relationships between anterior segment surfaces. Nine young eyes were measured at different accommodative demands. Anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature decreased at a rate of 0.78 ± 0.18 and 0.13 ± 0.07 mm/D, anterior chamber depth decreased at 0.04 ± 0.01 mm/D and lens thickness increased at 0.04 ± 0.01 mm/D with accommodation. Three-dimensional surface elevations were estimated by subtracting best fitting spheres. In the relaxed state, the spherical term accounted for most of the surface irregularity in the anterior lens (47%) and astigmatism (70%) in the posterior lens. However, in accommodated lenses astigmatism was the predominant surface irregularity (90%) in the anterior lens. The RMS of high-order irregularities of the posterior lens surface was statistically significantly higher than that of the anterior lens surface (x2.02, p<0.0001). There was significant negative correlation in vertical coma (Z3−1) and oblique trefoil (Z3−3) between lens surfaces. The astigmatic angle showed high degree of alignment between corneal surfaces, moderate between corneal and anterior lens surface (~27 deg), but differed by ~80 deg between the anterior and posterior lens surfaces (including relative anterior/posterior lens astigmatic angle shifts (10-20 deg). PMID:26713216

  18. Corneal Thickness in Highlanders.

    PubMed

    Patyal, Sagarika; Arora, Amit; Yadav, Arun; Sharma, Vijay K

    2017-03-01

    Patyal, Sagarika, Amit Arora, Arun Yadav, and Vijay K. Sharma. Corneal thickness in highlanders. High Alt Med Biol. 18:56-60, 2017. Corneal thickness is an important parameter with diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Various studies have highlighted increase in corneal thickness in lowlanders on ascending to high altitude. However, there are no studies in the published literature pertaining to corneal thickness of the highlanders who are inhabitants of such altitudes. Hence, study was carried out with objective to determine the corneal thickness of highlanders living at heights of more than 11,000 feet and compare it with corneal thickness of lowlanders. The highlander participants of the study consisted of inhabitants of Ladakh region of India at an altitude of 11,000 feet or more and lowlander participants consisted of inhabitants at an altitude of 1500 feet. A total of 254 highlanders and 212 lowlanders participated. A mean of 25 measurements of central corneal thickness (CCT) of every participant was obtained for each eye using ultrasonic pachymeter. The mean age of the participants was 41.8 (15.9) and 47.7 (17.7) years among lowlanders and highlanders, respectively. The highlanders had 11.95 μm lower mean CCT reading compared to lowlanders after adjusting for age and sex (p value <0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in mean CCT readings of right eye and left eye in either lowlanders or highlanders. Age also had a significant effect after adjustment for location and gender (p = 0.001). CCT decreased by 0.31 μm with every year increase in the age. Gender had no statistically significant effect. This study found statistically significant difference in CCT measurements between highlanders and lowlanders. The thinner corneas of highlanders may have a bearing on diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma, refractive surgery, contact lens fitting implantation of Intacs, and astigmatic keratectomy done on such patients. The study also

  19. Corneal iron ring after conductive keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Kymionis, George D; Naoumidi, Tatiana L; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Pallikaris, Ioannis G

    2003-08-01

    To report formation of corneal iron ring deposits after conductive keratoplasty. Observational case report. Case report. A 54-year-old woman underwent conductive keratoplasty for hyperopia. One year after conductive keratoplasty, iron ring pattern pigmentation was detected at the corneal epithelium of both eyes. This is the first report of the appearance of corneal iron ring deposits following conductive keratoplasty treatment in a patient. It is suggested that alterations in tear film stability, resulting from conductive keratoplasty-induced changes in corneal curvature, constitute the contributory factor for these deposits.

  20. Novel aspects of corneal angiogenic and lymphangiogenic privilege

    PubMed Central

    Ellenberg, David; Azar, Dimitri T.; Hallak, Joelle A.; Tobaigy, Faisal; Han, Kyu Yeon; Jain, Sandeep; Zhou, Zhongjun; Chang, Jin-Hong

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we provide the results of experimental studies demonstrating that corneal avascularity is an active process involving the production of anti-angiogenic factors, which counterbalance the proangiogenic/lymphangiogenic factors that are upregulated during wound healing. We also summarize pertinent published reports regarding corneal neovascularization (NV), corneal lymphangiogenesis and corneal angiogenic/lymphangiogenic privilege. We outline the clinical causes of corneal NV, and discuss the angiogenic proteins (VEGF and bFGF) and angiogenesis regulatory proteins. We also describe the role of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2, -7, and MT1-MMP, anti-angiogenic factors, and lymphangiogenic regulatory proteins during corneal wound healing. Established and potential new therapies for the treatment of corneal neovascularization are also discussed. PMID:20100589

  1. Corneal erosion and Kindler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Signes-Soler, Isabel; Rodriguez-Prats, Jose Luis; Carbonell, Stella; Tañá-Rivero, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    To describe a very common corneal pathology in a patient with Kindler syndrome. We report the case of a 21-year-old woman, who presented to the Ophthalmology Department as an emergency presentation because of ocular pain in the left eye that radiated to other areas of the face and neck. After an exhaustive clinical interview, it was determined that the patient had a rare disease (Kindler syndrome). Ophthalmologic examination revealed corneal erosion on the left eye. No other significant conditions were found. After the application of conventional treatment, the corneal integrity was completely restored. We describe a very rare syndrome. Although conventional treatment restored corneal integrity, it is important to remember that ocular signs and symptoms are often associated with systemic pathologies.

  2. Adipose Derived Stem Cells for Corneal Wound Healing after Laser Induced Corneal Lesions in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zeppieri, Marco; Salvetat, Maria Letizia; Beltrami, Antonio; Cesselli, Daniela; Russo, Rossella; Alcalde, Ignacio; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Brusini, Paolo; Parodi, Pier Camillo

    2017-12-05

    The aim of our study was to assess the clinical effectiveness of topical adipose derived stem cell (ADSC) treatment in laser induced corneal wounds in mice by comparing epithelial repair, inflammation, and histological analysis between treatment arms. Corneal lesions were performed on both eyes of 40 mice by laser induced photorefractive keratectomy. All eyes were treated with topical azythromycin bid for three days. Mice were divided in three treatment groups ( n = 20), which included: control, stem cells and basic serum; which received topical treatment three times daily for five consecutive days. Biomicroscope assessments and digital imaging were performed by two masked graders at 30, 54, 78, 100, and 172 h to analyze extent of fluorescein positive epithelial defect, corneal inflammation, etc. Immunohistochemical techniques were used in fixed eyes to assess corneal repair markers Ki67, α Smooth Muscle Actin (α-SMA) and E-Cadherin. The fluorescein positive corneal lesion areas were significantly smaller in the stem cells group on days 1 ( p < 0.05), 2 ( p < 0.02) and 3. The stem cell treated group had slightly better and faster re-epithelization than the serum treated group in the initial phases. Comparative histological data showed signs of earlier and better corneal repair in epithelium and stromal layers in stem cell treated eyes, which showed more epithelial layers and enhanced wound healing performance of Ki67, E-Cadherin, and α-SMA. Our study shows the potential clinical and histological advantages in the topical ADSC treatment for corneal lesions in mice.

  3. Adipose Derived Stem Cells for Corneal Wound Healing after Laser Induced Corneal Lesions in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Salvetat, Maria Letizia; Beltrami, Antonio; Cesselli, Daniela; Russo, Rossella; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Brusini, Paolo; Parodi, Pier Camillo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the clinical effectiveness of topical adipose derived stem cell (ADSC) treatment in laser induced corneal wounds in mice by comparing epithelial repair, inflammation, and histological analysis between treatment arms. Corneal lesions were performed on both eyes of 40 mice by laser induced photorefractive keratectomy. All eyes were treated with topical azythromycin bid for three days. Mice were divided in three treatment groups (n = 20), which included: control, stem cells and basic serum; which received topical treatment three times daily for five consecutive days. Biomicroscope assessments and digital imaging were performed by two masked graders at 30, 54, 78, 100, and 172 h to analyze extent of fluorescein positive epithelial defect, corneal inflammation, etc. Immunohistochemical techniques were used in fixed eyes to assess corneal repair markers Ki67, α Smooth Muscle Actin (α-SMA) and E-Cadherin. The fluorescein positive corneal lesion areas were significantly smaller in the stem cells group on days 1 (p < 0.05), 2 (p < 0.02) and 3. The stem cell treated group had slightly better and faster re-epithelization than the serum treated group in the initial phases. Comparative histological data showed signs of earlier and better corneal repair in epithelium and stromal layers in stem cell treated eyes, which showed more epithelial layers and enhanced wound healing performance of Ki67, E-Cadherin, and α-SMA. Our study shows the potential clinical and histological advantages in the topical ADSC treatment for corneal lesions in mice. PMID:29206194

  4. Corneal biomechanical properties in thyroid eye disease.

    PubMed

    Karabulut, Gamze Ozturk; Kaynak, Pelin; Altan, Cıgdem; Ozturker, Can; Aksoy, Ebru Funda; Demirok, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Omer Faruk

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of thyroid eye disease (TED) on the measurement of corneal biomechanical properties and the relationship between these parameters and disease manifestations. A total of 54 eyes of 27 individuals with TED and 52 eyes of 30 healthy control participants were enrolled. Thyroid ophthalmopathy activity was defined using the VISA (vision, inflammation, strabismus, and appearance/exposure) classification for TED. The intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement with Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), axial length (AL), keratometry, and central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements were taken from each patient. Corneal biomechanical properties, including corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) and noncontact IOP measurements, Goldmann-correlated IOP (IOPg) and corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc) were measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) using the standard technique. Parameters such as best corrected visual acuity, axial length, central corneal thickness, and corneal curvature were not statistically significant between the two groups (p > 0.05). IOP measured with GAT was higher in participants with TED (p < 0.001). The CH of TED patients was significantly lower than that of the control group. There was no significant difference in the corneal resistance factor between groups. However, IOPg and IOPcc were significantly higher in TED patients. CH and VISA grading of TED patients showed a negative correlation (p = 0.007). In conclusion, TED affects the corneal biomechanical properties by decreasing CH. IOP with GAT and IOPg is found to be increased in these patients. As the severity of TED increases, CH decreases in these patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Diabetic corneal neuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, R O; Peters, M A; Sobocinski, K; Nassif, K; Schultz, K J

    1983-01-01

    Corneal epithelial lesions can be found in approximately one-half of asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus. These lesions are transient and clinically resemble the keratopathy seen in staphylococcal keratoconjunctivitis. Staphylococcal organisms, however, can be isolated in equal percentages from diabetic patients without keratopathy. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy was found to be related to the presence of diabetic keratopathy after adjusting for age with analysis of covariance. The strongest predictor of both keratopathy and corneal fluorescein staining was vibration perception threshold in the toes (P less than 0.01); and the severity of keratopathy was directly related to the degree of diminution of peripheral sensation. Other predictors of keratopathy were: reduced tear breakup time (P less than 0.03), type of diabetes (P less than 0.01), and metabolic status as indicated by c-peptide fasting (P less than 0.01). No significant relationships were found between the presence of keratopathy and tear glucose levels, endothelial cell densities, corneal thickness measurements, the presence of S epidermidis, or with duration of disease. It is our conclusion that asymptomatic epithelial lesions in the nontraumatized diabetic cornea can occur as a manifestation of generalized polyneuropathy and probably represent a specific form of corneal neuropathy. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:6676964

  6. Corneal edema after phacoemulsification

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Namrata; Singhal, Deepali; Nair, Sreelakshmi P; Sahay, Pranita; Sreeshankar, SS; Maharana, Prafulla Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Phacoemulsification is the most commonly performed cataract surgery in this era. With all the recent advances in investigations and management of cataract through phacoemulsification, most of the patients are able to achieve excellent visual outcome. Corneal edema after phacoemulsification in the immediate postoperative period often leads to patient dissatisfaction and worsening of outcome. Delayed onset corneal edema often warrants endothelial keratoplasty. This review highlights the etiopathogenesis, risk factors, and management of corneal edema in the acute phase including descemet's membrane detachment (DMD) and toxic anterior segment syndrome. Various investigative modalities such as pachymetry, specular microscopy, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, and confocal microscopy have been discussed briefly. PMID:29208818

  7. Corneal complications of vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Abraham

    2015-10-01

    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a severe bilateral chronic allergic inflammatory disease of the ocular surface. In most of the cases, the disease is limited to the tarsal conjunctiva and to the limbus. However, in the more severe cases, the cornea may be involved, leading to potentially sight threatening complications. Prompt recognition of these complications is crucial in the management of VKC, which is one of the most severe ocular allergic diseases. A vicious cycle of inflammation occurs as a result of a set of reciprocal interactions between the conjunctiva and the cornea, which results in damage to the corneal epithelium and corneal stoma, and to the formation of shield ulcers and plaques, infectious keratitis, keratoconus, scarring, and limbal stem cell deficiency. These corneal complications can cause permanent decrease or loss of vision in children suffering from VKC. Corneal complications in VKC are the result of an on-going process of uncontrolled inflammation. Proper recognition of the corneal complications in VKC is crucial, as most of these can be managed or prevented by a combination of medical and surgical measures.

  8. Proteomic Analyses of Corneal Tissue Subjected to Alkali Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Toral; Eisner, Natalie; Venugopalan, Praseeda; Yang, Qin; Lam, Byron L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether exposure to alkaline chemicals results in predictable changes in corneal protein profile. To determine whether protein profile changes are indicative of severity and duration of alkali exposure. Methods. Enucleated bovine and porcine (n = 59 each) eyes were used for exposure to sodium, ammonium, and calcium hydroxide, respectively. Eyes were subjected to fluorescein staining, 5-bromo-2′-deoxy-uridine (BrdU) labeling. Excised cornea was subjected to protein extraction, spectrophotometric determination of protein amount, dynamic light scattering and SDS-PAGE profiling, mass spectrometric protein identification, and iTRAQ-labeled quantification. Select identified proteins were subjected to Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. Results. Alkali exposure resulted in lower protein extractability from corneal tissue. Elevated aggregate formation was found with strong alkali exposure (sodium hydroxide>ammonium, calcium hydroxide), even with a short duration of exposure compared with controls. The protein yield after exposure varied as a function of postexposure time. Protein profiles changed because of alkali exposure. Concentration and strength of the alkali affected the profile change significantly. Mass spectrometry identified 15 proteins from different bands with relative quantification. Plexin D1 was identified for the first time in the cornea at a protein level that was further confirmed by Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. Conclusions. Exposure to alkaline chemicals results in predictable and reproducible changes in corneal protein profile. Stronger alkali, longer durations, or both, of exposure resulted in lower yields and significant protein profile changes compared with controls. PMID:20861482

  9. Corona sign: manifestation of peripheral corneal epithelial edema as a possible marker of the progression of corneal endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomoyuki; Hara, Yuko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Zheng, Xiaodong; Suzuki, Takashi; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2016-09-01

    To describe a characteristic form of the corona sign and its clinical relevance to the degree of corneal endothelial decompensation and investigate the underlying mechanism using a rabbit model. These observational cases include 31 patients undergoing penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) and 15 patients undergoing Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) with special attention to the circumferentially developed corneal epithelial edema. We also conducted a laboratory observation of horizontal water flow in the rabbit cornea. We consistently observed the corona sign at the superior periphery during the initial stage of corneal endothelial decompensation after PKP. With progressive corneal endothelial cellular loss, the epithelial edema gradually expanded circumferentially in the periphery. The endothelial cellular density associated with the corona sign significantly (P < 0.01) decreased compared with that without the sign. The endothelial cellular density decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in cases with a circumferential corona sign compared with a superior corona sign. After DSAEK, however, the corneal epithelial edema subsided from the center but persisted peripherally as a corona sign in all cases. By 3 months postoperatively, the epithelial edema was confined to the superior periphery along with uneventful corneal endothelial healing. Rabbit experiments showed that total corneal endothelial decompensation decreased the horizontal intracorneal water migration (Inoue-Ohashi phenomenon) in the corneal periphery and induced peripheral corneal edema. The slit-lamp microscopic findings of the corona-like epithelial edema in the peripheral cornea are associated with the stage of corneal endothelial function. To support this, the developmental mechanism of the corona sign was demonstrated experimentally.

  10. Corneal imaging by second and third harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocas, Arnaud; Jay, Louis; Mottay, Eric; Brunette, Isabelle; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki

    2008-02-01

    Advanced imaging methods are essential tools for improved outcome of refractive surgery. Second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy are noninvasive high-resolution imaging methods, which can discriminate the different layers of the cornea, thus having strong impact on the outcome of laser surgery. In this work, we use an Ytterbium femtosecond laser as the laser source, the longer wavelength of which reduces scattering, and allows simultaneous SHG and THG imaging. We present SHG and THG images and profiles of pig corneas that clearly show the anterior surface of the cornea, the entry in the stroma and its end, and the posterior surface of the cornea. These observations allow localizing the epithelium, the stroma and the endothelium. Other experiments give information about the structure and cytology of the corneal layers.

  11. Risk factors for donor endothelial loss in eye bank-prepared posterior lamellar corneal tissue for descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Chi; Alvarez Paraz, Carisa M; Cajucom-Uy, Howard Yu; Agahari, Djoni; Sethuraman, Selvam; Tan, Donald T-H; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate donor, tissue, and precut procedure risk factors for endothelial cell density (ECD) loss in posterior lamellar corneal tissue preparation by an eye bank for Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty. A total of 259 corneoscleral rims precut by the Singapore Eye Bank from October 2011 to August 2013 were evaluated. Donor characteristics, tissue characteristics, and precut procedure parameters were analyzed. The mean donor age was 57.18 ± 11.35 years, and the mean cutting transition time was 4.16 ± 0.75 seconds. The mean ECD was 2826 ± 225 and 2787 ± 224 cells per square millimeter before and after precutting, respectively, with an average ECD change of -1.38% ± 3.28%. The precutting procedure failure rate was 1.2%. Mutivariate regression analysis showed that an older donor age, a higher ECD before cutting, and a slower cutting transition speed were significant factors. Corneas with an ECD >2800 cells per square millimeter before precutting, cutting transition time >5.5 seconds, and corneas with donor age >65 years were significantly more likely to have greater than 5% ECD loss after precutting (odds ratio, 6.42, 1.66, and 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-29.43, 1.45-2.72, and 1.66-5.82, respectively). Donor source, death-to-preservation time (range, 0.67-10.88 hours), death-to-precutting time (range, 0-7 days), and graft thickness (range, 43-232 μm) were not statistically significant factors. The ECD loss in the precut tissue prepared by the eye bank was very low. The risk factors identified provide better understanding of how to improve the quality and safety profiles when preparing graft tissue for Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty.

  12. Randomized Trial Comparing Amniotic Membrane Transplantation with Lamellar Corneal Graft for the Treatment of Corneal Thinning.

    PubMed

    de Farias, Charles C; Allemann, Norma; Gomes, José Á P

    2016-04-01

    There are few studies comparing different surgical procedures for the treatment of corneal thinning. Lamellar corneal transplantation (LCT) has been reported to be efficient, but its results can be jeopardized by allograft rejection, opacification, or high astigmatism. Amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) has been considered a good alternative, but it is not as resistant as LCT and the tissue can be reabsorbed after surgery. A prospective, randomized, interventional, and comparative study of consecutive patients with corneal thinning over 6 months was performed. Ophthalmological examination was performed before transplant surgery and then repeated 1, 7, 15, 30, 90, and 180 days after surgery and ultrasound biomicroscopy was performed before and then 30, 90, and 180 days after surgery to assess corneal thinning. Herpes simplex infection was the main cause of corneal thinning (9 eyes), followed by surgery (cataract, glaucoma, 5 cases), rheumatoid arthritis (1), chemical burn (1), perforating trauma (1), previous band keratopathy treatment (1), and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (1). Although all patients showed significant increase in final thickness in the area of thinning, it was higher in those submitted to LCT at 180 days postoperatively. Regardless of the surgical technique, all patients showed epithelialization. Patients undergoing AMT showed an 89% decrease in neovascularization. Final corrected distance visual acuity was better in patients submitted to AMT. LCT proved to be the best option for treating corneal thinning. AMT represents an alternative that allows good visual recovery but does not restore corneal thickness as efficiently as LCT.

  13. Bilateral atypical nodular posterior scleritis.

    PubMed

    Kranias, G; Tyradellis, C; Krebs, T P; Augsburger, J J

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate ocular features of nodular posterior scleritis simulating choroidal melanoma. A 60-year old woman presented with blurred vision in her right eye of two weeks duration. On examination she had a mild right-globe proptosis with an episcleral nodular mass as well as a large elevated nonpigmented choroidal mass involving the nasal quadrant. A and B-scan ultrasonography showed a medium to high-reflective solid choroidal mass. MRI demonstrated a bi-convex mass in the medial aspect of the right globe with signal characteristics compatible with choroidal melanoma. Biopsy of the extraocular lesion demonstrated chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate suggestive of posterior scleritis. She responded to corticosteroid therapy. On evaluation 41 months later she was noted to have a similar choroidal mass in the left eye. The physician should be aware of the clinical manifestations and diagnostic hall marks of nodular posterior scleritis in order to differentiate this inflammatory process from choroidal melanoma.

  14. Corneal anesthetic abuse and Candida keratitis.

    PubMed

    Chern, K C; Meisler, D M; Wilhelmus, K R; Jones, D B; Stern, G A; Lowder, C Y

    1996-01-01

    Topical corneal anesthetic abuse is a self-inflicted injury, causing profound corneal morbidity. Superimposed infection is an important complicating factor. The authors report four patients with confirmed topical anesthetic abuse of the cornea, in whom Candida keratitis developed. A retrospective review of the medical records of four patients with confirmed topical corneal anesthetic abuse and fungal keratitis. A 21-year-old woman, two 28-year-old women, and a 35-year-old man were included in the study. All these patients sustained a corneal injury, prompting the chronic use of topical anesthetics (0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride in 3 patients, and 0.5% tetracaine hydrochloride and 0.4% benoxinate hydrochloride in the other). Corneal findings included epithelial defects in all patients, focal infiltrate in one patient, and ring-shaped stromal infiltrate in three patients. Topical anesthetic was discontinued, all patients initially were treated empirically with antibacterial agents, and three patients received topical corticosteroids. Subsequent corneal cultures grew Candida spp, Candida albicans specifically in three patients, and local and systemic antifungal therapy was started. Corneas in two patients re-epithelialized; a conjunctival flap was performed on another patient with a descemetocele; and the remaining patient was lost to follow-up, although repeat fungal cultures yielded no growth. Corneal superinfection with Candida may occur during topical anesthetic abuse. Therapy includes discontinuation of the anesthetic and institution of antifungal therapy.

  15. [Recent studies on corneal epithelial barrier function].

    PubMed

    Liu, F F; Li, W; Liu, Z G; Chen, W S

    2016-08-01

    Corneal epithelium, the outermost layer of eyeball, is the main route for foreign materials to enter the eye. Under physiological conditions, the corneal epithelial superficial cells form a functionally selective permeability barrier. Integral corneal epithelial barrier function not only ensures the enrolling of nutrients which is required for regular metabolism, but also prevents foreign bodies, or disease-causing microorganism invasion. Recently, a large number of clinical and experimental studies have shown that abnormal corneal epithelial barrier function is the pathological basis for many ocular diseases. In addition, some study found that corneal epithelial barrier constitutes a variety of proteins involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and a series of physiological and pathological processes. This paper reviewed recent studies specifically on the corneal epithelial barrier, highlights of its structure, function and influence factors. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 631-635).

  16. Posterior chamber lens implantation with scleral fixation in children with traumatic cataract.

    PubMed

    Caca, Ihsan; Sahin, Alparslan; Ari, Seyhmus; Alakus, Fuat

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of posterior chamber lens implantation with scleral fixation (SF-PCIOL) in children with traumatic cataract. Twenty-four eyes of 24 cases were included. All patients had corneal or corneoscleral lacerations that were primarily repaired. Traumatic cataract subsequently developed and SF-PCIOL was performed due to insufficient posterior capsule support. The average age of the patients was 5.8 years (range: 4 to 10 years). All cases had SF-PCIOL implanted via internal route using triangular double scleral flaps made of 9-0 polypropylene after a complete anterior vitrectomy. Average follow-up was 14.6 ± 4.3 months (range: 11 to 18 months). Visual acuity was increased at the last visit in 23 (96%) patients. Common postoperative complications were fibrinous reaction in 6 (25%) patients, transient intraocular pressure increase in 4 (17%) patients, membrane formation requiring removal in 1 (4%) patient, transient intraocular hemorrhage as vitreous hemorrhage in 1 (4%) patient, and retinal detachment in 1 (4%) patient after the postoperative second month. SF-PCIOL is an effective and reliable method in patients with pediatric traumatic cataract who had insufficient posterior capsule support. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Influence of the difference between corneal and refractive astigmatism on LASIK outcomes using solid-state technology.

    PubMed

    Piñero, David P; Ribera, David; Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J; Ruiz-Fortes, Pedro; Blanes-Mompó, Francisco J; Alzamora-Rodríguez, Antonio; Artola, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the influence of the difference between preoperative corneal and refractive astigmatism [ocular residual astigmatism (ORA)] on outcomes obtained after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery for correction of myopic astigmatism using the solid-state laser technology. One hundred one consecutive eyes with myopia or myopic astigmatism of 55 patients undergoing LASIK surgery using the Pulzar Z1 solid-state laser (CustomVis Laser Pty Ltd, currently CV Laser) were included. Visual and refractive changes at 6 months postoperatively and changes in ORA and anterior corneal astigmatism and posterior corneal astigmatism (PCA) were analyzed. Postoperatively, uncorrected distance visual acuity improved significantly (P < 0.01). Likewise, refractive cylinder magnitude and spherical equivalent were reduced significantly (P < 0.01). In contrast, no significant changes were observed in ORA magnitude (P = 0.81) and anterior corneal astigmatism (P = 0.12). The mean overall efficacy and safety indices were 0.96 and 1.01, respectively. These indices were not correlated with preoperative ORA (r = -0.15, P = 0.15). Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between ORA (r = 0.81, P < 0.01) and PCA postoperatively, but not preoperatively (r = 0.12, P = 0.25). Likewise, a significant correlation of ORA with manifest refraction was only found postoperatively (r = -0.38, P < 0.01). The magnitude of ORA does not seem to be a predictive factor of efficacy and safety of myopic LASIK using a solid-state laser platform. The higher relevance of PCA after surgery in some cases may explain the presence of unexpected astigmatic residual refractive errors.

  18. Corneal Re-innervation and Sensation Recovery in Patients with Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus: An In Vivo and Ex Vivo Study of Corneal Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Cruzat, Andrea; Hamrah, Pedram; Cavalcanti, Bernardo M.; Zheng, Lixin; Colby, Kathryn; Pavan-Langston, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study corneal reinnervation and sensation recovery in Herpes zoster Ophthalmicus (HZO). Methods Two patients with HZO were studied over time with serial corneal esthesiometry and laser in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). A Boston keratoprosthesis (B-KPro) type 1 was implanted and the explanted corneal tissues were examined by immunofluorescence histochemistry for βIII-tubulin to stain for corneal nerves. Results The initial central corneal IVCM performed in each patient, showed a complete lack of the subbasal nerve plexus, which was in accordance with severe loss of sensation (0 of 6 cm) measured by esthesiometry. When IVCM was repeated 2 years later prior to undergoing surgery, Case 1 showed a persistent lack of central subbasal nerves and sensation (0 of 6). In contrast, Case 2 showed regeneration of the central subbasal nerves (4,786 µm/mm2) with partial recovery of corneal sensation (2.5 of 6 cm). Immunostaining of the explanted corneal button in Case 1 showed no corneal nerves while Case 2, showed central and peripheral corneal nerves. Eight months after surgery, IVCM was again repeated in the donor tissue around the B-KPro in both patients, to study innervation of the corneal transplant. Case 1 showed no nerves, while Case 2 showed new nerves growing from the periphery into the corneal graft. Conclusions We demonstrate that regaining corneal innervation and function is possible in patients with HZO as shown by corneal sensation, IVCM, and ex-vivo immunostaining, indicating zoster neural damage is not always permanent and it may recover over an extended period of time. PMID:26989956

  19. Ultra-high speed OCT allows measurement of intraocular pressure, corneal geometry, and corneal stiffness using a single instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manmohan; Han, Zhaolong; Nair, Achuth; Schill, Alexander; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2018-02-01

    Screening for ocular diseases, such as glaucoma and keratoconus, includes measuring the eye-globe intraocular pressure (IOP) and corneal biomechanical properties. However, currently available clinical tools cannot quantify corneal tissue material parameters, which can provide critical information for detecting diseases and evaluating therapeutic outcomes. Here, we demonstrate measurement of eye-globe IOP, corneal elasticity, and corneal geometry of in situ porcine corneas with a technique termed applanation optical coherence elastography (Appl-OCE) with single instrument. We utilize an ultrafast phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography system comprised of a 4X buffered Fourier domain mode-locked swept source laser with an Ascan rate of 1.5 MHz and a 7.3 kHz resonant scanner. The IOP was measured by imaging the response of in situ porcine corneas to a large force air-puff. As with other noncontact tonometers, the time when the cornea was applanated during the inwards and outwards motion was correlated to a measure air-pressure temporal profile. The IOP was also measured with a commercially available rebound tonometer for comparison. The stiffness of the corneas was assessed by directly imaging and analyzing the propagation of a focused micro air-pulse induced elastic wave, and the corneal geometry was obtained from the OCT structural image. Our results show that corneal thickness decreased as IOP increased, and that corneal stiffness increased with IOP. Moreover, the IOP measurements made by Appl-OCE were more closely correlated with the artificially set IOP than the rebound tonometer, demonstrating the capabilities of Appl-OCE to measure corneal stiffness, eye-globe IOP, and corneal geometry with a single instrument.

  20. Corneal modeling for analysis of photorefractive keratectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Vecchia, Michael A.; Lamkin-Kennard, Kathleen

    1997-05-01

    Procedurally, excimer photorefractive keratectomy is based on the refractive correction of composite spherical and cylindrical ophthalmic errors of the entire eye. These refractive errors are inputted for correction at the corneal plane and for the properly controlled duration and location of laser energy. Topography is usually taken to correspondingly monitor spherical and cylindrical corneorefractive errors. While a corneal topographer provides surface morphologic information, the keratorefractive photoablation is based on the patient's spherical and cylindrical spectacle correction. Topography is at present not directly part of the procedural deterministic parameters. Examination of how corneal curvature at each of the keratometric reference loci affect the shape of the resultant corneal photoablated surface may enhance the accuracy of the desired correction. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology to utilize corneal topography for construction of models depicting pre- and post-operative keratomorphology for analysis of photorefractive keratectomy. Multiple types of models were developed then recreated in optical design software for examination of focal lengths and other optical characteristics. The corneal models were developed using data extracted from the TMS I corneal modeling system (Computed Anatomy, New York, NY). The TMS I does not allow for manipulation of data or differentiation of pre- and post-operative surfaces within its platform, thus models needed to be created for analysis. The data were imported into Matlab where 3D models, surface meshes, and contour plots were created. The data used to generate the models were pre- and post-operative curvatures, heights from the corneal apes, and x-y positions at 6400 locations on the corneal surface. Outlying non-contributory points were eliminated through statistical operations. Pre- and post- operative models were analyzed to obtain the resultant changes in the corneal surfaces during PRK

  1. [The relations of corneal, lenticular and total astigmatism].

