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Sample records for posterior urethral strictures

  1. Posterior Urethral Strictures

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Joel; Wisenbaugh, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic fracture urethral injuries are typically partial and more often complete disruptions of the most proximal bulbar and distal membranous urethra. Emergency management includes suprapubic tube placement. Subsequent primary realignment to place a urethral catheter remains a controversial topic, but what is not controversial is that when there is the development of a stricture (which is usually obliterative with a distraction defect) after suprapubic tube placement or urethral catheter removal, the standard of care is delayed urethral reconstruction with excision and primary anastomosis. This paper reviews the management of patients who suffer pelvic fracture urethral injuries and the techniques of preoperative urethral imaging and subsequent posterior urethroplasty. PMID:26691883

  2. Surgical treatment of 31 complex traumatic posterior urethral strictures associated with urethrorectal fistulas.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yue-Min; Sa, Ying-Long; Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Jiong; Jin, San-Bao

    2010-03-01

    Urethrorectal fistulas (URF) in patients with complex posterior urethral strictures are rare and difficult to repair surgically. There is no widely accepted standard approach described in the published literature. The aim of this study was to describe the outcomes of various operative approaches for the repair of URFs in patients with complex posterior urethral strictures. From January 1985 to December 2007, 31 patients (age: 6-61 yr; mean: 28.4) with URFs secondary to posterior urethral strictures were treated using a perineal or combined abdominal transpubic-perineal approach. A simple perineal approach was used in 4 patients; a transperineal inferior pubectomy approach was used in 18 patients; and a combined transpubic-perineal approach was used in 9 patients. A bulbospongiosus muscle and subcutaneous dartos pedicle flaps were interposed between the repaired rectum and urethra in 22 patients. The combined transpubic-perineal approach used either a gracilis muscle flap (one patient) or a rectus muscle flap (eight patients). Suprapubic catheterisation was used for bladder drainage, and a urethral silicone stent was left indwelling for 4 wk. One-stage repair was successful in 4 patients (100%) using the perineal approach, in 16 of 18 patients (88.9%) using the transperineal-inferior pubectomy approach, and in 7 of 9 patients (77.8%) using the transpubic-perineal approach. Recurrent urethral strictures developed in two cases; one patient required regular dilation, and the other patient was treated successfully with tubed perineoscrotal flap urethroplasty. Recurrent URFs developed in two additional patients. Surgical approaches for the treatment of URFs associated with complex urethral strictures should be based on a number of considerations including the location of the URF, its aetiology, the length of the urethral strictures, and a history of previous unsuccessful repairs. These results demonstrate that the transperineal-inferior pubic approach may be appropriate

  3. Urethral stricture

    MedlinePlus

    ... and not near the muscles that control the exit from the bladder, the stricture may be cut ... work, a urinary diversion called an appendicovesicostomy (Mitrofanoff procedure) may be done. This lets you drain your ...

  4. Treatment of Radiation-Induced Urethral Strictures.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Matthias D; Liu, Joceline S; Morey, Allen F

    2017-02-01

    Radiation therapy may result in urethral strictures from vascular damage. Most radiation-induced urethral strictures occur in the bulbomembranous junction, and urinary incontinence may result as a consequence of treatment. Radiation therapy may compromise reconstruction due to poor tissue healing and radionecrosis. Excision and primary anastomosis is the preferred urethroplasty technique for radiation-induced urethral stricture. Principles of posterior urethroplasty for trauma may be applied to the treatment of radiation-induced urethral strictures. Chronic management with suprapubic tube is an option based on patient comorbidities and preference.

  5. Advances in urethral stricture management

    PubMed Central

    Gallegos, Maxx A.; Santucci, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Urethral stricture/stenosis is a narrowing of the urethral lumen. These conditions greatly impact the health and quality of life of patients. Management of urethral strictures/stenosis is complex and requires careful evaluation. The treatment options for urethral stricture vary in their success rates. Urethral dilation and internal urethrotomy are the most commonly performed procedures but carry the lowest chance for long-term success (0–9%). Urethroplasty has a much higher chance of success (85–90%) and is considered the gold-standard treatment. The most common urethroplasty techniques are excision and primary anastomosis and graft onlay urethroplasty. Anastomotic urethroplasty and graft urethroplasty have similar long-term success rates, although long-term data have yet to confirm equal efficacy. Anastomotic urethroplasty may have higher rates of sexual dysfunction. Posterior urethral stenosis is typically caused by previous urologic surgery. It is treated endoscopically with radial incisions. The use of mitomycin C may decrease recurrence. An exciting area of research is tissue engineering and scar modulation to augment stricture treatment. These include the use of acellular matrices or tissue-engineered buccal mucosa to produce grafting material for urethroplasty. Other experimental strategies aim to prevent scar formation altogether. PMID:28105329

  6. Advances in urethral stricture management.

    PubMed

    Gallegos, Maxx A; Santucci, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Urethral stricture/stenosis is a narrowing of the urethral lumen. These conditions greatly impact the health and quality of life of patients. Management of urethral strictures/stenosis is complex and requires careful evaluation. The treatment options for urethral stricture vary in their success rates. Urethral dilation and internal urethrotomy are the most commonly performed procedures but carry the lowest chance for long-term success (0-9%). Urethroplasty has a much higher chance of success (85-90%) and is considered the gold-standard treatment. The most common urethroplasty techniques are excision and primary anastomosis and graft onlay urethroplasty. Anastomotic urethroplasty and graft urethroplasty have similar long-term success rates, although long-term data have yet to confirm equal efficacy. Anastomotic urethroplasty may have higher rates of sexual dysfunction. Posterior urethral stenosis is typically caused by previous urologic surgery. It is treated endoscopically with radial incisions. The use of mitomycin C may decrease recurrence. An exciting area of research is tissue engineering and scar modulation to augment stricture treatment. These include the use of acellular matrices or tissue-engineered buccal mucosa to produce grafting material for urethroplasty. Other experimental strategies aim to prevent scar formation altogether.

  7. SIU/ICUD Consultation on Urethral Strictures: Posterior urethral stenosis after treatment of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Herschorn, Sender; Elliott, Sean; Coburn, Michael; Wessells, Hunter; Zinman, Leonard

    2014-03-01

    Posterior urethral stenosis can result from radical prostatectomy in approximately 5%-10% of patients (range 1.4%-29%). Similarly, 4%-9% of men after brachytherapy and 1%-13% after external beam radiotherapy will develop stenosis. The rate will be greater after combination therapy and can exceed 40% after salvage radical prostatectomy. Although postradical prostatectomy stenoses mostly develop within 2 years, postradiotherapy stenoses take longer to appear. Many result in storage and voiding symptoms and can be associated with incontinence. The evaluation consists of a workup similar to that for lower urinary tract symptoms, with additional testing to rule out recurrent or persistent prostate cancer. Treatment is usually initiated with an endoscopic approach commonly involving dilation, visual urethrotomy with or without laser treatment, and, possibly, UroLume stent placement. Open surgical urethroplasty has been reported, as well as urinary diversion for recalcitrant stenosis. A proposed algorithm illustrating a graded approach has been provided.

  8. Current management of urethral stricture disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Broadly defined, urethral strictures are narrowing of the urethral lumen that is surrounded by corpus spongiosum, i.e., urethral meatus through the bulbar urethra. Urethral stenosis is narrowing of the posterior urethra, i.e., membranous urethra through bladder neck/prostate junction, which is not enveloped by corpus spongiosum. The disease has significant quality of life ramifications because many times younger patients are affected by this compared to many other urological diseases. Methods: A review of the scientific literature concerning urethral stricture, stenosis, treatment, and outcomes was performed using Medline and PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health). Abstracts from scientific meetings were included in this review. Results: There is level 3 evidence regarding the etiology and epidemiology of urethral strictures, stenoses, and pelvic fracture urethral injuries. Outcomes data from literature regarding intervention for urethral stricture are largely limited to level 3 evidence and expert opinion. There is a single level 1 study comparing urethral dilation and direct vision internal urethrotomy. Urethroplasty outcomes data are limited to level 3 case series. Conclusions: Progress is being made toward consistent terminology, and nomenclature which will, in turn, help to standardize treatment within the field of urology. Treatment for urethral stricture and stenosis remains inconsistent between reconstructive and nonreconstructive urologists due to varying treatment algorithms and approaches to disease management. Tissue engineering appears to be future for reconstructive urethral surgery with reports demonstrating feasibility in the use of different tissue substitutes and grafts. PMID:26941491

  9. Transperineal bulbo-prostatic anastomosis for posterior urethral stricture associated with false passage: a single-centre experience.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Jiong; Sa, Ying-long; Jin, San-bao; Xu, Yue-min

    2011-10-01

    • To evaluate the management of traumatic posterior urethral stricture associated with false passage, as this remains a challenge for urologists. • From January 2000 to February 2010, 19 patients (mean (range) age 34 [25-52] years) with traumatic posterior urethral obliteration associated with false passage were evaluated and treated at our centre. • All patients underwent perineal excision and primary anastomotic urethroplasty using cystoscopy by the suprapubic route to insert a guidewire into the original bladder neck, allowing exposure of the normal posterior urethra. • Patients underwent voiding cysto-urethrography 1 month after the procedure. When symptoms of decreased force of stream were present and uroflowmetry was <15 mL/s, urethrography and urethroscopy were repeated. • Clinical outcome was considered a failure when any postoperative instrumentation was needed, including dilatation. • The mean (range) follow-up was 12 (9-14) months. The overall success rate was 84%. • Three patients (16%) with persistent voiding difficulty developed a short anastomotic stricture 1-3 months after surgery. • The mean maximum urinary flow rate after surgery was 20.01 mL/s and no patient had urinary incontinence. • The preoperative use of flexible cystoscopy via the suprapubic route represented a successful key point of urethroplasty for posterior urethral stricture associated with false passage. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  10. [Urethral stricture after radiation therapy].

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, C M; Engel, O; Fisch, M; Kluth, L A

    2017-03-01

    Radiation-induced urethral stricture occurs most often due to radiation for prostate cancer. It is one of the most common side effects of radiotherapy. Stricture rates are lowest in patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy, occur more frequently in those who require brachytherapy and show highest stricture rates in patients receiving a combination of external beam radiation and brachytherapy. Strictures are mostly located at the bulbomembranous part of the urethra. Diagnostic work-up should include basic urologic work-up, ultrasound, uroflowmetric assessment, urethroscopy, retrograde urethrogram and voiding cystourethrography. Endoscopic management such as dilatation and internal urethrotomy has been proposed in short strictures. However these therapies have a high risk for recurrence. The success rate of urethroplasty is higher. Success rates of primary end-to-end anastomosis (EPA) have been reported to be 70-95 %; rates of incontinence are 7-40 %. While success rates of buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty (BMGU) range from 71-78 %, postoperative incontinence occurs in 10.5-44 %. Usually, postoperative incontinence can successfully be treated with an artificial urinary sphincter. It seems like EPA is the treatment of choice for short urethral strictures, whereas BMGU is indicated in longer, more complex strictures. Patients should be counselled with regard to length and location of strictures as well as with regard to postoperative incontinence.

  11. Innovative approaches for complex penile urethral strictures

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Jordan; Tausch, Timothy J.; Simhan, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Urethral strictures are a common urologic disease that arises from varied etiologies. These strictures range in severity from simple, short lesions to complex, long defects. Likewise, the management approach varies based on the complexity of the lesion. We reviewed the literature of urethral stricture disease and its management. In particular we have focused on complex strictures of the male penile urethra. Often these cases cannot be managed with traditional reconstructive techniques and require newer approaches. Furthermore tissue engineered graft materials provide a possible tissue source for future reconstructive endeavors. PMID:26816766

  12. Erectile dysfunction in urethral stricture and pelvic fracture urethral injury patients: diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sangkum, P; Levy, J; Yafi, F A; Hellstrom, W J G

    2015-05-01

    Urethral stricture disease, pelvic fracture urethral injury (PFUI), and their various treatment options are associated with erectile dysfunction (ED). The etiology of urethral stricture disease is multifactorial and includes trauma, inflammatory, and iatrogenic causes. Posterior urethral injuries are commonly associated with pelvic fractures. There is a spectrum in the severity of both conditions and this directly impacts the treatment options offered by the surgeon. Many published studies focus on the treatment outcomes and the relatively high recurrence rates after surgical repair. This communication reviews the current knowledge of the association between ED and urethral stricture disease, as well as PFUI. The incidence, pathophysiology, and clinical ramifications of both conditions on sexual function are discussed. The treatment options for ED in those patients are reviewed and summarized. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  13. Urethral strictures incident to bicycle motocross racing.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Daniel P; Carr, Michael C

    2005-04-01

    A dramatic shift from traditional team to alternative or "extreme" sports has given rise to a new generation of nontraditional athletes and sports-related injuries in the pediatric population. We present a case of 2 brothers who developed urethral strictures believed incident to BMX racing. We address current demographics and the general presentation and course of treatment to aid both the pediatric urologist and the general practitioner in prompt and proper diagnosis.

  14. Bipolar plasma vaporization using plasma-cutting and plasma-loop electrodes versus cold-knife transurethral incision for the treatment of posterior urethral stricture: a prospective, randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wansong; Chen, Zhiyuan; Wen, Liping; Jiang, Xiangxin; Liu, Xiuheng

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the efficiency and safety of bipolar plasma vaporization using plasma-cutting and plasma-loop electrodes for the treatment of posterior urethral stricture. Compare the outcomes following bipolar plasma vaporization with conventional cold-knife urethrotomy. METHODS: A randomized trial was performed to compare patient outcomes from the bipolar and cold-knife groups. All patients were assessed at 6 and 12 months postoperatively via urethrography and uroflowmetry. At the end of the first postoperative year, ureteroscopy was performed to evaluate the efficacy of the procedure. The mean follow-up time was 13.9 months (range: 12 to 21 months). If re-stenosis was not identified by both urethrography and ureteroscopy, the procedure was considered “successful”. RESULTS: Fifty-three male patients with posterior urethral strictures were selected and randomly divided into two groups: bipolar group (n=27) or cold-knife group (n=26). Patients in the bipolar group experienced a shorter operative time compared to the cold-knife group (23.45±7.64 hours vs 33.45±5.45 hours, respectively). The 12-month postoperative Qmax was faster in the bipolar group than in the cold-knife group (15.54±2.78 ml/sec vs 18.25±2.12 ml/sec, respectively). In the bipolar group, the recurrence-free rate was 81.5% at a mean follow-up time of 13.9 months. In the cold-knife group, the recurrence-free rate was 53.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The application of bipolar plasma-cutting and plasma-loop electrodes for the management of urethral stricture disease is a safe and reliable method that minimizes the morbidity of urethral stricture resection. The advantages include a lower recurrence rate and shorter operative time compared to the cold-knife technique. PMID:26872076

  15. Bipolar plasma vaporization using plasma-cutting and plasma-loop electrodes versus cold-knife transurethral incision for the treatment of posterior urethral stricture: a prospective, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wansong; Chen, Zhiyuan; Wen, Liping; Jiang, Xiangxin; Liu, Xiuheng

    2016-01-01

    Evaluate the efficiency and safety of bipolar plasma vaporization using plasma-cutting and plasma-loop electrodes for the treatment of posterior urethral stricture. Compare the outcomes following bipolar plasma vaporization with conventional cold-knife urethrotomy. A randomized trial was performed to compare patient outcomes from the bipolar and cold-knife groups. All patients were assessed at 6 and 12 months postoperatively via urethrography and uroflowmetry. At the end of the first postoperative year, ureteroscopy was performed to evaluate the efficacy of the procedure. The mean follow-up time was 13.9 months (range: 12 to 21 months). If re-stenosis was not identified by both urethrography and ureteroscopy, the procedure was considered "successful". Fifty-three male patients with posterior urethral strictures were selected and randomly divided into two groups: bipolar group (n=27) or cold-knife group (n=26). Patients in the bipolar group experienced a shorter operative time compared to the cold-knife group (23.45±7.64 hours vs 33.45±5.45 hours, respectively). The 12-month postoperative Qmax was faster in the bipolar group than in the cold-knife group (15.54±2.78 ml/sec vs 18.25±2.12 ml/sec, respectively). In the bipolar group, the recurrence-free rate was 81.5% at a mean follow-up time of 13.9 months. In the cold-knife group, the recurrence-free rate was 53.8%. The application of bipolar plasma-cutting and plasma-loop electrodes for the management of urethral stricture disease is a safe and reliable method that minimizes the morbidity of urethral stricture resection. The advantages include a lower recurrence rate and shorter operative time compared to the cold-knife technique.

  16. Evrim Bougie: A new instrument in the management of urethral strictures

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Ugur; Gunes, Ali; Soylu, Ahmet; Balbay, Mevlana Derya

    2001-01-01

    Background In this study a new instrument and technique is described for the endoscopic treatment of complete posterior urethral strictures, which may result in serious complications and sometimes require troublesome treatments. Methods Three patients with complete posterior urethral obstruction were treated endoscopically with the guidance of a new instrument: Evrim Bougie. Evrim Bougie looks like a Guyon Bougie, has a curved end, which facilitates getting into the bladder through the cystostomy tract and with a built in channel of 1.5 mm in diameter for a sliding needle exiting at its tip. Having confirmed fluoroscopically and endoscopically that the sliding needle had passed across the strictured segment, the strictured segment was incised with internal urethrotomy, distal to the strictured segment, and urethral continuity was accomplished. At the end of the operation a Foley urethral catheter was easily placed into the bladder per urethra. Patients were instructed in self-catheterization after removal of the urethral catheter. All patients achieved normal voiding at postoperative 7th month follow-up evaluation. Conclusion Internal urethrotomy could be performed under the guidance of the sliding needle of Evrim Bougie advanced from above the posterior urethral strictures, which to our knowledge was described for the first time in the English literature. We also believe that there may be other possible indications of Evrim Bougie for different procedures in urethral surgery. PMID:11545678

  17. Evrim Bougie: a new instrument in the management of urethral strictures.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, U; Gunes, A; Soylu, A; Balbay, M D

    2001-01-01

    In this study a new instrument and technique is described for the endoscopic treatment of complete posterior urethral strictures, which may result in serious complications and sometimes require troublesome treatments. Three patients with complete posterior urethral obstruction were treated endoscopically with the guidance of a new instrument: Evrim Bougie. Evrim Bougie looks like a Guyon Bougie, has a curved end, which facilitates getting into the bladder through the cystostomy tract and with a built in channel of 1.5 mm in diameter for a sliding needle exiting at its tip. Having confirmed fluoroscopically and endoscopically that the sliding needle had passed across the strictured segment, the strictured segment was incised with internal urethrotomy, distal to the strictured segment, and urethral continuity was accomplished. At the end of the operation a Foley urethral catheter was easily placed into the bladder per urethra. Patients were instructed in self-catheterization after removal of the urethral catheter. All patients achieved normal voiding at postoperative 7th month follow-up evaluation. Internal urethrotomy could be performed under the guidance of the sliding needle of Evrim Bougie advanced from above the posterior urethral strictures, which to our knowledge was described for the first time in the English literature. We also believe that there may be other possible indications of Evrim Bougie for different procedures in urethral surgery.

  18. Adult urethral stricture: practice of Turkish urologists

    PubMed Central

    Akyuz, Mehmet; Sertkaya, Zulfu; Koca, Orhan; Calıskan, Selahattin; Kutluhan, Musab Ali; Karaman, Muhammet Ihsan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate national practice patterns in the treatment of male anterior urethral strictures among Turkish urologists. Materials and Methods: A survey form including 12 questions prepared to determine active Turkish urologists' approach to diagnosis and treatment of the adult urethral stricture (US) were filled out. Based on the survey results, the institutions which 218 urologists work and their years of expertise, methods they used for diagnosis and treatment, whether or not they perform open urethroplasty and timing of open urethroplasty were investigated. Results: Optic internal urethrotomy and dilatation are the most commonly used minimal invasive procedures in treatment of US with the ratios of 93.5% and 63.3% respectively. On the other hand it was seen that urethroplasty was a less commonly used procedure, compared to minimal invasive techniques, with the ratio of 36.7%. Survey results showed us that the number of US cases observed and open urethroplasty procedures performed increases with increasing years of professional experience. Conclusions: As a method demanding special surgical experience and known as a time-consuming and challenging procedure, open urethroplasty will be able to take a greater part in current urological practice with the help of theoretical education and practical courses given by specific centers and experienced authors. PMID:27256189

  19. Urethral stricture after pancreas-kidney transplantation due to polypoid urethritis.

    PubMed

    Rha, Koon H; Jarrett, Thomas W; Bove, Pierluigi; Ong, Albert M; Pinto, Peter A; Aydin, Hakan; Klein, Andrew S; Molmenti, Ernesto P

    2004-11-01

    Urologic complications are common after pancreas-kidney transplantation using bladder drainage. We report a case of urethral stricture caused by polypoid urethritis occurring 4 years after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. Endoscopic exploration revealed irregular, ragged-appearing urethral mucosa. The diagnosis of polypoid urethritis was confirmed histopathologically.

  20. Do transurethral treatments increase the complexity of urethral strictures?

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Akio; Shinchi, Masayuki; Masunaga, Ayako; Ito, Keiichi; Asano, Tomohiko; Azuma, Ryuichi

    2017-08-30

    We examined the impact on urethral stricture complexity at urethroplasty of previous transurethral treatments such as dilation, urethrotomy, and stenting which are used most commonly when treating male urethral stricture. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 45 males who had undergone transurethral treatments before urethroplasty and compared their urethrography findings at initial diagnosis with those at urethroplasty. Males with failed hypospadias repair, lichen sclerosis, or history of prior urethroplasty were excluded. We considered stricture complexity increased if the number of strictures and/or stricture length on the urethrography at urethroplasty was greater than that at initial diagnosis or if false passage was newly identified. Thirty-nine (87%), 32 (71%), and 13 (29%) had received urethral dilation, urethrotomy, and urethral stenting, respectively, and 39 (87%) had received repeated or multiple kinds of transurethral treatments. Stricture complexity was increased in 22 (49%), and seven (16%) required an urethroplasty more complex than that anticipated from urethrography findings at initial diagnosis. Increased stricture complexity was significantly associated with histories of urethrotomy (p = 0.03), urethral stenting (p = 0.0002), and repeated transurethral treatments (p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that urethral stenting (p = 0.01) and repeated transurethral treatments (p = 0.01) were independent predictors of increased stricture complexity. Repeated transurethral treatments increase stricture complexity and are potentially counterproductive. Even a single use of temporary urethral stenting has a high risk of complicating the stricture and requiring the use of a complex urethroplasty. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Approach to bulbar urethral strictures: Which technique and when?

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Pankaj; Kaya, Cevdet; Kulkarni, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Bulbar urethra is the most common site of anterior urethral stricture and this stricture develops secondary to idiopathic (40%), iatrogenic (35%), inflammatory (10%), and traumatic (15%) causes. Various techniques and approaches with buccal mucosal graft have been described. We wanted to describe different techniques of repair with specific advantages. PMID:27274887

  2. SIU/ICUD Consultation On Urethral Strictures: Epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, and nomenclature of urethral stenoses, strictures, and pelvic fracture urethral disruption injuries.

    PubMed

    Latini, Jerilyn M; McAninch, Jack W; Brandes, Steven B; Chung, Jae Yong; Rosenstein, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    This committee reviewed and evaluated published data, and recommended standardized terminology relating to the epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, and nomenclature of urethral stenoses, urethral strictures, and pelvic fracture urethral disruption injuries, as well as their surgical management. A literature search using Medline, PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health), Embase, online acronym databases, and abstracts from scientific meetings was performed from 1980-2010. Articles were evaluated using the Levels of Evidence adapted by the International Consultation on Urological Diseases (ICUD) from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Recommendations were based on the level of evidence and discussed among the committee to reach a consensus. There is expert opinion to support standards regarding the epidemiology, anatomy, and nomenclature of urethral stenoses, urethral strictures, and pelvic fracture urethral disruption injuries. There is level 3 evidence regarding the epidemiology and etiology of urethral stenoses, urethral strictures, and pelvic fracture urethral injuries. The literature regarding the epidemiology, anatomy, and nomenclature of urethral stenoses, urethral strictures, and pelvic fracture urethral disruption injuries are sparse and generally of a low level of evidence. The proposed ICUD system does not readily apply to these areas. Further research is needed so that stronger levels of evidence can be developed leading to recommendations regarding the accuracy of the data. To improve future research and promote effective scientific progress and communication, a standardized nomenclature and anatomy regarding the urethra and urethral surgery is detailed herein.

  3. Evaluation and management of anterior urethral stricture disease

    PubMed Central

    Mangera, Altaf; Osman, Nadir; Chapple, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Urethral stricture disease affects many men worldwide. Traditionally, the investigation of choice has been urethrography and the management of choice has been urethrotomy/dilatation. In this review, we discuss the evidence behind the use of ultrasonography in stricture assessment. We also discuss the factors a surgeon should consider when deciding the management options with each individual patient. Not all strictures are identical and surgeons should appreciate the poor long-term results of urethrotomy/dilatation for strictures longer than 2 cm, strictures in the penile urethra, recurrent strictures, and strictures secondary to lichen sclerosus. These patients may benefit from primary urethroplasty if they have many adverse features or secondary urethroplasty after the first recurrence. PMID:26918169

  4. Urethral reconstruction using autologous vein grafts for the management of urethral strictures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum Soo; Kwon, Tae Gyun

    2015-01-01

    Urethral strictures may be caused by infections, trauma, or iatrogenic injuries. However, urethral reconstruction as a means of managing the long-segment urethral strictures can prove problematic. Various graft materials have been developed for use during urethroplasty. Although some graft techniques--including those using the buccal mucosa, bladder mucosa, colonic mucosa, and skin--have yielded good results, risks of surgical failure and donor site complications remain. Moreover, no graft material has yet been accepted as the clinical standard within the field of urology. This article provides a brief, updated review of both urethral strictures and clinically available graft materials for urethral reconstruction. In addition, we review previous studies involving autologous vein grafts for urethroplasty and discuss potential advances in the clinical use of these grafts.

  5. Buccal mucosal graft in reconstructive urology: uses beyond urethral stricture.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Abhishek; Dican, Razvan; Beier, Jörn; Keller, Hansjörg

    2014-07-01

    The use of buccal mucosal grafts for the reconstruction of urethral strictures is an established procedure. Because of its robustness, the buccal mucosal graft could also potentially provide an alternative for other indications in reconstructive urology. We report here six consecutive patients who received a buccal mucosal graft for ureteral strictures, glans reconstruction and stoma stenosis. The follow up for all patients ranged from 26 to 50 months. The buccal mucosal graft showed excellent functional results for the ureteral strictures and stenosis from ureterocutaneostomy. For glans reconstructions, the buccal mucosal grafts delivered excellent cosmetic and functional results without causing meatal stenosis. We conclude the buccal mucosal graft can be used in reconstructive surgery beyond the reconstruction of urethral strictures.

  6. Thulium laser urethrotomy for urethral stricture: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linhui; Wang, Zhixiang; Yang, Bo; Yang, Qing; Sun, Yinghao

    2010-09-01

    The outcome of thulium laser urethrotomy for patients with urethral stricture had not been reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcome of endourethrotomy with the thulium laser as a minimally invasive treatment for urethral stricture. Twenty-one consecutive patients with urethral stricture were evaluated by retrograde uroflowmetry, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and quality of life preoperatively at a single academic center. All patients were treated with thulium laser urethrotomy. All patients were followed up for 12-24 months postoperatively by uroflowmetry and by retrograde with voiding cystourethrogram every 3 months. And all patients were followed up by mailed questionnaire, including IPSS and quality of life. Retrograde endoscopic thulium laser urethrotomy was performed in all 21 patients. Most patients (N = 16; 76.2%) did not need any reintervention. Five patients developed recurrent strictures, of them two patients were treated by another laser urethrotomy, one patient was treated by open urethroplasty with buccal mucosa and the other two patients' reintervention were treated by urethral dilation. No intraoperative complications were encountered, although in 9.5% (N = 2) of patients, a urinary tract infection was diagnosed postoperatively. No gross hematuria occurred. Including two patients treated with repeat laser urethrotomy, 17(81.0%) showed good flow of urine (Q(ave)>16.0 ml/second) and adequate caliber urethra in retrograde urethrogram (RGU) 12 months after operation. Three (14.3%) patients showed narrow stream of urine (Q(ave)<8.0 ml/second) and urethral dilation was done every month or 2 months. There was one patient whose Q(ave) was between 8.0 and 16.0 ml/second. And this patient was treated by neither urethral dilation nor another laser urethrotomy. The thulium laser urethrotomy was a safe and effective minimally invasive therapeutic modality for urethral stricture. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Posterior urethral polyp with type I posterior urethral valves: a rare association in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Kesan, Krushnakumar V; Gupta, Rahul Kumar; Kothari, Paras; Gupta, Abhaya; Mudkhedkar, Kedar; Kamble, Ravikiran; Dikshit, K Vishesh

    2014-06-01

    Urethral polyp is a rare cause of bladder outlet obstruction, voiding dysfunction, and hematuria in the pediatric age group. Urethral polyps are rarely associated with other congenital urinary tract anomalies. In this study, we report a case of solitary posterior urethral polyp with type I posterior urethral valve in a 7-day-old neonate presented with urinary retention and deranged renal function. The polyp was diagnosed on cystoscopy. Transurethral resection of the polyp with posterior urethral valve fulguration was performed. Pathologic assessment revealed a fibroepithelial lesion, which was consistent with congenital posterior urethral polyp.

  8. SIU/ICUD Consultation on Urethral Strictures: The management of anterior urethral stricture disease using substitution urethroplasty.

    PubMed

    Chapple, Christopher; Andrich, Daniela; Atala, Anthony; Barbagli, Guido; Cavalcanti, André; Kulkarni, Sanjay; Mangera, Altaf; Nakajima, Yosuke

    2014-03-01

    In this systematic review of the literature, a search of the PubMed database was conducted to identify articles dealing with augmentation/substitution urethral reconstruction of the anterior urethral stricture. The evidence was categorized by stricture site, surgical technique, and the type of tissue used. The committee appointed by the International Consultation on Urological Disease reviewed this data and produced a consensus statement relating to the augmentation and substitution of the anterior urethra. In this review article, the background pathophysiology is discussed. Most cases of urethral stricture disease in the anterior urethra are consequent on an ischemic spongiofibrosis. The choice of technique and the surgical approach are discussed along with the potential pros and cons of the use of a graft vs a flap. There is research potential for tissue engineering. The efficacy of the surgical approach to the urethra is reviewed. Whenever possible, a 1-stage approach is preferable from the patient's perspective. In some cases, with complex penile urethral strictures, a 2-stage procedure might be appropriate, and there is an important potential role for the use of a perineal urethrostomy in cases where there is an extensive anterior urethral stricture or where the patient does not wish to undergo complex surgery, or medical contraindications make this hazardous. It is important to have accurate outcome measures for the follow-up of patients, and in this context, a full account needs to be taken of patients' perspectives by the use of appropriate patient-reported outcome measures. The use of symptoms and a flow rate can be misleading. It is well established that with a normally functioning bladder, the flow rate does not diminish until the caliber of the urethra falls below 10F. The most accurate means of following up patients after stricture surgery are by the use of endoscopy or visualization by urethrography. Careful consideration needs to be made of the

  9. Use of Cutting Balloon in the Treatment of Urethral Stricture: A Novel Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Yildirim, Erkan; Cicek, Tufan; Istanbulluoglu, Okan; Ozturk, Bulent

    2009-05-15

    The peripheral cutting balloon has been used to treat various nonvascular strictures as well as vascular stenosis. In this article, we describe for the first time the use of the cutting balloon in the treatment of patients with urethral stricture. Four patients with bulbar urethral stricture were included in the study. All strictures were successfully dilated with the cutting balloon, and patients were free of symptoms at 6-month follow-up. Cutting-balloon dilatation is a safe, easy-to-perform, and effective treatment for patients with tight urethral strictures.

  10. Urethral Strictures and Stenoses Caused by Prostate Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mang L.; Correa, Andres F.; Santucci, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia is on the rise. As a result, the volume of prostate treatment and treatment-related complications is also increasing. Urethral strictures and stenoses are relatively common complications that require individualized management based on the length and location of the obstruction, and the patient’s overall health, and goals of care. In general, less invasive options such as dilation and urethrotomy are preferred as first-line therapy, followed by more invasive substitution, flap, and anastomotic urethroplasty. PMID:27601967

  11. In-vivo laser induced urethral stricture animal model for investigating the potential of LDR-brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Lellig, Katja; Bader, Markus; Stief, Christian; Weidlich, Patrick; Wechsel, G.; Assmann, Walter; Becker, R.; Fedorova, O.; Khoder, Wael

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Treatment of urethral strictures is a major challenge in urology. For investigation of different treatment methods an animal model was developed by reproducible induction of urethral strictures in rabbits to mimic the human clinical situation. By means of this model the potential of endoluminal LDR brachytherapy using β-irradiation as prophylaxis of recurrent urethral strictures investigated. Material and Methods: A circumferential urethral stricture was induced by energy deposition using laser light application (wavelength λ=1470 nm, 10 W, 10 s, applied energy 100 J) in the posterior urethra of anaesthetized New Zealand White male rabbits. The radial light emitting fiber was introduced by means of a children resectoscope (14F). The grade of urethral stricture was evaluated in 18 rabbits using videourethroscopy and urethrography at day 28 after stricture induction. An innovative catheter was developed based on a β-irradiation emitting foil containing 32P, which was wrapped around the application system. Two main groups (each n=18) were separated. The "internal urethrotomy group" received after 28days of stricture induction immediately after surgical urethrotomy of the stricture the radioactive catheter for one week in a randomized, controlled and blinded manner. There were 3 subgroups with 6 animals each receiving 0 Gy, 15 Gy and 30 Gy. In contrast animals from the "De Nuovo group" received directly after the stricture induction (day 0) the radioactive catheter also for the duration of one week divided into the same dose subgroups. In order to determine the radiation tolerance of the urethral mucosa, additional animals without any stricture induction received a radioactive catheter applying a total dose of 30 Gy (n=2) and 15 Gy (n=1). Cystourethrography and endoscopic examination of urethra were performed on all operation days for monitoring treatment progress. Based on these investigation a classification of the stricture size was performed and

  12. Intermittent self-dilatation for urethral stricture disease in males.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Matthew J; Veeratterapillay, Rajan; Harding, Chris K; Dorkin, Trevor J

    2014-12-19

    Intermittent urethral self-dilatation is sometimes recommended to reduce the risk of recurrent urethral stricture. There is no consensus as to whether it is a clinically effective or cost-effective intervention in the management of this disease. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of intermittent self-dilatation after urethral stricture surgery in males compared to no intervention. We also compared different programmes of, and devices for, intermittent self-dilatation. . We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register (searched 7 May 2014), CENTRAL (2014, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1 January 1946 to Week 3 April 2014), PREMEDLINE (covering 29 April 2014), EMBASE (1 January 1947 to Week 17 2014), CINAHL (31 December 1981 to 30 April 2014) OpenGrey (searched 6 May 2014), ClinicalTrials.gov (6 May 2014), WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (6 May 2014), Current Controlled Trials (6 May 2014) and the reference lists of relevant articles. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials where one arm was a programme of intermittent self-dilatation for urethral stricture were identified. Studies were excluded if they were not randomised or quasi-randomised trials, or if they pertained to clean intermittent self-catheterisation for bladder emptying. Two authors screened the records for relevance and methodological quality. Data extraction was performed according to predetermined criteria using data extraction forms. Analyses were carried out in Cochrane Review Manager (RevMan 5). The primary outcomes were patient-reported symptoms and health-related quality of life, and risk of recurrence; secondary outcomes were adverse events, acceptability of the intervention to patients and cost-effectiveness. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Eleven trials were selected for inclusion in the review, including a total of 776

  13. Establishment of the U.L.T.R.A. measurement rating system for anterior urethral stricture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Hou, Rui; Feng, Chao; Zhang, Xinru; Li, Diancheng; Chen, Jie; Hu, Bing

    2017-07-01

    Anterior urethral stricture treatments are various, and comprehensive consideration should be given in selecting individualized treatment programs, which must be combined with the patient's stricture, length, complexity, and other factors. At present, there is no standard for the clinical description of the anterior urethral stricture for the selection of the characteristic index, and most of the indicators are qualitative information. In order to achieve consistent decisions and effective comparisons, it is imperative to establish a standardized description system. We used ultrasound contrast technology in the diagnosis of urethral stricture to establish a reliable measurement scoring system, for the refinement grading of the treatment, so as to objectively guide the establishment of treatment decisions. A retrospective search of PubMed English literatures on anterior urethral stricture (January 1975-September 2016) was conducted, combined with a large number of clinical practice experience. We screened the five most closely related and highly repeatable anatomical characteristic indicators of anterior urethral stricture as a base of establishing the U.L.T.R.A. measurement scoring system. With the evaluation system, individualized cases can be made according to the severity of the stenosis preoperative pathological state from the five aspects of refinement grading, and estimated results of the success rate and prognosis of different surgical treatments for patients according to the score. The evaluation system consists of five indicators: (U) urethral stricture site, (L) length, (T) urethral stricture scar thickness, (R) stricture and stricture with a 10-mm proximal urethral dilatation ratio (stricture diameter ratio for short), and (A) alone urethral stricture or multiple urethral stricture; as well as other characteristics. Suffix (l) refers specifically to anterior urethral stricture due to the lichen sclerosus. The U.L.T.R.A. measurement scoring system

  14. Treatment of long anterior urethral stricture associated to lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Angulo, J C; Arance, I; Esquinas, C; Nikolavsky, D; Martins, N; Martins, F

    2017-03-01

    Panurethral stricture associated with lichen sclerosus is a therapeutic challenge. We present the analysis of our results using two urethroplasty techniques based on oral mucosa graft. Retrospective study in patients with long anterior urethral stricture (>8cm) associated with lichen sclerosus. Patients received urethroplasty with oral mucosa graft technique according Kulkarni (n=25) or two-step Johanson-Bracka urethroplasty (n=15). Demographics, operative time, complications (Clavien-Dindo), hospital stay, days with catheter, EAV postoperative pain, failure rate, need for retreatment and functional data including IPSS, QoL, Qmax, post void residual (PVR) are evaluated. In all cases there was involvement of glandular and penile urethra, and in 75% of bulbar urethra. A single graft was used in 22.5%, two in 72.5% and three in 5%. Patients treated at a single step were younger (P=.007). Although the length of the stenosis was equivalent in both techniques (P=.96), relapse and complication rates were higher in two-step surgery (P=.05 and P=.03; respectively) and so was operative time (P<.0001) and overall stay (P=.0002). There were no differences in preoperative IPSS, QoL, Qmax or PVR, neither in postoperative values of IPSS or Qmax; but there was a difference in QoL (P=.006) and PVR (P=.03) favouring single-step urethroplasty. VAS pain on postoperative day 1 was also lower in Kulkarni urethroplasty than in the first step of Johanson-Bracka technique (P<.0001). In patients with lichen sclerosus and long anterior urethral stricture Kulkarni urethroplasty provides more efficient and better patient reported outcomes than Johanson-Bracka urethroplasty. It also prevents cosmetic, sexual and voiding temporary deterioration inherent to 2-step surgery. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  15. [Establishment of a stable urethral stricture model in New Zealand rabbits].

    PubMed

    Zheng, J; Ding, Q; Sun, Ch; Li, B; Sun, Y; Zhao, X; Feng, Ch; Fang, Z

    2013-03-01

    To explore the method of building a stable urethral stricture (US) model in New Zealand white rabbits. Through 10X magnification optical microscope, a resection of 1.0cm urethral mucosa was made in 6 male rabbits and other 6 male rabbits were controlled. After 60 days, the rabbits were evaluated with urethrography, urethral pressure profile (UPP) and histology. Urethrography demonstrated a stricture with narrow lumen and discontinuous mucosa in the resection group. The urethras of the control animals were all normal. UPP showed that the urethral pressure on operative site in the controlled group was 14.67±2.16cmHO, and 27.83±3.71 cmHO in the resection group. There was significant statistical difference between the two groups (P<.01). The urothelium was well-distributed, covered without any inflammatory cells in the controlled group, which had 3-4 layers of the epithelial cells. And the urothelium was unequally covered with neutrophils and lymphocytes in the resection group. We establish the way to build a stable urethral stricture model of New Zealand rabbits by the microsurgical technique, which is a good laboratory model to research all kinds of urethral stricture. Urethrography and histology combined UPP are the reliable methods to identify the urethral stricture. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. High-pressure balloon dilation for male anterior urethral stricture: single-center experience*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shi-cheng; Wu, Hai-yang; Wang, Wei; Xu, Li-wei; Ding, Guo-qing; Zhang, Zhi-gen; Li, Gong-hui

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We retrospectively reviewed the urethral stricture cases treated in our tertiary center, and assessed the safety and feasibility of the high-pressure balloon dilation (HPBD) technique for anterior urethral stricture. Methods: From January 2009 to December 2012, a total of 31 patients with anterior urethral strictures underwent HPBD at our center, while another 25 cases were treated by direct vision internal urethrotomy (DVIU). Patient demographics, stricture characteristics, surgical techniques, and operative outcomes were assessed and compared between the two groups. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was applied to evaluate the stricture-free rate for the two surgical techniques. Results: The operation time was much shorter for the HPBD procedure than for the DVIU ((13.19±2.68) min vs. (18.44±3.29) min, P<0.01). For the HPBD group, the major postoperative complications as urethral bleeding and urinary tract infection (UTI) were less frequently encountered than those in DVIU (urethral bleeding: 2/31 vs. 8/25, P=0.017; UTI: 1/31 vs. 6/25 P=0.037). The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that there was no significant difference in stricture-free rate at 36 months between the two groups (P=0.21, hazard ratio (HR)=0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.34 to 1.26). However, there was a significantly higher stricture-free survival in the HPBD group at 12 months (P=0.02, HR=0.35, 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.87), which indicated that the stricture recurrence could be delayed by using the HPBD technique. Conclusions: HPBD was effective and safe and it could be considered as an alternative treatment modality for anterior urethral stricture disease. PMID:27604864

  17. The Use of Flaps and Grafts in the Treatment of Urethral Stricture Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wisenbaugh, Eric S.; Gelman, Joel

    2015-01-01

    The use of various grafts and flaps plays a critical role in the successful surgical management of urethral stricture disease. A thorough comprehension of relevant anatomy and principles of tissue transfer techniques are essential to understanding the appropriate use of grafts or flaps to optimize outcomes. We briefly review these principles and discuss which technique may be best suited for a given anterior urethral stricture, depending on the location and length of the stricture, the presence or absence of an intact corpus spongiosum, and the availability of adequate and healthy penile skin. PMID:26664357

  18. Dorsal buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for anterior urethral stricture by Asopa technique.

    PubMed

    Pisapati, V L N Murthy; Paturi, Srimannarayana; Bethu, Suresh; Jada, Srikanth; Chilumu, Ramreddy; Devraj, Rahul; Reddy, Bhargava; Sriramoju, Vidyasagar

    2009-07-01

    Buccal mucosal graft (BMG) substitution urethroplasty has become popular in the management of intractable anterior urethral strictures with good results. Excellent long-term results have been reported by both dorsal and ventral onlay techniques. Asopa reported a successful technique for dorsal placement of BMG in long anterior urethral strictures through a ventral sagittal approach. To evaluate prospectively the results and advantages of dorsal BMG urethroplasty for recurrent anterior urethral strictures by a ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach (Asopa technique). From December 2002 to December 2007, a total of 58 men underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by a ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach for recurrent urethral strictures. Forty-five of these patients with a follow-up period of 12-60 mo were prospectively evaluated, and the results were analysed. The urethra was split twice at the site of the stricture both ventrally and dorsally without mobilising it from its bed, and the buccal mucosal graft was secured in the dorsal urethral defect. The urethra was then retubularised in one stage. The overall results were good (87%), with a mean follow-up period of 42 mo. Seven patients developed minor wound infection, and five patients developed fistulae. There were six recurrences (6:45, 13%) during the follow-up period of 12-60 mo. Two patients with a panurethral stricture and four with bulbar or penobulbar strictures developed recurrences and were managed by optical urethrotomy and self-dilatation. The medium-term results were as good as those reported with the dorsal urethrotomy approach. Long-term results from this and other series are awaited. More randomised trials and meta-analyses are needed to establish this technique as a procedure of choice in future. The ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach is easier to perform than the dorsal urethrotomy approach, has good results, and is especially useful in long anterior urethral strictures.

  19. A preliminary clinical study of endoscopic minimally-invasive surgery in urethral stricture complicated with false passage.

    PubMed

    Le, Wei; Zhou, Weidong; Li, Chao; Wu, Denglong; Zhang, Jinfu; Bian, Cuidong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the clinical effect of endoscopic minimal invasive surgery on posterior urethral stricture with false passage. Twenty-one patients suffering from posterior urethral stricture with false passage were involved in the study. All the patients received pre-operative urethrography and flexible cystoscopy to make sure that the distance between the blind end of the proximal normal urethra and the distal urethra was <1 cm. Ten patients received open operation and eleven patients underwent endoscopic minimally-invasive surgery. All the patients in both groups had their catheters removed 4 weeks after operations, and improvements in urination and incontinence were observed. Urethrography was performed and urine flow rate was measured 1 month after catheter removal. In the open-operation group, nine patients showed unobstructed urinary tracts in the urethrography, and one, after his catheter removal, experienced dysuresia, which was improved after urethral dilatation. In the minimally-invasive operation group, nine patients showed patent urinary tracts in the urethrography, and two experienced post-operation dysuresia, of whom, open-operation treatment and urethral dilatation were performed respectively. In the minimally-invasive operation group, the average urine flow rate was significantly increased. Patients in both groups obtained obvious improvement in post-operation urinary incontinence, and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in urine flow rate and index for urinary incontinence. Endoscopic minimally-invasive operation had similar effects to open operation in treatment of posterior urethra stricture with <1 cm in length and false passage.

  20. The efficacy of intraurethral lidocaine in optical internal urethrotomy for anterior urethral stricture: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Cem, Nedim Y; Yildiray, Yıldız; Berat, Cem Ö; Mehmet, Melih S; Ömer, Gökhan D; Ahmet, Metin H; Ekrem, Özyuvalı; Ali, Ayyıldız

    2017-04-20

    Male anterior urethral strictures can be treated successfully with the help of optical internal urethrotomy (OIU) and is usually performed under general or regional anaesthesia. In this study, we determined the efficacy of intraurethral lidocaine in OIU for anterior urethral stricture in an outpatient setting. 157 patients with anterior urethral strictures underwent OIU under local urethral anaesthesia with lidocaine. Optical urethrotomy was performed with a cold-cutting knife. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to evaluate patient discomfort and pain levels. Using local anaesthesia with lidocaine 2%, internal urethrotomy under vision was successfully completed in 151 of 157 patients.. The overall success rate 96.1%.A total of 125 patients experienced mild , 26 patients moderate and 6 patients severe pain. The procedure was not completed in six patients because of severe pain. These patients went on OIU under general anesthesia. 18 (11.4%) recurrent strictures were seen during at least 6 months of follow up. Topical intraurethral lidocaine is a simple and efficacious anaesthesia technique for surgical procedures on the anterior urethra. It is a safe, cost-effective and a well tolerated procedure .OIU under topical anesthesia can be easily performed and satisfactorily completed in an outpatient setting. It's anesthetic efficacy and reasonable success rate when compared with the other anesthetic techniques may provide an alternative approach in the management of urethral strictures.

  1. Urethral Stricture Outcomes After Artificial Urinary Sphincter Cuff Erosion: Results From a Multicenter Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gross, Martin S; Broghammer, Joshua A; Kaufman, Melissa R; Milam, Douglas F; Brant, William O; Cleves, Mario A; Dum, Travis W; McClung, Christopher; Jones, LeRoy A; Brady, Jeffrey D; Pryor, Michael B; Henry, Gerard D

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the influence of both repair type and degree of cuff erosion on postoperative urethral stricture rate. Sparse literature exists regarding patient outcomes after artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) cuff erosion. Surgeons from 6 high-volume male continence centers compiled a comprehensive database of post-erosion patients to examine outcomes. This retrospective multi-institution study included 80 patients treated for AUS cuff erosions. Seventy-eight patients had specific information regarding post-cuff erosion urethral strictures. Erosion patients were categorized into 1 of 3 repair types at the time of explant surgery: catheter only, single-layer capsule-to-capsule repair (urethrorrhaphy), and formal urethroplasty. Operative notes and available medical records were extensively reviewed to collect study data. Twenty-five of 78 patients manifested a urethral stricture after AUS cuff erosion (32%). More strictures occurred among patients who underwent urethrorrhaphy (40% vs 29% for catheter only and 14% for urethroplasty). Stricture rates did not vary significantly by repair type (P = .2). Strictures occurred significantly more frequently in patients with complete cuff erosions (58%) as compared to partial erosions (25%, P = .037). A trend was detected regarding increased percentage of erosion correlating with increased stricture rate, but this did not reach statistical significance (P = .057). Partially eroded patients were more likely to undergo urethrorrhaphy repair (60%, P = .002). Urethral stricture was more likely to occur after complete cuff erosion as opposed to partial erosion in this multicenter retrospective population. Repair type, whether catheter only, urethrorrhaphy, or formal urethroplasty, did not appear to influence postoperative stricture rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. International prostate symptom score as a clinical outcome measure for Ethiopian patients with urethral stricture.

    PubMed

    Lemma, Be-ede; Taye, Mulat; Hawando, Tegene; Bakke, August

    2004-10-01

    Eighty-four urethral stricture patients and 73 controls were studied prospectively over a 6 months period in Tikur Anbessa Hospital from April to August 2000. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) as an outcome measurement instrument for urethral stricture patients in Ethiopia. The Amharic translation of IPSS (IPSS Amh) was used in this study. Internal consistency was 0.91. Construct validity was 0.73. Test-retest reliability was 0.95. Sensitivity and specificity were 76% and 71% respectively. In conclusion the IPSS Amh was found to be valid for use in urethral stricture patients in Ethiopia. We recommend the wide use of this cheap and easily available clinical measurement instrument.

  3. Challenges in the Diagnosis and Management of Acquired Nontraumatic Urethral Strictures in Boys in Yaoundé, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mouafo Tambo, F. F.; Fossi kamga, G.; Kamadjou, C.; Mbouche, L.; Nwaha Makon, A. S.; Birraux, J.; Andze, O. G.; Angwafo, F. F.; Mure, P. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Urethral strictures in boys denote narrowing of the urethra which can be congenital or acquired. In case of acquired strictures, the etiology is iatrogenic or traumatic and rarely infectious or inflammatory. The aim of this study was to highlight the diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties of acquired nontraumatic urethral strictures in boys in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Methodology. The authors report five cases of nontraumatic urethral strictures managed at the Pediatric Surgery Department of the YGOPH over a two-year period (November 2012–November 2014). In order to confirm the diagnosis of urethral stricture, all patients were assessed with both cystourethrography and urethrocystoscopy. Results. In all the cases the urethra was inflammatory with either a single or multiple strictures. The surgical management included internal urethrotomy (n = 1), urethral dilatation (n = 1), vesicostomy (n = 2), and urethral catheterization (n = 3). With a median follow-up of 8.2 months (4–16 months) all patients remained symptoms-free. Conclusion. The authors report the difficulties encountered in the diagnosis and management of nontraumatic urethral strictures in boys at a tertiary hospital in Yaoundé, Cameroon. The existence of an inflammatory etiology of urethral strictures in boys deserves to be considered. PMID:27239364

  4. Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (Xiaflex) for the Treatment of Urethral Stricture Disease in a Rat Model of Urethral Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sangkum, Premsant; Yafi, Faysal A; Kim, Hogyoung; Bouljihad, Mostafa; Ranjan, Manish; Datta, Amrita; Mandava, Sree Harsha; Sikka, Suresh C; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Moparty, Krishnarao; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the treatment effect of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) in a rat model of urethral fibrosis. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350 g) were divided into 5 groups. The rat urethra was injected with normal saline in the sham group and, in the other 4 groups, the rat urethra was injected with 10 μg of transforming growth factor beta 1 to create fibrosis of the urethra. Two weeks following transforming growth factor beta 1 injection, the rats were injected with varying doses of CCH or vehicles, depending on their group. The rats were then euthanized at 4 weeks after CCH or vehicle injection. Urethral tissue was harvested for histologic and molecular analyses. Type I and III collagen levels were evaluated by Western blot analysis. There was urethral fibrosis and to significant increase in collagen type I and III expressions in the urethral fibrosis group compared with the sham group (P <.05). Urethral injection of CCH appeared to be safe and significantly reduce urethral fibrosis as well as collagen type I and III expressions in the high-dose CCH treatment groups when compared with the treatment control group (P <.01). This study demonstrated a beneficial effect of CCH injections in a rat model of urethral fibrosis. These findings suggest a potential role for CCH as a therapeutic option in urethral stricture patients and warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (Xiaflex) for the Treatment of Urethral Stricture Disease in a Rat Model of Urethral Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sangkum, Premsant; Yafi, Faysal A.; Kim, Hogyoung; Bouljihad, Mostafa; Ranjan, Manish; Datta, Amrita; Mandava, Sree Harsha; Sikka, Suresh C.; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B.; Moparty, Krishnarao; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the treatment effect of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) in a rat model of urethral fibrosis. Materials and Methods Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350 g) were divided into 5 groups. The rat urethra was injected with normal saline in the sham group and, in the other 4 groups, the rat urethra was injected with 10 μg of transforming growth factor beta 1 to create fibrosis of the urethra. Two weeks following transforming growth factor beta 1 injection, the rats were injected with varying doses of CCH or vehicles, depending on their group. The rats were then euthanized at 4 weeks after CCH or vehicle injection. Urethral tissue was harvested for histologic and molecular analyses. Type I and III collagen levels were evaluated by Western blot analysis. Results There was urethral fibrosis and to significant increase in collagen type I and III expressions in the urethral fibrosis group compared with the sham group (P <.05). Urethral injection of CCH appeared to be safe and significantly reduce urethral fibrosis as well as collagen type I and III expressions in the high-dose CCH treatment groups when compared with the treatment control group (P <.01). Conclusion This study demonstrated a beneficial effect of CCH injections in a rat model of urethral fibrosis. These findings suggest a potential role for CCH as a therapeutic option in urethral stricture patients and warrant further investigation. PMID:26126692

  6. Evaluation of anterior urethral stricture using thick slab SSFSE MR urethrography.

    PubMed

    Park, Byung Kwan; Kim, Chan Kyo; Lee, Sung Won

    2010-12-01

    magnetic resonance urethrography (MRU) can be used for depicting not only anterior urethral strictures but also periurethral anatomy in order to produce a management plan. to determine if thick slab single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) MRU is useful for evaluating anterior urethral stricture compared to fast recovery fast spin echo (FRFSE) MRU. Ten patients with benign anterior urethral stricture underwent both thick slab SSFSE MRU and FRFSE MRU using sterile jelly for urethral distension before retrograde urethrography. The glans penis was tied at the time of MRU. The two types of MR image were compared regarding stricture length, scan time, and image quality. We also determined whether or not both of the two MR sequences could display an entire anterior urethra on one image. the stricture length on thick slab SSFSE and FRFSE MRU ranged from 4.0 to 71.3 mm (36.4 ± 21.8 mm) and from 4.0 to 67.5 mm (35.7 ± 20.8 mm), respectively (P > 0.05). The mean scan time for thick slab SSFSE and FRFSE sequences was 2 s and 194 s, respectively (P < 0.05). However, regarding image quality, thick slab SSFSE MRU was inferior to FRFSE MRU (P < 0.05). All the thick slab SSFSE MRU displayed the entire anterior urethra on one image, while only five FRFSE MRU did so (P < 0.05). thick slab SSFSE MRU can provide a concordant stricture length when compared to the FRFSE MRU and imaging of the entire length of the anterior urethral stricture with subjective reduced image quality and scan time.

  7. [Prune belly syndrome with atresia ani and urethral stricture: a case report].

    PubMed

    Megumi, Y; Horii, Y; Matsuda, T; Arai, Y; Takeuchi, H; Yoshida, O

    1994-09-01

    A case of prune belly syndrome associated with urethral stricture and atresia ani is reported. Cystostomy and colostomy were performed on his birthday. Cutaneous vesicostomy, bilateral ureterocystoneoplasty and proctoplasty were performed when the patient was one year old, and urethrotomy was performed when he was four years old. He was closely followed for six years and six months, and had developed without any serious episodes. We collected 128 cases of prune belly syndrome from the Japanese literature including this, and made a brief discussion of this syndrome with urethral stricture and atresia ani.

  8. An experimental model of urethral stricture in rabbits using holmium laser under urethroscopic direct visualization.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei-Feng; Li, Cui-Ling; Zhang, Hui-Ping; Li, Ting-Ting; Zeng, Xiao-Yong

    2014-01-01

    To establish an experimental rabbit model of urethral stricture using holmium laser under direct urethroscopic visualization. Sixteen adult male New Zealand rabbits were divided into equally-sized control and experimental groups. All rabbits underwent retrograde urethrography and transurethral endoscopy with a 7.5 F urethroscope after intramuscular anesthetic injection. We used a holmium:YAG laser to injure the distal urethra in all rabbits in the experimental group under direct visualization. Thirty days after surgery, all animals were evaluated with retrograde urethrography and urethroscopy. The flow rate of the isolated urethras was measured to evaluate urethral stricture formation. One rabbit in the experimental group (12.5%) died of infection 4 days after surgery. Thirty days after surgery, retrograde urethrography and urethroscopy revealed strictures in all seven surviving rabbits (87.5%) in the experimental group. The mean flow rate of the isolated urethras was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group. A rabbit model of urethral stricture can be successfully established using holmium laser under direct urethroscopic visualization, providing an ideal object for research concerning the pathogenesis and molecular biology of urethral strictures. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Management for Prostate Cancer Treatment Related Posterior Urethral and Bladder Neck Stenosis With Stents

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Bradley A.; McAninch, Jack W.; Eisenberg, Michael L.; Washington, Samuel L.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Prostate cancer treatment has the potential to lead to posterior urethral stricture. These strictures are sometimes recalcitrant to dilation and urethrotomy alone. We present our experience with the Urolume® stent for prostate cancer treatment related stricture. Materials and Methods A total of 38 men with posterior urethral stricture secondary to prostate cancer treatment were treated with Urolume stenting. Stents were placed in all men after aggressive urethrotomy over the entire stricture. A successfully managed stricture was defined as open and stable for greater than 6 months after any necessary secondary procedures. Results The initial success rate was 47%. After a total of 31 secondary procedures in 19 men, including additional stent placement in 8 (18%), the final success rate was 89% at a mean ± SD followup of 2.3 ± 2.5 years. Four cases (11%) in which treatment failed ultimately requiring urinary diversion (3) or salvage prostatectomy (1). Incontinence was noted in 30 men (82%), of whom 19 (63%) received an artificial urinary sphincter a mean of 7.2 ± 2.4 months after the stent. Subanalysis revealed that irradiated men had longer strictures (3.6 vs 2.0 cm, p = 0.003) and a higher post-stent incontinence rate (96% vs 50%, p <0.001) than men who underwent prostatectomy alone but the initial failure rate was similar (54% vs 50%, p = 0.4). Conclusions Urolume stenting is a reasonable option for severe post-prostate cancer treatment stricture when patients are unwilling or unable to undergo open reconstructive surgery. Incontinence should be expected. The need for additional procedures is common and in some men may be required periodically for the lifetime of the stent. PMID:21074796

  10. [Leiomyoma of the urethra - cause of an obstruction misdiagnosed as hereditary urethral stricture in a young man].

    PubMed

    Seseke, S; Schweyer, S; Reissig, K; Seseke, F

    2008-03-01

    Leiomyomas are benign neoplasms arising from smooth muscle cells. We describe the case of a 17-year-old boy admitted with progressive severe obstructive voiding symptoms. Retrograde urethrography showed a bulbous urethral stricture which was resected with primary urethral anastomosis. Histopathological examination confirmed the very rare case of a leiomyoma of the urethra. In patients with urethral stricture, leiomyoma should be included in the diagnostic considerations.

  11. Single stage: dorsolateral onlay buccal mucosal urethroplasty for long anterior urethral strictures using perineal route

    PubMed Central

    Prabha, Vikram; Devaraju, Shishir; Vernekar, Ritesh; Hiremath, Murigendra

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To assess the outcome of single stage dorsolateral onlay buccal mucosal urethroplasty for long anterior urethral strictures (>4cm long) using a perineal incision. Materials and Methods From August 2010 to August 2013, 20 patients underwent BMG urethroplasty. The cause of stricture was Lichen sclerosis in 12 cases (60%), Instrumentation in 5 cases (25%), and unknown in 3 cases (15%). Strictures were approached through a perineal skin incision and penis was invaginated into it to access the entire urethra. All the grafts were placed dorsolaterally, preserving the bulbospongiosus muscle, central tendon of perineum and one-sided attachement of corpus spongiosum. Procedure was considered to be failure if the patient required instrumentation postoperatively. Results Mean stricture length was 8.5cm (range 4 to 12cm). Mean follow-up was 22.7 months (range 12 to 36 months). Overall success rate was 85%. There were 3 failures (meatal stenosis in 1, proximal stricture in 1 and whole length recurrent stricture in 1). Other complications included wound infection, urethrocutaneous fistula, brownish discharge per urethra and scrotal oedema. Conclusion Dorsolateral buccal mucosal urethroplasty for long anterior urethral strictures using a single perineal incision is simple, safe and easily reproducible by urologists with a good outcome. PMID:27286122

  12. Docetaxel Inhibits Urethral Stricture Formation, an Initial Study in Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Delai; Chong, Tie; Li, Hecheng; Zhang, Huibo; Wang, Ziming

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Urethral stricture, a frequent source of lower urinary tract disorders in men, is still a difficult problem for urologists. Based the anti-restenosis effect of paclitaxel on coronary artery, the role of docetaxel, a semi-synthetic analogue of paclitaxel, in limiting urethral stricture formation was studied. Methods Forty adult New Zealand male rabbits were involved in this study, which were randomly assigned into 3 groups, namely a high dose docetaxel (DH, 0.1 mg/d), a low dose docetaxel (DL, 0.01 mg/d) and a control (C) group, with 16, 16, 8 rabbits in each group, respectively. All animals underwent a 10 mm-long circumferential electrocoagulation of the bulbar urethra with a 13Fr pediatric resectoscope. Drugs were given by urethral irrigation daily and continuous for 28 days. Stricture formation was assessed by retrograde urethrography and videourethroscopy. Urethra pathology was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining and Sirius red staining. Results At the end of this study, 15, 14 and 7 rabbits remained for evaluation in DH, DL and C group, respectively. Urethral diameters in DH, DL and C group were (7.17±1.63) mm, (6.55±0.62) mm, (3.23±1.36) mm, with a normal urethral diameter of (9.08±1.29) mm. Lumen reduction in DH, DL and C group were (36.93±11.58)%, (48.03±7.89)% and (84.66±14.95)%, respectively. Statistically difference could be found between every two groups (p<0.05) both in urethral diameters and in lumen reduction, except for compare of urethral diameters between DH and DL group. Histological examination confirmed mass fibrous tissue and collagen content at the stricture sit in C group, whereas less in docetaxel treated rabbits. Conclusions Docetaxel could limit urethral stricture formation, which may be due to inhibition of fibrous tissue and collagen expression. Docetaxel may become a new choice in the prevention of urethral stricture formation. PMID:25375859

  13. The management of bulbar urethral stricture disease before referral for definitive repair: have practice patterns changed?

    PubMed

    Granieri, Michael A; Peterson, Andrew C

    2014-10-01

    To describe the management of patients with bulbar urethral stricture disease before referral for definitive urethroplasty and determine if practice patterns have changed with respect to endoscopic interventions. We performed an institutional review board-approved retrospective review and recorded patient demographics, stricture-related information, and all procedures performed for bulbar urethral stricture disease before initial presentation at our institution. Included procedures were: UroLume stent (AMS, Minnetonka, MN), laser urethrotomy, direct visual urethrotomy (DVIU), and dilation of urethral stricture. Patients with prior urethroplasty were excluded. We compared the differences between procedures when stratified by stricture length. We identified 363 men who underwent urethroplasty for bulbar urethral stricture disease from January 1996 to September 2011. Of the total, 235 men (65%) had a prior DVIU, whereas 65 of these men (28%) had multiple DVIUs. One hundred ninety-nine men (55%) had a prior dilation and 155 of these men (78%) had multiple dilations. The remaining procedures consisted of laser urethrotomy (6; 2%), and UroLume stent (4; 1%). Twenty-four patients (6%) had no procedures before referral. There was no statistically significant difference between numbers of prior procedures when stratified by stricture length. From 1996 to 2010, there was no appreciable change in number of procedures before referral, with ∼ 70% of patients with ≥ 2 prior procedures. Our institution has not seen a measurable change in practice patterns before referral from 1996 to 2010. Future studies are needed to determine if the change in referral patterns in 2011 represents a future trend. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Visual Internal Urethrotomy for Adult Male Urethral Stricture Has Poor Long-Term Results

    PubMed Central

    Al Taweel, Waleed; Seyam, Raouf

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the long-term stricture-free rate after visual internal urethrotomy following initial and follow-up urethrotomies. Methods. The records of all male patients who underwent direct visual internal urethrotomy for urethral stricture disease in our hospital between July 2004 and May 2012 were reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze stricture-free probability after the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth urethrotomies. Results. A total of 301 patients were included. The overall stricture-free rate at the 36-month follow-up was 8.3% with a median time to recurrence of 10 months (95% CI of 9.5 to 10.5, range: 2–36). The stricture-free rate after one urethrotomy was 12.1% with a median time to recurrence of eight months (95% CI of 7.1–8.9). After the second urethrotomy, the stricture-free rate was 7.9% with a median time to recurrence of 10 months (95% CI of 9.3 to 10.6). After the third to fifth procedures, the stricture-free rate was 0%. There was no significant difference in the stricture-free rate between single and multiple procedures. Conclusion. The long-term stricture-free rate of visual internal urethrotomy is modest even after a single procedure. PMID:26494995

  15. Cost-effective Strategies for the Management and Treatment of Urethral Stricture Disease.

    PubMed

    Osterberg, E Charles; Murphy, Gregory; Harris, Catherine R; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2017-02-01

    Following failed endoscopic intervention, the most cost-effective strategy for recurrent urethral stricture disease (USD) is urethroplasty. Inpatient hospital costs associated with urethroplasty are driven by patient comorbidities and postoperative complications. Symptom-based surveillance for USD recurrence will reduce unnecessary diagnostic procedures and cost.

  16. Penile inversion through a penoscrotal incision for the treatment of penile urethral strictures

    PubMed Central

    Tracey, James M; Zhumkhawala, Ali A; Chan, Kevin G.; Lau, Clayton S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This article describes a novel technique for the repair of penile urethral strictures and establishes the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of this innovative surgical approach. Materials and Methods Patients with urethral strictures underwent a one-sided anterior dorsal oral mucosal graft urethroplasty through a penoscrotal inversion technique. The clinical outcome was considered a failure when any instrumentation was needed postoperatively, including dilatation. Results Five patients underwent the novel procedure. The patients' mean age was 58 years. The cause of stricture was instrumentation in 2 cases (40%), lichen sclerosis in 1 case (20%), and failed hypospadias repair in 2 cases (40%). The mean stricture length was 3 cm. The overall mean (range) follow-up was 6 months (range, 3–9 months). Of the 5 patients, 4 (80%) had a successful outcome and 1 (20%) had a failed outcome. The failure was successfully treated by use of a meatotomy. Conclusions The penile inversion technique through a penoscrotal incision is a viable option for the management of penile urethral strictures with several advantages to other techniques: namely, no penile skin incision, a single-stage operation, and supine positioning. PMID:26981596

  17. Unusual Giant Prostatic Urethral Calculus

    PubMed Central

    Bello, A.; Maitama, H. Y.; Mbibu, N. H.; Kalayi, G. D.; Ahmed, A.

