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Sample records for posteroventral cochlear nucleus

  1. Effects of cochlear ablation on amino acid concentrations in the chinchilla posteroventral cochlear nucleus, as compared to rat.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, D A; Chen, K; Godfrey, M A; Jin, Y-M; Robinson, K T; Hair, C

    2008-06-12

    Using a microchemical approach, we measured changes of amino acid concentrations in the chinchilla caudal posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN) after cochlear ablation to determine to what extent slow decreases of glutamate and aspartate concentrations after carboplatin treatment resulted from slower effects of cochlear damage in chinchillas than in rats and guinea pigs, as opposed to effects of carboplatin treatment being slower than those of cochlear ablation. Our results indicate that both factors are involved: decreases of glutamate and aspartate concentrations after cochlear ablation are much slower in chinchillas than in rats and guinea pigs, but they are much faster than the decreases after carboplatin treatment. Further, aspartate and glutamate concentrations in the chinchilla caudal PVCN decreased by larger amounts after cochlear ablation than in rats or guinea pigs, and there was a transient increase of aspartate concentration at short survival times. Detailed mapping of amino acid concentrations in the PVCN of a chinchilla with 1 month survival after cochlear ablation and a rat with 7 days' survival indicated that the reductions of glutamate and aspartate occurred throughout the PVCN but were somewhat larger in ventral and caudal parts in chinchilla. Any decreases in the adjacent granular region were very small. There were also sustained bilateral decreases in concentrations of other amino acids, notably GABA and glycine, in the caudal PVCN of cochlea-ablated chinchillas but not rats. The effects of cochlear ablation on the concentrations of most of these other amino acids in chinchilla caudal PVCN differed from those of carboplatin treatment. Thus, although a major effect of auditory nerve damage on the cochlear nucleus-decreases of glutamate and aspartate concentrations-occurs across species and types of lesions, the details of timing and magnitude and the effects on other amino acids can vary greatly.

  2. Tuberculoventral neurons project to the multipolar cell area but not to the octopus cell area of the posteroventral cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Wickesberg, R E; Whitlon, D; Oertel, D

    1991-11-15

    Tuberculoventral neurons in the deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) provide frequency-specific inhibition to neurons in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) of the mouse (Wickesberg and Oertel, '88, '90). The present experiments examine the projection from the deep DCN to the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN). Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injections into the PVCN reveal that the multipolar cell area, but not the octopus cell area, is innervated by neurons in the deep layer of the DCN. Injections into the multipolar cell area, in the rostral and ventral PVCN, labeled neurons across the entire rostrocaudal extent of the deep DCN. The labeled tuberculoventral neurons generally lay within the band of labeled auditory nerve terminals in the DCN. Injections of HRP into the octopus cell area, in the dorsal caudal PVCN, labeled almost no cells within the band of auditory nerve fiber terminals that were labeled by the same injection. The inhibition from tuberculoventral neurons onto ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) neurons is likely to be mediated by glycine (Wickesberg and Oertel, '90). Slices of the cochlear nuclear complex were immunolabeled by an antibody against glycine conjugated with glutaraldehyde to bovine serum albumin (Wenthold et al., '87). Glycine-like immunoreactivity was found throughout the DCN, the AVCN and the multipolar cell area, but there was little labeling in the octopus cell area. This finding provides independent evidence that tuberculoventral neurons do not innervate the octopus cell area and indicates that the octopus cell area is anatomically and functionally distinct.

  3. Connections and synaptic function in the posteroventral cochlear nucleus of deaf jerker mice

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiao-Jie; McGinley, Matthew J.; Oertel, Donata

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the gene that encodes espins can cause deafness and vestibular disorders; mice that are homozygous for the autosomal recessive, jerker mutation in the espin gene never hear. Extracellular injections of biocytin into the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) revealed that although the cochlear nuclei are smaller in je/je mice, the topography in its innervation resembles that in wild type mice. Auditory nerve fibers innervate narrow, topographically organized, “isofrequency” bands in deaf animals over the ages examined, P18–P70. The projection of tuberculoventral cells was topographic in je/je as in wild type mice. Terminals of auditory nerve fibers in the multipolar cell area included both large and small endings whereas in the octopus cell area they were exclusively small boutons in je/je as in wild type mice but end bulbs near the nerve root of je/je animals were smaller than in hearing animals. In whole-cell recordings from targets of auditory nerve fibers, octopus and T stellate cells, miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) had similar shapes as in +/+, indicating that the properties of AMPA receptors were not affected by the mutation. In je/je animals the frequency of spontaneous mEPSCs was elevated and synaptic depression in responses to trains of shocks delivered at between 100 and 333 Hz was greater than in wild type mice indicating that the probability of neurotransmitter release was increased. The frequency of spontaneous mEPSCs and extent of synaptic depression were greater in octopus than in T stellate cells, in both wild type and je/je mice. PMID:18634002

  4. Octopus Cells in the Posteroventral Cochlear Nucleus Provide the Main Excitatory Input to the Superior Paraolivary Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Felix Ii, Richard A; Gourévitch, Boris; Gómez-Álvarez, Marcelo; Leijon, Sara C M; Saldaña, Enrique; Magnusson, Anna K

    2017-01-01

    Auditory streaming enables perception and interpretation of complex acoustic environments that contain competing sound sources. At early stages of central processing, sounds are segregated into separate streams representing attributes that later merge into acoustic objects. Streaming of temporal cues is critical for perceiving vocal communication, such as human speech, but our understanding of circuits that underlie this process is lacking, particularly at subcortical levels. The superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON), a prominent group of inhibitory neurons in the mammalian brainstem, has been implicated in processing temporal information needed for the segmentation of ongoing complex sounds into discrete events. The SPON requires temporally precise and robust excitatory input(s) to convey information about the steep rise in sound amplitude that marks the onset of voiced sound elements. Unfortunately, the sources of excitation to the SPON and the impact of these inputs on the behavior of SPON neurons have yet to be resolved. Using anatomical tract tracing and immunohistochemistry, we identified octopus cells in the contralateral cochlear nucleus (CN) as the primary source of excitatory input to the SPON. Cluster analysis of miniature excitatory events also indicated that the majority of SPON neurons receive one type of excitatory input. Precise octopus cell-driven onset spiking coupled with transient offset spiking make SPON responses well-suited to signal transitions in sound energy contained in vocalizations. Targets of octopus cell projections, including the SPON, are strongly implicated in the processing of temporal sound features, which suggests a common pathway that conveys information critical for perception of complex natural sounds.

  5. Octopus Cells in the Posteroventral Cochlear Nucleus Provide the Main Excitatory Input to the Superior Paraolivary Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Felix II, Richard A.; Gourévitch, Boris; Gómez-Álvarez, Marcelo; Leijon, Sara C. M.; Saldaña, Enrique; Magnusson, Anna K.

    2017-01-01

    Auditory streaming enables perception and interpretation of complex acoustic environments that contain competing sound sources. At early stages of central processing, sounds are segregated into separate streams representing attributes that later merge into acoustic objects. Streaming of temporal cues is critical for perceiving vocal communication, such as human speech, but our understanding of circuits that underlie this process is lacking, particularly at subcortical levels. The superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON), a prominent group of inhibitory neurons in the mammalian brainstem, has been implicated in processing temporal information needed for the segmentation of ongoing complex sounds into discrete events. The SPON requires temporally precise and robust excitatory input(s) to convey information about the steep rise in sound amplitude that marks the onset of voiced sound elements. Unfortunately, the sources of excitation to the SPON and the impact of these inputs on the behavior of SPON neurons have yet to be resolved. Using anatomical tract tracing and immunohistochemistry, we identified octopus cells in the contralateral cochlear nucleus (CN) as the primary source of excitatory input to the SPON. Cluster analysis of miniature excitatory events also indicated that the majority of SPON neurons receive one type of excitatory input. Precise octopus cell-driven onset spiking coupled with transient offset spiking make SPON responses well-suited to signal transitions in sound energy contained in vocalizations. Targets of octopus cell projections, including the SPON, are strongly implicated in the processing of temporal sound features, which suggests a common pathway that conveys information critical for perception of complex natural sounds. PMID:28620283

  6. Altered vesicular glutamate transporter distributions in the mouse cochlear nucleus following cochlear insult

    PubMed Central

    Heeringa, Amarins N.; Stefanescu, Roxana A.; Raphael, Yehoash; Shore, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 (VGLUT1 and VGLUT2) have distinct distributions in the cochlear nucleus that correspond to the sources of the labeled terminals. VGLUT1 is mainly associated with terminals of auditory nerve fibers, whereas VGLUT2 is mainly associated with glutamatergic terminals deriving from other sources that project to the cochlear nucleus (CN), including somatosensory and vestibular terminals. Previous studies in guinea pig have shown that cochlear damage results in a decrease of VGLUT1-labeled puncta and an increase in VGLUT2-labeled puncta. This indicates cross-modal compensation that is of potential importance in somatic tinnitus. To examine whether this effect is consistent across species and to provide a background for future studies, using transgenesis, the current study examines VGLUT expression profiles upon cochlear insult by intracochlear kanamycin injections in the mouse. Intracochlear kanamycin injections abolished ipsilateral ABR responses in all animals and reduced ipsilateral spiral ganglion neuron densities in animals that were sacrificed after four weeks, but not in animals that were sacrificed after three weeks. In all unilaterally deafened animals, VGLUT1 density was decreased in CN regions that receive auditory nerve fiber terminals, i.e. in the deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), in the interstitial region where the auditory nerve enters the CN, and in the magnocellular region of the antero- and posteroventral CN. In contrast, density of VGLUT2 expression was upregulated in the fusiform cell layer of the DCN and in the granule cell lamina, which are known to receive somatosensory and vestibular terminals. These results show that a cochlear insult induces cross-modal compensation in the cochlear nucleus of the mouse, confirming previous findings in guinea pig, and that these changes are not dependent on the occurrence of spiral ganglion neuron degeneration. PMID:26705736

  7. Feasibility of multichannel human cochlear nucleus stimulation.

    PubMed

    Luetje, C M; Whittaker, C K; Geier, L; Mediavilla, S J; Shallop, J K

    1992-01-01

    Bipolar electrical stimulation of the brainstem cochlear nucleus (CN) following acoustic tumor removal in an only-hearing ear can provide beneficial hearing. However, the benefits of multichannel stimulation have yet to be defined. Following removal of a second acoustic tumor in a patient with neurofibromatosis 2, a Nucleus mini-22 channel implant device was inserted with the electrode array tip from the foramen of Luschka cephalad along the root entry zone of the eighth nerve, secured by a single suture superficially in the brain stem. Initial stimulation on the sixth postoperative day indicated that electrodes 18 to 22 were capable of CN stimulation without seventh nerve stimulation. Presumed electrode migration precluded further CN stimulation 1 month later. This report illustrates the feasibility of brainstem CN stimulation with an existing multichannel system.

  8. Peripheral cell loss related to calcium binding protein immunocytochemistry in the dorsal cochlear nucleus in CBA/CaJ mice during aging.

    PubMed

    Idrizbegovic, E; Viberg, A; Bogdanovic, N; Canlon, B

    2001-01-01

    The influence of cochlear hair cell and spiral ganglia neuron loss on calcium binding protein immunoreactivity (calretinin, parvalbumin and calbindin) in the dorsal and posteroventral cochlear nuclei (DCN and PVCN) in CBA/CaJ (CBA) mice during aging (1-39 months) was determined. Since calcium binding proteins have buffering properties against calcium overload, they may have a protective role during aging. It is shown that the percentage of calretinin- and parvalbumin-immunopositive neurons in the DCN showed a statistically significant positive correlation with inner hair cell loss, outer hair cell loss, and spiral ganglion cell loss. A correlation was also found between aging and the auditory periphery, and calcium binding proteins in the DCN. These findings imply that the pathophysiological state of the auditory periphery may influence the neuronal homeostasis in the dorsal cochlear nucleus.

  9. Glycine immunoreactivity of multipolar neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus which project to the dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Doucet, J R; Ross, A T; Gillespie, M B; Ryugo, D K

    1999-06-14

    Certain distinct populations of neurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus are inhibited by a neural source that is responsive to a wide range of acoustic frequencies. In this study, we examined the glycine immunoreactivity of two types of ventral cochlear nucleus neurons (planar and radiate) in the rat which project to the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) and thus, might be responsible for this inhibition. Previously, we proposed that planar neurons provided a tonotopic and narrowly tuned input to the DCN, whereas radiate neurons provided a broadly tuned input and thus, were strong candidates as the source of broadband inhibition (Doucet and Ryugo [1997] J. Comp. Neurol. 385:245-264). We tested this idea by combining retrograde labeling and glycine immunohistochemical protocols. Planar and radiate neurons were first retrogradely labeled by injecting biotinylated dextran amine into a restricted region of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. The labeled cells were visualized using streptavidin conjugated to indocarbocyanine (Cy3), a fluorescent marker. Sections that contained planar or radiate neurons were then processed for glycine immunocytochemistry using diaminobenzidine as the chromogen. Immunostaining of planar neurons was light, comparable to that of excitatory neurons (pyramidal neurons in the DCN), whereas immunostaining of radiate neurons was dark, comparable to that of glycinergic neurons (cartwheel cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus and principal cells in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that radiate neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus subserve the wideband inhibition observed in the dorsal cochlear nucleus.

  10. Thresholds of cat cochlear nucleus neurons to microwave pulses.

    PubMed

    Seaman, R L; Lebovitz, R M

    1989-01-01

    Action potentials of neurons in cat dorsal and posteroventral cochlear nuclei were recorded extracellularly with glass microelectrodes while the head of the cat was exposed to microwave pulses at 915 MHz using a diathermy applicator. Response thresholds to acoustic tones, acoustic clicks, and microwave pulses were determined for auditory units with characteristic frequencies (CFs) from 278 Hz to 39.2 kHz. Tests with pulsatile stimuli were performed for durations of 20-700 mus, principally 20, 70, and 200 mus. Brainstem midline specific absorption rate (SAR) threshold was as small as 11.1 mW/g per pulse, and specific absorption (SA) threshold was a small as 0.6 muJ/g per pulse. Microwave thresholds were generally lower for CF less than 9 kHz, as were most acoustic thresholds. However, microwave threshold was only weakly related to click threshold and CF-tone threshold of each unit.

  11. Response Properties of Cochlear Nucleus Neurons in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Roth, G. Linn; Recio, A.

    2009-01-01

    Much of what is known about how the cochlear nuclei participate in mammalian hearing comes from studies of non-primate mammalian species. To determine to what extent the cochlear nuclei of primates resemble those of other mammalian orders, we have recorded responses to sound in three primate species: marmosets, Cynomolgus macaques, and squirrel monkeys. These recordings show that the same types of temporal firing patterns are found in primates that have been described in other mammals. Responses to tones of neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus have similar tuning, latencies, post-stimulus time and interspike interval histograms as those recorded in non-primate cochlear nucleus neurons. In the dorsal cochlear nucleus, too, responses were similar. From these results it is evident that insights gained from non-primate studies can be applied to the peripheral auditory system of primates. PMID:19531377

  12. Remote fitting in Nucleus cochlear implant recipients.

    PubMed

    Wesarg, Thomas; Wasowski, Arkadiusz; Skarzynski, Henryk; Ramos, Angel; Falcon Gonzalez, Juan Carlos; Kyriafinis, George; Junge, Friederike; Novakovich, Allan; Mauch, Herbert; Laszig, Roland

    2010-12-01

    Remote programming is a viable alternative to face-to-face programming. The procedure can be regarded as safe, time and cost saving, and clinically feasible. The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of commercially available video conferencing technology and remote control software for remote programming of sound processors in Nucleus cochlear implant recipients by assessing the feasibility, efficiency, risks, and benefits of remote programming compared to face-to-face programming. This was a randomized, prospective study. Seventy Nucleus implant recipients were recruited for a random sequence comparison of one remote and one local programming session each. The time required for local or remote programming was measured and resulting MAP T and C levels were compared. The recipient provided feedback on the local and remote programming session. The audiologist and monitoring clinician were asked for their feedback on remote programming. Remote programming sessions were successfully finished for 69 recipients. No significant differences between T and C levels obtained by local and remote programming were found. The audiologists and monitoring clinicians agreed that the remote programming system provided an acceptable level of performance after most sessions. More than 50 participating recipients considered remote programming an efficient alternative to face-to-face-programming.

  13. Projections from the cochlear nucleus to the superior paraolivary nucleus in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Schofield, B R

    1995-09-11

    Axonal tracing techniques were used to study the projection from the cochlear nucleus to the superior paraolivary nucleus in guinea pigs. Different tracers were used to identify the cell types that give rise to the projections, the morphology of their axons, and the cell types that they contact in the superior paraolivary nucleus. Injections of Fluoro-Gold or peroxidase-labeled-WGA and HRP into the superior paraolivary nucleus labeled multipolar cells and octopus cells bilaterally in the ventral cochlear nucleus, mainly on the contralateral side. Injections of PHAL into the ventral cochlear nucleus labeled two types of axons in the superior paraolivary nucleus. Thin axons branch infrequently and give rise primarily to small, en passant boutons. Thick axons have larger boutons, many of which are terminal boutons that arise from short collaterals. Thin axons appear to originate from multipolar cells, whereas thick axons probably originate from octopus cells. Both types are found bilaterally after an injection into the ventral cochlear nucleus on one side. Individual thick or thin axons may contact multiple cell types in the superior paraolivary nucleus. Individual cells in the superior paraolivary nucleus can receive convergent input from both thick and thin axons. Combined anterograde and retrograde transport of different fluorescent tracers was used to identify the projections of the cells in the superior paraolivary nucleus that receive inputs from the ventral cochlear nucleus. Cells in the superior paraolivary nucleus that projected to the ipsilateral cochlear nucleus or to the ipsilateral inferior colliculus appeared to be contacted by axons that were labeled by anterograde transport from the contralateral ventral cochlear nucleus. Thus the projections to the superior paraolivary nucleus are in a position to affect the activity in both ascending and descending auditory pathways.

  14. Cochlear nucleus whole mount explants promote the differentiation of neuronal stem cells from the cochlear nucleus in co-culture experiments.

    PubMed

    Rak, Kristen; Völker, Johannes; Jürgens, Lukas; Völker, Christine; Frenz, Silke; Scherzad, Agmal; Schendzielorz, Philipp; Jablonka, Sibylle; Mlynski, Robert; Radeloff, Andreas; Hagen, Rudolf

    2015-08-07

    The cochlear nucleus is the first brainstem nucleus to receive sensory input from the cochlea. Depriving this nucleus of auditory input leads to cellular and molecular disorganization which may potentially be counteracted by the activation or application of stem cells. Neuronal stem cells (NSCs) have recently been identified in the neonatal cochlear nucleus and a persistent neurogenic niche was demonstrated in this brainstem nucleus until adulthood. The present work investigates whether the neurogenic environment of the cochlear nucleus can promote the survival of engrafted NSCs and whether cochlear nucleus-derived NSCs can differentiate into neurons and glia in brain tissue. Therefore, cochlear nucleus whole-mount explants were co-cultured with NSCs extracted from either the cochlear nucleus or the hippocampus and compared to a second environment using whole-mount explants from the hippocampus. Factors that are known to induce neuronal differentiation were also investigated in these NSC-explant experiments. NSCs derived from the cochlear nucleus engrafted in the brain tissue and differentiated into all cells of the neuronal lineage. Hippocampal NSCs also immigrated in cochlear nucleus explants and differentiated into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Laminin expression was up-regulated in the cochlear nucleus whole-mounts and regulated the in vitro differentiation of NSCs from the cochlear nucleus. These experiments confirm a neurogenic environment in the cochlear nucleus and the capacity of cochlear nucleus-derived NSCs to differentiate into neurons and glia. Consequently, the presented results provide a first step for the possible application of stem cells to repair the disorganization of the cochlear nucleus, which occurs after hearing loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Auditory peripheral influences on calcium binding protein immunoreactivity in the cochlear nucleus during aging in the C57BL/6J mouse.

    PubMed

    Idrizbegovic, Esma; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Viberg, Agneta; Canlon, Barbara

    2003-05-01

    The C57BL/6J (C57) mouse was selected as a suitable model for early presbyacusis to determine if there were correlations between peripheral pathology (spiral ganglion loss, inner and outer hair cell loss) and calcium binding immunoreactivity in the cochlear nucleus during aging. The quantitative stereological method, the optical fractionator, was used for determining the total number of neurons and calcium binding immunopositive neurons (calbindin, parvalbumin and calretinin) during aging in the posteroventral- and dorsal cochlear nucleus (PVCN and DCN) in C57 mice. Comparing 30-month-old to 1-month-old C57 mice, a percent increase in parvalbumin and calbindin immunoreactivity was evident in both the PVCN and DCN. Correlations were made between peripheral pathology (spiral ganglion and inner and outer hair cell loss) and calcium binding protein expression. Significant correlations between cochlear pathology and the percentage of parvalbumin and calretinin immunoreactive neurons were demonstrated in the DCN. Moreover, significant correlations were found between cochlear pathology and parvalbumin and calbindin in the PVCN. In summary, the findings imply that degenerative changes in the auditory periphery can modulate neuronal homeostasis by increasing calcium binding proteins in the PVCN and DCN during aging. Taken together, these findings suggest a role for calcium binding proteins in protecting against age-induced calcium toxicity.

  16. The development of the Nucleus Freedom Cochlear implant system.

    PubMed

    Patrick, James F; Busby, Peter A; Gibson, Peter J

    2006-12-01

    Cochlear Limited (Cochlear) released the fourth-generation cochlear implant system, Nucleus Freedom, in 2005. Freedom is based on 25 years of experience in cochlear implant research and development and incorporates advances in medicine, implantable materials, electronic technology, and sound coding. This article presents the development of Cochlear's implant systems, with an overview of the first 3 generations, and details of the Freedom system: the CI24RE receiver-stimulator, the Contour Advance electrode, the modular Freedom processor, the available speech coding strategies, the input processing options of Smart Sound to improve the signal before coding as electrical signals, and the programming software. Preliminary results from multicenter studies with the Freedom system are reported, demonstrating better levels of performance compared with the previous systems. The final section presents the most recent implant reliability data, with the early findings at 18 months showing improved reliability of the Freedom implant compared with the earlier Nucleus 3 System. Also reported are some of the findings of Cochlear's collaborative research programs to improve recipient outcomes. Included are studies showing the benefits from bilateral implants, electroacoustic stimulation using an ipsilateral and/or contralateral hearing aid, advanced speech coding, and streamlined speech processor programming.

  17. Growth behavior of cochlear nucleus neuronal cells on semiconductor substrates.

    PubMed

    Rak, Kristen; Wasielewski, Natalia; Radeloff, Andreas; Scherzed, Agmal; Jablonka, Sibylle; Hagen, Rudolf; Mlynski, Robert

    2011-05-01

    Auditory brainstem implants provide sound information by direct stimulation of the cochlear nucleus to patients with dysfunctional or absent cranial nerve VIII. In contrast to patients with cochlear implants, the use of the auditory brainstem implants is less successful. This cannot be fully explained by the difference location of stimulation but a rather unspecific neuronal stimulation. The aim of this study was to further examine neuronal cells of the cochlear nucleus and to test their interactions with semiconductor substrates as a potential electrode material for improved auditory brainstem implants. The cochlear nuclei of postnatal day 7 rats were microsurgically dissected. The tissue was dissociated enzymatically and plated on coverslips as control and on the semiconductor substrates silicon or silicon nitride. After 4 days in culture the morphology and growth of dissociated cells was determined by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Dissociated cells of the cochlear nucleus showed reduced cell growth on semiconductor substrates compared with controls. SEM analysis demonstrated close contact of neurons with supporting cells in culture and good adherence of neuronal growth cones on the used materials. These findings present basic knowledge for the development of neuron-electrode interfaces for future auditory brainstem implants. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Age-related increases in calcium-binding protein immunoreactivity in the cochlear nucleus of hearing impaired C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Idrizbegovic, Esma; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Willott, James F; Canlon, Barbara

    2004-09-01

    Aging C57BL/6J (C57) mice (1-30 months old), were used to study calcium-binding protein immunoreactivity (parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin) in the cochlear nucleus. A quantitative stereological method, the optical fractionator was used to determine the total number of neurons, and the total number of immunostained neurons in the posteroventral- and dorsal cochlear nuclei (PVCN and DCN). A statistically significant age-related decrease of the total number of neurons was found in the PVCN and DCN using Nissl staining. In the DCN, an age-related increase in the total number of parvalbumin-positive neurons was found, while no changes in the total number of calbindin or calretinin positive neurons were demonstrated. In the PVCN, the total number of parvalbumin, calbindin, or calretinin positive neurons remained stable with increasing age. The percentage of parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin positive neurons significantly increased in the DCN, and the percentage of parvalbumin and calbindin-positive neurons increased in the PVCN. These findings imply that there is a relative up-regulation of calcium-binding proteins in neurons that had not previously expressed these proteins. This plastic response in the profoundly hearing impaired C57 mouse may be a survival strategy for cochlear nucleus neurons.

  19. Mechanisms of onset responses in octopus cells of the cochlear nucleus: implications of a model.

    PubMed

    Cai, Y; Walsh, E J; McGee, J

    1997-08-01

    The octopus cells of the posteroventral cochlear nucleus receive inputs from auditory-nerve fibers and form one of the major ascending auditory pathways. They respond to acoustic and electrical stimulation transiently and are believed to carry temporal information in the precise timing of their action potentials. The mechanism whereby onset responses are generated is not clear. Proposals aimed at elucidating the mechanism range from neural circuitry and/or inhibition, "depolarization block" (or inactivation of Na+ channels), and the involvement of a 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-sensitive, low-threshold channel (K(LT)). In the present study, we used a compartment model to investigate possible mechanisms. The model cell contains a soma, an axon, and four passive dendrites. Four kinds of ionic channels were included in the soma compartment: the Hodgkin-Huxley-like Na+ and K+ channels, a 4-AP-sensitive, low-threshold channel, K(LT), and a Cs+-sensitive, hyperpolarization-activated inward rectifier, Ih. DC currents and half-wave-rectified sine waves were used as stimuli. Our results showed that an onset response can be generated in the absence of neuronal circuitry of any form, thus suggesting that the onset response in octopus cells is regulated intrinsically. Among the many factors involved, low-input impedance, partly contributed by Ih, appears to be essential to the basic onset response pattern; also, the K(LT) conductance plays a major role, whereas the inactivation of Na+ channels probably plays only a secondary role. The dynamics of Ih also can modify the response pattern, but due to its slow kinetics, its role is probably limited to longer-term regulation under the conditions simulated in this study.

  20. Selective Stimulation and Measurement in the Cochlear Nucleus With the Spike Microelectrode Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Selective Stimulation and Measurement in the Cochlear Nucleus with the Spike Microelectrode Array F. MASE1, H. TAKAHASHI1, T. EJIRI1, M. NAKAO1, N...aren’t always effective, because we don’t have sufficient knowledge of the auditory pathways and the Cochlear Nucleus (CN) functions to stimulate the... Cochlear Nucleus functionally. Our goals are to enhance our understanding of such functions and to develop effective stimulating strategies of the CN

  1. Ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus in guinea pigs: cytoarchitecture and inputs from the cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Schofield, B R; Cant, N B

    1997-03-17

    Cytoarchitectonic criteria were used to distinguish three subdivisions of the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus in guinea pigs. Axonal tracing techniques were used to examine the projections from the cochlear nucleus to each subdivision. Based on the cell types they contain and their patterns of input, we distinguished ventral, dorsal, and anterior subdivisions of the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. All three subdivisions receive bilateral inputs from the cochlear nucleus, with contralateral inputs greatly outnumbering ipsilateral inputs. However, the relative density of the inputs varies: the ventral subdivision receives the densest projection, whereas the anterior subdivision receives the sparsest projection. Further differences are apparent in the morphology of the afferent axons. Following an injection of Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin into the ventral cochlear nucleus, most of the axons on the contralateral side and all of the axons on the ipsilateral side are thin. Thick axons are present only in the ventral subdivision contralateral to the injection site. The evidence from both anterograde and retrograde tracing studies suggests that the thick axons originate from octopus cells, whereas the thin axons arise from multipolar cells and spherical bushy cells. The differences in constituent cell types and in patterns of inputs suggest that each of the three subdivisions of the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus makes a distinct contribution to the analysis of acoustic signals.

  2. Neonatal Deafness Results in Degraded Topographic Specificity (Frequency Resolution) of Auditory Nerve Projections to the Cochlear Nucleus in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Leake, Patricia A.; Hradek, Gary T.; Chair, Leila; Snyder, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    We previously examined the early postnatal maturation of the primary afferent auditory nerve projections from the cat cochlear spiral ganglion (SG) to the cochlear nucleus (CN). In normal kittens these projections exhibit clear cochleotopic organization before birth, but quantitative data showed that their topographic specificity is less precise in perinatal kittens than in adults. Normalized for CN size, projections to anteroventral (AVCN), posteroventral (PVCN) and dorsal (DCN) subdivisions are all significantly broader in neonates than in adults. By 6–7 days postnatal, projections are proportionate to adults’, suggesting that significant refinement occurs during the early postnatal period. The present study examined SG projections to the CN in adult cats deafened as neonates by ototoxic drug administration. The fundamental organization of the SG-to-CN projections into frequency band laminae is clearly evident despite severe auditory deprivation from birth. However, when normalized for the smaller CN size in deafened animals, projections are disproportionately broader than in controls; AVCN, PVCN and DCN projections are 39%, 26% and 48% broader, respectively, than predicted if they were precisely proportionate to projections in normal hearing animals. These findings suggest that normal auditory experience and neural activity are essential for the early postnatal development (or subsequent maintenance) of the topographic precision of SG-to-CN projections. After early deafness, the basic cochleotopic organization of the CN is established and maintained into adulthood, but the CN is severely reduced in size and the topographic specificity of primary afferent projections that underlies frequency resolution in the normal central auditory system is significantly degraded. PMID:16680765

  3. A bushy cell network in the rat ventral cochlear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Nieto, Ricardo; Rubio, Maria E.

    2010-01-01

    Geometry of the dendritic tree and synaptic organization of afferent inputs are essential factors in determining how synaptic input is integrated by neurons. This information remains elusive for one of the first brainstem neurons involved in processing of the primary auditory signal from the ear, the bushy cells (BCs) of the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). Here, we labeled the BC dendritic trees with retrograde tracing techniques to analyze their geometry and synaptic organization after immunofluorescence for excitatory and inhibitory synaptic markers, electron microscopy, morphometry, double tract-tracing methods, and 3-D reconstructions. Our study revealed that BC dendrites provide space for a large number of compartmentalized excitatory and inhibitory synaptic interactions. The dendritic inputs on BCs are of cochlear and non-cochlear origin, and their proportion and distribution are dependent on the branching pattern and orientation of the dendritic tree in the VCN. Three-dimensional reconstructions showed that BC dendrites branch and cluster with those of other BCs in the core of the VCN. Within the cluster, incoming synaptic inputs establish divergent multiple-contact synapses (dyads and triads) between BCs. Furthermore, neuron-neuron connections including puncta adherentia, sarcoplasmic junctions and gap junctions are common between BCs, which suggests that these neurons are electrically coupled. Together, our study demonstrates the existence of a BC network in the rat VCN. This network may establish the neuroanatomical basis for acoustic information processing by individual BCs, as well as for enhanced synchronization of the output signal of the VCN. PMID:19634178

  4. Planar multipolar cells in the cochlear nucleus project to medial olivocochlear neurons in mouse.

    PubMed

    Darrow, Keith N; Benson, Thane E; Brown, M Christian

    2012-05-01

    Medial olivocochlear (MOC) neurons originate in the superior olivary complex and project to the cochlea, where they act to reduce the effects of noise masking and protect the cochlea from damage. MOC neurons respond to sound via a reflex pathway; however, in this pathway the cochlear nucleus cell type that provides input to MOC neurons is not known. We investigated whether multipolar cells of the ventral cochlear nucleus have projections to MOC neurons by labeling them with injections into the dorsal cochlear nucleus. The projections of one type of labeled multipolar cell, planar neurons, were traced into the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, where they were observed terminating on MOC neurons (labeled in some cases by a second cochlear injection of FluoroGold). These terminations formed what appear to be excitatory synapses, i.e., containing small, round vesicles and prominent postsynaptic densities. These data suggest that cochlear nucleus planar multipolar neurons drive the MOC neuron's response to sound.

  5. The dolphin cochlear nucleus: topography, histology and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Malkemper, E P; Oelschläger, H H A; Huggenberger, S

    2012-02-01

    Despite the outstanding auditory capabilities of dolphins, there is only limited information available on the cytology of the auditory brain stem nuclei in these animals. Here, we investigated the cochlear nuclei (CN) of five brains of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and La Plata dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei) using cell and fiber stain microslide series representing the three main anatomical planes. In general, the CN in dolphins comprise the same set of subnuclei as in other mammals. However, the volume ratio of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) in relation to the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) of dolphins represents a minimum among the mammals examined so far. Because, for example, in cats the DCN is necessary for reflexive orientation of the head and pinnae towards a sound source, the massive restrictions in head movability in dolphins and the absence of outer ears may be correlated with the reduction of the DCN. Moreover, the same set of main neuron types were found in the dolphin CN as in other mammals, including octopus and multipolar cells. Because the latter two types of neurons are thought to be involved in the recognition of complex sounds, including speech, we suggest that, in dolphins, they may be involved in the processing of their communication signals. Comparison of the toothed whale species studied here revealed that large spherical cells were present in the La Plata dolphin but absent in the common dolphin. These neurons are known to be engaged in the processing of low-frequency sounds in terrestrial mammals. Accordingly, in the common dolphin, the absence of large spherical cells seems to be correlated with a shift of its auditory spectrum into the high-frequency range above 20 kHz. The existence of large spherical cells in the VCN of the La Plata dolphin, however, is enigmatic asthis species uses frequencies around 130 kHz. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Recordings from slices indicate that octopus cells of the cochlear nucleus detect coincident firing of auditory nerve fibers with temporal precision.

    PubMed

    Golding, N L; Robertson, D; Oertel, D

    1995-04-01

    Acoustic information in auditory nerve discharges is integrated in the cochlear nuclei, and ascends through several parallel pathways to higher centers. Octopus cells of the posteroventral cochlear nucleus form a pathway known to carry information in the timing of action potentials. Octopus cells have dendrites oriented to receive converging input from many auditory nerve fibers. In all 34 intracellular recordings from anatomically identified octopus cells in slices, shocks to the auditory nerve evoked brief, consistent, graded EPSPs. EPSPs were about 1 msec in duration. At all but the lowest shock strengths, the delays between shocks and the peaks of resultant EPSPs had SDs of 0.02 msec. Polysynaptic excitation, perhaps arising from the axon collaterals of octopus cells, was observed. No detectable glycinergic or GABAergic inhibition was evoked with shocks. The input resistances were low, around 10 M omega, voltage changes were rapid, with time constants of about 1 msec, and action potentials were small. The low input resistance resulted in part from a Cs(+)-sensitive conductance. In the presence of 10 or 15 mM extracellular Cs+ the time constants increased 20-fold in the hyperpolarizing voltage range. As several subthreshold inputs were required to produce suprathreshold responses, octopus cells detect the coincident firing of auditory nerve fibers. Under physiological conditions the low input resistance and resulting short time constant limit the time over which temporal summation of excitation from auditory nerve fibers can occur and thus provide temporal precision to electrical signaling.

  7. Reversible neurotoxicity of kanamycin on dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guo-Run; Yin, Ze-Deng; Sun, Yu; Chen, Sen; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Huang, Xiang; Kong, Wei-Jia; Zhang, Hong-Lian

    2013-03-28

    The time course of aminoglycoside neurotoxic effect on cochlear nucleus is still obscure. We examined dynamic pathological changes of dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) and investigated whether apoptosis or autophagy was upregulated in the neurotoxic course of kanamycin on DCN after kanamycin treatment. Rats were treated with kanamycin sulfate/kg/day at a dose of 500mg by subcutaneous injection for 10 days. Dynamic pathological changes, neuron density and neuron apoptosis of the DCN were examined at 1, 7, 14, 28, 56, 70 and 140 days after kanamycin treatment. The expressions of JNK1, DAPK2, Bcl-2, p-Bcl-2, Caspase-3, LC3B and Beclin-1 were also detected. Under transmission electron microscopy, the mitochondrial swelling and focal vacuoles as well as endoplasmic reticulum dilation were progressively aggravated from 1 day to 14 days, and gradually recovered from 28 days to 140 days. Meanwhile, both autophagosomes and autolysosomes were increased from 1 day to 56 days. Only few neurons were positive to the TUNEL staining. Moreover, neither the expressions of caspase-3 and DAPK2 nor neurons density of DCN changed significantly. LC3-II was drastically increased at 7 days. Beclin-1 was upgraded at 1 and 7 days. P-Bcl-2 increased at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days. JNK1 increased at 7 days, and Bcl-2 was downgraded at 140 days. LC3-B positive neurons were increased at 1, 7 and 14 days. These data demonstrated that the neurons damage of the DCN caused by kanamycin was reversible and autophagy was upregulated in the neurotoxic course of kanamycin on DCN through JNK1-mediated phosphorylation of Bcl-2 pathway.

  8. Wisteria floribunda lectin is associated with specific cell types in the ventral cochlear nucleus of the gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus.

    PubMed

    Cant, Nell B; Benson, Christina G

    2006-01-01

    The cochlear nucleus is made up of a number of diverse cell types with different anatomical and physiological properties. A plant lectin, Wisteria floribunda agglutinin, that recognizes specific carbohydrate residues in the extracellular matrix binds to some cell types in the ventral cochlear nucleus but not to cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus. In the ventral cochlear nucleus, the most intensely labeled cells are octopus cells, a subset of multipolar cells and cochlear root neurons. The multipolar cells that are labeled may correspond to the population that projects to the inferior colliculus.

  9. Tonotopic Optimization for Temporal Processing in the Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Oline, Stefan N.; Ashida, Go

    2016-01-01

    In the auditory system, sounds are processed in parallel frequency-tuned circuits, beginning in the cochlea. Auditory nerve fibers reflect this tonotopy and encode temporal properties of acoustic stimuli by “locking” discharges to a particular stimulus phase. However, physiological constraints on phase-locking depend on stimulus frequency. Interestingly, low characteristic frequency (LCF) neurons in the cochlear nucleus improve phase-locking precision relative to their auditory nerve inputs. This is proposed to arise through synaptic integration, but the postsynaptic membrane's selectivity for varying levels of synaptic convergence is poorly understood. The chick cochlear nucleus, nucleus magnocellularis (NM), exhibits tonotopic distribution of both input and membrane properties. LCF neurons receive many small inputs and have low input thresholds, whereas high characteristic frequency (HCF) neurons receive few, large synapses and require larger currents to spike. NM therefore presents an opportunity to study how small membrane variations interact with a systematic topographic gradient of synaptic inputs. We investigated membrane input selectivity and observed that HCF neurons preferentially select faster input than their LCF counterparts, and that this preference is tolerant of changes to membrane voltage. We then used computational models to probe which properties are crucial to phase-locking. The model predicted that the optimal arrangement of synaptic and membrane properties for phase-locking is specific to stimulus frequency and that the tonotopic distribution of input number and membrane excitability in NM closely tracks a stimulus-defined optimum. These findings were then confirmed physiologically with dynamic-clamp simulations of inputs to NM neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT One way that neurons represent temporal information is by phase-locking, which is discharging in response to a particular phase of the stimulus waveform. In the auditory system

  10. Morphological and morphometrical maturation of ventral cochlear nucleus in human foetus.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sabita; Roy, T S; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2017-03-21

    Auditory impulses perceived by the hair cells of the organ of corti are relayed in the cochlear nucleus, the first relay station in the brainstem, by the cochlear nerve. The human foetus is well known to respond to sound during the last trimester of gestation. On the contrary, studies conducted in rat, cat and mouse have shown that these mammals have an immature auditory system at the time of birth. There are very few reports available regarding the morphological and functional maturation of the cochlear nucleus in human. Although the human cochlear nucleus neurons attain adult morphological characters by mid-gestation, there are hardly any studies discussing the functional maturation of the cochlear nucleus. Hence the present study was aimed at observing the morphological as well as functional maturation of the human foetal cochlear nuclei at various gestational ages. Morphological maturation was observed qualitatively while stereological estimation of the volume of well defined ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) was calculated by the Cavalieri principle; neuronal count and density was estimated by dissector principle. The functional maturation was assessed by observing the expression of synaptophysin, a synaptic marker, at different gestational ages and by the presence of parvalbumin, a calcium binding functional neuronal marker by immunohistochemistry. Neurons showed coarse Nissl's substance and well developed cell processes and gradual increase in cell size by the 24th-30th gestational week. Synaptophysin labeling in the complete cochlear nucleus was observed at 20 weeks of gestation. Adult pattern of synaptophysin labeling was observed finally at37weeks of gestation. Earliest presence of parvalbumin expression was detected at 16 weeks of gestation and a distinct adult pattern was seen at 37 weeks of gestation. This study concluded that morphological and functional maturation of the human cochlear nuclei occurs simultaneously during mid-gestation which represents

  11. Interaction of cochlear nucleus explants with semiconductor materials.

    PubMed

    Mlynski, Robert; Volkenstein, Stefan; Hansen, Stefan; Brors, Dominik; Ebmeyer, Joerg; Dazert, Stefan

    2007-07-01

    Implantable hearing devices such as cochlear implants and auditory brainstem implants deliver auditory information through electrical stimulation of auditory neurons. The combination of microelectronic electrodes with auditory nerve cells may lead to further improvement of the hearing quality with these devices. Whereas several kinds of neurons are known to grow on semiconductor substrates, interactions of cochlear nucleus (CN) neurons with such materials have yet to be described. To investigate survival and growth behavior of CN neurons on different semiconductor materials. CN explants from postnatal day 10 Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured for 96 hours in Neurobasal medium on polished and unpolished silicon wafers (p-type Si [100] and p-type Si3N4[100]) as well as plastic surface. These surfaces had been coated with poly-L-lysine and laminin. Neuronal outgrowth was examined using image analysis software after immunohistologic staining for neurofilament. Neurite length and directional changes were quantified. Additionally, neurite morphology and adhesion to the semiconductor material was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Although proper adhesion of CN explants was seen, no neurite growth could be detected on unpolished silicon wafers (Si and Si3N4). Compared with the other test conditions, polished, laminin-coated Si3N4 wafers showed best biocompatibility regarding neurite length and number per explant. CN explants developed a mean of eight neurons with an average length of 236 mum in 96 hours of culture on these wafers. The results of this study demonstrate the general possibility of CN neuron growth in culture on semiconductors in vitro. The differences in neuron length and number per explant indicate that the growth of CN neurons is influenced by the semiconductor substrate as well as extracellular matrix proteins, with laminin-coated p-type Si3N4[100] being a preferable material for future hybrid experiments on auditory-neuron semiconductor chips.

  12. Electrophysiological properties of ventral cochlear nucleus neurons of the dog.

    PubMed

    Bal, Ramazan; Baydas, Giyasettin; Naziroglu, Mustafa

    2009-10-01

    Neurons in the cochlear nucleus (CN) have distinct anatomical and biophysical specializations and extract various facets of auditory information which are transmitted to the higher auditory centres. The aim of the present study was to determine if the principal neurons (stellate, bushy and octopus cells) of the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) in 2-week-old dog brain slices share common electrophysiological properties with the principal neurons of mouse VCN. Stellate cells (n=21, of which three were anatomically identified), fired large, regular trains of action potentials in response to depolarizing current pulses. Input resistance and membrane time constant were 176+/-35.9 MOmega (n=21) and 8.8+/-1.4 ms (n=21), respectively. Bushy cells, (n=6, of which three were anatomically identified) responded with a single action potential at the onset of depolarizing current steps and showed large hyperpolarizing voltage changes that sag back toward rest to hyperpolarizing current pulses. Input resistance and membrane time constant were 120.4+/-56.1 MOmega (n=5) and 7.6+/-2.3 ms (n=5), respectively. Octopus cells (n=17, of which seven were anatomically identified) fired a single action potential at the start of a depolarizing current step and exhibited a pronounced depolarizing sag of the membrane potential towards the resting value to hyperpolarizing current steps. Input resistance and membrane time constant were 17.58+/-1.3 MOmega (n=15) and 1.34+/-0.13 ms (n=15), respectively. While stellate cells did not have a threshold rate of depolarization (dV/dt(thresh)), bushy and octopus had a dV/dt(thresh) of 5.06+/-1.04 mV/ms (n=4) and 10.6+/-2.0 mV/ms (n=6), respectively. In octopus cells, the single action potential was abolished by tetrodotoxin (TTX). An alpha-dendrotoxin (alpha-DTX)-sensitive, low-voltage-activated potassium conductance (g(KL)) together with a ZD7288-sensitive, mixed-cation conductance (g(h)) were responsible for the low input resistance, and as a consequence

  13. Auditory information coding by modeled cochlear nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Isik, Michael; Borst, Alexander; Hemmert, Werner

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we use information theory to quantify the information in the output spike trains of modeled cochlear nucleus globular bushy cells (GBCs). GBCs are part of the sound localization pathway. They are known for their precise temporal processing, and they code amplitude modulations with high fidelity. Here we investigated the information transmission for a natural sound, a recorded vowel. We conclude that the maximum information transmission rate for a single neuron was close to 1,050 bits/s, which corresponds to a value of approximately 5.8 bits per spike. For quasi-periodic signals like voiced speech, the transmitted information saturated as word duration increased. In general, approximately 80% of the available information from the spike trains was transmitted within about 20 ms. Transmitted information for speech signals concentrated around formant frequency regions. The efficiency of neural coding was above 60% up to the highest temporal resolution we investigated (20 μs). The increase in transmitted information to that precision indicates that these neurons are able to code information with extremely high fidelity, which is required for sound localization. On the other hand, only 20% of the information was captured when the temporal resolution was reduced to 4 ms. As the temporal resolution of most speech recognition systems is limited to less than 10 ms, this massive information loss might be one of the reasons which are responsible for the lack of noise robustness of these systems.

  14. Projections to the cochlear nuclei from principal cells in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Schofield, B R

    1994-06-01

    Spherical and globular cells in the cochlear nucleus provide input to the cell groups in the superior olivary complex devoted to the analysis of binaural cues. Descending projections from the superior olivary complex appear to inhibit the spherical and globular cells. It is not known which of the numerous cell types in the superior olive provide this descending input, but recent studies have shown that some of the cells are located in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MTB). The present experiments were designed to determine whether the MTB projections arise from principal cells, which are known to play a role in sound localization, and to determine whether their projections terminate on spherical or globular cells. Principal cells in the MTB are characterized by their contacts with synaptic specializations called calyces, which arise from the axons of cells in the contralateral cochlear nucleus. In the first experiment, a fluorescent tracer was injected into one cochlear nucleus to label the calyces anterogradely. A different tracer was injected into the opposite cochlear nucleus to label cells retrogradely in the MTB. In every case, some of the labeled cells were enveloped by a labeled calyx, demonstrating that principal cells do project to the cochlear nucleus. In the second experiment, fluorescent tracers were injected into different parts of the cochlear nucleus. Analysis of the distribution of labeled cells suggested that MTB projections selectively target the globular cell region of the cochlear nucleus. In a third experiment, the axonal arborizations arising from this projection were labeled with biocytin or wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. Labeled boutons appeared to contact globular cells but not spherical cells. Multipolar cells in the ventral cochlear nucleus and cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus were also contacted. The results suggest that MTB projections to the cochlear nucleus arise largely from principal cells

  15. Hyperpolarization-activated, mixed-cation current (I(h)) in octopus cells of the mammalian cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Bal, R; Oertel, D

    2000-08-01

    Octopus cells in the posteroventral cochlear nucleus of mammals detect the coincidence of synchronous firing in populations of auditory nerve fibers and convey the timing of that coincidence with great temporal precision. Earlier recordings in current clamp have shown that two conductances contribute to the low input resistance and therefore to the ability of octopus cells to encode timing precisely, a low-threshold K(+) conductance and a hyperpolarization-activated mixed-cation conductance, g(h). The present experiments describe the properties of g(h) in octopus cells as they are revealed under voltage clamp with whole-cell, patch recordings. The hyperpolarization-activated current, I(h), was blocked by extracellular Cs(+) (5 mM) and 4-(N-ethyl-N-phenylamino)-1,2-dimethyl-6-(methylamino) pyridinium chloride (50-100 nM) but not by extracellular Ba(2+) (2 mM). The reversal potential for I(h) in octopus cells under normal physiological conditions was -38 mV. Increasing the extracellular potassium concentration from 3 to 12 mM shifted the reversal potential to -26 mV; lowering extracellular sodium concentration from 138 to 10 mM shifted the reversal potential to -77 mV. These pharmacological and ion substitution experiments show that I(h) in octopus cells is a mixed-cation current that resembles I(h) in other neurons and in heart muscle cells. Under control conditions when cells were perfused intracellularly with ATP and GTP, I(h) had an activation threshold between about -35 to -40 mV and became fully activated at -110 mV. The maximum conductance associated with hyperpolarizing voltage steps to -112 mV ranged from 87 to 212 nS [150 +/- 30 (SD) nS, n = 36]. The voltage dependence of g(h) obtained from peak tail currents is fit by a Boltzmann function with a half-activation potential of -65 +/- 3 mV and a slope factor of 7. 7 +/- 0.7. This relationship reveals that g(h) was activated 41% at the mean resting potential of octopus cells, -62 mV, and that at rest I

  16. Plasticity of somatosensory inputs to the cochlear nucleus--implications for tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Shore, S E

    2011-11-01

    This chapter reviews evidence for functional connections of the somatosensory and auditory systems at the very lowest levels of the nervous system. Neural inputs from the dosal root and trigeminal ganglia, as well as their brain stem nuclei, cuneate, gracillis and trigeminal, terminate in the cochlear nuclei. Terminations are primarily in the shell regions surrounding the cochlear nuclei but some terminals are found in the magnocellular regions of cochlear nucleus. The effects of stimulating these inputs on multisensory integration are shown as short and long-term, both suppressive and enhancing. Evidence that these projections are glutamatergic and are altered after cochlear damage is provided in the light of probable influences on the modulation and generation of tinnitus.

  17. Plasticity of somatosensory inputs to the cochlear nucleus – implications for tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Shore, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews evidence for functional connections of the somatosensory and auditory systems at the very lowest levels of the nervous system. Neural inputs from the dosal root and trigeminal ganglia, as well as their brain stem nuclei, cuneate, gracillis and trigeminal, terminate in the cochlear nuclei. Terminations are primarily in the shell regions surrounding the cochlear nuclei but some terminals are found in the magnocellular regions of cochlear nucleus. The effects of stimulating these inputs on multisensory integration are shown as short and long-term, both suppressive and enhancing. Evidence that these projections are glutamatergic and are altered after cochlear damage is provided in the light of probable influences on the modulation and generation of tinnitus. PMID:21620940

  18. Selective Deletion of Cochlear Hair Cells Causes Rapid Age-Dependent Changes in Spiral Ganglion and Cochlear Nucleus Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Ling; Strong, Melissa K.; Kaur, Tejbeer; Juiz, Jose M.; Oesterle, Elizabeth C.; Hume, Clifford; Warchol, Mark E.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    During nervous system development, critical periods are usually defined as early periods during which manipulations dramatically change neuronal structure or function, whereas the same manipulations in mature animals have little or no effect on the same property. Neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus (CN) are dependent on excitatory afferent input for survival during a critical period of development. Cochlear removal in young mammals and birds results in rapid death of target neurons in the CN. Cochlear removal in older animals results in little or no neuron death. However, the extent to which hair-cell-specific afferent activity prevents neuronal death in the neonatal brain is unknown. We further explore this phenomenon using a new mouse model that allows temporal control of cochlear hair cell deletion. Hair cells express the human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor behind the Pou4f3 promoter. Injections of DT resulted in nearly complete loss of organ of Corti hair cells within 1 week of injection regardless of the age of injection. Injection of DT did not influence surrounding supporting cells directly in the sensory epithelium or spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Loss of hair cells in neonates resulted in rapid and profound neuronal loss in the ventral CN, but not when hair cells were eliminated at a more mature age. In addition, normal survival of SGNs was dependent on hair cell integrity early in development and less so in mature animals. This defines a previously undocumented critical period for SGN survival. PMID:25995473

  19. Use of the Nucleus 22 Channel Cochlear Implant System with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staller, Steven J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes components of the Nucleus 22 Channel Cochlear Implant System used with deaf children and adults. It discusses speech coding strategies, programming concepts, programming the device for children, trouble-shooting, and fitting an FM system to a speech processor. It reports data showing improved ability to use auditory…

  20. Medial Auditory Thalamus Is Necessary for Acquisition and Retention of Eyeblink Conditioning to Cochlear Nucleus Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Hunter E.; Poremba, Amy; Freeman, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Associative learning tasks commonly involve an auditory stimulus, which must be projected through the auditory system to the sites of memory induction for learning to occur. The cochlear nucleus (CN) projection to the pontine nuclei has been posited as the necessary auditory pathway for cerebellar learning, including eyeblink conditioning.…

  1. Medial Auditory Thalamus Is Necessary for Acquisition and Retention of Eyeblink Conditioning to Cochlear Nucleus Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Hunter E.; Poremba, Amy; Freeman, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Associative learning tasks commonly involve an auditory stimulus, which must be projected through the auditory system to the sites of memory induction for learning to occur. The cochlear nucleus (CN) projection to the pontine nuclei has been posited as the necessary auditory pathway for cerebellar learning, including eyeblink conditioning.…

  2. Distribution of primary cochlear afferents in the bulbar nuclei of the rat: a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) study in parasagittal sections.

    PubMed Central

    Merchan, M A; Collia, F P; Merchan, J A; Ludeña, M D

    1986-01-01

    HRP was injected into the cochleae of 25 young albino rats in order to trace the primary afferents to the bulbar cochlear nuclei. Besides the classic V-shaped pattern and unconnected with it, HRP labelling revealed two plexuses stemming directly from the axons of the cochlear root. The plexuses cover the posterior area of the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (posterior plexus) and the anterolaterodorsal area of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (anterior plexus). The fibres giving rise to these two plexuses were previously grouped in two bundles which have been called the posterior and anterior bundles, respectively. The origin of the anterior bundle is typically seen with the fibres stemming out at right angles; the origin and course of the posterior bundle, which characteristically cross over, is also a typical feature. Images Fig. 1 Figs. 2-3 (cont.) Figs. 2-3 Fig. 4 PMID:3319993

  3. The Development of the Nucleus® Freedom™ Cochlear Implant System

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, James F.; Busby, Peter A.; Gibson, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Cochlear Limited (Cochlear™) released the fourth-generation cochlear implant system, Nucleus® Freedom™, in 2005. Freedom is based on 25 years of experience in cochlear implant research and development and incorporates advances in medicine, implantable materials, electronic technology, and sound coding. This article presents the development of Cochlear's implant systems, with an overview of the first 3 generations, and details of the Freedom system: the CI24RE receiver-stimulator, the Contour Advance™ electrode, the modular Freedom processor, the available speech coding strategies, the input processing options of SmartSound™ to improve the signal before coding as electrical signals, and the programming software. Preliminary results from multicenter studies with the Freedom system are reported, demonstrating better levels of performance compared with the previous systems. The final section presents the most recent implant reliability data, with the early findings at 18 months showing improved reliability of the Freedom implant compared with the earlier Nucleus 3 System. Also reported are some of the findings of Cochlear's collaborative research programs to improve recipient outcomes. Included are studies showing the benefits from bilateral implants, electroacoustic stimulation using an ipsilateral and/or contralateral hearing aid, advanced speech coding, and streamlined speech processor programming. PMID:17172547

  4. Telephone speech comprehension with use of the nucleus cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Cohen, N L; Waltzman, S B; Shapiro, W H

    1989-08-01

    The reported telephone usage by cochlear implant recipients has become a major issue of controversy. Although patients and clinicians report good communication skills via the telephone, no standardized tests have been used and no quantifiable results have been reported. In an effort to determine the extent to which our better-performing patients can use the telephone, we established a clinical protocol to assess their ability to recognize speech, taking into consideration the problems inherent in telephone testing. Eight cochlear implant recipients were administered the NU-6 Monosyllabic Word Test and the City University of New York Topic Related Sentences under the following listening conditions: soundfield in a soundproof suite and via telephone within the hospital, locally, and long-distance. Twenty-three percent of the patients implanted at New York University Medical Center demonstrated a significant degree of telephone communication ability.

  5. The total number of neurons and calcium binding protein positive neurons during aging in the cochlear nucleus of CBA/CaJ mice: a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Idrizbegovic, E; Canlon, B; Bross, L S; Willott, J F; Bogdanovic, N

    2001-08-01

    The quantitative stereological method, the optical fractionator, was used for determining the total number of neurons and the total number of neurons immunostained with parvalbumin, calbindin-D28k (calbindin), and calretinin in the dorsal and posteroventral cochlear nucleus (DCN and PVCN) in CBA/CaJ (CBA) mice during aging (1-39 months old). CBA mice have only a modest sensorineural pathology late in life. An age-related decrease of the total number of neurons was demonstrated in the DCN (r=-0.54, P<0.03), while the total number of neurons in the PVCN did not show any significant age-related differences (r=0.16, P=0.57). In the DCN 5.5% of neurons were parvalbumin positive in the very old (30-39 months) mice, vs. 2.2% in the 1 month old mice. In the DCN 3% of the neurons were calbindin immunopositive in the 30-39 months mice compared to 1.9% in the 1 month old group. In the PVCN, 20% of the neurons in the very old mice were parvalbumin immunopositive, compared to 12% in the young mice. Calbindin did not show any significant age-related differences in the PVCN. The total number of calretinin immunopositive neurons both in the DCN and PVCN did not show any significant change with increasing age. In conclusion, the total neuronal number in the DCN and PVCN was age-related and region-specific. While the neuronal number in the DCN and PVCN was decreased or unchanged, respectively, the calcium binding protein positive neuronal number showed a graded increase during aging in a region-specific and protein-specific manner.

  6. The multiple functions of T stellate/multipolar/chopper cells in the ventral cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Oertel, Donata; Wright, Samantha; Cao, Xiao-Jie; Ferragamo, Michael; Bal, Ramazan

    2011-06-01

    Acoustic information is brought to the brain by auditory nerve fibers, all of which terminate in the cochlear nuclei, and is passed up the auditory pathway through the principal cells of the cochlear nuclei. A population of neurons variously known as T stellate, type I multipolar, planar multipolar, or chopper cells forms one of the major ascending auditory pathways through the brainstem. T Stellate cells are sharply tuned; as a population they encode the spectrum of sounds. In these neurons, phasic excitation from the auditory nerve is made more tonic by feedforward excitation, coactivation of inhibitory with excitatory inputs, relatively large excitatory currents through NMDA receptors, and relatively little synaptic depression. The mechanisms that make firing tonic also obscure the fine structure of sounds that is represented in the excitatory inputs from the auditory nerve and account for the characteristic chopping response patterns with which T stellate cells respond to tones. In contrast with other principal cells of the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), T stellate cells lack a low-voltage-activated potassium conductance and are therefore sensitive to small, steady, neuromodulating currents. The presence of cholinergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic receptors allows the excitability of these cells to be modulated by medial olivocochlear efferent neurons and by neuronal circuits associated with arousal. T Stellate cells deliver acoustic information to the ipsilateral dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body (VNTB), periolivary regions around the lateral superior olivary nucleus (LSO), and to the contralateral ventral lemniscal nuclei (VNLL) and inferior colliculus (IC). It is likely that T stellate cells participate in feedback loops through both medial and lateral olivocochlear efferent neurons and they may be a source of ipsilateral excitation of the LSO.

  7. Auditory Responses to Electric and Infrared Neural Stimulation of the Rat Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rohit; Guex, Amelie A.; Hancock, Kenneth E.; Durakovic, Nedim; McKay, Colette M.; Slama, Michaël C. C.; Brown, M. Christian; Lee, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve the auditory brainstem implant, a prosthesis in which user outcomes are modest, we applied electric and infrared neural stimulation (INS) to the cochlear nucleus in a rat animal model. Electric stimulation evoked regions of neural activation in the inferior colliculus and short-latency, multipeaked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). Pulsed INS, delivered to the surface of the cochlear nucleus via an optical fiber, evoked broad neural activation in the inferior colliculus. Strongest responses were recorded when the fiber was placed at lateral positions on the cochlear nucleus, close to the temporal bone. INS-evoked ABRs were multipeaked but longer in latency than those for electric stimulation; they resembled the responses to acoustic stimulation. After deafening, responses to electric stimulation persisted, whereas those to INS disappeared, consistent with a reported “optophonic” effect, a laser-induced acoustic artifact. Thus, for deaf individuals who use the auditory brainstem implant, INS alone did not appear promising as a new approach. PMID:24508368

  8. Tonotopic Organization of Vertical Cells in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus of the CBA/J Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Muniak, Michael A.; Ryugo, David K.

    2013-01-01

    The systematic and topographic representation of frequency is a first principle of organization throughout the auditory system. The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) receives direct tonotopic projections from the auditory nerve (AN) as well as secondary and descending projections from other sources. Among the recipients of AN input in the DCN are vertical cells (also called tuberculoventral cells), glycinergic interneurons thought to provide on- or near-best frequency feedforward inhibition to principal cells in the DCN and various cells in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN). Differing lines of physiological and anatomical evidence suggest that vertical cells and their projections are organized with respect to frequency, but this has not been conclusively demonstrated in the intact mammalian brain. To address this issue, we retrogradely labeled vertical cells via physiologically targeted injections in the AVCN of the CBA/J mouse. Results from multiple cases were merged with a normalized 3D template of the cochlear nucleus (Muniak et al., 2013) to quantitatively demonstrate that the arrangement of vertical cells is tonotopic and aligned to the innervation pattern of the AN. These results suggest that vertical cells are well positioned for providing immediate, frequency specific inhibition onto cells of the DCN and AVCN to facilitate spectral processing. PMID:23982998

  9. Differential molecular profiles of astrocytes in degeneration and re-innervation after sensory deafferentation of the adult rat cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Fredrich, Michaela; Zeber, Anne C; Hildebrandt, Heika; Illing, Robert-Benjamin

    2013-07-01

    Ablating the cochlea causes total sensory deafferentation of the cochlear nucleus. Over the first postoperative week, degeneration of the auditory nerve and its synaptic terminals in the cochlear nucleus temporally overlaps with its re-innervation by axon collaterals of medial olivocochlear neurons. At the same time, astrocytes increase in size and density. We investigated the time courses of the expression of ezrin, polysialic acid, matrix metalloprotease-9 and matrix metalloprotease-2 within these astrocytes during the first week following cochlear ablation. All four proteins are known to participate in degeneration, regeneration, or both, following injury of the central nervous system. In a next step, stereotaxic injections of kainic acid were made into the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body prior to cochlear ablation to destroy the neurons that re-innervate the deafferented cochlear nucleus by axon collaterals developing growth-associated protein 43 immunoreactivity. This experimental design allowed us to distinguish between molecular processes associated with degeneration and those associated with re-innervation. Under these conditions, astrocytic growth and proliferation showed an unchanged deafferentation-induced pattern. Similarly, the distribution and amount of ezrin and matrix metalloprotease-9 in astrocytes after cochlear ablation developed in the same way as under cochlear ablation alone. In sharp contrast, the astrocytic expression of polysialic acid and matrix metalloprotease-2 normally invoked by cochlear ablation collapsed when re-innervation of the cochlear nucleus was inhibited by lesioning medial olivocochlear neurons with kainic acid. In conclusion, re-innervation, including axonal growth and synaptogenesis, seems to prompt astrocytes to recompose their molecular profile, paving the way for tissue reorganisation after nerve degeneration and loss of synaptic contacts.

  10. The neuronal architecture of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of the cat in the region of the cochlear nerve root: Golgi and Nissl methods.

    PubMed

    Tolbert, L P; Morest, D K

    1982-01-01

    This report characterizes the cells and fibers in one part of the cochlear nucleus, the posterior division of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus. This includes the region where the cochlear nerve root enters the brain and begins to form endings. Nissl stains reveal the somata of globular cells with dispersed Nissl substance and those of multipolar cells with coarse, clumped Nissl bodies. Both parts of the posterior division contain cells with each Nissl pattern, but in different relative numbers and locations. Golgi impregnations demonstrate two types of neurons: bushy cells, with short bush-like dendrites, and stellate and elongate cells, with long tapered dendrites. Several varieties of bushy cells, differing in the morphology of the cell body and in the size and extent of the dendritic field, can be distinguished. Comparison of the distributions of these cell types, as well as cellular morphology, suggest that the globular cells recognized in Nissl stains correspond to bushy neurons, while the multipolar cells correspond to stellate and elongate neurons. Golgi impregnations reveal large end-bulbs and smaller boutons from cochlear nerve fibers, as well as boutons from other, unidentified sources, ending in this region. The particular arrangements of the dendritic fields of the different cell types and the axonal endings associated with them indicate that these neurons must have different physiological properties, since they define different domains with respect to the cochlear and non-cochlear inputs.

  11. Effects of electrode configuration and frequency allocation on vowel recognition with the Nucleus-22 cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Fu, Q J; Shannon, R V

    1999-08-01

    This study was conducted to understand vowel recognition in cochlear implants as a function of the cochlear location and separation of the stimulated electrode pairs and as a function of the matching between speech spectral information and the location of the stimulated electrodes. Four-electrode speech processors with a continuous interleaved sampling speech processing strategy were implemented through a custom interface in five subjects implanted with the Nucleus-22 cochlear implant. The temporal envelopes from four broad frequency bands were used to modulate 500 pps, 100 microsec/phase interleaved pulse trains delivered to four electrode pairs. Ten different frequency allocations and five sets of four-electrode configurations were tested. Each frequency allocation represented the same cochlear extent but different cochlear locations based on Greenwood's frequency-to-place formula. Recognition of multi-talker medial vowels was measured for each combination of parameters with no period of practice or adjustment. Results showed that recognition of multi-talker vowels was highly dependent on frequency allocation for all electrode configurations. For a given electrode configuration maximum vowel recognition was observed with a specific frequency allocation. When the stimulated electrodes were shifted basally by 3 mm, the frequency allocation that produced the best performance also shifted basally by 3 mm. A similar pattern of vowel recognition was observed as a function of frequency allocation for electrode configurations that had the same apical-most electrode in each pair, regardless of location of the basal-most electrode in the pair. Subjects with different electrode insertion depths had similar trends in vowel recognition for each frequency allocation. For a given electrode configuration, the best performance was obtained with processors with a specific frequency allocation. In addition, the apical-most member of each electrode pair had a much stronger influence

  12. Age-Related Neurochemical Changes in the Rhesus Macaque Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Daniel T.; Engle, James R.; Recanzone, Gregg H.

    2014-01-01

    Neurochemical changes in the expression of various proteins within the central auditory system have been associated with natural aging. These changes may compensate in part for the loss of auditory sensitivity arising from two phenomena of the aging auditory system: cochlear histopathologies and increased excitability of central auditory neurons. Recent studies in the macaque monkey have revealed age-related changes in the density of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase (NADPHd) and parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells within the inferior colliculus and superior olivary complex. The cochlear nucleus (CN), which is the first central auditory nucleus, remains unstudied. Since the CN participates in the generation of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and receives direct innervation from the cochlea, it serves as an ideal nucleus to compare the relationship between these neurochemical changes and the physiological and peripheral changes of the aging auditory system. We used stereological sampling to calculate the densities of NADPHd and PV reactive neurons within the three subdivisions of the CN in middle-aged and aged rhesus macaques. Regression analyses of these values with ABR properties and cochlear histopathologies revealed relationships between these cell types and the changing characteristics of the aging auditory system. Our results indicate that NADPHd expression does change with age in a specific subdivision of the CN, but PV does not. Conversely, PV expression correlated with ABR amplitudes and outer hair cell loss in the cochlea, but NADPHd did not. These results indicate that NADPHd and PV may take part in distinct compensatory efforts of the aging auditory system. PMID:24127432

  13. Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors regulates ribosomes of cochlear nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Carzoli, Kathryn L; Hyson, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    The brain stem auditory system of the chick is an advantageous model for examining changes that occur as a result of deafness. Elimination of acoustic input through cochlear ablation results in the eventual death of approximately 30% of neurons in the chick cochlear nucleus, nucleus magnocellularis (NM). One early change following deafness is an alteration in NM ribosomes, evidenced both by a decrease in protein synthesis and reduction in antigenicity for Y10B, a monoclonal antibody that recognizes a ribosomal epitope. Previous studies have shown that mGluR activation is necessary to maintain Y10B antigenicity and NM viability. What is still unclear, however, is whether or not mGluR activation is sufficient to prevent deafness-induced changes in these neurons, or if other activity-dependent factors are also necessary. The current study investigated the ability of mGluR activation to regulate cochlear nucleus ribosomes in the absence of auditory nerve input. In vitro methods were employed to periodically pressure eject glutamate or mGluR agonists over neurons on one side of a slice preparation leaving the opposite side of the same slice untreated. Immunohistochemistry was then performed using Y10B in order to assess ribosomal changes. Application of glutamate and both group I and II selective mGluR agonists effectively rescued ribosomal antigenicity on the treated side of the slice in comparison to ribosomes on the untreated side. These findings suggest that administration of mGluR agonists is sufficient to reduce the early interruption of normal ribosomal integrity that is typically seen following loss of auditory nerve activity.