    PubMed

    Liang, D; Guan, Z; Lin, J

    1995-06-01

    To determine the relations of corneal, lenticular and total astigmatism and the changes of the astigmatism with age. Out-patients with refractive errors were refracted with retinoscope after using cycloplegic drops and measured the radii of anterior corneal curvature. One hundred and ninety-four cases (382 eyes) with refractive errors were studied. Of the eyes 67.9% had regular corneal astigmatism, 68.1% irregular lenticular astigmatism and 60.7% regular total astigmatism, 88.5% of the corneal astigmatism has the same quality as the total astigmatism. The total astigmatism in 46% of the eyes included the summation of corneal and lenticular astigmatism, but in 41.3% of the eyes irregular lenticular astigmatism corrected the regular corneal astigmatism. The astigmatism of cornea, lens and total astigmatism changed from regular to irregular with the increase of age. The linear correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between the power of horizontal corneal refraction and age, and a negative corrlation between the power of vertical corneal refraction and age. The shape of cornea was the major cause of total astigmatism. The influence of lens on the total astigmatism was different. The reasons for the change of the total astigmatism from regular to irregular with the increase of age were the changes of the power of corneal refraction, particularly the increase of the power of horizontal corneal refraction and lenticular irregular astigmatism.

  2. Corneal collagen crosslinking for corneal ectasia of post-LASIK: one-year results

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Fan, Zheng-Jun; Peng, Xiu-Jun

    2012-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the efficacy and safety of corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) to prevent the progression of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) corneal ectasia. METHODS In a prospective, nonrandomized, single-centre study, CXL was performed in 20 eyes of 11 patients who had LASIK for myopic astigmatism and subsequently developed keratectasia.The procedure included instillation of 0.1% riboflavin-20% dextrane solution 30 minutes before UVA irradiation and every 5 minutes for an additional 30 minutes during irradiation. The eyes were evaluated preoperatively and at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month intervals. The complete ophthalmologic examination comprised uncorrected visual acuity, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, endothelial cell count, ultrasound pachymetry, corneal topography, and in vivo confocal microscopy. RESULTS CXL appeared to stabilise or partially reverse the progression of post-LASIK corneal ectasia without apparent complication in our cohort. UCVA and BCVA improvements were statistically significant(P<0.05) beyond 12 months after surgery (improvement of 0.07 and 0.13 logMAR at 1 year, respectively). Mean baseline flattest meridian keratometry and mean steepest meridian keratometry reduction (improvement of 2.00 and 1.50 diopters(D), respectively) were statistically significant (P<0.05) at 12 months postoperatively. At 1 year after CXL, mean endothelial cell count did not deteriorate. Mean thinnest cornea pachymetry increased significantly. CONCLUSION The results of the study showed a long-term stability of post-LASIK corneal ectasia after crosslinking without relevant side effects. It seems to be a safe and promising procedure to stop the progression of post-LASIK keratectasia, thereby avoiding or delaying keratoplasty. PMID:22762048

  3. Outcomes of cataract surgery in eyes with a low corneal endothelial cell density.

    PubMed

    Yamazoe, Katsuya; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Hotta, Kazuki; Satake, Yoshiyuki; Konomi, Kenji; Den, Seika; Shimazaki, Jun

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the surgical outcomes of cataract surgery in eyes with a low preoperative corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) and analyze factors affecting the prognosis. Tokyo Dental College, Ichikawa General Hospital, Chiba, Japan. Noncomparative case series. Eyes with a preoperative ECD of less than 1000 cells/mm(2) that had cataract surgery between 2006 and 2010 were identified. Standard phacoemulsification with intraocular lenses was performed using the soft-shell technique. The rate of endothelial cell loss, incidence of bullous keratopathy, and risk factors were retrospectively assessed. Sixty-one eyes (53 patients) with a low preoperative ECD were identified. Preoperative diagnoses or factors regarded as causing endothelial cell loss included Fuchs dystrophy (20 eyes), laser iridotomy (16 eyes), keratoplasty (10 eyes), traumatic injury (3 eyes), trabeculectomy (3 eyes), corneal endotheliitis (2 eyes), and other (7 eyes). The corrected distance visual acuity improved from 0.59 ± 0.49 logMAR preoperatively to 0.32 ± 0.48 logMAR postoperatively (P<.001). The mean ECD was 693 ± 172 cells/mm(2) and 611 ± 203 cells/mm(2), respectively (P=.001). The mean rate of endothelial cell loss was 11.5% ± 23.4%. Greater ECD loss was associated with a shorter axial length (AL) (<23.0 mm) and diabetes mellitus. Bullous keratopathy developed in 9 eyes (14.8%) and was associated with posterior capsule rupture. The results suggest that modern techniques for cataract surgery provide excellent visual rehabilitation in many patients with a low preoperative ECD. Shorter AL, diabetes mellitus, and posterior capsule rupture were risk factors for greater ECD loss and bullous keratopathy. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fabrication of a corneal model composed of corneal epithelial and endothelial cells via a collagen vitrigel membrane functioned as an acellular stroma and its application to the corneal permeability test of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Takezawa, Toshiaki

    2018-05-29

    A collagen vitrigel membrane (CVM) we developed can function as both a scaffold for cells and a pathway for chemicals. To extrapolate the corneal permeability of chemicals in vivo, we proposed six corneal models using the CVM. Thin and thick CVMs were utilized as models for Bowman's membrane (BM) and an acellular-stroma (AS), respectively. Models for a corneal epithelium (CEpi), a corneal epithelium-acellular stroma (CEpi-AS), a corneal epithelium-endothelium (CEpi-Endo) and a corneal epithelium-acellular stroma-endothelium (CEpi-AS-Endo) were fabricated by culturing corneal epithelial cells and/or corneal endothelial cells on the surface of CVMs. Subsequently, the permeability coefficient (P app ) value of each model was calculated using five chemicals with different molecular radii; cyanocobalamin and four FITC-dextrans (FD-4, FD-10, FD-20 and FD-40). The slopes of P app versus molecular radii of those chemicals in the both BM and AS models were almost similar to data using an excised rabbit corneal stroma. The ratios of P app values in models for BM, CEpi and CEpi-Endo against those in data using an excised rabbit cornea were calculated as 75.4, 6.4 and 4.5-folds for FD-4 and 38.7, 10.0 and 4.2-folds for FD-10, respectively. Similarly, those in models for AS, CEpi-AS and CEpi-AS-Endo were calculated as 26.1, 2.5 and 0.6-folds for FD-4 and 26.1, 1.5 and 0.6-folds for FD-10, respectively. These results suggest that the CEpi-AS-Endo model with both the barrier function of corneal cell layers and the diffusion capacity of chemicals in thick CVM is most appropriate for extrapolating the corneal permeability of chemicals in vivo . The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  5. Designing Hydrogel Adhesives for Corneal Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Grinstaff, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Today, corneal wounds are repaired using nylon sutures. Yet there are a number of complications associated with suturing the cornea, and thus there is interest in an adhesive to replace or supplement sutures in the repair of corneal wounds. We are designing and evaluating corneal adhesives prepared from dendrimers – single molecular weight, highly branched polymers. We have explored two strategies to form these ocular adhesives. The first involves a photocrosslinking reaction and the second uses a peptide ligation reactions to couple the individual dendrimers together to from the adhesive. These adhesives were successfully used to repair corneal perforations, close the flap produced in a LASIK procedure, and secure a corneal transplant. PMID:17889330

  6. Molecular expression in transfected corneal endothelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fan; Miao, Zhuang; Lu, Chengwei; Hao, Jilong

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the capability of human corneal endothelial cells serving as immunological cells. Expression of HLA-DP, -DQ, -DR, CD40, CD80, and CD86 was determined by immunohistochemical methods. Meanwhile, purified peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cocultured with human corneal endothelial cells which were pre-treated with and without -IFN respectively, activation of lymphocytes was determined by FACS analysis. In coculture system, T lymphocyte was activated by corneal endothelial cells, HLA-DP, -DQ, -DR and CD40 expression were increased by - IFN induction. Costimulatory molecular CD80 was shown on the endothelial cells. Human corneal endothelial cells were assumed to be involved in the corneal transplantation rejection process as potential antigen presenting cells.

  7. Granular corneal dystrophy Groenouw type I (GrI) and Reis-Bücklers' corneal dystrophy (R-B). One entity?

    PubMed

    Møller, H U

    1989-12-01

    This paper maintains that Reis-Bücklers' corneal dystrophy and granular corneal dystrophy Groenouw type I are one and the same disease. Included are some of the technically best photographs of Reis-Bücklers' dystrophy found in the literature, and these are compared with photographs from patients with granular corneal dystrophy examined by the author. It is argued that most of the histological and ultrastructural findings on Reis Bücklers' dystrophy described in the literature are either congruent with what is found in granular corneal dystrophy or unspecific.

  8. Descemet Membrane Thickening as a Sign for the Diagnosis of Corneal Graft Rejection: An Ex Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    VanDenBerg, Ryan; Diakonis, Vasilios F; Bozung, Alison; Gameiro, Gustavo Rosa; Fischer, Oliver; El Dakkak, Ahmed; Ulloa-Padilla, Jan Paul; Anagnostopoulos, Apostolos; Dubovy, Sander; Abou Shousha, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    To disclose, using an ex vivo study, the histopathological mechanism behind in vivo thickening of the endothelium/Descemet membrane complex (En/DM) observed in rejected corneal grafts (RCGs). Descemet membrane (DM), endothelium, and retrocorneal membranes make up the total En/DM thickness. These layers are not differentiable by high-definition optical coherence tomography; therefore, the source of thickening is unclear from an in vivo perspective. A retrospective ex vivo study (from September 2015 to December 2015) was conducted to measure the thicknesses of DM, endothelium, and retrocorneal membrane in 54 corneal specimens (31 RCGs and 23 controls) using light microscopy. Controls were globes with posterior melanoma without corneal involvement. There were 54 corneas examined ex vivo with mean age 58.1 ± 12.2 in controls and 51.7 ± 27.9 years in RCGs. The ex vivo study uncovered the histopathological mechanism of En/DM thickening to be secondary to significant thickening (P < 0.001) of DM (6.5 ± 2.4 μm) in RCGs compared with controls (3.9 ± 1.5 μm). Our ex vivo study shows that DM is responsible for thickening of the En/DM in RCGs observed in vivo by high-definition optical coherence tomography and not the endothelium or retrocorneal membrane.

  9. The characteristics of premature infants with transient corneal haze.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu-Hung; Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Yang, San-Nan; Chang, Shun-Jen; Chuang, Lea-Yea; Wu, Wen-Chuan

    2018-01-01

    The etiology of transient corneal haze in premature infants is not known and how it relates to clinical outcomes in premature infants is not clear. To study associated factors of transient corneal haze in premature infants. We performed a retrospective study of 261 premature infants from retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening in the neonatal intensive care unit at a tertiary referral hospital. Characteristics of premature infants with and without corneal haze were analyzed by correlation tests, Chi-square tests, and logistic regressions were used for statistical analyses. Associations between corneal haze and birth weight (BW), gestational age at birth (GA), central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, and other systemic and ophthalmic data were evaluated. The incidence of corneal haze was 13.4%. Lower BW, lower GA, packed red blood cells (RBC) transfusion, more days on oxygen, older maternal age, bronchopulmonary disease, and stage 3 ROP are associated with corneal haze. The severity of corneal haze decreased with infants' postmenstrual age. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that BW and maternal age are the most important predictors of corneal haze. Low BW and older maternal age are the most important predictors of corneal haze in premature infants. Premature infants with corneal haze could carry more systemic and ocular morbidities. Hence they may require more clinical attention. Corneal haze is unlikely to hinder the treatment of ROP. However, it is possible that corneal haze could hinder the examination of ROP in some infants. If corneal haze does interfere with ROP screening, a closer, more conservative follow-up schedule with a senior ophthalmologist experienced in managing ROP is recommended.

  10. Using corneal confocal microscopy to track changes in the corneal layers of dry eye patients after autologous serum treatment.

    PubMed

    Mahelkova, Gabriela; Jirsova, Katerina; Seidler Stangova, Petra; Palos, Michalis; Vesela, Viera; Fales, Ivan; Jiraskova, Nada; Dotrelova, Dagmar

    2017-05-01

    In vivo corneal confocal microscopy allows the examination of each layer of the cornea in detail and the identification of pathological changes at the cellular level. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible effects of a three-month treatment with autologous serum eye-drops in different corneal layers of patients with severe dry eye disease using corneal confocal microscopy. Twenty-six patients with dry eye disease were included in the study. Corneal fluorescein staining was performed. The corneas of the right eyes were examined using in vivo corneal confocal microscopy before and after a three-month treatment with autologous serum drops. The densities of superficial and basal epithelial cells, Langerhans cells, the keratocytes and activated keratocytes, the density of endothelial cells and the status of the sub-basal nerve plexus fibres were evaluated. A significant decrease in corneal fluorescein staining was found after the three-month autologous serum treatment (p = 0.0006). The basal epithelial cell density decreased significantly (p = 0.001), while the density of superficial epithelial cells did not change significantly (p = 0.473) nor did the number of Langerhans cells or activated keratocytes (p = 0.223; p = 0.307, respectively). There were no differences in the other corneal cell layers or in the status of the nerve fibres. The results demonstrate the ability of corneal confocal microscopy to evaluate an improvement in the basal epithelial cell layer of the cornea after autologous serum treatment in patients with dry eye disease. More studies with longer follow-up periods are needed to elucidate the suitability of corneal confocal microscopy to follow the effect of autologous serum treatment on nerve fibres or other corneal layers in dry eye disease patients. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  11. Does corneal hysteresis correlate with endothelial cell density?

    PubMed

    Akova-Budak, Berna; Kıvanç, Sertaç Argun

    2015-05-21

    Our aim was to determine if there is a correlation between corneal biomechanical properties, endothelial cell count, and corneal pachymetry in healthy corneas. Ninety-two eyes of all subjects underwent complete ocular examination, including intraocular pressure measurement by Goldmann applanation tonometer, objective refraction, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Topographic measurements and corneal pachymetry were performed using a Scheimpflug-based (Pentacam, Oculus, Germany) corneal topographer. Corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were measured with an Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA, Reichert Ophthalmic Instruments, Buffalo, NY). Endothelial cell count measurement was done using a specular microscope (CellChek, Konan, USA). Right eye values of the subjects were taken for the study. The mean CH was 11.5±1.7 mmHg and the mean CRF was 11.2±1.4 mmHg. Mean intraocular pressure was 15.3±2.3 mmHg. The mean endothelial cell count was 2754±205 cells/mm2. No correlation was found between biomechanical properties of cornea and endothelial cell count. There was a significant positive correlation between CH, CRF, and corneal thickness (p<0.001; r=0.79). The corneal biomechanical properties significantly correlated with corneal thickness. We found no correlation between CH and CRF with the endothelial cell density in normal subjects.

  12. Effect of central corneal thickness, corneal curvature, and axial length on applanation tonometry.

    PubMed

    Kohlhaas, Markus; Boehm, Andreas G; Spoerl, Eberhard; Pürsten, Antje; Grein, Hans J; Pillunat, Lutz E

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal curvature, and axial length on applanation tonometry in an in vivo study. In a masked, prospective clinical trial, we examined 125 eyes of 125 patients scheduled for cataract surgery. Corneal curvature was measured by means of keratometry and axial length by A-scan ultrasonography. By cannulating the anterior chamber before surgery, intraocular pressure (IOP) was set to 20, 35, and 50 mm Hg in a closed system by means of a water column. After measuring thickness, the IOP was measured with an applanation tonometer. Pearson product moment correlations and multiple linear regression analyses were performed, and significance levels were evaluated by the paired, 2-tailed t test. The difference between measured and real IOP was significantly dependent (P < .001) on CCT. The associations between IOP and corneal curvature or IOP and axial length were not statistically significant (P = .31). The association between IOP reading and CCT is shown in the "Dresdner correction table," which illustrates an approximately 1-mm Hg correction for every 25-microm deviation from a CCT of 550 microm. The correction values were positive as thickness decreased and negative as thickness increased. Central corneal thickness significantly affects IOP readings obtained by applanation tonometry according to the Goldmann principle. A correction of IOP readings by considering CCT according to the Dresdner correction table might be helpful for determining an accurate IOP value.

  13. Progress in corneal wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Ljubimov, Alexander V.; Saghizadeh, Mehrnoosh

    2015-01-01

    Corneal wound healing is a complex process involving cell death, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Many similarities are observed in the healing processes of corneal epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells, as well as cell-specific differences. Corneal epithelial healing largely depends on limbal stem cells and remodeling of the basement membrane. During stromal healing, keratocytes get transformed to motile and contractile myofibroblasts largely due to activation of transforming growth factor-β system. Endothelial cells heal mostly by migration and spreading, with cell proliferation playing a secondary role. In the last decade, many aspects of wound healing process in different parts of the cornea have been elucidated, and some new therapeutic approaches have emerged. The concept of limbal stem cells received rigorous experimental corroboration, with new markers uncovered and new treatment options including gene and microRNA therapy tested in experimental systems. Transplantation of limbal stem cell-enriched cultures for efficient re-epithelialization in stem cell deficiency and corneal injuries has become reality in clinical setting. Mediators and course of events during stromal healing have been detailed, and new treatment regimens including gene (decorin) and stem cell therapy for excessive healing have been designed. This is a very important advance given the popularity of various refractive surgeries entailing stromal wound healing. Successful surgical ways of replacing the diseased endothelium have been clinically tested, and new approaches to accelerate endothelial healing and suppress endothelial-mesenchymal transformation have been proposed including Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor eye drops and gene therapy to activate TGF-β inhibitor SMAD7. Promising new technologies with potential for corneal wound healing manipulation including microRNA, induced pluripotent stem cells to generate corneal epithelium, and

  14. Progress in corneal wound healing.

    PubMed

    Ljubimov, Alexander V; Saghizadeh, Mehrnoosh

    2015-11-01

    Corneal wound healing is a complex process involving cell death, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Many similarities are observed in the healing processes of corneal epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells, as well as cell-specific differences. Corneal epithelial healing largely depends on limbal stem cells and remodeling of the basement membrane. During stromal healing, keratocytes get transformed to motile and contractile myofibroblasts largely due to activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) system. Endothelial cells heal mostly by migration and spreading, with cell proliferation playing a secondary role. In the last decade, many aspects of wound healing process in different parts of the cornea have been elucidated, and some new therapeutic approaches have emerged. The concept of limbal stem cells received rigorous experimental corroboration, with new markers uncovered and new treatment options including gene and microRNA therapy tested in experimental systems. Transplantation of limbal stem cell-enriched cultures for efficient re-epithelialization in stem cell deficiency and corneal injuries has become reality in clinical setting. Mediators and course of events during stromal healing have been detailed, and new treatment regimens including gene (decorin) and stem cell therapy for excessive healing have been designed. This is a very important advance given the popularity of various refractive surgeries entailing stromal wound healing. Successful surgical ways of replacing the diseased endothelium have been clinically tested, and new approaches to accelerate endothelial healing and suppress endothelial-mesenchymal transformation have been proposed including Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor eye drops and gene therapy to activate TGF-β inhibitor SMAD7. Promising new technologies with potential for corneal wound healing manipulation including microRNA, induced pluripotent stem cells to generate corneal

  15. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Diabetic Corneal Epithelial Wound Healing Through TSG-6-Dependent Stem Cell Activation and Macrophage Switch.

    PubMed

    Di, Guohu; Du, Xianli; Qi, Xia; Zhao, Xiaowen; Duan, Haoyun; Li, Suxia; Xie, Lixin; Zhou, Qingjun

    2017-08-01

    To explore the role and mechanism of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in corneal epithelial wound healing in type 1 diabetic mice. Diabetic mice were treated with subconjunctival injections of BM-MSCs or recombinant tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated gene/protein-6 (TSG-6). The corneal epithelial wound healing rate was examined by fluorescein staining. The mRNA and protein expression levels of TSG-6 were measured by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. The infiltrations of leukocytes and macrophages were analyzed by flow cytometry and immunofluoresence staining. The effect of TSG-6 was further evaluated in cultured limbal epithelial stem/progenitor cells, macrophages, and diabetic mice by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown. Local MSC transplantation significantly promoted diabetic corneal epithelial wound healing, accompanied by elevated corneal TSG-6 expression, increased corneal epithelial cell proliferation, and attenuated inflammatory response. Moreover, in cultured human limbal epithelial stem/progenitor cells, TSG-6 enhanced the colony-forming efficiency, stimulated mitogenic proliferation, and upregulated the expression level of ΔNp63. Furthermore, in diabetic mouse cornea and in vitro macrophage culture, TSG-6 alleviated leukocyte infiltration and promoted the polarization of recruited macrophages to anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes with increased phagocytotic capacity. In addition, the promotion of epithelial stem/progenitor cell activation and macrophage polarization by MSC transplantation was largely abrogated by shRNA knockdown of TSG-6. This study provided the first evidence of TSG-6 secreted by MSCs promoting corneal epithelial wound healing in diabetic mice through activating corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and accelerating M2 macrophage polarization.

  16. High Prevalence of Posterior Polymorphous Corneal Dystrophy in the Czech Republic; Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping and Dating an Ancestral Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Filipec, Martin; Jirsova, Katerina; Reinstein Merjava, Stanislava; Deloukas, Panos; Webb, Tom R.; Bhattacharya, Shomi S.; Ebenezer, Neil D.; Morris, Alex G.; Hardcastle, Alison J.

    2012-01-01

    Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) is a rare autosomal dominant genetically heterogeneous disorder. Nineteen Czech PPCD pedigrees with 113 affected family members were identified, and 17 of these kindreds were genotyped for markers on chromosome 20p12.1- 20q12. Comparison of haplotypes in 81 affected members, 20 unaffected first degree relatives and 13 spouses, as well as 55 unrelated controls, supported the hypothesis of a shared ancestor in 12 families originating from one geographic location. In 38 affected individuals from nine of these pedigrees, a common haplotype was observed between D20S48 and D20S107 spanning approximately 23 Mb, demonstrating segregation of disease with the PPCD1 locus. This haplotype was not detected in 110 ethnically matched control chromosomes. Within the common founder haplotype, a core mini-haplotype was detected for D20S605, D20S182 and M189K2 in all 67 affected members from families 1–12, however alleles representing the core mini-haplotype were also detected in population matched controls. The most likely location of the responsible gene within the disease interval, and estimated mutational age, were inferred by linkage disequilibrium mapping (DMLE+2.3). The appearance of a disease-causing mutation was dated between 64–133 generations. The inferred ancestral locus carrying a PPCD1 disease-causing variant within the disease interval spans 60 Kb on 20p11.23, which contains a single known protein coding gene, ZNF133. However, direct sequence analysis of coding and untranslated exons did not reveal a potential pathogenic mutation. Microdeletion or duplication was also excluded by comparative genomic hybridization using a dense chromosome 20 specific array. Geographical origin, haplotype and statistical analysis suggest that in 14 unrelated families an as yet undiscovered mutation on 20p11.23 was inherited from a common ancestor. Prevalence of PPCD in the Czech Republic appears to be the highest worldwide and our data

  17. Optical transfer function in corneal topography for clinical contrast sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bende, Thomas; Jean, Benedikt J.; Oltrup, Theo

    2000-06-01

    Customized ablation aiming to optimize visual acuity in refractive surgery requires objective data on corneal surface, like the contrast sensitivity. Fast ray tracing, using the high resolution 3-D elevation data in conjunction with Snell's law describe the diffraction of the incident rays and the resulting image on a 'virtual retina.' A retroprojection leads to a 'surface quality map.' For objective contrast sensitivity measurement a sinus (or cos) wave of different frequencies is used for a calculated projection in analogy to the clinical contrast sensitivity charts. The projection on the individual cornea surface is analyzed for the Modular Transfer Function (MTF) and the Phase Shift Function (PSF) as a function of frequencies. PSF, not yet clinically used, is a parameter to determine even minimal corneal tilt. The resulting corneal aberration map (CAM) as described here and applied to a 4.5 D PRK (OZD equals 6.5 mm) reveals that the area of minimal aberration measures only 4.2 mm. The CAM can likewise be used to describe the 'quality' of a laser system's ablation pattern based upon the area of minimal optical aberrations. The CAM only describes surface aberration with high resolution, an advantage over wave front sensing which measures all accumulated optical aberrations including the changing ones of the lens during accommodation and the transient ones due to lens aging and early cataract formation.

  18. Trends in the distribution of donor corneal tissue and indications for corneal transplantation: the New Zealand National Eye Bank Study 2000-2009.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, William J; Brookes, Nigel H; Twohill, Helen C; Moffatt, S Louise; Pendergrast, David G C; Stewart, Joanna M; McGhee, Charles N J

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the indications for corneal transplantation and the distribution of donor corneal tissue in New Zealand. Analysis of the prospective database of the New Zealand National Eye Bank. A total of 2205 corneal transplants were assessed. New Zealand National Eye Bank records were analysed for the decade 2000-2009. Variables analysed included donor corneal tissue distribution (including public and private sectors), indications for transplantation, donor corneal tissue recipient demographics (age and gender) and corneal transplantation type. An average of 220 corneal transplants were performed each year over the 10-year period (n=2205). The median recipient age was 45years (range 3 to 102years) and 54.0% of recipients were male. In total 71.8% of transplants were performed in the public health sector. Surgeons in the Auckland metropolitan area performed 47.2% of all corneal transplants. The most common indications for corneal transplantation were: keratoconus (41.1%), repeat transplant (17.0%), aphakic/pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (13.9%), corneal dystrophy (10.7%), keratitis (7.9%) and trauma (3.7%). Overall, penetrating keratoplasty accounted for 90.7% of all corneal transplants, however, during the latter half of the study there was a progressive shift in transplantation type, with deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty and Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty combined accounting for 32.3% of all transplants in the final year of the study period. This New Zealand National Eye Bank study provides valuable data regarding the indications for corneal transplantation, transplant recipient demographics and changes in transplantation type in New Zealand over the past decade. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  19. Corneal indentation in the early management of acute angle closure.

    PubMed

    Masselos, Katherine; Bank, Allan; Francis, Ian C; Stapleton, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    To describe in detail corneal indentation (CI) in the management of a series of patients treated for acute angle closure (AAC). Retrospective, consecutive, noncomparative case series. Seven consecutive patients (8 eyes) referred to the authors with the diagnosis of AAC. Patients presented to the Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, or to the private practices of the authors. Seven patients (8 eyes) underwent CI as part of their early management for AAC. Reduction in intraocular pressure (IOP), symptoms of AAC and pain relief. Of the 7 patients, complete data were available for 6. The IOP was significantly reduced (P<0.05) and 3 of 4 patients with severe acute pain reported early resolution of pain after CI. The average reduction in IOP was 20.9 mmHg (range +1 to -45). All patients subsequently underwent definitive management with laser peripheral iridotomies or lensectomy using phacoemulsification. Three patients treated acutely with CI without any medical agents had a mean IOP reduction of 21 mmHg (range, 20-23) after indentation. Corneal indentation is a rapid, portable, and effective method of reducing elevated IOP in the setting of AAC. It can be performed with instrumentation that is readily at hand and allows for rapid pain relief. This reduction in IOP improves corneal clarity and permits further definitive management of the patient with AAC. The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

  20. Corneal Thickness as a Predictor of Corneal Transplant Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Verdier, David D.; Sugar, Alan; Baratz, Keith; Beck, Roy; Dontchev, Mariya; Dunn, Steven; Gal, Robin L.; Holland, Edward J.; Kollman, Craig; Lass, Jonathan H.; Mannis, Mark J.; Penta, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Assess corneal thickness (CT) and correlation with graft outcome after penetrating keratoplasty in the Cornea Donor Study. Methods 887 subjects with a corneal transplant for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs or pseudophakic corneal edema) had post-operative CT measurements throughout a 5 year follow up time. Relationships between baseline (recipient, donor, and operative) factors and CT were explored. Proportional hazards models were used to assess association between CT and graft failure. Relationship between CT and cell density was assessed with a longitudinal repeated measures model and Spearman correlation estimates. Results Higher longitudinal CT measurements were associated with diagnosis of pseudophakic or aphakic corneal edema (P<0.001), intraocular pressure > 25mmHg during the first post-operative month (P=0.003), white (non-Hispanic) donor race (P=0.002) and respiratory causes of donor death (P<0.001). Among those without graft failure within the first post-operative year, the 5-year cumulative incidence (±95% CI) of graft failure was 5% ± 5% in those with a 1-year CT ≤500μm, 5% ± 3% for CT 501 – 550μm, 7% ± 4% for CT 551 – 600μm and 20% ± 11% for CT >600μm. In multivariate analysis, both 1 year CT and cell density were associated with subsequent graft failure (P=0.002 and 0.009). CT increase was modestly associated with endothelial cell loss during follow up (r=-0.29). Conclusion During the first 5 years following penetrating keratoplasty, CT can serve as a predictor of graft survival. However, CT is not a substitute for cell density measurement as both measures were independently predictive of graft failure. PMID:23343949

  1. Post-Ocular Trauma Corneal Staphyloma in a Child Living in an Underdeveloped Region of Eastern Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sitompul, Ratna; Kusumowidagdo, Gladys; Matiur, Eiko B.; Barliana, Julie D.; Sitorus, Rita S.; Sungkar, Saleha

    2018-01-01

    Ocular trauma occurring in children often leads to visual impairment or blindness when it is not properly managed. This often occurs in underdeveloped regions with difficult access to professional care at local health facilities. We report a case of post-trauma corneal staphyloma in an underdeveloped region of eastern Indonesia to illustrate the importance of proper management of ocular trauma in areas lacking such expertise and where patients have difficulty accessing even basic health care. During a community health outreach in Southwest Sumba, eastern Indonesia in May 2017, a 7-year-old boy presented with white protrusion of the left eye of 3 years' duration following an event of sharp trauma. The patient lived in an inaccessible and impoverished area. Upon contemporary examination, visual acuity of the left eye was 1/300 while that of the right eye was 6/6. Anterior examination revealed corneal staphyloma of the left eye, and its posterior segment could not be evaluated. The patient was transported to an eye care center in Jakarta, receiving a stock prosthesis implant while awaiting a corneal evisceration procedure with dermofat graft. Ocular trauma is one of the most common causes of visual impairment in children. This case illustrates the consequences of inadequate post-trauma management and the importance of prevention of infection. PMID:29681830

  2. Severing corneal nerves in one eye induces sympathetic loss of immune privilege and promotes rejection of future corneal allografts placed in either eye

    PubMed Central

    Paunicka, Kathryn J.; Mellon, Jessamee; Robertson, Danielle; Petroll, Matthew; Brown, Joseph R.; Niederkorn, Jerry Y.