    2010-01-01

    Giant vesico-prostatic urethral calculus is uncommon. Urethral stones rarely form primarily in the urethra, and they are usually associated with urethral strictures, posterior urethral valve or diverticula. We report a case of a 32-year-old man with giant vesico-prostatic (collar-stud) urethral stone presenting with sepsis and bladder outlet obstruction. The clinical presentation, management, and outcome of the giant prostatic urethral calculus are reviewed. PMID:22091328

  18. Surgical tips and tricks during urethroplasty for bulbar urethral strictures focusing on accurate localisation of the stricture: results from a tertiary centre.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Tricia L C; Venugopal, Suresh; Inman, Richard D; Chapple, Christopher R

    2015-04-01

    There are several techniques for characterising and localising an anterior urethral stricture, such as preoperative retrograde urethrography, ultrasonography, and endoscopy. However, these techniques have some limitations. The final determinant is intraoperative assessment, as this yields the most information and defines what surgical procedure is undertaken. We present our intraoperative approach for localising and operating on a urethral stricture, with assessment of outcomes. A retrospective review of urethral strictures operated was carried out. All patients had a bulbar or bulbomembranous urethroplasty. All patients were referred to a tertiary centre and operated on by two urethral reconstructive surgeons. Intraoperative identification of the stricture was performed by cystoscopy. The location of the stricture is demonstrated externally on the urethra by external transillumination of the urethra and comparison with the endoscopic picture. This is combined with accurate placement of a suture through the urethra, at the distal extremity of the stricture, verified precisely by endoscopy. Clinical data were collected in a dedicated database. Intraoperative details and postoperative follow-up data for each patient were recorded and analysed. A descriptive data analysis was performed. A representative group of 35 male patients who had surgery for bulbar stricture was randomly selected from January 2010 to December 2013. Mean follow-up was 13.8 mo (range 2-43 mo). Mean age was 46.5 yr (range 17-70 yr). Three patients had undergone previous urethroplasty and 26 patients had previous urethrotomy or dilatation. All patients had preoperative retrograde urethrography and most (85.7%) had endoscopic assessment. The majority of patients (48.6%) had a stricture length of >2-7 cm and 45.7% of patients required a buccal mucosa graft. There were no intraoperative complications. Postoperatively, two patients had a urinary tract infection. All patients were assessed

  19. ‘Real-time sonoelastography’ in anterior urethral strictures: A novel technique for assessment of spongiofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sher Singh; Tomar, Vinay; Agarwal, Neeraj; Jaipal, Usha; Priyadarshi, Shivam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Spongiofibrosis assessment is critically important in the evaluation of anterior urethral strictures as its severity is directly proportional to stricture recurrence and thus affects management. Retrograde urethrography (RGU) is ineffective in the evaluation of spongiofibrosis. Sonourethrography (SUG) delineates it but does not accurately estimate its depth. Real-time elastography (RTE), a newer technique that not only attempts a qualitative but also quantitative estimation of spongiofibrosis (tissue stiffness) which results due to underlying pathological processes. Material and methods In the present study, various elastographic patterns and strain ratios in anterior urethral stricture patients were studied and compared to operative and histopathological findings. Sixty-three RGU diagnosed anterior urethral stricture cases were taken and re-evaluated by SUG and SE by another radiologist who was blinded to the findings of the RGU. Strain patterns and ratios of spongiofibrotic segments were documented and compared with operative findings as gold standard. Results Blue pattern on RTE showed 100% concordance with severe fibrosis as evaluated against histopathological findings whereas green pattern showed 87.5% concordance with moderate degree of fibrosis. Severe degree of fibrosis cases, confirmed on histopathology had a significantly higher mean strain ratio (10.51 ±2.297) as compared to moderate degree (6.33 ±2.353) (p <0.001 S). Conclusions Real time sonoelastography in the evaluation of spongiofibrosis not only assesses it qualitatively but also quantifies it. Strain ratios are statistically better indicators for estimating spongiofibrosis. PMID:28127461

  20. Early Experience with Hyaluronic Acid Instillation to Assist with Visual Internal Urethrotomy for Urethral Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hak Min; Kang, Dong Il; Shim, Bong Suk

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The clinical usefulness of hyaluronic acid (HA) instillation during visual internal urethrotomy (VIU) for decreasing the incidence of recurrent urethral stricture was assessed. Materials and Methods Twenty-eight patients were treated by VIU with HA instillation between May 2007 and June 2009. After insertion of a Foley catheter following urethrotomy, HA was instilled via an 18-gauge tube catheter between the urethral lumen and Foley catheter. Seventeen cases were analyzed retrospectively 12 months postoperatively. We evaluated the success rate of this procedure by comparing retrograde urethrography (RGU) results, maximum flow rates, and postvoid residual urine volumes preoperatively and 3 and 12 months postoperatively. Success was defined as either a maximum flow rate of at least 15 ml/s or no visible urethral stricture on RGU at 12 months postoperatively. Results Total success rates were 76.5% (13/17) and 52.9% (9/17) at 3 and 12 months postoperatively, respectively. By etiology, success rates at 3 and 12 months postoperatively, respectively, were 66.7% and 33.3% for inflammation, 66.7% and 50.0% for trauma, and 83.3% and 66.7% for unknown causes. Success rates were 63.6% for strictures less than 10 mm in length and 33.3% for strictures of 10 mm or more in length at 12 months postoperatively. Success rates were 61.5% for single strictures and 25% for multiple strictures at 12 months postoperatively. Conclusions The success rate of VIU with HA instillation was not better than that observed in the literature for conventional VIU. PMID:21221206

  1. Urethroplasty by superficial membranous fascia for long urethral strictures: a new approach.

    PubMed

    Onu, P E

    1997-01-01

    36 patients has single-stage repair of severe bulbar urethral strictures using a superficial membranous fascia tubed flap. The length of follow-up varied from 9 months to 2 years (mean 15 months). Recurrence occurred in 1 case. Urodynamic studies in 35 cases before and after urethroplasty showed a marked improvement in urinary flow and voiding postoperatively. This procedure is safe, simple, economically preferable and has a no higher risk than other 1- and 2-stage procedures.

  2. Characteristics of Idiopathic Urethral Strictures: A Link to Remote Perineal Trauma?

    PubMed

    Viers, Boyd R; Pagliara, Travis J; Rew, Charles A; Folgosa Cooley, Lauren; Shiang, Christine Y; Scott, Jeremy M; Morey, Allen F

    2017-07-26

    To characterize the physical features and reconstructive outcomes of a series of idiopathic urethral strictures (IUS) in an effort to elucidate the nature of this common yet poorly understood entity. We retrospectively reviewed our urethroplasty database to identify men undergoing initial urethral reconstruction from 2007 to 2014 at 1 of 3 hospitals (N = 514). Patients were stratified by stricture etiology, including IUS, acute trauma, iatrogenic, hypospadias, balanitis xerotica obliterans, and radiation. IUS that had a known history of subacute or repetitive blunt force to the perineum (horseback riding, avid cycling, motocross, etc.) were subclassified as subacute or repetitive perineal trauma (SRPT). Among 466 men undergoing initial reconstruction with available data, 215 (46%) were IUS cases. The median delay between IUS diagnosis and urethroplasty was 5.2 years, during which time men underwent a median of 2 endoscopic treatments. A total of 51 (24%) IUS cases recalled a distinct history of SRPT. Men with SRPT were slightly younger (median 43 vs 48 years, P = .01) but were remarkably similar in terms of urethral stricture length (2 vs 2 cm, P = .15), location (bulbar 96% vs 89%, P = .41), and treatment success (92% vs 88%; P = .61). Bulbar (-)SRPT and (+)SRPT IUS had similar clinical and morphometric features as those with known acute bulbar trauma with excellent 24-month stricture recurrence-free survival rates (93% vs 92% vs 97%, P = .19). IUS have clinical features suggesting that many may be related to unrecognized or repetitive perineal trauma. Although treatment tends to be delayed, IUS have excellent urethroplasty success because most are short bulbar strictures amenable to anastomotic urethroplasty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The current role of direct vision internal urethrotomy and self-catheterization for anterior urethral strictures.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Deepak

    2011-07-01

    Direct visual internal urethrotomy (DVIU) followed by intermittent self-dilatation (ISD) is the most commonly performed intervention for urethral stricture disease. The objective of this paper is to outline the current scientific evidence supporting this approach for its use in the management of anterior urethral strictures. A Pubmed database search was performed with the words "internal urethrotomy" and "internal urethrotomy" self-catheterization. All papers dealing with this subject were scrutinized. Cross-references from the retrieved articles were also viewed. Only English language articles were included in the analyses. Studies were analyzed to identify predictors for success for DVIU. Initial studies showed excellent outcomes with DVIU with success rates ranging from 50% to 85%. However, these studies reported only short-term results. Recent studies with longer followup have shown a poor success rate ranging from 6% to 28%. Stricture length and degree of fibrosis (luminal narrowing) were found to be predictors of response. Repeated urethrotomies were associated with poor results. Studies involving intermittent self-catheterization following DVIU have shown no role in short-term ISD with one study reporting beneficial effects if continued for more than a year. A significant number of studies have shown long-term complications with SC and high dropout rates. DVIU is associated with poor long-term cure rates. It remains as a treatment of first choice for bulbar urethral strictures <1 cm with minimal spongiofibrosis. There is no role for repeated urethrotomy as outcomes are uniformly poor. ISD, when used for more than a year on a weekly or biweekly basis may delay the onset of stricture recurrence.

  4. Using transurethral Ho:YAG-laser resection to treat urethral stricture and bladder neck contracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Juanjie; Dai, Shengguo; Huang, Xuyuan; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Huiguo; Shi, Hongmin

    2005-07-01

    Objective: Ho:YAG laser had been used to treat the common diseases of urinary system such as bladder cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia in our hospital. This study is to assess the efficacy and safety of transurethral Ho:YAG-laser resection to treat the urethral stricture and bladder neck contracture. Methods: From May 1997 to August 2004, 26 cases of urethral stricture and 33 cases of bladder neck contracture were treated by transurethral Ho:YAG-laser resection. These patients were followed up at regular intervals after operation. The uroflow rate of these patients was detected before and one-month after operation. The blood loss and the energy consumption of holmium-laser during the operation as well as the complications and curative effect after operation were observed. Results: The therapeutic effects were considered successful, with less bleeding and no severe complications. The Qmax of one month postoperation increased obviously than that of preoperation. Of the 59 cases, restenosis appeared in 11 cases (19%) with the symptoms of dysuria and weak urinary stream in 3-24 months respectively. Conclusions: The Ho:YAG-laser demonstrated good effect to treat the obstructive diseases of lower urinary tract such as urethral stricture and bladder neck contracture. It was safe, minimal invasive and easy to operate.

  5. [Recanalization of urethral strictures using a temporary curved biocompatible new generation metal endoprosthesis

    PubMed

    Marković, Z; Marković, B; Tulić, C; Hadzi-Djokić, J; Stojanović, V; Saranović, Dj; Masulović, D; Miljković, S

    2007-01-01

    The male urethral stricture treatment is actual clinical issue with its resolution being increasingly frequently based on application of minimum invasive therapeutic interventional uroradiology methods. Since the methodology is applied over the last two decades, the most reasonable therapeutic algorithm has not been defined yet with respect to the correlation with the contemporary surgical treatment. The results of application of the temporary covered self-expandable nitinol Allium stents, which have been applied for the first time ever at our Institution in October 2003. Over the last 3 years, the method was applied in 40 males, averagely aged 54 years with urethral strictures previously treated by urological methods. In four cases, stent placement was performed after endourethral incision. The most common etiology of the stricture was the posttraumatic (55%), post-inflammatory (32%) and iatrogenic (10%). In all the cases, stents were removed 12-14 months after their insertions. The results are evaluated using uroflowmetry and urethrocystography, revealing in 85% of the cases permanent recanalization free of dysuric complaints. Development of a stricture on the anterior stent end was evidenced in 15% of the cases.

  6. Treatment for long bulbar urethral strictures with membranous involvement using urethroplasty with oral mucosa graft.

    PubMed

    Gimbernat, H; Arance, I; Redondo, C; Meilán, E; Andrés, G; Angulo, J C

    2014-10-01

    Urethroplasty with oral mucosa grafting is the most popular technique for treating nontraumatic bulbar urethral strictures; however, cases involving the membranous portion are usually treated using progressive perineal anastomotic urethroplasty. We assessed the feasibility of performing dorsal (or ventral) graft urethroplasty on bulbar urethral strictures with mainly membranous involvement using a modified Barbagli technique. This was a prospective study of 14 patients with bulbomembranous urethral strictures who underwent dilation urethroplasty with oral mucosa graft between 2005 and 2013, performed using a modified technique Barbagli, with proximal anchoring of the graft and securing of the graft to the tunica cavernosa in 12 cases (85.7%) and ventrally in 2 (14.3%). The minimum follow-up time was 1 year. We evaluated the subjective (patient satisfaction) and objective (maximum flow [Qmax] and postvoid residual volume [PVRV], preoperative and postoperative) results and complications. Failure was defined as the need for any postoperative instrumentation. A total of 14 patients (median age, 64+13 years) underwent surgery. The main antecedent of note was transurethral resection of the prostate in 9 cases (64.3%). The median length of the stenosis was 45+26.5mm. Prior to surgery, 50% of the patients had been subjected to dilatations and 4% to endoscopic urethrotomy. The mean surgical time and hospital stay were was 177+76min and 1.5+1 day, respectively. The preoperative Qmax and PVRV values were 4.5+4.45mL/sec and 212.5+130 cc, respectively. The postoperative values were 15.15+7.2mL/sec and 6+21.5cc, respectively (P<.01 for both comparisons). Surgery was successful in 13 cases (92.9%). None of the patients had major complications. There were minor complications in 1 (7.1%) patient, but reintervention was no required. The repair of long bulbar urethral strictures with membranous involvement using urethroplasty with free oral mucosa grafts represents a viable

  7. Posterior urethral valves and adult sexual function.

    PubMed

    Taskinen, Seppo; Heikkilä, Jukka; Santtila, Pekka; Rintala, Risto

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate sexual function and fertility in adult patients treated for posterior urethral valves (PUV) in childhood and to compare these patients with the normal population. To examine if patient characteristics such as chronic renal failure (CRF), history of cryptorchidism and bladder neck incision in childhood have an impact on sexual function. Information on sexual function was assessed using questions from the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). In addition, the patients were asked if they had had children or been treated for CRF. Out of 108 adult patients with PUV, 67 (62%) returned the questionnaires. Sexual function in these patients was compared with 201 controls and paternity rates were compared with a national database. The mean (sd) age of the patients and controls was 38 (9) and 38 (7) years, respectively. Six percent of the patients and 9% of the controls reported problems in achieving erection during sexual stimulation and 9% of the patients and 10% of the controls reported problems with the hardness of erection (P = nonsignificant). Ejaculation was absent in 1/61 sexually active patients (2%). The only significant risk factor in patients for erectile dysfunction (ED) was increasing age. Thirty-three (49%) of all 67 patients and four (57%) of the seven patients with kidney transplantation had had children. The paternity rates were similar to those in corresponding age groups of the general Finnish population. Eight patients (12%) had attempted to have children without success. Men treated for PUV have a similar prevalence of ED and similar paternity rates to men without PUV. Erectile function and paternity rates can be satisfactory in spite of CRF. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  8. Posterior urethral valves: long-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Caione, Paolo; Nappo, Simona Gerocarni

    2011-10-01

    Posterior urethral valves represent the most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in infancy that impairs renal and bladder function. Long-term outcome of patients with previous PUV is evaluated. Patients over 18 years of age, treated from 1982 to 1995 before the age of 3 years were considered. Previous surgery, renal function, bladder activity, urinary incontinence, and fertility/sexual activity were evaluated. Clinical interview, creatinine clearance, uroflowmetry with ultrasound post-void urine residue, and self-administered questionnaire were recorded. Out of 45 identified records, 24 patients (53.3%) accepted to be enrolled (age 18-34 years, mean 23 years). The mean follow-up was 19.5 years (16-30 years). Out of the 21 excluded patients, 20 did not reply to the clinical interview and 1 died at age of 6 years. All the 24 patients had early endoscopic section of PUV; nine also received transient ureterocutaneostomy or vesicostomy. Ureteroneocystostomy was performed in five patients and ureterocystoplasty with unilateral nephrectomy in two. At follow-up chronic renal failure was detected in 13 patients (54.1%) and 9 (37.5%) had arterial hypertension. End-stage renal disease developed in five patients (20.8%): three had successful renal transplantation and two were in dialysis. Lower urinary tract symptoms were present in seven patients (29.1%). No significant fertility deficit and sexual dysfunction were observed in 23 patients, while 1 patient was azoospermic. No paternity was reported so far. Long-term outcome of patients with previously treated PUV is mandatory. Kidney, bladder, and sexual functions should be monitored till adulthood to verify any modified behaviour.

  9. Incidence of Urethral Stricture in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury Treated With Clean Intermittent Self-Catheterization.

    PubMed

    Cornejo-Dávila, Victor; Durán-Ortiz, Sergio; Pacheco-Gahbler, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    To report the incidence of urethral stricture and its management in patients with spinal cord injury treated with clean intermittent self-catheterization (CIC). The clinical records of 333 patients with spinal cord injury treated with CIC since 2001 were identified, and those who developed a urethral stricture during their follow-up, including their treatment and results achieved, were analyzed. The patients had a median age at the time of injury of 27 years, of which only 14 patients (4.2%) developed urethral stricture at a mean duration of self-catheterization of 9 years; 86% of them were treated with urethrotomy, without recurrence through a mean of 1-year follow-up. There are no previous reports of rates of urethral stricture in this type of patients in our institution; the rate found is considerably low, as is the recurrence after urethrotomy, which can be decreased by the continuous self-obturation achieved with catheterization. Urethral stricture as a complication of CIC in patients with spinal cord injury has a low incidence and can be effectively treated in those who develop it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Urethral stricture secondary to self-instrumentation due to delusional parasitosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Muhammad Fahmi; Cassidy, Eugene M

    2015-09-15

    Delusional parasitosis is a rare psychiatric disorder which often presents with dermatological problems. Delusional parasitosis, which involves urethral self-instrumentation and foreign body insertion, is exceptionally rare. This is the first case report to date that provides a detailed presentation of the urological manifestation of delusional parasitosis with complications associated with repeated self-instrumentation and foreign body insertion, resulting in stricture formation and requiring perineal urethrostomy. A 45-year-old Irish man was electively admitted for perineal urethrostomy with chronic symptoms of dysuria, haematuria, urethral discharge, and intermittent urinary retention. He reported a 4-year history of intermittent pain, pin-prick biting sensations, and burrowing sensations, and held the belief that his urethra was infested with ticks. He also reported a 2-year history of daily self-instrumentation, mainly injecting an antiseptic using a syringe in an attempt to eliminate the ticks. He was found to have urethral strictures secondary to repeated self-instrumentation. A foreign body was found in his urethra and was removed via cystoscopy. On psychiatric assessment, he displayed a fixed delusion of tick infestation and threatened to surgically remove the tick himself if no intervention was performed. The surgery was postponed due his mental state and he was started on risperidone; he was later transferred to an acute in-patient psychiatric unit. Following a 3-week admission, he reported improvement in his thoughts and distress. Delusional parasitosis is a rare psychiatric disorder. Self-inflicted urethral foreign bodies in males are rare and have high comorbidity with psychiatric disorders; hence, these patients have a low threshold for referral for psychiatric assessment. The mainstay treatment for delusional parasitosis is second-generation antipsychotic drugs.

  11. Application of novel optical diffuser for urethral stricture treatment (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Trung Hau; Rhee, Yun-Hee; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2016-02-01

    Optical fibers have frequently been used for photothermal laser therapy due to its efficiency to deliver laser energy directly to tissue. The aim of the current study was to develop a diffusing optical fiber to achieve radially uniform light irradiation for endoscopically treating urethral stricture. The optical diffuser was fabricated by micro-machining helical patterns on the fiber surface using CO2 laser light at 5 W. Visible light emission (632 nm) and spatial emissions (including polar, azimuthal, and longitudinal emissions) of the fiber tip were evaluated to validate the performance of the fabricated diffuser. Prior to tissue tests, numerical simulation on heat distribution was developed to estimate the degree of tissue coagulation depth during interstitial coagulation. Due to a high absorption coefficient by tissue water, 1470 nm laser was used for photothermal therapy treatment of urethral stricture to obtain a more precise depth profile. For in vitro tissue tests, porcine liver tissue was irradiated with three different power levels (3, 6, and 9 W) at various irradiation times. Porcine urethral tissue was also tested with the diffuser for 10 sec at 6 W to validate the feasibility of circumferential photothermal treatment. The treated tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and then imaged with an optical transmission microscope. The spatial emission characteristics of the diffusing optical fiber presented an almost uniform power distribution along the diffuser tip (less than 10% deviation) and around its circumference (less than 5% deviation). The peak temperature in simulation model at the tissue interface between the glass-cap and the tissue was 373 K that was higher than that at the distal end. The tissue tests showed that higher power levels resulted in lower coagulation thresholds (e.g., 1 sec at 9 W vs 8 sec at 3 W). Furthermore, the coagulation depth was approximately 20% thinner than the simulation results (p<0.001). The extent of

  12. Bilateral epididymitis in a child with undiagnosed posterior urethral valves.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Justin; Lorenzo, Armando J; DeMaria, Jorge; Braga, Luis H P

    2013-07-01

    Posterior urethral valves are most commonly detected in the early neonatal period, the diagnosis often antenatally suspected from ultrasound findings. Nevertheless, some cases might go undetected and become manifest later in life with lower urinary tract symptoms. We describe the unusual case of a 5-year-old boy with a 2-month history of bladder distension, urinary dribbling, and epididymitis. Cystourethrography revealed posterior urethral valves with reflux into the seminal vesicles, vas deferens, and epididymis, bilaterally. A review of the published data is provided in the context of this unusual presentation pattern.

  13. Update in urethral stents.

    PubMed

    Bahouth, Z; Meyer, G; Yildiz, G; Nativ, O; Moskovitz, B

    2016-10-01

    Urethral stents were first introduced in 1988, and since then, they have undergone significant improvements. However, they did not gain a wide popularity and their use is limited to a small number of centers around the world. Urethral stents can be used in the entire urethra and for various and diverse indications. In the anterior urethra, it can be used to treat urethral strictures. In the prostatic urethra, they can be used for the treatment of prostatic obstruction, including benign, malignant and iatrogenic prostatic obstruction. Moreover, although not widely used, it can be also applied for the treatment of posterior urethral stricture and bladder neck contracture, usually resulting in urinary incontinence and the need for subsequent procedures. Our main experience are with Allium urethral stents, and as such, we provide the latest updates in urethral stents with special emphasis on the various types of Allium urethral stents: bulbar, prostatic and bladder neck stents.

  14. Memokath Stent Failure in Recurrent Bulbar Urethral Strictures: Results From an Investigative Pilot Stage 2A Study.

    PubMed

    Barbagli, Guido; Rimondi, Claudio; Balò, Sofia; Butnaru, Denis; Sansalone, Salvatore; Lazzeri, Massimo

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of the Memokath stent in managing recurrent bulbar urethral strictures. This is an investigative pilot stage 2A study in patients with a recurrent bulbar urethral stricture who underwent a Memokath stent implant from January 2014 to January 2016 in a single high-volume center for urethral reconstruction. The Memokath stent (Pnn Medical A/S, Kvistgaard, Denmark) was manufactured from nitinol, a biocompatible alloy of nickel and titanium, which was endoscopically placed. It had a 24-Fr outside diameter and was preloaded on a disposable delivery device. When correctly positioned, the stent was anchored by a warm water (55°C) instillation, which expanded the proximal end of the stent from 24 to 42 Fr .The stent was provided in lengths of 3-7 cm in 1-cm increments. Sixteen patients were included in the study. The median follow-up was 16 months. In 7 patients (43.7%), the stent was removed within 1 year. The main adverse events were pain, encrustations, stones, and recurrent strictures. Four patients (25%) were considered a success and 12 (75%) were failures. Study limitations include the small sample. The Memokath stent was deemed to be not clinically helpful and had significant side effects, and therefore should not be considered a treatment option for men with bulbar urethral strictures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of holmium laser versus cold knife in optical internal urethrotomy for the management of short segment urethral stricture

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Kaza, Ram Chandra Murthy; Singh, Bipin Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Sachse cold knife is conventionally used for optical internal urethrotomy intended to manage urethral strictures and Ho: YAG laser is an alternative to it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of urethral stricture treatment outcomes, efficacy, and complications using cold knife and Ho: YAG (Holmium laser) for optical internal urethrotomy Materials and Methods: In this prospective study included, 90 male patients age >18 years, with diagnosis of urethral stricture admitted for internal optical urethrotomy during April 2010 to March 2012. The patients were randomized into two groups containing 45 patients each using computer generated random number. In group A (Holmium group), internal urethrotomy was done with Holmium laser and in group B (Cold knife group) Sachse cold knife was used. Patients were followed up for 6 months after surgery in Out Patient Department on 15, 30 and 180 post-operative days. At each follow up visit physical examination, and uroflowmetry was performed along with noting complaints, if any. Results: The peak flow rates (PFR) were compared between the two groups on each follow up. At 180 days (6 month interval) the difference between mean of PFR for Holmium and Cold knife group was statistically highly significant (P < 0.001). Complications were seen in 12.22% of cases. Conclusion: Both modalities are effective in providing immediate relief to patients with single and short segment (<2 cm long) urethral strictures but more sustained response was attained with Cold knife urethrotomy. PMID:25371611

  16. Nontransected ventral onlay-augmented urethroplasty using autologous saphenous vein graft in a rabbit model of urethral stricture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Hyun Tae; Kwon, Se Yun; Chun, So Young; Choi, Kyung Hee; Park, Min; Kim, Dae Hwan; Song, Phil Hyun; Kwon, Tae Gyun

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of nontransected ventral onlay-augmented urethroplasty using an autologous saphenous vein graft in a rabbit model of urethral stricture. Ten white male rabbits weighing 3.0-3.5 kg were selected, and a long tract urethral stricture was generated by excising an 0.8-cm wide and 2-cm long portion of the distal urethra. One month after the procedure, the rabbits were randomized into a urethral stricture group (n = 5) or urethroplasty with saphenous vein graft group (n = 5). Another 5 rabbits served as a normal control group. Retrograde urethrography was performed at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery in all groups, and the rabbits were killed at 12 weeks postoperatively for histopathologic and immunohistochemical evaluation. The mean operated urethral width of the normal, stricture, and vein graft group was 10.2 ± 0.84, 4.3 ± 0.97, and 10.04 ± 2.35 mm at 2 weeks postoperatively, respectively (P = .008). The 4-, 8-, and 12-week postoperative urethrograms revealed results similar to those of the 2-week postoperative urethrograms. Histologic analysis showed the neourethra was epithelialized with urothelium in the vein graft group. All the rabbits survived throughout the study period without fistula formation or infection. Nontransected ventral onlay-augmented urethroplasty using an autologous saphenous vein graft can be an effective and feasible procedure for the surgical management of long tract urethral stricture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Urethroplasty with buccal mucosa graft or penile skin graft for anterior urethral stricture?].

    PubMed

    Rojas, Alejandro; Saavedra, Alvaro

    2015-06-04

    Currently the treatment for urethral stricture considers various techniques, including augmentation urethroplasty using tissue from different parts of the body. The more used are the buccal mucosa and penile skin, but are there any differences in success between both tissues? Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified one systematic review including 18 primary studies addressing this question, six of them prospective. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded there is uncertainty about the superiority of one technique over another because the certainty of the evidence is very low. A new systematic review is urgently needed on this topic as randomized studies have been published after the most recent review, which could provide greater certainty.

  18. Urethral Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or injury. They include Urethral cancer - a rare cancer that happens more often in men Urethral stricture - a narrowing of the opening of the urethra Urethritis - inflammation of the urethra, sometimes caused by ...

  19. Congenital posterior urethral obstruction: re-do fulguration.

    PubMed

    Imaji, Reisuke; Dewan, Paddy A

    2002-09-01

    In patients with congenital posterior urethral obstruction, transurethral fulguration (TUF) is usually the treatment of choice if the patient is in a stable condition. However, few papers have described the proportion of patients who need further fulguration. We reviewed 83 boys with a congenital obstructive posterior urethral membrane (COPUM) to assess the role of re-do fulguration, as judged by prospective video recordings. Between December 1990 and March 2000, 83 boys (aged from newborn to 15 years) underwent cystourethroscopy for investigation of a urethral anomaly and were found to have a COPUM. TUF was performed endoscopically with a hook diathermy electrode. Two to 3 months later boys who had cauterisation had a further urethroscopy and diathermy as required. Of the 83 membranous lesions in the posterior urethra, 38 were considered severe, 20 moderate, and 21 minor. Four patients had inadequate data to be properly classified. Eighteen (47.4%) of the 38 patients who had a severe obstructive membrane equired further endoscopic intervention to obliterate residual membrane elements. As over 45% of patients who had a severe obstructing membrane needed further fulguration, it is important to follow patients carefully and to repeat the cystourethroscopy.

  20. A Giant Urethral Calculus.

    PubMed

    Sigdel, G; Agarwal, A; Keshaw, B W

    2014-01-01

    Urethral calculi are rare forms of urolithiasis. Majority of the calculi are migratory from urinary bladder or upper urinary tract. Primary urethral calculi usually occur in presence of urethral stricture or diverticulum. In this article we report a case of a giant posterior urethral calculus measuring 7x3x2 cm in a 47 years old male. Patient presented with acute retention of urine which was preceded by burning micturition and dribbling of urine for one week. The calculus was pushed in to the bladder through the cystoscope and was removed by suprapubic cystolithotomy.

  1. Recurrent traumatic urethral strictures near the external sphincter: treatment with a covered, retrievable, expandable nitinol stent--initial results.

    PubMed

    Song, Ho-Young; Park, Hyungkeun; Suh, Tae-Suk; Ko, Gi-Young; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Kim, Eun-Sang; Park, Taehan

    2003-02-01

    To investigate the clinical effectiveness of a covered, retrievable, expandable nitinol stent in treating traumatic urethral strictures near the external sphincter. The stent was 10 mm in diameter when fully expanded and 40-50 mm long. To make it removable, two nylon drawstrings were attached to its lower inner margin. Twelve consecutive men (19-67 years; mean age, 47 years) with traumatic urethral strictures near the external sphincter that were refractory to endoscopic urethrotomy were treated. With fluoroscopic guidance, a stent was placed to completely bridge the external sphincter. The stent was electively removed with a retrieval hook wire 2 months after placement. Stent placement and removal were successful in all patients, with no procedural complications. Mean maximum urine flow rate was 5 mL/sec (range, 3-7 mL/sec) before stent placement and 27 mL/sec (range, 16-40 mL/sec) at 1 week after placement. During the mean follow-up of 20 months (range, 2-37 months) after the first stent removal, strictures recurred in eight of 12 patients. For the eight patients with recurrence, a second stent was placed and 4 months later was removed from seven of the eight patients. During the mean follow-up of 18 months (range, 4-32 months) after the second stent removal, strictures recurred in two patients, in whom a third stent was placed and then removed 4 months later, with good results. Four (33%) of 12 patients, five (62%) of eight patients, and two (100%) of two patients were successfully treated with placement of the first stent, the second stent, and the third stent, respectively. In the remaining patient, the second stent remains in place. Placement of a covered, retrievable, expandable nitinol stent seems to be effective in treating urethral strictures near the external sphincter and warrants further investigation.

  2. SIU/ICUD Consultation on Urethral Strictures: Anterior urethra-lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Laurence; McCammon, Kurt; Metro, Michael; Virasoro, Ramon

    2014-03-01

    We reviewed the current literature on lichen sclerosus as it related to urethral stricture disease using MEDLINE and PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health) up to the current time. We identified 65 reports, 40 of which were considered relevant and form the basis of this review. Lichen sclerosus is now the accepted term, and balanitis xerotica obliterans is no longer acceptable. This common chronic inflammatory skin condition, mainly affecting the genitalia, remains an enigma, with uncertain etiology, varied presentation, and multiple treatments. In the early stages of the condition, a short course of steroids may be beneficial for some patients. If persistent, patients need long-term surveillance because of the potential development of squamous cell carcinoma. If diagnosed early, lichen sclerosus can be controlled, preventing progression. But once the disease has progressed, it is very difficult to treat. Surgical treatment by circumcision can be curative if the disease is treated early when still localized. Once progression to urethral involvement has occurred, treatment is much more difficult. Meatal stenosis alone is likely to require meatotomy or meatoplasty. Treatment of the involved urethra requires urethroplasty. Single-stage and multiple-stage procedures using oral mucosa have both been reported to give acceptable results, but the use of skin, genital or nongenital, is not recommended, because being skin, it remains prone to lichen sclerosus. With extensive disease, affecting the full length of the urethra, consideration should be given to perineal urethrostomy. A significant number of patients may prefer this simpler option.

  3. A simplified protocol for evaluating and monitoring urethral stricture patients minimizes cost without compromising patient outcome.

    PubMed

    Okorie, Chukwudi O; Pisters, Louis L; Ndasi, Henry T; Fekadu, Arega

    2010-07-01

    Uroflowmetry, urethrocystoscopy and urethrography are either not readily available or the cost is prohibitive for many patients in low-resource countries. This paper examines the use of clinical history in post-urethroplasty follow-up. We retrospectively reviewed the outcome of 54 post-urethroplasty patients. Preoperative diagnostic work-up included simple blood tests and a retrograde urethrography, and postoperatively we did not perform any immediate diagnostic work-up. Follow-up of these patients was done through mobile phone calls and personal contacts. Eighty-nine per cent of our patients reported acceptable voiding over a mean follow-up period of 48.4 months - 79.6% were followed using mobile phone contact. In the majority of the urethral strictures cases, diagnostic work up can be kept to a minimum, thereby reducing cost. Follow-up can be done via phone calls and personal contact in many African countries where compliance is frequently less than encouraging. The spread of mobile phone networks across the continent has been remarkable.

  4. Low-power holmium:YAG laser urethrotomy for treatment of urethral strictures: functional outcome and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Stefan; Knoll, Thomas; Osman, Mahmoud M; Köhrmann, Kai Uwe; Michel, Maurice S; Alken, Peter

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of endourethrotomy with the holmium:YAG laser as a minimally invasive treatment for urethral stricture. Between January 2002 and January 2004, 32 male patients with symptomatic urethral strictures (8 bulbar, 9 penile, 9 combined) were treated with Ho:YAG-laser urethrotomy in our department. The stricture was iatrogenic in 60% (N = 18), inflammatory in 16.6% (N = 5), traumatic in 13.3% (N = 4), and idiopathic in 7% (N = 3). The stricture was incised under vision at the 12 o'clock location or the site of maximum scar tissue or narrowing in asymmetric strictures. Laser energy was set on 1200 to 1400 mJ with a frequency of 10 to 13 Hz. Postoperatively, drainage of the bladder was performed for 4 days using a 18F silicone catheter. Triamcinolone was instilled intraurethrally after removal of the catheter in all patients. Patients were followed up by mailed questionnaire, including International Prostate Symptom Score and quality of life. Retrograde endoscopic Ho:YAG laser urethrotomy could be performed in all 32 patients. Most patients (22; 68.7%) did not need any reintervention. Ten patients developed recurrent strictures that were treated by another laser urethrotomy in 4 patients (12.5%), while 6 patients (18.7%) needed open urethroplasty with buccal mucosa. Including 2 patients treated with repeat laser urethrotomy, 24 patients (75%) were considered successful after a mean follow-up of 27 months (range 13-38 months). No intraoperative complications were encountered, although in 5% of patients, a urinary-tract infection was diagnosed postoperatively. No gross hematuria occurred. The Ho:YAG laser urethrotomy is a safe and effective minimally invasive therapeutic modality for urethral stricture with results comparable to those of conventional urethrotomy. Further data from long-time follow-up are necessary to compare the success rate with that of conventional urethrotomy and urethroplasty. Nevertheless, the Ho:YAG laser urethrotomy might at

  5. Diversity of patient profile, urethral stricture, and other disease manifestations in a cohort of adult men with lichen sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Peter Stanford; Yi, Yooni; Hadj-Moussa, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lichen sclerosus (LS) in men is poorly understood. Though uncommon, it is often severe and leads to repeated surgical interventions and deterioration in quality of life. We highlight variability in disease presentation, diagnosis, and patient factors in male LS patients evaluated at a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed charts of male patients presenting to our reconstructive urology clinic with clinical or pathologic diagnosis of LS between 2004 and 2014. Relevant clinical and demographic information was abstracted and descriptive statistics calculated. Subgroup comparisons were made based on body mass index (BMI), urethral stricture, and pathologic confirmation of disease. Results We identified 94 patients with clinical diagnosis of LS. Seventy percent (70%) of patients in this cohort had BMI >30 kg/m2, and average age was 51.5 years. Lower BMI patients were more likely to suffer from urethral stricture disease compared to overweight counterparts (p=0.037). Patients presenting with stricture disease were more likely to be younger (p=0.003). Thirty percent (30%) of this cohort had a pathologic diagnosis of LS. Conclusions Urethral stricture is the most common presentation for men with LS. Many patients endure skin scarring and have numerous comorbidities. Patient profile is diverse, raising the concern that not all patients with clinical diagnosis of LS are suffering from identical disease processes. The rate of pathologic confirmation at a tertiary care institution is alarmingly low. Our findings support a role for increased focus on pathologic confirmation and further delineation of the subtype of disease based on location and clinical manifestations. PMID:27195319

  6. Vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture: A novel modification of surgical technique

    PubMed Central

    Gani, Johan; Chee, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To present a novel modification of surgical technique to treat female urethral stricture (FUS) by a vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal urethroplasty. Recurrent FUS represents an uncommon, though difficult clinical scenario to manage definitively. A variety of surgical techniques have been described to date, yet a lack of consensus on the optimal procedure persists. Materials and Methods We present a 51-year-old female with urethral stricture involving the entire urethra. Suspected etiology was iatrogenic from cystoscopy 17 years prior. Since then, the patient had undergone at least 25 formal urethral dilations and periods of self-dilation. In lithotomy position, the urethra was dilated to accommodate forceps, and ventral urethrotomy carried out sharply, exposing a bed of periurethral tissue. Buccal mucosa was harvested, and a ventral inlay technique facilitated by a nasal speculum, was used to place the graft from the proximal urethra/bladder neck to urethral meatus without a vaginal incision. Graft was sutured into place, and urethral Foley catheter inserted. Results The vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty was deemed successful as of last follow-up. Flexible cystoscopy demonstrated patency of the repair at 6 months. At 10 months of follow-up, the patient was voiding well, with no urinary incontinence. No further interventions have been required. Conclusions This case describes a novel modification of surgical technique for performing buccal mucosal urethroplasty for FUS. By avoiding incision of the vaginal mucosa, benefits may include reduced: morbidity, urinary incontinence, and wound complications including urethro-vaginal fistula. PMID:27437540

  7. A comparative study of lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty with buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty in urethral stricture disease: An institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Gupta, Depak Kumar; Ghosh, Bastab; Bera, Malay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aims: A prospective study to compare the outcomes of lingual versus buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty in patients with long segment anterior urethral strictures disease. Materials and Methods: The study included 30 patients for buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty (group I) and 30 patients for lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty (group II) for treatment of long segment (>3 cm) incomplete anterior urethral stricture disease using single-stage dorsal onlay free oral mucosal graft urethroplasty by Barbagli's technique between February 2013 to September 2014. All patients underwent complete evaluation of the stricture including inspection of the oral cavity. Results: The results of urethroplasty in between two group were not significant (P > 0.05) in terms of Qmax (P = 0.63), mean postoperative AUA symptom score (P = 0.83), operative time (P = 0.302) intra operative blood loss (P = 0.708), duration of postoperative hospitalization (P = 0.83), but slurring of speech complications was seen in group II, but not in group I. Long-term complications of salivary disturbance, tightness of the mouth, persistent pain at graft site, perioral numbness, seen only in group I (BMGU). Conclusion: LMG urethroplasty is an excellent alternative to BMG urethroplasty with comparable results of urethroplasty and minimal donor site complications. PMID:27141184

  8. Treatment of Urethral/Bladder Neck Stricture After High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Prostate Cancer With Holmium: Yttrium-Aluminium-Garnet Laser

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won Jin; Kim, Tae Heon; Lee, Hyo Serk; Chung, Jin Woo; Lee, Ha Na

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Holmium: yttrium-aluminium-garnet (YAG) laser for the treatment of urethral/bladder neck strictures after high-intensity focused ultrasound for prostate cancer. Methods Between February 2007 and July 2010, Holmium: YAG laser urethrotomies were performed in eleven patients for bladder neck strictures or prostatic urethral strictures. The laser was used with a 550-µm fiber at 2 J and frequency 30 to 50 Hz. The medical records were retrospectively reviewed for medical history, perioperative and postoperative data, uroflowmetry, International Prostate Symptoms Score/quality of life, and stricture recurrence. Results At a median follow-up of 12.0 months (range, 4 to 35 months), the mean postoperative maximal flow rate and residual volume were improved significantly (P<0.05). The mean postoperative total, voiding and quality of life of international prostate symptom score were improved significantly (P<0.05). Of the 11 patients, 7 patients required one treatment, 4 patients two treatment, and 1 patients three treatment. 2 patients who had a documented urinary incontinence prior to the laser treatment subsequently required artificial urinary sphincter implantation and reported satisfaction without developing any recurrent strictures or artificial urinary sphincter erosion. All patients exhibited well-healed strictures and could void without difficulty. Conclusions Holmium: YAG laser therapy represents a safe, effective and minimally invasive treatment for urethral/bladder neck strictures occurring secondary to high-intensity focused ultrasound for prostate cancer. PMID:23610708

  9. Dorsal versus ventral onlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for long-segment bulbar urethral stricture: A prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Pawan; Nanda, Biswajit; Kumar, Anup; Kumar, Niraj; Singh, Harbinder; Kumar, Rohit

    2015-10-01

    To compare safety and efficacy of ventral versus dorsal onlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty in patients with long-segment incomplete bulbar urethral stricture. This was a single center, prospective, randomized trial. Patients with long-segment (>2 cm) incomplete bulbar urethral stricture and meeting eligibility criteria were enrolled in the study. They were randomized into two study groups: group A undergoing dorsal onlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty and group B undergoing ventral onlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty. The two groups were compared statistically with regard to International Prostate Symptom Score, maximum flow rate, intraoperative parameters and complications. A total of 80 eligible patients were randomized into two equal groups of 40 patients each. The preoperative International Prostate Symptom Score, maximum flow rate and intraoperative parameters were not significantly different between the two groups. At 12-month follow up, the mean International Prostate Symptom Score showed 324.95% and 353.59% improvement, whereas the mean maximum flow rate showed 208.43% and 201.93% improvement in group A and B, respectively. There was no significant difference between International Prostate Symptom Score and maximum flow rate data between the two groups at 3- and 12-month follow up. The success rate of surgery was similar between group A and B (92.5% vs 90%) with no significant difference noted between them. Dorsal and ventral onlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty have comparable efficacy and complication rates for treatment of long-segment incomplete bulbar urethral strictures. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  10. Long-term consequences of posterior urethral valves.

    PubMed

    Lopez Pereira, Pedro; Martinez Urrutia, M J; Espinosa, L; Jaureguizar, E

    2013-10-01

    Posterior urethral valves (PUV) are the most common congenital cause of bladder outlet obstruction in infancy, and it is the effect of this obstruction on the bladder and the kidneys that will decide a patient's prognosis. With the improvements in diagnosis and treatments, what was previously a poor prognosis for boys with PUV has improved, and more patients will encounter the long-term sequelae of PUV during puberty and adulthood. In these patients the long-term prognosis in terms of renal and bladder function and fertility, as well as the risk of malignancy in those whose bladders were augmented with gastrointestinal segments, is still a matter of great concern and all of these topics will be discussed in this article.

  11. Urethral stricture vaporization with the KTP laser provides evidence for a favorable impact of laser surgery on wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidlin, Franz R.; Venzi, Giordano; Jichlinski, Patrice; Oswald, Michael; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Gabbiani, Giulio; Leisinger, Hans-Juerg; Graber, Peter

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the safety and efficacy of the KTP 532 laser to direct vision internal urethrotomy (DVIU) in the management of urethral strictures. A total of 32 patients were randomized prospectively in this study, 14 DVIU and 18 KTP 532 laser. Patients were evaluated postoperatively with flowmetry and in the case of recurrence with cystourethrography at 3, 12, 24 weeks. With the KTP 532 laser complete symptomatic and uredynamic success was achieved in 15 (83%) patients at 12 and 24 weeks. Success rate was lower in the DVIU group with 9 (64%) patients at 12 weeks and 8 (57%) patients at 24 weeks. Mean preoperative peak-flow was improved from 6 cc/s to 20 cc/s at 3, 12 and 24 weeks with the KTP laser. With DVIU mean preoperative peak-flow was improved from 5.5 cc/s to 20 cc/s at 3 weeks followed by a steady decrease to 13 cc/s at 12 weeks and to 12 cc/s 24 weeks. No complication was observed in either group of patients. Our results confirm that stricture vaporization with the KTP 532 laser is a safe and efficient procedure. The better results after laser surgery make it also a valuable alternative in the endoscopic treatment of urethral strictures. These findings suggest a favorable influence of laser surgery on wound healing with less wound contraction and scarring. The lack of contraction of laser wounds might be related to the absence and the lack of organization of myofibroblasts in laser induced lesions.

  12. Urinary tract infections in children with posterior urethral valves after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mochon, M; Kaiser, B A; Dunn, S; Palmer, J; Polinsky, M S; Schulman, S L; Flynn, J T; Baluarte, H J

    1992-12-01

    The records of 14 boys with posterior urethral valves who had renal failure and subsequently underwent renal transplantation were reviewed to determine the postoperative incidence of urinary tract infection relative to that of 29 male transplant children without valves, who served as controls. There were no significant differences between the posterior urethral valve patients and controls with regard to age, donor source, immunosuppression, followup after transplantation or mean calculated creatinine clearance. Vesicoureteral reflux was found in 1 child with posterior urethral valves and 3 of the children in the control group (p not significant). A total of 15 urinary tract infections occurred in 5 children (36%) with posterior urethral valves, for a rate of 1 per 30 patient-months of followup, and 6 urinary tract infections occurred in 2 controls (7%), for a rate of 1 per 216 patient-months of followup (p < 0.05). However, only 1 of 26 controls (4%) without vesicoureteral reflux had urinary tract infection, for a rate 1 per 1,144 patient-months (p < 0.01). Conversely, the rate of urinary tract infections in controls with vesicoureteral reflux was similar to that of children with posterior urethral valves. Of the 5 children with posterior urethral valves 4 had the initial urinary tract infection within 2 months of transplantation and 10 of 15 episodes occurred within the first 4 months. Antimicrobial prophylaxis did not appear to decrease the rate of infection in children with posterior urethral valves. A history of posterior urethral valves increases the frequency of urinary tract infection after renal transplantation but the usefulness of antimicrobial prophylaxis and the relationship to long-term graft function remain to be determined. Urinary tract infection rarely develops in other transplanted boys without vesicoureteral reflux.

  13. Posterior urethral valves: relationship between vesicoureteral reflux and renal function.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Denis A; Morgante, Debora; Frediani, Simone; Iaconelli, Romina; Ceccanti, Silvia; Mele, Ermelinda; Cozzi, Francesco

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between renal function and vesicoureteral reflux before and after valve ablation in patients with posterior urethral valves. In these patients, back pressure may not be the only cause of renal damage. We conducted a retrospective review of 37 patients with valves consecutively treated between 1970 and 2002. Data were available for 31 patients, 19 of whom presented reflux at presentation. Grade of reflux was ascertained by voiding cystourethrography. Overall renal function was measured by serum creatinine, and split renal function was estimated by dimercaptosuccinic acid scan available for all patients but two. Before relief of obstruction, there was no correlation between split renal function and grade of reflux into 25 kidneys of the 17 patients (r = -.13; 95% CI, -.50 to .27; P = .51). High-grade reflux (grade IV-V) affected 6 of the 11 renal units, with split renal function >40% vs 11 of the 14 units with split renal function <40% (P = .38). After successful valve ablation, reflux resolved in all the 11 units with split renal function >40% vs 4 of the 14 units with split renal function <40% (P = .0005). The good renal function of more than half of the renal units with high-grade reflux at presentation, and the persistence of reflux mainly in nonfunctioning or poorly functioning kidneys after valve ablation, support the concept that in some patients with valves, reflux and renal damage are associated anomalies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of risk factors leading to postoperative urethral stricture and bladder neck contracture following transurethral resection of prostate

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Huang; Jiang, Yu Yong; Jun, Qi; Ding, Xu; Jian, Duan Liu; Jie, Ding; Ping, Zhu Yu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine risk factors of postoperative urethral stricture (US) and vesical neck contracture (BNC) after transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) from perioperative parameters. Materials and Methods: 373 patients underwent TURP in a Chinese center for lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic obstruction (LUTS/BPO), with their perioperative and follow-up clinical data being collected. Univariate analyses were used to determine variables which had correlation with the incidence of US and BNC before logistic regression being applied to find out independent risk factors. Results: The median follow-up was 29.3 months with the incidence of US and BNC being 7.8% and 5.4% respectively. Resection speed, reduction in hemoglobin (ΔHb) and hematocrit (ΔHCT) levels, incidence of urethral mucosa rupture, re-catheterization and continuous infection had significant correlation with US, while PSA level, storage score, total prostate volume (TPV), transitional zone volume (TZV), transitional zone index (TZI), resection time and resected gland weight had significant correlation with BNC. Lower resection speed (OR=0.48), urethral mucosa rupture (OR=2.44) and continuous infection (OR=1.49) as well as higher storage score (OR=2.51) and lower TPV (OR=0.15) were found to be the independent risk factors of US and BNC respectively. Conclusions: Lower resection speed, intraoperative urethral mucosa rupture and postoperative continuous infection were associated with a higher risk of US while severer storage phase symptom and smaller prostate size were associated with a higher risk of BNC after TURP. PMID:27256185

  15. Upper-tract changes after treatment of posterior urethral valves.

    PubMed

    Lal, R; Bhatnagar, V; Mitra, D K

    1998-07-01

    This paper discusses the long-term sequelae in the upper urinary tract with respect to hydroureteronephrosis (HUN), vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), renal parenchymal disease, and their correlation with renal function in 84 boys with posterior urethral valves followed for 1 to 21 years. Thirty-one boys (39.3%) were adolescents or older at the time of review. The incidence of high-grade VUR (grade III or more) was 47.6% at presentation, and resolution following decompression of the lower urinary tract occurred in 38.7% of refluxing units. VUR was associated with a high incidence of chronic renal failure (CRF) (30%) on long-term follow up; however, 16% of non-refluxing patients also progressed to CRF. The incidences of renal parenchymal disease and persistent upper-tract dilatation in the non-refluxing group were 25% and 50% of renal units respectively. Gross HUN persisted in 12.3% of patients despite decompression and reconstructive surgery, with vesicoureteral junction (VUJ) obstruction being documented in 1 patient only. Moderate and mild upper-tract dilatation persisted in 31.6% and 43.9% of patients, respectively. Persistent gross HUN was associated with a very high incidence of CRF (92.3%), while 88.4% of those with persistent mild/moderate dilatation maintained normal renal function over a follow-up period ranging from 1 to 21 years. This study emphasizes the need for systematic evaluation to exclude VUJ obstruction and abnormal urodynamics as a cause of persistent HUN so that effective therapy can be instituted early to relieve back-pressure and to provide a low-pressure reservoir with effective emptying. In the absence of either of these causes, persistent ureterectasis after treatment is presumably due to secondary peristaltic failure as a consequence of ureteral fibrosis, ureteral tortuosity, or developmental dysplasia.

  16. Dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty using penile skin or buccal mucosa for repair of bulbar urethral stricture: results of a prospective single center study.

    PubMed

    Raber, Marco; Naspro, Richard; Scapaticci, Emanuele; Salonia, Andrea; Scattoni, Vincenzo; Mazzoccoli, Bruno; Guazzoni, Giorgio; Rigatti, Patrizio; Montorsi, Francesco

    2005-12-01

    To compare the outcomes of dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty using penile skin (PS) or buccal mucosa (BM) free grafts in the repair of adult bulbourethral strictures. From January 1998 to March 2003, 30 patients with bulbar urethral strictures underwent urethral reconstruction with PS (17) or with BM free graft (13). Follow-up was done at 6, 12 and 18 months postoperatively, and every year subsequently. Success was defined as normalization of IPSS and a stable Q(max) value >20 ml/s. Any further instrumentation for stricture recurrence was considered a failure. Mean follow-up was 51 months (20-74). The overall success rate was 80% (85% in the BM and 76% in the PS group). Improvement of uroflowmetry, IPSS and QoL did not show a significant difference between the two groups. A significant improvement of the orgasmic function domain of the IIEF was found in patients treated with a PS graft. Post-operative complications were lip hypoesthesia (30%), retraction of the ventral skin of the penis (7%), post-voiding dribbling (8% with BM graft, and 7%, with PS graft). Six patients, 2 with BM (15%) and 4 with PS graft patch (24%) required further treatment due to stricture recurrence. Results of PS or BM graft are comparable at 18 month follow-up, although orgasmic function is significantly improved in patients receiving a PS graft. Nevertheless, with extended follow-up, the use of PS seems to be associated with a higher failure rate.

  17. Penile Circular Fasciocutaneous (McAninch) Flap as an Option for Complex Anterior Urethral Stricture in Case of Non-Viable Buccal Mucosal Graft

    PubMed Central

    Vijayganapathy, Sundaramoorthy; Mallya, Ashwin; Sreenivas, Jayaram

    2016-01-01

    The penile circular fasciocutaneous flap (FCF) is employed in the successful single stage reconstruction of long segment complex anterior urethral strictures especially when buccal mucosa is unavailable due to various reasons. A 65-year-old gentleman, chronic smoker and tobacco chewer, hypertensive on treatment, presented with obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms for 8 months. He had no prior urethral catheterization. On examination, he had circumcised penis, with stenosis of the external urethral meatus. Glans had no changes suggesting balanitis xerotica obliterans. Suprapubic cystostomy was done as he developed acute urinary retention during evaluation. Retrograde urethrogram (RGU) showed pan-anterior urethral stricture. He was planned for substitution urethroplasty. On oral cavity examination, he had moderate trismus with oral submucous fibrosis. As buccal mucosal graft was unavailable, he was planned for FCF. A ventral onlay tubularization FCF urethroplasty from meatus to bulbar urethra based on dartos dorsal pedicle was done. His postoperative recovery was uneventful. Pericatheter RGU did not show extravastion and he voided well with Qmax 14 ml/second. He is doing well at follow-up. PMID:27630900

  18. Safety and efficacy of Intraurethral Mitomycin C Hydrogel for prevention of post-traumatic anterior urethral stricture recurrence after internal urethrotomy.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Mahmoudreza; Derakhshandeh, Katayoun; Karimian, Babak; Fasihi, Mahtab

    2016-07-01

    Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of intraurethral Mitomycin C (MMC) hydrogel for prevention of post-traumatic anterior urethral stricture recurrence after internal urethrotomy. A thermoresponsive hydrogel base consisting of 0.8 mg MMC with 1cc water and propylene glycol to PF-127 poloxamer was used in theater. 40 male patients with short, non-obliterated, urethral stricture were randomized into 2 groups: control and MMC. After internal urethrotomy, the MMC group patients received the MMC-Hydrogel while the others were just catheterized. Both groups had their catheters for at least 1 week. After surgery, they were followed up by means of medical history and physical examination, monitoring voiding patterns and retrograde urethrogram at 1 month, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. 40 male patients between 14 to 89 years old (Mean = 54.15) underwent internal urethrotomy. The average age for the control and MMC group was 54.55±21.25 and 53.75±24.75 respectively. In a comparison of age between the two groups, they were matched (P=0.574). Stricture length was 10.7±5.9 and 9.55±4.15 mm for the control and MMC group respectively. There were no statistically meaningful differences between the two groups (P=0.485). Fifteen patients had a history of one previous internal urethrotomy which in a comparison between the two groups meant there was no meaningful difference (P=0.327). During postoperative follow up, total urethral stricture recurrence happened in 12 patients: 10 patients (50%) in control group and 2 patients (10%) in MMC group. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.001). There were no significant complications associated with the MMC injection in our patients. Based on our results, MMC Hydrogel may have an anti-fibrotic action preventing post-traumatic anterior urethral stricture recurrence with no side effects on pre-urethral tissue. Due to our study limitations, our follow up time and the small number of patients, our results were not

  19. [Success of internal urethrotomy as the 1st operation in male urethral stricture].

    PubMed

    Esch, W; Latal, D

    1983-11-01

    A follow-up examination was possible on 179 out of 226 patients operated on for urethrostenosis using sight urethrotomy according to Sachse. The results are classification according to the observation period, ranging from 3 months to 3 years. The most important criteria of a successful operation were lack of discomfort and a rise in uroflow to over 10 ml. Relapses occur more frequently than average in patients who had recidive infections of the urinary tract before the operation. Where the operation was successful the urinary tract infection almost always subsided. Recidive strictures occurred frequently in patients over 70 years. However, internal urethrotomy is often the only suitable method of operation at that age. Long prior bouginage makes prognosis worse. In terms of aetiology, iatrogenic stenoses give the worst results, bulbar ring stenoses, the best. In cases of long stenoses, particularly in the penile part of the urethra, the results of the operation are clearly worse than average, so that another method of operation should be considered, especially if the patients are young.

  20. Recurrent Benign Urethral Strictures Treated with Covered Retrievable Self-Expandable Metallic Stents: Long-Term Outcomes over an 18-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Tae; Kim, Kun Yung; Song, Ho-Young; Park, Jung-Hoon; Tsauo, Jiaywei; Wang, Zhe; Kim, Pyeong Hwa

    2017-09-08

    To assess the long-term outcomes of covered retrievable self-expandable metallic stent (REMS) placement for recurrent benign urethral stricture and to compare the outcomes associated with 3 types of covered REMSs. A retrospective study was performed in 54 male patients in whom 114 REMSs were placed between November 1998 and December 2016. These included 26 polyurethane-covered REMSs in 13 patients (group A), 47 internally polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered REMSs in 21 patients (group B), and 41 externally PTFE-covered REMSs in 20 patients (group C). The outcomes were analyzed and compared between the groups. Overall clinical success was achieved in 14 of the 54 patients (24%) at 5-year follow-up (group A, 12%; group B, 19%; group C, 40%). The overall complication rate was 60.5%, and the complication rate was significantly higher in group B than in groups A or C (group A vs B, P = .018; group B vs C, P = .002). The median stent indwelling time and maintained patency period were 3.1 months and 108 months, respectively. In multivariate analysis, stent indwelling time was the only significant factor associated with maintained patency. The long-term outcome of covered REMSs has not achieved the desired success rate for the standard treatment of recurrent urethral stricture. However, externally PTFE-covered REMSs showed a better long-term outcome than the other studied types. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Penile necrosis in a diabetic with renal disease and clean intermittent catheterization for recurrent urethral stricture. Case report.

    PubMed

    Cormio, L; Taskinen, S; Perttilä, I; Ruutu, M

    1994-06-01

    In a patient with diabetic microangiopathy and renal disease, penile necrosis occurred in connection with clean intermittent catheterization. Microangiopathy of the urethral and penile arteries presumably lowered the local defences, so that the catheterization initiated penile necrotic changes by introducing bacteria and traumatizing the poorly vascularized urethral epithelium.

  2. Spontaneous Rupture of Kidney Due to Posterior Urethral Valve–Diagnostic Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Kiliś-Pstrusińska, Katarzyna; Pukajło-Marczyk, Agnieszka; Patkowski, Dariusz; Zalewska-Dorobisz, Urszula; Zwolińska, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    Background Spontaneous kidney rupture could develop in the course of posterior urethral valve (PUV), the most common cause of outflow urinary tract obstruction in male infants. However, urinary extravasation is a rare complication among this group of children. Case Presentation Our case report presents diagnostic difficulties connected with spontaneous kidney rupture due to PUV in a 6 week-old infant. Due to not equivocal images, thundery course of disease and rapid deterioration in the infant's condition, the patient required an urgent laparatomy. Conclusion This case showed that the investigation of renal abnormalities during early neonatal period, is very important specifically in PUV that can lead to kidney rupture. PMID:23795264

  3. Renal Parenchymal Area and Risk of ESRD in Boys with Posterior Urethral Valves

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, Jose E.; Furth, Susan L.; Zderic, Stephen A.; Canning, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Approximately 20% of boys with posterior urethral valves develop ESRD; however, few factors associated with the risk of ESRD have been identified. The objective of this study was to determine if renal parenchymal area, defined as the area of the kidney minus the area of the pelvicaliceal system on first postnatal ultrasound, is associated with the risk of ESRD in infants with posterior urethral valves. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A retrospective cohort of boys who were diagnosed with posterior urethral valves at less than 6 months of age between 1988 and 2011 and followed for at least 1 year at a free-standing children’s hospital was assembled. Cox proportional hazard regression and Kaplan–Meier analysis were used to estimate the association between renal parenchymal area and time to ESRD. Cox models were adjusted for age at presentation, minimum creatinine 1 month after bladder decompression, and vesicoureteral reflux. Results Sixty patients were followed for 393 person-years. Eight patients developed ESRD. Median renal parenchymal area was 15.9 cm2 (interquartile range=13.0–21.6 cm2). Each 1-cm2 increase in renal parenchymal area was associated with a lower risk of ESRD (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.42 to 0.98). The rate of time to ESRD was 10 times higher in boys with renal parenchymal area<12.4 cm2 than boys with renal parenchymal area≥12.4 cm2 (P<0.001). Renal parenchymal area could best discriminate children at risk for ESRD when the minimum creatinine in the first 1 month after bladder decompression was between 0.8 and 1.1 mg/dl. Conclusion In boys with posterior urethral valves presenting during the first 6 months of life, lower renal parenchymal area is associated with an increased risk of ESRD during childhood. The predictive ability of renal parenchymal area, which is available at time of diagnosis, should be validated in a larger, prospectively-enrolled cohort. PMID:24311709

  4. Efficacy of holmium laser urethrotomy and intralesional injection of Santosh PGI tetra-inject (Triamcinolone, Mitomycin C, Hyaluronidase and N-acetyl cysteine) on the outcome of urethral strictures

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Lalit; Sharma, Aditya Prakash; Garg, Nitin; Singh, Shrawan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To study the efficacy of holmium laser urethrotomy with intralesional injection of Santosh PGI tetra-inject (Triamcinolone, Mitomycin C, Hyaluronidase and N-acetyl cysteine) in the treatment of urethral strictures. Material and methods A total of 50 patients with symptomatic urethral stricture were evaluated by clinical history, physical examination, uroflowmetry and retrograde urethrogram preoperatively. All patients were treated with holmium laser urethrotomy, followed by injection of tetra-inject at the urethrotomy site. Tetra-inject was prepared by diluting acombination of 40 mg Triamcinolone, 2 mg Mitomycin, 3000 UHyaluronidase and 600 mg N-acetyl cysteine in 5–10 ml of saline, according to the stricture length. An indwelling 18 Fr silicone catheter was left in place for 7–10 days.All patients were followed-up for 6-18 months postoperatively by history, uroflowmetry, and if required, retrograde urethrogram and micturating urethrogram every 3 months. Results 41 (82%) patients had asuccessful outcome,whereas 9 (18%) had recurrences during a follow-up ranging from 6–18 months. In <1 cm length strictures, the success rate was 100%, while in 1–3 cm and >3 cm lengthsthe success rates were 81.2% and 66.7% respectively. This modality, thus, has an encouraging success rate, especially in those with short segment urethral strictures (<3 cm). Conclusions Holmium laser urethrotomy with intralesional injection ofSantosh PGI tetra-inject (Triamcinolone, Mitomycin C, Hyaluronidase, N-acetyl cysteine) is a safe and effective minimally-invasive therapeutic modality for short segment urethral strictures. PMID:26855803

  5. The changes of urethral morphology recognized in voiding cystourethrography after endoscopic transurethral incision for posterior urethral valve in boys with intractable daytime urinary incontinence and nocturnal enuresis.

    PubMed

    Hyuga, Taiju; Nakamura, Shigeru; Kawai, Shina; Kubo, Taro; Furukawa, Rieko; Aihara, Toshinori; Mieno, Makiko; Nakai, Hideo

    2017-02-28

    Endoscopic transurethral incision (TUI) of posterior urethral valve (PUV) can improve daytime urinary incontinence (DUI) and nocturnal enuresis (NE). However, the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. In this study, we retrospectively examined the mobility of the urethra before and after TUI by measuring the urethral angle with voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), to clarify the effects of TUI on the morphology of the urethra during voiding. Between July 2010 and December 2014, 29 boys with intractable DUI and/or NE were diagnosed as PUV and underwent endoscopic TUI. VCUG during voiding phase was performed at sequential radiographic spot images (1 image per second) at a 45° angle in oblique standing position. The point at which the angle of the urethra was the smallest during urination was regarded as the minimum urethral angle. The maximum urethral angle during early voiding phase was compared with the minimum urethral angle, and the percentage by which this angle changed was calculated as the flexion rate. Then changes in minimum urethral angle and flexion rate were analyzed before and 3-4 months after TUI. After TUI, the minimum urethral angle on VCUG became more obtuse (before vs. after TUI, respectively: 112.7 vs. 124.5°, p < 0.001), the flexion rate decreased (before vs. after TUI, respectively: 11.8 vs. 4.1%, p < 0.001). This study demonstrated a significant difference in the degree of change. The findings may contribute to understanding of the mechanism of improvement in symptoms after TUI in patients with PUV.

  6. Outcome of buccal mucosa and lingual mucosa graft urethroplasty in the management of urethral strictures: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Sharad; Yadav, Sher Singh; Tomar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the outcome of buccal and lingual mucosa graft (LMG) augmentation urethroplasty along with donor sites morbidities in anterior urethra stricture. Subjects and Methods: From September 2010 to January 2014, 125 patients underwent single stage augmentation urethroplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups to receive either buccal mucosa graft (BMG) or LMG. The patients were prospectively followed for complications and outcome. Results: Baseline characteristics such as mean age, etiology, stricture length, and location were comparable in both groups. Overall success rate for Group 1 and Group 2 were 69.2% and 80%, respectively. Mean follow-up periods were 28.2 and 25 months in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Conclusions: LMG provides the better outcome with fewer immediate and delayed complications as compared to BMG. The length of stricture and width of graft were main factors affecting the outcome. PMID:26834399

  7. Low-power holmium:YAG laser urethrotomy for urethral stricture disease: comparison of outcomes with the cold-knife technique.

    PubMed

    Atak, Mustafa; Tokgöz, Hüsnü; Akduman, Bülent; Erol, Bülent; Dönmez, Ibrahim; Hancı, Volkan; Türksoy, Ozlem; Mungan, Necmettin Aydın

    2011-11-01

    In this prospective randomized clinical trial, we aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endourethrotomy with holmium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (HO:YAG) laser and compare the outcomes with the conventional cold-knife urethrotomy. Fifty-one male patients with single, iatrogenic, annular strictures of the urethra were randomly divided into two groups; 21 patients who underwent direct-vision endoscopic urethrotomy with Ho:YAG laser (15 W; 1,200-1,400 mJ; 8-12 Hz) at 12 o'clock position (laser group) and 30 patients who underwent direct-vision endoscopic urethrotomy with cold-knife incision at 12 o'clock position (cold-knife group). The results obtained were analyzed and compared at 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months postoperatively by clinical evaluation, uroflowmetry, and retrograde urethrographies. Variables were compared among groups using Fisher's exact and Mann Whitney U tests. There were no differences between two groups in terms of patient age, preoperative Qmax value, stricture location, and length. Operative time was shorter in laser group (16.4 ± 8.04 minutes) when compared with cold-knife group (23.8 ± 5.47 minutes) (p<0.001). Recurrence-free rate at 3 months was similar between two groups (p=0.122). However, recurrence-free rates at 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months were significantly higher in laser group when compared with cold-knife group (p values were 0.045, 0.027, and 0.04, respectively). No intra- or postoperative complications were encountered. Use of Ho:YAG laser in the management of urethral stricture disease is a safe and effective method. In addition, it provides shorter operative time and lower recurrence rate when compared with the conventional technique. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Norfloxacin as prophylaxis against urethral strictures following transurethral resection of the prostate: an open, prospective, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Hammarsten, J; Lindqvist, K

    1993-11-01

    An open, prospective, randomized study was performed to investigate the effect of norfloxacin prophylaxis on stricture formation and operative outcome after transurethral resection of the prostate. After resection, the 359 patients studied were randomly divided into 2 groups: 1) those given norfloxacin as prophylaxis for 15 days following removal of the catheter (norfloxacin group) and 2) those given no antimicrobial prophylaxis during the same period (control group). Of the patients 94 were excluded. At followup 6 to 12 months postoperatively, the number of strictures in the anterior urethra was 2 of 135 in the norfloxacin group and 22 of 130 in the control group (p < 0.01). Strictures in the bladder neck developed in 3 of 135 and 4 of 130 patients, respectively (not significant). As a consequence of a lower structure incidence in the anterior urethra in the norfloxacin group, fewer patients in that group were dissatisfied with the operative outcome. The results suggest that norfloxacin provides effective prophylaxis against stricture formation after transurethral resection of the prostate.

  9. Surgical treatment of an acquired posterior urethral diverticulum with cystoscopy assisted robotic technique.

    PubMed

    Guneri, Cagri; Kirac, Mustafa; Biri, Hasan

    2017-03-01

    A 42-year-old man with a history of recurrent urethral stenosis, recurrent urinary tract infection and macroscopic hematuria has referred to our clinic. He underwent several internal urethrotomies and currently using clean intermittent self-catheterization. During the internal urethrotomy, we noted a large posterior urethral diverticulum (UD) between verumontanum and bladder neck. His obstructive symptoms were resolved after the catheter removal. But perineal discomfort, urgency and dysuria were prolonged about 3-4 weeks. Urinalysis and urine culture confirmed recurrent urinary tract infections. Due to this conditions and symptoms, we planned a surgical approach which was planned as transperitoneal robotic-assisted laparoscopic approach. This technique is still applied for the diverticulectomy of the bladder. In addition to this we utilized the cystoscopy equipments for assistance. During this process, cystoscope was placed in the UD to help the identification of UD from adjacent tissues like seminal vesicles by its movement and translumination. Operating time was 185 min. On the post-operative third day he was discharged. Foley catheter was removed after 2 weeks. Urination was quite satisfactory. His perineal discomfort was resolved. The pathology report confirmed epidermoid (tailgut) cyst of the prostate. Urethrogram showed no radiologic signs of UD after 4 weeks. Irritative and obstructive symptoms were completely resolved after 3 months. No urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction or retrograde ejaculation was noted. While posterior UD is an extremely rare situation, surgical treatment of posterior UD remains uncertain. To our knowledge, no above-mentioned cystoscopy assisted robotic technique for the treatment was described in the literature.

  10. Pelvic-fracture urethral injury in children

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, Judith C.; Voelzke, Bryan B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review paediatric posterior urethral injuries and the current potential management options; because urethral injury due to pelvic fracture in children is rare and has a low incidence, the management of this type of trauma and its complications remains controversial. Methods We reviewed previous reports identified by searching the PubMed Medline electronic database for clinically relevant articles published in the past 25 years. The search was limited to the keywords ‘pediatric’, ‘pelvic fracture’, ‘urethral injury’, ‘stricture’, ‘trauma’ and ‘reconstruction’. Results Most paediatric urethral injuries are a result of pelvic fractures after high-impact blunt trauma. After the diagnosis, immediate bladder drainage via a suprapubic cystotomy, or urethral realignment, are the initial management options, except for a possible immediate primary repair in girls. The common complications of pelvic fracture-associated urethral injury include urethral stricture formation, incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Excellent results can be achieved with delayed urethroplasty for pelvic fracture-associated urethral injuries. Conclusion Traumatic injury to the paediatric urethra is rare and calls for an immediate diagnosis and management. These devastating injuries have a high complication rate and therefore a close follow-up is warranted to assure adequate delayed repair by a reconstructive urologist. PMID:26019977

  11. Gene locus ambiguity in posterior urethral valves/prune-belly syndrome.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stefanie; Mir, Sevgi; Schlingmann, Karl Peter; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Becker, Christian; Kara, Pelin E; Ozkayin, Nese; Konrad, Martin; Nürnberg, Peter; Schaefer, Franz

    2005-08-01

    Lower urinary tract obstruction by posterior urethral valves (PUV) is an important cause of congenital renal failure in male infants. Though population-based studies point to a role of genetic factors in the etiology of PUV, no clear evidence for a specific gene defect for PUV has been observed so far. Here we present a consanguineous family with four male descendants affected by PUV and a healthy girl, suggestive of autosomal recessive inheritance. One boy presented with prune-belly syndrome (PBS) in addition to PUV. Using a DNA chip-based genome-wide linkage analysis, we identified a region of homozygosity for the affected boys in an interval of 35 cM on chromosome 1q41-44 with a maximum multipoint LOD score of Z(max) = 3.134 at theta = 0 for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs158724-rs720163. By applying a second genetic model based on the assumption of a male-limited phenotype and the girl being carrier of the genetic defect without expressing the phenotype, a second alternative locus of 9 cM on chromosome 11p11 was identified with a LOD score of Z(max) = 3.61 at theta = 0. Equal significance for both loci with a LOD score of Z(max) = 3.01 at theta = 0 was obtained after the affection status of the female descendant was set "unknown". We suppose that most probably, only one of the two identified loci harbours the disease-causing gene. As the interpretation of the girl's status remains uncertain, we are not able to exclude one of the two loci. Analyses of additional informative families will be important to exclude one of the two loci and to restrict the critical interval.