  14. Bilateral Cochlear Implants in Infants: A New Approach—Nucleus Hybrid S12 Project

    PubMed Central

    Gantz, Bruce J.; Dunn, Camille C.; Walker, Elizabeth A.; Kenworthy, Maura; Van Voorst, Tanya; Tomblin, Bruce; Turner, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this feasibility study was to evaluate whether the use of a shorter-length cochlear implant (10 mm) on one ear and a standard electrode (24 mm) on the contralateral ear is a viable bilateral option for children with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. A secondary purpose of this study was to determine whether the ear with the shorter-length electrode performs similarly to the standard-length electrode. Our goal was to provide an option of electrical stimulation that theoretically might preserve the structures of the scala media and organ of Corti. Study Design The study is being conducted as a repeated-measure, single-subject experiment. Setting University of Iowa—Department of Otolaryngology. Patients Eight pediatric patients with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss between the ages of 12 and 24 months. Interventions Nucleus Hybrid S12 10-mm electrode and a Nucleus Freedom implant in the contralateral ear. Main Outcome Measures The Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS) parent questionnaire, Early Speech Perception, Glendonald Auditory Screening Procedure word test, and Children’s Vowel tests will be used to evaluate speech perception and the Minnesota Child Development Inventory and Preschool Language Scales 3 test will be used to evaluate language growth. Results Preliminary results for 8 children have been collected before and after the operation using the IT-MAIS. All 3 children showed incremental improvements in their IT-MAIS scores overtime. Early Speech Perception, Glendonald Auditory Screening Procedure word test, and Children’s Vowel word perception results indicated no difference between the individual ears for the 2 children tested. Performance compared with age-matched children implanted with standard bilateral cochlear implants showed similar results to the children implanted with Nucleus Hybrid S12 10-mm electrode and a Nucleus Freedom implant in contralateral ears

  15. Quantitative Changes in Calretinin Immunostaining in the Cochlear Nuclei after Unilateral Cochlear Removal in Young Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Santamaria, Verónica; Alvarado, Juan Carlos; Taylor, Anna R.; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K.; Henkel, Craig K.

    2007-01-01

    Neurons of the cochlear nuclei receive axosomatic endings from primary afferent fibers from the cochlea and have projections that diverge to form parallel ascending auditory pathways. These cells are characterized by neurochemical phenotypes such as levels of calretinin. To test whether or not early deafferentation results in changes in calretinin immunostaining in the cochlear nucleus, unilateral cochlear ablations were performed in ferrets soon after hearing onset (postnatal day [P]30–P40). Two months later, changes in calretinin immunostaining as well as cell size, volume, and synaptophysin immunostaining were assessed in the anteroventral (AVCN), posteroventral (PVCN), and dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). A decrease in calretinin immunostaining was evident ipsilaterally within the AVCN and PVCN but not in the DCN. Further analysis revealed a decrease both in the calretinin-immunostained neuropil and in the calretinin-immunostained area within AVCN and PVCN neurons. These declines were accompanied by significant ipsilateral decreases in volume as well as neuron area in the AVCN and PVCN compared with the contralateral cochlear nucleus and unoperated animals, but not compared with the DCN. In addition, there was a significant contralateral increase in calretinin-immunostained area within AVCN and PVCN neurons compared with control animals. Finally, a decrease in area of synaptophysin immunostaining in both the ipsilateral AVCN and PVCN without changes in the number of boutons was found. The present data demonstrate that unilateral cochlear ablation leads to 1) decreased immunostaining of the neuropil in the AVCN and PVCN ipsilaterally, 2) decreased calretinin immunostaining within AVCN and PVCN neurons ipsilaterally, 3) synaptogenesis in the AVCN and PVCN ipsilaterally, and 4) increased calretinin immunostaining within AVCN and PVCN neurons contralaterally. PMID:15700274

  16. Biotinidase reveals the morphogenetic sequence in cochlea and cochlear nucleus of mice.

    PubMed

    Brumwell, Craig L; Hossain, Waheeda A; Morest, D Kent; Wolf, Barry

    2005-11-01

    Hearing loss affects children with biotinidase deficiency, an inherited metabolic disorder in the recycling of biotin. The deficit appears shortly after birth during development of the auditory system. Using a mouse model, we sought to discover where and when biotinidase is expressed in the normal development of the cochlea and cochlear nucleus. In the process, we reconstructed the normal morphogenetic sequences of the constituent cells. Immunolabeling for biotinidase was localized to neurons and other cells of the adult and immature mouse, including the embryonic precursors of these regions dating from the stage of the otocyst. Its distribution was compared to the particular morphological changes occurring at each developmental stage. Biotinidase was localized in cells and their processes at the critical stages in their proliferation, migration, structural differentiation, and innervation, covering the entire span of their development. The prevalence of immunostaining peaked in the adult animal, including hair cells and ganglion cells of the cochlea and neurons of the cochlear nucleus. The findings suggest that biotinidase plays a role in the normal development of the auditory system. Besides the pattern of localization of biotinidase, this study provides the first systematic account of each developmental stage in a mammalian auditory system.

  17. A Psychophysics experimental software to evaluate electrical pitch discrimination in Nucleus cochlear implanted patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Zaballos, M. T.; Ramos de Miguel, A.; Killian, M.; Ramos Macías, A.

    2016-02-01

    Multichannel electrode array design in cochlear implants has evolved into two major categories: straight and perimodiolar electrodes. When implanted, the former lies along the outer wall of the scala tympani, while the later are located closer to the modiolus, where the neural ends are. Therefore, a perimodiolar position of the electrode array could be expected to result in reduced stimulus thresholds and stimulating currents, increased dynamic range, and more localized stimulation of the neural elements. However, their advantage for pitch discrimination has not been conclusively stated. Therefore, in order to study electrode independence, a psychophysical software has been developed, making use of Nucleus Implant Communicator tools provided by Cochlear company under a research agreement. The application comprises a graphical interface to facilitate its use, since previous software has always required some type of computer language skills. It allows for customization of electrical pulse parameters, measurement of threshold and comfort levels, loudness balancing and alternative forced choice experiments to determine electrode discrimination in Nucleus© users.

  18. The next generation of Nucleus® fitting: A multiplatform approach towards universal cochlear implant management

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article provides a detailed description and evaluation of the next Nucleus® cochlear implant fitting suite. A new fitting methodology is presented that, at its simplest level, requires a single volume adjustment, and at its advanced level, provides access to 22-channel fitting. It is implemented on multiple platforms, including a mobile platform (Remote Assistant Fitting) and an accessible PC application (Nucleus Fitting Software). Additional tools for home care and surgical care are also described. Design: Two trials were conducted, comparing the fitting methodology with the existing Custom Sound™ methodology, as fitted by the recipient and by an experienced cochlear implant audiologist. Study sample: Thirty-seven subjects participated in the trials. Results: No statistically significant differences were observed between the group mean scores, whether fitted by the recipient or by an experienced audiologist. The lower bounds of the 95% confidence intervals of the differences represented clinically insignificant differences. No statistically significant differences were found in the subjective program preferences of the subjects. Conclusions: Equivalent speech perception outcomes were demonstrated when compared to current best practice. As such, the new technology has the potential to expand the capacity of audiological care without compromising efficacy. PMID:23617610

  19. Transcutaneous induction of stimulus-timing-dependent plasticity in dorsal cochlear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Calvin; Martel, David T.; Shore, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    The cochlear nucleus (CN) is the first site of multisensory integration in the ascending auditory pathway. The principal output neurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), fusiform cells, receive somatosensory information relayed by the CN granule cells from the trigeminal and dorsal column pathways. Integration of somatosensory and auditory inputs results in long-term enhancement or suppression in a stimulus-timing-dependent manner. Here, we demonstrate that stimulus-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) can be induced in DCN fusiform cells using paired auditory and transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the face and neck to activate trigeminal and dorsal column pathways to the CN, respectively. Long-lasting changes in fusiform cell firing rates persisted for up to 2 h after this bimodal stimulation, and followed Hebbian or anti-Hebbian rules, depending on tone duration, but not somatosensory stimulation location: 50 ms paired tones evoked predominantly Hebbian, while 10 ms paired tones evoked predominantly anti-Hebbian plasticity. The tone-duration-dependent STDP was strongly correlated with first inter-spike intervals, implicating intrinsic cellular properties as determinants of STDP. This study demonstrates that transcutaneous stimulation with precise auditory–somatosensory timing parameters can non-invasively induce fusiform cell long-term modulation, which could be harnessed in the future to moderate tinnitus-related hyperactivity in DCN. PMID:26321928

  20. Short-Term Synaptic Depression Is Topographically Distributed in the Cochlear Nucleus of the Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Oline, Stefan N.

    2014-01-01

    In the auditory system, sounds are processed in parallel frequency-tuned circuits, beginning in the cochlea. Activity of auditory nerve fibers reflects this frequency-specific topographic pattern, known as tonotopy, and imparts frequency tuning onto their postsynaptic target neurons in the cochlear nucleus. In birds, cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM) neurons encode the temporal properties of acoustic stimuli by “locking” discharges to a particular phase of the input signal. Physiological specializations exist in gradients corresponding to the tonotopic axis in NM that reflect the characteristic frequency (CF) of their auditory nerve fiber inputs. One feature of NM neurons that has not been investigated across the tonotopic axis is short-term synaptic plasticity. NM offers a rather homogeneous population of neurons with a distinct topographical distribution of synaptic properties that is ideal for the investigation of specialized synaptic plasticity. Here we demonstrate for the first time that short-term synaptic depression (STD) is expressed topographically, where unitary high CF synapses are more robust with repeated stimulation. Correspondingly, high CF synapses drive spiking more reliably than their low CF counterparts. We show that postsynaptic AMPA receptor desensitization does not contribute to the observed difference in STD. Further, rate of recovery from depression, a presynaptic property, does not differ tonotopically. Rather, we show that another presynaptic feature, readily releasable pool (RRP) size, is tonotopically distributed and inversely correlated with vesicle release probability. Mathematical model results demonstrate that these properties of vesicle dynamics are sufficient to explain the observed tonotopic distribution of STD. PMID:24453322

  1. Short-term synaptic depression is topographically distributed in the cochlear nucleus of the chicken.

    PubMed

    Oline, Stefan N; Burger, R Michael

    2014-01-22

    In the auditory system, sounds are processed in parallel frequency-tuned circuits, beginning in the cochlea. Activity of auditory nerve fibers reflects this frequency-specific topographic pattern, known as tonotopy, and imparts frequency tuning onto their postsynaptic target neurons in the cochlear nucleus. In birds, cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM) neurons encode the temporal properties of acoustic stimuli by "locking" discharges to a particular phase of the input signal. Physiological specializations exist in gradients corresponding to the tonotopic axis in NM that reflect the characteristic frequency (CF) of their auditory nerve fiber inputs. One feature of NM neurons that has not been investigated across the tonotopic axis is short-term synaptic plasticity. NM offers a rather homogeneous population of neurons with a distinct topographical distribution of synaptic properties that is ideal for the investigation of specialized synaptic plasticity. Here we demonstrate for the first time that short-term synaptic depression (STD) is expressed topographically, where unitary high CF synapses are more robust with repeated stimulation. Correspondingly, high CF synapses drive spiking more reliably than their low CF counterparts. We show that postsynaptic AMPA receptor desensitization does not contribute to the observed difference in STD. Further, rate of recovery from depression, a presynaptic property, does not differ tonotopically. Rather, we show that another presynaptic feature, readily releasable pool (RRP) size, is tonotopically distributed and inversely correlated with vesicle release probability. Mathematical model results demonstrate that these properties of vesicle dynamics are sufficient to explain the observed tonotopic distribution of STD.

  2. Speech perception of young children using nucleus 22-channel or CLARION cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Young, N M; Grohne, K M; Carrasco, V N; Brown, C

    1999-04-01

    This study compares the auditory perceptual skill development of 23 congenitally deaf children who received the Nucleus 22-channel cochlear implant with the SPEAK speech coding strategy, and 20 children who received the CLARION Multi-Strategy Cochlear Implant with the Continuous Interleaved Sampler (CIS) speech coding strategy. All were under 5 years old at implantation. Preimplantation, there were no significant differences between the groups in age, length of hearing aid use, or communication mode. Auditory skills were assessed at 6 months and 12 months after implantation. Postimplantation, the mean scores on all speech perception tests were higher for the Clarion group. These differences were statistically significant for the pattern perception and monosyllable subtests of the Early Speech Perception battery at 6 months, and for the Glendonald Auditory Screening Procedure at 12 months. Multiple regression analysis revealed that device type accounted for the greatest variance in performance after 12 months of implant use. We conclude that children using the CIS strategy implemented in the Clarion implant may develop better auditory perceptual skills during the first year postimplantation than children using the SPEAK strategy with the Nucleus device.

  3. A biophysical model for modulation frequency encoding in the cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Eguia, Manuel C; Garcia, Guadalupe C; Romano, Sebastian A

    2010-01-01

    Encoding of amplitude modulated (AM) acoustical signals is one of the most compelling tasks for the mammalian auditory system: environmental sounds, after being filtered and transduced by the cochlea, become narrowband AM signals. Despite much experimental work dedicated to the comprehension of auditory system extraction and encoding of AM information, the neural mechanisms underlying this remarkable feature are far from being understood (Joris et al., 2004). One of the most accepted theories for this processing is the existence of a periodotopic organization (based on temporal information) across the more studied tonotopic axis (Frisina et al., 1990b). In this work, we will review some recent advances in the study of the mechanisms involved in neural processing of AM sounds, and propose an integrated model that runs from the external ear, through the cochlea and the auditory nerve, up to a sub-circuit of the cochlear nucleus (the first processing unit in the central auditory system). We will show that varying the amount of inhibition in our model we can obtain a range of best modulation frequencies (BMF) in some principal cells of the cochlear nucleus. This could be a basis for a synchronicity based, low-level periodotopic organization. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ion channels generating complex spikes in cartwheel cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yuil; Trussell, Laurence O

    2007-02-01

    Cartwheel cells are glycinergic interneurons that modify somatosensory input to the dorsal cochlear nucleus. They are characterized by firing of mixtures of both simple and complex action potentials. To understand what ion channels determine the generation of these two types of spike waveforms, we recorded from cartwheel cells using the gramicidin perforated-patch technique in brain slices of mouse dorsal cochlear nucleus and applied channel-selective blockers. Complex spikes were distinguished by whether they arose directly from a negative membrane potential or later during a long depolarization. Ca(2+) channels and Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels were major determinants of complex spikes. Onset complex spikes required T-type and possibly R-type Ca(2+) channels and were shaped by BK and SK K(+) channels. Complex spikes arising later in a depolarization were dependent on P/Q- and L-type Ca(2+) channels as well as BK and SK channels. BK channels also contributed to fast repolarization of simple spikes. Simple spikes featured an afterdepolarization that is probably the trigger for complex spiking and is shaped by T/R-type Ca(2+) and SK channels. Fast spikes were dependent on Na(+) channels; a large persistent Na(+) current may provide a depolarizing drive for spontaneous activity in cartwheel cells. Thus the diverse electrical behavior of cartwheel cells is determined by the interaction of a wide variety of ion channels with a prominent role played by Ca(2+).

  5. The development and migration of large multipolar neurons into the cochlear nucleus of the North American opossum.

    PubMed

    Willard, F H; Martin, G F

    1986-06-01

    We have studied the maturation of the inferior colliculus and cochlear nuclei of the North American opossum with particular emphasis on the large multipolar neurons of the cochlear nucleus. These neurons include the principal and giant cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) and the large neurons of the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), all of which can be labelled by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injections into the contralateral inferior colliculus (IC). The size of these neurons, their characteristic Nissl patterns, and their labelling density after injections into the IC render them distinguishable from other neurons in this nuclei, even in young animals. In Nissl-stained sections of newborn opossums, a band of horizontally oriented neurons can be identified dorsomedial to the vestibular nerve root. This band extends from an apparent cytogenetic zone close to the sulcus limitans, to, but not within, the presumptive cochlear nucleus. Between birth and estimated postnatal day 22 (EPND 22) the band shifts laterally, eventually becoming incorporated into the cochlear nucleus. Many neurons in this band have perinuclear caps of Nissl substance similar to those present in the principal cells of the adult DCN. Injections of HRP into the IC as early as EPND 5 (17 days after conception) labelled neurons in the band referred to above but not in the presumptive cochlear nucleus. By EPND 15, labelled cells were clustered mainly within the nucleus proper. Most of these cells were located in the DCN, but a few were scattered in the dorsocentral VCN. Consistent labelling of small neurons in VCN was not obtained until sometime later. From EPND 15 to EPND 20 most of the labelled cells in DCN reoriented in the vertical plane, aligned in layer II, and differentiated into principal neurons. Some, however, remained deep to layer II and differentiated into giant neurons. The heavily labelled cells in VCN differentiated into large neurons. Our results suggest that the large multipolar

  6. Presence and distribution of three calcium binding proteins in projection neurons of the adult rat cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Pór, Agnes; Pocsai, Krisztina; Rusznák, Zoltán; Szucs, Géza

    2005-03-28

    The presence and distribution of three cytoplasmic calcium binding proteins, calbindin, calretinin, and parvalbumin, have been investigated in the projection neurons of the cochlear nucleus complex in adult rats by using immunohistochemistry in free-floating slices. Identification of the individual cell types was carried out on the basis of their intranuclear localization, morphological characteristics, and (in the cases of pyramidal and bushy neurons) by retrograde labeling with rhodamine-dextran. The most important findings were confirmed by using confocal microscopy. The data obtained in these experiments are the first to demonstrate the presence of parvalbumin in pyramidal neurons and globular and spherical bushy cells of rat cochlear nucleus, whereas octopus and giant cells did not show positivity for parvalbumin. Calretinin was not present in either Purkinje-like cells or giant neurons. According to the double immunolabeling co-localization experiments, the pyramidal neurons, Purkinje-like cells, globular bushy cells, and octopus cells express two different calcium binding proteins in their cytoplasm (although in different combinations) whereas giant cells and spherical bushy cells contain solely calbindin and parvalbumin, respectively. The presence of calretinin in globular bushy cells provides a tool for distinguishing them from spherical bushy cells. The immunolabeling of the fibers and axonal endings of the acoustic nerve in the ventral part of the cochlear nucleus indicated that these structures are also parvalbumin positive. It is concluded that the heterogenous cell composition of the cochlear nucleus is accompanied by a rather complex expression pattern of the cytoplasmic calcium binding proteins.

  7. Neuropsychological sequelae of bilateral posteroventral pallidotomy

    PubMed Central

    Turner, K; Reid, W; Homewood, J; Cook, R

    2002-01-01

    Methods: 17 patients with Parkinson's disease were evaluated with a neuropsychological battery before and six months after bilateral pallidotomy. A comparison group (n = 8) was also assessed at six month intervals. Outcome variables were tests of memory, language, visuospatial function, attention, executive skills, and depression. Results: Despite a large number of variables studied, a significant postsurgical change was found only in performance of the tower of London task, a measure of planning abilities. The effect size of this change was larger than that of the comparison group, and a reliable change index score established that 5 of 13 surgical patients had statistically reliable reductions in planning performance. Conclusions: Patients with a young age of onset and long duration of Parkinson's disease who underwent bilateral pallidotomy had a relatively circumscribed reduction in neuropsychological functioning, being limited to motor planning efficiency. These data suggest that the cognitive role of the posteroventral globus pallidus is limited, at least in people with Parkinson's disease. PMID:12235317

  8. Sensitivity of cochlear nucleus neurons to spatio-temporal changes in auditory nerve activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Grace I.

    2012-01-01

    The spatio-temporal pattern of auditory nerve (AN) activity, representing the relative timing of spikes across the tonotopic axis, contains cues to perceptual features of sounds such as pitch, loudness, timbre, and spatial location. These spatio-temporal cues may be extracted by neurons in the cochlear nucleus (CN) that are sensitive to relative timing of inputs from AN fibers innervating different cochlear regions. One possible mechanism for this extraction is “cross-frequency” coincidence detection (CD), in which a central neuron converts the degree of coincidence across the tonotopic axis into a rate code by preferentially firing when its AN inputs discharge in synchrony. We used Huffman stimuli (Carney LH. J Neurophysiol 64: 437–456, 1990), which have a flat power spectrum but differ in their phase spectra, to systematically manipulate relative timing of spikes across tonotopically neighboring AN fibers without changing overall firing rates. We compared responses of CN units to Huffman stimuli with responses of model CD cells operating on spatio-temporal patterns of AN activity derived from measured responses of AN fibers with the principle of cochlear scaling invariance. We used the maximum likelihood method to determine the CD model cell parameters most likely to produce the measured CN unit responses, and thereby could distinguish units behaving like cross-frequency CD cells from those consistent with same-frequency CD (in which all inputs would originate from the same tonotopic location). We find that certain CN unit types, especially those associated with globular bushy cells, have responses consistent with cross-frequency CD cells. A possible functional role of a cross-frequency CD mechanism in these CN units is to increase the dynamic range of binaural neurons that process cues for sound localization. PMID:22972956

  9. An in vivo investigation of inferior colliculus single neuron responses to cochlear nucleus pulse train stimulation.

    PubMed

    Mauger, Stefan J; Shivdasani, Mohit N; Rathbone, Graeme D; Paolini, Antonio G

    2012-12-01

    The auditory brain stem implant (ABI) is being used clinically to restore hearing to patients unable to benefit from a cochlear implant (CI). Speech perception outcomes for ABI users are typically poor compared with most CI users. The ABI is implanted either on the surface of or penetrating through the cochlear nucleus in the auditory brain stem and uses stimulation strategies developed for auditory nerve stimulation with a CI. Although the stimulus rate may affect speech perception outcomes with current stimulation strategies, no studies have systematically investigated the effect of stimulus rate electrophysiologically or clinically. We therefore investigated rate response properties and temporal response properties of single inferior colliculus (IC) neurons from penetrating ABI stimulation using stimulus rates ranging from 100 to 1,600 pulses/s in the rat. We found that the stimulus rate affected the proportion of response types, thresholds, and dynamic ranges of IC activation. The stimulus rate was also found to affect the temporal properties of IC responses, with higher rates providing more temporally similar responses to acoustic stimulation. Suppression of neural firing and inhibition in IC neurons was also found, with response properties varying with the stimulus rate. This study demonstrated that changes in the ABI stimulus rate results in significant differences in IC neuron response properties. Due to electrophysiological differences, the stimulus rate may also change perceptual properties. We suggest that clinical evaluation of the ABI stimulus rate should be performed.

  10. Transient, afferent input-dependent, postnatal niche for neural progenitor cells in the cochlear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Volkenstein, Stefan; Oshima, Kazuo; Sinkkonen, Saku T.; Corrales, C. Eduardo; Most, Sam P.; Chai, Renjie; Jan, Taha A.; van Amerongen, Renée; Cheng, Alan G.; Heller, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    In the cochlear nucleus (CN), the first central relay of the auditory pathway, the survival of neurons during the first weeks after birth depends on afferent innervation from the cochlea. Although input-dependent neuron survival has been extensively studied in the CN, neurogenesis has not been evaluated as a possible mechanism of postnatal plasticity. Here we show that new neurons are born in the CN during the critical period of postnatal plasticity. Coincidently, we found a population of neural progenitor cells that are controlled by a complex interplay of Wnt, Notch, and TGFβ/BMP signaling, in which low levels of TGFβ/BMP signaling are permissive for progenitor proliferation that is promoted by Wnt and Notch activation. We further show that cells with activated Wnt signaling reside in the CN and that these cells have high propensity for neurosphere formation. Cochlear ablation resulted in diminishment of progenitors and Wnt/β-catenin-active cells, suggesting that the neonatal CN maintains an afferent innervation-dependent population of progenitor cells that display active canonical Wnt signaling. PMID:23940359

  11. Transient, afferent input-dependent, postnatal niche for neural progenitor cells in the cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Volkenstein, Stefan; Oshima, Kazuo; Sinkkonen, Saku T; Corrales, C Eduardo; Most, Sam P; Chai, Renjie; Jan, Taha A; van Amerongen, Renée; Cheng, Alan G; Heller, Stefan

    2013-08-27

    In the cochlear nucleus (CN), the first central relay of the auditory pathway, the survival of neurons during the first weeks after birth depends on afferent innervation from the cochlea. Although input-dependent neuron survival has been extensively studied in the CN, neurogenesis has not been evaluated as a possible mechanism of postnatal plasticity. Here we show that new neurons are born in the CN during the critical period of postnatal plasticity. Coincidently, we found a population of neural progenitor cells that are controlled by a complex interplay of Wnt, Notch, and TGFβ/BMP signaling, in which low levels of TGFβ/BMP signaling are permissive for progenitor proliferation that is promoted by Wnt and Notch activation. We further show that cells with activated Wnt signaling reside in the CN and that these cells have high propensity for neurosphere formation. Cochlear ablation resulted in diminishment of progenitors and Wnt/β-catenin-active cells, suggesting that the neonatal CN maintains an afferent innervation-dependent population of progenitor cells that display active canonical Wnt signaling.

  12. A computer interface for psychophysical and speech research with the Nucleus cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Shannon, R V; Adams, D D; Ferrel, R L; Palumbo, R L; Grandgenett, M

    1990-02-01

    A computer interface has been designed and implemented that allows presentation of biphasic pulse stimuli to patients with the Nucleus Ltd./Cochlear Corporation cochlear implant. The one version of the interface connects to a standard parallel output port of a PC or AT compatible computer, and another version plugs directly into a standard PC/XT bus slot. The host computer sends a stream of bytes to the parallel port that specifies the configuration of the desired output pulses. Upon receipt of the data, the interface generates the appropriate burst sequence that is delivered to the patient's external transmitter coil. The coded information is interpreted by the internal receiver that delivers the pulse to the specified electrodes at the specified amplitude and pulse width. This interface makes it possible to interleave pulses on two or more electrode pairs, to modulate the amplitude or timing of a pulse sequence, or to sweep a stimulus across the electrode array. Investigators can achieve stimulus control with this interface that allows them to conduct psychophysical, electrophysiological, and speech experiments not possible through the patient's speech processor or with available clinical interfaces.

  13. Representation of vowel stimuli in the ventral cochlear nucleus of the chinchilla.

    PubMed

    Recio, A; Rhode, W S

    2000-08-01

    Responses of neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) of anesthetized chinchillas to six synthetic vowel sounds (/a/, /e/, /epsilon/, /i/, /o/ and /u/) were recorded at several intensity levels. Stimuli were synthesized with a fundamental frequency of 100 Hz or 181.6 Hz and had formant values at integer multiples of 100 Hz. Responses came from most neuron types in the VCN (with the exception of onset cells with an I-shaped pattern). Population studies, performed only on primary-like (PL) and chopper neurons, showed that PL neurons provide a better temporal representation than do chopper neurons. At the lowest level of stimulation, all neuron types provide an accurate rate-place representation of vowel spectra. With an increase in stimulus level, the rate-place representation of PL neurons becomes inferior to that of chopper neurons, either sustained choppers or transient choppers.

  14. The distribution of spherical cells in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Hackney, C M; Pick, G F

    1986-08-01

    Several types of neuron are found in Nissl-stained sections of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN). From these one group, the spherical cells (Osen, 1969), can be readily distinguished from the remaining small and multipolar forms. The rostral pole of the AVCN has previously been subdivided into the large and the small spherical cell areas (in several mammals). In the present study of the guinea pig AVCN, spatial distributions of cell density, size, and shape have been investigated. These have been used to test whether the subdivision made on the basis of morphological differences in the spherical cells is valid, or whether there is a gradual gradient in these features. This analysis has shown that although variations in cell size and shape are observed, the spherical cell area cannot be partitioned on these grounds. There is, however, a graded increase in spherical cell packing density towards the rostral pole of the AVCN, with proportionately fewer of the other cell types present.

  15. Interspike intervals as a correlate of periodicity pitch in cat cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Rhode, W S

    1995-04-01

    Amplitude modulated (AM) signals have often been used as precisely defined partial analogs of speech sounds. This study considers the response to an AM complex with 200% sinusoidal modulation, that is, the amplitudes of the three AM components are equal. By varying the carrier frequency across the entire frequency range of unit response, it is shown that units in the cochlear nucleus of cat are relatively insensitive to variation in the carrier frequency, which is to say that population response to an AM signal at a fixed locus will be widespread. These stimuli and procedures result in the presentation of both harmonic and inharmonic complexes, and thus permit assessment of neural responses for the information needed to make spectral or time-domain pitch matches. It is shown that the reciprocals of the modes (favored intervals) in the interspike interval histogram reflect the first effect of pitch shift, which is defined psychophysically as a proportional shift in pitch to the change in carrier frequency. In particular, interspike intervals of units with a widespread spectral response provide a basis to explain phase and dominant component pitch behavior that early narrow-band pitch theories found problematical. The amplitude of phase locking to individual AM components varies systematically though there are some unexplained variations across the frequency-intensity plane that could be due to combination tones. The unit response to a quasifrequency modulated (QFM) stimulus shows that if pitch is based on interspike intervals, it would remain the smae as pitch for an AM signal. The magnitude of the synchrony response to QFM stimuli is less than to AM stimuli for the majority of cochlear nucleus units; however, there are exceptions.

  16. Structural and functional classes of multipolar cells in the ventral cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Doucet, John R; Ryugo, David K

    2006-04-01

    Multipolar cells in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) are a structurally and functionally diverse group of projection neurons. Understanding their role in the ascending pathway involves partitioning multipolar cells into distinct populations and determining where in the brain each sends its coded messages. In this study, we used retrograde labeling techniques in rats to identify multipolar neurons that project their axons to the ipsilateral dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), the contralateral CN, or both structures. Three rats received injections of biotinylated dextran amine in the ipsilateral DCN and diamidino yellow in the contralateral CN. Several radiate multipolar neurons (defined by their axonal projections to the ipsilateral DCN and their dendrites that traverse VCN isofrequency sheets) were double-labeled but over 70% were not. This result suggests two distinct populations: (1) radiate-commissural (RC) multipolar cells that project to the ipsilateral DCN and the contralateral CN, and (2) radiate multipolar cells that project exclusively (in this context) to the ipsilateral DCN. In a different group of animals, we retrogradely labeled multipolar neurons that project their axons to the contralateral CN and measured the size of their cell bodies. The mean size of this population (266 +/- 156 microm2) was significantly smaller than those of RC-multipolar cells (418 +/- 140 microm2). We conclude that the CN commissural pathway is composed of at least two components: (1) RC multipolar cells and (2) commissural multipolar cells that are small- and medium-sized neurons that project exclusively (in this context) to the contralateral CN. These results identify separate structural groups of multipolar cells that may correspond to physiological unit types described in the literature. They also provide protocols for isolating and studying different populations of multipolar cells to determine the neural mechanisms that govern their responses to sound.

  17. NMDA Receptors Mediate Stimulus-Timing-Dependent Plasticity and Neural Synchrony in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Stefanescu, Roxana A.; Shore, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory information relayed by auditory nerve fibers and somatosensory information relayed by granule cell parallel fibers converge on the fusiform cells (FCs) of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the first brain station of the auditory pathway. In vitro, parallel fiber synapses on FCs exhibit spike-timing-dependent plasticity with Hebbian learning rules, partially mediated by the NMDA receptor (NMDAr). Well-timed bimodal auditory-somatosensory stimulation, in vivo equivalent of spike-timing-dependent plasticity, can induce stimulus-timing-dependent plasticity (StTDP) of the FCs spontaneous and tone-evoked firing rates. In healthy guinea pigs, the resulting distribution of StTDP learning rules across a FC neural population is dominated by a Hebbian profile while anti-Hebbian, suppressive and enhancing LRs are less frequent. In this study, we investigate in vivo, the NMDAr contribution to FC baseline activity and long term plasticity. We find that blocking the NMDAr decreases the synchronization of FC- spontaneous activity and mediates differential modulation of FC rate-level functions such that low, and high threshold units are more likely to increase, and decrease, respectively, their maximum amplitudes. Three significant alterations in mean learning-rule profiles were identified: transitions from an initial Hebbian profile towards (1) an anti-Hebbian; (2) a suppressive profile; and (3) transitions from an anti-Hebbian to a Hebbian profile. FC units preserving their learning rules showed instead, NMDAr-dependent plasticity to unimodal acoustic stimulation, with persistent depression of tone-evoked responses changing to persistent enhancement following the NMDAr antagonist. These results reveal a crucial role of the NMDAr in mediating FC baseline activity and long-term plasticity which have important implications for signal processing and auditory pathologies related to maladaptive plasticity of dorsal cochlear nucleus circuitry. PMID:26622224

  18. Increased Synchrony and Bursting of Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus Fusiform Cells Correlate with Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Calvin; Martel, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus, the perception of phantom sounds, is thought to arise from increased neural synchrony, which facilitates perceptual binding and creates salient sensory features in the absence of physical stimuli. In the auditory cortex, increased spontaneous cross-unit synchrony and single-unit bursting are de facto physiological correlates of tinnitus. However, it is unknown whether neurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), the putative tinnitus-induction site, exhibit increased synchrony. Using a temporary-threshold shift model and gap-prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle to assess tinnitus, we recorded spontaneous activity from fusiform cells, the principle neurons of the DCN, in normal hearing, tinnitus, and non-tinnitus guinea pigs. Synchrony and bursting, as well as spontaneous firing rate (SFR), correlated with behavioral evidence of tinnitus, and increased synchrony and bursting were associated with SFR elevation. The presence of increased synchrony and bursting in DCN fusiform cells suggests that a neural code for phantom sounds emerges in this brainstem location and likely contributes to the formation of the tinnitus percept. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Tinnitus, a phantom auditory percept, is encoded by pathological changes in the neural synchrony code of perceptual processing. Increased cross-unit synchrony and bursting have been linked to tinnitus in several higher auditory stations but not in fusiform cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), key brainstem neurons in tinnitus generation. Here, we demonstrate increased synchrony and bursting of fusiform cell spontaneous firing, which correlate with frequency-specific behavioral measures of tinnitus. Thus, the neural representation of tinnitus emerges early in auditory processing and likely drives its pathophysiology in higher structures. PMID:26865628

  19. Acoustic Overexposure Increases the Expression of VGLUT-2 Mediated Projections from the Lateral Vestibular Nucleus to the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Matthew; Solinski, Hans Jürgen; Hashimoto, Haruka; Tagoe, Thomas; Pilati, Nadia; Hamann, Martine

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) is a first relay of the central auditory system as well as a site for integration of multimodal information. Vesicular glutamate transporters VGLUT-1 and VGLUT-2 selectively package glutamate into synaptic vesicles and are found to have different patterns of organization in the DCN. Whereas auditory nerve fibers predominantly co-label with VGLUT-1, somatosensory inputs predominantly co-label with VGLUT-2. Here, we used retrograde and anterograde transport of fluorescent conjugated dextran amine (DA) to demonstrate that the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN) exhibits ipsilateral projections to both fusiform and deep layers of the rat DCN. Stimulating the LVN induced glutamatergic synaptic currents in fusiform cells and granule cell interneurones. We combined the dextran amine neuronal tracing method with immunohistochemistry and showed that labeled projections from the LVN are co-labeled with VGLUT-2 by contrast to VGLUT-1. Wistar rats were exposed to a loud single tone (15 kHz, 110 dB SPL) for 6 hours. Five days after acoustic overexposure, the level of expression of VGLUT-1 in the DCN was decreased whereas the level of expression of VGLUT-2 in the DCN was increased including terminals originating from the LVN. VGLUT-2 mediated projections from the LVN to the DCN are likely to play a role in the head position in response to sound. Amplification of VGLUT-2 expression after acoustic overexposure could be a compensatory mechanism from vestibular inputs in response to hearing loss and to a decrease of VGLUT-1 expression from auditory nerve fibers. PMID:22570693

  20. Projections of the cochlear nuclei and nucleus laminaris to the inferior colliculus of the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T T; Konishi, M

    1988-08-08

    The barn owl determines the directions from which sounds emanate by computing the interaural differences in the timing and intensity of sounds. These cues for sound localization are processed in independent channels originating at nucleus magnocellularis (NM) and nucleus angularis (NA), the cochlear nuclei. The cells of NM are specialized for encoding the phase of sounds in the ipsilateral ear. The cells of NA are specialized for encoding the intensity of sounds in the ipsilateral ear. NM projects solely, bilaterally, and tonotopically to nucleus laminaris (NL). NL and NA project to largely nonoverlapping zones in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc), thus forming hodological subdivisions in which time and intensity information may be processed. The terminal field of NL occupies a discrete zone in the rostromedial portion of the contralateral ICc, which we have termed the "core" of ICc. The terminal field of NA surrounds the core of ICc and thus forms a "shell" around it. The projection from NL to the core conserves tonotopy. Low-frequency regions of NL project to the dorsal portions of the core whereas higher-frequency regions project to more ventral portions. This innervation pattern is consistent with earlier physiological studies of tonotopy. Physiological studies have also suggested that NL and the core of ICs contain a representation of the location of a sound source along the horizontal axis. Our data suggest that the projection from NL to the core preserves spatiotopy. Thus, the dorsal portion of NL on the left, which contains a representation of eccentric loci in the right hemifield, innervates the area of the right ICc core that represents eccentric right loci. The more ventral portion of the left NL, which represents loci close to the vertical meridian, innervates the more rostral portions of the right core, which also represents loci near the vertical meridian.

  1. A multicentre clinical evaluation of paediatric cochlear implant users upgrading to the Nucleus(®) 6 system.

    PubMed

    Plasmans, Anke; Rushbrooke, Emma; Moran, Michelle; Spence, Claire; Theuwis, Leen; Zarowski, Andrzej; Offeciers, Erwin; Atkinson, Beth; McGovern, Jane; Dornan, Dimity; Leigh, Jaime; Kaicer, Arielle; Hollow, Rod; Martelli, Leigh; Looi, Valerie; Nel, Esti; Del Dot, Janine; Cowan, Robert; Mauger, Stefan J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether experienced paediatric cochlear implant users could show benefits to speech perception outcomes from the introduction of noise reduction and automated scene classification technologies as implemented in the Nucleus(®) 6 sound processor. Previous research with adult cochlear implant users had shown significant improvements in speech intelligibility for listening in noisy conditions and good user acceptance for upgrading to the Nucleus 6 processor. In adults, these improvements for listening in noise were primarily attributed to the use of a range of new input processing technologies including noise reduction, as well as introduction of automatic scene classification technology. Experienced paediatric cochlear implant users (n=25) were recruited from four clinics located in three countries. Research participants were evaluated on three occasions, an initial session using their Nucleus 5 sound processor; a second session in which participants used the Nucleus 6 processor programmed with the same technologies as were used in their Nucleus 5 sound processor; and a final session in which participants used the Nucleus 6 processor programmed with the default technologies including automatic scene classification (SCAN) which automatically selects the microphone directionality, noise reduction (SNR-NR), and wind noise reduction (WNR) technologies. Prior to both the second and third evaluations, research participants had approximately two weeks take-home experience with the new system. Speech perception performances on monosyllabic word tests presented in quiet and in noise, and a sentence test presented in noise, were compared across the three processor conditions. Acceptance of the Nucleus 6 default settings was assessed in a final session. No group mean difference in performance was found for monosyllabic words in quiet. A significant improvement in speech perception was found for both monosyllabic words and sentences in

  2. Medial auditory thalamus is necessary for acquisition and retention of eyeblink conditioning to cochlear nucleus stimulation.

    PubMed

    Halverson, Hunter E; Poremba, Amy; Freeman, John H

    2015-05-01

    Associative learning tasks commonly involve an auditory stimulus, which must be projected through the auditory system to the sites of memory induction for learning to occur. The cochlear nucleus (CN) projection to the pontine nuclei has been posited as the necessary auditory pathway for cerebellar learning, including eyeblink conditioning. However, the medial auditory thalamic nuclei (MATN), consisting of the medial division of the medial geniculate, suprageniculate, and posterior interlaminar nucleus have also been implicated as a critical auditory relay to the pontine nuclei for cerebellum-dependent motor learning. The MATN also conveys auditory information to the amygdala necessary for avoidance and fear conditioning. The current study used CN stimulation to increase activity in the pontine nuclei, relative to a tone stimulus, and possibly provide sufficient input to the cerebellum for acquisition or retention of eyeblink conditioning during MATN inactivation. Primary and secondary effects of CN stimulation and MATN inactivation were examined using 2-deoxy-glucose autoradiography. Stimulation of CN increased activity in the pontine nuclei, however, this increase was not sufficient for cerebellar learning during MATN inactivation. Results of the current experiment provide additional evidence indicating the MATN may be the critical auditory relay for many associative learning tasks.

  3. Multicenter Clinical Trial of the Nucleus® Hybrid™ S8 Cochlear Implant: Final Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gantz, Bruce J; Dunn, Camille; Oleson, Jacob; Hansen, Marlan; Parkinson, Aaron; Turner, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Objective The concept expanding electrical speech processing to those with more residual acoustic hearing with a less invasive shorter cochlear implant has been ongoing since 1999. A multi-center study of the Nucleus Hybrid S8 CI took place between 2002–11. This report describes the final outcomes of this clinical trial. Study Design Multi-Center longitudinal single subject design Methods Eighty-seven subjects received a Nucleus® Hybrid™ S8 implant in their poorer ear. Speech perception in quiet (CNC words) and in noise (BKB-SIN) was collected pre- and post-operatively at 3, 6, and 12 months. Subjective questionnaire data using the APHAB was also collected. Results Some level of hearing preservation was accomplished in 98% subjects with 90% maintaining a functional low-frequency pure-tone average (LFPTA) at initial activation. By 12 months, 5 subjects had total hearing loss and 80% of subjects maintained functional hearing. CNC words demonstrated that 82.5% and 87.5% of subjects had significant improvements in the Hybrid and Combined conditions. The majority of had improvements with BKB-SIN. Results also indicated that as long as subjects maintained at least a severe LFPTA, there was significant improvement in speech understanding. Furthermore, all subjects reported positive improvements in hearing in three of the 4 subscales of the APHAB. Conclusion The concept of hybrid speech processing has significant advantages for subjects with residual low-frequency hearing. In this study, the Nucleus® Hybrid™ S8 provided improved word understanding in quiet and noise. Additionally, there appears to be stability of the residual hearing after initial activation of the device. Level of evidence 2c PMID:26756395

  4. Modulating Central Gain in Tinnitus: Changes in Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Coomber, Ben; Kowalkowski, Victoria L.; Berger, Joel I.; Palmer, Alan Richard; Wallace, Mark Nelson

    2015-01-01

    A significant challenge in tinnitus research lies in explaining how acoustic insult leads to tinnitus in some individuals, but not others. One possibility is genetic variability in the expression and function of neuromodulators – components of neural signaling that alter the balance of excitation and inhibition in neural circuits. An example is nitric oxide (NO) – a free radical and potent neuromodulator in the mammalian brain – that regulates plasticity via both pre-synaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. Changes in NO have previously been implicated in tinnitus generation, specifically in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). Here, we examined nitric oxide synthase (NOS) – the enzyme responsible for NO production – in the guinea pig VCN following acoustic trauma. NOS was present in most cell types – including spherical and globular bushy cells, small, medium, and large multipolar cells, and octopus cells – spanning the entire extent of the VCN. The staining pattern was symmetrical in control animals. Unilateral acoustic over-exposure (AOE) resulted in marked asymmetries between ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the VCN in terms of the distribution of NOS across the cochlear nuclei in animals with behavioral evidence of tinnitus: fewer NOS-positive cells and a reduced level of NOS staining was present across the whole extent of the contralateral VCN, relative to the ipsilateral VCN. The asymmetric pattern of NOS-containing cells was observed as early as 1 day after AOE and was also present in some animals at 3, 7, and 21 days after AOE. However, it was not until 8 weeks after AOE, when tinnitus had developed, that asymmetries were significant overall, compared with control animals. Asymmetrical NOS expression was not correlated with shifts in the threshold hearing levels. Variability in NOS expression between animals may represent one underlying difference that can be linked to whether or not tinnitus develops after noise exposure. PMID:25806021

  5. Neurometric amplitude-modulation detection threshold in the guinea-pig ventral cochlear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Sayles, Mark; Füllgrabe, Christian; Winter, Ian M

    2013-01-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) is a pervasive feature of natural sounds. Neural detection and processing of modulation cues is behaviourally important across species. Although most ecologically relevant sounds are not fully modulated, physiological studies have usually concentrated on fully modulated (100% modulation depth) signals. Psychoacoustic experiments mainly operate at low modulation depths, around detection threshold (∼5% AM). We presented sinusoidal amplitude-modulated tones, systematically varying modulation depth between zero and 100%, at a range of modulation frequencies, to anaesthetised guinea-pigs while recording spikes from neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). The cochlear nucleus is the site of the first synapse in the central auditory system. At this locus significant signal processing occurs with respect to representation of AM signals. Spike trains were analysed in terms of the vector strength of spike synchrony to the amplitude envelope. Neurons showed either low-pass or band-pass temporal modulation transfer functions, with the proportion of band-pass responses increasing with increasing sound level. The proportion of units showing a band-pass response varies with unit type: sustained chopper (CS) > transient chopper (CT) > primary-like (PL). Spike synchrony increased with increasing modulation depth. At the lowest modulation depth (6%), significant spike synchrony was only observed near to the unit's best modulation frequency for all unit types tested. Modulation tuning therefore became sharper with decreasing modulation depth. AM detection threshold was calculated for each individual unit as a function of modulation frequency. Chopper units have significantly better AM detection thresholds than do primary-like units. AM detection threshold is significantly worse at 40 dB vs. 10 dB above pure-tone spike rate threshold. Mean modulation detection thresholds for sounds 10 dB above pure-tone spike rate threshold at best modulation

  6. Optogenetic stimulation of the cochlear nucleus using channelrhodopsin-2 evokes activity in the central auditory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Darrow, Keith N.; Slama, Michaël C. C.; Owoc, Maryanna; Kozin, Elliott; Hancock, Kenneth; Kempfle, Judith; Edge, Albert; Lacour, Stephanie; Boyden, Edward; Polley, Daniel; Brown, M. Christian; Lee, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics has become an important research tool and is being considered as the basis for several neural prostheses. However, few studies have applied optogenetics to the auditory brainstem. This study explored whether optical activation of the cochlear nucleus (CN) elicited responses in neurons in higher centers of the auditory pathway, and it measured the evoked response to optical stimulation. Viral-mediated gene transfer was used to express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in the mouse CN. Blue light was delivered via an optical fiber placed near the surface of the infected CN and recordings were made in higher-level centers. Optical stimulation evoked excitatory multiunit spiking activity throughout the tonotopic axis of central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) and the auditory cortex (Actx). The pattern and magnitude of IC activity elicited by optical stimulation was comparable to that obtained with a 50 dB SPL acoustic click stimulus. This broad pattern of activity was consistent with histological confirmation of GFP label of cell bodies and axons throughout the CN. Increasing pulse rates up to 320 Hz did not significantly affect threshold or bandwidth of the IC responses, but rates higher than 50 Hz resulted in desynchronized activity. Optical stimulation also evoked an auditory brainstem response, which had a simpler waveform than the response to acoustic stimulation. Control cases showed no responses to optical stimulation. These data suggest that optogenetic control of central auditory neurons is feasible, but opsins with faster channel kinetics will be necessary to convey information in rates typical of many auditory signals. PMID:25481416

  7. Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus of the Rat: Representation of Complex Sounds in Ears Damaged by Acoustic Trauma.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Ropp, Tessa-Jonne F; May, Bradford J; Young, Eric D

    2015-08-01

    Acoustic trauma damages the cochlea but secondarily modifies circuits of the central auditory system. Changes include decreases in inhibitory neurotransmitter systems, degeneration and rewiring of synaptic circuits, and changes in neural activity. Little is known about the consequences of these changes for the representation of complex sounds. Here, we show data from the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) of rats with a moderate high-frequency hearing loss following acoustic trauma. Single-neuron recording was used to estimate the organization of neurons' receptive fields, the balance of inhibition and excitation, and the representation of the spectra of complex broadband stimuli. The complex stimuli had random spectral shapes (RSSs), and the responses were fit with a model that allows the quality of the representation and its degree of linearity to be estimated. Tone response maps of DCN neurons in rat are like those in other species investigated previously, suggesting the same general organization of this nucleus. Following acoustic trauma, abnormal response types appeared. These can be interpreted as reflecting degraded tuning in auditory nerve fibers plus loss of inhibitory inputs in DCN. Abnormal types are somewhat more prevalent at later times (103-376 days) following the exposure, but not significantly so. Inhibition became weaker in post-trauma neurons that retained inhibitory responses but also disappeared in many neurons. The quality of the representation of spectral shape, measured by sensitivity to the spectral shapes of RSS stimuli, was decreased following trauma; in fact, neurons with abnormal response types responded mainly to overall stimulus level, and not spectral shape.

  8. United States multicenter clinical trial of the cochlear nucleus hybrid implant system

    PubMed Central

    Gantz, Bruce J.; Waltzman, Susan B.; Parkinson, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To evaluate the safety and efficacy of acoustic and electric sound processing for individuals with significant residual low‐frequency hearing and severe‐to‐profound high‐frequency sensorineural hearing loss. Study Design Prospective, single‐arm repeated measures, single‐subject design. Methods Fifty individuals, ≥ 18 years old, with low‐frequency hearing and severe high‐frequency loss were implanted with the Cochlear Nucleus Hybrid L24 implant at 10 investigational sites. Preoperatively, subjects demonstrated consonant‐nucleus‐consonant word scores of 10% through 60% in the ear to be implanted. Subjects were assessed prospectively, preoperatively, and postoperatively on coprimary endpoints of consonant‐nucleus‐consonant words, AzBio sentences in noise, and self‐assessment measures. Results Significant mean improvements were observed for coprimary endpoints: consonant‐nucleus‐consonant words (35.8 percentage points) and AzBio sentences in noise (32.0 percentage points), both at P < 0.001. Ninety‐six percent of subjects performed equal or better on speech in quiet and 90% in noise. Eighty‐two percent of subjects showed improved performance on speech in quiet and 74% in noise. Self‐assessments were positive, corroborating speech perception results. Conclusion The Nucleus Hybrid System provides significant improvements in speech intelligibility in quiet and noise for individuals with severe high‐frequency loss and some low‐frequency hearing. This device expands indications to hearing‐impaired individuals who perform poorly with amplification due to bilateral high‐frequency hearing loss and who previously were not implant candidates. Level of Evidence 2b. Laryngoscope, 126:175–181, 2016 PMID:26152811

  9. Distinct Neural Properties in the Low-Frequency Region of the Chicken Cochlear Nucleus Magnocellularis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Topography in the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM) is represented as gradually increasing characteristic frequency (CF) along the caudolateral-to-rostromedial axis. In this study, we characterized the organization and cell biophysics of the caudolateral NM (NMc) in chickens (Gallus gallus). Examination of cellular and dendritic architecture first revealed that NMc contains small neurons and extensive dendritic processes, in contrast to adendritic, large neurons located more rostromedially. Individual dye-filling study further demonstrated that NMc is divided into two subregions, with NMc2 neurons having larger and more complex dendritic fields than NMc1. Axonal tract tracing studies confirmed that NMc1 and NMc2 neurons receive afferent inputs from the auditory nerve and the superior olivary nucleus, similar to the adendritic NM. However, the auditory axons synapse with NMc neurons via small bouton-like terminals, unlike the large end bulb synapses on adendritic NM neurons. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated that most NMc2 neurons express cholecystokinin but not calretinin, distinct from NMc1 and adendritic NM neurons that are cholecystokinin negative and mostly calretinin positive. Finally, whole-cell current clamp recordings revealed that NMc neurons require significantly lower threshold current for action potential generation than adendritic NM neurons. Moreover, in contrast to adendritic NM neurons that generate a single-onset action potential, NMc neurons generate multiple action potentials to suprathreshold sustained depolarization. Taken together, our data indicate that NMc contains multiple neuron types that are structurally, connectively, molecularly, and physiologically different from traditionally defined NM neurons, emphasizing specialized neural properties for processing low-frequency sounds. PMID:28413822

  10. Coding of amplitude-modulated signals in the cochlear nucleus of a grass frog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibikov, N. G.

    2002-07-01

    To study the mechanisms that govern the coding of temporal features of complex sound signals, responses of single neurons located in the dorsal nucleus of the medulla oblongata (the cochlear nucleus) of a curarized grass frog ( Rana temporaria) to pure tone bursts and amplitude modulated tone bursts with a modulation frequency of 20 Hz and modulation depths of 10 and 80% were recorded. The carrier frequency was equal to the characteristic frequency of a neuron, the average signal level was 20 30 dB above the threshold, and the signal duration was equal to ten full modulation periods. Of the 133 neurons studied, 129 neurons responded to 80% modulated tone bursts by discharges that were phase-locked with the envelope waveform. At this modulation depth, the best phase locking was observed for neurons with the phasic type of response to tone bursts. For tonic neurons with low characteristic frequencies, along with the reproduction of the modulation, phase locking with the carrier frequency of the signal was observed. At 10% amplitude modulation, phasic neurons usually responded to only the onset of a tone burst. Almost all tonic units showed a tendency to reproduce the envelope, although the efficiency of the reproduction was low, and for half of these neurons, it was below the reliability limit. Some neurons exhibited a more efficient reproduction of the weak modulation. For almost half of the neurons, a reliable improvement was observed in the phase locking of the response during the tone burst presentation (from the first to the tenth modulation period). The cooperative histogram of a set of neurons responding to 10% modulated tone bursts within narrow ranges of frequencies and intensities retains the information on the dynamics of the envelope variation. The data are compared with the results obtained from the study of the responses to similar signals in the acoustic midbrain center of the same object and also with the psychophysical effect of a differential

  11. Single Granule Cells Excite Golgi Cells and Evoke Feedback Inhibition in the Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Yaeger, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    In cerebellum-like circuits, synapses from thousands of granule cells converge onto principal cells. This fact, combined with theoretical considerations, has led to the concept that granule cells encode afferent input as a population and that spiking in individual granule cells is relatively unimportant. However, granule cells also provide excitatory input to Golgi cells, each of which provide inhibition to hundreds of granule cells. We investigated whether spiking in individual granule cells could recruit Golgi cells and thereby trigger widespread inhibition in slices of mouse cochlear nucleus. Using paired whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, trains of action potentials at 100 Hz in single granule cells was sufficient to evoke spikes in Golgi cells in ∼40% of paired granule-to-Golgi cell recordings. High-frequency spiking in single granule cells evoked IPSCs in ∼5% of neighboring granule cells, indicating that bursts of activity in single granule cells can recruit feedback inhibition from Golgi cells. Moreover, IPSPs mediated by single Golgi cell action potentials paused granule cell firing, suggesting that inhibitory events recruited by activity in single granule cells were able to control granule cell firing. These results suggest a previously unappreciated relationship between population coding and bursting in single granule cells by which spiking in a small number of granule cells may have an impact on the activity of a much larger number of granule cells. PMID:25788690

  12. Serotonergic Regulation of Excitability of Principal Cells of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zheng-Quan

    2015-01-01

    The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) is one of the first stations within the central auditory pathway where the basic computations underlying sound localization are initiated and heightened activity in the DCN may underlie central tinnitus. The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), is associated with many distinct behavioral or cognitive states, and serotonergic fibers are concentrated in the DCN. However, it remains unclear what is the function of this dense input. Using a combination of in vitro electrophysiology and optogenetics in mouse brain slices, we found that 5-HT directly enhances the excitability of fusiform principal cells via activation of two distinct 5-HT receptor subfamilies, 5-HT2A/2CR (5-HT2A/2C receptor) and 5-HT7R (5-HT7 receptor). This excitatory effect results from an augmentation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (Ih or HCN channels). The serotonergic regulation of excitability is G-protein-dependent and involves cAMP and Src kinase signaling pathways. Moreover, optogenetic activation of serotonergic axon terminals increased excitability of fusiform cells. Our findings reveal that 5-HT exerts a potent influence on fusiform cells by altering their intrinsic properties, which may enhance the sensitivity of the DCN to sensory input. PMID:25788672

  13. Intrinsic and synaptic properties of vertical cells of the mouse dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Sidney P; Lu, Hsin-Wei; Trussell, Laurence O

    2012-08-01

    Multiple classes of inhibitory interneurons shape the activity of principal neurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), a primary target of auditory nerve fibers in the mammalian brain stem. Feedforward inhibition mediated by glycinergic vertical cells (also termed tuberculoventral or corn cells) is thought to contribute importantly to the sound-evoked response properties of principal neurons, but the cellular and synaptic properties that determine how vertical cells function are unclear. We used transgenic mice in which glycinergic neurons express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to target vertical cells for whole cell patch-clamp recordings in acute slices of DCN. We found that vertical cells express diverse intrinsic spiking properties and could fire action potentials at high, sustained spiking rates. Using paired recordings, we directly examined synapses made by vertical cells onto fusiform cells, a primary DCN principal cell type. Vertical cell synapses produced unexpectedly small-amplitude unitary currents in fusiform cells, and additional experiments indicated that multiple vertical cells must be simultaneously active to inhibit fusiform cell spike output. Paired recordings also revealed that a major source of inhibition to vertical cells comes from other vertical cells.

  14. Purkinje-like cells of the rat cochlear nucleus: a combined functional and morphological study.

    PubMed

    Koszeghy, Aron; Pál, Balázs; Pap, Pál; Pocsai, Krisztina; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Szucs, Géza; Rusznák, Zoltán

    2009-11-10

    Purkinje-like cells (PLCs) of the cochlear nucleus (CN) are strongly calbindin positive neurones with unknown function. In the present work functional and morphological methods have been employed to provide data about PLCs in general, and about their possible involvement in the synaptic organisation of the CN in particular. PLCs had slightly elongated soma, from which a complex dendritic arborisation extended with highly variable dimensions. On the basis of their morphology, three classes of PLCs were identified. Positively identified PLCs fired a train of action potentials on sustained depolarization. When hyperpolarizing stimuli were applied, the presence of a slowly activating, ZD7288-sensitive inward current was noted that corresponded to the h-current. PLCs received both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. Functional experiments revealed that 76% and 14% of the spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents recorded from the cell bodies of the PLCs were mediated via glycinergic and GABAergic synapses, respectively. PLCs presented strong cerebellin1-like immunoreactivity, but its distribution differed from that seen in cerebellar Purkinje cells. Our results indicate that PLCs are parts of the synaptic circuitry of the CN, thus they may be actively involved in the processing and analysis of auditory information.

  15. Factors Influencing Short-term Synaptic Plasticity in the Avian Cochlear Nucleus Magnocellularis

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Jason Tait; Quinones, Karla; Otto-Meyer, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Defined as reduced neural responses during high rates of activity, synaptic depression is a form of short-term plasticity important for the temporal filtering of sound. In the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM), an auditory brainstem structure, mechanisms regulating short-term synaptic depression include pre-, post-, and extrasynaptic factors. Using varied paired-pulse stimulus intervals, we found that the time course of synaptic depression lasts up to four seconds at late-developing NM synapses. Synaptic depression was largely reliant on exogenous Ca2+-dependent probability of presynaptic neurotransmitter release, and to a lesser extent, on the desensitization of postsynaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor (AMPA-R). Interestingly, although extrasynaptic glutamate clearance did not play a significant role in regulating synaptic depression, blocking glutamate clearance at early-developing synapses altered synaptic dynamics, changing responses from depression to facilitation. These results suggest a developmental shift in the relative reliance on pre-, post-, and extrasynaptic factors in regulating short-term synaptic plasticity in NM. PMID:26527054

  16. Intrinsic and synaptic properties of vertical cells of the mouse dorsal cochlear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Sidney P.; Lu, Hsin-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Multiple classes of inhibitory interneurons shape the activity of principal neurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), a primary target of auditory nerve fibers in the mammalian brain stem. Feedforward inhibition mediated by glycinergic vertical cells (also termed tuberculoventral or corn cells) is thought to contribute importantly to the sound-evoked response properties of principal neurons, but the cellular and synaptic properties that determine how vertical cells function are unclear. We used transgenic mice in which glycinergic neurons express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to target vertical cells for whole cell patch-clamp recordings in acute slices of DCN. We found that vertical cells express diverse intrinsic spiking properties and could fire action potentials at high, sustained spiking rates. Using paired recordings, we directly examined synapses made by vertical cells onto fusiform cells, a primary DCN principal cell type. Vertical cell synapses produced unexpectedly small-amplitude unitary currents in fusiform cells, and additional experiments indicated that multiple vertical cells must be simultaneously active to inhibit fusiform cell spike output. Paired recordings also revealed that a major source of inhibition to vertical cells comes from other vertical cells. PMID:22572947

  17. Effects of sodium salicylate on spontaneous and evoked spike rate in the dorsal cochlear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lei; Ding, Dalian; Sun, Wei; Xu-Friedman, Matthew A.; Salvi, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous hyperactivity in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), particularly in fusiform cells, has been proposed as a neural generator of tinnitus. To determine if sodium salicylate, a reliable tinnitus inducer, could evoke hyperactivity in the DCN, we measured the spontaneous and depolarization-evoked spike rate in fusiform and cartwheel cells during salicylate superfusion. Five minute treatment with 1.4 mM salicylate suppressed spontaneous and evoked firing in fusiform cells; this decrease partially recovered after salicylate washout. Less suppression and greater recovery occurred with 3 minute treatment using 1.4 mM salicylate. In contrast, salicylate had no effect on the spontaneous or evoked firing of cartwheel cells indicating that salicylate’s suppressive effects are specific to fusiform cells. To determine if salicylate’s suppressive effects were a consequence of increased synaptic inhibition, spontaneous inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSC) were measured during salicylate treatment. Salicylate unexpectedly reduced IPSC thereby ruling out increased inhibition as a mechanism to explain the depressed firing rates in fusiform cells. The salicylate-induced suppression of fusiform spike rate apparently arises from unidentified changes in the cell’s intrinsic excitability. PMID:20430089

  18. Temperature affects voltage-sensitive conductances differentially in octopus cells of the mammalian cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiao-Jie; Oertel, Donata

    2005-07-01

    Temperature is an important physiological variable the influence of which on macroscopic electrophysiological measurements in slices is not well documented. We show that each of three voltage-sensitive conductances of octopus cells of the mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) is affected differently by changes in temperature. As expected, the kinetics of the currents were faster at higher than at lower temperature. Where they could be measured, time constants of activation, deactivation, and inactivation had Q10 values between 1.8 and 4.6. The magnitude of the peak conductances was differentially affected by temperature. While the peak magnitude of the high-voltage-activated K+ conductance, g(KH), was unaffected by changes in temperature, the peak of the low-voltage-activated K+ conductance, g(KL), was reduced by half when the temperature was lowered from 33 to 23 degrees C (Q10 = 2). Changing the temperature changed the kinetics and the magnitude of the hyperpolarization-activated mixed cation conductance, g(h), but the changes in magnitude were transient. The voltage sensitivity of the three conductances was unaffected by temperature. The action of temperature on these conductances is reflected in the resting potentials and in the shapes of action potentials.

  19. Octopus cells of the mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus sense the rate of depolarization.

    PubMed

    Ferragamo, Michael J; Oertel, Donata

    2002-05-01

    Whole cell patch recordings in slices show that the probability of firing of action potentials in octopus cells of the ventral cochlear nucleus depends on the dynamic properties of depolarization. Octopus cells fired only when the rate of rise of a depolarization exceeded a threshold value that varied between 5 and 15 mV/ms among cells. The threshold rate of rise was independent of whether depolarizations were evoked synaptically or by the intracellular injection of current. Previous work showed that octopus cells are contacted by many auditory nerve fibers, each providing less than 1-mV depolarization. Summation of synaptic input from multiple fibers is required for an octopus cell to reach threshold. In firing only when synaptic depolarization exceeds a threshold rate, octopus cells fire selectively when synaptic input is sufficiently large and synchronized for the small, brief unitary excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) to sum to produce a rapidly rising depolarization. The sensitivity to rate of depolarization is governed by a low-threshold, alpha-dendrotoxin-sensitive potassium conductance (g(KL)). This conductance also shapes the peaks of action potentials, contributing to the precision in their timing. Firing in neighboring T stellate cells depends much less strongly on the rate of rise. They lack strong alpha-dendrotoxin-sensitive conductances. Octopus cells appear to be specialized to detect synchronization in the activation of groups of auditory nerve fibers, a common pattern in responses to natural sounds, and convey its occurrence with temporal precision.

  20. Effect of increased IIDR in the nucleus freedom cochlear implant system.

    PubMed

    Holden, Laura K; Skinner, Margaret W; Fourakis, Marios S; Holden, Timothy A

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the increased instantaneous input dynamic range (IIDR) in the Nucleus Freedom cochlear implant (CI) system on recipients' ability to perceive soft speech and speech in noise. Ten adult Freedom CI recipients participated. Two maps differing in IIDR were placed on each subject's processor at initial activation. The IIDR was set to 30 dB for one map and 40 dB for the other. Subjects used both maps for at least one month prior to speech perception testing. Results revealed significantly higher scores for words (50 dB SPL), for sentences in background babble (65 dB SPL), and significantly lower sound field threshold levels with the 40 compared to the 30 dB IIDR map. Ceiling effects may have contributed to non-significant findings for sentences in quiet (50 dB SPL). The Freedom's increased IIDR allows better perception of soft speech and speech in noise.

