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Sample records for postgraduate surgical training

  1. The development of postgraduate surgical training in Guyana

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Brian H.; Rambaran, Madan; Sharma, Deen P.; Taylor, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Like many developing countries, Guyana has a severe shortage of surgeons. Rather than rely on overseas training, Guyana developed its own Diploma in Surgery and asked for assistance from the Canadian Association of General Surgeons (CAGS). This paper reviews the initial results of Guyana’s first postgraduate training program. Methods We assisted with program prerequisites, including needs assessment, proposed curriculum, University of Guyana and Ministry of Health approval, external partnership and funding. We determined the outputs and outcomes of the program after 2 years, and we evaluated the impact of the program through a quantitative/qualitative questionnaire administered to all program participants. Results Five residents successfully completed the 2-year program and are working in regional hospitals. Another 9 residents are in the training program. Twenty-four modules or short courses have been facilitated, alternating Guyanese with visiting Canadian surgical faculty members coordinated through CAGS. A postgraduate structure, including an Institute for Health Sciences Education and Surgical Postgraduate Education Committee, has been developed at the Georgetown Public Hospital Corporation (GPHC). An examination structure similar to Canada’s has been established. Hospital staff morale is greater, surgical care is more standardized and academic opportunities have been enhanced at GPHC. Four regional hospitals have welcomed the new graduates, and surgical services have already improved. Canadian surgeons have a greater understanding of and commitment to surgical development in low-income countries. Conclusion Guyana has proven that, with visiting faculty assistance, it can mount its own postgraduate training suitable to national needs and will provide a career path to encourage its own doctors to remain and serve their country. PMID:20100407

  2. Postgraduate surgical training in Makerere. The crystallization of ideas.

    PubMed Central

    Ekwueme, O.; McAdam, I. W.; Kyalwazi, S. K.

    1975-01-01

    The need for the postgraduate training of medical practitioners in the environment in which they will eventually work is well recognized, and in 1967 it was felt that the University of East Africa had reached sufficient maturity to undertake postgraduate instruction and certification in medicine. This paper describes the evolution and the present structure of the MMed (Surgery) degree at Makerere. PMID:1190681

  3. Post-graduate surgical training in Nigeria: The trainees’ perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, E. O.; Chirdan, O. O.; Ajape, A. A.; Agbo, S.; Oguntola, A. S.; Adejumo, A. A.; Babayo, U. D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Quality surgical training is crucial to meeting manpower needs and creating a vibrant healthcare delivery. Feedback from trainees provides insight to understanding training challenges and needs to improve the programme. The objective of this study was to determine the challenges faced by surgical trainees and their perception of their training in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey of trainees in 16 academic surgical training centres in Nigeria between September and December 2012. Results: Of 235 respondents, 227 were males (96.6%) and 8 females (3.4%) with mean age of 33.9 years. A significant proportion (62.3%) of the respondents believed that the volume and diversities of surgical cases managed during their training were sufficient; however, 53.9% were less satisfied with their operative experience. Majority (71.8%) of the respondents felt “supported” by their trainers but they also believed that the training was skewed towards service provision. They were not actively involved in research due to lack of funds in 77.7%, lack of time/motivation in 15.8%, indifference in 11.8% and poor knowledge of research methods in 9.2%. Inadequate training facilities (50.7%), poor welfare (67.2%), inadequate sponsorship (65.9%) and poor remuneration (88.3%) were identified among their challenges. On the whole, majority (62.3%) believed that their training would adequately prepare them to function independently. Conclusion: Surgical residents in Nigeria face a variety of challenges. Based on our findings, a training that tracks and keeps trend with global changes through a higher investment in surgical training, improved facilities and residents’ well-being from both the teaching authorities and government will more likely improve the quality of training. PMID:25114372