  12. Vesicostomy and Colostomy in a Premature Neonate With Posterior Urethral Valves, Bilateral Dysplastic Kidneys, and High Imperforate Anus: The Challenge of Stoma Placement.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Melissa; Alnaqi, Amar A A; Braga, Luis H

    2016-07-01

    Although anorectal malformations are often associated with urinary tract abnormalities, the association with posterior urethral valves is exceptionally rare. We report a unique case of a premature (35 gestational weeks) male neonate born with posterior urethral valves, bilateral dysplastic kidneys, and imperforate anus, successfully treated by Blocksom vesicostomy and left upper quadrant loop colostomy. The challenges involving placement of both stomas in a small abdominal wall of a 2200 g premature neonate are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nadir creatinine in posterior urethral valves: How high is low enough?

    PubMed

    Coleman, R; King, T; Nicoara, C-D; Bader, M; McCarthy, L; Chandran, H; Parashar, K

    2015-12-01

    Large retrospective studies of people with posterior urethral valves (PUV) have reported chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) in up to one third of the participants and end-stage renal failure in up to one quarter of them. Nadir creatinine (lowest creatinine during the first year following diagnosis) is the recognised prognostic indicator for renal outcome in PUV, the most commonly used cut-off being 1 mg/dl (88.4 umol/l). To conduct a statistical analysis of nadir creatinine in PUV patients in order to identify the optimal cut-off level as a prognostic indicator for CRI. Patients treated by endoscopic valve ablation at the present institution between 1993 and 2004 were reviewed. Chronic renal insufficiency was defined as CKD2 or higher. Statistical methods included receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, Fisher exact test and diagnostic utility tests. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. Nadir creatinine was identified in 96 patients. The median follow-up was 9.4 (IQR 7.0, 13.4) years. A total of 29 (30.2%) patients developed CRI, with nine (9.4%) reaching end-stage renal failure. On ROC analysis, Nadir creatinine was highly prognostic for future CRI, with an Area Under the Curve of 0.887 (P < 0.001). Renal insufficiency occurred in all 10 (100%) patients with nadir creatinine >88.4 umol/l compared with 19 of 86 (22.2%) patients with lower nadir creatinine (P < 0.001). As a test for future CRI, a nadir creatinine cut-off of 88.4 umol/l gave a specificity of 100%, but poor sensitivity of 34.5%. Lowering the cut-off to 75 umol/l resulted in improvement in all diagnostic utility tests (Table). All 14 (100%) patients with nadir creatinine >75 umol/l developed CRI, compared with 15 of 82 (18.3%) patients with lower nadir creatinine (P < 0.001). Sensitivity only approached 95% at 35 umol/l, at which level specificity was low (Table). Two out of 36 (5.6%) patients with nadir creatinine <35 umol/l developed CRI. Multivariate analysis

  14. New frontiers in urethral reconstruction: injectables and alternative grafts

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary management of anterior urethral strictures requires both endoscopic as well as complex substitution urethroplasty, depending on the nature of the urethral stricture. Recent clinical and experimental studies have explored the possibility of augmenting traditional endoscopic urethral stricture management with anti-fibrotic injectable medications. Additionally, although buccal mucosa remains the gold standard graft for substitution urethroplasty, alternative grafts are necessary for reconstructing particularly complex urethral strictures in which there is insufficient buccal mucosa or in cases where it may be contraindicated. This review summarizes the data of the most promising injectable adjuncts to endoscopic stricture management and explores the alternative grafts available for reconstructing the most challenging urethral strictures. Further research is needed to define which injectable medications and alternative grafts may be best suited for urethral reconstruction in the future. PMID:26813260

  15. The Endoscopic Morphological Features of Congenital Posterior Urethral Obstructions in Boys with Refractory Daytime Urinary Incontinence and Nocturnal Enuresis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shigeru; Hyuga, Taiju; Kawai, Shina; Kubo, Taro; Nakai, Hideo

    2016-08-01

    Purpose This study aims to evaluate the endoscopic morphological features of congenital posterior urethral obstructions in boys with refractory daytime urinary incontinence and/or nocturnal enuresis. Patients and Methods A total of 54 consecutive patients underwent endoscopy and were diagnosed with a posterior urethral valve (PUV) (types 1-4). PUV type 1 was classified as severe, moderate, or mild. A transurethral incision (TUI) was mainly performed for anterior wall lesions of the PUV. Voiding cystourethrography and pressure flow studies (PFS) were performed before and 3 to 4 months after TUI. Clinical symptoms were evaluated 6 months after TUI, and outcomes were assessed according to PFS waveform pattern groups (synergic pattern [SP] and dyssynergic pattern [DP]). Results All patients had PUV type 1 and/or 3 (i.e., n = 34 type 1, 7 type 3, and 13 types 1 and 3). There were severe (n = 1), moderate (n = 21), and mild (n = 25) cases of PUV type 1. According to PFS, SP and DP were present in 43 and 11 patients, respectively. TUI was effective in the SP group and symptoms improved in 77.4 and 69.3% of patients with daytime incontinence and nocturnal enuresis, respectively. Almost no effect was observed in the DP group. A significant decrease in the detrusor pressure was observed at maximum flow rate using PFS in the SP group. Conclusions PUV type 1 encompassed lesions with a spectrum of obstructions ranging from severe to mild, with mild types whose main obstructive lesion existed at the anterior wall of urethra occurring most frequently in boys with refractory daytime urinary incontinence and/or nocturnal enuresis. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Fetal urinary peptides to predict postnatal outcome of renal disease in fetuses with posterior urethral valves (PUV).

    PubMed

    Klein, Julie; Lacroix, Chrystelle; Caubet, Cécile; Siwy, Justyna; Zürbig, Petra; Dakna, Mohammed; Muller, Françoise; Breuil, Benjamin; Stalmach, Angelique; Mullen, William; Mischak, Harald; Bandin, Flavio; Monsarrat, Bernard; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Decramer, Stéphane; Schanstra, Joost P

    2013-08-14

    Bilateral congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), although are individually rare diseases, remain the main cause of chronic kidney disease in infants worldwide. Bilateral CAKUT display a wide spectrum of pre- and postnatal outcomes ranging from death in utero to normal postnatal renal function. Methods to predict these outcomes in utero are controversial and, in several cases, lead to unjustified termination of pregnancy. Using capillary electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry, we have analyzed the urinary proteome of fetuses with posterior urethral valves (PUV), the prototypic bilateral CAKUT, for the presence of biomarkers predicting postnatal renal function. Among more than 4000 fetal urinary peptide candidates, 26 peptides were identified that were specifically associated with PUV in 13 patients with early end-stage renal disease (ESRD) compared to 15 patients with absence of ESRD before the age of 2. A classifier based on these peptides correctly predicted postnatal renal function with 88% sensitivity and 95% specificity in an independent blinded validation cohort of 38 PUV patients, outperforming classical methods, including fetal urine biochemistry and fetal ultrasound. This study demonstrates that fetal urine is an important pool of peptides that can predict postnatal renal function and thus be used to make clinical decisions regarding pregnancy.

  17. Prognostic value of serum creatinine levels in children with posterior urethral valves treated by primary valve ablation.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Osama; El-Dahshan, Khaled; Sarhan, Mohamed

    2010-02-01

    We evaluated the prognostic value of serum creatinine level at presentation and nadir creatinine during follow up for future renal function (RF) in children with posterior urethral valves (PUV). Between 1987 and 2004, 120 cases of PUV were treated initially at our hospital with valve ablation. Initial assessment included serum creatinine measurement, urine analysis and culture, renal ultrasonography and voiding cystourethrography. After valve ablation, renal ultrasound and serum creatinine measurement were repeated and thereafter during visits until the end of follow up. Follow up ranged from 2 to 12 years (mean=4.4). Renal insufficiency (RI) developed at the end of follow up in 44 patients (36.5%). The mean initial and nadir serum creatinine in the RI group was higher than in the normal RF group (P<0.05). With a cut-off value of 1mg/dl for initial and nadir serum creatinine, the incidence of RI was significantly different (P<0.05). Our data confirm the high prognostic value of nadir serum creatinine after relief of valvular obstruction. Further, the serum creatinine level before valve ablation correlates significantly with long-term RF in children with PUV.

  18. [Endoscopic electroexcision of benign urethral tumors in children].

    PubMed

    Abdullaev, F K; Nikolaev, V V; Kulaev, V D; Nazhimov, V P

    2009-01-01

    Endoscopic treatment was performed in 17 boys aged 4 months-16 years with benign new growths of the posterior urethra: false polyps (n = 11), fibroepithelial polyps (congenital--4, acquired--1), fetal rabdomyoma of the urethra and urinary bladder (n = 1). Acquired fibroepithelial polyp was detected in a patient who previously had resection and urethral anastomosis for posttraumatic stricture and long-term preventive catheterization. A leading symptom of the disease in 8 patients was infravesical obstruction. Most complete diagnostic information was provided by urethroscopy. All the patients were treated with endoscopic electroexcision of the tumors with coagulation of their bases. In a child with fetal rabdomyoma a vesicular part of the tumor was removed transvesically. Histological examination of the false polyps identified epithelium-covered granulation tissue. Fibroepithelial polyps were represented with mature connective tissue covered with urothelium. Recovery was achieved in all the patients. Benign urethral tumors should be considered in differential diagnosis in children as one of rare causes of infravesical obstruction. Most of the neoplasms are represented by congenital and acquired polyps of connective tissue of various maturity covered with transitory epithelium. False polyps may be an initial stage of the development of fibroepithelial acquired polyp. Factors of a higher risk of acquired urethral polyps are secondary trauma of urethral mucosa in device investigations and manipulations as well as chronic inflammation. A method of choice in the treatment of benign urethral neoplasms is endoscopic electroexcision which in some cases can be made with transvesicular approach.

  19. Posterior Urethral Valves in Children: Pattern of Presentation and Outcome of Initial Treatment in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Talabi, Ademola Olusegun; Sowande, Oludayo Adedapo; Etonyeaku, Amarachukwu Chiduziem; Salako, Abdulkadir A; Adejuyigbe, Olusanya

    2015-01-01

    Background: The management of posterior urethral valves (PUV) and its sequelae is still a challenge to most pediatric surgeons in our environment due to late presentation and inadequate facilities for long-term evaluation and treatment. Despite initial successful treatment about 40% would develop chronic renal failure. The aim is to describe the presentation, management and outcome of the initial treatment in boys with PUV. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective analysis of PUV in boys 8 years and below over a 17 years period. Demographic characteristics, clinical features, investigations, and treatment outcome were reviewed. Results: Thirty-seven cases were analyzed. The median age was 5 months (range from birth to 8 years). Three (8.1%) patients had prenatal ultrasound diagnosis. The most common presentation was voiding dysfunction 37 (100%). Part of the preoperative investigation included micturating cystourethrogram (n = 31: 83.8%) and abdomino-pelvic ultrasonography (n = 37:(100%). The mean serum creatinine value of those who presented within the first 30 days of life and those who presented afterwards were 325 (±251) µmol/L and 141 (±100) µmol/L respectively, P = 0.003. Surgical interventions included trans-vesical excision of valves (n = 9: 28.1%), valvotomy (n = 10: 31.3%), balloon avulsion (n = 8: 25.0%), vesicostomy (n = 4: 12.5%) and endoscopic valve avulsion (n = 1: 3.1%). Seventeen (56.7%) patients had serum creatinine >70.4 µmol/L after 1-month of valve excision. Five (13.5%) patients had postrelief complications and 5 (13.5%) died on admission. Ninety percentage (27/30) of patients had poor prognostic indices. Conclusions: The initial treatment outcome was good but most had poor prognostic factors. PMID:26425072

  20. Effect of Bladder Neck Preservation and Posterior Urethral Reconstruction during Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy for Urinary Continence

    PubMed Central

    You, Youn Chul; Kim, Tae Hyo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report our results on urinary continence after bladder neck preservation (BNP) and posterior urethral reconstruction (PUR) during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP). Materials and Methods Data from 107 patients who underwent RALP were compared on the basis of whether the patients underwent BNP and PUR, BNP only, or the standard technique (ST). In group A (n=31 patients), ST was performed by using Ven velthoven continuous suturing for urethrovesical anastomosis. In group B (n=28 patients), ST with only PUR was performed. In group C (n=48 patients), both the BNP and PUR techniques were used. "Recovery of continence" was defined as the use of 1 pad (50 ml) or less within 24 hours. Results The three groups were comparable in terms of patient demographics. The mean operative time and the mean blood loss decreased significantly from group A to group C (p=0.021 for mean operative time and p=0.004 for the mean blood loss). Mean catheterization time was 8.9, 7.8, and 7.1 days in each group (p=0.047). Early return of urinary continence at 3 months was observed in group B (89.2%) and group C (90.6%) compared with group A (71%). However, continence at 6 months was comparable in the 3 groups (87.5% in group A, 92.8% in group B, and 92.3% in group C). Rates of positive surgical margins decreased from 30.2% in group A to 20% in group B and 12% in group C. Conclusions BNP and PUR during RALP showed a favorable impact on the early postoperative recovery of continence while not affecting positive surgical margins. PMID:22323971

  1. Giant urethral calculus in a 6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Rivilla, F; Luis, A; Llanos, D; Ruiz, A

    2008-12-01

    Urinary stones are rarely seen in the urethra and are usually encountered in men with urethral stricture or diverticulum. Primary urethral calculi are extremely infrequent in females. We describe a case of a giant urethral stone impacted in a 6-year-old girl.

  2. Male urethral diverticulum uncommon entity: Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Naveen; Sabale, Vilas Pandurang; Mane, Deepak; Mullay, Abhirudra

    2016-01-01

    Out pouching of the urethral wall could be congenital or acquired. Male urethral diverticulum (UD) is a rare entity. We present 2 cases of acquired and 1 case of congenital male UD. Case 1A: 40 year male presented with SPC and dribbling urine. Clinically he had hard perineal swelling. RGU revealed large diverticulum in proximal bulbar, irregular narrow distal urethra and stricture just beyond diverticulum. Managed with perineal exploration, stone removal, diverticulum repair and urethroplasty using excess diverticular wall. Case 2A: 30 year male with obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Retrograde urethrogram (RGU) revealed bulbar urethral diverticulum akin to anterior urethral valve, managed endoscopically. 1 year follow up urine stream satisfactory. Case 3A: 27 year male previously operated large proximal bulbar urethral stone with incontinence. RGU large proximal bulbar UD with wide open sphincter. Treated with excision of excess diverticular wall and penile clamp with pelvic exercises for incontinence. Congenital UD develops due to imperfect closure of urethral fold, Acquired UDs occurs secondary to stricture, infection, trauma, long standing impacted urethral stones or scrotal / skin flap urethroplasties. RGU and MCU are the best diagnostic technique to confirm and characterize the UD. Urethral diverticulectomy with urethral reconstruction is the recommended treatment for UD. UD is a rare entity. Especially in males, congenital are even more rare. Management should be individualized. Surgery can involve innovation and/or surgical modifications. We used excess diverticular flap for stricture urethroplasty in one case. PMID:28057997

  3. Allium Stents: A Novel Solution for the Management of Upper and Lower Urinary Tract Strictures.

    PubMed

    Bahouth, Zaher; Moskovitz, Boaz; Halachmi, Sarel; Nativ, Ofer

    2017-08-22

    Stents are widely use in endoscopic urological procedures. One of the most important indications is the treatment of urinary tract strictures. Allium(™) Medical has introduced several types of stents for the treatment of different types of urinary tract strictures, based on anatomic location. All the stents are made of nitinol and coated with a co-polymer that reduces encrustations. These stents are self-expandable and have a large caliber and a high radial force. They have different shapes, designed especially for the treatment of each type of stricture. One of the most important features of Allium-manufactured stents is the ease of removal, due to their special unraveling feature. The company has introduced the Bulbar Urethral Stent (BUS) for treatment of bulbar urethral strictures; a rounded stent available in different lengths. Initial data on 64 patients with bulbar urethral stricture treated with the BUS showed a significant improvement in symptoms, with minimal complications and few adverse events. For treatment of prostate obstruction in patients unfit for surgery or unwilling to undergo a classical prostatic surgery, the Triangular Prostatic Stent (TPS) was introduced, which has a triangular shape that fits in the prostatic urethra. Its body has a high radial force attached to an anchor (which prevents migration) through a trans-sphincteric wire (which reduces incontinence rate). Initial data on 51 patients showed significant improvement in symptoms and in urinary peak flow rate, with a relatively small number of complications. The Round Posterior Stent (RPS) was designed for treatment of post radical prostatectomy bladder neck contracture. This short, round stent has an anchor, which is placed in the bladder neck. This stent being relatively new, the clinical data are still limited. Ureteral strictures can be treated with the Ureteral Stent (URS), which is round-shaped, available in different lengths, and has an anchor option (for very distal or very

  4. Variety of congenital urethral lesions in boys with lower urinary tract symptoms and the results of endoscopic treatment.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Toshiharu; Nakai, Hideo; Mori, Ken-ichi; Sato, Ryo; Kitahara, Satoshi; Yasuda, Kosaku

    2008-03-01

    We described various types of congenital urethral anomalies seen in boys with LUTS such as refractory enuresis. Their urethrograpic and endoscopic finding were reviewed and the effect of trans-urethral incision (TUI) was analyzed. We evaluated 67 boys with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS, mean: 9 years old), in a period of three and a half years. A voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was performed in 37 patients and if we suspected a urethral abnormality, endoscopy was performed. Congenital urethral obstruction was diagnosed from VCUG and endoscopic findings and classified into Types 1, 3 and 4 posterior urethral valves (PUV) according to Douglas Stephens' description. Trans-urethral incision (TUI) was carried out for congenital urethral obstruction and the effect was judged three months later. On VCUG, 17 patients (45.8%) had an abnormal urethral configuration. On endoscopy, nine patients (24.3%) were diagnosed as having PUV. The effect of TUI on PUV excluding Type 3 was 80%, while that on Type 3 was 25%. The incidence of PUV compared to bulbar urethral narrowing was significantly different from that described in previous Japanese reports, but similar to other countries. The reason is thought to be the lack of standardized interpretations of VCUG images and endoscopic findings, resulting in the overestimation of the bulbar urethral lesion. The incidence of PUV in Japanese boys with LUTS was higher than had ever been described. The improvement rate by TUI was high in PUV excluding Type 3, but low in Type 3. The ring like strictures at the bulbar urethra may be less important than has previously been thought.

  5. The stone formation in the Memotherm urethral stent implantation area: Is it a rare complication?

    PubMed Central

    Karakose, Ayhan; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya; Aydogdu, Ozgu

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent urethral stricture is one of the biggest problems in urology. Urethral stents as an alternative treatment has been used since 1985. The stone formation in the Memotherm (Angiomed) urethral stent implantation area is a rare complication. We report the case of a 67-year-old man who had a stone in the Memotherm urethral stent implantation area 6 years after his urethral stent surgery. PMID:24678370

  6. Catheter-induced urethral trauma in cats with urethral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Corgozinho, Katia B; de Souza, Heloisa J M; Pereira, Adriana N; Belchior, Cristiane; da Silva, Michel A; Martins, Marina C L; Damico, Cristiane B

    2007-12-01

    Fifteen cats were evaluated with urethral obstruction. Penile trauma by catheterization was the major indication for perineal urethrostomy. Ten cats had developed a urethral stricture and five had rupture of the urethra following medical management. All cats had abnormalities in penis and/or prepuce and/or scrotal sacs including hyperemia or swelling. Perineal urethrostomy was performed in all cases and they were evaluated for 6 months after surgery. Few complications were noted. Urinary tract infection was the most frequent complication observed. The clients considered their cats to have a good quality of life following surgery.

  7. Acute urinary retention. Comparison of suprapubic and urethral catheterisation.

    PubMed

    Horgan, A F; Prasad, B; Waldron, D J; O'Sullivan, D C

    1992-08-01

    A total of 86 consecutive patients who presented to the accident and emergency department with acute urinary retention due to prostatomegaly required catheterisation; 56 received suprapubic catheters and 30 were catheterised urethrally. Both groups were followed up for 3 years. Of the 30 patients catheterised urethrally, 12 (40%) developed urinary tract infections compared with 10 (18%) urinary tract infections in the 56 patients catheterised suprapubically. Five patients (17%) in the urethral group developed urethral strictures with no strictures in the suprapubic group. Two patients catheterised urethrally developed epididymo-orchitis and 1 developed septicaemia. None of the patients with suprapubic catheters developed these complications. Furthermore, 16 patients catheterised suprapubically underwent successful trial clamping of their catheter, whereas 7 patients required recatheterisation following removal of their urethral catheters. We recommend that the use of suprapubic catheters should become the preferred initial treatment for acute urinary retention.

  8. Dynamic three-dimensional spiral computed tomographic cysto-urethrography: a novel technique for evaluating post-traumatic posterior urethral defects.

    PubMed

    El-Kassaby, A-W; Osman, T; Abdel-Aal, A; Sadek, M; Nayef, N

    2003-12-01

    To present a new method of identifying the anatomy of posterior urethral distraction defects (PUDDs) using three-dimensional spiral computed tomography/cysto-urethrography (CTCUG), as conventional two-dimensional CUG can give a false interpretation of the exact anatomy. Twenty-one patients presenting with a PUDD were assessed between February 2001 and October 2002. All patients initially underwent combined ascending and micturating CUG (ACUG), followed by CTCUG analysed using special software. In this technique all soft-tissue densities were subtracted from the volume of interest leaving only high-density images, i.e. pelvic bony structure and the contrast medium-filled bladder and urethra. The images were taken over a sequence and 36 different images viewed by 'roll and spin' techniques, each of which had a different plane of vision. Images were supplied as static CT films and as a movie on a compact disk using a computer program. The technique allows one CT image to be viewed from 36 different angles both dynamically and statically, allowing the surgeon the unique opportunity to view the PUDD through several planes and precisely identify its anatomy. By comparing the data obtained with this technique to those obtained by conventional ACUG, and each in relation to the operative findings, the following aspects could be more thoroughly evaluated by CTCUG: the location of the distraction injury, the length of the distraction defect, the degree and direction of urethral end-alignment, the relation of the ectopic bony fragments and bone callus to the urethra, and the presence of various pathological defects, e.g. fistulae, false passages and diverticulae. With CTCUG, both static and dynamic images can be obtained, allowing the easier staging of a PUDD and thus better surgical planning and consequently better results from reconstruction.

  9. Management strategies for idiopathic urethritis.

    PubMed

    Henderson, L; Farrelly, P; Dickson, A P; Goyal, A

    2016-02-01

    Williams and Mikhael (1971) described idiopathic urethritis (IU) as a self-limiting condition that affects boys aged 5-15 years, with symptoms of urethrorrhagia, dysuria and haematuria. However, a proportion of boys will remain symptomatic for several years, and may develop urethral stricture (Poch et al., 2007; Palagiri et al., 2003). There is no universally effective treatment for IU, although various strategies have been employed. To review the presentation and long-term outcomes of boys with IU, and present the efficacy of management strategies that have been utilised. A retrospective review was performed of all boys with IU. It was based on clinical and cystoscopic findings for presentation, medical history, management and clinical progress. Fifty-four boys were included, with a median age of 11 years (range 5-15 years) at presentation. The median duration of symptoms was 18 months (range 2-132 months). The median follow-up was 18.5 months (range 1-120 months). Seven (13.0%) boys had early urethral stricture at initial cystourethroscopy, and one (1.9%) developed stricture during follow-up. Thirty-six boys (66.7%) had previous circumcision and four (7.4%) had meatal stenosis. Eight (14.8%) had previous hypospadias repair. Whilst 50% of boys with IU do not require any specific treatment, those with severe/unremitting symptoms may benefit from a trial of urethral steroids or short-term urethral catheterisation. The mechanisms of benefit from these modalities are unclear and they require further evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Urethral calculi with a urethral fistula: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Mingqiang; Zeng, Fanchang; Wang, Zhao; Xue, Ruizhi; Huang, Liang; Xiang, Xuyu; Chen, Zhi; Tang, Zhengyan

    2017-09-06

    To explore and summarize the reasons why urethral calculi cause a urethral fistula. We retrospectively studied 1 patient in Xiangya hospital and all relevant literature published in English between 1989 and 2015. The patients (including those reported in the literature) were characterized by age, origin, location of calculus, size of calculus, fistulous track, and etiological factors. Most of urethral calculi associated with a urethral fistula were native generated. Urethral calculi can be formed in various locations of the urethra, and the size of the calculus ranged from small (multiple) calculi to giant stones. The fistula external orifice located at the root of the penis was relatively common, and there were various etiological factors, such as urethral strictures, urethral trauma induced by long-term catheterization, lumbar fractures, and congenital anomaly factors. They were managed by the excision of the fistulous tract, retrieval of the urethral stones, and/or debridement and pus drainage operations. Some elements, such as trauma, recurrent urinary tract infections, abscess formation induced by long-term catheterization, and urethral calculus, may be the risk factors for a urethral fistula.

  11. [First experience of Ho:YAG laser urethrotomy in the treatment of strictures in patients with prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Lebedinets, A A; Shkol'nik, M I; Timofeev, D A

    2014-01-01

    Strictures of vesicourethral anastomosis (VUA), urethral strictures, and bladder neck obliteration are frequent complications occurring after treatment for prostate cancer and dramatically reducing the quality of life of the patients. To date, there is no single standard treatment of urethral strictures. One of the promising methods is laser optical urethrotomy using a solid-state Ho:YAG- laser. Since 2012, we treated 12 patients with strictures of VUA, urethral strictures, and bladder neck obliteration. According urethrography, the maximum length of stricture was 4.5 cm. Treatment efficacy was assessed at 6 months after surgery objectively according urethrography, uroflowmetry, and ultrasound of the bladder with the definition of residual urine; and subjectively--by IPSS questionnaire and QoL questionnaire. After removal of the urethral catheter, all patients had recovered independent urination, decreased IPSS scores by 59.5%, IPSS-QoL score by 45.87%, decreased residual urine volume by 89.92%, and increased maximum urinary flow rate by 78.19%. Intraoperative complications and early postoperative complications were not observed. Ho:YAG laser is a minimally invasive and safe tool for urethrotomy of strictures of VUA, urethral strictures, and bladder neck obliteration arising after treatment for prostate cancer. Definitive conclusions about the effectiveness of this method should be based on long-term results of comparative trials.

  12. An unusual urethral foreign body☆

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, Krishanth; Chung, Amanda; Mulcahy, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Lower urinary tract foreign body insertions have a low incidence. The motives for insertion of a variety of objects are difficult to comprehend. This case warrants discussion given the great management challenge faced by the oddity and infrequency with which a fork is encountered in the penile urethra. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 70-year-old man presents to the Emergency Department with a bleeding urethral meatus following self-insertion of a fork into the urethra to achieve sexual gratification. Multiple retrieval methods were contemplated with success achieved via forceps traction and copious lubrication. DISCUSSION The presentation of urethral foreign bodies can vary widely, as can the type of object inserted. The most prevalent motivation for self-insertion of urethral foreign bodies is autoerotism. Motivations ought to be explored in light of possible underlying psychological or psychiatric conditions. The most appropriate surgical extraction technique can be guided by physical examination and imaging. Endoscopic removal is often successful, depending on the object's physical attributes and morphology. It is important to arrange appropriate follow-up, as late complications can occur such as urethral strictures. CONCLUSION Psychological and surgical arms encompass the management plan. Foreign body retrieval is determined by its physical attributes and morphology with the aim to minimise urothelial trauma and preserve erectile function. Essentially, endourological extraction serves the primary means of retrieval. Cystourethoscopy is important to diagnose urothelial injuries and to ensure complete removal of foreign bodies following extraction. PMID:24055017

  13. [Surgical treatment of traumatic ruptures of the posterior urethra].

    PubMed

    Aboutaieb, R; Sarf, I; Dakir, M; el Moussaoui, A; Joual, A; Meziane, F; Benjelloun, S

    2000-02-01

    To compare the therapeutic results of deferred urgent surgical treatment and late treatment of traumatic ruptures of the posterior urethra. 35 patients with a mean age of 25 years (range: 7 to 79 years) were operated for trauma of the posterior urethra. In most cases, trauma was secondary to a road accident, associated with fracture of the pelvis. When rupture of the posterior urethra was diagnosed, the subsequent management depended on the patient's general condition and associated lesions. In the absence of serious skeletal or visceral lesions, the patient was operated within 3 weeks following trauma, after radiological assessment. This approach was applied in 16 patients (Group I). The other 19 patients (Group II) were only operated at the sixth month, after stabilization of all traumatic lesions. Results were assessed in terms of the quality of the urinary stream, urinary continence and sexual impotence. The stream was considered to be good in 93.75% of cases (Group I) and 78.8% of cases (Group II). Continence was perfect in 100% of cases (Group I), versus 89.4% (Group II) and sexual impotence was observed in 18.7% (Group I) versus 5.3% (Group II). Trauma of the posterior urethra, without any serious associated lesions, can be operated as a deferred emergency with excellent results in terms of voiding (80% of good results), but with a higher frequency of sexual impotence. In patients with serious associated lesions, the therapeutic management of the urethral trauma is performed after an interval of 3 to 6 months, at the stage of urethral stricture. In this case, surgery consists of resection of the fibrous callus, followed by urethral anastomosis. The results of this operation are good, at the cost of repeated stricture, treated endoscopically, but with a lower incidence of sexual impotence.

  14. Crosstalk between TGF-β1 and CXCR3 signaling during urethral fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong; Feng, Chao; Fu, Qiang; Sa, Ying-Long; Xu, Yue-Min

    2014-09-01

    Urethral fibrosis is an important pathological feature of urethral stricture. TGF-β1 and CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) signaling have been reported as the critical pathways involved in the pathology of fibrosis. Here, we collected the urine samples from the patients with recurring urethral stricture, recurring stricture treated by cystostomy, and age- and gender-matched healthy people. ELISA detection revealed that TGF-β1 level was significantly up-regulated for the urethral stricture patients. By contrast, flow cytometry, real-time PCR detection, and immunofluoresecent staining showed that urethral stricture resulted in decreased expression of CXCR3. TGF-β1 treatment could increase cell proliferation and migration ability of urethra fibroblasts, whereas IP-10/CXCR3 signaling showed the opposite effect. Further, we found a crosstalk between TGF-β1 and CXCR3 signaling in the regulation of urethral fibrosis. Thus, pharmacological intervention of TGF-β1 or CXCR3 signaling has a potential as the therapeutic target for the prevention of urethral fibrosis.

  15. Management of Long-Segment and Panurethral Stricture Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Francisco E.; Kulkarni, Sanjay B.; Joshi, Pankaj; Warner, Jonathan; Martins, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Long-segment urethral stricture or panurethral stricture disease, involving the different anatomic segments of anterior urethra, is a relatively less common lesion of the anterior urethra compared to bulbar stricture. However, it is a particularly difficult surgical challenge for the reconstructive urologist. The etiology varies according to age and geographic location, lichen sclerosus being the most prevalent in some regions of the globe. Other common and significant causes are previous endoscopic urethral manipulations (urethral catheterization, cystourethroscopy, and transurethral resection), previous urethral surgery, trauma, inflammation, and idiopathic. The iatrogenic causes are the most predominant in the Western or industrialized countries, and lichen sclerosus is the most common in India. Several surgical procedures and their modifications, including those performed in one or more stages and with the use of adjunct tissue transfer maneuvers, have been developed and used worldwide, with varying long-term success. A one-stage, minimally invasive technique approached through a single perineal incision has gained widespread popularity for its effectiveness and reproducibility. Nonetheless, for a successful result, the reconstructive urologist should be experienced and familiar with the different treatment modalities currently available and select the best procedure for the individual patient. PMID:26779259

  16. Medical management of urethral and colonic perforation associated with urinary catheterization in a kitten.

    PubMed

    Whittemore, Jacqueline C; Zucca, Lynda

    2003-09-15

    A 6-week-old male kitten was evaluated because of stranguria and possible urethral blockage; a urinary catheter placed during general anesthesia penetrated the urethral and colonic walls and entered the colon. Treatment was conservative, with fluids administered i.v., administration of piperacillin, and supportive care. The kitten never became febrile or clinically ill and continued to thrive. There was no development of clinical signs consistent with stricture, diverticulum, or fistula formation. Complications from urethral perforation include infection and urethral stricture. Reconstructive surgery is considered the treatment of choice for traumatic urethral-colonic perforation. However, surgery may not be feasible or may be cost-prohibitive in certain situations. In such instances, medical management may provide a reasonable alternative to euthanasia.

  17. Management of the devastated posterior urethra and bladder neck: refractory incontinence and stenosis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kirk M; Higuchi, Ty T; Flynn, Brian J

    2015-02-01

    Stricture of the proximal urethra following treatment for prostate cancer occurs in an estimated 1-8% of patients. Following prostatectomy, urethral reconstruction is feasible in many patients. However, in those patients with prior radiation therapy (RT), failed reconstruction, refractory incontinence or multiple comorbidities, reconstruction may not be feasible. The purpose of this article is to review the evaluation and management options for patients who are not candidates for reconstruction of the posterior urethra and require urinary diversion. Patient evaluation should result in the decision whether reconstruction is feasible. In our experience, risk factors for failed reconstruction include prior radiation and multiple failed endoscopic treatments. Pre-operative cystoscopy is an essential part of the evaluations to identify tissue necrosis, dystrophic calcification, or tumor in the urethra, prostate and/or bladder. If urethral reconstruction is not feasible it is imperative to discuss options for urine diversion with the patient. Treatment options include simple catheter diversion, urethral ligation, and both bladder preserving and non-preserving diversion. Surgical management should address both the bladder and the bladder outlet. This can be accomplished from a perineal, abdominal or abdomino-perineal approach. The devastated bladder outlet is a challenging problem to treat. Typically, patients undergo multiple procedures in an attempt to restore urethral continuity and continence. For the small subset who fails reconstruction, urinary diversion provides a definitive, "end-stage" treatment resulting in improved quality of life.

  18. Urethral discharge culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003750.htm Urethral discharge culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urethral discharge culture is a laboratory test done on men and ...

  19. Penile urethral reconstruction: concepts and concerns.

    PubMed

    Barbagli, Guido; Palminteri, Enzo; Bracka, Aivar; Caparrós Sariol, Joan

    2003-06-01

    Reconstruction of the penile urethra is a challenging exercise, and for many surgeons an ungratifying experience. The past three decades have seen us move from predominantly 2-staged surgery, through foreskin grafts, and then single stage flap reconstructions, and now in the 3rd millennium, for some situations 2-stage repair has again become the favoured option. Satisfying short-term solutions have sometimes resulted in poor long-term outcomes when reviewed 10 years later. Clearly there are still problems to be resolved, hence the need for continuing evolution in our surgical management. Lessons have been learned from the treatment of Lichen Sclerosus, from strictures following hypospadias repair, and strictures associated with severe spongiofibrosis. Management of these problems has traditionally been associated with not only a high incidence of restricture and fistula formation, but also with poor cosmetic results, something that men today find increasingly difficult to accept. Several considerations are fundamental to achieving the best functional and aesthetic results. These include the presence or absence of Lichen Sclerosus, the extent of urethral disease and its grade (i.e. mucosal disease or with accompanying spongiofibrosis); furthermore the use of non-genital grafts for urethral reconstruction when the local penile tissues are deficient or unhealthy. In arriving at our present strategy, a collaborative approach that integrates established urological practice with the different perspectives of a plastic surgeon (A.B.) has proved constructive and beneficial.

  20. Electrospun Poly(l-lactide)/Poly(ethylene glycol) Scaffolds Seeded with Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Urethral Epithelium Repair

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiaokui; Guo, Qianping; Han, Fengxuan; Chen, Chunyang; Ling, Christopher; Chen, Weiguo; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering-based urethral replacement holds potential for repairing large segmental urethral defects, which remains a great challenge at present. This study aims to explore the potential of combining biodegradable poly(l-lactide) (PLLA)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) scaffolds and human amniotic mesenchymal cells (hAMSCs) for repairing urethral defects. PLLA/PEG fibrous scaffolds with various PEG fractions were fabricated via electrospinning. The scaffolds were then seeded with hAMSCs prior to implantation in New Zealand male rabbits that had 2.0 cm-long defects in the urethras. The rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. In group A, hAMSCs were grown on PLLA/PEG scaffolds for two days and then implanted to the urethral defects. In group B, only the PLLA/PEG scaffolds were used to rebuild the rabbit urethral defect. In group C, the urethral defect was reconstructed using a regular urethral reparation technique. The repair efficacy was compared among the three groups by examining the urethral morphology, tissue reconstruction, luminal patency, and complication incidence (including calculus formation, urinary fistula, and urethral stricture) using histological evaluation and urethral radiography methods. Findings from this study indicate that hAMSCs-loaded PLLA/PEG scaffolds resulted in the best urethral defect repair in rabbits, which predicts the promising application of a tissue engineering approach for urethral repair. PMID:27517902

  1. Electrospun Poly(l-lactide)/Poly(ethylene glycol) Scaffolds Seeded with Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Urethral Epithelium Repair.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaokui; Guo, Qianping; Han, Fengxuan; Chen, Chunyang; Ling, Christopher; Chen, Weiguo; Li, Bin

    2016-08-09

    Tissue engineering-based urethral replacement holds potential for repairing large segmental urethral defects, which remains a great challenge at present. This study aims to explore the potential of combining biodegradable poly(l-lactide) (PLLA)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) scaffolds and human amniotic mesenchymal cells (hAMSCs) for repairing urethral defects. PLLA/PEG fibrous scaffolds with various PEG fractions were fabricated via electrospinning. The scaffolds were then seeded with hAMSCs prior to implantation in New Zealand male rabbits that had 2.0 cm-long defects in the urethras. The rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. In group A, hAMSCs were grown on PLLA/PEG scaffolds for two days and then implanted to the urethral defects. In group B, only the PLLA/PEG scaffolds were used to rebuild the rabbit urethral defect. In group C, the urethral defect was reconstructed using a regular urethral reparation technique. The repair efficacy was compared among the three groups by examining the urethral morphology, tissue reconstruction, luminal patency, and complication incidence (including calculus formation, urinary fistula, and urethral stricture) using histological evaluation and urethral radiography methods. Findings from this study indicate that hAMSCs-loaded PLLA/PEG scaffolds resulted in the best urethral defect repair in rabbits, which predicts the promising application of a tissue engineering approach for urethral repair.

  2. Overnight urethral stenting after tubularized incised plate urethroplasty for distal hypospadias.

    PubMed

    Ritch, Chad R; Murphy, Alana M; Woldu, Solomon L; Reiley, Elizabeth A; Hensle, Terry W

    2010-06-01

    The duration of urethral stenting after tubularized incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty for hypospadias varies among surgeons. Typically the catheter is left for up to 7 days with the goal of minimizing post-operative complications. We describe our experience with overnight stenting for distal TIP hypospadias repair. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients who underwent TIP hypospadias repair from 2003 to 2008. Patients who had their urethral catheter overnight were included in this analysis. Outcomes analyzed were the rates of: urethrocutaneous fistula, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture and urinary tract infections. A total of 64 patients underwent outpatient TIP hypospadias repair. Forty-nine patients had overnight urethral stenting with at least 12 months follow-up and were included in the analysis. Five of the 49 patients (10.2%) developed urethrocutaneous fistula. Of these five patients, two had undergone re-do hypospadias repair. The fistula rate in primary repairs was 3/45 (6.7%). There were no incidences of meatal stenosis, urinary tract infections or urethral strictures. In our experience, overnight urethral stenting for TIP hypospadias repair does not significantly affect the rates of urethrocutaneous fistula, meatal stenosis and urinary tract infections. Patients who have had a primary TIP hypospadias repair may have their urethral catheter removed safely on post-operative day one.

  3. Direct visual internal urethrotomy for isolated, post-urethroplasty strictures: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Elizabeth Timbrook; Mock, Stephen; Dmochowski, Roger; Reynolds, W. Stuart; Milam, Douglas; Kaufman, Melissa R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urethroplasty is often successful for the treatment of male urethral stricture disease, but limited data exists on recurrence management. Our goal was to evaluate direct visual internal urethrotomy (DVIU) as a treatment option for isolated, recurrent strictures after urethroplasty. Methods: We retrospectively identified male patients who underwent urethroplasty from 1999 to 2013 and developed an isolated, recurrent stricture at the urethroplasty site treated with DVIU. Success was defined as lack of symptomatology and no subsequent intervention. Comparative analysis identified characteristics and stricture properties associated with success. Results: A total of 436 urethroplasties were performed in 401 patients at our institution between 1999 and 2013. Stricture recurrence was noted in 64 (16%) patients. Of these, 47 (73%) underwent a DVIU. A total of 37 patients met inclusion criteria and underwent 50 DVIU procedures at the urethroplasty site. A single DVIU was successful in 13 of 37 patients (35%). A total of 4 of 6 patients required a second DVIU (67%). Overall, 17 of 43 (40%) of the total DVIUs were successful after urethroplasty. Success did not differ by age, stricture length or location, surgical technique, radiation history, prior urethroplasty or DVIU, time to failure, or etiology. Conclusions: Post-urethroplasty DVIU for isolated, recurrent strictures may be offered as a minimally invasive treatment option. Approximately 40% of patients were spared further intervention. PMID:28203286

  4. Anterior Urethral Valve: Uncommon Association with Renal Duplicity

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Amina Ben; Mazhoud, Ines; Laamiri, Rachida; Salem, Randa; Laajili, Hayet; Sahnoun, Lassaad; Hafsa, Chiraz

    2017-01-01

    Anterior urethral valves (AUVs) is an unusual cause of congenital obstruction of the male urethra, being 15–30 times less common than posterior urethral valves. We present a case of AUV diagnosed at 24th gestational week. Ultrasonography and fetal MRI revealed hydronephrotic kidneys with ureteral duplicity, a distended bladder and perineal cystic mass which confirmed dilated anterior urethra in a male fetus. Diagnosis was confirmed postnatally by voiding cystourethrogram and surgery. PMID:28770138

  5. Effect of adipose tissue-derived stem cell injection in a rat model of urethral fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sangkum, Premsant; Yafi, Faysal A.; Kim, Hogyoung; Bouljihad, Mostafa; Ranjan, Manish; Datta, Amrita; Mandava, Sree Harsha; Sikka, Suresh C; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B.; Hellstrom, Wayne J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We sought to evaluate the therapeutic effect of adi-pose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in a rat model of urethral fibrosis. Methods: Eighteen (18) male Sprague-Dawley rats (300‒350 g) were divided into three groups: (1) sham (saline injection); (2) urethral fibrosis group (10 μg transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) injection); and (3) ADSCs group (10 μg TGF-β1 injection plus 2 × 105 ADSCs). Rat ADSCs were harvested from rat inguinal fat pads. All study animals were euthanized at two weeks after urethral injection. Following euthanasia, rat urethral tissue was harvested for histologic evaluation. Type I and III collagen levels were quantitated by Western blot analysis. Results: TGF-β1 injection induced significant urethral fibrosis and increased collagen type I and III expression (p<0.05). Significant decrease in submucosal fibrosis and collagen type I and III expression were noted in the ADSCs group compared with the urethral fibrosis group (p<0.05). TGF-β1 induced fibrotic changes were ameliorated by injection of ADSCs. Conclusions: Local injection of ADSCs in a rat model of urethral fibrosis significantly decreased collagen type I and III. These findings suggest that ADSC injection may prevent scar formation and potentially serve as an adjunct treatment to increase the success rate of primary treatment for urethral stricture disease. Further animal and clinical studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:27790299

  6. Urethral healing in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Scherz, H C; Kaplan, G W; Boychuk, D I; Landa, H M; Haghighi, P

    1992-08-01

    We studied urethral healing in New Zealand white rabbits by histological examination after insult (urethral catheter) or injury (urethrotomy) specifically for acute and chronic inflammation, fibrosis, fistulas, squamous metaplasia, foreign body giant cells and urethral dilatation. Urethral catheterization resulted in increased inflammation and fibrosis compared to noncatheterized animals. Skin closure techniques and materials resulted in an inflammatory response that may extend to and involve the urethra. Minor differences in suture size were not an important variable but the persistence of suture material may have a role in the degree of inflammation and the formation of foreign body giant cells. Transepithelial closure techniques drag epithelial cells into subcutaneous tissues and may predispose to fistula formation.

  7. Management of Urethral Recurrences: Urothelial and Nonurothelial.

    PubMed

    Zargar-Shoshtari, Kamran; Sexton, Wade J; Poch, Michael A

    2016-11-01

    This article discusses the diagnostic and therapeutic options in the management of urethral cancer recurrence in patients treated with urethral sparing cystectomy as well as those who had urethral preservation following primary urethral carcinoma.

  8. Trichomonal urethritis in Nigerian males.

    PubMed

    Sogbetun, A O; Osoba, A O

    1974-09-01

    The incidence and mode of presentation of trichomonal urethritis in Nigerian males have benn investigated. Nineteen (10.6%) out of 179 patients presenting with non-gonococcal urethritis were found to harbour the parasite. The commonest symptoms were urethral discharge and/or urethral irritation. The usefulness of examining wet preparations of the urethral exudate in diagnosis is stressed. No significant difference has been found between the incidence of the condition in Nigerians as compared with other ethnic groups. Attention is drawn to the possibility of T. vaginalis playing a role in male infertility, its superinfection in longstanding urethritis is stressed, and the therapeutic efficacy of metronidazole is appraised.

  9. [Anatomy of the urethral sphincteric vesico-prostatic complex].

    PubMed

    Gadda, F; Carmignani, L; Favini, P; Acquati, P; Avogadro, A; Rocco, F

    2001-09-01

    As 27 different names have been proposed for the components of the urethral sphincter, it is difficult to build a clear anatomical model of it. Starting from a review of the literature and from some personal observations of surgical anatomy, our aim is to draw a vision as much organic as possible of the anatomy of the urethral sphincter. The components of the urethral sphincter are: the bladder neck (preprostatic sphincter), the smooth muscle urethral sphincter, the rhabdosphincter and levator ani muscle. Recently the rhabdosphincter has been proposed as a vertical structure that extends from the pelvic cavity (bladder base) to the perineal cavity. It can be round-shaped or omega-shaped. The anterior insertions are along the anterolateral aspect of the prostate (superiorly) and on the perineal fascia (inferiorly). The posterior insertions are on the Denonvilliers fascia and posterior aspect of the prostatic apex (superiorly) and on the central perineal tendon (inferiorly). The rhabdosphincter has strong means of fixations: anteriorly it is fixed to the pubis by the pubo-urethral ligaments, posteriorly it is supported by the medial fibrous raphe of the perineum. The anteromedial fibres of levator ani muscle are involved in the continence mechanism by their strong relation with the rhabdosphincter and the prostate.

  10. Laser lithotripsy of a urethral calculus via ischial urethrotomy in a steer.

    PubMed

    Streeter, R N; Washburn, K E; Higbee, R G; Bartels, K E

    2001-09-01

    A steer examined because of obstructive urolithiasis and urethral rupture underwent laser lithotripsy, using a chromium-thulium-holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser inserted through an ischial urethrotomy. Procedures were performed with caudal epidural anesthesia. Six months after surgery, the urethra was patent with no clinical evidence of urethral stricture or fistula. Ischial urethrotomy provided rapid access to the bladder for catheterization and to the obstructive urolith for lithotripsy. Laser lithotripsy was a rapid and effective means of urolith removal in this steer.

  11. Experience with 32 Pelvic Fracture Urethral Defects Associated with Urethrorectal Fistulas: Transperineal Urethroplasty with Gracilis Muscle Interposition.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hailin; Sa, Yinglong; Fu, Qiang; Jin, Chongrui; Wang, Lin

    2017-07-01

    Pelvic fracture urethral defects associated with urethrorectal fistulas are rare and difficult to repair. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transperineal urethroplasty with gracilis muscle interposition for the repair of pelvic fracture urethral defects associated with urethrorectal fistulas. We identified 32 patients who underwent transperineal urethroplasty with gracilis muscle interposition to repair pelvic fracture urethral defects associated with urethrorectal fistulas. Patient demographics as well as preoperative, operative and postoperative data were obtained. Mean followup was 33 months (range 6 to 64). The overall success rate was 91% (29 of 32 cases). One-stage repair was successful in 17 of 18 patients (94%) using perineal anastomosis with separation of the corporeal body and in 12 of 14 (86%) using perineal anastomosis with inferior pubectomy and separation of the corporeal body. All 22 patients (100%) without a previous history of repair were successfully treated. However, only 7 of 10 patients (70%) with a previous history of failed urethroplasty and urethrorectal fistula repair were cured. Recurrent urethral strictures developed in 2 cases. One patient was treated successfully with optical internal urethrotomy and the other was treated successfully with tubed perineoscrotal flap urethroplasty. Recurrent urethrorectal fistulas associated with urethral strictures developed in an additional patient. Transperineal urethroplasty with gracilis muscle interposition is a safe and effective surgical procedure for most pelvic fracture urethral defects associated with urethrorectal fistulas. Several other factors may affect its postoperative efficiency. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Erbium: YAG Laser Incision of Urethral Structures for Treatment of Urinary Incontinence After Prostate Cancer Spray

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    devoted to in vivo animal studies comparing the wound healingafter Erbium and Holmium laser incision of the urethra and bladder neck. Further...urinary incontinence. Conventional treatments for stricture (including balloon dilation, cold knife incision, electrocautery, and Holmium laser incision...urethral tissue with a thermal damage zone of only 10-20 µm. This thermal damage zone was much less than that of the Holmium laser which produced 300 µm of

  13. Stricture length and etiology as preoperative independent predictors of recurrence after urethroplasty: A multivariate analysis of 604 urethroplasties

    PubMed Central

    Kinnaird, Adam S.; Levine, Max A.; Ambati, Druvtej; Zorn, Jeff D.; Rourke, Keith F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We determine the preoperative identifiable risk factors during staging that predict stricture recurrence after urethroplasty. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all urethroplasties performed at a Canadian tertiary referral centre from 2003 to 2012. Failure was defined as a recurrent stricture <16 Fr on cystoscopic assessment. Multivariate analysis was calculated by Cox proportional hazard regression. Results: In total, 604 of 651 (93%) urethroplasties performed had adequate data with a mean follow-up of 52 months. Overall urethral patency was 90.7% with failures occurring between 2 weeks and 77 months postoperatively. The average time to recurrence was 11.7 months, with most patients with recurrence within 6 months (42/56; 75%). Multivariate regression identified Lichen sclerosus, iatrogenic, and infectious etiologies to be independently associated with stricture recurrence with hazard ratios (HR) (95% confidence interval) of 5.9 (2.1–16.5; p ≤ 0.001), 3.4 (1.2–10; p = 0.02), and 7.3 (2.3–23.7; p ≤ 0.001), respectively. Strictures ≥5cm recurred significantly more often (13.8% vs. 5.9%) with a HR 2.3 (1.2–4.5; p ≤ 0.01). Comorbidities, smoking, previous urethroplasty, stricture location and an age ≥50 were not associated with recurrence. Conclusion: Urethroplasty in general is an excellent treatment for urethral stricture with patency rates approaching 91%. While recurrences occur over 6 years after surgery, most (75%) recur within the first 6 months. Long segment strictures (≥5 cm), as well as Lichen sclerosus, infectious and iatrogenic etiologies, are associated with increased risk of recurrence. Limitations include the retrospective, single-centre nature of the study and the 7% loss to follow-up due to the centre being a regional referral one. PMID:24940453

  14. Single stage circumferential lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty in near obliterative bulbar urethra stricture: A novel technique

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Umesh; Yadav, Sher Singh; Tomar, Vinay; Garg, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Aims: This is a prospective study of the use and efficacy of a novel technique of circumferential tubularised lingual mucosal graft (LMG) in obliterative and near obliterative bulbar urethral stricture of >2 cm where excisional and augmented anastomotic urethroplasty are not feasible. Materials and Methods: The stenotic urethral segment was opened dorsally in midline and fibrosed urethra was excised taking care to preserve the healthy spongiosum tissue. LMG (av. Length 3 cm) was placed from one end of corporal body towards spongy tissue in a circumferential manner. Another LMG was placed in similar manner to deal with longer stricture. The urethra was tubularised over 14 Fr silicone catheter. Results: A total of 12 men, of mean age 47 years underwent this procedure. The mean follow up period was 11 months starting from July 2014 till manuscript submission. Follow up included voiding cystourethrogram at 3 weeks, cystoscopy at 3 months (one patient didn’t turned up) and subsequent follow up. Mean stricture length was 4.66 cm (range, 3–8.5 cm) and mean operative time was 195 min. (range, 160 to 200 min.). The technique was successful (normal voiding with no need for any post-operative procedure) in 11(91.6%) patients. One patient developed early recurrence at 4 month of surgery and had anastomotic stricture which was successfully managed by direct visual internal urethrotomy. Conclusion: Single stage circumferential tubularised graft urethroplasty is an excellent technique for strictures that include segments of obliterative and near obliterative diseased urethra. It provide a wider neourethra than patch graft urethroplasty. PMID:27141182

  15. [Female urethral obstruction and bladder neck stenosis - fact or myth - how to proceed].

    PubMed

    Gunnemann, A; Liedl, B; Palma, P C R; Yoshimura, Y; Muctar, S

    2015-09-01

    The female urethra is probably the most neglected organ in women. Female urethral stricture and primary bladder neck obstruction are rare clinical entities. Traditional and new surgical techniques have been described for the treatment of female urethral stricture. However, they are based on limited data. There is no consensus on best management. The techniques of urethroplasty all have a higher mean success rate (80-94%) than urethral dilatation (< 50%), albeit with shorter mean follow-up. Urethroplasty performed by experienced surgeons appears to be a feasible option in women who have failed urethral dilatation, although there is a lack of high-level evidence to recommend one technique over another.Primary bladder neck obstruction (PBNO) is a condition in which the bladder neck fails to open adequately during voiding. This leads to increased striated sphincter activity or obstruction of urinary flow without another anatomic cause being present, for example an obstruction caused by genitourinary prolapse in women. Watchful waiting, pharmacotherapy and surgical intervention are possible treatments.

  16. Artificial urinary sphincter urethral erosions: Temporal patterns, management, and incidence of preventable erosions

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Deepak K.; Linder, Brian J.; Elliott, Daniel S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) is the mainstay of surgical treatment for male stress urinary incontinence. Although urethral erosions are a known complication, their temporal distribution and optimal management have not been well characterized. We seek to evaluate the timing, etiologies, and management of urethral erosions in primary AUS implantations. Materials and Methods: 1802 male patients underwent AUS procedure at Mayo Clinic (Rochester) from 1983 to 2011, including 1082 primary placements. Of primary placements, 63 had a urethral erosion of their device requiring explanation and were included in our analysis. All cases of urethral erosion were confirmed at the time of explantation through cystoscopy and direct visualization. At our institution, explantation is typically performed without primary urethral repair. Results: There were 63 cases (5.8%) of urethral erosions of primary AUS devices during the study time frame. The median age at AUS implantation was 74 years (interquartile range [IQR] 68–77 years) and median time to explantation was 21 months (IQR 5–59 months). The temporal trend of AUS erosions demonstrates a peak in the 1st year, with a gradual tapering of cases thereafter, persisting beyond 10 years. Three of 36 (8.3%) patients with follow-up developed a urethral stricture. Overall, 32/63 patients (51%) underwent salvage AUS reimplantation at a median of 7.1 months (IQR 3.1–12.9 months). Conclusions: Urethral erosions tend to occur early (within 1–2 years), with gradual tapering over time. However, continued vigilance is needed after AUS placement to decrease late erosions. These data can be used for counseling and to help guide follow-up care of patients with AUS. PMID:28197026

  17. Primary tuberculosis of urethra presenting as stricture urethra and watering can perineum: A rarity

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Gaurav; Singh, Vishwajeet; Sinha, Rahul Janak; Babu, Suresh; Jhanwar, Ankur; Mehrotra, C. N.

    2016-01-01

    A young man presented with irritative lower urinary tract symptoms and multiple fistulae (watering can) in the perineum since 6 months. Micturating cystourethrogram and retrograde urethrogram was performed after 12 weeks following suprapubic cystostomy which showed bulbar urethral stricture with multiple urethrocutaneous fistulae. He underwent anastomotic urethroplasty and excision of the urethrocutaneous fistulae. Histopathology of the excised fistulous tract showed granulomatous pathology suggestive of tuberculosis. Antitubercular treatment was given for 9 months. The patient is voiding well at 12 months follow-up. PMID:28058001

  18. EAU Guidelines on Urethral Trauma.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Piñeiro, Luis; Djakovic, Nenad; Plas, Eugen; Mor, Yoram; Santucci, Richard A; Serafetinidis, Efraim; Turkeri, Levent N; Hohenfellner, Markus

    2010-05-01

    These guidelines were prepared on behalf of the European Association of Urology (EAU) to assist urologists in the management of traumatic urethral injuries. To determine the optimal evaluation and management of urethral injuries by review of the world's literature on the subject. A working group of experts on Urological Trauma was convened to review and summarize the literature concerning the diagnosis and treatment of genitourinary trauma, including urethral trauma. The Urological Trauma guidelines have been based on a review of the literature identified using on-line searches of MEDLINE and other source documents published before 2009. A critical assessment of the findings was made, not involving a formal appraisal of the data. There were few high-powered, randomized, controlled trials in this area and considerable available data was provided by retrospective studies. The Working Group recognizes this limitation. The full text of these guidelines is available through the EAU Central Office and the EAU website (www.uroweb.org). This article comprises the abridged version of a section of the Urological Trauma guidelines. Updated and critically reviewed Guidelines on Urethral Trauma are presented. The aim of these guidelines is to provide support to the practicing urologist since urethral injuries carry substantial morbidity. The diversity of urethral injuries, associated injuries, the timing and availability of treatment options as well as their relative rarity contribute to the controversies in the management of urethral trauma. Copyright © 2010 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The dose-dependence biological effect of laser fluence on rabbit fibroblasts derived from urethral scar.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Yu, Bo; Sun, Dongchong; Wu, Yuanyi; Xiao, Yi

    2015-04-01

    Two-micrometer laser vaporization resection has been used in clinic for years, but some patients received the treatment are still faced with excessive and abnormal wound repair which leads to the recurrent of urethral stricture eventually. Fibroblasts play a key role in the processes of "narrow-expansion/operation-restenosis" recurring problems. Here, we investigated the effect of laser fluence biomodulation on urethral scar fibroblasts as well as the underlying mechanism. Urethral scar fibroblasts were isolated and cultured, and laser irradiation (2 μm) was applied at different laser fluence or doses (0, 0.125, 0.5, 2, 8, 32 J/cm(2)) with a single exposure in 1 day. The effect of 2-μm laser irradiation on cell proliferation, viability, and expression of scar formation related genes were investigated. Two-micrometer laser irradiation with intermediate dose (8 J/cm(2)) promoted scar fibroblasts proliferation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, while higher doses of 32 J/cm(2) are suppressive as it decreased the survival rate, viability, and proliferation of fibroblasts. In addition, qRT-PCR and Western blotting results both proven that collagen type I, collagen IV, MMP9, and CTGF display significant increase, yet the TGF-β1 expression was severely reduced at intermediate dose (8 J/cm(2)) group when compared with the others groups. Our findings suggest the scar formation-related genes are sensitive to intermediate laser irradiation dose, the most in scar fibroblasts. We revealed the bioeffect and molecular mechanism of 2-μm laser irradiation on rabbit urethral scar fibroblasts. Our study provides new insights into the mechanisms which involved in the excessive and abnormal wound repair of 2-μm laser vaporization resection. These results could potentially contribute to further study on biological effects and application of 2-μm laser irradiation in urethral stricture therapy.

  20. Ruptured urinary bladder attributable to urethral compression by a haematoma after vertebral fracture in a bull

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In male cattle, rupture of the urinary bladder is usually associated with urethral obstruction by uroliths. Less common causes include urethral compression or stricture. This case report describes the findings in a young Limousion breeding bull with rupture of the urinary bladder because of urethral compression by a haematoma after coccygeal fracture. Case presentation The bull had been introduced into a 40-head Red-Holstein herd one week before being injured. One week after introduction to the herd, the bull had an acute onset of anorexia and he was referred to the clinic. There was marked abdominal distension, reduced skin turgor and enophthalmus. The serum concentration of urea and creatinine was increased. Ultrasonographic examination revealed severe ascites and abdominocentesis yielded clear yellow fluid with high urea and creatinine concentrations, which supported a diagnosis of uroperitoneum. The bull was euthanatized because of a poor prognosis. Postmortem examination revealed a comminuted fracture of the first two coccygeal vertebrae associated with a massive haematoma that obstructed entire pelvic cavity. The haematoma compressed the urethra thereby preventing outflow of urine, which resulted in a 5-cm tear ventrally at the neck of the bladder. It was assumed that the newly-introduced bull had sustained the vertebral fractures when he was mounted by a cow. Conclusions The present case study serves to expand the differential diagnosis of urinary bladder rupture. Therefore, in addition to obstructive urolithiasis, compression and stricture of the urethra might be considered in male cattle with uroperitoneum. PMID:24666697

  1. Gram stain of urethral discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your specific test results. What Abnormal Results Mean Abnormal results may indicate gonorrhea or other infections. Risks There are no risks. Considerations A culture of the specimen ( urethral discharge culture ) should be ...

  2. Bladder and urethral repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... 100002.htm Bladder and urethral repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  3. Aluminum phosphide-induced esophageal strictures: a new cause of benign esophageal strictures.

    PubMed

    Misra, Sri Prakash; Dwivedi, Manisha

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen consecutive patients presenting with dysphagia due to aluminum phosphide (AP)-induced esophageal strictures were studied retrospectively to elucidate the natural history of AP-induced esophageal strictures and to evaluate the efficacy of bougie dilation. The median time lag between consumption of AP and occurrence of dysphagia was 3 weeks. All patients had a single stricture and could be dilated using a bougie dilator. Thirteen patients were relieved of dysphagia on a mean (SD) follow-up of 18 (7.3) months. Two patients had recalcitrant strictures and needed needle-knife incision of the stricture followed by balloon dilation. The strictures opened up well in both the patients and they were relieved of dysphagia. AP-induced esophageal stricture is a new cause of benign esophageal stricture. Most patients present with dysphagia around 3 weeks after consumption of AP tablets. A single esophageal stricture is found in these patients. Most strictures respond very well to bougie dilation. However, some of the strictures may be recalcitrant and may require needle-knife incision and balloon dilation.

  4. Management of Biliary Strictures After Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Nicolas A.

    2015-01-01

    Strictures of the bile duct are a well-recognized complication of liver transplant and account for more than 50% of all biliary complications after deceased donor liver transplant and living donor liver transplant. Biliary strictures that develop after transplant are classified as anastomotic strictures or nonanastomotic strictures, depending on their location in the bile duct. The incidence, etiology, natural history, and response to therapy of the 2 types vary greatly, so their distinction is clinically important. The imaging modality of choice for the diagnosis of biliary strictures is magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography because of its high rate of diagnostic accuracy and limited risk of complications. Biliary strictures that develop after liver transplant may be managed with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC), percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), or surgical revision, including retransplant. The initial treatment of choice for these strictures is ERC with progressive balloon dilation and the placement of increasing numbers of plastic stents. PTC and surgery are generally reserved for failures of endoscopic therapy or for anatomic variants that are not suitable for ERC. In this article, we discuss the classification of biliary strictures, their diagnosis, and the therapeutic strategies that can be used to manage these common complications of liver transplant. PMID:27482175

  5. Common controversies in management of biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Parsi, Mansour A

    2017-01-01

    Biliary strictures are caused by a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant conditions, each requiring a specific treatment approach. Management of biliary strictures often involves endoscopy either for definite treatment, as a bridge to surgery or for palliative purposes. Endoscopic treatment of various types of biliary strictures is not standardized and there are multiple areas of controversy regarding the best treatment options. These controversies are mainly due to lack of well-designed comparative studies to support a specific therapy. This paper reviews three common areas of controversy in the endoscopic management of biliary strictures. The areas discussed in this editorial include the role of biliary drainage in resectable malignant strictures and whether such drainage should be performed routinely prior to surgery, the best endoscopic palliation for unresectable hilar strictures and whether unilateral or bilateral stenting should be attempted, and the optimal endoscopic management for dominant strictures in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. The goal of this editorial is twofold. The first is to review the current literature on management of the aforementioned strictures and offer recommendations based on available evidence. The second goal is to highlight the gaps in our knowledge which in turn can encourage future research on these topics. PMID:28275292

  6. Detailed urethral dosimetry in the evaluation of prostate brachytherapy-related urinary morbidity

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Zachariah A.; Merrick, Gregory S. . E-mail: gmerrick@wheelinghospital.com; Butler, Wayne M.; Wallner, Kent E.; Kurko, Brian; Anderson, Richard L.; Murray, Brian C.; Galbreath, Robert W.

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between urinary morbidity after prostate brachytherapy and urethral doses calculated at the base, midprostate, apex, and urogenital diaphragm. Methods and Materials: From February 1998 through July 2002, 186 consecutive patients without a prior history of a transurethral resection underwent monotherapeutic brachytherapy (no supplemental external beam radiation therapy or androgen deprivation therapy) with urethral-sparing techniques (average urethral dose 100%-140% minimum peripheral dose) for clinical T1c-T2b (2002 AJCC) prostate cancer. The median follow-up was 45.5 months. Urinary morbidity was defined by time to International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) resolution, maximum increase in IPSS, catheter dependency, and the need for postimplant surgical intervention. An alpha blocker was initiated approximately 2 weeks before implantation and continued at least until the IPSS returned to baseline. Evaluated parameters included overall urethral dose (average and maximum), doses to the base, midprostate, apex, and urogenital diaphragm, patient age, clinical T stage, preimplant IPSS, ultrasound volume, isotope, and D90 and V100/150/200. Results: Of the 186 patients, 176 (94.6%) had the urinary catheter permanently removed on the day of implantation with only 1 patient requiring a urinary catheter >5 days. No patient had a urethral stricture and only 2 patients (1.1%) required a postbrachytherapy transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). For the entire cohort, IPSS on average peaked 2 weeks after implantation with a mean and median time to IPSS resolution of 14 and 3 weeks, respectively. For the entire cohort, only isotope predicted for IPSS resolution, while neither overall average prostatic urethra nor segmental urethral dose predicted for IPSS resolution. The maximum postimplant IPSS increase was best predicted by preimplant IPSS and the maximum apical urethral dose. Conclusions: With the routine use of prophylactic alpha

  7. Management of Benign Biliary Strictures

    SciTech Connect

    Laasch, Hans-Ulrich; Martin, Derrick F.

    2002-12-15

    Benign biliary strictures are most commonly a consequence of injury at laparoscopic cholecystectomy or fibrosis after biliary-enteric anastomosis. These strictures are notoriously difficult to treat and traditionally are managed by resection and fashioning of acholedocho- or hepato-jejunostomy. Promising results are being achieved with newer minimally invasive techniques using endoscopic or percutaneous dilatation and/or stenting and these are likely to play an increasing role in the management. Even low-grade biliary obstruction carries the risks of stone formation, ascending cholangitis and hepatic cirrhosis and it is important to identify and treat this group of patients. There is currently no consensus on which patient should have what type of procedure, and the full range of techniques may not be available in all hospitals. Careful assessment of the risks and likely benefits have to be made on an individual basis. This article reviews the current literature and discusses the options available. The techniques of endoscopic and percutaneous dilatation and stenting are described with evaluation of the likely success and complication rates and compared to the gold standard of biliary-enteric anastomosis.

  8. Epithelial Dysplasia and Cancer in IBD Strictures.

    PubMed

    Sonnenberg, Amnon; Genta, Robert M

    2015-09-01

    Colonic strictures and epithelial dysplasia are both known risk factors for the occurrence of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. The aim of the present work was to study colonic stricture as a risk factor for the occurrence of epithelial dysplasia and colonic adenocarcinoma. In a case-control study among 53568 IBD patients undergoing colonoscopy, we compared the prevalence of strictures among cases with dysplasia or adenocarcinoma and controls without such complications by calculating odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess the joint influence of multiple predictor variables (age, sex, IBD type and stricture) on the occurrence of colonic dysplasia or adenocarcinoma. The prevalence of strictures was 1.06% in ulcerative colitis (UC) and 8.71% in Crohn's disease (CD, OR 11.09, 95% CI 9.72-12.70). The prevalence of dysplasia was 3.22% in UC and 2.08% in CD (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.65-0.86). The prevalence of dysplasia was similar in IBD patients with and without stricture: 2.82 and 2.41%, respectively. The prevalence of cancer was higher in IBD patients with than without stricture: 0.78 and 0.11%, respectively (OR 6.87, 95% CI 3.30-12.89). In the multivariate analysis, old age, male sex and UC, but not stricture, were all significantly and independently associated with dysplasia. Old age, dysplasia and stricture were significantly and independently associated with cancer. The prevalence of epithelial dysplasia is not generally increased in IBD patients with strictures. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO) 2015. This work is written by US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Percutaneous management of postoperative anastomotic biliary strictures.

    PubMed

    Saad, Wael E A

    2008-06-01

    Postoperative anastomotic biliary strictures can occur after surgery in bile ducts belonging to transplanted or native (nontransplanted) livers. The majority of postoperative anastomotic strictures encountered by interventional radiologists are most likely in liver transplant recipients due to the large and growing liver transplant recipient population worldwide compared with patients with native livers and biliary enteric anastomoses. They occur after 2.5 to 13% of liver transplantations and they represent at least one-half of biliary strictures encountered after liver transplantation. Anastomotic biliary strictures are considered technical in nature, accentuated by fibrosis and scarring that may be secondary to, if not exacerbated by, graft ischemia. There are numerous variables in the percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilation protocols applied to treat anastomotic biliary strictures. These include (1) types of balloons, (2) how long balloons are inflated, (3) how frequently patients return for additional dilation sessions, and (4) the interval(s) at which they return. No alteration in these variables has proven to improve long-term patency. In addition, new technology such as cutting balloons and stents has not been fully evaluated to determine their effect on long-term patency. The current article describes the overall theme of balloon dilation protocols for the management of anastomotic biliary strictures and discusses possible future management of such strictures.

  10. A giant dumbbell shaped vesico-prostatic urethral calculus: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Prabhuswamy, Vinod Kumar; Tiwari, Rahul; Krishnamoorthy, Ramakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Calculi in the urethra are an uncommon entity. Giant calculi in prostatic urethra are extremely rare. The decision about treatment strategy of calculi depends upon the size, shape, and position of the calculus and the status of the urethra. If the stone is large and immovable, it may be extracted via the perineal or the suprapubic approach. In most of the previous reported cases, giant calculi were extracted via the transvesical approach and external urethrotomy. A 38-year-old male patient presented with complaints of lower urinary tract symptoms. Further investigations showed a giant urethral calculus secondary to stricture of bulbo-membranous part of the urethra. Surgical removal of calculus was done via transvesical approach. Two calculi were found and extracted. One was a huge dumbbell calculus and the other was a smaller round calculus. This case was reported because of the rare size and the dumbbell nature of the stone. Giant urethral calculi are better managed by open surgery.