  1. Cochlear Implantation With the Nucleus Slim Straight Electrode in Subjects With Residual Low-Frequency Hearing.

    PubMed

    Skarzynski, Henryk; Lorens, Artur; Matusiak, Monika; Porowski, Marek; Skarzynski, Piotr H; James, Chris J

    2014-01-16

    To measure benefit in terms of speech recognition in quiet and in noise, and conservation of residual hearing in three groups of subjects implanted with the Nucleus Straight Research Array cochlear implant. This device incorporates the Nucleus Slim Straight electrode carrier designed to be easier to insert into the cochlea via the round window while potentially minimizing insertion trauma. The study was prospective, with sequential enrolment and within-subject repeated measures; 35 subjects were 15 to 84 years of age with varying levels of bilateral high-frequency HL. Subjects were divided into three groups (A, B, and C) according to preoperative air conduction hearing thresholds in the ear to implant at 500 Hz; A ≤ 50 (n=11), 50 < B > 80 (n=13), and C ≥ 80 (n=11) dB HL. Speech recognition was assessed preoperatively and at intervals up to 1 year postimplantation. Hearing thresholds were monitored over time and CT scans were used to estimate electrode positions. Preoperative mean word recognition score was significantly greater for group A compared with group C in quiet (diff. 26.6%pts, p < 0.05), but not so in noise (diff. 7.9%pts, p = 0.72). However, a greater proportion of subjects in group A (81%) achieved a "worthwhile" gain in speech recognition score (>20%pts) in quiet compared with group C (63%). More importantly, for speech recognition in noise, all subjects in groups A and B achieved a >20%pts gain compared with only 73% in group C. Hearing in implanted ears was well conserved for low frequencies, both initially and up to 12 months postoperatively (15 dB median increase in thresholds 250 to 500 Hz). Only 3 of 35 (9%) cases lost all residual hearing in the implanted ear by 12 months. Where characteristic frequency corresponded to a position occupied by the electrode array, threshold increase was correlated with the preoperative hearing threshold (r = 0.7; p < 0.001) and closely approximated reported estimates of residual outer hair cell gain. For

  2. Cochlear implantation with the nucleus slim straight electrode in subjects with residual low-frequency hearing.

    PubMed

    Skarzynski, Henryk; Lorens, Artur; Matusiak, Monika; Porowski, Marek; Skarzynski, Piotr H; James, Chris J

    2014-01-01

    To measure benefit in terms of speech recognition in quiet and in noise, and conservation of residual hearing in three groups of subjects implanted with the Nucleus Straight Research Array cochlear implant. This device incorporates the Nucleus Slim Straight electrode carrier designed to be easier to insert into the cochlea via the round window while potentially minimizing insertion trauma. The study was prospective, with sequential enrolment and within-subject repeated measures; 35 subjects were 15 to 84 years of age with varying levels of bilateral high-frequency HL. Subjects were divided into three groups (A, B, and C) according to preoperative air conduction hearing thresholds in the ear to implant at 500 Hz; A ≤ 50 (n = 11), 50 < B < 80 (n = 13), and C ≥ 80 (n = 11) dB HL. Speech recognition was assessed preoperatively and at intervals up to 1 year postimplantation. Hearing thresholds were monitored over time and CT scans were used to estimate electrode positions. Preoperative mean word recognition score was significantly greater for group A compared with group C in quiet (diff. 26.6%pts, p < 0.05), but not so in noise (diff. 7.9%pts, p = 0.72). However, a greater proportion of subjects in group A (81%) achieved a "worthwhile" gain in speech recognition score (>20%pts) in quiet compared with group C (63%). More importantly, for speech recognition in noise, all subjects in groups A and B achieved a >20%pts gain compared with only 73% in group C. Hearing in implanted ears was well conserved for low frequencies, both initially and up to 12 months postoperatively (15 dB median increase in thresholds 250 to 500 Hz). Only 3 of 35 (9%) cases lost all residual hearing in the implanted ear by 12 months. Where characteristic frequency corresponded to a position occupied by the electrode array, threshold increase was correlated with the preoperative hearing threshold (r = 0.7; p < 0.001) and closely approximated reported estimates of residual outer hair cell gain. For

  3. Voltage-activated calcium currents in octopus cells of the mouse cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Bal, Ramazan; Oertel, Donata

    2007-12-01

    Octopus cells, neurons in the most posterior and dorsal part of the mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus, convey the timing of synchronous firing of auditory nerve fibers to targets in the contralateral superior paraolivary nucleus and ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. The low input resistances and short time constants at rest that arise from the partial activation of a large, low-voltage-activated K(+) conductance (g(KL)) and a large mixed-cation, hyperpolarization-activated conductance (g(h)) enable octopus cells to detect coincident firing of auditory nerve fibers with exceptional temporal precision. Octopus cells fire conventional, Na(+) action potentials but a voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) conductance was also detected. In this study, we explore the nature of that calcium conductance under voltage-clamp. Currents, carried by Ca(2+) or Ba(2+) and blocked by 0.4 mM Cd(2+), were activated by depolarizations positive to -50 mV and peaked at -23 mV. At -23 mV they reached 1.1 +/- 0.1 nA in the presence of 5 mM Ca(2+) and 1.6 +/- 0.1 nA in 5 mM Ba(2+). Ten micromolar BAY K 8644, an agonist of high-voltage-activated L-type channels, enhanced I(Ba) by 63 +/- 11% (n = 8) and 150 microM nifedipine, an antagonist of L-type channels, reduced the I(Ba) by 65 +/- 5% (n = 5). Meanwhile, 0.5 microM omega-Agatoxin IVA, an antagonist of P/Q-type channels, or 1 microM omega-conotoxin GVIA, an antagonist of N-type channels, suppressed I(Ba) by 15 +/- 4% (n = 5) and 9 +/- 4% (n = 5), respectively. On average 16% of the current remained in the presence of the cocktail of blockers, indicative of the presence of R-type channels. Together these experiments show that octopus cells have a depolarization-sensitive g(Ca) that is largely formed from L-type Ca(2+) channels and that P/Q-, N-, and R-type channels are expressed at lower levels in octopus cells.

  4. Voltage-activated Calcium Currents in Octopus Cells of the Mouse Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Bal, Ramazan

    2007-01-01

    Octopus cells, neurons in the most posterior and dorsal part of the mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus, convey the timing of synchronous firing of auditory nerve fibers to targets in the contralateral superior paraolivary nucleus and ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. The low input resistances and short time constants at rest that arise from the partial activation of a large, low-voltage-activated K+ conductance (gKL) and a large mixed-cation, hyperpolarization-activated conductance (gh) enable octopus cells to detect coincident firing of auditory nerve fibers with exceptional temporal precision. Octopus cells fire conventional, Na+ action potentials but a voltage-sensitive Ca2+ conductance was also detected. In this study, we explore the nature of that calcium conductance under voltage-clamp. Currents, carried by Ca2+ or Ba2+ and blocked by 0.4 mM Cd2+, were activated by depolarizations positive to −50 mV and peaked at −23 mV. At −23 mV they reached 1.1 ± 0.1 nA in the presence of 5 mM Ca2+ and 1.6 ± 0.1 nA in 5 mM Ba2+. Ten micromolar BAY K 8644, an agonist of high-voltage-activated L-type channels, enhanced IBa by 63 ± 11% (n = 8) and 150 μM nifedipine, an antagonist of L-type channels, reduced the IBa by 65 ± 5% (n = 5). Meanwhile, 0.5 μM ω-Agatoxin IVA, an antagonist of P/Q-type channels, or 1 μM ω-conotoxin GVIA, an antagonist of N-type channels, suppressed IBa by 15 ± 4% (n = 5) and 9 ± 4% (n = 5), respectively. On average 16% of the current remained in the presence of the cocktail of blockers, indicative of the presence of R-type channels. Together these experiments show that octopus cells have a depolarization-sensitive gCa that is largely formed from L-type Ca2+ channels and that P/Q-, N-, and R-type channels are expressed at lower levels in octopus cells. PMID:17710492

  5. Preservation of cochlear structures and hearing when using the Nucleus Slim Straight (CI422) electrode in children.

    PubMed

    Skarzynski, H; Matusiak, M; Lorens, A; Furmanek, M; Pilka, A; Skarzynski, P H

    2016-04-01

    In cochlear implantation, there are two crucial factors promoting hearing preservation: an atraumatic surgical approach and selection of an electrode that does not damage cochlear structures. This study aimed to evaluate hearing preservation in children implanted with the Nucleus Slim Straight (CI422) electrode. Nineteen children aged 6-18 years, with partial deafness, were implanted using the 6-step Skarzynski procedure. Electrode insertion depth was 20-25 mm. Hearing status was assessed with pure tone audiometry before surgery, and at 1, 5, 9, 12 and 24 months after surgery. Electrode placement was confirmed with computed tomography. Mean hearing preservation in the study group at activation of the cochlear implant was 73 per cent (standard deviation = 37 per cent). After 24 months, it was 67 per cent (standard deviation = 45 per cent). On a categorical scale, hearing preservation was possible in 100 per cent of cases. Hearing preservation in children implanted with the Nucleus CI422 slim, straight electrode is possible even with 25 mm insertion depth, although the recommended insertion depth is 20 mm. A round window approach using a soft, straight electrode is most conducive to hearing preservation.

  6. Ultrastructure and immunocytochemical characteristics of cells in the octopus cell area of the rat cochlear nucleus: comparison with multipolar cells.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2003-01-01

    Cells in the octopus cell area of the rat ventral cochlear nucleus have been connected to the monaural interpretation of spectral patterns of sound such as those derived from speech. This is possible by their fast onset of firing after each octopus cell and its dendrites have been contacted by many auditory fibres carrying different frequencies. The cytological characteristics that make these large cells able to perform such a function have been studied with ultrastructural immunocytochemistry for glycine, GABA and glutamate, and compared to that of other multipolar neurons of other regions of the ventral cochlear nucleus. Cells in the octopus cell area have an ultrastructure similar to large-giant D-multipolar neurons present in other areas of the cochlear nucleus, from which they differ by the presence of a larger excitatory axo-somatic synaptic input and larger mitochondria. Octopus cells are glycine and GABA negative, and glutamate positive with different degree. Large octopus cells receive more axo-somatic boutons than smaller octopus cells. Fusiform octopus cells are found sparsely within the intermediate acoustic striae. These cells are large to giant excitatory neurons (23-35 microm) with 62-85% of their irregular perimeter covered with large axo-somatic synaptic boutons. Most boutons contain round vesicles and are glycine and GABA negative but glutamate positive. The latter excitatory boutons represent about 70% of the input to octopus cells. Glycine positive boutons with flat and pleomorphic vesicles account for 9-10% of the input while GABA-ergic boutons with pleomorphic vesicles represent about 20% of the synaptic input. Other few, multipolar cells within the rat octopus cell area are surrounded by more inhibitory than excitatory terminals which contain flat and pleomorphic vesicles, a feature distinctive from that of true octopus cells. The latter resemble multipolar cells seen outside the octopus cell area that project to the contralateral inferior

  7. Glutamate co-transmission from developing medial nucleus of the trapezoid body--lateral superior olive synapses is cochlear dependent in kanamycin-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Ho; Pradhan, Jonu; Maskey, Dhiraj; Park, Ki Sup; Hong, Sung Hwa; Suh, Myung-Whan; Kim, Myeung Ju; Ahn, Seung Cheol

    2011-02-11

    Cochlear dependency of glutamate co-transmission at the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB)--the lateral superior olive (LSO) synapses was investigated using developing rats treated with high dose kanamycin. Rats were treated with kanamycin from postnatal day (P) 3 to P8. A scanning electron microscopic study on P9 demonstrated partial cochlear hair cell damage. A whole cell voltage clamp experiment demonstrated the increased glutamatergic portion of postsynaptic currents (PSCs) elicited by MNTB stimulation in P9-P11 kanamycin-treated rats. The enhanced VGLUT3 immunoreactivities (IRs) in kanamycin-treated rats and asymmetric VGLUT3 IRs in the LSO of unilaterally cochlear ablated rats supported the electrophysiologic data. Taken together, it is concluded that glutamate co-transmission is cochlear-dependent and enhanced glutamate co-transmission in kanamycin-treated rats is induced by partial cochlear damage.

  8. Activity-dependent modulation of inhibitory synaptic kinetics in the cochlear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Nerlich, Jana; Keine, Christian; Rübsamen, Rudolf; Burger, R. Michael; Milenkovic, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Spherical bushy cells (SBCs) in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus respond to acoustic stimulation with discharges that precisely encode the phase of low-frequency sound. The accuracy of spiking is crucial for sound localization and speech perception. Compared to the auditory nerve input, temporal precision of SBC spiking is improved through the engagement of acoustically evoked inhibition. Recently, the inhibition was shown to be less precise than previously understood. It shifts from predominantly glycinergic to synergistic GABA/glycine transmission in an activity-dependent manner. Concurrently, the inhibition attains a tonic character through temporal summation. The present study provides a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying this slow inhibitory input. We performed whole-cell voltage clamp recordings on SBCs from juvenile Mongolian gerbils and recorded evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) at physiological rates. The data reveal activity-dependent IPSC kinetics, i.e., the decay is slowed with increased input rates or recruitment. Lowering the release probability yielded faster decay kinetics of the single- and short train-IPSCs at 100 Hz, suggesting that transmitter quantity plays an important role in controlling the decay. Slow transmitter clearance from the synaptic cleft caused prolonged receptor binding and, in the case of glycine, spillover to nearby synapses. The GABAergic component prolonged the decay by contributing to the asynchronous vesicle release depending on the input rate. Hence, the different factors controlling the amount of transmitters in the synapse jointly slow the inhibition during physiologically relevant activity. Taken together, the slow time course is predominantly determined by the receptor kinetics and transmitter clearance during short stimuli, whereas long duration or high frequency stimulation additionally engage asynchronous release to prolong IPSCs. PMID:25565972

  9. A computational model with ionic conductances for the fusiform cell of the dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kim, D O; Ghoshal, S; Khant, S L; Parham, K

    1994-09-01

    A computational model of a fusiform cell of the dorsal cochlear nucleus was developed. The results of model simulations are compared with the results of in vitro experimental observations obtained by other investigators. The structure of the present model is similar to that of Hodgkin-Huxley [J. Physiol. 117, 500-544 (1952)]. The model incorporates five nonlinear voltage-dependent conductances (three potassium and two sodium types) and their associated equilibrium-potential batteries, a leakage conductance, the membrane capacitance, and a current source. Model responses were obtained under both current- and voltage-clamp conditions. When a hyper- and depolarizing current sequence was applied [Manis, J. Neurosci. 10, 2338-2351 (1990)], the cell model was able to reproduce builduplike and pauserlike discharge patterns closely resembling Manis' observations. A transient "A"-type potassium conductance in the model played a major role in generating this phenomenon. The model predicts that blocking the "A" conductance should convert a builduplike or pauserlike pattern into a sustained regular pattern. A persistent sodium conductance in the model played the main role in reproducing: Spontaneous regular discharge; a discharge after a long latency under a long small (+0.025 nA) current; and nonlinear voltage-current characteristics with positive currents. Usefulness of the model can be seen as follows: (1) Several sets of experimental observations can be integrated into a common framework; (2) possible roles of different ionic conductances postulated to be present in the cell can be inferred by observing the model behavior with the conductances intact or blocked; and (3) time courses of ionic currents and conductance values obtained from the model under current- and voltage-clamp conditions can serve as predictions to be tested in future experimental studies.

  10. Auditory nerve inputs to cochlear nucleus neurons studied with cross-correlation.

    PubMed

    Young, E D; Sachs, M B

    2008-06-12

    The strength of synapses between auditory nerve (AN) fibers and ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) neurons is an important factor in determining the nature of neural integration in VCN neurons of different response types. Synaptic strength was analyzed using cross-correlation of spike trains recorded simultaneously from an AN fiber and a VCN neuron in anesthetized cats. VCN neurons were classified as chopper, primarylike, and onset using previously defined criteria, although onset neurons usually were not analyzed because of their low discharge rates. The correlograms showed an excitatory peak (EP), consistent with monosynaptic excitation, in AN-VCN pairs with similar best frequencies (49% 24/49 of pairs with best frequencies within +/-5%). Chopper and primarylike neurons showed similar EPs, except that the primarylike neurons had shorter latencies and shorter-duration EPs. Large EPs consistent with end bulb terminals on spherical bushy cells were not observed, probably because of the low probability of recording from one. The small EPs observed in primarylike neurons, presumably spherical bushy cells, could be derived from small terminals that accompany end bulbs on these cells. EPs on chopper or primarylike-with-notch neurons were consistent with the smaller synaptic terminals on multipolar and globular bushy cells. Unexpectedly, EPs were observed only at sound levels within about 20 dB of threshold, showing that VCN responses to steady tones shift from a 1:1 relationship between AN and VCN spikes at low sound levels to a more autonomous mode of firing at high levels. In the high level mode, the pattern of output spikes seems to be determined by the properties of the postsynaptic spike generator rather than the input spike patterns. The EP amplitudes did not change significantly when the presynaptic spike was preceded by either a short or long interspike interval, suggesting that synaptic depression and facilitation have little effect under the conditions studied

  11. Plasticity at Glycinergic Synapses in Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN) of Rats with Behavioral Evidence of Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongning; Brozoski, Thomas J.; Turner, Jeremy G.; Ling, Lynne; Parrish, Jennifer L.; Hughes, Larry F.; Caspary, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen to 35% of the United States population experiences tinnitus, a subjective “ringing in the ears”. Up to 10 percent of those afflicted report severe and disabling symptoms. Tinnitus was induced in rats using unilateral, one-hour, 17 kHz-centered octave-band noise (116 dB SPL) and assessed using a gap-startle method. The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) is thought to undergo plastic changes suggestive of altered inhibitory function during tinnitus development. Exposed rats showed near pre-exposure ABR thresholds for clicks and all tested frequencies 16 weeks post-exposure. Sound-exposed rats showed significantly worse gap detection at 24 and 32 kHz 16 weeks following sound exposure, suggesting the development of chronic, high frequency tinnitus. Message and protein levels of α1–3, and β glycine receptor subunits (GlyRs), and the anchoring protein, gephyrin, were measured in DCN fusiform cells 4 months following sound exposure. Rats with evidence of tinnitus showed significant GlyR α1 protein decreases in the middle and high frequency regions of the DCN while α1 message levels were paradoxically increased. Gephyrin levels showed significant tinnitus-related increases in sound-exposed rats suggesting intracellular receptor trafficking changes following sound exposure. Consistent with decreased α1 subunit protein levels, strychnine binding studies showed significant tinnitus-related decreases in the number of GlyR binding sites, supporting tinnitus-related changes in the number and/or composition of GlyRs. Collectively, these findings suggest the development of tinnitus is likely associated with functional GlyR changes in DCN fusiform cells consistent with previously described behavioral and neurophysiologic changes. Tinnitus related GlyR changes could provide a unique receptor target for tinnitus pharmacotherapy or blockade of tinnitus initiation. PMID:19699270

  12. Mapping and morphometric analysis of synapses and spines on fusiform cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Salloum, Rony H.; Chen, Guoyou; Velet, Liliya; Manzoor, Nauman F.; Elkin, Rachel; Kidd, Grahame J.; Coughlin, John; Yurosko, Christopher; Bou-Anak, Stephanie; Azadi, Shirin; Gohlsch, Stephanie; Schneider, Harold; Kaltenbach, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Fusiform cells are the main integrative units of the mammalian dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), collecting and processing inputs from auditory and other sources before transmitting information to higher levels of the auditory system. Despite much previous work describing these cells and the sources and pharmacological identity of their synaptic inputs, information on the three-dimensional organization and utltrastructure of synapses on these cells is currently very limited. This information is essential since an understanding of synaptic plasticity and remodeling and pathologies underlying disease states and hearing disorders must begin with knowledge of the normal characteristics of synapses on these cells, particularly those features that determine the strength of their influence on the various compartments of the cell. Here, we employed serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) followed by 3D reconstructions to map and quantitatively characterize synaptic features on DCN fusiform cells. Our results reveal a relative sparseness of synapses on the somata of fusiform cells but a dense distribution of synapses on apical and basal dendrites. Synapses on apical dendrites were smaller and more numerous than on basal dendrites. The vast majority of axosomatic terminals were found to be linked to other terminals connected by the same axon or different branches of the same axon, suggesting a high degree of divergent input to fusiform cells. The size of terminals was correlated with the number of mitochondria and with the number of active zones, which was highly correlated with the number of postsynaptic densities, suggesting that larger terminals exert more powerful influence on the cell than smaller terminals. These size differences suggest that the input to basal dendrites, most likely those from the auditory nerve, provide the most powerful sources of input to fusiform cells, while those to apical dendrites (e.g., parallel fiber) are weaker but more

  13. Activity-dependent regulation of calcium and ribosomes in the chick cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Call, C L; Hyson, R L

    2016-03-01

    Cochlea removal results in the death of 20-30% of neurons in the chick cochlear nucleus, nucleus magnocellularis (NM). Two potentially cytotoxic events, a dramatic rise in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and a decline in the integrity of ribosomes are observed within 1h of deafferentation. Glutamatergic input from the auditory nerve has been shown to preserve NM neuron health by activating metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), maintaining both normal [Ca(2+)]i and ribosomal integrity. One interpretation of these results is that a common mGluR-activated signaling cascade is required for the maintenance of both [Ca(2+)]i and ribosomal integrity. This could happen if both responses are influenced directly by a common messenger, or if the loss of mGluR activation causes changes in one component that secondarily causes changes in the other. The present studies tested this common-mediator hypothesis in slice preparations by examining activity-dependent regulation of [Ca(2+)]i and ribosomes in the same tissue after selectively blocking group I mGluRs (1-Aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid (AIDA)) or group II mGluRs (LY 341495) during unilateral auditory nerve stimulation. Changes in [Ca(2+)]i of NM neurons were measured using fura-2 ratiometric calcium imaging and the tissue was subsequently processed for Y10B immunoreactivity (Y10B-ir), an antibody that recognizes a ribosomal epitope. The group I mGluR antagonist blocked the activity-dependent regulation of both [Ca(2+)]i and Y10B-ir, but the group II antagonist blocked only the activity-dependent regulation of Y10B-ir. That is, even when group II receptors were blocked, stimulation continued to maintain low [Ca(2+)]i, but it did not maintain Y10B-ir. These results suggest a dissociation in how calcium and ribosomes are regulated in NM neurons and that ribosomes can be regulated through a mechanism that is independent of calcium regulation.

  14. Comparison of two methods for selecting minimum stimulation levels used in programming the Nucleus 22 cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Skinner, M W; Holden, L K; Holden, T A; Demorest, M E

    1999-08-01

    Minimum stimulation levels for active electrodes in a Nucleus 22 cochlear implant were set at threshold (clinical default value) and raised levels (M = +2.04 dB) to determine if raised levels would improve recipients' understanding of soft speech sounds with the SPEAK speech coding strategy. Eight postlinguistically deaf adults participated in a 4-phase A1B1A2B2 test design. Speech recognition was evaluated with consonant-vowel nucleus-consonant (CNC) words in quiet and sentences in noise, both presented at 50, 60, and 70 dB SPL during 2 weekly sessions at the end of each phase. Group mean scores were significantly higher with the raised level program for words and phonemes at 50 and 60 dB SPL and for sentences at 50 and 70 dB SPL. All participants chose to use the raised level program in everyday life at the end of the study. The results suggest that clinical use of a raised level program for Nucleus 22 recipients has the potential to make soft sounds louder and, therefore, more salient in everyday life. Further research is needed to determine if this approach is appropriate for other cochlear implant devices.

  15. Purkinje-like cells in the cochlear nucleus of the Common Tree Shrew (Tupaia glis) identified by calbindin immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Spatz, W B

    2003-09-05

    The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) of Tree Shrews (Tupaia glis; n=2) was examined by calbindin (CB) immunohistochemistry for the presence of Purkinje-like cells (PLCs), detected previously in only four different mammals. We found up to eight CB-immunoreactive PLCs in the left and right DCN, and a few axons, likely of PLC origin, that appeared to leave the DCN. These findings suggest that PLCs may have a wider distribution through mammalian species, and may represent more than just misrouted cells.

  16. Effects of the murine mutation 'nervous' on neurons in cerebellum and dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Berrebi, A S; Mugnaini, E

    1988-08-01

    'Nervous' mutant mice are presently available on two different genetic background strains which are derived from out-breeding of the original BALB/cGr mutant stock. Light and electron microscopic studies of these mutants demonstrate that cerebellar Purkinje cells and cartwheel neurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCoN) show similar, albeit not identical, cytoplasmic and mitochondrial alterations in both background strains. In the cerebellar cortex, all Purkinje cell perikarya developed a varying number of enlarged and rounded mitochondria, as previously described. Extensive changes were observed in various components of the mitochondrial matrix. As cellular degeneration proceeded, reduction, fragmentation and dilation of cisterns of endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus were evident. Some of the mitochondria underwent a peculiar type of degeneration, i.e. the outer membrane partially or completely dissolved, occasionally accompanied by focal interruptions of the inner membrane. In older adult mutants only 10% of cerebellar Purkinje cells rehained. The few surviving cells displayed varying states, ranging from essentially normal ultrastructure to electron-dense condensation. Many of these cells, in both strains, continued to display greatly enlarged, rounded mitochondrial profiles, indicating a change in the expression of the gene defect resulting from genetic contamination. Criteria for the identification of neuronal cell classes in layers 1 and 2 of murine DCoN were established. Cartwheel neurons in the mutant DCoN presented alterations similar to those observed in cerebellar Purkinje cells. The characteristic mitochondrial anomaly developed and proceeded in cartwheel neurons within a comparable time frame. The vast majority of affected cartwheel cells did not undergo degeneration, however, but continued to possess altered mitochondria into adulthood. The differences between normal and mutant mitochondria in Purkinje and cartwheel were quantified by

  17. Mathematical Models of Cochlear Nucleus Onset Neurons: II. Model with Dynamic Spike-Blocking State

    PubMed Central

    KALLURI, SRIDHAR; DELGUTTE, BERTRAND

    2008-01-01

    Onset (On) neurons in the cochlear nucleus (CN), characterized by their prominent response to the onset followed by little or no response to the steady-state of sustained stimuli, have a remarkable ability to entrain (firing 1 spike per cycle of a periodic stimulus) to low-frequency tones up to 1000 Hz. In this article, we present a point-neuron model with independent, excitatory auditory-nerve (AN) inputs that accounts for the ability of On neurons to both produce onset responses for high-frequency tone bursts and entrain to a wide range of low-frequency tones. With a fixed-duration spike-blocking state after a spike (an absolute refractory period), the model produces entrainment to a broad range of low-frequency tones and an On response with short interspike intervals (chopping) for high-frequency tone bursts. To produce On response patterns with no chopping, we introduce a novel, more complex, active membrane model in which the spike-blocking state is maintained until the instantaneous membrane voltage falls below a transition voltage. During the sustained depolarization for a high-frequency tone burst, the new model does not chop because it enters a spike-blocking state after the first spike and fails to leave this state until the membrane voltage returns toward rest at the end of the stimulus. The model entrains to low-frequency tones because the membrane voltage falls below the transition voltage on every cycle when the AN inputs are phase-locked. With the complex membrane model, On response patterns having moderate steady-state activity for high-frequency tone bursts (On-L) are distinguished from those having no steady-state activity (On-I) by requiring fewer AN inputs. Voltage-gated ion channels found in On-responding neurons of the CN may underlie the hypothesized dynamic spike-blocking state. These results provide a mechanistic rationale for distinguishing between the different physiological classes of CN On neurons. PMID:12435926

  18. Electrophysiological properties of octopus neurons of the cat cochlear nucleus: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Bal, Ramazan; Baydas, Giyasettin

    2009-06-01

    Electrophysiological studies from mice in vitro have suggested that octopus cells of the mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) are anatomically and biophysically specialized for detecting the coincident firing of a population of auditory nerve fibers. Recordings from cats in vivo have shown that octopus cells fire rapidly and with exceptional temporal precision as they convey the timing of that coincidence to higher auditory centers. The current study addresses the question whether the biophysical properties of octopus cells that have until now been examined only in mice, are shared by octopus cells in cats. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings confirm that octopus cells in brain slices from kittens share the anatomical and biophysical features of octopus cells in mice. As in mice, octopus cells in kittens have large cell bodies and thick dendrites that extend in one direction. Voltage changes produced by depolarizing and hyperpolarizing current injection were small and rapid. Input resistances and membrane time constants in octopus cells of 16-day-old kittens were 15.8 +/- 1.5 MOmega (n = 16) and 1.28 +/- 0.3 ms (n = 16), respectively. Octopus cells fired only a single action potential at the onset of a depolarizing current pulse; suprathreshold stimuli were greater than 1.8 nA. A tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive sodium conductance (gNa) was responsible for the generation of the action potentials. Octopus cells displayed outward rectification that lasted for the duration of the depolarizing pulses. Hyperpolarizations produced by the injection of current exhibited a depolarizing sag of the membrane potential toward the resting value. A 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and alpha-dendrotoxin (alpha-DTX)-sensitive, low-voltage-activated potassium conductance (gKL) and a ZD7288-sensitive, mixed-cation conductance (gh) were partially activated at rest, giving the octopus cells low input resistances and, as a consequence, brief time constants. In 7-day-old kittens, action potentials

  19. Vowel representations in the ventral cochlear nucleus of the cat: effects of level, background noise, and behavioral state.

    PubMed

    May, B J; Prell, G S; Sachs, M B

    1998-04-01

    Single-unit responses were studied in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) of cats as formant and trough features of the vowel /epsilon/ were shifted in the frequency domain to each unit's best frequency (BF; the frequency of greatest sensitivity). Discharge rates sampled with this spectrum manipulation procedure (SMP) were used to estimate vowel representations provided by populations of VCN neurons. In traditional population measures, a good representation of a vowel's formant structure is based on relatively high discharge rates among units with BFs near high-energy formant features and low rates for units with BFs near low-energy spectral troughs. At most vowel levels and in the presence of background noise, chopper units exhibited formant-to-trough rate differences that were larger than VCN primary-like units and auditory-nerve fibers. By contrast, vowel encoding by primary-like units resembled auditory nerve representations for most stimulus conditions. As is seen in the auditory nerve, primary-like units with low spontaneous rates (SR <18 spikes/s) produced better representations than high SR primary-like units at all but the lowest vowel levels. Awake cats exhibited the same general response properties as anesthetized cats but larger between-subject differences in vowel driven rates. The vowel encoding properties of VCN chopper units support previous interpretations that patterns of auditory nerve convergence on cochlear nucleus neurons compensate for limitations in the dynamic range of peripheral neurons.

  20. Bhlhb5::flpo allele uncovers a requirement for Bhlhb5 for the development of the dorsal cochlear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiaoyun; Kardon, Adam P.; Snyder, Lindsey M.; Kuzirian, Marissa S.; Minestro, Sam; de Souza, Luiza; Rubio, Maria E.; Maricich, Stephen M.; Ross, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Auditory information is initially processed in the cochlear nuclei before being relayed to the brain. The cochlear nuclei are subdivided into dorsal, anterior ventral, and posterior ventral domains, each containing several subtypes of neurons that are thought to play discrete roles in the processing of sound. However, the ontogeny of these neurons is poorly understood, and this gap in knowledge hampers efforts to understand the basic neural circuitry of this nucleus. Here, we reveal that Bhlhb5 is expressed in both excitatory (unipolar brush cells) and inhibitory neurons (cartwheel cells) of the DCN during development. To gain genetic access to Bhlhb5-expressing neurons in the DCN, we generated a Bhlhb5::flpo knockin allele. Using an intersectional genetic strategy, we labeled cartwheel cells, thereby providing proof of concept that subpopulations of Bhlhb5-expressing neurons can be genetically targeted. Moreover, fate-mapping experiments using this allele revealed that Bhlhb5 is required for the proper development of the DCN, since mice lacking Bhlhb5 showed a dramatically diminished number of neurons, including unipolar brush and cartwheel cells. Intriguingly, the Bhlhb5::flpo allele also genetically labels numerous other regions of the nervous system that process sensory input, including the dorsal horn, the retina, and the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, hinting at a more general role for Bhlhb5 in the development of neurons that mediate sensory integration. PMID:27151208

  1. Speech understanding in background noise with the two-microphone adaptive beamformer BEAM in the Nucleus Freedom Cochlear Implant System.

    PubMed

    Spriet, Ann; Van Deun, Lieselot; Eftaxiadis, Kyriaky; Laneau, Johan; Moonen, Marc; van Dijk, Bas; van Wieringen, Astrid; Wouters, Jan

    2007-02-01

    This paper evaluates the benefit of the two-microphone adaptive beamformer BEAM in the Nucleus Freedom cochlear implant (CI) system for speech understanding in background noise by CI users. A double-blind evaluation of the two-microphone adaptive beamformer BEAM and a hardware directional microphone was carried out with five adult Nucleus CI users. The test procedure consisted of a pre- and post-test in the lab and a 2-wk trial period at home. In the pre- and post-test, the speech reception threshold (SRT) with sentences and the percentage correct phoneme scores for CVC words were measured in quiet and background noise at different signal-to-noise ratios. Performance was assessed for two different noise configurations (with a single noise source and with three noise sources) and two different noise materials (stationary speech-weighted noise and multitalker babble). During the 2-wk trial period at home, the CI users evaluated the noise reduction performance in different listening conditions by means of the SSQ questionnaire. In addition to the perceptual evaluation, the noise reduction performance of the beamformer was measured physically as a function of the direction of the noise source. Significant improvements of both the SRT in noise (average improvement of 5-16 dB) and the percentage correct phoneme scores (average improvement of 10-41%) were observed with BEAM compared to the standard hardware directional microphone. In addition, the SSQ questionnaire and subjective evaluation in controlled and real-life scenarios suggested a possible preference for the beamformer in noisy environments. The evaluation demonstrates that the adaptive noise reduction algorithm BEAM in the Nucleus Freedom CI-system may significantly increase the speech perception by cochlear implantees in noisy listening conditions. This is the first monolateral (adaptive) noise reduction strategy actually implemented in a mainstream commercial CI.

  2. Selective hair cell ablation and noise exposure lead to different patterns of changes in the cochlea and the cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kurioka, Takaomi; Lee, Min Young; Heeringa, Amarins N; Beyer, Lisa A; Swiderski, Donald L; Kanicki, Ariane C; Kabara, Lisa L; Dolan, David F; Shore, Susan E; Raphael, Yehoash

    2016-09-22

    In experimental animal models of auditory hair cell (HC) loss, insults such as noise or ototoxic drugs often lead to secondary changes or degeneration in non-sensory cells and neural components, including reduced density of spiral ganglion neurons, demyelination of auditory nerve fibers and altered cell numbers and innervation patterns in the cochlear nucleus (CN). However, it is not clear whether loss of HCs alone leads to secondary degeneration in these neural components of the auditory pathway. To elucidate this issue, we investigated changes of central components after cochlear insults specific to HCs using diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) mice expressing DTR only in HCs and exhibiting complete HC loss when injected with diphtheria toxin (DT). We showed that DT-induced HC ablation has no significant impacts on the survival of auditory neurons, central synaptic terminals, and myelin, despite complete HC loss and profound deafness. In contrast, noise exposure induced significant changes in synapses, myelin and CN organization even without loss of inner HCs. We observed a decrease of neuronal size in the auditory pathway, including peripheral axons, spiral ganglion neurons, and CN neurons, likely due to loss of input from the cochlea. Taken together, selective HC ablation and noise exposure showed different patterns of pathology in the auditory pathway and the presence of HCs is not essential for the maintenance of central synaptic connectivity and myelination.

  3. Glutamate co-transmission from developing medial nucleus of the trapezoid body - Lateral superior olive synapses is cochlear dependent in kanamycin-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae Ho; Pradhan, Jonu; Maskey, Dhiraj; Park, Ki Sup; Hong, Sung Hwa; Suh, Myung-Whan; Kim, Myeung Ju; Ahn, Seung Cheol

    2011-02-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Glutamate co-transmission is enhanced in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} VGLUT3 expression is increased in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} GlyR expression is decreased in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} GlyR, VGLUT3 expression patterns are asymmetric in unilaterally cochlear ablated rat. -- Abstract: Cochlear dependency of glutamate co-transmission at the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) - the lateral superior olive (LSO) synapses was investigated using developing rats treated with high dose kanamycin. Rats were treated with kanamycin from postnatal day (P) 3 to P8. A scanning electron microscopic study on P9 demonstrated partial cochlear hair cell damage. A whole cell voltage clamp experiment demonstrated the increased glutamatergic portion of postsynaptic currents (PSCs) elicited by MNTB stimulation in P9-P11 kanamycin-treated rats. The enhanced VGLUT3 immunoreactivities (IRs) in kanamycin-treated rats and asymmetric VGLUT3 IRs in the LSO of unilaterally cochlear ablated rats supported the electrophysiologic data. Taken together, it is concluded that glutamate co-transmission is cochlear-dependent and enhanced glutamate co-transmission in kanamycin-treated rats is induced by partial cochlear damage.

  4. Detection of synchrony in the activity of auditory nerve fibers by octopus cells of the mammalian cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Oertel, D; Bal, R; Gardner, S M; Smith, P H; Joris, P X

    2000-10-24

    The anatomical and biophysical specializations of octopus cells allow them to detect the coincident firing of groups of auditory nerve fibers and to convey the precise timing of that coincidence to their targets. Octopus cells occupy a sharply defined region of the most caudal and dorsal part of the mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus. The dendrites of octopus cells cross the bundle of auditory nerve fibers just proximal to where the fibers leave the ventral and enter the dorsal cochlear nucleus, each octopus cell spanning about one-third of the tonotopic array. Octopus cells are excited by auditory nerve fibers through the activation of rapid, calcium-permeable, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors. Synaptic responses are shaped by the unusual biophysical characteristics of octopus cells. Octopus cells have very low input resistances (about 7 M Omega), and short time constants (about 200 microsec) as a consequence of the activation at rest of a hyperpolarization-activated mixed-cation conductance and a low-threshold, depolarization-activated potassium conductance. The low input resistance causes rapid synaptic currents to generate rapid and small synaptic potentials. Summation of small synaptic potentials from many fibers is required to bring an octopus cell to threshold. Not only does the low input resistance make individual excitatory postsynaptic potentials brief so that they must be generated within 1 msec to sum but also the voltage-sensitive conductances of octopus cells prevent firing if the activation of auditory nerve inputs is not sufficiently synchronous and depolarization is not sufficiently rapid. In vivo in cats, octopus cells can fire rapidly and respond with exceptionally well-timed action potentials to periodic, broadband sounds such as clicks. Thus both the anatomical specializations and the biophysical specializations make octopus cells detectors of the coincident firing of their auditory nerve fiber inputs.

  5. Detection of synchrony in the activity of auditory nerve fibers by octopus cells of the mammalian cochlear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Oertel, Donata; Bal, Ramazan; Gardner, Stephanie M.; Smith, Philip H.; Joris, Philip X.

    2000-01-01

    The anatomical and biophysical specializations of octopus cells allow them to detect the coincident firing of groups of auditory nerve fibers and to convey the precise timing of that coincidence to their targets. Octopus cells occupy a sharply defined region of the most caudal and dorsal part of the mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus. The dendrites of octopus cells cross the bundle of auditory nerve fibers just proximal to where the fibers leave the ventral and enter the dorsal cochlear nucleus, each octopus cell spanning about one-third of the tonotopic array. Octopus cells are excited by auditory nerve fibers through the activation of rapid, calcium-permeable, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors. Synaptic responses are shaped by the unusual biophysical characteristics of octopus cells. Octopus cells have very low input resistances (about 7 MΩ), and short time constants (about 200 μsec) as a consequence of the activation at rest of a hyperpolarization-activated mixed-cation conductance and a low-threshold, depolarization-activated potassium conductance. The low input resistance causes rapid synaptic currents to generate rapid and small synaptic potentials. Summation of small synaptic potentials from many fibers is required to bring an octopus cell to threshold. Not only does the low input resistance make individual excitatory postsynaptic potentials brief so that they must be generated within 1 msec to sum but also the voltage-sensitive conductances of octopus cells prevent firing if the activation of auditory nerve inputs is not sufficiently synchronous and depolarization is not sufficiently rapid. In vivo in cats, octopus cells can fire rapidly and respond with exceptionally well-timed action potentials to periodic, broadband sounds such as clicks. Thus both the anatomical specializations and the biophysical specializations make octopus cells detectors of the coincident firing of their auditory nerve fiber inputs. PMID:11050208

  6. Characterization of cochlear nucleus principal cells of Meriones unguiculatus and Monodelphis domestica by use of calcium-binding protein immunolabeling.

    PubMed

    Bazwinsky, I; Härtig, W; Rübsamen, R

    2008-01-01

    Antibodies directed against calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) parvalbumin, calbindin-D28k and calretinin were used as neuronal markers to identify and characterize different principal cell types in the mammalian cochlear nucleus. For this purpose, double immunofluorescence labeling and the combination of CaBP-labeling with pan-neuronal markers were applied to analyze the CaBPs distribution in neurons of the cochlear nucleus (CN) of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) and the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). Despite of the fact, that these two mammalian species are not closely related, principal cell types in the CN of the two species showed many corresponding morphological features and similarities in immunolabeling of the CaBPs. Parvalbumin seems not to be suited as a differential neuronal marker in the CN since it is expressed by almost all neurons. In contrast, calbindin and calretinin were more restricted to specific cell types and showed a mostly complementary labeling pattern. As one of the most interesting findings, calbindin and calretinin were predominantly found in subpopulations of globular bushy cells and octopus cells in the ventral CN. Such a neuron-specific CaBP-expression in subpopulations of morphologically defined cell types argues for a more refined classification of CN cell types in Meriones and Monodelphis. Additionally, other cell types (cartwheel cells, unipolar brush cells, fusiform cells) were marked with calbindin or calretinin as well. Calretinin staining was predominantly observed in auditory nerve fibers and their endings including endbulbs of Held in Meriones. Spherical bushy cells showed a different calretinin-immunolabeling in Meriones and Monodelphis. This species-specific difference may be related to adaptive differences in auditory function.

  7. An investigation of dendritic delay in octopus cells of the mammalian cochlear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Martin J.; Grayden, David B.; Bruce, Ian C.; Meffin, Hamish; Burkitt, Anthony N.

    2012-01-01

    Octopus cells, located in the mammalian auditory brainstem, receive their excitatory synaptic input exclusively from auditory nerve fibers (ANFs). They respond with accurately timed spikes but are broadly tuned for sound frequency. Since the representation of information in the auditory nerve is well understood, it is possible to pose a number of questions about the relationship between the intrinsic electrophysiology, dendritic morphology, synaptic connectivity, and the ultimate functional role of octopus cells in the brainstem. This study employed a multi-compartmental Hodgkin-Huxley model to determine whether dendritic delay in octopus cells improves synaptic input coincidence detection in octopus cells by compensating for the cochlear traveling wave delay. The propagation time of post-synaptic potentials from synapse to soma was investigated. We found that the total dendritic delay was approximately 0.275 ms. It was observed that low-threshold potassium channels in the dendrites reduce the amplitude dependence of the dendritic delay of post-synaptic potentials. As our hypothesis predicted, the model was most sensitive to acoustic onset events, such as the glottal pulses in speech when the synaptic inputs were arranged such that the model's dendritic delay compensated for the cochlear traveling wave delay across the ANFs. The range of sound frequency input from ANFs was also investigated. The results suggested that input to octopus cells is dominated by high frequency ANFs. PMID:23125831

  8. Target-specific regulation of presynaptic release properties at auditory nerve terminals in the avian cochlear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, J.

    2015-01-01

    Short-term synaptic plasticity (STP) acts as a time- and firing rate-dependent filter that mediates the transmission of information across synapses. In the auditory brain stem, the divergent pathways that encode acoustic timing and intensity information express differential STP. To investigate what factors determine the plasticity expressed at different terminals, we tested whether presynaptic release probability differed in the auditory nerve projections to the two divisions of the avian cochlear nucleus, nucleus angularis (NA) and nucleus magnocellularis (NM). Estimates of release probability were made with an open-channel blocker of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Activity-dependent blockade of NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) with application of 20 μM (+)-MK801 maleate was more rapid in NM than in NA, indicating that release probability was significantly higher at terminals in NM. Paired-pulse ratio (PPR) was tightly correlated with the blockade rate at terminals in NA, suggesting that PPR was a reasonable proxy for relative release probability at these synapses. To test whether release probability was similar across convergent inputs onto NA neurons, PPRs of different nerve inputs onto the same postsynaptic NA target neuron were measured. The PPRs, as well as the plasticity during short trains, were tightly correlated across multiple inputs, further suggesting that release probability is coordinated at auditory nerve terminals in a target-specific manner. This highly specific regulation of STP in the auditory brain stem provides evidence that the synaptic dynamics are tuned to differentially transmit the auditory information in nerve activity into parallel ascending pathways. PMID:26719087

  9. Electrophysiological spread of excitation and pitch perception for dual and single electrodes using the Nucleus Freedom cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Busby, Peter A; Battmer, Rolf D; Pesch, Joerg

    2008-12-01

    The first objective of the study was to determine whether there were any consistent differences in the electrophysiological spread of excitation (SOE) function, as measured using the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP), between dual and single electrode stimulation with the Nucleus Freedom cochlear implant system. Dual electrode stimulation is produced by electrically coupling two adjacent single electrodes. The second objective was to determine whether there were any relationships between the SOE functions and psychophysically measured pitch ranking of dual and single electrodes. Nine adult cochlear implant subjects participated in the study. ECAPs for dual and single electrode stimulation were measured using the forward masking paradigm, as also used in the Neural Response Telemetry (NRT) software with the Nucleus implant. Research software was used to generate the dual and single electrode stimuli and record the ECAPs. Spread of excitations (SOEs) were measured on a dual electrode and the two adjacent single electrodes, at three positions on the array: apical, mid, and basal. Compared were the ECAP amplitudes at the peak of the SOE functions, the widths of the scaled SOE functions at the 75% point, and the electrode positions at the peak of the SOE function and at the 75%, 50%, and 25% points on apical and basal sides of the scaled functions. Pitch ranking was measured for the same sets of dual and single electrodes. A two-alternative forced choice procedure was used, with the electrodes in each set paired with each other as AB and BA pairs. The subject indicated which of the two stimuli had the higher pitch. Dual electrode SOEs could be successfully obtained using the same methods as used to measure single electrode SOEs. The shapes of the dual and single electrodes SOEs were similar. There was a trend of a higher ECAP amplitude for the dual electrode at the peak of the SOE function, but this was only significant for two comparisons at the

  10. Temporal Expression of Wnt1 Defines the Competency State and Terminal Identity of Progenitors in the Developing Cochlear Nucleus and Inferior Colliculus.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen; Zervas, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The auditory system contains a diverse array of interconnected anatomical structures that mediate the perception of sound. The cochlear nucleus of the hindbrain serves as the initial site of convergence for auditory stimuli, while the inferior colliculus of the midbrain serves as an integration and relay station for all ascending auditory information. We used Genetic Inducible Fate Mapping (GIFM) to determine how the timing of Wnt1 expression is related to the competency states of auditory neuron progenitors. We demonstrate that the Wnt1 lineage defines progenitor pools of auditory neurons in the developing midbrain and hindbrain. The timing of Wnt1 expression specifies unique cell types during embryogenesis and follows a mixed model encompassing a brief epoch of de novo expression followed by rapid and progressive lineage restriction to shape the inferior colliculus. In contrast, Wnt1 fate mapping of the embryonic hindbrain revealed de novo induction of Wnt1 in auditory hindbrain progenitors, which is related to the development of biochemically distinct neurons in the cochlear nucleus. Thus, we uncovered two modes of lineage allocation that explain the relationship between the timing of Wnt1 expression and the development of the cochlear nucleus and the inferior colliculus. Finally, our analysis of Wnt1(sw/sw) mutant mice demonstrated a functional requirement of Wnt1 for the development of auditory midbrain and hindbrain neurons. Collectively, our study provides a deeper understanding of Wnt1 lineage allocation and function in mammalian brain development.

  11. Temporal Expression of Wnt1 Defines the Competency State and Terminal Identity of Progenitors in the Developing Cochlear Nucleus and Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stephen; Zervas, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The auditory system contains a diverse array of interconnected anatomical structures that mediate the perception of sound. The cochlear nucleus of the hindbrain serves as the initial site of convergence for auditory stimuli, while the inferior colliculus of the midbrain serves as an integration and relay station for all ascending auditory information. We used Genetic Inducible Fate Mapping (GIFM) to determine how the timing of Wnt1 expression is related to the competency states of auditory neuron progenitors. We demonstrate that the Wnt1 lineage defines progenitor pools of auditory neurons in the developing midbrain and hindbrain. The timing of Wnt1 expression specifies unique cell types during embryogenesis and follows a mixed model encompassing a brief epoch of de novo expression followed by rapid and progressive lineage restriction to shape the inferior colliculus. In contrast, Wnt1 fate mapping of the embryonic hindbrain revealed de novo induction of Wnt1 in auditory hindbrain progenitors, which is related to the development of biochemically distinct neurons in the cochlear nucleus. Thus, we uncovered two modes of lineage allocation that explain the relationship between the timing of Wnt1 expression and the development of the cochlear nucleus and the inferior colliculus. Finally, our analysis of Wnt1sw/sw mutant mice demonstrated a functional requirement of Wnt1 for the development of auditory midbrain and hindbrain neurons. Collectively, our study provides a deeper understanding of Wnt1 lineage allocation and function in mammalian brain development. PMID:28878630

  12. Brain stem responses evoked by stimulation of the mature cochlear nucleus with an auditory brain stem implant.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, Martin; El-Deredy, Wael; Ramsden, Richard T

    2011-01-01

    The Nucleus auditory brain stem implant (ABI) has been used in the hearing rehabilitation of totally deaf individuals for whom a cochlear implant is not an option such as in the case of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Intraoperative electrically evoked auditory brain stem responses (EABRs) are recorded to assist in the placement of the electrode array over the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei in the lateral recess of the IVth ventricle of the brain stem. This study had four objectives: (1) to characterize EABRs evoked by stimulation with an ABI in adolescents and adults with NF2, (2) to evaluate how the EABR morphology relates to auditory sensations elicited from stimulation by an ABI, (3) to establish whether there is evidence of morphology changes in the EABR with site of stimulation by the ABI, and (4) to investigate how the threshold of the EABR relates to behavioral threshold and comfortably loud sensations measured at initial device activation. Intraoperative EABRs were recorded from 34 subjects with ABIs: 19 male and 15 female, mean age 27 yrs (range 12 to 52 yrs). ABI stimulation was applied at seven different sites using either wide bipolar stimulation across the array or in subsections of the array from medial to lateral and inferior to superior. The EABRs were analyzed with respect to morphology, peak latency, and changes in these characteristics with the site of stimulation. In a subset of eight subjects, additional narrow bipolar sites were stimulated to compare the intraoperative EABR threshold levels with the behavioral threshold (T) and comfortably loud (C) levels of stimulation required at initial device activation. EABRs were elicited from 91% of subjects. Morphology varied from one to four vertex-positive peaks with mean latencies of 0.76, 1.53, 2.51, and 3.64 msecs, respectively. The presence of an EABR from stimulation by electrodes across the whole array had a high predictive value for the presence of auditory electrodes at initial device

  13. An Examination of Sources of Variability Across the Consonant-Nucleus-Consonant Test in Cochlear Implant Listeners.

    PubMed

    Bierer, Julie Arenberg; Spindler, Eugene; Bierer, Steven M; Wright, Richard

    2016-05-17

    The 10 consonant-nucleus-consonant (CNC) word lists are considered the gold standard in the testing of cochlear implant (CI) users. However, variance in scores across lists could degrade the sensitivity and reliability of them to identify deficits in speech perception. This study examined the relationship between variability in performance among lists and the lexical characteristics of the words. Data are from 28 adult CI users. Each subject was tested on all 10 CNC word lists. Data were analyzed in terms of lexical characteristics, lexical frequency, neighborhood density, bi-, and tri-phonemic probabilities. To determine whether individual performance variability across lists can be reduced, the standard set of 10 phonetically balanced 50-word lists was redistributed into a new set of lists using two sampling strategies: (a) balancing with respect to word lexical frequency or (b) selecting words with equal probability. The mean performance on the CNC lists varied from 53.1% to 62.4% correct. The average difference between the highest and lowest scores within individuals across the lists was 20.9% (from 12% to 28%). Lexical frequency and bi-phonemic probabilities were correlated with word recognition performance. The range of scores was not significantly reduced for all individuals when responses were simulated with 1,000 sets of redistributed lists, using both types of sampling methods. These results indicate that resampling of words does not affect the test-retest reliability and diagnostic value of the CNC word test. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Matching the neural adaptation in the rat ventral cochlear nucleus produced by artificial (electric) and acoustic stimulation of the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Loquet, Gérard; Pelizzone, Marco; Valentini, Gregory; Rouiller, Eric M

    2004-01-01

    To investigate neural adaptive properties, near-field evoked potentials were recorded from a chronically implanted electrode in the ventral cochlear nucleus in awake Long-Evans rats exposed to acoustic stimuli or receiving intracochlear electric stimulation. Stimuli were 250-ms trains of repetitive acoustic clicks (10, 30 and 50 dB SPL) or biphasic electric pulses (30, 50 and 70 microA) with intratrain pulse rates ranging from 100 to 1000 pulses per second (pps). The amplitude of the first negative (N(1)) to positive (P(1)) component of the average evoked potentials was measured for each consecutive individual pulse in the train. While a progressive exponential decrease in N(1)-P(1) amplitude was observed as a function of the position of the pulse within the train for both types of stimulation, the decrement of electric responses (adaptive pattern) was substantially less prominent than that observed for acoustic stimuli. Based on this difference, the present work was extended by modifying electric stimuli in order to try to restore normal adaptation phenomena. The results suggest the feasibility of mimicking acoustic adaptation by stimulation with exponentially decreasing electric pulse trains, which may be clinically applicable in the auditory implant field. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Correlation of neural responses in the cochlear nucleus with low-frequency noise amplitude modulation of a tonal signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibikov, N. G.

    2014-09-01

    The responses of single neurons of the cochlear nucleus of a grass frog to long tonal signals amplitude-modulated by repeat intervals of low-frequency noise have been studied. The carrier frequency always corresponded to the characteristic frequency of the studied cell (a range of 0.2 kHz-2 kHz); the modulated signal was noise in the ranges 0-15 Hz, 0-50 Hz, or 0-150 Hz. We obtained the correlation functions of the cyclic histogram reflecting the change in probability of a neuron pulse discharge (spike) during the modulation period with the shape of the signal envelope in the same period. The form of the obtained correlation functions usually does not change qualitatively with a change in carrier level or modulation depth; however, this could essentially depend of the frequency component of the modulating function. In the majority of cases, comparison of the cyclic histogram of the reaction with only the current amplitude value does not adequately reveal the signal's time features that determine the reaction of a neuron. The response is also determined by the other sound features, primarily by the rate of the change in amplitude. The studied neurons differed among themselves, both in preference toward a certain range of modulated frequencies and in the features of the envelope that caused the cell's response.

  16. Comparison of speech perception benefits with SPEAK and ACE coding strategies in pediatric Nucleus CI24M cochlear implant recipients.

    PubMed

    Pasanisi, Enrico; Bacciu, Andrea; Vincenti, Vincenzo; Guida, Maurizio; Berghenti, Maria Teresa; Barbot, Anna; Panu, Francesco; Bacciu, Salvatore

    2002-06-17

    Nine congenitally deaf children who received a Nucleus CI24M cochlear implant and who were fitted with the SPrint speech processor participated in this study. All subjects were initially programmed with the SPEAK coding strategy and then converted to the ACE strategy. Speech perception was evaluated before and after conversion to the new coding strategy using word and Common Phrase speech recognition tests in both the presence and absence of noise. In quiet conditions, the mean percent correct scores for words were 68.8% with SPEAK and 91% with ACE; for phrases the percentage was 66.6% with SPEAK and 85.5% with ACE. In the presence of noise (at +10 dB signal-to-noise ratio), the mean percent correct scores for words were 43.3% with SPEAK compared to 84.4% with ACE; for phrases the percentage was 41.1% with SPEAK and 82.2% with ACE. Statistical analysis revealed significant improvement in open-set speech recognition with ACE compared to SPEAK. Preliminary data suggest that converting children from SPEAK to the ACE strategy improves their performance. Subjects showed significant improvements for open-set word and sentence recognition in quiet as well as in noise when ACE was used in comparison with SPEAK. The greatest improvements were obtained when tests were presented in the presence of noise.

  17. Neural Segregation of Concurrent Speech: Effects of Background Noise and Reverberation on Auditory Scene Analysis in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Sayles, Mark; Stasiak, Arkadiusz; Winter, Ian M

    2016-01-01

    Concurrent complex sounds (e.g., two voices speaking at once) are perceptually disentangled into separate "auditory objects". This neural processing often occurs in the presence of acoustic-signal distortions from noise and reverberation (e.g., in a busy restaurant). A difference in periodicity between sounds is a strong segregation cue under quiet, anechoic conditions. However, noise and reverberation exert differential effects on speech intelligibility under "cocktail-party" listening conditions. Previous neurophysiological studies have concentrated on understanding auditory scene analysis under ideal listening conditions. Here, we examine the effects of noise and reverberation on periodicity-based neural segregation of concurrent vowels /a/ and /i/, in the responses of single units in the guinea-pig ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN): the first processing station of the auditory brain stem. In line with human psychoacoustic data, we find reverberation significantly impairs segregation when vowels have an intonated pitch contour, but not when they are spoken on a monotone. In contrast, noise impairs segregation independent of intonation pattern. These results are informative for models of speech processing under ecologically valid listening conditions, where noise and reverberation abound.

  18. Ih Equalizes Membrane Input Resistance in a Heterogeneous Population of Fusiform Neurons in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Cesar C.; Li, Shuang; Roque, Antonio C.; Tzounopoulos, Thanos; Leão, Ricardo M.

    2016-01-01

    In a neuronal population, several combinations of its ionic conductances are used to attain a specific firing phenotype. Some neurons present heterogeneity in their firing, generally produced by expression of a specific conductance, but how additional conductances vary along in order to homeostatically regulate membrane excitability is less known. Dorsal cochlear nucleus principal neurons, fusiform neurons, display heterogeneous spontaneous action potential activity and thus represent an appropriate model to study the role of different conductances in establishing firing heterogeneity. Particularly, fusiform neurons are divided into quiet, with no spontaneous firing, or active neurons, presenting spontaneous, regular firing. These modes are determined by the expression levels of an intrinsic membrane conductance, an inwardly rectifying potassium current (IKir). In this work, we tested whether other subthreshold conductances vary homeostatically to maintain membrane excitability constant across the two subtypes. We found that Ih expression covaries specifically with IKir in order to maintain membrane resistance constant. The impact of Ih on membrane resistance is dependent on the level of IKir expression, being much smaller in quiet neurons with bigger IKir, but Ih variations are not relevant for creating the quiet and active phenotypes. Finally, we demonstrate that the individual proportion of each conductance, and not their absolute conductance, is relevant for determining the neuronal firing mode. We conclude that in fusiform neurons the variations of their different subthreshold conductances are limited to specific conductances in order to create firing heterogeneity and maintain membrane homeostasis. PMID:27833532

  19. Interaction between taurine and GABA(A)/glycine receptors in neurons of the rat anteroventral cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Song, Ning-Ying; Shi, Hai-Bo; Li, Chun-Yan; Yin, Shan-Kai

    2012-09-07

    Taurine, one of the most abundant endogenous amino acids in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), is involved in neural development and many physiological functions. In this study, the interaction between taurine and GABA(A)/glycine receptors was investigated in young rat (P13-P15) anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) neurons using the whole-cell patch-clamp method. We found that taurine at low (0.1mM) and high (1mM) concentrations activated both GABA(A) and glycine receptors, but not AMPA and NMDA receptors. The reversal potentials of taurine-, GABA- or glycine-evoked currents were close to the expected chloride equilibrium potential, indicating that receptors activated by these agonists were mediating chloride conductance. Moreover, our results showed that the currents activated by co-application of GABA and glycine were cross-inhibitive. Sequential application of GABA and glycine or vice versa also reduced the glycine or GABA evoked currents. There was no cross-inhibition when taurine and GABA or taurine and glycine were applied simultaneously, but the response was larger than that evoked by GABA or glycine alone. These results suggest that taurine can serve as a neuromodulator to strengthen GABAergic and glycinergic neurotransmission in the rat AVCN.

  20. An Examination of Sources of Variability Across the Consonant-Nucleus-Consonant Test in Cochlear Implant Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Spindler, Eugene; Bierer, Steven M.; Wright, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The 10 consonant-nucleus-consonant (CNC) word lists are considered the gold standard in the testing of cochlear implant (CI) users. However, variance in scores across lists could degrade the sensitivity and reliability of them to identify deficits in speech perception. This study examined the relationship between variability in performance among lists and the lexical characteristics of the words. Data are from 28 adult CI users. Each subject was tested on all 10 CNC word lists. Data were analyzed in terms of lexical characteristics, lexical frequency, neighborhood density, bi-, and tri-phonemic probabilities. To determine whether individual performance variability across lists can be reduced, the standard set of 10 phonetically balanced 50-word lists was redistributed into a new set of lists using two sampling strategies: (a) balancing with respect to word lexical frequency or (b) selecting words with equal probability. The mean performance on the CNC lists varied from 53.1% to 62.4% correct. The average difference between the highest and lowest scores within individuals across the lists was 20.9% (from 12% to 28%). Lexical frequency and bi-phonemic probabilities were correlated with word recognition performance. The range of scores was not significantly reduced for all individuals when responses were simulated with 1,000 sets of redistributed lists, using both types of sampling methods. These results indicate that resampling of words does not affect the test–retest reliability and diagnostic value of the CNC word test. PMID:27194155

  1. Comparison of speech perception performance between Sprint/Esprit 3G and Freedom processors in children implanted with nucleus cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Santarelli, Rosamaria; Magnavita, Vincenzo; De Filippi, Roberta; Ventura, Laura; Genovese, Elisabetta; Arslan, Edoardo

    2009-04-01

    To compare speech perception performance in children fitted with previous generation Nucleus sound processor, Sprint or Esprit 3G, and the Freedom, the most recently released system from the Cochlear Corporation that features a larger input dynamic range. Prospective intrasubject comparative study. University Medical Center. Seventeen prelingually deafened children who had received the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant and used the Sprint or Esprit 3G sound processor. Cochlear implantation with Cochlear device. Speech perception was evaluated at baseline (Sprint, n = 11; Esprit 3G, n = 6) and after 1 month's experience with the Freedom sound processor. Identification and recognition of disyllabic words and identification of vowels were performed via recorded voice in quiet (70 dB [A]), in the presence of background noise at various levels of signal-to-noise ratio (+10, +5, 0, -5) and at a soft presentation level (60 dB [A]). Consonant identification and recognition of disyllabic words, trisyllabic words, and sentences were evaluated in live voice. Frequency discrimination was measured in a subset of subjects (n = 5) by using an adaptive, 3-interval, 3-alternative, forced-choice procedure. Identification of disyllabic words administered at a soft presentation level showed a significant increase when switching to the Freedom compared with the previously worn processor in children using the Sprint or Esprit 3G. Identification and recognition of disyllabic words in the presence of background noise as well as consonant identification and sentence recognition increased significantly for the Freedom compared with the previously worn device only in children fitted with the Sprint. Frequency discrimination was significantly better when switching to the Freedom compared with the previously worn processor. Serial comparisons revealed that that speech perception performance evaluated in children aged 5 to 15 years was superior with the Freedom than previous generations of Nucleus

  2. Central auditory plasticity after carboplatin-induced unilateral inner ear damage in the chinchilla: up-regulation of GAP-43 in the ventral cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kraus, K S; Ding, D; Zhou, Y; Salvi, R J

    2009-09-01

    Inner ear damage may lead to structural changes in the central auditory system. In rat and chinchilla, cochlear ablation and noise trauma result in fiber growth and synaptogenesis in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). In this study, we documented the relationship between carboplatin-induced hair cell degeneration and VCN plasticity in the chinchilla. Unilateral application of carboplatin (5mg/ml) on the round window membrane resulted in massive hair cell loss. Outer hair cell degeneration showed a pronounced basal-to-apical gradient while inner hair cell loss was more equally distributed throughout the cochlea. Expression of the growth associated protein GAP-43, a well-established marker for synaptic plasticity, was up-regulated in the ipsilateral VCN at 15 and 31 days post-carboplatin, but not at 3 and 7 days. In contrast, the dorsal cochlear nucleus showed only little change. In VCN, the high-frequency area dorsally showed slightly yet significantly stronger GAP-43 up-regulation than the low-frequency area ventrally, possibly reflecting the high-to-low frequency gradient of hair cell degeneration. Synaptic modification or formation of new synapses may be a homeostatic process to re-adjust mismatched inputs from two ears. Alternatively, massive fiber growth may represent a deleterious process causing central hyperactivity that leads to loudness recruitment or tinnitus.

  3. GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory synaptic transmission in the ventral cochlear nucleus studied in VGAT channelrhodopsin-2 mice

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ruili; Manis, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Both glycine and GABA mediate inhibitory synaptic transmission in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). In mice, the time course of glycinergic inhibition is slow in bushy cells and fast in multipolar (stellate) cells, and is proposed to contribute to the processing of temporal cues in both cell types. Much less is known about GABAergic synaptic transmission in this circuit. Electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve or the tuberculoventral pathway evokes little GABAergic synaptic current in brain slice preparations, and spontaneous GABAergic miniature synaptic currents occur infrequently. To investigate synaptic currents carried by GABA receptors in bushy and multipolar cells, we used transgenic mice in which channelrhodopsin-2 and EYFP is driven by the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT-ChR2-EYFP) and is expressed in both GABAergic and glycinergic neurons. Light stimulation evoked action potentials in EYFP-expressing presynaptic cells, and evoked inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in non-expressing bushy and planar multipolar cells. Less than 10% of the IPSP amplitude in bushy cells arose from GABAergic synapses, whereas 40% of the IPSP in multipolar neurons was GABAergic. In voltage clamp, glycinergic IPSCs were significantly slower in bushy neurons than in multipolar neurons, whereas there was little difference in the kinetics of the GABAergic IPSCs between two cell types. During prolonged stimulation, the ratio of steady state vs. peak IPSC amplitude was significantly lower for glycinergic IPSCs. Surprisingly, the reversal potentials of GABAergic IPSCs were negative to those of glycinergic IPSCs in both bushy and multipolar neurons. In the absence of receptor blockers, repetitive light stimulation was only able to effectively evoke IPSCs up to 20 Hz in both bushy and multipolar neurons. We conclude that local GABAergic release within the VCN can differentially influence bushy and multipolar cells. PMID:25104925

  4. GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory synaptic transmission in the ventral cochlear nucleus studied in VGAT channelrhodopsin-2 mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ruili; Manis, Paul B

    2014-01-01

    Both glycine and GABA mediate inhibitory synaptic transmission in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). In mice, the time course of glycinergic inhibition is slow in bushy cells and fast in multipolar (stellate) cells, and is proposed to contribute to the processing of temporal cues in both cell types. Much less is known about GABAergic synaptic transmission in this circuit. Electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve or the tuberculoventral pathway evokes little GABAergic synaptic current in brain slice preparations, and spontaneous GABAergic miniature synaptic currents occur infrequently. To investigate synaptic currents carried by GABA receptors in bushy and multipolar cells, we used transgenic mice in which channelrhodopsin-2 and EYFP is driven by the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT-ChR2-EYFP) and is expressed in both GABAergic and glycinergic neurons. Light stimulation evoked action potentials in EYFP-expressing presynaptic cells, and evoked inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in non-expressing bushy and planar multipolar cells. Less than 10% of the IPSP amplitude in bushy cells arose from GABAergic synapses, whereas 40% of the IPSP in multipolar neurons was GABAergic. In voltage clamp, glycinergic IPSCs were significantly slower in bushy neurons than in multipolar neurons, whereas there was little difference in the kinetics of the GABAergic IPSCs between two cell types. During prolonged stimulation, the ratio of steady state vs. peak IPSC amplitude was significantly lower for glycinergic IPSCs. Surprisingly, the reversal potentials of GABAergic IPSCs were negative to those of glycinergic IPSCs in both bushy and multipolar neurons. In the absence of receptor blockers, repetitive light stimulation was only able to effectively evoke IPSCs up to 20 Hz in both bushy and multipolar neurons. We conclude that local GABAergic release within the VCN can differentially influence bushy and multipolar cells.

  5. Stimulus-dependent changes in optical responses of the dorsal cochlear nucleus using voltage-sensitive dye

    PubMed Central

    Licari, F. G.; Shkoukani, M.

    2011-01-01

    Optical imaging with voltage-sensitive dye was used to examine the spatiotemporal dynamics of stimulus-driven activity on the surface of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). Stimulation with tones at low to moderate levels produced localized regions of activation that were most commonly elongated rostrocaudally. The size of these activation areas expanded with increases in sound level, while their centers shifted from the lateral direction to the medial direction with increases in stimulus frequency. In contrast to the tonotopic patterns of activation evoked by tones, electrical stimulation of the DCN surface resulted in bands of activation that were elongated along the medial-lateral axis; response latencies increased with distance along these bands from the point of stimulation. Shifting the site of electrical stimulation from the rostral direction to the caudal direction induced corresponding shifts in the rostrocaudal location of the activation band; moving the electrode tip to subsurface depths resulted in loss of the elongated band. Transecting the DCN along the rostrocaudal axis midway between its medial and lateral extremities blocked propagation of the response to the half of the DCN distal to but not proximal to the stimulating electrode. The results suggest that the two modes of stimulation activated two distinct populations of neurons, one involving primarily tonotopically organized cells and the other crossing these tonotopic zones and likely representing the activation of parallel fibers. These results reveal a number of new features in the spatial patterns of tone-elicited activation that are not readily predicted by responses recorded electrophysiologically. PMID:21543759

  6. NAD+ Attenuates Bilirubin-Induced Hyperexcitation in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus by Inhibiting Excitatory Neurotransmission and Neuronal Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Min; Yin, Xin-Lu; Wang, Lu-Yang; Yin, Wei-Hai; Song, Ning-Ying; Shi, Hai-Bo; Li, Chun-Yan; Yin, Shan-Kai

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an important molecule with extensive biological functions in various cellular processes, including protection against cell injuries. However, little is known regarding the roles of NAD+ in neuronal excitation and excitotoxicity associated with many neurodegenerative disorders and diseases. Using patch-clamp recordings, we studied its potential effects on principal neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), which is particularly vulnerable to bilirubin excitotoxicity. We found that NAD+ effectively decreased the size of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs), increased paired-pulse ratio (PPR) and reversed the effect of bilirubin on eEPSCs, implicating its inhibitory effects on the presynaptic release probability (Pr). Moreover, NAD+ not only decreased the basal frequency of miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs), but also reversed bilirubin-induced increases in the frequency of mEPSCs without affecting their amplitude under either condition. Furthermore, we found that NAD+ decreased the frequency of spontaneous firing of VCN neurons as well as bilirubin-induced increases in firing frequency. Whole-cell current-clamp recordings showed that NAD+ could directly decrease the intrinsic excitability of VCN neurons in the presence of synaptic blockers, suggesting NAD+ exerts its actions in both presynaptic and postsynaptic loci. Consistent with these observations, we found that the latency of the first postsynaptic spike triggered by high-frequency train stimulation of presynaptic afferents (i.e., the auditory nerve) was prolonged by NAD+. These results collectively indicate that NAD+ suppresses presynaptic transmitter release and postsynaptic excitability, jointly weakening excitatory neurotransmission. Our findings provide a basis for the exploration of NAD+ for the prevention and treatment of bilirubin encephalopathy and excitotoxicity associated with other neurological disorders. PMID:28217084

  7. Enhancement and distortion in the temporal representation of sounds in the ventral cochlear nucleus of chinchillas and cats.