  4. The future of postgraduate training.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kieran

    2014-01-01

    Improvements to postgraduate training have included newly designed postgraduate curricula, new forms of delivery of learning, more valid and reliable assessments, and more rigorous evaluation of training programmes. All these changes have been necessary and have now started to settle in. Now therefore is an appropriate time to look to the future of postgraduate training. Predicting the future is difficult in any course of life-however an examination of recent trends is often a good place to start. In this regard the recent trend to start to produce more doctors and healthcare professionals of the type that the population needs is likely to continue for some time to come. Medical education will also need to be more flexible in the future. The more flexible that training programmes are, the more likely that we will have experts that are sufficiently flexible to meet a range of different challenges throughout the rest of their careers. Medical education will also become more seamless in the future (at present there are probably too many major milestones and transitions in medical education). In the future educators will make much more use of technology enhanced learning, e-learning and simulation in postgraduate medical education. There will also be more pressure on postgraduate training programmes to offer value for money and to be able to demonstrate such value for money. Postgraduate medical education of the future will also be a more personalised and adaptive experience. It will be far more based on learners' individual needs and will be more responsive to those needs. Lastly postgraduate education will be much more closely supervised than it has been in the past. A common theme running through these changes will be patient centredness. This will mean safer training programmes that produce the type of doctors that patients and populations need.

  5. [A new form of postgraduate medical training: evaluating the status of operationalised postgraduate training].

    PubMed

    Beer, André-Michael; Fey, Stefan; Siebolds, Marcus; Kiwitt, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Following structured forms of postgraduate training, which are already in use internationally, there are more and more reports on operationalised procedures of postgraduate training in Germany as well. The transparency, which is required by law in order to make medical postgraduate training demonstrable in terms of Sect. 8 of the new regulation on postgraduate training, creates a demand for evaluations. However, only 10 to 20% of the participants in postgraduate training use these evaluations to demonstrate their results scientifically. The aim of the present paper was to show that--with regard to content--the conceptual integration of operationalised programmes for postgraduate training is able to compensate for the given limited time frames and formally tightened structures of postgraduate training in the sense of the quality assurance required by the legislator. The evaluation showed that this can be made possible through ensuring the participants' satisfaction and achieving the goals of postgraduate training.

  6. Postgraduate Training in Student Learning and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpay, E.; Mendes-Tatsis, M. A.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an experiential postgraduate training program for student learning and supervision involving laboratory and pilot plant supervisions in the chemical engineering field. The program addresses some of the current concerns about non-technical training and the further development of the broad science and engineering knowledge of postgraduate…

  7. Postgraduate cadaver surgery: An educational course which aims at improving surgical skills

    PubMed Central

    Tjalma, W.A.A.; Degueldre, M.; Van Herendael, B.; D’Herde, K.; Weyers, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the postgraduate surgical skills training programme of the Flemish Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (VVOG*). Laparoscopic surgical techniques and indications have increased substantially during the past two decades. From surgeons it is expected that they keep up with all techniques and should be able to perform all relevant procedures. Learning new procedures in daily practice is hazardous and difficult to achieve. A training experience with cadaver surgery could improve the course and outcome of surgery on patients. We present the objective, structure, and outcome of the endoscopic postgraduate training course. Structure: The overall objective of the endoscopic postgraduate training course is to refresh anatomical knowledge and improve general gynaecological laparoscopic surgical skills. The VVOG endoscopic training programme is based on black box training, followed by pig surgery. New is the possibility to perform surgical procedures on specifically prepared human cadavers. The course consists of an anatomical teaching session followed by lectures with videotaped procedures on the anatomical exploration of the pelvis, laparoscopic hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. During the hands-on session the participant performs the surgical procedures in a controlled, nonthreatening and interactive way under the guidance of an experienced trainer. Conclusions: All participants provided feedback on their experiences. The evaluation of the workshop revealed that this course is an opportunity to practise and improve clinical laparoscopic skills of gynaecological procedures and anatomy. Attending the course was regarded as of genuine additional value for surgical practice. PMID:24753929

  8. Postgraduate training in orthodontics in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Anwar Ali; Sandler, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This article briefly describes the postgraduate pathways in orthodontics in the United Kingdom. It is hoped that this will assist potential trainees who want to pursue postgraduate training to understand the different career pathways available to them. It may also add to the knowledge of some senior colleagues who can explain these career opportunities to their students, as not all potential trainees will have the opportunity to read this article. In the following pages we will discuss the different pathways leading to specialist qualification in orthodontics, in the United Kingdom. PMID:23960517

  9. Postgraduate Research Training: Some Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calma, Angelito

    2011-01-01

    This three-year study of research training policy and practice involved government and university executives, and university academics from the Philippines. A total of 53 participants were involved: two officials from the Commission on Higher Education, six directors of research centres, 28 university executives and 17 academic staff. Seven public…

  10. [Proposal of postgraduate training program in neurology].