  11. Urethral Stone Disease Leading to Retention After Hair-bearing Neophalloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Viviano, Robert; Morganstern, Bradley A.; O'Toole, Adam

    2014-01-01

    A 35-year-old male patient with a past history of traumatic penile amputation and subsequent penile reconstruction with a radial artery free flap phalloplasty presented to the urology clinic for urinary retention and complaint of a firm penile mass. The patient had been lost to follow-up for 2 years before this presentation. Patient had a suprapubic tube in place from initial surgery, with imaging showing 2 large uroliths encrusted around the end. Urethral stricture was suspected in the patient. On cystoscopy, an additional obstructing urolith was found in penile urethra, appearing to have formed in situ. PMID:26955545

  12. Isolated urethral tuberculosis in a middle-aged man: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Urogenital tuberculosis is a frequent disease in endemic countries. It is characterized by clinical polymorphism. The isolated urethral form is exceptional, even in countries with endemic tuberculosis. We present a rare case of urogenital tuberculosis in a man revealed by urethral narrowing and multiple urethro-scrotal fistulas. Case presentation The patient, a Moroccan man, was 40 years old. He visited our hospital for a urology consultation and presented with dysuria, purulent discharge and a meatic penoscrotal fistula. A retrograde and voiding urethrocystography was performed and revealed an extended narrowing of the whole anterior urethra associated with multiple fistulous portions toward the scrotum and perineum. At this stage, we reached a diagnosis of nonspecific sclero-inflammatory urethral stricture with complicating fistulas. We decided to perform a urethroplasty enlargement to clear the narrowing urethral sinus tracts. The evolution was marked by delayed wound healing associated with the persistence of fistulas extending into the corpus cavernosum with purulent discharge. It was at this point in the treatment that we suspected tuberculosis. Multiple biopsies were then performed on the periurethral tissue and fistula tracts. The histological examination confirmed urethral tuberculosis and showed the presence of giant cell epithelial lesions with caseous necrosis characteristic of tuberculosis. The treatment for tuberculosis was immediately established and the evolution was marked by a localized, rapid and significant improvement. A second-stage urethroplasty was scheduled for two months after the start of his antituberculous treatment. Conclusions Urogenital tuberculosis is common, but isolated urethral involvement is very rare even in countries with endemic tuberculosis. We urge practitioners, and especially urologists, to consider the disease in their investigation whenever given clinical signs are declared. PMID:23566379

  13. Ileocecocolic strictures in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus).

    PubMed

    Travis, Erika K; Duncan, Mary; Weber, Martha; Adkesson, Michael J; Junge, Randall E

    2007-12-01

    Intestinal strictures were diagnosed in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus). The cheetahs presented with lethargy, anorexia, diarrhea, and weight loss. The first cheetah had a stricture of the ileocecocolic junction diagnosed at necropsy. The second had an ileocecocolic stricture causing obstruction that was diagnosed at surgery. After resection and anastomosis, the cheetah recovered well. The etiology of the strictures remains undetermined. Intestinal stricture, particularly of the ileocecocolic junction, should be considered as a differential diagnosis for cheetahs with nonspecific gastrointestinal signs.

  14. [Three theses on urethral disease].

    PubMed

    Chesa-Ponce, N

    2012-01-01

    To inform about three doctorate theses on urethral stenosis, presented in the University of Paris and Montpellier by Spanish authors. Of the Canary Island students who studied medicine in France during the xix century and beginning of the xx century, three stand out for having chosen the same subject for presentation of their doctorate thesis. We briefly analyze their biographies, placing special emphasis on the content of their doctorate thesis. Urethral stenosis was a very mentioned disease during the period studied due to its high incidence. We distinguish the therapeutic changes contributed in the three theses studied. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Anterior Urethral Valves: Not Such a Benign Condition…

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Diaz, Omar; Salomon, Anahi; Rosenberg, Eran; Moldes, Juan Manuel; de Badiola, Francisco; Labbie, Andrew Scott; Gosalbez, Rafael; Castellan, Miguel Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Anterior urethral valves (AUVs) is an unusual cause of congenital obstruction of the male urethra, being 15–30 times less common than posterior urethral valves (PUVs). It has been suggested that patients with congenital anterior urethral obstruction have a better prognosis than those with PUV, with less hydronephrosis, and a lower incidence of chronic renal insufficiency (5 vs. 30%). The long-term prognosis of AUVs is not clear in the literature. In this report we describe our experience and long-term follow up of patients with anterior urethral valve. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively identified 13 patients who presented with the diagnosis of AUVs in our institutions between January 1994 and June 2012. Two patients were excluded: one patient had no follow up after intervention; the other had a follow up <1 year. From the 11 patients included, we evaluated the gestational age, prenatal and postnatal ultrasound findings, voiding cystourethrogram findings, age upon valve ablation, micturition pattern, creatinine, and clinical follow up. Results: Between 1994 and 2012 we evaluated 150 patients with the diagnosis of urethral valves. Of this group, 11 patients (7.3%) had AUVs and an adequate follow up. Mean follow up is 6.3 years (2.5–12 years). Five (45.4%) patients had prenatal diagnosis of AUV. The most common prenatal ultrasonographic finding was bilateral hydronephrosis and distended bladder. One patient showed a large perineal cystic mass, which was confirmed to be a dilated anterior urethra. The mean gestational age was 37.6 weeks (27–40 WGA). Postnatally, 90% had trabeculated bladder, 80% hydronephrosis, and 40% renal dysplasia. The most common clinical presentation was urinary tract infection in five patients (45.4%), followed by weak urinary stream found in four patients (36.3%). The age at initial surgical intervention ranged between 7 days and 13 years. Seven (63.6%) patients had primary transurethral valve resection or

  16. Long-term urethral catheterisation.

    PubMed

    Turner, Bruce; Dickens, Nicola

    This article discusses long-term urethral catheterisation, focusing on the relevant anatomy and physiology, indications for the procedure, catheter selection and catheter care. It is important that nurses have a good working knowledge of long-term catheterisation as the need for this intervention will increase with the rise in chronic health conditions and the ageing population.

  17. Cell-Seeded Tubularized Scaffolds for Reconstruction of Long Urethral Defects: A Preclinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Orabi, Hazem; AbouShwareb, Tamer; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yoo, James J.; Atala, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Background The treatment options for patients requiring repair of a long segment of the urethra are limited by the availability of autologous tissues. We previously reported that acellular collagen-based tubularized constructs seeded with cells are able to repair small urethral defects in a rabbit model. Objective We explored the feasibility of engineering clinically relevant long urethras for surgical reconstruction in a canine preclinical model. Design, setting, and participants Autologous bladder epithelial and smooth muscle cells from 15 male dogs were grown and seeded onto preconfigured collagen-based tubular matrices (6 cm in length). The perineal urethral segment was removed in 21 male dogs. Urethroplasties were performed with tubularized collagen scaffolds seeded with cells in 15 animals. Tubularized constructs without cells were implanted in six animals. Serial urethrography and three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) scans were performed pre- and postoperatively at 1, 3, 6, and 12 mo. The animals were euthanized at their predetermined time points (three animals at 1 mo, and four at 3, 6, and 12 mo) for analyses. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Statistical analysis of CT imaging and histology was not needed. Results and limitations CT urethrograms showed wide-caliber urethras without strictures in animals implanted with cell-seeded matrices. The urethral segments replaced with acellular scaffolds collapsed. Gross examination of the urethral implants seeded with cells showed normal-appearing tissue without evidence of fibrosis. Histologically, an epithelial cell layer surrounded by muscle fiber bundles was observed on the cell-seeded constructs, and cellular organization increased over time. The epithelial and smooth muscle phenotypes were confirmed using antibodies to pancytokeratins AE1/AE3 and smooth muscle–specific desmin. Formation of an epithelial cell layer occurred in the unseeded constructs, but few muscle fibers formed

  18. Electrical burn of urethra as cause of stricture after transurethral resection.

    PubMed

    Zheng, W; Vilos, G; McCulloch, S; Borg, P; Denstedt, J D

    2000-03-01

    One of the most common complications of transurethral resection is urethral stricture. The exact etiology is still controversial. Postulated pathophysiology ranges from mechanical trauma to the urethra during the resection to inflammatory reaction secondary to local anesthesia. We propose electrical burn to the urethra as a contributory factor in some cases. Electrical events during transurethral resection were simulated in vitro. The distribution of current was measured at the loop/rollerball and in the outer metal sheath. Both an intact loop/rollerball and loop/rollerball with faulty insulation were tested. Various power outputs simulating coagulation, cutting, and vaporization were used. Data were recorded both in settings where the outer metal sheath was and was not smeared with nonconductive lubricating gel. Approximately 20% of the total current output was shunted to the metal sheath when an intact loop/rollerball was used. One hundred percent of the current was short-circuited to the sheath when a loop/rollerball with faulty insulation was retracted into the sheath. Little current was detectable in the nonconductive lubricating gel. We then calculated the length of time required, in various settings, to reach tissue temperature of 45 degrees C, when protein denaturation starts. The higher the power output and the smaller the contacting surface area, the more likely it is for urethral burns to occur. Our in vitro experiment showed that urethral burns secondary to stray current in the resectoscope sheath are unlikely when an intact loop is used. However, urethral burns can occur when a loop/rollerball with faulty insulation is used, especially in combination with nonconductive gel that is dispersed unevenly within the urethra.

  19. Urethral obstruction of 6 hours or less causes bacteriuria, bacteremia, and pyelonephritis in mice challenged with "nonuropathogenic" Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, D E; Russell, R G; Lockatell, C V; Zulty, J C; Warren, J W

    1993-01-01

    Urethral obstruction may be caused by prostatic hypertrophy, urethral stricture, or encrustation of a urethral-catheter lumen. Bacteriuria often complicates these obstructions. The sequelae include fever, acute pyelonephritis, chronic renal inflammation, and death. We hypothesized that even brief obstruction of the urinary tract containing a nonvirulent bacterium would result in these complications. Mice challenged transurethrally with Escherichia coli FN414, which is rapidly eliminated from normal mice without causing bacteriuria, bacteremia, or renal pathology, were subjected to reversible urethral obstruction by coating the urethral meatus with collodion for 1, 3, or 6 h. The majority of mice obstructed for 1 h demonstrated parenchymal renal inflammation 48 h later. At the end of 3 h of obstruction, 9 of 10 mice were bacteremic; some bacteremias were present at 48 h after removal of the obstruction. At that time, more severe renal inflammation was seen in these mice. As little as 6 h of obstruction resulted not only in the acute changes described above but also in chronic renal inflammation and fibrosis in the majority of animals sacrificed 3 and 6 weeks later. Additional studies demonstrated that urethral obstruction enhanced the uropathogenicity of another nonpathogenic E. coli strain (K-12 strain HB101) and caused more severe renal lesions in mice challenged with E. coli CFT073, isolated from a patient with symptoms of pyelonephritis. These findings demonstrate that brief urethral obstruction may (i) induce organisms which are cleared rapidly from the normal urinary tract to cause bacteriuria, bacteremia, and pyelonephritis and (ii) intensify the renal lesions caused by a uropathogen. Images PMID:8335372

  20. Eosinophilic cholecystitis with common bile duct stricture: a rare disease.

    PubMed

    Mehanna, Daniel; Naseem, Zainab; Mustaev, Muslim

    2016-05-24

    Although the most common cause of cholecystitis is gallstones, other conditions may present as acute cholecystitis. We describe a case of eosinophilic cholecystitis with common bile duct stricture. A 36-year-old woman initially had generalised abdominal pain and peripheral eosinophilia. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed eosinophilic ascites and necrotic nodules on the posterior abdominal wall. She was treated with anthelminthics on presumption of toxacara infection based on borderline positivity of serological tests. She later presented with acute cholecystitis and had a cholecystectomy and choledocotomy. Day 9 T-tube cholangiogram showed irregular narrowing of the distal common bile duct. The patient's symptoms were improved with steroids and the T-tube was subsequently removed.

  1. Eosinophilic esophagitis: strictures, impactions, dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Seema; Orenstein, Susan R; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Kocoshis, Samuel A; Putnam, Philip E; Sigurdsson, Luther; Shalaby, Theresa M

    2003-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis, long known to be a feature of acid reflux, has recently been described in patients with food allergies and macroscopically furrowed esophagus. The pathophysiology and optimal management of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis is unclear. We describe our clinical experience related to eosinophilic esophagitis and obstructive symptoms in children and propose etiopathogenesis and management guidelines. Twelve children with obstructive esophageal symptoms (11 male), median age 5 years, and identified to have eosinophilic esophagitis with > 5 eosinophils per high-power field (eos/hpf) are reported. Of these, four had strictures, six had impactions, and two had only dysphagia. A diagnostic evaluation included esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsies in all and upper gastrointestinal series, IgE, radioallergosorbent tests, and skin tests for food allergies in some cases. Esophageal histology specimens were independently analyzed for eosinophil density by two authors. Four of five children with > 20 eos/hpf responded to elimination diets/steroids. The fifth child responded to a fundoplication. Seven children had 5-20 eos/hpf and three of them with no known food allergies responded to antireflux therapy alone. Three others in this group with positive food allergies responded to treatment with elimination diets and/or steroids. The seventh patient in this group was lost to follow-up. In conclusion, on the basis of response to therapy, eosinophilic esophagitis can be subdivided into two groups: those with likely gastroesophageal reflux disease if < 20 eos/hpf and no food allergies, and others with allergic eosinophilic esophagitis associated with food allergies and often with > 20 eos/hpf.

  2. [Choice of an optimal free graft for replacement urethroplasty in extensive urethral strictures].

    PubMed

    Loran, O B; Veliev, E I; Kotov, S V; Belomyttsev, S V

    2011-01-01

    Irrespective of the type and properties of a free graft in urethroplasty, survival of the graft depends on blood circulation in the nutrient bed. We made an experimental trial to study engraftment of free grafts of buccal and lingual mucosa on different types of the nutrient bed. Free flaps (78 buccal and 86 lingual mucosa samples) were taken from 52 male Wistar rats (300 to 470 body mass). Grafting was made on different types of nutrient bed - skeletal muscle, subcutaneous fat and penile tunica albuginea. Histological examination of the grafts was made 2, 4, 7 and 14 days after transplantation. The process of engraftment followed all the stages of nonspecific inflammation. The alteration stage (48 hours) is characterized by marked epithelial atrophy, necrosis of most of the cross-striate muscular fibers of the graft, necrotic alterations of the nutrient bed, primarily in the suture area. Excudation and emigration (2-4 days)--by continued necrotic changes with infiltration of the graft with neutrophilic leukocytes, edema of the upper layer stroma and infiltrate extention on the nutrient bed. Proliferation (day 7)--by attenuation of necroinflammatory processes, decline of leukocyte infiltration, formation of blood vessels in the subepithelial base of the graft. Regeneration (day7-14)--by recovery of the epithelial graft layer, development of granulation tissue in the submucosal base. The best engraftment was registered on transplantation on penile tunica albuginea (buccal graft--93.4%, lingual one--88.9%). Successful implantation on the muscle occurred in 90.7% for buccal and 87.9% for lingual grafts. On fat tissue buccal transplant failed in 19, lingua--in 23.89% transplantations. Thus, staging in interaction between different grafts and types of nutrient bed do not depend on characteristics of the bed and graft. Necroinflammatory changes in the buccal graft change for proliferative processes earlier than in the lingual one. Proliferative and regenerative processes develop earlier on penile tunica albuginea. Alteration and exudation are more pronounced on subcutaneous fat.

  3. Erbium: YAG Laser Incision of Urethral Strictures for Treatment of Urinary Incontinence After Prostate Cancer Surgery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    laser trephination 22. Nubling RK, Harrington JA (1998). Single-crystal laser-heated with convergent and divergent cut angles for penetrating ker...laser YAG laser trephination for penetrating keratoplasty. Arch beam propagation. Opt Commun 220:151-160 Ophthalmol 121:1415-1422 24. Papagiakoumou El

  4. A comparison of surgical outcomes of perineal urethrostomy plus penile resection and perineal urethrostomy in twelve calves with perineal or prescrotal urethral dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Marzok, M.A.; El-khodery, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis, ultrasonographic findings, surgical management, outcome, and survival rate of perineal or prescrotal urethral dilatation in 12 male calves are described. All calves were crossbred and intact males. The most noticeable clinical presentations were perineal (n= 10) or prescrotal (n= 2) swellings and micturition problems. The main ultrasonographic findings were oval shaped dilatation of the urethra in all animals with dimensions of 40-75 X 30-62 mm. The calves with perineal urethral dilatation were treated by perineal urethrostomy (n= 4) and partial penile transection including the dilated urethra and urethral fistulation (n= 6). Prescrotal urethral dilatations were treated by penile transection proximal to the dilatation site (n= 2). Cystitis and stricture of the urethra were recorded postoperatively for two of the calves that underwent perineal urethrostomy. Nine animals were slaughtered at normal body weight approximately 6-8 months after the surgical treatment. Three animals were slaughtered after approximately three to four months, two of them having gained insufficient body weight. Our study shows that ultrasonography is a useful tool for the diagnosis of urethral dilatation in bovine calves. Our study also shows that the partial penile transection may be a suitable and satisfactory choice of surgical treatment for correcting the urethral dilatation in bovine calves. PMID:26623322

  5. Urethral hemangioma in a prepubertal female patient

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chiao-Ching; Li, Chiao-Zhu; Yen, Ching-Heng; Tsai, Wen-Chuan; Wu, Sheng-Tang; Cha, Tai-Lung; Meng, En

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Urethral hemangiomas commonly occur in men or elderly women. We presented a rare case of urethral hemangioma in a prepubertal female patient. Patients concerns: An 8-year-old girl had the complaints of bloody staining of clothing, a foul perineal odor, and urethral pain. She was brought to our genitourinary outpatient department for survey and a single, 1-cm compressible reddish nodule at the 10-2 o’clock position in the distal urethra was found. Diagnoses: Urethral hemangioma in a prepubertal girl was diagnosed after excision of the urethral nodule. Interventions: Excision with 8 “stay” sutures in the protruding urethral mucosa was performed. Outcomes: Normal micturition without symptom recurrence was noted at the 3-month follow-up. Lessons: Urethral hemangioma is also found in prepubertal female patient. Increased physician awareness and early recognition of a urethral hemangioma can avoid unnecessary examinations and patient anxiety. The procedure of excision with 8 “stay” sutures in the protruding urethral mucosa facilitates mobilization from the distal urethra and provides a good surgical view of abnormal proliferative blood vessels. Therefore, the lesion can be removed as clean as possible. PMID:28353601

  6. Urethral hyperthermia: an alternative to urethrectomy.

    PubMed

    Cooper, T P; Tremann, J A

    1975-09-01

    Nine male dogs were subjected to cystoprostatectomy, ileal loop diversion, and urethral hyperthermia. Five of the 9 dogs survived six weeks. Three of the 5 surviving dogs had complete destruction of the urethral epithelium, and the other 2 dogs had 95 per cent and 50 per cent destruction with the proximal urethral end incompletely destroyed. Complete urethral destruction may have been obtained with resection of the proximal urethra postirrigation. The irrigation added no extra time to the surgical procedure and was accompanied by few complications. Complications may have been averted with a dorsal slit and meatotomy.

  7. Biliary strictures: endoscopic assessment and management

    PubMed Central

    Paranandi, Bharat; Oppong, Kofi W

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of biliary strictures can be challenging. Endoscopy has an established role in the diagnosis and therapy of biliary strictures. However, the diagnostic yield from conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography tissue sampling is modest. Improvements in existing technologies as well as the implementation of novel technologies and techniques have the potential to improve the diagnostic performance of endoscopy and expand its therapeutic role. Recent studies have enabled greater clarity about the role of preoperative biliary drainage and the choice of stents in this setting as well as the utility of metal stents in benign and malignant disease. PMID:28261440

  8. Esophageal stricture in a cougar (Puma concolor).

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, Marion; Lair, Stéphane; Defarges, Alice; Lécuyer, Manon; Langlois, Isabelle

    2009-06-01

    A 7-mo-old female cougar (Puma concolor) was presented with a 2-wk history of anorexia and a 1-wk history of regurgitation. Barium contrast esophagogram and gastroesophagoscopy revealed the presence of a segmental intraluminal esophageal stricture in the middle third of the esophagus. The stricture was potentially secondary to a previous anesthetic episode. Three endoscopic balloon dilations allowed increasing the luminal diameter to a size that enabled the cougar to eat food softened with water without any signs of discomfort or regurgitation. Two months after being discharged, the cougar was doing well, had gained weight and was eating horsemeat softened with water.

  9. Fabrication of Tissue-Engineered Bionic Urethra Using Cell Sheet Technology and Labeling By Ultrasmall Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide for Full-Thickness Urethral Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shukui; Yang, Ranxin; Zou, Qingsong; Zhang, Kaile; Yin, Ting; Zhao, Weixin; Shapter, Joseph G.; Gao, Guo; Fu, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Urethral strictures remain a reconstructive challenge, due to less than satisfactory outcomes and high incidence of stricture recurrence. An “ideal” urethral reconstruction should establish similar architecture and function as the original urethral wall. We fabricated a novel tissue-engineered bionic urethras using cell sheet technology and report their viability in a canine model. Small amounts of oral and adipose tissues were harvested, and adipose-derived stem cells, oral mucosal epithelial cells, and oral mucosal fibroblasts were isolated and used to prepare cell sheets. The cell sheets were hierarchically tubularized to form 3-layer tissue-engineered urethras and labeled by ultrasmall super-paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO). The constructed tissue-engineered urethras were transplanted subcutaneously for 3 weeks to promote the revascularization and biomechanical strength of the implant. Then, 2 cm length of the tubularized penile urethra was replaced by tissue-engineered bionic urethra. At 3 months of urethral replacement, USPIO-labeled tissue-engineered bionic urethra can be effectively detected by MRI at the transplant site. Histologically, the retrieved bionic urethras still displayed 3 layers, including an epithelial layer, a fibrous layer, and a myoblast layer. Three weeks after subcutaneous transplantation, immunofluorescence analysis showed the density of blood vessels in bionic urethra was significantly increased following the initial establishment of the constructs and was further up-regulated at 3 months after urethral replacement and was close to normal level in urethral tissue. Our study is the first to experimentally demonstrate 3-layer tissue-engineered urethras can be established using cell sheet technology and can promote the regeneration of structural and functional urethras similar to normal urethra. PMID:28744331

  10. Fabrication of Tissue-Engineered Bionic Urethra Using Cell Sheet Technology and Labeling By Ultrasmall Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide for Full-Thickness Urethral Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shukui; Yang, Ranxin; Zou, Qingsong; Zhang, Kaile; Yin, Ting; Zhao, Weixin; Shapter, Joseph G; Gao, Guo; Fu, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Urethral strictures remain a reconstructive challenge, due to less than satisfactory outcomes and high incidence of stricture recurrence. An "ideal" urethral reconstruction should establish similar architecture and function as the original urethral wall. We fabricated a novel tissue-engineered bionic urethras using cell sheet technology and report their viability in a canine model. Small amounts of oral and adipose tissues were harvested, and adipose-derived stem cells, oral mucosal epithelial cells, and oral mucosal fibroblasts were isolated and used to prepare cell sheets. The cell sheets were hierarchically tubularized to form 3-layer tissue-engineered urethras and labeled by ultrasmall super-paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO). The constructed tissue-engineered urethras were transplanted subcutaneously for 3 weeks to promote the revascularization and biomechanical strength of the implant. Then, 2 cm length of the tubularized penile urethra was replaced by tissue-engineered bionic urethra. At 3 months of urethral replacement, USPIO-labeled tissue-engineered bionic urethra can be effectively detected by MRI at the transplant site. Histologically, the retrieved bionic urethras still displayed 3 layers, including an epithelial layer, a fibrous layer, and a myoblast layer. Three weeks after subcutaneous transplantation, immunofluorescence analysis showed the density of blood vessels in bionic urethra was significantly increased following the initial establishment of the constructs and was further up-regulated at 3 months after urethral replacement and was close to normal level in urethral tissue. Our study is the first to experimentally demonstrate 3-layer tissue-engineered urethras can be established using cell sheet technology and can promote the regeneration of structural and functional urethras similar to normal urethra.

  11. Erectile function after anastomotic urethroplasty for pelvic fracture urethral injuries.

    PubMed

    El-Assmy, A; Harraz, A M; Benhassan, M; Nabeeh, A; Ibrahiem, El Hi

    2016-07-01

    There is an established association between ED and pelvic fracture urethral injuries (PFUIs). However, ED can occur after the injury and/or the urethral repair. To our knowledge, only one study of erectile function (EF) after urethroplasty for PFUIs used a validated questionnaire. This study was carried out to determine the impact of anastomotic posterior urethroplasty for PFUIs on EF. We retrospectively reviewed the computerized surgical records to identify patients who underwent anastomotic urethroplasty for PFUIs from 1998 to 2014. Those patients were contacted by phone or mail and were re-evaluated in the outpatient clinic by International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire; in unmarried men, the single-question self-report of ED was used for evaluation of EF, clinical examination and penile color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) for men with ED. Overall, 58 patients were included in the study among whom 36 (62%) men were sexually active and the remaining 22 (38%) were single. The incidence of ED among our group is 72%. All patients developed ED after initial pelvic trauma and none of our patients had impaired EF after urethroplasty. The incidence of ED increased proportionally with severity of pelvic trauma. All patients with type-C pelvic fracture, associated symphysis pubis diastasis, sacroiliac joints diastasis and bilateral pubic ramus fractures had ED. Men with PFUIs had worse EF than men in other series with pelvic fractures without urethral injury. The majority (88%) of men with ED showed veno-occlusive dysfunction on penile CDU. So we concluded that men with PFUIs had a high incidence of ED up to 72%. Anastomotic posterior urethroplasty had no negative impact on EF and the development of ED after PFUIs was related to the severity of the original pelvic trauma. Veno-occlusive dysfunction is the commonest etiology of ED on penile CDU.

  12. The glucose breath test: a diagnostic test for small bowel stricture(s) in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Mishkin, Daniel; Boston, Francis M; Blank, David; Yalovsky, Morty; Mishkin, Seymour

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether an indirect noninvasive indicator of proximal bacterial overgrowth, the glucose breath test, was of diagnostic value in inflammatory bowel disease. Twenty four of 71 Crohn's disease patients tested had a positive glucose breath test. No statistical conclusions could be drawn between the Crohn's disease activity index and glucose breath test status. Of patients with radiologic evidence of small bowel stricture(s), 96.0% had a positive glucose breath test, while only one of 46 negative glucose breath test patients had a stricture. The positive and negative predictive values for a positive glucose breath test as an indicator of stricture formation were 96.0% and 97.8%, respectively. This correlation was not altered in Crohn's disease patients with fistulae or status postresection of the terminal ileum. The data in ulcerative colitis were nondiagnostic. In conclusion, the glucose breath test appears to be an accurate noninvasive inexpensive diagnostic test for small bowel stricture(s) and secondary bacterial overgrowth in Crohn's disease.

  13. 21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urethral dilator. 876.5520 Section 876.5520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urethral dilator. 876.5520 Section 876.5520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a...

  15. Urethral and penile war injuries: The experience from civil violence in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Al-Azzawi, Issam S.; Koraitim, Mamdouh M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence, mechanism of injury, wounding pattern and surgical management of urethral and penile injuries sustained in civil violence during the Iraq war. Patients and methods In all, 2800 casualties with penetrating trauma to the abdomen and pelvis were received at the Al-Yarmouk Hospital, Baghdad, from January 2004 to June 2008. Of these casualties 504 (18%) had genitourinary trauma, including 45 (8.9%) with urethral and/or penile injuries. Results Of 45 patients, 29 (64%) were civilians and 16 (36%) were Iraqi military personnel. The injury was caused by an improvised explosive device (IED) in 25 (56%) patients and by individual firearms in 20 (44%). Of the patients, 24 had penile injuries, 15 had an injury to the bulbar urethra and six had an injury to the posterior urethra. Anterior urethral injuries were managed by primary repair, while posterior urethral injuries were managed by primary realignment in five patients and by a suprapubic cystostomy alone in one. An associated injury to major blood vessels was the cause of death in eight of nine patients who died soon after surgery (P < 0.001). Conclusion Urethral and penile injuries were caused by IEDs and individual firearms with a similar frequency. Most of the casualties were civilians and a minority were military personnel. Injuries to the anterior urethra can be managed by primary repair, while injuries to the posterior urethra can be managed by primary realignment. An associated trauma to major blood vessels was the leading cause of death in these casualties. PMID:26019940

  16. Jejunal Epiphany: Diverticulae, Enteroliths and Strictures

    PubMed Central

    Rehmani, Babar; Kumar, Navin

    2016-01-01

    Multiple jejunal diverticulae represent a rare entity and are usually asymptomatic. This case report is about one such jejunal diverticulae along with multiple enteroliths and jejunal strictures. All these three different findings in a short segment of jejunum is a very rare finding with all three variants seen in a segment of jejunum. We herein present a case of a 45-year-old male, who presented with vague abdominal pain for one and half years associated with nausea and vomiting and altered bowel habits. Laparotomy revealed multiple large jejunal diverticulae compressing the bowel with multiple enteroliths and two strictures in a short segment of jejunum leading to intestinal obstruction. Patient underwent resection of the involved jejunal segment and then repair by anastomosis. Post-operative period was uneventful. PMID:28208925

  17. Cologastric strictures: What is the best treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Richard; Brown, Kimberly; Okereke, Ikenna

    2017-01-01

    A 31-year-old gentleman who had undergone an emergent esophagectomy and reconstruction with a colon interposition graft, presented with a long-standing cologastric stricture. He had undergone multiple attempts at endoscopic dilation over multiple decades with little symptomatic relief. He underwent a resection and reconstruction of the anastomosis entirely through an abdominal approach. He did well from surgery and experienced complete symptomatic relief immediately. Complications of colon interposition grafts can occasionally be treated using an abdominal incision only. PMID:28069881

  18. Urethritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... swelling in penis Enlarged lymph nodes in the groin area Pain with intercourse or ejaculation In women: Abdominal pain ... and chills Frequent or urgent urination Pelvic pain Pain with intercourse Vaginal discharge

  19. Urethritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the urethra. The discharge is often yellowish green and thick when the gonococcal organism is involved ... a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat ...

  20. [Surgical treatment for cicatrix strictures of anal canal].

    PubMed

    Pomazkin, V I; Mansurov, Iu V

    2011-01-01

    Classification of anal canal strictures with gradation of intensity, extent and localization is proposed. In 12 patients with compensated strictures combination of stenosis and anal fissure served as an indication for operation. These patients underwent fissure excision with dosed sphincterotomy. Anoplasty with displacement of island skin flaps to anal canal defects was carried out to 29 patients with sub-or decompensated strictures after dissection of scarry stricture. Good direct results were achieved in 38 patients. Compensated re-stenosis treated conservatively was observed in 3 patients after anoplasty. It is drawn a conclusion about necessity of differential approach to choice of treatment mode for anal scarry strictures. Anoplasty according to proposed method is considered to be optimal for marked strictures.

  1. Management issues in post living donor liver transplant biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Wadhawan, Manav; Kumar, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Biliary complications are common after living donor liver transplant (LDLT) although with advancements in surgical understanding and techniques, the incidence is decreasing. Biliary strictures are more common than leaks. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the first line modality of treatment of post LDLT biliary strictures with a technical success rate of 75%-80%. Most of ERCP failures are successfully treated by percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and rendezvous technique. A minority of patients may require surgical correction. ERCP for these strictures is technically more challenging than routine as well post deceased donor strictures. Biliary strictures may increase the morbidity of a liver transplant recipient, but the mortality is similar to those with or without strictures. Post transplant strictures are short segment and soft, requiring only a few session of ERCP before complete dilatation. Long-term outcome of patients with biliary stricture is similar to those without stricture. With the introduction of new generation cholangioscopes, ERCP success rate may increase, obviating the need for PTBD and surgery in these patients. PMID:27057304

  2. Urethral polyp in a 1-month-old child.

    PubMed

    Beluffi, Giampiero; Berton, Francesca; Gola, Giada; Chiari, Giorgio; Romano, Piero; Cassani, Ferdinando

    2005-07-01

    Urethral polyps are a rare finding in children, particularly in the very young. They are suspected by the presence of various clinical signs such as obstruction, voiding dysfunction and haematuria. There is an association with other urinary tract congenital anomalies. They are usually benign fibro-epithelial lesions with no tendency to recur and are treated by surgical ablation, fulguration or laser therapy. We report a 1-month-old boy with an antenatally diagnosed left ectopic pelvic kidney, postnatal urinary tract infection and no clinical signs of obstruction. Voiding cystourethrography to exclude vesico-ureteric reflux showed a trabeculated bladder and a mobile filling defect in the posterior urethra. Owing to its large size, cystotomy was necessary to remove the polyp successfully.

  3. Refractory strictures despite steroid injection after esophageal endoscopic resection

    PubMed Central

    Hanaoka, Noboru; Ishihara, Ryu; Uedo, Noriya; Takeuchi, Yoji; Higashino, Koji; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Kanesaka, Takashi; Matsuura, Noriko; Yamasaki, Yasushi; Hamada, Kenta; Iishi, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although steroid injection prevents stricture after esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), some patients require repeated sessions of endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD). We investigated the risk for refractory stricture despite the administration of steroid injections to prevent stricture in patients undergoing esophageal ESD. Refractory stricture was defined as the requirement for more than three sessions of EBD to resolve the stricture. In addition, the safety of steroid injections was assessed based on the rate of complications. Patients and methods: We analyzed data from 127 consecutive patients who underwent esophageal ESD and had mucosal defects with a circumferential extent greater than three-quarters of the esophagus. To prevent stricture, steroid injection was performed. EBD was performed whenever a patient had symptoms of dysphagia. Results: The percentage of patients with a tumor circumferential extent greater than 75 % was significantly higher in those with refractory stricture than in those without stricture (P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, history of radiation therapy, tumor location, and tumor diameter showed that a tumor circumferential extent greater than 75 % was an independent risk factor for refractory stricture (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 5.49 [95 %CI 1.91 – 15.84], P = 0.002). Major adverse events occurred in 3 patients (2.4 %): perforation during EBD in 2 patients and delayed perforation after EBD in 1 patient. The patient with delayed perforation underwent esophagectomy because of mediastinitis. Conclusions: A tumor circumferential extent greater than 75 % is an independent risk factor for refractory stricture despite steroid injections. The development of more extensive interventions is warranted to prevent refractory stricture. PMID:27004256

  4. Psychometric validation of the Spanish version of the USS-PROM questionnaire for patients who undergo anterior urethral surgery.

    PubMed

    Puche-Sanz, I; Martín-Way, D; Flores-Martín, J; Expósito-Ruiz, M; Vicente-Prados, J; Nogueras-Ocaña, M; Tinaut-Ranera, J; Cózar-Olmo, J M

    2016-06-01

    To translate into Spanish and validate the Urethral Stricture Surgery Patient-Reported Outcome Measure (USS-PROM) questionnaire, assessing its psychometric properties and determining its suitability for clinical use in our community. We also assessed the potential changes in ejaculatory function using the Male Sexual Health Questionnaire-Ejaculatory Dysfunction (MSHQ-EjD). A systematic translation of the British version was performed. Patients scheduled for anterior urethral stricture surgery between September 2014 and September 2015 were prospectively included in the study. All patients completed the questionnaire before and after the surgery. We conducted an in-depth psychometric study of the questionnaire. We assessed the responses of a total of 40 patients. The questionnaire showed its validity, presenting an excellent negative correlation between the voiding symptom scores and the maximum flow (r=-0.6, P<.001), and also showed significant improvement in the EQ5D-VAS (visual analogue scale) and the time trade-off. For internal consistency, the Cronbach's alpha was 0.701. For the test-retest reliability, the overall intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.974, and the ICC for each item separately ranged from 0.799 to 0.980. We observed significant improvement in all items regarding urinary symptoms and health-related quality of life (P<.001), thereby demonstrating the response capacity to changing the questionnaire. There were no significant changes in the MSHQ-EjD. The Spanish version of the USS-PROM questionnaire is a valid instrument for quantifying changes in voiding symptoms and the health-related quality of life of patients undergoing anterior urethral surgery. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Endoscopic palliation of malignant biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Sanjay M; Gaidhane, Monica; Kahaleh, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Malignant biliary strictures often present late after the window for curative resection has elapsed. In such patients, the goal of therapy is typically focused on palliation. While historically, palliative measures were performed surgically, the advent of endoscopic intervention offers minimally invasive options to provide relief of symptoms, improve quality of life, and in some cases, increase survival of these patients. Some of these therapies, such as endoscopic biliary decompression, have become mainstays of treatment for decades, whereas newer modalities, including radiofrequency ablation, and photodynamic therapy offer additional options for patients with incurable biliary malignancies. PMID:26989459

  6. Evaluation of urethral stent placement for benign urethral obstructions in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hill, T L; Berent, A C; Weisse, C W

    2014-01-01

    Benign urethral obstructions (BUO) in dogs result in substantial morbidity because of challenges with conventional therapies. Treatment of malignant urethral obstructions with intraluminal urethral stents is reported to successfully relieve obstructions. To evaluate the efficacy and outcome of urethral stent placement for treatment of BUO in dogs. Eleven client-owned animals with urethral stents placed for treatment of BUO. Retrospective study in which medical records were reviewed in dogs diagnosed with BUO and treated with a metallic urethral stent. Data collected included signalment, cause of benign obstruction, procedure time, size and type of stent, complications, and short- and long-term outcome. Eleven dogs with 15 urethral stents were included. Intraluminal urethral stent(s) relieved the obstructions in all dogs. Four dogs had 2 stents placed in separate procedures because of incomplete patency after treatment (n = 1), inadvertent compression of the stent (n = 1), or tissue ingrowth through the stent (n = 2). The median continence score after stent placement was 10 of 10 (range 3-10) with 6 dogs being continent, 3 mildly incontinent, and 1 each moderately and severely incontinent. All owners considered their dog to have an excellent long-term clinical outcome with long-term urethral patency. The median follow-up time was 24 months (range 4-48). Urethral stents appear to be an effective treatment for benign urinary obstructions. Moderate to severe incontinence developed in a minority (12.5%) of dogs. Stents relieved obstructions in all dogs with an excellent long-term outcome. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Stress urinary incontinence: relative importance of urethral support and urethral closure pressure.

    PubMed

    DeLancey, John O L; Trowbridge, Elisa R; Miller, Janis M; Morgan, Daniel M; Guire, Kenneth; Fenner, Dee E; Weadock, William J; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2008-06-01

    Treatment strategies for stress incontinence are based on the concept that urethral mobility is the predominant causal factor with sphincter function a secondary contributor. To our knowledge the relative importance of these 2 factors has not been assessed in properly controlled studies. The Research on Stress Incontinence Etiology project is a case-control study that compared 103 women with stress incontinence and 108 asymptomatic controls in groups matched for age, race, parity and hysterectomy. Urethral closure pressure, urethral and pelvic organ support, levator ani muscle function and intravesical pressure were measured and analyzed using logistic regression and multivariable modeling. Mean +/- SD maximal urethral closure pressure was 42% lower in cases (40.8 +/- 17.1 vs 70.2 +/- 22.4 cm H(2)O, d = 1.47). Lesser effect sizes were seen for support parameters, including resting urethral axis and urethrovaginal support (d = 0.41 and 0.50, respectively). Other pelvic floor parameters, including genital hiatus size and urethral axis during muscle contraction (d = 0.60 and 0.58, respectively), differed but levator strength and levator defect status did not. Maximum cough pressure, which is an assessment of stress on the continence mechanism, was also different (d = 0.43). After adjusting for body mass index the maximal urethral closure pressure alone correctly classified 50% of cases. Adding the best predictors for urethrovaginal support and cough strength to the model added 11% of predictive ability. The finding that maximal urethral closure pressure and not urethral support is the factor most strongly associated with stress incontinence implies that improving urethral function may have therapeutic promise.

  8. A Giant Dumbbell Shaped Vesico-Prostatic Urethral Calculus: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Prabhuswamy, Vinod Kumar; Tiwari, Rahul; Krishnamoorthy, Ramakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Calculi in the urethra are an uncommon entity. Giant calculi in prostatic urethra are extremely rare. The decision about treatment strategy of calculi depends upon the size, shape, and position of the calculus and the status of the urethra. If the stone is large and immovable, it may be extracted via the perineal or the suprapubic approach. In most of the previous reported cases, giant calculi were extracted via the transvesical approach and external urethrotomy. A 38-year-old male patient presented with complaints of lower urinary tract symptoms. Further investigations showed a giant urethral calculus secondary to stricture of bulbo-membranous part of the urethra. Surgical removal of calculus was done via transvesical approach. Two calculi were found and extracted. One was a huge dumbbell calculus and the other was a smaller round calculus. This case was reported because of the rare size and the dumbbell nature of the stone. Giant urethral calculi are better managed by open surgery. PMID:23762742

  9. Magnetic resonance urography for diagnosis of pediatric ureteral stricture.

    PubMed

    Arlen, Angela M; Kirsch, Andrew J; Cuda, Scott P; Little, Stephen B; Jones, Richard A; Grattan-Smith, J Damien; Cerwinka, Wolfgang H

    2014-10-01

    Ureteral stricture is a rare cause of hydronephrosis in children and is often misdiagnosed on ultrasound (US) and diuretic renal scintigraphy (DRS), requiring intraoperative diagnosis. We evaluated ureteral strictures diagnosed by magnetic resonance urography (MRU) at our institution. Children with ureteral stricture who underwent MRU were identified. Patient demographics, prior imaging, MRU findings, and management were assessed. The efficacy of MRU in diagnosis of stricture was compared with US and DRS. Patients with ureteropelvic or ureterovesical junction obstruction were excluded. Twenty-eight ureteral strictures diagnosed by MRU between 2003 and 2013 were identified; 22% of strictures were diagnosed by DRS ± US. The mean age at MRU diagnosis was 2.4 years (range 4 weeks-15 years). Hydronephrosis was the most common presentation, accounting for 20 (71%) cases. Other etiologies included pain (3), incontinence (2), and urinary tract infection, cystic kidney, and absent kidney, present in one case each. A mean of 2.7 imaging studies was obtained prior to MRU diagnosis. Twenty-one (75%) ureteral strictures required surgical intervention, with the approach dependent upon location. MRU provides excellent anatomic and functional detail of the collecting system, leading to accurate diagnosis and management of ureteral stricture in children. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Urethral cancer occurs in men and women and can spread quickly to lymph nodes near the urethra. Find out about risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, prognosis, staging, and treatment for urethral cancer.

  11. Urinary Incontinence Due to Urethral Coitus in a Multiparous Woman.

    PubMed

    Aksakal, Orhan Seyfi; Cavkaytar, Sabri; Guzel, Ali Irfan; Uzun, Canan; Doganay, Melike

    2015-01-01

    Urethral coitus in women with a normal vagina and introitus has very rarely been reported. We report the case of a 48-year-old gravida 5, para 5 woman with a history of urethral coitus complaining of urinary incontinence. To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the fifth reported case of urethral coitus with normal genitalia, and it might be accepted as the first reported case of urethral coitus in a multiparous woman.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of female urethral and periurethral disorders.

    PubMed

    Surabhi, Venkateswar Rao; Menias, Christine O; George, Verghese; Siegel, Cary Lynn; Prasad, Srinivasa R

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews the normal anatomy of the female urethra, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, and the role of MR imaging in the evaluation of diverse urethral and periurethral diseases. Salient MR imaging findings of common and uncommon cystic urethral lesions (urethral diverticulum, Skene cyst, and vaginal cysts), and masses (urethral carcinoma, leiomyoma, melanoma, fibroepithelial polyp, caruncle, and mucosal prolapse) are presented. The evolving role of dynamic MR in the evaluation of stress urinary incontinence is reviewed.

  13. The detection of microorganisms related to urethritis from the oral cavity of male patients with urethritis.

    PubMed

    Le, Phuong Thi; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Furubayashi, Keiichi; Hatanaka, Masayuki; Kawai, Shuichi; Yamaguchi, Takamasa; Uehara, Kazutaka; Murakami, Norihiko; Yoshioka, Masaru; Nakayama, Ken; Shiono, Yutaka; Muraoka, Keisuke; Suzuki, Masahiko; Fujimoto, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Tetsuro

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the presence of microorganisms related to urethritis in the oral cavity of male patients with urethritis and the efficacies of antimicrobials for urethritis on microorganisms in the oral cavity. Ninety-two male patients with urethritis and 17 male controls participated to this study at 12 urology clinics in Japan between March 2014 and March 2015. The first voided urine (FVU) and oral wash fluid (OWF) specimens were collected from the participants. The microorganisms in both FVU and OWF specimens were detected by nucleic acid amplification tests at the first and follow-up visit. The efficacies of antimicrobials were evaluated after 1-4 weeks treatment completion. In a total of 92 male patients with urethritis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Trichomonas vaginalis and Gardnerella vaginalis were detected from OWF specimens of 12%, 3%, 9%, 0%, 12%, 3%, 3% and 15% patients, respectively. From control males, no microorganism was detected from OWF specimens. Among 46 patients who could be evaluated for antimicrobial efficacies at the follow-up visit, 5 in FVU specimens failed by azithromycin (AZM), and 10 failed in OWF specimens (7 by AZM, 2 by tetracycline, 1 by spectinomycin; p = 0.002). Especially, a high prevalence of G. vaginalis remained positive after treatment for urethritis in the oral cavity. Microorganisms related to urethritis were detected in the oral cavity of male patients with urethritis. Antimicrobials that focused on urethritis, especially AZM regimen seem to be less effective for microorganisms in the oral cavity. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 21 CFR 876.4590 - Interlocking urethral sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Interlocking urethral sound. 876.4590 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An interlocking urethral sound is a device that consists of two metal...

  15. 21 CFR 876.4590 - Interlocking urethral sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interlocking urethral sound. 876.4590 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An interlocking urethral sound is a device that consists of two metal...

  16. 21 CFR 876.4590 - Interlocking urethral sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Interlocking urethral sound. 876.4590 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An interlocking urethral sound is a device that consists of two metal...

  17. 21 CFR 876.4590 - Interlocking urethral sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interlocking urethral sound. 876.4590 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An interlocking urethral sound is a device that consists of two metal...

  18. 21 CFR 876.4590 - Interlocking urethral sound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interlocking urethral sound. 876.4590 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An interlocking urethral sound is a device that consists of two metal...

  19. Contemporary Management of Primary Distal Urethral Cancer.

    PubMed

    Traboulsi, Samer L; Witjes, Johannes Alfred; Kassouf, Wassim

    2016-11-01

    Primary urethral cancer is one of the rare urologic tumors. Distal urethral tumors are usually less advanced at diagnosis compared with proximal tumors and have a good prognosis if treated appropriately. Low-stage distal tumors can be managed successfully with a surgical approach in men or radiation therapy in women. There are no clear-cut indications for the choice of the most appropriate treatment modality. Organ-preserving modalities have shown effective and should be used whenever they do not compromise the oncological safety to decrease the physical and psychological trauma of dismemberment or loss of sexual/urinary function.

  20. Prophylactic stenting for esophageal stricture prevention after endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ke-Da; Ji, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of superficial esophageal cancer has been increasingly used as an alternative to surgery because it is minimally invasive and has a high rate of en bloc resection. However, a high rate of esophageal stricture is observed after ESD for large lesions, which can dramatically decrease the patient’s quality of life. Stricture prevention is necessary to allow for endoscopic therapy to expand. We, herein, review the most recent evidence and discuss the role of the metallic self-expandable stent and the biodegradable stent in esophageal stricture prevention. Limited studies suggested that prophylactic stenting could reduce the stricture rate without increasing the number of complications. In addition, the number of bougie dilation procedures was significantly lower with stent placement. Esophageal stenting is a promising option for post-ESD stricture prevention. However, current evidence is too preliminary to formulate practice standards. Future studies are needed to further validate the efficacy and safety of prophylactic stenting and determine the best strategy for stricture prevention. Stent migration is the most common complication. A new stent that has advantages of a low migration rate and minimal tissue reaction will need to be developed. Therefore, randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up periods are required before prophylactic stenting could be considered a valid option to prevent post-ESD stricture. PMID:28246466

  1. Advanced endoscopic imaging of indeterminate biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Tabibian, James H; Visrodia, Kavel H; Levy, Michael J; Gostout, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic evaluation of indeterminate biliary strictures (IDBSs) has evolved considerably since the development of flexible fiberoptic endoscopes over 50 years ago. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography pancreatography (ERCP) was introduced nearly a decade later and has since become the mainstay of therapy for relieving obstruction of the biliary tract. However, longstanding methods of ERCP-guided tissue acquisition (i.e., biliary brushings for cytology and intraductal forceps biopsy for histology) have demonstrated disappointing performance characteristics in distinguishing malignant from benign etiologies of IDBSs. The limitations of these methods have thus helped drive the search for novel techniques to enhance the evaluation of IDBSs and thereby improve diagnosis and clinical care. These modalities include, but are not limited to, endoscopic ultrasound, intraductal ultrasound, cholangioscopy, confocal endomicroscopy, and optical coherence tomography. In this review, we discuss established and emerging options in the evaluation of IDBSs. PMID:26675379

  2. Epithelial-Differentiated Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Seeded Bladder Acellular Matrix Grafts for Urethral Reconstruction: An Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongbin; Xie, Hong; Li, Chao; Song, Lujie; Feng, Chao; Zhang, Qin; Xie, Minkai; Wang, Ying; Lv, Xiangguo

    2014-01-01

    The limited amount of available epithelial tissue is considered a main cause of the high rate of urethral reconstruction failures. The aim of this study was to investigate whether epithelial-differentiated rabbit adipose-derived stem cells (Epith-rASCs) could play a role of epithelium in vivo functionally and be a potential substitute of urothelium. Substitution urethroplasty was performed to repair an anterior urethral defect in male New Zealand rabbits using Epith-rASCs seeded bladder acellular matrix grafts (BAMGs) after 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling, based on the in vitro epithelial induction system we previously described. Urethroplasty with cell-free BAMGs and with undifferentiated rASCs (Und-rASCs) seeded BAMGs were performed as controls. After surgery, a notable amelioration of graft contracture and recovery of urethral continuity were observed in the Epith-rASCs/BAMG group by retrograde urethrograms and macroscopic inspection. Immunofluorescence revealed that the BrdU-labeled Epith-rASCs/Und-rASCs colocalized with cytokeratin 13 or myosin. Consistent with the results of western blotting, at early postimplantation stage, the continuous epithelial layer with local multilayered structure was observed in the Epith-rASCs/BAMG group, whereas no significant growth and local monolayer growth profile of epithelial cells were observed in the BAMG and Und-rASCs/BAMG group, respectively. The results showed that Epith-rASCs could serve as a potential substitute of urothelium for urethral tissue engineering and be available to prevent lumen contracture and subsequent complications including recurrent stricture. PMID:24329501

  3. 21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urethral dilator. 876.5520 Section 876.5520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... flexibilities. The device may include a mechanism to expand the portion of the device in the urethra...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urethral dilator. 876.5520 Section 876.5520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... flexibilities. The device may include a mechanism to expand the portion of the device in the urethra...

  5. Bladder neck incompetence at posterior urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Koraitim, Mamdouh M.

    2015-01-01

    The finding of an incompetent bladder neck (BN) at the time of posterior urethroplasty will necessarily exacerbate the already difficult situation. In such cases the aim of the treatment is not only to restore urethral continuity by end-to-end urethral anastomosis, but also to restore the function of the BN to maintain urinary continence. Fortunately, the incidence of incompetence of the BN at posterior urethroplasty is uncommon, usually ≈4.5%. It seems that pelvic fracture-related BN injuries, in contrast to urethral injuries which result from a shearing force, are due to direct injury by the sharp edge of the fractured and displaced pubic bone. The risk of injuries to the BN is greater in children, in patients with a fracture involving both superior and inferior pubic rami on the same side, and in those managed initially by primary realignment. An incompetent BN is suspected by finding an open rectangular BN on cystography, and a fixedly open BN on suprapubic cystoscopy. An incompetent BN can be treated either subsequent to or concomitant with the urethral repair, according to whether a perineal or a perineo-abdominal urethroplasty is used, respectively. Several options have been reported to treat pelvic fracture-related BN incompetence, including reconstructing the BN, forming a new sphincter by tubularisation of a rectangular flap of the anterior bladder wall, and mechanical occlusion by an artificial sphincter or collagen injection. Reconstruction of the BN by the Young-Dees-Leadbetter∗∗ procedure probably provides the most successful results. PMID:26019982

  6. Characterizing intestinal strictures with acoustic resolution photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Hao; Xu, Guan; Liu, Shengchun; Johnson, Laura A.; Moons, David S.; Higgins, Peter D. R.; Rice, Michael D.; Ni, Jun; Wang, Xueding

    2016-03-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease, which may cause obstructing intestinal strictures due to inflammation, fibrosis (deposition of collagen), or a combination of both. Identifying the different stages of the disease progression is still challenging. In this work, we indicated the feasibility of non-invasively characterizing intestinal strictures using photoacoustic imaging (PAI), utilizing the uniquely optical absorption of hemoglobin and collagen. Surgically removed human intestinal stricture specimens were investigated with a prototype PAI system. 2D PA images with acoustic resolution at wavelength 532, 1210 and 1310 nm were formulated, and furthermore, the PA histochemical components images which show the microscopic distributions of histochemical components were solved. Imaging experiments on surgically removed human intestinal specimens has demonstrated the solved PA images were significantly different associated with the presence of fibrosis, which could be applied to characterize the intestinal strictures for given specimens.

  7. Use of articulated catheters in the treatment of biliary strictures

    SciTech Connect

    Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D.; Soulen, Michael C.; Haskal, Ziv J.; Cope, Constantin

    1997-05-15

    We have used a single articulated catheter to obviate the need for multiple catheters in patients with complex biliary strictures or strictures associated with small or immature tracts. Two- and three-arm articulated drains (8-14 Fr) made from segments of biliary catheters were placed in 16 patients. Nine were placed transhepatically, 6 transperitoneally through existing T-tube tracts, and 1 through a cystic duct fistula. Six malignant and 10 benign strictures were stented with various catheter configurations through a single tract. Fifteen patients had two catheter components with one articulation and 1 patient had three catheter components with two articulations. The average duration of catheter drainage was 7.0 {+-} 4.2 months. Routine catheter exchanges were performed; two spontaneous occlusions occurred. In patients where internal stenting may be difficult or undesirable, articulated catheters allow satisfactory external and internal drainage of complex benign and malignant strictures through a single tract, avoiding the need for multiple transhepatic catheters.

  8. Current status of minimally invasive endoscopic management of ureteric strictures

    PubMed Central

    Kachrilas, Stefanos; Karaolides, Theocharis; Nikitopoulou, Stavroula; Papadopoulos, George; Buchholz, Noor; Masood, Junaid

    2013-01-01

    Endourological techniques are used more often nowadays in the treatment of ureteric strictures of various etiologies. Advances in technology have provided new tools to the armamentarium of the endoscopic urological surgeon. Numerous studies exist that investigate the efficiency and safety of each of the therapeutic modalities available. In this review, we attempt to demonstrate the available and contemporary evidence supporting each minimally invasive modality in the management of ureteric strictures. PMID:24294293

  9. Advanced Cytologic Techniques for the Detection of Malignant Pancreatobiliary Strictures

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Luna, Laura E.; Kipp, Benjamin; Halling, Kevin C.; Sebo, Thomas J.; Kremers., Walter K.; Roberts, Lewis R.; Barr Fritcher, Emily G.; Levy, Michael J.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2006-01-01

    Background & Aims Two advanced cytologic techniques for detecting aneuploidy, digital image analysis (DIA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) have recently been developed to help identify malignant pancreatobiliary strictures. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical utility of cytology, DIA, and FISH for the identification of malignant pancreatobiliary strictures. Methods Brush cytologic specimens from 233 consecutive patients undergoing ERCP for pancreatobiliary strictures were examined by all three techniques. Strictures were stratified as proximal (n=33) or distal (n=114) based on whether they occurred above or below the cystic duct, respectively. Strictures in patients with PSC (n=86) were analyzed separately. Results Despite the stratification, the performances of the tests were similar. Routine cytology has a low sensitivity (5–20%) but 100% specificity. Because of the high specificity for cytology, we assessed the performance of the other tests when routine cytology was negative. In this clinical context, FISH had an increased sensitivity (35–60%) when assessing for chromosomal gains (polysomy) while preserving the specificity of cytology. The sensitivity and specificity of DIA was intermediate as compared to routine cytology and FISH, but was additive to FISH values demonstrating only trisomy of chromosome 7 or chromosome 3. Conclusions These findings suggest that FISH and DIA increase the sensitivity for the diagnosis of malignant pancreatobiliary tract strictures over that obtained by conventional cytology while maintaining an acceptable specificity. PMID:17030177

  10. Eosinophilic Cholangitis—A Challenging Diagnosis of Benign Biliary Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Fragulidis, Georgios Panagiotis; Vezakis, Antonios I.; Kontis, Elissaios A.; Pantiora, Eirini V.; Stefanidis, Gerasimos G.; Politi, Aikaterini N.; Koutoulidis, Vasilios K.; Mela, Maria K.; Polydorou, Andreas A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract When confronting a biliary stricture, both benign and malignant etiologies must be carefully considered as a variety of benign biliary strictures can masquerade as hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Therefore, patients could undergo a major surgery despite the possibility of a benign biliary disease. Approximately 15% to 24% of patients undergoing surgical resection for suspected biliary malignancy will have benign pathology. Eosinophilic cholangitis (EC) is a rare benign disorder of the biliary tract, which can cause obstructive jaundice and can pose a difficult diagnostic task. We present a rare case of a young woman who was referred to our hospital with obstructive painless jaundice due to a biliary stricture at the confluence of the hepatic bile ducts, with a provisional diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. Though, during her work up she was found to have EC, an extremely rare benign cause of biliary stricture, which is characterized by a dense eosinophilic infiltration of the biliary tree causing stricturing, fibrosis, and obstruction and which is reversible with short-term high-dose steroids. Despite its rarity, EC should be taken into consideration when imaging modalities demonstrate a biliary stricture, especially if preoperative diagnosis of malignancy cannot be made, in the setting of peripheral eosinophilia and the absence of cardinal symptoms of malignancy. PMID:26735539

  11. Endoscopic incisional therapy for benign esophageal strictures: Technique and results.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Jayanta; Dhaka, Narendra; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Kochhar, Rakesh

    2015-12-25

    Benign esophageal strictures refractory to the conventional balloon or bougie dilatation may be subjected to various adjunctive modes of therapy, one of them being endoscopic incisional therapy (EIT). A proper delineation of the stricture anatomy is a prerequisite. A host of electrocautery and mechanical devices may be used, the most common being the use of needle knife, either standard or insulated tip. The technique entails radial incision and cutting off of the stenotic rim. Adjunctive therapies, to prevent re-stenosis, such as balloon dilatation, oral or intralesional steroids or argon plasma coagulation can be used. The common strictures where EIT has been successfully used are Schatzki's rings (SR) and anastomotic strictures (AS). Short segment strictures (< 1 cm) have been found to have the best outcome. When compared with routine balloon dilatation, EIT has equivalent results in treatment naïve cases but better long term outcome in refractory cases. Anecdotal reports of its use in other types of strictures have been noted. Post procedure complications of EIT are mild and comparable to dilatation therapy. As of the current evidence, incisional therapy can be used for management of refractory AS and SR with relatively short stenosis (< 1 cm) with good safety profile and acceptable long term patency.

  12. Endoscopic incisional therapy for benign esophageal strictures: Technique and results

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Jayanta; Dhaka, Narendra; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Kochhar, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Benign esophageal strictures refractory to the conventional balloon or bougie dilatation may be subjected to various adjunctive modes of therapy, one of them being endoscopic incisional therapy (EIT). A proper delineation of the stricture anatomy is a prerequisite. A host of electrocautery and mechanical devices may be used, the most common being the use of needle knife, either standard or insulated tip. The technique entails radial incision and cutting off of the stenotic rim. Adjunctive therapies, to prevent re-stenosis, such as balloon dilatation, oral or intralesional steroids or argon plasma coagulation can be used. The common strictures where EIT has been successfully used are Schatzki’s rings (SR) and anastomotic strictures (AS). Short segment strictures (< 1 cm) have been found to have the best outcome. When compared with routine balloon dilatation, EIT has equivalent results in treatment naïve cases but better long term outcome in refractory cases. Anecdotal reports of its use in other types of strictures have been noted. Post procedure complications of EIT are mild and comparable to dilatation therapy. As of the current evidence, incisional therapy can be used for management of refractory AS and SR with relatively short stenosis (< 1 cm) with good safety profile and acceptable long term patency. PMID:26722613

  13. Prevention of esophageal strictures after endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Shinichiro; Kanai, Nobuo; Ohki, Takeshi; Takagi, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Naoyuki; Isomoto, Hajime; Kasai, Yoshiyuki; Hosoi, Takahiro; Nakao, Kazuhiko; Eguchi, Susumu; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have recently been accepted as less invasive methods for treating patients with early esophageal cancers such as squamous cell carcinoma and dysplasia of Barrett’s esophagus. However, the large defects in the esophageal mucosa often cause severe esophageal strictures, which dramatically reduce the patient’s quality of life. Although preventive endoscopic balloon dilatation can reduce dysphagia and the frequency of dilatation, other approaches are necessary to prevent esophageal strictures after ESD. This review describes several strategies for preventing esophageal strictures after ESD, with a particular focus on anti-inflammatory and tissue engineering approaches. The local injection of triamcinolone acetonide and other systemic steroid therapies are frequently used to prevent esophageal strictures after ESD. Tissue engineering approaches for preventing esophageal strictures have recently been applied in basic research studies. Scaffolds with temporary stents have been applied in five cases, and this technique has been shown to be safe and is anticipated to prevent esophageal strictures. Fabricated autologous oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets to cover the defective mucosa similarly to how commercially available skin products fabricated from epidermal cells are used for skin defects or in cases of intractable ulcers. Fabricated autologous oral-mucosal-epithelial cell sheets have already been shown to be safe. PMID:25386058

  14. Microscopy of Stained Urethral Smear in Male Urethritis; Which Cutoff Should be Used?

    PubMed

    Moi, Harald; Hartgill, Usha; Skullerud, Kristin Helene; Reponen, Elina J; Syvertsen, Line; Moghaddam, Amir

    2017-03-01

    The microscopical diagnosis of male urethritis was recently questioned by Rietmeijer and Mettenbrink, lowering the diagnostic criteria of the diagnosis to ≥2 polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) per high power field (HPF), and adopted by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in their 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines. The European Non-Gonococcal Urethritis Guideline advocates a limit of ≥5 PMNL/HPF. To determine if syndromic treatment of urethritis should be considered with a cutoff value of ≥2 PMNL/HPF in urethral smear. The design was a cross-sectional study investigating the presence and degree of urethritis relative to specific infections in men attending an STI clinic as drop-in patients. The material included 2 cohorts: a retrospective study of 13,295 men and a prospective controlled study including 356 men. We observed a mean chlamydia prevalence of 2.3% in the 0-9 stratum, and a 12-fold higher prevalence (27.3%) in the strata above 9. Of the chlamydia cases, 89.8% were diagnosed in strata above 9. For Mycoplasma genitalium, the prevalence was 1.4% in the 0-9 stratum and 11.2% in the stratum ≥10, and 83.6% were diagnosed in strata above 9. For gonorrhea, a significant increase in the prevalence occurred between the 0-30 strata and >30 strata from 0.2% to 20.7%. The results of the prospective study were similar. Our data do not support lowering the cutoff to ≥2 PMNL/HPF. However, a standardization of urethral smear microscopy seems to be impossible. The cutoff value should discriminate between low and high prevalence of chlamydia, mycoplasma, and gonorrhea to include as many as possible with a specific infection in syndromic treatment, without overtreating those with few PMNL/HPF and high possibility of having nonspecific or no urethritis.

  15. A simple reconstruction of the posterior aspect of rhabdosphincter and sparing of puboprostatic collar reduces the time to early continence after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Daouacher, Georgios; Waldén, Mauritz

    2014-04-01

    Incontinence is a drawback after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Several surgical methods to improve continence have been described however with contradictory results. To determine whether a modified surgical technique during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) improves postoperative continence. This is a prospective nonrandomized study with two consecutive series of 100 patients in each group. The first group from 2005 to 2008 underwent a standard LRP. The second group from 2009 to 2011 was subjected to a modified LRP by sparing of puboprostatic ligaments, including the preservation of arcus tendineous, and using a simple posterior tension-releasing suture adapting the urethra stump to the bladder before the anastomosis. The patients had the same preoperative work-up and comparable preoperative baseline characteristics. The 2-year follow-up of the patients included a continence questionnaire and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Urinary peak flow (Qmax) and post-void residual (PVR) volume were assessed at 3 months. Continence was defined as 0-1 pad/day. Only 99 patients were evaluated in each group. The patients had comparable operative characteristics. The continence rates after the modified technique vs the standard were 33% vs 16%, p=0.007 at 1 month; 66% vs 44%, p=0.002 at 3 months; 81% vs 67%, p=0.034 at 6 months; 92% vs 80%, p=0.024 at 12 months; and 95% vs 86%, p=0.05 at 2 years. No significant differences were found regarding voiding functions, the Qmax, the PVR volume, or the IPSS. Three patients developed urethral stricture in the standard group compared with none in the modified group. The negative margin rates were unchanged. The anterior preservation and posterior suture technique studied is a simple, safe, and efficient method to shorten the time to continence after LRP without adverse effects on voiding or compromising the margin rates.

  16. Management of non-gonococcal urethritis.

    PubMed

    Moi, Harald; Blee, Karla; Horner, Patrick J

    2015-07-29

    Non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), or inflammation of the urethra, is the most common treatable sexually transmitted syndrome in men, with approximately 20-50 % of cases being due to infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and 10-30 % Mycoplasma genitalium. Other causes are Ureaplasma urealyticum, Trichomonas vaginalis, anaerobes, Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and adenovirus. Up to half of the cases are non-specific. Urethritis is characterized by discharge, dysuria and/or urethral discomfort but may be asymptomatic. The diagnosis of urethritis is confirmed by demonstrating an excess of polymorpho-nuclear leucocytes (PMNLs) in a stained smear. An excess of mononuclear leucocytes in the smear indicates a viral etiology. In patients presenting with symptoms of urethritis, the diagnosis should be confirmed by microscopy of a stained smear, ruling out gonorrhea. Nucleid acid amplifications tests (NAAT) for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis and for M. genitalium. If viral or protozoan aetiology is suspected, NAAT for HSV, adenovirus and T. vaginalis, if available. If marked symptoms and urethritis is confirmed, syndromic treatment should be given at the first appointment without waiting for the laboratory results. Treatment options are doxycycline 100 mg x 2 for one week or azithromycin 1 gram single dose or 1,5 gram distributed in five days. However, azithromycin as first line treatment without test of cure for M. genitalium and subsequent Moxifloxacin treatment of macrolide resistant strains will select and increase the macrolide resistant strains in the population. If positive for M. genitalium, test of cure samples should be collected no earlier than three weeks after start of treatment. If positive in test of cure, moxifloxacin 400 mg 7-14 days is indicated. Current partner(s) should be tested and treated with the same regimen. They should abstain from intercourse until both have completed treatment. Persistent or recurrent NGU must be confirmed with microscopy

  17. Esophageal Stricture Prevention after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Deepanshu; Singhal, Shashideep

    2016-01-01

    Advances in diagnostic modalities and improvement in surveillance programs for Barrett esophagus has resulted in an increase in the incidence of superficial esophageal cancers (SECs). SEC, due to their limited metastatic potential, are amenable to non-invasive treatment modalities. Endoscopic ultrasound, endoscopic mucosal resection, and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are some of the new modalities that gastroenterologists have used over the last decade to diagnose and treat SEC. However, esophageal stricture (ES) is a very common complication and a major cause of morbidity post-ESD. In the past few years, there has been a tremendous effort to reduce the incidence of ES among patients undergoing ESD. Steroids have shown the most consistent results over time with minimal complications although the preferred mode of delivery is debatable, with both systemic and local therapy having pros and cons for specific subgroups of patients. Newer modalities such as esophageal stents, autologous cell sheet transplantation, polyglycolic acid, and tranilast have shown promising results but the depth of experience with these methods is still limited. We have summarized case reports, prospective single center studies, and randomized controlled trials describing the various methods intended to reduce the incidence of ES after ESD. Indications, techniques, outcomes, limitations, and reported complications are discussed. PMID:26949124

  18. Umbilical cord stricture and intrauterine fetal death.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Arbuckle, S; Hocking, G; Billson, V

    1995-01-01

    Umbilical cord stricture is an uncommon but distinctive condition associated with intrauterine fetal death. Although cases have been reported periodically since the last century, there has been considerable speculation as to whether the condition is real or a postmortem artifact. In the present study, 25 cases reported since 1925 are reviewed and 8 new cases are described. Clinically, a decrease in fetal movements is usually the only symptom during the second or third trimester of pregnancy and fetal death occurs soon after. The women's age, health, and previous history have shown no link with this condition, but a higher incidence is noted in twin pregnancies. Morphologically, most infants are macerated and an extremely narrow segment of umbilical cord is usually seen at the fetal end and rarely at the placental end or in multiple sites along the cord. Absence of Wharton's jelly, stenosis, or obliteration of cord vessels at the narrow segment and intravascular cord thrombosis are the major pathological features. The findings of this study support the view that the condition can cause fetal death and alerts both pathologists and clinicians to the important features identifying this cause of perinatal wastage.

  19. Sexually transmitted diseases syndromic approach: urethral discharge.

    PubMed

    Di Carlo, A

    2012-08-01

    Urethral discharge (UD) in men is one of the most identifiable sexually transmitted infections (STI)-associated syndromes. UD performs very well, giving the possibility of an accurate diagnosis, a treatment at first encounter, a rapid cure with effective drugs, a modification of the risk behavior. Furthermore the patient is informed about the infectious nature of STDs, the transmission through sexual intercourse, the increased risks of infertility and other complications and, finally, the importance of completing treatment, even after improvement. Applying the syndromic approach to UD has resulted in effective case management of urethritis, as shown in different studies. Thus, there are numerous reasons why treatment of gonorrhea should include a regimen with complete in vivo activity against both N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis.

  20. Urethral anatomy and semen flow during ejaculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Diane

    2016-11-01

    Ejaculation is critical for reproductive success in many animals, but little is known about its hydrodynamics. In mammals, ejaculation pushes semen along the length of the penis through the urethra. Although the urethra also carries urine during micturition, the flow dynamics of micturition and ejaculation differ: semen is more viscous than urine, and the pressure that drives its flow is derived primarily from the rhythmic contractions of muscles at the base of the penis, which produce pulsatile rather than steady flow. In contrast, Johnston et al. (2014) describe a steady flow of semen through the crocodilian urethral groove during ejaculation. Anatomical differences of tissues associated with mammalian and crocodilian urethral structures may underlie these differences in flow behavior.