    PubMed

    Recio-Spinoso, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    A subset of neurons in the cochlear nucleus (CN) of the auditory brainstem has the ability to enhance the auditory nerve's temporal representation of stimulating sounds. These neurons reside in the ventral region of the CN (VCN) and are usually known as highly synchronized, or high-sync, neurons. Most published reports about the existence and properties of high-sync neurons are based on recordings performed on a VCN output tract--not the VCN itself--of cats. In other species, comprehensive studies detailing the properties of high-sync neurons, or even acknowledging their existence, are missing.Examination of the responses of a population of VCN neurons in chinchillas revealed that a subset of those neurons have temporal properties similar to high-sync neurons in the cat. Phase locking and entrainment--the ability of a neuron to fire action potentials at a certain stimulus phase and at almost every stimulus period, respectively--have similar maximum values in cats and chinchillas. Ranges of characteristic frequencies for high-sync neurons in chinchillas and cats extend up to 600 and 1000 Hz, respectively. Enhancement of temporal processing relative to auditory nerve fibers (ANFs), which has been shown previously in cats using tonal and white-noise stimuli, is also demonstrated here in the responses of VCN neurons to synthetic and spoken vowel sounds.Along with the large amount of phase locking displayed by some VCN neurons there occurs a deterioration in the spectral representation of the stimuli (tones or vowels). High-sync neurons exhibit a greater distortion in their responses to tones or vowels than do other types of VCN neurons and auditory nerve fibers.Standard deviations of first-spike latency measured in responses of high-sync neurons are lower than similar values measured in ANFs' responses. This might indicate a role of high-sync neurons in other tasks beyond sound localization.

  8. Site-specific interactions of neurotrophin-3 and fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) in the embryonic development of the mouse cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Waheeda A; D'Sa, Chrystal; Morest, D Kent

    2006-08-01

    Neurotrophins and FGF2 contribute to formation of the cochlea, but their roles in cochlear nucleus development are unknown. The effects of these factors may differ in the cochlea and cochlear nucleus, which may influence each other's development. It is important to analyze the effects of these factors on cellular structures at well-defined steps in the normal morphogenetic sequence. The present study used immunohistochemistry to localize factors in situ and to test hypotheses about their roles in an in vitro model. Specific antibody staining revealed that TrkC, the NT3 receptor, is present in neural precursors prior to embryonic day E11 until after birth. NT3 appeared in precursor cells during migration (E13-E15) and disappeared at birth. TrkC and NT3 occurred in the same structures, including growing axons, terminals, and their synaptic targets. Thus, NT3 tracks the migration routes and the morphogenetic sequences within a window defined by TrkC. In vitro, the cochlear nucleus anlage was explanted from E11 embryos. Cultures were divided into groups fed with defined medium, with or without FGF2, BDNF, and NT3 supplements, alone or in combinations, for 7 days. When neuroblasts migrated and differentiated, immunostaining was used for locating NT3 and TrkC in the morphogenetic sequence, bromodeoxyuridine for proliferation, and synaptic vesicle protein for synaptogenesis. By time-lapse imaging and quantitative measures, the results support the hypothesis that FGF2 promotes proliferation and migration. NT3 interacts with FGF2 and BDNF to promote neurite outgrowth, fasciculation, and synapse formation. Factors and receptors localize to the structural sites undergoing critical changes.

  9. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials Recorded from Nucleus Hybrid Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Eun Kyung; Chiou, Li-Kuei; Kirby, Benjamin; Karsten, Sue; Turner, Christopher; Abbas, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective Nucleus Hybrid CI users hear low-frequency sounds via acoustic stimulation and high frequency sounds via electrical stimulation. This within-subject study compares three different methods of coordinating programming of the acoustic and electrical components of the Hybrid device. Speech perception and cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEP) were used to assess differences in outcome. The goals of this study were to determine (1) if the evoked potential measures could predict which programming strategy resulted either in better outcome on the speech perception task or was preferred by the listener, and (2) whether CAEPs could be used to predict which subjects benefitted most from having access to the electrical signal provided by the Hybrid implant. Design CAEPs were recorded from 10 Nucleus Hybrid CI users. Study participants were tested using three different experimental MAPs that differed in terms of how much overlap there was between the range of frequencies processed by the acoustic component of the Hybrid device and range of frequencies processed by the electrical component. The study design included allowing participants to acclimatize for a period of up to 4 weeks with each experimental program prior to speech perception and evoked potential testing. Performance using the experimental MAPs was assessed using both a closed-set consonant recognition task and an adaptive test that measured the signal to noise ratio that resulted in 50% correct identification of a set of 12 spondees presented in background noise (SNR-50). Long-duration, synthetic vowels were used to record both the cortical P1-N1-P2 “onset” response and the auditory “change” or ACC response. Correlations between the evoked potential measures and performance on the speech perception tasks are reported. Results Differences in performance using the three programming strategies were not large. Peak-to-peak amplitude of the AAC response was not found to be sensitive enough to

  10. Conductive Hearing Loss Has Long-Lasting Structural and Molecular Effects on Presynaptic and Postsynaptic Structures of Auditory Nerve Synapses in the Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, Cheryl; Antunes, Flora M.

    2016-01-01

    Sound deprivation by conductive hearing loss increases hearing thresholds, but little is known about the response of the auditory brainstem during and after conductive hearing loss. Here, we show in young adult rats that 10 d of monaural conductive hearing loss (i.e., earplugging) leads to hearing deficits that persist after sound levels are restored. Hearing thresholds in response to clicks and frequencies higher than 8 kHz remain increased after a 10 d recovery period. Neural output from the cochlear nucleus measured at 10 dB above threshold is reduced and followed by an overcompensation at the level of the lateral lemniscus. We assessed whether structural and molecular substrates at auditory nerve (endbulb of Held) synapses in the cochlear nucleus could explain these long-lasting changes in hearing processing. During earplugging, vGluT1 expression in the presynaptic terminal decreased and synaptic vesicles were smaller. Together, there was an increase in postsynaptic density (PSD) thickness and an upregulation of GluA3 AMPA receptor subunits on bushy cells. After earplug removal and a 10 d recovery period, the density of synaptic vesicles increased, vesicles were also larger, and the PSD of endbulb synapses was larger and thicker. The upregulation of the GluA3 AMPAR subunit observed during earplugging was maintained after the recovery period. This suggests that GluA3 plays a role in plasticity in the cochlear nucleus. Our study demonstrates that sound deprivation has long-lasting alterations on structural and molecular presynaptic and postsynaptic components at the level of the first auditory nerve synapse in the auditory brainstem. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite being the second most prevalent form of hearing loss, conductive hearing loss and its effects on central synapses have received relatively little attention. Here, we show that 10 d of monaural conductive hearing loss leads to an increase in hearing thresholds, to an increased central gain upstream of

  11. The temporal representation of the delay of iterated rippled noise in the ventral cochlear nucleus of the guinea-pig

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Ian M; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Patterson, Roy D

    2001-01-01

    We have examined the temporal discharge patterns of single units from the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) of anaesthetized guinea-pigs in response to iterated rippled noise (IRN). The pitch range evoked by the stimuli was from 32 to 1000 Hz. Single units were classified into four groups using existing classification schemes: primary-like (PL), onset (O), sustained chopper (CS) and transient chopper (CT). For all unit types the delay of the IRN stimuli was well represented in the all-order interspike interval histograms (ISIHs). A subset of the onset units (onset-chopper, OC) showed a clear preference for some delays of the IRN in their first-order interval statistics. We describe this delay preference as ‘periodicity tuning’. The delay at which the pitch estimate was at its maximum was designated its best periodicity. The range of best periodicities for OC units was 3.75-13 ms (between 77 and 267 Hz). The other unit types also showed enhancement of the first-order interval statistics at the delay of the IRN. The range of best periodicities was 1.4-8.8 ms (113-714 Hz) for the CT group, 2.25-10.8 ms (93-444 Hz) for the CS group and 0.5-4.6 ms (217-2000 Hz) for the PL group. The correlation between the maximum interval enhancement observed in response to the IRN stimuli and the peak in the first-order ISIH in response to white noise was 0.81 for OC units, 0.72 for CS units, 0.44 for CT units and -0.15 for PL units. These results demonstrate that all unit types in the VCN can enhance the representation of the delay of IRN using first-order interspike intervals (ISIs) over a range of periodicities. CS and OC units show the greatest range of best periodicities and they are well-suited to encode the delay of IRN in their first-order ISIs for a wide range of pitches. PMID:11731585

  12. Subcellular localization of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, P400, in the vestibular complex and dorsal cochlear nucleus of the rat.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, J; Uttenthal, O; Bentura, M L; Maeda, N; Mikoshiba, K; Martinez-Murillo, R; Polak, J M

    1994-01-21

    The subcellular localization of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor protein, P400, was studied in the vestibular complex, an area to which Purkinje cells project, as well as in neurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus and in ectopic Purkinje cells of adult rat brain. The receptor was demonstrated by electron microscopical immunocytochemistry using the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex procedure, with the monoclonal antibody 4C11 raised against mouse cerebellar inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor protein. Immunoreactivity was found in preterminal fibres and terminal boutons in the nuclei of the vestibular complex, generally associated with the subsurface systems and stacks or fragments of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Ectopic Purkinje cells and cartwheel cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus also displayed immunoreactivity, but this was much less intense in the latter. The results of the present study suggest that this receptor protein, involved in the release of Ca2+, is located in sites that enable it to influence the synthesis, transport and release of neurotransmitters.

  13. Substrates of Auditory Frequency Integration in a Nucleus of the Lateral Lemniscus

    PubMed Central

    Yavuzoglu, Asuman; Schofield, Brett R.; Wenstrup, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    In the intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (INLL), some neurons display a form of spectral integration in which excitatory responses to sounds at their best frequency are inhibited by sounds within a frequency band at least one octave lower. Previous work showed that this response property depends on low-frequency-tuned glycinergic input. To identify all sources of inputs to these INLL neurons, and in particular the low-frequency glycinergic input, we combined retrograde tracing with immunohistochemistry for the neurotransmitter glycine. We deposited a retrograde tracer at recording sites displaying either high best frequencies (>75 kHz) in conjunction with combination-sensitive inhibition, or at sites displaying low best frequencies (23–30 kHz). Most retrogradely labeled cells were located in the ipsilateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) and contralateral anteroventral cochlear nucleus. Consistent labeling, but in fewer numbers, was observed in the ipsilateral lateral nucleus of the trapezoid body (LNTB), contralateral posteroventral cochlear nucleus, and a few other brainstem nuclei. When tracer deposits were combined with glycine immunohistochemistry, most double-labeled cells were observed in the ipsilateral MNTB (84%), with fewer in LNTB (13%). After tracer deposits at combination-sensitive recording sites, a striking result was that MNTB labeling occurred in both medial and lateral regions. This labeling appeared to overlap the MNTB labeling that resulted from tracer deposits in low-frequency recording sites of INLL. These findings suggest that MNTB is the most likely source of low-frequency glycinergic input to INLL neurons with high best frequencies and combination-sensitive inhibition. This work establishes an anatomical basis for frequency integration in the auditory brainstem. PMID:20451586

  14. Cell-type specific short-term plasticity at auditory nerve synapses controls feed-forward inhibition in the dorsal cochlear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Sedlacek, Miloslav; Brenowitz, Stephan D.

    2014-01-01

    Feed-forward inhibition (FFI) represents a powerful mechanism by which control of the timing and fidelity of action potentials in local synaptic circuits of various brain regions is achieved. In the cochlear nucleus, the auditory nerve provides excitation to both principal neurons and inhibitory interneurons. Here, we investigated the synaptic circuit associated with fusiform cells (FCs), principal neurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) that receive excitation from auditory nerve fibers and inhibition from tuberculoventral cells (TVCs) on their basal dendrites in the deep layer of DCN. Despite the importance of these inputs in regulating fusiform cell firing behavior, the mechanisms determining the balance of excitation and FFI in this circuit are not well understood. Therefore, we examined the timing and plasticity of auditory nerve driven FFI onto FCs. We find that in some FCs, excitatory and inhibitory components of FFI had the same stimulation thresholds indicating they could be triggered by activation of the same fibers. In other FCs, excitation and inhibition exhibit different stimulus thresholds, suggesting FCs and TVCs might be activated by different sets of fibers. In addition, we find that during repetitive activation, synapses formed by the auditory nerve onto TVCs and FCs exhibit distinct modes of short-term plasticity. Feed-forward inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in FCs exhibit short-term depression because of prominent synaptic depression at the auditory nerve-TVC synapse. Depression of this feedforward inhibitory input causes a shift in the balance of fusiform cell synaptic input towards greater excitation and suggests that fusiform cell spike output will be enhanced by physiological patterns of auditory nerve activity. PMID:25071459

  15. The aging human cochlear nucleus: Changes in the glial fibrillary acidic protein, intracellular calcium regulatory proteins, GABA neurotransmitter and cholinergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saroj; Nag, Tapas C; Thakar, Alok; Bhardwaj, Daya N; Roy, Tara Sankar

    2014-03-01

    The human auditory system is highly susceptible to environmental and metabolic insults which further affect the biochemical and physiological milieu of the cells that may contribute to progressive, hearing loss with aging. The cochlear nucleus (CN) is populated by morphologically diverse types of neurons with discrete physiological and neurochemical properties. Between the dorsal and the ventral cochlear nucleus (DCN and VCN), the VCN is further sub-divided into the rostral (rVCN) and caudal (cVCN) sub-divisions. Although, information is available on the age related neurochemical changes in the mammalian CN similar reports on human CN is still sparse. The morphometry and semiquantitative analysis of intensity of expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), calcium binding proteins (calbindin, calretinin and parvalbumin), gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and nicotinic acetyl choline receptor (nAchR) beta 2 immunostaining were carried out in all three sub-divisions of the human CN from birth to 90 years. There was increased GFAP immunoreactivity in decades 2 and 3 in comparison to decade 1 in the CN. But no change was observed in rVCN from decade 4 onwards, whereas intense staining was also observed in decades 5 and 6 in cVCN and DCN. All three calcium binding proteins were highly expressed in early to middle ages, whereas a significant reduction was found in later decades in the VCN. GABA and nAchR beta 2 expressions were unchanged throughout in all the decades. The middle age may represent a critical period of onset and progression of aging changes in the CN and these alterations may add to the deterioration of hearing responses in the old age.

  16. Cholinergic modulation of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels regulates synaptic strength and spine calcium in cartwheel cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Wang, Ya-Xian; Petralia, Ronald S; Brenowitz, Stephan D

    2014-04-09

    Acetylcholine is a neuromodulatory transmitter that controls synaptic plasticity and sensory processing in many brain regions. The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) is an auditory brainstem nucleus that integrates auditory signals from the cochlea with multisensory inputs from several brainstem nuclei and receives prominent cholinergic projections. In the auditory periphery, cholinergic modulation serves a neuroprotective function, reducing cochlear output under high sound levels. However, the role of cholinergic signaling in the DCN is less understood. Here we examine postsynaptic mechanisms of cholinergic modulation at glutamatergic synapses formed by parallel fiber axons onto cartwheel cells (CWCs) in the apical DCN circuit from mouse brainstem slice using calcium (Ca) imaging combined with two-photon laser glutamate uncaging onto CWC spines. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) significantly increased the amplitude of both uncaging-evoked EPSPs (uEPSPs) and spine Ca transients. Our results demonstrate that mAChRs in CWC spines act by suppressing large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels, and this effect is mediated through the cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway. Blocking BK channels relieves voltage-dependent magnesium block of NMDA receptors, thereby enhancing uEPSPs and spine Ca transients. Finally, we demonstrate that mAChR activation inhibits L-type Ca channels and thus may contribute to the suppression of BK channels by mAChRs. In summary, we demonstrate a novel role for BK channels in regulating glutamatergic transmission and show that this mechanism is under modulatory control of mAChRs.

  17. Activation of muscarinic receptors increases the activity of the granule neurones of the rat dorsal cochlear nucleus--a calcium imaging study.

    PubMed

    Kőszeghy, Áron; Vincze, János; Rusznák, Zoltán; Fu, Yuhong; Paxinos, George; Csernoch, László; Szücs, Géza

    2012-06-01

    Acetylcholine modulates the function of the cochlear nucleus via several pathways. In this study, the effects of cholinergic stimulation were studied on the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration of granule neurones of the rat dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). Ca(2+) transients were recorded in Oregon-Green-BAPTA 1-loaded brain slices using a calcium imaging technique. For the detection, identification and characterisation of the Ca(2+) transients, a wavelet analysis-based method was developed. Granule cells were identified on the basis of their size and localisation. The action potential-coupled character of the Ca(2+) transients of the granule cells was established by recording fluorescence changes and electrical activity simultaneously. Application of the cholinergic agonist carbamyl-choline (CCh) significantly increased the frequency of the Ca(2+) transients (from 0.37 to 6.31 min(-1), corresponding to a 17.1-fold increase; n = 89). This effect was antagonised by atropine, whereas CCh could still evoke an 8.3-fold increase of the frequency of the Ca(2+) transients when hexamethonium was present. Using immunolabelling, the expression of both type 1 and type 3 muscarinic receptors (M1 and M3 receptors, respectively) was demonstrated in the granule cells. Application of 1,1-dimethyl-4-diphenylacetoxypiperidinium iodide (an M3-specific antagonist) prevented the onset of the CCh effect, whereas an M1-specific antagonist (pirenzepine) was less effective. We conclude that cholinergic stimulation increases the activity of granule cells, mainly by acting on their M3 receptors. The modulation of the firing activity of the granule cells, in turn, may modify the firing of projection neurones and may adjust signal processing in the entire DCN.

  18. Cholinergic Modulation of Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels Regulates Synaptic Strength and Spine Calcium in Cartwheel Cells of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    He, Shan; Wang, Ya-Xian; Petralia, Ronald S.

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholine is a neuromodulatory transmitter that controls synaptic plasticity and sensory processing in many brain regions. The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) is an auditory brainstem nucleus that integrates auditory signals from the cochlea with multisensory inputs from several brainstem nuclei and receives prominent cholinergic projections. In the auditory periphery, cholinergic modulation serves a neuroprotective function, reducing cochlear output under high sound levels. However, the role of cholinergic signaling in the DCN is less understood. Here we examine postsynaptic mechanisms of cholinergic modulation at glutamatergic synapses formed by parallel fiber axons onto cartwheel cells (CWCs) in the apical DCN circuit from mouse brainstem slice using calcium (Ca) imaging combined with two-photon laser glutamate uncaging onto CWC spines. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) significantly increased the amplitude of both uncaging-evoked EPSPs (uEPSPs) and spine Ca transients. Our results demonstrate that mAChRs in CWC spines act by suppressing large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels, and this effect is mediated through the cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway. Blocking BK channels relieves voltage-dependent magnesium block of NMDA receptors, thereby enhancing uEPSPs and spine Ca transients. Finally, we demonstrate that mAChR activation inhibits L-type Ca channels and thus may contribute to the suppression of BK channels by mAChRs. In summary, we demonstrate a novel role for BK channels in regulating glutamatergic transmission and show that this mechanism is under modulatory control of mAChRs. PMID:24719104

  19. Mismatch between electrophysiologically defined and ventriculography based theoretical targets for posteroventral pallidotomy in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Merello, M; Cammarota, A; Cerquetti, D; Leiguarda, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Over the past few years many reports have shown that posteroventral pallidotomy is an effective method for treating advanced cases of Parkinson's disease. The main differences with earlier descriptions were the use of standardised evaluation with new high resolution MRI studies and of single cell microrecording which can electrophysiologically define the sensorimotor portion of the internal globus pallidus (GPi). The present study was performed on a consecutive series of 40 patients with Parkinson's disease who underwent posteroventral pallidotomy to determine localisation discrepancies between the ventriculography based theoretical and the electrophysiologically defined target for posteroventral pallidotomy.
METHODS—The tentative location of the posteroventral GPi portion was defined according to the proportional Talairach system. Single cell recording was performed in all patients. The definitive target was chosen according to the feasibility of recording single cells with GPi cell features, including the presence of motor drive and correct identification of the internal capsule and of the optic tract by activity recording and microstimulation.
RESULTS—In all 40 patients the electrophysiologically defined sensorimotor portion of the GPi was lesioned, with significantly improved cardinal Parkinson's disease symptoms as well as levodopa induced dyskinesias, without damage to the internal capsule or optic tract. Significant differences between the localisation of the ventriculography based theoretical versus electrophysiological target were found in depth (p<0.0008) and posteriority (p<0.04). No significant differences were found in laterality between both approaches. Difference ranges were 8 mm for laterality, 6.5 mm for depth, and 10 mm for posteriority.
CONCLUSIONS—Electrophysiologically defined lesion of GPi for posteroventral pallidotomy, shown to be effective for treating Parkinson's disease, is located at a significantly different

  20. Encoding of the amplitude modulation of pulsatile electrical stimulation in the feline cochlear nucleus by neurons in the inferior colliculus; effects of stimulus pulse rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreery, Douglas; Han, Martin; Pikov, Victor; Yadav, Kamal; Pannu, Satinderpall

    2013-10-01

    Objectives. Persons without a functional auditory nerve cannot benefit from cochlear implants, but some hearing can be restored by an auditory brainstem implant (ABI) with stimulating electrodes implanted on the surface of the cochlear nucleus (CN). Most users benefit from their ABI, but speech recognition tends to be poorer than for users of cochlear implants. Psychophysical studies suggest that poor modulation detection may contribute to the limited performance of ABI users. In a cat model, we determined how the pulse rate of the electrical stimulus applied within or on the CN affects temporal and rate encoding of amplitude modulation (AM) by neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). Approach. Stimulating microelectrodes were implanted chronically in and on the cats' CN, and multi-site recording microelectrodes were implanted chronically into the ICC. Encoding of AM pulse trains by neurons in the ICC was characterized as vector strength (VS), the synchrony of neural activity with the AM, and as the mean rate of neuronal action potentials (neuronal spike rate (NSR)). Main results. For intranuclear microstimulation, encoding of AM as VS was up to 3 dB greater when stimulus pulse rate was increased from 250 to 500 pps, but only for neuronal units with low best acoustic frequencies, and when the electrical stimulation was modulated at low frequencies (10-20 Hz). For stimulation on the surface of the CN, VS was similar at 250 and 500 pps, and the dynamic range of the VS was reduced for pulse rates greater than 250 pps. Modulation depth was encoded strongly as VS when the maximum stimulus amplitude was held constant across a range of modulation depth. This ‘constant maximum’ protocol allows enhancement of modulation depth while preserving overall dynamic range. However, modulation depth was not encoded as strongly as NSR. Significance. The findings have implications for improved sound processors for present and future ABIs. The performance of

  1. Intracochlear Recordings of Acoustically and Electrically Evoked Potentials in Nucleus Hybrid L24 Cochlear Implant Users and Their Relationship to Speech Perception

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Ryong; Tejani, Viral D.; Abbas, Paul J.; Brown, Carolyn J.

    2017-01-01

    The Hybrid cochlear implant (CI) has been developed for individuals with high frequency hearing loss who retain good low frequency hearing. Outcomes have been encouraging but individual variability is high; the health of the cochlea and the auditory nerve may be important factors driving outcomes. Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) reflect the response of the auditory nerve to electrical stimulation while electrocochleography (ECochG) reflects the response of the cochlear hair cells and auditory nerve to acoustic stimulation. In this study both ECAPs and ECochG responses were recorded from Nucleus Hybrid L24 CI users. Correlations between these two measures of peripheral auditory function and speech perception are reported. This retrospective study includes data from 25 L24 CI users. ECAPs and ECochG responses were recorded from an intracochlear electrode using stimuli presented at or near maximum acceptable loudness levels. Speech perception was assessed using Consonant-Nucleus-Consonant (CNC) word lists presented in quiet and AzBio sentences presented at a +5 dB signal-to-noise ratio in both the combined acoustic and electric (A+E) and electric (E) alone listening modes. Acoustic gain was calculated by subtracting these two scores. Correlations between these physiologic and speech perception measures were then computed. ECAP amplitudes recorded from the most apical electrode were significantly correlated with CNC scores measured in the E alone (r = 0.56) and A+E conditions (r = 0.64), but not with performance on the AzBio test. ECochG responses recorded using the most apical electrode in the intracochlear array but evoked using a 500 Hz tone burst were not correlated with either the scores on the CNC or AzBio tests. However, ECochG amplitude was correlated with a composite metric relating the additional benefit of acoustic gain in noise relative to quiet conditions (r = 0.67). Both measures can be recorded from Hybrid L24 CI users and both

  2. Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Cochlear Implants Cochlear Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... normal ear, ear with hearing loss, and cochlear implant procedure Welcome to the Food and Drug Administration ( ...

  3. Target- and input-dependent organization of AMPA and NMDA receptors in synaptic connections of the cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Rubio, María E; Fukazawa, Yugo; Kamasawa, Naomi; Clarkson, Cheryl; Molnár, Elek; Shigemoto, Ryuichi

    2014-12-15

    We examined the synaptic structure, quantity, and distribution of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)- and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs and NMDARs, respectively) in rat cochlear nuclei by a highly sensitive freeze-fracture replica labeling technique. Four excitatory synapses formed by two distinct inputs, auditory nerve (AN) and parallel fibers (PF), on different cell types were analyzed. These excitatory synapse types included AN synapses on bushy cells (AN-BC synapses) and fusiform cells (AN-FC synapses) and PF synapses on FC (PF-FC synapses) and cartwheel cell spines (PF-CwC synapses). Immunogold labeling revealed differences in synaptic structure as well as AMPAR and NMDAR number and/or density in both AN and PF synapses, indicating a target-dependent organization. The immunogold receptor labeling also identified differences in the synaptic organization of FCs based on AN or PF connections, indicating an input-dependent organization in FCs. Among the four excitatory synapse types, the AN-BC synapses were the smallest and had the most densely packed intramembrane particles (IMPs), whereas the PF-CwC synapses were the largest and had sparsely packed IMPs. All four synapse types showed positive correlations between the IMP-cluster area and the AMPAR number, indicating a common intrasynapse-type relationship for glutamatergic synapses. Immunogold particles for AMPARs were distributed over the entire area of individual AN synapses; PF synapses often showed synaptic areas devoid of labeling. The gold-labeling for NMDARs occurred in a mosaic fashion, with less positive correlations between the IMP-cluster area and the NMDAR number. Our observations reveal target- and input-dependent features in the structure, number, and organization of AMPARs and NMDARs in AN and PF synapses. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Catherine; Scott, Larry

    This brochure explains what a cochlear implant is, lists the types of individuals with deafness who may be helped by a cochlear implant, describes the process of evaluating people for cochlear implants, discusses the surgical process for implanting the aid, traces the path of sound through the cochlear implant to the brain, notes the costs of…

  5. Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Catherine; Scott, Larry

    This brochure explains what a cochlear implant is, lists the types of individuals with deafness who may be helped by a cochlear implant, describes the process of evaluating people for cochlear implants, discusses the surgical process for implanting the aid, traces the path of sound through the cochlear implant to the brain, notes the costs of…

  6. The magnitudes of hyperpolarization-activated and low-voltage-activated potassium currents co-vary in neurons of the ventral cochlear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiao-Jie

    2011-01-01

    In the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), neurons have hyperpolarization-activated conductances, which in some cells are enormous, that contribute to the ability of neurons to convey acoustic information in the timing of their firing by decreasing the input resistance and speeding-up voltage changes. Comparisons of the electrophysiological properties of neurons in the VCN of mutant mice that lack the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel α subunit 1 (HCN1−/−) (Nolan et al. 2003) with wild-type controls (HCN1+/+) and with outbred ICR mice reveal that octopus, T stellate, and bushy cells maintain their electrophysiological distinctions in all strains. Hyperpolarization-activated (Ih) currents were smaller and slower, input resistances were higher, and membrane time constants were longer in HCN1−/− than in HCN1+/+ in octopus, bushy, and T stellate cells. There were significant differences in the average magnitudes of Ih, input resistances, and time constants between HCN1+/+ and ICR mice, but the resting potentials did not differ between strains. Ih is opposed by a low-voltage-activated potassium (IKL) current in bushy and octopus cells, whose magnitudes varied widely between neuronal types and between strains. The magnitudes of Ih and IKL were correlated across neuronal types and across mouse strains. Furthermore, these currents balanced one another at the resting potential in individual cells. The magnitude of Ih and IKL is linked in bushy and octopus cells and varies not only between HCN1−/− and HCN1+/+ but also between “wild-type” strains of mice, raising the question to what extent the wild-type strains reflect normal mice. PMID:21562186

  7. The magnitudes of hyperpolarization-activated and low-voltage-activated potassium currents co-vary in neurons of the ventral cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiao-Jie; Oertel, Donata

    2011-08-01

    In the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), neurons have hyperpolarization-activated conductances, which in some cells are enormous, that contribute to the ability of neurons to convey acoustic information in the timing of their firing by decreasing the input resistance and speeding-up voltage changes. Comparisons of the electrophysiological properties of neurons in the VCN of mutant mice that lack the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel α subunit 1 (HCN1(-/-)) (Nolan et al. 2003) with wild-type controls (HCN1(+/+)) and with outbred ICR mice reveal that octopus, T stellate, and bushy cells maintain their electrophysiological distinctions in all strains. Hyperpolarization-activated (I(h)) currents were smaller and slower, input resistances were higher, and membrane time constants were longer in HCN1(-/-) than in HCN1(+/+) in octopus, bushy, and T stellate cells. There were significant differences in the average magnitudes of I(h), input resistances, and time constants between HCN1(+/+) and ICR mice, but the resting potentials did not differ between strains. I(h) is opposed by a low-voltage-activated potassium (I(KL)) current in bushy and octopus cells, whose magnitudes varied widely between neuronal types and between strains. The magnitudes of I(h) and I(KL) were correlated across neuronal types and across mouse strains. Furthermore, these currents balanced one another at the resting potential in individual cells. The magnitude of I(h) and I(KL) is linked in bushy and octopus cells and varies not only between HCN1(-/-) and HCN1(+/+) but also between "wild-type" strains of mice, raising the question to what extent the wild-type strains reflect normal mice.

  8. The hyperpolarization-activated non-specific cation current (In ) adjusts the membrane properties, excitability, and activity pattern of the giant cells in the rat dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Rusznák, Zoltán; Pál, Balázs; Kőszeghy, Aron; Fu, Yuhong; Szücs, Géza; Paxinos, George

    2013-03-01

    Giant cells of the cochlear nucleus are thought to integrate multimodal sensory inputs and participate in monaural sound source localization. Our aim was to explore the significance of a hyperpolarization-activated current in determining the activity of giant neurones in slices prepared from 10 to 14-day-old rats. When subjected to hyperpolarizing stimuli, giant cells produced a 4-(N-ethyl-N-phenylamino)-1,2-dimethyl-6-(methylamino) pyridinium chloride (ZD7288)-sensitive inward current with a reversal potential and half-activation voltage of -36 and -88 mV, respectively. Consequently, the current was identified as the hyperpolarization-activated non-specific cationic current (Ih ). At the resting membrane potential, 3.5% of the maximum Ih conductance was available. Immunohistochemistry experiments suggested that hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated, cation non-selective (HCN)1, HCN2, and HCN4 subunits contribute to the assembly of the functional channels. Inhibition of Ih hyperpolarized the membrane by 6 mV and impeded spontaneous firing. The frequencies of spontaneous inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic currents reaching the giant cell bodies were reduced but no significant change was observed when evoked postsynaptic currents were recorded. Giant cells are affected by biphasic postsynaptic currents consisting of an excitatory and a subsequent inhibitory component. Inhibition of Ih reduced the frequency of these biphasic events by 65% and increased the decay time constants of the inhibitory component. We conclude that Ih adjusts the resting membrane potential, contributes to spontaneous action potential firing, and may participate in the dendritic integration of the synaptic inputs of the giant neurones. Because its amplitude was higher in young than in adult rats, Ih of the giant cells may be especially important during the postnatal maturation of the auditory system.

  9. Auditory nerve synapses persist in ventral cochlear nucleus long after loss of acoustic input in mice with early-onset progressive hearing loss.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Brian; Fiorillo, Benjamin; Ryugo, David K; Lauer, Amanda M

    2015-04-24

    Perceptual performance in persons with hearing loss, especially those using devices to restore hearing, is not fully predicted by traditional audiometric measurements designed to evaluate the status of peripheral function. The integrity of auditory brainstem synapses may vary with different forms of hearing loss, and differential effects on the auditory nerve-brain interface may have particularly profound consequences for the transfer of sound from ear to brain. Loss of auditory nerve synapses in ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) has been reported after acoustic trauma, ablation of the organ of Corti, and administration of ototoxic compounds. The effects of gradually acquired forms deafness on these synapses are less well understood. We investigated VCN gross morphology and auditory nerve synapse integrity in DBA/2J mice with early-onset progressive sensorineural hearing loss. Hearing status was confirmed using auditory brainstem response audiometry and acoustic startle responses. We found no change in VCN volume, number of macroneurons, or number of VGLUT1-positive auditory nerve terminals between young adult and older, deaf DBA/2J. Cell-type specific analysis revealed no difference in the number of VGLUT1 puncta contacting bushy and multipolar cell body profiles, but the terminals were smaller in deaf DBA/2J mice. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of numerous healthy, vesicle-filled auditory nerve synapses in older, deaf DBA/2J mice. The present results suggest that synapses can be preserved over a relatively long time-course in gradually acquired deafness. Elucidating the mechanisms supporting survival of central auditory nerve synapses in models of acquired deafness may reveal new opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

  10. Differential postsynaptic distribution of GluRs 1-4 on cartwheel and octopus cell somata in the gerbil cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, I R; Keh, A; Eager, P R

    2000-09-01

    Differences were demonstrated in the distribution of glutamate receptors (GluR) 1, 2, 2/3 and 4 postsynaptic immunoreactivity (PSIR) on the somata of cartwheel and octopus cells in the adult gerbil cochlear nucleus (CN). Montages of electron micrographs of cartwheel and octopus cells immunoreacted with antibodies to GluR 1, 2, 2/3 and 4 were prepared. The number of synaptic terminals with PSIR were counted on all cells for each antibody, normalized to the total length of somatic surface analyzed. The density of terminals apposed to PSIR on octopus cells was similar for the antibodies GluR1, 2/3 and 4, but significantly less for GluR2. On cartwheel somata the numbers of terminals apposed to immunoreactive postsynaptic specializations with GluR1, 2, 2/3 or 4 were not significantly different from each other. The density of terminals apposed to GluR2/3 and 4 positive postsynaptic specializations was significantly less on cartwheel cells than on octopus somata. The data suggest that the decreased presence of the GluR2 subunit, which confers calcium impermeability to the assembled receptor and slower gating kinetics to receptors with a high GluR4 content, is the major difference in the AMPA receptors on the somata of these cell types. The presence on cartwheel cells of a majority of AMPA receptors which contain GluR2 may account for the fact that cartwheel cells respond to shocks to the auditory nerve with 100 ms excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), while octopus cells, most of whose AMPA receptors lack GluR2, respond with 1 ms EPSPs.

  11. Expression of doublecortin, a neuronal migration protein, in unipolar brush cells of the vestibulocerebellum and dorsal cochlear nucleus of the adult rat

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Senthilvelan; Paolone, Nicholas A.; Bleichfeld, Marni; Hayes, Sarah; Salvi, Richard J.; Baizer, Joan S.

    2011-01-01

    Doublecortin (DCX) is a microtubule associated protein that is critical for neuronal migration and the development of the cerebral cortex. In the adult, it is expressed in newborn neurons in the subventricular and subgranular zones but not in the mature neurons of the cerebral cortex. By contrast, neurogenesis and neuronal migration of cells in the cerebellum continue into early postnatal life; migration of one class of cerebellar interneuron, unipolar brush cells (UBCs), may continue into adulthood. To explore the possibility of continued neuronal migration in the adult cerebellum, closely spaced sections through the brainstem and cerebellum of adult (3–16 months old) Sprague Dawley rats were immunolabeled for DCX. Neurons immunoreactive (ir) to DCX were present in the granular cell layer of the vestibulocerebellum, most densely in the transition zone (tz), the region between the flocculus (FL) and ventral paraflocculus (PFL), as well as in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). These DCX-ir cells had the morphological appearance of unipolar brush cells (UBCs) with oval somata and a single dendrite ending in a “brush.” There were many examples of colocalization of DCX with Eps8 or calretinin, UBC markers. We also identified DCX-ir elements along the fourth ventricle and its lateral recess that had labeled somata but lacked the dendritic structure characteristic of UBCs. Labeled UBCs were seen in nearby white matter. These results suggest that there may be continued neurogenesis and/or migration of UBCs in the adult. Another possibility is that UBCs maintain DCX expression even after migration and maturation, reflecting a role of DCX in adult neuronal plasticity in addition to a developmental role in migration. PMID:22198017

  12. Dual electrode stimulation using the nucleus CI24RE cochlear implant: electrode impedance and pitch ranking studies.

    PubMed

    Busby, Peter A; Plant, Kerrie L

    2005-10-01

    The first aim of the study was to determine the reduction in electrode impedances using dual electrode stimulation compared with single electrode stimulation in the new Nucleus CI24RE receiver-stimulator. The CI24RE is connected to the Nucleus 22-electrode intracochlear array. Dual electrode stimulation is produced by electrically coupling two adjacent single electrodes. The second aim was to determine whether dual electrode stimulation produced pitch percepts that were intermediate to the pitch of the two adjacent single electrodes. Eight postlingually hearing-impaired adults with severe to profound loss, implanted with the CI24RE, participated in the study. Electrode impedances were measured by using the standard telemetry function of the system. A pitch ranking task was used to measure pitch for dual and single electrodes. Seven sets of three electrodes along the electrode array were tested. Each set of electrodes consisted of a dual electrode and the two adjacent single electrodes. Pitch ranking was measured using a two-alternative forced choice procedure, with the three electrodes in each set paired with each other as AB and BA pairs. The subject indicated which of the two stimuli had the higher pitch. Random variation in current level was used to remove any loudness cues. The average electrode impedance was 38.6% lower for dual electrodes compared with single electrodes. Three subjects were able to successfully rank the three electrodes in each set in the expected tonotopic order for all seven sets of electrodes along the array. Three other subjects were able to rank sets of electrodes in the tonotopic order for most of the tested positions on the array. The remaining two subjects gave more variable pitch ranking across positions along the array, although successful tonotopic ranking was demonstrated for several sets of electrodes. Dual electrode stimulation with the CI24RE receiver-stimulator produced systematically lower electrode impedances and was capable

  13. Activity-dependent regulation of [Ca2+]i in avian cochlear nucleus neurons: roles of protein kinases A and C and relation to cell death.

    PubMed

    Zirpel, L; Lippe, W R; Rubel, E W

    1998-05-01

    Neurons of the cochlear nucleus, nucleus magnocellularis (NM), of young chicks require excitatory afferent input from the eighth nerve for maintenance and survival. One of the earliest changes seen in NM neurons after deafferentation is an increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). This increase in [Ca2+]i is due to loss of activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) that activate second-messenger cascades involved in [Ca2+]i regulation. Because mGluRs are known to act via the phospholipase C and adenylate cyclase signal transduction pathways, the goal of this study was to determine the roles of protein kinases A (PKA) and C (PKC) activities in the regulation of NM neuron [Ca2+]i by eighth nerve stimulation. Additionally, we sought to determine the relationship between increased [Ca2+]i and cell death as measured by propidium iodide incorporation. [Ca2+]i of individual NM neurons in brain stem slices was monitored using fura-2 ratiometric fluorescence imaging. NM field potentials were monitored in experiments in which the eighth nerve was stimulated. Five hertz orthodromic stimulation maintained NM neuron [Ca2+]i at approximately 110 nM for 180 min. In the absence of stimulation, NM neuron [Ca2+]i increased steadily to a mean of 265 nM by 120 min. This increase was attenuated by superfusion of PKC activators phorbol-12,13-myristate acetate (100 nM) or dioctanoylglycerol (50 microM) and by activators of PKA: 1 mM 8-bromoadenosine-3',5'-cyclophosphate sodium (8-Br-cAMP), 50 microM forskolin or 100 microM Sp-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate triethylamine. Inhibition of PKA (100 microM Rp-cAMPS) or PKC (50 nM bisindolymaleimide or 10 microM U73122) during continuous orthodromic stimulation resulted in an increase in NM neuron [Ca2+]i that exceeded 170 and 180 nM, respectively, by 120 min. Nonspecific kinase inhibition with 1 microM staurosporine during stimulation resulted in an [Ca2+]i increase that was greater in magnitude than

  14. [Cochlear implants].

    PubMed

    Lehnhardt, E; Battmer, R D; Nakahodo, K; Laszig, R

    1986-07-01

    Since the middle of 1984, the HNO-Klinik der Medizinischen Hochschule Hannover has provided deaf adults with a 22-channel cochlear implant (CI) device of Clark-NUCLEUS. The digital working system consists of an implantable stimulator/receiver and an externally worn speech processor. Energy and signals are transmitted transcutaneously via a transmitter coil. During the prevailing 26 operations (April 1986) the electrode array could be inserted at least 17 mm into the cochlea. The threshold and comfort levels of all patients were adjusted very quickly; the dynamic range usually grows during the first postoperative weeks. The individual rehabilitation results vary greatly, but all patients show a significant increase of vowel and consonant comprehension while using the speech processor and an improvement of words understood per minute in speech tracking from lip-reading alone to lip-reading with speech processor. Four months after surgery seven of 17 patients (group I) are able to understand on average 42.7 words per minute by speech tracking without lip-reading. Six patients (group II) recognise 69.2% of vowels and 42.5% of consonants by speech processor alone. Four patients (group III) can correctly repeat only vowels (52.3%) without lip-reading, but using the speech processor together with lip reading they have an improvement in consonant understanding of 37.9% and under freefield conditions they are able to understand up to 17.8% numbers of the Freiburg speech test.

  15. Origins and targets of commissural connections between the cochlear nuclei in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Schofield, B R; Cant, N B

    1996-11-04

    Our objective was to identify the origins and targets of axons that project from one cochlear nucleus to the other. First, retrograde tracers were injected into one cochlear nucleus to label commissural cells in the opposite nucleus. In the dorsal cochlear nucleus, a few cells in the deep layers were labeled; they were not further classified according to type. In the ventral cochlear nucleus, all commissural cells that could be classified were multipolar cells. Second, an anterograde tracer was injected into one cochlear nucleus, and the distribution of boutons in the opposite cochlear nucleus was examined. Labeled boutons were present throughout the ventral cochlear nucleus, where they appeared to contact multipolar cells, spherical and globular bushy cells, and octopus cells. In the dorsal cochlear nucleus, labeled boutons were present in the fusiform cell and deep layers and appeared to contact fusiform cells and cells of unknown type. Many labeled terminals were also present in the granule cell regions. Injections into regions associated with high or low frequencies labeled boutons in corresponding regions in the contralateral ventral cochlear nucleus. Third, multiple tracers were used to determine whether cells that project to the inferior colliculus are contacted by commissural axons. Boutons labeled by anterograde transport of one tracer placed in the cochlear nucleus were frequently observed to be apposed to cells that were labeled by retrograde transport of a different tracer placed in the contralateral inferior colliculus. We conclude that commissural projections originate from multipolar cells throughout the ventral cochlear nucleus (and from a small number of cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus) and make contact with all major cell types of the cochlear nuclei, including at least some of those that project to the inferior colliculus.

  16. Speech perception performance as a function of stimulus pulse rate and processing strategy preference for the Cochlear Nucleus CI24RE device: relation to perceptual threshold and loudness comfort profiles.

    PubMed

    Battmer, Rolf-Dieter; Dillier, Norbert; Lai, Wai Kong; Begall, Klaus; Leypon, Elisabeth Estrada; González, Juan C Falcón; Manrique, Manuel; Morera, Constantino; Müller-Deile, Joachim; Wesarg, Thomas; Zarowski, Andrzej; Killian, Matthijs J; von Wallenberg, Ernst; Smoorenburg, Guido F

    2010-09-01

    Current cochlear implants can operate at high pulse rates. The effect of increasing pulse rate on speech performance is not yet clear. Habituation to low rates may affect the outcome. This paper presents the results of three subsequent studies using different experimental paradigms, applying the Nucleus CI24RE device, and conducted by ten European implant teams. Pulse rate per channel varied from 500 to 3500 pulses per second with ACE and from 1200 to 3500 pps with CIS strategy. The results showed that the first rate presented had little effect on the finally preferred rate. Lower rates were preferred. The effect of pulse rate on word scores of post-linguistic implantees was small; high rates tended to give lower scores. However, there were no significant differences between the word scores across subjects if collected at the individually preferred pulse rate. High pulse rates were preferred when the post-implantation threshold was low.

  17. Stereotactic posteroventral pallidotomy: clinical methods and results at 1-year follow up.

    PubMed

    Dalvi, A; Winfield, L; Yu, Q; Côté, L; Goodman, R R; Pullman, S L

    1999-03-01

    Twenty consecutive patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease underwent stereotactic posteroventral pallidotomy. Schwab and England ADL scores in the "off" state were improved by 18% and in the "on" state the scores declined by 2%. Three patients also reported marked improvement in "off" state dystonia. One-year data are available on 12 patients who underwent evaluations according to the Core Assessment Program for Intracerebral Transplantation protocol preoperatively and at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Significant improvements in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale sections II and III scores in the "off" state, composite "off" state scores of bradykinesia and rigidity, contralateral tremor in the "off" state, and contralateral dyskinesias were observed. Although there was reduction in the daily levodopa dose, this did not reach statistical significance. Major complications (15%) included hemiparesis (one of 20) and visual field cuts (two of 20); minor complications (45%) included mild cognitive dysfunction (four of 20), reading difficulty not related to visual disturbance (one of 20), and 5-10 lb weight gain (four of 20).

  18. Cochlear implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... bilateral cochlear implantation: a review. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 2007;15(5):315-318. PMID: 17823546. ... BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015: ...

  19. Cochlear Otosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Cureoglu, Sebahattin; Baylan, Muzeyyen Yildirim; Paparella, Michael M

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review The aim of this study is to summarize current advances in research and clinical aspects of cochlear otosclerosis. Recent Findings Recent studies have revealed that otosclerosis is a process of bone remodeling that is unique to only the otic capsule. Even though no obvious bone remodeling is seen in the otic capsule under normal conditions, remodeling starts when some molecular factors trigger the capsule in certain patients who have genetic and/or environmental tendencies. Summary Cochlear otosclerosis is defined as otosclerosis located in the otic capsule involving the cochlear endosteum and causing sensorineural hearing loss or mixed type hearing loss. It has been clearly shown that when otosclerosis is sufficiently severe to involve the cochlear endosteum, it usually fixes the stapes as well. PMID:20693902

  20. Cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Connell, Sarah S; Balkany, Thomas J

    2006-08-01

    Cochlear implants are cost-effective auditory prostheses that safely provide a high-quality sensation of hearing to adults who are severely or profoundly deaf. In the past 5 years, progress has been made in hardware and software design, candidate selection, surgical techniques, device programming, education and rehabilitation,and, most importantly, outcomes. Cochlear implantation in the elderly is well tolerated and provides marked improvement in auditory performance and psychosocial functioning.

  1. The effects of posteroventral pallidotomy on the preparation and execution of voluntary hand and arm movements in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Limousin, P; Brown, R G; Jahanshahi, M; Asselman, P; Quinn, N P; Thomas, D; Obeso, J A; Rothwell, J C

    1999-02-01

    We studied the effect of posteroventral pallidotomy on movement preparation and execution in 27 parkinsonian patients using various motor tasks. Patients were evaluated after overnight withdrawal of medication before and 3 months after unilateral pallidotomy. Surgery had no effect on initiation time in unwarned simple and choice reaction time tasks, whereas movement time measured during the same tasks was improved for the contralesional hand. Movement times also improved for isometric and isotonic ballistic movements. In contrast, repetitive, distal and fine movements measured in finger-tapping and pegboard tasks were not improved after pallidotomy. Preparatory processes were investigated using both behavioural and electrophysiological measures. A precued choice reaction time task suggested an enhancement of motor preparation for the contralesional hand. Similarly, movement-related cortical potentials showed an increase in the slope of the late component (NS2) when the patients performed joystick movements with the contralesional hand. However, no significant change was found for the early component (NS1) or when the patient moved the ipsilesional hand. The amplitude of the long-latency stretch reflex of the contralesional hand decreased after surgery. In summary, the data suggest that pallidotomy improved mainly the later stages of movement preparation and the execution of proximal movements with the contralesional limb. These results provide detailed quantitative data on the impact of posteroventral pallidotomy on previously described measures of upper limb akinesia in Parkinson's disease.

  2. In the ventral cochlear nucleus Kv1.1 and HCN1 are colocalized at surfaces of neurons that have low-voltage-activated and hyperpolarization-activated conductances

    PubMed Central

    Oertel, Donata; Shatadal, Shalini; Cao, Xiao-Jie

    2008-01-01

    Principal cells of the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) differ in the magnitudes of low-voltage-activated potassium (gKL) and hyperpolarization-activated (gh) conductances that determine the time course of signaling. Octopus cells have large gKL (500 nS) and gh (150 nS), bushy cells have smaller gKL (80 nS) and gh (30 nS), and T stellate cells have little gKL and a small gh (20 nS). gKL arises through potassium channels of which ~ 60% contain Kv1.1 subunits; gh arises through channels that include HCN1 subunits. The surfaces of cell bodies and dendrites of octopus cells in the dorsocaudal pole, and of similar cells along the ventrolateral edge of the PVCN, were brightly labeled by an antibody against HCN1 that was colocalized with labeling for Kv1.1. More anteriorly neurons with little surface labeling were intermingled among cell bodies and dendrites with surface labeling for both proteins, likely corresponding to T stellate and bushy cells. The membrane-associated labeling patterns for Kv1.1 and HCN1 were consistent with what is known about the distribution and the electrophysiological properties of the principal cells of the VCN. The cytoplasm of large cells and axonal paranodes contained immunoflurorescent labeling for only Kv1.1. PMID:18424000

  3. In the ventral cochlear nucleus Kv1.1 and subunits of HCN1 are colocalized at surfaces of neurons that have low-voltage-activated and hyperpolarization-activated conductances.

    PubMed

    Oertel, D; Shatadal, S; Cao, X-J

    2008-06-12

    Principal cells of the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) differ in the magnitudes of low-voltage-activated potassium (gKL) and hyperpolarization-activated (gh) conductances that determine the time course of signaling. Octopus cells in mice have large gKL (500 nS) and gh (150 nS), bushy cells have smaller gKL (80 nS) and gh (30 nS), and T stellate cells have little gKL and a small gh (20 nS). gKL Arises through potassium channels of which approximately 60% contain Kv1.1 (potassium channels in the shaker or KCNA family) subunits; gh arises through channels that include hyperpolarization and cyclic nucleotide gated (HCN) 1 subunits. The surfaces of cell bodies and dendrites of octopus cells in the dorsocaudal pole, and of similar cells along the ventrolateral edge of the PVCN, were brightly labeled by an antibody against HCN1 that was colocalized with labeling for Kv1.1. More anteriorly neurons with little surface labeling were intermingled among cell bodies and dendrites with surface labeling for both proteins, likely corresponding to T stellate and bushy cells. The membrane-associated labeling patterns for Kv1.1 and HCN1 were consistent with what is known about the distribution and the electrophysiological properties of the principal cells of the VCN. The cytoplasm of large cells and axonal paranodes contained immunofluorescent labeling for only Kv1.1.

  4. Fitting recommendations and clinical benefit associated with use of the NAL-NL2 hearing-aid prescription in Nucleus cochlear implant recipients.

    PubMed

    English, Ruth; Plant, Kerrie; Maciejczyk, Michael; Cowan, Robert

    2016-01-01

    For a group of cochlear implant recipients, who use hearing aids in the contralateral ear, the benefit of NAL-NL2 relative to a recipients' own prescription was assessed. Whether there was a preferred frequency response and/or gain deviation from NAL-NL2 was then investigated. Speech recognition and self-reported ratings of benefit were examined for the recipients' own prescription compared to the NAL-NL2 prescription, in the bimodal and hearing-aid alone conditions. Paired-comparison of hearing-aid frequency response was conducted with default NAL-NL2 and two variants, a low frequency boost or cut. Using a loudness balancing procedure, the hearing-aid gain required to achieve equal loudness between the devices was measured. Sixteen adults with post-lingual hearing loss. A 22% increase in group median word score in quiet with use of NAL-NL2 in the hearing-aid alone condition. In the bimodal condition there was no improvement with NAL-NL2. Default NAL-NL2 frequency response was preferred by 67% of participants. For 56% of participants, the preferred gain to achieve loudness balance across bimodal devices was within 5-dB of prescribed values. The NAL-NL2 prescription provides a high level of clinical performance, and an acceptable frequency response and gain for most participants.

  5. Posteroventral medial pallidotomy for treatment of Parkinson's disease: preoperative magnetic resonance imaging features and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Desaloms, J M; Krauss, J K; Lai, E C; Jankovic, J; Grossman, R G

    1998-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of mild or moderate degrees of degenerative or ischemic encephalopathy on predicting clinical outcome following unilateral posteroventral medial pallidotomy for treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirty-five patients with PD were studied prospectively. The presence and degree of cortical atrophy, ventriculomegaly, deep white matter lesions (DWML), periventricular lucencies (PVL), and the presence of lacunes and status cribriformis (multiple and bilateral enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces) were determined by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging before the patients underwent stereotactic pallidotomy performed according to a standard protocol. Clinical outcome was measured using a standard battery of tests including application of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). The preoperative MR imaging features were correlated with UPDRS subscores such as motor "off' score, the activities of daily living (ADL) off score, the off subscore for bradykinesia, the percentage of "on" time dyskinesias, and a global outcome rating. The MR findings were also correlated with the occurrence of side effects. Global outcome was rated as markedly improved in 22 patients (63%) and as moderately improved in 12 patients (34%) 6 months postoperatively. At the 1-year follow-up examination, global outcome in 31 patients was rated as markedly improved in 14 patients (45%), as moderately improved in another 14 (45%), as slightly improved in two (6%), and as worse in one patient (3%). The mean UPDRS motor off score changed from 58.7 preoperatively to 33.2 at 6 months and 33.4 at 1 year (p < 0.0001), the ADL off score from 31.8 to 18.2 at 6 months and 18.6 at 1 year (p < 0.0001), the off score from contralateral bradykinesia from 11.6 to 5.6 at 6 months and 4.1 at 1 year (p < 0.0001), and the percentage of awake time with dyskinesias from 37.4 to 17.4% at 6 months and 21.1% at 1 year (p < 0.0001). The presence of mild or

  6. Parallel auditory pathways: projection patterns of the different neuronal populations in the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei.

    PubMed

    Cant, Nell B; Benson, Christina G

    2003-06-15

    The cochlear nuclear complex gives rise to widespread projections to nuclei throughout the brainstem. The projections arise from separate, well-defined populations of cells. None of the cell populations in the cochlear nucleus projects to all brainstem targets, and none of the targets receives inputs from all cell types. The projections of nine distinguishable cell types in the cochlear nucleus-seven in the ventral cochlear nucleus and two in the dorsal cochlear nucleus-are described in this review. Globular bushy cells and two types of spherical bushy cells project to nuclei in the superior olivary complex that play roles in sound localization based on binaural cues. Octopus cells convey precisely timed information to nuclei in the superior olivary complex and lateral lemniscus that, in turn, send inhibitory input to the inferior colliculus. Cochlear root neurons send widespread projections to areas of the reticular formation involved in startle reflexes and autonomic functions. Type I multipolar cells may encode complex features of natural stimuli and send excitatory projections directly to the inferior colliculus. Type II multipolar cells send inhibitory projections to the contralateral cochlear nuclei. Fusiform cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus appear to be important for the localization of sounds based on spectral cues and send direct excitatory projections to the inferior colliculus. Giant cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus also project directly to the inferior colliculus; some of them may convey inhibitory inputs to the contralateral cochlear nucleus as well.

  7. Concentration-jump analysis of voltage-dependent conductances activated by glutamate and kainate in neurons of the avian cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed Central

    Raman, I M; Trussell, L O

    1995-01-01

    We have examined the mechanisms underlying the voltage sensitivity of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptors in voltage-clamped outside-out patches and whole cells taken from the nucleus magnocellularis of the chick. Responses to either glutamate or kainate had outwardly rectifying current-voltage relations. The rate and extent of desensitization during prolonged exposure to agonist, and the rate of deactivation after brief exposure to agonist, decreased at positive potentials, suggesting that a kinetic transition was sensitive to membrane potential. Voltage dependence of the peak conductance and of the deactivation kinetics persisted when desensitization was reduced with aniracetam or blocked with cyclothiazide. Furthermore, the rate of recovery from desensitization to glutamate was not voltage dependent. Upon reduction of extracellular divalent cation concentration, kainate-evoked currents increased but preserved rectifying current-voltage relations. Rectification was strongest at lower kainate concentrations. Surprisingly, nonstationary variance analysis of desensitizing responses to glutamate or of the current deactivation after kainate removal revealed an increase in the mean single-channel conductance with more positive membrane potentials. These data indicate that the rectification of the peak response to a high agonist concentration reflects an increase in channel conductance, whereas rectification of steady-state current is dominated by voltage-sensitive channel kinetics. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:8580330

  8. Distribution of primary afferent fibres in the cochlear nuclei. A silver and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) study.

    PubMed Central

    Merchan, M A; Collia, F P; Merchan, J A; Saldana, E

    1985-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase, when injected intracochlearly, is transported transganglionically to the brain stem cochlear nuclei, thus providing an excellent method for tracing the central projection of the spiral ganglion neurons. Silver impregnation using the Cajal-de Castro method, which stains axons even when inside the bone, was used as a reference technique. The combination of both procedures led to the following conclusions. Primary cochlear afferents are found only in the ventral zone of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. In this area they cover the deep and fusiform cell layers. The molecular layer shows no HRP label. The higher concentration of primary cochlear afferents in the ventral cochlear nucleus appears in its central zone; wide areas in this nucleus are not labelled at all. A thin bundle of primary cochlear afferents runs parallel to, and beneath, the granular region. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:4077711

  9. Dystonia and tremor secondary to thalamic infarction successfully treated with thalamotomy of the ventralis intermedius nucleus.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Mario; Quintanal, Nelson; Díaz, Amado; Prince, José; García, Ivan; Carballo, Maylen; Rodríguez, Rafael; Maragoto, Carlos; Pedroso, Ivonne; Macías, Raul

    2014-08-01

    Focal thalamic lesions have been associated with a variety of involuntary movements such as tremor, dystonia, and chorea-ballism. We describe a patient with severe hyperkinesias of the right arm secondary to a thalamic infarction in the left postero-ventral region of the thalamus. The dystonia and tremor of the right upper limb were subsequently controlled with another surgical lesion of the ventralis intermedius nucleus of the thalamus. This observation suggests that ablative surgery might be applied to treat a movement disorder induced by the lesion of the same nucleus, which in addition lead to interesting pathophysiological conjectures. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  10. Remote programming of cochlear implants: a telecommunications model.

    PubMed

    McElveen, John T; Blackburn, Erin L; Green, J Douglas; McLear, Patrick W; Thimsen, Donald J; Wilson, Blake S

    2010-09-01

    Evaluate the effectiveness of remote programming for cochlear implants. Retrospective review of the cochlear implant performance for patients who had undergone mapping and programming of their cochlear implant via remote connection through the Internet. Postoperative Hearing in Noise Test and Consonant/Nucleus/Consonant word scores for 7 patients who had undergone remote mapping and programming of their cochlear implant were compared with the mean scores of 7 patients who had been programmed by the same audiologist over a 12-month period. Times required for remote and direct programming were also compared. The quality of the Internet connection was assessed using standardized measures. Remote programming was performed via a virtual private network with a separate software program used for video and audio linkage. All 7 patients were programmed successfully via remote connectivity. No untoward patient experiences were encountered. No statistically significant differences could be found in comparing postoperative Hearing in Noise Test and Consonant/Nucleus/Consonant word scores for patients who had undergone remote programming versus a similar group of patients who had their cochlear implant programmed directly. Remote programming did not require a significantly longer programming time for the audiologist with these 7 patients. Remote programming of a cochlear implant can be performed safely without any deterioration in the quality of the programming. This ability to remotely program cochlear implant patients gives the potential to extend cochlear implantation to underserved areas in the United States and elsewhere.

  11. Cochlear implantation following cerebellar surgery.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Shahad; Mawman, Deborah; Green, Kevin

    2011-08-01

    Cochlear implantation in patients with known central nervous system conditions can result in wide-ranging outcomes. The aim of this study is to report two cases of cochlear implantation outcomes in patients with acquired cerebellar ataxia following cerebellar surgery. The first is a female implanted with the Nucleus 24 implant in September 2000 and the second is a male implanted with a MED-EL Sonata Flexsoft electro-acoustic stimulation in July 2009. Programming these patients resulted in significant non-auditory stimulation which resulted in less than optimum map fittings. The patients did not gain any open set speech perception benefit although both of them gained an awareness of sound with the device. However, patient 2 elected to become a non-user because of the limited benefit.

  12. Genetic perturbations suggest a role of the resting potential in regulating the expression of the ion channels of the KCNA and HCN families in octopus cells of the ventral cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiao-Jie; Oertel, Donata

    2017-03-01

    Low-voltage-activated K(+) (gKL) and hyperpolarization-activated mixed cation conductances (gh) mediate currents, IKL and Ih, through channels of the Kv1 (KCNA) and HCN families respectively and give auditory neurons the temporal precision required for signaling information about the onset, fine structure, and time of arrival of sounds. Being partially activated at rest, gKL and gh contribute to the resting potential and shape responses to even small subthreshold synaptic currents. Resting gKL and gh also affect the coupling of somatic depolarization with the generation of action potentials. To learn how these important conductances are regulated we have investigated how genetic perturbations affect their expression in octopus cells of the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). We report five new findings: First, the magnitude of gh and gKL varied over more than two-fold between wild type strains of mice. Second, average resting potentials are not different in different strains of mice even in the face of large differences in average gKL and gh. Third, IKL has two components, one being α-dendrotoxin (α-DTX)-sensitive and partially inactivating and the other being α-DTX-insensitive, tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive, and non-inactivating. Fourth, the loss of Kv1.1 results in diminution of the α-DTX-sensitive IKL, and compensatory increased expression of an α-DTX-insensitive, tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive IKL. Fifth, Ih and IKL are balanced at the resting potential in all wild type and mutant octopus cells even when resting potentials vary in individual cells over nearly 10 mV, indicating that the resting potential influences the expression of gh and gKL. The independence of resting potentials on gKL and gh shows that gKL and gh do not, over days or weeks, determine the resting potential but rather that the resting potential plays a role in regulating the magnitude of either or both gKL and gh. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sound-direction identification with bilateral cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Arlene C; Haravon, Anita; Sislian, Nicole; Waltzman, Susan B

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of sound-direction identification in the horizontal plane by bilateral cochlear implant users when localization was measured with pink noise and with speech stimuli. Eight adults who were bilateral users of Nucleus 24 Contour devices participated in the study. All had received implants in both ears in a single surgery. Sound-direction identification was measured in a large classroom by using a nine-loudspeaker array. Localization was tested in three listening conditions (bilateral cochlear implants, left cochlear implant, and right cochlear implant), using two different stimuli (a speech stimulus and pink noise bursts) in a repeated-measures design. Sound-direction identification accuracy was significantly better when using two implants than when using a single implant. The mean root-mean-square error was 29 degrees for the bilateral condition, 54 degrees for the left cochlear implant, and 46.5 degrees for the right cochlear implant condition. Unilateral accuracy was similar for right cochlear implant and left cochlear implant performance. Sound-direction identification performance was similar for speech and pink noise stimuli. The data obtained in this study add to the growing body of evidence that sound-direction identification with bilateral cochlear implants is better than with a single implant. The similarity in localization performance obtained with the speech and pink noise supports the use of either stimulus for measuring sound-direction identification.

  14. Cochlear Implants for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasenstab, M. Suzanne; Laughton, Joan

    1991-01-01

    The use of cochlear implants in children with profound bilateral hearing loss is discussed, focusing on how a cochlear implant works; steps in a cochlear implant program (evaluation, surgery, programing, and training); and rehabilitation procedures involved in auditory development and speech development. (JDD)

  15. Projections from the anteroventral part of the medial amygdaloid nucleus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Leonardo S; Shammah-Lagnado, Sara J

    2011-11-03

    The medial amygdaloid nucleus (Me) integrates pheromonal and olfactory information with gonadal hormone cues, being implicated in social behaviors. It is divided cytoarchitectonically in an anterodorsal, anteroventral (MeAV), posterodorsal and posteroventral part, whose projections are well characterized, except for those of the tiny MeAV. Here, MeAV efferents were examined in the rat with the anterograde Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) and retrograde Fluoro-Gold (FG) tracers and compared with those of other Me parts. The present PHA-L observations show that the MeAV projects profusely to itself, but its projections to other Me parts are modest. In conjunction with FG experiments, they suggest that the MeAV innervates robustly a restricted set of structures it shares with the anterodorsal and/or posteroventral Me. Its major targets are the core of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (especially the dorsomedial and central parts), reached mainly via the stria terminalis, and the amygdalostriatal transition area. In addition, the MeAV innervates substantially the lateral and posterior basomedial amygdaloid nuclei and the intraamygdaloid bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. In contrast to other Me parts, it provides only modest inputs to the main and accessory olfactory systems, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and reproductive hypothalamic nuclei. This anatomical framework suggests that the MeAV may play a role in orienting responses to chemosensory cues and defensive behaviors elicited by the odor of predators.

  16. Auditory Environment across the Life Span of Cochlear Implant Users: Insights from Data Logging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Tobias; Vanpoucke, Filiep; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We describe the natural auditory environment of people with cochlear implants (CIs), how it changes across the life span, and how it varies between individuals. Method: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of Cochlear Nucleus 6 CI sound-processor data logs. The logs were obtained from 1,501 people with CIs (ages 0-96…

  17. Nucleus-nucleus potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Satchler, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    The significance of a nucleus-nucleus potential is discussed. Information about such potentials obtained from scattering experiments is reviewed, including recent examples of so-called rainbow scattering that probe the potential at smaller distances. The evidence for interactions involving the nuclear spins is summarized, and their possible origin in couplings to non-elastic channels. Various models of the potentials are discussed.

  18. The cochlear implant as a tinnitus treatment.

    PubMed

    Vallés-Varela, Héctor; Royo-López, Juan; Carmen-Sampériz, Luis; Sebastián-Cortés, José M; Alfonso-Collado, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Tinnitus is a symptom of high prevalence in patients with cochlear pathology. We studied the evolution of tinnitus in patients undergoing unilateral cochlear implantation for treatment of profound hearing loss. This was a longitudinal, retrospective study of patients that underwent unilateral cochlear implantation and who had bilateral tinnitus. Tinnitus was assessed quantitatively and qualitatively before surgery and at 6 and 12 months after surgery. We evaluated 20 patients that underwent unilateral cochlear implantation with a Nucleus(®) CI24RE Contour Advance™ electrode device. During the periods in which the device was in operation, improvement or disappearance of tinnitus was evidenced in the ipsilateral ear in 65% of patients, and in the contralateral ear, in 50%. In periods in which the device was disconnected, improvement or disappearance of tinnitus was found in the ipsilateral ear in 50% of patients, and in the ear contralateral to the implant in 45% of the patients. In 10% of the patients, a new tinnitus appeared in the ipsilateral ear. The patients with profound hearing loss and bilateral tinnitus treated with unilateral cochlear implantation improved in a high percentage of cases, in the ipsilateral ear and in the contralateral ear. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. In vivo Whole-Cell Recordings Combined with Electron Microscopy Reveal Unexpected Morphological and Physiological Properties in the Lateral Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body in the Auditory Brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Franken, Tom P.; Smith, Philip H.; Joris, Philip X.