    2015-01-01

    Less than 10% of corneal allografts undergo rejection even though HLA matching is not performed. However, second corneal transplants experience a three-fold increase in rejection, which is not due to prior sensitization to histocompatibility antigens shared by the first and second transplants since corneal grafts are selected at random without histocompatibility matching. Using a mouse model of penetrating keratoplasty we found that 50% of the initial corneal transplants survived, yet 100% of the subsequent corneal allografts (unrelated to the first graft) placed in the opposite eye underwent rejection. The severing of corneal nerves that occurs during surgery induced substance P (SP) secretion in both eyes, which disabled T regulatory cells that are required for allograft survival. Administration of an SP antagonist restored immune privilege and promoted graft survival. Thus, corneal surgery produces a sympathetic response that permanently abolishes immune privilege of subsequent corneal allografts, even those placed in the opposite eye and expressing a completely different array of foreign histocompatibility antigens from the first corneal graft. PMID:25872977

  3. Corneal biomechanical properties in healthy children measured by corneal visualization scheimpflug technology.

    PubMed

    He, Miao; Ding, Hui; He, Hong; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Liangping; Zhong, Xingwu

    2017-05-17

    The aim of this study was to evaluate corneal biomechanical properties in a population of healthy children in China using corneal visualization Scheimpflug technology (CST). All children underwent complete bi-ocular examinations. CST provided intraocular pressure (IOP) and corneal biomechanical parameters, including time, velocity, length and deformation amplitude at first applanation (A1T, A1V, A1L, A1DA), at second applanation (A2T, A2V, A2L, A2DA), highest concavity time (HCT), maximum deformation amplitude (MDA), peak distance (PD), and radius of curvature (RoC). Pearson correlation analysis was used to assess the impacts of demographic factors, central corneal thickness (CCT), spherical equivalent (SE), and IOP on corneal biomechanics. One hundred eight subjects (32 girls and 76 boys) with the mean age of 10.80 ± 4.13 years (range 4 to18 years) were included in the final analyses. The right and left eyes were highly symmetrical in SE (p = 0.082), IOP (p = 0.235), or CCT (p = 0.210). Mean A1T of the right eyes was 7.424 ± 0.340 ms; the left eyes 7.451 ± 0.365 ms. MDA was 0.993 ± 0.102 mm in the right eyes and 0.982 ± 0.100 mm in the left eyes. Mean HCT of the right eyes was 16.675 ± 0.502 ms; the left eyes 16.735 ± 0.555 ms. All CST parameters of both eye were remarkably symmetrical with the exception of A2L (p = 0.006), A1DA (p = 0.025). The majority of CST parameters of both eyes were significantly correlated with CCT and IOP (p < 0.05). However, age, SE, and sex exert little influence on the CST measurements. This study found interocular symmetry in corneal biomechanics in healthy children eyes. Several CST biomechanical parameters in children are modified by CCT and IOP.

  4. Two cases of corneal perforation after oral administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: oral NSAID-induced corneal damage.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Ikuya; Matsuo, Toshihiko; Okamoto, Kazuo; Matsushita, Kyoko; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    To report 2 cases of corneal perforation associated with the use of oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In a 62-year-old woman and a 79-year-old woman, corneal perforation occurred after 7 days and 5 months of oral NSAIDs administration, respectively. After NSAIDs were discontinued, the cornea epithelialized and the anterior chamber formed within 14 and 10 days, respectively. It is well known that topical NSAIDs cause corneal perforation. Observations in the present cases suggest that the oral administration of NSAIDs may also cause corneal damage, and hence, medical professionals should consider the risk of damage to the cornea when administering these drugs orally.

  5. N-Acetylcysteine Increases Corneal Endothelial Cell Survival in a Mouse Model of Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Chul; Meng, Huan; Jun, Albert S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated survival effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on cultured corneal endothelial cells exposed to oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and in a mouse model of early-onset Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). Cultured bovine corneal endothelial cell viability against oxidative and ER stress was determined by CellTiter-Glo® luminescent reagent. Two-month-old homozygous knock-in Col8a2L450W/L450W mutant (L450W) and C57/Bl6 wild-type (WT) animals were divided into two groups of 15 mice. Group I received 7 mg/mL NAC in drinking water and Group II received control water for 7 months. Endothelial cell density and morphology were evaluated with confocal microscopy. Antioxidant gene (iNos) and ER stress/unfolded protein response gene (Grp78 and Chop) mRNA levels and protein expression were measured in corneal endothelium by real time PCR and Western blotting. Cell viability of H2O2 and thapsigargin exposed cells pre-treated with NAC was significantly increased compared to untreated controls (pitalic>0.01). Corneal endothelial cell density (CD) was higher (p=0.001) and percent polymegathism was lower (p=0.04) in NAC treated L450W mice than in untreated L450W mice. NAC treated L450W endothelium showed significant upregulation of iNos, whereas Grp78 and Chop were downregulated compared to untreated L450W endothelium by real time PCR and Western blotting. NAC increases survival in cultured corneal endothelial cells exposed against ER and oxidative stress. Systemic NAC ingestion increases corneal endothelial cell survival which is associated with increased antioxidant and decreased ER stress markers in a mouse model of early-onset FECD. Our study presents in vivo evidence of a novel potential medical treatment for FECD. PMID:24952277

  6. Algorithm for correcting the keratometric error in the estimation of the corneal power in eyes with previous myopic laser refractive surgery.

    PubMed

    Camps, Vicente J; Piñero, David P; Mateo, Veronica; Ribera, David; de Fez, Dolores; Blanes-Mompó, Francisco J; Alzamora-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    To calculate theoretically the errors in the estimation of corneal power when using the keratometric index (nk) in eyes that underwent laser refractive surgery for the correction of myopia and to define and validate clinically an algorithm for minimizing such errors. Differences between corneal power estimation by using the classical nk and by using the Gaussian equation in eyes that underwent laser myopic refractive surgery were simulated and evaluated theoretically. Additionally, an adjusted keratometric index (nkadj) model dependent on r1c was developed for minimizing these differences. The model was validated clinically by retrospectively using the data from 32 myopic eyes [range, -1.00 to -6.00 diopters (D)] that had undergone laser in situ keratomileusis using a solid-state laser platform. The agreement between Gaussian (Pc) and adjusted keratometric (Pkadj) corneal powers in such eyes was evaluated. It was found that overestimations of corneal power up to 3.5 D were possible for nk = 1.3375 according to our simulations. The nk value to avoid the keratometric error ranged between 1.2984 and 1.3297. The following nkadj models were obtained: nkadj = -0.0064286r1c + 1.37688 (Gullstrand eye model) and nkadj = -0.0063804r1c + 1.37806 (Le Grand). The mean difference between Pkadj and Pc was 0.00 D, with limits of agreement of -0.45 and +0.46 D. This difference correlated significantly with the posterior corneal radius (r = -0.94, P < 0.01). The use of a single nk for estimating the corneal power in eyes that underwent a laser myopic refractive surgery can lead to significant errors. These errors can be minimized by using a variable nk dependent on r1c.

  7. Effect of Topically Applied Azithromycin on Corneal Epithelial and Endothelial Apoptosis in a Rat Model of Corneal Alkali Burn.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Sedat; Karaca, Turan; Ertekin, Yusuf Haydar; Comez, Arzu Taskiran; Ersan, Ismail; Demirtas, Selim; Elmas, Sait; Tufan, Hasan Ali; Turkon, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the antiapoptotic effect of topically administered azithromycin (AZM) on corneal epithelial and endothelial cells in a rat model of corneal alkali burn. Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups as pseudovehicle (group 1), control (group 2), alkali burned (group 3), and treatment (group 4) groups. Alkali injury was induced only in the right corneas of rats belonging to groups 3 and 4 using 1N NaOH. The rats in group 3 and the rats in group 4 were respectively treated either with an artificial tear gel or with 1.5% AZM eye drops for 5 days. At the fifth day of the experiment, the apoptosis in the corneal epithelium and endothelium of all rats was assessed using a terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. In addition, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) density in the corneal epithelium was measured in all rats. The mean numbers of TUNEL+ cells in the corneal epithelium and endothelium of rats in group 3 were 117.1 ± 23.8 and 34.6.± 11.3, respectively, whereas in group 4, they were 75.8 ± 15.7 and 14.7 ± 3.5, respectively. Also the mean TNF-α densities in the corneal epithelium in group 3 and group 4 were 2.65 ± 1.3 and 1.65 ± 1.1, respectively. There was a significant decrease in the mean number of TUNEL+ cells in the corneal epithelium and endothelium and in the mean TNF-α density in the corneal epithelium of rats in group 4, when compared with group 3. Topically applied AZM can decrease TNF-α-induced apoptosis in corneal alkali burn.

  8. Punctiform and Polychromatophilic Dominant Pre-Descemet Corneal Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Lagrou, Lisa; Midgley, Julian; Romanchuk, Kenneth Gerald

    2016-04-01

    To describe the slit-lamp appearance and corneal confocal microscopy of autosomal dominant punctiform and polychromatophilic pre-Descemet corneal dystrophy in 3 members of the same family. Slit-lamp examination of a 9-year-old boy showed bilateral polychromatophilic corneal opacities in a pre-Descemet membrane location evenly deposited limbus to limbus, both horizontally and vertically, with an intervening clear cornea. The corneal endothelium was normal on corneal confocal microscopy, with hyperreflective opacities of various sizes located pre-Descemet membrane. Slit-lamp examination of the patient's father and brother revealed identical crystalline deposition in the pre-Descemet corneal stroma. The remainders of the eye examinations were otherwise normal in all 3 individuals, and all were asymptomatic. The general physical examination and laboratory investigations of the patient were all normal, as were the laboratory investigations of the other 2 family members. There was no progression in the corneal findings over 6 months of follow-up. These patients likely illustrate a rare autosomal dominant pre-Descemet crystalline keratopathy that has been reported only once previously.

  9. Diabetic corneal neuropathy: clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bikbova, Guzel; Oshitari, Toshiyuki; Baba, Takayuki; Bikbov, Mukharram; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic keratopathy is characterized by impaired innervation of the cornea that leads to decreased sensitivity, with resultant difficulties with epithelial wound healing. These difficulties in wound healing put patients at risk for ocular complications such as surface irregularities, corneal infections, and stromal opacification. Pathological changes in corneal innervations in diabetic patients are an important early indicator of diabetic neuropathy. The decrease in corneal sensitivity is strongly correlated with the duration of diabetes as well as the severity of the neuropathy. This review presents recent findings in assessing the ocular surface as well as the recent therapeutic strategies for optimal management of individuals with diabetes who are susceptible to developing diabetic neuropathy.

  10. Quantitative OCT-based longitudinal evaluation of intracorneal ring segment implantation in keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Ortiz, Sergio; Alejandre, Nicolas; Jiménez-Alfaro, Ignacio; Marcos, Susana

    2013-09-09

    To characterize the geometrical properties of keratoconic corneas upon intracorneal ring segments (ICRS) implantation, using custom-developed optical coherence tomography (OCT). Ten keratoconic corneas were measured pre- and post-ICRS surgery (7, 30, and 90 days). Corneal topographic and pachymetric maps were obtained from three-dimensional (3D) images acquired with OCT, provided with custom algorithms for image analysis, distortion correction, and quantification. The 3D positioning of the ICRS was also estimated longitudinally, relative to the pupil center and iris plane. Preoperatively, the average corneal radii of curvature were 7.02 ± 0.54 mm (anterior) and 5.40 ± 0.77 mm (posterior), and the minimum corneal thickness was 384 ± 60 μm. At 90 days, the average corneal radii of curvature were 7.26 ± 0.53 mm (anterior) and 5.44 ± 0.71 mm (posterior), and the minimum corneal thickness was 396 ± 46 μm. ICRS implantation produced a significant decrease of corneal power (by 1.71 ± 1.83 diopters [D] at 90 days). Corneal irregularities (defined by high order Zernike terms of the corneal elevation maps) and the corneal thickness distribution decreased in some patients and increased in others. The 3D ICRS depth matched the planned ICRS depth well (within 23.93 ± 23.49 μm). On average, ICRS showed an overall tilt of -6.8 ± 2.6° (temporal) and -2.1 ± 0.8° (superior) at 7 days. Spectral OCT (sOCT) provided with distortion correction and analysis tools, is an excellent instrument for evaluating the changes produced by ICRS in keratoconic corneas, and for analyzing the 3D ICRS position during the follow up. ICRS produced flattening on the anterior corneal surface, although the benefit for corneal surface regularization varied across patients.

  11. Femtosecond Lasers and Corneal Surgical Procedures.

    PubMed

    Marino, Gustavo K; Santhiago, Marcony R; Wilson, Steven E

    2017-01-01

    Our purpose is to present a broad review about the principles, early history, evolution, applications, and complications of femtosecond lasers used in refractive and nonrefractive corneal surgical procedures. Femtosecond laser technology added not only safety, precision, and reproducibility to established corneal surgical procedures such as laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and astigmatic keratotomy, but it also introduced new promising concepts such as the intrastromal lenticule procedures with refractive lenticule extraction (ReLEx). Over time, the refinements in laser optics and the overall design of femtosecond laser platforms led to it becoming an essential tool for corneal surgeons. In conclusion, femtosecond laser is a heavily utilized tool in refractive and nonrefractive corneal surgical procedures, and further technological advances are likely to expand its applications. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  12. Finite Element Modeling of the Posterior Eye in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feola, Andrew; Raykin, Julia; Mulugeta, Lealem; Gleason, Rudolph; Myers, Jerry G.; Nelson, Emily S.; Samuels, Brian; Ethier, C. Ross

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity experienced during spaceflight affects astronauts in various ways, including weakened muscles and loss of bone density. Recently, visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome has become a major concern for space missions lasting longer than 30 days. Astronauts suffering from VIIP syndrome have changes in ocular anatomical and visual impairment that persist after returning to earth. It is hypothesized that a cephalad fluid shift in microgravity may increase the intracranial pressure (ICP), which leads to an altered biomechanical environment of the posterior globe and optic nerve sheath (ONS).Currently, there is a lack of knowledge of how elevated ICP may lead to vision impairment and connective tissue changes in VIIP. Our goal was to develop a finite element model to simulate the acute effects of elevated ICP on the posterior eye and optic nerve sheath. We used a finite element (FE) analysis approach to understand the response of the lamina cribrosa and optic nerve to the elevations in ICP thought to occur in microgravity and to identify which tissue components have the greatest impact on strain experienced by optic nerve head tissues.

  13. Compensation of Corneal Oblique Astigmatism by Internal Optics: a Theoretical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Thibos, Larry N.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Oblique astigmatism is a prominent optical aberration of peripheral vision caused by oblique incidence of rays striking the refracting surfaces of the cornea and crystalline lens. We inquired whether oblique astigmatism from these two sources should be expected, theoretically, to have the same or opposite signs across the visual field at various states of accommodation. Methods Oblique astigmatism was computed across the central visual field for a rotationally-symmetric schematic-eye using optical design software. Accommodative state was varied by altering the apical radius of curvature and separation of the biconvex lens’s two aspheric surfaces in a manner consistent with published biometry. Oblique astigmatism was evaluated separately for the whole eye, the cornea, and the isolated lens over a wide range of surface curvatures and asphericity values associated with the accommodating lens. We also computed internal oblique astigmatism by subtracting corneal oblique astigmatism from whole-eye oblique astigmatism. Results A visual field map of oblique astigmatism for the cornea in the Navarro model follows the classic, textbook description of radially-oriented axes everywhere in the field. Despite large changes in surface properties during accommodation, intrinsic astigmatism of the isolated human lens for collimated light is also radially oriented and nearly independent of accommodation both in theory and in real eyes. However, the magnitude of ocular oblique astigmatism is smaller than that of the cornea alone, indicating partial compensation by the internal optics. This implies internal oblique astigmatism (which includes wavefront propagation from the posterior surface of the cornea to the anterior surface of the lens and intrinsic lens astigmatism) must have tangentially-oriented axes. This non-classical pattern of tangential axes for internal astigmatism was traced to the influence of corneal power on the angles of incidence of rays striking the

  14. Compensation of corneal oblique astigmatism by internal optics: a theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Thibos, Larry N

    2017-05-01

    Oblique astigmatism is a prominent optical aberration of peripheral vision caused by oblique incidence of rays striking the refracting surfaces of the cornea and crystalline lens. We inquired whether oblique astigmatism from these two sources should be expected, theoretically, to have the same or opposite signs across the visual field at various states of accommodation. Oblique astigmatism was computed across the central visual field for a rotationally-symmetric schematic-eye using optical design software. Accommodative state was varied by altering the apical radius of curvature and separation of the biconvex lens's two aspheric surfaces in a manner consistent with published biometry. Oblique astigmatism was evaluated separately for the whole eye, the cornea, and the isolated lens over a wide range of surface curvatures and asphericity values associated with the accommodating lens. We also computed internal oblique astigmatism by subtracting corneal oblique astigmatism from whole-eye oblique astigmatism. A visual field map of oblique astigmatism for the cornea in the Navarro model follows the classic, textbook description of radially-oriented axes everywhere in the field. Despite large changes in surface properties during accommodation, intrinsic astigmatism of the isolated human lens for collimated light is also radially oriented and nearly independent of accommodation both in theory and in real eyes. However, the magnitude of ocular oblique astigmatism is smaller than that of the cornea alone, indicating partial compensation by the internal optics. This implies internal oblique astigmatism (which includes wavefront propagation from the posterior surface of the cornea to the anterior surface of the lens and intrinsic lens astigmatism) must have tangentially-oriented axes. This non-classical pattern of tangential axes for internal astigmatism was traced to the influence of corneal power on the angles of incidence of rays striking the internal lens. Partial

  15. A novel explanation of corneal clouding in a bone marrow transplant-treated patient with Hurler syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ching; Bothun, Erick D.; Hardten, David R.; Tolar, Jakub; McLoon, Linda K.

    2016-01-01

    One common complication of mucopolysaccharidosis I-Hurler (MPS1-H) is corneal clouding, which occurs despite current treatments, including bone marrow transplantation. Human corneas were obtained from a 14 year old subject with MPS1-H and visual disability from progressive corneal clouding despite a prior bone marrow transplant at age 2. This was compared to a cornea from a 17 year old donated to our eye bank after his accidental death. The corneas were analyzed microscopically after staining with Alcian blue, antibodies to collagen I, IV, VI, and α-smooth muscle actin. Differences in levels of expression of the indicated molecules were assessed. Corneas from Hurler and control mice were examined similarly to determine potential mechanistic overlap. The MPS1-H subject cornea showed elevations in mucopolysaccharide deposition. The MPS1-H and Hurler mice corneas showed increased and disorganized expression of collagen I and IV relative to the control corneas. The MPS1-H corneas also showed increased and disordered expression of collagen VI. Positive expression of α-smooth muscle actin indicated myofibroblast conversion within the MPS1-H cornea in both the patient and mutant mouse material compared to normal human and control mouse cornea. Increased deposition of collagens and smooth muscle actin correlate with corneal clouding, providing a potential mechanism for corneal clouding despite bone marrow transplantation in MPS1-H patients. It might be possible to prevent or slow the onset of corneal clouding by treating the cornea with drugs known to prevent myofibroblast conversion. PMID:27235795

  16. Corneal epithelial wound healing and bactericidal effect of conditioned medium from human uterine cervical stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Maria A; Sendon-Lago, Juan; Eiro, Noemi; Treviño, Mercedes; Gonzalez, Francisco; Yebra-Pimentel, Eva; Giraldez, Maria Jesus; Macia, Manuel; Lamelas, Maria Luz; Saa, Jorge; Vizoso, Francisco; Perez-Fernandez, Roman

    2015-01-22

    To evaluate the effect of conditioned medium from human uterine cervical stem cells (CM-hUCESCs) on corneal epithelial healing in a rat model of dry eye after alkaline corneal epithelial ulcer. We also tested the bactericidal effect of CM-hUCESCs. Dry eye was induced in rats by extraocular lacrimal gland excision, and corneal ulcers were produced using NaOH. Corneal histologic evaluation was made with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. Real-time PCR was used to evaluate mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines. We also studied the bactericidal effect of CM-hUCESCs in vitro and on infected corneal contact lenses (CLs) using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria. In addition, in order to investigate proteins from CM-hUCESCs that could mediate these effects, we carried out a human cytokine antibody array. After injury, dry eyes treated with CM-hUCESCs significantly improved epithelial regeneration and showed reduced corneal macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α) and TNF-α mRNA expression as compared to untreated eyes and eyes treated with culture medium or sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic drops. In addition, we found in CM-hUCESCs high levels of proteins, such as tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 1 and 2, fibroblast growth factor 6 and 7, urokinase receptor, and hepatocyte growth factor, that could mediate these effects. In vitro, CM-hUCESCs showed a clear bactericidal effect on both E. coli and S. epidermidis and CLs infected with S. epidermidis. Analyses of CM-hUCESCs showed elevated levels of proteins that could be involved in the bactericidal effect, such as the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligands 1, 6, 8, 10, and the chemokine (C-C motif) ligands 5 and 20. Treatment with CM-hUCESCs improved wound healing of alkali-injured corneas and showed a strong bactericidal effect on CLs. Patients using CLs and suffering from dry eye, allergies induced by commercial solutions, or small corneal injuries could benefit from this treatment

  17. Interocular high-order corneal wavefront aberration symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Marco; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Serrao, Sebastiano

    2006-04-01

    The interocular symmetry of the high-order corneal wavefront aberration (WA) in a population of myopic eyes was analyzed before and after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). The preoperative and one-year postoperative corneal aberration data (from third to seventh Zernike orders) for 4- and 7-mm pupils from right and left eyes were averaged after correcting for the effects of enantiomorphism to test for mirror symmetry. Also, the mean corneal point-spread function (PSF) for right and left eyes was calculated. Preoperatively, a moderate and high degree of correlation in the high-order corneal WA between eyes was found for 4- and 7-mm pupils, respectively. Myopic PRK did not significantly change the interocular symmetry of corneal high-order aberrations. No discernible differences in the orientation PSF between eyes were observed one year after surgery in comparison with the preoperative state over the two analyzed pupils.

  18. Single crowns in the resorbed posterior maxilla supported by either 6-mm implants or by 11-mm implants combined with sinus floor elevation surgery: a 1-year randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Guljé, Felix L; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to assess the clinical performance of single crowns in the posterior maxilla supported by either 6-mm or 11-mm implants combined with maxillary sinus floor elevation. 41 consecutive patients with one missing premolar or molar in the posterior maxilla and with an estimated bone height of 6 to 8 mm in that area were included. Each patient was randomly allocated to one of the two treatment groups, namely to receive an 11-mm implant (Osseo Speed 4.0 S, Dentsply Implants, Mölndal, Sweden) in combination with maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery or to receive a 6-mm implant (Osseo Speed 4.0 S) without any grafting. After a 3-month osseointegration period, all implants were restored with custom-made titanium abutments and cemented zirconia-based porcelain crowns. Outcome measures were: implant survival; radiographic bone changes; plaque accumulation; bleeding tendency; peri-implant inflammation; presence of dental calculus; biological and technical complications; and patients' satisfaction. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed at placement of the crown and 12 months thereafter. Patients' satisfaction was scored before treatment and after 12 months of functioning of the crown. One patient of the 11 mm implant group died during the follow-up. No implant failed and no biological or technical complications occurred. From loading to the 12 months follow-up, no difference was found in mean marginal bone changes between the groups (bone resorption in both groups 0.1 ± 0.3 mm). Clinical items revealed very healthy peri-implant soft tissues in both groups. Patients' satisfaction scores were high in both groups. 6-mm implants and 11-mm implants combined with sinus floor elevation surgery are equally successful to support a single crown in the resorbed posterior maxilla after 1-year follow-up.

  19. Surgical management of corneal infections.

    PubMed

    Tuli, Sonal; Gray, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the options for, and recent developments in, the surgical treatment of corneal infections. Although the mainstay of treatment of corneal infections is topical antimicrobial agents, surgical intervention may be necessary in a number of cases. These include advanced disease at presentation, resistant infections, and progressive ulceration despite appropriate treatment. Prompt and appropriate treatment can make the difference between a good outcome and loss of vision or the eye. There are a number of surgical therapies available for corneal infections. Preferred therapeutic modalities differ based on the size, causation, and location of the infection but consist of either replacement of the infected tissue or structural support of the tissue to allow healing. Although there are no completely novel therapies that have been developed recently, there have been incremental improvements in the existing treatment modalities making them more effective, easier, and safer. Several options are available for surgically managing corneal infections. Ophthalmologists should select the optimal procedure based on the individual patient's situation. http://links.lww.com/COOP/A20.

  20. Surgical management of corneal infections

    PubMed Central

    Tuli, Sonal; Gray, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to discuss the options for, and recent developments in, the surgical treatment of corneal infections. While the mainstay of treatment of corneal infections is topical antimicrobial agents, surgical intervention may be necessary in a number of cases. These include advanced disease at presentation, resistant infections, and progressive ulceration despite appropriate treatment. Prompt and appropriate treatment can make the difference between a good outcome and loss of vision or the eye. Recent findings There are a number of surgical therapies available for corneal infections. Preferred therapeutic modalities differ based on the size, causation, and location of the infection but consist of either replacement of the infected tissue or structural support of the tissue to allow healing. While there are no completely novel therapies that have been developed recently, there have been incremental improvements in the existing treatment modalities making them more effective, easier, and safer. Summary Several options are available for surgically managing corneal infections. Ophthalmologists should select the optimal procedure based on the individual patient’s situation. PMID:27096375

  1. Corneal topographic changes following strabismus surgery in Grave's disease.

    PubMed

    Kwitko, S; Feldon, S; McDonnell, P J

    1992-01-01

    A computerized topographic analysis system was used to evaluate corneal changes after strabismus surgery in eight eyes of five patients with Graves' disease. All patients underwent inferior rectus muscle recession; three eyes also had medial rectus recession. Corneal topographic analysis revealed that, postoperatively, corneas steepened inferiorly and inferotemporally at 1.5 mm from corneal apex (p less than 0.05). The opposite effect was observed in the superior quadrant (average flattening of 1.20 +/- 0.32 D at 1.5 mm from corneal apex, and 1.08 +/- 0.39 D at 3.0 mm from corneal apex; p less than 0.05). Superotemporally, the cornea flattened by an average of 0.65 +/- 0.26 D at 3.0 mm from corneal apex, and superonasally 0.72 +/- 0.19 D at 3.0 mm from corneal apex (p less than 0.05). Central, nasal, and temporal cornea did not show statistically significant changes. Spherical equivalent did not change significantly after surgery. The amount of restriction and upgaze measured preoperatively was correlated weakly with inferior corneal steepening (r2 = 0.44; p = 0.046). These results are indicative that corneal topography may be influenced by strabismus surgery for Graves' disease through alteration of extraocular muscle tension or intraocular pressure.

  2. Effects of chalazia on corneal astigmatism : Large-sized chalazia in middle upper eyelids compress the cornea and induce the corneal astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ki Won; Shin, Young Joo; Hyon, Joon Young

    2017-03-31

    A chalazion is a common eyelid disease that causes eye morbidity due to inflammation and cosmetic disfigurement. Corneal topographic changes are important factors in corneal refractive surgery, intraocular lens power calculations for cataract surgery, and visual acuity assessments. However, the effects of chalazia on corneal astigmatism have not been thoroughly investigated. The changes in corneal astigmatism according to chalazion size and location is necessary for better outcome of ocular surgery. The aim of this study is to evaluate changes in corneal astigmatism according to chalazion size and location. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 44 eyes from 33 patients were included in the chalazion group and 70 eyes from 46 patients comprised the control group. Chalazia were classified according to location and size. An autokeratorefractometer (KR8100, Topcon; Japan) and a Galilei™ dual-Scheimpflug analyzer (Ziemer Group; Port, Switzerland) were utilized to evaluate corneal changes. Oblique astigmatism was greater in the chalazion group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Astigmatism by simulated keratometry (simK), steep K by simK, total root mean square, second order aberration, oblique astigmatism, and vertical astigmatism were significantly greater in the upper eyelid group (p < 0.05). Astigmatism by simK, second order aberration, oblique astigmatism, and vertical astigmatism were significantly greater in the large-sized chalazion group (p < 0.05). Corneal wavefront aberration was the greatest in the upper eyelid chalazion group, whole area group, and large-sized chalazion group (p < 0.05). Large-sized chalazia in the whole upper eyelid should be treated in the early phase because they induced the greatest change in corneal topography. Chalazion should be treated before corneal topography is performed preoperatively and before the diagnosis of corneal diseases.

  3. Dose-response effects of corneal anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Polse, K A; Keener, R J; Jauregui, M J

    1978-01-01

    With double-masking procedures, the dose-response curves for 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4% benoxinate and 0.125, 0.25, and 0.50% proparacaine hydrochloride were determined by monitoring changes in corneal touch threshold after applying each anesthetic. The level of corneal anesthesia necessary for applanation tonometry was also determined. The maximum increase in threshold that could be measured following instillation of 50 microliter of the drug was 200 mg/mm2 All 6 anesthetic solutions produced this amount of decreased corneal sensitivity. Recovery from the anesthetic was exponential for all concentrations; however, the lower doses had the shortest duration. For applanation tonometry, the corneal threshold for touch must be 75 mg/mm2 or higher. We conclude that a quarter to a half of the commonly used anesthetic dose is sufficient for routine tonometric evaluation.

  4. A brief history of corneal transplantation: From ancient to modern.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Alexandra Z; Patel, Dipika V; McGhee, Charles Nj

    2013-09-01

    This review highlights many of the fundamental concepts and events in the development of corneal transplantation - from ancient times to modern. Tales of eye, limb, and even heart transplantation appear in ancient and medieval texts; however, in the scientific sense, the original concepts of corneal surgery date back to the Greek physician Galen (130-200 AD). Although proposals to provide improved corneal clarity by surgical interventions, including keratoprostheses, were better developed by the 17(th) and 18(th) centuries, true scientific and surgical experimentation in this field did not begin until the 19(th) century. Indeed, the success of contemporary corneal transplantation is largely the result of a culmination of pivotal ideas, experimentation, and perseverance by inspired individuals over the last 200 years. Franz Reisinger initiated experimental animal corneal transplantation in 1818, coining the term "keratoplasty". Subsequently, Wilhelmus Thorne created the term corneal transplant and 3 years later Samuel Bigger, 1837, reported successful corneal transplantation in a gazelle. The first recorded therapeutic corneal xenograft on a human was reported shortly thereafter in 1838-unsurprisingly this was unsuccessful. Further progress in corneal transplantation was significantly hindered by limited understanding of antiseptic principles, anesthesiology, surgical technique, and immunology. There ensued an extremely prolonged period of debate and experimentation upon the utility of animal compared to human tissue, and lamellar versus penetrating keratoplasty. Indeed, the first successful human corneal transplant was not performed by Eduard Zirm until 1905. Since that first successful corneal transplant, innumerable ophthalmologists have contributed to the development and refinement of corneal transplantation aided by the development of surgical microscopes, refined suture materials, the development of eye banks, and the introduction of corticosteroids. Recent

  5. Corneal injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... as sand or dust Ultraviolet injuries: Caused by sunlight, sun lamps, snow or water reflections, or arc- ... a corneal injury if you: Are exposed to sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light for long periods of ...