  1. Urethral sensation: basic mechanisms and clinical expressions.

    PubMed

    Birder, Lori A; de Wachter, Stefan; Gillespie, James; Wyndaele, Jean Jacques

    2014-04-01

    A prerequisite for conscious bladder control is adequate sensory input to the central nervous system, and it is well established that changes in sensory mechanisms can give rise to disturbances in bladder function. Impulses related to the desire to void are believed to course through the pelvic nerves, and those for sensation of a full bladder course through the pudendal nerves. The sense of imminent micturition most probably resides in the urethra, and the desire to void comes from stretching the bladder wall. In addition, a variety of structures play an important role in terms of urethral closure (such as the urethral epithelium, vasculature and smooth muscle) that are necessary to maintain continence. This overview will discuss mechanisms related in part to the urethra involved in activation of bladder reflexes and sensation with a discussion on the mucosa (urothelium and underlying lamina propria) and underlying cellular structures.

  2. EUS-guided recanalization of complete gastrointestinal strictures.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Guillén, Miguel; Gornals, Joan B; Consiglieri, Claudia F; Castellvi, Josep M; Loras, Carme

    2017-09-01

    Complete gastrointestinal strictures are a technically demanding problem. In this setting, an anterograde technique is associated with a high risk of complications and a combined anterograde-retrograde technique requires a prior ostomy. Our aim was to assess the outcome of a first case series for the management of complete gastrointestinal strictures using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided puncture as a novel endoscopic approach. This retrospective case-series describes four cases that were referred for treatment of complete benign gastrointestinal strictures, three upper and one lower. Recanalization was attempted with EUS-guided puncture using a 22G or 19G needle and contrast filling was visualized by fluoroscopy. Afterwards, a cystotome and/or a dilator balloon were used under endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance. A fully covered metal stent was placed in two cases, keeping the strictures open in order to prevent another stricture. Feasibility, adverse events, efficacy and the number of dilations required after recanalization were evaluated. Technical and clinical success was achieved in three of the four cases (75%). A first dilation was performed using a dilator balloon in all successful cases and fully covered metal stents were used in two cases. These patients underwent a consecutive number of balloon dilatations (range 1-4) and all three were able to eat a soft diet. No adverse events were related to the EUS-guided approach. In the failed case with a long stricture (> 3 cm), an endoscopic rendezvous technique was attempted which caused a pneumothorax requiring a chest tube placement. EUS-guided recanalization, as a first approach in the treatment of complete digestive stricture, is a feasible and promising procedure that can help to avoid major surgery.

  3. Posterior scleritis.

    PubMed

    Benson, W E

    1988-01-01

    Posterior scleritis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of many ocular conditions, including angle closure glaucoma, choroidal folds, optic disk edema, circumscribed fundus mass, choroidal detachment, and exudative retinal detachment. Because it is rare, a high index of suspicion is necessary. Anterior scleritis, pain, or a history of collagen-vascular disease, when present, help to alert the clinician to the correct diagnosis. Posterior scleritis affects women more often than men, but annular ciliochoroidal effusion and choroidal folds are more common in men. Exudative macular detachment and a circumscribed fundus mass are more common in women. This paper reviews the world literature on posterior scleritis and describes findings in a series of 43 patients seen at Wills Eye Hospital. It stresses the clinical features and ancillary diagnostic tests that help to establish the diagnosis.

  4. [Clinical practice guideline. Traumatic urethral stenosis in males].

    PubMed

    Serrano-Brambila, Eduardo Alonso; Moreno-Alcázar, Othón Martino; Neri-Páez, Edgar; Sánchez-Martínez, Luis Carlos; Hernández-Ordóñez, Octavio Francisco; Morales-Morales, Arturo; Basavilvazo-Rodríguez, M Antonia; Torres-Arreola, Laura del Pilar; Valenzuela-Flores, Adriana Abigail; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of urethral stenosis in Mexico had not been documented. At the Centro Médico Nacional La Raza, during the year 2010, 629 patients with urethral stenosis were attended as outpatient consultation: 85 % with previous urethral stenosis and 15 % with urethral treatment complication. Urethral stenosis is a chronic illness, with multiple etiological origins and the handling is controversial. It has a great negative impact for the patients and the recurrence reaches 85 %. The treatment consisted of an invasive approach (urethral dilations, endoscopy procedure) and open surgery (urethroplasty). The World Health Organization and World Alliance take the world challenge about the urinary tract infections associated with the attention of patients, focused on urethral stenosis. The objective of the following clinical guide is to offer to the health professional a clinical tool for making decisions in the handling of the hardship or masculine urethral stenosis, based on the best available evidence, carrying out in systematized form with bibliographical research using validated terms of the MeSH: urethral structures, in the databases Trip database, PubMed, Guideline Clearinghouse, Cochrane Library and Ovid.

  5. Predictive factors of stress incontinence after posterior sacral rhizotomy.

    PubMed

    Chinier, Eva; Egon, Guy; Hamel, Olivier; Lemée, Jean-Michel; Perrouin-Verbe, Brigitte

    2016-02-01

    The Brindley procedure, used since the 1980s, consists of implantation of a stimulator for sacral anterior root stimulation combined with a posterior sacral rhizotomy to enable micturition. Patients suitable for the procedure are patients with detrusor overactivity and a complete spinal cord lesion with intact sacral reflexes. S2 to S4 posterior sacral rhizotomy abolishes sacral hyperreflexia and may lead to decreased urethral closure pressure and loss of reflex adaptation of continence, leading to stress incontinence. In this retrospective study of 96 patients from Nantes or Le Mans, implanted with a Finetech-Brindley stimulator, we analyzed the incidence of stress incontinence one year after surgery and looked for predictive factors of stress incontinence one year after posterior sacral rhizotomy: age, gender, level of injury between T10 and L2 , previous urethral surgery, incompetent bladder neck, Maximum Urethral Closure Pressure before surgery less than 30 cmH2 O, compliance before surgery less than 30 ml/cmH2 0. Patients with persistent involuntary detrusor contractions with or without incontinence after surgery were excluded. One year after surgery, 10.4% of the patients experienced stress incontinence. Urethral closure pressure was significantly decreased by 18% after posterior sacral rhizotomy (P = 0.002). This study highlights the only significant predictive factor of stress incontinence after rhizotomy: incompetent bladder neck (P = 0.002). As screening of patients undergoing the Brindley procedure is essential to achieve optimal postoperative results, on the basis of this study, we propose preoperative assessment to select the population of patients most likely to benefit from the Brindley procedure. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Management of Recurrent Stricture Formation after Transverse Vaginal Septum Excision

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ridhima; Bozzay, Joseph D.; Williams, David L.; DePond, Robert T.; Gantt, Pickens A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. A transverse vaginal septum (TVS) is a rare obstructing anomaly, caused due to improper fusion of Müllerian ducts and urogenital sinus during embryogenesis. Case. A 15-year-old girl presented with primary amenorrhea. She had multiple congenital anomalies. Initial examination and imaging investigation revealed the presence of a unicornuate uterus and a TVS. The TVS was excised; however the patient was unable to perform vaginal dilation postoperatively leading to recurrent stricture formation. She underwent multiple surgeries for excision of the stricture. The patient was eventually evaluated every day in the clinic until she was able to demonstrate successful vaginal dilatation in the presence of a clinician. Summary and Conclusion. Properly guided regular and intensive vaginal dilation after TVS excision may decrease the need of reoperations due to recurrent stricture formation. PMID:26078895

  7. Management of Recurrent Stricture Formation after Transverse Vaginal Septum Excision.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ridhima; Bozzay, Joseph D; Williams, David L; DePond, Robert T; Gantt, Pickens A

    2015-01-01

    Background. A transverse vaginal septum (TVS) is a rare obstructing anomaly, caused due to improper fusion of Müllerian ducts and urogenital sinus during embryogenesis. Case. A 15-year-old girl presented with primary amenorrhea. She had multiple congenital anomalies. Initial examination and imaging investigation revealed the presence of a unicornuate uterus and a TVS. The TVS was excised; however the patient was unable to perform vaginal dilation postoperatively leading to recurrent stricture formation. She underwent multiple surgeries for excision of the stricture. The patient was eventually evaluated every day in the clinic until she was able to demonstrate successful vaginal dilatation in the presence of a clinician. Summary and Conclusion. Properly guided regular and intensive vaginal dilation after TVS excision may decrease the need of reoperations due to recurrent stricture formation.

  8. Gonococcal Conjunctivitis Despite Successful Treatment of Male Urethritis Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Peters, Remco P H; Verweij, Stephan P; McIntyre, James A; Schaftenaar, Erik

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of progressive, cephalosporin-susceptible, Neisseria gonorrhoeae conjunctivitis despite successful treatment of male urethritis syndrome. We hypothesize that conjunctival infection progressed due to insufficient penetration of cefixime and azithromycin and point out that extragenital infection and male urethritis may not be cured simultaneously in settings where the syndromic approach is used.

  9. Urethral diverticulum with massive lithiasis presenting as a scrotal mass.

    PubMed

    Labanaris, Apostolos P; Zugor, Vahudin; Witt, Jorn H; Nützel, Reinhold; Kühn, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Urethral diverticula in men are uncommon clinical entities. Their clinical manifestations include urinary tract infection, hematuria, irritative or obstructive voiding symptoms, ventral bulging and displacement of the penile shaft. Male urethral diverticulum with massive lithiasis presenting as a scrotal mass with stress urinary incontinence as the main symptom is extremely rare. Herein, we present such a case. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Multi-disciplinary approach for management of refractory benign occlusive esophageal strictures

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Syed S.; Cohen, Dan C.; Pfanner, Timothy; Reznik, Scott; Duddempudi, Sushil

    2013-01-01

    Background: Benign occlusive esophageal strictures create substantial morbidity and have poor surgical outcomes. Various endoscopic techniques have been described to manage these strictures. The challenge remains to maintain adequate long-term esophageal patency and to limit the need for serial endoscopic dilations. Little has been reported regarding the management of these benign occlusive strictures. Methods: We report a case series describing the management of technically challenging benign occlusive esophageal strictures. Three patients with occlusive esophageal strictures of differing etiologies were treated using a variety of endoscopic methodologies. Results: The first patient sustained a caustic oropharyngeal injury resulting in a proximal esophageal stricture which was treated by using a combined antegrade retrograde dilation (CARD) with argon plasma coagulation (APC) and needle knife dissection resulting in the successful recanalization and patency of his stricture. A second patient developed an esophageal stricture following radiotherapy, and was treated with a CARD procedure and serial balloon dilations in combination with APC to successfully achieve esophageal luminal patency. The final patient acquired an occlusive esophageal stricture after treatment for thyroid cancer which was treated with endoscopic needle knife dissection followed by serial balloon dilations to successfully manage this stricture. Conclusions: Occlusive esophageal strictures pose a difficult challenge to gastroenterologists and little has been reported with regards to their endoscopic management. Using the CARD technique, needle knife dissection and APC, individually or in combination, luminal patency of occlusive esophageal strictures can be accomplished safely with good results. PMID:24003337

  11. Multi-disciplinary approach for management of refractory benign occlusive esophageal strictures.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Shashideep; Hasan, Syed S; Cohen, Dan C; Pfanner, Timothy; Reznik, Scott; Duddempudi, Sushil

    2013-09-01

    Benign occlusive esophageal strictures create substantial morbidity and have poor surgical outcomes. Various endoscopic techniques have been described to manage these strictures. The challenge remains to maintain adequate long-term esophageal patency and to limit the need for serial endoscopic dilations. Little has been reported regarding the management of these benign occlusive strictures. We report a case series describing the management of technically challenging benign occlusive esophageal strictures. Three patients with occlusive esophageal strictures of differing etiologies were treated using a variety of endoscopic methodologies. The first patient sustained a caustic oropharyngeal injury resulting in a proximal esophageal stricture which was treated by using a combined antegrade retrograde dilation (CARD) with argon plasma coagulation (APC) and needle knife dissection resulting in the successful recanalization and patency of his stricture. A second patient developed an esophageal stricture following radiotherapy, and was treated with a CARD procedure and serial balloon dilations in combination with APC to successfully achieve esophageal luminal patency. The final patient acquired an occlusive esophageal stricture after treatment for thyroid cancer which was treated with endoscopic needle knife dissection followed by serial balloon dilations to successfully manage this stricture. Occlusive esophageal strictures pose a difficult challenge to gastroenterologists and little has been reported with regards to their endoscopic management. Using the CARD technique, needle knife dissection and APC, individually or in combination, luminal patency of occlusive esophageal strictures can be accomplished safely with good results.

  12. EAU guidelines on primary urethral carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gakis, Georgios; Witjes, J Alfred; Compérat, Eva; Cowan, Nigel C; De Santis, Maria; Lebret, Thierry; Ribal, Maria J; Sherif, Amir M

    2013-11-01

    The European Association of Urology (EAU) Guidelines Group on Muscle-Invasive and Metastatic Bladder Cancer prepared these guidelines to deliver current evidence-based information on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with primary urethral carcinoma (UC). To review the current literature on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with primary UC and assess its level of scientific evidence. A systematic literature search was performed to identify studies reporting urethral malignancies. Medline was searched using the controlled vocabulary of the Medical Subject Headings database, along with a free-text protocol. Primary UC is considered a rare cancer, accounting for <1% of all malignancies. Risk factors for survival include age, tumour stage and grade, nodal stage, presence of distant metastasis, histologic type, tumour size, tumour location, and modality of treatment. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred method to assess the local extent of urethral tumour; computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen should be used to assess distant metastasis. In localised anterior UC, urethra-sparing surgery is an alternative to primary urethrectomy in both sexes, provided negative surgical margins can be achieved. Patients with locally advanced UC should be discussed by a multidisciplinary team of urologists, radiation oncologists, and oncologists. Patients with noninvasive UC or carcinoma in situ of the prostatic urethra and prostatic ducts can be treated with a urethra-sparing approach with transurethral resection and bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Cystoprostatectomy with extended pelvic lymphadenectomy should be reserved for patients not responding to BCG or as a primary treatment option in patients with extensive ductal or stromal involvement. The 2013 guidelines document on primary UC is the first publication on this topic by the EAU. It aims to increase awareness in the urologic community and provide scientific transparency to improve outcomes of

  13. External urethral stenosis: a latent effect of sulfur mustard two decades post-exposure.

    PubMed

    Emadi, Seyed Naser; Hosseini-Khalili, Alireza; Soroush, Mohammadreza; Ardakani, Mohammadreza Khodaei; Ghassemi-Broumand, Mohammad; Davoodi, Seyed Masoud; Amirani, Omolbanin; Haines, David

    2009-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM), a chemical weapon used widely during World War I and against Iranians during the Iran-Iraq War of the 1980s, causes massive inflammatory tissue damage in the immediate post-exposure period, resulting in debilitating chronic disease in years to decades following contact with the agent. These syndromes most often are pathologies of the lungs, eyes, and skin, the primary target organs of SM. Typically, they are characterized by severe and increasingly painful inflammation, often accompanied by fibrosis and constriction of the anatomic channels needed for normal life, such as the small airways of the lungs and, in the present report, the urethra. The present case study is a 43-year-old man with a history of heavy SM exposure to the groin in 1984. Within 1 year after exposure, the patient was found to have developed meatal stricture, occlusion of the external urethral meatus, and difficulty in urination. Two years post-exposure, he underwent ventral meatotomy and meatoplasty. This case presents a unique example of the latent effects of SM exposure to the groin, and will be of value in the prevention of similar injury and complications to persons at risk of SM exposure in the future.

  14. Fetal demise by umbilical cord around abdomen and stricture.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shun-Jen; Chen, Chi-Huang; Wu, Gwo-Jang; Chen, Wei-Hwa; Chang, Cheng-Chang

    2010-01-01

    Umbilical cord abnormalities are accepted as conditions associated with intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD), and umbilical cord stricture is most frequently encountered. In addition, although cord entanglement with multiple loops rarely increases the perinatal mortality, it is associated with a significant increase in variable kind of morbidity such as growth restriction. We describe a 27-year-old woman, with a missed abortion history at about 10 weeks' gestation in her first pregnancy, who presented to our outpatient department at 34 4/7 weeks of gestation due to decreased fetal activity during the preceding week. No fetal heart activity and blood flow had been detected by ultrasonography and pulsed-wave Doppler. A demised fetus with umbilical cord stricture and three loops around abdomen was delivered and was weighted 1,830 g that was below the tenth percentile for the gestational age. Either umbilical cord stricture or entanglement around the body can affect the development of the fetus and even be lethal. The former might play a more important role in this case. Their etiology and the sequence of the events are still undetermined, and additional evaluation such as autopsy and further research may be needed. In addition, counsel and frequent fetal surveillance should be done in patients with previous IUFD attributed to cord stricture during next pregnancy because of undetermined risk of recurrence.

  15. Obstructive jaundice due to radiation-induced hepatic duct stricture

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekhara, K.L.; Iyer, S.K.

    1984-10-01

    A case of obstructive jaundice due to radiation-induced hepatic duct stricture is reported. The patient received postoperative radiation for left adrenal carcinoma, seven years prior to this admission. The sequelae of hepatobiliary radiation and their management are discussed briefly.

  16. Crohn’s disease complicated by strictures: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Florian; Zimmermann, Ellen M; Remzi, Feza H; Sandborn, William J

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of strictures as a complication of Crohn’s disease is a significant clinical problem. No specific antifibrotic therapies are available. This systematic review comprehensively addresses the pathogenesis, epidemiology, prediction, diagnosis and therapy of this disease complication. We also provide specific recommendations for clinical practice and summarise areas that require future investigation. PMID:23626373

  17. Role of metallic stents in benign esophageal stricture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Chan Sup

    2012-10-01

    Simple esophageal strictures, which are focal, straight, and large in diameter, usually require 1 - 3 dilation sessions to relieve symptoms. However, complex strictures, which are long, tortuous, or associated with a severely compromised luminal diameter, are usually more difficult to treat with conventional bougie or balloon dilation techniques, and often have high recurrence rates. Although the permanent placement of self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) has been used to manage refractory benign esophageal strictures, this procedure is associated with additional problems, such as stricture from tissue hyperplasia, stent migration, and fistula formation. Thus, several new types of stents have been developed, including temporary SEMS, self-expandable plastic stents (SEPS), and biodegradable stents. The use of these new products has produced varied results. Temporary SEMS that have been used to relieve benign esophageal conditions have caused granulation tissue at both ends of the stent because of contact between the mucosa and the exposed metal components of the stent, thus hindering stent removal. We examined the tissue response to two new types of SEMS, a flange-type and a straighttype, each coated with a silicone membrane on the outside of the metal mesh. These two SEMS were evaluated individually and compared with a conventional control stent in animal experiments. Although the newly designed stents resulted in reduced tissue hyperplasia, and were thus more easily separated from the esophageal tissue, some degree of tissue hyperplasia did occur. We suggest that newly designed DES (drug-eluting stents) may provide an alternative tool to manage refractory benign esophageal stricture.

  18. Role of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in management of benign esophageal strictures

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Surinder S.; Bhasin, Deepak K.; Singh, Kartar

    2011-01-01

    Background EUS, as it images the full thickness of the gastrointestinal tract wall, could provide more detailed information on benign esophageal strictures. Aim of this study was to evaluate the role of EUS in predicting the response to endoscopic dilatation in benign esophageal strictures. Methods 27 patients with benign strictures (corrosive 14, peptic 10 & post-radiation 3) were prospectively studied with radial EUS. Results The maximum esophageal wall thickness was significantly greater in patients with corrosive and post-radiation strictures in comparison to patients with peptic strictures. In patients with peptic stricture, the mucosal thickness involved either the mucosa (n=2) or submucosa (n=8) and in none of the patients was the muscularis propria involved. However, muscularis propria was involved in all 3 patients with post-radiation strictures and in 11/14 (78.5%) patients with corrosive strictures. Two peptic stricture patients with only mucosal thickening required a single session of dilatation whereas patients with involvement of submucosa required 2-4 sessions of dilatation. Patients with corrosive stricture having only involvement of submucosa required significantly fewer sessions in comparison to patients having muscularis propria involvement (2.67±0.58 vs. 6.30±1.16 sessions, respectively; p=0.0003). Conclusion EUS by delineating the extent of wall involvement in benign esophageal strictures predicts the response to endoscopic dilatation. PMID:24713797

  19. Interesting rendezvous location in a liver transplantation patient with anastomosis stricture.

    PubMed

    Odemis, Bulent; Oztas, Erkin; Yurdakul, Mehmet; Torun, Serkan; Suna, Nuredtin; Kayacetin, Ertugrul

    2014-11-14

    An endoscopic or radiologic percutaneous approach may be an initial minimally invasive method for treating biliary strictures after living donor liver transplantation; however, cannulation of biliary strictures is sometimes difficult due to the presence of a sharp or twisted angle within the stricture or a complete stricture. When an angulated or twisted biliary stricture interrupts passage of a guidewire over the stricture, it is difficult to replace the percutaneous biliary drainage catheter with inside stents by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The rendezvous technique can be used to overcome this difficulty. In addition to the classical rendezvous method, in cases with complete transection of the common bile duct a modified technique involving the insertion of a snare into the subhepatic space has been successfully performed. Herein, we report a modified rendezvous technique in the duodenal bulb as an extraordinary location for a patient with duct-to-duct anastomotic complete stricture after liver transplantation.

  20. Trichomonas vaginalis as a cause of urethritis in Malawian men.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, M M; Kazembe, P; Reed, A W; Miller, W C; Nkata, E; Zimba, D; Daly, C C; Chakraborty, H; Cohen, M S; Hoffman, I

    1999-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of trichomoniasis in Malawian men, to evaluate a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection assay for T. vaginalis in urethral swab samples, and to examine the effect of T. vaginalis infection on HIV excretion in the semen. There were 206 men with symptomatic urethritis in STD clinic and 127 asymptomatic men in the Dermatology Clinic who were enrolled from January to March 1996. Results, according to a wet-mount microscopy and urethral swabs culture combination, showed that, of 293 men, only 38 (13%) men were positive for T. vaginalis. The estimated prevalence among symptomatic and asymptomatic cases was 15.7% and 8.7%, respectively. The PCR yielded a sensitivity of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.66-0.92) and specificity of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.91-0.97); these were compared to the wet-mount microscopy and culture combination. Overall HIV seroprevalence of men was 51%, because gonococcal urethritis was shown to significantly increase seminal HIV RNA levels. The median HIV RNA concentration in seminal plasma from men with symptomatic urethritis plus T. vaginalis infection was significantly higher than in seminal plasma from HIV-positive men with symptomatic urethritis only. Since this study has several important limitations, a randomized clinical trial would be useful for determining whether urethritis cure rates can be significantly improved.

  1. Effect of occluding the urethra while recording urethral stress profile.

    PubMed

    Meyer, S; DeGrandi, P; Schmidt, N

    1991-08-01

    The correlation between clinical and tonometric incontinence is frequently poor, with urethral profile results that do not correspond to clinical reality. Among potential causal factors, we have attempted to determine the importance of the absorption of kinetic energy from the mass of urine driven against the urethral captor (the hydraulic ram effect). Twenty patients (average age 50 +/- 10 years, para 2) suffering from genuine stress urinary incontinence, underwent urodynamic investigation with a constant air-flow pneumatic catheter equipped with two captors separated by an inflatable cuff located just above the urethral captor to block the inrush of urine into the urethra. After cystometric examination had excluded an unstable bladder, two urethral profiles were registered successively, first with cuff deflated, and then with cuff inflated. The values for urethral functional length (FL) and transmission factor (TF) show no significant changes. The values for the maximal urethral closing pressure (MUCP) were significantly lower in the second profile (cuff inflated) in 18 of 20 cases (average decrease 7 cm H2O), which corresponds to 14 percent of the average MUCP measured during the first profile (cuff deflated). The depression quotient increased from an average 0.80 to 1.05 from first to second profile. This study allows quantification of the urethral "hydraulic ram effect" which modifies determination of the MUCP during registration of urinary stress profile.

  2. Urethral reconstruction with a 3D porous bacterial cellulose scaffold seeded with lingual keratinocytes in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Wen; Lv, Xiang-Guo; Li, Zhe; Song, Lu-Jie; Feng, Chao; Xie, Min-Kai; Li, Chao; Li, Hong-Bin; Wang, Ji-Hong; Zhu, Wei-Dong; Chen, Shi-Yan; Wang, Hua-Ping; Xu, Yue-Min

    2015-09-11

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of urethral reconstruction with a three-dimensional (3D) porous bacterial cellulose (BC) scaffold seeded with lingual keratinocytes in a rabbit model. A novel 3D porous BC scaffold was prepared by gelatin sponge interfering in the BC fermentation process. Rabbit lingual keratinocytes were isolated, expanded, and seeded onto 3D porous BC. BC alone (group 1, N  =  10), 3D porous BC alone (group 2, N  =  10), and 3D porous BC seeded with lingual keratinocytes (group 3, N  =  10) were used to repair rabbit ventral urethral defects (2.0   ×   0.8 cm). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that BC consisted of a compact laminate while 3D porous BC was composed of a porous sheet buttressed by a dense outer layer. The average pore diameter and porosity of the 3D porous BC were 4.23   ±   1.14 μm and 67.00   ±   6.80%, respectively. At 3 months postoperatively, macroscopic examinations and retrograde urethrograms of urethras revealed that all urethras maintained wide calibers in group 3. Strictures were found in all rabbits in groups 1 and 2. Histologically, at 1 month postoperatively, intact epithelium occurred in group 3, and discontinued epithelium was found in groups 1 and 2. However, groups 2 and 3 exhibited similar epithelial regeneration, which was superior to that of group 1 at 3 months (p  <  0.05). Comparisons of smooth muscle content and endothelia density among the three groups revealed a significant increase at each time point (p  <  0.05). Our results demonstrated that 3D porous BC seeded with lingual keratinocytes enhanced urethral tissue regeneration. 3D porous BC could potentially be used as an optimized scaffold for urethral reconstruction.

  3. Urethral Duplication with Two Hypospadic Meati—An Unusual Variant

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Joseph Rutherford; Wright, Naomi Jane; Garriboli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Duplication of the urethra is a rare congenital anomaly, with approximately 300 cases reported in the literature. We report a unique case of this condition in a male infant. This case differs from the classical Effman type II-A2 duplication because of the presence of two hypospadic urethral meati, as opposed to a ventral or dorsal accessory meatus with a normally positioned distal urethra. The patient underwent a single-stage repair consisting of a proximal urethra-urethral anastomosis and distal urethral tubularization at 21 months of age with excellent results in terms of both function and cosmesis. PMID:28018807

  4. Static hydraulic urethral sphincter for treatment of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in 11 dogs.

    PubMed

    Delisser, P J; Friend, E J; Chanoit, G P A; Parsons, K J

    2012-06-01

    To review the postoperative results and complications associated with urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence managed with a static hydraulic urethral sphincter. Case records and a telephone owner questionnaire were retrospectively used to assess postoperative urinary continence scores (1 - dripping constantly to 10 - completely dry) and presence and frequency of complications. Eleven spayed females were included. Median continence score/10 (range) awarded preoperatively was 3 (2 to 6), and scores at two weeks, three and six months were 8 (4 to 10), 9 (4 to 10) and 8 (4 to 10), respectively. At the last survey, the median continence score of 9 (5 to 10) was significantly better (P=0·004) than before surgery. Complete continence was achieved in 36·4% of dogs. The median (range) follow-up time was 412 (118 to 749) days. Complications occurred in 9 of 11 dogs and included dysuria (n=7), bacterial cystitis (n=7), longer urination time (n=8), urinary retention (n=3), haematuria (n=1), pain (n=3) and incisional seroma (n=3). Static hydraulic urethral sphincter was frequently associated with minor complications but no major complications (i.e. those requiring further surgery). Continence scores were significantly improved compared with those before surgery, with the possibility of further improvement following inflation of the sphincter. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  5. Posterior Urethra Rupture: Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography Scan and Urethrocystography Demonstrations

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Wojciech; Dawid, S.; Lasek, J.; Witkowski, Z.; Gołąbek-Dropiewska, K.; Stasiak, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the follow-up study of patients with pelvic fractures, rupture of the posterior urethra is registered in 3–25% of cases (Koraitim et al., 1996). The diagnostic gold standard for the assessment of hemodynamically stable trauma patients is contrast-enhanced CT scan, especially helical CT. Nevertheless, simultaneous suprapubic cystography and ascending urethrograms (the so-called up-and-downogram) are the investigation of choice in assessing the site, severity, and length of urethral injuries. (Carlin and Resnick, 1995) This paper discusses the evaluation and diagnosis of urethral injury in multiple-trauma patient. PMID:22606630

  6. Transperineal ultrasonography in stress urinary incontinence: The significance of urethral rotation angles

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saadi, Wasan Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess, using transperineal ultrasonography (TPUS), the numerical value of the rotation of the bladder neck [represented by the difference in the anterior (α angle) and posterior urethral angles (β angle)] at rest and straining, in continent women and women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI), to ascertain if there are significant differences in the angles of rotation (Rα and Rβ) between the groups. Patients, subjects and methods In all, 30 women with SUI (SUI group) and 30 continent women (control group) were included. TPUS was performed at rest and straining (Valsalva manoeuver), and the threshold value for the urethral angles (α and β angles) for each group were estimated. The degree of rotation for each angle was calculated and was considered as the angle of rotation. Results Both the α and β angles were significantly different between the groups at rest and straining, and there was a significant difference in the mean increment in the value of each angle. Higher values of increment (higher rotation angles) were reported in the SUI group for both the α and β angles compared with those of the control group [mean (SD) Rα SUI group 19.43 (12.76) vs controls 10.53 (2.98) °; Rβ SUI group 28.30 (12.96) vs controls 16.33 (10.8) °; P < 0.001]. Conclusion Urethral rotation angles may assist in the assessment and diagnosis of patients with SUI, which may in turn reduce the need for more sophisticated urodynamic studies. PMID:26966596

  7. [Pathogen spectrum of non-gonorrhea urethritis].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, U; Hartmann, M; Pfützner, H

    1988-05-01

    By cultural investigations in 333 males with non-gonorrhoical urethritis (NGU) and 158 control probands it was demonstrated that Chlamydia trachomatis is the main germ of this disease also in the GDR with a frequency of 40% of the cases. A chlamydia-negative NGU was caused in 15% by Ureaplasma urealyticum in a number of greater than or equal to 10(4) germs/ml urine and in 5% by Trichomonas vaginalis, respectively. Candida albicans occurred significant more frequently in the patient group (21%) than in the control group (4%). Other optional pathogenic bacterias were the cause of NGU in single cases. The diagnosis and therapy of NGU should be considered this germ spectrum and the sexual partner also.

  8. Urethral coitus in a patient with a microperforate hymen.

    PubMed

    Di Donato, Violante; Manci, Natalina; Palaia, Innocenza; Bellati, Filippo; Perniola, Giorgia; Panici, Pierluigi Benedetti

    2008-01-01

    Microperforate hymen is a rare condition consisting of a tiny hymeneal orifice with normal female genitals. A woman had microperforate hymen in which diagnosis and treatment was performed after decades of urethral coitus.

  9. Palliative intubation for malignant strictures of the oesophagus

    PubMed Central

    Leverment, J. N.; Milne, D. Mearns

    1974-01-01

    Leverment, J. N. and Mearns Milne, D. (1974).Thorax, 29, 228-231. Palliative intubation for malignant strictures of the oesophagus. Over a 16-year period the Mousseau-Barbin tube was used for palliation in 50 patients suffering from malignant stricture of the oesophagus. In only two cases was the Souttar tube used. Thirty-seven cases were intubated as a primary method of treatment—21 cases without preliminary exploration, 13 cases following exploration, and three cases as a `delayed' procedure. Twelve cases were secondarily intubated as a result of recurrence of malignancy following an earlier oesophagogastrectomy. In three cases perforation of the oesophagus was recognized at the time of intubation, following which palliative oesophagogastrectomies were attempted. Intubation remains one method of relieving the patient's most distressing symptom, but in the majority of cases prolongation of life was seldom for more than three months. The hazards of this form of treatment are discussed. PMID:4133968

  10. Role of stents and laser therapy in biliary strictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennupati, Raja S.; Trowers, Eugene A.

    2001-05-01

    The most frequent primary cancers causing malignant obstructive jaundice were pancreatic cancer (57%), hilar biliary cancer (19% including metastatic disease), nonhilar biliary cancer (14%) and papillary cancer (10%). Endoscopic stenting has widely replaced palliative surgery for malignant biliary obstruction because of its lower risk and cost. Self-expandable metal stents are the preferred mode of palliation for hilar malignancies. Plastic stents have a major role in benign biliary strictures. Major complications and disadvantages associated with metallic stents include high cost, cholangitis. malposition, migration, unextractability, and breakage of the stents, pancreatitis and stent dysfunction. Dysfunction due to tumor ingrowth can be relieved by thermal methods (argon plasma coagulator therapy). We present a concise review of the efficacy of metallic stents for palliation of malignant strictures.

  11. Metallic stents in the management of ureteric strictures

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Management of ureteric strictures is a challenging task. Subtle presentation, silent progression and complex aetiology may delay diagnosis. A wide range of available treatment options combined with the lack of adequate randomised trials has led to the introduction of personal bias in the management of this difficult group of patients. Metallic ureteric stents offer an alternative to the conventional treatment modalities. A review of the currently available metallic stents and their role in the long-term management of ureteric strictures is presented. Materials used in the manufacture of indwelling urological devices are evolving all the time. Improved endo-urological techniques combined with new devices made from better compounds will continue to improve patient experience. PMID:24497686

  12. Intractable rectal stricture caused by hot water enema.

    PubMed

    Kye, Bong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Kang Moon; Cho, Hyeon-Min

    2011-11-01

    Rectal burns caused by hot water enema have been reported only occasionally and the majority of them were treated in a conservative manner. Although intractable rectal stricture caused by rectal burn is rare, it may be treated by endoscopic intervention or surgery. A 52-year-old woman who had used various methods of enema to treat her chronic constipation eventually undertook a hot water enema herself. After that, anal pain and constipation became aggravated prompting her to visit our clinic. Although various nonoperative treatments including endoscopic stenting were performed, her obstructive symptom did not improve and endoscopic findings had not changed. Hence, we performed a laparoscopic proctosigmoidectomy and transanal coloanal anastomosis with ileal diversion to treat the disease, and as a result, her obstructive symptom improved well. Corrective surgery such as resection of involved segment with anastomosis may be beneficial in relieving obstructive symptoms of an intractable rectal stricture caused by hot water enema.

  13. Intractable rectal stricture caused by hot water enema

    PubMed Central

    Kye, Bong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Kang Moon

    2011-01-01

    Rectal burns caused by hot water enema have been reported only occasionally and the majority of them were treated in a conservative manner. Although intractable rectal stricture caused by rectal burn is rare, it may be treated by endoscopic intervention or surgery. A 52-year-old woman who had used various methods of enema to treat her chronic constipation eventually undertook a hot water enema herself. After that, anal pain and constipation became aggravated prompting her to visit our clinic. Although various nonoperative treatments including endoscopic stenting were performed, her obstructive symptom did not improve and endoscopic findings had not changed. Hence, we performed a laparoscopic proctosigmoidectomy and transanal coloanal anastomosis with ileal diversion to treat the disease, and as a result, her obstructive symptom improved well. Corrective surgery such as resection of involved segment with anastomosis may be beneficial in relieving obstructive symptoms of an intractable rectal stricture caused by hot water enema. PMID:22148129

  14. Neurovascular sparing vas clipping: last option for recurrent epididymo-orchitis in urethrovasal reflux due to urethral injury.

    PubMed

    Khorramirouz, Reza; Mozafarpour, Sarah; Mohseni, Mohammad Javad; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Acute scrotum is a critical clinical entity in children. This report presents a 12-year-old boy presented with recurrent epididymo-orchitis (EO) with a history of pelvic trauma and urethral disruption 10 years ago. Antegrade and retrograde studies confirmed urethrovasal reflux. The patient did not respond to prophylactic antibiotics, clean intermittent catheterization and endoscopic injection of bulking agent at the junction of the ejaculatory duct and posterior urethra. As the last option, neurovascular sparing vas clipping was performed and the patient made a full recovery. This is the first report of this technique in the treatment for recurrent EO caused by traumatic injury.

  15. Fasciocutaneous flap in esophageal stricture with ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Seong, Yong Won; Kang, Chang Hyun; Chang, Hak; Park, In Kyu; Kim, Young Tae

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal surgery in a patient with ventriculoperitoneal shunt may increase the risk of shunt malfunction and infection. We present a successful case of resection and reconstruction of the cervical esophagus by rolled lateral thoracic artery fasciocutaneous flap in a patient with corrosive esophageal stricture and preexisting ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Follow-up esophagogastroscopy after 3 months revealed wide patent graft. Rolled fasciocutaneous flap may be a safe alternative treatment without risk of shunt-associated complications in a patient with ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

  16. Isolated proximal esophageal injury from blunt trauma: endoscopic stricture dilatation.

    PubMed

    Pineau, Benoit C; Ott, David J

    2003-01-01

    Blunt neck trauma can cause isolated esophageal injuries that may be difficult to recognize. A high index of suspicion is necessary for optimal identification and management of this condition. We report a case of blunt esophageal trauma resulting from a motor vehicle accident that was initially unrecognized until the patient developed a tight stricture of the cervical esophagus. This was successfully dilated endoscopically. Aerodigestive trauma resulting from neck injuries is reviewed with emphasis on the pathophysiology of esophageal trauma.

  17. Cytomegalovirus: a cause of colonic stricture in a premature infant.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Anjali; Barnes, Rosemary; Lazda, Ed; Doherty, Cora; Maxwell, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    A 27-week-old infant developed symptoms of bowel obstruction when full enteral feeds were started. Laparotomy revealed strictures in the ascending and proximal transverse colon. Right hemicolectomy was performed. Histological examination of the resected large bowel demonstrated the presence of Cytomegalovirus inclusion bodies. Cytomegalovirus infections of the gut are extremely rare in neonates. This case report alerts neonatologists and microbiologists to consider Cytomegalovirus infection as a possible cause of bowel obstruction and necrotising enterocolitis like symptoms.

  18. Incidental adenocarcinoma in patients undergoing surgery for stricturing Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kristo, Ivan; Riss, Stefan; Argeny, Stanislaus; Maschke, Svenja; Chitsabesan, Praminthra; Stift, Anton

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate frequency and clinical course of incidental adenocarcinoma in patients with stricturing Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS In this study, consecutive patients, who were operated on for stricturing CD between 1997-2012, were included at an academic tertiary referral center. Demographic data and clinical course were obtained by an institutional database and individual chart review. Besides baseline characteristics, intraoperative findings and CD related history were also recorded. Colorectal cancer was classified and staged according to the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). RESULTS During the study period 484 patients underwent resections due to stricturing CD. Incidental adenocarcinoma was histologically confirmed in 6 (1.2%) patients (4 males, 2 females). Patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer had a median age of 43 (27-66) years and a median history of CD of 16 (7-36) years. Malignant lesions were found in the rectum (n = 4, 66.7%), descending colon (n = 1, 16.7%) and ileocolon (n = 1, 16.7%). According to the UICC classification two patients were stages as I (33.3%), whereas the other patients were classified as stage IIA (16.7%), stage IIIB (16.7%), stage IIIC (16.7%) and stage IV (16.7%), respectively. After a median follow-up of 2 (0.03-8) years only 1 patient is still alive. CONCLUSION The frequency of incidental colorectal cancer in patients, who undergo surgery for stenotic CD, is low but associated with poor prognosis. However, surgeons need to be aware about the possibility of malignancy in stricturing CD, especially if localized in the rectum. PMID:28210083

  19. Biliary metal stents for proximal esophageal or hypopharyngeal strictures.

    PubMed

    Bechtler, Matthias; Wagner, Florian; Fuchs, Erik-Sebastian; Jakobs, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    Endoscopic dilation is the standard of care for stenoses of the cervical esophagus, but refractory strictures require some form of stenting. Most endoscopists avoid the placement of metal stents near the upper esophageal sphincter as they can cause major problems like severe cervical pain and globus sensation. We report our results with the use of biliary SEMS in the upper esophagus, which have a smaller diameter than regular esophageal stents and therefore exert less expansive force. We retrospectively reviewed all patients in our center between July 2011 and June 2014 who received a biliary metal stent because of a refractory stricture in the cervical esophagus. We implanted biliary SEMS (Wallflex, Boston Scientific) with a diameter of 1 cm and length of 6-8 cm. Technical and clinical success, adverse events and duration of stenting were evaluated. Ten patients were treated with biliary SEMS in the upper esophagus. Strictures were located between 10 and 19 cm from incisor teeth. Stent placement was successful in all (10/10) patients. One stent had to be extracted because of pain and globus sensation. Apart from that stent tolerability was good. All remaining patients (9/9) reported improvement of dysphagia with a decrease in mean dysphagia score from 3.2 to 1.78. Mean duration of stenting was 68 days. Because of a high clinical success rate and good tolerability, biliary metal stents are a reasonable alternative for difficult strictures in the cervical esophagus, especially in the palliative setting.

  20. Male urethral sarcoma: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Magno Almeida; dos Santos, Guilherme Campelo Lopes; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; Campos, Octavio Henrique Arcos; Dall’Oglio, Marcos Francisco; Sant’Anna, Alexandre Crippa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urethral tumors are rare and aggressive. They usually affect men (2:1) and occur more commonly in white (85% of cases). Soft tissue sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors that arise from embryonic mesoderm. It represents 1% of all cases of urinary tract malignancies and rarely primary affect the ureter. We report a case of male urethral sarcoma. To date, only two similar cases have been published in literature. PMID:26398363

  1. Congenital Midureteric Stricture: Challenges in Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Raashid; Bhat, Nisar A.; Rashid, Kumar Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Background. Congenital midureteric stricture (MUS) is a rare malformation. We report our experience with five cases seen over a period of 4 years from 2010 to 2014. Materials and Methods. The study was based on the retrospective analysis of five patients diagnosed as having MUS. Diagnosis was suspected after fetal ultrasonography (USG) in one patient and magnetic resonance urography (MRU) in four patients. Retrograde pyelography (RGP) was performed on three patients. The final diagnosis was confirmed during surgical exploration in all the patients. Results. MRU was found to be a good investigation method. It showed the site of obstruction in the ureter in all instances. Intravenous urography detected proximal ureteric dilatation present in two of the patients. RGP delineates the level of stricture and the course of ureter, as shown in our cases. All patients had significant obstruction on the affected side. Four patients underwent ureteroureterostomy, all of whom had satisfactory results. In one patient, ureteric reimplantation was carried out due to distal small ureteric caliber. Conclusion. This rare entity is often misdiagnosed initially as pelviureteric junction obstruction. MRU is an excellent option for the anatomical location and functional assessment of the involved system. At the time of surgical correction of a ureteral obstruction, RGP is a useful adjunct for delineating the stricture level and morphology. PMID:25922784

  2. Congenital midureteric stricture: challenges in diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Raashid; Bhat, Nisar A; Rashid, Kumar Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Background. Congenital midureteric stricture (MUS) is a rare malformation. We report our experience with five cases seen over a period of 4 years from 2010 to 2014. Materials and Methods. The study was based on the retrospective analysis of five patients diagnosed as having MUS. Diagnosis was suspected after fetal ultrasonography (USG) in one patient and magnetic resonance urography (MRU) in four patients. Retrograde pyelography (RGP) was performed on three patients. The final diagnosis was confirmed during surgical exploration in all the patients. Results. MRU was found to be a good investigation method. It showed the site of obstruction in the ureter in all instances. Intravenous urography detected proximal ureteric dilatation present in two of the patients. RGP delineates the level of stricture and the course of ureter, as shown in our cases. All patients had significant obstruction on the affected side. Four patients underwent ureteroureterostomy, all of whom had satisfactory results. In one patient, ureteric reimplantation was carried out due to distal small ureteric caliber. Conclusion. This rare entity is often misdiagnosed initially as pelviureteric junction obstruction. MRU is an excellent option for the anatomical location and functional assessment of the involved system. At the time of surgical correction of a ureteral obstruction, RGP is a useful adjunct for delineating the stricture level and morphology.

  3. Urethral Sparing Histotripsy of the Prostate in a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Schade, George R.; Hall, Timothy L.; Roberts, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and healing response to urethral sparing prostate histotripsy a canine model of benign prostatic hypertrophy. Methods Histotripsy was performed on 10 canines using a 750 kHz piezoelectric ultrasound transducer targeting the prostatic parenchyma while avoiding the urethra. Periprocedure prostatic urethral integrity was evaluated with serial cystourethroscopy. Evolution of histotripsy treatment effect and subjects’ response to urethral sparing was evaluated with serial ultrasound and laboratory evaluation, respectively. Subjects were euthanized acutely or chronically and findings were confirmed histologically. Results Bilateral treatment was possible in 8/10 subjects while unilateral treatment was performed in 2/10. Failure to spare the urethra was observed in 2/18 treatments; one acutely and one chronically despite normal cystourethroscopy for the first week. Modest prostatic volume reduction was seen in subjects survived to 8 weeks post-histotripsy. Laboratory studies revealed transient perioperative increases in mean white-blood cell count, C-reactive protein, and lactate dehydrogenase. On histology, 80% of successful urethral sparing treatment cavities were completely epithelialized, containing simple fluid with minimal cellular debris at 8 weeks despite no communication with the urethra. Conclusions Urethral sparing histotripsy of the prostate is feasible and well tolerated in a canine model, resulting in modest volume reduction and prompt resorption of homogenized tissue debris. Human studies to evaluate the clinical utility and symptomatic response of urethral sparing are needed. PMID:22840869

  4. Pharyngoesophageal stricture and fistula. Treatment by free jejunal graft.

    PubMed Central

    Hester, T R; McConnel, F; Nahai, F; Cunningham, S J; Jurkiewicz, M J

    1984-01-01

    Fifty-five patients with disorders of the pharynx or cervical esophagus requiring extensive ablative therapy were reconstructed by heterotopic autotransplantation of a segment of jejunum. Of these 55 patients, the overwhelming majority were treated for squamous cell carcinoma or the complications of combined radiation and operative therapy. There were six graft failures in the entire group of 55 patients for a transfer reliability of 90%. Three patients died in the perioperative period (5%). The purpose of this paper is to report on the treatment of a subset of these patients in whom fixed cicatricial stenosis of the gullet was the problem or in whom a radionecrotic cutaneous fistula existed. Fourteen such patients were treated, ten with stricture and four with fistula. Both patch grafts of on-lay segments and more routine circumferentially intact tubed segments of jejunum were used depending upon the nature of the defect. The youngest patient in this group was a 3-year-old juvenile diabetic with caustic stricture and the oldest was a 75-year-old man with fixed stricture following operation and radiation for cancer. Nine of ten and four of four anatomic reconstructions were successful in the stricture and fistula patients, respectively. All of these 13 patients with a neo- gullet of jejunum were able to handle secretions and liquids satisfactorily. Eleven patients were on a regular diet and had no discernible physiological impairment in alimentation. One patient had mild dysphagia and used a blenderized diet. One patient was able to swallow liquids only. In this patient the resection for tumor was so high and so extensive that the physiologic act of deglutition itself was impaired. There were no perioperative deaths, although one patient has succumbed to recurrent and metastatic carcinoma. When conventional treatment for stricture or fistula in the cervical alimentary tract has failed, reconstruction can be accomplished safely by free revascularized jejunal graft

  5. Predictive factors and clinical practice profile for strictures post-necrotising enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Han; Chen, Jiaping; Wang, Yan; Deng, Chun; Li, Lei; Guo, Chunbao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Intestinal stricture is a severe and common complication of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), causing severe and prolonged morbidity. Our goal was to investigate the clinical predictors for strictures developing after NEC and evaluate the management outcome of the post-NEC strictures to better orient their medicosurgical care. A total of 188 patients diagnosed with NEC with identical treatment protocols throughout the period under study were retrospectively reviewed from 4 academic neonatal centers between from January 1, 2011, and October 31, 2016. Clinical predictive factors and clinical outcomes, including demographic information, clinical management, laboratory data, histopathology of resected bowel segment, and discharge summaries, were evaluated on the basis of with post-NEC strictures or not. Of the involved variables examined, the late-onset NEC [risk ratio (RR), 0.56; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.41–0.92; P < 0.001], cesarean delivery (RR, 1.42; 95% CI, 0.98–2.29; P = 0.026), and first procalcitonin (PCT) (onset of symptoms) (RR, 1.82; 95% CI, 0.98–3.15; P = 0.009) were the independent predictive factors for the post-NEC strictures. C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell (WBC), and plateletcrit levels were markedly higher on infants with stricture and elevated levels were maintained until the stricture was healed. Infants with intestinal stricture had significantly longer times to beginning enteral feeds (23.9 ± 12.1), than infants without intestinal stricture (18.6 ± 8.8) (P = 0.023). The median age at discharge was also significantly higher in the group with stricture (P = 0.014). This retrospective and multicenter study demonstrates that the early-onset NEC and cesarean delivery conferred protection over the post-NEC stricture. Infants with post-NEC stricture need prolonged hospitalization. PMID:28272242

  6. Wire-guided balloon coloplasty--a new treatment for colorectal strictures?

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, A K; Walters, T K; Wilkins, R; Burke, M

    1991-01-01

    A new technique for dilatation of colorectal anastomotic strictures--wire-guided balloon coloplasty--is described. It is suitable for high strictures, may be performed without general anaesthetic and is repeatable. It does not require endoscopy and may be used to relieve obstructive symptoms in both benign and malignant strictures so avoiding the need for a defunctioning colostomy. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:2013892

  7. A protocol for managing urethral obstruction in male cats without urethral catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Edward S.; Owens, Tammy J.; Chew, Dennis J.; Tony Buffington, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine efficacy of a protocol for managing urethral obstruction (UO) in male cats without urethral catheterization. Design Clinical trial. Animals 15 male cats with UO in which conventional treatment had been declined. Procedures Laboratory testing and abdominal radiography were performed, and cats with severe metabolic derangements or urinary calculi were excluded. Treatment included administration of acepromazine (0.25 mg, IM, or 2.5 mg, PO, q 8 h), buprenorphine (0.075 mg, PO, q 8 h), and medetomidine (0.1 mg, IM, q 24 h) and decompressive cystocentesis and SC administration of fluids as needed. Cats were placed in a quiet, dark environment to minimize stress. Treatment success was defined as spontaneous urination within 72 hours and subsequent discharge from the hospital. Results Treatment was successful in 11 of the 15 cats. In the remaining 4 cats, treatment was considered to have failed because of development of uroabdomen (n = 3) or hemoabdomen (1). Cats in which treatment failed had significantly higher serum creatinine concentrations than did cats in which treatment was successful. Necropsy was performed on 3 cats in which treatment had failed. All 3 had severe inflammatory disease of the urinary bladder, but none had evidence of bladder rupture. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Results suggested that in male cats, a combination of pharmacological treatment, decompressive cystocentesis, and a low-stress environment may allow for resolution of UO without the need for urethral catheterization. This low-cost protocol could serve as an alternative to euthanasia when financial constraints prevent more extensive treatment. PMID:21118011

  8. Early bougienage for relief of stricture formation following caustic esophageal burns.

    PubMed

    Tiryaki, Tuğrul; Livanelioğlu, Ziya; Atayurt, Halil

    2005-02-01

    Accidental ingestion of corrosive substances remains a major health hazard in children. Most infants and children who ingest caustic substances present with very few symptoms or signs. Approximately 40% of caustic substance ingestions result in esophageal injury, but the optimal management of caustic esophageal burns remains controversial, with different treatment modalities in use. The aim of this study was to compare the results of prophylactic early bougienage with dilatation that was begun after stricture development. We retrospectively analyzed the management of 125 pediatric cases of corrosive substance ingestion. For children seen primarily at our institution, initial management consisted of prompt endoscopy. Of 125 children admitted with a history of caustic substance ingestion, 54 were found to have esophageal burns, and 32 underwent treatment for stricture formation. Patients with severe injury were divided into two groups: In group A, consisting of 20 patients, prophylactic early dilatation had been done. In the eight patients in group B, dilatation had begun after stricture development. The strictures had resolved after 6 months of dilatation in patients initially treated with prophylactic early bougienage, whereas in patients in whom dilatation began after stricture development, stricture resolution did not occur for more than a year. The goal of initial treatment is to avoid stricture formation. Although early dilatations do not eliminate stricture formation completely, the stricture can resolve more easily with early bougienage.

  9. Benign Post-Radiation Rectal Stricture Treated with Endoscopic Balloon Dilation and Intralesional Triamcinolone Injection

    PubMed Central

    Karanikas, Michael; Touzopoulos, Panagiotis; Mitrakas, Alexandros; Zezos, Petros; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Efremidou, Eleni; Liratzopoulos, Nikolaos; Polychronidis, Alexandros; Kouklakis, George

    2012-01-01

    Post-radiation stricture is a rare complication after pelvis irradiation, but must be in the mind of the clinician evaluating a lower gastrointestinal obstruction. Endoscopy has gained an important role in chronic radiation proctitis with several therapeutic options for management of intestinal strictures. The treatment of rectal strictures has been limited to surgery with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, a less invasive therapeutic approach for benign rectal strictures, endoscopic balloon dilation with or without intralesional steroid injection, has become a common treatment modality. We present a case of benign post-radiation rectal stricture treated successfully with balloon dilation and adjuvant intralesional triamcinolone injection. A 70-year-old woman presented to the emergency room complaining for 2 weeks of diarrhea and meteorism, 11 years after radiation of the pelvis due to adenocarcinoma of the uterus. Colonoscopy revealed a stricture at the rectum and multiple endoscopic biopsies were obtained from the stricture. The stricture was treated with endoscopic balloon dilation and intralesional triamcinolone injection. The procedure appears to have a high success rate and a very low complication rate. Histologic examination of the biopsies revealed non-specific inflammatory changes of the rectal mucosa and no specific changes of the mucosa due to radiation. All biopsies were negative for malignancy. The patient is stricture-free 12 months post-treatment. PMID:23271987

  10. The Cost of Surveillance After Urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Zaid, Uwais B.; Hawkins, Mitchel; Wilson, Leslie; Ting, Jie; Harris, Catherine; Alwaal, Amjad; Zhao, Lee C.; Morey, Allen F.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine variability in urethral stricture surveillance. Urethral strictures impact quality of life and exact a large economic burden. Although urethroplasty is the gold standard for durable treatment, strictures recur in 8–18%. There are no universally accepted guidelines for post-urethroplasty surveillance. We performed a literature search to evaluate variability in surveillance protocols, analyzed costs, and reviewed performance of each commonly employed modality. Methods Medline search was performed using the keywords: “urethroplasty,” “urethral stricture,” “stricture recurrence” to ascertain commonly used surveillance strategies for stricture recurrence. We included English language manuscripts from the past 10 years with at least 10 patients, and age greater than 18. Cost data was calculated based on standard 2013 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services physician’s fees. Results Surveillance methods included retrograde urethrogram/voiding cystourethrogram (RUG/VCUG), cystourethroscopy, urethral ultrasound, AUA-Symptom Score, and post void residual (PVR) and urine flowmetry (UF) measurement. Most protocols call for a RUG/VCUG at time of catheter removal. Following this, UF/PVR, cystoscopy, urine culture, or a combination of UF and AUA-SS were performed at variable intervals. The first year follow-up cost of anterior urethral surgery ranged from $205 to $1,784. For posterior urethral surgery, follow-up cost for the first year ranged from $404 to $961. Conclusions Practice variability for surveillance of urethral stricture recurrence after urethroplasty leads to significant differences in cost. PMID:25819624

  11. Bougie urethral dilators: revival or survival?

    PubMed Central

    Al–Adawi, Mohammad Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To present our center's experience in managing bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) conditions using bougie dilators. We described the dilation technique methodically for teaching purpose. Patients and method Retrospectively, a total of 196 medical records over the last four years denoting BOO conditions in men, women, and children were retrieved for analysis. Data reviewed for common complications was namely: perforation, recurrence, urinary tract obstruction (UTI) and inability to overcome the obstruction. Results Among the 196 analyzed cases, 24 (12.2%) cases were cured, whereas 172 (87.8%) cases reported complications. Within the complicated cases analyzed, 134 (68.4%) cases had recurrent obstructions, 13 (6.6%) cases had perforations, 6 (3.0%) cases developed UTI, while in 19 (9.7%) cases, we failed to pass the obstruction. Conclusions In our center where urethral dilation technique has revived four years ago, it turned back to be the standard choice in managing BOO cases. We propose the technique to Urology training program directors, all over the world, to teach it as a compulsory skill for junior urologists to master. PMID:24757552

  12. Female urethral diverticulum: cases report and literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A female urethral diverticulum is an uncommon pathologic entity. It can manifest with a variety of symptoms involving the lower urinary tract. Our objective is to describe the various aspects of the diverticulum of the female urethra such as etiology, diagnosis and treatment. Cases presentation We report five female patients, without prior medical history. They had different symptoms: dysuria in four cases, recurrent urinary tract infection in three cases, stress incontinence in two cases and hematuria in two cases. All patients had dyspareunia. The physical exams found renitent mass located in the endovaginal side of urethra which drained pus in two cases. Urethrocystography found a diverticulum of urethra in all cases. Our five patients underwent diverticulotomy by endovaginal approach. The course after surgical treatment was favorable. The urinary catheter was withdrawn after ten days. Some recurrent symptoms were reported. Conclusion Evaluation of recurrent urinary complaints in young women can lead to the finding of a diverticulum of urethra. Urethrocystography can reveal this entity. Diverticulectomy by endovaginal approach is the best choice for treatment. PMID:24528809

  13. Management of pelvic fracture-associated urethral injuries: A survey of Canadian urologists

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Nathan Colin; Allard, Christopher B.; Dason, Shawn; Farrugia, Patricia; Bhandari, Mohit; Davies, Timothy O.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The management of pelvic fracture-associated urethral injuries (PFUI) is not standardized and optimal management is controversial. We surveyed Canadian urologists about their experiences and opinions regarding optimal management of PFUI. Methods Canadian urologists were surveyed via an anonymous, bilingual, web-based, 12-item questionnaire. A total of 735 Canadian urologists were invited to participate via email distributed by the Canadian Urological Association. Results Of the 146 urologists who participated (19.9% response rate), the majority practice at a trauma centre (53.2%), but manage only 1–5 PFUI/year (71.5%). Most participants (82.6%) favour primary realignment compared to suprapubic (SP) tube with delayed repair (15.3%) and immediate reconstruction (2.1%). Compared to SP diversion and delayed repair, the majority of participants believe primary realignment is associated with equivocal incontinence (61.2%) and erectile dysfunction rates (75.8%), but has lower stricture rates (73.0%). Among respondents who perform primary realignment, 45.4% concurrently place a SP tube, while 54.6% do not. While 91% believe SP tubes do not increase the risk of pelvic hardware infections, 31.6% report that orthopedic surgeons alter their management of pelvic fractures in the presence of a SP tube. Conclusions Most Canadian urologist respondents — even those practicing at trauma centres — manage very few PFUIs/year. There is reasonable consensus among respondents that primary realignment is favourable to delayed or immediate reconstruction, but discordance on whether or not to place concurrent SP tubes. The urological and orthopedic consequences of SP tubes in the management of traumatic urological injuries warrant further investigation. PMID:28360950

  14. Anterior and posterior compartment 3D endovaginal ultrasound anatomy based on direct histologic comparison.

    PubMed

    Shobeiri, S Abbas; White, Dena; Quiroz, Lieschen H; Nihira, Mikio A

    2012-08-01

    We used direct histologic comparison to validate the use of 3D endovaginal ultrasound (EVUS) as a novel and emerging technology for evaluating the structures found in the anterior and posterior pelvic floor compartments. A young nulliparous female pelvis specimen was dissected and histologic slides were prepared by making 8-Micron-thick sagittal cuts. The slides were stained with Mallory trichrome and arranged to form large sections encompassing each anterior and posterior sagittal plane. Healthy nulliparous women underwent 3D EVUS to obtain 3D cubes of the anterior and posterior compartments. Two investigators independently evaluated the anterior and posterior midsagittal structures. The investigators mutually viewed the images and calculated urethral and anal sphincter measurements. Thirty-one nulliparous women underwent 3D EVUS; 77% of the participants were Caucasian, with mean age 31.8 [standard deviation (SD) 5.8] and mean body mass index (BMI) of 28.5 (SD 7.9). The following mean (SD) measurements were obtained: urethral length 36 mm (± 5); striated urogenital sphincter area 0.6 cm(2) (± 0.16); longitudinal and circular smooth muscle area 1.1 cm(2) (± 0.4); urethral complex width 14 mm (± 2); urethral complex area 1.3 cm(2) (± 0.4); internal anal sphincter length 26 mm (± 4); internal anal sphincter thickness 3.2 mm (± 0.8); and rectovaginal septum length 31 mm (± 5). The agreement for visualization of structures was as follows: vesical trigone 96% (κ = 0.65), trigonal ring 94% (κ = 0.8), trigonal plate 84% (κ = 0.6); longitudinal and circular smooth muscle 100%; compressor urethra 97% (κ = 0.85); striated urogenital sphincter 97% (κ = 0.85); rectovaginal septum 100%; internal anal sphincter 100%; external anal sphincter subdivisions 100%. Three-dimensional EVUS can be used to visualize structures of the anterior and posterior compartments in nullipara.

  15. Urethral duplication: a rare cause of urinary incontinence in a female child

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sanjay; Tiwari, Rajesh; Kumar, Vijoy; Singh, Mahendra

    2012-01-01

    Female urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly. We report a case of complete urethral duplication along with horseshoe kidney in a four-years-old female child presenting with incontinence since childhood. PMID:24578937

  16. Urethral infection in male chimpanzees produced experimentally by Mycoplasma genitalium.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Robinson, D.; Tully, J. G.; Barile, M. F.

    1985-01-01

    Four young male chimpanzees were inoculated intra-urethrally with a strain (G37) of Mycoplasma genitalium which had been isolated from the urethra of a patient with non-gonococcal urethritis. Two of the chimpanzees became infected as indicated by persistent recovery of the organisms from the urethra for 13 weeks and by an antibody response measured by both metabolism inhibition and micro-immunofluorescence techniques. The numbers of organisms isolated from both animals increased about 4 weeks after inoculation and antibody development was first detected 1 week later. The infected animals developed a minimal and inconsistently detected urethral polymorphonuclear leucocyte response which was not seen in those that were uninfected, nor in a chimpanzee that had been given medium only. The organisms were not isolated and the cellular response was not observed after treatment of the infected chimpanzees with oxytetracycline. One of the animals that had been infected was re-inoculated with strain G37 six months after successful treatment, but although the titre of serum antibody had diminished to its original level urethral recolonization did not occur. The organisms in the inoculum were not attenuated, however, because they infected another chimpanzee that had not had previous experience of M. genitalium. The results are discussed in relation to the potential of this mycoplasma to produce urethritis in man. PMID:3970830

  17. Application of Wnt Pathway Inhibitor Delivering Scaffold for Inhibiting Fibrosis in Urethra Strictures: In Vitro and in Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kaile; Guo, Xuran; Zhao, Weixin; Niu, Guoguang; Mo, Xiumei; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mechanical property and biocompatibility of the Wnt pathway inhibitor (ICG-001) delivering collagen/poly(l-lactide-co-caprolactone) (P(LLA-CL)) scaffold for urethroplasty, and also the feasibility of inhibiting the extracellular matrix (ECM) expression in vitro and in vivo. Methods: ICG-001 (1 mg (2 mM)) was loaded into a (P(LLA-CL)) scaffold with the co-axial electrospinning technique. The characteristics of the mechanical property and drug release fashion of scaffolds were tested with a mechanical testing machine (Instron) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Rabbit bladder epithelial cells and the dermal fibroblasts were isolated by enzymatic digestion method. (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to evaluate the viability and proliferation of the cells on the scaffolds. Fibrolasts treated with TGF-β1 and ICG-001 released medium from scaffolds were used to evaluate the anti-fibrosis effect through immunofluorescence, real time PCR and western blot. Urethrography and histology were used to evaluate the efficacy of urethral implantation. Results: The scaffold delivering ICG-001 was fabricated, the fiber diameter and mechanical strength of scaffolds with inhibitor were comparable with the non-drug scaffold. The SEM and MTT assay showed no toxic effect of ICG-001 to the proliferation of epithelial cells on the collagen/P(LLA-CL) scaffold with ICG-001. After treatment with culture medium released from the drug-delivering scaffold, the expression of Collagen type 1, 3 and fibronectin of fibroblasts could be inhibited significantly at the mRNA and protein levels. In the results of urethrography, urethral strictures and fistulas were found in the rabbits treated with non-ICG-001 delivering scaffolds, but all the rabbits treated with ICG-001-delivering scaffolds showed wide caliber in urethras. Histology results showed less collagen but more

  18. Posterior ankle impingement.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Sandro; Buda, Roberto; Mosca, Massimiliano; Parma, Alessandro; Di Caprio, Francesco

    2013-03-01

    Posterior ankle impingement is a common cause of chronic ankle pain and results from compression of bony or soft tissue structures during ankle plantar flexion. Bony impingement is most commonly related to an os trigonum or prominent trigonal process. Posteromedial soft tissue impingement generally arises from an inversion injury, with compression of the posterior tibiotalar ligament between the medial malleolus and talus. Posterolateral soft tissue impingement is caused by an accessory ligament, the posterior intermalleolar ligament, which spans the posterior ankle between the posterior tibiofibular and posterior talofibular ligaments. Finally, anomalous muscles have also been described as a cause of posterior impingement.

  19. Genomic characterization of urethritis-associated Neisseria meningitidis shows that a wide range of N. meningitidis strains can cause urethritis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kevin C; Unemo, Magnus; Jeverica, Samo; Kirkcaldy, Robert D; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Ohnishi, Makoto; Grad, Yonatan H

    2017-09-13

    Neisseria meningitidis, typically a resident of the oro- or nasopharynx and the causative agent of meningococcal meningitis and meningococcemia, is capable of invading and colonizing the urogenital tract. This can result in urethritis, akin to the syndrome caused by its sister species N. gonorrhoeae, the etiologic agent of gonorrhea. Recently, meningococcal strains associated with outbreaks of urethritis were reported to share genetic characteristics with gonococcus, raising the question of the extent to which these strains contain features that promote adaptation to the genitourinary niche, making them gonococcal-like and distinguishing them from other N. meningitidis Here, we analyzed the genomes of 39 diverse N. meningitidis isolates associated with urethritis, collected independently over a decade and across three continents. In particular, we characterized the diversity of the nitrite reductase gene (aniA), the factor-H binding protein gene (fHbp), and the capsule biosynthetic locus, all of which are loci previously suggested to be associated with urogenital colonization. We observed notable diversity including frameshift variants in aniA and fHbp, and the presence of intact, disrupted, and absent capsule biosynthetic genes, indicating that urogenital colonization and urethritis caused by N. meningitidis is possible across a range of meningococcal genotypes. Previously identified allelic patterns in urethritis-associated N. meningitidis may reflect genetic diversity in the underlying meningococcal population rather than novel adaptation to the urogenital tract. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. [Urethritis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis in men. Epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Hernanz, J M; Clavo, I; Menendez, B; Jareño, M; Moya, D; Jover, J

    1987-01-01

    The interviews of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) done in the Dispensario "Martínez Anido" of Madrid in the period understood between September of 1984 and September of 1985 are revised. Among all of the 1,370 surveys, the trichomonal urethritis in the male, represents 2.2% of all of the urethritis and 4.6% of the nongonococcal urethritis in the male. Mean age of patients was 35 years, the social-economic level was inferior than those which we observed in others STD, all of the cases were heterosexual and the source of contamination was in 100% a prostitute of a low level. The answer to the treatment with metronidazole of the only doses of 2 gr. was satisfactory in all cases.

  1. [Laser hair removal for urethral hair after hypospadias repair].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Ogushi, Tetsuo; Sugimoto, Masayuki; Asakage, Yasuyuki; Kitamura, Tadaichi

    2008-01-01

    A 56-year-old male was admitted for induration of ventral side of the penile shaft. Computed tomography showed a large urethral calculus in the distal urethra. About 50 years previously, he had undergone multi-staged urethroplasty for hypospadias. He had also suffered from recurrent urethral calculi managed by urethrolithotomy 5 and 2 years before the admission. Urethrolithotomy revealed hair-bearing urethral calculus. Instillation of depilating agent containing thioglycolate into the neourethra for preventing hair regrowth was ineffective. Transurethral laser hair removal of neourethra was subsequently performed. All the neourethral follicles were ablated with GaAlAs diode laser (wave length 810 nm; at a power of 15W for 2 seconds) through a side-firing laser fiber. Another three operations were performed for a few regrown hairs at a power of 20-30W. Convalescence was uneventful. The patient is free of hair regrowth except for a hair at five months of follow-up.

  2. Urethral hemangioma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Regragui, Souhail; Slaoui, Amine; Karmouni, Tarik; El Khader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdelatif; Attya, Ahmed Ibn

    2016-01-01

    Hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors. They are the prerogative of the liver and skin. And genitourinary localizations are rare and have only been rarely reported in the prostat, bladder, ureter or the perineum. In the light of published cases, urethral hemangiomas are mostly found in males. Few cases of hemangioma in the female urethra were reported. We report a cavernous hemangioma of the urethra in a 61 years old patient who presented bleeding from the urethra and micturition disorders. Physical examination revealed a tumor 3 cm x 2 polyploid arising from the terminal urethra (urethral hemangioma). We performed surgical resection of the tumor, along with bladder drainage. The postoperative course was simple. We update through a review of the literature aspects of the diagnostic and therapeutic care of the urethral hemangioma.

  3. Neisseria meningitidis ST11 Complex Isolates Associated with Nongonococcal Urethritis, Indiana, USA, 2015–2016

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Evelyn; Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Batteiger, Byron E.; Williams, James A.; Arno, Janet N.; Tai, Albert; Batteiger, Teresa A.