    2016-01-01

    The lateral nucleus of the trapezoid body (LNTB) is a prominent nucleus in the superior olivary complex in mammals including humans. Its physiology in vivo is poorly understood due to a paucity of recordings. It is thought to provide a glycinergic projection to the medial superior olive (MSO) with an important role in binaural processing and sound localization. We combined in vivo patch clamp recordings with labeling of individual neurons in the Mongolian gerbil. Labeling of the recorded neurons allowed us to relate physiological properties to anatomy at the light and electron microscopic level. We identified a population of quite dorsally located neurons with surprisingly large dendritic trees on which most of the synaptic input impinges. In most neurons, one or more of these dendrites run through and are then medial to the MSO. These neurons were often binaural and could even show sensitivity to interaural time differences (ITDs) of stimulus fine structure or envelope. Moreover, a subpopulation showed enhanced phase-locking to tones delivered in the tuning curve tail. We propose that these neurons constitute the gerbil main LNTB (mLNTB). In contrast, a smaller sample of neurons was identified that was located more ventrally and that we designate to be in posteroventral LNTB (pvLNTB). These cells receive large somatic excitatory terminals from globular bushy cells. We also identified previously undescribed synaptic inputs from the lateral superior olive. pvLNTB neurons are usually monaural, display a primary-like-with-notch response to ipsilateral short tones at CF and can phase-lock to low frequency tones. We conclude that mLNTB contains a population of neurons with extended dendritic trees where most of the synaptic input is found, that can show enhanced phase-locking and sensitivity to ITD. pvLNTB cells, presumed to provide glycinergic input to the MSO, get large somatic globular bushy synaptic inputs and are typically monaural with short tone responses similar

  20. Cochlear Implantation in Children with Cochlear Malformation.

    PubMed

    Saikawa, Etsuko; Takano, Kenichi; Ogasawara, Noriko; Tsubomatsu, Chieko; Takahashi, Nozomi; Shirasaki, Hideaki; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Cochlear implantation (CI) has proven to be an effective treatment for severe bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Inner ear malformation is a rare anomaly and occurs in approximately 20% of cases with congenital SNHL. In cases with cochlear malformation, CI can be successfully performed in nearly all patients, the exceptions being those with complete labyrinthine and cochlear aplasia. It is important to evaluate the severity of inner ear deformity and other associated anomalies during the preimplantation radiological assessment in order to identify any complication that may potentially occur during the surgery and subsequent patient management.

  1. Cortical and medullary somatosensory projections to the cochlear nuclear complex in the hedgehog tenrec.

    PubMed

    Wolff, A; Künzle, H

    1997-01-17

    Various tracer substances were injected into the spinal cord, the dorsal column nuclei, the trigeminal nuclear complex and the somatosensory cortex in Madagascan hedgehog tenrecs. With the exception of the cases injected exclusively into the spinal cord all injections gave rise to sparse, but distinct anterograde projections to the cochlear nuclear complex, particularly the granular cell domain within and outside of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. Among these cochlear afferents the projection from the primary somatosensory cortex is the most remarkable because the hedgehog tenrec has one of the lowest encephalisation indices among mammals and a similar cortico-cochlear connection has not been demonstrated so far in other species.

  2. [Cochlear implant in adults].

    PubMed

    Bouccara, D; Mosnier, I; Bernardeschi, D; Ferrary, E; Sterkers, O

    2012-03-01

    Cochlear implant in adults is a procedure, dedicated to rehabilitate severe to profound hearing loss. Because of technological progresses and their applications for signal strategies, new devices can improve hearing, even in noise conditions. Binaural stimulation, cochlear implant and hearing aid or bilateral cochlear implants are the best opportunities to access to better level of comprehension in all conditions and space localisation. By now minimally invasive surgery is possible to preserve residual hearing and use a double stimulation modality for the same ear: electrical for high frequencies and acoustic for low frequencies. In several conditions, cochlear implant is not possible due to cochlear nerve tumour or major malformations of the inner ear. In these cases, a brainstem implantation can be considered. Clinical data demonstrate that improvement in daily communication, for both cochlear and brainstem implants, is correlated with cerebral activation of auditory cortex.

  3. Digital speech processing for cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Dillier, N; Bögli, H; Spillmann, T

    1992-01-01

    A rather general basic working hypothesis for cochlear implant research might be formulated as follows. Signal processing for cochlear implants should carefully select a subset of the total information contained in the sound signal and transform these elements into those physical stimulation parameters which can generate distinctive perceptions for the listener. Several new digital processing strategies have thus been implemented on a laboratory cochlear implant speech processor for the Nucleus 22-electrode system. One of the approaches (PES, pitch excited sampler) is based on the maximum peak channel vocoder concept whereby the spectral energy of a number of frequency bands is transformed into appropriate electrical stimulation parameters for up to 22 electrodes using a voice pitch synchronous pulse rate at any electrode. Another approach (CIS, continuous interleaved sampler) uses a maximally high pitch-independent stimulation pulse rate on a selected number of electrodes. As only one electrode can be stimulated at any instance of time, the rate of stimulation is limited by the required stimulus pulse widths (as determined individually for each subject) and some additional constraints and parameters which have to be optimized and fine tuned by psychophysical measurements. Evaluation experiments with 5 cochlear implant users resulted in significantly improved performance in consonant identification tests with the new processing strategies as compared with the subjects own wearable speech processors whereas improvements in vowel identification tasks were rarely observed. The pitch-synchronous coding (PES) resulted in worse performance compared to the coding without explicit pitch extraction (CIS).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Trends in Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2004-01-01

    More than 60,000 people worldwide use cochlear implants as a means to restore functional hearing. Although individual performance variability is still high, an average implant user can talk on the phone in a quiet environment. Cochlear-implant research has also matured as a field, as evidenced by the exponential growth in both the patient population and scientific publication. The present report examines current issues related to audiologic, clinical, engineering, anatomic, and physiologic aspects of cochlear implants, focusing on their psychophysical, speech, music, and cognitive performance. This report also forecasts clinical and research trends related to presurgical evaluation, fitting protocols, signal processing, and postsurgical rehabilitation in cochlear implants. Finally, a future landscape in amplification is presented that requires a unique, yet complementary, contribution from hearing aids, middle ear implants, and cochlear implants to achieve a total solution to the entire spectrum of hearing loss treatment and management. PMID:15247993

  5. Aural Rehabilitation of a Postlingually Deafened Child Fitted with a Partial-Insertion Cochlear Implant: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Maureen

    1998-01-01

    Discusses partial-insertion cochlear implants and examines the aural rehabilitation of a 13-year-old girl who was postlingually deafened in 1991 and subsequently fitted with a Nucleus 22-Channel cochlear implant. The case study traces her progress and the decision making process in changing from aural communication to sign language communication.…

  6. Cochlear Macromechanical Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Timothy Alan

    Contemporary research into the manifestations and origins of nonlinear, active cochlear processes often takes place in a context in which linear, passive cochlear mechanics are poorly understood and poorly communicated. The distinctions among models of one-, two-, and three-dimensional fluid motion in the cochlear scala--models popularized by (among others) Zwislocki, Ranke, and Steele, respectively --are confounded by fuzzy use of terms such as "long-wave model" or "short-wave model." Models are frequently evaluated by comparing their place responses with experimentally observed frequency responses; their global impedance parameters are sometimes chosen solely to secure fit to some local measurement. And Steele's WKB (phase-integral) approach is treated, more often than not, as just another technique for solving cochlear dynamical equations, rather than as a conceptual framework yielding significant insight into cochlear phenomena. In this thesis, I present cochlear dynamical equations for one-, two-, and three-dimensional fluid motion in a box-cochlea model, and I discuss the conditions under which such fluid motion is appropriately described as long wave, short wave, or as something in between. I describe the phase-integral approximate solution to these equations and discuss the utility of this framework for explaining cochlear phenomena. I develop generalized representations for both cochlear-partition impedance and cochlear-gain response that highlight the distinctions and similarities between the place response at a single frequency and the frequency response at a single place. The generalized representations clarify which aspects of partition impedance determine global phenomena, such as cochlear maps, and which aspects determine local features, such as magnitude -response peakiness and phase-response steepness. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253 -1690.).

  7. Cochlear bionic acoustic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Fuyin; Wu, Jiu Hui; Huang, Meng; Fu, Gang; Bai, Changan

    2014-11-01

    A design of bionic acoustic metamaterial and acoustic functional devices was proposed by employing the mammalian cochlear as a prototype. First, combined with the experimental data in previous literatures, it is pointed out that the cochlear hair cells and stereocilia cluster are a kind of natural biological acoustic metamaterials with the negative stiffness characteristics. Then, to design the acoustic functional devices conveniently in engineering application, a simplified parametric helical structure was proposed to replace actual irregular cochlea for bionic design, and based on the computational results of such a bionic parametric helical structure, it is suggested that the overall cochlear is a local resonant system with the negative dynamic effective mass characteristics. There are many potential applications in the bandboard energy recovery device, cochlear implant, and acoustic black hole.

  8. Nasalance in Cochlear Implantees

    PubMed Central

    Sreedevi, N; Lepcha, Anjali; Mathew, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Speech intelligibility is severely affected in children with congenital profound hearing loss. Hypernasality is a problem commonly encountered in their speech. Auditory information received from cochlear implants is expected to be far superior to that from hearing aids. Our study aimed at comparing the percentages of nasality in the speech of the cochlear implantees with hearing aid users and also with children with normal hearing. Methods Three groups of subjects took part in the study. Groups I and II comprised 12 children each, in the age range of 4-10 years, with prelingual bilateral profound hearing loss, using multichannel cochlear implants and digital hearing aids respectively. Both groups had received at least one year of speech therapy intervention since cochlear implant surgery and hearing aid fitting respectively. The third group consisted of age-matched and sex-matched children with normal hearing. The subjects were asked to say a sentence which consisted of only oral sounds and no nasal sounds ("Buy baby a bib"). The nasalance score as a percentage was calculated. Results Statistical analysis revealed that the children using hearing aids showed a high percentage of nasalance in their speech. The cochlear implantees showed a lower percentage of nasalance compared to children using hearing aids, but did not match with their normal hearing peers. Conclusion The quality of speech of the cochlear implantees was superior to that of the hearing aid users, but did not match with the normal controls. The study suggests that acoustic variables still exist after cochlear implantation in children, with hearing impairments at deviant levels, which needs attention. Further research needs to be carried out to explore the effect of the age at implantation as a variable in reducing nasality in the speech and attaining normative values in cochlear implantees, and also between unilateral versus bilateral implantees. PMID:26330912

  9. An Analysis of Phonological Process Use in Young Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhler, Helen C.; DeThomasis, Betty; Chute, Pat; DeCora, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Phonological process use was investigated in five children who used Nucleus 24 cochlear implants (CIs). All participants were less than 3 years of age at the time of cochlear implantation and ranged from 4;2 to 4;7 years of age at onset of study. Speech samples obtained from the GFTA-2 were analyzed using the KLPA-2 to evaluate participants'…

  10. Cochlear implantation in congenital cochlear abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, R L; Lokman, S

    2005-08-01

    Many children have benefited from cochlear implant device including those with congenital malformation of the inner ear. The results reported in children with malformed cochlea are very encouraging. We describe 2 cases of Mondini's malformation with severe sensorineural hearing loss. Cochlear implantation was performed and both of them underwent post-implantation speech rehabilitation. Post-implantation, both of them were noted to respond to external sound. But the second case developed facial twitching a few months after the device was switched on. It is important to evaluate the severity of the inner ear deformity and the other associated anomalies in pre-implantation radiological assessment in order to identify the problem that may complicate the surgery and subsequent patient management.

  11. [Biomaterials in cochlear implants].

    PubMed

    Stöver, T; Lenarz, T

    2009-05-01

    Cochlear implants (CI) represent the "gold standard" for the treatment of congenitally deaf children and postlingually deafened adults. Thus, cochlear implantation is a success story of new bionic prosthesis development. Owing to routine application of cochlear implants in adults but also in very young children (below the age of one), high demands are placed on the implants. This is especially true for biocompatibility aspects of surface materials of implant parts which are in contact with the human body. In addition, there are various mechanical requirements which certain components of the implants must fulfil, such as flexibility of the electrode array and mechanical resistance of the implant housing. Due to the close contact of the implant to the middle ear mucosa and because the electrode array is positioned in the perilymphatic space via cochleostomy, there is a potential risk of bacterial transferral along the electrode array into the cochlea. Various requirements that have to be fulfilled by cochlear implants, such as biocompatibility, electrode micromechanics, and although a very high level of technical standards has been carried out there is still demand for the improvement of implants as well as of the materials used for manufacturing, ultimately leading to increased implant performance. General considerations of material aspects related to cochlear implants as well as potential future perspectives of implant development will be discussed.

  12. Managing cochlear implant patients with suspected insulation damage.

    PubMed

    Cullington, Helen E

    2013-01-01

    Six Nucleus® 24 Contour™ and five Nucleus® Freedom™ with Contour Advance™ cochlear implants examined at the South of England Cochlear Implant Centre have failed and were explanted because of insulation damage. Insulation damage occurs when the silicone elastomer coating surrounding the electrode array wires and electronics capsule fails, allowing fluid entry to the electrode lead bundle. In addition, four Nucleus® 24 Contour™, one Nucleus® Freedom™ with Contour Advance™, and one Nucleus® 24 devices have failed as a result of suspected insulation damage; two have been explanted but explant reports not yet been received from the device manufacturer, four have not been explanted. Sixteen other Nucleus® devices are suspected to have insulation damage but the patients have retained clinical benefit, with remapping to exclude some or all affected electrodes in 14 cases. Insulation damage does not cause a sudden loss of sound; instead, a progressive deterioration can occur, which can make management and detection challenging, particularly in young children or those with additional needs. Monitoring of both impedances and clinical benefit is recommended.

  13. Physiological basis for cochlear and auditory brainstem implants.

    PubMed

    Møller, Aage R

    2006-01-01

    Cochlear implants bypass functions of the cochlea that have been regarded to be fundamental for discrimination of the frequency (or spectrum). Frequency discrimination is essential for discrimination of sounds, including speech sounds, and the normal auditory system is assumed to make use of both (power) spectral and temporal information for frequency discrimination. Spectral information is represented by the place on the basilar membrane that generates the largest amplitude of vibration on the basilar membrane. Evidence has been presented that the temporal representation of frequency is more robust than the place representation and thus regarded more important for speech discrimination. The fact that some cochlear implants provide good speech discrimination using only information about the energy in a few spectral bands seems to contradict these studies. In that way, frequency discrimination may be similar to trichromatic color vision, which is based on the energy in only three different spectral bands of light, accomplished by different color-sensitive pigments in the cones of the retina. Cochlear nucleus implants (ABIs) also bypass the auditory nerve, which does not perform any processing. Therefore, it may be expected that ABIs are equally efficient as cochlear implants. However, experience from the use of ABIs in patients with bilateral vestibular schwannoma has not been encouraging, but recent studies of the use of ABIs in patients with other causes of injuries to the auditory nerve have shown similar speech discrimination as achieved with modern cochlear implants. Cochlear implants and ABIs are successful in providing speech discrimination because of redundancy in the processing in the ear, redundancy of the speech signal and because the auditory nervous system has a high degree of plasticity. Expression of neural plasticity makes the auditory nervous system adapt to the change in demands of processing of the information provided by cochlear implants.

  14. [Bilateral cochlear implantation].

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Jona; Migirov, Lela; Taitelbaum-Swead, Rikey; Hildesheimer, Minka

    2010-06-01

    Cochlear implant surgery became the standard of care in hearing rehabilitation of patients with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. This procedure may alter the lives of children and adults enabling them to integrate with the hearing population. In the past, implantation was performed only in one ear, despite the fact that binaural hearing is superior to unilateral, especially in noisy conditions. Cochlear implantation may be performed sequentially or simultaneously. The "sensitive period" of time between hearing loss and implantation and between the two implantations, when performed sequentially, significantly influences the results. Shorter time spans between implantations improve the hearing results after implantation. Hearing success after implantation is highly dependent on the rehabilitation process which includes mapping, implant adjustments and hearing training. Bilateral cochlear implantation in children is recommended as the proposed procedure in spite of the additional financial burden.

  15. Cochlear Implantation in Neurobrucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Bajin, Münir Demir; Savaş, Özden; Aslan, Filiz; Sennaroğlu, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Background: Neurobrucellosis is a disease consisting of a wide spectrum of complications such as peripheral neuropathy, cranial nerve involvement, ataxia, meningeal irritation, paraplegia, seizures, coma, and even death. The vestibulocochlear nerve seems to be the most commonly affected cranial nerve (10%). We present a patient with neurobrucellosis whose auditory perception and speech intelligibility skill performances improved after cochlear implantation. Case Report: A 35 year-old woman was admitted to another hospital 2 years ago with the symptoms of headache, nausea, and altered consciousness, who was finally diagnosed with neurobrucellosis. She developed bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss during the following 6 months. There was no benefit of using hearing aids. After successful treatment of her illness, she was found to be suitable for cochlear implantation. After the operation, her auditory perception skills improved significantly with a Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) score of 5. According to clinical observations and her family members’ statements, her Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR) score was 3. Her speech intelligibility skills are still improving. Conclusion: Our case report represents the second case of hearing rehabilitation with cochlear implantation after neurobrucellosis. Cochlear implantation is a cost-effective and time-proven successful intervention in post-lingual adult patients with sensorineural hearing loss. Early timing of the surgery after appropriate treatment of meningitis helps the patient to achieve better postoperative results. PMID:26966626

  16. Questioning cochlear amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, Marcel; Versteegh, Corstiaen P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Thirty years ago it was hypothesized that motile processes inject mechanical energy into cochlear traveling waves. This mechanical amplification, alternatively described as negative damping, is invoked to explain both the sensitivity and the nonlinear compression of cochlear responses. There is a recent trend to present cochlear amplification as an established fact, even though the evidence is at most circumstantial and several thorny problems have remained unresolved. We analyze several of these issues, and present new basilar membrane recordings that allowed us to quantify cochlear energy flow. Specifically, we address the following questions: (1) Does auditory sensitivity require narrowband amplification? (2) Has the "RC problem" (lowpass filtering of outer hair cell receptor potential) been resolved? (3) Can OHC motility improve auditory sensitivity? (4) Is there a net power gain between neighboring locations on the basilar membrane? The analyses indicate that mechanical amplification in the cochlea is neither necessary nor useful, and that realizing it by known forms of motility would reduce sensitivity rather than enhance it. Finally, our experimental data show that the peaking of the traveling wave is realized by focusing the acoustic energy rather than amplifying it. (Abbreviations. BM: basilar membrane; CF: characteristic frequency; IHC: inner hair cell; ME: middle ear; MT; mechanotransducer; OHC: outer hair cell; SPL: sound pressure level.)

  17. Histologic evaluation of the tissue seal and biologic response around cochlear implant electrodes in the human.

    PubMed

    Nadol, Joseph B; Eddington, Donald K

    2004-05-01

    Histopathologic study of the tissue seal and biologic response around cochlear implant electrodes in patients who had received a cochlear implant during life could provide clues concerning the pathogenesis of meningitis after cochlear implantation. Bacterial meningitis has been reported as an infrequent complication of cochlear implantation using a variety of electrode designs. The cause of meningitis in cochlear implant recipients has not been firmly established. In an analogous surgical situation, namely stapedectomy, delayed meningitis could occur as a complication of ipsilateral acute suppurative otitis media in which there was open communication between the middle ear and perilymph. Twenty-one temporal bones from 20 individuals who had undergone cochlear implantation during life were studied by light microscopy. All sections passing through the cochleostomy site and electrode track were examined to evaluate the tissue seal at the cochleostomy, the presence or absence of an extracochlear electrode sheath, and finally, to seek evidence of a cellular inflammatory response near the electrode. These data were compared with clinical data, including electrode system used, the number of years between implantation and death, type of tissue used at surgery, and the age and sex of the patients. The 21 specimens included cases implanted with the Symbion Ineraid, Cochlear Corporation Nucleus 22-channel, Cochlear Corporation Nucleus 24-channel, a Cochlear Corporation Nucleus single channel, and Advanced Bionics Clarion C1 devices. At the cochleostomy site, and just within the cochlea, there was a robust fibrous and bony tissue response in all 21 ears and in most cases, there was a fibrous sheath surrounding the electrode in the middle ear. No recognizable open communication or potential communication between the middle ear and the inner ear was seen in any of the 21 ears. An inflammatory cellular response, including mononuclear leukocytes, histiocytes, and foreign body

  18. Physiopathology of the Cochlear Microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaorui

    2011-01-01

    Normal blood supply to the cochlea is critically important for establishing the endocochlear potential and sustaining production of endolymph. Abnormal cochlear microcirculation has long been considered an etiologic factor in noise-induced hearing loss, age-related hearing loss (presbycusis), sudden hearing loss or vestibular function, and Meniere's disease. Knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of cochlear microcirculation is of fundamental clinical importance. A better understanding of cochlear blood flow (CoBF) will enable more effective management of hearing disorders resulting from aberrant blood flow. This review focuses on recent discoveries and findings related to the physiopathology of the cochlear microvasculature. PMID:21875658

  19. Perilymph Osmolality Modulates Cochlear Function

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chul-Hee; Oghalai, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis The cochlear amplifier is required for the exquisite sensitivity of mammalian hearing. Outer hair cells underlie the cochlear amplifier and they are unique in that they maintain an intracellular turgor pressure. Changing the turgor pressure of an isolated outer hair cells through osmotic challenge modulates its ability to produce electromotile force. We sought to determine the effect of osmotic challenge on cochlear function. Study Design In vivo animal study. Methods Hypotonic and hypertonic artificial perilymph was perfused through the scala tympani of anesthetized guinea pigs. Cochlear function was assessed by measuring the compound action potential, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, the cochlear microphonic, and the endocochlear potential. Results Hypotonic perilymph decreased and hypertonic perilymph increased compound action potential and distortion product otoacoustic emission thresholds in a dose-dependent and reversible manner. The cochlear microphonic quadratic distortion product magnitude increased after hypotonic perfusion and decreased with hypertonic perfusion. There were no changes in the stimulus intensity growth curve of the low-frequency cochlear microphonic. The endocochlear potential was not affected by perilymph osmolality. Conclusions These data demonstrate that perilymph osmolality can modulate cochlear function and are consistent with what would be expected if outer hair cells turgor pressure changes the gain of the cochlear amplifier in vivo. PMID:18607303

  20. Auditory Cortex Basal Activity Modulates Cochlear Responses in Chinchillas

    PubMed Central

    León, Alex; Elgueda, Diego; Silva, María A.; Hamamé, Carlos M.; Delano, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The auditory efferent system has unique neuroanatomical pathways that connect the cerebral cortex with sensory receptor cells. Pyramidal neurons located in layers V and VI of the primary auditory cortex constitute descending projections to the thalamus, inferior colliculus, and even directly to the superior olivary complex and to the cochlear nucleus. Efferent pathways are connected to the cochlear receptor by the olivocochlear system, which innervates outer hair cells and auditory nerve fibers. The functional role of the cortico-olivocochlear efferent system remains debated. We hypothesized that auditory cortex basal activity modulates cochlear and auditory-nerve afferent responses through the efferent system. Methodology/Principal Findings Cochlear microphonics (CM), auditory-nerve compound action potentials (CAP) and auditory cortex evoked potentials (ACEP) were recorded in twenty anesthetized chinchillas, before, during and after auditory cortex deactivation by two methods: lidocaine microinjections or cortical cooling with cryoloops. Auditory cortex deactivation induced a transient reduction in ACEP amplitudes in fifteen animals (deactivation experiments) and a permanent reduction in five chinchillas (lesion experiments). We found significant changes in the amplitude of CM in both types of experiments, being the most common effect a CM decrease found in fifteen animals. Concomitantly to CM amplitude changes, we found CAP increases in seven chinchillas and CAP reductions in thirteen animals. Although ACEP amplitudes were completely recovered after ninety minutes in deactivation experiments, only partial recovery was observed in the magnitudes of cochlear responses. Conclusions/Significance These results show that blocking ongoing auditory cortex activity modulates CM and CAP responses, demonstrating that cortico-olivocochlear circuits regulate auditory nerve and cochlear responses through a basal efferent tone. The diversity of the obtained effects

  1. Management of far advanced otosclerosis in the era of cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Ruckenstein, M J; Rafter, K O; Montes, M; Bigelow, D C

    2001-07-01

    To evaluate issues pertaining to cochlear implantation in patients with far advanced cochlear otosclerosis. Prospective cohort. Tertiary care referral center. Eight adult patients (18 years of age or older) referred for management of profound hearing loss, the cause of which was determined to be otosclerosis. Cochlear implantation with multichannel cochlear implant device. Benefit from cochlear implant as measured by CID sentence scores, incidence and management of facial nerve stimulation, and technical issues pertaining to cochlear implantation in this patient population. All patients demonstrated significant improvement in auditory function as measured by performance on CID sentence scores and ability to engage in telephone conversation. Facial nerve stimulation was present in two of eight patients and was managed with deactivation of the stimulating electrodes. Ossification in the basal turn of the cochlea, detected on preoperative computed tomography, necessitated placement of the electrode into the scala vestibuli in two patients and use of a thinner electrode (Nucleus 24) in a third patient. Patients with profound hearing loss secondary to otosclerosis derive excellent benefits from cochlear implantation. Surgical implantation may be complicated by ossification of the cochlea, which can be detected on preoperative computed tomography. Electrode activation may be complicated by facial nerve stimulation, which can be addressed with programming strategies.

  2. Acquisition of Speech by Children Who Have Prolonged Cochlear Implant Experience

    PubMed Central

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Spencer, Linda; Woodworth, George G.

    2011-01-01

    The four purposes of this investigation were to assess whether children acquire intelligible speech following prolonged cochlear-implant experience and examine their speech error patterns, to examine how age at implantation influences speech acquisition, to assess how speech production and speech perception skills relate, and to determine whether cochlear implant recipients who formerly used simultaneous communication (speech and manually coded English) begin to use speech without sign to communicate. Twenty-eight prelinguistically deafened children who use a Nucleus cochlear implant were assigned to one of three age groups, according to age at implantation: 2–5 yrs (N = 12), 5–8 yrs (N = 9), and 8–15 yrs (N = 7). All subjects had worn a cochlear implant for at least 24 mos, and an average of 36 mos. All subjects used simultaneous communication at the time of implantation. Subjects performed both imitative and structured spontaneous sampling speech tasks. The results permit the following conclusions: (a) children who have used a cochlear implant for at least 2 yrs acquire some intelligible speech; (b) children who receive a cochlear implant before the age of 5 yrs appear to show greater benefit in their speech production skills than children who are older, at least after a minimum of 2 yrs of use; (c) children who recognize more speech while wearing their cochlear implants are likely to speak more intelligibly; and, (d) signing does not disappear from a child's communication mode following implantation. PMID:7596098

  3. Deep brain stimulation with a pre-existing cochlear implant: Surgical technique and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Eddelman, Daniel; Wewel, Joshua; Wiet, R. Mark; Metman, Leo V.; Sani, Sepehr

    2017-01-01

    Background: Patients with previously implanted cranial devices pose a special challenge in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. We report the implantation of bilateral DBS leads in a patient with a cochlear implant. Technical nuances and long-term interdevice functionality are presented. Case Description: A 70-year-old patient with advancing Parkinson's disease and a previously placed cochlear implant for sensorineural hearing loss was referred for placement of bilateral DBS in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Prior to DBS, the patient underwent surgical removal of the subgaleal cochlear magnet, followed by stereotactic MRI, frame placement, stereotactic computed tomography (CT), and merging of imaging studies. This technique allowed for successful computational merging, MRI-guided targeting, and lead implantation with acceptable accuracy. Formal testing and programming of both the devices were successful without electrical interference. Conclusion: Successful DBS implantation with high resolution MRI-guided targeting is technically feasible in patients with previously implanted cochlear implants by following proper precautions. PMID:28480109

  4. Deep brain stimulation with a pre-existing cochlear implant: Surgical technique and outcome.

    PubMed

    Eddelman, Daniel; Wewel, Joshua; Wiet, R Mark; Metman, Leo V; Sani, Sepehr

    2017-01-01

    Patients with previously implanted cranial devices pose a special challenge in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. We report the implantation of bilateral DBS leads in a patient with a cochlear implant. Technical nuances and long-term interdevice functionality are presented. A 70-year-old patient with advancing Parkinson's disease and a previously placed cochlear implant for sensorineural hearing loss was referred for placement of bilateral DBS in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Prior to DBS, the patient underwent surgical removal of the subgaleal cochlear magnet, followed by stereotactic MRI, frame placement, stereotactic computed tomography (CT), and merging of imaging studies. This technique allowed for successful computational merging, MRI-guided targeting, and lead implantation with acceptable accuracy. Formal testing and programming of both the devices were successful without electrical interference. Successful DBS implantation with high resolution MRI-guided targeting is technically feasible in patients with previously implanted cochlear implants by following proper precautions.

  5. Benefit of a commercially available cochlear implant processor with dual-microphone beamforming: a multi-center study.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jace; Parkinson, Aaron; Schafer, Erin C; Gilden, Jan; Rehwinkel, Kathy; Mansanares, Jennifer; Coughlan, Elizabeth; Wright, Jennifer; Torres, Jennifer; Gannaway, Stephanie

    2012-06-01

    Previous research shows that cochlear implant users experience significant difficulty with speech perception in noisy listening situations. There is a paucity of research evaluating the potential improvement in speech recognition in noise provided by a dual-microphone directional system in a commercial implant sound processor. The primary objective of this study was to compare speech recognition in quiet and in noise for the Nucleus Freedom and Nucleus 5 CP810 sound processors set to the manufacturer's default user programs for quiet and noisy environments. Crossover with repeated-measures design. This multi-center study was conducted across four cochlear implant clinics in the United States. Thirty-five adults with unilateral Nucleus Freedom cochlear implants. All subjects had used their cochlear implant for at least 6 months and had substantial open-set word recognition as evidenced by a score of at least 40% correct on the Consonant-Nucleus-Consonant (CNC) monosyllabic word recognition test in quiet. All subjects (previous users of the Nucleus Freedom sound processor) were fitted with the Nucleus 5 sound processor. Performance was assessed while these subjects used each sound processor in the default user program the manufacturer recommends for quiet and noisy conditions. Speech recognition was assessed with CNC monosyllabic words in quiet and sentences in noise from the BKB-SIN (Bamford-Kowal-Bench Sentences in Noise) test. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and performance with each processor in each listening condition was compared using a repeated-measures analysis of variance. Word recognition in quiet was significantly better with the Nucleus 5 sound processor when compared to performance with the Nucleus Freedom processor. In noise, the Nucleus 5 sound processor also provided a significant improvement in speech recognition relative to the performance with the Nucleus Freedom. The results of the study suggest that the Nucleus 5 sound

  6. Modelling Cochlear Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Stephen J.; Teal, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    The cochlea plays a crucial role in mammal hearing. The basic function of the cochlea is to map sounds of different frequencies onto corresponding characteristic positions on the basilar membrane (BM). Sounds enter the fluid-filled cochlea and cause deflection of the BM due to pressure differences between the cochlear fluid chambers. These deflections travel along the cochlea, increasing in amplitude, until a frequency-dependent characteristic position and then decay away rapidly. The hair cells can detect these deflections and encode them as neural signals. Modelling the mechanics of the cochlea is of help in interpreting experimental observations and also can provide predictions of the results of experiments that cannot currently be performed due to technical limitations. This paper focuses on reviewing the numerical modelling of the mechanical and electrical processes in the cochlea, which include fluid coupling, micromechanics, the cochlear amplifier, nonlinearity, and electrical coupling. PMID:25136555

  7. Cochlear implantation in patients with bilateral cochlear trauma.

    PubMed

    Serin, Gediz Murat; Derinsu, Ufuk; Sari, Murat; Gergin, Ozgül; Ciprut, Ayça; Akdaş, Ferda; Batman, Cağlar

    2010-01-01

    Temporal bone fracture, which involves the otic capsule, can lead to complete loss of auditory and vestibular functions, whereas the patients without fractures may experience profound sensorineural hearing loss due to cochlear concussion. Cochlear implant is indicated in profound sensorineural hearing loss due to cochlear trauma but who still have an intact auditory nerve. This is a retrospective review study. We report 5 cases of postlingually deafened patients caused by cochlear trauma, who underwent cochlear implantation. Preoperative and postoperative hearing performance will be presented. These patients are cochlear implanted after the cochlear trauma in our department between 2001 and 2006. All patients performed very well with their implants, obtained open-set speech understanding. They all became good telephone users after implantation. Their performance in speech understanding was comparable to standard postlingual adult patients implanted. Cochlear implantation is an effective aural rehabilitation in profound sensorineural hearing loss caused by temporal bone trauma. Preoperative temporal bone computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and promontorium stimulation testing are necessary to make decision for the surgery and to determine the side to be implanted. Surgery could be challenging and complicated because of anatomical irregularity. Moreover, fibrosis and partial or total ossification within the cochlea must be expected. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Neurons in the Cochlear Nuclei Controlling the Tensor Tympani Muscle in the Rat: a Study Using Pseudorabies Virus

    PubMed Central

    Billig, I.; Yeager, M.S.; Blikas, A.; Raz, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The middle ear muscle reflex has been implicated in modulation of auditory input and protection of the inner ear from acoustic trauma. However, the identification of neurons in the cochlear nuclei participating in this reflex has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we injected the retrograde transynaptic tracer pseudorabies virus into single tensor tympani (TT) muscles, and identified transynaptically labeled cochlear nucleus neurons at multiple survival times. Motoneurons controlling TT were located ventral to the ipsilateral motor trigeminal nucleus and extended rostrally towards the medial aspect of the lateral lemniscus. Transynaptically-labeled neurons were observed bilaterally in the dorsal and dorso-medial parts of ventral cochlear nuclei as early as 48 h after virus injection, and had morphological features of radiate multipolar cells. After ≥ 69 h, labeled cells of different types were observed in all cochlear nuclei. At those times, labeling was also detected bilaterally in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body and periolivary cell groups in the superior olivary complex. Based on the temporal course of viral replication, our data strongly suggest the presence of a direct projection of neurons from the ventral cochlear nuclei bilaterally to the TT motoneuron pool in rats. The influence of neurons in the cochlear nuclei upon TT activity through direct and indirect pathways may account for multifunctional roles of this muscle in auditory functions. PMID:17482147

  9. Reactive Neurogenesis and Down-Regulation of the Potassium-Chloride Cotransporter KCC2 in the Cochlear Nuclei after Cochlear Deafferentation

    PubMed Central

    Tighilet, Brahim; Dutheil, Sophie; Siponen, Marina I.; Noreña, Arnaud J.

    2016-01-01

    While many studies have been devoted to investigating the homeostatic plasticity triggered by cochlear hearing loss, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in these central changes remain elusive. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of reactive neurogenesis after unilateral cochlear nerve section in the cochlear nucleus (CN) of cats. We found a strong cell proliferation in all the CN sub-divisions ipsilateral to the lesion. Most of the newly generated cells survive up to 1 month after cochlear deafferentation in all cochlear nuclei (except the dorsal CN) and give rise to a variety of cell types, i.e., microglial cells, astrocytes, and neurons. Interestingly, many of the newborn neurons had an inhibitory (GABAergic) phenotype. This result is intriguing since sensory deafferentation is usually accompanied by enhanced excitation, consistent with a reduction in central inhibition. The membrane potential effect of GABA depends, however, on the intra-cellular chloride concentration, which is maintained at low levels in adults by the potassium chloride co-transporter KCC2. The KCC2 density on the plasma membrane of neurons was then assessed after cochlear deafferentation in the cochlear nuclei ipsilateral and contralateral to the lesion. Cochlear deafferentation is accompanied by a strong down-regulation of KCC2 ipsilateral to the lesion at 3 and 30 days post-lesion. This study suggests that reactive neurogenesis and down-regulation of KCC2 is part of the vast repertoire involved in homeostatic plasticity triggered by hearing loss. These central changes may also play a role in the generation of tinnitus and hyperacusis. PMID:27630564

  10. Mammalian pitch sensation shaped by the cochlear fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Florian; Stoop, Ruedi

    2014-07-01

    The perceived pitch of a complex harmonic sound changes if the partial tones of the sound are frequency shifted by a fixed amount. Simple mathematical rules are expected to govern perceived pitch, but these rules are violated in psychoacoustic experiments. Cognitive cortical processes are commonly held responsible for this discrepancy. Here, we demonstrate that this need not be the case. We show that human pitch perception can be reproduced with a biophysically motivated mesoscopic model of the cochlea, by fully recovering published psychoacoustical pitch-shift data and related physiological measurements from the cat cochlear nucleus. Our study suggests that perceived pitch can be attributed to combination tones in the presence of a cochlear fluid.

  11. Implications of Minimizing Trauma During Conventional Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Matthew L.; Driscoll, Colin L. W.; Gifford, René H.; Service, Geoffrey J.; Tombers, Nicole M.; Hughes-Borst, Becky J.; Neff, Brian A.; Beatty, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the relationship between implantation-associated trauma and postoperative speech perception scores among adult and pediatric patients undergoing cochlear implantation using conventional length electrodes and minimally traumatic surgical techniques. Study Design Retrospective chart review (2002–2010). Setting Tertiary academic referral center. Patients All subjects with significant preoperative low-frequency hearing (≤70 dB HL at 250 Hz) who underwent cochlear implantation with a newer generation implant electrode (Nucleus Contour Advance, Advanced Bionics HR90K [1J and Helix], and Med El Sonata standard H array) were reviewed. Intervention(s) Preimplant and postimplant audiometric thresholds and speech recognition scores were recorded using the electronic medical record. Main Outcome Measure(s) Postimplantation pure tone threshold shifts were used as a surrogate measure for extent of intracochlear injury and correlated with postoperative speech perception scores. Results Between 2002 and 2010, 703 cochlear implant (CI) operations were performed. Data from 126 implants were included in the analysis. The mean preoperative low-frequency pure-tone average was 55.4 dB HL. Hearing preservation was observed in 55% of patients. Patients with hearing preservation were found to have significantly higher postoperative speech perception performance in the cochlear implantation-only condition than those who lost all residual hearing. Conclusion Conservation of acoustic hearing after conventional length cochlear implantation is unpredictable but remains a realistic goal. The combination of improved technology and refined surgical technique may allow for conservation of some residual hearing in more than 50% of patients. Germane to the conventional length CI recipient with substantial hearing loss, minimizing trauma allows for improved speech perception in the electric condition. These findings support the use of minimally traumatic techniques in all CI

  12. Projections of nucleus angularis and nucleus laminaris to the lateral lemniscal nuclear complex of the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T T; Konishi, M

    1988-08-08

    Interaural phase and intensity are cues by which the barn owl determines, respectively, the azimuth and elevation of a sound source. Physiological studies indicate that phase and intensity are processed independently in the auditory brainstem of the barn owl. The phases of spectral components of a sound are encoded in nucleus magnocellularis (NM), one of the two cochlear nuclei. NM projects solely and bilaterally to nucleus laminaris (NL), wherein interaural phase difference is computed. The other cochlear nucleus, nucleus angularis (NA), encodes the amplitudes of spectral components of sounds. We report here the projections of NA and NL to the lateral lemniscal nuclei of the barn owl. The lateral lemniscal complex comprises nucleus olivaris superior (SO); nucleus lemnisci lateralis, pars ventralis (LLv); and nucleus ventralis lemnisci lateralis (VLV). At caudal levels, VLV may be divided into a posterior (VLVp) and an anterior (VLVa) subdivision on cytoarchitectonic grounds. At rostral levels, the cytoarchitectural differences diminish and the boundaries between the two subdivisions become obscured. Likewise, our data from anterograde tracing studies suggest that at caudal levels the terminal fields of NA and NL remain confined to VLVp and VLVa, respectively. They merge, however, at rostral levels. The data also suggest that NL projects to the medial portion of the ipsilateral SO and that NA projects bilaterally to all parts of SO and LLv. Studies with the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase confirm these projections.

  13. [Neurotology and cochlear implants].

    PubMed

    Merchán, Miguel A

    2015-05-01

    In this review we analyse cochlear implantation in terms of the fundamental aspects of the functioning of the auditory system. Concepts concerning neuronal plasticity applied to electrical stimulation in perinatal and adult deep hypoacusis are reviewed, and the latest scientific bases that justify early implantation following screening for congenital deafness are discussed. Finally, this review aims to serve as an example of the importance of fostering the sub-specialty of neurotology in our milieu, with the aim of bridging some of the gaps between specialties and thus improving both the knowledge in the field of research on auditory pathologies and in the screening of patients. The objectives of this review, targeted above all towards specialists in the field of otorhinolaryngology, are to analyse some significant neurological foundations in order to reach a better understanding of the clinical events that condition the indications and the rehabilitation of patients with cochlear implants, as well as to use this means to foster the growth of the sub-specialty of neurotology.

  14. Linear cochlear mechanics.

    PubMed

    Zweig, George

    2015-08-01

    An active, three-dimensional, short-wavelength model of cochlear mechanics is derived from an older, one-dimensional, long-wavelength model containing time-delay forces. Remarkably, the long-wavelength model with nonlocal temporal interactions behaves like a short-wavelength model with instantaneous interactions. The cochlear oscillators are driven both by the pressure and its time derivative, the latter presumably a proxy for forces contributed by outer hair cells. The admittance in the short-wavelength region is used to find an integral representation of the transfer function valid for all wavelengths. There are only two free parameters: the pole position in the complex frequency plane of the admittance, and the slope of the transfer-function phase at low frequencies. The new model predicts a dip in amplitude and a corresponding rapid drop in phase, past the peak of the traveling wave. Linear models may be compared by their wavelengths, and if they have the same dimension, by the singularity structure of their admittances.

  15. Synaptic endfeet in the 'acoustic nerve nucleus' of the rat. An electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Bolado, G; Merchán, J

    1988-01-01

    The medial portion of the cochlear nerve of the rat contains astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons. These neurons form what has been called the 'acoustic nerve nucleus'. This nucleus has been studied here at the electron microscopic level. Its neurons are large and round, showing an eccentric nucleus, fibrillary bodies and rough endoplasmic reticulum which is not arranged in stacks. The somata and dendrites receive synaptic endfeet which can be classified into three groups according to vesicle size and shape. In general, the ultrastructural characteristics of these cells are similar to those of bushy cells as reported by other authors. The 'acoustic nerve nucleus' can be considered to be the most peripheral part of the anterior ventral cochlear nucleus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:3248967

  16. Responsiveness of the Electrically Stimulated Cochlear Nerve in Children With Cochlear Nerve Deficiency.

    PubMed

    He, Shuman; Shahsavarani, Bahar S; McFayden, Tyler C; Wang, Haibo; Gill, Katherine E; Xu, Lei; Chao, Xiuhua; Luo, Jianfen; Wang, Ruijie; He, Nancy

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to (1) investigate the responsiveness of the cochlear nerve (CN) to a single biphasic-electrical pulse in implanted children with cochlear nerve deficiency (CND) and (2) compare their results with those measured in implanted children with normal-size CNs. Participants included 23 children with CND (CND1 to CND23) and 18 children with normal-size CNs (S1 to S18). All subjects except for CND1 used Cochlear Nucleus cochlear implants with contour electrode arrays in their test ears. CND1 was implanted with a Cochlear Nucleus Freedom cochlear implant with a straight electrode array in the test ear. For each subject, the CN input/output (I/O) function and the refractory recovery function were measured using electrophysiological measures of the electrically evoked compound action potential (eCAP) at multiple electrode sites across the electrode array. Dependent variables included eCAP threshold, the maximum eCAP amplitude, slope of the I/O function, and time-constants of the refractory recovery function. Slopes of I/O functions were estimated using statistical modeling with a sigmoidal function. Recovery time-constants, including measures of the absolute refractory period and the relative refractory period, were estimated using statistical modeling with an exponential decay function. Generalized linear mixed-effect models were used to evaluate the effects of electrode site on the dependent variables measured in children with CND and to compare results of these dependent variables between subject groups. The eCAP was recorded at all test electrodes in children with normal-size CNs. In contrast, the eCAP could not be recorded at any electrode site in 4 children with CND. For all other children with CND, the percentage of electrodes with measurable eCAPs decreased as the stimulating site moved in a basal-to-apical direction. For children with CND, the stimulating site had a significant effect on the slope of the I/O functions and the relative refractory

  17. Computer Simulations of Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus Neural Circuitry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    input. An action potential in a source cell “A” activates the conductance gA→B in a target cell “B”. The activation consists of a step increase and...the value of the associated reversal potential . Voltage dependent conductances underlying the action potential were not simulated. Rather, when the... Hodgkin - Huxley conductances as well as the complexities of dendritic cable properties. At the same time, it provides a rudimentary representation of

  18. Modeling Sound Processing in Cochlear Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meddis, Ray

    2003-03-01

    The cochlear nucleus is an obligatory relay nucleus between the ear and the rest of the brain. It consists of many different types of neurons each responding differently to the same stimulus. Much is known about the wiring diagram of the system but it has so far proved difficult to characterise the signal processing that is going on or what purpose it serves. The solution to this problem is a pre-requisite of any attempt to produce a practical electronic simulation that exploits the brain's unique capacity to recognise the significance of acoustic events and generate appropriate responses. This talk will explain the different types of neural cell and specify hypotheses as to their various functions. Cell-types vary in terms of their size and shape as well as the number and type of minute electrical currents that flow across the cell membranes. Computer models will also be used to illustrate how the physical substrate (the wet-ware) is used to achieve its signal-processing goals.

  19. Bilateral cochlear implantation: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Eapen, Rose J; Buchman, Craig A

    2009-10-01

    The goal of this review is to examine the most recent literature exploring the indications, outcomes, and long-term benefit of bilateral cochlear implantation in children and adults. The indications for cochlear implantation have expanded, as many unilaterally implanted individuals are able to achieve open-set word recognition. Despite the benefits seen in unilateral implantation, many individuals have difficulty perceiving speech in noisy environments. Bilateral cochlear implantation has made great strides in providing individuals access to sound information from both ears, allowing improved speech perception in quiet and in noise, as well as sound localization. Recently, the House Cochlear Implant study group released a position statement in which the group strongly endorsed bilateral cochlear implantation. Improved speech perception in quiet has also been demonstrated by many groups with bilateral implantation. Improved sound localization abilities have been shown to be dependent on interaural level differences. The binaural benefits of head shadow and summation have been long shown in bilaterally implanted individuals. Recently, a growth in squelch has been seen in these individuals likely as a result of increased experience with both implants. This may indicate neural integration of the inputs over time. The literature supports the binaural benefit of bilateral cochlear implantation with demonstrated improved speech perception outcomes in quiet and in noise, sound localization data, and subjective benefits.

  20. Cochlear implants and medical tourism.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Brian J; Bhatt, Nishant

    2010-09-01

    To compare the costs of medical tourism in cochlear implant surgery performed in India as compared to the United States. In addition, the cost savings of obtaining cochlear implant surgery in India were compare d to those of other surgical interventions obtained as a medical tourist. Searches were conducted on Medline and Google using the search terms: 'medical tourism', 'medical offshoring', 'medical outsourcing', 'cochlear implants' and 'cochlear implantation'. The information regarding cost of medical treatment was obtained from personal communication with individuals familiar with India's cochlear implantation medical tourism industry. The range of cost depended on length of stay as well as the device chosen. Generally the cost, inclusive of travel, surgery and device, was in the range of $21,000-30,000, as compared to a cost range of $40,000-$60,000 in the US. With the escalating cost of healthcare in the United States, it is not surprising that some patients would seek to obtain surgical care overseas at a fraction of the cost. Participants in medical tourism often have financial resources, but lack health insurance coverage. While cardiovascular and orthopedic surgery performed outside the United States in India at centers that cater to medical tourists are often performed at one-quarter to one-third of the cost that would have been paid in the United States, the cost differential for cochlear implants is not nearly as favorable.

  1. Outcome of cochlear implantation in children with cochlear malformations.

    PubMed

    Bille, Jesper; Fink-Jensen, Vibeke; Ovesen, Therese

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study was the evaluation of outcomes of cochlear implantation (CI) in children with cochlear malformations. A retrospective case-control study was conducted in a tertiary referral centre. The patients were children with inner ear malformation judged by high-resolution computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging treated with uni- or bilateral CI and a follow-up period of at least 3 years. They were matched with a control group of children operated for other reasons. The patients were operated by one of two surgeons using similar techniques including a standard perimodiolar electrode in all cases. The intervention was therapeutic and rehabilitative. The main outcome measures were category of auditory performance (CAP) and speech intelligibility rating (SIR). Eighteen children were diagnosed with cochlear malformations (12 % of children receiving CI). No statistical differences regarding CAP and SIR scores were found between the two groups. Only one child was diagnosed with a common cavity and performed below average. Children with auditory neuropathy performed beyond average. Children with cochlear malformations performed equally to children without malformation in the long term. Standard perimodiolar electrodes can be used despite cochlear malformations. The most important factors determining the outcome is the age of the child at the time of implantation and duration of hearing loss before CI. Awareness towards an increased risk of complications in case of inner ear malformations is recommended.

  2. Cochlear microphonic broad tuning curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayat, Mohammad; Teal, Paul D.; Searchfield, Grant D.; Razali, Najwani

    2015-12-01

    It is known that the cochlear microphonic voltage exhibits much broader tuning than does the basilar membrane motion. The most commonly used explanation for this is that when an electrode is inserted at a particular point inside the scala media, the microphonic potentials of neighbouring hair cells have different phases, leading to cancelation at the electrodes location. In situ recording of functioning outer hair cells (OHCs) for investigating this hypothesis is exceptionally difficult. Therefore, to investigate the discrepancy between the tuning curves of the basilar membrane and those of the cochlear microphonic, and the effect of phase cancellation of adjacent hair cells on the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves, we use an electromechanical model of the cochlea to devise an experiment. We explore the effect of adjacent hair cells (i.e., longitudinal phase cancellation) on the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves in different locations. The results of the experiment indicate that active longitudinal coupling (i.e., coupling with active adjacent outer hair cells) only slightly changes the broadness of the CM tuning curves. The results also demonstrate that there is a π phase difference between the potentials produced by the hair bundle and the soma near the place associated with the characteristic frequency based on place-frequency maps (i.e., the best place). We suggest that the transversal phase cancellation (caused by the phase difference between the hair bundle and the soma) plays a far more important role than longitudinal phase cancellation in the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves. Moreover, by increasing the modelled longitudinal resistance resulting the cochlear microphonic curves exhibiting sharper tuning. The results of the simulations suggest that the passive network of the organ of Corti determines the phase difference between the hair bundle and soma, and hence determines the sharpness of the

  3. Vowel perception in prelingually deafened children with multichannel cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, A J; el-Kholy, W; Tyler, R S

    1998-06-01

    Vowel perception ability for 16 prelingually deafened children using Nucleus 22-channel cochlear implants was studied at 12, 24, and 36 months postimplantation. Information transmission analysis was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the implants in conveying the essential cues required for accurate vowel identification and whether the cues used varied with experience or device use. Individual vowel identification varied widely with mean scores significantly improving between 12 and 24 months but not between 24 and 36 months. Information transmission scores for all vowel features (fronting, height, duration, and diphthongization) increased dramatically between 12 and 36 months. Results indicated that vowel height and vowel fronting were the most salient features for the subject group. There were no differences in the pattern of confusions made across test sessions or across groups when divided into "poor" and "good" users. However, there was evidence that the "good" users made better use of higher frequency formant information than the "poor" users. The results of the present study add to the accumulation of evidence pointing to the great benefit that cochlear implantation can provide to prelingually deafened children. Overall performance for the vowel recognition test used in this study was quite high and analysis of the childrens' errors suggested that their cochlear implants were reasonably effective at conveying the most essential spectral information required for vowel discrimination.

  4. [Predictive factors for speech perception in patients with cochlear implant].

    PubMed

    Kawashima, T; Iwaki, T; Yamamoto, K; Doi, K; Kudo, T

    1998-06-01

    Cochlear implant therapy is an epoch-making advance in artificial sensory organ transplants, but the positive effects on speech perception vary. Quantification theory type I, a multivariate analysis, was used to determine predictive factors for speech perception in patients with cochlear implants. Fifty-one postlingual deaf adults (18 male and 33 female, mean age, 53.4, mean duration of deafness, 8.6 years) were tested for speech perception three or more months after a Nucleus 22 channels cochlear implant. The cause of deafness in nine patients was labyrinthitis, ototoxicity in five, meningitis in three and unknown in the remaining 34. Speech perception was measured by vowel, consonant and word recognition using a live voice, and monosyllable, word and sentence recognition using a videodisc. All tests were administered in a sound only condition. Results of the univariate analysis indicated that age at implantation was correlated with monosyllable recognition, and duration of deafness was correlated with live voice word recognition. Residual hearing and coding strategy were both correlated with all outcome measures. The multivariate analysis revealed that coding strategy, duration of deafness, residual hearing and the number of electrodes were significant predictors of live voice word recognition in that order.

  5. Myths about Cochlear Implants: A Family Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luetke-Stahlman, B.

    1994-01-01

    A parent of two young children who received cochlear implant surgery addresses common myths about this procedure including "deaf people don't support the use of cochlear implants,""if you choose cochlear implant surgery, you are choosing the hearing world,""hearing parents are not qualified to decide," and "the deaf child him/herself should…

  6. Cochlear implantation updates: the Dallas Cochlear Implant Program.

    PubMed

    Tobey, Emily A; Britt, Lana; Geers, Ann; Loizou, Philip; Loy, Betty; Roland, Peter; Warner-Czyz, Andrea; Wright, Charles G

    2012-06-01

    This report provides an overview of many research projects conducted by the Dallas Cochlear Implant Program, a joint enterprise between the University of Texas at Dallas, the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, and Children's Medical Center. The studies extend our knowledge of factors influencing communication outcomes in users of cochlear implants. Multiple designs and statistical techniques are used in the studies described including both cross sectional and longitudinal analyses. Sample sizes vary across the studies, and many of the samples represent large populations of children from North America. Multiple statistical techniques are used by the team to analyze outcomes. The team has provided critical information regarding electrode placement, signal processing, and communication outcomes in users of cochlear implants. American Academy of Audiology.

  7. Cochlear Implantation Updates: The Dallas Cochlear Implant Program

    PubMed Central

    Tobey, Emily A.; Britt, Lana; Geers, Ann; Loizou, Philip; Loy, Betty; Roland, Peter; Warner-Czyz, Andrea; Wright, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides an overview of many research projects conducted by the Dallas Cochlear Implant Program, a joint enterprise between The University of Texas at Dallas, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and Children’s Medical Center. The studies extend our knowledge of factors influencing communication outcomes in users of cochlear implants. Multiple designs and statistical techniques are used in the studies described including both cross sectional and longitudinal analyses. Sample sizes vary across the studies and many of the samples represent large populations of children from North America. Multiple statistical techniques are used by the team to analyze outcomes. The team has provided critical information regarding electrode placement, signal processing, and communication outcomes in users of cochlear implants. PMID:22668764

  8. IMPORTANCE OF COCHLEAR HEALTH FOR IMPLANT FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Pfingst, Bryan E.; Zhou, Ning; Colesa, Deborah J.; Watts, Melissa M.; Strahl, Stefan B.; Garadat, Soha N.; Schvartz-Leyzac, Kara C.; Budenz, Cameron L.; Raphael, Yehoash; Zwolan, Teresa A.

    2014-01-01

    Amazing progress has been made in providing useful hearing to hearing-impaired individuals using cochlear implants, but challenges remain. One such challenge is understanding the effects of partial degeneration of the auditory nerve, the target of cochlear implant stimulation. Here we review studies from our human and animal laboratories aimed at characterizing the health of the implanted cochlea and the auditory nerve. We use the data on cochlear and neural health to guide rehabilitation strategies. The data also motivate the development of tissue-engineering procedures to preserve or build a healthy cochlea and improve performance obtained by cochlear implant recipients or eventually replace the need for a cochlear implant. PMID:25261772

  9. [Progress and challenges in optical cochlear implant].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaiyin; Guo, He; Wu, Shan; Wu, Yanning; Zhao, Shutao; Wang, Qiuling

    2016-01-01

    Optical cochlear implant has been occuring as a new cochlear implant which utilizes laser pulses to stimulate hearing. Compared to electronic cochlear implant, it has demonstrated higher spatial selectivity and less radiation scattering, which could lead to higher fidelity cochlear prostheses. At present, most investigations have focused on experiments in vivo. Although a lot of exciting results have been obtained, the mechanisms of laser stimulation is still open. In this paper, a brief review on the recent new findings of optical cochlear implant is given, and possible mechanisms are discussed. In the end, new experimental proposals are suggested which could help to explore the mechanisms of laser-cochlea stimulation.

  10. Brain plasticity under cochlear implant stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kral, Andrej; Tillein, Jochen

    2006-01-01

    The benefit of cochlear implantation crucially depends on the ability of the brain to learn to classify neural activity evoked by the cochlear implant. Brain plasticity is a complex property with massive developmental changes after birth. The present paper reviews the experimental work on auditory plasticity and focuses on the plasticity required for adaptation to cochlear implant stimulation. It reviews the data on developmental sensitive periods in auditory plasticity of hearing, hearing-impaired and deaf, cochlear-implanted, animals. Based on the analysis of the above findings in animals and comparable data from humans, a cochlear implantation within the first 2 years of age is recommended.

  11. The perception of Cantonese lexical tones by early-deafened cochlear implantees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciocca, Valter; Francis, Alexander L.; Aisha, Rani; Wong, Lena

    2002-05-01

    This study investigated whether cochlear implant users can identify Cantonese lexical tones, which differ primarily in their F0 pattern. Seventeen early-deafened deaf children (age=4 years, 6 months to 8 years, 11 months; postoperative period=11-41 months) took part in the study. Sixteen children were fitted with the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system; one child was fitted with a Nucleus 22 implant. Participants completed a 2AFC picture identification task in which they identified one of the six contrastive Cantonese tones produced on the monosyllabic target word /ji/. Each target stimulus represented a concrete object and was presented within a carrier phrase in sentence-medial position. Group performance was significantly above chance for three contrasts. However, the cochlear implant listeners performed much worse than a 612-year-old, moderately hearing impaired control listener who was tested on the same task. These findings suggest that this group of cochlear implant users had great difficulty in extracting the pitch information needed to accurately identify Cantonese lexical tones.

  12. The perception of Cantonese lexical tones by early-deafened cochlear implantees.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, Valter; Francis, Alexander L; Aisha, Rani; Wong, Lena

    2002-05-01

    This study investigated whether cochlear implant users can identify Cantonese lexical tones, which differ primarily in their F0 pattern. Seventeen early-deafened deaf children (age= 4 years, 6 months to 8 years, 11 months; postoperative period= 11-41 months) took part in the study. Sixteen children were fitted with the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system; one child was fitted with a Nucleus 22 implant. Participants completed a 2AFC picture identification task in which they identified one of the six contrastive Cantonese tones produced on the monosyllabic target word /ji/. Each target stimulus represented a concrete object and was presented within a carrier phrase in sentence-medial position. Group performance was significantly above chance for three contrasts. However, the cochlear implant listeners performed much worse than a 6 1/2-year-old, moderately hearing impaired control listener who was tested on the same task. These findings suggest that this group of cochlear implant users had great difficulty in extracting the pitch information needed to accurately identify Cantonese lexical tones.

  13. Nonlinear cochlear mechanics.

    PubMed

    Zweig, George

    2016-05-01

    An earlier paper characterizing the linear mechanical response of the organ of Corti [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, 1102-1121 (2015)] is extended to the nonlinear domain. Assuming the existence of nonlinear oscillators nonlocally coupled through the pressure they help create, the oscillator equations are derived and examined when the stimuli are modulated tones and clicks. The nonlinearities are constrained by the requirements of oscillator stability and the invariance of zero crossings in the click response to changes in click amplitude. The nonlinear oscillator equations for tones are solved in terms of the fluid pressure that drives them, and its time derivative, presumably a proxy for forces created by outer hair cells. The pressure equation is reduced to quadrature, the integrand depending on the oscillators' responses. The resulting nonlocally coupled nonlinear equations for the pressure, and oscillator amplitudes and phases, are solved numerically in terms of the fluid pressure at the stapes. Methods for determining the nonlinear damping directly from measurements are described. Once the oscillators have been characterized from their tone and click responses, the mechanical response of the cochlea to natural sounds may be computed numerically. Signal processing inspired by cochlear mechanics opens up a new area of nonlocal nonlinear time-frequency analysis.

  14. Biomaterials in cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Stöver, Timo; Lenarz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The cochlear implant (CI) represents, for almost 25 years now, the gold standard in the treatment of children born deaf and for postlingually deafened adults. These devices thus constitute the greatest success story in the field of ‘neurobionic’ prostheses. Their (now routine) fitting in adults, and especially in young children and even babies, places exacting demands on these implants, particularly with regard to the biocompatibility of a CI’s surface components. Furthermore, certain parts of the implant face considerable mechanical challenges, such as the need for the electrode array to be flexible and resistant to breakage, and for the implant casing to be able to withstand external forces. As these implants are in the immediate vicinity of the middle-ear mucosa and of the junction to the perilymph of the cochlea, the risk exists – at least in principle – that bacteria may spread along the electrode array into the cochlea. The wide-ranging requirements made of the CI in terms of biocompatibility and the electrode mechanism mean that there is still further scope – despite the fact that CIs are already technically highly sophisticated – for ongoing improvements to the properties of these implants and their constituent materials, thus enhancing the effectiveness of these devices. This paper will therefore discuss fundamental material aspects of CIs as well as the potential for their future development. PMID:22073103

  15. The transtympanic promontory stimulation test in patients with auditory deprivation: correlations with electrical dynamics of cochlear implant and speech perception.

    PubMed

    Alfelasi, Mohammad; Piron, Jean Pierre; Mathiolon, Caroline; Lenel, Nadjmah; Mondain, Michel; Uziel, Alain; Venail, Frederic

    2013-05-01

    Transtympanic promontory stimulation test (TPST) has been suggested to be a useful tool in predicting postoperative outcomes in patients at risk of poor auditory neuron functioning, especially after a long auditory deprivation. However, only sparse data are available on this topic. This study aimed at showing correlations between the auditory nerve dynamic range, evaluated by TPST, the electrical dynamic range of the cochlear implant and speech perception outcome. We evaluated 65 patients with postlingual hearing loss and no residual hearing, implanted with a Nucleus CI24 cochlear implant device for at least 2 years and with a minimum of 17 active electrodes. Using the TPST, we measured the threshold for auditory perception (T-level) and the maximum acceptable level of stimulation (M-level) at stimulation frequencies of 50, 100 and 200 Hz. General linear regression was performed to correlate 1/speech perception, evaluated using the PBK test 1 year after surgery, and 2/cochlear implant electrical dynamic range, with the age at time of implantation, the duration of auditory deprivation, the etiology of the deafness, the duration of cochlear implant use and auditory nerve dynamic range. Postoperative speech perception outcome correlated with etiology, duration of auditory deprivation and implant use, and TPST at 100 and 200 Hz. The dynamic range of the cochlear implant map correlated with duration of auditory deprivation, speech perception outcome at 6 months and TPST at 100 and 200 Hz. TPST test can be used to predict functional outcome after cochlear implant surgery in difficult cases.

  16. Environmental Sound Training in Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Sheft, Stanley; Kuvadia, Sejal; Gygi, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The study investigated the effect of a short computer-based environmental sound training regimen on the perception of environmental sounds and speech in experienced cochlear implant (CI) patients. Method Fourteen CI patients with the average of 5 years of CI experience participated. The protocol consisted of 2 pretests, 1 week apart, followed by 4 environmental sound training sessions conducted on separate days in 1 week, and concluded with 2 posttest sessions, separated by another week without training. Each testing session included an environmental sound test, which consisted of 40 familiar everyday sounds, each represented by 4 different tokens, as well as the Consonant Nucleus Consonant (CNC) word test, and Revised Speech Perception in Noise (SPIN-R) sentence test. Results Environmental sounds scores were lower than for either of the speech tests. Following training, there was a significant average improvement of 15.8 points in environmental sound perception, which persisted 1 week later after training was discontinued. No significant improvements were observed for either speech test. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that environmental sound perception, which remains problematic even for experienced CI patients, can be improved with a home-based computer training regimen. Such computer-based training may thus provide an effective low-cost approach to rehabilitation for CI users, and potentially, other hearing impaired populations. PMID:25633579

  17. Cochlear implantation in superficial siderosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chong-Sun; Song, Jae-Jun; Park, Min-Hyun; Kim, Young Ho; Koo, Ja-Won

    2006-08-01

    Superficial siderosis (SS) of the central nervous system has been thought to be a rare condition that generates progressive hearing loss, ataxia, pyramidal signs, and dementia. The main cause of hearing loss by SS is thought to be neuronal. Because there is no histopathologic report of the human temporal bone in SS, there is a debate about the possibility of cochlear involvement. We present a 25-year-old man who was investigated for bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss and vestibular failure after head trauma. On brain MRI, SS of the central nervous system was detected. Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) showed no response on both sides. However, integrity of the eighth nerve was proved by the electrical ABR test on the right side and the patient benefited significantly from cochlear implantation. The sensorineural hearing loss in SS seems to be related to cochlear damage as well as neuronal damage. So, cochlear implantation would be a hearing rehabilitation modality for the sensorineural hearing loss caused by SS.

  18. Advancing Binaural Cochlear Implant Technology

    PubMed Central

    McAlpine, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue contains a collection of 13 papers highlighting the collaborative research and engineering project entitled Advancing Binaural Cochlear Implant Technology—ABCIT—as well as research spin-offs from the project. In this introductory editorial, a brief history of the project is provided, alongside an overview of the studies. PMID:26721929

  19. Cochlear implant optimized noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauger, Stefan J.; Arora, Komal; Dawson, Pam W.

    2012-12-01

    Noise-reduction methods have provided significant improvements in speech perception for cochlear implant recipients, where only quality improvements have been found in hearing aid recipients. Recent psychoacoustic studies have suggested changes to noise-reduction techniques specifically for cochlear implants, due to differences between hearing aid recipient and cochlear implant recipient hearing. An optimized noise-reduction method was developed with significantly increased temporal smoothing of the signal-to-noise ratio estimate and a more aggressive gain function compared to current noise-reduction methods. This optimized noise-reduction algorithm was tested with 12 cochlear implant recipients over four test sessions. Speech perception was assessed through speech in noise tests with three noise types; speech-weighted noise, 20-talker babble and 4-talker babble. A significant speech perception improvement using optimized noise reduction over standard processing was found in babble noise and speech-weighted noise and over a current noise-reduction method in speech-weighted noise. Speech perception in quiet was not degraded. Listening quality testing for noise annoyance and overall preference found significant improvements over the standard processing and over a current noise-reduction method in speech-weighted and babble noise types. This optimized method has shown significant speech perception and quality improvements compared to the standard processing and a current noise-reduction method.

  20. Cochlear implant optimized noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Mauger, Stefan J; Arora, Komal; Dawson, Pam W

    2012-12-01

    Noise-reduction methods have provided significant improvements in speech perception for cochlear implant recipients, where only quality improvements have been found in hearing aid recipients. Recent psychoacoustic studies have suggested changes to noise-reduction techniques specifically for cochlear implants, due to differences between hearing aid recipient and cochlear implant recipient hearing. An optimized noise-reduction method was developed with significantly increased temporal smoothing of the signal-to-noise ratio estimate and a more aggressive gain function compared to current noise-reduction methods. This optimized noise-reduction algorithm was tested with 12 cochlear implant recipients over four test sessions. Speech perception was assessed through speech in noise tests with three noise types; speech-weighted noise, 20-talker babble and 4-talker babble. A significant speech perception improvement using optimized noise reduction over standard processing was found in babble noise and speech-weighted noise and over a current noise-reduction method in speech-weighted noise. Speech perception in quiet was not degraded. Listening quality testing for noise annoyance and overall preference found significant improvements over the standard processing and over a current noise-reduction method in speech-weighted and babble noise types. This optimized method has shown significant speech perception and quality improvements compared to the standard processing and a current noise-reduction method.

  1. Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak in Cochlear Implantation: Enlarged Cochlear versus Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct (Common Cavity Excluded)

    PubMed Central

    Polizzi, Valeria; Formigoni, Patrizia; Russo, Carmela; Tribi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To share our experience of cerebrospinal fluid gusher in cochlear implantation in patients with enlarged cochlear or vestibular aqueduct. Study Design. Case series with comparison and a review of the literature. Methods. A retrospective study was performed. Demographic and radiological results of patients with enlarged cochlear aqueduct or enlarged vestibular aqueduct in 278 consecutive cochlear implant recipients, including children and adults, were evaluated between January 2000 and December 2015. Results. Six patients with enlarged cochlear aqueduct and eight patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct were identified. Cerebrospinal fluid gusher occurs in five subjects with enlarged cochlear aqueduct and in only one case of enlarged vestibular aqueduct. Conclusion. Based on these findings, enlarged cochlear aqueduct may be the best risk predictor of cerebrospinal fluid gusher at cochleostomy during cochlear implant surgery despite enlarged vestibular aqueduct. PMID:27847516

  2. Cochlear Implantation in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Frank R.; Chien, Wade W.; Li, Lingsheng; Niparko, John K.; Francis, Howard W.