    PubMed

    Kurihara, T

    2000-12-01

    In order to improve the postgraduate training in neurology in Japan, practical program is proposed. It consists of 5 years. The first 2 years include internal medicine for 16 months, pediatrics for 2 months, neurosurgery for 2 months, emergency medicine for 2 months, and anesthesiology for 2 months. The next 3 years include neurology training in the ward and out-patient clinic in the University Hospital for one year followed by another year of neurology ward training at the affiliated hospital where they are exposed to see more acute neurological cases. In addition to these clinical training, they will study basic neurological sciences in neuroanatomy, and neurophysiology in the evening in the form of small group seminars and they are assigned to read EEG every week and attend EEG reading sessions. EMG, muscle biopsy, and sural nerve biopsy will be done under supervision when they are in charge of such cases who require those examinations. The last year program includes neurological consultation from the other departments, out-patient clinic, setting up neurological conferences, and elective course for 3 months. It is recommended that Japanese Neurological Society informs us several institutes where they can offer pediatric neurology training, and neuropathology training in several districts in Japan, since they have difficulty in getting training in these two specialties in many Japanese hospitals.

  11. Robotic surgical training.

    PubMed

    Ben-Or, Sharon; Nifong, L Wiley; Chitwood, W Randolph

    2013-01-01

    In July 2000, the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc) received Food and Drug Administration approval for intracardiac applications, and the first mitral valve repair was done at the East Carolina Heart Institute in May 2000. The system is now approved and used in many surgical specialties. With this disruptive technology and accepted use, surgeons and hospitals are seeking the most efficacious training pathway leading to safe use and responsible credentialing.One of the most important issues related to safe use is assembling the appropriate team of professionals involved with patient care. Moreover, proper patient selection and setting obtainable goals are also important.Creation and maintenance of a successful program are discussed in the article focusing on realistic goals. This begins with a partnership between surgeon leaders, hospital administrators, and industry support. Through this partnership, an appropriate training pathway and clinical pathway for success can be outlined. A timeline can then be created with periods of data analysis and adjustments as necessary. A successful program is attainable by following this pathway and attending to every detail along the journey. PMID:23528718

  12. Robotic surgical training.

    PubMed

    Ben-Or, Sharon; Nifong, L Wiley; Chitwood, W Randolph

    2013-01-01

    In July 2000, the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc) received Food and Drug Administration approval for intracardiac applications, and the first mitral valve repair was done at the East Carolina Heart Institute in May 2000. The system is now approved and used in many surgical specialties. With this disruptive technology and accepted use, surgeons and hospitals are seeking the most efficacious training pathway leading to safe use and responsible credentialing.One of the most important issues related to safe use is assembling the appropriate team of professionals involved with patient care. Moreover, proper patient selection and setting obtainable goals are also important.Creation and maintenance of a successful program are discussed in the article focusing on realistic goals. This begins with a partnership between surgeon leaders, hospital administrators, and industry support. Through this partnership, an appropriate training pathway and clinical pathway for success can be outlined. A timeline can then be created with periods of data analysis and adjustments as necessary. A successful program is attainable by following this pathway and attending to every detail along the journey.

  13. Training at the postgraduate level for medical librarians: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Hanke, M K; Benzer, M J

    1979-01-01

    Postgraduate education for medical librarians is approachable from several perspectives, including internships, certificate programs, and continuing education programs. The diverse population of medical library personnel calls for a varied yet coordinated system of postgraduate education involving the Medical Library Association, regional medical libraries, library schools, and the National Library of Medical, in addition to active participation by all librarians in the health sciences field. Basic philosophies for each of the major types of programs are discussed and recommendations for future training of health sciences librarians are provided. PMID:371722