    2017-01-01

    At a clinic in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, we observed an increase in Neisseria gonorrhoeae–negative men with suspected gonococcal urethritis who had urethral cultures positive for N. meningitidis. We describe genomes of 2 of these N. meningitidis sequence type 11 complex urethritis isolates. Clinical evidence suggests these isolates may represent an emerging urethrotropic clade. PMID:28098538

  4. The role of pelvic and perineal striated muscles in urethral function during micturition in female rabbits.

    PubMed

    Corona-Quintanilla, Dora L; Zempoalteca, René; Arteaga, Lourdes; Castelán, Francisco; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the role of pelvic and perineal striated muscles on urethral function during micturition. Pubococcygeus, or both bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus muscles were electrically stimulated during the voiding phase of micturition, and bladder and urethral pressure were simultaneously recorded in urethane anesthetized female rabbits. Bladder and urethral function were assessed measuring urodynamic and urethral pressure variables obtained before and during the stimulation of muscles. Two-tail paired t-tests were carried out in order to determine significant differences (P < 0.05) between groups. Electric stimulation of the pubococcygeus during voiding decreased voiding efficiency and voided volume, whereas residual volume, the duration of voiding, the interval between bladder contraction and urethral resistance increased. Simultaneously, there was an increase in maximum urethral pressure, as well as an increase in the pressure to return to baseline and in the pressure required to close the urethra. Electrical stimulation of bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus muscles increased voiding efficiency, voiding duration, and the maximal pressure in bladder. Meanwhile, the maximal urethral pressure, the time related to the rise of urethral pressure, and the urethral pressure required to close the urethra decreased. The stimulation of pelvic and perineal muscles have opposing roles in urethral function during micturition. Pubococcygeus muscles facilitate urethral closure, while they inhibit bladder contraction. In contrast, bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus muscles prevent urethral contraction while they promote bladder contraction. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Photoacoustic imaging of intestinal strictures: microscopic and macroscopic assessment in vivo (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guan; Lei, Hao; Johnson, Laura A.; Moons, David S.; Ma, Teng; Zhou, Qifa; Rice, Michael D.; Ni, Jun; Wang, Xueding; Higgins, Peter D. R.

    2017-03-01

    The pathology of Crohn's disease (CD) is characterized by obstructing intestinal strictures because of inflammation (with high levels of hemoglobin), fibrosis (high levels of collagen), or a combination of both. Inflammatory strictures are medically treated. Fibrotic strictures have to be removed surgically. The accurate characterization of the strictures is therefore critical for the management of CD. Currently the comprehensive assessment of a stricture is difficult, as the standard diagnostic procedure, endoscopic biopsy, is superficial and with limited locations as well as depth. In our previous studies, photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has recovered the layered architectures and the relative content of the molecular components in human and animal tissues ex vivo. This study will investigate the capability of multispectral PAI in resolving the architecture and the molecular components of intestinal strictures in rats in vivo. PA images at 532, 1210 and 1310 nm targeting the strong optical absorption of hemoglobin, lipid and collagen were acquired using two approaches. A compact linear array, CL15-7, was used to transcutaneously acquire PA signals generated by the a fiber optics diffuser positioned within the inner lumen of the strictures. Another approach was to use an endoscopic capsule probe for acoustic resolution PA microscopy. The capsule probe is designed for human and therefore cannot fit into rat colon. The inner surface of the intestinal stricture was exposed and the probe was attached to the diseased location for imaging. The findings in PA images were confirmed by histology results.

  6. Biliary strictures and hepatic artery flow abnormalities in split liver transplants.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Edward V; Stormon, Michael O; Shun, Albert; Verran, Deborah; Jermyn, Vicki; Wong, Christopher; Lord, David

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of HA flow abnormalities in the development of biliary strictures following split liver transplants. Data was obtained from a prospective data base of all patients undergoing split liver transplants from 2000-2008 with a follow up time of at least six months. Forty-six transplants were performed in 44 patients. Fourteen of 46 developed strictures of whom four were intrahepatic and 10 anastomotic. Nine of 14 with strictures had either hepatic artery thromobosis (HAT, four) or abnormalities of HA flow identified by routine Doppler ultrasound (5) compared with two of 32 without strictures (p < 0.02, (one temporary loss of flow and one HA aneurysm). There were no differences between the stricture and non stricture group with regard to age or weight at transplant, donor age, cold and warm ischemia times or intraoperative portal vein flow though there was a significant decrease in intraoperative HA flow in the stricture group. In conclusion, both HAT and hepatic artery flow abnormalities are associated with biliary strictures in the majority of split liver transplants. However, unrecognised abnormalities in HA flow and or other factors are likely to contribute.

  7. Self-Expandable Metal Stenting of Refractory Upper Gut Corrosive Strictures: A New Role for Endoscopy?

    PubMed Central

    Manta, Raffaele; Conigliaro, Rita; Bertani, Helga; Manno, Mauro; Soliman, Ahmed; Fedeli, Paolo; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2011-01-01

    Caustic strictures of the gastrointestinal tract are often difficult to treat, since relapses are frequent after medical or endoscopic treatment. Thus, novel approaches are needed. We report here our experience with self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) as a new endoscopic approach in three patients with corrosive strictures of the upper gastrointestinal tract. PMID:22606415

  8. The Accordion Sign in the Transplant Ureter: Ramifications During Balloon Dilation of Strictures

    SciTech Connect

    Kriegshauser, J. Scott Naidu, Sailen G.; Chang, Yu-Hui H.; Huettl, Eric A.

    2015-04-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to demonstrate the accordion sign within the transplant ureter and evaluate its ramifications during balloon dilation of strictures.MethodsA retrospective electronic chart and imaging review included demographic characteristics, procedure reports, and complications of 28 renal transplant patients having ureteral strictures treated with percutaneous balloon dilation reported in our transplant nephrology database during an 8-year period. The accordion sign was deemed present or absent on the basis of an imaging review and was defined as present when a tortuous ureter became kinked and irregular when foreshortened after placement of a wire or a catheter. Procedure-related urine leaks were categorized as occurring at the stricture if within 2 cm; otherwise, they were considered away from the stricture.ResultsThe accordion sign was associated with a significantly greater occurrence of leaks away from the stricture (P = 0.001) but not at the stricture (P = 0.34).ConclusionsThe accordion sign is an important consideration when performing balloon dilation procedures on transplant ureteral strictures, given the increased risk of leak away from the stricture. Its presence should prompt additional care during wire and catheter manipulations.

  9. Anatomical study of pelvic nerves in relation to seminal vesicles, prostate and urethral sphincter: immunohistochemical staining, computerized planimetry and 3-dimensional reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ganzer, Roman; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Neuhaus, Jochen; Weber, Florian; Fuchshofer, Rudolf; Burger, Maximilian; Bründl, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Studies of male pelvic neuroanatomy are mandatory to improve functional outcome after radical prostatectomy. We performed a topographical investigation of nerves on the course from the seminal vesicles along the prostate toward the striated urethral sphincter. Serial whole mount sections (1 mm intervals) of pelvic blocks of human adult male autopsy cadavers were investigated after immunohistochemical nerve staining. Computerized nerve quantification and planimetry of the total nerve surface area were performed within defined regions (ventral, ventrolateral, dorsolateral and dorsal) at the levels of the seminal vesicles and prostate, and at the striated urethral sphincter. The distance between the seminal vesicles and the nerves was measured. For improved topographical understanding 3-dimensional reconstructions were created. Differences between 3 independent variables were tested with the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. We studied a total of 969 whole mount sections of 5 cadavers. Nerves were arranged in a vertical plate lateral to the seminal vesicles. Mean ± SD distance to the seminal vesicles was 1.68 ± 0.84, 1.50 ± 0.12 and 1.76 ± 0.37 mm at the tip, middle and base, respectively. Periprostatic nerves were mainly found dorsolaterally. At the striated urethral sphincter 38.9% of nerves had shifted to the dorsal region. The total nerve surface area decreased significantly from the seminal vesicle tip (50.2 mm(2)) to the striated urethral sphincter level (13.3 mm(2)) (p = 0.0004). Our findings underline that during nerve sparing prostatectomy nerve damage might occur during mobilization of the entire seminal vesicles, apical dissection and posterior reconstruction of the rhabdosphincter. Nerve planimetry revealed that 75% of the nerves from the seminal vesicles do not reach the striated urethral sphincter level and seem to innervate structures other than the corpora cavernosa. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  10. Treatment of colonic anastomotic strictures with 'through the scope' balloon dilators.

    PubMed Central

    Dinneen, M D; Motson, R W

    1991-01-01

    Stricture occurs in 1.2-4.2% of colonic anastomoses. Symptomatic strictures have previously been treated by resection and re-anastomosis and more recently by radiographically guided dilatation by a modified Seldinger technique. This paper describes the endoscopic balloon dilatation of five symptomatic cases and three asymptomatic cases. Eight patients underwent balloon dilatation of colonic anastomotic strictures. Four patients had no symptoms post dilatation and the strictures remained patient on follow-up endoscopy. All the remaining patients required re-dilatation at approximately 2 months. One of these patients underwent dilatation but remained symptomatic, the dilatation was repeated and a colonic perforation occurred at this time. Of the other three, two continue to be followed up, and are well and one patient died of disseminated malignancy. Balloon dilatation with 'through the scope' dilators is a simpler technique than radiologically guided dilatation. These early results suggest that endoscopic dilatation may avoid further surgery in some patients with anastomotic stricture. PMID:2041001

  11. Self-Expanding Metal Stenting in the Management of a Benign Colonic Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Jessamy, Kegan; Ozden, Nuri; Simon, Howard M.; Kobrossi, Semaan; Ubagharaji, Ezinnaya

    2016-01-01

    Colonic postanastomotic strictures occur in 1.5–8% of patients following colorectal surgery. Traditionally, colonic strictures were treated by multiple modalities including endoscopic dilatation. Self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) have been indicated in the management of benign colonic strictures; however, there are limited available data with regard to their efficacy. We present the case of a 68-year-old male who had perforated sigmoid diverticulitis followed by Hartmann's procedure with eventual reanastomosis 6 months later. He subsequently developed benign colonic stricture, which was treated with a metal stent. SEMS are associated with a low mortality rate and are appropriate in treating acute colonic obstruction as a result of benign stricture in the setting of postanastomosis. PMID:27403114

  12. Mitomycin-C: 'a ray of hope' in refractory corrosive esophageal strictures.

    PubMed

    Nagaich, N; Nijhawan, S; Katiyar, P; Sharma, R; Rathore, M

    2014-04-01

    Increasingly frequent dilation may become a self-defeating cycle in refractory stricture as recurrent trauma enhance, scar formation, and ultimately recurrence and potential worsening of the stricture. In 12 patients of caustic induced esophageal stricture, who failed to respond despite rigorous dilatation regimen for more than one year, a trial of topical mitomycin-C application to improve dilatation results was undertaken, considering the recently reported efficacy and safety of this agent. Mitomycin-C was applied for 2-3 minutes at the strictured esophageal segment after dilation with wire-guided Savary-Gilliard dilator. Patient was kept nil by mouth for 2-3 hours. After 4-6 sessions of mitomycin-C treatment, resolution of symptoms and significant improvement in dysphagia score and periodic dilatation index was seen in all 12 patients. Mitomycin-C topical application may be a useful strategy in refractory corrosive esophageal strictures and salvage patients from surgery.

  13. Importance of common bile duct stricture associated with chronic pancreatitis. Diagnosis by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

    PubMed

    Gregg, J A; Carr-Locke, D L; Gallagher, M M

    1981-02-01

    Twenty-one patients with common bile duct strictures associated with chronic pancreatitis are described in whom ERCP was the principal diagnostic method used. In 5 of the 11 patients who had had previous pancreatic or biliary surgery, a common bile duct stricture was overlooked. Nine patients had one or more attacks of cholangitis which were severe in seven and caused death in one. Endoscopically aspirated bile cultures showed heavy gram-negative infection in four patients with previous cholangitis. Two patients developed stones above the strictures, and in one this led to obstruction of a previous cholecystjejunostomy. Although strictures may be discovered at an asymptomatic stage, there should be careful follow-up to detect the appearance of any symptoms or objective signs of stricture progression, when surgery should be offered without delay. Direct biliary-enteric anastomosis is the procedure of choice when possible to relieve symptoms and prevent the potentially life-threatening complications of cholangitis and septicemia.

  14. Urethral Reconstruction Using Mesothelial Cell-Seeded Autogenous Granulation Tissue Tube: An Experimental Study in Male Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shiwei; Xu, Zhonghua; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yan, Lei; Zhou, Zunlin

    2017-01-01

    Objective. This study was to evaluate the utility of the compound graft for tubularized urethroplasty by seeding mesothelial cells onto autogenous granulation tissue. Methods. Silastic tubes were implanted subcutaneously in 18 male rabbits, of which nine underwent omentum biopsies simultaneously for in vitro expansion of mesothelial cells. The granulation tissue covering the tubes was harvested 2 weeks after operation. Mesothelial cells were seeded onto and cocultured with the tissue for 7 days. A pendulous urethral segment of 1.5 cm was totally excised. Urethroplasty was performed with mesothelial cell-seeded tissue tubes in an end-to-end fashion in nine rabbits and with unseeded grafts in others as controls. Serial urethrograms were performed at 1, 2, and 6 months postoperatively. Meanwhile, the neourethra was harvested and analyzed grossly and histologically. Results. Urethrograms showed cell-seeded grafts maintained wide at each time point, while strictures formation was found in unseeded grafts. Histologically, layers of urothelium surrounded by increasingly organized smooth muscles were observed in seeded grafts. In contrast, myofibroblasts accumulation and extensive scarring occurred in unseeded grafts. Conclusions. Mesothelial cell-seeded granulation tissue tube can be successfully used for tubularized urethroplasty in male rabbits. PMID:28337443

  15. A bulbar artery pseudoaneurysm following traumatic urethral catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Bettez, Mathieu; Aubé, Melanie; Sherbiny, Mohamed El; Cabrera, Tatiana; Jednak, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic urethral catheterization may result in a number of serious complications. A rare occurrence is the development of a urethral pseudoaneurysm. We report the case of a 13-year-old male who required placement of a Foley catheter for an orthopedic surgical procedure. The Foley was misplaced in the bulbourethra, resulting in the development of a bulbar artery pseudoaneurysm. Profuse bleeding via the urethra was noted after removal of the catheter, and the patient experienced severe intermittent hematuria during the postoperative period. Cystoscopy revealed a pulsatile mass within the bulbourethra. Angiography confirmed a bulbar artery pseudoaneurysm, which was successfully embolized with resolution of bleeding. PMID:28163815

  16. [Urogenital bleeding revealing urethral prolapse in a prepubertal girl].

    PubMed

    Ballouhey, Q; Abbo, O; Sanson, S; Cochet, T; Galinier, P; Pienkowski, C

    2013-06-01

    Urethral prolapse is a complete eversion of the distal urethral mucosa through the external meatus. It occurs primarily in prepubertal, primarly Black girls. Its pathophysiology has not been clearly identified. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl who came to the Emergency Department with a 1-day history of genital pain and "vaginal bleeding". Early recognition makes differential diagnosis with sexual abuse and staging allows prompt management under general anesthesic like prolapse reduction or surgical excision. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Pro: endoscopic realignment for pelvic fracture urethral injuries

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with pelvic fracture urethral distraction injuries may benefit from early endoscopic realignment. Realignment is associated with a low risk of immediate complications and has a high success rate for achieving catheter placement. Review of over thirty studies assessing for subsequent urethral stenosis, including at least a dozen that directly compare realignment to suprapubic diversion along, conclude that there is a benefit averaging at least 35% in favor of realignment. Furthermore, realignment may result in easier subsequent urethroplasty and possibly shorter stenoses. PMID:26816813

  18. Intraluminal urethral brachytherapy for recurrence of transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder in urethral stump.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Bikramjit; Ghorai, Suman; Ray, Somapriya Basu; Kar, Sanjay Kumar

    2013-03-01

    We report a unique case of successfully performed intraluminal brachytherapy for low volume urethral mucosal recurrence of transitional cell carcinoma urinary bladder, initially treated by transurethral resection of bladder tumor, followed by radical cystectomy. Since the patient was unwilling to undergo any other operational interventions, intraluminal brachytherapy of urethra was attempted. Fluroscopy guided intraluminal HDR brachytherapy using Lumencath(®) catheter under local anesthesia, and remote afterloading system (Nucletron, an Elekta company, Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) was performed. A fraction dose of 7 Gy in seven weekly fractions was prescribed at 0.5 cm from the single applicator. The result was promising in terms of local control and symptomatic relief. Therefore, intraluminal brachytherapy in low volume superficial local disease in urethra may play a potential role, and should be applied when repeated surgery is not feasible due to technical or medical reasons.

  19. Intraluminal urethral brachytherapy for recurrence of transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder in urethral stump

    PubMed Central

    Ghorai, Suman; Ray, Somapriya Basu; Kar, Sanjay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    We report a unique case of successfully performed intraluminal brachytherapy for low volume urethral mucosal recurrence of transitional cell carcinoma urinary bladder, initially treated by transurethral resection of bladder tumor, followed by radical cystectomy. Since the patient was unwilling to undergo any other operational interventions, intraluminal brachytherapy of urethra was attempted. Fluroscopy guided intraluminal HDR brachytherapy using Lumencath® catheter under local anesthesia, and remote afterloading system (Nucletron, an Elekta company, Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) was performed. A fraction dose of 7 Gy in seven weekly fractions was prescribed at 0.5 cm from the single applicator. The result was promising in terms of local control and symptomatic relief. Therefore, intraluminal brachytherapy in low volume superficial local disease in urethra may play a potential role, and should be applied when repeated surgery is not feasible due to technical or medical reasons. PMID:23634154

  20. Serum Proteome Profiles in Stricturing Crohn’s Disease: A pilot study.

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Peter; Zhang, Qibin; Shapiro, Jason; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Bramer, Lisa M.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Weitz, Karl K.; Mallette, Meaghan; Moniz, Heather; Bright, Renee; Merrick, Marjorie; Shah, Samir A.; Sands, Bruce E.; Leleiko, Neal

    2015-08-01

    Background: Crohn’s disease (CD) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with different described behaviors, including stricture. At present, there are no laboratory studies that can differentiate stricturing CD from other phenotypes of IBD. We performed a pilot study to examine differences in the proteome among patients with stricturing Crohn’s disease, non-stricturing Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: Serum samples were selected from the Ocean State Crohn’s and Colitis Area Registry (OSCCAR), an established cohort of patients with IBD. Crohn’s disease patients with surgically-resected stricture were matched with similar patients with Crohn’s disease without known stricture, and with UC. Serum samples from each patient were digested and analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to characterize the proteome. Statistical analyses were performed to identify peptides and proteins that can differentiate CD with stricture. Results: Samples from 9 patients in each group (27 total patients) were analyzed. Baseline demographic characteristics were similar among the three groups. We quantified 7668 peptides and 897 proteins for analysis. ROC analysis identified a subset of peptides with an area under the curve greater than 0.9, indicating greater separation potential. Partial least squares discriminant analysis was able to distinguish among the three groups with up to 70% accuracy by peptides, and up to 80% accuracy by proteins. We identified the significantly different proteins and peptides, and determined their function based on previously published literature. Conclusions: The serum of patients with stricturing CD, non-stricturing CD, and UC are distinguishable via proteomic analysis. Some of the proteins that differentiate the stricturing phenotype have been implicated in complement activation, fibrinolytic pathways, and lymphocyte adhesion.

  1. Effect of Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Superficial Esophageal Neoplasms and Risk Factors for Postoperative Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Funakawa, Keita; Uto, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Fumisato; Nasu, Yuichiro; Mawatari, Seiichi; Arima, Shiho; Nakazawa, Junichi; Taguchi, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Kanmura, Shuji; Setoyama, Hitoshi; Numata, Masatsugu; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Ido, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) enables wider tumor resection compared with endoscopic mucosal resection and en bloc resection of superficial esophageal neoplasms. However, ESD may cause difficult-to-treat stricture of the esophagus, and therefore, prediction of and measures against postoperative esophageal stricture are critical. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ESD on superficial esophageal neoplasms and identify risk factors associated with esophageal stricture after ESD. This study included 165 lesions in 120 patients with superficial esophageal neoplasms, including cancer and neoplasia, who underwent ESD from 2009 to 2013. The complete resection rate of superficial esophageal neoplasms by ESD was 90.9%. After ESD, 22 subjects (18.3%) had symptomatic esophageal stricture, 12 (10.0%) had aspiration pneumonia of grade 2, and 7 (5.8%) had mediastinal emphysema of grade 2. Comparison of the 22 subjects with stricture with the 98 subjects without stricture showed significant differences in the rate of resection of >75% of the esophageal circumference, rate of whole circumference resection, and the required time for resection. The tumor size and the size of the resected tissue sample also differed between the 2 groups. The groups did not differ in age, sex, alcohol intake, and smoking; location, macroscopic, and histological tumor findings; chest pain; or use of anticoagulants for comorbidities. In multivariate analysis, tumor size and whole circumference resection were independent risk factors for stricture. Furthermore, in 45 subjects with resection of >75% of the esophageal circumference, whole resection of the esophagus was the only independent risk factor for stricture. This study suggests that ESD has a strong therapeutic effect on superficial esophageal neoplasms; however, a greater extent of resection of the esophagus increases the risk of postoperative esophageal stricture. Preventive measures against development of

  2. An Unusual Case of Infertility: Urethral Coitus Due to Cribriform Hymen.

    PubMed

    Habek, Dubravko; Arbanas, Goran; Jukic, Vlado

    2017-08-22

    Urethral coitus is a rare type of sexual practice, usually due to vaginal agenesis or hymeneal anomalies. We report a case of urethral coitus in a healthy couple who were evaluated for infertility. The female partner had cribriform hymen and dilated urethral orifice but did not report any problems except infertility and her genital anatomy was normal. The male partner reported concerns over his penile size but was otherwise healthy. After incision of hymen, they were able to have vaginal coitus and successfully conceived. While urethral coitus is rare, it should be suspected in women presenting with infertility and a dilated urethral orifice.

  3. Urethral Dilatation in Women: Urologists' Practice Patterns in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Masarani, M; Willis, RG

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Review of the literature reveals little evidence to prove the efficacy of urethral dilatation for adult women with various lower urinary tract complaints. We conducted a postal survey to ascertain the actual practice of urethral dilatation among urologists in the UK. MATERIALS AND METHODS A questionnaire was mailed to 428 consultant urologists listed as full members of the British Association of Urological Surgeons. The questionnaire consisted of 8 items about urologists' perception of indications, efficacy, and the need for repeated dilatation and anaesthesia. RESULTS The questionnaire response rate was 42%. Although urethral stenosis was the most common indication (97%), the majority of urologists (69%) indicated that fewer than 25% of patients had evidence of stenosis. Overall, 61% of urologists performed dilatation 7 times or more during the last year and 55% believed that less than half of the patients experienced long-term improvement. CONCLUSIONS Despite the lack of strong evidence to support the use of urethral dilatation in women, many urologists continue to find it a useful tool in approaching women with lower urinary tract complaints. PMID:17002859

  4. Congenital urethral stenosis in a male miniature piglet

    PubMed Central

    Pouleur-Larrat, Bénédicte; Maccolini, Edouard; Carmel, Eric Norman; Hélie, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    A 2-month-old male miniature pig showed progressive abdominal pain, pollakiuria, and stranguria that progressed to complete urinary obstruction. Postmortem examination revealed idiopathic urethral stenosis at the level of the recess, of probable congenital origin. Urinary tract malformations should be included in the differential diagnosis of miniature piglets with urinary disorders. PMID:24891635

  5. Lymecycline (Tetralysal) in the management of non-specific urethritis.

    PubMed

    Bremmer, K R

    1976-10-27

    One thousand and sixty patients with non-specific urethritis were treated with lymecycline (Tetralysal). An initial course of 600mg 12-hourly for one week was successful in 90.5% of cases, while 2% responded to a further course of 300mg 12-hourly for three weeks.

  6. Scrotal pop off in a congenital anterior urethral diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Abrol, N; Deshpande, A V; Berry, C S; Devasia, A

    2014-08-01

    Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum is a rare entity. This teaching video shows the scrotal pop-off mechanism for an anterior urethral diverticulum and the unique voiding pattern of a boy who empties his bladder by compression of his scrotum. The findings during urethroscopy and open reconstruction are also demonstrated. A four-year-old boy presented to the clinic with a poor urinary stream and scrotal swelling during voiding. Physical examination during voiding revealed a dumbbell-shaped anterior urethral diverticulum with scrotal pop off and preserved renal function. Open excision of the scrotal part of diverticulum was performed. Urethroplasty was conducted using a de-epithelialised diverticular wall flap from the penobulbar urethra. On follow up the boy voided with a good flow and resolution of symptoms. Scrotal pop off with completion of voiding by manual compression of the diverticulum may preserve bladder and renal function. The preferred treatment of anterior urethral diverticulum is open excision of the diverticulum and reconstruction. The wall of the diverticulum may be used to reinforce the repair ventrally, where the corpus spongiosum is deficient. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neonatal urethral polyps associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed

    Anzai, Yuko; Koshida, Shigeki; Yanagi, Takahide; Johnin, Kazuyoshi; Takeuchi, Yoshihiro

    2013-10-01

    We report the first case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome without urinary obstruction, but with a congenital urethral polyp as a tumor protruding from the external urinary meatus. The present case suggests a possible relation between Beckwith-Wiedemann and the onset of fibroepithelial polyps in the reno-urinary system during the neonatal period.

  8. Percutaneous Posterior Calcaneal Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-01-01

    Different types of posterior calcaneal osteotomy are used for calcaneal realignment in the management of hindfoot deformity. We describe a percutaneous technique of posterior calcaneal osteotomy that can be either a Dwyer-type closing wedge osteotomy or displacement osteotomy.

  9. A case report on buccal mucosa graft for upper ureteral stricture repair

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, Vilas Pandurang; Thakur, Naveen; Kankalia, Sharad Kumar; Satav, Vikram Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Management of ureteric stricture especially long length upper one-third poses a challenging job for most urologists. With the successful use of buccal mucosa graft (BMG) for stricture urethra leads the foundation for its use in ureteric stricture also. A 35-year-old male diagnosedcase of left upper ureteric stricture, postureteroscopy with left percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) in situ. Cysto-retrograde pyelography and nephrostogram done simultaneously suggestive of left upper ureteric stricture of 3 cm at L3 level. On exploration, diseased ureteral segment exposed, BMG harvested and sutured as onlay patch graft with supportive omental wrap. The treatment choice for upper ureteric long length stricture is inferior nephropexy, autotransplantation, or bowel interposition. With PCN in situ, inferior nephropexy becomes technically difficult, other two are morbid procedures. Use of BMG in this situation is technically better choice with all the advantages of buccal mucosa. Onlay BMG for ureteral stricture is technically easy, less morbid procedure and can be important choice in future. PMID:28057996

  10. Balloon Dilatation of Salivary Duct Strictures: Report on 36 Treated Glands

    SciTech Connect

    Drage, Nicholas A.; Brown, Jackie E.; Escudier, Michael P.; Wilson, Ron F.; McGurk, Mark

    2002-10-15

    Purpose: This paper describes the technique for balloon dilatation of salivary duct strictures and evaluates the clinical and radiographic findings in a consecutive series of 36 affected glands. Methods: Thirty-four patients (36 glands) had balloon dilatation of their salivary duct strictures performed under fluoroscopic control. They were evaluated immediately afterwards and at review by sialography. Results: In 36 cases attempted, 33 (92%) strictures were dilated. The immediate post-treatment sialogram was available in 28 cases, of which 23 (82%) demonstrated complete and four (14%) partial elimination of stricture. In one case the appearance was unchanged(4%). Review data (mean 6.8 months) were available on 25 glands: 12 were asymptomatic (48%), 12 (48%) had reduced symptoms and one (4%)failed to improve. Sialographic data were available on 21 glands: in 10(48%) the duct remained patent, in one (5%) the stricture was partially eliminated, in seven (33%) the strictures had returned and in the remaining three (14%) cases there was complete obstruction. Conclusions: Balloon dilatation is an effective treatment of salivary duct stenosis. In half the cases the stricture recurred but symptomatic improvement was achieved and maintained in the majority of cases.

  11. Benign and malignant esophageal strictures: treatment with a polyurethane-covered retrievable expandable metallic stent.

    PubMed

    Song, H Y; Park, S I; Jung, H Y; Kim, S B; Kim, J H; Huh, S J; Kim, T H; Kim, Y K; Park, S; Yoon, H K; Sung, K B; Min, Y I

    1997-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a polyurethane-covered, retrievable, self-expandable metallic stent and hook catheter in the treatment of esophageal strictures. Stents were constructed of 0.4-mm stainless steel wire in a cylindric zig-zag configuration of six to nine bends. Four to eight stents were connected in tandem by dipping in a polyurethane solution. A nylon loop was hooked inside to each bend of the proximal portion of the stent and strung with a thread. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 22 stents were placed in 16 patients with a malignant stricture and five patients with a benign stricture. The stent was removed with a hook catheter 2 months after placement in patients with a benign stricture and when complications occurred in patients with a malignant stricture. All patients had dysphagia with ingestion of soft foods or liquids. Stent placement was technically successful and well tolerated in 20 patients. In one patient, the stent was misplaced but relocated successfully. After stent placement, all patients were able to ingest solid and/or soft foods without dysphagia. After stent removal, strictures showed improvement but recurred in two patients. Use of polyurethane-covered, retrievable expandable stents seems to be a feasible and effective method of treatment of benign and malignant esophageal strictures.

  12. Atypical abdominal pain: post-traumatic transverse colon stricture.

    PubMed

    Rotar, Raluca; Uwechue, Raphael; Sasapu, Kishore Kumar

    2013-08-23

    A driver presented to the emergency department 1 day after an accident driving his excavator with abdominal pain and vomiting. He was admitted to the surgical ward 2 days later, after reattending. A CT scan revealed wall thickening and oedema in the transverse colon. This was supported by a subsequent CT virtual colonoscopy which raised the suspicion of neoplasia. A follow-up colonoscopy was not carried further than the transverse colon due to an indurated, tight stricture. Biopsies from that area showed ulceration and inflammatory changes non-specific for ischaemia, drug-induced changes or inflammatory bowel disease. As a consequence of the subocclusive symptoms and the possibility of a neoplastic diagnosis, a laparoscopic-assisted transverse colectomy was performed. The histology of the resected segment revealed post-traumatic inflammation and fibrosis with no evidence of neoplasia.

  13. Clinical profile and outcome of aluminum phosphide-induced esophageal strictures.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, Rakesh; Dutta, Usha; Poornachandra, Kuchhangi Sureshchandra; Vaiphei, Kim; Bhagat, Suraj; Nagi, Birinder; Singh, Kartar

    2010-09-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a lethal solid fumigant pesticide which has been recently linked to esophageal stricture formation. This paper aims to study the clinical profile and response to treatment of AlP-induced esophageal strictures. Data on all patients of AlP-induced strictures seen between January 2004 and June 2008 were retrieved and analyzed for clinical parameters and response to endoscopic dilation. Each patient underwent barium swallow to define the site and length of stricture and then was dilated endoscopically. Twelve patients of AlP-induced esophageal stricture (seven males) with a mean age of 26.83+/-8.43 years were evaluated. They had consumed one to three AlP tablets, 4-156 weeks before reporting to us. They had onset of dysphagia within 2 to 8 weeks of ingestion of AlP. Of 14 strictures in 12 patients, seven were in upper third, two in middle third, and five in lower third of esophagus with a mean length of 1.96+/-0.75 cm. Nine patients responded to dilation requiring 5.56+/-2.65 dilations. Four patients were given intralesional steroids to augment the effect of dilation. Three patients failed and were operated upon. All patients remained symptom free over a follow-up of 3-30 (15.67+/-9.41) months. AlP-induced esophageal strictures can be dilated endoscopically in a majority of patients; however, 25% of them require surgical intervention. AlP-induced esophageal strictures, thus, behave like caustic-induced strictures.

  14. Tubercular versus Crohn’s ileal strictures: role of endoscopic balloon dilatation without fluoroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Singh Rana, Surinder; Kumar Bhasin, Deepak; Rao, Chalapathi; Singh, Kartar

    2013-01-01

    Background Benign ileal strictures can cause considerable morbidity and they have been conventionally treated with surgery. The aim of this study was to report our experience of endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD) in patients with terminal ileal strictures because of Crohn’s disease and tuberculosis. Methods Over the last 8 years, 9 patients (6 males; mean age 39.7±13.2 years) with benign terminal ileal strictures were treated by EBD using a colonoscope and through-the-scope controlled radial expansion balloon dilators. Results The etiology of benign ileal stricture was Crohn’s disease in 5 and tuberculosis in 4 patients. All the patients with Crohn’s disease had no or partial response to 4 weeks of steroid therapy and there were no mucosal ulcerations on ileoscopy. Three patients with ileal strictures due to tuberculosis underwent dilatation after completion of the antitubercular therapy (ATT) while one patient required dilatation 3 months after starting ATT. All patients had single ileal stricture with length of stricture ranging from 0.6-1.8 cm. EBD was successful in all 9 patients with a median number of dilating sessions required of 2 (range: 1-5 sessions). Patients with Crohn’s disease required more endoscopic sessions as compared to patients with tuberculosis but this difference was not statistically significant (mean number of session being 3.0±1.58 vs. 1.75±0.5 sessions respectively; P=0.1). One patient with ileal tuberculosis had enterolith proximal to the stricture that could be removed with dormia. There were no complications of the endoscopic procedure. Conclusions EBD is an effective, safe, and minimally invasive treatment modality for benign ileal strictures. PMID:24714760

  15. [Stricture recanalisation of the distal urether with various endoprothesis].

    PubMed

    Mladenović, A; Davidović, K; Marković, B; Anojcić, P; Stojadinović, M; Maksimović, H

    2010-01-01

    Application of the metallic stents in the interventional uroradioligy is the result of continous development of the new generation methods percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN), ballon catheter dilatation (BCD), methal and covered stent application. Application of metal stents in the renal canal system was attempted in order to eliminate BCD and PCN--related limitations as well as poor therapeutic results of these methods in a number of etiopathogenic groups of urinary stasis. Years--long application of interventional uroradiology methods, until the development of metallic stengts had shown the following therapeutics facts: PCN is incapable to resolve the caus of urinary obstruction. Permanent good therapeutic BCD results mostly depend on pathohistological aspect of the stricture, metallic stents are most frequently the last choice in therapeutics approch to urinary tract obstructions and their application is directly dependent on previous therapeutics results accomplished by PCN and BCD. In therapeutical sequences new generation of covered stents have important place as method of selection in patients of irreversibile uroopstruction of distal ureter. The main goal of this study was to analize therapeutics results, advanteges and shortages of insercion plastics and opened metallic endoprothesis, and to analize results of covered methal applications on the contrary of using older interventional uroradiology methods. Sixthytwo patients with distal urether strictures threated in the Deparment of interventional uroradiology Institute od Radiology Clinical centre of Serbia in Belgrade, participated in the study. Results were analized with Person's 2-test, Fisher test and Student T-test. In our study we had highly significant differences in comparison with number of patients and type of stents during the time after recanalization was reached. Also it was highly significant differences acorrding the type od used interventional uroradiology method that treated proliferation and

  16. Classification of Esophageal Strictures following Esophageal Atresia Repair.

    PubMed

    Macchini, Francesco; Parente, Giovanni; Morandi, Anna; Farris, Giorgio; Gentilino, Valerio; Leva, Ernesto

    2017-03-06

    Introduction The aim of this study was to stratify anastomotic strictures (AS) following esophageal atresia (EA) repair and to establish predictors for the need of dilations. Material and Methods A retrospective study on children operated on for EA between 2004 and 2014 was conducted. The stricture index (SI) was measured both radiologically (SIXR) and endoscopically (SIEND). A correlation analysis between the SI and the number of dilations was performed using Spearman's test and linear regression analysis. Results In this study, 40 patients were included: 35 (87.5%) presented with Gross's type C EA, 3 (7.5%) type A, 1 (2.5%) type B, and 1 (2.5%) type D. The mean follow-up time was 101 ± 71.1 months (range: 7.8-232.5, median: 97.6). The mean SIXR was 0.56 ± 0.16 (range: 0.15-0.86). The mean SIEND was 0.45 ± 0.22 (range: 0.15-0.85). Twenty-four patients (60%) underwent a mean of 2 endoscopic dilations (range: 1-9). The number of dilations was poorly correlated with SIXR, while significantly correlated with SIEND. Patients who did not need dilations had a SIEND < 0.33, patients who needed only one dilation had 0.33 ≤ SIEND < 0.44, and those with SIEND ≥ 0.44 needed two or more dilations. No significant association with other clinical variables was found. All patients were asymptomatic at the time of the first endoscopy. Conclusion SIEND is a useful tool to classify AS and can represent a predictor of the need for endoscopic dilation. The role of the SIEND becomes even more important as clinical characteristics have a low predictive value for the development of an AS and the need for subsequent endoscopic esophageal dilatations.

  17. Sharp recanalization of an esophageal occlusion after repair of esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal stricture.

    PubMed

    Vo, Nghia-Jack; Racadio, John M; Inge, Thomas H

    2005-10-01

    Esophageal atresia with an associated tracheoesophageal fistula is a congenital anomaly requiring surgical correction. Recurrent stricture is the most common complication of surgical repair and is usually treated with mechanical dilation. Rarely, a recurrent completely obstructive stricture can cause obliteration of the anastomosis, preventing passage of a wire for dilation. This condition requires operative correction. In the case presented herein, the obliterated esophageal lumen from an obstructing stricture was operatively corrected with use of a novel transluminal technique. The obstruction was successfully crossed with a modified Chiba biopsy needle covered in a dilator through a gastrostomy. After subsequent balloon dilation, the lumen has remained patent for more than 3 years without significant complication.

  18. Vaginal Swab Test Compared With the Urethral Q-tip Test for Urethral Mobility Measurement: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Isuzu; Szychowski, Jeff M; Illston, Jana D; Parden, Alison M; Richter, Holly E

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess whether a vaginal cotton-tipped swab is equivalent to the standard Q-tip test regarding urethral mobility. Secondarily, to examine whether both tests agree in hypermobility diagnosis, discomfort level, and patients' preference. Methods In this randomized cross-over trial, women with stress urinary incontinence without prolapse beyond the hymen were randomized to undergo either a vaginal or urethral mobility test first followed by the alternate approach. The primary outcome was the difference in rotation angle, from resting to maximum strain, between tests. The equivalence margin was ±10°. The secondary outcome was agreement in hypermobility diagnosis using two definitions, #1 maximum straining angle of ≥30° from the horizontal plane, #2 rotation angle ≥30°. Discomfort was assessed using 0-10 visual analog scale. Using 90% power assuming a standard deviation of 20°, 36 and 139 patients were needed for 10° and 5° equivalence margins, respectively. Results From January 2014 to March 2015, 140 women were randomized. The mean difference between the two tests was 5.1° (95% confidence interval 3.2-6.9°), meeting the predefined equivalence criteria. In the hypermobility diagnosis, the urethral and vaginal tests had no disagreement using the definition #1 (p=0.23) whereas the two tests disagreed using definition #2 (p=0.03). The urethral approach had a higher discomfort level (p<0.001). The majority preferred the vaginal test (68% preferred vaginal, 32% no preference). Conclusion The vaginal swab test is equivalent to the standard Q-tip test in measuring urethral mobility with less discomfort and is preferred by patients. PMID:26942364

  19. Urethral closure mechanisms during sneezing-induced stress in anesthetized female cats.

    PubMed

    Julia-Guilloteau, V; Denys, P; Bernabé, J; Mevel, K; Chartier-Kastler, E; Alexandre, L; Giuliano, F

    2007-09-01

    During stress-induced increase in abdominal pressure, urinary continence is maintained by urethral closure mechanisms. Active urethral response has been studied in dogs and rats. Such an active urethral response is also believed to occur in humans during stress events. We aimed to investigate urethral closure mechanisms during sneezing in cats. Urethral pressures along the urethra (UP1-UP4), with microtip transducer catheters with UP4 positioned in the distal urethra where the external urethral sphincter (EUS) is located, and intravesical pressure were measured, and abdominal wall, anal sphincter (AS), levator ani (LA), and EUS electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded during sneezing under closed-abdomen and open-abdomen conditions in eight anesthetized adult female cats. Proximal and middle urethral response induced by sneezing was not different from bladder response. Distal urethral response was greater compared with proximal and middle urethral and bladder response. In the open-abdomen bladder, proximal and middle urethral responses were similarly decreased and distal urethral response was unchanged compared with the closed-abdomen bladder. Bladder and urethral responses were positively correlated to sneeze strength. EUS, LA, and AS EMGs increased during sneezing. No urine leakage was observed, regardless of the strength of sneeze. In cats urethral closure mechanisms are partly passive in the proximal and middle urethra and involve an active component in the distal urethra that is believed to result from EUS and possibly LA contractions. Because central serotonin exerts similar effects on the lower urinary tract in cats and humans, the cat may represent a relevant model for pharmacological studies on continence mechanisms.

  20. High grade anorectal stricture complicating Crohn's disease: endoscopic treatment using insulated-tip knife

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Hyung Ku; Shin, Ik Sang; Kim, Sang Wook

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic treatments have emerged as an alternative to surgery, in the treatment of benign colorectal stricture. Unlike endoscopic balloon dilatation, there is limited data on endoscopic electrocautery incision therapy for benign colorectal stricture, especially with regards to safety and long-term patency. We present a case of a 29-year-old female with Crohn's disease who had difficulty in defecation and passing thin stools. A pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scan, gastrograffin enema, and sigmoidoscopy showed a high-grade anorectal stricture. An endoscopic insulated-tip knife incision was successfully performed to resolve the problem. From our experience, we suggest that endoscopic insulated-tip knife treatment may be a feasible and effective modality for patients with short-segment, very rigid, fibrotic anorectal stricture. PMID:27433152

  1. Can esophageal dilation be avoided in the treatment of severe esophageal stricture caused by eosinophilic esophagitis?

    PubMed

    Silva, D; Santos, F; Piedade, S; Morais-Almeida, M

    2015-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an inflammatory immune-mediated disease with predominant eosinophilic inflammation characterized by the presence of esophageal dysfunction symptoms. Treatment delay can be associated with disease complications, like esophageal strictures, that can justify the use of invasive procedures which are not deprived of side effects. We present a case report of a 14 year old child with severe esophageal stricture secondary to EoE, that was treated with topical and systemic corticosteroid before any invasive procedure was considered. After 26 weeks of medical treatment, significant improvement of esophageal dysfunction occurred with histological remission and stricture resolution. In patients with severe esophageal strictures secondary to EoE, the need for esophageal dilation procedures should be considered only after anti-inflammatory treatment.

  2. B Cell Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Presenting as a Bile Duct Stricture Diagnosed With Cholangioscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bartel, Michael J.; Jiang, Liuyan; Lukens, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Indeterminate biliary strictures represent a diagnostic challenge requiring further work-up, which encompasses a variety of diagnostic modalities. We report a very rare case of B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia presenting as a biliary stricture following remission of acute myeloid leukemia, which was initially treated with allogenic stem cell transplant. After multiple diagnostic modalities were implemented with no success, the use of cholangioscopy-guided biopsies was the key for the final diagnosis. PMID:27807569

  3. Current diagnosis and treatment of benign biliary strictures after living donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jae Hyuck; Lee, Inseok; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Han, Sok Won

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical techniques, benign biliary strictures after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) remain a significant biliary complication and play an important role in graft and patient survival. Benign biliary strictures after transplantation are classified into anastomotic or non-anastomotic strictures. These two types differ in presentation, outcome, and response to therapy. The leading causes of biliary strictures include impaired blood supply, technical errors during surgery, and biliary anomalies. Because patients usually have non-specific symptoms, a high index of suspicion should be maintained. Magnetic resonance cholangiography has gained widespread acceptance as a reliable noninvasive tool for detecting biliary complications. Endoscopy has played an increasingly prominent role in the diagnosis and treatment of biliary strictures after LDLT. Endoscopic management in LDLT recipients may be more challenging than in deceased donor liver transplantation patients because of the complex nature of the duct-to-duct reconstruction. Repeated aggressive endoscopic treatment with dilation and the placement of multiple plastic stents is considered the first-line treatment for biliary strictures. Percutaneous and surgical treatments are now reserved for patients for whom endoscopic management fails and for those with multiple, inaccessible intrahepatic strictures or Roux-en-Y anastomoses. Recent advances in enteroscopy enable treatment, even in these latter cases. Direct cholangioscopy, another advanced form of endoscopy, allows direct visualization of the inner wall of the biliary tree and is expected to facilitate stenting or stone extraction. Rendezvous techniques can be a good option when the endoscopic approach to the biliary stricture is unfeasible. These developments have resulted in almost all patients being managed by the endoscopic approach. PMID:26819525

  4. Inflammatory stricture of the right ureter following perforated appendicitis: The first Indian report

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Janavikula Sankaran; Ganesh, Deepa; Rajkumar, Anirudh

    2016-01-01

    Perforated appendicitis leading to inflammatory stricture of the right ureter is a rarity. We present this fairly uncommon case of a patient who developed a stricture of the right ureter secondary to an ongoing inflammatory process in the peritoneum and retroperitoneum. A perforated appendicitis was operated upon, and on follow-up the mild hydronephrosis had worsened. Stenting of the right ureter completely solved the problem. PMID:27251819

  5. Endoscopic treatment of benign biliary strictures using covered self-expandable metal stents (CSEMS).

    PubMed

    Irani, Shayan; Baron, Todd H; Akbar, Ali; Lin, Otto S; Gluck, Michael; Gan, Ian; Ross, Andrew S; Petersen, Bret T; Topazian, Mark; Kozarek, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Traditional endoscopic management of benign biliary strictures (BBS) consists of placement of one or more plastic stents. Emerging data support the use of covered self-expandable metal stents (CSEMS). We sought to assess outcome of endoscopic temporary placement of CSEMS in patients with BBS. This was a retrospective study of CSEMS placement for BBS between May 2005 and July 2012 from two tertiary care centers. A total of 145 patients (81 males, median age 59 years) with BBS were identified; 73 of which were classified as extrinsic and were caused by chronic pancreatitis, and 70 were intrinsic. Main outcome measures were resolution of stricture and adverse events (AEs) due to self-expandable metal stents (SEMS)-related therapy. Fully covered and partially covered 8-10 mm diameter SEMS were placed and subsequently removed in 121/125 (97 %) attempts in BBS (failure to remove four partially covered stents). Stricture resolution occurred in 83/125 (66 %) patients after a median stent duration of 26 weeks (median follow-up 90 weeks). Resolution of extrinsic strictures was significantly lower compared to intrinsic strictures (31/65, 48 % vs. 52/60, 87 %, p = 0.004) despite longer median stent duration (30 vs. 20 weeks). Thirty-seven AEs occurred in 25 patients (17 %), with 12 developing multiple AEs including cholangitis (n = 17), pancreatitis (n = 5), proximal stent migration (n = 3), cholecystitis (n = 2), pain requiring SEMS removal and/or hospitalization (n = 3), inability to remove (n = 4), and new stricture formation (n = 3). Benign biliary strictures can be effectively treated with CSEMS. Successful resolution of biliary strictures due to extrinsic disease is seen significantly less often than those due to intrinsic disease. Removal is successful in all patients with fully covered SEMS.

  6. Role of Interventional Radiology in the Treatment of Biliary Strictures Following Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Righi, Dorico; Cesarani, Federico; Muraro, Emanuele; Gazzera, Carlo; Salizzoni, Mauro; Gandini, Giovanni

    2002-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous treatment of biliary strictures complicating orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Methods: Between October 1990 and May 2000, 619 patients underwent 678 liver transplants. Seventy of the 619 (11%) patients were found to be affected by biliary strictures by July 2000. Bilioplasty was performed in 51 of these 70 (73%) patients. A cohort of 33 of 51 (65%) patients were clinically followed for more than 12 months after the last percutaneous treatment and included in the survey results. Results: After one to three treatments 24 of 33 (73%)patients were stricture-free on ultrasound and MR cholangiography follow-up. A delayed stricture recurrence required a fourth percutaneous bilioplasty in two of 33 (6%) patients. A surgical bilioenteric anastomosis was performed in six of 33 (18%) patients.Retransplantation was performed due to ischemic damage in one of 33(3%) patients. Conclusion: Interventional radiology is an effective therapeutic alternative for the treatment of most biliary strictures complicating OLT. It has a high success rate and should be considered before surgical interventions. Elective surgery may be necessary in a few failed cases or those with more severe and extensive biliary strictures.

  7. Meta-Analysis of the Long Term Success Rate of Different Interventions in Benign Biliary Strictures

    PubMed Central

    Huszár, Orsolya; Kokas, Bálint; Mátrai, Péter; Hegyi, Péter; Pétervári, Erika; Vincze, Áron; Pár, Gabriella; Sarlós, Patrícia; Bajor, Judit; Czimmer, József; Mosztbacher, Dóra; Márta, Katalin; Zsiborás, Csaba; Varjú, Péter; Szücs, Ákos

    2017-01-01

    Background Benign biliary stricture is a rare condition and the majority of the cases are caused by operative trauma or chronic inflammation based on various etiology. Although the initial results of endoscopic, percutaneous and surgical treatment are impressive, no comparison about long term stricture resolution is available. Aims The goal of this study was to compare the long term disease free survival in benign biliary strictures with various etiology after surgery, percutaneous transhepatic—and endoscopic treatment. Methods PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched by computer and manually for published studies. The investigators selected the publications according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, processed the data and assessed the quality of the selected studies. Meta-analysis of data of 24 publications was performed to compare long term disease free survival of different treatment groups. Results Compared the subgroups surgery resulted in the highest long term stricture resolution rate, followed by the percutaneous transhepatic treatment, the multiple plastic stent insertion and covered self-expanding metal stents (SEMS), however the difference was not significant. All compared methods are significantly superior to the single plastic stent placement. Long term stricture resolution rate irrespectively of any therapy is still not more than 84%. Conclusions In summary, the use of single plastic stent is not recommended. Further randomized studies and innovative technical development are required for improving the treatment of benign biliary strictures. PMID:28076371

  8. Usefulness of biodegradable polydioxanone stents in the treatment of postsurgical colorectal strictures and fistulas.

    PubMed

    Pérez Roldán, F; González Carro, P; Villafáñez García, M C; Aoufi Rabih, S; Legaz Huidobro, M L; Sánchez-Manjavacas Múñoz, N; Roncero García-Escribano, O; Ynfante Ferrús, M; Bernardos Martín, E; Ruiz Carrillo, F

    2012-03-01

    Benign colonic strictures and fistulas are a growing problem presenting most commonly after bowel resection. Standard treatment is with endoscopic bougies or, more usually, balloon dilation. When these approaches are not successful, other solutions are available and different endoscopic and surgical approaches have been used to treat fistulas. We present an additional option--biodegradable stents--for the treatment of colonic strictures and fistulas that have proven refractory to other endoscopic interventions. We analyzed the results from 10 patients with either a postsurgical colorectal stricture (n =7) or rectocutaneous fistula (n =3) treated with the biodegradable SX-ELLA esophageal stent (covered or uncovered). Stents were successfully placed in nine patients, although early migration subsequently occurred in one. Placement was impossible in one patient due to deformity of the area and the fact that the stricture was approximately 30cm from the anus. The fistulas were successfully closed in all patients, although symptoms reappeared in one patient. In the six patients who received stents for strictures, symptoms resolved in five; in the remaining patient, the stent migrated shortly after the endoscopy. Treatment of colonic strictures and rectocutaneous fistulas with biodegradable stents is an effective alternative in the short-to-medium term. The stent does not have to be removed and is subject to very few complications. The drawbacks of this approach are the need to repeat the procedure in some patients and the lack of published series on efficacy.

  9. Condylomata acuminata of external urethral meatus causing infravesical obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kilciler, Mete; Bedir, Selahattin; Erdemir, Fikret; Coban, Hidayet; Erten, Koray; Ors, Onder; Ozgok, Yasar

    2007-01-01

    Condyloma acuminata is one of the most common virally transmitted diseases. The most common sites for condyloma in males are the balanopreputial sulcus, frenulum and the glans' mucosa. Condylomata in the urethra is rarely seen occur and most often situated in the distal part of the urethra. A 24-year-male admitted to our clinic with complaint of papillary lesion at the urethral meatus and urinary retention. Physical examination revealed that multiple papillary lesions along the anterior urethra until 1 cm distance from the urethral meatus. Under the clinical diagnosis of condyloma acuminata, he was treated conservatively with radical local excision of the lesion and condyloma acuminatum was verified by histopathological examination. Four months after surgery, there has been no local or remote recurrence.

  10. Dysuria associated with urethral caruncle in the dog.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, J M; Brown, P J; Pearson, G R; Holt, P E

    1996-07-01

    Three cases of urethral caruncle were recognized in bitches with a history of chronic dysuria. Clinical and radiological examinations revealed the presence of inoperable lesions involving much of the urethra in all three cases. At post-mortem examination of Case 1, an oval swelling, 1.5 x 1.0 cm, was detected within the wall of the urethra close to the vagino-urethral orifice. In Case 2, firm, mottled yellow, white and red tissue formed a thickening between the urethra and vagina. In Case 3, a cylindrical cream mass, 8 cm long and 3 cm in diameter, surrounded the urethra and impinged on the wall of the vagina. Histologically, glandular structures lined by a single layer of epithelial cells and a mixed granulomatous inflammatory reaction were present in the wall of the urethra of all three cases.

  11. Intermittent urethral catheterization-descriptive study at a Brazilian service.

    PubMed

    Mazzo, Alessandra; Souza-Junior, Valtuir D; Jorge, Beatriz M; Nassif, Aline; Biaziolo, Cintia F B; Cassini, Marcelo F; Santos, Raquel C R; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa

    2014-08-01

    The rehabilitation process of patients with neurogenic bladder involves psychosocial, cultural, political and economic human factors, representing a challenge for patients/caregivers as well as health professionals. This study was aimed at characterizing patients with neurogenic bladder who use intermittent urethral catheterization and were going through rehabilitation at a teaching hospital. This descriptive study was undertaken in the interior of São Paulo State-Brazil. All ethical guidelines were complied with. To collect the data, interviews were held during nursing consultations with patients more than 18years of age suffering from neurogenic bladder who used intermittent urethral catheterization. Most patients had spinal cord trauma, are single, male and gain a low income. They have been using catheterization for several years, at irregular frequencies, using polyethylene catheters. No standardization exists in the accomplishment of the practices used and strategies are needed to remodel the service. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid presumptive diagnosis of gonococcal urethritis in men by the limulus lysate test.

    PubMed Central

    Spagna, V A; Prior, R B; Perkins, R L

    1979-01-01

    In an evaluation of the limulus assay as a method for detecting endotoxin in urethral exudates, positive results of urethral samples at a 1/200 dilution were obtained from 73 out of 73 patients with culture-positive gonococcal urethritis while negative results were obtained from 26 out of 27 patients with cuture-negative urethral specimens. A specimen from one patient, which gave negative results on Gram stain and culture, gave positive results to the limulus test. The overall accuracy of the limulus test for predicting culture results was 99% (p less than 0.001). Thus, in preliminary studies of otherwise healthy men, the results of the limulus assay correlated with those of biological methods for diagnosing urethral gonorrhoea; the test may, therefore, be of use in identifying cases of nongonococcal urethritis. PMID:466383

  13. Cholinergic urethral brush cells are widespread throughout placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Deckmann, Klaus; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Rafiq, Amir; Herden, Christine; Wichmann, Judy; Knauf, Sascha; Nassenstein, Christina; Grevelding, Christoph G; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Bschleipfer, Thomas; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    We previously identified a population of cholinergic epithelial cells in murine, human and rat urethrae that exhibits a structural marker of brush cells (villin) and expresses components of the canonical taste transduction signaling cascade (α-gustducin, phospholipase Cβ2 (PLCβ2), transient receptor potential cation channel melanostatin 5 (TRPM5)). These cells serve as sentinels, monitoring the chemical composition of the luminal content for potentially hazardous compounds such as bacteria, and initiate protective reflexes counteracting further ingression. In order to elucidate cross-species conservation of the urethral chemosensory pathway we investigated the occurrence and molecular make-up of urethral brush cells in placental mammals. We screened 11 additional species, at least one in each of the five mammalian taxonomic units primates, carnivora, perissodactyla, artiodactyla and rodentia, for immunohistochemical labeling of the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), villin, and taste cascade components (α-gustducin, PLCβ2, TRPM5). Corresponding to findings in previously investigated species, urethral epithelial cells with brush cell shape were immunolabeled in all 11 mammals. In 8 species, immunoreactivities against all marker proteins and ChAT were observed, and double-labeling immunofluorescence confirmed the cholinergic nature of villin-positive and chemosensory (TRPM5-positive) cells. In cat and horse, these cells were not labeled by the ChAT antiserum used in this study, and unspecific reactions of the secondary antiserum precluded conclusions about ChAT-expression in the bovine epithelium. These data indicate that urethral brush cells are widespread throughout the mammalian kingdom and evolved not later than about 64.5millionyears ago.

  14. Flexible Distributed Pressure Sensing Strip for a Urethral Catheter1

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Mahdi; Rajamani, Rajesh; Timm, Gerald; Sezen, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    A multi-sensor flexible strip is developed for a urethral catheter to measure distributed pressure in a human urethra. The developed sensor strip has important clinical applications in urodynamic testing for analyzing the causes of urinary incontinence in patients. There are two major challenges in the development of the sensor. First, a highly sensitive sensor strip that is flexible enough for urethral insertion into a human body is required and second, the sensor has to work reliably in a liquid in-vivo environment in the human body. Capacitive force sensors are designed and micro-fabricated using polyimide/PDMS substrates and copper electrodes. To remove the parasitic influence of urethral tissues which create fringe capacitance that can lead to significant errors, a reference fringe capacitance measurement sensor is incorporated on the strip. The sensing strip is embedded on a catheter and experimental in-vitro evaluation is presented using a bench-top pressure chamber. The sensors on the strip are able to provide the required sensitivity and range. Preliminary experimental results also show promise that by using measurements from the reference parasitic sensor on the strip, the influence of parasitics from human tissue on the pressure measurements can be removed. PMID:27065719

  15. The thermal effect of urethral warming during cryosurgery.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Yoed; Stahovich, Thomas F

    2002-01-01

    The heating effect of urethral warming during cryosurgery has been investigated theoretically, via heat transfer simulations. Two warmer configurations have been considered: (i). the clinically available urethral warmer, which has a configuration of a counter flow fluid heat exchanger; (ii). a newly designed urethral warmer, based on a temperature controlled electrical heater, termed a "cryoheater". A dramatic effect of thermal resistance to heat transfer through the heat exchanger wall has been identified, which is absent in the cryoheater. It follows that the cryoheater is expected to be more efficient in generating an unfrozen region around the urethra. It is shown that the conventional heat exchanger may fail to prevent freezing around the urethra in a significant number of prostate cases, depending on the layout of cryoprobes around the urethra. On the other hand, clinical reports exist which suggest that the heat exchanger improves in many cases the outcome of cryosurgery, in terms of long term complications. It is speculated in the current report that the cryoheater can further improve the outcome of cryosurgery, by providing protection from freezing in a wider range of cases. It is suggested that a future study be conducted to examine the correlation between the layout of cryoprobes and surgical outcome.

  16. Somatomotor and sensory urethral control of micturition in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Yolanda; Pastelín, César; Balog, Brian M.; Zaszczurynski, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    In rats, axons of external urethral sphincter (EUS) motoneurons travel through the anastomotic branch of the pudendal nerve (ABPD) and anastomotic branch of the lumbosacral trunk (ABLT) and converge in the motor branch of the sacral plexus (MBSP). The aim of the present study was to determine in female rats the contribution of these somatomotor pathways and urethral sensory innervation from the dorsal nerve of the clitoris on urinary continence and voiding. EUS electromyographic (EMG) activity during cystometry, leak point pressure (LPP), and voiding efficiency (VE) were assessed in anesthetized virgin Sprague-Dawley female rats before and after transection of the above nerve branches. Transection of the MBSP eliminated EUS EMG, decreased LPP by 50%, and significantly reduced bladder contraction duration, peak pressure, intercontraction interval, and VE. Transection of the ABPD or ABLT decreased EUS EMG discharge and LPP by 25% but did not affect VE. Transection of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris did not affect LPP but reduced contraction duration, peak pressure, intercontraction interval, and VE. We conclude that somatomotor control of micturition is provided by the MBSP with axons travelling through the ABPD and ABLT. Partial somatomotor urethral denervation induces mild urinary incontinence, whereas partial afferent denervation induces voiding dysfunction. ABPD and ABLT pathways could represent a safeguard ensuring innervation to the EUS in case of upper nerve damage. Detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy and functional innervation of the urethra will enable more accurate animal models of neural development, disease, and dysfunction in the future. PMID:25339694

  17. Somatomotor and sensory urethral control of micturition in female rats.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Yolanda; Pastelín, César; Balog, Brian M; Zaszczurynski, Paul J; Damaser, Margot S

    2014-12-01

    In rats, axons of external urethral sphincter (EUS) motoneurons travel through the anastomotic branch of the pudendal nerve (ABPD) and anastomotic branch of the lumbosacral trunk (ABLT) and converge in the motor branch of the sacral plexus (MBSP). The aim of the present study was to determine in female rats the contribution of these somatomotor pathways and urethral sensory innervation from the dorsal nerve of the clitoris on urinary continence and voiding. EUS electromyographic (EMG) activity during cystometry, leak point pressure (LPP), and voiding efficiency (VE) were assessed in anesthetized virgin Sprague-Dawley female rats before and after transection of the above nerve branches. Transection of the MBSP eliminated EUS EMG, decreased LPP by 50%, and significantly reduced bladder contraction duration, peak pressure, intercontraction interval, and VE. Transection of the ABPD or ABLT decreased EUS EMG discharge and LPP by 25% but did not affect VE. Transection of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris did not affect LPP but reduced contraction duration, peak pressure, intercontraction interval, and VE. We conclude that somatomotor control of micturition is provided by the MBSP with axons travelling through the ABPD and ABLT. Partial somatomotor urethral denervation induces mild urinary incontinence, whereas partial afferent denervation induces voiding dysfunction. ABPD and ABLT pathways could represent a safeguard ensuring innervation to the EUS in case of upper nerve damage. Detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy and functional innervation of the urethra will enable more accurate animal models of neural development, disease, and dysfunction in the future.

  18. Urethral function after cystectomy: a canine in vivo experiment.

    PubMed

    Hübner, W A; Trigo-Rocha, F; Plas, E G; Tanagho, E A

    1993-01-01

    To study the function of the pelvic floor and the isolated urethra after removal of the bladder, 5 male and 5 female mongrel dogs were used in an acute in vivo experiment. Urethral pressure changes secondary to unilateral stimulation of the pelvic and pudendal nerves were recorded. After baseline data of the intact system were documented, the following procedures were carried out: separation of the urethra from the bladder neck (prostate), nerve-sparing cystectomy (cystoprostatectomy), and cold-knife incision through the entire length of the proximal urethra. Pressure recordings were repeated after each step of surgery. Pudendal nerve stimulation resulted in rapid and large pressure rises in the distal urethra (reaction typical of striated muscle). This response remained unchanged after all three surgical steps. Pelvic nerve stimulation provoked pressure rises within the urethra of a pattern typical of smooth muscle. The findings persisted after separation of the urethra from the bladder neck (prostate) and after cystectomy, but were not observed after urethrotomy. Contractions secondary to pudendal nerve stimulation were inhibited by curare, which did not affect the reaction to pelvic nerve stimulation. Our experiments demonstrate that in the dog the continuity of bladder and urethra is not required for the function of urethral closure mechanisms. The contractile potency of the urethral smooth muscles remains intact after nerve-sparing cystectomy. We believe that problems with the baseline continence of surrogate bladders should mainly be ascribed to a lack of surgical caution in preserving the autonomic nerves of cystectomy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. [Urethral diverticulum. Our casuistic and the literatura review].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Backhaus, M; Trassierra Villa, M; Broseta Rico, E; Gimeno Argente, V; Arlandis Guzmán, S; Alonso Gorrea, M; Jiménez Cruz, J F

    2007-09-01

    The possible etiopathogenic factors, symptoms, diagnostic methods, surgical management and complications of the urethral diverticula are reviewed. A retrospective study of the clinical charts with urethral diverticula diagnosis during the period 1986-2006 was carried out. In the last 20 years a total of 19 patients have been treated for this pathology: 15 females and 4 males. Five of the females started with a sensation of vaginal mass; the rest were diagnosed of micturitional (irritative) syndrome, urinary incontinence or urinary infection. In the case of males, 3 of them had a palpable tumour in the penis. The most used diagnostic method was retrograde and voiding cystourethrography; urethrography with double-occlusion balloon catheter was used in 5 cases and urethroscopy in 4 patients; other techniques of image diagnosis like magnetic resonance imaging were necessary for the most complex cases. The treatment was the excision of the diverticulum, except for one of the females who rejected the treatment. The evolution in all treated women was successful, according to follow up 2 years after the treatment. In males, two of them had complex recurrent diverticula. Urethral diverticula are nosologic entities of difficult diagnosis, due to their low prevalence and their unspecific clinic, therefore diagnosis is sometimes incidental. The etiopathogenity is acquired in most cases and its surgical treatment is more challenging in males than in females probably linked to the fact that diverticula appear in urethras with previous surgery, endourologic manipulation or associated injuries.

  20. Urethral recurrence after cystectomy: current preventative measures, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yvonne; Fisher, Patrick; Tilki, Derya; Evans, Christopher P

    2016-04-01

    To summarise the current literature on the diagnosis and management of urethral recurrence (UR) after radical cystectomy (RC), as UR after RC is rare but associated with high mortality. With the recently increased use of orthotopic bladder substitution and the questionable benefit of prophylactic urethrectomy, identification of patients at high risk of UR, management of the remnant urethra, and treatment of UR become critical questions. A review of the PubMed database from 1980 to 2014 was performed to identify studies evaluating recurrent urothelial cancer of the urethra after RC. The search terms used included 'urethral recurrence', 'cystectomy' or 'cystoprostatectomy'. Selected studies provided information on the type of urinary diversion performed, the incidence of UR, and the time to UR. Incidence of UR after RC ranges from 1% to 8% with most recurrences occurring within the first 2 years after surgery. Increased risk of UR is associated with involvement of the prostate, tumour multifocality, bladder neck involvement, and cutaneous diversion. The median overall survival after UR ranges from 6 to 54 months and the 5-year disease-specific survival after UR is reported to be between zero and 83%. UR remains a relatively rare event. Current literature suggests that urethral wash cytology may be useful in patients with intermediate- to high-risk of recurrence to enable early detection of non-invasive disease, which may be amenable to conservative therapy before urethrectomy.

  1. A Case of Strangulated Urethral Prolapse in a Premenopausal Adult Female

    PubMed Central

    Jessop, Morris L.; Al-Omar, Osama

    2016-01-01

    Urethral prolapse in a premenopausal adult female is exceedingly rare. This paper describes a case of strangulated urethral prolapse presenting as a urethral mass in an unusual demographic and reviews the literature on etiology and management. Only a few cases have occurred in women of reproductive age. The etiology is likely multifactorial. Treatment with surgical excision provides good results in the majority of cases. PMID:27413572

  2. Female urethral diverticulum presenting with acute urinary retention: Reporting the largest diverticulum with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Manas Ranjan; Ranjan, Priyadarshi; Kapoor, Rakesh

    2012-04-01

    Female urethral diverticulum is a rare entity with diverse spectrum of clinical manifestations. It is a very rare cause of bladder outlet obstruction and should be considered as a differential diagnosis in females presenting with acute urinary retention associated with a vaginal mass. Strong clinical suspicion combined with thorough physical examination and focused radiological investigations are vital for its diagnosis. Herein we report a case of giant urethral diverticulum presenting with acute urinary retention in a young female. It was managed by excision and urethral closure, and is the largest urethral diverticulum reported till date in the literature.

  3. Acute urinary retention in women due to urethral calculi: A rare case

    PubMed Central

    Turo, Rafal; Smolski, Michal; Kujawa, Magda; Brown, Stephen C.W.; Brough, Richard; Collins, Gerald N.

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a 51-year-old woman with acute urinary retention caused by a urethral calculus. Urethral calculi in women are extremely rare and are usually formed in association with underlying genitourinary pathology. In this case, however, no pathology was detected via thorough urological evaluation. We discuss the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and treatment of urethral calculi. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of a primary urethral calculus in a female with an anatomically normal urinary tract and the first in a middle-aged Caucasian female. PMID:24554984

  4. Palliative Treatment of Malignant Colorectal Strictures with Metallic Stents

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Diaz, Laura; Pinto Pabon, Isabel; Fernandez Lobato, Rosa; Montes Lopez, Carmen

    1999-01-15

    Purpose: To assess the effectiveness and safety of self-expanding metallic stents as a primary palliative treatment for inoperable malignant colorectal strictures. Methods: Under radiological guidance 20 self-expanding metallic Wallstents were implanted in 16 consecutive patients with colorectal stenoses caused by malignant neoplasms, when surgical treatment of the condition had been ruled out. The patients were followed up clinically for 1-44 months, until death or termination of this study. Results: The stents were successfully implanted in all cases and resolved the clinical obstruction in all the patients except one, who underwent subsequent colostomy. During follow-up of the remaining 15 patients, clinical complications arising from the procedure were pain (two patients), minor rectal bleeding (one patient), and severe rectal bleeding (one patient) (26%). There were three cases of stent migration and three cases of stent occlusion, and reintervention by us was necessary in 20% of cases (3/15). The mean life span following the procedure was 130 days, and none of the patients exhibited clinical symptoms of obstruction at the time of death (12 patients) or termination of the study (3 patients). Conclusion: Deployment of metallic stents under radiologic guidance is an effective alternative as a primary palliative measure in malignant colorectal obstruction, though the possible clinical complications and need for repeat intervention during follow-up should be taken into account.

  5. Percutaneous Management of Biliary Strictures After Pediatric Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Miraglia, Roberto Maruzzelli, Luigi; Caruso, Settimo; Riva, Silvia; Spada, Marco; Luca, Angelo; Gridelli, Bruno

    2008-09-15

    We analyze our experience with the management of biliary strictures (BSs) in 27 pediatric patients who underwent liver transplantation with the diagnosis of BS. Mean recipient age was 38 months (range, 2.5-182 months). In all patients percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, biliary catheter placement, and bilioplasty were performed. In 20 patients the stenoses were judged resolved by percutaneous balloon dilatation and the catheters removed. Mean number of balloon dilatations performed was 4.1 (range, 3-6). No major complications occurred. All 20 patients are symptom-free with respect to BS at a mean follow-up of 13 months (range, 2-46 months). In 15 of 20 patients (75%) one course of percutaneous stenting and bilioplasty was performed, with no evidence of recurrence of BS at a mean follow-up of 15 months (range, 2-46 months). In 4 of 20 patients (20%) two courses of percutaneous stenting and bilioplasty were performed; the mean time to recurrence was 9.8 months (range, 2.4-24 months). There was no evidence of recurrence of BS at a mean follow-up of 12 months (range, 2-16 months). In 1 of 20 patients (5%) three courses of percutaneous stenting and bilioplasty were performed; there was no evidence of recurrence of BS at a mean follow-up of 10 months. In conclusion, BS is a major problem following pediatric liver transplantation. Radiological percutaneous treatment is safe and effective, avoiding, in most cases, surgical revision of the anastomosis.