    2012-01-01

    Cochlear implants allow individuals with severe-to-profound hearing loss access to sound and spoken language. The number of older adults in the United States who are potential candidates for cochlear implantation is approximately 150,000 and will continue to increase with the aging of the population. Should cochlear implantation (CI) be routinely recommended for these older adults, and do these individuals benefit from CI? We reviewed our 12 year experience with cochlear implantation in adults ≥60 years (n = 445) at Johns Hopkins to investigate the impact of CI on speech understanding and to identify factors associated with speech performance. Complete data on speech outcomes at baseline and 1 year post-CI were available for 83 individuals. Our results demonstrate that cochlear implantation in adults ≥60 years consistently improved speech understanding scores with a mean increase of 60. 0% (S. D. 24. 1) on HINT sentences in quiet . The magnitude of the gain in speech scores was negatively associated with age at implantation such that for every increasing year of age at CI the gain in speech scores was 1. 3 percentage points less (95% CI: 0. 6 – 1. 9) after adjusting for age at hearing loss onset. Conversely, individuals with higher pre-CI speech scores (HINT scores between 40–60%) had significantly greater post-CI speech scores by a mean of 10. 0 percentage points (95% CI: 0. 4 – 19. 6) than those with lower pre-CI speech scores (HINT <40%) after adjusting for age at CI and age at hearing loss onset. These results suggest that older adult CI candidates who are younger at implantation and with higher preoperative speech scores obtain the highest speech understanding scores after cochlear implantation with possible implications for current Medicare policy. Finally, we provide an extended discussion of the epidemiology and impact of hearing loss in older adults. Future research of CI in older adults should expand beyond simple speech outcomes to take into

  3. Effects of input processing and type of personal frequency modulation system on speech-recognition performance of adults with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jace; Schafer, Erin; Parkinson, Aaron; John, Andrew; Hudson, Mary; Wheeler, Julie; Mucci, Angie

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare speech recognition in quiet and in noise for cochlear implant recipients using two different types of personal frequency modulation (FM) systems (directly coupled [direct auditory input] versus induction neckloop) with each of two sound processors (Cochlear Nucleus Freedom versus Cochlear Nucleus 5). Two different experiments were conducted within this study. In both these experiments, mixing of the FM signal within the Freedom processor was implemented via the same scheme used clinically for the Freedom sound processor. In Experiment 1, the aforementioned comparisons were conducted with the Nucleus 5 programmed so that the microphone and FM signals were mixed and then the mixed signals were subjected to autosensitivity control (ASC). In Experiment 2, comparisons between the two FM systems and processors were conducted again with the Nucleus 5 programmed to provide a more complex multistage implementation of ASC during the preprocessing stage. This study was a within-subject, repeated-measures design. Subjects were recruited from the patient population at the Hearts for Hearing Foundation in Oklahoma City, OK. Fifteen subjects participated in Experiment 1, and 16 subjects participated in Experiment 2. Subjects were adults who had used either unilateral or bilateral cochlear implants for at least 1 year. In this experiment, no differences were found in speech recognition in quiet obtained with the two different FM systems or the various sound-processor conditions. With each sound processor, speech recognition in noise was better with the directly coupled direct auditory input system relative to the neckloop system. The multistage ASC processing of the Nucleus 5 sound processor provided better performance than the single-stage approach for the Nucleus 5 and the Nucleus Freedom sound processor. Speech recognition in noise is substantially affected by the type of sound processor, FM system, and implementation of ASC used by a

  4. The Effect of Cochlear-Implant-Mediated Electrical Stimulation on Spiral Ganglion Cells in Congenitally Deaf White Cats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Iris; Limb, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    It has long been observed that loss of auditory receptor cells is associated with the progressive degeneration of spiral ganglion cells. Chronic electrical stimulation via cochlear implantation has been used in an attempt to slow the rate of degeneration in cats neonatally deafened by ototoxic agents but with mixed results. The present study examined this issue using white cats with a history of hereditary deafness as an alternative animal model. Nineteen cats provided new data for this study: four normal-hearing cats, seven congenitally deaf white cats, and eight congenitally deaf white cats with unilateral cochlear implants. Data from additional cats were collected from the literature. Electrical stimulation began at 3 to 4 or 6 to 7 months after birth, and cats received stimulation for approximately 7 h a day, 5 days a week for 12 weeks. Quantitative analysis of spiral ganglion cell counts, cell density, and cell body size showed no marked improvement between cochlear-implanted and congenitally deaf subjects. Average ganglion cell size from cochlear-implanted and congenitally deaf cats was statistically similar and smaller than that of normal-hearing cats. Cell density from cats with cochlear implants tended to decrease within the upper basal and middle cochlear turns in comparison to congenitally deaf cats but remained at congenitally deaf levels within the lower basal and apical cochlear turns. These results provide no evidence that chronic electrical stimulation enhances spiral ganglion cell survival, cell density, or cell size compared to that of unstimulated congenitally deaf cats. Regardless of ganglion neuron status, there is unambiguous restoration of auditory nerve synapses in the cochlear nucleus of these cats implanted at the earlier age. PMID:20821032

  5. Amplitude mapping and phoneme recognition in cochlear implant listeners.

    PubMed

    Zeng, F G; Galvin, J J

    1999-02-01

    Speech and other environmental sounds must be compressed to accommodate the small electric dynamic range in cochlear implant listeners. The objective of this paper is to study whether and how amplitude compression and dynamic range reduction affect phoneme recognition in quiet and in noise for cochlear implant listeners. Four implant listeners using the Nucleus-22 SPEAK speech processor participated in this study. The amount of compression was varied by manipulating the Q-value in the SPEAK processor. The size of the dynamic range was systematically reduced by increasing the threshold level and decreasing the comfortable level in the processor. Both female- and male-talker vowel and consonant materials were used to evaluate speech recognition performance in quiet and in noise. Speech-spectrum-shaped noise was mixed with the speech signal and presented continuously to the speech processor through a direct electric connection. Signal to noise ratios were changed over a 30 to 40 dB range, within which phoneme recognition increased from chance to asymptotic performance. Phoneme recognition scores were obtained as the number of active electrodes was reduced from 20 to 10 to 4. For purposes of comparison, phoneme recognition data also were collected in four normal-hearing listeners under comparable laboratory conditions. In both quiet and noise, the amount of amplitude compression did not significantly affect phoneme recognition. The reduction of dynamic range marginally affected phoneme recognition in quiet, but significantly degraded phoneme recognition in noise. Generally, the 20- and 10-electrode processors produced similar performance, whereas the 4-electrode processor produced significantly poorer performance. Compared with normal-hearing listeners, cochlear-implant listeners required higher signal to noise ratios to achieve comparable recognition performance and produced significantly lower recognition scores at the same signal to noise ratios. The amount of

  6. Benefits of Adaptive Signal Processing in a Commercially Available Cochlear Implant Sound Processor.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jace; Neumann, Sara; Marsh, Megan; Schafer, Erin; Lianos, Leslie; Gilden, Jan; O'Neill, Lori; Arkis, Pete; Menapace, Christine; Nel, Esti; Jones, Marian

    2015-08-01

    Cochlear implant recipients often experience difficulty understanding speech in noise. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the potential improvement in speech recognition in noise provided by an adaptive, commercially available sound processor that performs acoustic scene classification and automatically adjusts input signal processing to maximize performance in noise. Within-subjects, repeated-measures design. This multicenter study was conducted across five sites in the U.S.A. and Australia. Ninety-three adults and children with Nucleus Freedom, CI422, and CI512 cochlear implants. Subjects (previous users of the Nucleus 5 sound processor) were fitted with the Nucleus 6 sound processor. Performance was assessed while these subjects used each sound processor in the manufacturer's recommended default program (standard directionality, ASC + ADRO for the Nucleus 5 processor and ASC + ADRO and SNR-NR with SCAN for the Nucleus 6 sound processor). The subjects were also evaluated with the Nucleus 6 with standard directionality, ASC + ADRO and SNR-NR enabled but SCAN disabled. Speech recognition in noise was assessed with AzBio sentences. Sentence recognition in noise was significantly better with the Nucleus 6 sound processor when used with the default input processing (ASC + ADRO, SNR-NR, and SCAN) compared to performance with the Nucleus 5 sound processor and default input processing (standard directionality, ASC + ADRO). Specifically, use of the Nucleus 6 at default settings resulted in a mean improvement in sentence recognition in noise of 27 percentage points relative to performance with the Nucleus 5 sound processor. Use of the Nucleus 6 sound processor using standard directionality, ASC + ADRO and SNR-NR (SCAN disabled) resulted in a mean improvement of 9 percentage points in sentence recognition in noise compared to performance with the Nucleus 5. The results of this study suggest that the Nucleus 6 sound processor with acoustic scene

  7. Cochlear implantation for symptomatic hereditary deafness.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, K; Fukushiama, K; Oda, Y; Masuda, A; Hayashi, S; Nagayasu, N; Yoshino, T; Kashihara, K; Takahashi, K; Masuda, Y

    1999-01-01

    Recently, the effectiveness of cochlear implantation for hereditary deafness has been reported. We performed cochlear implantation for two patients with symptomatic hereditary deafness. Deafness in one patient was thought to be a result of albinism-deafness syndrome and in the other patient, a result of chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia syndrome. Since their speech perception abilities improved dramatically, we believe that cochlear implantation should be actively performed for these two syndromes.

  8. [Our experience with bilateral cochlear implantation].

    PubMed

    Carmel, Eldar; Taitelbaum-Swead, Ricky; Migirov, Lela; Hildesheimer, Minka; Kronenberg, Jona

    2008-03-01

    Cochlear implantation is a standard method of hearing rehabilitation among patients with severe to profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. In recent years there have been an increasing number of studies showing superior hearing with bilateral cochlear implantation in comparison with a unilateral procedure. In this study we present our experience with 15 patients, children and adults, who had bilateral cochlear implant surgery. Speech perception test results demonstrated a hearing benefit in bilateral cochlear implantation in comparison with a unilateral device, mainly by improvement in the identification of speech in noise tests.

  9. Cochlear implant in incomplete partition type I.

    PubMed

    Berrettini, S; Forli, F; De Vito, A; Bruschini, L; Quaranta, N

    2013-02-01

    In this investigation, we report on 4 patients affected by incomplete partition type I submitted to cochlear implant at our institutions. Preoperative, surgical, mapping and follow-up issues as well as results in cases with this complex malformation are described. The cases reported in the present study confirm that cochlear implantation in patients with incomplete partition type I may be challenging for cochlear implant teams. The results are variable, but in many cases satisfactory, and are mainly related to the surgical placement of the electrode and residual neural nerve fibres. Moreover, in some cases the association of cochlear nerve abnormalities and other disabilities may significantly affect results.

  10. Recognition of "real-world" musical excerpts by cochlear implant recipients and normal-hearing adults.

    PubMed

    Gfeller, Kate; Olszewski, Carol; Rychener, Marly; Sena, Kimberly; Knutson, John F; Witt, Shelley; Macpherson, Beth

    2005-06-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to compare recognition of "real-world" music excerpts by postlingually deafened adults using cochlear implants and normal-hearing adults; (b) to compare the performance of cochlear implant recipients using different devices and processing strategies; and (c) to examine the variability among implant recipients in recognition of musical selections in relation to performance on speech perception tests, performance on cognitive tests, and demographic variables. Seventy-nine cochlear implant users and 30 normal-hearing adults were tested on open-set recognition of systematically selected excerpts from musical recordings heard in real life. The recognition accuracy of the two groups was compared for three musical genre: classical, country, and pop. Recognition accuracy was correlated with speech recognition scores, cognitive measures, and demographic measures, including musical background. Cochlear implant recipients were significantly less accurate in recognition of previously familiar (known before hearing loss) musical excerpts than normal-hearing adults (p < 0.001) for all three genre. Implant recipients were most accurate in the recognition of country items and least accurate in the recognition of classical items. There were no significant differences among implant recipients due to implant type (Nucleus, Clarion, or Ineraid), or programming strategy (SPEAK, CIS, or ACE). For cochlear implant recipients, correlations between melody recognition and other measures were moderate to weak in strength; those with statistically significant correlations included age at time of testing (negatively correlated), performance on selected speech perception tests, and the amount of focused music listening following implantation. Current-day cochlear implants are not effective in transmitting several key structural features (i.e., pitch, harmony, timbral blends) of music essential to open-set recognition of well-known musical selections

  11. The inferior cochlear vein: surgical aspects in cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, HongLei; Chen, Wei; Zhu, XiaoQuan; Liu, Wei; Rask-Andersen, Helge

    2016-02-01

    The patency of the inferior cochlear vein (ICV) may be challenged in cochlear implantation (CI) due to its location near the round window (RW). This may be essential to consider during selection of different trajectories for electrode insertion aiming at preserving residual hearing. Venous blood from the human cochlea is drained through the ICV. The vein also drains blood from the modiolus containing the spiral ganglion neurons. Surgical interference with this vein could cause neural damage influencing CI outcome. We analyzed the topographical relationship between the RW and ICV bony channel and cochlear aqueduct (CA) from a surgical standpoint. Archival human temporal bones were further microdissected to visualize the CA and its accessory canals (AC1 and AC2). This was combined with examinations of plastic and silicone molds of the human labyrinth. Metric analyses were made using photo stereomicroscopy documenting the proximal portion of the AC1, the internal aperture of the CA and the RW. The mean distance between the AC1 and the anterior rim of the RW was 0.81 mm in bone specimens and 0.67 mm assessed in corrosion casts. The AC1 runs from the floor of the scala tympani through the otic capsule passing parallel to the CA to the posterior cranial fossa. The mean distance between the CA and AC1 canal was 0.31 and 0.25 mm, respectively.

  12. Speech coding strategies and revised cochlear implant candidacy: an analysis of post-implant performance.

    PubMed

    David, Eytan E; Ostroff, Jodi M; Shipp, David; Nedzelski, Julian M; Chen, Joseph M; Parnes, Lorne S; Zimmerman, Kim; Schramm, David; Seguin, Christiane

    2003-03-01

    Technological advances in cochlear implant systems on which a sequence of speech coding strategies have been implemented seem to have resulted in improved speech perception. However, changing selection criteria for implantation have coincided with evolving technology and may confound post-implantation speech perception performance. This study compares speech coding strategy with speech perception performance in severe and profound postlingually deafened adults using one of three successive generations of Nucleus Cochlear Implant speech processors (i.e., Mini Speech Processor, Spectra 22, and SPrint) implementing three speech coding strategies (i.e., MPEAK, SPEAK, and Advanced Combination Encoders; Cochlear Corporation, Englewood, CO, U.S.A.). Four cohorts of patients were retrospectively reviewed. Multicenter, tertiary referral cochlear implant programs in Ontario, Canada. Four cohorts of patients (n = 139) were identified based on preimplant audiological measures, duration of deafness, device type, and speech coding strategy. Word and sentence recognition scores at 12 months after implantation were compared using MPEAK with SPEAK22 implemented on the Nucleus 22 speech processors (Mini Speech Processor and Spectra22, respectively) and SPEAK24 as well as Advanced Combination Encoders implemented on the Nucleus 24 SPrint processor. Open-set speech recognition batteries revealed significant improvements in word and sentence scores as advancing technology implemented new speech coding strategies. Subgroup analysis of profoundly deafened patients supported this. Analysis of covariance confirmed that the measured differences could not be accounted for by changing selection criteria for implantation. Improvements in performance can be attributed to evolving speech coding strategies and speech processors rather than to differences in preimplant candidacy.

  13. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wosiek, B.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results on high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions are presented. The data are discussed within the framework of standard super-position models and from the point-of-view of the possible formation of new states of matter in heavy ion collisions.

  14. Speech Recognition of Bimodal Cochlear Implant Recipients Using a Wireless Audio Streaming Accessory for the Telephone.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jace; Morais, Mila; Schafer, Erin

    2016-02-01

    The goals of the present investigation were (1) to evaluate recognition of recorded speech presented over a mobile telephone for a group of adult bimodal cochlear implant users, and (2) to measure the potential benefits of wireless hearing assistance technology (HAT) for mobile telephone speech recognition using bimodal stimulation (i.e., a cochlear implant in one ear and a hearing aid on the other ear). A three-by-two-way repeated measures design was used to evaluate mobile telephone sentence-recognition performance differences obtained in quiet and in noise with and without the wireless HAT accessory coupled to the hearing aid alone, CI sound processor alone, and in the bimodal condition. Outpatient cochlear implant clinic. Sixteen bimodal users with Nucleus 24, Freedom, CI512, or CI422 cochlear implants participated in this study. Performance was measured with and without the use of a wireless HAT for the telephone used with the hearing aid alone, CI alone, and bimodal condition. CNC word recognition in quiet and in noise with and without the use of a wireless HAT telephone accessory in the hearing aid alone, CI alone, and bimodal conditions. Results suggested that the bimodal condition gave significantly better speech recognition on the mobile telephone with the wireless HAT. A wireless HAT for the mobile telephone provides bimodal users with significant improvement in word recognition in quiet and in noise over the mobile telephone.

  15. Surgical and medical complications in different cochlear implant devices.

    PubMed

    Migirov, Lela; Dagan, Elad; Kronenberg, Jona

    2009-07-01

    There were no surgery-related complications among the patients in the current study. Positioner and removable magnets have been associated with postoperative problems, and the silicone devices were the only ones found by us to cause foreign body and allergic reactions. To evaluate the complication rate in patients who were implanted with cochlear devices manufactured by different companies. This retrospective study included all the patients who underwent cochlear implantation (138 Nucleus, 105 Med-El and 14 Clarion devices) via the suprameatal approach in our department during 2001-2007 and followed up for at least 18 months. Complications such as magnet displacement, foreign body reaction and protrusion of the positioner were considered as being implant-related. Allergy to implant, cholesteatoma, perforated tympanic membrane, intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage, wound breakdown, haematoma or seroma, and vestibular disturbances were considered to be patient-related. Vestibular and wound problems emerged as the most common complications, but there were no significant differences in their rate of occurrence among the various devices. Explantation of the device was required in one case of foreign body reaction, one case of allergy to implant and one case of extrusion of the positioner followed by device failure.

  16. Development of functional electrical stimulators utilizing cochlear implant technology.

    PubMed

    Davis, R; Patrick, J; Barriskill, A

    2001-01-01

    In 1983, R. Davis proposed the development of a functional electrical stimulator, based on multi-channel cochlear implant technology, for the restoration of function in spinal cord injured paraplegic subjects. In 1984, the US Veteran Administration funded the initial investigations including animal experiments and purchase of a FES stimulator based on the Nucleus 22 cochlear implant. In 1987, the US Food and Drug Administration approved an Investigational Device Exemption (IDE# G870142) for this FES project. In 1991, the first stimulator was implanted in a 21-year old male paraplegic subject (complete thoracic spinal cord lesion at level #10), who was subsequently able to stand and to perform one-handed tasks for up to 1h. In 1996-1997 development started on a new multi-function FES system. In 1998, a stimulator was implanted in a 35-year-old male paraplegic subject (complete thoracic spinal cord lesion at level #10). After 8 months of use providing multiple functions including bladder voiding, the implant's internal antenna wire broke. A modified implant (FES 24-B) is due to be implanted in July 2001.

  17. Voice and Pronunciation of Cochlear Implant Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horga, Damir; Liker, Marko

    2006-01-01

    Patients with cochlear implants have the ability to exercise auditory control over their own speech production and over the speech of others, which is important for the development of speech control. In the present investigation three groups of 10 subjects were compared. The groups comprised: (1) cochlear implant users, (2) profoundly deaf using…

  18. Deafblind People's Experiences of Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soper, Janet

    2006-01-01

    Cochlear implants are electronic devices that create the sensation of hearing in those who cannot obtain any benefit from conventional hearing aids. This article examines the experience of cochlear implantation in a select group of individuals with acquired deafblindness, focusing on three key themes: access to communication, information and…

  19. Cochlear Implants: The Young People's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Alexandra; Archbold, Sue; Gregory, Susan; Skipp, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Cochlear implantation is a relatively new procedure, which has already had significant impact on the lives of many profoundly deaf children and adults, in providing useful hearing to those unable to benefit significantly from hearing aids. After 16 years of cochlear implantation in the United Kingdom, there is now a body of evidence covering a…

  20. The spatial pattern of cochlear amplification.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jonathan A N; Nin, Fumiaki; Reichenbach, Tobias; Uthaiah, Revathy C; Hudspeth, A J

    2012-12-06

    Sensorineural hearing loss, which stems primarily from the failure of mechanosensory hair cells, changes the traveling waves that transmit acoustic signals along the cochlea. However, the connection between cochlear mechanics and the amplificatory function of hair cells remains unclear. Using an optical technique that permits the targeted inactivation of prestin, a protein of outer hair cells that generates forces on the basilar membrane, we demonstrate that these forces interact locally with cochlear traveling waves to achieve enormous mechanical amplification. By perturbing amplification in narrow segments of the basilar membrane, we further show that a cochlear traveling wave accumulates gain as it approaches its peak. Analysis of these results indicates that cochlear amplification produces negative damping that counters the viscous drag impeding traveling waves; targeted photoinactivation locally interrupts this compensation. These results reveal the locus of amplification in cochlear traveling waves and connect the characteristics of normal hearing to molecular forces.

  1. The Spatial Pattern of Cochlear Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jonathan A.N.; Nin, Fumiaki; Reichenbach, Tobias; Uthaiah, Revathy C.; Hudspeth, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Sensorineural hearing loss, which stems primarily from the failure of mechanosensory hair cells, changes the traveling waves that transmit acoustic signals along the cochlea. However, the connection between cochlear mechanics and the amplificatory function of hair cells remains unclear. Using an optical technique that permits the targeted inactivation of prestin, a protein of outer hair cells that generates forces on the basilar membrane, we demonstrate that these forces interact locally with cochlear traveling waves to achieve enormous mechanical amplification. By perturbing amplification in narrow segments of the basilar membrane, we further show that a cochlear traveling wave accumulates gain as it approaches its peak. Analysis of these results indicates that cochlear amplification produces negative damping that counters the viscous drag impeding traveling waves; targeted photoinactivation locally interrupts this compensation. These results reveal the locus of amplification in cochlear traveling waves and connect the characteristics of normal hearing to molecular forces. PMID:23217746

  2. Importance of cochlear health for implant function.

    PubMed

    Pfingst, Bryan E; Zhou, Ning; Colesa, Deborah J; Watts, Melissa M; Strahl, Stefan B; Garadat, Soha N; Schvartz-Leyzac, Kara C; Budenz, Cameron L; Raphael, Yehoash; Zwolan, Teresa A

    2015-04-01

    Amazing progress has been made in providing useful hearing to hearing-impaired individuals using cochlear implants, but challenges remain. One such challenge is understanding the effects of partial degeneration of the auditory nerve, the target of cochlear implant stimulation. Here we review studies from our human and animal laboratories aimed at characterizing the health of the implanted cochlea and the auditory nerve. We use the data on cochlear and neural health to guide rehabilitation strategies. The data also motivate the development of tissue-engineering procedures to preserve or build a healthy cochlea and improve performance obtained by cochlear implant recipients or eventually replace the need for a cochlear implant. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled .

  3. A phonological system at 2 years after cochlear implantation

    PubMed Central

    CHIN, STEVEN B.; PISONI, DAVID B.

    2011-01-01

    This report is a description of a developing phonological system as manifested in the productions of a prelingually deafened child approximately 2 years after fitting with a Nucleus 22-Channel Multi-Electrode Cochlear Implant. A probe list consisting of 23 proper nouns familiar to the child was used to elicit samples of her speech; stimulus materials consisted of photographs of those persons (friends and family members) whose names were included in the probe list. Analysis of the child's productions addressed the composition of the phonetic inventory of consonants and vowels and the presence of syllable structure and other phonotactic constraints. Results indicated a rich inventory of speech sound segments (among both consonants and vowels) and a lack of stringent constraints on syllable structure and consonants permitted in specified word positions. A further comparative analysis of correspondences with the ambient language showed a number of patterns that are also common in the speech of children with normal hearing. PMID:22091697

  4. Sharp temporal tuning in the bat auditory midbrain overcomes spectral-temporal trade-off imposed by cochlear mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Macías, Silvio; Hechavarría, Julio C.; Kössl, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    In the cochlea of the mustached bat, cochlear resonance produces extremely sharp frequency tuning to the dominant frequency of the echolocation calls, around 61 kHz. Such high frequency resolution in the cochlea is accomplished at the expense of losing temporal resolution because of cochlear ringing, an effect that is observable not only in the cochlea but also in the cochlear nucleus. In the midbrain, the duration of sounds is thought to be analyzed by duration-tuned neurons, which are selective to both stimulus duration and frequency. We recorded from 57 DTNs in the auditory midbrain of the mustached bat to assess if a spectral-temporal trade-off is present. Such spectral-temporal trade-off is known to occur as sharp tuning in the frequency domain which results in poorer resolution in the time domain, and vice versa. We found that a specialized sub-population of midbrain DTNs tuned to the bat’s mechanical cochlear resonance frequency escape the cochlear spectral-temporal trade-off. We also show evidence that points towards an underlying neuronal inhibition that appears to be specific only at the resonance frequency. PMID:27374258

  5. A comparison of cochlear implant processing strategies in children using speech pattern audiometry.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Kate E; Verschuur, Carl

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to use Speech Pattern Audiometry (SPA) to compare phoneme perception performance between SPEAK and ACE processing strategies with children using the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant. Listeners were evaluated in terms of ability to identify two synthetic word pairs, one signalling a voicing contrast and the other signalling a place of articulation contrast. For both word pairs, ACE was associated with more 'normal' phoneme boundaries than SPEAK. There was also a non-significant trend for better identification ability with ACE compared to SPEAK. The study suggests that there may be a place for SPA as part of the clinical battery of tests used for evaluation of cochlear implant speech processing strategies in children. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Cochlear implants in young children.

    PubMed

    Niparko, John K; Blankenhorn, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    The cochlear implant is best characterized as a device that provides access to the sound environment. The device enables the hearing pathway to respond to environmental and speech sounds, providing informational cues from the surroundings and from others that may escape visual detection. As the developmental effects of a profound hearing loss are multiple, cochlear implants have been applied to ever younger children in an attempt to promote a more normal level of developmental learning through audition. In deafness, transducer elements of the inner ear fail to trigger auditory nerve afferent nerves in the presence of sound input. However, large reserves of afferent fibers exist even in the auditory nerve of a profoundly deaf patient. Furthermore, these nerve fibers retain the ability to respond to prosthetic activation. Through developmental learning in the early, formative years, auditory centers of the brain appear capable of processing information from the implant to provide speech comprehension and oral language development. Multichannel implants have replaced original single channel designs. multichannel devices enable larger percentages of recipients to recognize the spoken word without visual cues because they provide spectral information in addition to temporal and intensity cues. Testing under conditions of auditory (implant)-only input reveals significant open-set speech understanding capabilities in more than 75% of children after three years of device use. The benefit provided by implants may vary with a number of conditions including: hearing history, age of deafness onset, age at implantation, etiology of deafness, linguistic abilities, and the presence of a motivated system of support of oral language development. Patient variables should be given individual consideration in judging candidacy for a cochlear implant and in planning rehabilitative and education services after surgery and activation of the device. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Cochlear amplification: A moderated discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Stephen; Grosh, Karl; Puria, Sunil

    2015-12-01

    The following is an edited transcript of a recorded discussion session on the topic of "Cochlear Amplification". The discussion, moderated by the authors, took place at the 12th International Workshop on the Mechanics of Hearing held at Cape Sounio, Greece, in June 2014. All participants knew that the session was being recorded. In view of both the spontaneous nature of the discussion and the editing, however, this transcript may not represent the considered or final views of the participants, and may not represent a consensus of experts in the field. The reader is advised to consult additional independent publications.

  8. Audiovisual segregation in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Landry, Simon; Bacon, Benoit A; Leybaert, Jacqueline; Gagné, Jean-Pierre; Champoux, François

    2012-01-01

    It has traditionally been assumed that cochlear implant users de facto perform atypically in audiovisual tasks. However, a recent study that combined an auditory task with visual distractors suggests that only those cochlear implant users that are not proficient at recognizing speech sounds might show abnormal audiovisual interactions. The present study aims at reinforcing this notion by investigating the audiovisual segregation abilities of cochlear implant users in a visual task with auditory distractors. Speechreading was assessed in two groups of cochlear implant users (proficient and non-proficient at sound recognition), as well as in normal controls. A visual speech recognition task (i.e. speechreading) was administered either in silence or in combination with three types of auditory distractors: i) noise ii) reverse speech sound and iii) non-altered speech sound. Cochlear implant users proficient at speech recognition performed like normal controls in all conditions, whereas non-proficient users showed significantly different audiovisual segregation patterns in both speech conditions. These results confirm that normal-like audiovisual segregation is possible in highly skilled cochlear implant users and, consequently, that proficient and non-proficient CI users cannot be lumped into a single group. This important feature must be taken into account in further studies of audiovisual interactions in cochlear implant users.

  9. Audiovisual Segregation in Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Simon; Bacon, Benoit A.; Leybaert, Jacqueline; Gagné, Jean-Pierre; Champoux, François

    2012-01-01

    It has traditionally been assumed that cochlear implant users de facto perform atypically in audiovisual tasks. However, a recent study that combined an auditory task with visual distractors suggests that only those cochlear implant users that are not proficient at recognizing speech sounds might show abnormal audiovisual interactions. The present study aims at reinforcing this notion by investigating the audiovisual segregation abilities of cochlear implant users in a visual task with auditory distractors. Speechreading was assessed in two groups of cochlear implant users (proficient and non-proficient at sound recognition), as well as in normal controls. A visual speech recognition task (i.e. speechreading) was administered either in silence or in combination with three types of auditory distractors: i) noise ii) reverse speech sound and iii) non-altered speech sound. Cochlear implant users proficient at speech recognition performed like normal controls in all conditions, whereas non-proficient users showed significantly different audiovisual segregation patterns in both speech conditions. These results confirm that normal-like audiovisual segregation is possible in highly skilled cochlear implant users and, consequently, that proficient and non-proficient CI users cannot be lumped into a single group. This important feature must be taken into account in further studies of audiovisual interactions in cochlear implant users. PMID:22427963

  10. Poznań's program of cochlear and brainstem implantation: a general review.

    PubMed

    Szyfter, W; Pruszewicz, A; Karlik, M; Kawczyński, M; Sekula, A; Swidziński, P; Magierska, M

    2003-09-01

    The cochlear implantation program in Poznań started in January 1994. Within 8 years, 151 patients were implanted (149 cochlear and 2 auditory brain-stem implants). The implanted group comprised 111 children and 40 adults. We have extended the lower age limit for cochlear implant candidates, and the youngest implanted patient was 18-months-old at the time of surgery. We have also implanted six multi-handicapped subjects. All patients were implanted with different nucleus devices (22, 24 M, 24 K, 24 Contour, 24 Double Array and 24 ABI). Insertion of the Nucleus 24 Contour electrode carrier requires a little larger cochleostomy in comparison with conventional straight array. After insertion, the intraoperative measurements are taken (impedance telemetry, electrically evoked stapedius reflex and NRT). The day after surgery, each patient undergoes an X-ray examination (the cochleogram or cochlear view). The calculated length of the electrode array insertion was 12.75-24.0 mm (mean: 22.05 mm) and the degree of electrode rotation was 180-540 degrees (mean: 292.82 degrees). After speech processor switch-on, we performed NRT measurements. Our results indicated that the NRT threshold was in 51.4% of the dynamic range within the group of examined patients. The adults' progress of rehabilitation was checked during individual sessions. The rehabilitation of children included two rehabilitation schedules: continuous ones and weekly rehabilitation camps. The progress of the recovery process of implanted children enabled them to change their school profile from hearing impaired to mainstream. Voice rehabilitation is often monitored by acoustic analysis using the Multi Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP).

  11. Cochlear implants and bacterial meningitis: A speech recognition study in paired samples

    PubMed Central

    de Brito, Rubens; Bittencourt, Aline Gomes; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valéria; Magalhães, Ana Tereza; Samuel, Paola; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Cochlear implants may guarantee sound perception and the ability to detect speech at a close-to-normal hearing intensity; however, differences have been observed among implantees in terms of performance on discrimination tests and speech recognition. Objective: To identify whether patients with post-meningitis deafness perform similarly to patients with hearing loss due to other causes. Method: A retrospective clinical study involving post-lingual patients who had been using Nucleus-22 or Nucleus-24 cochlear implants for at least 1 year. These patients were matched with respect to age (± 2 years), time since the onset of deafness (± 1 year), and the duration of implant use with implant users who had hearing loss due to other causes. Speech perception was assessed using the Portuguese version of the Latin-American Protocol for the Evaluation of Cochlear Implants. Results: The sample consisted of 52 individuals (26 in each of the 2 groups). The post-meningitic group had a median of 18.5 active electrodes. The group with hearing loss due to other causes had a median of 21, but no significant statistical difference was observed (p = 0.07). The results of closed- and open-set speech recognition tests showed great variability in speech recognition between the studied groups. These differences were more pronounced for the most difficult listening tasks, such as the medial consonant task (in the vowel-consonant-vowel format). Conclusion: Cochlear implant recipients with hearing loss due to bacterial meningitis, who had been using the device for 1 year performed more poorly on closed- and open-set speech recognition tests than did implant recipients with hearing loss due to other causes. PMID:25991995

  12. Case-control analysis of cochlear implant performance in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Friedland, David R; Runge-Samuelson, Christina; Baig, Humera; Jensen, Jamie

    2010-05-01

    To characterize speech perception performance in elderly cochlear implant users compared with younger adult users. Case-control retrospective analysis from January 1, 1999, to January 28, 2008. Tertiary care, academic practice cochlear implant program. Medical records for 78 patients with age at implantation of 65 years or older were analyzed for ear-specific preimplantation speech perception performance, length of deafness, age at implantation, and 1-year postimplantation speech perception performance. A subset of 28 elderly patients with complete data was matched to 28 younger adult patients (age at implantation, 18-64 years) for preimplantation performance using the Hearing in Noise Test-Quiet scores (mean, 22% and 23%, respectively). One-year postimplantation performance on word and sentence testing. Within the elderly cohort, the Consonant-Nucleus-Consonant and Hearing in Noise Test-Quiet scores were not affected by age. The Hearing in Noise Test-Noise scores trended downward with increasing age but did not reach statistical significance (P = .052). Of the matched older and younger patients, 55 of 56 showed improvement in their 1-year postimplantation compared with preimplantation Hearing in Noise Test-Quiet scores, with better preimplantation performance predictive of better postimplantation performance, independent of age at implantation (P = .02). Group comparisons, however, revealed poorer postimplantation scores overall for the elderly patients compared with the younger ones for the Hearing in Noise Test-Quiet (70% vs 83%; P = .02) and the Consonant-Nucleus-Consonant test (38% vs 53%; P = .02). Elderly patients benefit significantly from cochlear implantation. Compared with a younger cohort matched for preimplantation performance, however, their postimplantation scores are significantly lower on some measures. These results may provide guidelines for candidacy and counseling regarding elderly patients with cochlear implants.

  13. Speech perception comparisons using an implanted and an external microphone in existing cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Herman A; Uhler, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    To compare the speech understanding abilities of cochlear implant listeners using 2 microphone technologies, the Otologics fully implantable Carina and the Cochlear Freedom microphones. Feasibility study using direct comparison of the 2 microphones, nonrandomized and nonblinded within case studies. Tertiary referral center hospital outpatient clinic. Four subjects with greater than 1 year of unilateral listening experience with the Freedom Cochlear Implant and a CNC word score higher than 40%. A Carina microphone coupled to a percutaneous plug was implanted on the ipsilateral side of the cochlear implant. Two months were allowed for healing before connecting to the Carina microphone. The percutaneous plug was connected to a body worn external processor with output leads inserted into the auxiliary port of the Freedom processor. Subjects were instructed to use each of the 2 microphones for half of their daily implant use. Aided pure tone thresholds, consonant-nucleus-consonant (CNC), Bamford-Kowel-Bench Speech in Noise test (BKN-SIN), and Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit. All subjects had sound perceptions using both microphones. The loudness and quality of the sound was judged to be poorer with the Carina in the first 2 subjects. The latter 2 demonstrated essential equivalence in the second two listeners, with the exception of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit reporting greater percentage of problems for the Carina in the background noise situation for subject 0011-003PP. CNC word scores were better with the Freedom than the Carina in all 4 subjects. The latter 2 showed improved speech perception abilities with the Carina, compared with the first 2. The BKB-SIN showed consistently better results with the Freedom in noise. Early observations indicate that it is potentially feasible to use the fully implanted Carina microphone with the Freedom Cochlear Implant. The authors would anticipate that outcomes would improve as more knowledge is gained

  14. A comparison of vowel production by children with multichannel cochlear implants or tactile aids: perceptual evidence.

    PubMed

    Ertmer, D J; Kirk, K I; Sehgal, S T; Riley, A I; Osberger, M J

    1997-08-01

    To examine changes in perceived vowel production accuracy over time in prelingually deafened children who use a multichannel cochlear implant (Nucleus 22 channel) or a multichannel tactile aid (Tactaid 7) and to compare the levels of perceived vowel production accuracy attained by the two device groups. The subjects were participants in longitudinal studies of the effects of sensory aids on the development of perceptual, speech, and language skills. As part of these studies, imitative vowel productions were elicited and transcribed before each child received their sensory aid and at 6 mo intervals thereafter. Data for the current study was obtained from the predevice interval and a later interval (postdevice) that was an average of 1.8 yr after the subjects received their respective devices. The subjects' vowel productions were judged for accuracy in matching an imitative model and for correctness of vowel features (height and place). Within-group analyses were completed to determine if vowel production scores improved over the course of the study for each device group. Between group comparisons were performed to examine differences in mean scores at each interval. Before receiving their multichannel devices, the two groups of subjects demonstrated similar imitative vowel production skills. After an average of 1.8 yr of device use, the cochlear implant subjects demonstrated significantly improved production of diphthongs and all vowel categories except low vowels. The Tactaid 7 subjects demonstrated significant improvement only in the production of diphthongs. Thus, cochlear implant recipients' vowel production skills were found to be significantly better than those of the Tactaid 7 users after a comparable amount of device experience. The vowel production gains of the cochlear implant subjects were similar in amount to those noted in other studies of children who use the Nucleus multichannel cochlear implant and further confirm the potential of this device for

  15. Cochlear Implant Using Neural Prosthetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shweta; Singh, Shashi kumar; Dubey, Pratik Kumar

    2012-10-01

    This research is based on neural prosthetic device. The oldest and most widely used of these electrical, and often computerized, devices is the cochlear implant, which has provided hearing to thousands of congenitally deaf people in this country. Recently, the use of the cochlear implant is expanding to the elderly, who frequently suffer major hearing loss. More cutting edge are artificial retinas, which are helping dozens of blind people see, and ìsmartî artificial arms and legs that amputees can maneuver by thoughts alone, and that feel more like real limbs.Research, which curiosity led to explore frog legs dancing during thunderstorms, a snail shapedorgan in the inner ear, and how various eye cells react to light, have fostered an understanding of how to ìtalkî to the nervous system. That understanding combined with the miniaturization of electronics and enhanced computer processing has enabled prosthetic devices that often can bridge the gap in nerve signaling that is caused by disease or injury.

  16. A chinchilla nonlinear cochlear filterbank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Najera, Alberto; Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A.; Meddis, Ray

    2002-05-01

    A dual-resonance nonlinear (DRNL) filter [Meddis et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, 2852-2861 (2001)] was fitted to model chinchilla cochlear responses to tonal stimuli at individual sites along the basilar membrane (BM) with best frequencies (BF) of 0.8, 5.5, 7.25, 9.75, 10.0, 12.0, and 14.0 kHz. At each BF, parameters were obtained for the DRNL filter to reproduce input/output and tuning curves. The match between the model and the experimental data is almost perfect for frequencies near BF. Quantitatively, the model response gets worse (but is still reasonable) for frequencies well below and well above BF. These discrepancies are discussed in terms of the middle-ear function, which proves critical. The model responses to clicks, AM, multicomponent, and Schroder-phase stimuli were also compared against experimental data. Results show that the architecture of the DRNL filter seems suitable to reproduce this wide range of phenomena. Strategies are discussed for developing a chinchilla nonlinear cochlear filterbank from current parameters. [Work supported by the Consejería de Sanidad of the Junta de Comunidades of Castilla, La Mancha.

  17. Cortical Plasticity after Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, B.; Gjedde, A.; Wallentin, M.; Vuust, P.

    2013-01-01

    The most dramatic progress in the restoration of hearing takes place in the first months after cochlear implantation. To map the brain activity underlying this process, we used positron emission tomography at three time points: within 14 days, three months, and six months after switch-on. Fifteen recently implanted adult implant recipients listened to running speech or speech-like noise in four sequential PET sessions at each milestone. CI listeners with postlingual hearing loss showed differential activation of left superior temporal gyrus during speech and speech-like stimuli, unlike CI listeners with prelingual hearing loss. Furthermore, Broca's area was activated as an effect of time, but only in CI listeners with postlingual hearing loss. The study demonstrates that adaptation to the cochlear implant is highly related to the history of hearing loss. Speech processing in patients whose hearing loss occurred after the acquisition of language involves brain areas associated with speech comprehension, which is not the case for patients whose hearing loss occurred before the acquisition of language. Finally, the findings confirm the key role of Broca's area in restoration of speech perception, but only in individuals in whom Broca's area has been active prior to the loss of hearing. PMID:24377050

  18. Cochlear implant in Cogan's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, Rajesh; Shawn, T Joseph

    2007-10-01

    Post-lingual deafness is a stressful condition which is rendered even more painful by the sudden emotional isolation that the patient suffers. Cogan's syndrome is a rare autoimmune cause for post-lingual deafness characterized by non-syphilitic interstitial keratitis, bilateral audio vestibular deficiencies and systemic vasculitis. World over very few cases of Cogan's syndrome have been reported. Cochlear implant surgery in such a patient is a challenging but highly satisfactory experience due to the multitude of clinical problems the patient faces. This demands a proper work up, meticulous surgery and stringent post-operative follow-up. Here we present a patient with atypical Cogan's syndrome, diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism. She went into a major depression with suicidal tendency following the complete loss of hearing. We performed cochlear implant surgery in this patient, but not before facing several clinical obstacles, helped by a dedicated team consisting of a rheumatologist, endocrinologist, neurophysician, psychiatrist, anaesthetists and audiologist. The results are extremely satisfying for the patient and all the people involved. This case underlines the prime importance of hearing in maintaining the psychological well being of a human being.

  19. Cochlear implantation: a biomechanical prosthesis for hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Yawn, Robert; Hunter, Jacob B.; Sweeney, Alex D.

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implants are a medical prosthesis used to treat sensorineural deafness, and one of the greatest advances in modern medicine. The following article is an overview of cochlear implant technology. The history of cochlear implantation and the development of modern implant technology will be discussed, as well as current surgical techniques. Research regarding expansion of candidacy, hearing preservation cochlear implantation, and implantation for unilateral deafness are described. Lastly, innovative technology is discussed, including the hybrid cochlear implant and the totally implantable cochlear implant. PMID:26097718

  20. Histopathology of human cochlear implants: correlation of psychophysical and anatomical measures.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aayesha M; Whiten, Darren M; Nadol, Joseph B; Eddington, Donald K

    2005-07-01

    The cadavaric temporal bones of five subjects who underwent cochlear implantation during life (2 Nucleus and 3 Ineraid) were analyzed using two-dimensional (2D) reconstruction of serial sections to determine the number of surviving spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) in the region of each electrode of the implanted arrays. The last psychophysical threshold and maximum-comfortable sensation level measured for each electrode were compared to their respective SGC count to determine the across-electrode psychophysical variance accounted for by the SGC counts. Significant correlations between psychophysical measures and SGC counts were found in only two of the five subjects: one Nucleus implantee (e.g., r=-0.71; p<0.001 for threshold vs. count) and one Ineraid implantee (e.g., r=-0.86; p<0.05 for threshold vs. count). A three-dimensional (3D) model of the implanted cochlea was formulated using the temporal-bone anatomy of the Nucleus subject for whom the 2D analysis did not result in significant correlations between counts and psychophysical measures. Predictions of the threshold vs. electrode profile were closer to the measured profile for the 3D model than for the 2D analysis. These results lead us to hypothesize that 3D techniques will be required to asses the impact of peripheral anatomy on the benefit patients derive from cochlear implantation.

  1. Cochlear Implants: Who Are They For?

    MedlinePlus

    ... people who never had any hearing at all. Communication training Cochlear implants can't restore "normal" hearing. ... interpret sound. The amount of time needed for communication training or rehabilitation varies from a few months ...

  2. Benefits and Risks of Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are the Risks of Cochlear Implants? General Anesthesia Risks General anesthesia is drug-induced sleep. The drugs, such as ... differently. For most people, the risk of general anesthesia is very low. However, for some people with ...

  3. Educational Challenges for Children with Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chute, Patricia M.; Nevins, Mary Ellen

    2003-01-01

    This article addresses educational challenges for children with severe to profound hearing loss who receive cochlear implants. Despite the implants, these children face acoustic challenges, academic challenges, attention challenges, associative challenges, and adjustment challenges. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

  4. Melodic contour identification by cochlear implant listeners.

    PubMed

    Galvin, John J; Fu, Qian-Jie; Nogaki, Geraldine

    2007-06-01

    While the cochlear implant provides many deaf patients with good speech understanding in quiet, music perception and appreciation with the cochlear implant remains a major challenge for most cochlear implant users. The present study investigated whether a closed-set melodic contour identification (MCI) task could be used to quantify cochlear implant users' ability to recognize musical melodies and whether MCI performance could be improved with moderate auditory training. The present study also compared MCI performance with familiar melody identification (FMI) performance, with and without MCI training. For the MCI task, test stimuli were melodic contours composed of 5 notes of equal duration whose frequencies corresponded to musical intervals. The interval between successive notes in each contour was varied between 1 and 5 semitones; the "root note" of the contours was also varied (A3, A4, and A5). Nine distinct musical patterns were generated for each interval and root note condition, resulting in a total of 135 musical contours. The identification of these melodic contours was measured in 11 cochlear implant users. FMI was also evaluated in the same subjects; recognition of 12 familiar melodies was tested with and without rhythm cues. MCI was also trained in 6 subjects, using custom software and melodic contours presented in a different frequency range from that used for testing. Results showed that MCI recognition performance was highly variable among cochlear implant users, ranging from 14% to 91% correct. For most subjects, MCI performance improved as the number of semitones between successive notes was increased; performance was slightly lower for the A3 root note condition. Mean FMI performance was 58% correct when rhythm cues were preserved and 29% correct when rhythm cues were removed. Statistical analyses revealed no significant correlation between MCI performance and FMI performance (with or without rhythmic cues). However, MCI performance was

  5. Melodic Contour Identification by Cochlear Implant Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Galvin, John J.; Fu, Qian-Jie; Nogaki, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Objective While the cochlear implant provides many deaf patients with good speech understanding in quiet, music perception and appreciation with the cochlear implant remains a major challenge for most cochlear implant users. The present study investigated whether a closed-set melodic contour identification (MCI) task could be used to quantify cochlear implant users’ ability to recognize musical melodies and whether MCI performance could be improved with moderate auditory training. The present study also compared MCI performance with familiar melody identification (FMI) performance, with and without MCI training. Methods For the MCI task, test stimuli were melodic contours composed of 5 notes of equal duration whose frequencies corresponded to musical intervals. The interval between successive notes in each contour was varied between 1 and 5 semitones; the “root note” of the contours was also varied (A3, A4, and A5). Nine distinct musical patterns were generated for each interval and root note condition, resulting in a total of 135 musical contours. The identification of these melodic contours was measured in 11 cochlear implant users. FMI was also evaluated in the same subjects; recognition of 12 familiar melodies was tested with and without rhythm cues. MCI was also trained in 6 subjects, using custom software and melodic contours presented in a different frequency range from that used for testing. Results Results showed that MCI recognition performance was highly variable among cochlear implant users, ranging from 14% to 91% correct. For most subjects, MCI performance improved as the number of semitones between successive notes was increased; performance was slightly lower for the A3 root note condition. Mean FMI performance was 58% correct when rhythm cues were preserved and 29% correct when rhythm cues were removed. Statistical analyses revealed no significant correlation between MCI performance and FMI performance (with or without rhythmic cues). However

  6. Patterns of Long-term Hearing Loss in Hearing Preservation Cochlear Implant Surgery.

    PubMed

    Dedhia, Kavita; Worman, Tina; Meredith, Margaret A; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2016-06-01

    To describe patterns of hearing loss in patients with low-frequency residual hearing after cochlear implantation. Retrospective chart review. Tertiary referral center. Cochlear implant candidates with immediate postoperative residual low-frequency hearing. Hybrid or traditional cochlear implant. Audiograms to measure postoperative hearing. Of the 166 patients reviewed, 17 ears met the inclusion criteria. The age ranged from 3 years 2 months to 86 years. Etiology was unknown (n = 6), presbycusis (n = 5), genetic (n = 4), acoustic trauma (n = 1), and measles virus (n = 1). The Nucleus Hybrid S8 and S12 (n = 7) was the most common electrode array, and then Nucleus 422 (n = 6), Nucleus Contour Advance (n = 2), Med-El Flex 28 (n = 2), and Advanced Bionics Mid Scala (n = 1). Cochleostomy was performed in nine, and round window approach in nine patients. Average follow-up was 28 months (2-68 mo). Postoperative loss was mixed in eight and purely sensorineural in eight. The most common patterns of hearing loss were gradual decline (n = 7), and then fluctuating hearing (n = 6), stable (n = 3), and sudden loss (n = 1). One patient only had one postoperative audiogram. Some long-term hearing preservation was achieved in 94% of patients with immediate postoperative hearing preservation. Patients developed both mixed and sensorineural loss postoperatively. A majority of patients with mixed hearing loss had a supra-preoperative bone curve. Gradual decline and fluctuating hearing loss were the most common patterns of hearing loss; few patients had stable hearing and one had a sudden loss.

  7. Massive Tension Pneumocephalus Following Cochlear Implant Surgery.

    PubMed

    Di Lella, Filippo; D'Angelo, Giulia; Iaccarino, Ilaria; Piccinini, Silvia; Negri, Maurizio; Vincenti, Vincenzo

    2016-10-01

    To report clinical presentation, management and outcomes of a rare complication of cochlear implant surgery. A 68-year-old man, affected by profound bilateral deafness because of superficial cerebral hemosiderosis, presented to Authors' Department 8 days after cochlear implant surgery with vomiting, fever, and mental confusion. Brain computed tomographic (CT) scan showed a massive collection of intracranial air from an osteodural defect in the right tegmen mastoideum because of repeated nose blowing in the postoperative period. A multilayer reconstruction of the tegmen with obliteration of the mastoid cavity using abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue was performed, preserving the cochlear implant in place. Following surgery the patient showed rapid neurological improvement and CT scan performed 2 days later showed complete resolution of the intracranial air collection. He is currently using the cochlear implant with open set performances. Pneumocephalus is a rare complication of cochlear implant surgery. In patients with severe neurological signs following cochlear implantation (CI), pneumocephalus should be suspected. Drilling of mastoid air cells may expose dura mater and positive high pressure events may break meningeal layers and force air into the cranial cavity.

  8. Informed Consent, Deaf Culture, and Cochlear Implants.

    PubMed

    Pass, Lauren; Graber, Abraham D

    2015-01-01

    While cochlear implantation is now considered routine in many parts of the world, the debate over how to ethically implement this technology continues. One's stance on implantation often hinges on one's understanding of deafness. On one end of the spectrum are those who see cochlear implants as a much needed cure for an otherwise intractable disability. On the other end of the spectrum are those who view the Deaf as members of a thriving culture and see the cochlear implant as an attempt to eliminate this culture. Rather than take a stance in this debate, we will argue that the informed consent process for cochlear implantation must include access to Deaf perspectives. Deaf individuals know best what it is like to be a member of the Deaf community; the reasonable person would put significant weight on the testimony of Deaf individuals when considering whether to undergo cochlear implantation. The reasonable person standard determines what information careproviders must present as part of the informed consent process; thus, informed consent for cochlear implantation requires access to the testimony of Deaf individuals.

  9. [Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach].

    PubMed

    Szyfter, W; Colletti, V; Pruszewicz, A; Kopeć, T; Szymiec, E; Kawczyński, M; Karlik, M

    2001-01-01

    The inner part of cochlear implant is inserted into inner ear during surgery through mastoid and middle ear. It is a classical method, used in the majority cochlear centers in the world. This is not a suitable method in case of chronic otitis media and middle ear malformation. In these cases Colletti proposed the middle fossa approach and cochlear implant insertion omitting middle ear structures. In patient with bilateral chronic otitis media underwent a few ears operations without obtaining dry postoperative cavity. Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach was performed in this patient. The bone fenster was cut, temporal lobe was bent and petrosus pyramid upper surface was exposed. When the superficial petrosal greater nerve, facial nerve and arcuate eminence were localised, the cochlear was open in the basal turn and electrode were inserted. The patient achieves good results in the postoperative speech rehabilitation. It confirmed Colletti tesis that deeper electrode insertion in the cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach enable use of low and middle frequencies, which are very important in speech understanding.

  10. Organization of the nucleus magnocellularis and the nucleus laminaris in the barn owl: encoding and measuring interaural time differences.

    PubMed

    Carr, C E; Boudreau, R E

    1993-08-15

    The circuit from the cochlear nucleus magnocellularis to the nucleus laminaris supports the encoding and measurement of interaural time differences in the auditory brainstem. Specializations for the encoding of temporal information include the few and/or short dendrites and thick axons of the magnocellular and laminaris neurons, and the high degree of convergence in the circuit. Magnocellular cells have large cell bodies covered with somatic spines. The cells have few dendrites, and the number of dendrites decreases from low to high best frequency regions of the nucleus. Magnocellular neurons receive both auditory nerve terminals and GABAergic terminals with symmetric synapses and terminals filled with pleomorphic vesicles. The axonal projections of magnocellular neurons to the nucleus laminaris form maps of interaural time difference. About 100 magnocellular afferents from each side converge on each laminaris neuron, and the terminals from each side do not occupy separate domains on the cell. These terminals form punctate asymmetric synapses on both the dendrites and the cell bodies of laminaris neurons. Laminaris neurons also receive GABAergic terminals which form symmetric synapses. Laminaris neurons have oval cell bodies covered with very short dendrites. The cells in the low best frequency region of the nucleus laminaris have longer dendrites.

  11. Cochlear implants in Belgium: Prevalence in paediatric and adult cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    De Raeve, L

    2016-06-01

    Belgium, and especially the northern region called Flanders, has been a centre of expertise in cochlear implants and early hearing screening for many years. Cochlear implants are reimbursed by the Belgian National Institute for Health and Disability (BNIHD) Insurance in adults and in children since October 1994. More than 20 years later, we would like to measure the prevalence of cochlear implants in adults and in children till now. Based on scientific research data on the prevalence of severe to profound hearing loss in adults and in children and on the number of implantations from the data of the BNIHD, we could measure the percentages of paediatric and adult CI users in comparing to the number of CI candidates. The degree of utilisation of cochlear implantation varies considerably between the paediatric and the adult population. On average, 78% of deaf children are receiving cochlear implants, but in adults only 6.6% of CI candidates are receiving one. There are big differences in Belgium in utilisation of cochlear implants between adults and children. Because of the underutilisation of cochlear implants, especially in adults, we have to work on raising the general awareness of the benefits of cochlear implants, and its improvement in quality of life, based on cost-effectiveness data and on guidelines for good clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimizing cochlear implant speech performance.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Margaret W

    2003-09-01

    Results of studies performed in our laboratory suggest that cochlear implant recipients understand speech best if the following speech processor parameters are individually chosen for each person: minimum and maximum stimulation levels on each electrode in the speech processor program (MAP), stimulation rate, and speech coding strategy. If these and related parameters are chosen to make soft sounds (from approximately 100 to 6,000 Hz) audible at as close to 20 dB hearing level as possible and loud sounds not too loud, recipients have the opportunity to hear speech in everyday life situations that are of key importance to children who are learning language and to all recipients in terms of ease of communication.

  13. Parents' narratives on cochlear implantation: reconstructing the experience of having a child with cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Peñaranda, Augusto; Suárez, Roberto M; Niño, Natalia M; Aparicio, Maria Leonor; García, Juan Manuel; Barón, Clemencia

    2011-08-01

    This paper discusses parents' narratives on cochlear implantation in Bogotá, Colombia using a qualitative approach. The main research objective was to identify how parents perceived the processes of diagnosis of their child's hearing loss, making the decision for cochlear implantation and the post-surgery period. All participants were hearing couples (n = 13) with similar socio-cultural backgrounds whose children had undergone cochlear implant surgery. Results show why cochlear implants are a very highly valued technological device with great symbolic power for parents. The study also deals with how perceptions about oral/sign language and disability, as well as social expectations for their children's lifetime opportunities, determine how the parents themselves have experienced their journey through the process of their children's cochlear implantation.

  14. Comparison of the effects of four different cochlear implant electrodes on intra-cochlear pressure in a model.

    PubMed

    Todt, Ingo; Mittmann, Marlene; Ernst, Arneborg; Mittmann, Philipp

    2017-03-01

    Based on this model experiment, a small tip and low volume electrode show lowest intra-cochlear pressure values. Insertional support by a tool minimizes fast pressure changes. Higher electrodes volumes affect slow and fast pressure changes as well. Insertion causing low intra-cochlear pressure is assumed to be important for atraumatic cochlear implant surgery to preserve residual hearing. Cochlear implant electrodes differ in terms of parameters like tip size, length, volume, and technique of insertion. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of different cochlear implant electrodes on insertional intra-cochlear pressure in a cochlear model. Cochlear implant electrode insertions were performed in an artificial cochlear model and intra-cochlear pressure changes were recorded in parallel with a micro-pressure sensor positioned in the apical region of the cochlear model to follow the maximum values, temporal changes, maximum amplitude, and frequency of changes in intra-cochlear pressure. Insertions were performed with four different electrodes (Advanced Bionics 1j, Helix, HFMS, and LW23). This study found statistically significant differences in the occurrence of initial maximum pressure values correlating with the electrode tip size. The different electrodes and the technique of insertion significantly affected the occurrence of maximum value, amplitude, and frequency of intra-cochlear pressure occurrence.

  15. Low Levels of Insurance Reimbursement Impede Access to Cochlear Implants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Low Levels of Insurance Reimbursement Impede Access to Cochlear Implants Cochlear implants enable many severely to profoundly hearing-impaired...a cochlear implant device and required professional services, can cost more than $40,000. But studies by other organizations show that the benefits of...using the technology generally outweigh the treatment costs. About 3,000 people received cochlear implants in the United States in 1999—a number

  16. [Cochlear implantation in far advanced otosclerosis: series of four cases].

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, İsmail; Akdoğan, M Volkan; Özer, Fulya; Yavuz, Haluk; Çadırcı, Cabbar; Özlüoğlu, Levent N N

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present four patients who underwent cochlear implantation due to far advanced otosclerosis. Preoperative evaluations, intraoperative findings, complications, and postoperative benefits were analyzed. Cochlear implantation is a treatment option providing excellent audiological results for rehabilitation of patients with far advanced otosclerosis. However, facial nerve stimulation after cochlear implantation is observed more frequently in patients with otosclerosis. Also, caution should be paid in patients with otosclerosis in terms of cochlear ossification and inconsistent results.

  17. Longitudinal variations in fitting parameters for adult cochlear implant recipients.

    PubMed

    Mosca, F; Grassia, R; Leone, C A

    2014-04-01

    In patients with a cochlear implant (CI), the first critical point in processing auditory information from sound stimuli that leads to comprehension is the interface between the electrode and the cochlear nerve, which is dependent on providing appropriate current input. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the longitudinal differences in psychoacoustic fitting parameters in CI users. We studied 26 profoundly deaf adults, aged between 18 and 58 years, who had been implanted in our department between 2009 and 2011. The lowest current levels that evoked an auditory sensation (T-level) and the highest current levels that did not elicit an uncomfortable loud sensation (C-level) were recorded at the time of activation, approximately 30 days after implantation (mean 28.5 days) (T0), after one month (T1), 3 months (T3), 6 months (T6) and one year (T12). Impedance values were calculated for electrode groups: basal, middle and apical. In all cases, the same model of perimodiolar implant (Cochlear™ Nucleus(®) CI24RE) and the same surgical technique (cochleostomy) were used. The values of T-level and C-level showed significant incremental changes between T0 and T1 and between T1 and T3. T-levels in the basal regions of the cochlea were higher than in other sites. T-levels in the basal turn exhibited higher values consistent with a greater amount of fibrosis, as reported in other studies. Our findings suggest that fitting sessions should be scheduled more frequently during the first three months as indicated by the greater slope of T- and C- level variations during that time frame.

  18. Pediatric cochlear implantation in auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Madden, Colm; Hilbert, Lisa; Rutter, Michael; Greinwald, John; Choo, Daniel

    2002-03-01

    Auditory neuropathy (AN) is characterized by varying degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, an absent or severely abnormal auditory brainstem response, and normal otoacoustic emissions. The nomenclature for this condition reflects the concept that the site of lesion is proximal to the cochlea (e.g., cochlear nerve). Given this hypothesis, it is reasonable to expect limited benefit from cochlear implantation in patients with AN. However, a growing body of evidence shows the striking benefits of cochlear implantation in AN. To explore this topic, we reviewed our population of children with AN and, specifically, the performance results in those children having undergone cochlear implantation. A retrospective case review of those patients diagnosed with AN from 1993 to 2001. A tertiary pediatric referral center. A diagnosis of AN reported from the Center for Hearing and Deafness Research, Cincinnati, OH, database. Eighteen patients were diagnosed with AN (11 girls, 7 boys), with 3 sets of siblings, including 1 set of identical twins. Four patients with AN underwent implantation in the previous 5 years. Twelve out of the 18 patients had classic risk factors for AN (e.g., prematurity and hyperbilirubinemia). The degree of hearing loss varied in our patients, with a majority showing severe to profound deficits. All children with implants showed improvement in auditory and verbal development, but this improvement was variable. The success of cochlear implantation in these patients suggests that some children with AN have an auditory system lesion that can be compensated for by cochlear implantation. This implies either an inner hair cell or inner hair cell-cochlear nerve junctional pathology that can be overcome by direct electrical stimulation.

  19. Evolution of impedance field telemetry after one day of activation in cochlear implant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chia-Mi; Chen, Hsing-Yi; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Li, Lieber Po-Hung

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Changes in impedance between 24 hours and one month after cochlear implantation have never been explored due to the inability to switch on within one day. This study examined the effect of early activation (within 24 hours) on the evolution of electrode impedance with the aim of providing information on the tissue-to-electrode interface when electrical stimulation was commenced one day post implantation. Methods We performed a retrospective review at a single institution. Patients who received a Nucleus 24RECA implant system (Cochlear, Sydney, Australia) and underwent initial switch-on within 24 hours postoperatively were included. Impedance measurements were obtained intraoperatively and postoperatively at 1 day, 1 week, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Results A significant drop in impedance was noted 1 day after an initial activation within 24 hours followed by a significant rise in impedance in all channels until 1 week, after which the impedance behaved differently in different segments. Basal and mid-portion electrodes revealed a slight increase while apical electrodes showed a slight decrease in impedance from 1 week to 8 weeks postoperatively. Impedance was relatively stable 4 weeks after surgery. Conclusions This is the first study to report the evolution of impedance in all channels between initial mapping 1 day and 1 month after cochlear implantation. The underlying mechanism for the differences in behavior between different segments of the electrode may be associated with the combined effect of dynamics among the interplay of cell cover formation, electrical stimulation, and fibrotic reaction. PMID:28264044

  20. Spread of cochlear excitation during stimulation with pulsed infrared radiation: Inferior colliculus measurements

    PubMed Central

    Richter, C.-P.; Rajguru, S.M.; Matic, A.I.; Moreno, E.L.; Fishman, A.J.; Robinson, A.M.; Suh, E.; Walsh, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has received considerable attention over the last few years. It provides an alternative method to artificially stimulate neurons without electrical current or the introduction of exogenous chromophores. One of the primary benefits of INS could be the improved spatial selectivity when compared with electrical stimulation. In the present study, we have evaluated the spatial selectivity of INS in the acutely damaged cochlea of guinea pigs and compared it to stimulation with acoustic tone pips in normal hearing animals. The radiation was delivered via a 200 μm-diameter optical fiber, which was inserted through a cochleostomy into the scala tympani of the basal cochlear turn. The stimulated section along the cochlear spiral ganglion was estimated from the neural responses recorded from the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). ICC responses were recorded in response to cochlear INS using a multichannel penetrating electrode array. Spatial tuning curves were constructed from the responses. For INS, approximately 55% of the activation profiles showed a single maximum, ~22% had two maxima, and ~13% had multiple maxima. The remaining 10% of the profiles occurred at the limits of the electrode array and could not be classified. The majority of ICC spatial tuning curves indicated that the spread of activation evoked by optical stimuli is comparable to that produced by acoustic pips. PMID:21828906

  1. Spread of cochlear excitation during stimulation with pulsed infrared radiation: inferior colliculus measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, C.-P.; Rajguru, S. M.; Matic, A. I.; Moreno, E. L.; Fishman, A. J.; Robinson, A. M.; Suh, E.; Walsh, J. T., Jr.

    2011-10-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has received considerable attention over the last few years. It provides an alternative method to artificially stimulate neurons without electrical current or the introduction of exogenous chromophores. One of the primary benefits of INS could be the improved spatial selectivity when compared with electrical stimulation. In the present study, we have evaluated the spatial selectivity of INS in the acutely damaged cochlea of guinea pigs and compared it to stimulation with acoustic tone pips in normal-hearing animals. The radiation was delivered via a 200 µm diameter optical fiber, which was inserted through a cochleostomy into the scala tympani of the basal cochlear turn. The stimulated section along the cochlear spiral ganglion was estimated from the neural responses recorded from the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). ICC responses were recorded in response to cochlear INS using a multichannel penetrating electrode array. Spatial tuning curves (STCs) were constructed from the responses. For INS, approximately 55% of the activation profiles showed a single maximum, ~22% had two maxima and ~13% had multiple maxima. The remaining 10% of the profiles occurred at the limits of the electrode array and could not be classified. The majority of ICC STCs indicated that the spread of activation evoked by optical stimuli is comparable to that produced by acoustic tone pips.

  2. Spread of cochlear excitation during stimulation with pulsed infrared radiation: inferior colliculus measurements.

    PubMed

    Richter, C-P; Rajguru, S M; Matic, A I; Moreno, E L; Fishman, A J; Robinson, A M; Suh, E; Walsh, J T

    2011-10-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has received considerable attention over the last few years. It provides an alternative method to artificially stimulate neurons without electrical current or the introduction of exogenous chromophores. One of the primary benefits of INS could be the improved spatial selectivity when compared with electrical stimulation. In the present study, we have evaluated the spatial selectivity of INS in the acutely damaged cochlea of guinea pigs and compared it to stimulation with acoustic tone pips in normal-hearing animals. The radiation was delivered via a 200 µm diameter optical fiber, which was inserted through a cochleostomy into the scala tympani of the basal cochlear turn. The stimulated section along the cochlear spiral ganglion was estimated from the neural responses recorded from the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). ICC responses were recorded in response to cochlear INS using a multichannel penetrating electrode array. Spatial tuning curves (STCs) were constructed from the responses. For INS, approximately 55% of the activation profiles showed a single maximum, ∼22% had two maxima and ∼13% had multiple maxima. The remaining 10% of the profiles occurred at the limits of the electrode array and could not be classified. The majority of ICC STCs indicated that the spread of activation evoked by optical stimuli is comparable to that produced by acoustic tone pips.

  3. Real-life performance considerations of four pediatric multi-channel cochlear implant recipients.

    PubMed

    Vidas, S; Hassan, R; Parnes, L S

    1992-12-01

    Most pediatric cochlear implant programs support a team approach for post-implant services. However, individuals directly involved in the care of these children often have differing opinions on the child's performance. We describe our experience with four children, aged 3 to 10 at the time of implantation, who have used the Nucleus 22-channel cochlear implant device for at least nine months. A questionnaire, focusing on the individual's observations of the child's speech and hearing performance in their particular setting (i.e., clinic, home, school), was completed by the child's parent(s), therapist and classroom teacher. Overall, performance in structured settings (i.e., testing and therapy sessions) was not in agreement with performance in unstructured settings (i.e., classroom and home environments). The results suggest that different individuals interacting with the same child in different environments often have differing perceptions of the child's performance. Based on the information obtained on the four cases, we discuss factors to consider in assessing the real-life performance of pediatric cochlear implant recipients.