  6. Corneal biomechanical properties from two-dimensional corneal flap extensiometry: application to UV-riboflavin cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Kling, Sabine; Ginis, Harilaos; Marcos, Susana

    2012-07-27

    Corneal biomechanical properties are usually measured by strip extensiometry or inflation methods. We developed a two-dimensional (2D) flap extensiometry technique, combining the advantages of both methods, and applied it to measure the effect of UV-Riboflavin cross-linking (CXL). Corneal flaps (13 pig/8 rabbit) from the de-epithelialized anterior stroma (96 μm) were mounted on a custom chamber, consisting of a BK7 lens, a reflective retina, and two reservoirs (filled with Riboflavin and silicone oil). Stretching the corneal flap during five pressure increase/decrease cycles (0-30 mm Hg) changed the refractive power of the system, whose Zernike aberrations were monitored with a ray-tracing aberrometer. Porcine flaps were used to test the system. Rabbits were treated with CXL unilaterally in vivo following standard clinical procedures. Flaps were measured 1 month postoperatively. An analytical model allowed estimating Young's modulus from the change in surface (strain) and pressure (stress). Confocal microscopy examination was performed before, and at different times after CXL. Flap curvature changed with increased function of IOP in pig flaps (23.4 × 10⁻³ D/mm Hg). In rabbit flaps curvature changed significantly less in 1 month post CXL (P = 0.026) than in untreated corneas [17.0 vs. 6.36 millidiopter (mD)/mm Hg]. Young's modulus was 2.29 megapascals (MPa) in porcine corneas, 1.98 MPa in untreated rabbit corneas, and 4.83 MPa in 1 month post CXL rabbit corneas. At the same time, highly reflective structures were observed in the rabbit midstroma after treatment. 2D flap extensiometry allows estimating corneal elasticity in vitro. The measurements are spatially resolved in depth, minimize the effects of corneal hydration, and preserve the integrity of the cornea. The method proved the efficacy of CXL in increasing corneal rigidity after 1 month in rabbits.

  7. 21 CFR 886.1450 - Corneal radius measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corneal radius measuring device. 886.1450 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1450 Corneal radius measuring device. (a) Identification. A corneal radius measuring device is an AC-powered device intended to measure...

  8. N-Acetylcysteine increases corneal endothelial cell survival in a mouse model of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Chul; Meng, Huan; Jun, Albert S

    2014-10-01

    The present study evaluated survival effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on cultured corneal endothelial cells exposed to oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and in a mouse model of early-onset Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). Cultured bovine corneal endothelial cell viability against oxidative and ER stress was determined by CellTiter-Glo(®) luminescent reagent. Two-month-old homozygous knock-in Col8a2(L450W/L450W) mutant (L450W) and C57/Bl6 wild-type (WT) animals were divided into two groups of 15 mice. Group I received 7 mg/mL NAC in drinking water and Group II received control water for 7 months. Endothelial cell density and morphology were evaluated with confocal microscopy. Antioxidant gene (iNos) and ER stress/unfolded protein response gene (Grp78 and Chop) mRNA levels and protein expression were measured in corneal endothelium by real time PCR and Western blotting. Cell viability of H2O2 and thapsigargin exposed cells pre-treated with NAC was significantly increased compared to untreated controls (p < 0.01). Corneal endothelial cell density (CD) was higher (p = 0.001) and percent polymegathism was lower (p = 0.04) in NAC treated L450W mice than in untreated L450W mice. NAC treated L450W endothelium showed significant upregulation of iNos, whereas Grp78 and Chop were downregulated compared to untreated L450W endothelium by real time PCR and Western blotting. NAC increases survival in cultured corneal endothelial cells exposed against ER and oxidative stress. Systemic NAC ingestion increases corneal endothelial cell survival which is associated with increased antioxidant and decreased ER stress markers in a mouse model of early-onset FECD. Our study presents in vivo evidence of a novel potential medical treatment for FECD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Scheimpflug camera combined with placido-disk corneal topography and optical biometry for intraocular lens power calculation.

    PubMed

    Kirgiz, Ahmet; Atalay, Kurşat; Kaldirim, Havva; Cabuk, Kubra Serefoglu; Akdemir, Mehmet Orcun; Taskapili, Muhittin

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the keratometry (K) values obtained by the Scheimpflug camera combined with placido-disk corneal topography (Sirius) and optical biometry (Lenstar) for intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation before the cataract surgery, and to evaluate the accuracy of postoperative refraction. 50 eyes of 40 patients were scheduled to have phacoemulsification with the implantation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens. The IOL power was calculated using the SRK/T formula with Lenstar K and K readings from Sirius. Simulated K (SimK), K at 3-, 5-, and 7-mm zones from Sirius were compared with Lenstar K readings. The accuracy of these parameters was determined by calculating the mean absolute error (MAE). The mean Lenstar K value was 44.05 diopters (D) ±1.93 (SD) and SimK, K at 3-, 5-, and 7-mm zones were 43.85 ± 1.91, 43.88 ± 1.9, 43.84 ± 1.9, 43.66 ± 1.85 D, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the K readings (P = 0.901). When Lenstar was used for the corneal power measurements, MAE was 0.42 ± 0.33 D, but when simK of Sirius was used, it was 0.37 ± 0.32 D (the lowest MAE (0.36 ± 0.32 D) was achieved as a result of 5 mm K measurement), but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.892). Of all the K readings of Sirius and Lenstar, Sirius 5-mm zone K readings were the best in predicting a more precise IOL power. The corneal power measurements with the Scheimpflug camera combined with placido-disk corneal topography can be safely used for IOL power calculation.

  10. Corneal Biomechanics in Ectatic Diseases: Refractive Surgery Implications

    PubMed Central

    Ambrósio, Jr, Renato; Correia, Fernando Faria; Lopes, Bernardo; Salomão, Marcella Q.; Luz, Allan; Dawson, Daniel G.; Elsheikh, Ahmed; Vinciguerra, Riccardo; Vinciguerra, Paolo; Roberts, Cynthia J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ectasia development occurs due to a chronic corneal biomechanical decompensation or weakness, resulting in stromal thinning and corneal protrusion. This leads to corneal steepening, increase in astigmatism, and irregularity. In corneal refractive surgery, the detection of mild forms of ectasia pre-operatively is essential to avoid post-operative progressive ectasia, which also depends on the impact of the procedure on the cornea. Method: The advent of 3D tomography is proven as a significant advancement to further characterize corneal shape beyond front surface topography, which is still relevant. While screening tests for ectasia had been limited to corneal shape (geometry) assessment, clinical biomechanical assessment has been possible since the introduction of the Ocular Response Analyzer (Reichert Ophthalmic Instruments, Buffalo, USA) in 2005 and the Corvis ST (Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany) in 2010. Direct clinical biomechanical evaluation is recognized as paramount, especially in detection of mild ectatic cases and characterization of the susceptibility for ectasia progression for any cornea. Conclusions: The purpose of this review is to describe the current state of clinical evaluation of corneal biomechanics, focusing on the most recent advances of commercially available instruments and also on future developments, such as Brillouin microscopy. PMID:28932334

  11. Corneal biomechanical properties in floppy eyelid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Muniesa, MaJesús; Muniesa Royo, MaJesús; March, Ana; March de Ribot, Ana; Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Manuel; Huerva, Valetín; Huerva Escanilla, Valetín; Jurjo, Carmen; Jurjo Campo, Carmen; Barbé, Ferran; Barbé Illa, Ferran

    2015-05-01

    To determine corneal biomechanical properties in patients with floppy eyelid syndrome (FES) and to compare them with eyes of controls. This case-control study included 208 eyes (72 eyes with FES and 136 without FES) of 107 patients (37 patients with FES and 70 without FES). Patients underwent a complete clinical eye examination that included corneal biomechanical evaluation carried out with the Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer. Corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), central corneal thickness (CCT), Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg), and corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc) were evaluated. Mean CH was significantly lower in patients with FES than in those without FES (9.51 ± 1.56 vs. 11.66 ± 9.11; P < 0.001). These results remained statistically significant after adjusting for age and apnea-hypoapnea index (AHI) (P = 0.028). Mean CRF was 10.02 ± 2.08 in the group of patients with FES and 11.21 ± 5.36 in the group of patients without FES (P = 0.001). Mean IOPcc was 17.7 ± 4.8 in patients with FES and 16.3 ± 4.4 in those without FES (P = 0.036). After adjusting for age and AHI, these differences in CRF and IOPcc were not statistically significant (P = 0.26 and P = 0.87, respectively). No statistically significant difference was found between patients with and without FES for Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure or CCT. Patients with FES had statistically lower CH values. Our findings suggest that corneal biomechanical properties could be changed in patients with FES, reflecting additional structural changes in FES.

  12. Alloimmunity and Tolerance in Corneal Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Amouzegar, Afsaneh; Chauhan, Sunil K; Dana, Reza

    2016-05-15

    Corneal transplantation is one of the most prevalent and successful forms of solid tissue transplantation. Despite favorable outcomes, immune-mediated graft rejection remains the major cause of corneal allograft failure. Although low-risk graft recipients with uninflamed graft beds enjoy a success rate ∼90%, the rejection rates in inflamed graft beds or high-risk recipients often exceed 50%, despite maximal immune suppression. In this review, we discuss the critical facets of corneal alloimmunity, including immune and angiogenic privilege, mechanisms of allosensitization, cellular and molecular mediators of graft rejection, and allotolerance induction. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Corneal endothelial dysfunction in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kasbekar, Shivani A; Gonzalez-Martin, Jose A; Shafiq, Ayad E; Chandna, Arvind; Willoughby, Colin E

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are associated with well recognized ocular manifestations. Pearson syndrome is an often fatal, multisystem, mitochondrial disorder that causes variable bone marrow, hepatic, renal and pancreatic exocrine dysfunction. Phenotypic progression of ocular disease in a 12-year-old male with Pearson syndrome is described. This case illustrates phenotypic drift from Pearson syndrome to Kearns-Sayre syndrome given the patient's longevity. Persistent corneal endothelial failure was noted in addition to ptosis, chronic external ophthalmoplegia and mid-peripheral pigmentary retinopathy. We propose that corneal edema resulting from corneal endothelial metabolic pump failure occurs within a spectrum of mitochondrial disorders.

  14. Potential for Hospital Based Corneal Retreival in Hassan District Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Melsakkare, Suresh Ramappa; Manipur, Sahana R.; Acharya, Pavana; Ramamurthy, Lakshmi Bomalapura

    2015-01-01

    Context In developing countries, corneal diseases are the second leading cause of blindness. This corneal blindness can be treated through corneal transplantation. Though the present infrastructure is strong enough to increase keratoplasty numbers at a required rate, India has largest corneal blind population in the world. So a constant supply of high quality donor corneal tissue is the key factor for reduction of prevalence of corneal blindness. Considering the magnitude of corneal blindness and shortage of donor cornea, there is a huge gap in the demand and supply. Aim To study the potential for hospital based retrieval of donor corneal tissue in Hassan district hospital after analysing the indicated and contraindicated causes of deaths, so that hospital corneal retrieval program in Hassan district hospital can be planned. Materials and Methods The cross-sectional, retrospective and record-based study included all hospital deaths with age group more than two years occurred during one year period (January 2014 to December 2014). Data regarding demographic profile, cause of death, treatment given and presence of any systemic diseases were collected. The causes of deaths which are contraindicated for the retrieval of corneas were analysed and noted. The contraindications were based on the NPCB guidelines for standard of eye banking in India 2009. Results Out of 855 deaths, number of deaths in males (565) was greater than females (290). Numbers of deaths were highest between 41-60 years age group (343). Deaths due to HIV, septicaemia, meningitis, encephalitis, disseminated malignancies were contraindicated for corneal retrieval. Corneas could be retrieved from 736 deaths out of 855. Potential for corneal retrieval in a period of one year in Hassan District hospital was 86%. Conclusion Hospital corneal retrieval program has got a great potential to bridge the gap between the need for the cornea and actually collected corneas which will contribute enormously in

  15. Analysis of correlation between corneal topographical data and visual performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuanqing; Yu, Lei; Ren, Qiushi

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To study correlation among corneal asphericity, higher-order aberrations and visual performance for eyes of virgin myopia and postoperative laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Methods: There were 320 candidates 590 eyes for LASIK treatment included in this study. The mean preoperative spherical equivalence was -4.35+/-1.51D (-1.25 to -9.75), with astigmatism less than 2.5 D. Corneal topography maps and contrast sensitivity were measured and analyzed for every eye before and one year after LASIK for the analysis of corneal asphericity and wavefront aberrations. Results: Preoperatively, only 4th and 6th order aberration had significant correlation with corneal asphericity and apical radius of curvature (p<0.001). Postoperatively, all 3th to 6th order aberrations had statistically significant correlation with corneal asphericity (p<0.01), but only 4th and 6th order aberration had significant correlation with apical radius of curvature (p<0.05). The asymmetrical aberration like coma had significant correlation with vertical offset of pupil center (p<0.01). Preoperatively, corneal aberrations had no significant correlation with visual acuity and area under the log contrast sensitivity (AULCSF) (P>0.05). Postoperatively, corneal aberrations still didn't have significant correlation with visual acuity (P>0.05), but had significantly negative correlation with AULCSF (P<0.01). Corneal asphericity had no significant correlation with AULCSF before and after the treatment (P>0.05). Conclusions: Corneal aberrations had different correlation with corneal profile and visual performance for eyes of virgin myopia and postoperative LASIK, which may be due to changed corneal profile and limitation of metrics of corneal aberrations.

  16. Topographical analysis of corneal astigmatism in patients with tilted-disc syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Banu; Irkec, Murat; Gedik, Sansal; Orhan, Mehmet; Erdener, Uğur

    2002-07-01

    To evaluate the corneal topography in patients with tilted-disc syndrome to determine the relationship between optic disc dysversion and corneal astigmatism and the pattern of astigmatism in these patients. The study included 23 eyes of the 13 tilted-disc syndrome patients with spheric refractive errors ranging between +1.00 D and -9.00 D (mean -4.00 +/- 3.4 D) and astigmatic errors ranging between -0.50 and -4.50 D (mean -1.95 +/- 0.93 D). Corneal topography was performed by computer-assisted videokeratoscope topographic modelling system 2 (TMS-2) and incidence of corneal astigmatism, corneal topographic patterns, and mean values of the topographic indices were determined. Corneal topographic analysis showed corneal astigmatism in 22 out of 23 patients with tilted discs. Corneal astigmatism was symmetric bow tie pattern in 10 eyes (45.45%), asymmetric bow tie pattern in 11 eyes (50%) and irregular in 1 eye (4.5%). Among the patients with bow tie pattern group (21 eyes), 14 eyes had with-the-rule astigmatism, 1 eye had against-the-rule astigmatism, and 6 eyes had oblique astigmatism. In 18 eyes, astigmatism was corneal, whereas combined corneal and lenticular in 4 eyes and lenticular in 1 eye. In the majority of tilted-disc cases, ocular astigmatism is mainly corneal. Morphogenetic factors in the development of the tilted disc might possibly influence the corneal development in such a way to result in corneal astigmatism.

  17. Asymmetric Corneal Flattening Effect After Small Incision Cataract Surgery.

    PubMed

    Alpins, Noel; Ong, James K Y; Stamatelatos, George

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether the flattening effect of corneal incisions differs between the right and left eye. A retrospective study of preoperative and postoperative corneal astigmatism was performed for patients who had bilateral cataract surgery by a right-handed surgeon. The change in corneal astigmatism was attributed to the 2.2-mm phacoemulsification incision, and the incisional flattening effect was calculated. The incisions were grouped by position on the eye and whether they were performed on the preoperative steep corneal meridian. A total of 1,298 eyes of 649 patients were evaluated. The flattening effect of temporal 2.2-mm incisions performed on the preoperative corneal steep meridian was different for right eyes (0.53 diopters [D]) and left eyes (0.34 D) (P = .017). The flattening effect of superior 2.2-mm incisions performed on the preoperative corneal steep meridian was equivalent in the two eyes. The flattening effect of a corneal incision may depend on whether it has been performed on the right or the left eye. [J Refract Surg. 2016;32(9):598-603.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Assessment of corneal properties based on statistical modeling of OCT speckle.

    PubMed

    Jesus, Danilo A; Iskander, D Robert

    2017-01-01

    A new approach to assess the properties of the corneal micro-structure in vivo based on the statistical modeling of speckle obtained from Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is presented. A number of statistical models were proposed to fit the corneal speckle data obtained from OCT raw image. Short-term changes in corneal properties were studied by inducing corneal swelling whereas age-related changes were observed analyzing data of sixty-five subjects aged between twenty-four and seventy-three years. Generalized Gamma distribution has shown to be the best model, in terms of the Akaike's Information Criterion, to fit the OCT corneal speckle. Its parameters have shown statistically significant differences (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.001) for short and age-related corneal changes. In addition, it was observed that age-related changes influence the corneal biomechanical behaviour when corneal swelling is induced. This study shows that Generalized Gamma distribution can be utilized to modeling corneal speckle in OCT in vivo providing complementary quantified information where micro-structure of corneal tissue is of essence.

  19. Assessment of corneal properties based on statistical modeling of OCT speckle

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, Danilo A.; Iskander, D. Robert

    2016-01-01

    A new approach to assess the properties of the corneal micro-structure in vivo based on the statistical modeling of speckle obtained from Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is presented. A number of statistical models were proposed to fit the corneal speckle data obtained from OCT raw image. Short-term changes in corneal properties were studied by inducing corneal swelling whereas age-related changes were observed analyzing data of sixty-five subjects aged between twenty-four and seventy-three years. Generalized Gamma distribution has shown to be the best model, in terms of the Akaike’s Information Criterion, to fit the OCT corneal speckle. Its parameters have shown statistically significant differences (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.001) for short and age-related corneal changes. In addition, it was observed that age-related changes influence the corneal biomechanical behaviour when corneal swelling is induced. This study shows that Generalized Gamma distribution can be utilized to modeling corneal speckle in OCT in vivo providing complementary quantified information where micro-structure of corneal tissue is of essence. PMID:28101409

  20. Centennial review of corneal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, S Louise; Cartwright, Victoria A; Stumpf, Thomas H

    2005-12-01

    Abstract One hundred years ago, on 7 December 1905, Dr Eduard Zirm performed the world's first successful human corneal transplant. This significant milestone was achieved only after many decades of unsuccessful trial and error; however, it did not lead to relatively 'routine' keratoplasty success for several more decades. The idea of replacing an opaque cornea had been suggested for centuries, and had stimulated theoretical approaches to the problem by many esteemed physicians throughout history. However, little practical progress was made in the ultimate realization of the dream until the 19th century when pioneering surgeons pursued extensive studies in relation to both animal and human 'keratoplasty'. Clinical progress and scientific insight developed slowly, and it was ultimately due to parallel advances in medicine such as anaesthesia and antisepsis that Zirm's success was finally achieved. Key concepts were enshrined such as the use of fresh tissue from the same species, careful placement and handling of tissue, and the development of specialized instrumentation such as the circular trephine. In the latter half of the 20th century, many 'masters' of corneal surgery evolved significant refinements in technique and instrumentation with the development of corticosteroids, antibiotics, surgical microscopes, improved trephines, viscoelastics and suture materials, that enable this delicate procedure to be routinely performed with the prospect of success. There are still limitations to corneal transplantation, and corneal allograft rejection still poses the greatest challenge to the modern corneal surgeon. In the foreseeable future it may be in the laboratory, rather than the theatre, that further milestones will be achieved. This review aims to highlight the significant milestones in the rich history of corneal transplantation, and to pay tribute to the many inspired and dedicated individuals involved in the development of keratoplasty to a point where the

  1. Primary central corneal hemangiosarcoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Haeussler, David J; Rodríguez, Laura Muñoz; Wilkie, David A; Premanandan, Chris

    2011-03-01

    To report a case of primary central corneal hemangiosarcoma in the dog. An 11-year-old, neutered, female, German shepherd mixed breed dog was referred to the Hospital Veterinario Sierra de Madrid (Spain) for evaluation of an enlarging corneal mass of the left eye (OS). The dog was predominantly housed outdoors and was diagnosed with a history of chronic superficial keratitis of both eyes (OU) by the referring veterinarian. The corneal mass was resected by routine superficial keratectomy and submitted for histopathology and Factor VIII immunohistochemical staining. The mass was diagnosed as a corneal hemangiosarcoma with complete excision. Postoperatively, the keratectomy site healed without complication and there was no evidence of recurrence three and a half months postoperatively. Complete systemic evaluation, including abdominal ultrasound and CT scan of the head and thorax, indicated no other detectable neoplasia in the dog. Outdoor housing and ultraviolet exposure, breed, and chronic superficial keratitis were all suspected as contributing factors to the development of a primary corneal hemangiosarcoma. Surgical removal and postoperative treatment for chronic superficial keratitis provided effective therapy. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  2. Central and peripheral corneal thinning in keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Brautaset, Rune L; Nilsson, Maria; Miller, William L; Leach, Norman E; Tukler, Johanna H; Bergmanson, Jan P G

    2013-03-01

    Recent data regarding the mid-peripheral portion of the removed corneal button in transplant surgery indicate histopathologically that keratoconus was present also in the peripheral portion of the button. The intent of this study was therefore to investigate if peripheral changes could also be detected clinically by measuring the central and peripheral corneal thickness of KC patients. Corneal pachymetry was measured with the Visante optical coherence tomography and Orbscan II. Of 52 subjects, 26 were KC subjects and 26 were age- and sex-matched control subjects. Corneal thickness, in KC patients, was significantly reduced in all areas compared with corneal thickness among controls with both the Visante optical coherence tomography and Orbscan II. The results of the present study have provided clinical evidence that KC is a disease affecting a wider area of the cornea. Although the KC cornea shows the greatest change in thickness in the ectatic region, this attenuation declines toward the periphery. The presence of peripheral thinning indicated that KC may be a "pancorneal" pathology and not limited to the ectatic portion.

  3. Corneal ulceration following measles in Nigerian children.

    PubMed Central

    Sandford-Smith, J H; Whittle, H C

    1979-01-01

    Acute corneal ulceration in malnourished children is the commonest cause of childhood blindness in Northern Nigeria and usually develops after measles. Other severe diseases in malnourished children rarely precipitate corneal ulceration. A survey in a school for blind children showed that 69% of the children were blind from corneal disease, and a survey of children with corneal scars showed that at least 42% were caused by ulceration after measles. The clinical appearance of the active ulcers was very varied. The serum retinol-binding protein and prealbumin levels in children with corneal ulcers following measles were below normal, but a group of malnourished children without eye complaints following measles were found to have even lower levels. Thus a specific deficiency of vitamin A does not appear to be the primary cause of these ulcers, though it may be a contributory one. A specific measles keratitis and secondary herpes simplex infectious may be local factors contributing to this ulceration, and there is nearly always a background of protein calorie malnutrition. Racial factors may also be of some significance. PMID:508686

  4. Treatment Results of Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking Combined with Riboflavin and 440 Nm Blue Light for Bacterial Corneal Ulcer in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shufang; Zhang, Cuiying; Zhang, Shaoru; Xu, Yanyun; Mu, Guoying

    2017-10-01

    To study the treatment effect of corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) combined with 440 nm blue light and riboflavin on bacterial corneal ulcer using animal experiments. A total of 21 New Zealand white rabbits that developed Staphylococcus aureus corneal ulcer were randomly divided into three groups. Seven rabbits were used as blank control groups; seven rabbits were treated with CXL combined with riboflavin and 440 nm blue light; and seven rabbits were treated with CXL combined with riboflavin and 370 nm ultraviolet A light. Necrotic tissues or secretions from the ulcer surface, eye secretions, conjunctival hyperemia, hypopyon, corneal infiltration, and pathological changes of the cornea were all observed. The 1st, 3th, and 7th day after CXL treatment, a statistically significant difference was found among the inflammation scores of the three groups. The scores of 440 and 370 groups decreased gradually, significantly lower than that of the control group. Bacterial cultures of 440 and 370 groups turned to be negative while that of the control group remained positive. After 1 day of CXL treatment, pathology pictures of the three groups all showed loss of corneal epithelia with many inflammatory cells in deep stroma. After 7 days of CXL treatment, abscess formed in almost all corneal area in the control group, while in 440 and 370 groups, multilayer healing of corneal epithelia, neovascularization, and many inflammatory cells within ulcers and proliferation of a small amount of fibroblast were seen. CXL combined with riboflavin and 440 nm blue light is effective in treating S. aureus corneal ulcer.

  5. Growing Three-Dimensional Corneal Tissue in a Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glen F.; Goodwin, Thomas J.; Aten, Laurie; Prewett, Tacey; Fitzgerald, Wendy S.; OConnor, Kim; Caldwell, Delmar; Francis, Karen M.

    2003-01-01

    Spheroids of corneal tissue about 5 mm in diameter have been grown in a bioreactor from an in vitro culture of primary rabbit corneal cells to illustrate the production of optic cells from aggregates and tissue. In comparison with corneal tissues previously grown in vitro by other techniques, this tissue approximates intact corneal tissue more closely in both size and structure. This novel three-dimensional tissue can be used to model cell structures and functions in normal and abnormal corneas. Efforts continue to refine the present in vitro method into one for producing human corneal tissue to overcome the chronic shortage of donors for corneal transplants: The method would be used to prepare corneal tissues, either from in vitro cultures of a patient s own cells or from a well-defined culture from another human donor known to be healthy. As explained in several articles in prior issues of NASA Tech Briefs, generally cylindrical horizontal rotating bioreactors have been developed to provide nutrient-solution environments conducive to the 30 NASA Tech Briefs, October 2003 growth of delicate animal cells, with gentle, low-shear flow conditions that keep the cells in suspension without damaging them. The horizontal rotating bioreactor used in this method, denoted by the acronym "HARV," was described in "High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating Cell-Culture Vessel" (MSC-21662), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 16, No. 5 (May, 1992), page 150.

  6. Corneal reepithelialization and anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, B D

    1982-01-01

    These studies have demonstrated that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors) can inhibit PMN arrival in the tear fluid following corneal injury but do not inhibit the reepithelialization either by corneal epithelial cells or by conjunctival epithelial cells. Therefore, they can be used safely in ocular inflammatory conditions even when corneal epithelial defects are present. Corticosteroids, on the other hand, inhibit reepithelialization by conjunctival epithelial cells and not by corneal epithelial cells in the doses tested. This inhibition does not occur with pretreatment prior to injury, suggesting that corticosteroids can be used clinically in conditions that have intact corneal epithelium without fear of slowing down wound healing should epithelial defects occur when not on steroid therapy. Furthermore, the steroid inhibition is temporary since there is a breakthrough in steroid inhibition with time, and occurs only if the steroids have been used shortly after deepithelialization. The steroid inhibition can be reversed by specific steroid antagonist, indicating that the steroid effect is mediated through specific receptors. An exciting and new hypothesis proposes that corticosteroids induce the formation of an inhibitory protein that inhibits the phospholipase enzyme to cause a block in arachidonic acid release from cell membranes. This mechanism of action may also be prevalent in the steroid effect on corneal reepithelialization, and experiments are under way to isolate this inhibitory protein from steroid-treated conjunctival epithelium. This isolation and pharmacologic characterization of this inhibitory protein is of obvious advantage to the field of ophthalmic therapeutics since this protein may have the anti-inflammatory potential of the steroids without their steroid sideeffects. Images FIGURE 3 a FIGURE 3 b PMID:6763806

  7. Human tears reveal insights into corneal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Nadia; Van Grasdorff, Sigi; Wouters, Kristien; Rozema, Jos; Koppen, Carina; Lion, Eva; Cools, Nathalie; Berneman, Zwi; Tassignon, Marie-José

    2012-01-01

    Corneal neovascularization results from the encroachment of blood vessels from the surrounding conjunctiva onto the normally avascular cornea. The aim of this study is to identify factors in human tears that are involved in development and/or maintenance of corneal neovascularization in humans. This could allow development of diagnostic tools for monitoring corneal neovascularization and combination monoclonal antibody therapies for its treatment. In an observational case-control study we enrolled a total of 12 patients with corneal neovascularization and 10 healthy volunteers. Basal tears along with reflex tears from the inferior fornix, superior fornix and using a corneal bath were collected along with blood serum samples. From all patients, ocular surface photographs were taken. Concentrations of the pro-angiogenic cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP-1) and Fas Ligand (FasL) were determined in blood and tear samples using a flow cytometric multiplex assay. Our results show that the concentration of pro-angiogenic cytokines in human tears are significantly higher compared to their concentrations in serum, with highest levels found in basal tears. Interestingly, we could detect a significantly higher concentration of IL- 6, IL-8 and VEGF in localized corneal tears of patients with neovascularized corneas when compared to the control group. This is the first study of its kind demonstrating a significant difference of defined factors in tears from patients with neovascularized corneas as compared to healthy controls. These results provide the basis for future research using animal models to further substantiate the role of these cytokines in the establishment and maintenance of corneal neovascularization.

  8. Human Tears Reveal Insights into Corneal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Kristien; Rozema, Jos; Koppen, Carina; Lion, Eva; Cools, Nathalie; Berneman, Zwi; Tassignon, Marie-José

    2012-01-01

    Corneal neovascularization results from the encroachment of blood vessels from the surrounding conjunctiva onto the normally avascular cornea. The aim of this study is to identify factors in human tears that are involved in development and/or maintenance of corneal neovascularization in humans. This could allow development of diagnostic tools for monitoring corneal neovascularization and combination monoclonal antibody therapies for its treatment. In an observational case-control study we enrolled a total of 12 patients with corneal neovascularization and 10 healthy volunteers. Basal tears along with reflex tears from the inferior fornix, superior fornix and using a corneal bath were collected along with blood serum samples. From all patients, ocular surface photographs were taken. Concentrations of the pro-angiogenic cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP-1) and Fas Ligand (FasL) were determined in blood and tear samples using a flow cytometric multiplex assay. Our results show that the concentration of pro-angiogenic cytokines in human tears are significantly higher compared to their concentrations in serum, with highest levels found in basal tears. Interestingly, we could detect a significantly higher concentration of IL- 6, IL-8 and VEGF in localized corneal tears of patients with neovascularized corneas when compared to the control group. This is the first study of its kind demonstrating a significant difference of defined factors in tears from patients with neovascularized corneas as compared to healthy controls. These results provide the basis for future research using animal models to further substantiate the role of these cytokines in the establishment and maintenance of corneal neovascularization. PMID:22590547

  9. Corneal topography with an aberrometry-topography system.

    PubMed

    Mülhaupt, Michael; Dietzko, Sven; Wolffsohn, James; Bandlitz, Stefan

    2018-05-07

    To investigate the agreement between the central corneal radii and corneal eccentricity measurements generated by the new Wave Analyzer 700 Medica (WAV) compared to the Keratograph 4 (KER) and to test the repeatability of the instruments. 20 subjects (10 male, mean age 29.1 years, range 21-50 years) were recruited from the students and staff of the Cologne School of Optometry. Central corneal radii for the flat (r c/fl ) and steep (r c/st ) meridian as well as corneal eccentricity for the nasal (e nas ), temporal (e temp ), inferior (e inf ) and superior (e sup ) directions were measured using WAV and KER by one examiner in a randomized order. Central radii of the flat (r c/fl ) and steep (r c/st ) meridian measured with both instruments were statically significantly correlated (r = 0.945 and r = 0.951; p < 0.001). Comparison between the WAV and KER showed that r c/fl and r c/st measured with WAV were significantly steeper than those measured with KER (p < 0.001). Corneal eccentricities were statistically significantly correlated in all meridians (p < 0.05). Compared to KER, e temp and e sup measured with WAV were greater (p < 0.05), while there were no statistically significant differences for e nas and e inf (p = 0.350 and p = 0.083). For the central radii, repeated measurements were not significantly different for the KER or WAV (p > 0.05). Limits of agreement (LoA) indicate a better repeatability for the KER compared to WAV. Corneal topography measurements captured with the WAV were strongly correlated with the KER. However, due to the differences in measured corneal radii and eccentricities, the devices cannot be used interchangeably. For corneal topography the KER demonstrated better repeatability. Copyright © 2018 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Corneal donations in South Africa: A 15-year review.