  14. Is It Time to Rethink Postgraduate Training Requirements for Licensure?

    PubMed

    Freeman, Bradley D

    2016-01-01

    Approaches to postgraduate medical training have evolved substantially in recent years, reflecting the complexity of the educational mission. Residency programs seek to produce clinicians who achieve board certification as an attestation of their competency. Certification criteria are established by the American Board of Medical Specialties, are consistent from state to state, and include periods of supervised instruction ranging from as few as three years (for primary care specialties) to much longer for selected disciplines. In contrast, minimum postgraduate training criteria necessary for licensure as an independent practitioner are established by state medical boards and vary significantly among and within jurisdictions. In most states, licenses can be granted to individuals who have completed as little as one year of postgraduate training. The discrepancy between the minimum time commitment necessary to become a competent physician and that to be licensed as an independent practitioner has implications for health care quality and safety. Data are lacking as to the number of licenses issued nationally to individuals who have only partially completed residency training and the nature of practices they pursue. Extrapolating from available evidence, these individuals may very well provide care inferior to those who have satisfied training requirements for certification eligibility and be more prone to problematic behavior resulting in disciplinary action. Efforts to establish more rigorous licensure criteria will require dialog between members of the academic community, professional organizations, state medical boards, and legislatures. The recently proposed Interstate Medical Licensure Compact may serve as a prototype for achieving this goal.

  15. Postgraduate medical training, stress, and marriage.

    PubMed

    Kelner, M; Rosenthal, C

    1986-02-01

    In a pilot study, 20 interviews were conducted with married female interns and residents and their spouses in order to explore both positive effects of spousal support and negative effects of additional role obligations during medical training. The marital state has been shown to be related to lowered levels of stress. Past studies of medical marriage have focused on male physicians and their wives. However, marriage and parenthood impact differently on women than men, and thus on women physicians. To explore these differences, our findings are contrasted with findings on male medical students and their wives by R. Coombs. Compared to our subjects, Coombs found spouses were either housewives or held lower level jobs rather than demanding careers, and consequently our subjects experienced greater difficulty meeting demands of everyday life (cooking, cleaning, child care). Coombs' wives showed greater vicarious identification with the goals and satisfactions of the physician in-training; greater feelings of obligation to nurture, support and make sacrifices on behalf of their spouses; and less resentment toward the current system of medical training. They stressed the nurturing aspect of marital support rather than instrumental aspects. Subjects in both studies feared growing apart but while Coombs' wives feared being outgrown intellectually, our husbands were critical of their wives' narrowness of interests. Subjects in both studies believed marriage provided benefits (intimacy, support, affection, sex) but also complained of the negative impact of exhausting and emotionally draining medical training. Implications of findings for reducing the stress of medical training are discussed.

  16. Paving the road for a European postgraduate training curriculum.

    PubMed

    van der Aa, Jessica E; Goverde, Angelique J; Teunissen, Pim W; Scheele, Fedde

    2016-08-01

    The 'Project for Achieving Consensus in Training' has been initiated by the European Board & College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology to harmonise training in Obstetrics and Gynaecology throughout Europe. In this project called the EBCOG-PACT, a state of the art pan-European training curriculum will be developed. Implementation of a pan-European curriculum will enhance harmonisation of both quality standards of women's healthcare practice and standards of postgraduate training. Secondly, it will assure equal quality of training of gynaecologists, promoting mobility throughout Europe. Thirdly, it will enhance cooperation and exchange of best practices between medical specialists and hospitals within Europe. The project is expecting to deliver (1) a description of the core and electives of the curriculum based on previously defined standards of care, (2) a societally responsive competency framework based on input from societal stakeholders and (3) strategies for education and assessment based on the current literature. Also, the project focuses on implementation and sustainability of the curriculum by delivering (4) a SWOT-analysis for the implementation based on insights into transcultural differences, (5) recommendations for implementation, change management and sustainability based on the SWOT analysis (6) and finally a handbook for other specialties initiating European curriculum development. The development and the implementation of this modern pan-European curriculum in Obstetrics and Gynaecology aims to serve as an example for the harmonisation of postgraduate training in Europe. PMID:27348846