  4. Estimated cochlear delays in low best-frequency neurons in the barn owl cannot explain coding of interaural time difference.

    PubMed

    Singheiser, Martin; Fischer, Brian J; Wagner, Hermann

    2010-10-01

    The functional role of the low-frequency range (<3 kHz) in barn owl hearing is not well understood. Here, it was tested whether cochlear delays could explain the representation of interaural time difference (ITD) in this frequency range. Recordings were obtained from neurons in the core of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. The response of these neurons varied with the ITD of the stimulus. The response peak shared by all neurons in a dorsoventral penetration was called the array-specific ITD and served as criterion for the representation of a given ITD in a neuron. Array-specific ITDs were widely distributed. Isolevel frequency response functions obtained with binaural, contralateral, and ispilateral stimulation exhibited a clear response peak and the accompanying frequency was called the best frequency. The data were tested with respect to predictions of a model, the stereausis model, assuming cochlear delays as source for the best ITD of a neuron. According to this model, different cochlear delays determined by mismatches between the ipsilateral and contralateral best frequencies are the source for the ITD in a binaural neuron. The mismatch should depend on the best frequency and the best ITD. The predictions of the stereausis model were not fulfilled in the low best-frequency neurons analyzed here. It is concluded that cochlear delays are not responsible for the representation of best ITD in the barn owl.

  5. Retrolabyrinthine approach for cochlear nerve preservation in neurofibromatosis type 2 and simultaneous cochlear implantation

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Monteiro, Tatiana Alves; Bittencourt, Aline Gomes; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valeria Schmidt; de Brito, Rubens

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Few cases of cochlear implantation (CI) in neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients had been reported in the literature. The approaches described were translabyrinthine, retrosigmoid or middle cranial fossa. Objectives: To describe a case of a NF2- deafened-patient who underwent to vestibular schwannoma resection via RLA with cochlear nerve preservation and CI through the round window, at the same surgical time. Resumed Report: A 36-year-old woman with severe bilateral hearing loss due to NF2 was submitted to vestibular schwannoma resection and simultaneous CI. Functional assessment of cochlear nerve was performed by electrical promontory stimulation. Complete tumor removal was accomplishment via RLA with anatomic and functional cochlear and facial nerve preservation. Cochlear electrode array was partially inserted via round window. Sound field hearing threshold improvement was achieved. Mean tonal threshold was 46.2 dB HL. The patient could only detect environmental sounds and human voice but cannot discriminate vowels, words nor do sentences at 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion: Cochlear implantation is a feasible auditory restoration option in NF2 when cochlear anatomic and functional nerve preservation is achieved. The RLA is adequate for this purpose and features as an option for hearing preservation in NF2 patients. PMID:25992034

  6. The Nucleus Introduced

    PubMed Central

    Pederson, Thoru

    2011-01-01

    Now is an opportune moment to address the confluence of cell biological form and function that is the nucleus. Its arrival is especially timely because the recognition that the nucleus is extremely dynamic has now been solidly established as a paradigm shift over the past two decades, and also because we now see on the horizon numerous ways in which organization itself, including gene location and possibly self-organizing bodies, underlies nuclear functions. PMID:20660024

  7. Detection of Cochlear Amplification and Its Activation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wei; Olson, Elizabeth S.

    2013-01-01

    The operation of the mammalian cochlea relies on a mechanical traveling wave that is actively boosted by electromechanical forces in sensory outer hair cells (OHCs). This active cochlear amplifier produces the impressive sensitivity and frequency resolution of mammalian hearing. The cochlear amplifier has inspired scientists since its discovery in the 1970s, and is still not well understood. To explore cochlear electromechanics at the sensory cell/tissue interface, sound-evoked intracochlear pressure and extracellular voltage were measured using a recently developed dual-sensor with a microelectrode attached to a micro-pressure sensor. The resulting coincident in vivo observations of OHC electrical activity, pressure at the basilar membrane and basilar membrane displacement gave direct evidence for power amplification in the cochlea. Moreover, the results showed a phase shift of voltage relative to mechanical responses at frequencies slightly below the peak, near the onset of amplification. Based on the voltage-force relationship of isolated OHCs, the shift would give rise to effective OHC pumping forces within the traveling wave peak. Thus, the shift activates the cochlear amplifier, serving to localize and thus sharpen the frequency region of amplification. These results are the most concrete evidence for cochlear power amplification to date and support OHC somatic forces as its source. PMID:23972858

  8. Considering optogenetic stimulation for cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Marcus; Moser, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    Electrical cochlear implants are by far the most successful neuroprostheses and have been implanted in over 300,000 people worldwide. Cochlear implants enable open speech comprehension in most patients but are limited in providing music appreciation and speech understanding in noisy environments. This is generally considered to be due to low frequency resolution as a consequence of wide current spread from stimulation contacts. Accordingly, the number of independently usable stimulation channels is limited to less than a dozen. As light can be conveniently focused, optical stimulation might provide an alternative approach to cochlear implants with increased number of independent stimulation channels. Here, we focus on summarizing recent work on optogenetic stimulation as one way to develop optical cochlear implants. We conclude that proof of principle has been presented for optogenetic stimulation of the cochlea and central auditory neurons in rodents as well as for the technical realization of flexible μLED-based multichannel cochlear implants. Still, much remains to be done in order to advance the technique for auditory research and even more for eventual clinical translation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled .

  9. Target structures for cochlear infrared neural stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Young, Hunter K.; Tan, Xiaodong; Xia, Nan; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Infrared neural stimulation (INS) is a method to depolarize neurons with infrared light. While consensus exists that heating of the target structure is essential, subsequent steps that result in the generation of an action potential are controversially discussed in the literature. The question of whether cochlear INS is an acoustic event has not been clarified. Results have been published that could be explained solely by an acoustic event. However, data exist that do not support an acoustical stimulus as the dominant factor in cochlear INS. We review the different findings that have been suggested for the mechanism of INS. Furthermore, we present the data that clarify the role of an acoustical event in cochlear INS. Masking experiments have been performed in hearing, hearing impaired, and severely hearing impaired animals. In normal hearing animals, the laser response could be masked by the acoustic stimulus. Once thresholds to acoustic stimuli were elevated, the ability to acoustically mask the INS response gradually disappeared. Thresholds for acoustic stimuli were significantly elevated in animals with compromised cochlear function, while the thresholds for optical stimulation remained largely unchanged. The results suggest that the direct interaction between the radiation and the target structure dominates cochlear INS. PMID:26158006

  10. Target structures for cochlear infrared neural stimulation.

    PubMed

    Young, Hunter K; Tan, Xiaodong; Xia, Nan; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-04-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) is a method to depolarize neurons with infrared light. While consensus exists that heating of the target structure is essential, subsequent steps that result in the generation of an action potential are controversially discussed in the literature. The question of whether cochlear INS is an acoustic event has not been clarified. Results have been published that could be explained solely by an acoustic event. However, data exist that do not support an acoustical stimulus as the dominant factor in cochlear INS. We review the different findings that have been suggested for the mechanism of INS. Furthermore, we present the data that clarify the role of an acoustical event in cochlear INS. Masking experiments have been performed in hearing, hearing impaired, and severely hearing impaired animals. In normal hearing animals, the laser response could be masked by the acoustic stimulus. Once thresholds to acoustic stimuli were elevated, the ability to acoustically mask the INS response gradually disappeared. Thresholds for acoustic stimuli were significantly elevated in animals with compromised cochlear function, while the thresholds for optical stimulation remained largely unchanged. The results suggest that the direct interaction between the radiation and the target structure dominates cochlear INS.

  11. Detection of cochlear amplification and its activation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wei; Olson, Elizabeth S

    2013-08-20

    The operation of the mammalian cochlea relies on a mechanical traveling wave that is actively boosted by electromechanical forces in sensory outer hair cells (OHCs). This active cochlear amplifier produces the impressive sensitivity and frequency resolution of mammalian hearing. The cochlear amplifier has inspired scientists since its discovery in the 1970s, and is still not well understood. To explore cochlear electromechanics at the sensory cell/tissue interface, sound-evoked intracochlear pressure and extracellular voltage were measured using a recently developed dual-sensor with a microelectrode attached to a micro-pressure sensor. The resulting coincident in vivo observations of OHC electrical activity, pressure at the basilar membrane and basilar membrane displacement gave direct evidence for power amplification in the cochlea. Moreover, the results showed a phase shift of voltage relative to mechanical responses at frequencies slightly below the peak, near the onset of amplification. Based on the voltage-force relationship of isolated OHCs, the shift would give rise to effective OHC pumping forces within the traveling wave peak. Thus, the shift activates the cochlear amplifier, serving to localize and thus sharpen the frequency region of amplification. These results are the most concrete evidence for cochlear power amplification to date and support OHC somatic forces as its source.

  12. Quality of life and hearing after cochlear implant placement in patients over 60 years of age.

    PubMed

    Czerniejewska-Wolska, Hanna; Kałos, Magdalena; Sekula, Alicja; Piszczatowski, Bartosz; Rutkowska, Justyna; Rogowski, Marek; Zadrożniak, Marek; Szymański, Marcin; Klatka, Janusz; Durko, Marcin; Pietruszewska, Wioletta; Gawłowska, Maria Bratumiła; Kuśmierczyk, Joanna; Kruk-Krzemień, Anna; Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bożena

    2015-01-01

    Multicenter evaluation of the quality of life and quality of hearing after Nucleus® cochlear implant placement in patients over 60 years of age. Evaluation was performed in patients receiving cochlear implants after the age of 60 years as a part of the Cochlear-Implanted Recipient Observational Study (Cochlear-IROS). This study is a prospective, international and long-term assessment which enables observation of recipients for up to three years after implantation. Data regarding subjective evaluation of the quality of life and quality of hearing were gathered before the first switch-on of the sound processor and one year afterwards. Standardized questionnaires were used in this evaluation, including Health Utility Index (HUI mk. III) and Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing (SSQ) Scale. Data were also gathered regarding the aetiology of hearing loss, hearing aid usage, tinnitus and vertigo, as well as on the telephone usage and the professional status of recipients. Included in the evaluation, were 20 subjects who were over 60 years old at the moment of the cochlear implant surgery. The study group consisted of 12 men and 8 female patients. The average age of CI recipients at the moment of implantation was 67.8 years (min. 60, max. 80 years). The SSQ questionnaire outcomes regarding self-assessment in the field of ability to hear in everyday situations one year after the surgery indicate that speech understanding increased by 180%, spatial hearing increased by 135 % and quality of hearing increased by 98%. Overall quality of life before the first sound processor switch-on as assessed using the HUI questionnaire was at the level of 0.38 (on 0-1 scale, where 0 equals death, and 1 equals full health). One year after the implantation, this assessment increased by 33% (up to 0.5 on the scale). The effectiveness of the cochlear implantation in patients with severe hearing loss after 60 years of age with respect to the quality of life and hearing was confirmed

  13. Intraoperative Real-time Cochlear Response Telemetry Predicts Hearing Preservation in Cochlear Implantation.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Luke; Kaicer, Arielle; Sly, David; Iseli, Claire; Wei, Benjamin; Briggs, Robert; O'Leary, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    To monitor cochlear function during cochlear implantation and determine correlations with postoperative acoustic hearing. Cochlear response telemetry measures cochlear function directly from cochlear implant electrodes. We have adapted this system to provide real-time cochlear response telemetry (RT-CRT) monitoring of a patient's acoustic hearing as the cochlear implant electrode array is inserted. Eighteen subjects (1 child and 17 adults) with sloping high frequency hearing loss were implanted with Cochlear Ltd slim straight arrays (CI422/CI522). Tone bursts (500 Hz, 100-110 dB) were presented at 14 Hz continuously during the array insertion. RT-CRT amplitudes were correlated with surgical manoeuvres recorded on the video from the operating microscope and with postoperative pure tone audiograms. Despite an excellent overall rate of complete or partial hearing preservation (79%), RT-CRT identified that in 47% of these implantations there was transient or permanent reduction in the amplitude of the cochlear microphonic (CM). Patients with a preserved CM at the end of insertion had on average 15 dB better low-frequency hearing preservation. The CM amplitude was most vulnerable during the last few millimeters of insertion or when inadvertent movement of the array occurred after full insertion. Physical contact/elevation of the basilar membrane is hypothesized as a likely mechanism of hearing loss rather than overt physical trauma. RT-CRT can be used to predict early postoperative hearing loss and to potentially refine surgical technique. In the future, feedback of RT-CRT may prove to be a valuable tool for maximizing preservation of residual hearing or providing feedback on electrode contact with the basilar membrane.

  14. Cochlear implantation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Frank R; Chien, Wade W; Li, Lingsheng; Clarrett, Danisa M; Niparko, John K; Francis, Howard W

    2012-09-01

    Cochlear implants allow individuals with severe to profound hearing loss access to sound and spoken language. The number of older adults in the United States who are potential candidates for cochlear implantation (CI) is approximately 150,000 and will continue to increase with the aging of the population. Should CI be routinely recommended for these older adults, and do these individuals benefit from CI? We reviewed our 12-year experience with CI in adults aged ≥60 years (n = 445) at Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions to investigate the impact of CI on speech understanding and to identify factors associated with speech performance. Complete data on speech outcomes at baseline and 1 year post-CI were available for 83 individuals. Our results demonstrate that CI in adults aged ≥60 years consistently improved speech understanding scores, with a mean increase of 60.0% (SD 24.1) on HINT (Hearing in Noise Test) sentences in quiet. The magnitude of the gain in speech scores was negatively associated with age at implantation, such that for every increasing year of age at CI the gain in speech scores was 1.3 percentage points less (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.6-1.9) after adjusting for age at hearing loss onset. Conversely, individuals with higher pre-CI speech scores (HINT scores between 40% and 60%) had significantly greater post-CI speech scores by a mean of 10.0 percentage points (95% CI, 0.4-19.6) than those with lower pre-CI speech scores (HINT <40%) after adjusting for age at CI and age at hearing loss onset. These results suggest that older adult CI candidates who are younger at implantation and with higher preoperative speech scores obtain the highest speech understanding scores after CI, with possible implications for current United States Medicare policy. Finally, we provide an extended discussion of the epidemiology and impact of hearing loss in older adults. Future research of CI in older adults should expand beyond simple speech outcomes to take

  15. Longitudinal Analysis of the Absence of Intraoperative Neural Response Telemetry in Children using Cochlear Implants.

    PubMed

    Moura, Amanda Christina Gomes de; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valéria Schmidt; Couto, Maria Ines Vieira; Brito, Rubens; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria; Matas, Carla Gentile; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Introduction Currently the cochlear implant allows access to sounds in individuals with profound hearing loss. The objective methods used to verify the integrity of the cochlear device and the electrophysiologic response of users have noted these improvements. Objective To establish whether the evoked compound action potential of the auditory nerve can appear after electrical stimulation when it is absent intraoperatively. Methods The clinical records of children implanted with the Nucleus Freedom (Cochlear Ltd., Australia) (CI24RE) cochlear implant between January 2009 and January 2010 with at least 6 months of use were evaluated. The neural response telemetry (NRT) thresholds of electrodes 1, 6, 11, 16, and 22 during surgery and after at least 3 months of implant use were analyzed and correlated with etiology, length of auditory deprivation, and chronological age. These data were compared between a group of children exhibiting responses in all of the tested electrodes and a group of children who had at least one absent response. Results The sample was composed of clinical records of 51 children. From these, 21% (11) showed no NRT in at least one of the tested electrodes. After an average of 4.9 months of stimulation, the number of individuals exhibiting absent responses decreased from 21 to 11% (n = 6). Conclusion It is feasible that absent responses present after a period of electrical stimulation. In our sample, 45% (n = 5) of the patients with intraoperative absence exhibited a positive response after an average of 4.9 months of continued electrical stimulation.

  16. Longitudinal Analysis of the Absence of Intraoperative Neural Response Telemetry in Children using Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Amanda Christina Gomes de; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valéria Schmidt; Couto, Maria Ines Vieira; Brito, Rubens; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria; Matas, Carla Gentile; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Currently the cochlear implant allows access to sounds in individuals with profound hearing loss. The objective methods used to verify the integrity of the cochlear device and the electrophysiologic response of users have noted these improvements. Objective To establish whether the evoked compound action potential of the auditory nerve can appear after electrical stimulation when it is absent intraoperatively. Methods The clinical records of children implanted with the Nucleus Freedom (Cochlear Ltd., Australia) (CI24RE) cochlear implant between January 2009 and January 2010 with at least 6 months of use were evaluated. The neural response telemetry (NRT) thresholds of electrodes 1, 6, 11, 16, and 22 during surgery and after at least 3 months of implant use were analyzed and correlated with etiology, length of auditory deprivation, and chronological age. These data were compared between a group of children exhibiting responses in all of the tested electrodes and a group of children who had at least one absent response. Results The sample was composed of clinical records of 51 children. From these, 21% (11) showed no NRT in at least one of the tested electrodes. After an average of 4.9 months of stimulation, the number of individuals exhibiting absent responses decreased from 21 to 11% (n = 6). Conclusion It is feasible that absent responses present after a period of electrical stimulation. In our sample, 45% (n = 5) of the patients with intraoperative absence exhibited a positive response after an average of 4.9 months of continued electrical stimulation. PMID:25992123

  17. [Surgery of the cochlear implant: complications].

    PubMed

    Cavallé, L; Morera, C; Capella, B; Pérez, H

    1996-01-01

    From 1991 to 1994 13 patients underwent cochlear implant in our Department. The surgical results and complications in this group of patients are reviewed. In all cases the cochlear implant was successful and no major complications were recorded. The most common problems was transient dizziness or imbalance. Other complications were minor facial nerve stimulation during the programming of the device, dehiscence of the suture in the tragal region, problems in the insertion of the electrodes in the scala tympani and a case that needed reimplantation due to technical problems with the device. We consider that a proper selection of cases and a precise surgical technique are essential in order to achieve the adaptation of the cochlear implant and avoid pitfalls.

  18. Voice and pronunciation of cochlear implant speakers.

    PubMed

    Horga, Damir; Liker, Marko

    2006-01-01

    Patients with cochlear implants have the ability to exercise auditory control over their own speech production and over the speech of others, which is important for the development of speech control. In the present investigation three groups of 10 subjects were compared. The groups comprised: (1) cochlear implant users, (2) profoundly deaf using traditional hearing aids, and (3) hearing controls. The subjects in three groups were matched in age. While repeating after a model the subjects were recorded and the following linguistic voice variables were analysed: (1) vowel formant space, (2) voice vs. voiceless difference, (3) closure duration and VOT, (4) word accent production, (5) sentence stress production, (6) voice quality, (7) pronunciation quality. Acoustic analysis and perceptual assessment by phoneticians showed that in great majority of variables, subjects with cochlear implants performed better than the profoundly deaf subjects with traditional hearing-aids.

  19. Medial Cochlear Efferent Function: A Theoretical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountain, David C.

    2011-11-01

    Since the discovery of the cochlear efferent system, many hypotheses have been put forth for its function. These hypotheses for its function range from protecting the cochlea from over stimulation to improving the detection of sounds in noise. It is known that the medial efferent system innervates the outer hair cells and that stimulation of this system reduces basilar membrane and auditory nerve sensitivity which suggests that this system acts to decrease the gain of the cochlear amplifier. Here I present modeling results as well as analysis of published experimental data that suggest that the function of the medial efferent reflex is to decrease the cochlear amplifier gain by just the right amount so that the nonlinearity in the basilar membrane response lines up perfectly with the inner hair cell nonlinear transduction process to produce a hair cell receptor potential that is proportional to the logarithm of the sound pressure level.

  20. Difference in response reliability predicted by spectrotemporal tuning in the cochlear nuclei of barn owls.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Louisa J; Peña, Jose L

    2011-03-02

    The brainstem auditory pathway is obligatory for all aural information. Brainstem auditory neurons must encode the level and timing of sounds, as well as their time-dependent spectral properties, the fine structure, and envelope, which are essential for sound discrimination. This study focused on envelope coding in the two cochlear nuclei of the barn owl, nucleus angularis (NA) and nucleus magnocellularis (NM). NA and NM receive input from bifurcating auditory nerve fibers and initiate processing pathways specialized in encoding interaural time (ITD) and level (ILD) differences, respectively. We found that NA neurons, although unable to accurately encode stimulus phase, lock more strongly to the stimulus envelope than NM units. The spectrotemporal receptive fields (STRFs) of NA neurons exhibit a pre-excitatory suppressive field. Using multilinear regression analysis and computational modeling, we show that this feature of STRFs can account for enhanced across-trial response reliability, by locking spikes to the stimulus envelope. Our findings indicate a dichotomy in envelope coding between the time and intensity processing pathways as early as at the level of the cochlear nuclei. This allows the ILD processing pathway to encode envelope information with greater fidelity than the ITD processing pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the properties of the STRFs of the neurons can be quantitatively related to spike timing reliability.

  1. Long-term follow-up of cochlear implant users with ossified cochlea.

    PubMed

    Trinh, B T; Bergeron, F; Ferron, P

    2000-10-01

    Cochlear implantation surgery in ossified cochlea is a challenge, even for the experienced otologist. Short-term assessments of auditory perception show that implantation in partial or even extensive ossified cochlea could be achieved with varying success, but no long-term follow-up results have been published yet. This paper proposes a retrospective review of eight Nucleus cochlear implant users with ossified cochlea who have been followed on a 12- to 60-month period. Auditory performances of users are reported at each control on a scale of 100 units divided into 4 skill zones of 25 units based on Erber's proposition, that is, detection, discrimination, identification, and recognition. Three of the eight subjects showed some progression in their auditory performances during the follow-up. The five other subjects showed no long-term progress in their auditory performance. Open-set comprehension could be achieved with the insertion of 9 to 10 electrodes of the Nucleus device. Auditory performance in users with ossified cochlea seems to be influenced by the same factors as in users with patent cochlea.

  2. Electrophonic hearing and cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Risberg, A; Agelfors, E; Lindström, B; Bredberg, G

    1990-01-01

    It has been difficult to explain the good speech understanding obtained by some cochlear implant patients fitted with a single-channel electrode and analog transmissions of the speech signal (Vienna/3M implant). It has also been difficult to explain the variation in results reported by different groups using the same implant. One hypothesis asserts that the above differences can be explained by the observation that electric stimulation with an implanted electrode might result in two different auditory sensations, the first resulting from the stimulation of the remaining hair cells (electrophonic component) and the second from the electric stimulation of the auditory nerve (electro-neural component). The two sensations are very different. As a result of different definitions of total deafness (functional or threshold definition), patients with remaining hair cells are operated on by some groups, but not by other groups. Some published results from different studies are discussed with reference to the above hypothesis and the possible consequences for the selection of the patients, the use of extra- or intracochlear electrodes, and the selection of the speech coding strategy are discussed.

  3. Cochlear molecules and hereditary deafness.

    PubMed

    Yan, Denise; Liu, Xue-Zhong

    2008-05-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in the past decade in identifying genes involved with deafness in man and mouse. The identification of these genes and functional analysis of the proteins they encode are paving the way towards a better understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of the auditory system. Given the complexity of auditory transduction and diversity of cochlear structures, it is not surprising that an estimate of at least 1 percent of human protein-coding genes are involved in perception of sound. Over 400 distinct syndromes of which hearing loss is a component have been reported (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim). Approximately 113 loci for monogenic disorders for which hearing loss is the only manifestation and therefore is nonsyndromic, have been mapped to the human genome (http:webhost.ua.ac.be/hhh/). As of August 2007, there are approximately 46 genes identified from these loci. Here, we review some of the major advances in our knowledge of auditory function within an evolving understanding of the structure and regulation of the machinery of hearing.

  4. Understanding music with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Lisa; Mürbe, Dirk; Hahne, Anja

    2016-08-25

    Direct stimulation of the auditory nerve via a Cochlear Implant (CI) enables profoundly hearing-impaired people to perceive sounds. Many CI users find language comprehension satisfactory, but music perception is generally considered difficult. However, music contains different dimensions which might be accessible in different ways. We aimed to highlight three main dimensions of music processing in CI users which rely on different processing mechanisms: (1) musical discrimination abilities, (2) access to meaning in music, and (3) subjective music appreciation. All three dimensions were investigated in two CI user groups (post- and prelingually deafened CI users, all implanted as adults) and a matched normal hearing control group. The meaning of music was studied by using event-related potentials (with the N400 component as marker) during a music-word priming task while music appreciation was gathered by a questionnaire. The results reveal a double dissociation between the three dimensions of music processing. Despite impaired discrimination abilities of both CI user groups compared to the control group, appreciation was reduced only in postlingual CI users. While musical meaning processing was restorable in postlingual CI users, as shown by a N400 effect, data of prelingual CI users lack the N400 effect and indicate previous dysfunctional concept building.

  5. Understanding music with cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Bruns, Lisa; Mürbe, Dirk; Hahne, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Direct stimulation of the auditory nerve via a Cochlear Implant (CI) enables profoundly hearing-impaired people to perceive sounds. Many CI users find language comprehension satisfactory, but music perception is generally considered difficult. However, music contains different dimensions which might be accessible in different ways. We aimed to highlight three main dimensions of music processing in CI users which rely on different processing mechanisms: (1) musical discrimination abilities, (2) access to meaning in music, and (3) subjective music appreciation. All three dimensions were investigated in two CI user groups (post- and prelingually deafened CI users, all implanted as adults) and a matched normal hearing control group. The meaning of music was studied by using event-related potentials (with the N400 component as marker) during a music-word priming task while music appreciation was gathered by a questionnaire. The results reveal a double dissociation between the three dimensions of music processing. Despite impaired discrimination abilities of both CI user groups compared to the control group, appreciation was reduced only in postlingual CI users. While musical meaning processing was restorable in postlingual CI users, as shown by a N400 effect, data of prelingual CI users lack the N400 effect and indicate previous dysfunctional concept building. PMID:27558546

  6. Localization model for cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Douglas A.; Matin, Mohammad A.

    2011-09-01

    Normal hearing persons are able to localize the direction of sounds better using both ears than when listening with only one ear. Localization ability is dependent on auditory system perception of interaural differences in time, intensity, and phase. Interaural timing differences (ITDs) provide information for locating direction of low and mid frequency sounds, while interaural level differences (ILDs), which occur because of the horizontal plane shadowing effect of the head, provide information for locating direction of higher frequency sounds. The head related transfer function (HRTF) contains characteristic information important for acoustic localization. Models based on HRTFs take into account head shadow, torso, and pinna effects, and their impact on interaural frequency, level, and timing differences. Cochlear implants (CIs) have proven a successful treatment for persons with bilateral severe to profound hearing loss. A problem is that only some ITD and ILD cues are maintained with CI sound processing, and the microphone position alters the acoustic cues. The relative impact of differences in physical cues received by the auditory system with bilateral CIs versus differences in the ability of the damaged auditory nervous system to process bilateral inputs is not yet clear. The model presented in this paper was constructed as a step toward answering this question, and is intended to serve as a tool for future development of more optimal signal processing algorithms that may provide better localization ability for persons with bilateral CIs.

  7. Musical experience sharpens human cochlear tuning.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Nelms, Caitlin; Bhagat, Shaum P

    2016-05-01

    The mammalian cochlea functions as a filter bank that performs a spectral, Fourier-like decomposition on the acoustic signal. While tuning can be compromised (e.g., broadened with hearing impairment), whether or not human cochlear frequency resolution can be sharpened through experiential factors (e.g., training or learning) has not yet been established. Previous studies have demonstrated sharper psychophysical tuning curves in trained musicians compared to nonmusicians, implying superior peripheral tuning. However, these findings are based on perceptual masking paradigms, and reflect engagement of the entire auditory system rather than cochlear tuning, per se. Here, by directly mapping physiological tuning curves from stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs)-cochlear emitted sounds-we show that estimates of human cochlear tuning in a high-frequency cochlear region (4 kHz) is further sharpened (by a factor of 1.5×) in musicians and improves with the number of years of their auditory training. These findings were corroborated by measurements of psychophysical tuning curves (PTCs) derived via simultaneous masking, which similarly showed sharper tuning in musicians. Comparisons between SFOAE and PTCs revealed closer correspondence between physiological and behavioral curves in musicians, indicating that tuning is also more consistent between different levels of auditory processing in trained ears. Our findings demonstrate an experience-dependent enhancement in the resolving power of the cochlear sensory epithelium and the spectral resolution of human hearing and provide a peripheral account for the auditory perceptual benefits observed in musicians. Both local and feedback (e.g., medial olivocochlear efferent) mechanisms are discussed as potential mechanisms for experience-dependent tuning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tonotopic and somatotopic representation in the nucleus basalis of the barn owl, Tyto alba.

    PubMed

    Wild, J M; Kubke, M F; Carr, C E

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the somatosensory and auditory representations in the nucleus basalis of the barn owl. In pigeons and finches, the nucleus basalis contains a representation of the beak and an auditory area. In the barn owl, the nucleus basalis also contains a complete somatotopic map of the head and body (as in the budgerigar), with a tonotopically organized auditory area in close proximity to the representation of the facial ruff and the preaural area. Recordings within and around the nucleus basalis revealed predominantly (about 80%) contralateral responses to somatic stimulation. The somatotopic map was oriented with the head down and rostral. Penetrations revealed an over-representation of the feet in dorsal basalis, followed by the rest of the body and wings more ventrally. Towards more rostral positions in nucleus basalis, responses from the head and beak predominated ventrally. The auditory response area was encountered below the region that responded to stimulation of the facial ruff and preaural flap regions and above a region responsive to beak stimulation. Auditory responses were tonotopically organized, with low best frequencies dorsal. Some penetrations yielded predominantly monaural responses with a fairly broad dynamic range, similar to those recorded from the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (LLV) and the cochlear nucleus angularis, whereas other penetrations contained predominantly binaural responses sensitive to interaural time differences (ITD). The physiological responses could be predicted on the basis of auditory projections to the nucleus basalis. An injection of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) in the auditory region of nucleus basalis retrogradely labeled cells in both the caudal and rostral parts of the intermediate lateral lemniscal nucleus (LLIc and LLIr), and a few cells in the anterior part of the dorsal lateral lemniscal nucleus (LLDa, previously known as nucleus ventralis lemnisci lateralis, pars anterior, or VLVa) and

  9. Music Therapy for Preschool Cochlear Implant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Gfeller, Kate; Driscoll, Virginia; Kenworthy, Maura; Van Voorst, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides research and clinical information relevant to music therapy for preschool children who use cochlear implants (CI). It consolidates information from various disciplinary sources regarding (a) cochlear implantation of young prelingually-deaf children (~age 2-5), (b) patterns of auditory and speech-language development, and (c) research regarding music perception of children with CIs. This information serves as a foundation for the final portion of the article, which describes typical music therapy goals and examples of interventions suitable for preschool children. PMID:23904691

  10. New expectations: pediatric cochlear implantation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Janette

    2013-03-01

    FUNDING FOR COCHLEAR IMPLANTS: The Japanese health-care system provides universal health coverage for the entire 127 million population of Japan. This includes all aspects of cochlear implantation, from diagnosis to implantation to mapping and habilitation aftercare. Japan has the third largest developed economy; however, the uptake rate for cochlear implants is lower than that of countries with similar economic status. Japan has an uptake rate of approximately 1% of potentially suitable subjects of all ages, compared with 5.6% in the USA. In Japan, about 55% of cochlear implant recipients are children of less than 18 years of age. This represents an increase of 20% in the last 10 years, with a relative increase in the numbers of children receiving implants compared with the numbers of adults. However, only 3-4% of children under the age of 3 years are being implanted at less than 18 months of age. This is in accordance with the Japanese ENT Academy's guidelines, which currently puts the minimum age limit for implants in children at 18 months. For hearing loss was first piloted nationally in Japan in 2000. Funding for screening subsequently stopped in 2005, though the national treasury provided a further 2 years' funding. Since 2007 local government organizations have been given responsibility to support these screening programs, but there remains considerable variation in funding between different prefectures. In one prefecture, Okayama, 95% of babies were screened and followed up for 2 years. However, the support system for children who need further diagnostic testing after screening remains insufficient. When diagnosed, children with hearing loss are referred for counselling, hearing aids and habilitation. The responsibility for these is divided between the Ministry of Health and Welfare (including surgery, device programming, and therapy) and the Ministry of Education. Schools for the deaf and preschool hearing impaired education centers have had most of the

  11. Cochlear transduction: an integrative model and review

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, William E.

    2009-01-01

    A model for cochlear transduction is presented that is based on considerations of the cell biology of its receptor cells, particularly the mechanisms of transmitter release at recepto-neural synapses. Two new interrelated hypotheses on the functional organization of the organ of Corti result from these considerations, one dealing with the possibility of electrotonic interaction between inner and outer hair cells and the other with a possible contributing source to acoustic emissions of cochlear origin that results from vesicular membrane turnover. PMID:6282796

  12. The internal dimensions of the cochlear scalae with special reference to cochlear electrode insertion trauma.

    PubMed

    Biedron, Slavomir; Prescher, Andreas; Ilgner, Justus; Westhofen, Martin

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the intracochlear micromorphology with regard to frequent patterns of cochlear electrode insertion trauma. Cochlear implantation is a widely accepted treatment for deafness and high-grade sensorineural hearing loss. Although the device and the implantation methods are continuously optimized, damage of intracochlear structures due to electrode insertion is a frequent finding in temporal bone studies. Reduction of insertional trauma is important for the preservation of residual hearing and on the background of increasing numbers of cochlear implant recipients. This study was performed with histologic specimens from the "Wittmaack temporal bone collection" (Hamburg, Germany) to examine the diameters of intracochlear spaces and to correlate the micromorphology of cochlear ducts to frequent patterns of intracochlear insertion trauma. The diameter of the scala tympani decreases by approximately 300 microm during the ascending part of the basal turn. In this region, the intersegmental decrease exceeds the assumed linear diameter decrease significantly (p < or = 0.001). The regression of the cross-sectional diameter is accompanied by a shift of the spiral osseous lamina toward the scala tympani and by narrowing of the bony capsule of the cochlea. Various attempts have been made to evaluate the dimensions of the cochlea related to cochlear implantation. Little attention was paid to the distinct narrowing of the scala tympani in the region of the ascending part of the cochlear duct, although from the literature, it is known that electrode insertion trauma frequently occurs here. Individual variations of the cochlear micromorphology may additionally contribute to the failure of preformed electrode arrays, but the challenge of guiding the electrode array around the first bend of the cochlear turn, that is, the pars ascendens, is obviously impaired by the interindividually constant narrowing in this area. Therefore, this finding may have implications on the

  13. Kaon-nucleus scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Byungsik; Maung, Khin Maung; Wilson, John W.; Buck, Warren W.

    1989-01-01

    The derivations of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and Watson multiple scattering are given. A simple optical potential is found to be the first term of that series. The number density distribution models of the nucleus, harmonic well, and Woods-Saxon are used without t-matrix taken from the scattering experiments. The parameterized two-body inputs, which are kaon-nucleon total cross sections, elastic slope parameters, and the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, are presented. The eikonal approximation was chosen as our solution method to estimate the total and absorptive cross sections for the kaon-nucleus scattering.

  14. Kaon-nucleus scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Byungsik; Buck, Warren W.; Maung, Khin M.

    1989-01-01

    Two kinds of number density distributions of the nucleus, harmonic well and Woods-Saxon models, are used with the t-matrix that is taken from the scattering experiments to find a simple optical potential. The parameterized two body inputs, which are kaon-nucleon total cross sections, elastic slope parameters, and the ratio of the real to imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, are shown. The eikonal approximation was chosen as the solution method to estimate the total and absorptive cross sections for the kaon-nucleus scattering.

  15. Physical and mathematical cochlear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kian-Meng

    2000-10-01

    The cochlea is an intricate organ in the inner ear responsible for our hearing. Besides acting as a transducer to convert mechanical sound vibrations to electrical neural signals, the cochlea also amplifies and separates the sound signal into its spectral components for further processing in the brain. It operates over a broad-band of frequency and a huge dynamic range of input while maintaining a low power consumption. The present research takes the approach of building cochlear models to study and understand the underlying mechanics involved in the functioning of the cochlea. Both physical and mathematical models of the cochlea are constructed. The physical model is a first attempt to build a life- sized replica of the human cochlea using advanced micro- machining techniques. The model takes a modular design, with a removable silicon-wafer based partition membrane encapsulated in a plastic fluid chamber. Preliminary measurements in the model are obtained and they compare roughly with simulation results. Parametric studies on the design parameters of the model leads to an improved design of the model. The studies also revealed that the width and orthotropy of the basilar membrane in the cochlea have significant effects on the sharply tuned responses observed in the biological cochlea. The mathematical model is a physiologically based model that includes three-dimensional viscous fluid flow and a tapered partition with variable properties along its length. A hybrid asymptotic and numerical method provides a uniformly valid and efficient solution to the short and long wave regions in the model. Both linear and non- linear activity are included in the model to simulate the active cochlea. The mathematical model has successfully reproduced many features of the response in the biological cochlea, as observed in experiment measurements performed on animals. These features include sharply tuned frequency responses, significant amplification with inclusion of activity

  16. Progress in Cochlear Physiology after Békésy

    PubMed Central

    Guinan, John J.; Salt, Alec; Cheatham, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    In the fifty years since Békésy was awarded the Nobel Prize, cochlear physiology has blossomed. Many topics that are now current are things Békésy could not have imagined. In this review we start by describing progress in understanding the origin of cochlear gross potentials, particularly the cochlear microphonic, an area in which Békésy had extensive experience. We then review progress in areas of cochlear physiology that were mostly unknown to Békésy, including: (1) stereocilia mechano-electrical transduction, force production, and response amplification, (2) outer hair cell (OHC) somatic motility and its molecular basis in prestin, (3) cochlear amplification and related micromechanics, including the evidence that prestin is the main motor for cochlear amplification, (4) the influence of the tectorial membrane, (5) cochlear micromechanics and the mechanical drives to inner hair cell stereocilia, (6) otoacoustic emissions, and (7) olivocochlear efferents and their influence on cochlear physiology. We then return to a subject that Békésy knew well: cochlear fluids and standing currents, as well as our present understanding of energy dependence on the lateral wall of the cochlea. Finally, we touch on cochlear pathologies including noise damage and aging, with an emphasis on where the field might go in the future. PMID:22633944

  17. Listening Effort with Cochlear Implant Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Baskent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing participants listened to CI simulations with varying…

  18. Impairment of Caloric Function after Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuang, Heide; Haversat, Heather H.; Michaelides, Elias M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article seeks to review current literature on caloric function following cochlear implantation while analyzing any correlations of caloric function changes with vestibular symptoms. Method: This article is a systematic review of evidence-based literature. English language articles published between 1980 and 2014 that presented some…

  19. Gender Categorization in Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massida, Zoe; Marx, Mathieu; Belin, Pascal; James, Christopher; Fraysse, Bernard; Barone, Pascal; Deguine, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the ability of subjects with cochlear implants (CIs) to discriminate voice gender and how this ability evolved as a function of CI experience. Method: The authors presented a continuum of voice samples created by voice morphing, with 9 intermediate acoustic parameter steps between a typical male and a…

  20. Intra-cochlear trafficking of aminoglycosides

    PubMed Central

    Karasawa, Takatoshi

    2008-01-01

    Cochlear sensory hair cells are pharmacologically sensitive to aminoglycoside antibiotics that are used for treating life-threatening bacterial sepsis. Cochlear tissues are compartmentalized behind an impermeable paracellular barrier called the blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB). Most macromolecules cannot cross the blood-labyrinth barrier; however, aminoglycosides can cross this barrier into the cochlear fluids and enter hair cells, inducing hair cell death and consequent permanent hearing loss or deafness. The trafficking routes and cellular mechanisms required for aminoglycoside trafficking across the blood-labyrinth barrier remain unknown. Aminoglycosides enter cochlear hair cells across their apical membranes that are bathed in endolymph, a hitherto unexpected trafficking route. The stria vascularis, a component of the blood- labyrinth barrier, preferentially loads with aminoglycosides. Our recent work demonstrates that the stria vascularis exhibits high expression of the cation-selective ion channel TRPV4, and that this channel is permeable to aminoglycosides. However, aminoglycosides must employ more than one cellular mechanism to cross the blood-labyrinth barrier into endolymph against the electrical gradient. PMID:19704872

  1. Intra-cochlear trafficking of aminoglycosides.

    PubMed

    Steyger, Peter S; Karasawa, Takatoshi

    2008-01-01

    Cochlear sensory hair cells are pharmacologically sensitive to aminoglycoside antibiotics that are used for treating life-threatening bacterial sepsis. Cochlear tissues are compartmentalized behind an impermeable paracellular barrier called the blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB). Most macromolecules cannot cross the blood-labyrinth barrier; however, aminoglycosides can cross this barrier into the cochlear fluids and enter hair cells, inducing hair cell death and consequent permanent hearing loss or deafness. The trafficking routes and cellular mechanisms required for aminoglycoside trafficking across the blood-labyrinth barrier remain unknown.Aminoglycosides enter cochlear hair cells across their apical membranes that are bathed in endolymph, a hitherto unexpected trafficking route. The stria vascularis, a component of the blood- labyrinth barrier, preferentially loads with aminoglycosides. Our recent work demonstrates that the stria vascularis exhibits high expression of the cation-selective ion channel TRPV4, and that this channel is permeable to aminoglycosides. However, aminoglycosides must employ more than one cellular mechanism to cross the blood-labyrinth barrier into endolymph against the electrical gradient.

  2. [Cost Analysis of Cochlear Implantation in Adults].

    PubMed

    Raths, S; Lenarz, T; Lesinski-Schiedat, A; Flessa, S

    2016-04-01

    The number of implantation of cochlear implants has steadily risen in recent years. Reasons for this are an extension of indication criteria, demographic change, increased quality of life needs and greater acceptance. The consequences are rising expenditure for statutory health insurance (SHI) for cochlear implantation. A detailed calculation of lifetime costs from SHI's perspective for postlingually deafened adolescents and adults is essential in estimating future cost developments. Calculations are based on accounting data from the Hannover Medical School. With regard to further life expectancy, average costs of preoperative diagnosis, surgery, rehabilitation, follow-ups, processor upgrades and electrical maintenance were discounted to their present value at age of implantation. There is an inverse relation between cost of unilateral cochlear implantation and age of initial implantation. From SHI's perspective, the intervention costs between 36,001 and 68,970 € ($ 42,504-$ 81,429). The largest cost components are initial implantation and processor upgrades. Compared to the UK the cost of cochlear implantation in Germany seems to be significantly lower. In particular the costs of, rehabilitation and maintenance in Germany cause only a small percentage of total costs. Also, the costs during the first year of treatment seem comparatively low. With regard to future spending of SHI due to implant innovations and associated extension of indication, increasing cost may be suspected. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of Drug Entry into Cochlear Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt, Alec N.

    2005-01-01

    The inner ear is exposed to aminoglycosides or other drugs either intentionally or as a side effect of clinical treatments directed at other regions of the body. An understanding of the effects of drugs on the inner ear requires knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of the drug once it reaches the cochlear fluids, specifically how much of it reaches…

  4. Deaf Education: The Impact of Cochlear Implantation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archbold, Sue; Mayer, Connie

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the impact that cochlear implantation has had on the practice of deaf education in terms of educational placement, communication choices, and educational attainments. Although there is variation in outcome, more children with implants are going to mainstream schools, and using spoken language as their primary means of…

  5. Word Learning in Children following Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Derek M.; Carter, Allyson K.; Pisoni, David B.; Kirk, Karen Iler; Ying, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental procedure was developed to investigate word-learning skills of children who use cochlear implants (CIs). Using interactive play scenarios, 2- to 5-year olds were presented with sets of objects (Beanie Baby stuffed animals) and words for their names that corresponded to salient perceptual attributes (e.g., "horns" for a goat). Their…

  6. Gender Categorization in Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massida, Zoe; Marx, Mathieu; Belin, Pascal; James, Christopher; Fraysse, Bernard; Barone, Pascal; Deguine, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the ability of subjects with cochlear implants (CIs) to discriminate voice gender and how this ability evolved as a function of CI experience. Method: The authors presented a continuum of voice samples created by voice morphing, with 9 intermediate acoustic parameter steps between a typical male and a…

  7. Amplification, Technology, and Cochlear Implants for Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Arlie J.

    1993-01-01

    Early amplification is crucial to efficient habilitation and development of oral communication skills in hearing-impaired infants. Initial evaluation and fitting of amplification is a joint effort by the audiologist, therapist, and parents, whether the child uses traditional hearing aids or cochlear implants, and should be supplemented by a…

  8. Educational Management of Children with Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moog, Jean S.; Geers, Ann E.

    1991-01-01

    This article outlines procedures for maximizing the benefits that profoundly deaf children can achieve through cochlear implants. The history of such implants and practical aspects in their use are described. Factors in development of speech perception skills, auditory training objectives and activities, and spoken language acquisition are…

  9. Environmental Sound Training in Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Kuvadia, Sejal; Gygi, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the effect of a short computer-based environmental sound training regimen on the perception of environmental sounds and speech in experienced cochlear implant (CI) patients. Method: Fourteen CI patients with the average of 5 years of CI experience participated. The protocol consisted of 2 pretests, 1 week apart,…

  10. Cochlear implants: our experience and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Mariane Barreto Brandão; de Lima, Francis Vinicius Fontes; Santos, Ronaldo Carvalho; Santos, Arlete Cristina Granizo; Barreto, Valéria Maria Prado; de Jesus, Eduardo Passos Fiel

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Cochlear Implants are important for individuals with severe to profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Objective: Evaluate the experience of cochlear implant center of Otorhinolaryngology through the analysis of records of 9 patients who underwent cochlear implant surgery. Methods: This is a retrospective study performed with the patients records. Number 0191.0.107.000-11 ethics committee approval. We evaluated gender, etiology, age at surgery, duration of deafness, classification of deafness, unilateral or bilateral surgery, intraoperative and postoperative neural response and impedance of the electrodes in intraoperative and preoperative tests and found those that counter-indicated surgery. Results: There were 6 pediatric and 3 adult patients. Four male and 5 female. Etiologies: maternal rubella, cytomegalovirus, ototoxicity, meningitis, and sudden deafness. The age at surgery and duration of deafness ranged from 2–46 years and 2–18 years, respectively. Seven patients were pre-lingual. All had profound bilateral PA. There were 7 bilateral implants. Intraoperative complications: hemorrhage. Complications after surgery: vertigo and internal device failure. In 7 patients the electrodes were implanted through. Telemetry showed satisfactory neural response and impedance. CT and MRI was performed in all patients. We found enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct in a patient and incudomalleolar malformation. Conclusion: The cochlear implant as a form of auditory rehabilitation is well established and spreading to different centers specialized in otoaudiology. Thus, the need for structured services and trained professionals in this type of procedure is clear. PMID:25991976

  11. Auditory Learning in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Srikanta K.; Boddupally, Shiva P.; Rayapati, Deeksha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine and characterize the training-induced changes in speech-in-noise perception in children with congenital deafness who have cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Twenty-seven children with congenital deafness who have CIs were studied. Eleven children with CIs were trained on a speech-in-noise task,…

  12. Environmental Sound Training in Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Kuvadia, Sejal; Gygi, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the effect of a short computer-based environmental sound training regimen on the perception of environmental sounds and speech in experienced cochlear implant (CI) patients. Method: Fourteen CI patients with the average of 5 years of CI experience participated. The protocol consisted of 2 pretests, 1 week apart,…

  13. Impairment of Caloric Function after Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuang, Heide; Haversat, Heather H.; Michaelides, Elias M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article seeks to review current literature on caloric function following cochlear implantation while analyzing any correlations of caloric function changes with vestibular symptoms. Method: This article is a systematic review of evidence-based literature. English language articles published between 1980 and 2014 that presented some…

  14. Our Decision on a Cochlear Implant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Edward

    2000-01-01

    In this essay, the hearing parents of a child with deafness explain why they have chosen not to seek a cochlear implant for their daughter. The essay concludes that deafness inspires and sustains a language and a culture that offer fulfilling participation in every important aspect of life and society. (CR)

  15. Peer Relationships of Children with Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bat-Chava, Yael; Deignan, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of interviews with parents of children with cochlear implants found that, although implants have the potential to improve deaf children's relationships with hearing peers, these children still face communication obstacles which impede their social relationships. Results are discussed from the viewpoints of…

  16. Word Learning in Children following Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Derek M.; Carter, Allyson K.; Pisoni, David B.; Kirk, Karen Iler; Ying, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental procedure was developed to investigate word-learning skills of children who use cochlear implants (CIs). Using interactive play scenarios, 2- to 5-year olds were presented with sets of objects (Beanie Baby stuffed animals) and words for their names that corresponded to salient perceptual attributes (e.g., "horns" for a goat). Their…

  17. Listening Effort with Cochlear Implant Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Baskent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing participants listened to CI simulations with varying…

  18. Auditory Learning in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Srikanta K.; Boddupally, Shiva P.; Rayapati, Deeksha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine and characterize the training-induced changes in speech-in-noise perception in children with congenital deafness who have cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Twenty-seven children with congenital deafness who have CIs were studied. Eleven children with CIs were trained on a speech-in-noise task,…

  19. Pharmacokinetics of Drug Entry into Cochlear Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt, Alec N.

    2005-01-01

    The inner ear is exposed to aminoglycosides or other drugs either intentionally or as a side effect of clinical treatments directed at other regions of the body. An understanding of the effects of drugs on the inner ear requires knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of the drug once it reaches the cochlear fluids, specifically how much of it reaches…

  20. Onset of deconfinement in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gazdzicki, M.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Seyboth, P.

    2012-05-15

    The energy dependence of hadron production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions reveals anomalies-the kink, horn, and step. They were predicted as signals of the deconfinement phase transition and observed by the NA49 Collaboration in central PbPb collisions at the CERN SPS. This indicates the onset of the deconfinement in nucleus-nucleus collisions at about 30 A GeV.

  1. Recognition of Speech from the Television with Use of a Wireless Technology Designed for Cochlear Implants.

    PubMed

    Duke, Mila Morais; Wolfe, Jace; Schafer, Erin

    2016-05-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) recipients often experience difficulty understanding speech in noise and speech that originates from a distance. Many CI recipients also experience difficulty understanding speech originating from a television. Use of hearing assistance technology (HAT) may improve speech recognition in noise and for signals that originate from more than a few feet from the listener; however, there are no published studies evaluating the potential benefits of a wireless HAT designed to deliver audio signals from a television directly to a CI sound processor. The objective of this study was to compare speech recognition in quiet and in noise of CI recipients with the use of their CI alone and with the use of their CI and a wireless HAT (Cochlear Wireless TV Streamer). A two-way repeated measures design was used to evaluate performance differences obtained in quiet and in competing noise (65 dBA) with the CI sound processor alone and with the sound processor coupled to the Cochlear Wireless TV Streamer. Sixteen users of Cochlear Nucleus 24 Freedom, CI512, and CI422 implants were included in the study. Participants were evaluated in four conditions including use of the sound processor alone and use of the sound processor with the wireless streamer in quiet and in the presence of competing noise at 65 dBA. Speech recognition was evaluated in each condition with two full lists of Computer-Assisted Speech Perception Testing and Training Sentence-Level Test sentences presented from a light-emitting diode television. Speech recognition in noise was significantly better with use of the wireless streamer compared to participants' performance with their CI sound processor alone. There was also a nonsignificant trend toward better performance in quiet with use of the TV Streamer. Performance was significantly poorer when evaluated in noise compared to performance in quiet when the TV Streamer was not used. Use of the Cochlear Wireless TV Streamer designed to stream audio

  2. Shape Optimization of Cochlear Implant Electrode Array Using Genetic Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Shape Optimization of Cochlear Implant Electrode Array using Genetic Algorithms Charles T.M. Choi, Ph.D., senior member, IEEE Department of...c.t.choi@ieee.org Abstract−Finite element analysis is used to compute the current distribution of the human cochlea during cochlear implant electrical...stimulation. Genetic algorithms are then applied in conjunction with the finite element analysis to optimize the shape of cochlear implant electrode array

  3. What Does Music Sound Like for a Cochlear Implant User?

    PubMed

    Jiam, Nicole T; Caldwell, Meredith T; Limb, Charles J

    2017-09-01

    Cochlear implant research and product development over the past 40 years have been heavily focused on speech comprehension with little emphasis on music listening and enjoyment. The relatively little understanding of how music sounds in a cochlear implant user stands in stark contrast to the overall degree of importance the public places on music and quality of life. The purpose of this article is to describe what music sounds like to cochlear implant users, using a combination of existing research studies and listener descriptions. We examined the published literature on music perception in cochlear implant users, particularly postlingual cochlear implant users, with an emphasis on the primary elements of music and recorded music. Additionally, we administered an informal survey to cochlear implant users to gather first-hand descriptions of music listening experience and satisfaction from the cochlear implant population. Limitations in cochlear implant technology lead to a music listening experience that is significantly distorted compared with that of normal hearing listeners. On the basis of many studies and sources, we describe how music is frequently perceived as out-of-tune, dissonant, indistinct, emotionless, and weak in bass frequencies, especially for postlingual cochlear implant users-which may in part explain why music enjoyment and participation levels are lower after implantation. Additionally, cochlear implant users report difficulty in specific musical contexts based on factors including but not limited to genre, presence of lyrics, timbres (woodwinds, brass, instrument families), and complexity of the perceived music. Future research and cochlear implant development should target these areas as parameters for improvement in cochlear implant-mediated music perception.

  4. New expectations: Pediatric cochlear implantation in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Janette

    2013-01-01

    Funding for cochlear implants The Japanese health-care system provides universal health coverage for the entire 127 million population of Japan. This includes all aspects of cochlear implantation, from diagnosis to implantation to mapping and habilitation aftercare. Japan has the third largest developed economy; however, the uptake rate for cochlear implants is lower than that of countries with similar economic status. Japan has an uptake rate of approximately 1% of potentially suitable subjects of all ages, compared with 5.6% in the USA. Cochlear implant provision for children In Japan, about 55% of cochlear implant recipients are children of less than 18 years of age. This represents an increase of 20% in the last 10 years, with a relative increase in the numbers of children receiving implants compared with the numbers of adults. However, only 3–4% of children under the age of 3 years are being implanted at less than 18 months of age. This is in accordance with the Japanese ENT Academy's guidelines, which currently puts the minimum age limit for implants in children at 18 months. Neonatal screening For hearing loss was first piloted nationally in Japan in 2000. Funding for screening subsequently stopped in 2005, though the national treasury provided a further 2 years' funding. Since 2007 local government organizations have been given responsibility to support these screening programs, but there remains considerable variation in funding between different prefectures. In one prefecture, Okayama, 95% of babies were screened and followed up for 2 years. However, the support system for children who need further diagnostic testing after screening remains insufficient. Referral When diagnosed, children with hearing loss are referred for counselling, hearing aids and habilitation. The responsibility for these is divided between the Ministry of Health and Welfare (including surgery, device programming, and therapy) and the Ministry of Education. Schools for the deaf and

  5. [Improving speech comprehension using a new cochlear implant speech processor].

    PubMed

    Müller-Deile, J; Kortmann, T; Hoppe, U; Hessel, H; Morsnowski, A

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this multicenter clinical field study was to assess the benefits of the new Freedom 24 sound processor for cochlear implant (CI) users implanted with the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system. The study included 48 postlingually profoundly deaf experienced CI users who demonstrated speech comprehension performance with their current speech processor on the Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA) in quiet conditions of at least 80% correct scores and who were able to perform adaptive speech threshold testing using the OLSA in noisy conditions. Following baseline measures of speech comprehension performance with their current speech processor, subjects were upgraded to the Freedom 24 speech processor. After a take-home trial period of at least 2 weeks, subject performance was evaluated by measuring the speech reception threshold with the Freiburg multisyllabic word test and speech intelligibility with the Freiburg monosyllabic word test at 50 dB and 70 dB in the sound field. The results demonstrated highly significant benefits for speech comprehension with the new speech processor. Significant benefits for speech comprehension were also demonstrated with the new speech processor when tested in competing background noise.In contrast, use of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) did not prove to be a suitably sensitive assessment tool for comparative subjective self-assessment of hearing benefits with each processor. Use of the preprocessing algorithm known as adaptive dynamic range optimization (ADRO) in the Freedom 24 led to additional improvements over the standard upgrade map for speech comprehension in quiet and showed equivalent performance in noise. Through use of the preprocessing beam-forming algorithm BEAM, subjects demonstrated a highly significant improved signal-to-noise ratio for speech comprehension thresholds (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio for 50% speech comprehension scores) when tested with an adaptive procedure using the Oldenburg

  6. Antinucleon-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical results on anti p-nucleus interactions are reviewed. We focus on determinations of the anti p optical potential from elastic scattering, the use of (anti p, anti p') inelastic scattering to reveal aspects of the spin-isospin dependence of N anti N amplitudes, and some puzzling features of (anti p, anti n) charge exchange reactions on nuclei. 47 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Cochlear implantation: a personal and societal economic perspective examining the effects of cochlear implantation on personal income.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Eric; Shipp, David; Chen, Joseph; Nedzelski, Julian; Lin, Vincent

    2012-04-01

    Although cochlear implantation has been shown to improve quality of life, the socioeconomic benefit to the individual and society has not been thoroughly investigated. Our objective was to determine the economic impact of profound deafness and subsequent effects of unilateral cochlear implantation. Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected cochlear implantation database. An academic, tertiary care hospital. A prospectively collected cochlear implantation database of 702 patients was reviewed. Known Canadian economic surrogates were used to estimate the personal economic impact of both deafness and unilateral cochlear implantation. The main outcome measures included employment rates and personal income prior to and following cochlear implantation. A total of 637 patients had sufficient occupational data for inclusion in the study; 36.7% suffered a negative economic impact as a result of their deafness. Cochlear implantation was associated with a significant increase in median yearly income compared to preimplantation ($42 672 vs $30 432; p = .007). Cochlear implantation not only improves quality of life but also translates into significant economic benefits for patients and the Canadian economy. These benefits appear to exceed the overall costs of cochlear implantation.

  8. Recognition and Localization of Speech by Adult Cochlear Implant Recipients Wearing a Digital Hearing Aid in the Nonimplanted Ear (Bimodal Hearing)

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Lisa G.; Skinner, Margaret W.; Litovsky, Ruth A.; Strube, Michael J; Kuk, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Background The use of bilateral amplification is now common clinical practice for hearing aid users but not for cochlear implant recipients. In the past, most cochlear implant recipients were implanted in one ear and wore only a monaural cochlear implant processor. There has been recent interest in benefits arising from bilateral stimulation that may be present for cochlear implant recipients. One option for bilateral stimulation is the use of a cochlear implant in one ear and a hearing aid in the opposite nonimplanted ear (bimodal hearing). Purpose This study evaluated the effect of wearing a cochlear implant in one ear and a digital hearing aid in the opposite ear on speech recognition and localization. Research Design A repeated-measures correlational study was completed. Study Sample Nineteen adult Cochlear Nucleus 24 implant recipients participated in the study. Intervention The participants were fit with a Widex Senso Vita 38 hearing aid to achieve maximum audibility and comfort within their dynamic range. Data Collection and Analysis Soundfield thresholds, loudness growth, speech recognition, localization, and subjective questionnaires were obtained six–eight weeks after the hearing aid fitting. Testing was completed in three conditions: hearing aid only, cochlear implant only, and cochlear implant and hearing aid (bimodal). All tests were repeated four weeks after the first test session. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. Significant effects were further examined using pairwise comparison of means or in the case of continuous moderators, regression analyses. The speech-recognition and localization tasks were unique, in that a speech stimulus presented from a variety of roaming azimuths (140 degree loudspeaker array) was used. Results Performance in the bimodal condition was significantly better for speech recognition and localization compared to the cochlear implant–only and hearing aid–only conditions. Performance

  9. Recognition and localization of speech by adult cochlear implant recipients wearing a digital hearing aid in the nonimplanted ear (bimodal hearing).

    PubMed

    Potts, Lisa G; Skinner, Margaret W; Litovsky, Ruth A; Strube, Michael J; Kuk, Francis

    2009-06-01

    The use of bilateral amplification is now common clinical practice for hearing aid users but not for cochlear implant recipients. In the past, most cochlear implant recipients were implanted in one ear and wore only a monaural cochlear implant processor. There has been recent interest in benefits arising from bilateral stimulation that may be present for cochlear implant recipients. One option for bilateral stimulation is the use of a cochlear implant in one ear and a hearing aid in the opposite nonimplanted ear (bimodal hearing). This study evaluated the effect of wearing a cochlear implant in one ear and a digital hearing aid in the opposite ear on speech recognition and localization. A repeated-measures correlational study was completed. Nineteen adult Cochlear Nucleus 24 implant recipients participated in the study. The participants were fit with a Widex Senso Vita 38 hearing aid to achieve maximum audibility and comfort within their dynamic range. Soundfield thresholds, loudness growth, speech recognition, localization, and subjective questionnaires were obtained six-eight weeks after the hearing aid fitting. Testing was completed in three conditions: hearing aid only, cochlear implant only, and cochlear implant and hearing aid (bimodal). All tests were repeated four weeks after the first test session. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. Significant effects were further examined using pairwise comparison of means or in the case of continuous moderators, regression analyses. The speech-recognition and localization tasks were unique, in that a speech stimulus presented from a variety of roaming azimuths (140 degree loudspeaker array) was used. Performance in the bimodal condition was significantly better for speech recognition and localization compared to the cochlear implant-only and hearing aid-only conditions. Performance was also different between these conditions when the location (i.e., side of the loudspeaker array that

  10. Meningitis after cochlear implantation in Mondini malformation.

    PubMed

    Page, E L; Eby, T L

    1997-01-01

    Although the potential for CSF leakage and subsequent meningitis after cochlear implantation in the malformed cochlea has been recognized, this complication has not been previously reported. We report a case of CSF otorhinorrhea and meningitis after minor head trauma developing 2 years after cochlear implantation in a child with Mondini malformation. Leakage of CSF was identified from the cochleostomy around the electrode of the implant, and this leak was sealed with a temporalis fascia and muscle plug. Although this complication appears to be rare, care must be taken to seal the cochleostomy in children with inner ear malformations at the initial surgery, and any episode of meningitis after surgery must be thoroughly investigated to rule out CSF leakage from the labyrinth.

  11. Auditory neuroplasticity, hearing loss and cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Ryugo, David

    2015-07-01

    Data from our laboratory show that the auditory brain is highly malleable by experience. We establish a base of knowledge that describes the normal structure and workings at the initial stages of the central auditory system. This research is expanded to include the associated pathology in the auditory brain stem created by hearing loss. Utilizing the congenitally deaf white cat, we demonstrate the way that cells, synapses, and circuits are pathologically affected by sound deprivation. We further show that the restoration of auditory nerve activity via electrical stimulation through cochlear implants serves to correct key features of brain pathology caused by hearing loss. The data suggest that rigorous training with cochlear implants and/or hearing aids offers the promise of heretofore unattained benefits.

  12. Changing expectations for children with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Moog, Jean Sachar

    2002-05-01

    Seventeen students with cochlear implants who were between 5 and 11 years of age and attended the Moog Center for Deaf Education school program were tested just before exiting the program. The Moog program is an intensive oral program that provides very focused instruction in spoken language and reading. Children leave the program when they are ready for a mainstream setting or when they are 11 years of age, whichever comes first. All of the children demonstrated open-set speech perception ranging from 36% to 100%. On a test of speech intelligibility, all students scored 90% or better. On language and reading tests, compared with the performance of normal-hearing children their age, more than 65% scored within the average range for language and more than 70% scored within the average range for reading. These data demonstrate what is possible for deaf children who benefit from a combination of a cochlear implant and a highly focused oral education program.

  13. Nonlinear Cochlear Signal Processing and Phoneme Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Jont B.; Régnier, Marion; Phatak, Sandeep; Li, Feipeng

    2009-02-01

    The most important communication signal is human speech. It is helpful to think of speech communication in terms of Claude Shannon's information theory channel model. When thus viewed, it immediately becomes clear that the most complex part of speech communication channel is in auditory system (the receiver). In my opinion, even after years of work, relatively little is know about how the human auditory system decodes speech. Given cochlear damaged, speech scores are greatly reduced, even with tiny amounts of noise. The exact reasons for this SNR-loss presently remain unclear, but I speculate that the source of this must be cochlear outer hair cell temporal processing, not central processing. Specifically, "temporal edge enhancement" of the speech signal and forward masking could easily be modified in such ears, leading to SNR-Loss. What ever the reason, SNR-Loss is the key problem that needs to be fully researched.

  14. Local Cochlear Correlations of Perceived Pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martignoli, Stefan; Stoop, Ruedi

    2010-07-01

    Pitch is one of the most salient attributes of the human perception of sound, but is still not well understood. This difficulty originates in the entwined nature of the phenomenon, in which a physical stimulus as well as a psychophysiological signal receiver are involved. In an electronic realization of a biophysically detailed nonlinear model of the cochlea, we find local cochlear correlates of the perceived pitch that explain all essential pitch-shifting phenomena from physical grounds.

  15. Modeling the effect of channel number and interaction on consonant recognition in a cochlear implant peak-picking strategy.

    PubMed

    Verschuur, Carl

    2009-03-01

    Difficulties in speech recognition experienced by cochlear implant users may be attributed both to information loss caused by signal processing and to information loss associated with the interface between the electrode array and auditory nervous system, including cross-channel interaction. The objective of the work reported here was to attempt to partial out the relative contribution of these different factors to consonant recognition. This was achieved by comparing patterns of consonant feature recognition as a function of channel number and presence/absence of background noise in users of the Nucleus 24 device with normal hearing subjects listening to acoustic models that mimicked processing of that device. Additionally, in the acoustic model experiment, a simulation of cross-channel spread of excitation, or "channel interaction," was varied. Results showed that acoustic model experiments were highly correlated with patterns of performance in better-performing cochlear implant users. Deficits to consonant recognition in this subgroup could be attributed to cochlear implant processing, whereas channel interaction played a much smaller role in determining performance errors. The study also showed that large changes to channel number in the Advanced Combination Encoder signal processing strategy led to no substantial changes in performance.

  16. Speech encoding strategies for multielectrode cochlear implants: a digital signal processor approach.

    PubMed

    Dillier, N; Bögli, H; Spillmann, T

    1993-01-01

    The following processing strategies have been implemented on an experimental laboratory system of a cochlear implant digital speech processor (CIDSP) for the Nucleus 22-channel cochlear prosthesis. The first approach (PES, Pitch Excited Sampler) is based on the maximum peak channel vocoder concept whereby the time-varying spectral energy of a number of frequency bands is transformed into electrical stimulation parameters for up to 22 electrodes. The pulse rate at any electrode is controlled by the voice pitch of the input speech signal. The second approach (CIS, Continuous Interleaved Sampler) uses a stimulation pulse rate which is independent of the input signal. The algorithm continuously scans all specified frequency bands (typically between four and 22) and samples their energy levels. As only one electrode can be stimulated at any instance of time, the maximally achievable rate of stimulation is limited by the required stimulus pulse widths (determined individually for each subject) and some additional constraints and parameters. A number of variations of the CIS approach have, therefore, been implemented which either maximize the number of quasi-simultaneous stimulation channels or the pulse rate on a reduced number of electrodes. Evaluation experiments with five experienced cochlear implant users showed significantly better performance in consonant identification tests with the new processing strategies than with the subjects' own wearable speech processors; improvements in vowel identification tasks were rarely observed. Modifications of the basic PES- and CIS strategies resulted in large variations of identification scores. Information transmission analysis of confusion matrices revealed a rather complex pattern across conditions and speech features. Optimization and fine-tuning of processing parameters for these coding strategies will require more data both from speech identification and discrimination evaluations and from psychophysical experiments.