    PubMed

    York, Nicholas J; Tinley, Christopher

    2017-07-28

    Corneal pathology is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in South Africa (SA). A corneal transplant can restore or significantly improve vision in most cases. However, in SA there is a gross shortage of corneal tissue available to ophthalmologists. Little has been published describing the magnitude of the problem. To describe trends in the number of corneal donors per year in SA, the number of corneal transplants performed each year, the origin of donors, the allocation of corneas to the public or private sector, and the demographics of donors. This was a retrospective review of all corneal donations to SA eye banks over the 15-year period 1 January 2002 - 31 December 2016. There was a progressive year-on-year decline in corneal donors over the study period, from 565 per year in 2002 to 89 in 2016. As a direct result, there has been an 85.5% decrease in the number of corneal transplants performed per year using locally donated corneas, from 1 049 in 2002 to 152 in 2016. Of the donors, 48.8% originated from mortuaries, 39.0% from private hospitals and 12.2% from government hospitals; donors from mortuaries showed the most significant decline over the 15-year period, decreasing by 94.8%. Of donated corneas, 79.3% were allocated to the private sector and 21.7% to the public sector. Males comprised 69.1% of donors, while 77.2% were white, 14.0% coloured, 6.3% black and 2.5% Indian/Asian. Donor age demonstrated a bimodal peak at 25 and 55 years. The number of corneal donations in SA has declined markedly, causing the burden of corneal disease requiring transplantation to rise steadily. Population groups with a low donor rate may have cultural and other objections to corneal donation, which should be a major focus of future research and initiatives aimed at reversing the current trends.

  11. In Vivo Assessment of Mechanisms Controlling Corneal Hydration.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    12 Chapter 3. CORNEAL RESPONSE TO HYPOXIA INDUCED WITH RIGID AND HYDROGEL LENSES WORN DURING EYE CLOSURE 3.1 Summary...thickness vs time (recovery) following lens removal ................................ 28 | ~,.4 3.3 Change in corneal thickness vs hydrogel lens oxygen...transmissibility for closed eye wear ......... 30 3.4 Change in corneal thickness and oxygen under the lens vs rigid and hydrogel lens oxygen

  12. Corneal transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... and prevent eye movement during the surgery. The tissue for your corneal transplant will come from a person (donor) who has recently died. The donated cornea is processed and tested by a local eye bank to make sure it is safe for use ...

  13. Corneal epithelium and UV-protection of the eye.

    PubMed

    Ringvold, A

    1998-04-01

    To study UV-absorption and UV-induced fluorescence in the bovine corneal epithelium. Spectrophotometry and spectrofluorimetry. The corneal epithelium absorbs UV-B radiation mainly owing to its content of protein, RNA, and ascorbate. Some of the absorbed energy is transformed to the less biotoxic UV-A radiation by fluorescence. RNA and ascorbate reduce tissue fluorescence. The corneal epithelium acts as a UV-filter, protecting internal eye structures through three different mechanisms: (1) Absorption of UV-B roughly below 310 nm wavelength. (2) Fluorescence-mediated ray transformation to longer wavelengths. (3) Fluorescence reduction. The extremely high ascorbate concentration in the corneal epithelium has a key role in two of these processes.

  14. Causes of corneal graft failure in India.

    PubMed

    Dandona, L; Naduvilath, T J; Janarthanan, M; Rao, G N

    1998-09-01

    The success of corneal grafting in visual rehabilitation of the corneal blind in India depends on survival of the grafts. Understanding the causes of graft failure may help reduce the risk of failure. We studied these causes in a series of 638 graft failures at our institution. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of particular causes of graft failure with indications for grafting, socioeconomic status, age, sex, host corneal vascularization, donor corneal quality, and experience of surgeon. The major causes of graft failure were allograft rejection (29.2%), increased intraocular pressure (16.9%), infection excluding endophthalmitis (15.4%), and surface problems (12.7%). The odds of infection causing graft failure were significantly higher in patients of lower socioeconomic status (odds ratio 2.45, 95% CI 1.45-4.15). Surface problems as a cause of graft failure was significantly associated with grafts done for corneal scarring or for regrafts (odds ratio 3.36, 95% CI 1.80-6.30). Increased intraocular pressure as a cause of graft failure had significant association with grafts done for aphakic or pseudophakic bullous keratopathy, congenital conditions or glaucoma, or regrafts (odds ratio 2.19, 95% CI 1.25-3.84). Corneal dystrophy was the indication for grafting in 12 of the 13 cases of graft failure due to recurrence of host disease. Surface problems, increased intraocular pressure, and infection are modifiable risk factors that are more likely to cause graft failure in certain categories of patients in India. Knowledge about these associations can be helpful in looking for and aggressively treating these modifiable risk factors in the at-risk categories of corneal graft patients. This can possibly reduce the chance of graft failure.

  15. Mechanisms of rubbing-related corneal trauma in keratoconus.

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles W

    2009-07-01

    Corneal scarring in keratoconus, which is observed prior to contact lens wear and in association with a chronic habit of abnormal rubbing, suggests a keratocyte change to a repair phenotype in response to rubbing trauma. This review examines known and putative mechanisms for rubbing-related corneal trauma and cone formation. Responses to eye rubbing (and possible causal links) may include increased corneal temperature, epithelial thinning, increased concentrations of inflammatory mediators in the precorneal tears, abnormal enzyme activity, large intraocular pressure spikes, high hydrostatic tissue pressure, thixotropically reduced ground substance viscosity, temporary displacement of ground substance from the corneal apex, buckling and flexure of fibrils associated with waves of corneal indentation, biomechanically coupled curvature transfer to the cone apex, slippage between collagen fibrils at the cone apex, and changes to keratocytes due to mechanical trauma and/or high hydrostatic pressure, in addition to scar formation. Cone formation appears to depend on a loss of shear strength and may be a consequence of a reduction in ground substance viscosity and glue function, which could allow the cornea to bend and yield to intraocular pressure. For some forms of keratoconus, a reduction in shear strength and cone-forming deformation may be responses to rubbing trauma. Some of the mechanisms for corneal rubbing trauma may be relevant to post-laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis ectasia or complications following other types of corneal surgery. There appear to be indications for the control of chronic habits of abnormal rubbing.

  16. Corneal transplantation: A new view of life

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Fardin; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Navab, Elham; Zakerimoghadam, Masoumeh

    2017-01-01

    Background The consequences of a corneal transplant are evaluated and classified by care providers, but understanding and interpretation of the results varies between patients, and creates different views for them and influences their lives in different ways while these influences are largely unknown. Aim This study aimed to explore understanding of new life in patients after corneal transplantation. Methods This qualitative study was conducted using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach in Tehran in 2016. Twelve corneal transplant recipients (7 men, 5 women) who were chosen purposefully from penetrating corneal transplant recipients, participated in this study. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. The content of the interviews was transcribed and analyzed using Van Manen’s methodology. Results Data analysis led to the emergence of several main themes, among which “having a new sense” and “fear and hope” were two of the most important themes. Conclusion It can be inferred from the overall participants’ experiences that corneal transplant has brought about a new look at life for patients. However, transplant-related issues are endless and continuous, and a sense of fear and hope has always surrounded them. PMID:28607635

  17. Understanding Neuropathic Corneal Pain-Gaps and Current Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Sunali; Hamrah, Pedram

    2017-01-01

    The richly innervated corneal tissue is one of the most powerful pain generator in the body. Corneal neuropathic pain results from dysfunctional nerves causing perceptions such as burning, stinging, eye-ache and pain. Various inflammatory diseases, neurological diseases, and surgical interventions can be the underlying cause of corneal neuropathic pain. Recent efforts have been made by the scientific community to elucidate the pathophysiology and neurobiology of pain resulting from initially protective physiological reflexes, to a more persistent chronic state. The goal of this clinical review is to briefly summarize the pathophysiology of neuropathic corneal pain, describe how to systematically approach the diagnosis of these patients, and finally summarizing our experience with current therapeutic approaches for the treatment of corneal neuropathic pain. PMID:26959131

  18. Corneal pain without stain: is it real?

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Perry; Baran, Inna; Jacobs, Deborah S

    2009-01-01

    Clinicians often encounter patients who report corneal pain suggestive of dry eye disease, yet lack equivalent signs. These patients represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge that is more easily dismissed than addressed. We review the physiology of pain and the pathophysiological mechanisms of neuropathic corneal pain and speculate on the mechanisms of certain etiopathogenic triggers, such as LASIK, severe dry eye disease, and Sjogren syndrome. Recognizing corneal neuropathic pain as a disease in its own right is the first step toward developing more effective treatments for these severely disabled and presently inadequately served patients.

  19. Electrolytic removal of recurrence of granular corneal dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Mashima, Y; Kawashima, M; Yamada, M

    2003-11-01

    To report the efficacy of corneal electrolysis for the treatment of recurrent corneal opacities at the subepithelial region or at the host-graft interface of the stroma in granular corneal dystrophy (GCD). In patients with recurrences of opacities at the host-graft interface of the stroma after lamellar keratoplasty, the deep aspect of the graft was partially separated from host tissue to expose the deposits. The graft was everted, and electrolysis was applied directly to remove the deposits attached to both surfaces of the host and the graft. Then the graft was returned to its place and sutured. In patients with diffuse subepithelial opacities following penetrating keratoplasty, electrolysis was applied directly to the corneal surface. Deposits in the subepithelial region or at the host-graft interface of the stroma disappeared following treatment, and vision recovered. However, GCD recurred 2-3 years after the treatment. Corneal electrolysis is a simple, easy, and inexpensive way to remove deposits that recur after lamellar or penetrating keratoplasty for GCD.

  20. In Vivo Confocal Microscopy of Corneal Nerves in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cruzat, Andrea; Qazi, Yureeda; Hamrah, Pedram

    2016-01-01

    In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) is becoming an indispensable tool for studying corneal physiology and disease. Enabling the dissection of corneal architecture at a cellular level, this technique offers fast and noninvasive in vivo imaging of the cornea with images comparable to that of ex vivo histochemical techniques. Corneal nerves bear substantial relevance to clinicians and scientists alike, given their pivotal roles in regulation of corneal sensation, maintenance of epithelial integrity, and proliferation and promotion of wound healing. Thus, IVCM offers a unique method to study corneal nerve alterations in a myriad of conditions, such as ocular and systemic diseases and following corneal surgery, without altering the tissue microenvironment. Of particular interest has been the correlation of corneal subbasal nerves to their function, which has been studied in normal eyes, contact lens wearers, and patients with keratoconus, infectious keratitis, corneal dystrophies, and neurotrophic keratopathy. Longitudinal studies have applied IVCM to investigate the effects of corneal surgery on nerves, demonstrating their regenerative capacity. IVCM is increasingly important in the diagnosis and management of systemic conditions such as peripheral diabetic neuropathy and, more recently, in ocular diseases. In this review, we outline the principles and applications of IVCM in the study of corneal nerves in various ocular and systemic diseases. PMID:27771327

  1. Effects of genipin corneal crosslinking in rabbit corneas.

    PubMed

    Avila, Marcel Y; Narvaez, Mauricio; Castañeda, Juan P

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of genipin, a natural crosslinking agent, in rabbit eyes. Department of Ophthalmology, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Centro de Tecnologia Oftalmica, Bogotá, Colombia. Experimental study. Ex vivo rabbit eyes (16; 8 rabbits) were treated with genipin 1.00%, 0.50%, and 0.25% for 5 minutes with a vacuum device to increase corneal permeability. Penetration was evaluated using Scheimpflug pachymetry (Pentacam). In the in vivo model (20 rabbits; 1 eye treated, 1 eye with vehicle), corneas were crosslinked with genipin as described. Corneal curvature, corneal pachymetry, and intraocular pressure (IOP) assessments as well as slitlamp examinations were performed 0, 7, 30, and 60 days after treatment. In the ex vivo model, Scheimpflug pachymetry showed deep penetration in the rabbit corneas with an increase in corneal density and a dose-dependent relationship. Corneal flattening was observed in treated eyes (mean 4.4 diopters ± 0.5 [SD]) compared with the control eyes. Pachymetry and IOP were stable in all evaluations. No eye showed toxicity in the anterior chamber or in the lens. Corneal crosslinking induced by genipin produced significant flattening of the cornea with no toxicity in rabbit eyes. This crosslinking could be useful in the treatment of corneal ectasia and in the modification of corneal curvature. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Airbag induced corneal ectasia.

    PubMed

    Mearza, Ali A; Koufaki, Fedra N; Aslanides, Ioannis M

    2008-02-01

    To report a case of airbag induced corneal ectasia. Case report. A patient 3 years post-LASIK developed bilateral corneal ectasia worse in the right eye following airbag deployment in a road traffic accident. At last follow up, best corrected vision was 20/40 with -4.00/-4.00 x 25 in the right eye and 20/25 with -1.25/-0.50 x 135 in the left eye. This is a rare presentation of trauma induced ectasia in a patient post-LASIK. It is possible that reduction in biomechanical integrity of the cornea from prior refractive surgery contributed to this presentation.

  3. Changes in corneal endothelial cell density and the cumulative risk of corneal decompensation after Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung Nam; Lee, Sung Bok; Lee, Yeon Hee; Lee, Jong Joo; Lim, Hyung Bin; Kim, Chang-Sik

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate changes in the corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) and corneal decompensation following Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation. This study was retrospective and observational case series. Patients with refractory glaucoma who underwent AGV implantation and were followed >5 years were consecutively enrolled. We reviewed the medical records, including the results of central corneal specular microscopy. Of the 127 enrolled patients, the annual change in ECD (%) was determined using linear regression for 72 eyes evaluated at least four times using serial specular microscopic examination and compared with 31 control eyes (fellow glaucomatous eyes under medical treatment). The main outcome measures were cumulative risk of corneal decompensation and differences in the ECD loss rates between subjects and controls. The mean follow-up after AGV implantation was 43.1 months. There were no cases of postoperative tube-corneal touch. The cumulative risk of corneal decompensation was 3.3%, 5 years after AGV implantation. There was a more rapid loss of ECD in the 72 subject eyes compared with the 31 controls (-7.0% and -0.1%/year, respectively; p<0.001). However, the rate of loss decreased over time and statistical significance compared with control eyes disappeared after 2 years postoperatively: -10.7% from baseline to 1 year (p<0.01), -7.0% from 1 year to 2 years (p=0.037), -4.2% from 2 years to 3 years (p=0.230) and -2.7% from 3 years to the final follow-up (p=0.111). In case of uncomplicated AGV implantation, the cumulative risk of corneal decompensation was 3.3%, 5 years after the operation. The ECD loss was statistically greater in eyes with AGV than in control eyes without AGV, but the difference was significant only up to 2 years post surgery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Automated boundary segmentation and wound analysis for longitudinal corneal OCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Shi, Fei; Zhu, Weifang; Pan, Lingjiao; Chen, Haoyu; Huang, Haifan; Zheng, Kangkeng; Chen, Xinjian

    2017-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been widely applied in the examination and diagnosis of corneal diseases, but the information directly achieved from the OCT images by manual inspection is limited. We propose an automatic processing method to assist ophthalmologists in locating the boundaries in corneal OCT images and analyzing the recovery of corneal wounds after treatment from longitudinal OCT images. It includes the following steps: preprocessing, epithelium and endothelium boundary segmentation and correction, wound detection, corneal boundary fitting and wound analysis. The method was tested on a data set with longitudinal corneal OCT images from 20 subjects. Each subject has five images acquired after corneal operation over a period of time. The segmentation and classification accuracy of the proposed algorithm is high and can be used for analyzing wound recovery after corneal surgery.

  5. Tissue Engineering of the Corneal Endothelium: A Review of Carrier Materials

    PubMed Central

    Teichmann, Juliane; Valtink, Monika; Nitschke, Mirko; Gramm, Stefan; Funk, Richard H.W.; Engelmann, Katrin; Werner, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Functional impairment of the human corneal endothelium can lead to corneal blindness. In order to meet the high demand for transplants with an appropriate human corneal endothelial cell density as a prerequisite for corneal function, several tissue engineering techniques have been developed to generate transplantable endothelial cell sheets. These approaches range from the use of natural membranes, biological polymers and biosynthetic material compositions, to completely synthetic materials as matrices for corneal endothelial cell sheet generation. This review gives an overview about currently used materials for the generation of transplantable corneal endothelial cell sheets with a special focus on thermo-responsive polymer coatings. PMID:24956190

  6. Impact of Facial Conformation on Canine Health: Corneal Ulceration

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Rowena M. A.; Hendricks, Anke; Burn, Charlotte C.

    2015-01-01

    Concern has arisen in recent years that selection for extreme facial morphology in the domestic dog may be leading to an increased frequency of eye disorders. Corneal ulcers are a common and painful eye problem in domestic dogs that can lead to scarring and/or perforation of the cornea, potentially causing blindness. Exaggerated juvenile-like craniofacial conformations and wide eyes have been suspected as risk factors for corneal ulceration. This study aimed to quantify the relationship between corneal ulceration risk and conformational factors including relative eyelid aperture width, brachycephalic (short-muzzled) skull shape, the presence of a nasal fold (wrinkle), and exposed eye-white. A 14 month cross-sectional study of dogs entering a large UK based small animal referral hospital for both corneal ulcers and unrelated disorders was carried out. Dogs were classed as affected if they were diagnosed with a corneal ulcer using fluorescein dye while at the hospital (whether referred for this disorder or not), or if a previous diagnosis of corneal ulcer(s) was documented in the dogs’ histories. Of 700 dogs recruited, measured and clinically examined, 31 were affected by corneal ulcers. Most cases were male (71%), small breed dogs (mean± SE weight: 11.4±1.1 kg), with the most commonly diagnosed breed being the Pug. Dogs with nasal folds were nearly five times more likely to be affected by corneal ulcers than those without, and brachycephalic dogs (craniofacial ratio <0.5) were twenty times more likely to be affected than non-brachycephalic dogs. A 10% increase in relative eyelid aperture width more than tripled the ulcer risk. Exposed eye-white was associated with a nearly three times increased risk. The results demonstrate that artificially selecting for these facial characteristics greatly heightens the risk of corneal ulcers, and such selection should thus be discouraged to improve canine welfare. PMID:25969983

  7. Moesin as a key cytoskeleton regulator in corneal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong-Yuan; Yeo, Sia-Wey; Ng, Jennifer; Htoon, Hla Myint; Beuerman, R W

    2013-04-01

    : Corneal fibrosis is the third leading cause of blindness worldwide. α-Smooth muscle actin (SMA), a marker of fibrosis, is closely regulated through an intermediate group of submembrane molecules - cytoskeleton regulators. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of specific cytoskeleton regulators in a mouse model of corneal fibrosis. : A mouse model of corneal fibrosis was developed using anterior keratectomy (AK) and the topical application of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 (1 μg/ml). The RT² Profiler™ PCR Array for cytoskeleton regulators was used to assay changes in levels of specific members of this class of proteins. Moesin siRNA was delivered into the corneal stroma by iontophoresis in vivo. Transformation of the corneal keratocyte-to-myofibroblast in corneal fibrosis, as defined by the expression of α-SMA, was determined by Western blot. : After AK and topical application of TGF-β1, moesin was the most highly upregulated gene among 84 cytoskeleton regulator genes; iontophoresing moesin siRNA into the corneal stroma reduced the expression of α-SMA to 0.22-, 0.52-, and 0.31-fold of control at postoperative (PO) day 1, 3, and 5, respectively; also, upregulation of phospho-Smad 2 induced by TGF-β1 was reduced by moesin siRNA to 0.59-, 0.56-, and 0.31-fold of control and expression of phospho-Smad 3 was reduced to 0.58-, 0.53-, and 0.47-fold of control at the same PO days. : Moesin may be a potential drug target for inhibiting corneal fibrosis, and the details of moesin-related signaling pathways would be critical for understanding corneal fibrosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. En face optical coherence tomography angiography for corneal neovascularisation.

    PubMed

    Ang, Marcus; Cai, Yijun; Shahipasand, Shahab; Sim, Dawn A; Keane, Pearse A; Sng, Chelvin C A; Egan, Catherine A; Tufail, Adnan; Wilkins, Mark R

    2016-05-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing clinical need for objective evaluation of corneal neovascularisation, a condition which cause significant ocular morbidity. We describe the use of a rapid, non-invasive 'en face' optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) system for the assessment of corneal neovascularisation. Consecutive patients with abnormal corneal neovascularisation were scanned using a commercially available AngioVue OCTA system (Optovue, Fremont, California, USA) with the split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation angiography algorithm, using an anterior segment lens adapter. Each subject had four scans in each eye by a trained operator and two independent masked assessors analysed all images. Main outcome measures were scan quality (signal strength, image quality), area of neovascularisation and repeatability of corneal vascular grade. We performed OCTA in 20 patients (11 men, 9 women, mean age 49.27±17.23 years) with abnormal corneal neovascularisation. The mean area of corneal neovascularisation was 0.57±0.30 mm(2) with a mean neovascularisation grade of 3.5±0.2 in the OCTA scans. We found the OCTA to produce good quality images of the corneal vessels (signal strength: 36.95±13.97; image quality score 2.72±1.07) with good repeatability for assessing neovascularisation grade (κ=0.84). In this preliminary clinical study, we describe a method for acquiring angiography images with 'en face' views, using an OCTA system adapted for the evaluation of corneal neovascularisation. Further studies are required to compare the scans to other invasive angiography techniques for the quantitative evaluation of abnormal corneal vessels. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Corneal Thickness Profile and Associations in Chinese Children Aged 7 to 15 Years Old.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingyan; Zhu, Xiaofeng; He, Xiangui; Lu, Lina; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Corneal thickness (CT) maps of the central (2-mm diameter), para-central (2 to 5-mm diameter), peripheral (5 to 6-mm diameter), and minimum (5-mm diameter) cornea were measured in normal Chinese school children aged 7 to 15 years old using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Multiple regression analyses were performed to explore the effect of associated factors [age, gender, refraction, axial length and corneal curvature radius (CCR)] on CT and the relationship between central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP). A total of 1228 eyes from 614 children were analyzed. The average CCT was 532.96 ± 28.33 μm for right eyes and 532.70 ±28.45 μm for left eyes. With a 10 μm increase in CCT, the IOP was elevated by 0.37 mm Hg, as measured by noncontact tonometry. The CT increased gradually from the center to the periphery. The superior and superior nasal regions had the thickest CTs, while the thinnest points were primarily located in the inferior temporal cornea. The CCT was associated with CCR (p = 0.008) but not with gender (p = 0.075), age (p = 0.286), axial length (p = 0.405), or refraction (p = 0.985). In the para-central region and the peripheral cornea, increased CT was associated with younger age, male gender, and a flatter cornea.

  10. Thermoelectrically controlled device for studies of temperature-induced corneal shrinkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borja, David; Manns, Fabrice; Fernandez, Viviana; Lamar, Peggy; Soederberg, Per G.; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and calibrate a device to measure the dynamics of thermal shrinkage in corneal and scleral strips. The apparatus consists of a thermoelectric cell controlled by a temperature controller designed to generate temperatures up to 90 degree(s)C in rectangular corneal strips; a copper cuvette filled with Dextran solution that holds the corneal strip and a displacement sensor that measures the change in length of the tissue during heat-induced shrinkage. The device was tested on corneal tissue from Florida Eye-Bank eyes that were cut into 2x4mm rectangular strips. Preliminary results indicate that our system can reproducibly create and accurately measure thermally induced corneal shrinkage. Shrinkage experiments will be used to optimize laser parameters for corneal shrinkage during laser thermokeratoplasty and laser scleral buckling.

  11. A fibrin sealant for perforated and preperforated corneal ulcers.

    PubMed Central

    Lagoutte, F M; Gauthier, L; Comte, P R

    1989-01-01

    Fibrin sealant is used to close perforated or preperforated corneal ulcers. In addition to the usual advantages of cyanoacrylates it is degraded physiologically and provides a good support for corneal healing. Corneal grafting can be avoided when contraindicated or postponed when conditions allow. This technique has been successful in nine eyes of eight patients. Images PMID:2804032

  12. Corneal confocal microscopy detects small fiber neuropathy in CMT1A patients

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Mitra; Marshall, Andy; Banka, Siddharth; Petropoulos, Ioannis N; Fadavi, Hassan; Kingston, Helen; Malik, Rayaz A

    2012-01-01

    Although unmyelinated nerve fibers are affected in CMT1A, they have not been studied in detail due to the invasive nature of the techniques needed to study them. We established alterations in C-fiber bundles of the cornea in patients with CMT1A using non-invasive corneal confocal microscopy (CCM). Twelve patients with CMT1A and twelve healthy control subjects underwent assessment of neuropathic symptoms and deficits, electrophysiology, quantitative sensory testing, corneal sensitivity and corneal confocal microscopy. Corneal sensitivity, corneal nerve fiber density, corneal nerve branch density, corneal nerve fiber length and corneal nerve fiber tortuosity were significantly reduced in CMT1A patients compared to controls. There was a significant correlation between corneal sensation and CCM parameters with the severity of painful neuropathic symptoms, cold and warm thresholds and median nerve CMAP amplitude. CCM demonstrates significant damage to C-fiber bundles, which relates to some measures of neuropathy in CMT1A patients. PMID:22996176

  13. Restoration of Corneal Transparency by Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Sharad K; Omoto, Masahiro; Amouzegar, Afsaneh; Sahu, Anuradha; Rezazadeh, Alexandra; Katikireddy, Kishore R; Shah, Dhvanit I; Sahu, Srikant K; Chauhan, Sunil K

    2016-10-11

    Transparency of the cornea is indispensable for optimal vision. Ocular trauma is a leading cause of corneal opacity, leading to 25 million cases of blindness annually. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have gained prominence due to their inflammation-suppressing and tissue repair functions. Here, we investigate the potential of MSCs to restore corneal transparency following ocular injury. Using an in vivo mouse model of ocular injury, we report that MSCs have the capacity to restore corneal transparency by secreting high levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Interestingly, our data also show that HGF alone can restore corneal transparency, an observation that has translational implications for the development of HGF-based therapy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Depth-Dependent Transverse Shear Properties of the Human Corneal Stroma

    PubMed Central

    Petsche, Steven J.; Chernyak, Dimitri; Martiz, Jaime; Levenston, Marc E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To measure the transverse shear modulus of the human corneal stroma and its profile through the depth by mechanical testing, and to assess the validity of the hypothesis that the shear modulus will be greater in the anterior third due to increased interweaving of lamellae. Methods. Torsional rheometry was used to measure the transverse shear properties of 6 mm diameter buttons of matched human cadaver cornea pairs. One cornea from each pair was cut into thirds through the thickness with a femtosecond laser and each stromal third was tested individually. The remaining intact corneas were tested to measure full stroma shear modulus. The shear modulus from a 1% shear strain oscillatory test was measured at various levels of axial compression for all samples. Results. After controlling for axial compression, the transverse shear moduli of isolated anterior layers were significantly higher than central and posterior layers. Mean modulus values at 0% axial strain were 7.71 ± 6.34 kPa in the anterior, 1.99 ± 0.45 kPa in the center, 1.31 ± 1.01 kPa in the posterior, and 9.48 ± 2.92 kPa for full thickness samples. A mean equilibrium compressive modulus of 38.7 ± 8.6 kPa at 0% axial strain was calculated from axial compression measured during the shear tests. Conclusions. Transverse shear moduli are two to three orders of magnitude lower than tensile moduli reported in the literature. The profile of shear moduli through the depth displayed a significant increase from posterior to anterior. This gradient supports the hypothesis and corresponds to the gradient of interwoven lamellae seen in imaging of stromal cross-sections. PMID:22205608

  15. Modeling Corneal Oxygen with Scleral Gas Permeable Lens Wear.

    PubMed

    Compañ, Vicente; Aguilella-Arzo, Marcel; Edrington, Timothy B; Weissman, Barry A

    2016-11-01

    The main goal of this current work is to use an updated calculation paradigm, and updated boundary conditions, to provide theoretical guidelines to assist the clinician whose goal is to improve his or her scleral gas permeable (GP) contact lens wearing patients' anterior corneal oxygen supply. Our model uses a variable value of corneal oxygen consumption developed through Monod equations that disallows negative oxygen tensions within the stroma to predict oxygen tension at the anterior corneal surface of scleral GP contact lens wearing eyes, and to describe oxygen tension and flux profiles, for various boundary conditions, through the lens, tears, and cornea. We use several updated tissue and boundary parameters in our model. Tear exchange with GP scleral lenses is considered nonexistent in this model. The majority of current scleral GP contact lenses should produce some levels of corneal hypoxia under open eye conditions. Only lenses producing the thinnest of tear vaults should result in anterior corneal surface oxygen tensions greater than a presumed critical oxygen tension of 100 mmHg. We also find that corneal oxygen tension and flux are each more sensitive to modification in tear vault than to changes in lens oxygen permeability, within the ranges of current clinical manipulation. Our study suggests that clinicians would be prudent to prescribe scleral GP lenses manufactured from higher oxygen permeability materials and especially to fit without excessive corneal clearance.

  16. Corneal thickness values before and after oxybuprocaine 0.4% eye drops.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Isabel; Rahhal, Saleh M; Alonso, Luis; Palanca-Sanfrancisco, José M; Sanchis-Gimeno, Juan A

    2003-08-01

    To determine changes in corneal thickness after topical anesthesia. Corneal thickness was measured before and 3 minutes after administration of two drops of oxybuprocaine 0.4% to 26 patients (26 eyes). We analyzed the corneal thickness of a control group, which was made up of 26 patients (26 eyes) before and 3 minutes after administration of two drops of saline solution. Corneal thickness was measured with the Orbscan Topography System II (Bausch Lomb Surg., Barcelona). Variations higher than +/- 10 microm were found following the instillation of 2 oxybuprocaine eye drops in eight eyes (30.76%) at the inferonasal cornea, in six eyes (23.08%) at the superotemporal, temporal and inferotemporal cornea, in five eyes (19.23%) at the nasal cornea, in three eyes (11.53%) at the central cornea, and in two eyes (7.69%) at the superonasal cornea. Nevertheless, no significant differences in the mean corneal thickness at each corneal location between the first and the second corneal thickness measurements were found in anesthetized eyes. Some individuals can present important increases and decreases in corneal thickness values after anesthetic eye drops. This effect of anesthetic eye drops must be considered by refractive surgeons when carrying out preoperative laser in situ keratomileusis corneal thickness measurements.