  17. Paving the road for a European postgraduate training curriculum.

    PubMed

    van der Aa, Jessica E; Goverde, Angelique J; Teunissen, Pim W; Scheele, Fedde

    2016-08-01

    The 'Project for Achieving Consensus in Training' has been initiated by the European Board & College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology to harmonise training in Obstetrics and Gynaecology throughout Europe. In this project called the EBCOG-PACT, a state of the art pan-European training curriculum will be developed. Implementation of a pan-European curriculum will enhance harmonisation of both quality standards of women's healthcare practice and standards of postgraduate training. Secondly, it will assure equal quality of training of gynaecologists, promoting mobility throughout Europe. Thirdly, it will enhance cooperation and exchange of best practices between medical specialists and hospitals within Europe. The project is expecting to deliver (1) a description of the core and electives of the curriculum based on previously defined standards of care, (2) a societally responsive competency framework based on input from societal stakeholders and (3) strategies for education and assessment based on the current literature. Also, the project focuses on implementation and sustainability of the curriculum by delivering (4) a SWOT-analysis for the implementation based on insights into transcultural differences, (5) recommendations for implementation, change management and sustainability based on the SWOT analysis (6) and finally a handbook for other specialties initiating European curriculum development. The development and the implementation of this modern pan-European curriculum in Obstetrics and Gynaecology aims to serve as an example for the harmonisation of postgraduate training in Europe.

  18. Teamwork of clinical teachers in postgraduate medical training.

    PubMed

    Slootweg, Irene Arida

    2016-08-01

    Teamwork among clinical teachers is essential for continuous improvement of postgraduate medical training. This thesis deconstructs teamwork in four studies, mostly based on qualitative research approaches and one study utilizes mixed methods. We found that clinical teachers do train residents, but individually rather than as a team. The programme directors as leaders focus more on teaching activities than on the collective ambition and mutual engagement of clinical teachers. During the teaching meetings, mistakes and conflicts are mainly discussed in a general sense and are often neither directed at the individual, nor result-oriented. A valid evaluation instrument is constructed to improve teamwork.

  19. Teamwork of clinical teachers in postgraduate medical training.

    PubMed

    Slootweg, Irene Arida

    2016-08-01

    Teamwork among clinical teachers is essential for continuous improvement of postgraduate medical training. This thesis deconstructs teamwork in four studies, mostly based on qualitative research approaches and one study utilizes mixed methods. We found that clinical teachers do train residents, but individually rather than as a team. The programme directors as leaders focus more on teaching activities than on the collective ambition and mutual engagement of clinical teachers. During the teaching meetings, mistakes and conflicts are mainly discussed in a general sense and are often neither directed at the individual, nor result-oriented. A valid evaluation instrument is constructed to improve teamwork. PMID:27432367

  20. Training of breast surgical oncologists.

    PubMed

    Teshome, Mediget; Kuerer, Henry M

    2016-06-01

    Breast surgical oncology is a defined sub-specialty of general surgery with focus on the surgical management of breast disease and malignancy within a multidisciplinary context. Much of the training of breast surgical oncologists in the United States exists within a fellowship training structure with oversight and approval by the Society of Surgical Oncology (SSO). Rapid continuous changes in breast oncology practice have further substantiated dedicated expertise in breast surgical oncology. Training programs are structured to develop proficiency in fellows for advanced surgical techniques and clinical decision-making as well as exposure to the multidisciplinary aspects of breast cancer management. Components of a successful program include an intense multidisciplinary curriculum, engagement in clinical research and attention to strong mentorship. National curriculum and training requirements as well as supplemental resources assist in standardizing the fellowship experience. As surgical training and the field of breast oncology continues to evolve, so do fellowship training programs to ensure high quality breast surgical oncologists equipped to deliver high quality evidence based patient care while continuing to drive future research and trainee education. PMID:27197510

  1. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Postgraduate Diploma in Surgical Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Mark D.; Lyall, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    After careful planning, a postgraduate Diploma in Surgical Anatomy was launched in 2009. This report describes the structure of the program, the challenges encountered in implementing and running the course, and results of evaluations. The qualification is targeted at junior doctors intending to become surgeons or radiologists and aims to equip…

  2. Training Standards Statements of Family Medicine Postgraduate Training – A Review of Existing Documents Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Sarah; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Marquard, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction For the effective and safe management of complex care needs for patients in community settings, high quality family medicine (FM) training programmes are needed. In less primary care oriented countries, training standards statements for FM postgraduate training are less commonly found. The aim of this study was to review international training standards statements in FM postgraduate training and to catalogue these statements to be used as a best practice standard guide for FM training programs in Germany. Materials and Methods A structured three-tiered search was performed: a systematic literature search in MEDLINE®; a search of international indicator databases; and a search in grey literature, consisting of a survey of international experts and a search in “Google (Scholar)”. From all identified documents, training standards statements were extracted, translated and summarized into categories referring to the same quality aspect. Results The search strategy revealed 25 relevant documents (MEDLINE® n = 15, databases n = 2, experts n = 7, “Google” n = 1), containing 337 training standards statements. These were summarized into 80 statements. They covered structure quality (n = 35); process quality (n = 43); and two training standards statements referred to outcome quality (n = 2). Conclusion A broad range of internationally sourced training standards statements for FM postgraduate training could be identified from countries with well-established primary care systems. Only few statements internationally referred to outcome quality, expressing the difficulty in assessing outcome. The resulting inventory of training standards statements for FM postgraduate training can serve as a resource for institutions seeking to formalise and systematise FM training at regional or national levels. PMID:27459714