  17. Effects of electrical stimulation rate on speech recognition in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Hye; Kim, Eunoak; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Hyung-Jong

    2012-04-01

    The stimulus signals delivered in cochlear implant (CI) systems are generally derived by sampling the temporal envelope of each channel at some constant rate and using its intensity to control the stimulation current level delivered to the corresponding electrode site. The objective of the study was to investigate speech recognition performance of cochlear implant users in quiet and noisy environments using either moderate or high rates of electrical stimulations. Six post-lingually deafened adult users of the Nucleus CI24 cochlear implant (Contour® electrode array, Cochlear™, Macquarie Park, Australia) with the Freedom® speech processor participated in the study. Stimulation rates of 900 and 2400 pulses-per-second/channel (pps/ch) were used after both stimulation programs were balanced for loudness. Monosyllabic word and sentence recognition scores in quiet and noisy environments were evaluated for each stimulation program after two months of practice. Subjects were also asked to respond to a questionnaire to examine their preference to any stimulation rate in different hearing conditions. Word recognition scores for monosyllabic words in quiet conditions with the 900 stimulation rate was better than that of the 2400 stimulation rate, although no significant differences between them were found for sentence test in noise. A survey questionnaire indicated that most subjects preferred the 900 stimulation rate to the 2400 stimulation rate, especially in quiet conditions. Most subjects indicated a preference for 900 pps/ch rate in quiet conditions. It is recommended to remap at 900 pps/ch for those CI users whose performance in quiet conditions is less than ideal.

  18. Monopolar Detection Thresholds Predict Spatial Selectivity of Neural Excitation in Cochlear Implants: Implications for Speech Recognition

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to (1) investigate the potential of using monopolar psychophysical detection thresholds for estimating spatial selectivity of neural excitation with cochlear implants and to (2) examine the effect of site removal on speech recognition based on the threshold measure. Detection thresholds were measured in Cochlear Nucleus® device users using monopolar stimulation for pulse trains that were of (a) low rate and long duration, (b) high rate and short duration, and (c) high rate and long duration. Spatial selectivity of neural excitation was estimated by a forward-masking paradigm, where the probe threshold elevation in the presence of a forward masker was measured as a function of masker-probe separation. The strength of the correlation between the monopolar thresholds and the slopes of the masking patterns systematically reduced as neural response of the threshold stimulus involved interpulse interactions (refractoriness and sub-threshold adaptation), and spike-rate adaptation. Detection threshold for the low-rate stimulus most strongly correlated with the spread of forward masking patterns and the correlation reduced for long and high rate pulse trains. The low-rate thresholds were then measured for all electrodes across the array for each subject. Subsequently, speech recognition was tested with experimental maps that deactivated five stimulation sites with the highest thresholds and five randomly chosen ones. Performance with deactivating the high-threshold sites was better than performance with the subjects’ clinical map used every day with all electrodes active, in both quiet and background noise. Performance with random deactivation was on average poorer than that with the clinical map but the difference was not significant. These results suggested that the monopolar low-rate thresholds are related to the spatial neural excitation patterns in cochlear implant users and can be used to select sites for more optimal speech

  19. Risk factors for loss of ipsilateral residual hearing after hybrid cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Kopelovich, Jonathan C; Reiss, Lina A J; Oleson, Jacob J; Lundt, Emily S; Gantz, Bruce J; Hansen, Marlan R

    2014-09-01

    Residual low-frequency acoustic hearing benefits cochlear implantees in difficult listening situations such as understanding speech in noise and music appreciation. Most subjects retain functional residual hearing in the operated ear. A small number of patients, however, will lose significant ipsilateral residual hearing after short-electrode cochlear implantation. The objectives of this retrospective series are to determine whether predisposition to hearing loss after implantation exists in a subset of patients and to assess the functional impact of this hearing loss on clinical measures of combined electric and acoustic hearing. Retrospective case series. Multicenter clinical trial; tertiary care facility. Hearing preservation cochlear implant recipients. Frequency-averaged ipsilateral hearing loss at 1 year after activation. Eighty-five patients from the Hybrid S8 FDA trial had serial postoperative audiometric measurements. Twenty-two of these patients, implanted at the home institution, provided additional medical data. Univariate analysis (Pearson's, Spearman's, Student's t test) showed that the severity of hearing loss at 1 year after activation was significantly correlated with age, male gender, and noise-induced hearing loss as the etiology of hearing impairment. A multivariate regression model corroborated these variables. No other medical factors were predictive. Clinical measures of speech perception (Consonant-Nucleus-Consonant and Hearing in Noise Test) worsened with hearing loss in ipsilateral but not bilateral listening conditions. Age, male gender, and a history of noise-induced hearing loss correlate with the severity of hearing loss at 1 year after activation. Even the most severely affected patients benefit from bilateral electric and acoustic inputs.

  20. Cochlear damages caused by vibration exposure.

    PubMed

    Moussavi Najarkola, Seyyed Ali; Khavanin, Ali; Mirzaei, Ramazan; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Muhammadnejad, Ahad

    2013-09-01

    Many industrial devices have an excessive vibration which can affect human body systems. The effect of vibration on cochlear histology has been as a debatable problem in occupational health and medicine. Due to limitation present in human studies, the research was conducted to survey the influence of vibration on cochlear histology in an animal model. TWELVE ALBINO RABBITS WERE EXPERIMENTED AS: Vibration group (n = 6; exposed to 1.0 m.s(-2) r.m.s vertical whole-body vibration at 4 - 8 Hz for 8 hours per day during 5 consecutive days) versus Control group (n = 6; the same rabbits without vibration exposure). After finishing the exposure scenario, all rabbits were killed by CO2 inhalation; their cochleae were extracted and fixed in 10% formaldehyde for 48 hours, decalcified by 10% nitric acid for 24 hours. Specimens were dehydrated, embedded, sectioned 5 µm thick and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin for light microscopy observations. Severely hydropic degenerated and vacuolated inner hair cells (IHCs) were observed in vibration group compared to the control group. Inter and intracellular edema was appeared in supporting cells (SC). Nuclei of outer hair cells (OHCs) seemed to be pyknotic. Slightly thickened basilar membrane (BM) was probably implied to inter cellular edematous. Tectorial Membrane (TM) was not affected pathologically. Whole-body vibration could cause cochlear damages in male rabbits, though vibration-induced auditory functional effects might be resulted as subsequent outcome of prolonged high level vibration exposures.

  1. An Electromechanical Model for the Cochlear Microphonic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teal, Paul D.; Lineton, Ben; Elliott, Stephen J.

    2011-11-01

    The first of the many electrical signals generated in the ear, nerves and brain as a response to a sound incident on the ear is the cochlear microphonic (CM). The CM is generated by the hair cells of the cochlea, primarily the outer hairs cells. The potentials of this signal are a nonlinear filtered version of the acoustic pressure at the tympanic membrane. The CM signal has been used very little in recent years for clinical audiology and audiological research. This is because of uncertainty in interpreting the CM signal as a diagnostic measure, and also because of the difficulty of obtaining the signal, which has usually required the use of a transtympanic electrode. There are however, several potential clinical and research applications for acquisition of the CM. To promote understanding of the CM, and potential clinical application, a model is presented which can account for the generation of the cochlear microphonic signal. The model incorporates micro-mechanical and macro-mechanical aspects of previously published models of the basilar membrane and reticular lamina, as well as cochlear fluid mechanics, piezoelectric activity and capacitance of the outer hair cells. It also models the electrical coupling of signals along the scalae.

  2. Surgical evaluation of candidates for cochlear implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Lilly, D. J.; Fowler, L. P.; Stypulkowski, P. H.

    1987-01-01

    The customary presentation of surgical procedures to patients in the United States consists of discussions on alternative treatment methods, risks of the procedure(s) under consideration, and potential benefits for the patient. Because the contents of the normal speech signal have not been defined in a way that permits a surgeon systematically to provide alternative auditory signals to a deaf patient, the burden is placed on the surgeon to make an arbitrary selection of candidates and available devices for cochlear prosthetic implantation. In an attempt to obtain some information regarding the ability of a deaf patient to use electrical signals to detect and understand speech, the Good Samaritan Hospital and Neurological Sciences Institute cochlear implant team has routinely performed tympanotomies using local anesthesia and has positioned temporary electrodes onto the round windows of implant candidates. The purpose of this paper is to review our experience with this procedure and to provide some observations that may be useful in a comprehensive preoperative evaluation for totally deaf patients who are being considered for cochlear implantation.

  3. Surgical evaluation of candidates for cochlear implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Lilly, D. J.; Fowler, L. P.; Stypulkowski, P. H.

    1987-01-01

    The customary presentation of surgical procedures to patients in the United States consists of discussions on alternative treatment methods, risks of the procedure(s) under consideration, and potential benefits for the patient. Because the contents of the normal speech signal have not been defined in a way that permits a surgeon systematically to provide alternative auditory signals to a deaf patient, the burden is placed on the surgeon to make an arbitrary selection of candidates and available devices for cochlear prosthetic implantation. In an attempt to obtain some information regarding the ability of a deaf patient to use electrical signals to detect and understand speech, the Good Samaritan Hospital and Neurological Sciences Institute cochlear implant team has routinely performed tympanotomies using local anesthesia and has positioned temporary electrodes onto the round windows of implant candidates. The purpose of this paper is to review our experience with this procedure and to provide some observations that may be useful in a comprehensive preoperative evaluation for totally deaf patients who are being considered for cochlear implantation.

  4. Cochlear implant speech recognition with speech maskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickney, Ginger S.; Zeng, Fan-Gang; Litovsky, Ruth; Assmann, Peter

    2004-08-01

    Speech recognition performance was measured in normal-hearing and cochlear-implant listeners with maskers consisting of either steady-state speech-spectrum-shaped noise or a competing sentence. Target sentences from a male talker were presented in the presence of one of three competing talkers (same male, different male, or female) or speech-spectrum-shaped noise generated from this talker at several target-to-masker ratios. For the normal-hearing listeners, target-masker combinations were processed through a noise-excited vocoder designed to simulate a cochlear implant. With unprocessed stimuli, a normal-hearing control group maintained high levels of intelligibility down to target-to-masker ratios as low as 0 dB and showed a release from masking, producing better performance with single-talker maskers than with steady-state noise. In contrast, no masking release was observed in either implant or normal-hearing subjects listening through an implant simulation. The performance of the simulation and implant groups did not improve when the single-talker masker was a different talker compared to the same talker as the target speech, as was found in the normal-hearing control. These results are interpreted as evidence for a significant role of informational masking and modulation interference in cochlear implant speech recognition with fluctuating maskers. This informational masking may originate from increased target-masker similarity when spectral resolution is reduced.

  5. Leukocyte nucleus segmentation and nucleus lobe counting.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yung-Kuan; Tsai, Meng-Hsiun; Huang, Der-Chen; Zheng, Zong-Han; Hung, Kun-Ding

    2010-11-12

    Leukocytes play an important role in the human immune system. The family of leukocytes is comprised of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils. Any infection or acute stress may increase or decrease the number of leukocytes. An increased percentage of neutrophils may be caused by an acute infection, while an increased percentage of lymphocytes can be caused by a chronic bacterial infection. It is important to realize an abnormal variation in the leukocytes. The five types of leukocytes can be distinguished by their cytoplasmic granules, staining properties of the granules, size of cell, the proportion of the nuclear to the cytoplasmic material, and the type of nucleolar lobes. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency.Biomedical technologists can currently recognize abnormal leukocytes using human eyes. However, the quality and efficiency of diagnosis may be compromised due to the limitations of the biomedical technologists' eyesight, strength, and medical knowledge. Therefore, the development of an automatic leukocyte recognition system is feasible and necessary. It is essential to extract the leukocyte region from a blood smear image in order to develop an automatic leukocyte recognition system. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency. The purpose of this paper is to contribute an automatic leukocyte nuclei image segmentation method for such recognition technology. The other goal of this paper is to develop the method of counting the number of lobes in a cell nucleus. The experimental results demonstrated impressive segmentation accuracy

  6. Temporal changes in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus of the developing rat brain.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Nobuhiro; Kanba, Shigenobu; Arita, Jun

    2003-07-04

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family, which is important for the growth, differentiation, and survival of neurons during development. We have performed a detailed mapping of BDNF mRNA in the neonatal rat brain using a quantitative in situ hybridization technique. At postnatal day (PND) 4, hypothalamic structures showed only modest expression of BDNF mRNA, with the exception of the ventromedial nucleus (VMN), where expression was higher than that detected in the hippocampus. Abundant BDNF mRNA was also found in the bed nucleus of the anterior commissure, retrosplenial granular cortex, and the posteroventral part of the medial amygdaloid nucleus. Messenger RNAs encoding other neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and the BDNF receptor trkB, were not selectively localized in neonatal VMN. During subsequent developmental stages, BDNF mRNA expression in the VMN changed dynamically, peaking at PND 4 and falling to minimal levels in the adult brain. In contrast, the low levels of BDNF mRNA observed in the CA3 region of the hippocampus increased to adult levels following PND 10. As the VMN undergoes sexual differentiation, we compared BDNF, NGF, NT-3, and trkB mRNA expression in the VMN in males and females at embryonic day 20 and PND 4, but found no differences between them. These results suggest that localized and high level expression of BDNF mRNA in the neonatal VMN plays an important role in its neural organization and functional development.

  7. Turned On: Cochlear Implants for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biderman, Beverly

    This first-person account discusses how a cochlear implant has allowed an individual with deafness to hear. It describes how cochlear implants function, the development of cochlear implants and who can benefit from the implants and to what extent. It also discusses how well people can hear with a cochlear implant. Factors strongly associated with…

  8. Exploring Perspectives on Cochlear Implants and Language Acquisition within the Deaf Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Cochlear implants generated intense debate almost immediately following their introduction in the 1980s. Today, with a vast number of deaf individuals with cochlear implants, the debate about the cochlear implant device and mode of communication continues. Q-methodology was used in this study to explore cochlear implants and language acquisition…

  9. Exploring Perspectives on Cochlear Implants and Language Acquisition within the Deaf Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Cochlear implants generated intense debate almost immediately following their introduction in the 1980s. Today, with a vast number of deaf individuals with cochlear implants, the debate about the cochlear implant device and mode of communication continues. Q-methodology was used in this study to explore cochlear implants and language acquisition…

  10. Nucleus from string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Morita, Takeshi

    2011-08-01

    In generic holographic QCD, we find that baryons are bound to form a nucleus, and that its radius obeys the empirically-known mass-number (A) dependence r∝A1/3 for large A. Our result is robust, since we use only a generic property of D-brane actions in string theory. We also show that nucleons are bound completely in a finite volume. Furthermore, employing a concrete holographic model (derived by Hashimoto, Iizuka, and Yi, describing a multibaryon system in the Sakai-Sugimoto model), the nuclear radius is evaluated as O(1)×A1/3[fm], which is consistent with experiments.

  11. Reality of comet nucleus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyttleton, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The prime problem of a comet mission must be to settle whether the cometary nucleus has an actual tangible material existence, or whether it arises from some optical effect present only at times within comets. The absence of any large particles in a comet seems to be demonstrated by certain meteor showers. A feature that would seem to indicate that a comet consists primarily of a swarm of particles is that the coma in general contracts as the comet approaches the sun, roughly in proportion within the distance, and then expands again as it recedes.

  12. Neutrino-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, H.; Garvey, G.; Zeller, G.P.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The study of neutrino oscillations has necessitated a new generation of neutrino experiments that are exploring neutrino-nuclear scattering processes. We focus in particular on charged-current quasi-elastic scattering, a particularly important channel that has been extensively investigated both in the bubble-chamber era and by current experiments. Recent results have led to theoretical reexamination of this process. We review the standard picture of quasi-elastic scattering as developed in electron scattering, review and discuss experimental results, and discuss additional nuclear effects such as exchange currents and short-range correlations that may play a significant role in neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  13. Cochlear implant characteristics and speech perception skills of adolescents with long-term device use.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Lisa S; Geers, Ann E; Brenner, Christine

    2010-10-01

    Updated cochlear implant technology and optimized fitting can have a substantial impact on speech perception. The effects of upgrades in processor technology and aided thresholds on word recognition at soft input levels and sentence recognition in noise were examined. We hypothesized that updated speech processors and lower aided thresholds would allow improved recognition of soft speech without compromising performance in noise. 109 teenagers who had used a Nucleus 22-cochlear implant since preschool were tested with their current speech processor(s) (101 unilateral and 8 bilateral): 13 used the Spectra, 22 the ESPrit 22, 61 the ESPrit 3G, and 13 the Freedom. The Lexical Neighborhood Test (LNT) was administered at 70 and 50 dB SPL and the Bamford Kowal Bench sentences were administered in quiet and in noise. Aided thresholds were obtained for frequency-modulated tones from 250 to 4,000 Hz. Results were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. Aided thresholds for the Freedom/3G group were significantly lower (better) than the Spectra/Sprint group. LNT scores at 50 dB were significantly higher for the Freedom/3G group. No significant differences between the 2 groups were found for the LNT at 70 or sentences in quiet or noise. Adolescents using updated processors that allowed for aided detection thresholds of 30 dB HL or better performed the best at soft levels. The BKB in noise results suggest that greater access to soft speech does not compromise listening in noise.

  14. Intraoperative Electrophysiologic Variations Caused by the Scalar Position of Cochlear Implant Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mittmann, Philipp; Ernst, Arneborg; Todt, Ingo

    2015-07-01

    The position of cochlear implant (CI) electrodes in the cochlea is fundamental for the interaction between the implant and the neurons of the spiral ganglion. The scalar position of the electrode in the cochlea is assumed to be an important parameter for the clinical outcome. In our study, the intraoperative electrophysiologic characteristics in dependence of the position of CI electrodes in the scala tympani or in the scala vestibuli after scalar change should be determined. The intraoperative impedances and neural response telemetry (NRT) data of 23 patients implanted with a Nucleus Advance Contour (Cochlear Pty, Sydney, Australia) electrode were recorded. One CI surgeon and two radiologists evaluated the electrode array's position independently radiologically by flat-panel tomography. Results from 17 patients with the electrode positioned in the scala tympani and six patients with the electrode changing intraoperatively from the tympanic into the vestibular scala were retrospectively analyzed. We found a statistically significant difference with an NRT threshold-based ratio for the groups. An estimation of the (radiologically confirmed) scalar position based on the NRT ratio was possible retrospectively. The evaluation of specific intraoperative electrophysiologic data allowed separating between a regular and an irregular (i.e., scalar changing) position of CI electrodes. This noninvasive methodology can support the postoperative radiologic evaluation of the CI electrode array position.

  15. Focused tight dressing does not prevent cochlear implant magnet migration under 1.5 Tesla MRI.

    PubMed

    Cuda, D; Murri, A; Succo, G

    2013-04-01

    We report a retrospective case of inner magnet migration, which occurred after 1.5 Tesla MRI scanning in an adult recipient of a bilateral cochlear implant (CI) despite a focused head dressing. The patient, bilaterally implanted with Nucleus 5 CIs (Cochlear LTD, Sydney, Australia), underwent a 1.5 Tesla cholangio-MRI scan for biliary duct pathology. In subsequent days, a focal skin alteration appeared over the left inner coil. Plain skull radiographs showed partial magnet migration on the left side. Surgical exploration confirmed magnet twisting; the magnet was effectively repositioned. Left CI performance was restored to pre-migration level. The wound healed without complications. Thus, focused dressing does not prevent magnet migration in CI recipients undergoing 1.5 Tesla MRI. All patients should be counselled on this potential complication. A minor surgical procedure is required to reposition the magnet. Nevertheless, timely diagnosis is necessary to prevent skin breakdown and subsequent device contamination. Plain skull radiograph is very effective in identifying magnet twisting; it should be performed systematically after MRI or minimally on all suspected cases.

  16. Effect of input compression and input frequency response on music perception in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Halliwell, Emily R; Jones, Linor L; Fraser, Matthew; Lockley, Morag; Hill-Feltham, Penelope; McKay, Colette M

    2015-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether modifications to input compression and input frequency response characteristics can improve music-listening satisfaction in cochlear implant users. Experiment 1 compared three pre-processed versions of music and speech stimuli in a laboratory setting: original, compressed, and flattened frequency response. Music excerpts comprised three music genres (classical, country, and jazz), and a running speech excerpt was compared. Experiment 2 implemented a flattened input frequency response in the speech processor program. In a take-home trial, participants compared unaltered and flattened frequency responses. Ten and twelve adult Nucleus Freedom cochlear implant users participated in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Experiment 1 revealed a significant preference for music stimuli with a flattened frequency response compared to both original and compressed stimuli, whereas there was a significant preference for the original (rising) frequency response for speech stimuli. Experiment 2 revealed no significant mean preference for the flattened frequency response, with 9 of 11 subjects preferring the rising frequency response. Input compression did not alter music enjoyment. Comparison of the two experiments indicated that individual frequency response preferences may depend on the genre or familiarity, and particularly whether the music contained lyrics.

  17. Evaluation of a revised indication for determining adult cochlear implant candidacy.

    PubMed

    Sladen, Douglas P; Gifford, René H; Haynes, David; Kelsall, David; Benson, Aaron; Lewis, Kristen; Zwolan, Teresa; Fu, Qian-Jie; Gantz, Bruce; Gilden, Jan; Westerberg, Brian; Gustin, Cindy; O'Neil, Lori; Driscoll, Colin L

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the use of monosyllabic word recognition versus sentence recognition to determine candidacy and long-term benefit for cochlear implantation. Prospective multi-center single-subject design. A total of 21 adults aged 18 years and older with bilateral moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss and low monosyllabic word scores received unilateral cochlear implantation. The consonant-nucleus-consonant (CNC) word test was the central measure of pre- and postoperative performance. Additional speech understanding tests included the Hearing in Noise Test sentences in quiet and AzBio sentences in +5 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Quality of life (QoL) was measured using the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit and Health Utilities Index. Performance on sentence recognition reached the ceiling of the test after only 3 months of implant use. In contrast, none of the participants in this study reached a score of 80% on CNC word recognition, even at the 12-month postoperative test interval. Measures of QoL related to hearing were also significantly improved following implantation. Results of this study demonstrate that monosyllabic words are appropriate for determining preoperative candidate and measuring long-term postoperative speech recognition performance. 2c. Laryngoscope, 127:2368-2374, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Comparison of cochlear implant performance after round window electrode insertion compared with traditional cochleostomy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bryan J; Kim, Ana H

    2013-05-01

    To compare speech perception after undergoing round window (RW) electrode insertion with those who underwent traditional cochleostomy (C) cochlear implant (CI) surgery. Case series with chart review. Academic cochlear implant center. Patients who met CI criteria with favorable intraoperative RW anatomy who underwent RW CI electrode insertion. Patients who underwent traditional C surgery were matched for age, duration of deafness, and preoperative hearing. Postoperative speech performance using the consonant-nucleus-consonant (CNC) test, Northwestern University Children's Perception of Speech (NUCHIPS), and Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) between 3 and 48 months after CI. A total of 84 patients underwent RW insertion between 2004 and 2011. Of these, 55 had pre- and postoperative speech perception data for analysis. Average age of implantation ranged from 2.4 to 87.3 years (mean ± SD, 42.1 ± 24.2 years) for RW patients. Average age of implantation for matched traditional C patients ranged from 2.3 to 85.6 years (mean ± SD, 43.3 ± 25.0 years). No significant differences in postoperative CI speech perception scores were noted between the RW and C groups at 12 months post-CI (RW group, 55.28% ± 23.26% vs C group, 53.19% ± 24.14%; P = .70). Our study found that patients with favorable RW anatomy who underwent RW CI electrode insertion demonstrated comparable speech perception compared with the traditional cochleostomy insertion group.

  19. A clinical assessment of cochlear implant recipient performance: implications for individualized map settings in specific environments.

    PubMed

    Hey, Matthias; Hocke, Thomas; Mauger, Stefan; Müller-Deile, Joachim

    2016-11-01

    Individual speech intelligibility was measured in quiet and noise for cochlear Implant recipients upgrading from the Freedom to the CP900 series sound processor. The postlingually deafened participants (n = 23) used either Nucleus CI24RE or CI512 cochlear implant, and currently wore a Freedom sound processor. A significant group mean improvement in speech intelligibility was found in quiet (Freiburg monosyllabic words at 50 dBSPL) and in noise (adaptive Oldenburger sentences in noise) for the two CP900 series SmartSound programs compared to the Freedom program. Further analysis was carried out on individual's speech intelligibility outcomes in quiet and in noise. Results showed a significant improvement or decrement for some recipients when upgrading to the new programs. To further increase speech intelligibility outcomes when upgrading, an enhanced upgrade procedure is proposed that includes additional testing with different signal-processing schemes. Implications of this research are that future automated scene analysis and switching technologies could provide additional performance improvements by introducing individualized scene-dependent settings.

  20. Taxonomic Knowledge of Children with and without Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily; Dinsmoor, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the taxonomic vocabulary knowledge and organization of children with cochlear implants to (a) children with normal hearing matched for age, and (b) children matched for vocabulary development. Method: Ten children with cochlear implants, 10 age-matched children with normal hearing, and 10…

  1. Evaluation of Evoked Potentials to Dyadic Tones after Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandmann, Pascale; Eichele, Tom; Buechler, Michael; Debener, Stefan; Jancke, Lutz; Dillier, Norbert; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Meyer, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Auditory evoked potentials are tools widely used to assess auditory cortex functions in clinical context. However, in cochlear implant users, electrophysiological measures are challenging due to implant-created artefacts in the EEG. Here, we used independent component analysis to reduce cochlear implant-related artefacts in event-related EEGs of…

  2. Evaluation of Evoked Potentials to Dyadic Tones after Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandmann, Pascale; Eichele, Tom; Buechler, Michael; Debener, Stefan; Jancke, Lutz; Dillier, Norbert; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Meyer, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Auditory evoked potentials are tools widely used to assess auditory cortex functions in clinical context. However, in cochlear implant users, electrophysiological measures are challenging due to implant-created artefacts in the EEG. Here, we used independent component analysis to reduce cochlear implant-related artefacts in event-related EEGs of…

  3. Evaluating the Feasibility of Using Remote Technology for Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goehring, Jenny L.; Hughes, Michelle L.; Baudhuin, Jacquelyn L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of remote technology to provide cochlear implant services has gained popularity in recent years. This article contains a review of research evaluating the feasibility of remote service delivery for recipients of cochlear implants. To date, published studies have determined that speech-processor programming levels and other objective tests…

  4. Acoustic Trauma Increases Cochlear and Hair Cell Uptake of Gentamicin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongzhe; Wang, Qi; Steyger, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to intense sound or high doses of aminoglycoside antibiotics can increase hearing thresholds, induce cochlear dysfunction, disrupt hair cell morphology and promote hair cell death, leading to permanent hearing loss. When the two insults are combined, synergistic ototoxicity occurs, exacerbating cochlear vulnerability to sound exposure. The underlying mechanism of this synergism remains unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sound exposure enhances the intra-cochlear trafficking of aminoglycosides, such as gentamicin, leading to increased hair cell uptake of aminoglycosides and subsequent ototoxicity. Methods Juvenile C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to moderate or intense sound levels, while fluorescently-conjugated or native gentamicin was administered concurrently or following sound exposure. Drug uptake was then examined in cochlear tissues by confocal microscopy. Results Prolonged sound exposure that induced temporary threshold shifts increased gentamicin uptake by cochlear hair cells, and increased gentamicin permeation across the strial blood-labyrinth barrier. Enhanced intra-cochlear trafficking and hair cell uptake of gentamicin also occurred when prolonged sound, and subsequent aminoglycoside exposure were temporally separated, confirming previous observations. Acute, concurrent sound exposure did not increase cochlear uptake of aminoglycosides. Conclusions Prolonged, moderate sound exposures enhanced intra-cochlear aminoglycoside trafficking into the stria vascularis and hair cells. Changes in strial and/or hair cell physiology and integrity due to acoustic overstimulation could increase hair cell uptake of gentamicin, and may represent one mechanism of synergistic ototoxicity. PMID:21552569

  5. Realization of Complex Onsets by Pediatric Users of Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Steven B.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined variations in English complex onset realizations by children who use cochlear implants. Data consisted of 227 productions of two-segment onset clusters from 12 children. In general, onset cluster realizations of children with cochlear implants did not differ markedly from those reported for children with normal hearing: null…

  6. The Needs of Parents of Children with Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Most, Tova; Zaidman-Zait, Anat

    2001-01-01

    This study surveyed 35 mothers of cochlear implant (CI) candidates or current users on the relative importance of various topics in a parent-targeted intervention program preceding and/or following cochlear implantation. Suggestions for an optimal intervention include use of a multidisciplinary team, information on many topics and services, and…

  7. Relationships among Professionals' Knowledge, Experience, and Expectations Regarding Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Itzhak, D.; Most, T.; Weisel, A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between teachers' and communication clinicians' self-reported knowledge on cochlear implants and their expectations of CIs. The authors also explored these professionals' views regarding the child's communication mode, educational setting, and social options following cochlear implantation. The…

  8. Nuclear entry of hyperbranched polylysine nanoparticles into cochlear cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weikai; Zhang, Ya; Löbler, Marian; Schmitz, Klaus-Peter; Ahmad, Aqeel; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Zou, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Background: Gene therapy is a potentially effective therapeutic modality for treating sensorineural hearing loss. Nonviral gene delivery vectors are expected to become extremely safe and convenient, and nanoparticles are the most promising types of vectors. However, infrequent nuclear localization in the cochlear cells limits their application for gene therapy. This study aimed to investigate the potential nuclear entry of hyperbranched polylysine nanoparticles (HPNPs) for gene delivery to cochlear targets. Methods: Rat primary cochlear cells and cochlear explants generated from newborn rats were treated with different concentrations of HPNPs. For the in vivo study, HPNPs were administered to the rats’ round window membranes. Subcellular distribution of HPNPs in different cell populations was observed with confocal microscope 24 hours after administration. Results: Nuclear entry was observed in various cochlear cell types in vitro and in vivo. In the primary cochlear cell culture, concentration-dependent internalization was observed. In the cochlear organotypic culture, abundant HPNPs were found in the modiolus, including the spiral ganglion, organ of Corti, and lateral wall tissues. In the in vivo study, a gradient distribution of HPNPs through different layers of the round window membrane was observed. HPNPs were also distributed in the cells of the middle ear tissue. Additionally, efficient internalization of HPNPs was observed in the organ of Corti and spiral ganglion cells. In primary cochlear cells, HPNPs induced higher transfection efficiency than did Lipofectamine™. Conclusion: These results suggest that HPNPs are potentially an ideal carrier for gene delivery into the cochlea. PMID:21468356

  9. Relationships among Professionals' Knowledge, Experience, and Expectations Regarding Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Itzhak, D.; Most, T.; Weisel, A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between teachers' and communication clinicians' self-reported knowledge on cochlear implants and their expectations of CIs. The authors also explored these professionals' views regarding the child's communication mode, educational setting, and social options following cochlear implantation. The…

  10. Multidisciplinary Training for Rural Outreach to Children with Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schery, Teris K.; Tharpe, Anne Marie

    The number of deaf children with surgically implanted cochlear devices has been increasing since the device was approved in 1989. In rural communities, there may be no one who is knowledgeable about the care of cochlear implants, what to expect of the child's communication abilities, and how to maximize the child's progress. A federally funded…

  11. Cochlear Implants:System Design, Integration and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Rebscher, Stephen; Harrison, William V.; Sun, Xiaoan; Feng, Haihong

    2009-01-01

    As the most successful neural prosthesis, cochlear implants have provided partial hearing to more than 120,000 persons worldwide; half of which being pediatric users who are able to develop nearly normal language. Biomedical engineers have played a central role in the design, integration and evaluation of the cochlear implant system, but the overall success is a result of collaborative work with physiologists, psychologists, physicians, educators, and entrepreneurs. This review presents broad yet in-depth academic and industrial perspectives on the underlying research and ongoing development of cochlear implants. The introduction accounts for major events and advances in cochlear implants, including dynamic interplays among engineers, scientists, physicians, and policy makers. The review takes a system approach to address critical issues from design and specifications to integration and evaluation. First, the cochlear implant system design and specifications are laid out. Second, the design goals, principles, and methods of the subsystem components are identified from the external speech processor and radio frequency transmission link to the internal receiver, stimulator and electrode arrays. Third, system integration and functional evaluation are presented with respect to safety, reliability, and challenges facing the present and future cochlear implant designers and users. Finally, issues beyond cochlear implants are discussed to address treatment options for the entire spectrum of hearing impairment as well as to use the cochlear implant as a model to design and evaluate other similar neural prostheses such as vestibular and retinal implants. PMID:19946565

  12. Taxonomic Knowledge of Children with and without Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily; Dinsmoor, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the taxonomic vocabulary knowledge and organization of children with cochlear implants to (a) children with normal hearing matched for age, and (b) children matched for vocabulary development. Method: Ten children with cochlear implants, 10 age-matched children with normal hearing, and 10…

  13. Surgical Management of the Pediatric Cochlear Implant Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Seth M.; Haynes, David S.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the surgical management of children receiving cochlear implants. It identifies preoperative considerations to select patients likely to benefit, contraindications, some new surgical techniques, complications, special considerations (otitis media, meningitis, head growth, inner ear malformations, and cochlear obstruction).…

  14. Evaluating the Feasibility of Using Remote Technology for Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goehring, Jenny L.; Hughes, Michelle L.; Baudhuin, Jacquelyn L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of remote technology to provide cochlear implant services has gained popularity in recent years. This article contains a review of research evaluating the feasibility of remote service delivery for recipients of cochlear implants. To date, published studies have determined that speech-processor programming levels and other objective tests…

  15. Performance of Cochlear Implant Recipients With GJB2-Related Deafness

    PubMed Central

    Green, Glenn E.; Scott, Daryl A.; McDonald, Joshua M.; Teagle, Holly F.B.; Tomblin, Bruce J.; Spencer, Linda J.; Woodworth, George G.; Knutson, John F.; Gantz, Bruce J.; Sheffield, Val C.; Smith, Richard J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital profound hearing loss affects 0.05–0.1% of children and has many causes, some of which are associated with cognitive delay. For prelingually-deafened cochlear implant recipients, the etiology of deafness is usually unknown. Mutations in GJB2 have been established as the most common cause of heritable deafness in the United States. In this report, we identify cochlear implant recipients with GJB2-related deafness and examine the performance of these individuals. Cochlear implant recipients received a battery of perceptive, cognitive, and reading tests. Neither subjects nor examiners knew the etiology of deafness in these individuals. The implant recipients were then examined for mutations in GJB2 using an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay, single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, and direct sequencing. GJB2 mutations were the leading cause of congenital deafness among the cochlear implant recipients screened. Cochlear implant recipients with GJB2-related deafness read within one standard deviation of hearing controls better than other congenitally deaf cochlear implant recipients and non-cochlear implant recipients. Individuals with congenital deafness should be offered GJB2 screening. Positive results establish an etiologic diagnosis and provide prognostic, genetic, and therapeutic information. Effective rehabilitation for profoundly deaf individuals with GJB2-related deafness is possible through cochlear implantation. PMID:11977173

  16. Speech Intelligibility and Prosody Production in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Steven B.; Bergeson, Tonya R.; Phan, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the current study was to examine the relation between speech intelligibility and prosody production in children who use cochlear implants. Methods: The Beginner's Intelligibility Test (BIT) and Prosodic Utterance Production (PUP) task were administered to 15 children who use cochlear implants and 10 children with normal…

  17. Emotion Understanding in Deaf Children with a Cochlear Implant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiefferink, Carin H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Ketelaar, Lizet; De Raeve, Leo; Frijns, Johan H. M.

    2013-01-01

    It is still largely unknown how receiving a cochlear implant affects the emotion understanding in deaf children. We examined indices for emotion understanding and their associations with communication skills in children aged 2.5-5 years, both hearing children (n = 52) and deaf children with a cochlear implant (n = 57). 2 aspects of emotion…

  18. Congenitally Deafblind Children and Cochlear Implants: Effects on Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    There has been much research conducted demonstrating the positive benefits of cochlear implantation (CI) in children who are deaf. Research on CI in children who are both deaf and blind, however, is lacking. The purpose of this article is to present a study of five congenitally deafblind children who received cochlear implants between 2.2 and 4.2…

  19. Including Children with Cochlear Implants in General Education Elementary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stith, Joanna L.; Drasgow, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Cochlear implants can provide partial hearing to individuals with substantial hearing loss. Because of improvements in early identification and intervention, more children with cochlear implants will be included in elementary school general education classrooms. Thus, general education teachers should be prepared for teaching children with…

  20. Interviews with Deaf Children about Their Experiences Using Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preisler, G.; Tvingstedt, A. -L.

    2005-01-01

    Within the framework of a longitudinal study of deaf children with cochlear implants, 11 children with implants were interviewed. The objective was to shed light on what it is like for a child to use a cochlear implant, based on these children's own experience with implants, which ranged from 5.0 to 7.5 years. Six of the children were in schools…

  1. Serving Deaf Students Who Have Cochlear Implants. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searls, J. Matt, Comp.

    2010-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are complex electronic devices surgically implanted under the skin behind the ear. These devices utilize electrodes placed in the inner ear (the cochlea) to stimulate the auditory nerve of individuals with significant permanent hearing loss. Cochlear implants may not be suitable for everyone. They are designed to provide…

  2. Congenitally Deafblind Children and Cochlear Implants: Effects on Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    There has been much research conducted demonstrating the positive benefits of cochlear implantation (CI) in children who are deaf. Research on CI in children who are both deaf and blind, however, is lacking. The purpose of this article is to present a study of five congenitally deafblind children who received cochlear implants between 2.2 and 4.2…

  3. Interviews with Deaf Children about Their Experiences Using Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preisler, G.; Tvingstedt, A. -L.

    2005-01-01

    Within the framework of a longitudinal study of deaf children with cochlear implants, 11 children with implants were interviewed. The objective was to shed light on what it is like for a child to use a cochlear implant, based on these children's own experience with implants, which ranged from 5.0 to 7.5 years. Six of the children were in schools…

  4. Speech Intelligibility and Prosody Production in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Steven B.; Bergeson, Tonya R.; Phan, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the current study was to examine the relation between speech intelligibility and prosody production in children who use cochlear implants. Methods: The Beginner's Intelligibility Test (BIT) and Prosodic Utterance Production (PUP) task were administered to 15 children who use cochlear implants and 10 children with normal…

  5. Hearing: A Second Language for Children with Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaussi, Kyle R.

    1994-01-01

    This article addresses training of hearing-impaired children who have received cochlear implants from a "hearing as a second language" point of view. It compares cochlear implants to hearing aids. A project involving 7 children, ages 5 to 12, is detailed, noting efforts to provide a rich auditory environment and encouraging both manual and oral…

  6. Surgical Management of the Pediatric Cochlear Implant Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Seth M.; Haynes, David S.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the surgical management of children receiving cochlear implants. It identifies preoperative considerations to select patients likely to benefit, contraindications, some new surgical techniques, complications, special considerations (otitis media, meningitis, head growth, inner ear malformations, and cochlear obstruction).…

  7. Emotion Understanding in Deaf Children with a Cochlear Implant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiefferink, Carin H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Ketelaar, Lizet; De Raeve, Leo; Frijns, Johan H. M.

    2013-01-01

    It is still largely unknown how receiving a cochlear implant affects the emotion understanding in deaf children. We examined indices for emotion understanding and their associations with communication skills in children aged 2.5-5 years, both hearing children (n = 52) and deaf children with a cochlear implant (n = 57). 2 aspects of emotion…

  8. Serving Deaf Students Who Have Cochlear Implants. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searls, J. Matt, Comp.

    2010-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are complex electronic devices surgically implanted under the skin behind the ear. These devices utilize electrodes placed in the inner ear (the cochlea) to stimulate the auditory nerve of individuals with significant permanent hearing loss. Cochlear implants may not be suitable for everyone. They are designed to provide…

  9. Cochlear Implantation in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Eshraghi, Adrien A; Nazarian, Ronen; Telischi, Fred F; Martinez, Diane; Hodges, Annelle; Velandia, Sandra; Cejas-Cruz, Ivette; Balkany, Thomas J; Lo, Kaming; Lang, Dustin

    2015-09-01

    To assess the outcome of cochlear implantation in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Retrospective case review and survey. Tertiary referral center. Children who meet criteria for cochlear implantation and diagnosis of ASD. Receptive and expressive language scores and parental survey data. Fifteen patients with history of ASD and cochlear implantation were analyzed and compared with 15 patients who received cochlear implant and have no other disability. Postoperatively, more than 67% of children with ASD significantly improved their speech perception skills, and 60% significantly improved their speech expression skills, whereas all patients in the control group showed significant improvement in both aspects. The top 3 reported improvements after cochlear implantation were name recognition, response to verbal requests, and enjoyment of music. Of all behavioral aspects, the use of eye contact was the least improved. Survey results in regard to improvements in patient interaction were more subtle when compared with those related to sound and speech perception. The most improved aspects in the ASD patients' lives after cochlear implantation seemed to be attending to other people's requests and conforming to family routines. Of note, awareness of the child's environment is the most highly ranked improvement attributed to the cochlear implant. Cochlear implants are effective and beneficial for hearing impaired members of the ASD population, although development of language may lag behind that of implanted children with no additional disabilities. Significant speech perception and overall behavior improvement are noted.

  10. Cochlear perfusion with a viscous fluid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Olson, Elizabeth S

    2016-07-01

    The flow of viscous fluid in the cochlea induces shear forces, which could provide benefit in clinical practice, for example to guide cochlear implant insertion or produce static pressure to the cochlear partition or wall. From a research standpoint, studying the effects of a viscous fluid in the cochlea provides data for better understanding cochlear fluid mechanics. However, cochlear perfusion with a viscous fluid may damage the cochlea. In this work we studied the physiological and anatomical effects of perfusing the cochlea with a viscous fluid. Gerbil cochleae were perfused at a rate of 2.4 μL/min with artificial perilymph (AP) and sodium hyaluronate (Healon, HA) in four different concentrations (0.0625%, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5%). The different HA concentrations were applied either sequentially in the same cochlea or individually in different cochleae. The perfusion fluid entered from the round window and was withdrawn from basal scala vestibuli, in order to perfuse the entire perilymphatic space. Compound action potentials (CAP) were measured after each perfusion. After perfusion with increasing concentrations of HA in the order of increasing viscosity, the CAP thresholds generally increased. The threshold elevation after AP and 0.0625% HA perfusion was small or almost zero, and the 0.125% HA was a borderline case, while the higher concentrations significantly elevated CAP thresholds. Histology of the cochleae perfused with the 0.0625% HA showed an intact Reissner's membrane (RM), while in cochleae perfused with 0.125% and 0.25% HA RM was torn. Thus, the CAP threshold elevation was likely due to the broken RM, likely caused by the shear stress produced by the flow of the viscous fluid. Our results and analysis indicate that the cochlea can sustain, without a significant CAP threshold shift, up to a 1.5 Pa shear stress. Beside these finding, in the 0.125% and 0.25% HA perfusion cases, a temporary CAP threshold shift was observed, perhaps due to the presence and

  11. Cochlear perfusion with a viscous fluid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Olson, Elizabeth S.

    2016-01-01

    The flow of viscous fluid in the cochlea induces shear forces, which could provide benefit in clinical practice, for example to guide cochlear implant insertion or produce static pressure to the cochlear partition or wall. From a research standpoint, studying the effects of a viscous fluid in the cochlea provides data for better understanding cochlear fluid mechanics. However, cochlear perfusion with a viscous fluid may damage the cochlea. In this work we studied the physiological and anatomical effects of perfusing the cochlea with a viscous fluid. Gerbil cochleae were perfused at a rate of 2.4 μL/min with artificial perilymph (AP) and sodium hyaluronate (Healon, HA) in four different concentrations (0.0625%, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5%). The different HA concentrations were applied either sequentially in the same cochlea or individually in different cochleae. The perfusion fluid entered from the round window and was withdrawnfrom basal scala vestibuli, in order to perfuse the entire perilymphatic space. Compound action potentials (CAP) were measured after each perfusion. After perfusion with increasing concentrations of HA in the order of increasing viscosity, the CAP thresholds generally increased. The threshold elevation after AP and 0.0625% HA perfusion was small or almost zero, and the 0.125% HA was a borderline case, while the higher concentrations significantly elevated CAP thresholds. Histology of the cochleae perfused with the 0.0625% HA showed an intact Reissner’s membrane, while in cochleae perfused with 0.125% and 0.25% HA Reissner’s membrane (RM) was torn. Thus, the CAP threshold elevation was likely due to the broken of RM, which likely caused by the shear stress produced by the flow of the viscous fluid. Our results and analysis indicate that the cochlea can sustain, without a significant CAP threshold shift, up to a 1.5 Pa shear stress. Beside these finding, in the 0.125% and 0.25% HA perfusion cases, a temporary CAP threshold shift was observed

  12. Comprehensive analysis of cochlear implant failure: usefulness of clinical symptom-based algorithm combined with in situ integrity testing.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; O'Leary, Stephen; Moran, Michelle; Briggs, Robert

    2014-04-01

    Accurate diagnosis of cochlear implant failures is important for management; however, appropriate strategies to assess possible device failures are not always clear. The purpose of this study is to understand correlation between causes of device failure and the presenting clinical symptoms as well as results of in situ integrity testing and to propose effective strategies for diagnosis of device failure. Retrospective case review. Cochlear implant center at a tertiary referral hospital. Twenty-seven cases with suspected device failure of Cochlear Nucleus systems (excluding CI512 failures) on the basis of deterioration in auditory perception from January 2000 to September 2012 in the Melbourne cochlear implant clinic. Clinical presentations and types of abnormalities on in situ integrity testing were compared with modes of device failure detected by returned device analysis. Sudden deterioration in auditory perception was always observed in cases with "critical damage": either fracture of the integrated circuit or most or all of the electrode wires. Subacute or gradually progressive deterioration in auditory perception was significantly associated with a more limited number of broken electrode wires. Cochlear implant mediated auditory and nonauditory symptoms were significantly associated with an insulation problem. An algorithm based on the time course of deterioration in auditory perception and cochlear implant-mediated auditory and nonauditory symptoms was developed on the basis of these retrospective analyses, to help predict the mode of device failure. In situ integrity testing, which included close monitoring of device function in routine programming sessions as well as repeating the manufacturer's integrity test battery, was sensitive enough to detect malfunction in all suspected device failures, and each mode of device failure showed a characteristic abnormality on in situ integrity testing. Our clinical manifestation-based algorithm combined with in situ

  13. Higgs-boson production in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Cross-section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two-photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two-photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  14. Higgs-Boson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  15. Higgs-Boson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  16. Higgs-boson production in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Cross-section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two-photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two-photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  17. What to do with the other ear after cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Tange, R A; Grolman, W; Dreschler, W A

    2009-03-01

    Unilateral cochlear implantation has become a widely accepted surgical intervention for both deaf children and adults. It is a reliable and effective method to rehabilitate profound deafness. Recently the benefits of the use of a contralateral hearing aid (bimodal stimulation) with a cochlear implant became clear. Bilateral cochlear implantation benefits bilateral input into the auditory system for adults and children. To provide the binaural advantages experienced by normal hearing subjects bilateral cochlear implantation or bimodal stimulation is probably indicated. Whether to choose between both possibilities depends on many factors. Cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) measurements can be an important tool to decide bilateral implantation in young children. Enough residual hearing in the non-implanted ear might benefit from bimodal stimulation. New protocols are needed for the audiological management for recipients of cochlear implants.

  18. Gain and frequency tuning within the mouse cochlear apex

    SciTech Connect

    Oghalai, John S.; Raphael, Patrick D.; Gao, Simon; Lee, Hee Yoon; Groves, Andrew K.; Zuo, Jian; Applegate, Brian E.

    2015-12-31

    Normal mammalian hearing requires cochlear outer hair cell active processes that amplify the traveling wave with high gain and sharp tuning, termed cochlear amplification. We have used optical coherence tomography to study cochlear amplification within the apical turn of the mouse cochlea. We measured not only classical basilar membrane vibratory tuning curves but also vibratory responses from the rest of the tissues that compose the organ of Corti. Basilar membrane tuning was sharp in live mice and broad in dead mice, whereas other regions of the organ of Corti demonstrated phase shifts consistent with additional filtering beyond that provided by basilar membrane mechanics. We use these experimental data to support a conceptual framework of how cochlear amplification is tuned within the mouse cochlear apex. We will also study transgenic mice with targeted mutations that affect different biomechanical aspects of the organ of Corti in an effort to localize the underlying processes that produce this additional filtering.

  19. Histopathology of the inner ear relevant to cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Nadol, Joseph B; Eddington, Donald K

    2006-01-01

    The most common forms of severe hearing loss and deafness are related to morphological changes in the cochlea. Many individuals with such forms of hearing disorders have received cochlear implants. It has been assumed that preservation of spiral ganglion cells is important for success of cochlear implants. Preservation of ganglion cells is negatively correlated with the duration of the hearing loss. It has, however, not been possible to reveal a relationship between the degree of survival of spiral ganglion cells and performance of cochlear implants. It is important to understand the histopathological changes that follow cochlear implantation. Insertion of cochlear implants may cause trauma to the basilar membrane, the spiral lamina, and the spiral ligament. Rupture of the basilar membrane may occur. Over time, new bone forms at the cochleostomy and along the implant track. Further investigation is necessary to evaluate the causes of variability of behavioral measures of performance.

  20. Unilateral musical hallucination after a hybrid cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Joe, Soohyun; Park, Jangho; Lim, Jongseok; Park, Choongman

    2015-01-01

    To provide a description of musical hallucination associated with hybrid cochlear implantation. Case report. We report a case of musical hallucination secondary to hybrid cochlear implantation. Activation of electrical stimulation was closely related to onset of musical hallucination and deactivation was associated with attenuation of hallucination. Persistent musical hallucination severely impaired speech discrimination in spite of 2 years of listening rehabilitation. The hybrid cochlear implant is a relatively new surgical method, and its side effects have not been well documented. This is the first report of musical hallucination after a hybrid cochlear implantation. Also we provide evidence of the peripheral origin of musical hallucination by reporting lateralization and intensity change of hallucination by activation status of cochlear implant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gain and frequency tuning within the mouse cochlear apex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oghalai, John S.; Gao, Simon; Lee, Hee Yoon; Raphael, Patrick D.; Groves, Andrew K.; Zuo, Jian; Applegate, Brian E.

    2015-12-01

    Normal mammalian hearing requires cochlear outer hair cell active processes that amplify the traveling wave with high gain and sharp tuning, termed cochlear amplification. We have used optical coherence tomography to study cochlear amplification within the apical turn of the mouse cochlea. We measured not only classical basilar membrane vibratory tuning curves but also vibratory responses from the rest of the tissues that compose the organ of Corti. Basilar membrane tuning was sharp in live mice and broad in dead mice, whereas other regions of the organ of Corti demonstrated phase shifts consistent with additional filtering beyond that provided by basilar membrane mechanics. We use these experimental data to support a conceptual framework of how cochlear amplification is tuned within the mouse cochlear apex. We will also study transgenic mice with targeted mutations that affect different biomechanical aspects of the organ of Corti in an effort to localize the underlying processes that produce this additional filtering.

  2. The Hearing Outcomes of Cochlear Implantation in Waardenburg Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Hajime; Kashio, Akinori; Sakata, Aki; Tsutsumiuchi, Katsuhiro; Matsumoto, Yu; Karino, Shotaro; Kakigi, Akinobu; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of cochlear implantation for sensorineural hearing loss in patients with Waardenburg syndrome. Method. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients who underwent cochlear implantation at the University of Tokyo Hospital. Clinical classification, genetic mutation, clinical course, preoperative hearing threshold, high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone, and postoperative hearing outcome were assessed. Result. Five children with Waardenburg syndrome underwent cochlear implantation. The average age at implantation was 2 years 11 months (ranging from 1 year 9 months to 6 years 3 months). Four patients had congenital profound hearing loss and one patient had progressive hearing loss. Two patients had an inner ear malformation of cochlear incomplete partition type 2. No surgical complication or difficulty was seen in any patient. All patients showed good hearing outcome postoperatively. Conclusion. Cochlear implantation could be a good treatment option for Waardenburg syndrome. PMID:27376080

  3. Effects of training on timbre recognition and appraisal by postlingually deafened cochlear implant recipients.

    PubMed

    Gfeller, Kate; Witt, Shelley; Adamek, Mary; Mehr, Maureen; Rogers, Jenny; Stordahl, Julie; Ringgenberg, Shelly

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of structured training on recognition and appraisal of the timbre (tone quality) of musical instruments by postlingually deafened cochlear implant recipients. Twenty-four implant users (Nucleus CI24M) were randomly assigned to a control or a training group. The control group experienced only incidental exposure to music in their usual daily routine. The training group participated in 12 weeks of training delivered via a laptop computer in which they were introduced to excerpts of musical instruments representing three frequency ranges and four instrumental families. Those implant recipients assigned to the training group showed significant improvement in timbre recognition (p < .0001) and timbre appraisal (p < .02) compared to the control group. Correlations between timbre measures and speech perception measures are discussed.

  4. Networking the nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Rajapakse, Indika; Scalzo, David; Tapscott, Stephen J; Kosak, Steven T; Groudine, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The nuclei of differentiating cells exhibit several fundamental principles of self-organization. They are composed of many dynamical units connected physically and functionally to each other—a complex network—and the different parts of the system are mutually adapted and produce a characteristic end state. A unique cell-specific signature emerges over time from complex interactions among constituent elements that delineate coordinate gene expression and chromosome topology. Each element itself consists of many interacting components, all dynamical in nature. Self-organizing systems can be simplified while retaining complex information using approaches that examine the relationship between elements, such as spatial relationships and transcriptional information. These relationships can be represented using well-defined networks. We hypothesize that during the process of differentiation, networks within the cell nucleus rewire according to simple rules, from which a higher level of order emerges. Studying the interaction within and among networks provides a useful framework for investigating the complex organization and dynamic function of the nucleus. PMID:20664641

  5. Converted and upgraded maps programmed in the newer speech processor for the first generation of multichannel cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Ana Tereza de Matos; Goffi-Gomez, M Valéria Schmidt; Hoshino, Ana Cristina; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Brito, Rubens

    2013-09-01

    To identify the technological contributions of the newer version of speech processor to the first generation of multichannel cochlear implant and the satisfaction of users of the new technology. Among the new features available, we focused on the effect of the frequency allocation table, the T-SPL and C-SPL, and the preprocessing gain adjustments (adaptive dynamic range optimization). Prospective exploratory study. Cochlear implant center at hospital. Cochlear implant users of the Spectra processor with speech recognition in closed set. Seventeen patients were selected between the ages of 15 and 82 and deployed for more than 8 years. The technology update of the speech processor for the Nucleus 22. To determine Freedom's contribution, thresholds and speech perception tests were performed with the last map used with the Spectra and the maps created for Freedom. To identify the effect of the frequency allocation table, both upgraded and converted maps were programmed. One map was programmed with 25 dB T-SPL and 65 dB C-SPL and the other map with adaptive dynamic range optimization. To assess satisfaction, SADL and APHAB were used. All speech perception tests and all sound field thresholds were statistically better with the new speech processor; 64.7% of patients preferred maintaining the same frequency table that was suggested for the older processor. The sound field threshold was statistically significant at 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 Hz with 25 dB T-SPL/65 dB C-SPL. Regarding patient's satisfaction, there was a statistically significant improvement, only in the subscale of speech in noise abilities and phone use. The new technology improved the performance of patients with the first generation of multichannel cochlear implant.

  6. Delayed loss of hearing after hearing preservation cochlear implantation: Human temporal bone pathology and implications for etiology.

    PubMed

    Quesnel, Alicia M; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Rosowski, John J; Hansen, Marlan R; Gantz, Bruce J; Nadol, Joseph B

    2016-03-01

    After initially successful preservation of residual hearing with cochlear implantation, some patients experience subsequent delayed hearing loss. The etiology of such delayed hearing loss is unknown. Human temporal bone pathology is critically important in investigating the etiology, and directing future efforts to maximize long term hearing preservation in cochlear implant patients. Here we present the temporal bone pathology from a patient implanted during life with an Iowa/Nucleus Hybrid S8 implant, with initially preserved residual hearing and subsequent hearing loss. Both temporal bones were removed for histologic processing and evaluated. Complete clinical and audiologic records were available. He had bilateral symmetric high frequency severe to profound hearing loss prior to implantation. Since he was implanted unilaterally, the unimplanted ear was presumed to be representative of the pre-implantation pathology related to his hearing loss. The implanted and contralateral unimplanted temporal bones both showed complete degeneration of inner hair cells and outer hair cells in the basal half of the cochleae, and only mild patchy loss of inner hair cells and outer hair cells in the apical half. The total spiral ganglion neuron counts were similar in both ears: 15,138 (56% of normal for age) in the unimplanted right ear and 13,722 (51% of normal for age) in the implanted left ear. In the basal turn of the implanted left cochlea, loose fibrous tissue and new bone formation filled the scala tympani, and part of the scala vestibuli. Delayed loss of initially preserved hearing after cochlear implantation was not explained by additional post-implantation degeneration of hair cells or spiral ganglion neurons in this patient. Decreased compliance at the round window and increased damping in the scala tympani due to intracochlear fibrosis and new bone formation might explain part of the post-implantation hearing loss. Reduction of the inflammatory and immune response to

  7. Cochlear implants in children implanted in Jordan: A parental overview.

    PubMed

    Alkhamra, Rana A

    2015-07-01

    Exploring the perspective of parents on the cochlear implant process in Jordan. Sixty parents of deaf children were surveyed on the information gathering process prior to cochlear implant surgery, and their implant outcome expectations post-surgery. Whether child or parent characteristics may impact parents' post-surgical expectations was explored. Although parents used a variety of information sources when considering a cochlear implant, the ear, nose and throat doctor comprised their major source of information (60%). Parents received a range of information prior to cochlear implant but agreed (93.3%) on the need for a multidisciplinary team approach. Post-surgically, parents' expected major developments in the areas of spoken language (97%), and auditory skills (100%). Receiving education in mainstream schools (92%) was expected too. Parents perceived the cochlear implant decision as the best decision they can make for their child (98.3%). A significant correlation was found between parents contentment with the cochlear implant decision and expecting developments in the area of reading and writing (r=0.7). Child's age at implantation and age at hearing loss diagnosis significantly affected parents' post-implant outcome expectations (p<0.05). Despite the general satisfaction from the information quantity and quality prior to cochlear implant, parents agree on the need for a comprehensive multidisciplinary team approach during the different stages of the cochlear implant process. Parents' education about cochlear implants prior to the surgery can affect their post-surgical outcome expectations. The parental perspective presented in this study can help professionals develop better understanding of parents' needs and expectations and henceforth improve their services and support during the different stages of the cochlear implant process. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Effects of stimulation rate on speech recognition with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Lendra M; Shannon, Robert V; Cruz, Rachel J

    2005-01-01

    Phoneme and speech recognition were measured as a function of stimulation pulse rate in 12 listeners with three types of cochlear implants. Identification of consonants and vowels and recognition of words and sentences were measured in 5 Clarion C1 subjects fit with continuous interleaved sampling (CIS) processors having 4 or 8 electrodes, 4 Nucleus 24 subjects fit with CIS processors having 4, 8, 12 or 16 electrodes and 3 Clarion C2 subjects fit with CIS processors with 4, 8, 12 and 16 electrodes. Stimulation rates ranged from 200 to more than 5000 Hz per electrode, depending on the device, number of electrodes used and stimulation strategy. Listeners were also tested on the same materials with their original processor prior to receiving the experimental processors. All testing was done in quiet listening conditions with essentially no practice with the experimental processor prior to data collection. Listeners scored the highest with their original processor. Little difference in speech understanding was observed for listener scores with processors using different stimulation rates. Speech recognition was significantly poorer only at the lowest stimulation rate and at high rates that used noninterleaved pulses. Speech recognition was similar for processors using 8, 12 or 16 electrodes. Only 4-electrode processors produced a significantly poorer performance. These results suggest that patients with present commercial implants are not able to make full use of the number of channels of spectral information delivered by the present speech processors. In addition, the results show no significant change in performance as a function of stimulation rate, suggesting that high stimulation rates do not result in improved access to temporal cues in speech, at least under quiet listening conditions. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Cochlear Histopathology as Observed in Two Patients With a Cochlear Implant Electrode With Positioner.

    PubMed

    Kamakura, Takefumi; Nadol, Joseph B

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the cochlear histopathology of two patients who during life underwent cochlear implantation with a positioner. A silastic positioner introduced by the Advanced Bionics Corporation in 1999 was designed to position the electrode of the cochlear implant close to the modiolus. The positioner was recalled in the United States in July 2002 because of an apparent higher incidence of bacterial meningitis in patients in whom the positioner had been placed. Four celloidin-embedded temporal bones from two patients with cochlear implants with a positioner from the temporal bone collection of the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary were included in the study. In a previous study, we reported histopathologic findings in Patient 1, and in this report, we present the findings in a second case in a 94-year-old woman (Patient 2), and the similarities and differences between the two patients. All four specimens were prepared for histologic study by conventional techniques and 2-D reconstruction. Evidence of insertion trauma was observed in all three implanted specimens. More significant trauma was found in Patient 2 than in Patient 1 including disruption of the osseous spiral lamina and the basilar membrane. In addition, there was more new fibrous tissue and bone in Patient 2 than in Patient 1. There was a large fluid space in all three implanted temporal bones around the electrode and positioner. The findings observed in the two patients may help to explain the increased risk of meningitis in patients implanted with a positioner.

  10. From hearing screening to cochlear implantation: cochlear implants in children under 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Profant, Milan; Kabátová, Zuzana; Simková, Ludovika

    2008-04-01

    Universal hearing screening gives a deaf child earlier diagnosis and intervention with a better chance for successful management of hearing and speech development. Universal newborn hearing screening has a major impact on early identification of deafness in children. This study evaluated the outcome of cochlear implantation in screened and non-screened deaf children. Group 1 comprised 9 deaf children diagnosed by screening; group 2 comprised 21 children diagnosed by traditional methods. The following parameters were evaluated: age at the time of diagnosis, age at the time of the first hearing aid fitting, age at the time of cochlear implantation. In children who had been using a cochlear implant for more than 2 years the results of audiological tests, category of auditory performance (CAP), and development and quality of speech were also evaluated. Hearing screening significantly reduced the age at the time of diagnosis (6.9 months vs 15.4 months) as well as the age at the time of the first hearing aid fitting (9.3 months vs 17 months) and age at the time of cochlear implantation (26 months vs 32 months). Children from the screening program had better results in speech audiometry (95% discrimination vs 84%), monosyllabic tests (62% vs 34%), CAP (level 6 vs level 5), evaluation of spontaneous speech (level 6 vs level 5), and intelligibility of speech (level 5 vs level 3.5). According to the statistical evaluation (Fisher's test) the functional results did not show significant difference.

  11. Intelligibility of vowels produced by post-lingually deafened cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Langereis, M C; Bosman, A J; van Olphen, A F; Smoorenburg, G F

    1999-01-01

    The present study addresses the effect of cochlear implantation on the intelligibility of vowels produced by 20 post-lingually deafened Dutch subjects. All subjects received the Nucleus-22 cochlear implant (3 WSP and 17 MSP processors). Speech recordings were made pre-implantation and three and twelve months post-implantation with the implant switched on and off. Vowel intelligibility (monophthongs only) was determined using a panel of listeners. For all implanted subjects intelligibility was measured in a noisy background. For seven poorly speaking subjects it was also measured in a quiet background. After implantation with the Nucleus-22 device the results showed that vowel intelligibility, measured for all subjects in a noisy background, increased for most of them (about 15), while it increased for about half the number of poorly speaking subjects measured in a quiet background. Twelve months after implantation vowel intelligibility, measured for all subjects in noise, appeared to be based on first and second formant information. This was also found for the subgroup of seven subjects performing poorly pre-implantation when analysed separately. However, vowel intelligibility for this subgroup, when measured in a quiet background, was based also on vowel duration. The differences between the overall result in noise and the results of the subgroup in quiet should be attributed mainly to the noise and not to aspects of poor speech production in the subgroup. In addition, this study addresses the relationship between the intelligibility scores and objective measurements of vowel quality performed in a previous study. The results showed that the vowel intelligibility scores are mainly determined by the position of the second formant frequencies.

  12. Speech recognition in noise as a function of the number of spectral channels: comparison of acoustic hearing and cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Friesen, L M; Shannon, R V; Baskent, D; Wang, X

    2001-08-01

    Speech recognition was measured as a function of spectral resolution (number of spectral channels) and speech-to-noise ratio in normal-hearing (NH) and cochlear-implant (CI) listeners. Vowel, consonant, word, and sentence recognition were measured in five normal-hearing listeners, ten listeners with the Nucleus-22 cochlear implant, and nine listeners with the Advanced Bionics Clarion cochlear implant. Recognition was measured as a function of the number of spectral channels (noise bands or electrodes) at signal-to-noise ratios of + 15, + 10, +5, 0 dB, and in quiet. Performance with three different speech processing strategies (SPEAK, CIS, and SAS) was similar across all conditions, and improved as the number of electrodes increased (up to seven or eight) for all conditions. For all noise levels, vowel and consonant recognition with the SPEAK speech processor did not improve with more than seven electrodes, while for normal-hearing listeners, performance continued to increase up to at least 20 channels. Speech recognition on more difficult speech materials (word and sentence recognition) showed a marginally significant increase in Nucleus-22 listeners from seven to ten electrodes. The average implant score on all processing strategies was poorer than scores of NH listeners with similar processing. However, the best CI scores were similar to the normal-hearing scores for that condition (up to seven channels). CI listeners with the highest performance level increased in performance as the number of electrodes increased up to seven, while CI listeners with low levels of speech recognition did not increase in performance as the number of electrodes was increased beyond four. These results quantify the effect of number of spectral channels on speech recognition in noise and demonstrate that most CI subjects are not able to fully utilize the spectral information provided by the number of electrodes used in their implant.

  13. Development of primary axosomatic endings in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of mice.

    PubMed

    Limb, C J; Ryugo, D K

    2000-09-01

    The endbulb of Held is a large synaptic ending that arises from the myelinated auditory nerve fibers. Endbulbs exhibit an elaborate pattern of terminal branching and produce extensive contact with the postsynaptic cell body. These structural features appear to underlie the tight coupling between presynaptic activity and postsynaptic spike discharges. As a first step toward understanding the relationship between environmental sounds and the development of these neural elements, we examined the age-related changes in the morphology of endbulbs of Held in CBA/J mice, a strain known to retain good hearing throughout life. Neurobiotin was injected into the modiolus of the cochlea in CBA/J mice ranging in age from postnatal day 1 to 7 months. Light microscopic analyses suggest that endbulbs of the CBA/J mice develop from small bouton endings at birth into large, highly branched structures in adults. This increase in structural complexity occurs mostly during the second through eighth postnatal weeks, and general stages of development can be defined. In addition, we compared endbulb structure between adult CBA/J mice and adult shaker-2 mice (Myo15sh2/sh2) and heterozygous littermates (Myo15+/sh2). The shaker-2 mouse carries a mutated myosin 15 gene that results in congenital deafness, presumably due to abnormally short stereocilia in hair cell receptors. Neurobiotin was injected into the modiolus of adult CBA/J, Myo15sh2/sh2, and Myo15+/sh2 mice. Endbulbs of deaf adult Myo15sh2/sh2 mice exhibited a striking reduction in terminal branching compared with those of CBA/J and Myo15+/sh2 mice. Notably, the abnormal endbulbs of Myo15sh2/sh2 mice do not resemble immature endbulbs of normal-hearing mice, suggesting that deafness does not simply arrest development.

  14. [Some Features of Sound Signal Envelope by the Frog's Cochlear Nucleus Neurons].

    PubMed

    Bibikov, N G

    2015-01-01

    The responses of single neurons in the medullar auditory center of the grass frog were recorded extracellularly under the action of long tonal signals of the characteristic frequency modulated by repeating fragments of low-frequency (0-15 Hz, 0-50 Hz or 0-150 Hz) noise. Correlation method was used for evaluating the efficacy of different envelope fragments to ensure generation of a neuron pulse discharge. Carrying out these evaluations at different time intervals between a signal and a response the maximum delays were assessed. Two important envelope fragments were revealed. In majority of units the most effective was the time interval of the amplitude rise from mean value to maximum, and the fragment where the amplitude fall from maximum to mean value was the second by the efficacy. This type of response was observed in the vast majority of cells in the range of the envelope frequency bands 0-150 and 0-50 Hz. These cells performed half-wave rectification of such type of the envelope. However, in some neurons we observed more strong preference toward a time interval with growing amplitude, including even those where the amplitude value was smaller than the mean one. These properties were observed mainly for low-frequency (0-15 Hz) modulated signals at high modulation depth. The data show that even in medulla oblongata specialization of neural elements of the auditory pathway occurs with respect to time interval features of sound stimulus. This diversity is most evident for signals with a relatively slowly varying amplitude.

  15. Meson multiplicity versus energy in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, T. W.; Freier, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    A systematic study of meson multiplicity as a function of energy at energies up to 100 GeV/u in nucleus-nucleus collisions has been made, using cosmic-ray data in nuclear emulsion. The data are consistent with simple nucleon-nucleon superposition models. Multiplicity per interacting nucleon in AA collisions does not appear to differ significantly from pp collisions.