  17. Construction of a Corneal Stromal Equivalent with SMILE-Derived Lenticules and Fibrin Glue.

    PubMed

    Yin, Houfa; Qiu, Peijin; Wu, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Teng, Wenqi; Qin, Zhenwei; Li, Chao; Zhou, Jiaojie; Fang, Zhi; Tang, Qiaomei; Fu, Qiuli; Ma, Jian; Yang, Yabo

    2016-09-21

    The scarcity of corneal tissue to treat deep corneal defects and corneal perforations remains a challenge. Currently, small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE)-derived lenticules appear to be a promising alternative for the treatment of these conditions. However, the thickness and toughness of a single piece of lenticule are limited. To overcome these limitations, we constructed a corneal stromal equivalent with SMILE-derived lenticules and fibrin glue. In vitro cell culture revealed that the corneal stromal equivalent could provide a suitable scaffold for the survival and proliferation of corneal epithelial cells, which formed a continuous pluristratified epithelium with the expression of characteristic markers. Finally, anterior lamellar keratoplasty in rabbits demonstrated that the corneal stromal equivalent with decellularized lenticules and fibrin glue could repair the anterior region of the stroma, leading to re-epithelialization and recovery of both transparency and ultrastructural organization. Corneal neovascularization, graft degradation, and corneal rejection were not observed within 3 months. Taken together, the corneal stromal equivalent with SMILE-derived lenticules and fibrin glue appears to be a safe and effective alternative for the repair of damage to the anterior cornea, which may provide new avenues in the treatment of deep corneal defects or corneal perforations.

  18. LRIG1 inhibits STAT3-dependent inflammation to maintain corneal homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Takahiro; Hamuro, Junji; Takaishi, Mikiro; Simmons, Szandor; Maruyama, Kazuichi; Zaffalon, Andrea; Bentley, Adam J.; Kawasaki, Satoshi; Nagata-Takaoka, Maho; Fullwood, Nigel J.; Itami, Satoshi; Sano, Shigetoshi; Ishii, Masaru; Barrandon, Yann; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Corneal integrity and transparency are indispensable for good vision. Cornea homeostasis is entirely dependent upon corneal stem cells, which are required for complex wound-healing processes that restore corneal integrity following epithelial damage. Here, we found that leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) is highly expressed in the human holoclone-type corneal epithelial stem cell population and sporadically expressed in the basal cells of ocular-surface epithelium. In murine models, LRIG1 regulated corneal epithelial cell fate during wound repair. Deletion of Lrig1 resulted in impaired stem cell recruitment following injury and promoted a cell-fate switch from transparent epithelium to keratinized skin-like epidermis, which led to corneal blindness. In addition, we determined that LRIG1 is a negative regulator of the STAT3-dependent inflammatory pathway. Inhibition of STAT3 in corneas of Lrig1–/– mice rescued pathological phenotypes and prevented corneal opacity. Additionally, transgenic mice that expressed a constitutively active form of STAT3 in the corneal epithelium had abnormal features, including corneal plaques and neovascularization similar to that found in Lrig1–/– mice. Bone marrow chimera experiments indicated that LRIG1 also coordinates the function of bone marrow–derived inflammatory cells. Together, our data indicate that LRIG1 orchestrates corneal-tissue transparency and cell fate during repair, and identify LRIG1 as a key regulator of tissue homeostasis. PMID:24316976

  19. In-vitro corneal transparency measuring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Liliane; da Costa Vieira, Marcelo A.; Isaac, Flavio; Chiaradia, Caio; Faria de Sousa, Sidney J.

    2001-06-01

    A system for measuring the average corneal transparency of preserved corneas has been developed in order to provide a more accurate and standard report of the corneal tissue. The donated cornea transparency is one of the features to be analyzed previously to its indication for the transplant. The small portable system consists of two main parts: the optical and the electronic parts. The optical system consists of a white light, lenses and pin-holes that collimate white light beams that illuminates the cornea in its preservative medium. The light that passes through the cornea is detected by a resistive detector and the average corneal transparency is shown in a display. In order to obtain just the tissue transparency, the electronic circuit was built in a way that there is a baseline input of the preservative medium, previous to the measurement of the corneal transparency. Manipulating the system consists of three steps: (1) Adjusting the zero percentage in the absence of light (at this time the detectors in the dark); (2) Placing the preservative medium in the system and adjusting the 100% value (this is the baseline input); (3) Preserving the cornea and placing it in the system. The system provides the tissue transparency. The system is connected to an endothelium evaluation system for Slit Lamp, that we have developed, and statistics about the relationship of the corneal transparency and density of the endothelial cells will be provided in the next years. The system is being used in a public Eye Bank in Brasil.

  20. Topical NSAIDs effect on corneal sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Singer, Daniel D; Kennedy, John; Wittpenn, John R

    2015-05-01

    Topical nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are administered topically for a variety of ophthalmologic conditions. Brand diclofenac and brand ketorolac were previously shown to have topical anesthetic effects in addition to analgesic effects. Using the same method, we measured similar anesthetic effects of the 4 currently available topical NSAIDs--generic diclofenac, generic ketorolac, brand bromfenac, and brand nepafenac. Baseline corneal sensitivity was measured on 10 healthy adult volunteers with a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. One drop of the agent being studied was applied to the right eye every 5 minutes for a total of 4 drops. Corneal sensitivity was measured immediately after the last topical application and every 15 minutes for 60 minutes. After a 1-week washout period, a different agent was studied until all 4 NSAIDs were evaluated. Corneal sensitivity profiles over time were similar for all NSAIDs. Corneal sensitivity decreased significantly from baseline immediately after topical application remaining flat from 0 to 30 minutes and then rising from 45 to 60 minutes back toward baseline in all treatment groups (P < 0.001). The maximal absolute drop in corneal sensitivity as measured by pressure thresholds was greatest for diclofenac [28.6 mm (95% confidence intervals {CI}, 19.8-37.4)], followed by ketorolac [21.1 mm (95% CI, 15.1-27.1)], bromfenac [16.9 mm (10.7-23.1)], and nepafenac [16.4 mm (95% CI, 12.7-20.1)]. Only diclofenac and nepafenac were statistically different in maximal decrease in sensitivity. All 4 currently available NSAIDs demonstrated anesthetic effects similar to brand diclofenac and brand ketorolac.

  1. Altered corneal biomechanical properties in children with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Lagrou, Lisa M; Gilbert, Jesse; Hannibal, Mark; Caird, Michelle S; Thomas, Inas; Moroi, Sayoko E; Bohnsack, Brenda L

    2018-04-07

    To evaluate biomechanical corneal properties in children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). A prospective, observational, case-control study was conducted on children 6-19 years of age diagnosed with OI. Patients with OI and healthy control subjects underwent complete ophthalmic examinations. Additional tests included Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) and ultrasonic pachymetry. Primary outcomes were central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal hysteresis (CH), and corneal resistance factor (CRF). Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured directly by either iCare or Goldmann applanation and indirectly by the ORA (Goldmann-correlated and corneal-compensated IOP). Statistically significant differences between OI and control groups were determined using independent samples t test. A total of 10 of 18 OI cases (mean age, 13 ± 4.37 years; 8 males) and 30 controls (mean age, 12.76 ± 2.62 years; 16 males) were able to complete the corneal biomechanics and pachymetry testing. Children with OI had decreased CH (8.5 ± 1.0 mm Hg vs 11.6 ± 1.2 mm Hg [P < 0.001]), CRF (9.0 ± 1.9 mm Hg vs 11.5 ± 1.5 [P < 0.001]) and CCT (449.8 ± 30.8 μm vs 568 ± 47.6 μm [P < 0.001]) compared to controls. The corneal-compensated IOP was significantly higher in OI cases (18.8 ± 3.1 mm Hg) than in controls (15.0 ± 1.6 mm Hg, P < 0.004), but there was no significant difference in Goldmann-correlated IOP (16.3 ± 4.2 mm Hg vs 15.8 ± 2.2 mm Hg). Collagen defects in OI alter corneal structure and biomechanics. Children with OI have decreased CH, CRF, and CCT, resulting in IOPs that are likely higher than measured by tonometry. These corneal alterations are present at a young age in OI. Affected individuals should be routinely screened for glaucoma and corneal pathologies. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Regulation of corneal stroma extracellular matrix assembly.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shoujun; Mienaltowski, Michael J; Birk, David E

    2015-04-01

    The transparent cornea is the major refractive element of the eye. A finely controlled assembly of the stromal extracellular matrix is critical to corneal function, as well as in establishing the appropriate mechanical stability required to maintain corneal shape and curvature. In the stroma, homogeneous, small diameter collagen fibrils, regularly packed with a highly ordered hierarchical organization, are essential for function. This review focuses on corneal stroma assembly and the regulation of collagen fibrillogenesis. Corneal collagen fibrillogenesis involves multiple molecules interacting in sequential steps, as well as interactions between keratocytes and stroma matrix components. The stroma has the highest collagen V:I ratio in the body. Collagen V regulates the nucleation of protofibril assembly, thus controlling the number of fibrils and assembly of smaller diameter fibrils in the stroma. The corneal stroma is also enriched in small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) that cooperate in a temporal and spatial manner to regulate linear and lateral collagen fibril growth. In addition, the fibril-associated collagens (FACITs) such as collagen XII and collagen XIV have roles in the regulation of fibril packing and inter-lamellar interactions. A communicating keratocyte network contributes to the overall and long-range regulation of stromal extracellular matrix assembly, by creating micro-domains where the sequential steps in stromal matrix assembly are controlled. Keratocytes control the synthesis of extracellular matrix components, which interact with the keratocytes dynamically to coordinate the regulatory steps into a cohesive process. Mutations or deficiencies in stromal regulatory molecules result in altered interactions and deficiencies in both transparency and refraction, leading to corneal stroma pathobiology such as stromal dystrophies, cornea plana and keratoconus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Regulation of Corneal Stroma Extracellular Matrix Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shoujun; Mienaltowski, Michael J.; Birk, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The transparent cornea is the major refractive element of the eye. A finely controlled assembly of the stromal extracellular matrix is critical to corneal function, as well as in establishing the appropriate mechanical stability required to maintain corneal shape and curvature. In the stroma, homogeneous, small diameter collagen fibrils, regularly packed with a highly ordered hierarchical organization, are essential for function. This review focuses on corneal stroma assembly and the regulation of collagen fibrillogenesis. Corneal collagen fibrillogenesis involves multiple molecules interacting in sequential steps, as well as interactions between keratocytes and stroma matrix components. The stroma has the highest collagen V:I ratio in the body. Collagen V regulates the nucleation of protofibril assembly, thus controlling the number of fibrils and assembly of smaller diameter fibrils in the stroma. The corneal stroma is also enriched in small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) that cooperate in a temporal and spatial manner to regulate linear and lateral collagen fibril growth. In addition, the fibril-associated collagens (FACITs) such as collagen XII and collagen XIV have roles in the regulation of fibril packing and inter-lamellar interactions. A communicating keratocyte network contributes to the overall and long-range regulation of stromal extracellular matrix assembly, by creating micro-domains where the sequential steps in stromal matrix assembly are controlled. Keratocytes control the synthesis of extracellular matrix components, which interact with the keratocytes dynamically to coordinate the regulatory steps into a cohesive process. Mutations or deficiencies in stromal regulatory molecules result in altered interactions and deficiencies in both transparency and refraction, leading to corneal stroma pathobiology such as stromal dystrophies, cornea plana and keratoconus. PMID:25819456

  4. Analysis of corneal topography in patients with pure microphthalmia in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pei-Hong; Gao, Gui-Ping; Yu, Yao; Pei, Chong-Gang; Zhou, Qiong; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Ying; Shao, Yi

    2015-12-01

    To determine the typical corneal changes in pure microphthalmia using a corneal topography system and identify characteristics that may assist in early diagnosis. Patients with pure microphthalmia and healthy control subjects underwent corneal topography analysis (Orbscan IIZ® Corneal Topography System; Bausch and Lomb, Bridgewater, NJ, USA) to determine degree of corneal astigmatism (mean A), simulation of corneal astigmatism (sim A), mean keratometry (mean K), simulated keratometry (sim K), irregularities in the 3 - and 5-mm zone, and mean thickness of nine distinct corneal regions. Patients with pure microphthalmia (n = 12) had significantly higher mean K, sim K, mean A, sim A, 3.0 mm irregularity and 5.0 mm irregularity, and exhibited significantly more false keratoconus than controls (n = 12). There was a significant between-group difference in the morphology of the anterior corneal surface and the central curvature of the cornea. Changes in corneal morphology observed in this study could be useful in borderline situations to confirm the diagnosis of pure microphthalmia. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Predictors of Corneal Perforation or Need for Therapeutic Keratoplasty in Severe Fungal Keratitis: A Secondary Analysis of the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial II.

    PubMed

    Prajna, N Venkatesh; Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Rajaraman, Revathi; Patel, Sushila; Shah, Ranjeet; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Das, Manoranjan; Ray, Kathryn J; Oldenburg, Catherine E; McLeod, Stephen D; Zegans, Michael E; Acharya, Nisha R; Lietman, Thomas M; Rose-Nussbaumer, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    Identifying patients with infectious keratitis who are at risk of experiencing a poor outcome may be useful to allocate resources toward high-risk patients, particularly in resource-poor settings. To determine baseline patient and ulcer characteristics that predict a high risk of developing corneal perforation and/or the need to undergo therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (TPK). This is a secondary analysis of Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial II, a multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial that enrolled 240 patients with smear-positive filamentous fungal corneal ulcers who enrolled between May 2010 and August 2015. Participants had a baseline visual acuity of 20/400 or worse and were randomized to receive oral voriconazole or a placebo (all participants received topical voriconazole, 1%). After 39 participants (16.3%) were enrolled, topical natamycin, 5%, was also added. The primary outcome of this secondary analysis was the rate of corneal perforation or the need to undergo TPK. The mean (SD) age at enrollment was 49 (13) years, 104 participants (43.3%) were women, and all were of Southeast Asian descent. The presence of hypopyon at baseline indicated 2.28 times the odds of the patient developing corneal perforation and/or needing TPK (95% CI, 1.18-4.40; P = .01). Study participants whose infiltrate involved the posterior one-third had a 71.4% risk of developing corneal perforation and/or needing TPK. For each 1-mm increase in the geometric mean of the infiltrate, there was 1.37 (95% CI, 1.12-1.67; P = .002) increased odds of developing perforation and/or needing TPK. Other clinical features such as visual acuity, baseline culture positivity, type of filamentous fungal organism and duration of symptoms, and demographic characteristics, such as sex and occupation, were not significant predictors in the multivariable regression analysis. These results suggest that risk stratification from baseline ulcer characteristics can

  6. Monocarboxylate Transporters Mediate Fluorescein Uptake in Corneal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi-Chen; Liou, Hau-Min; Yeh, Po-Ting; Chen, Wei-Li; Hu, Fung-Rong

    2017-07-01

    To determine the presence of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) in human and rabbit corneal epithelium and its role in transcellular fluorescein transportation in the cornea. The presence of MCTs in human and rabbit corneal epithelium was determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Intracellular fluorescein uptake experiment was performed using cultured human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). The involvement of MCT in fluorescein uptake was determined by addition of MCT inhibitors to HCECs and acute dry eye model on New Zealand albino rabbits by spectrophotometry, corneal impression cytology, and external eye photographs. MCT-1 and MCT-4 were identified in both human and rabbit corneal epithelia. A longer treatment period and a lower pH value in culture medium increased fluorescein uptake in HCECs. Fluorescein uptake in HCECs was decreased following addition of MCT inhibitors in a concentration-dependent manner. Impression cytology under fluorescent microscopy showed intracellular fluorescein staining in the rabbit cornea with acute dry eye treatment that was decreased following topical treatment of MCT inhibitors. Fluorescein ingress in corneal epithelial cells is mediated by the MCT family. Further study of MCT-mediated transport on HCECs may potentially benefit differential diagnosis and contribute better understandings of ocular surface disorders.

  7. [Management of corneal hydrops using air and micro-punctures].

    PubMed

    Campos Polo, R; Chacón Iglesias, J; Gamazo Carrasco, M; Mencía Bartolomé, J M; Solana Fajardo, J; García Guisado, D; Fernández Miranda, C; Bueno Álvarez-Arenas, J; Sánchez Trancón, Á; García Ardoy, E

    2015-04-01

    A 22-year- old woman with an acute hydrops and Descemet membrane detachment was managed by intracameral air injection combined with multiple corneal stromal venting incisions for the drainage of intrastromal fluid. No intraoperative complications were encountered, and the intrastromal fluid was resolved over 2 weeks. Acute corneal hydrops is a significant complication of keratoconus. If not treated, resolution usually occurs over a period of 2-4 months. The persistent oedema can cause complications, such as corneal neovascularisation, infection and corneal perforation. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Pirfenidone Nanoparticles Improve Corneal Wound Healing and Prevent Scarring Following Alkali Burn

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Sushovan; Guha, Rajdeep; Trivedi, Ruchit; Kompella, Uday B.; Konar, Aditya; Hazra, Sarbani

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of pirfenidone nanoparticles on corneal re-epithelialization and scarring, major clinical challenges after alkali burn. Methods Effect of pirfenidone on collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) synthesis by TGFβ induced primary corneal fibroblast cells was evaluated by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Pirfenidone loaded poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles were prepared, characterized and their cellular entry was examined in primary corneal fibroblast cells by fluorescence microscopy. Alkali burn was induced in one eye of Sprague Dawley rats followed by daily topical treatment with free pirfenidone, pirfenidone nanoparticles or vehicle. Corneal re-epithelialization was assessed daily by flourescein dye test; absence of stained area indicated complete re-epithelialization and the time for complete re-epithelialization was determined. Corneal haze was assessed daily for 7 days under slit lamp microscope and graded using a standard method. After 7 days, collagen I deposition in the superficial layer of cornea was examined by immunohistochemistry. Results Pirfenidone prevented (P<0.05) increase in TGF β induced collagen I and α-SMA synthesis by corneal fibroblasts in a dose dependent manner. Pirfenidone could be loaded successfully within PLGA nanoparticles, which entered the corneal fibroblasts within 5 minutes. Pirfenidone nanoparticles but not free pirfenidone significantly (P<0.05) reduced collagen I level, corneal haze and the time for corneal re-epithelialization following alkali burn. Conclusion Pirfenidone decreases collagen synthesis and prevents myofibroblast formation. Pirfenidone nanoparticles improve corneal wound healing and prevent fibrosis. Pirfenidone nanoparticles are of potential value in treating corneal chemical burns and other corneal fibrotic diseases. PMID:23940587

  9. Subconjunctival Bevacizumab Injection Impairs Corneal Innervations and Epithelial Wound Healing in Mice.

    PubMed

    Dong, Muchen; Di, Guohu; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhou, Qingjun; Shi, Weiyun

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the effects of subconjunctival bevacizumab injection on the corneal nerve, sensitivity, and epithelial wound healing in mice. Adult C57BL/6 mice were treated with subconjunctival injection of 1, 2, 5, or 25 mg/mL bevacizumab. The corneal nerve was observed with whole-mount anti-β3-tubulin fluorescence staining. Corneal sensitivity was measured with a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. The protein levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), nerve growth factor (NGF), glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) were measured by ELISA. The corneal epithelial wound-healing rate was evaluated by fluorescein staining. The recovery of impaired mouse corneal innervations and epithelial wound-healing rate following bevacizumab injection was evaluated with the co-injection of PEDF, NGF, or CNTF. Subconjunctival bevacizumab injection caused apparent corneal nerve degeneration, attenuated corneal sensitivity, and delayed corneal epithelial wound healing and nerve regeneration in normal mice, which was more significant with increased concentration and times of the bevacizumab injection. However, the corneal nerve and sensitivity gradually improved and recovered in mice with a single injection of 1 to 5 mg/mL bevacizumab. Moreover, the bevacizumab injection significantly decreased the corneal PEDF, NGF, and CNTF content, whereas exogenous PEDF, NGF, or CNTF supplement attenuated impairment of the corneal nerve, sensitivity, and epithelial wound healing after subconjunctival bevacizumab injection. Subconjunctival bevacizumab injection impairs corneal innervations, epithelial wound healing, and nerve regeneration in normal mice, which may be caused by the reduction of neurotrophic factor content in the cornea.

  10. Interindividual differences of corneal sensitivity. Genetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Draeger, J; Schloot, W; Wirt, H

    1985-08-01

    By means of an electronic optical esthesiometer corneal sensitivity was examined in 91 volunteers of different age groups. Additionally, the anesthetic duration of the local anesthetic benoxinate was investigated. Corneal sensitivity decreases with advancing age. Comparing male and female subjects, we can suppose that there are age and sex specific differences of corneal sensitivity. There might be additional genetic factors. There are great interindividual differences in the anesthetic duration of benoxinate. It can be assumed that benoxinate is metabolized by pseudocholinesterase. One possible explanation for the great differences in the anesthetic duration of benoxinate can be seen in the genetically determined variants of pseudocholinesterase.

  11. Construction of a Corneal Stromal Equivalent with SMILE-Derived Lenticules and Fibrin Glue

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Houfa; Qiu, Peijin; Wu, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Teng, Wenqi; Qin, Zhenwei; Li, Chao; Zhou, Jiaojie; Fang, Zhi; Tang, Qiaomei; Fu, Qiuli; Ma, Jian; Yang, Yabo

    2016-01-01

    The scarcity of corneal tissue to treat deep corneal defects and corneal perforations remains a challenge. Currently, small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE)-derived lenticules appear to be a promising alternative for the treatment of these conditions. However, the thickness and toughness of a single piece of lenticule are limited. To overcome these limitations, we constructed a corneal stromal equivalent with SMILE-derived lenticules and fibrin glue. In vitro cell culture revealed that the corneal stromal equivalent could provide a suitable scaffold for the survival and proliferation of corneal epithelial cells, which formed a continuous pluristratified epithelium with the expression of characteristic markers. Finally, anterior lamellar keratoplasty in rabbits demonstrated that the corneal stromal equivalent with decellularized lenticules and fibrin glue could repair the anterior region of the stroma, leading to re-epithelialization and recovery of both transparency and ultrastructural organization. Corneal neovascularization, graft degradation, and corneal rejection were not observed within 3 months. Taken together, the corneal stromal equivalent with SMILE-derived lenticules and fibrin glue appears to be a safe and effective alternative for the repair of damage to the anterior cornea, which may provide new avenues in the treatment of deep corneal defects or corneal perforations. PMID:27651001

  12. Comparison of central corneal thickness measurements by rotating Scheimpflug camera, ultrasonic pachymetry, and scanning-slit corneal topography.

    PubMed

    Amano, Shiro; Honda, Norihiko; Amano, Yuki; Yamagami, Satoru; Miyai, Takashi; Samejima, Tomokazu; Ogata, Miyuki; Miyata, Kazunori

    2006-06-01

    To compare central corneal thickness measurements and their reproducibility when taken by a rotating Scheimpflug camera, ultrasonic pachymetry, and scanning-slit corneal topography/pachymetry. Experimental study. Seventy-four eyes of 64 subjects without ocular abnormalities other than cataract. Corneal thickness measurements were compared among the 3 methods in 54 eyes of 54 subjects. Two sets of measurements were repeated by a single examiner for each pachymetry in another 10 eyes of 5 subjects, and the intraexaminer repeatability was assessed as the absolute difference of the first and second measurements. Two experienced examiners took one measurement for each pachymetry in another 10 eyes of 5 subjects, and the interexaminer reproducibility was assessed as the absolute difference of the 2 measurements of the first and second examiners. Central corneal thickness measurements by the 3 methods, absolute difference of the first and second measurements by a single examiner, absolute difference of the 2 measurements by 2 examiners, and relative amount of variation. The average measurements of central corneal thickness by a rotating Scheimpflug camera, scanning-slit topography, and ultrasonic pachymetry were 538+/-31.3 microm, 541+/-40.7 microm, and 545+/-31.3 microm, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the measurement results among the 3 methods (P = 0.569, repeated-measures analysis of variance). There was a significant linear correlation between the rotating Scheimpflug camera and ultrasonic pachymetry (r = 0.908, P<0.0001), rotating Scheimpflug camera and scanning-slit topography (r = 0.930, P<0.0001), and ultrasonic pachymetry and scanning-slit topography (r = 0.887, P<0.0001). Ultrasonic pachymetry had the smallest intraexaminer variability, and scanning-slit topography had the largest intraexaminer variability among the 3 methods. There were similar variations in interexaminer reproducibility among the 3 methods. Mean corneal

  13. Comparative analysis of corneal morphological changes after transversal and torsional phacoemulsification through 2.2 mm corneal incision.

    PubMed

    Assaf, Ahmed; Roshdy, Maged Maher

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares and evaluates the corneal morphological changes occurring after cataract surgery through a 2.2 mm corneal incision. We use two platforms for comparison and evaluation, transversal and torsional phacoemulsification. This study includes 139 consecutive cataractous eyes (nuclear color 2-4, according to the Lens Opacities Classification System III [LOCSIII]) of 82 patients undergoing cataract surgery through a 2.2 mm corneal incision. Two different phacoemulsification platforms were used and assigned randomly: we used the WhiteStar Signature(®) system with the Ellips™ FX transversal continuous ultrasound (US) mode for group I (mean age: 65.33 ± 6.97 years), and we used the Infiniti(®) system with the OZil(®) Intelligent Phaco (IP) torsional US mode for group II (mean age: 64.02 ± 7.55 years). The corneal endothelium and pachymetry were evaluated preoperatively and at 1 month postoperatively. Incision size changes were also evaluated. All surgeries were uneventful. Before intraocular lens implantation, the mean incision size was 2.24 ± 0.06 mm in both groups (P = 0.75). In terms of corneal endothelial cell density, neither preoperative (I vs II: 2304.1 ± 122.5 cell/mm(2) vs 2315.6 ± 83.1 cell/mm(2), P = 0.80) nor postoperative (I vs II: 2264.1 ± 124.3 cell/mm(2) vs 2270.3 ± 89.9 cell/mm(2), P = 0.98) differences between the groups were statistically significant. The mean endothelial cell density loss was 1.7% ± 1.6% and 2.0% ± 1.4% in groups I and II, respectively. Furthermore, no significant differences between groups I and II were found preoperatively (P = 0.40) and postoperatively (P = 0.68) in central pachymetry. With surgery, the mean increase in central pachymetry was 28.1 ± 23.6 μm and 24.0 ± 24.0 μm in groups I and II, respectively (P = 0.1). Ellips™ FX transversal and OZil(®) IP torsional phacoemulsification modes are safe for performing cataract surgery, inducing minimal corneal thickness and endothelial changes.

  14. Topical administration of orbital fat-derived stem cells promotes corneal tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ko-Jo; Loi, Mei-Xue; Lien, Gi-Shih; Cheng, Chieh-Feng; Pao, Hsiang-Yin; Chang, Yun-Chuang; Ji, Andrea Tung-Qian; Ho, Jennifer Hui-Chun

    2013-06-14

    Topical administration of eye drops is the major route for drug delivery to the cornea. Orbital fat-derived stem cells (OFSCs) possess an in vitro corneal epithelial differentiation capacity. Both the safety and immunomodulatory ability of systemic OFSC transplantation were demonstrated in our previous work. In this study, we investigated the safety, therapeutic effect, and mechanism(s) of topical OFSC administration in an extensive alkali-induced corneal wound. Corneal injury was created by contact of a piece of 0.5 N NaOH-containing filter paper on the corneal surface of a male Balb/c mouse for 30 s. The area of the filter paper covered the central 70% or 100% of the corneal surface. OFSCs (2 × 10(5)) in 5 μl phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were given by topical administration (T) twice a day or by two intralimbal (IL) injections in the right cornea, while 5 μl of PBS in the left cornea served as the control. Topical OFSCs promoted corneal re-epithelialization of both the limbal-sparing and limbal-involved corneal wounds. In the first three days, topical OFSCs significantly reduced alkali-induced corneal edema and stromal infiltration according to a histopathological examination. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining revealed that transplanted cells were easily detectable in the corneal epithelium, limbal epithelium and stroma, but only some of transplanted cells at the limbal epithelium had differentiated into cytokeratin 3-expressing cells. OFSCs did not alter neutrophil (Ly6G) levels in the cornea, but significantly reduced macrophage (CD68) infiltration and inducible nitrous oxide synthetase (iNOS) production during acute corneal injury as quantified by a Western blot analysis. Continuous topical administration of OFSCs for seven days improved corneal transparency, and this was accompanied by diffuse stromal engraftment of transplanted cells and differentiation into p63-expressing cells at the limbal area. The therapeutic effect of the

  15. Topical administration of orbital fat-derived stem cells promotes corneal tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Topical administration of eye drops is the major route for drug delivery to the cornea. Orbital fat-derived stem cells (OFSCs) possess an in vitro corneal epithelial differentiation capacity. Both the safety and immunomodulatory ability of systemic OFSC transplantation were demonstrated in our previous work. In this study, we investigated the safety, therapeutic effect, and mechanism(s) of topical OFSC administration in an extensive alkali-induced corneal wound. Methods Corneal injury was created by contact of a piece of 0.5 N NaOH-containing filter paper on the corneal surface of a male Balb/c mouse for 30 s. The area of the filter paper covered the central 70% or 100% of the corneal surface. OFSCs (2 × 105) in 5 μl phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were given by topical administration (T) twice a day or by two intralimbal (IL) injections in the right cornea, while 5 μl of PBS in the left cornea served as the control. Results Topical OFSCs promoted corneal re-epithelialization of both the limbal-sparing and limbal-involved corneal wounds. In the first three days, topical OFSCs significantly reduced alkali-induced corneal edema and stromal infiltration according to a histopathological examination. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining revealed that transplanted cells were easily detectable in the corneal epithelium, limbal epithelium and stroma, but only some of transplanted cells at the limbal epithelium had differentiated into cytokeratin 3-expressing cells. OFSCs did not alter neutrophil (Ly6G) levels in the cornea, but significantly reduced macrophage (CD68) infiltration and inducible nitrous oxide synthetase (iNOS) production during acute corneal injury as quantified by a Western blot analysis. Continuous topical administration of OFSCs for seven days improved corneal transparency, and this was accompanied by diffuse stromal engraftment of transplanted cells and differentiation into p63-expressing cells at the limbal area. The

  16. Contact lens rehabilitation following repaired corneal perforations

    PubMed Central

    Titiyal, Jeewan S; Sinha, Rajesh; Sharma, Namrata; Sreenivas, V; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2006-01-01

    Background Visual outcome following repair of post-traumatic corneal perforation may not be optimal due to presence of irregular keratometric astigmatism. We performed a study to evaluate and compare rigid gas permeable contact lens and spectacles in visual rehabilitation following perforating corneal injuries. Method Eyes that had undergone repair for corneal perforating injuries with or without lens aspiration were fitted rigid gas permeable contact lenses. The fitting pattern and the improvement in visual acuity by contact lens over spectacle correction were noted. Results Forty eyes of 40 patients that had undergone surgical repair of posttraumatic corneal perforations were fitted rigid gas permeable contact lenses for visual rehabilitation. Twenty-four eyes (60%) required aphakic contact lenses. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of ≥ 6/18 in the snellen's acuity chart was seen in 10 (25%) eyes with spectacle correction and 37 (92.5%) eyes with the use of contact lens (p < 0.001). The best-corrected visual acuity with spectacles was 0.20 ± 0.13 while the same with contact lens was 0.58 ± 0.26. All the patients showed an improvement of ≥ 2 lines over spectacles in the snellen's acuity chart with contact lens. Conclusion Rigid gas permeable contact lenses are better means of rehabilitation in eyes that have an irregular cornea due to scars caused by perforating corneal injuries. PMID:16536877

  17. Apoptosis of Corneal Epithelial Cells Caused by Ultraviolet B-induced Loss of K+ is Inhibited by Ba2+

    PubMed Central

    Glupker, Courtney D.; Boersma, Peter M.; Schotanus, Mark P.; Haarsma, Loren D.; Ubels, John L.