  6. Recovery of normal esophageal function in a kitten with diffuse megaesophagus and an occult lower esophageal stricture.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jaycie; Ames, Marisa; DiCicco, Michael; Savage, Mason; Atkins, Clarke; Wood, Michael; Gookin, Jody L

    2015-06-01

    An 8-week-old male domestic shorthair was presented to the Internal Medicine Service at North Carolina State University for regurgitation. Radiographic diagnosis of generalized esophageal dilation and failure of esophageal peristalsis were compatible with diagnosis of congenital megaesophagus. Endoscopic examination of the esophagus revealed a fibrous stricture just orad to the lower esophageal sphincter. Conservative management to increase the body condition and size of the kitten consisted of feeding through a gastrostomy tube, during which time the esophagus regained normal peristaltic function, the stricture orifice widened in size and successful balloon dilatation of the stricture was performed. Esophageal endoscopy should be considered to rule out a stricture near the lower esophageal sphincter in kittens with radiographic findings suggestive of congenital megaesophagus. Management of such kittens by means of gastrostomy tube feeding may be associated with a return of normal esophageal motility and widening of the esophageal stricture, and facilitate subsequent success of interventional dilation of the esophageal stricture.

  7. Biodegradable esophageal stents in benign and malignant strictures – a single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Sigounas, Dimitrios E.; Siddhi, Sandeep; Plevris, John N.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Biodegradable (BD) esophageal stents were recently developed mainly for refractory benign strictures, but experience and available literature are limited. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective observational study. All patients who had BD stents inserted due to refractory benign esophageal strictures or malignant strictures, or were awaiting radical radiotherapy/chemotherapy or neo-adjuvant therapy and esophagectomy between March 2011 and July 2015 were included. Results: Stent placement was successful in all patients. Ten patients with benign strictures (3 male, median age 80.5 years, IQR: 68.75 – 89.5) were followed-up for a median of 171.5 weeks (IQR: 24 – 177.25). The interval between dilatations prior to the first BD stent placement (median: 34.25 days, IQR: 23.06 – 48.29) was significantly shorter than the interval between the first BD stent placement and the first intervention required (median: 149.5 days, IQR: 94.25 – 209.5) and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.012). Ten patients with esophageal cancer (8 male, median age: 69 years, IQR: 59.25 – 80.75) were included and they were followed up for a median of 36 weeks (IQR: 26 – 58). Only 1 completed radical radiotherapy successfully, but developed refractory post-radiotherapy stricture. No one proceeded to esophagectomy and 50 % required a self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) at a median of 134 days (IQR: 100 – 263) following stent placement. Conclusions: BD stents were successfully deployed in both benign and malignant strictures. They offered a prolonged dilatation-free interval in benign strictures, yet in the majority of patients, strictures recurred. In malignant strictures, stent patency was similar to that of benign strictures, which suggests a potential value in ensuring adequate oral intake during oncologic therapy. In our cohort, however, use of stents did not contribute to improved outcome. PMID

  8. Management of liver transplantation biliary stricture: Results from a tertiary hospital

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Fernanda Prata; Kahaleh, Michel; Ferrari, Angelo P

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review results of endoscopic treatment for anastomotic biliary strictures after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) during an 8-year period. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of all endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographys (ERCPs) performed between May 2006 and June 2014 in deceased OLT recipients with anastomotic stricture at a tertiary care hospital. Patients were divided into 2 groups, according to the type of stent used (multiple plastic or covered self-expandable metal stents), which was chose on a case-by-case basis and their characteristics. The primary outcome was anastomotic stricture resolution rate determined if there was no more than a minimum waist at cholangiography and a 10 mm balloon could easily pass through the anastomosis with no need for further intervention after final stent removal. Secondary outcomes were technical success rate, number or ERCPs required per patient, number of stents placed, stent indwelling, stricture recurrence rate and therapy for recurrent anastomotic biliary stricture (AS). Stricture recurrence was defined as clinical laboratorial and/or imaging evidence of obstruction at the anastomosis level, after it was considered completely treated, requiring subsequent interventional procedure. RESULTS: A total of 195 post-OLT patients were assessed for eligibility. One hundred and sixty-four (164) patients were diagnosed with anastomotic biliary stricture. ERCP was successfully performed in 157/164 (95.7%) patients with AS, that were treated with either multiple plastic (n = 109) or metallic billiary stents (n = 48). Mean treatment duration, number of procedures and stents required were lower in the metal stent group. Acute pancreatitis was the most common procedure related complication, occurring in 17.1% in the covered self-expandable metal stents (cSEMS) and 4.1% in the multiple plastic stent (MPS) group. Migration was the most frequent stent related complication, observed in 4.3% and 5.5% (cSEMS and MPS

  9. Effect of fesoterodine on urethral closure function in women with stress urinary incontinence assessed by urethral pressure reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Klarskov, Niels; Darekar, Amanda; Scholfield, David; Whelan, Laurence; Lose, Gunnar

    2014-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate, using urethral pressure reflectometry (UPR), the effect of fesoterodine on urethral function in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Women aged 18 to 65 years were eligible for this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study if they had had clinically significant SUI or SUI-predominant mixed urinary incontinence for >3 months. Each participant received fesoterodine 4 mg, fesoterodine 8 mg, and placebo once daily for 7 days, with a 7- to 10-day washout between treatments. UPR was performed at baseline and 4 to 8 h after the last dose in each treatment period. Participants completed a 3-day bladder diary before randomisation and during the last 3 days of each treatment period. Of the 22 women randomly assigned and treated, 17 met the criteria for the primary efficacy analyses. No statistically significant differences were seen between fesoterodine 4 mg or fesoterodine 8 mg and placebo in opening urethral pressure (primary endpoint) or other UPR endpoints. No statistically significant differences were seen between either fesoterodine dose and placebo in the change from baseline in the bladder diary variables (total urinary incontinence, SUI, or urgency urinary incontinence episodes per 24 h). Adverse events were reported by 8 participants taking fesoterodine 4 mg, 17 taking fesoterodine 8 mg, and 8 taking placebo. Fesoterodine did not affect urethral pressure or significantly decrease the number of incontinence episodes in women with SUI. The UPR parameters showed no placebo effect, while there was a placebo effect of 60 % based on the bladder diary.

  10. Signal processing in urodynamics: towards high definition urethral pressure profilometry.

    PubMed

    Klünder, Mario; Sawodny, Oliver; Amend, Bastian; Ederer, Michael; Kelp, Alexandra; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Stenzl, Arnulf; Feuer, Ronny

    2016-03-22

    Urethral pressure profilometry (UPP) is used in the diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) which is a significant medical, social, and economic problem. Low spatial pressure resolution, common occurrence of artifacts, and uncertainties in data location limit the diagnostic value of UPP. To overcome these limitations, high definition urethral pressure profilometry (HD-UPP) combining enhanced UPP hardware and signal processing algorithms has been developed. In this work, we present the different signal processing steps in HD-UPP and show experimental results from female minipigs. We use a special microtip catheter with high angular pressure resolution and an integrated inclination sensor. Signals from the catheter are filtered and time-correlated artifacts removed. A signal reconstruction algorithm processes pressure data into a detailed pressure image on the urethra's inside. Finally, the pressure distribution on the urethra's outside is calculated through deconvolution. A mathematical model of the urethra is contained in a point-spread-function (PSF) which is identified depending on geometric and material properties of the urethra. We additionally investigate the PSF's frequency response to determine the relevant frequency band for pressure information on the urinary sphincter. Experimental pressure data are spatially located and processed into high resolution pressure images. Artifacts are successfully removed from data without blurring other details. The pressure distribution on the urethra's outside is reconstructed and compared to the one on the inside. Finally, the pressure images are mapped onto the urethral geometry calculated from inclination and position data to provide an integrated image of pressure distribution, anatomical shape, and location. With its advanced sensing capabilities, the novel microtip catheter collects an unprecedented amount of urethral pressure data. Through sequential signal processing steps, physicians are provided with

  11. Long-term results of endoscopic balloon dilatation of lower gastrointestinal tract strictures in Crohn's disease: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stienecker, Klaus; Gleichmann, Daniel; Neumayer, Ulrike; Glaser, H Joachim; Tonus, Carolin

    2009-06-07

    To examine the long-term results of endoscopic treatment in a prospective study conducted over a period of 10 years, 1997 to January 2007. A total of 25 patients (20 female and five male: aged 18-75 years), with at least one symptom of stricture not passable with the standard colonoscope and with a confirmed scarred Crohn's stricture of the lower gastrointestinal tract, were included in the study. The main symptom was abdominal pain. The endoscopic balloon dilatation was performed with an 18 mm balloon under endoscopic and radiological control. Eleven strictures were located in the colon, 13 at the anastomosis after ileocecal resection, three at the Bauhin valve and four in the ileum. Four patients had two strictures and one patient had three strictures. Of the 31 strictures, in 30 was balloon dilatation successful in a single endoscopic session, so that eventually the strictures could be passed easily with the standard colonoscope. In one patient with a long stricture of the ileum involving the Bauhin valve and an additional stricture of the ileum which were 15 cm apart, sufficient dilatation was not possible. This patient therefore required surgery. Improvement of abdominal symptoms was achieved in all cases which had technically successful balloon dilatation, although in one case perforation occurred after dilatation of a recurrent stricture. Available follow-up was in the range of 54-118 mo (mean of 81 mo). The relapse rate over this period was 46%, but 64% of relapsing strictures could be successfully dilated again. Only in four patients was surgery required during this follow-up period. We conclude from these initial results that endoscopic balloon dilatation, especially for short strictures in Crohn's disease, can be performed with reliable success. Perforation is a rare complication. It is our opinion that in the long-term, the relapse rate is probably higher than after surgery, but usually a second endoscopic treatment can be performed successfully

  12. Topical mitomycin C can effectively alleviate dysphagia in children with long-segment caustic esophageal strictures.

    PubMed

    El-Asmar, K M; Hassan, M A; Abdelkader, H M; Hamza, A F

    2015-07-01

    Caustic ingestion in children and the resulting long esophageal strictures are usually difficult to be managed, and eventually, esophageal replacement was required for cases refractory to frequent dilatation sessions. Topical mitomycin C (MMC) application has been used recently to improve the results of endoscopic dilatation for short esophageal strictures. The study aims to assess the role of MMC application in management of long-segment caustic esophageal strictures. From January 2009 to June December 2013, patients presented with long caustic esophageal stricture (>3 cm in length) were included in this study and subjected to topical MMC application after endoscopic esophageal dilatation on multiple sessions. Regular follow-up and re-evaluation were done. A dysphagia score was used for close follow-up clinically; verification was done radiologically and endoscopically. During the specified follow-up period, 21 patients with long caustic esophageal stricture were subjected to topical MMC application sessions. Clinical, radiological, and endoscopic resolution of strictures occurred in 18 patients (85.7% cure rate). Number of dilatation sessions to achieve resolution of dysphagia was (n = 14.3 ± 5.7) with application of mitomycin two to six times. There was no recurrence in short- and mid-term follow-up. No complications were encountered related to topical MMC application. MMC is a promising agent in management of long-segment caustic esophageal strictures. Long-term follow-up is needed to prove its efficacy and to evaluate potential long-term side-effects of MMC application.

  13. Hybrid therapy with locoregional steroid injection and polyglycolic acid sheets to prevent stricture after esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Nagami, Yasuaki; Shiba, Masatsugu; Tominaga, Kazunari; Ominami, Masaki; Fukunaga, Shusei; Sugimori, Satoshi; Tanaka, Fumio; Kamata, Noriko; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Toshio; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aim: The incidence of stricture formation caused by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for widespread lesions is high, and stricture formation can reduce quality of life. We evaluated the prophylactic efficacy of hybrid therapy using a locoregional steroid injection and polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheets with fibrin glue to prevent stricture formation after esophageal ESD in high risk patients in whom we predicted stricture formation would be difficult to prevent with a single prophylactic steroid injection. Methods: Ten patients who underwent esophageal ESD were enrolled (entire-circumference: n = 6; sub-circumference, more than 5/6 of the circumference: n = 4). A single locoregional steroid injection and PGA sheets with fibrin glue were used after ESD. We evaluated the incidence of stricture formation, the number of endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) procedures needed to treat the stricture formation, and adverse events of the therapy. Results: Esophageal stricture formation occurred in 50.0 % of patients (5/10) (median EBD sessions 0.5, range 0 – 16). Subanalysis showed that stricture formation occurred in 37.5 % of patients (3/8) excluded the lesions located near a previous scar from ESD or surgical anastomosis site (median EBD sessions 0, range 0 – 4). Conclusion: Hybrid therapy using a locoregional steroid injection and PGA sheets with fibrin glue may have the potential to prevent esophageal stricture formation after esophageal ESD in high risk patients. PMID:27652294

  14. Segmental Urethral Dosimetry and Urinary Toxicity in Patients With No Urinary Symptoms Before Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Carys; Keyes, Mira Liu, Mitchell; Moravan, Veronika

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To determine whether segmental urethral dosimetry is predictive for the degree of urinary morbidity after prostate brachytherapy in patients with no urinary symptoms before prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between May 2000 and November 2005, 1,107 patients underwent iodine-125 monotherapy with urethral sparing techniques. A total of 166 patients fulfilled the selection criteria: baseline (International Prostate Symptom Score) IPSS {<=}5, no androgen deprivation therapy, and prostate ultrasound planning volumes (PUTV) <45 mL. The median follow-up was 44 months. Urinary morbidity was defined by maximum increase in IPSS, time to IPSS resolution, maximum Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score, time to RTOG resolution, and urinary retention. Surrogate deviated urethra was contoured and doses calculated at the base, mid-prostate, apex, and urogenital diaphragm. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to evaluate urethral and prostate dosimetry, age, PUTV, and number of needles for their association with urinary morbidity. Results: Urethral dose was fairly constant in all urethra segments except prostate base, where the variation in does was large. On multivariate analysis, higher urethral base D50, V100, and larger PUTV were predictive for higher maximum increase in IPSS. Higher urethral base V100 and larger PUTV predicted for prolonged IPSS resolution. Higher urethral base D50 and larger needle number predicted for longer RTOG resolution. Higher urethral base V100 predicted for RTOG {>=}2 toxicity. Conclusions: Radiation dose to the urethral base, larger PUTV, and needle number, predicted for increased urinary toxicity after prostate brachytherapy. Correlation between urinary morbidity and urethral base dosimetry may reflect a large variation in urethral dose observed at the prostate base.

  15. Treatment of Ureterointestinal Anastomotic Strictures by Diathermal or Cryoplastic Dilatation

    SciTech Connect

    Orsi, Franco; Penco, Silvia Matei, Victor; Bonomo, Guido; Vigna, Paolo Della; Monfardini, Lorenzo; Cobelli, Ottavio De

    2007-09-15

    Background. Ureterointestinal anastomotic strictures (UAS) complicate 10-15% of surgeries for urinary diversion and are the main cause of deterioration in renal function. Treatments are surgical revision, management with autostatic stent, balloon dilatation, endoscopic incision, and percutaneous transrenal diathermy (Acucise). A new option is cryoplastic dilatation (Polar-Cath). Purpose. To assess the feasibility, complications, and preliminary results of UAS treatment using the Acucise and Polar-Cath systems. Methods. Nineteen UAS, diagnosed by ultrasonography or computed tomography and sequential renal scintigraphy, occurred in 15 cancer patients after radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. Fifteen were managed with balloon diathermy and 4 by balloon cryoplasty in a three-stage procedure-percutaneous nephrostomy, diathermal or cryoplastic dilatation, and transnephrostomic control with nephrostomy removal-each separated by 15 days. All patients gave written informed consent. Results. Dilatations were successful in all cases. The procedure is simple and rapid (about 45 min) under fluoroscopic control and sedation. Procedural complications occurred in 1 (5%) patient with UAS after Wallace II uretero-ileocutaneostomy: a common iliac artery lesion was induced by diathermal dilatation, evident subsequently, and required surgical repair. Patency with balloon diathermy was good, with two restenoses developing over 12 months (range 1-22) of follow-up. With balloon cryoplastic dilatation, one restenosis developed in the short term; follow-up is too brief to assess the long-term efficacy. Conclusion. Our short-term results with diathermal and cryoplastic dilatation to resolve UAS are good. If supported by longer follow-up, the techniques may be considered as first-choice approaches to UAS. Surgery should be reserved for cases in which this minimally invasive technique fails.

  16. Natural History, Predictors and Management of Ureteroenteric Strictures after Robot Assisted Radical Cystectomy.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Youssef E; Hussein, Ahmed A; May, Paul R; Ahmad, Basim; Ali, Taimoor; Durrani, Ayesha; Khan, Saira; Kumar, Prasanna; Guru, Khurshid A

    2017-09-01

    Ureteroenteric strictures represent the most common complication requiring reoperation after radical cystectomy. We investigated the prevalence, outcomes, predictors and management of ureteroenteric strictures. We retrospectively reviewed our quality assurance, robot assisted radical cystectomy database to identify patients in whom ureteroenteric strictures developed. Data were reviewed for demographics, perioperative outcomes and ureteroenteric stricture characteristics. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate time to ureteroenteric stricture and multivariable stepwise regression was done to evaluate predictors of ureteroenteric strictures. Ureteroenteric strictures developed in 12%, 16% and 19% of 51 patients (13%) at 1, 3 and 5 years after robot assisted radical cystectomy, respectively. All patients were initially treated endoscopically or percutaneously, including 57% treated only endoscopically or percutaneously and 43% who required surgery, which was open repair in 6 and robot assisted repair in 16. At a median followup of 23 months 33 patients (65%) were free of disease, including 13 after endoscopic or percutaneous treatment, 15 after robot assisted repair and 5 after open revision. Open and robot assisted revisions showed comparable perioperative outcomes. On multivariable analysis the predictors of ureteroenteric anastomotic strictures were body mass index (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.13, p = 0.02), intracorporeal urinary diversion (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.41-7.61, p = 0.006), length of the right resected ureter (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.50-0.88, p = 0.004), estimated glomerular filtration rate 30 days after assisted radical cystectomy (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74-0.98, p = 0.03), urinary tract infection (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.31-5.49, p = 0.007) and leakage (OR 3.85, 95% CI 1.05-14.1, p = 0.04). Male gender (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04-0.96, p = 0.04) and higher body mass index (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.72-0.996, p = 0.05) were associated with lower odds of successful endoscopic

  17. An animal model of photodynamic-therapy-induced esophageal stricture: preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Yaron; Epperly, Michael W.; Finkelstein, Sydney; Klein, Edwin; Greenberger, Joel; Luketich, James

    2003-06-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) using Photofrin has been recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of esophageal cancer and Barrett's esophagus. A major limitation of PDT for Barrett's esophagus is the development of esophageal stricture in up to 53% of patients. Mechanisms of PDT stricture formation have not been elucidated. The major difficulty is the lack of an animal model for PDT-induced stricture. We have used a pig model in which the esophagus is very similar to that of the human esophagus. Two (Scrofa) domestic pigs were injected with Photofrin at dosage of 2 mg/kg 48 hours prior to photoactivation with 630 nm light. Following anesthesia, a laser probe (2.5 cm in length) was passed through the oral cavity to approximately the mid-point of the esophagus via an endoscope. Light energy (400 Joules (J)/cm) was delivered as a single dose in one pig or repeated at 72 hours in the second pig. In this pig model, upper endoscopy, Barium swallow and pathological studies confirmed stricture formation following esophageal PDT exposure of 400 J as one or two fractions. We believe that this is the first animal model created to study esophageal strictures resulting from PDT.

  18. Holmium Laser Incision Technique for Ureteral Stricture Using a Small-Caliber Ureteroscope

    PubMed Central

    Mitsui, Kenji; Taki, Tomohiro; Mizumoto, Hiroyuki; Yoshiaki, Yamamda; Honda, Nobuaki; Fukatsu, Hidetoshi

    2000-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The holmium laser has a short absorption depth in tissue and possesses excellent properties both in ablation and hemostasis. We have performed endoscopic incision for ureteral stricture using the holmium laser through a small-caliber ureteroscope. Methods: This method was used on five patients and seven ureters. The etiology of the stricture was stone scar in two patients, ureteroenteroanastomosis of Indiana urinary pouch in two, and primary in one. We used an 8F semi-rigid or 6.9F flexible ureteroscope. No prior procedures, such as balloon dilation, were necessary in any of the cases. The stricture was incised with the holmium laser using a 365-μm fiber through the working channel of the ureteroscope. The holmium laser operated at a wavelength of 2100 nm, with an output of 1.0J/pulse at a rate of 10 Hz. After completion of the incision, a 12F Double-J catheter was left in for six weeks. Results: The mean operative time was 89 minutes. The stricture resolved completely in all cases at an average follow-up of 8.6 months. Conclusions: The holmium laser incision for ureteral stricture using a small-caliber ureteroscope is an easy-to-perform, safe and effective procedure. PMID:10987397

  19. Trans-Balloon Visualisation During Dilatation (TBVD) of Oesophageal Strictures: a Novel Innovation.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Haseeb A; Azeem, Beenish; Bughio, Mumtaz; Bass, Gary A; Elfadul, Amr; Salih, Monim; Fahmy, Waleed; Walsh, Thomas N

    2016-04-01

    Hydrostatic balloon dilatation of upper gastrointestinal strictures is associated with a risk of perforation that varies with the underlying pathology and with the technique employed. We present a technique of trans-balloon visualisation of the stricture during dilatation (TBVD) that allows direct 'real-time' observation of the effect of dilatation on the stricture, facilitating early recognition of mucosal abruption, thereby reducing the perforation rate. We retrospectively analysed 100 consecutive patients, undergoing balloon dilatation of oesophageal strictures between 1st of January 2011 and 1st of July 2014. One hundred patients underwent 186 dilatations, with 34 having multiple procedures (mean 1.86). All had oesophageal strictures (mean diameter 8.49 mm, range 5-11 mm) and most underwent dilatation up to a maximum of 17 mm (mean 14.7 mm). Fifty-six percent were male and the average age was 62.5 years (17-89 years). Only one patient (0.5% of all procedures) had a full-thickness perforation requiring intervention while just one further patient had a deep mucosal tear that did not require intervention. TBVD is a safe technique with a short learning curve and is one of the important factors that allow potentially difficult dilatations to be performed safely with an exceptionally low rate of adverse events of less than 1%.

  20. Endoscopic bilateral deployment of multiple metallic stents for malignant hilar biliary strictures.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hironari; Tsutsumi, Koichiro; Harada, Ryo; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2013-05-01

    Jaundice and cholangitis are associated with morbidity and mortality for patients with malignant hilar biliary strictures. Endoscopic biliary drainage is considered a useful procedure for palliation of unresectable malignant hilar biliary strictures. However, even today, the devices and methods to effectively achieve the drainage of these strictures are under debate. Endoscopic bilateral deployment of multiple metallic stents for malignant hilar biliary strictures is a feasible and useful procedure, providing long-term patency and the preservation of functional liver volume. We report the cases of two patients who underwent endoscopic bilateral deployment of multiple metallic stents using the partial stent-in-stent method. Both of the patients had malignant hilar biliary stricture due to biliary tract cancer. The cancers were unresectable and the patients decided to receive chemotherapy. Before the chemotherapy, bilateral deployment of metallic stents was carried out and each patient has been receiving chemotherapy without occlusion of the metallic stents for several months. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  1. Impact Assessment of Urethral Meatus Morphology and Penile Biometry in Transurethral Prostate and Bladder Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Vieiralves, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Conte, Paulo Henrique Pereira; Felici, Eduardo Medina; Rodrigues, Nádia Cristina Pinheiro; de souza, Tomás Accioly; Sampaio, Francisco J. B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the penile and urethral meatus biometry and its correlation with meatoplasty during endoscopic resections. We also propose a new classification for urethral meatus morphology. Materials and Methods. We prospectively studied 105 patients who underwent prostate and bladder transurethral resections. We performed standardized measurement of penile and urethral meatus biometry followed by penile photo in the front position. The need to perform meatoplasty or dilatation during resectoscope introduction was registered. Data were analyzed comparing the correlation between two groups: without intervention (Group A) and with intervention (Group B). Results. We observed in Group A and Group B, respectively, the average length of urethral meatus of 1.07 cm versus 0.75 cm (p < 0.001) and average width of urethral meatus of 0.59 cm versus 0.38 cm (p < 0.001). Considering the morphology of the urethral meatus, we propose a new classification, in the following groups: (a) typical; (b) slit; (c) point-like; (d) horseshoe; and (e) megameatus. The point-like meatus was the one that most needed intervention, followed by the slit and the typical meatus (p < 0.001). Conclusions. Point-like and slit-shaped urethral meatus, as well as reduced length and width of the urethral meatus, are the determining factors. PMID:28298923

  2. Glandular diphallus with urethral duplication: Conventional technique for a rare congenital anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Aihole, Jayalaxmi S.; Babu, Narendra; Shankar, Gauri

    2015-01-01

    Diphallus is a rare anomaly and its association with urethral duplication is extremely rare. Numerous associated genitourinary and gastrointestinal anomalies have been reported with this condition. Challenges in the management are incorporation of the glans and the dominant urethra during reconstruction. We report the successful management of a case of glandular diphallus with complete urethral duplication retaining the dorsal urethra. PMID:26604454

  3. Etiology of urethral discharge in West Africa: the role of Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed Central

    Pépin, J.; Sobéla, F.; Deslandes, S.; Alary, M.; Wegner, K.; Khonde, N.; Kintin, F.; Kamuragiye, A.; Sylla, M.; Zerbo, P. J.; Baganizi, E.; Koné, A.; Kane, F.; Mâsse, B.; Viens, P.; Frost, E.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the etiological role of pathogens other than Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis in urethral discharge in West African men. METHODS: Urethral swabs were obtained from 659 male patients presenting with urethral discharge in 72 primary health care facilities in seven West African countries, and in 339 controls presenting for complaints unrelated to the genitourinary tract. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to detect the presence of N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum. FINDINGS: N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis, C. trachomatis, and M. genitalium--but not U. urealyticum--were found more frequently in men with urethral discharge than in asymptomatic controls, being present in 61.9%, 13.8%, 13.4% and 10.0%, respectively, of cases of urethral discharge. Multiple infections were common. Among patients with gonococcal infection, T. vaginalis was as frequent a coinfection as C. trachomatis. M. genitalium, T. vaginalis, and C. trachomatis caused a similar clinical syndrome to that associated with gonococcal infection, but with a less severe urethral discharge. CONCLUSIONS: M. genitalium and T. vaginalis are important etiological agents of urethral discharge in West Africa. The frequent occurrence of multiple infections with any combination of four pathogens strongly supports the syndromic approach. The optimal use of metronidazole in flowcharts for the syndromic management of urethral discharge needs to be explored in therapeutic trials. PMID:11242818

  4. Urethral sensory threshold and urethro-anal reflex latency in continent women.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Geraldo de Aguiar; Bruschini, Homero; Manzano, Gilberto M; Giuliano, Lydia P; Nóbrega, João Antônio M; Srougi, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The sensory evaluation of the lower urinary tract is summarized in the bladder proprioceptive sensitivity during cystometry. Experimental studies suggest that abnormalities of the urethral innervation and micturition reflex can be related to the presence of continence disturbances. This study aimed to measure the urethral sensory threshold and the urethro-anal reflex latency in healthy volunteers, establishing reading criteria, comparing the results and technique used with the literature and verifying the effect of physiological factors. Thirty healthy female volunteers were studied. They had an absence of genital or urinary complaints and had undergone no previous pelvic or vaginal procedures. The measurement of the urethral sensory threshold and urethro-anal reflex latency were performed as described. The determination of the urethral sensory threshold and urethro-anal reflex latency were obtained in 96.6% of the volunteers. The electrophysiological parameters did not correlate with age, parity or number of vaginal deliveries. There was a positive association of the urethral sensory threshold with height. Technical aspects were considered and compared with those in the literature as well as the advantages and limitations of the method. The measurement of the urethral sensory threshold and urethro-anal reflex latency presented consistent recordings. The urethral sensory threshold should be analyzed carefully in individuals with height above the population average. Subsequent observations are necessary to clarify their function in patients with continence disturbances and to measure the urethral function, but these values can be used as normal parameters for comparison.

  5. Outcomes of urethral calculi patients in an endemic region and an undiagnosed primary fossa navicularis calculus.

    PubMed

    Verit, Ayhan; Savas, Murat; Ciftci, Halil; Unal, Dogan; Yeni, Ercan; Kaya, Mete

    2006-02-01

    Urethral calculus is a rare form of urolithiasis with an incidence lower than 0.3%. We determined the outcomes of 15 patients with urethral stone, of which 8 were pediatric, including an undiagnosed primary fossa navicularis calculus. Fifteen consecutive male patients, of whom eight were children, with urethral calculi were assessed between 2000 and 2005 with a mean of 19 months' follow-up. All stones were fusiform in shape and solitary. Acute urinary retention, interrupted or weak stream, pain (penile, urethral, perineal) and gross hematuria were the main presenting symptoms in 7 (46.7%), 4 (26.7%), 3 (20%) and 1 (6.6%) patient, respectively. Six of them had accompanying urethral pathologies such as stenosis (primary or with hypospadias) and diverticulum. Two patients were associated with upper urinary tract calculi but none of them secondary to bladder calculi. A 50-year-old patient with a primary urethral stone disease had urethral meatal stenosis accompanied by lifelong lower urinary tract symptoms. Unlike the past reports, urethral stones secondary to bladder calculi were decreasing, especially in the pediatric population. However, the pediatric patients in their first decade are still under risk secondary to the upper urinary tract calculi or the primary ones.

  6. Prepackaged therapy for urethritis: the "MSTOP" experience in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Crabbe, F.; Tchupo, J. P.; Manchester, T.; Gruber-Tapsoba, T.; Mugrditchian, D.; Timyan, J.; Goodridge, G.; Cheta, C.; Laga, M.; Dallabetta, G.

    1998-01-01

    RATIONALE: The social marketing of STD treatment may be a strategy to increase the availability of effective therapy for urethritis in male patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a pilot project of social marketing of urethritis treatment packages. The project, initially designed for over the counter sale in private pharmacies, was finally restricted by national health authorities to primary healthcare settings in Yaounde and Douala, Cameroon. METHODS: Monthly sales of packages containing antibiotics, condoms, partner referral cards, and written information on STDs were monitored by the social marketing agency. Structured interviews were conducted with a sample of traceable patients who had consulted for urethritis. Structured interviews completed by focus group discussions were conducted among healthcare providers. Interview findings were further validated by a "mystery patient" survey, using surrogate patients. Lastly, 15 key informants among the decision markers involved in the project were interviewed in depth. Local independent consultants carried out the whole evaluation. RESULTS: A total of 1392 treatment packages were sold in 10 months. Patients who had purchased the package reported high compliance with the treatment, with 99% taking the single dose of cefuroxime-axetil and 83% completing the course of doxycycline. 76% notified all or some partners, and 84% of those who had sex during treatment used condoms. In contrast, only 27% of trained healthcare providers prescribed "MSTOP". They questioned the omission of laboratory diagnosis, the selection of antibiotics, and the duration of therapy. Public health authorities were also sceptical about the choice of antibiotics and viewed the initial project as an overt encouragement of self medication. CONCLUSIONS: Although the MSTOP project was not implemented in the way it had initially been designed, it highlighted the patients' interest in the product. Public health authorities in Cameroon should have been made aware

  7. Urethral duplication with unusual cause of bladder outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Venkatramani, Vivek; George, Arun Jacob Philip; Chandrasingh, J; Panda, Arabind; Devasia, Antony

    2016-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy presented with poor flow and recurrent urinary tract infections following hypospadias repair at the age of 3 years. The evaluation revealed urethral duplication with a hypoplastic dorsal urethra and patent ventral urethra. He also had duplication of the bladder neck, and on voiding cystourethrogram the ventral bladder neck appeared hypoplastic and compressed by the dorsal bladder neck during voiding. The possibility of functional obstruction of the ventral urethra by the occluded dorsal urethra was suspected, and he underwent a successful urethro-urethrostomy.

  8. Urethral duplication with unusual cause of bladder outlet obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Venkatramani, Vivek; George, Arun Jacob Philip; Chandrasingh, J.; Panda, Arabind; Devasia, Antony

    2016-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy presented with poor flow and recurrent urinary tract infections following hypospadias repair at the age of 3 years. The evaluation revealed urethral duplication with a hypoplastic dorsal urethra and patent ventral urethra. He also had duplication of the bladder neck, and on voiding cystourethrogram the ventral bladder neck appeared hypoplastic and compressed by the dorsal bladder neck during voiding. The possibility of functional obstruction of the ventral urethra by the occluded dorsal urethra was suspected, and he underwent a successful urethro-urethrostomy. PMID:27127361

  9. [Urethral cancer is rare and difficult to diagnose].

    PubMed

    Klemann, Nina; Toft, Birgitte Grønkjær; Thind, Peter

    2014-01-20

    Primary cancer of the urethra is a rare condition with symptoms ranging from haematuria, urethral obstruction and pelvic pain to urethrocutaneous fistula and abscess. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered first choice of diagnostic imaging, but experience with treatment is scarce. We present a case of a 69-year-old woman with a one-year history of urinary obstruction. MRI revealed a tumour surrounding the urethra, and biopsies showed adenocarcinoma in situ. Surgery with removal of the bladder, urethra, internal genitals and lymph nodes revealed a periurethral cyst with both adenocarcinoma in situ and focal adenocarcinoma.

  10. Posterior ankle impingement syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maquirriain, Javier

    2005-10-01

    Posterior ankle impingement syndrome is a clinical disorder characterized by posterior ankle pain that occurs in forced plantar flexion. The pain may be acute as a result of trauma or chronic from repetitive stress. Pathology of the os trigonum-talar process is the most common cause of this syndrome, but it also may result from flexor hallucis longus tenosynovitis, ankle osteochondritis, subtalar joint disease, and fracture. Patients usually report chronic or recurrent posterior ankle pain caused or exacerbated by forced plantar flexion or push-off maneuvers, such as may occur during dancing, kicking, or downhill running. Diagnosis of posterior ankle impingement syndrome is based primarily on clinical history and physical examination. Radiography, scintigraphy, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging depict associated bone and soft-tissue abnormalities. Symptoms typically improve with nonsurgical management, but surgery may be required in refractory cases.

  11. Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... tear. Contact sports. Athletes in sports such as football and soccer can tear their posterior cruciate ligament ... vehicle accident and participating in sports such as football and soccer are the most common risk factors ...

  12. Severe endobronchitis and airway stricture caused by inhalation of cosmetic talc.

    PubMed

    Ong, Thun How; Takano, Angela

    2012-08-01

    Pulmonary disease caused by talc is well described, but previous reports mainly describe lung parenchymal involvement. We describe what is, to our knowledge, the first case in which inhalation of cosmetic talc led to intense endobronchitis and airway stricture. A 70-year-old woman presented with new-onset wheezing and was found to have right upper lobe collapse on chest radiography. CT imaging of the thorax showed right upper lobe collapse with occlusion of the right upper lobe. Bronchoscopy showed severe endobronchitis with thickened mucosa throughout the right and left main stem bronchi and a fibrotic stricture occluding the right upper lobe. Bronchial biopsy specimens showed foreign-body granulomatosis encasing birefringent crystalline material. Spectral analysis confirmed the crystals to be consistent with cosmetic talc used by the patient. We hypothesize that the patient inhaled a large amount of talc, which was trapped in the larger airways and resulted in intense foreign-body granulomatosis, leading to an airway stricture.

  13. [Dilatation of anastomotic stricture by Nd:YAG laser beam under endoscopy].

    PubMed

    Lu, Z C; Chen, L G; Zhang, Y Y

    1994-11-01

    Anastomotic stricture has become a common complication following surgical treatment of upper gastrointestinal cancers. A technique was devised to alleviate the stricture with Nd. YAG laser beam under endoscopy. The laser beam was applied at 3-4 different points near the anastomotic stoma. The thermal effect of the beam would cut the scar tissues in and underneath the mucosa, leading to dilatation of the stoma. A total of 48 patients with cancer of the esophagus (n = 21), gastric cardia (n = 20), body of stomach (n = 6) and gastric stump (n = 1) with postoperative anastomotic stricture was so treated. According to the degree of dilatation, the result of treatment upon longterm follow-up was good (the anastomotic stoma was enlarged more than 6 mm) in 41 (85.4%), fair (the stoma enlarged 4-5 mm) in 5 (10.4%) and poor in the remaining 2. Due precautions should be made to avoid bleeding and perforation.

  14. Dilation of simultaneous laryngeal and oesophageal stricture with two T-tubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z

    1994-01-01

    The treatment of double strictures in the airway and the oesophagus has always been time-consuming and causes additional suffering. A new technique using an open approach with the placement of two Montgomery silicone T-tubes to support and dilate the two strictures was successfully performed on a patient after caustic substance ingestion. Scar tissue was incised before two T-tubes were positioned into the larynx and oesophagus through a laryngo-fissure approach. The tubes remained in position for one year and no complications occurred. No foreign body sensation or prosthesis migration was observed and the patient had nearly normal peroral alimentation. After removal of the tubes, follow-up for an additional two years revealed no recurrence of the stenoses and normal alimentation without stridor. This technique permits simultaneous stenting of strictures of the larynx and oesophagus by using a connecting suture between the superior parts of two stents.

  15. Side to Side Esophagogastrojejunoplasty in Post-corrosive Stricture of Distal Esophagus and Proximal Stomach.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Praveen; Pancholi, Mukesh; Patel, Gulab; Sharma, Anju

    2015-12-01

    A four years old female child presented after 2 months of ingestion of battery fluid (sulfuric acid) accidently with stricture of the distal esophagus, esophagogastric junction, and fundus as well as proximal portion of the body of the stomach. Corrosive stricture involving the distal esophagus with the proximal stomach is not a frequently encountered condition. Side to side esophagogastrojejunostomy without removal of the strictured esophagus or stomach (side to side esophagogastrojejunoplasty) can be done in such patient hence preserving the stomach which is important physiologically as a reservoir and for the secretion of gastric juices. In review of literature in search engines like MD Consult, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase and standard textbooks of surgery, we could not find such procedure had been performed till date, so that it is the innovative approach with support of literature and surgical principles.

  16. An assessment of the accuracy of modern endoscopic diagnosis of oesophageal stricture.

    PubMed

    Eastman, M C; Gear, M W; Nicol, A

    1978-03-01

    The results of 135 fibreoptic endoscopic examinations of oesophageal strictures carried out in a district general hospital are reported. The endoscopic diagnosis was correct in 90 per cent, uncertain in 3 per cent and incorrect in 7 per cent of these cases. This study indicates that endoscopic examination should include tissue sampling; this not only allows a precise tissue diagnosis to be made but also is shown to increase the accuracy of diagnosis. Tissue sampling should include cytological as well as histological material. Analysis of cases of stricture correctly diagnosed has shown that target biopsy and brush cytology each makes a significant contribution to diagnosis. The routine collection of cytological specimens in addition to the more commonly obtained histological specimens in addition to the more commonly obtained histological speciments is strongly advocated. The natural history of malignant oesophageal strictures in this study is reviewd. The mean survival in 58 cases was 6.9 months.

  17. Ureteral stricture as a late complication of radiotherapy for stage IB carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, J F; Eifel, P J; Levenback, C; Oswald, M J

    1995-02-01

    Ureteral stricture is a rare late complication of curative radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix. A retrospective study was performed to determine the incidence and latency of radiation-induced ureteral stricture, to investigate possible contributing factors, and to compare the time course and presenting characteristics of ureteral compromise caused by late radiation injury or tumor recurrence. The records of 1784 patients with FIGO stage IB carcinoma of the cervix treated with radiotherapy at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center between 1960 and 1989 were reviewed. The characteristics of patients who developed ureteral stricture as a first manifestation of recurrent disease or without evidence of pelvic recurrence were compared. The risk of ureteral compromise was calculated actuarially. There were 29 patients with severe radiation-induced ureteral stricture. The overall incidences of severe ureteral stenosis were 1.0, 1.2, 2.2, and 2.5% at 5, 10, 15, and 20 years, respectively, reflecting a continuous actuarial risk increase of approximately 0.15% per year. Four patients died of complications from bilateral ureteral stricture. Patients who were treated with centrally blocked external fields or who received more than two transvaginal radiation treatments were at increased risk for developing ureteral stenosis. The risk was similar for patients treated with radiation alone or followed by extrafascial hysterectomy. During the first 5 years after treatment, tumor recurrence is the most common cause of ureteral stricture in patients treated with radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix. However, radiation injury to the ureter, although rare, may not become apparent for many years, necessitating continued vigilance throughout the lives of these patients.

  18. Laparoscopic transgastric endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for benign common bile duct stricture after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Peters, M; Papasavas, P K; Caushaj, P F; Kania, R J; Gagné, D J

    2002-07-01

    Access to the gastric remnant and duodenum is lost after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity. Traditionally, a percutaneous transhepatic access to the common bile duct has been used to manage choledocholithiasis and duct strictures. We present a novel method of laparoscopic transgastric endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for managing a benign biliary stricture after a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

  19. Novel endoscopic approaches in the diagnosis and management of biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Margaret G.; Marlow, Neale J.

    2013-01-01

    Indeterminate bilary strictures present the clinician with a wide differential diagnosis. Histological confirmation is usually required for treatment, but tissue acquisition remains challenging. Novel developments in endoscopic technology, such as single operator cholangioscopy and confocal endomicroscopy, have led to improvements in diagnostic accuracy in recent years. In patients with non-resectable malignant biliary obstruction, effective biliary decompression improves symptoms and enables patients to undergo palliative therapies. Improvements in endoscopic techniques, biliary stents and the development of local ablative techniques have led to further improvements in stent patency and survival in these patients. In this article, we review emerging diagnostic and therapeutic techniques for the endoscopic management of indeterminate biliary strictures. PMID:24049642

  20. Prevention of Perioperative Anastomotic Healing Complications: Anastomotic Stricture and Anastomotic Leak

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, Kristina L.; Hyman, Neil H.; Alverdy, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis The anastomotic healing complications of postoperative leak and stricture continue to plague surgeons despite many broadly targeted interventions. Evaluation of preventive measure efficacy is difficult due to inconsistent definitions and reporting of these complications. Few interventions have been shown to impact rates of leakage or stricture. However, new evidence is emerging that the intestinal microbiota can play an important role in the development of anastomotic complications. A more holistic approach to understanding the mechanisms of anastomotic complications is needed in order to develop tailored interventions to reduce their frequency. Such an approach may require a more complete definition of the role of the microbiota in anastomotic healing. PMID:27520868

  1. Urethral dysfunction in female mice with estrogen receptor β deficiency.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Chen, Chao-Jung; Yeh, Shuyuan; Lin, Yu-Ning; Wu, Yang-Chang; Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Wu, Bor-Tsang; Ma, Wen-Lung; Chen, Wen-Chi; Chang, Chawnshang; Chen, Huey-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen has various regulatory functions in the growth, development, and differentiation of the female urogenital system. This study investigated the roles of ERβ in stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Wild-type (ERβ(+/+)) and knockout (ERβ(-/-)) female mice were generated (aged 6-8 weeks, n = 6) and urethral function and protein expression were measured. Leak point pressures (LPP) and maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) were assessed in mice under urethane anesthesia. After the measurements, the urethras were removed for proteomic analysis using label-free quantitative proteomics by nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The interaction between these proteins was further analysed using MetaCore. Lastly, Western blot was used to confirm the candidate proteins. Compared with the ERβ(+/+) group, the LPP and MUCP values of the ERβ(-/-) group were significantly decreased. Additionally, we identified 85 differentially expressed proteins in the urethra of ERβ(-/-) female mice; 57 proteins were up-regulated and 28 were down-regulated. The majority of the ERβ knockout-modified proteins were involved in cell-matrix adhesion, metabolism, immune response, signal transduction, nuclear receptor translational regelation, and muscle contraction and development. Western blot confirmed the up-regulation of myosin and collagen in urethra. By contrast, elastin was down-regulated in the ERβ(-/-) mice. This study is the first study to estimate protein expression changes in urethras from ERβ(-/-) female mice. These changes could be related to the molecular mechanism of ERβ in SUI.

  2. Antibiotics on urethral catheter withdrawal: a hit and miss affair.

    PubMed

    Wazait, H D; van der Meullen, J; Patel, H R H; Brown, C T; Gadgil, S; Miller, R A; Kelsey, M C; Emberton, M

    2004-12-01

    Globally, millions of patients undergo urethral catheterization every year. Our objective was to study the current use of prophylactic antibiotics on urinary catheter withdrawal. A questionnaire (N = 300) was sent to healthcare professionals involved in the management of patients with urinary catheters (consultant microbiologists, infection control nurses, consultant urologists, specialist nurses in urology, continence advisers and consultants in the care of older people). The questionnaire asked about their use of prophylactic antibiotics on the withdrawal of a urethral catheter. Sixty percent of healthcare professionals advocated the use of antibiotics for either all or selected groups of patients. The remainder did not. The use of prophylactic antibiotics varied among different groups. Of the healthcare professionals who used antibiotics, the majority cited more than one reason for their use (prevent bacteraemia, avoid an infection in a prosthesis or urinary tract infection). The course and type of antibiotic used varied. Our study has shown diversity in practice that is of concern. At present, just over one-half of patients with urinary catheters are being given antibiotics, although there is no evidence to suggest that such an intervention confers any benefit. If benefits do not exist, these patients are being exposed to the harm of antibiotics and providers are incurring costs unnecessarily. A formal trial to address this issue is urgently needed.

  3. A retrospective analysis of early and late outcome of biodegradable stent placement in the management of refractory anastomotic colorectal strictures.

    PubMed

    Repici, A; Pagano, N; Rando, G; Carlino, A; Vitetta, E; Ferrara, E; Strangio, G; Zullo, A; Hassan, C

    2013-07-01

    Benign colorectal strictures are treated conventionally by endoscopic dilation. Experience using SEMS for benign colonic strictures is limited, and outcomes to date have been disappointing. Refractory colorectal strictures remain challenging to be treated with surgery. Polydioxanone-based stent are biodegradable (BD) stent CE approved for esophageal strictures. This study was designed to investigate retrospectively the safety and the efficacy of these stents for the management of strictures refractory to multiple sessions of dilation. Patients with postsurgical benign strictures located within 20 cm from anal verge, refractory to mechanical or pneumatic dilation (at least 3 sessions) were included in this analysis. Clinical success was defined as the absence of occlusive symptoms and the ability to pass through the stricture with a regular size colonoscope. All patients were predilated before stent placement. Stents were released under fluoroscopic control. All patients were under stool softeners for 3 months. Follow-up was scheduled with endoscopic and fluoroscopic controls within 90 days from stent deployment and afterwards by telephone interview and/or ambulatory consultation. Eleven patients (7 males, mean age 62.3 ± 8.5 years) were included. Technical success was achieved in all the patients. Stent migration was observed in four patients within the first 2 weeks after stent placement. Stent migration was followed by recurrence of stricture and obstructive symptoms in all the cases. Among the seven patients who completed the process of stent biodegradation, five of them had complete resolution of the stricture and relief of symptoms. Two of 11 patients required surgical treatment during the follow-up period (mean 19.8 (range 42-15) months). The overall success rate of the BD stent was 45 %. This retrospective analysis of a limited number of patients demonstrated that nondedicated esophageal BD stents are associated with high risk of migration and clinical

  4. Evaluation of risk factors and treatment options in patients with ureteral stricture disease at a single institution

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Henry; Arsovska, Olga; Paterson, Ryan F.; Chew, Ben H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ureteral strictures are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, resulting in potential kidney damage requiring several surgical procedures. Non-malignant causes include radiation, trauma from calculi impaction, pelvic surgery, or ureteroscopy (URS). We identified risk factors in our patients with ureteral strictures and the success of their treatment outcomes. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 25 patients with 29 ureteral strictures was performed to determine the success of their treatment. Results: Twenty-five (25) patients with 29 benign ureteral strictures were identified. Most cases (60%) were caused by impacted stones where the median stone size was 1.15 cm (0.37–1.8 cm). Intervention for stones prior to stricture development included shockwave lithotripsy, URS, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Five patients with strictures from impacted stones had ureteric complications during stone treatment including perforation +/− urinoma (n=3), fractured guidewire left in situ (n=1), and ureteric orifice resection (n=1). Other stricture etiologies included radiation (28%) and endometriosis (4%). Treatment modalities used included ureteroureterostomy (n=2), ureteral re-implant (n=3), urinary diversion (n=3), autotrasplant (n=1), laser endoureterotomy +/− balloon dilation (n=8), nephrectomy (n=2), balloon dilation +/− stent (n=3), ureterovesical junction (UVJ) resection + stent (n=1), chronic stent changes (n=4), or surveillance (n=3). Conclusions: Our evaluation highlights important principles. Patients with complicated ureteroscopies or severely impacted calculi warrant close followup with imaging after stone treatment due to possibility of rapid renal deterioration from stricture formation. Radiation-induced strictures are difficult to manage, possibly requiring subsequent urinary diversion. Finally, endoscopic management of benign ureteral strictures via balloon dilation and laser endoureterotomy is an excellent choice in properly

  5. Acquired urinary incontinence in the bitch: update and perspectives from human medicine. Part 2: The urethral component, pathophysiology and medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Noël, Stéphanie; Claeys, Stéphanie; Hamaide, Annick

    2010-10-01

    Various pathologies can affect the bladder and/or urethral contractility causing signs of urinary incontinence. In this second part of a three-part review, the pathophysiology of impaired urethral contractility (including urethral hyper- and hypotonicity) in the bitch and in women is discussed. Urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) is the most common form of acquired urinary incontinence in bitches and is characterized by a decreased urethral tone. The pathophysiology and current recommended medical treatment options for USMI and cases of modified urethral tonicity due to a neurological disorder or functional outlet obstruction are discussed. Treatment options in human medicine in cases of impaired urethral contractility are described.

  6. Peyronie's disease after urethral swab, an unusual complication: a case report.

    PubMed

    Paulis, Gianni; Barletta, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Urethral swabs are still currently used as a diagnostic tool when urethritis or prostatitis are suspected. Urologists are certainly aware that Peyronie's disease may occur after traumatic urethral instrumentation (catheterization, urethrocystoscopy, etc), but onset of Peyronie's disease after urethral swab for diagnostic purposes has never been reported in the literature. This paper presents the case of a patient who developed Peyronie's disease after a clumsy urethral swab insertion. It is an unusual, and to date unreported, complication which we would like to call attention to. In the case of our patient, the swab had been inserted to a greater depth than normally required and strong pressure had also been applied. During the procedure, the patient experienced severe urethral and penile pain, which was followed by urethrorrhagia, and later penile curvature. The patient was treated conservatively with good results, partly because the disease was still in its active stage and not yet stable. In the light of what we report, when ordering a urethral swab, physicians should always recommend that it be performed at testing centers that follow accurate, rigorous standards. Patients should also be informed that the test they are to undergo consists of a swab being inserted into the urethra for a short distance, not more than 2-3 cm.

  7. Isolation of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae in urethral exudates from men with acute urethritis: a descriptive study of 52 cases.

    PubMed

    Deza, Gustavo; Martin-Ezquerra, Gemma; Gómez, Julià; Villar-García, Judit; Supervia, August; Pujol, Ramon M

    2016-02-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcomes from male patients diagnosed of Haemophilus spp urethritis. A chart review of patients who presented to our hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 with symptoms of acute urethritis in which Haemophilus spp was isolated in their urethral samples was performed. Haemophilus spp was isolated in 52 out of 413 urethral samples (12.6%) received in our laboratory from patients with symptoms of acute urethritis during the study period. Seven cases corresponded to Haemophilus influenzae and 45 cases to Haemophilus parainfluenzae. The most common clinical presentation was mucopurulent urethral discharge (71%). Eight per cent were HIV-infected patients, and 60% were men who have sex with men. Haemophilus spp was isolated as a single pathogen in 6.8% (28 of 413) of cases. Seventeen per cent of Haemophilus spp were β-lactamase producers. All patients reported having practiced unprotected insertive oral sex the month before consultation, and five of them denied having had another sexual contact apart from this exposure. In all cases in which follow-up was available, empirical treatment achieved a complete clinical resolution. Haemophilus spp was considered a pathogen in at least 6.8% of the patients from the evaluated area. It affected men regardless their sexual orientation or HIV status. Unprotected oral sex could play a role in its transmission. The limitations of the study (small sample size and lack of a representative control group) do not allow to prove the true pathogenic role of Haemophilus spp in acute urethritis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. The influence of membranous stretched urethral length and urethral circumference on postoperative recovery of continence after radical prostatectomy: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Dae Sung; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Se Joong; Kim, Sun Il

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We investigate the influence of stretched membranous urethral length (SUL) and urethral circumference (UC) on postoperative recovery of continence after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods: To evaluate the distal continence zone intraoperatively, we individually measured and recorded stretched membranous urethral length (distance between the urogenital diaphragm and the prostate apex with cephalad retraction, SUL) and urethral circumference (UC) after exposure of the urethra. We analyzed the association between magnetic resonance imaging-measured membranous urethral length (MRIL) and urethral diameter (MRID) and intraoperative SUL and UC and influence on return to continence. Results: The mean patient age, SUL and UC were 66.5 ± 6.0 years, 24.2 ± 3.3 mm, and 27.5 ± 4.4 mm, respectively. MRIL and MRID were 11.3 ± 1.6 mm and 10.6 ± 1.9mm, respectively. In the bivariate correlation analysis, there was no statistically significant correlation between SUL and MRIL (p = 0.201) and between UC and MRID (p = 0.124). In the Kaplan-Meier curve analysis, cumulative continence rates between the two groups dichotomized at the median value according to age (p = 0.0519), SUL (p = 0.6583), UC (p = 0.4031), MRIL (p = 0.4042), and MRID (p = 0.8191) were not significantly different. High SUL-to-MRIL ratio (>2.2) was the only significant predictor of lower cumulative continence rate (p = 0.0457). Conclusions: MRIL measured during surgery was not associated with postoperative continence recovery after RP. We observed that an excessively long membranous urethra compared to the urethral length on preoperative MRI is predictive of poorer postoperative continence recovery. However, small sample size and potential confounding surgical factors limit the significance of this study. PMID:26029292

  9. Suprapubic Cystostomy for the Management of Urethral Injuries During Penile Prosthesis Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Anele, Uzoma A; Le, Brian V; Burnett, Arthur L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Urethral injury is an uncommon surgical complication of penile prosthesis (PP) surgery. Conventional dogma requires abortion of the procedure if the adjacent corporal body is involved or delayed implantation to avert device infection associated with urinary extravasation. Besides the setback of the aborted surgery, this management approach also presents the possible difficulty of encountering corporal fibrosis at the time of reoperation. Aim We report an approach using primary urethral repair and temporary suprapubic cystostomy for the management of incidental urethral injuries in a cohort of patients allowing for successful completion of unaborted PP implantation. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients receiving PPs from 1990 to 2014 in which incidental urethral injuries were repaired and PP implantation was completed with suprapubic cystostomy (suprapubic tube [SPT] insertion). After allowing for urethral healing and urinary diversion via SPT for 4–8 weeks, the PP was activated. Main Outcome Measures Successful management was determined by the absence of perioperative complications within 6 months of implantation. Results We identified four cases, all receiving inflatable PPs, managed with temporary suprapubic cystostomy. These patients sustained urethral injuries during corporal dissection (one patient), corporal dilation (one patient), and penile straightening (two patients). All patients were managed safely and successfully. Conclusion Primary urethral repair followed by temporary suprapubic cystostomy offers a surgical approach to complete PP implantation successfully in patients who sustain urethral injury complications, particularly for complex PP surgeries. Anele UA, Le BV, and Burnett AL. Suprapubic cystostomy for the management of urethral injuries during penile prosthesis implantation. PMID:25548649

  10. The tibialis posterior tendon.

    PubMed

    Lhoste-Trouilloud, A

    2012-02-01

    The tibialis posterior tendon is the largest and anteriormost tendon in the medial ankle. It produces plantar flexion and supination of the ankle and stabilizes the plantar vault. Sonographic assessment of this tendon is done with high-frequency, linear-array transducers; an optimal examination requires transverse retromalleolar, longitudinal retromalleolar, and distal longitudinal scans, as well as dynamic studies. Disorders of the posterior tibial tendon include chronic tendinopathy with progressive rupture, tenosynovitis, acute rupture, dislocation and instability, enthesopathies. The most common lesion is a progressive "chewing gum" lesion that develops in a setting of chronic tendinopathy; it is usually seen in overweight women over 50 years of age with valgus flat feet. Medial ankle pain must also be carefully investigated, and the presence of instability assessed with dynamic maneuvers (forced inversion, or dorsiflexion) of the foot. Sonography plays an important role in the investigation of disorders involving the posterior tibial tendon.

  11. Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy for Indeterminate Biliary Strictures: Refinement of the Image Interpretation Classification

    PubMed Central

    Giovannini, Marc; Jamidar, Priya; Gan, S. Ian; Cesaro, Paola; Caillol, Fabrice; Filoche, Bernard; Karia, Kunal; Smith, Ioana; Slivka, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Background. Accurate diagnosis and clinical management of indeterminate biliary strictures are often a challenge. Tissue confirmation modalities during Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) suffer from low sensitivity and poor diagnostic accuracy. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) has been shown to be sensitive for malignant strictures characterization (98%) but lacks specificity (67%) due to inflammatory conditions inducing false positives. Methods. Six pCLE experts validated the Paris Classification, designed for diagnosing inflammatory biliary strictures, using a set of 40 pCLE sequences obtained during the prospective registry (19 inflammatory, 6 benign, and 15 malignant). The 4 criteria used included (1) multiple thin white bands, (2) dark granular pattern with scales, (3) increased space between scales, and (4) thickened reticular structures. Interobserver agreement was further calculated on a separate set of 18 pCLE sequences. Results. Overall accuracy was 82.5% (n = 40 retrospectively diagnosed) versus 81% (n = 89 prospectively collected) for the registry, resulting in a sensitivity of 81.2% (versus 98% for the prospective study) and a specificity of 83.3% (versus 67% for the prospective study). The corresponding interobserver agreement for 18 pCLE clips was fair (k = 0.37). Conclusion. Specificity of pCLE using the Paris Classification for the characterization of indeterminate bile duct stricture was increased, without impacting the overall accuracy. PMID:25866506

  12. Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation for benign bronchial stricture occurring after radiotherapy in patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young Chul; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Park, Jung-Hoon; Shin, Ji Hoon; Ko, Heung Kyu; Song, Ho-Young

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the safety and clinical effectiveness of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation in patients with benign bronchial stricture occurring after radiotherapy (RT). From March 2002 to January 2013, ten patients with benign bronchial stricture occurring after RT underwent fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation as their initial treatment. Technical success, primary and secondary clinical success, improvement in respiratory status, and complications were evaluated. The symptomatic improvement period was calculated. A total of 15 balloon dilation sessions were performed in ten patients, with a range of 1-4 sessions per patient (mean 1.5 sessions). Technical success was achieved in 100 %. Six of the ten patients exhibited no symptom recurrence and required no further treatment until the end of follow-up (range 4-105 months). Four patients (40 %) experienced recurrent symptom, and two of four patients underwent repeat balloon dilations. The remaining two patients underwent cutting balloon dilation and temporary stent placement, respectively, and they exhibited symptom improvement after adjuvant treatment until the end of our study. Finally, primary clinical success was achieved in six of ten patients (60 %) and secondary clinical success was achieved in eight of ten patients (80 %). The mean symptom improvement period was 61.9 ± 16 months (95 % confidence interval 30.6-93.3). Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation seems to be safe and clinically effective for the treatment of RT-induced benign bronchial stricture. Temporary stent placement or cutting balloon dilation could be considered in patients with benign bronchial strictures resistant to fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation.

  13. Hepatic duct stricture after radical radiation therapy for biliary cancer: recurrence or fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Martenson, J.A. Jr.; Gunderson, L.L.; Buskirk, S.J.; Nagorney, D.M.; Martin, J.K.; May, G.R.; Bender, C.E.; Tremaine, W.J.

    1986-07-01

    Two patients with biliary cancer received radical radiation therapy. After treatment, both patients experienced episodes of biliary obstruction without definite evidence of progression of the tumor. These cases emphasize the importance of including radiation-induced biliary fibrosis in the differential diagnosis of hepatic duct stricture after radical radiation therapy.

  14. Role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the management of benign biliary strictures: What’s new?

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rosa; Loureiro, Rui; Nunes, Nuno; Santos, António Alberto; Maio, Rui; Cravo, Marília; Duarte, Maria Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Benign biliary strictures comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases. The most common strictures amenable to endoscopic treatment are post-cholecystectomy, post-liver transplantation, related to primary sclerosing cholangitis and to chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic treatment of benign biliary strictures is widely used as first line therapy, since it is effective, safe, noninvasive and repeatable. Endoscopic techniques currently used are dilation, multiple plastic stents insertion and fully covered self-expandable metal stents. The main indication for dilation alone is primary sclerosing cholangitis related strictures. In the vast majority of the remaining cases, temporary placement of multiple plastic stents with/without dilation is considered the treatment of choice. Although this approach is effective, it requires multiple endoscopic sessions due to the short duration of stent patency. Fully covered self-expandable metal stents appear as a good alternative to plastic stents, since they have an increased radial diameter, longer stent patency, easier insertion technique and similar efficacy. Recent advances in endoscopic technique and various devices have allowed successful treatment in most cases. The development of novel endoscopic techniques and devices is still ongoing. PMID:26962404

  15. Endoscopic transpapillary biopsies and intraductal ultrasonography in the diagnostics of bile duct strictures: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Domagk, D; Poremba, C; Dietl, K-H; Senninger, N; Heinecke, A; Domschke, W; Menzel, J

    2002-01-01

    Background: In bile duct strictures, examination of wall layers by intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) performed during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may be diagnostically useful. Methods: In the present study 60 patients with bile duct strictures of unknown aetiology were examined preoperatively by ERCP, including transpapillary biopsies and IDUS. Histopathological correlation was available for all patients undergoing these procedures. Results: Postoperative diagnosis revealed 30 pancreatic carcinomas, 17 bile duct cancers, three gall bladder cancers, and 10 benign bile duct strictures. Using endoscopic transpapillary forceps biopsies (ETP), a correct preoperative diagnosis was achieved in 36 of 60 patients (60% of cases). Among the 50 malignant tumours, preoperative diagnosis by ETP revealed a sensitivity of 52% and a specificity of 100%. ERCP supplemented by IDUS allowed for correct preoperative diagnosis in 83% of cases (50 of 60 patients), which was significantly higher than the accuracy of ETP (p=0.008). By combining ETP with IDUS, a correct preoperative diagnosis was made in 59 of 60 patients resulting in an accuracy rate of 98%. Conclusions: Because of its low accuracy, exclusive use of ETP is not a reliable diagnostic tool for a definitive preoperative diagnosis of bile duct strictures. By combining IDUS and ETP with ERCP however, preoperative diagnostic accuracy can be improved substantially. PMID:12117887

  16. Successful salvage of kidney allografts threatened by ureteral stricture using pyelovesical bypass.

    PubMed

    Azhar, R A; Hassanain, M; Aljiffry, M; Aldousari, S; Cabrera, T; Andonian, S; Metrakos, P; Anidjar, M; Paraskevas, S

    2010-06-01

    Ureteral stricture is the most common urologic complication after renal transplantation. When endourologic management fails, open ureteral reconstruction remains the standard treatment. The complexity of some of these procedures makes it necessary to explore other means of repair. This study evaluated the intermediate-term outcome of subcutaneous pyelovesical bypass graft (SPBG) on renal transplant recipients. We reviewed 8 patients (6 male and 2 female; mean age 52 years) with refractory ureteral strictures postrenal transplantation, who received SPBG as salvage therapy. All patients failed endourologic management and half failed open management of their strictures. After a mean follow-up of 19.4 months, 7 out of 8 renal grafts have good function with mean GFR of 58.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2), without evidence of obstruction or infection. One patient lost his graft due to persistent infection of the SPBG and one patient developed a recurrent urinary tract infection managed with long-term antibiotics. SPBG offers a last resort in the treatment of ureteral stricture after renal transplantation refractory to conventional therapy.

  17. Isolated Ileal Stricture Secondary to Antigen-Negative GI Histoplasmosis in a Patient on Immunosuppressive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Green, Michael; Nehme, Fredy; Tofteland, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of antigen-negative disseminated histoplasmosis manifesting as an isolated ileal stricture in a patient on chronic infliximab and methotrexate. Diagnosis can be challenging due to imperfect tests, and this condition should remain in the differential, even with negative testing. Mortality of untreated disseminated histoplasmosis can be as high as 80%. PMID:28144615

  18. Posterior vitreous detachment.

    PubMed

    Thimons, J J

    1992-01-01

    Posterior vitreous detachment is an expected consequence of aging, but it can also be the initiating cause of a retinal detachment. To understand the mechanism of posterior vitreous detachment and its sequelae, it is necessary to appreciate the anatomy of the vitreous, its development, and the pathogenesis of vitreous degeneration. This paper is a discussion of these considerations, the types of complications that may result from vitreous detachment, the proper examination of patients who present with the symptoms of vitreous detachment, and appropriate patient management.

  19. Posterior crossbites in children.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J F; Crevoisier, R; King, D L; Henry, R; Mills, C M

    1996-11-01

    Posterior crossbite, the most common malocclusion in young children, can be caused by a variety of skeletal, muscular, or dental factors. This condition produces insufficient maxillary arch width and is frequently associated with various oral sucking and postural habits. If left untreated, this problem can result in adverse skeletal growth changes. Various mechanical treatment modalities designed to expand the posterior maxillary arch width are available to correct this problem. The appropriate treatment method depends on the patient's age and level of cooperation as well as the determined etiology of the constriction.

  20. Posterior Fossa Tumors.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Lara A; Young Poussaint, Tina

    2017-02-01

    Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of death from solid tumors in childhood. The most common posterior fossa tumors in children are medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymoma, and brainstem glioma. Location, and imaging findings on computed tomography (CT) and conventional MR (cMR) imaging may provide important clues to the most likely diagnosis. Moreover, information obtained from advanced MR imaging techniques increase diagnostic confidence and help distinguish between different histologic tumor types. Here we discuss the most common posterior fossa tumors in children, including typical imaging findings on CT, cMR imaging, and advanced MR imaging studies.

  1. Risk Factors for Urethral Condyloma among Heterosexual Young Male Patients with Condyloma Acuminatum of Penile Skin

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first study that focuses on risk factor of urethral condyloma (UC). The subjects of our study included genital warts patients who had been diagnosed as having condyloma acuminatum of penile skin (CAPS) with/without UC. Relationship with UC of number of life time female partners, co-infection with urethritis, circumcision status, number of CAPS and wart diameter were studied by use of multivariate analysis. Co-infection with urethritis, circumcision status were risk factors of UC in heterosexual young male patients with CAPS. This information will be helpful for providing more professional counseling to patients with genital warts. PMID:27659432

  2. Tibialis Posterior Tendon Entrapment Within Posterior Malleolar Fracture Fragment.

    PubMed

    Fantry, Amanda; Lareau, Craig; Vopat, Bryan; Blankenhorn, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Management of posterior malleolus fractures continues to be controversial, with respect to both need for fixation and fixation methods. Fixation methods include an open posterior approach to the ankle as well as percutaneous reduction and fixation with or without arthroscopy for visualization of the articular surface. Plain radiographs are unreliable in identifying fracture pattern and intraoperative reduction, making arthroscopy a valuable adjunct to posterior malleolus fracture management. In this article, we report a case of tibialis posterior tendon entrapment within a posterior malleolus fracture, as identified by arthroscopy and managed with open reduction. Tibialis posterior tendon entrapment within a posterior malleolus has not been previously reported. Ankle arthroscopy for posterior malleolus fractures provides an opportunity to identify soft-tissue or tendinous entrapment, articular surface reduction, and articular cartilage injuries unlikely to be identified with fluoroscopy alone and should be considered in reduction and fixation of posterior malleolus fractures.

  3. Posterior Knee Loose Bodies: Treated by Posterior Knee Arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Ho Lam; Lui, Tun Hing

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The posterior portion of the knee joint, which includes the tibial attachment of the posterior cruciate ligament and the posterior horn of the menisci, has been called a “blind spot” because it is difficult to observe this area under arthroscopy through standard anterior portals. Posteromedial, posterolateral, and posterior transseptal portals have been developed for visualization and instrumentation of the posteromedial and posterolateral compartments of the knee joint. Case Report: A 57-year-old man presented of persistent left posterior knee pain for 1 year. Radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging showed posterior knee encapsulated loose bodies. The symptoms did not respond to physiotherapy and analgesics. The loose bodies were removed via posterior knee arthroscopy. The symptoms subsided afterward. Conclusion: Lateral portal of the knee allows establishment of the posterolateral portal under endoscopic visualization, and the loose bodies of the posterior compartment of the knee can be effectively removed via the posterior knee arthroscopy. PMID:28819604

  4. Prophylactic steroid administration for strictures after endoscopic resection of large superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kadota, Tomohiro; Yano, Tomonori; Kato, Tomoji; Imajoh, Maomi; Noguchi, Masaaki; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Osera, Shozo; Yoda, Yusuke; Oono, Yasuhiro; Ikematsu, Hiroaki; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Kaneko, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: One of the major complications after endoscopic resection (ER) for large superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is benign esophageal stricture, which can reduce quality of life even if ESCC achieves a cure without organ resection. Recently, steroid administration has been reported as a prophylactic treatment to prevent esophageal strictures. This retrospective study evaluated the stricture rate according to the different width of mucosal defects due to ER and compared it to that seen with prophylactic steroid administration. Patients and methods: Between June 2007 and December 2013, we enrolled patients with ESCC who had 3/4 or larger circumferential mucosal defects due to ER. In December 2009, steroid injections (triamcinolone acetonide 50 mg) into the ulcer bed due to ER were introduced. Beginning in November 2012, we commenced oral steroid administration (prednisolone 30 mg/day, tapered gradually for 8 weeks) in addition to steroid injection. Patients were classified into 3 groups according to the width of mucosal defect after ER (Group A, ≥ 3/4 and < 7/8; Group B, ≥ 7/8 and less than the entire circumference; and Group C, the entire circumference). We retrospectively evaluated the stricture rate by comparing no treatment, steroid injection, or steroid injection followed by oral steroid according to the width of mucosal defect. Results: A total of 115 patients met the selection criteria. In Group B, no treatment had a significantly higher stricture rate (100 %, vs. steroid injection: 56 % P = 0.015; vs steroid injection followed by oral steroid: 20 % P < 0.001). Conversely, in Group C, the stricture rate was high, regardless of treatment (no treatment: 100 %; steroid injection: 100 %; steroid injection followed by oral steroid: 71 %). Conclusions: Although prophylactic steroid administration is effective to prevent strictures for 7/8 circumference or larger mucosal defects, it is

  5. An investigation of the effects from a urethral warming system on temperature distributions during cryoablation treatment of the prostate: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Favazza, C P; Gorny, K R; King, D M; Rossman, P J; Felmlee, J P; Woodrum, D A; Mynderse, L A

    2014-08-01

    Introduction of urethral warmers to aid cryosurgery in the prostate has significantly reduced the incidence of urethral sloughing; however, the incidence rate still remains as high as 15%. Furthermore, urethral warmers have been associated with an increase of cancer recurrence rates. Here, we report results from our phantom-based investigation to determine the impact of a urethral warmer on temperature distributions around cryoneedles during cryosurgery. Cryoablation treatments were simulated in a tissue mimicking phantom containing a urethral warming catheter. Four different configurations of cryoneedles relative to urethral warming catheter were investigated. For each configuration, the freeze-thaw cycles were repeated with and without the urethral warming system activated. Temperature histories were recorded at various pre-arranged positions relative to the cryoneedles and urethral warming catheter. In all configurations, the urethral warming system was effective at maintaining sub-lethal temperatures at the simulated surface of the urethra. The warmer action, however, was additionally demonstrated to potentially negatively impact treatment lethality in the target zone by elevating minimal temperatures to sub-lethal levels. In all needle configurations, rates of freezing and thawing were not significantly affected by the use of the urethral warmer. The results indicate that the urethral warming system can protect urethral tissue during cryoablation therapy with cryoneedles placed as close as 5mm to the surface of the urethra. Using a urethral warming system and placing multiple cryoneedles within 1cm of each other delivers lethal cooling at least 5mm from the urethral surface while sparing urethral tissue.