  3. The role of student surgical interest groups and surgical Olympiads in anatomical and surgical undergraduate training in Russia.

    PubMed

    Dydykin, Sergey; Kapitonova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Traditional department-based surgical interest groups in Russian medical schools are useful tools for student-based selection of specialty training. They also form a nucleus for initiating research activities among undergraduate students. In Russia, the Departments of Topographical Anatomy and Operative Surgery play an important role in initiating student-led research and providing learners with advanced, practical surgical skills. In tandem with department-led activities, student surgical interest groups prepare learners through surgical competitions, known as "Surgical Olympiads," which have been conducted in many Russian centers on a regular basis since 1988. Surgical Olympiads stimulate student interest in the development of surgical skills before graduation and encourage students to choose surgery as their postgraduate specialty. Many of the participants in these surgical Olympiads have become highly qualified specialists in general surgery, orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, urology, gynecology, and emergency medicine. The present article emphasizes the role of student interest groups and surgical Olympiads in clinical anatomical and surgical undergraduate training in Russia.

  4. Effectiveness of Postgraduate Training for Learning Extraperitoneal Access for Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Achim, Mary; Munsell, Mark; Matin, Surena

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To determine the effectiveness of postgraduate training for learning extraperitoneal robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (EP-RARP) and to identify any unmet training needs. Materials and Methods The training resources used were live surgery observations, digital video disc instruction, postgraduate courses, and literature review. Modifications to the transperitoneal (TP) setup in equipment, patient positioning, port placement, and access technique were identified. A surgeon who had previous experience with 898 TP robot-assisted radical prostatectomies (TP-RARPs) performed EP-RARP in 30 patients. We evaluated setup results, emphasizing access-related difficulties, and compared the EP cohort with a nonrandomized, concurrent TP cohort of 62 patients for short-term outcomes. Results The median setup time for EP was 26 minutes (range 15–65 min) for EP compared with 14 to 17 minutes for the comparable TP setup and dropping the bladder. During EP setup and dissection, peritoneal entry occurred in 37%, incorrect port spacing in 10%, epigastric vessel injury in 10%, and other minor pitfalls in 10%. No significant differences were found between EP and TP in postsetup operative times, hospital stay, complications, surgical margin status with organ-confined disease, or lymph node dissection yield. EP had significantly higher estimated blood loss (300 vs 200 mL, P=0.001) and more symptomatic lymphoceles when extended pelvic lymph node dissection was performed (3/16 vs 0/47, P=0.001). Conclusions Using postgraduate education resources, an experienced TP-RARP surgeon successfully transitioned to EP-RARP, achieving the major objectives of safety and equivalent outcomes. We identified several minor nuances in the setup that need further refinement in future education models. PMID:21745117

  5. Private Affluence and Public Austerity: Motors for Innovation in Postgraduate Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silk, John, Ed.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Various authors present their opinions on the changes occurring in British postgraduate education in geography. Professors and students concur that the objective of postgraduate coursework should be to contribute directly to the production of the Ph.D. thesis. A dissenting opinion argued that programs should concentrate on training for future…

  6. ENT endoscopic surgical training simulator.

    PubMed

    Edmond, C V; Heskamp, D; Sluis, D; Stredney, D; Sessanna, D; Wiet, G; Yagel, R; Weghorst, S; Oppenheimer, P; Miller, J; Levin, M; Rosenberg, L

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes work in progress on the design and development of a prototype simulator for minimally invasive otolaryngology surgical training. The anatomy of the paranasal sinuses is geometrically complex and dangerously close to the brain and orbits, making this procedure challenging to practice and difficult to learn. We discuss the potential role of computer simulation to enhance and accelerate acquisition of surgical skills. The design goals of the prototype include high-fidelity simulation of the endoscopic imagery and haptic cues of surgical palpation. The prototype enables endoscopic navigation and limited interactive tissue manipulation and dissection tasks on a virtual patient using realistic replicas of surgical tools. We present an overview of the system architecture with a discussion of the technological challenges, design issues and current status of the efforts.