    2017-01-01

    UVB exposure at ambient outdoor levels triggers rapid K+ loss and apoptosis in human corneal limbal epithelial (HCLE) cells cultured in medium containing 5.5 mM K+, but considerably less apoptosis occurs when the medium contains the high K+ concentration that is present in tears (25 mM). Since Ba2+ blocks several K+ channels, we tested whether Ba2+-sensitive K+ channels are responsible for some or all of the UVB-activated K+ loss and subsequent activation of the caspase cascade and apoptosis. Corneal epithelial cells in culture were exposed to UVB at 80 or 150 mJ/cm2. Patch-clamp recording was used to measure UVB-induced K+ currents. Caspase-activity and TUNEL assays were performed on HCLE cells exposed to UVB followed by incubation in the presence or absence of Ba2+. K+ currents were activated in HCLE cells following UVB-exposure. These currents were reversibly blocked by 5 mM Ba2+. When HCLE cells were incubated with 5 mM Ba2+ after exposure to UVB, activation of caspases-9, -8, and -3 and DNA fragmentation were significantly decreased. The data confirm that UVB-induced K+ current activation and loss of intracellular K+ leads to activation of the caspase cascade and apoptosis. Extracellular Ba2+ inhibits UVB-induced apoptosis by preventing loss of intracellular K+ when K+ channels are activated. Ba2+ therefore has effects similar to elevated extracellular K+ in protecting HCLE cells from UVB-induced apoptosis. This supports our overall hypothesis that elevated K+ in tears contributes to protection of the corneal epithelium from adverse effects of ambient outdoor UVB. PMID:27189864

  18. Noninvasive evaluation of corneal abnormalities using static and dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Misra, Anup K.; Leung, Alfred B.; King, James F.; Datiles, Manuel B., III

    2002-06-01

    A preliminary study of corneal abnormalities in intact bovine eyes is presented. Twenty-one eyes were treated with chemicals, cotton swabs, and radial and photo-refractive surgeries. Dynamic and static light scattering was performed as a function of the penetration depth into the corneal tissue. Topographical maps of corneal refractive power from untreated and treated corneas were also obtained using videokeratoscopy and results compared. The ultimate aim is to develop the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) for clinical applications in early evaluation of corneal complications after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgeries and other corneal abnormalities.

  19. Structure of corneal layers, collagen fibrils, and proteoglycans of tree shrew cornea.

    PubMed

    Almubrad, Turki; Akhtar, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    The stroma is the major part of the cornea, in which collagen fibrils and proteoglycans are distributed uniformly. We describe the ultrastructure of corneal layers, collagen fibrils (CF), and proteoglycans (PGs) in the tree shrew cornea. Tree shrew corneas (5, 6, and 10 week old animals) and normal human corneas (24, 25, and 54 years old) were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde containing cuprolinic blue in a sodium acetate buffer. The tissue was processed for electron microscopy. The 'iTEM Olympus Soft Imaging Solutions GmbH' program was used to measure the corneal layers, collagen fibril diameters and proteoglycan areas. The tree shrew cornea consists of 5 layers: the epithelium, Bowman's layer, stroma, Descemet's membrane, and endothelium. The epithelium was composed of squamous cells, wing cells and basal cells. The Bowman's layer was 5.5±1.0 µm thick and very similar to a normal human Bowman's layer. The stroma was 258±7.00 µm thick and consisted of collagen fibril lamellae. The lamellae were interlaced with one another in the anterior stroma, but ran parallel to one another in the middle and posterior stroma. Collagen fibrils were decorated with proteoglycan filaments with an area size of 390 ±438 nm(2). The collagen fibril had a minimum diameter of 39±4.25 nm. The interfibrillar spacing was 52.91±6.07 nm. Within the collagen fibrils, very small electron-dense particles were present. The structure of the tree shrew cornea is very similar to that of the normal human cornea. As is the case with the human cornea, the tree shrew cornea had a Bowman's layer, lamellar interlacing in the anterior stroma and electron-dense particles within the collagen fibrils. The similarities of the tree shrew cornea with the human cornea suggest that it could be a good structural model to use when studying changes in collagen fibrils and proteoglycans in non-genetic corneal diseases, such as ectasia caused after LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis).

  20. Structure of corneal layers, collagen fibrils, and proteoglycans of tree shrew cornea

    PubMed Central

    Almubrad, Turki

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The stroma is the major part of the cornea, in which collagen fibrils and proteoglycans are distributed uniformly. We describe the ultrastructure of corneal layers, collagen fibrils (CF), and proteoglycans (PGs) in the tree shrew cornea. Methods Tree shrew corneas (5, 6, and 10 week old animals) and normal human corneas (24, 25, and 54 years old) were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde containing cuprolinic blue in a sodium acetate buffer. The tissue was processed for electron microscopy. The ‘iTEM Olympus Soft Imaging Solutions GmbH’ program was used to measure the corneal layers, collagen fibril diameters and proteoglycan areas. Results The tree shrew cornea consists of 5 layers: the epithelium, Bowman’s layer, stroma, Descemet’s membrane, and endothelium. The epithelium was composed of squamous cells, wing cells and basal cells. The Bowman’s layer was 5.5±1.0 µm thick and very similar to a normal human Bowman’s layer. The stroma was 258±7.00 µm thick and consisted of collagen fibril lamellae. The lamellae were interlaced with one another in the anterior stroma, but ran parallel to one another in the middle and posterior stroma. Collagen fibrils were decorated with proteoglycan filaments with an area size of 390 ±438 nm2. The collagen fibril had a minimum diameter of 39±4.25 nm. The interfibrillar spacing was 52.91±6.07 nm. Within the collagen fibrils, very small electron-dense particles were present. Conclusions The structure of the tree shrew cornea is very similar to that of the normal human cornea. As is the case with the human cornea, the tree shrew cornea had a Bowman's layer, lamellar interlacing in the anterior stroma and electron-dense particles within the collagen fibrils. The similarities of the tree shrew cornea with the human cornea suggest that it could be a good structural model to use when studying changes in collagen fibrils and proteoglycans in non-genetic corneal diseases, such as ectasia caused after LASIK (laser

  1. [Corneal ulcer caused by Serratia marcescens: case report].

    PubMed

    Aprelev, A E; Iakovleva, N A; Valyshev, A V

    2013-01-01

    A case of corneal ulcer caused by Serratia marcescens is reported in a patient with history of corneal microtrauma. Biological features (pathogenicity factors, antibiotic resistance) of isolated culture were characterized. Keratitis cases caused by this agent were analyzed.

  2. Mitomycin C induces apoptosis in cultured corneal fibroblasts derived from type II granular corneal dystrophy corneas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-im; Choi, Seung-il; Lee, Hyung Keun; Cho, Young Jae; Kim, Eung Kweon

    2008-06-30

    The present study investigated the effect of mitomycin C (MMC) on cell viability, apoptosis, and transforming growth factor beta-induced protein (TGFBIp) expression in cultured normal corneal fibroblasts and heterozygote or homozygote granular corneal dystrophy type II (GCD II) corneal fibroblasts. Keratocytes were obtained from normal cornea or from heterozygote or homozygote GCD II patients after lamellar or penetrating keratoplasty. To measure cell viability, corneal fibroblasts were incubated with 0.02% MMC for 3 h, 6 h, and 24 h or with 0%, 0.01%, 0.02%, and 0.04% MMC for 24 h and then tested using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 3-[4,5-demethylthiazol-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assays. To measure apoptosis, cells were analyzed by FACS analysis and annexin V staining. Bcl-xL, Bax, and TGFBI mRNA expression was measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. Cellular and media levels of TGFBIp protein were measured by immunoblotting. MTT and LDH assays showed that MMC reduced cell viability in all three cell types in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner (p<0.05). FACS analysis and annexin V staining showed that MMC caused apoptosis with GCD II homozygote cells being most affected. RT-PCR analysis showed that MMC decreased Bcl-xL mRNA expression and increased Bax mRNA expression in all cell types. RT-PCR and immunoblotting analysis showed that MMC reduced TGFBI mRNA levels and cellular and media TGFBIp protein levels in all cell types. MMC induced apoptosis, and the effects of MMC were greatest in GCD II homozygote cells. MMC also reduced the production of TGFBIp in all three types of corneal fibroblasts. These findings may explain the additional therapeutic effect of MMC in GCD II patients.

  3. Mitomycin C induces apoptosis in cultured corneal fibroblasts derived from type II granular corneal dystrophy corneas

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung-il; Lee, Hyung Keun; Cho, Young Jae

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The present study investigated the effect of mitomycin C (MMC) on cell viability, apoptosis, and transforming growth factor beta-induced protein (TGFBIp) expression in cultured normal corneal fibroblasts and heterozygote or homozygote granular corneal dystrophy type II (GCD II) corneal fibroblasts. Methods Keratocytes were obtained from normal cornea or from heterozygote or homozygote GCD II patients after lamellar or penetrating keratoplasty. To measure cell viability, corneal fibroblasts were incubated with 0.02% MMC for 3 h, 6 h, and 24 h or with 0%, 0.01%, 0.02%, and 0.04% MMC for 24 h and then tested using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 3-[4,5-demethylthiazol-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assays. To measure apoptosis, cells were analyzed by FACS analysis and annexin V staining. Bcl-xL, Bax, and TGFBI mRNA expression was measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) assays. Cellular and media levels of TGFBIp protein were measured by immunoblotting. Results MTT and LDH assays showed that MMC reduced cell viability in all three cell types in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner (p<0.05). FACS analysis and annexin V staining showed that MMC caused apoptosis with GCD II homozygote cells being most affected. RT–PCR analysis showed that MMC decreased Bcl-xL mRNA expression and increased Bax mRNA expression in all cell types. RT–PCR and immunoblotting analysis showed that MMC reduced TGFBI mRNA levels and cellular and media TGFBIp protein levels in all cell types. Conclusions MMC induced apoptosis, and the effects of MMC were greatest in GCD II homozygote cells. MMC also reduced the production of TGFBIp in all three types of corneal fibroblasts. These findings may explain the additional therapeutic effect of MMC in GCD II patients. PMID:18615204

  4. Assessment of Corneal Backward Light Scattering in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Özyol, Pelin; Özyol, Erhan

    2016-10-03

    To analyze corneal backward light scattering differences in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We enrolled 43 eyes from 43 diabetic patients and 40 eyes from 40 healthy controls. Corneal backward light scattering was evaluated using densitometry measurements from different corneal layers and zones obtained using Scheimpflug tomography (PentacamHR). When densitometry values were divided by depth, anterior layer of diabetic corneas displayed significantly higher corneal backward light scattering values than controls (32.05, 95% confidence intervals [CI], 31.02-33.08 vs. 29.18, 95% CI, 27.60-30.76, P=0.024). Corneal densitometry measurements were also significantly higher in diabetic eyes compared with control eyes, when considered by concentric zones of total cornea in the 0 to 2 mm (21.65, 95% CI, 20.28-23.01 vs. 18.87 95% CI, 18.49-19.25, P=0.020), and anterior layer in the 0 to 2 mm (27.3, 95% CI, 25.04-29.56 vs. 22.31, 95% CI, 20.57-24.05, P<0.001), 2 to 6 mm (26.2, 95% CI, 24.99-27.41 vs. 22.4, 95% CI, 20.18-24.62, P<0.001) and 6 to 10 mm (32.19, 95% CI, 29.98-34.40 vs. 27.2, 95% CI, 25.39-29.01, P=0.022). There was excellent positive correlation between anterior total corneal densitometry measurements and duration of diabetes (r=0.802, P<0.001), although no significant correlation was observed with anterior total corneal densitometry measurements and hemoglobin A1c levels (r=0.080, P=0.621) in diabetic eyes. Backward light scattering values from the anterior layer of the cornea is greater in diabetic eyes than in controls. Anterior total corneal densitometry measurements show positive correlation with the duration of diabetes.

  5. The effect of mydriasis from phenylephrine on corneal shape.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ronnie Y C; Lam, Andrew K C

    2007-01-01

    A previous study reported that pharmacologically-dilated pupils changed the corneal shape. Researchers used mydriatic agents with significant cycloplegic effect. The current study investigates the effect of mydriasis on corneal shape using phenylephrine alone, where phenylephrine has minimal effect on the accommodative system and whether corneal topography can be done after pupil dilation. Forty-four young healthy subjects with one eye randomly selected for mydriasis were used in this study. Twenty-two received one drop of 2.5% phenylephrine (group 1); the other 22 subjects had one drop of 0.4% benoxinate instilled prior to the application of 2.5% phenylephrine (group 2). They were matched for age and refractive error. Anterior chamber depth, pupil size and corneal parameters were compared before and after mydriasis. The corneal parameters included best-fit sphere (BFS), surface asymmetry index (SAI), surface regularity index (SRI) and the axial and tangential powers in the form of flattest and steepest powers, and in the form of M, J(0), and J(45) vector presentation. Group 1 and group 2 subjects had similar pre-mydriatic baseline ocular parameters. The mean (+/- SD) pupil dilation was 1.24 +/- 0.59 mm for group 1 and 1.80 +/- 0.95 mm for group 2. The dilation was significantly larger in group 2 (unpaired t-tests: t = 2.36, p = 0.02). There were no significant changes in corneal parameters from mydriasis in either group. Previous investigations used mydriatic agents, which affected not only the pupil size but also accommodation. The current study found that mydriasis from phenylephrine, with minimal effect on accommodation, did not result in significant corneal alteration, and corneal topography can be measured after pupil dilation with phenylephrine.

  6. Clinical correlates of common corneal neovascular diseases: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Abdelfattah, Nizar Saleh; Amgad, Mohamed; Zayed, Amira A; Salem, Hamdy; Elkhanany, Ahmed E; Hussein, Heba; Abd El-Baky, Nawal

    2015-01-01

    A large subset of corneal pathologies involves the formation of new blood and lymph vessels (neovascularization), leading to compromised visual acuity. This article aims to review the clinical causes and presentations of corneal neovascularization (CNV) by examining the mechanisms behind common CNV-related corneal pathologies, with a particular focus on herpes simplex stromal keratitis, contact lenses-induced keratitis and CNV secondary to keratoplasty. Moreover, we reviewed CNV in the context of different types of corneal transplantation and keratoprosthesis, and summarized the most relevant treatments available so far. PMID:25709930

  7. The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Muthiah; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Lalitha, Prajna; Glidden, David V.; Ray, Kathryn J.; Hong, Kevin C.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Lee, Salena M.; Zegans, Michael E.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Acharya, Nisha R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To provide comprehensive trial methods and baseline data for the Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial and to present epidemiological characteristics such as risk factors, causative organisms, and ulcer severity. Methods Baseline data from a 1:1 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked clinical trial comparing prednisolone phosphate, 1%, with placebo as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Eligible patients had a culture-positive bacterial corneal ulcer and had been taking moxifloxacin for 48 hours. The primary outcome for the trial is best spectacle-corrected visual acuity at 3 months from enrollment. This report provides comprehensive baseline data, including best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, infiltrate size, microbio-logical results, and patient demographics, for patients enrolled in the trial. Results Of 500 patients enrolled, 97% were in India. Two hundred twenty patients (44%) were agricultural workers. Median baseline visual acuity was 0.84 logMAR (Snellen, 20/125) (interquartile range, 0.36-1.7; Snellen, 20/50 to counting fingers). Baseline visual acuity was not significantly different between the United States and India. Ulcers in India had larger infiltrate/scar sizes (P=.04) and deeper infiltrates (P=.04) and were more likely to be localized centrally (P=.002) than ulcers enrolled in the United States. Gram-positive bacteria were the most common organisms isolated from the ulcers (n=366, 72%). Conclusions The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial will compare the use of a topical corticosteroid with placebo as adjunctive therapy for bacterial corneal ulcers. Patients enrolled in this trial had diverse ulcer severity and on average significantly reduced visual acuity at presentation. PMID:21987581

  8. Corneal graft reversal: Histopathologic report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Qahtani, Abdullah A.; Alkatan, Hind M.

    2014-01-01

    Graft reversal is a rare cause for failed PKP. In this case report we are presenting 2 graft failure cases in which the corneal grafts were reversed unintentionally. The onset of signs of graft failure, however was variable. We have included their clinical course and the histopathologic findings of the removed corneal grafts. A total of 6 cases including ours have been reported so far. The aim of this report is to attract the attention of corneal surgeons to an additional rare cause for failed penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) which is donor graft reversal. PMID:25473355

  9. Corneal graft reversal: Histopathologic report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Qahtani, Abdullah A; Alkatan, Hind M

    2014-10-01

    Graft reversal is a rare cause for failed PKP. In this case report we are presenting 2 graft failure cases in which the corneal grafts were reversed unintentionally. The onset of signs of graft failure, however was variable. We have included their clinical course and the histopathologic findings of the removed corneal grafts. A total of 6 cases including ours have been reported so far. The aim of this report is to attract the attention of corneal surgeons to an additional rare cause for failed penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) which is donor graft reversal.

  10. Fluorouracil as a treatment for corneal papilloma in a Malayan tapir.

    PubMed

    Karpinski, Lorraine G; Miller, Christine L

    2002-09-01

    A 26-year-old, wild caught, male Malayan tapir at the Miami Metrozoo with bilateral corneal papillomas was serially immobilized and given subconjunctival injections of fluorouracil. Over the course of 17 weeks five bilateral injections of 25 mg fluorouracil were given. This treatment caused regression of the corneal lesions as evidenced by decreased lesion diameter, decreased corneal vascularity, increased corneal clarity, and improved visual function. No adverse drug effects were observed.

  11. Dextran Preserves Native Corneal Structure During Decellularization.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Amy P; Wilson, Samantha L; Ahearne, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Corneal decellularization has become an increasingly popular technique for generating scaffolds for corneal regeneration. Most decellularization procedures result in tissue swelling, thus limiting their application. Here, the use of a polysaccharide, dextran, to reduce swelling and conserve the native corneal structure during decellularization was investigated. Corneas were treated with 1% Triton X-100, 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate, and nucleases under constant rotation followed by extensive washing. To reduce swelling, decellularization solutions were supplemented with 5% dextran either throughout the whole decellularization process or during the washing cycles only. Quantitative analysis of DNA content showed a 96% reduction after decellularization regardless of the addition of dextran. Dextran resulted in a significant reduction in swelling from 3.85 ± 0.43 nm without to 1.94 ± 0.29-2.01 ± 0.37 nm (p < 0.05) remaining at similar dimensions to the native tissue (1.73 ± 0.23 nm). Tissue transparency was restored to all decellularized corneas following submersion in glycerol. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis found that dextran must be present throughout the decellularization protocol to preserve the native corneal architecture, anisotropy analysis demonstrated comparable results (0.22 ± 0.03) to the native cornea (0.24 ± 0.02), p > 0.05. Dextran can counteract the detrimental effects of decellularizing agents on the biomechanical properties of the tissue resulting in similar compressive moduli (mean before decellularization: 5.40 ± 1.18 kPa; mean after decellularization with dextran: 5.64 ± 1.34 kPa, p > 0.05). Cells remained viable in the presence of decellularized scaffolds. The findings of this study indicate that dextran not only prevents significant corneal swelling during decellularization but also enhances the maintenance of the native corneal ultrastructure.

  12. Algorithm for Correcting the Keratometric Error in the Estimation of the Corneal Power in Keratoconus Eyes after Accelerated Corneal Collagen Crosslinking

    PubMed Central

    Caravaca-Arens, Esteban; de Fez, Dolores; Blanes-Mompó, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the errors associated to corneal power calculation using the keratometric approach in keratoconus eyes after accelerated corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) surgery and to obtain a model for the estimation of an adjusted corneal refractive index (nkadj) minimizing such errors. Methods Potential differences (ΔPc) among keratometric (Pk) and Gaussian corneal power (PcGauss) were simulated. Three algorithms based on the use of nkadj for the estimation of an adjusted keratometric corneal power (Pkadj) were developed. The agreement between Pk(1.3375) (keratometric power using the keratometric index of 1.3375), PcGauss, and Pkadj was evaluated. The validity of the algorithm developed was investigated in 21 keratoconus eyes undergoing accelerated CXL. Results P k(1.3375) overestimated corneal power between 0.3 and 3.2 D in theoretical simulations and between 0.8 and 2.9 D in the clinical study (ΔPc). Three linear equations were defined for nkadj to be used for different ranges of r1c. In the clinical study, differences between Pkadj and PcGauss did not exceed ±0.8 D nk = 1.3375. No statistically significant differences were found between Pkadj and PcGauss (p > 0.05) and Pk(1.3375) and Pkadj (p < 0.001). Conclusions The use of the keratometric approach in keratoconus eyes after accelerated CXL can lead to significant clinical errors. These errors can be minimized with an adjusted keratometric approach. PMID:29201459

  13. Residual corneal stroma in big-bubble deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty: a histological study in eye-bank corneas.

    PubMed

    McKee, Hamish D; Irion, Luciane C D; Carley, Fiona M; Jhanji, Vishal; Brahma, Arun K

    2011-10-01

    To determine if residual corneal stroma remains on the recipient posterior lamella in big-bubble deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). Pneumodissection using the big-bubble technique was carried out on eye-bank corneas mounted on an artificial anterior chamber. Samples that had a successful big-bubble formation were sent for histological evaluation to determine if any residual stroma remained on the Descemet membrane (DM). Big-bubble formation was achieved in 32 donor corneas. Two distinct types of big-bubble were seen: the bubble had either a white margin (30 corneas) or a clear margin (two corneas). The posterior lamellae of all the white margin corneas showed residual stroma on DM with a mean central thickness of 7.0 μm (range 2.6-17.4 μm). The clear margin corneas showed no residual stroma on DM. It should no longer be assumed that big-bubble DALK, where the bubble has a white margin, routinely bares DM. True baring of DM may only occur with the less commonly seen clear margin bubble.

  14. Outcomes of endothelial keratoplasty in pseudophakic corneal oedema: with or without Descemet's membrane stripping.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ashik; Ks, Anil Raj; Chaurasia, Sunita; Ramappa, Muralidhar

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate and compare outcomes of Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK) with non-DSEK (nDSEK) in pseudophakic corneal oedema (PCE). The study was a prospective, non-consecutive, comparative, interventional case series. Twenty-six patients with PCE were randomised into two groups. Group 1 comprised of those cases that had undergone conventional DSEK, and group 2 consisted of those that had nDSEK for PCE between 2010 and 2012. The data on demographics and clinical characteristics were collected from all patients. Any intraoperative and early and late postoperative complications were also noted. The primary outcome measure was postoperative functional success. Graft survival and complications were analysed as secondary outcomes. The median best-corrected visual acuities at 6 months postoperatively in groups 1 and 2 were 0.18 (IQR 0.10-0.30) and 0.44 (IQR 0.18-0.51), respectively (p=0.11). Corneal oedema cleared in all patients. During the early postoperative period, a patient in group 2 had lenticule detachment managed by rebubbling. nDSEK has outcomes similar to DSEK in PCE with advantages of decreased surgical time and avoidance of inadvertent pull on the posterior stromal fibres that may occur during Descemet's stripping. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Clinical significance of owl eye morphologic features by in vivo laser confocal microscopy in patients with cytomegalovirus corneal endotheliitis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Akira; Yokogawa, Hideaki; Higashide, Tomomi; Nitta, Koji; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2012-03-01

    To demonstrate the clinical significance of owl eye morphologic features observed by in vivo laser confocal microscopy in patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) corneal endotheliitis. Observational case series. participants: Six eyes of 6 patients (6 men; mean age, 73.3 years) with cytomegalovirus corneal endotheliitis diagnosed by clinical manifestations together with polymerase chain reaction from aqueous humor samples. intervention: All patients were examined by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and in vivo laser confocal microscopy. main outcome measures: Clinical manifestations were summarized by reviewing medical records. Selected confocal images of corneal layers were evaluated qualitatively for shape and degree of light reflection of abnormal cells and deposits. All patients had long histories of anterior uveitis with intraocular pressure elevation, corneal edema with keratic precipitates, and decrease of endothelial cell densities. Coin-shaped lesions were observed by slit lamp only in 1 patient at the first visit and in 2 additional patients at subsequent follow-up. In all patients, confocal microscopy demonstrated reduced subepithelial nerves, subepithelial opacity, increased reflectivity of keratocytes, highly reflective dots, and needle-shaped bodies. Owl eye morphologic features were observed consistently in all patients at the initial visit, and highly reflective round bodies were detected in 5 patients; most notably, these confocal features were reversible after resolution of endotheliitis. Owl eye morphologic features and highly reflective round bodies observed by confocal microscopy may be useful as an adjunct for the noninvasive diagnosis of cytomegalovirus corneal endotheliitis. Reversibility of these features after resolution of endotheliitis may be useful for monitoring the therapeutic effects without multiple anterior chamber tap. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Viscous Agents on Corneal Density in Dry Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Alfred R; Meyer, Linda M; Schönfeld, Carl-Ludwig

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effect of the viscous agents, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), carbomer, povidone, and a combination of HPMC and povidone on corneal density in patients with dry eye disease. In total, 98 eyes of 49 patients suffering from dry eye and 65 eyes of 33 healthy age-matched individuals were included in this prospective, randomized study. Corneal morphology was documented with Scheimpflug photography and corneal density was analyzed in 5 anatomical layers (epithelium, bowman membrane, stroma, descemet's membrane, and endothelium). Corneal density was evaluated for the active ingredients HPMC, carbomer, povidone, and a combination of HPMC and povidone as the viscous agents contained in the artificial tear formulations used by the dry eye patients. Data were compared to the age-matched healthy control group without medication. Corneal density in dry eye patients was reduced in all 5 anatomical layers compared to controls. Corneal density was highest and very close to control in patients treated with HPMC containing ocular lubricants. Patients treated with lubricants, including carbomer as the viscous agent displayed a significant reduction of corneal density in layers 1 and 2 compared to control. HPMC containing ocular lubricants can help to maintain physiological corneal density and may be beneficial in the treatment of dry eye disease.

  17. Obtaining corneal tissue for keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Navarro Martínez-Cantullera, A; Calatayud Pinuaga, M

    2016-10-01

    Cornea transplant is the most common tissue transplant in the world. In Spain, tissue donation activities depend upon transplant coordinator activities and the well-known Spanish model for organ and tissue donation. Tissue donor detection system and tissue donor evaluation is performed mainly by transplant coordinators using the Spanish model on donation. The evaluation of a potential tissue donor from detection until recovery is based on an exhaustive review of the medical and social history, physical examination, family interview to determine will of the deceased, and a laboratory screening test. Corneal acceptance criteria for transplantation have a wider spectrum than other tissues, as donors with active malignancies and infections are accepted for kearatoplasty in most tissue banks. Corneal evaluation during the whole process is performed to ensure the safety of the donor and the recipient, as well as an effective transplant. Last step before processing, corneal recovery, must be performed under standard operating procedures and in a correct environment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of 0.4% benoxinate hydrochloride on corneal sensitivity, measured using the non-contact corneal aesthesiometer (NCCA).

    PubMed

    Murphy, P J; Blades, K J; Patel, S

    1997-12-01

    The Non-Contact Corneal Aesthesiometer (NCCA) was used to monitor the effect of topical anesthesia on corneal sensitivity loss and recovery. In a single masked randomized study, one drop of nonpreserved 0.4% benoxinate hydrochloride was instilled in either the right, left, or both eyes of 20 subjects on separate days, and measurements were made of the central corneal sensitivity in the right eye over a 60-min period. As controls, 10 subjects were retested, without any anesthetic instillation, over the same time period. No significant differences were found between these two benoxinate treatments, nor between the contralateral treatment and controls. Results indicate that there is no contralateral effect of benoxinate anesthesia, and that full recovery does not occur until 60 min after instillation. No effect on the depth and duration of anesthesia was found for iris color.

  19. CD147 Required for Corneal Endothelial Lactate Transport

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shimin; Nguyen, Tracy T.; Bonanno, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. CD147/basigin is a chaperone for lactate:H+ cotransporters (monocarboxylate transporters) MCT1 and MCT4. We tested the hypothesis that MCT1 and -4 in corneal endothelium contribute to lactate efflux from stroma to anterior chamber and that silencing CD147 expression would cause corneal edema. Methods. CD147 was silenced via small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) transfection of rabbit corneas ex vivo and anterior chamber lenti-small hairpin RNA (shRNA) pseudovirus in vivo. CD147 and MCT expression was examined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and immunofluorescence. Functional effects were examined by measuring lactate-induced cell acidification, corneal lactate efflux, [lactate], central cornea thickness (CCT), and Azopt (a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor) sensitivity. Results. In ex vivo corneas, 100 nM CD147 siRNA reduced CD147, MCT1, and MCT4 expression by 85%, 79%, and 73%, respectively, while MCT2 expression was unaffected. CD147 siRNA decreased lactate efflux from 3.9 ± 0.81 to 1.5 ± 0.37 nmol/min, increased corneal [lactate] from 19.28 ± 7.15 to 56.73 ± 8.97 nmol/mg, acidified endothelial cells (pHi = 6.83 ± 0.07 vs. 7.19 ± 0.09 in control), and slowed basolateral lactate-induced acidification from 0.0034 ± 0.0005 to 0.0012 ± 0.0005 pH/s, whereas apical acidification was unchanged. In vivo, CD147 shRNA increased CCT by 28.1 ± 0.9 μm at 28 days; Azopt increased CCT to 24.4 ± 3.12 vs. 12.0 ± 0.48 μm in control, and corneal [lactate] was 47.63 ± 6.29 nmol/mg in shCD147 corneas and 17.82 ± 4.93 nmol/mg in paired controls. Conclusions. CD147 is required for the expression of MCT1 and MCT4 in the corneal endothelium. Silencing CD147 slows lactate efflux, resulting in stromal lactate accumulation and corneal edema, consistent with lactate efflux as a significant component of the corneal endothelial pump. PMID:24970254

  20. CD147 required for corneal endothelial lactate transport.

    PubMed

    Li, Shimin; Nguyen, Tracy T; Bonanno, Joseph A

    2014-06-26

    CD147/basigin is a chaperone for lactate:H(+) cotransporters (monocarboxylate transporters) MCT1 and MCT4. We tested the hypothesis that MCT1 and -4 in corneal endothelium contribute to lactate efflux from stroma to anterior chamber and that silencing CD147 expression would cause corneal edema. CD147 was silenced via small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) transfection of rabbit corneas ex vivo and anterior chamber lenti-small hairpin RNA (shRNA) pseudovirus in vivo. CD147 and MCT expression was examined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and immunofluorescence. Functional effects were examined by measuring lactate-induced cell acidification, corneal lactate efflux, [lactate], central cornea thickness (CCT), and Azopt (a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor) sensitivity. In ex vivo corneas, 100 nM CD147 siRNA reduced CD147, MCT1, and MCT4 expression by 85%, 79%, and 73%, respectively, while MCT2 expression was unaffected. CD147 siRNA decreased lactate efflux from 3.9 ± 0.81 to 1.5 ± 0.37 nmol/min, increased corneal [lactate] from 19.28 ± 7.15 to 56.73 ± 8.97 nmol/mg, acidified endothelial cells (pHi = 6.83 ± 0.07 vs. 7.19 ± 0.09 in control), and slowed basolateral lactate-induced acidification from 0.0034 ± 0.0005 to 0.0012 ± 0.0005 pH/s, whereas apical acidification was unchanged. In vivo, CD147 shRNA increased CCT by 28.1 ± 0.9 μm at 28 days; Azopt increased CCT to 24.4 ± 3.12 vs. 12.0 ± 0.48 μm in control, and corneal [lactate] was 47.63 ± 6.29 nmol/mg in shCD147 corneas and 17.82 ± 4.93 nmol/mg in paired controls. CD147 is required for the expression of MCT1 and MCT4 in the corneal endothelium. Silencing CD147 slows lactate efflux, resulting in stromal lactate accumulation and corneal edema, consistent with lactate efflux as a significant component of the corneal endothelial pump. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  1. Three-dimensional ray-tracing model for the study of advanced refractive errors in keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Schedin, Staffan; Hallberg, Per; Behndig, Anders

    2016-01-20

    We propose a numerical three-dimensional (3D) ray-tracing model for the analysis of advanced corneal refractive errors. The 3D modeling was based on measured corneal elevation data by means of Scheimpflug photography. A mathematical description of the measured corneal surfaces from a keratoconus (KC) patient was used for the 3D ray tracing, based on Snell's law of refraction. A model of a commercial intraocular lens (IOL) was included in the analysis. By modifying the posterior IOL surface, it was shown that the imaging quality could be significantly improved. The RMS values were reduced by approximately 50% close to the retina, both for on- and off-axis geometries. The 3D ray-tracing model can constitute a basis for simulation of customized IOLs that are able to correct the advanced, irregular refractive errors in KC.