  6. Amniotic Membrane Grafts for the Prevention of Esophageal Stricture after Circumferential Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Barret, Maximilien; Pratico, Carlos Alberto; Camus, Marine; Beuvon, Frédéric; Jarraya, Mohamed; Nicco, Carole; Mangialavori, Luigi; Chaussade, Stanislas; Batteux, Frédéric; Prat, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The prevention of esophageal strictures following circumferential mucosal resection remains a major clinical challenge. Human amniotic membrane (AM) is an easily available material, which is widely used in ophthalmology due to its wound healing, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. We studied the effect of AM grafts in the prevention of esophageal stricture after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in a swine model. Animals and Methods In this prospective, randomized controlled trial, 20 swine underwent a 5 cm-long circumferential ESD of the lower esophagus. In the AM Group (n = 10), amniotic membrane grafts were placed on esophageal stents; a subgroup of 5 swine (AM 1 group) was sacrificed on day 14, whereas the other 5 animals (AM 2 group) were kept alive. The esophageal stent (ES) group (n = 5) had ES placement alone after ESD. Another 5 animals served as a control group with only ESD. Results The prevalence of symptomatic strictures at day 14 was significantly reduced in the AM group and ES groups vs. the control group (33%, 40% and 100%, respectively, p = 0.03); mean esophageal diameter was 5.8±3.6 mm, 6.8±3.3 mm, and 2.6±1.7 mm for AM, ES, and control groups, respectively. Median (range) esophageal fibrosis thickness was 0.87 mm (0.78–1.72), 1.19 mm (0.28–1.95), and 1.65 mm (0.7–1.79) for AM 1, ES, and control groups, respectively. All animals had developed esophageal strictures by day 35. Conclusions The anti-fibrotic effect of AM on esophageal wound healing after ESD delayed the development of esophageal stricture in our model. However, this benefit was of limited duration in the conditions of our study. PMID:24992335

  7. Balloon dilatation in esophageal strictures in epidermolysis bullosa and the role of anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Gollu, Gulnur; Ergun, Ergun; Ates, Ufuk; Can, Ozlem S; Dindar, Huseyin

    2017-02-01

    Esophageal involvement, which causes stricture, is a complication in epidermolysis bullosa. This causes dysphagia and malnutrition and leads to deterioration of skin lesions in these patients. The charts of 11 patients with epidermolysis bullosa and esophageal stricture who were included into dilatation program between 2003 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Seven of the patients were female and four were male. The median age was 14 (2-32) years. The mean body weight of patients was 27.8 (9-51) kg. The location and number of strictured parts of the esophagus were previously evaluated with upper gastrointestinal contrast study and after that flexible endoscopy was used for dilatation. Eight patients had middle esophageal, three patients had proximal esophageal and one of them had both proximal and middle esophageal strictures. The strictures were dilated 56 times in total (mean 5 times). One patient underwent gastrostomy and was medically followed-up after a perforation occurrence during the dilatation procedure. In a 32-year-old female patient, colon interposition was performed after four dilatations since optimal nutritional and developmental status could not be achieved. The dilatation program of nine patients is still in progress. Seven of them can easily swallow solid food but two of them have some difficulties in swallowing between dilatations. One patient rejected the program and quitted, while one patient refused colon interposition and died because of complications related to amyloidosis during the dilatation program. After resolution of the swallowing problem, skin lesions were observed to heal quickly. Epidermolysis bullosa is a rare cause of dysphagia. Esophageal balloon dilatation with flexible endoscopy is a safe and efficient method in patients with this condition. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  8. The role of stents in the treatment of Crohn’s disease strictures

    PubMed Central

    Loras Alastruey, Carme; Andújar Murcia, Xavier; Esteve Comas, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Stenosis is one of the most frequent local complications in Crohn’s disease (CD). Surgery is not the ideal treatment because of the high rate of postoperative recurrence. Endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) currently is the current treatment of choice for short strictures amenable to the procedure. However, it is not applicable or effective in all the cases, and it is not without related complications. Our goal was to summarize the published information regarding the use and the role of the stents in the treatment of CD stricture. A Medline search was performed on the terms “stricture,” “stenosis,” “stent” and “Crohn’s disease.” Results: a total of 19 publications met our search criteria for an overall number of 65 patients. Placing a self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) may be a safe and effective alternative to EBD and/or surgical intervention in the treatment of short stenosis in patients with CD. Indications are the same as those for EBD. In addition, SEMS may be useful in stenosis refractory to EBD and may be suitable in the treatment of longer or more complex strictures that cannot be treated by EBD. With the current information, it seems that the best treatment option is the placement of a fully covered stent for a mean time of 4 weeks. Regarding the use of biodegradable stents, the information is limited and showing poor results. Conclusions: the use of stents in the treatment of strictures in CD should be taken into account either as a first endoscopic therapy or in case of EBD failure. PMID:27014743

  9. Benign esophageal stricture after thermal injury treated with esophagectomy and ileocolon interposition

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Toshihiro; Momose, Kota; Lee, Seigi; Haruta, Shusuke; Shinohara, Hisashi; Ueno, Masaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Udagawa, Harushi

    2014-01-01

    Thermal injuries of the esophagus are rare causes of benign esophageal stricture, and all published cases were successfully treated with conservative management. A 28-year-old Japanese man with a thermal esophageal injury caused by drinking a cup of hot coffee six months earlier was referred to our hospital. The hot coffee was consumed in a single gulp at a party. Although the patient had been treated conservatively at another hospital, his symptoms of dysphagia gradually worsened after discharge. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and computed tomography revealed a pin-hole like area of stricture located 19 cm distally from the incisors to the esophagogastric junction, as well as circumferential stenosis with notable wall thickness at the same site. The patient underwent a thoracoscopic esophageal resection with reconstruction using ileocolon interposition. The pathological findings revealed wall thickening along the entire length of the esophagus, with massive fibrosis extending to the muscularis propria and adventitia at almost all levels. Treatment with balloon dilation for long areas of stricture is generally difficult, and stent placement in patients with benign esophageal stricture, particularly young patients, is not yet widely accepted due to the incidence of late adverse events. Considering the curability and quality-of-life associated with a long expected prognosis, we determined that surgery was the best treatment option for this young patient. In this case, we decided to perform an esophagectomy and reconstruction with ileocolon interposition in order to preserve the reservoir function of the stomach and to avoid any problems related to the reflux of gastric contents. In conclusion, resection of the esophagus is a treatment option in patients with benign esophageal injury, especially in cases involving young patients with refractory esophageal stricture. In addition, ileocolon interposition may help to improve the quality-of-life of patients. PMID

  10. Newly designed “pieced” stent in a rabbit model of benign esophageal stricture

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin; Shang, Liang; Liu, Ji-Yong; Qin, Cheng-Yong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate a newly designed stent and its dilatation effect in a rabbit model of benign esophageal stricture. METHODS: Thirty-four New Zealand white rabbits underwent a corrosive injury in the middle esophagus for esophageal stricture formation. Thirty rabbits with a successful formation of esophageal strictures were randomly allocated into two groups. The control group (n = 15) was implanted with a conventional stent, and the study group (n = 15) was implanted with a detachable “pieced” stent. The study stent (30 mm in length, 10 mm in diameter) was composed of three covered metallic pieces connected by surgical suture lines. The stent was collapsed by pulling the suture lines out of the mesh. Two weeks after stricture formation, endoscopic placement of a conventional stent or the new stent was performed. Endoscopic extraction was carried out four weeks later. The extraction rate, ease of extraction, migration, complications, and survival were evaluated. RESULTS: Stent migration occurred in 3/15 (20%) animals in the control group and 2/15 (13%) animals in the study group; the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. At the end of four weeks, the remaining stents were successfully extracted with the endoscope in 100% (11/11) of the animals in the study group, and 60% (6/10) of the animals in the control group; this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the mean number of follow-up days between the control and study groups (25.33 vs 25.85). Minor bleeding was reported in five cases in the study group and four in the control group. There were no severe complications directly associated with stent implantation or extraction in either of the two groups. CONCLUSION: In this experimental protocol of benign esophageal strictures, the novel “pieced” stent demonstrated a superior removal rate with a similar migration rate compared to a conventional stent. PMID:26229404

  11. Side-by-side placement of bilateral endoscopic metal stents for the treatment of postoperative biliary stricture.

    PubMed

    Kaino, Seiji; Sen-Yo, Manabu; Shinoda, Shuhei; Kawano, Michitaka; Harima, Hirofumi; Suenaga, Shigeyuki; Sakaida, Isao

    2017-02-01

    Postoperative biliary strictures are usually complications of cholecystectomy. Endoscopic plastic stent prosthesis is generally undertaken for treating benign biliary strictures. Recently, fully covered metal stents have been shown to be effective for treating benign distal biliary strictures. We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with liver injury in which imaging studies showed a common hepatic duct stricture. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography also confirmed the presence of a common hepatic duct stricture. Temporally fully covered metal stents with dilated diameters of 6 mm were placed in a side-by-side fashion in the left and right hepatic ducts, respectively. We removed the stents 2 months after their placement. Subsequent cholangiography revealed an improvement in the biliary strictures. Although we were apprehensive about the fully covered metal stents obstructing the biliary side branches, we noted that careful placement of the bilateral metal stents did not cause any complications. Side-by-side deployment of bilateral endoscopic fully covered metal stents can be one of the safe and effective therapies for postoperative biliary stricture.

  12. Diabetes and elevated urea level predict for uretero-ileal stricture after radical cystectomy and ileal conduit formation

    PubMed Central

    Hoag, Nathan; Papa, Nathan; Beharry, Bhawanie Koonj; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Chiu, Danny; Sengupta, Shomik; Bolton, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Benign uretero-ileal anastomotic stricture is a significant complication following radical cystectomy and ileal conduit urinary diversion after radical cystectomy. We examined risk factors for stricture formation to predict those at greatest stricture risk. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients undergoing radical cystectomy and ileal conduit diversion between 2002 and 2012. Demographic data and patient variables were analyzed to determine risk factors for uretero-ileal stricture using multivariate logistic regression. Results Over the study period, 133 patients underwent cystectomy and ileal conduit formation, with 14 (10.5%) developing uretero-ileal anastomotic stricture. Diabetes and elevated serum urea level (defined as >7.1 mmol/L) were associated with increased risk for development of uretero-ileal stricture (odds ratio 4.31 and 4.28, respectively; p<0.05 for each). Conclusions In this patient cohort, diabetes and elevated serum urea level were predictive for the development of uretero-ileal anastomotic stricture. Further prospective study with larger patient samples is required. PMID:28360953

  13. Urethral masturbation and sexual disinhibition in dementia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Michal; Berkman, Pinhas; Shapira, Adi; Gil, Israel; Abramovitz, Jancu

    2003-01-01

    Urethral masturbation and sexual disinhibition as manifestations of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are described in a 90-year-old patient who repeatedly self-inserted foreign bodies into his urethra. A diagnosis was made of late onset sexual disinhibition and hypersexuality in a patient with Dementia of the Alzheimer Type. Significant reduction of his sexual behavior was achieved with low doses of haloperidol. Similar symptoms are noted in Pick's disease, other fronto-temporal lesions, mania and following a seizure or treatment of Parkinson's disease, and have been described as Kluver-Busy-type. Clinicians should consider this diagnosis when investigating dysuria, cystitis, haematuria and urinary tract infections even in the very old.

  14. [Rifampicin in the therapy of gonorrheal urethritis in men].

    PubMed

    Levochkin, A M; Skuratovich, A A; Kanaichev, N I; Shipilova, T V

    1976-03-01

    The therapeutic efficiency of benemycin (rifampicin of Polish production), a semisynthetic antibiotic was studied in 96 male cases with gonorrhea urethritis. The antibiotic was used in a dose of 300 mg every 6 hours (2.1--3gm for the treatment course depending on the desease severity). Observation of the patients for 1--2 months showed etiological recovery in 91 (94.8 per cent) out of 96 patients. Postgonorrhea inflammatory processes were observed in 8.7 per cent of the cases. For studying late results of the treatmant 62 patients were observed for 3 to 12 months. Gonococci were isolated from none of the patients. No side reactions were found in the patients treated with rifampicin.

  15. [Diagnosis of urethritis in men. A 3-year review].

    PubMed

    Orellana, M A; Gómez, M l; Sánchez, M T; Fernández-Chacón, T

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study is to know the prevalence and tendency of microorganisms producing urethritis, in men, in the City Centre of Madrid. Cross-sectional study. The urethral samples of 1.248 men were analyzed, for 3 years. The samples were studied for: GRAM stain, when secretion exists; culture in habitual plates; detection of C. trachomatis, U. urealyticum and M. hominis, when there was suspicious, study of T. vaginalis and when suspicious injuries exist, study of virus Herpes simplex. The percentage of positive samples was 22.60%. The isolated microorganisms were: U. urealyticum 7.61%, N. gonorrhoeae 6.33%, C. trachomatis 4.81%, M. hominis 0.24%, H. parainfluenzae 1.76%, H. influenzae 1.12%, Candida spp 0.48%, S. pyogenes 0.16% and Herpes virus simplex (2) 0.08%. Two or more microorganisms were isolated in 1.68%. The percentage of positive samples in 2003 was 17.41% and N. gonorrhoeae the most frequent microorganism (6.22%). In 2004 was 25.57% and the most frequent U. urealyticum (10.18%). In 2005 the 24.50% of the samples were positive and U. urealyticum the most frequent (7.92%). The 79.41% of N. gonorrhoeae were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. It is not found resistance to ceftriaxone, claritromicine and amoxicilline/clavulanic acid. The 11.76% were betalactamase- producing. The 26.47% of Haemophilus spp. were betalactamase- producing and all strains were susceptible to cefotaxime. The isolated microorganisms most frequently were: U. urealyticum, N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis. There is an increase of 7% of prevalence between the years 2003 and 2005. Ceftriaxone, claritromicine and amoxicilline/clavulanic acid were susceptible to all the strains studied and cefotaxime to all Haemophilus spp.

  16. Urethral Dysfunction in Female Mice with Estrogen Receptor β Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Chen, Chao-Jung; Yeh, Shuyuan; Lin, Yu-Ning; Wu, Yang-Chang; Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Wu, Bor-Tsang; Ma, Wen-Lung; Chen, Wen-Chi; Chang, Chawnshang; Chen, Huey-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen has various regulatory functions in the growth, development, and differentiation of the female urogenital system. This study investigated the roles of ERβ in stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Wild-type (ERβ+/+) and knockout (ERβ−/−) female mice were generated (aged 6–8 weeks, n = 6) and urethral function and protein expression were measured. Leak point pressures (LPP) and maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) were assessed in mice under urethane anesthesia. After the measurements, the urethras were removed for proteomic analysis using label-free quantitative proteomics by nano-liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The interaction between these proteins was further analysed using MetaCore. Lastly, Western blot was used to confirm the candidate proteins. Compared with the ERβ+/+ group, the LPP and MUCP values of the ERβ−/− group were significantly decreased. Additionally, we identified 85 differentially expressed proteins in the urethra of ERβ−/− female mice; 57 proteins were up-regulated and 28 were down-regulated. The majority of the ERβ knockout-modified proteins were involved in cell-matrix adhesion, metabolism, immune response, signal transduction, nuclear receptor translational regelation, and muscle contraction and development. Western blot confirmed the up-regulation of myosin and collagen in urethra. By contrast, elastin was down-regulated in the ERβ−/− mice. This study is the first study to estimate protein expression changes in urethras from ERβ−/− female mice. These changes could be related to the molecular mechanism of ERβ in SUI. PMID:25275480

  17. [Repair of hypospadias: the effect of urethral plate configuration on the outcome of Duplay-Snodgrass repair].

    PubMed

    Mosharafa, A A; Agbo-Panzo, D; Priso, R; Aubry, E; Besson, R

    2009-07-01

    A number of factors potentially influence the outcome of hypospadias surgery. We evaluate the effect of catheter-size used during urethroplasty (a detail related to the depth of the urethral groove and width/elasticity of the urethral plate) on the complication rate following Duplay-Snodgrass repair. The data of 113 patients undergoing primary hypospadias repair was retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups based on the urethral plate width evaluated by the catheter-size used during urethral reconstruction, and the rate of complications was compared in the two groups. Other factors evaluated included age of patients and severity of the defect. Complications (urethro-cutaneous fistula and meatal stenosis) were more common in the narrow urethral plate 8F catheter group (three fistulae among 18 patients) compared to the wide urethral plate 10F catheter group (six fistulae and one meatal stenosis in 95 patients) (p=0.08). The width of the urethral plate during a modified Duplay urethroplasty has a significant impact on outcome. A smaller-sized catheter for neo-urethral reconstruction, implying a shallow urethral groove and a narrow or inelastic urethral plate, is associated with a higher rate of urethrocutaneous fistula and meatal stenosis.

  18. ’TRIC AGENT’ URETHRITIS: A REPORT OF THE SEROLOGICAL FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY AND ASSOCIATED FINDINGS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    a much larger percentage of ’NSU’ cases than previously thought. There appears to be a definite interrelationship between TRIC urethritis and epididymitis in young adults, and possibly with Reiter’s Syndrome. (Author)

  19. Male urethritis in King County, Washington, 1974-75: II. Diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Hinds, M W; Gale, J L

    1978-01-01

    Methods of diagnosing and treating male urethritis in King County. Washington in 1974-1975 were examined by a retrospective postal survey, records review, and prospective surveillance. A Gram-stained smear of urethral discharge was used by 86 per cent of private physicians and urethral culture by 56 per cent. Only 5 per cent made a diagnosis without laboratory aid. U.S. Public thealth Service gonorrhea treatment regimens were used by 54-81 per cent of private physicians. Over 90 per cent of physicians not in private practice (emergency room and housestaff) used smear, cultures, and recommended treatment regimens. The Gram-stained smear appeared to be under-utilized and the urethral culture overutilized. There is a significant need for physician education regarding recommended treatment for male gonorrhea. PMID:623359

  20. Remote discovery of an asymptomatic bowel perforation by a mid-urethral sling.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jason E; Maslow, Ken D

    2012-02-01

    Bowel perforation is a rare complication of mid-urethral sling procedures and is usually reported shortly after the surgery. We report a remotely discovered asymptomatic bowel injury found at the time of subsequent surgery. The patient with a history of several prior pelvic surgeries underwent an uneventful retropubic mid-urethral sling placement. Five years later, during an abdominal sacrocolpopexy procedure, mesh from the mid-urethral sling was found perforating the wall of the cecum and fixating it to the right pelvic sidewall. Cecal wedge resection was performed to excise the sling mesh. Asymptomatic bowel perforation by mid-urethral sling mesh has not been previously reported. Pelvic and abdominal surgeons should be aware of the possibility of finding this injury in patients with prior sling surgeries.

  1. Satisfactory urethral coitus in a patient with vaginal stenosis: case report.

    PubMed

    Sakinci, Mehmet; Kokcu, Arif; Malatyalioglu, Erdal

    2012-02-01

    Urethral coitus is a very rare sexual disorder seen in women either with intact or anomalous vagina such as vaginal agenesis or imperforate hymen. Only about 25 cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of urethral coitus in a patient with surgically corrected ambiguous genitalia due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The patient had megalourethra and stenotic vaginal introitus. Megalourethra was corrected by plication technique. Correction of megalourethra with this technique has not been reported in literature up to now. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the 26th of total cases with urethral coitus reported so far and the first case of urethral coitus associated with a stenotic vaginal introitus developing due to surgically corrected ambiguous genitalia.

  2. False-positive prostate cancer markers in a man with symptomatic urethral Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Smelov, V; Novikov, A; Brown, L J; Eklund, C; Strokova, L; Ouburg, S; Morre, S A; Dillner, J

    2013-06-01

    Symptomatic male urethral Chlamydia trachomatis infection resulted in inflammation of the prostate, with associated increases in both prostate-specific (PSA) and prostate cancer-specific (PCA3) markers with prostate biopsies showing no evidence of malignancy.

  3. Palliative Surgery for Rare Cases of Anterior Urethral Metastasis in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gómez Gómez, Enrique; Carrasco Aznar, Jose Carlos; Moreno Rodríguez, Maria del Mar; Valero Rosa, José; Requena Tapia, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    Penis metastasis from prostate cancer is very rare, and its management varies from case to case as there are very few cases reported in the literature. We describe a patient with prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy who presented with urethral bleeding as a symptom of anterior urethral metastasis during followup. We propose a way to manage this and review the literature. PMID:25161796

  4. Hemorrhagic urethritis in female-to-male transsexual. Possible androgen-related phenomena.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M S; Sanchez, R L

    1987-12-01

    This article describes a case of hematuria and urethritis related to androgen stimulation in a female-to-male transsexual receiving testosterone cypionate. Biopsy of the affected urethral tissue revealed periurethral glands which demonstrated a strong positive reaction with immunoperoxidase staining for prostatic specific antigen. When the androgen stimulus was reduced, the patient's symptoms resolved. This report gives evidence for possible androgen-induced pathology in the female urethra.

  5. The possible role of anaerobic bacteria in the aetiology of non-gonococcal urethritis in men.

    PubMed Central

    Hallén, A; Rydén, A C; Schwan, A; Wallin, J

    1977-01-01

    Men with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) were divided into two groups and treated with either lymecycline or tinidazole; anaerobic cultures were performed before and after treatment. Neither treatment affected the anaerobic flora. However, the men treated with lymecycline were relieved of symptoms and signs, while those treated with tinidazole were not. The anaerobic bacteria found are considered normal inhabitants of the urethral tract and without significance in the aetiology of NGU. PMID:606333

  6. The possible role of anaerobic bacteria in the aetiology of non-gonococcal urethritis in men.

    PubMed

    Hallén, A; Rydén, A C; Schwan, A; Wallin, J

    1977-12-01

    Men with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) were divided into two groups and treated with either lymecycline or tinidazole; anaerobic cultures were performed before and after treatment. Neither treatment affected the anaerobic flora. However, the men treated with lymecycline were relieved of symptoms and signs, while those treated with tinidazole were not. The anaerobic bacteria found are considered normal inhabitants of the urethral tract and without significance in the aetiology of NGU.

  7. Acquired urethral obstruction in New World camelids: 34 cases (1995-2008).

    PubMed

    Duesterdieck-Zellmer, K F; Van Metre, D C; Cardenas, A; Cebra, C K

    2014-08-01

    Document the clinical features, short- and long-term outcomes and prognostic factors in New World camelids with acquired urethral obstruction. Retrospective case study. Case data from medical records of 34 New World camelids presenting with acquired urethral obstruction were collected and follow-up information on discharged patients was obtained. Associations with short- and long-term survival were evaluated using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, exact-logistic regressions and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Of the 34 New World camelids 23 were intact males and 11 were castrated; 4 animals were euthanased upon presentation, 7 were treated medically and 23 surgically, including urethrotomy, bladder marsupialisation, tube cystostomy alone or combined with urethrotomy, urethrostomy or penile reefing. Necrosis of the distal penis was found in 4 animals and all were short-term non-survivors. Short-term survival for surgical cases was 65%, and 57% for medical cases. Incomplete urethral obstruction at admission and surgical treatment were associated with increased odds of short-term survival. Of 14 records available for long-term follow-up, 6 animals were alive and 8 were dead (median follow-up 4.5 years, median survival time 2.5 years). Recurrence of urethral obstruction was associated with long-term non-survival. Surgically treated New World camelids with incomplete urethral obstruction have the best odds of short-term survival and those with recurrence of urethral obstruction have a poor prognosis for long-term survival. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  8. Successful management of benign biliary strictures with fully covered self-expanding metal stents.

    PubMed

    Devière, Jacques; Nageshwar Reddy, D; Püspök, Andreas; Ponchon, Thierry; Bruno, Marco J; Bourke, Michael J; Neuhaus, Horst; Roy, André; González-Huix Lladó, Ferrán; Barkun, Alan N; Kortan, Paul P; Navarrete, Claudio; Peetermans, Joyce; Blero, Daniel; Lakhtakia, Sundeep; Dolak, Werner; Lepilliez, Vincent; Poley, Jan W; Tringali, Andrea; Costamagna, Guido

    2014-08-01

    Fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMS) are gaining acceptance for the treatment of benign biliary strictures. We performed a large prospective multinational study to study the ability to remove these stents after extended indwell and the frequency and durability of stricture resolution. In a nonrandomized study at 13 centers in 11 countries, 187 patients with benign biliary strictures received FCSEMS. Removal was scheduled at 10-12 months for patients with chronic pancreatitis or cholecystectomy and at 4-6 months for patients who received liver transplants. The primary outcome measure was removal success, defined as either scheduled endoscopic removal of the stent with no removal-related serious adverse events or spontaneous stent passage without the need for immediate restenting. Endoscopic removal of FCSEMS was not performed for 10 patients because of death (from unrelated causes), withdrawal of consent, or switch to palliative treatment. For the remaining 177 patients, removal success was accomplished in 74.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67.5%-80.8%). Removal success was more frequent in the chronic pancreatitis group (80.5%) than in the liver transplantation (63.4%) or cholecystectomy (61.1%) groups (P = .017). FCSEMS were removed by endoscopy from all patients in whom this procedure was attempted. Stricture resolution without restenting upon FCSEMS removal occurred in 76.3% of patients (95% CI, 69.3%-82.3%). The rate of resolution was lower in patients with FCSEMS migration (odds ratio, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.11-0.46). Over a median follow-up period of 20.3 months (interquartile range, 12.9-24.3 mo), the rate of stricture recurrence was 14.8% (95% CI, 8.2%-20.9%). Stent- or removal-related serious adverse events, most often cholangitis, occurred in 27.3% of patients. There was no stent- or removal-related mortality. In a large prospective multinational study, removal success of FCSEMS after extended indwell and stricture resolution were achieved for

  9. Medical Therapies for Stricturing Crohn's Disease: Efficacy and Cross-Sectional Imaging Predictors of Therapeutic Failure.

    PubMed

    Campos, Cécile; Perrey, Antoine; Lambert, Céline; Pereira, Bruno; Goutte, Marion; Dubois, Anne; Goutorbe, Felix; Dapoigny, Michel; Bommelaer, Gilles; Hordonneau, Constance; Buisson, Anthony

    2017-06-01

    Medical therapy efficacy remains controversial in stricturing Crohn's disease. Cross-sectional imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging, has been suggested as very helpful to guide therapeutic decision making. To assess efficacy and predictors of therapeutic failure in patients receiving medical treatments for stricturing Crohn's disease. In this retrospective study, therapeutic failure was defined as symptomatic stricture leading to surgical or endoscopic therapeutics, hospitalization, treatment discontinuation or additional therapy and short-term clinical response as clinical improvement assessed by two physicians. The 55 cross-sectional imaging examinations (33 magnetic resonance imaging and 22 CT scan) before starting medical therapy were analyzed independently by two radiologists. Results were expressed as hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Among 84 patients, therapeutic failure rate within 60 months was 66.6%. In multivariate analysis, Crohn's disease diagnosis after 40 years old (HR 3.9, 95% CI [1.37-11.2], p = 0.011), small stricture luminal diameter (HR 1.34, 95% CI [1.01-1.80], p = 0.046), increased stricture wall thickness (HR 1.23, 95% CI [1.04-1.46], p = 0.013) and fistula with abscess (HR 5.63, 95% CI [1.64-19.35], p = 0.006) were associated with therapeutic failure, while anti-TNF combotherapy (HR 0.17, 95% CI [0.40-0.71], p = 0.015) prevented it. Considering 108 therapeutic sequences, the short-term clinical response rate was 65.7%. In multivariate analysis, male gender (OR 0.15, 95% CI [0.03-0.64], p = 0.011), fistula with abscess (OR 0.09, 95% CI [0.01-0.77], p = 0.028) and comb sign (OR 0.23, 95% CI [0.005-0.97], p = 0.047) were associated with short-term clinical failure. Anti-TNF combotherapy seemed to prevent therapeutic failure, and cross-sectional imaging should be systematically performed to help medical management in stricturing Crohn's disease.

  10. Posterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Go, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 20-25% of all acute strokes occur in the posterior circulation. These strokes can be rather difficult to diagnose because they present in such diverse ways, and can easily be mistaken for more benign entities. A fastidious history, physical exam, high clinical suspicion, and appropriate use of imaging are essential for the emergency physician to properly diagnose and treat these patients. Expert stroke neurologist consultation should be utilized liberally.

  11. [Posterior cortical atrophy].

    PubMed

    Solyga, Volker Moræus; Western, Elin; Solheim, Hanne; Hassel, Bjørnar; Kerty, Emilia

    2015-06-02

    Posterior cortical atrophy is a neurodegenerative condition with atrophy of posterior parts of the cerebral cortex, including the visual cortex and parts of the parietal and temporal cortices. It presents early, in the 50s or 60s, with nonspecific visual disturbances that are often misinterpreted as ophthalmological, which can delay the diagnosis. The purpose of this article is to present current knowledge about symptoms, diagnostics and treatment of this condition. The review is based on a selection of relevant articles in PubMed and on the authors' own experience with the patient group. Posterior cortical atrophy causes gradually increasing impairment in reading, distance judgement, and the ability to perceive complex images. Examination of higher visual functions, neuropsychological testing, and neuroimaging contribute to diagnosis. In the early stages, patients do not have problems with memory or insight, but cognitive impairment and dementia can develop. It is unclear whether the condition is a variant of Alzheimer's disease, or whether it is a separate disease entity. There is no established treatment, but practical measures such as the aid of social care workers, telephones with large keypads, computers with voice recognition software and audiobooks can be useful. Currently available treatment has very limited effect on the disease itself. Nevertheless it is important to identify and diagnose the condition in its early stages in order to be able to offer patients practical assistance in their daily lives.

  12. Posterior Shoulder Instability.

    PubMed

    Brelin, Alaina; Dickens, Jonathan F

    2017-09-01

    Posterior shoulder instability is a relatively uncommon condition, occurring in ∼10% of those with shoulder instability. Because of the rarity of the condition and the lack of knowledge in treatment, it is often misdiagnosed or patients experience a delay in diagnosis. Posterior instability typically affects athletes participating in contact or overhead sports and is usually the result of repetitive microtrauma or blunt force with the shoulder in the provocative position of flexion, adduction, and internal rotation, leading to recurrent subluxation events. Acute traumatic posterior dislocations are rare injuries with an incidence rate of 1.1 per 100,000 person years. This rate is ∼20 times lower than that of anterior shoulder dislocations. Risk factors for recurrent instability are: (1) age below 40 at time of first instability; (2) dislocation during a seizure; (3) a large reverse Hill-Sachs lesion; and (4) glenoid retroversion. A firm understanding of the pathoanatomy, along with pertinent clinical and diagnostic modalities is required to accurately diagnosis and manage this condition.

  13. Persistent occiput posterior.

    PubMed

    Barth, William H

    2015-03-01

    Persistent occiput posterior (OP) is associated with increased rates of maternal and newborn morbidity. Its diagnosis by physical examination is challenging but is improved with bedside ultrasonography. Occiput posterior discovered in the active phase or early second stage of labor usually resolves spontaneously. When it does not, prophylactic manual rotation may decrease persistent OP and its associated complications. When delivery is indicated for arrest of descent in the setting of persistent OP, a pragmatic approach is suggested. Suspected fetal macrosomia, a biparietal diameter above the pelvic inlet or a maternal pelvis with android features should prompt cesarean delivery. Nonrotational operative vaginal delivery is appropriate when the maternal pelvis has a narrow anterior segment but ample room posteriorly, like with anthropoid features. When all other conditions are met and the fetal head arrests in an OP position in a patient with gynecoid pelvic features and ample room anteriorly, options include cesarean delivery, nonrotational operative vaginal delivery, and rotational procedures, either manual or with the use of rotational forceps. Recent literature suggests that maternal and fetal outcomes with rotational forceps are better than those reported in older series. Although not without significant challenges, a role remains for teaching and practicing selected rotational forceps operations in contemporary obstetrics.

  14. Normal anatomic relationship between urethral sphincter complex and zones of prostrate in young Chinese males on MRI

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangdong; Liu, Tieyan; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Jingyi; Chen, Yuefeng; Sun, Pengyu; Wang, Xuesong; Liu, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this research, the normal anatomic relationship between urethral sphincter complex and zones of prostrate in young Chinese males has been studied. Methods: The sagittal, coronal, and axial T2-weighted non-fat suppressed fast spin-echo images of pelvic cavities of 86 Chinese young males were studied. Result: Urethral sphincter complex threaded through the prostate and divided it into 2 parts: transition zone (TZ), periurethral glands internal to the urethral sphincter and peripheral zone (PZ), central zone (CZ), anterior fibromuscular stroma (AFS) zone external to the urethral sphincter. The length of urethral striated sphincter is 12.26-20.94 mm (mean 16.59 mm) at membranous urethra. Conclusions: In this paper, we summarized the normal anatomic relationship between urethral sphincter complex and zones of prostrate in young Chinese males with no urinary control problems. PMID:26629244

  15. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass complicated by a mesocolic jejunal stricture successfully treated with endoscopic TTS balloon dilation.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Stephanie Christine; Jackson, Christian; Rendon, Stewart

    2010-12-01

    Even though Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the most commonly performed bariatric surgery in the United States, it is not without post surgical complications. The development of a mesocolic jejunal stricture after a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP) is a rare complication. We present a patient who manifested, at 5 weeks post-LRYGBP, symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and an inability to tolerate an oral diet. The patient was found to have a stricture at the efferent Roux limb consistent with a mesocolic stricture which was successfully resolved with through the scope (TTS) balloon dilatation. There was no apparent cause of the patient's stenosis with no evidence of an anastomotic breakdown or major inflammatory process. The patient presented for follow-up after her dilatation was noted to have complete resolution of her symptoms and continued to lose weight. This is the first known case of a mesocolic jejunal stricture successfully treated with TTS balloon dilation.

  16. Endoscopic characteristics and usefulness of endoscopic dilatation of anastomotic stricture following pancreaticojejunostomy: case series and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kida, Akihiko; Shirota, Yukihiro; Houdo, Yuji; Wakabayashi, Tokio

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of pancreatitis induced by anastomotic stricture following pancreaticodigestive tract anastomosis as a late-onset adverse event has been reported to be 3% or lower, but some cases repeatedly relapse and are difficult to treat. Endoscopic identification and treatment of the anastomotic site are considered to be difficult, and only a small number of cases have been reported. We present three cases with recurrent pancreatitis induced by anastomotic stricture following pancreaticojejunostomy applied after pancreaticoduodenectomy. We successfully identified the anastomotic site and performed endoscopic dilatation of the anastomotic stricture, and pancreatitis has not recurred. We characterized endoscopic features of the anastomotic site, understanding of which is essential to identify the site, and investigated useful techniques to identify the site and perform cannulation for pancreatography. Furthermore, we showed the safety and usefulness of endoscopic dilatation for anastomotic stricture following pancreaticojejunostomy according to our three cases and a review of the literature. PMID:27803744

  17. Surgical management of urethral prolapse in girls: 13 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Charlotte; Misra, Devesh

    2012-07-01

    Study Type - Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Urethral prolapse (UP) is a rare condition, with a suggested incidence of one in 3000. It occurs most often in prepubertal, primarily Black, girls. The underlying cause of this condition remains uncertain, although a lack of oestrogen is thought to have a role, owing to the preponderance of the condition in the prepubertal and postmenopausal age groups. A popular theory is that the problem arises as a consequence of poor attachments between the two layers of smooth muscle surrounding the urethra, combined with episodic increases in intraabdominal pressure. The most common presentation of UP is genital bleeding or a mass. The classical appearance of UP (i.e. the 'doughnut' sign) enables diagnosis to be made easily on clinical grounds alone. Optimum management of UP is less certain, with opinion divided on the merits of conservative therapy vs surgical excision. Conservative therapy aims to reduce mucosal oedema, improve local hygiene and counteract lack of oestrogen by using a combination of any or all of the following: Sitz baths, topical oestrogen cream, antibacterial wash/soap and topical antibiotics. Surgical management of UP involves excision of the prolapsed mucosa circumferentially. Several authors have reported success with surgical excision, but it carries a risk of developing stenosis of the urethral opening. The present study supports previously reported findings by other authors in terms of demographics and clinical presentation. Patient ages ranged from 2 to 15 years and all girls were of Black race. They most commonly presented with a mass (8/21 patients) or bleeding (6/21 patients) and diagnosis was confirmed on clinical examination, although one required a general anaesthetic (GA) to complete the examination. The present study shows that, in mild cases (usually where there is a mass without symptoms), UP can be successfully managed using

  18. Improved Accuracy of Percutaneous Biopsy Using “Cross and Push” Technique for Patients Suspected with Malignant Biliary Strictures

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Prashant; Rangarajan, Balaji; Mangat, Kamarjit E-mail: kamarjit.mangat@nhs.net

    2015-08-15

    PurposeVarious methods have been used to sample biliary strictures, including percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy, intraluminal biliary washings, and cytological analysis of drained bile. However, none of these methods has proven to be particularly sensitive in the diagnosis of biliary tract malignancy. We report improved diagnostic accuracy using a modified technique for percutaneous transluminal biopsy in patients with this disease.Materials and MethodsFifty-two patients with obstructive jaundice due to a biliary stricture underwent transluminal forceps biopsy with a modified “cross and push” technique with the use of a flexible biopsy forceps kit commonly used for cardiac biopsies. The modification entailed crossing the stricture with a 0.038-in. wire leading all the way down into the duodenum. A standard or long sheath was subsequently advanced up to the stricture over the wire. A Cook 5.2-Fr biopsy forceps was introduced alongside the wire and the cup was opened upon exiting the sheath. With the biopsy forceps open, within the stricture the sheath was used to push and advance the biopsy cup into the stricture before the cup was closed and the sample obtained. The data were analysed retrospectively.ResultsWe report the outcomes of this modified technique used on 52 consecutive patients with obstructive jaundice secondary to a biliary stricture. The sensitivity and accuracy were 93.3 and 94.2 %, respectively. There was one procedure-related late complication.ConclusionWe propose that the modified “cross and push” technique is a feasible, safe, and more accurate option over the standard technique for sampling strictures of the biliary tree.

  19. Management of cervical esophageal strictures with self-expanding metalic stents.

    PubMed

    Cindoruk, Mehmet; Karakan, Tarkan

    2006-12-01

    Esophageal strictures due to malignant diseases are treated with self-expanding metalicic stents. However, experience is limited with these metalic stents in the cervical esophagus. Due to technical difficulties and procedure-related complications, the cervical esophagus has been assigned as a risky area for stenting procedures. Another encountered problem is patient discomfort after the procedure. In this case report, we present three patients with cervical esophageal strictures who were successfully treated with self-expandable metalic stents. Two of these patients had inoperable esophageal carcinoma and the third had benign stenosis due to radiotherapy of larynx carcinoma. The two patients with malignant disease survived four and six months, respectively, after the procedure. The last patient with benign disease is still alive and has been without dysphagia symptom for six months.

  20. Effect of Covered Metallic Stents Compared With Plastic Stents on Benign Biliary Stricture Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Coté, Gregory A.; Slivka, Adam; Tarnasky, Paul; Mullady, Daniel K.; Elmunzer, B. Joseph; Elta, Grace; Fogel, Evan; Lehman, Glen; McHenry, Lee; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Menon, Shyam; Siddiqui, Uzma D.; Watkins, James; Lynch, Sheryl; Denski, Cheryl; Xu, Huiping; Sherman, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Endoscopic placement of multiple plastic stents in parallel is the first-line treatment for most benign biliary strictures; it is possible that fully covered, self-expandable metallic stents (cSEMS) may require fewer endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures (ERCPs) to achieve resolution. OBJECTIVE To assess whether use of cSEMS is noninferior to plastic stents with respect to stricture resolution. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Multicenter (8 endoscopic referral centers), open-label, parallel, randomized clinical trial involving patients with treatment-naive, benign biliary strictures (N = 112) due to orthotopic liver transplant (n = 73), chronic pancreatitis (n = 35), or postoperative injury (n = 4), who were enrolled between April 2011 and September 2014 (with follow-up ending October 2015). Patients with a bile duct diameter less than 6 mm and those with an intact gallbladder in whom the cystic duct would be overlapped by a cSEMS were excluded. INTERVENTIONS Patients (N = 112) were randomized to receive multiple plastic stents or a single cSEMS, stratified by stricture etiology and with endoscopic reassessment for resolution every 3 months (plastic stents) or every 6 months (cSEMS). Patients were followed up for 12 months after stricture resolution to assess for recurrence. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Primary outcome was stricture resolution after no more than 12 months of endoscopic therapy. The sample size was estimated based on the noninferiority of cSEMS to plastic stents, with a noninferiority margin of −15%. RESULTS There were 55 patients in the plastic stent group (mean [SD] age, 57 [11] years; 17 women [31%]) and 57 patients in the cSEMS group (mean [SD] age, 55 [10] years; 19 women [33%]). Compared with plastic stents (41/48, 85.4%), the cSEMS resolution rate was 50 of 54 patients (92.6%), with a rate difference of 7.2% (1-sided 95% CI, −3.0% to ∞; P < .001). Given the prespecified noninferiority margin of −15%, the

  1. A Challenging Surgical Approach to Locally Advanced Primary Urethral Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Spilotros, Marco; Vavallo, Antonio; Palazzo, Silvano; Miacola, Carlos; Forte, Saverio; Matera, Matteo; Campagna, Marcello; Colamonico, Ottavio; Schiralli, Francesco; Sebastiani, Francesco; Di Cosmo, Federica; Bettocchi, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Buonerba, Carlo; Vincenti, Leonardo; Ludovico, Giuseppe; Ditonno, Pasquale; Battaglia, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Primary urethral carcinoma (PUC) is a rare and aggressive cancer, often underdetected and consequently unsatisfactorily treated. We report a case of advanced PUC, surgically treated with combined approaches. A 47-year-old man underwent transurethral resection of a urethral lesion with histological evidence of a poorly differentiated squamous cancer of the bulbomembranous urethra. Computed tomography (CT) and bone scans excluded metastatic spread of the disease but showed involvement of both corpora cavernosa (cT3N0M0). A radical surgical approach was advised, but the patient refused this and opted for chemotherapy. After 17 months the patient was referred to our department due to the evidence of a fistula in the scrotal area. CT scan showed bilateral metastatic disease in the inguinal, external iliac, and obturator lymph nodes as well as the involvement of both corpora cavernosa. Additionally, a fistula originating from the right corpus cavernosum extended to the scrotal skin. At this stage, the patient accepted the surgical treatment, consisting of different phases. Phase I: Radical extraperitoneal cystoprostatectomy with iliac-obturator lymph nodes dissection. Phase II: Creation of a urinary diversion through a Bricker ileal conduit. Phase III: Repositioning of the patient in lithotomic position for an overturned Y skin incision, total penectomy, fistula excision, and “en bloc” removal of surgical specimens including the bladder, through the perineal breach. Phase IV: Right inguinal lymphadenectomy. The procedure lasted 9-and-a-half hours, was complication-free, and intraoperative blood loss was 600 mL. The patient was discharged 8 days after surgery. Pathological examination documented a T4N2M0 tumor. The clinical situation was stable during the first 3 months postoperatively but then metastatic spread occurred, not responsive to adjuvant chemotherapy, which led to the patient's death 6 months after surgery. Patients with advanced stage tumors of

  2. Resolution of constipation, anal stricture, and iron deficiency anemia after iron infusion: an analogy with Plummer Vinson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arya, Vijaypal; Singh, Shikha; Agarwal, Shashank; Ohri, Arjun

    2016-01-01

    Anal stricture is a disabling condition which is often unresponsive to conservative medical management. The complications of surgical procedures such as dilatations and anoplasty make it a formidable treatment challenge. Through this case, we report and explore a new medical treatment for ano-rectal strictures with an analogy to Plummer Vinson syndrome. A 69-year-old male presented with chronic constipation, rectal pain, and easy fatigability. The physical exam was negative for anal fissure and a digital rectal examination could not be completed because an index finger could not be advanced through the narrowed anus. Laboratory reports revealed microcytic hypochromic anemia with iron deficiency. A colonoscopy performed with a GIF XQ180 OLYMPUS scope, confirmed anal stricture with non-specific colitis. Conservative management with laxatives, high fiber diet, local anesthetics with a trial of mesalamine was initiated but the patient continued to have symptoms. He was referred to a hematologist for an evaluation of anemia and was started on intravenous (IV) iron infusion. The patient's symptoms of constipation, anal stricture and iron deficiency anemia resolved with iron infusion over 3 months. A repeat rectal exam was painless and confirmed resolution of anal stricture. IV iron supplementation combined with conventional anal dilatation presents as a promising approach toward the treatment of anal strictures.

  3. Transhepatic Balloon Dilatation of Early Biliary Strictures in Pediatric Liver Transplantation: Successful Initial and Mid-Term Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Belenky, Alexander; Mor, Eytan; Bartal, Gabriel; Atar, Eli; Shapiro, Riki; Bar-Nathan, Nathan; Bachar, Gil N.

    2004-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the initial and mid-term outcomes of transhepatic balloon dilatation for the treatment of early biliary strictures in lateral left-segment liver transplants in young children.Methods: Between April 1997 and May 2001, seven children aged 9 months to 6 years with nine benign strictures in left-segment liver grafts were treated percutaneously. Sessions of two or three dilations were performed three or four times at average intervals of 10-20 days. In each session, the biliary stenoses were gradually dilated using balloons of 3-7 mm. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 54 months (mean 27 months, median 12 months). Clinical success was defined as resolution of the stenosis, normalization of liver enzymes and lack of clinical symptoms. Results: Technical success was achieved in all nine strictures. Hemobilia occurred in one patient and was successfully treated. On follow-up, all patients had complete clinical recovery with normalization of liver function and imaging of patent bile ducts. Conclusion: Balloon dilatation is an effective and relatively safe method for the treatment of early biliary strictures in left-segment liver transplantation in young children. We recommend this approach as the initial treatment for early strictures. Metal stents or surgery should be reserved for patients with late appearance of strictures or failure of balloon dilatation.

  4. Considerable Risk of Restenosis After Endoscopic Treatment for Hepaticojejunostomy Stricture After Living-Donor Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kamei, H; Imai, H; Onishi, Y; Ishihara, M; Nakamura, M; Kawashima, H; Ishigami, M; Ito, A; Ohmiya, N; Hirooka, Y; Goto, H; Ogura, Y

    2015-10-01

    There are few reports on the short- and long-term follow-up of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) in adult patients with hepaticojejunostomy (HJS) stricture after living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Nine LDLT recipients underwent ERC with the use of double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) for HJS stricture at Nagoya University Hospital. We assessed the rate of reaching biliary anastomosis, procedure success rate, procedure duration, complications, improvement in liver function test results, and biliary anastomosis patency. In total, 19 ERC procedures with the use of DBE were performed for 9 adult LDLT recipients with HJS stricture from June 2006 to September 2014. Balloon dilation with the use of DBE was successfully performed in 5 of the 9 patients during the 1st procedure. Of the 4 patients in whom DBE-ERC failed to be completed, 3 patients underwent 2nd procedures successfully. Liver function test results were significantly improved in the successful cases. Four patients underwent 2nd DBE-ERC for stricture recurrence at a mean time of 2.3 years after the 1st successful procedure. Of those, 2 patients required 3rd procedures for stricture recurrence after the 2nd procedure. DBE-ERC is promising as a treatment for HJS stricture in adult LDLT recipients in the short term. However, the DBE-ERC procedure may have a considerable risk of restenosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gall bladder emptying in patients with corrosive-induced esophageal strictures.

    PubMed

    Khan, Bilal A; Kochhar, Rakesh; Nagi, Birender; Raja, Kaiser; Singh, Kartar

    2005-01-01

    Ingestion of corrosive substances can lead to strictures of the esophagus and stomach. Cicatrization of the lower part of the esophagus can entrap vagal fibers in the process of fibrosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate gallbladder dysfunction as a sequel to vagal damage in patients with corrosive-induced esophageal strictures. The cephalic phase of gallbladder emptying was stimulated by modified sham feeding according to the chew-and-spit method. Gallbladder volume was measured by ultrasonography using the ellipsoid method after an overnight fast and every 15 min for a period of 90 min after sham feeding in 22 patients and 10 controls. Mean fasting gallbladder volume was significantly greater in patients than in controls (22.09 +/- 9.78 vs. 14.61 +/- 4.42 ml; P = 0.025). After sham feeding the gallbladder ejection fraction was significantly lower in patients than in controls (32.86 +/- 17.21 vs. 49.40 +/- 7.86%; P = 0.007). Patients with cicatrization in the distal one-third of the esophagus had a greater basal gallbladder volume (24.57 +/- 9.2 ml) and significantly lower ejection fraction (20.47 +/- 8.9%) than patients with strictures at other sites (gallbladder volume, 18.50 +/- 10.69 ml; ejection fraction, 47.48 +/- 13.3%; P = 0.001). In conclusion, patients with corrosive-induced esophageal strictures, especially those in the distal one-third, had an increased fasting gallbladder volume and decreased cephalic phase of gallbladder emptying, pointing to impaired vagal cholinergic transmission, possibly due to vagal entrapment in the cicatrization process.

  6. Robot-assisted Surgery for Benign Ureteral Strictures: Experience and Outcomes from Four Tertiary Care Institutions.

    PubMed

    Buffi, Nicolò Maria; Lughezzani, Giovanni; Hurle, Rodolfo; Lazzeri, Massimo; Taverna, Gianluigi; Bozzini, Giorgio; Bertolo, Riccardo; Checcucci, Enrico; Porpiglia, Francesco; Fossati, Nicola; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Larcher, Alessandro; Suardi, Nazareno; Montorsi, Francesco; Lista, Giuliana; Guazzoni, Giorgio; Mottrie, Alexandre

    2017-06-01

    Minimally invasive treatment of benign ureteral strictures is still challenging because of its technical complexity. In this context, robot-assisted surgery may overcome the limits of the laparoscopic approach. To evaluate outcomes for robotic ureteral repair in a multi-institutional cohort of patients treated for ureteropelvic junction obstruction and ureteral stricture (US) at four tertiary referral centres. This retrospective study reports data for 183 patients treated with standard robot-assisted pyeloplasty (PYP) and robotic uretero-ureterostomy (UUY) at four high-volume centres from January 2006 to September 2014. Robotic PYP and robot-assisted UUY were performed according to previously reported surgical techniques. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables and outcomes were assessed. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. No robot-assisted UUY cases required surgical conversion, while 2.8% of PYP cases were not completed robotically. The median operative time was 120 and 150min for robot-assisted PYP and robot-assisted UUY, respectively. No intraoperative complications were reported. The overall complication rate for all procedures was 11% (n=20) and complications were mostly of low grade. The high-grade complication rate was 2.2% (n=4). At median follow-up of 24 mo, the overall success rate was >90% for both procedures. The study limitations include its retrospective nature and the heterogeneity of the study population. Robotic surgery for benign US is safe and effective, with limited risk of high-grade complications and good intermediate-term results. In this study we review the use of robotic surgery at four different tertiary care centres in the treatment of patients affected by benign ureteral strictures. Our results demonstrate that robotic surgery is a safe alternative to the standard open approach in the treatment of ureteral strictures. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  7. Cell Sheet Transplantation for Esophageal Stricture Prevention after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection in a Porcine Model.

    PubMed

    Perrod, Guillaume; Rahmi, Gabriel; Pidial, Laetitia; Camilleri, Sophie; Bellucci, Alexandre; Casanova, Amaury; Viel, Thomas; Tavitian, Bertrand; Cellier, Christophe; Clement, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Extended esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is highly responsible for esophageal stricture. We conducted a comparative study in a porcine model to evaluate the effectiveness of adipose tissue-derived stromal cell (ADSC) double cell sheet transplantation. Twelve female pigs were treated with 5 cm long hemi-circumferential ESD and randomized in two groups. ADSC group (n = 6) received 4 double cell sheets of allogenic ADSC on a paper support membrane and control group (n = 6) received 4 paper support membranes. ADSC were labelled with PKH-67 fluorophore to allow probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopie (pCLE) monitoring. After 28 days follow-up, animals were sacrificed. At days 3, 14 and 28, endoscopic evaluation with pCLE and esophagography were performed. One animal from the control group was excluded (anesthetic complication). Animals from ADSC group showed less frequent alimentary trouble (17% vs 80%; P = 0.08) and higher gain weight on day 28. pCLE demonstrated a compatible cell signal in 4 animals of the ADSC group at day 3. In ADSC group, endoscopy showed that 1 out of 6 (17%) animals developed a severe esophageal stricture comparatively to 100% (5/5) in the control group; P = 0.015. Esophagography demonstrated a decreased degree of stricture in the ADSC group on day 14 (44% vs 81%; P = 0.017) and day 28 (46% vs 90%; P = 0.035). Histological analysis showed a decreased fibrosis development in the ADSC group, in terms of surface (9.7 vs 26.1 mm²; P = 0.017) and maximal depth (1.6 vs 3.2 mm; P = 0.052). In this model, transplantation of allogenic ADSC organized in double cell sheets after extended esophegeal ESD is strongly associated with a lower esophageal stricture's rate.

  8. Efficacy of multiple biliary stenting for refractory benign biliary strictures due to chronic calcifying pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ohyama, Hiroshi; Mikata, Rintaro; Ishihara, Takeshi; Sakai, Yuji; Sugiyama, Harutoshi; Yasui, Shin; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate endoscopic therapy efficacy for refractory benign biliary strictures (BBS) with multiple biliary stenting and clarify predictors. METHODS Ten consecutive patients with stones in the pancreatic head and BBS due to chronic pancreatitis who underwent endoscopic therapy were evaluated. Endoscopic insertion of a single stent failed in all patients. We used plastic stents (7F, 8.5F, and 10F) and increased stents at intervals of 2 or 3 mo. Stents were removed approximately 1 year after initial stenting. BBS and common bile duct (CBD) diameter were evaluated using cholangiography. Patients were followed for ≥ 6 mo after therapy, interviewed for cholestasis symptoms, and underwent liver function testing every visit. Patients with complete and incomplete stricture dilations were compared. RESULTS Endoscopic therapy was completed in 8 (80%) patients, whereas 2 (20%) patients could not continue therapy because of severe acute cholangitis and abdominal abscess, respectively. The mean number of stents was 4.1 ± 1.2. In two (20%) patients, BBS did not improve; thus, a biliary stent was inserted. BBS improved in six (60%) patients. CBD diameter improved more significantly in the complete group than in the incomplete group (6.1 ± 1.8 mm vs 13.7 ± 2.2 mm, respectively, P = 0.010). Stricture length was significantly associated with complete stricture dilation (complete group; 20.5 ± 3.0 mm, incomplete group; 29.0 ± 5.1 mm, P = 0.011). Acute cholangitis did not recur during the mean follow-up period of 20.6 ± 7.3 mo. CONCLUSION Sequential endoscopic insertion of multiple stents is effective for refractory BBS caused by chronic calcifying pancreatitis. BBS length calculation can improve patient selection procedure for therapy. PMID:28101303

  9. Laparoscopic reconstruction of iatrogenic-induced lower ureteric strictures: Does timing of repair influence the outcome?

    PubMed

    Abraham, George P; Das, Krishanu; Ramaswami, Krishnamohan; George, Datson P; Abraham, Jisha J; Thachil, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Influence of timing of repair on outcome following laparoscopic reconstruction of lower ureteric strictures To assess the influence of timing of repair on outcome following laparoscopic reconstruction of lower ureteric strictures in our adult patient population. Single surgeon operative experience in two institutes. Retrospective analysis. All patients were worked up in detail. All patients underwent cystoscopy and retrograde pyelography prior to laparoscopic approach. Patients were categorised into two groups: early repair (within seven days of inciting event) and delayed repair (after two weeks). Operative parameters and postoperative events were recorded. Postprocedure all patients were evaluated three monthly. Follow-up imaging was ordered at six months postoperatively. Improvement in renal function, resolution of hydronephrosis and unhindered drainage of contrast through the reconstructed unit on follow-up imaging was interpreted as a satisfactory outcome. Mean, standard deviation, equal variance t test, Mann Whitney Z test, Aspin-Welch unequal variance t test. Thirty-six patients (37 units, 36 unilateral and 1 simultaneous bilateral) underwent laparoscopic ureteral reconstruction of lower ureteric stricture following iatrogenic injury - 21 early repair (Group I) and 15 delayed repair (Group II). All patients were hemodynamically stable at presentation. Early repair was more technically demanding with increased operation duration. There was no difference in blood loss, operative complications, postoperative parameters, or longterm outcome. In hemodynamically stable patients, laparoscopic repair of iatrogenically induced lower ureteric strictures can be conveniently undertaken without undue delay from the inciting event. Compared to delayed repairs, the procedure is technically more demanding but morbidity incurred and outcome is at par.

  10. Development of a Swine Benign Biliary Stricture Model Using Endoscopic Biliary Radiofrequency Ablation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The large animal model with benign biliary stricture (BBS) is essential to undergo experiment on developing new devices and endoscopic treatment. This study conducted to establish a clinically relevant porcine BBS model by means of endobiliary radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) was performed on 12 swine. The animals were allocated to three groups (60, 80, and 100 W) according to the electrical power level of RFA electrode. Endobiliary RFA was applied to the common bile duct for 60 seconds using an RFA catheter that was endoscopically inserted. ERC was repeated two and four weeks, respectively, after the RFA to identify BBS. After the strictures were identified, histologic evaluations were performed. On the follow-up ERC two weeks after the procedure, a segmental bile duct stricture was observed in all animals. On microscopic examination, severe periductal fibrosis and luminal obliteration with transmural inflammation were demonstrated. Bile duct perforations occurred in two pigs (100 W, n = 1; 80 W, n = 1) but there were no major complications in the 60 W group. The application of endobiliary RFA with 60 W electrical power resulted in a safe and reproducible swine model of BBS. PMID:27510388

  11. Efficacy of Retrievable Metallic Stent with Fixation String for Benign Stricture after Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Myungsu; Hur, Saebeom; Kim, Minuk; Lee, Sang Hwan; Cho, Soo Buem; Kim, Chan Sun; Han, Joon Koo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of retrievable metallic stent with fixation string for benign anastomotic stricture after upper gastrointestinal (UGI) surgery. Materials and Methods From June 2009 to May 2015, a total of 56 retrievable metallic stents with fixation string were placed under fluoroscopy guidance in 42 patients who were diagnosed with benign anastomotic stricture after UGI surgery. Clinical success was defined as achieving normal regular diet (NRD). Results The clinical success rate after the first stent placement was 57.1% (24/42). After repeated stent placement and/or balloon dilation, the clinical success rate was increased to 83.3% (35/42). Six (14.3%) patients required surgical revision to achieve NRD. One (2.4%) patient failed to achieve NRD. Stent migration occurred in 60.7% (34/56) of patients. Successful rate of removing the stent using fixation string and angiocatheter was 94.6% (53/56). Distal migration occurred in 12 stents. Of the 12 stents, 10 (83.3%) were successfully removed whereas 2 could not be removed. No complication occurred regarding distal migration. Conclusion Using retrievable metallic stent with a fixation string is a feasible option for managing early benign anastomotic stricture after UGI surgery. It can reduce complications caused by distal migration of the stent. PMID:27833405

  12. Endoscopic and retrograde cholangiographic appearance of hepaticojejunostomy strictures: A practical classification

    PubMed Central

    Mönkemüller, Klaus; Jovanovic, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the endoscopic and radiological characteristics of patients with hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) and propose a practical HJ stricture classification. METHODS: In a retrospective observational study, a balloon-assisted enteroscopy (BAE)-endoscopic retrograde cholangiography was performed 44 times in 32 patients with surgically-altered gastrointestinal (GI) anatomy. BAE-endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography (ERCP) was performed 23 times in 18 patients with HJ. The HJ was carefully studied with the endoscope and using cholangiography. RESULTS: The authors observed that the hepaticojejunostomies have characteristics that may allow these to be classified based on endoscopic and cholangiographic appearances: the HJ orifice aspect may appear as small (type A) or large (type B) and the stricture may be short (type 1), long (type 2) and type 3, intrahepatic biliary strictures not associated with anastomotic stenosis. In total, 7 patients had type A1, 4 patients A2, one patient had B1, one patient had B (large orifice without stenosis) and one patient had type B3. CONCLUSION: This practical classification allows for an accurate initial assessment of the HJ, thus potentially allowing for adequate therapeutic planning, as the shape, length and complexity of the HJ and biliary tree choice may mandate the type of diagnostic and therapeutic accessories to be used. Of additional importance, a standardized classification may allow for better comparison of studies of patients undergoing BAE-ERCP in the setting of altered upper GI anatomy. PMID:22110837

  13. Plastic and Biodegradable Stents for Complex and Refractory Benign Esophageal Strictures

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Young Hee

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic stent placement is a well-accepted and effective alternative treatment modality for complex and refractory esophageal strictures. Among the currently available types of stents, the partially covered self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) has a firm anchoring effect, preventing stent migration and ensuring effective covering of a narrowed segment. However, hyperplastic tissue reaction driven by the uncovered mesh may prevent easy and safe stent removal. As an alternative, a fully covered SEMS decreases the recurrence of dysphagia caused by hyperplastic tissue ingrowth; however, it has a high migration rate. Likewise, although a self-expanding plastic stent (SEPS) reduces reactive hyperplasia, the long-term outcome is disappointing because of the high rate of stent migration. A biodegradable stent has the main benefit of not requiring stent removal in comparison with SEMS and SEPS. However, it still has a somewhat high rate of hyperplastic reaction, and the long-term outcome does not satisfy expectations. Up to now, the question of which type of stent should be recommended for the effective treatment of complex and refractory benign strictures has no clear answer. Therefore, the selection of stent type for endoscopic treatment should be individualized, taking into consideration the endoscopist's experience as well as patient and stricture characteristics. PMID:25133114

  14. The role of interventional radiology in the treatment of biliary strictures after paediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fonio, Paolo; Calandri, Marco; Faletti, Riccardo; Righi, Dorico; Cerrina, Alessia; Brunati, Andrea; Salizzoni, Mauro; Gandini, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous treatment of biliary strictures after paediatric liver transplantation. In the period between October 1999 and October 2010, a total of 92 transplants in 86 children were performed at our Liver Transplant Centre. Eighteen patients had anastomotic biliary strictures (in four cases associated with intrahepatic bile duct stenosis). Percutaneous treatment (transhepatic biliary drainage and conventional/cutting balloon dilatation) was proposed as a first approach in 13/18 patients. Strict radiation protection precautions were taken in accordance with the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle. Mean follow-up time was 2,364 days. Surgical correction was required in 3/13 patients; in 8/13 cases, there was complete disappearance of clinical symptoms without bile duct dilatation; in one case, an asymptomatic persistent bile duct dilatation was detected while in the other case, the liver is currently in cirrhotic degeneration (69 % clinical success including the asymptomatic patient with biliary dilatation). Two of the five patients who were initially treated with surgery required percutaneous revision (clinical success of 100 %). There were two cases of long-term restenosis and two cases of transient haemobilia. Percutaneous procedures are safe and effective therapeutic options for the treatment of biliary strictures after paediatric liver transplantation.

  15. Simulated training in colonoscopic stenting of colonic strictures: validation of a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Iordache, F; Bucobo, J C; Devlin, D; You, K; Bergamaschi, R

    2015-07-01

    There are currently no available simulation models for training in colonoscopic stent deployment. The aim of this study was to validate a cadaver model for simulation training in colonoscopy with stent deployment for colonic strictures. This was a prospective study enrolling surgeons at a single institution. Participants performed colonoscopic stenting on a cadaver model. Their performance was assessed by two independent observers. Measurements were performed for quantitative analysis (time to identify stenosis, time for deployment, accuracy) and a weighted score was devised for assessment. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Student's t-test were used for nonparametric and parametric data, respectively. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used for reliability. Twenty participants performed a colonoscopy with deployment of a self-expandable metallic stent in two cadavers (groups A and B) with 20 strictures overall. The median time was 206 s. The model was able to differentiate between experts and novices (P = 0. 013). The results showed a good consensus estimate of reliability, with kappa = 0.571 (P < 0.0001). The cadaver model described in this study has content, construct and concurrent validity for simulation training in colonoscopic deployment of self-expandable stents for colonic strictures. Further studies are needed to evaluate the predictive validity of this model in terms of skill transfer to clinical practice. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. Palliation of Postoperative Gastrointestinal Anastomotic Malignant Strictures with Flexible Covered Metallic Stents: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeong-Min; Han, Young Min; Lee, Sang Yong; Kim, Chong Soo; Yang, Doo Hyun; Lee, Seung Ok

    2001-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of the placement of covered metallic stents for palliation of gastrointestinal anastomotic strictures secondary to recurrent gastric cancer.Methods: Under fluoroscopic guidance, placement of one or two self-expandable covered metallic stents was attempted perorally in 11 patents (aged 48-76 years) with anastomotic stenoses due to recurrent gastric malignancies. The strictures involved both the afferent and efferent loops in three patients. All patients had poor peroral food intake with severe nausea and vomiting after ingestion. The technical and clinical success was evaluated.Results: Placement of the covered stent was technically successful in 13 of 15 (87%) attempts in ten patients. After the procedure, 9 of 11 (82%) patients overall were able to ingest at least a liquid diet and had markedly decreased incidence of vomiting. During the follow-up of 2-31 weeks (mean 8.5 weeks) there were no major complications.Conclusion: These preliminary results suggest that flexible, covered stents may provide effective palliation of malignant anastomotic stricture secondary to recurrent gastric cancer.

  17. Useful strategies to prevent severe stricture after endoscopic submucosal dissection for superficial esophageal neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Kaname; Iijima, Katsunori; Koike, Tomoyuki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    The minimal invasiveness of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) prompted us to apply this technique to large-size early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and Barrett’s adenocarcinoma, despite the limitations in the study population and surveillance duration. A post-ESD ulceration of greater than three-fourths of esophageal circumference was advocated as an important risk factor for refractory strictures that require several sessions of dilation therapy. Most of the preoperative conditions are asymptomatic, but dilatation treatment for dysphagia associated with the stricture has potential risks of severe complications and a worsening of quality of life. Possible mechanisms of dysphasia were demonstrated based on dysmotility and pathological abnormalities at the site: (1) delayed mucosal healing; (2) severe inflammation and disorganized fibrosis with abundant extracellular matrices in the submucosa; and (3) atrophy in the muscularis proper. However, reports on the administration of anti-scarring agents, preventive dilation therapies, and regenerative medicine demonstrated limited success in stricture prevention, and there were discrepancies in the study designs and protocols of these reports. The development and consequent long-term assessments of new prophylactic technologies on the promotion of wound healing and control of the inflammatory/tumor microenvironment will require collaboration among various research fields because of the limited accuracy of preoperative staging and high-risk of local recurrence. PMID:26109798

  18. Dynamics of the sensory response to urethral flow over multiple time scales in rat

    PubMed Central

    Danziger, Zachary C; Grill, Warren M

    2015-01-01

    The pudendal nerve carries sensory information from the urethra that controls spinal reflexes necessary to maintain continence and achieve efficient micturition. Despite the key role urethral sensory feedback plays in regulation of the lower urinary tract, there is little information about the characteristics of urethral sensory responses to physiological stimuli, and the quantitative relationship between physiological stimuli and the evoked sensory activation is unknown. Such a relation is critical to understanding the neural control of the lower urinary tract and how dysfunction arises in disease states. We systematically quantified pudendal afferent responses to fluid flow in the urethra in vivo in the rat. We characterized the sensory response across a range of stimuli, and describe a previously unreported long-term neural accommodation phenomenon. We developed and validated a compact mechanistic mathematical model capable of reproducing the pudendal sensory activity in response to arbitrary profiles of urethral flows. These results describe the properties and function of urethral afferents that are necessary to understand how sensory disruption manifests in lower urinary tract pathophysiology. Key points Sensory information from the urethra is essential to maintain continence and to achieve efficient micturition and when compromised by disease or injury can lead to substantial loss of function. Despite the key role urethral sensory information plays in the lower urinary tract, the relationship between physiological urethral stimuli, such as fluid flow, and the neural sensory response is poorly understood. This work systematically quantifies pudendal afferent responses to a range of fluid flows in the urethra in vivo and describes a previously unknown long-term neural accommodation phenomenon in these afferents. We present a compact mechanistic mathematical model that reproduces the pudendal sensory activity in response to urethral flow. These results have

  19. Reinnervation of Urethral and Anal Sphincters With Femoral Motor Nerve to Pudendal Nerve Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Ruggieri, Michael R.; Braverman, Alan S.; Bernal, Raymond M.; Lamarre, Neil S.; Brown, Justin M.; Barbe, Mary F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Lower motor neuron damage to sacral roots or nerves can result in incontinence and a flaccid urinary bladder. We showed bladder reinnervation after transfer of coccygeal to sacral ventral roots, and genitofemoral nerves (L1, 2 origin) to pelvic nerves. This study assesses the feasibility of urethral and anal sphincter reinnervation using transfer of motor branches of the femoral nerve (L2–4 origin) to pudendal nerves (S1, 2 origin) that innervate the urethral and anal sphincters in a canine model. Methods Sacral ventral roots were selected by their ability to stimulate bladder, urethral sphincter, and anal sphincter contraction and transected. Bilaterally, branches of the femoral nerve, specifically, nervus saphenous pars muscularis [Evans HE. Miller’s anatomy of the dog. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1993], were transferred and end-to-end anastomosed to transected pudendal nerve branches in the perineum, then enclosed in unipolar nerve cuff electrodes with leads to implanted RF micro-stimulators. Results Nerve stimulation induced increased anal and urethral sphincter pressures in five of six transferred nerves. Retrograde ne