  7. Lesson plans in surgical training.

    PubMed

    Lester, S E; Robson, A K R

    2007-06-01

    Lesson plans in surgery enable trainers and trainees to agree on goals that balance training needs with service commitments. Lesson plans are individualised to the trainee and encourage ownership of learning. They are based on SMART criteria and therefore have a sound educational footing. Most of the work in creating a lesson plan falls to the trainee. The total time for creation of each plan is approximately 20 min. Our use of lesson plans for surgical training has been met with favourable response from both trainer and trainees.

  8. Lesson plans in surgical training.

    PubMed

    Lester, S E; Robson, A K R

    2007-06-01

    Lesson plans in surgery enable trainers and trainees to agree on goals that balance training needs with service commitments. Lesson plans are individualised to the trainee and encourage ownership of learning. They are based on SMART criteria and therefore have a sound educational footing. Most of the work in creating a lesson plan falls to the trainee. The total time for creation of each plan is approximately 20 min. Our use of lesson plans for surgical training has been met with favourable response from both trainer and trainees. PMID:17550516

  9. A young surgeon's perspective on alternate surgical training pathways.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Michael J

    2007-02-01

    . Residents in general surgery training programs often do not make decisions on the type of fellowship that they will pursue until late in their residency. Many residents are apprehensive about these types of tracked training programs because it will accelerate the timeline for choosing a track. Changes in the structure of residency and fellowships would result in residents having to decide and "match" in their second or third postgraduate years of training instead of the fourth or fifth postgraduate year time frame. Many residents will not have been exposed to all of the types of tracks by their third postgraduate year and many voice concerns over being ready to make this decision that early in their training. Acceptance and enthusiasm about this concept among all residents will likely depend on the final version of any planned changes. A wholesale rewrite of surgical training in the United States would likely not be well received. However, the addition of alternate pathways, on a limited scale and under close scrutiny and supervision, could evaluate interest and ease into this type of program. Before embarking on massive changes in surgical training, scientific, statistically valid research determining the interest of residents in these types of programs will target changes to make these programs successful.

  10. Learning Basic Surgical Skills through Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvennoinen, Minna; Helfenstein, Sacha; Ruoranen, Minna; Saariluoma, Pertti

    2012-01-01

    Computer-based surgical training simulators are instrumental in skill-based training and performance measurement. However, to date, the educational employment of these tools lacks empirically founded insights and effective practical guidelines. This study examined surgical residents during computer-based simulator training of basic laparoscopic…

  11. Impact of Modernising Medical Careers on basic surgical training and experience of oral and maxillofacial higher surgical trainees.

    PubMed

    Dhanda, Jagtar; Opie, Niel; Webster, Keith; Tanday, Ajit; Mumtaz, Shadaab; Visram, Semina

    2011-01-01

    Modernising Medical Careers (MMC) is a programme for change that aims to improve the quality of patients' care through improvement in postgraduate medical education and training. Its introduction had far reaching affects and many shortcoming due to its failure to take into account the craft specialties. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the impact of MMC on oral and maxillofacial surgical (OMFS) training. An online questionnaire was distributed to OMFS trainees, and data were gathered about current position, year of training, duration and specialties worked during basic surgical training, stage of completion of examinations and courses, and overall satisfaction with training. Comparisons were made between those who had been trained before and after MMC was introduced. Ninety-five trainees (68%) responded. Of these 66 (69%) had basic surgical training before the introduction of MMC and 29 (31%) afterwards. MMC shortened overall time spent on basic surgical training of OMFS trainees by half, to only 1 year. There were similarities between the two groups in terms of the range of specialties experienced. MMC also resulted in more trainees starting higher surgical training without their Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons. There was greater satisfaction with BST for the pre-MMC group than the post-MMC group. It is hoped that the recent changes to training that were implemented after this study will address some of the shortcomings that we have identified.