  2. In vitro 3D corneal tissue model with epithelium, stroma, and innervation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siran; Ghezzi, Chiara E; Gomes, Rachel; Pollard, Rachel E; Funderburgh, James L; Kaplan, David L

    2017-01-01

    The interactions between corneal nerve, epithelium, and stroma are essential for maintaining a healthy cornea. Thus, corneal tissue models that more fully mimic the anatomy, mechanical properties and cellular components of corneal tissue would provide useful systems to study cellular interactions, corneal diseases and provide options for improved drug screening. Here a corneal tissue model was constructed to include the stroma, epithelium, and innervation. Thin silk protein film stacks served as the scaffolding to support the corneal epithelial and stromal layers, while a surrounding silk porous sponge supported neuronal growth. The neurons innervated the stromal and epithelial layers and improved function and viability of the tissues. An air-liquid interface environment of the corneal tissue was also mimicked in vitro, resulting in a positive impact on epithelial maturity. The inclusion of three cell types in co-culture at an air-liquid interface provides an important advance for the field of in vitro corneal tissue engineering, to permit improvements in the study of innervation and corneal tissue development, corneal disease, and tissue responses to environmental factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Alternatives to eye bank native tissue for corneal stromal replacement.

    PubMed

    Brunette, Isabelle; Roberts, Cynthia J; Vidal, François; Harissi-Dagher, Mona; Lachaine, Jean; Sheardown, Heather; Durr, Georges M; Proulx, Stéphanie; Griffith, May

    2017-07-01

    Corneal blindness is a major cause of blindness in the world and corneal transplantation is the only widely accepted treatment to restore sight in these eyes. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult for eye banks to meet the increasing demand for transplantable tissue, which is in part due to population aging. Donor tissue shortage is therefore a growing concern globally and there is a need for alternatives to human donor corneas. Biosynthetic corneal substitutes offer several significant advantages over native corneas: Large-scale production offers a powerful potential solution to the severe shortage of human donor corneas worldwide; Good manufacturing practices ensure sterility and quality control; Acellular corneal substitutes circumvent immune rejection induced by allogeneic cells; Optical and biomechanical properties of the implants can be adapted to the clinical need; and finally these corneal substitutes could benefit from new advances in biomaterials science, such as surface coating, functionalization and nanoparticles. This review highlights critical contributions from laboratories working on corneal stromal substitutes. It focuses on synthetic inert prostheses (keratoprostheses), acellular scaffolds with and without enhancement of endogenous regeneration, and cell-based replacements. Accent is put on the physical properties and biocompatibility of these biomaterials, on the functional and clinical outcome once transplanted in vivo in animal or human eyes, as well as on the main challenges of corneal stromal replacement. Regulatory and economic aspects are also discussed. All of these perspectives combined highlight the founding principles of the clinical application of corneal stromal replacement, a concept that has now become reality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurement of corneal tangent modulus using ultrasound indentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ke; Huang, Yan-Ping; Tian, Lei; Kee, Chea-Su; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Biomechanical properties are potential information for the diagnosis of corneal pathologies. An ultrasound indentation probe consisting of a load cell and a miniature ultrasound transducer as indenter was developed to detect the force-indentation relationship of the cornea. The key idea was to utilize the ultrasound transducer to compress the cornea and to ultrasonically measure the corneal deformation with the eyeball overall displacement compensated. Twelve corneal silicone phantoms were fabricated with different stiffness for the validation of measurement with reference to an extension test. In addition, fifteen fresh porcine eyes were measured by the developed system in vitro. The tangent moduli of the corneal phantoms calculated using the ultrasound indentation data agreed well with the results from the tensile test of the corresponding phantom strips (R(2)=0.96). The mean tangent moduli of the porcine corneas measured by the proposed method were 0.089±0.026MPa at intraocular pressure (IOP) of 15mmHg and 0.220±0.053MPa at IOP of 30mmHg, respectively. The coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of tangent modulus were 14.4% and 0.765 at 15mmHg, and 8.6% and 0.870 at 30mmHg, respectively. The preliminary study showed that ultrasound indentation could be applied to the measurement of corneal tangent modulus with good repeatability and improved measurement accuracy compared to conventional surface displacement-based measurement method. The ultrasound indentation can be a potential tool for the corneal biomechanical properties measurement in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Epifluorescence Intravital Microscopy of Murine Corneal Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, James T.; Planck, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells vital for initiating immune responses. In this study the authors examined the in vivo migratory capability of resident corneal DCs to various stimuli. Methods. The authors used mice expressing enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) under control of the CD11c promoter to visualize corneal DCs. To assess the distribution and mobility of DCs, normal corneas were imaged in vivo and ex vivo with fluorescence microscopy. Intravital microscopy was used to examine the responses of resident central and peripheral corneal DCs to silver nitrate injury, lipopolysaccharide, microspheres, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). In some experiments, TNF-α injection was used to first induce centripetal migration of DCs to the central cornea, which was subsequently reinjected with microspheres. Results. In normal corneas, DCs were sparsely distributed centrally and were denser in the periphery, with epithelial-level DCs extending into the epithelium. Videomicroscopy showed that though cell processes were in continuous movement, cells generally did not migrate. Within the first 6 hours after stimulation, neither central nor peripheral corneal DCs exhibited significant lateral migration, but central corneal DCs assumed extreme morphologic changes. An increased number of DCs in the TNF-α–stimulated central cornea were responsive to subsequent microsphere injection by adopting a migratory behavior, but not with increased speed. Conclusions. In vivo imaging reveals minimal lateral migration of corneal DCs after various stimuli. In contrast, DCs within the central cornea after initial TNF-α injection are more likely to respond to a secondary insult with lateral migration. PMID:20007837

  6. Effect of steepest-meridian clear corneal incision for reducing preexisting corneal astigmatism using a meridian-marking method or surgeon's intuition.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ken; Yoshida, Motoaki; Yoshimura, Koichi

    2014-12-01

    To compare the effect of steepest-meridian clear corneal incisions (CCIs) for reducing preexisting corneal astigmatism between a meridian-marking method and a surgeon's-intuition method. Hayashi Eye Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan. Randomized controlled trials. Eyes scheduled for phacoemulsification were randomized to 1 of 2 groups: a 2.65 mm steepest-meridian CCI using the meridian-marking method or a 2.65 mm steepest-meridian CCI using the surgeon's intuition. Regular and irregular corneal astigmatism, surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) vector, refractive status, higher-order aberrations (HOAs), uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities, and physical meridian misalignment of the steepest-meridian CCI measured using anterior segment optical coherence tomography were evaluated preoperatively and 1 month and 3 months postoperatively. The mean meridian misalignment of the steepest-meridian CCIs was significantly smaller in the meridian-marking group (4.4 degrees ± 2.8 [SD]) than in the surgeon's-intuition group (8.6 ± 4.4 degrees) (P ≤.0001). Regular and irregular corneal astigmatism and corneal HOAs did not change significantly postoperatively in either group. No significant difference was found in regular or irregular corneal astigmatism, refractive cylinder, manifest spherical equivalent value, SIA, HOAs, UDVA, or CDVA between the meridian-marking group and the surgeon's-intuition group throughout the follow-up. The physical meridian misalignment of steepest-meridian CCI was significantly smaller with the meridian-marking method than with the surgeon's-intuition method; however, the effect of the difference was not large enough to decrease remaining astigmatism and HOAs or to improve the UDVA. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of eye biometrics and corneal micro-structure on noncontact tonometry.

    PubMed

    Jesus, Danilo A; Majewska, Małgorzata; Krzyżanowska-Berkowska, Patrycja; Iskander, D Robert

    2017-01-01

    Tonometry is widely used as the main screening tool supporting glaucoma diagnosis. Still, its accuracy could be improved if full knowledge about the variation of the corneal biomechanical properties was available. In this study, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) speckle statistics are used to infer the organisation of the corneal micro-structure and hence, to analyse its influence on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements. Fifty-six subjects were recruited for this prospective study. Macro and micro-structural corneal parameters as well as subject age were considered. Macro-structural analysis included the parameters that are associated with the ocular anatomy, such as central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal radius, axial length, anterior chamber depth and white-to-white corneal diameter. Micro-structural parameters which included OCT speckle statistics were related to the internal organisation of the corneal tissue and its physiological changes during lifetime. The corneal speckle obtained from OCT was modelled with the Generalised Gamma (GG) distribution that is characterised with a scale parameter and two shape parameters. In macro-structure analysis, only CCT showed a statistically significant correlation with IOP (R2 = 0.25, p<0.001). The scale parameter and the ratio of the shape parameters of GG distribution showed statistically significant correlation with IOP (R2 = 0.19, p<0.001 and R2 = 0.17, p<0.001, respectively). For the studied group, a weak, although significant correlation was found between age and IOP (R2 = 0.053, p = 0.04). Forward stepwise regression showed that CCT and the scale parameter of the Generalised Gamma distribution can be combined in a regression model (R2 = 0.39, p<0.001) to study the role of the corneal structure on IOP. We show, for the first time, that corneal micro-structure influences the IOP measurements obtained from noncontact tonometry. OCT speckle statistics can be employed to learn about the corneal micro-structure and

  8. Influence of eye biometrics and corneal micro-structure on noncontact tonometry

    PubMed Central

    Majewska, Małgorzata; Krzyżanowska-Berkowska, Patrycja; Iskander, D. Robert

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Tonometry is widely used as the main screening tool supporting glaucoma diagnosis. Still, its accuracy could be improved if full knowledge about the variation of the corneal biomechanical properties was available. In this study, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) speckle statistics are used to infer the organisation of the corneal micro-structure and hence, to analyse its influence on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements. Methods Fifty-six subjects were recruited for this prospective study. Macro and micro-structural corneal parameters as well as subject age were considered. Macro-structural analysis included the parameters that are associated with the ocular anatomy, such as central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal radius, axial length, anterior chamber depth and white-to-white corneal diameter. Micro-structural parameters which included OCT speckle statistics were related to the internal organisation of the corneal tissue and its physiological changes during lifetime. The corneal speckle obtained from OCT was modelled with the Generalised Gamma (GG) distribution that is characterised with a scale parameter and two shape parameters. Results In macro-structure analysis, only CCT showed a statistically significant correlation with IOP (R2 = 0.25, p<0.001). The scale parameter and the ratio of the shape parameters of GG distribution showed statistically significant correlation with IOP (R2 = 0.19, p<0.001 and R2 = 0.17, p<0.001, respectively). For the studied group, a weak, although significant correlation was found between age and IOP (R2 = 0.053, p = 0.04). Forward stepwise regression showed that CCT and the scale parameter of the Generalised Gamma distribution can be combined in a regression model (R2 = 0.39, p<0.001) to study the role of the corneal structure on IOP. Conclusions We show, for the first time, that corneal micro-structure influences the IOP measurements obtained from noncontact tonometry. OCT speckle statistics can be employed to learn

  9. Preparation of 2D sequences of corneal images for 3D model building.

    PubMed

    Elbita, Abdulhakim; Qahwaji, Rami; Ipson, Stanley; Sharif, Mhd Saeed; Ghanchi, Faruque

    2014-04-01

    A confocal microscope provides a sequence of images, at incremental depths, of the various corneal layers and structures. From these, medical practioners can extract clinical information on the state of health of the patient's cornea. In this work we are addressing problems associated with capturing and processing these images including blurring, non-uniform illumination and noise, as well as the displacement of images laterally and in the anterior-posterior direction caused by subject movement. The latter may cause some of the captured images to be out of sequence in terms of depth. In this paper we introduce automated algorithms for classification, reordering, registration and segmentation to solve these problems. The successful implementation of these algorithms could open the door for another interesting development, which is the 3D modelling of these sequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Asymptomatic Infection in Decompensated Full-Thickness Corneal Grafts Referred for Repeat Penetrating Keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Nahum, Yoav; Leon, Pia; Ricci-Filipovic, Benedetta Azzurra; Camposampiero, Davide; Ponzin, Diego; Busin, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    We report a case series of asymptomatic infections affecting failed corneal grafts in patients referred for repeat penetrating keratoplasty (PK). In this retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series, we reviewed the medical records of all repeat PK procedures performed at Villa Serena-Villa Igea private Hospitals (Forlì, Italy) between January 2011 and March 2016. Specifically, preoperative and postoperative slit-lamp examinations, and the results of histological and bacteriological examinations, were noted. Fifty-three repeat PKs were performed in the study period. All patients were referred because of long-standing graft decompensation with stromal scars or surface irregularities, thus unsuitable for endothelial keratoplasty. None was referred because of presumed infection. Histological examination of the explanted buttons showed the presence of microorganisms of various types in 7 eyes. Cultures were positive in 4 of these cases and in one additional case Staphylococcus aureus was grown in culture, but was not seen in the histology specimen. None of the patients presented with unusual pain, tearing, or discomfort. Preoperative abnormal clinical findings included epithelial defect (n = 6), focal whitening of corneal stroma (n = 5), crystalline keratopathy (n = 1), and an elevated pigmented lesion (n = 1). After repeat PK, recurrence of the infection was seen in 5 of 7 (71%) cases, 2 of which required a third PK procedure. Apparently quiet eyes with failed PK can harbor slow-growing asymptomatic infection. An epithelial defect in a failed PK graft should raise suspicion of infection. Routine cultures and histological examination of the excised corneal buttons are instrumental in the diagnosis of these infections and can guide further treatment.

  11. Corneal Wound Healing Requires IKB kinase β Signaling in Keratocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Mongan, Maureen; Meng, Qinghang; Wang, Qin; Kao, Winston; Xia, Ying

    2016-01-01

    IkB kinase β (IKKβ) is a key signaling kinase for inflammatory responses, but it also plays diverse cell type-specific roles that are not yet fully understood. Here we investigated the role of IKKβ in the cornea using IkkβΔCS mice in which the Ikkβ gene was specifically deleted in the corneal stromal keratocytes. The IkkβΔCS corneas had normal morphology, transparency and thickness; however, they did not heal well from mild alkali burn injury. In contrast to the IkkβF/F corneas that restored transparency in 2 weeks after injury, over 50% of the IkkβΔCS corneas failed to fully recover. They instead developed recurrent haze with increased stromal thickness, severe inflammation and apoptosis. This pathogenesis correlated with sustained myofibroblast transformation with increased α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression, higher levels of senescence β-Gal activity and scar tissue formation at the late stage of wound healing. In addition, the IkkβΔCS corneas displayed elevated expression of hemo-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a marker of oxidative stress, and activation of stress signaling pathways with increased JNK, c-Jun and SMAD2/3 phosphorylation. These data suggest that IKKβ in keratocytes is required to repress oxidative stress and attenuate fibrogenesis and senescence in corneal wound healing. PMID:26987064

  12. Animal Models of Corneal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Matilda F.; Werb, Zena

    2015-01-01

    The cornea is an excellent model system to use for the analysis of wound repair because of its accessibility, lack of vascularization, and simple anatomy. Corneal injuries may involve only the superficial epithelial layer or may penetrate deeper to involve both the epithelial and stromal layers. Here we describe two well-established in vivo corneal wound models: a mechanical wound model that allows for the study of re-epithelialization and a chemical wound model that may be used to study stromal activation in response to injury (Stepp et al., 2014; Carlson et al., 2003). PMID:26191536

  13. Relationship between central and peripheral corneal astigmatism in elderly patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamorita, Takushi; Shimizu, Kimiya; Hoshikawa, Rie; Kamiya, Kazutaka; Shoji, Nobuyuki

    2018-03-01

    Abstract Purpose We investigated the relationship between central and peripheral corneal astigmatism in elderly patients. Methods Seventy-six eyes of 76 elderly subjects (mean age = 72.6 ± 3.0 years) were included in the study. Corneal shape was evaluated using the Pentacam HR (Oculus, Wetzlark, Germany), which is comprised of a rotating Scheimpflug camera and a short-wavelength slit light. The power distribution map was selected and corneal astigmatism was calculated using front K-Readings in zones centered on the pupil. Analyzed zones were 2.0-6.0 mm in diameter. Results Corneal astigmatism decreased as diameter increased, similar to what was observed in eyes with with-the-rule astigmatism and against-the-rule astigmatism (ANOVA, p < 0.01). This effect was more pronounced in eyes with a large central corneal astigmatism (Spearman's rank-correlation coefficient test, r = 0.51, p < 0.01). There was no change as to axis of corneal astigmatism (ANOVA, p = 0.98). Conclusion These results suggest that the relationship between central and peripheral corneal astigmatism should be taken into consideration to optimize vision when astigmatic correction is needed.

  14. Oxygen-deficient metabolism and corneal edema

    PubMed Central

    Leung, B.K.; Bonanno, J.A.; Radke, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Wear of low-oxygen-transmissible soft contact lenses swells the cornea significantly, even during open eye. Although oxygen-deficient corneal edema is well-documented, a self-consistent quantitative prediction based on the underlying metabolic reactions is not available. We present a biochemical description of the human cornea that quantifies hypoxic swelling through the coupled transport of water, salt, and respiratory metabolites. Aerobic and anaerobic consumption of glucose, as well as acidosis and pH buffering, are incorporated in a seven-layer corneal model (anterior chamber, endothelium, stroma, epithelium, postlens tear film, contact lens, and prelens tear film). Corneal swelling is predicted from coupled transport of water, dissolved salts, and especially metabolites, along with membrane-transport resistances at the endothelium and epithelium. At the endothelium, the Na+/K+ - ATPase electrogenic channel actively transports bicarbonate ion from the stroma into the anterior chamber. As captured by the Kedem–Katchalsky membrane-transport formalism, the active bicarbonate-ion flux provides the driving force for corneal fluid pump-out needed to match the leak-in tendency of the stroma. Increased lactate-ion production during hypoxia osmotically lowers the pump-out rate requiring the stroma to swell to higher water content. Concentration profiles are predicted for glucose, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydronium, lactate, bicarbonate, sodium, and chloride ions, along with electrostatic potential and pressure profiles. Although the active bicarbonate-ion pump at the endothelium drives bicarbonate into the aqueous humor, we find a net flux of bicarbonate ion into the cornea that safeguards against acidosis. For the first time, we predict corneal swelling upon soft-contact-lens wear from fundamental biophysico-chemical principles. We also successfully predict that hypertonic tear alleviates contact-lens-induced edema. PMID:21820076

  15. Oxygen-deficient metabolism and corneal edema.

    PubMed

    Leung, B K; Bonanno, J A; Radke, C J

    2011-11-01

    Wear of low-oxygen-transmissible soft contact lenses swells the cornea significantly, even during open eye. Although oxygen-deficient corneal edema is well-documented, a self-consistent quantitative prediction based on the underlying metabolic reactions is not available. We present a biochemical description of the human cornea that quantifies hypoxic swelling through the coupled transport of water, salt, and respiratory metabolites. Aerobic and anaerobic consumption of glucose, as well as acidosis and pH buffering, are incorporated in a seven-layer corneal model (anterior chamber, endothelium, stroma, epithelium, postlens tear film, contact lens, and prelens tear film). Corneal swelling is predicted from coupled transport of water, dissolved salts, and especially metabolites, along with membrane-transport resistances at the endothelium and epithelium. At the endothelium, the Na+/K+ - ATPase electrogenic channel actively transports bicarbonate ion from the stroma into the anterior chamber. As captured by the Kedem-Katchalsky membrane-transport formalism, the active bicarbonate-ion flux provides the driving force for corneal fluid pump-out needed to match the leak-in tendency of the stroma. Increased lactate-ion production during hypoxia osmotically lowers the pump-out rate requiring the stroma to swell to higher water content. Concentration profiles are predicted for glucose, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydronium, lactate, bicarbonate, sodium, and chloride ions, along with electrostatic potential and pressure profiles. Although the active bicarbonate-ion pump at the endothelium drives bicarbonate into the aqueous humor, we find a net flux of bicarbonate ion into the cornea that safeguards against acidosis. For the first time, we predict corneal swelling upon soft-contact-lens wear from fundamental biophysico-chemical principles. We also successfully predict that hypertonic tear alleviates contact-lens-induced edema. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  16. Corneal reshaping using a pulsed UV solid-state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Qiushi; Simon, Gabriel; Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Shen, Jin-Hui; Takesue, Yoshiko

    1993-06-01

    Replacing the gas ArF (193 nm) excimer laser with a solid state laser source in the far-UV spectrum region would eliminate the hazards of a gas laser and would reduce its size which is desirable for photo-refractive keratectomy (PRK). In this study, we investigated corneal reshaping using a frequency-quintupled (213 nm) pulsed (10 ns) Nd:YAG laser coupled to a computer-controlled optical scanning delivery system. Corneal topographic measurements showed myopic corrections ranging from 2.3 to 6.1 diopters. Post-operative examination with the slit-lamp and operating microscope demonstrated a smoothly ablated surface without corneal haze. Histological results showed a smoothly sloping surface without recognizable steps. The surface quality and cellular effects were similar to that of previously described excimer PRK. Our study demonstrated that a UV solid state laser coupled to an optical scanning delivery system is capable of reshaping the corneal surface with the advantage of producing customized, aspheric corrections without corneal haze which may improve the quality of vision following PRK.

  17. Algorithm for Correcting the Keratometric Error in the Estimation of the Corneal Power in Keratoconus Eyes after Accelerated Corneal Collagen Crosslinking.

    PubMed

    Piñero, David P; Camps, Vicente J; Caravaca-Arens, Esteban; de Fez, Dolores; Blanes-Mompó, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the errors associated to corneal power calculation using the keratometric approach in keratoconus eyes after accelerated corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) surgery and to obtain a model for the estimation of an adjusted corneal refractive index ( n k adj ) minimizing such errors. Potential differences (Δ P c ) among keratometric ( P k ) and Gaussian corneal power ( P c Gauss ) were simulated. Three algorithms based on the use of n k adj for the estimation of an adjusted keratometric corneal power ( P k adj ) were developed. The agreement between P k (1.3375) (keratometric power using the keratometric index of 1.3375), P c Gauss , and P k adj was evaluated. The validity of the algorithm developed was investigated in 21 keratoconus eyes undergoing accelerated CXL. P k (1.3375) overestimated corneal power between 0.3 and 3.2 D in theoretical simulations and between 0.8 and 2.9 D in the clinical study (Δ P c ). Three linear equations were defined for n k adj to be used for different ranges of r 1c . In the clinical study, differences between P k adj and P c Gauss did not exceed ±0.8 D n k = 1.3375. No statistically significant differences were found between P k adj and P c Gauss ( p > 0.05) and P k (1.3375) and P k adj ( p < 0.001). The use of the keratometric approach in keratoconus eyes after accelerated CXL can lead to significant clinical errors. These errors can be minimized with an adjusted keratometric approach.

  18. The arm posture in children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy is mainly related to antero-posterior gait instability.

    PubMed

    Meyns, Pieter; Duysens, Jacques; Desloovere, Kaat

    2016-09-01

    In this observational case-control study we aimed to determine whether altered arm postures in children with unilateral CP (uniCP) are related to gait instability in a specific direction. Antero-posterior and medio-lateral Foot Placement Estimator instability measures and arm posture measures (vertical and antero-posterior hand position, sagittal and frontal upper arm elevation angle) were determined in eleven uniCP (7 years-10 months) and twenty-four typically developing children (9 years-6 months) at two walking speeds. Spearman-rank correlation analyses were made to examine the relationship between antero-posterior and medio-lateral arm posture and gait instability. Arm posture in both planes was related to antero-posterior instability (e.g. sagittal and frontal upper arm elevation angle correlated moderately with antero-posterior instability; R=0.41, p<0.001, R=-0.47, p<0.001). In uniCP, increased antero-posterior instability was associated with a higher (R=-0.62, p=0.002) and more frontal position of the hemiplegic hand (R=-0.58, p=0.005), while the non-hemiplegic upper arm was rotated more backward (R=0.63, p=0.002) and both upper arms rotated more sideways (hemiplegic: R=-0.58, p=0.004; non-hemiplegic: R=-0.55, p=0.008). The altered non-hemiplegic (sagittal and frontal) arm posture in uniCP may be a compensation to reduce antero-posterior gait instability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Applications of biomaterials in corneal wound healing.

    PubMed

    Tsai, I-Lun; Hsu, Chih-Chien; Hung, Kuo-Hsuan; Chang, Chi-Wen; Cheng, Yung-Hsin

    2015-04-01

    Disease affecting the cornea is a common cause of blindness worldwide. To date, the amniotic membrane (AM) is the most widely used clinical method for cornea regeneration. However, donor-dependent differences in the AM may result in variable clinical outcomes. To overcome this issue, biomaterials are currently under investigation for corneal regeneration in vitro and in vivo. In this article, we highlight the recent advances in hydrogels, bioengineered prosthetic devices, contact lenses, and drug delivery systems for corneal regeneration. In clinical studies, the therapeutic effects of biomaterials, including fibrin and collagen-based hydrogels and silicone contact lenses, have been demonstrated in damaged cornea. The combination of cells and biomaterials may provide potential treatment in corneal wound healing in the future. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  20. Comparative analysis of corneal morphological changes after transversal and torsional phacoemulsification through 2.2 mm corneal incision

    PubMed Central

    Assaf, Ahmed; Roshdy, Maged Maher

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This paper compares and evaluates the corneal morphological changes occurring after cataract surgery through a 2.2 mm corneal incision. We use two platforms for comparison and evaluation, transversal and torsional phacoemulsification. Patients and methods This study includes 139 consecutive cataractous eyes (nuclear color 2–4, according to the Lens Opacities Classification System III [LOCSIII]) of 82 patients undergoing cataract surgery through a 2.2 mm corneal incision. Two different phacoemulsification platforms were used and assigned randomly: we used the WhiteStar Signature® system with the Ellips™ FX transversal continuous ultrasound (US) mode for group I (mean age: 65.33 ± 6.97 years), and we used the Infiniti® system with the OZil® Intelligent Phaco (IP) torsional US mode for group II (mean age: 64.02 ± 7.55 years). The corneal endothelium and pachymetry were evaluated preoperatively and at 1 month postoperatively. Incision size changes were also evaluated. Results All surgeries were uneventful. Before intraocular lens implantation, the mean incision size was 2.24 ± 0.06 mm in both groups (P = 0.75). In terms of corneal endothelial cell density, neither preoperative (I vs II: 2304.1 ± 122.5 cell/mm2 vs 2315.6 ± 83.1 cell/mm2, P = 0.80) nor postoperative (I vs II: 2264.1 ± 124.3 cell/mm2 vs 2270.3 ± 89.9 cell/mm2, P = 0.98) differences between the groups were statistically significant. The mean endothelial cell density loss was 1.7% ± 1.6% and 2.0% ± 1.4% in groups I and II, respectively. Furthermore, no significant differences between groups I and II were found preoperatively (P = 0.40) and postoperatively (P = 0.68) in central pachymetry. With surgery, the mean increase in central pachymetry was 28.1 ± 23.6 μm and 24.0 ± 24.0 μm in groups I and II, respectively (P = 0.1). Conclusion Ellips™ FX transversal and OZil® IP torsional phacoemulsification modes are safe for performing cataract surgery, inducing minimal corneal

  1. Vortex pattern of corneal deposits in granular corneal dystrophy associated with the p. (ArgR555WTrp) mutation in TGFBI

    PubMed Central

    Kattan, Jaffer M.; Serna-Ojeda, Juan Carlos; Sharma, Anushree; Kim, Eung K.; Ramirez-Miranda, Arturo; Cruz-Aguilar, Marisa; Cervantes, Aleck E.; Frausto, Ricardo F.; Zenteno, Juan Carlos; Graue-Hernandez, Enrique O.; Aldave, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe two unrelated families with multiple members demonstrating a less commonly recognized vortex pattern of corneal deposits confirmed to be granular corneal dystrophy type 1(GCD1) following identification of the p.(Arg555Trp) mutation in the transforming growth factor β-induced gene (TGFBI). Methods A slit lamp examination was performed on individuals from two families, one of Mexican descent and a second of Italian descent. Following DNA extraction from affected individuals and their unaffected relatives, TGFBI screening was performed. Results Eight of 20 individuals in the Mexican family and 20 of 55 in the Italian family demonstrated corneal stromal opacities. Seven of the eight affected individuals in the Mexican family and four of the 20 affected individuals in the Italian family demonstrated a phenotype characterized by a “sea fan” or vortex pattern of superficial stromal corneal deposits originating from the inferior aspect of the cornea. Screening of TGFBI in both families revealed a heterozygous missense mutation (p.(Arg555Trp)) in exon 12, confirming the diagnosis of GCD1. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that GCD1 may present with a vortex pattern of anterior stromal deposits. Although this pattern of dystrophic deposits is not recognized by clinicians as a typical phenotype of GCD1, it is consistent with the production of the majority of the TGFBI protein by the corneal epithelium. PMID:28060069

  2. Topography and Higher Order Corneal Aberrations of the Fellow Eye in Unilateral Keratoconus.