  12. A Postgraduate Dental Training Program for Treatment of Persons with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiefel, Doris J.; Truelove, Edmond L.

    1985-01-01

    A five-year project of postgraduate training in dentistry for patients with severe disabilities resulted in significant cognitive and confidence gains for the participating dentists, dental hygienists, and assistants. Over 75 percent of the graduates were found to actively apply their training, especially in academic dentistry. (MSE)

  13. Growth of Self-Perceived Clinical Competence in Postgraduate Training for General Practice and Its Relation to Potentially Influencing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, A. W. M.; Zuithoff, P.; Jansen, J. J. M.; Tan, L. H. C.; Grol, R. P. T. M.; van der Vleuten, C. P. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the increase in self-perceived clinical competence during a three-year postgraduate training in general practice and to explore the relation between the growth of self-perceived competence and several background variables. Design: Cohort, 1995-1998. Setting: Three-year Postgraduate Training for General practice in the…

  14. Postgraduate Training in Clinical Oncology. Report on a WHO Working Group (The Hague, The Netherlands, December 6-8, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    The 1978 report of the Working Group of Postgraduate Training in Clinical Oncology, convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe in collaboration with the government of The Netherlands, is presented. The groups analyzed models of postgraduate training in clinical oncology and evaluated their suitability in relation to…

  15. Training and certification of the surgical oncologist.

    PubMed

    Berman, Russell S; Weigel, Ronald J

    2014-12-01

    Surgical Oncology has evolved as a distinct subspecialty of General Surgery with a well-defined curriculum focused on surgical care of the cancer patient, specific areas of clinical and basic science research focus and specialty journals dedicated to the discipline. The Society of Surgical Oncology (SSO), originally formed as the James Ewing Society, has provided leadership in developing training programs in Surgical Oncology and for three decades has been involved in the approval and oversight of Surgical Oncology training programs. Over this time, Surgical Oncology Fellowship training has expanded and in 2013 there were 103 applicants for 56 fellowship positions in 21 programs. The basic tenants of Surgical Oncology training has remained devoted to the core principles of multidisciplinary care, surgical management of cancer patients and a focus on education in research, clinical trials, community outreach, patient advocacy and leadership in oncology. With the maturation of Surgical Oncology as a separate specialty, Surgical Oncology training programs are now accredited by the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and graduates of the programs will soon be offered subspecialty certification in Complex General Surgical Oncology (CGSO) by the American Board of Surgery, which has created a component Surgical Oncology Board (SOB). Similar expansion has occurred in other specialty areas including an expansion of Breast Fellowships, which are still being approved by the SSO. In the 2013 SSO Breast Oncology Match, there were 67 applicants for 54 positions in 39 Breast Fellowship programs. Continued advances in cancer biology and technology will challenge us to evolve training programs in Surgical Oncology to produce surgeons capable of advancing the multidisciplinary care of cancer patients.

  16. Realisation of Post-Graduate Training for Teachers of Informatics of Rural Secondary Schools via Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavendels, Jurijs; Shitikov, Vjacheslav; Klints, Daile

    2007-01-01

    The Curriculum combining both traditional classrooms and Internet-based activities for regular post-graduate training for the teachers in informatics is developed, approved by the Ministry of Education and Science and implemented in Latvian Republic. The Curriculum is anticipated for teachers from rural schools, excludes embarrassing overnight…

  17. The International Research Training Group (GRK532): Practicing Cross-Border Postgraduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehses, Markus; Veith, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In 1999, the International Research Training Group "GRK532" was founded as a pilot project for cross-border European postgraduate education along the German/French/Luxembourg borders. The project consists of an interdisciplinary research programme on synthesis, isolation and characterization of new materials accompanied by an ambitious continuous…

  18. E-learning in surgical education and training.

    PubMed

    Larvin, Mike

    2009-03-01

    For most surgeons and surgical educators, e-learning is relatively new and confusing. This article attempts to explain the key concepts behind e-learning, as well as its benefits and risks. E-learning has become a fixed feature within Higher and Professional Education and has been prioritized by Universities around the world, as well as all six Surgical Royal Colleges. Trainees have grown up with virtual learning environments and expect similar provision for their postgraduate studies, but have a greater need for basic science learning. Dispersal of trainees across duty rotas and geographically makes e-learning more attractive, but preserving peer and trainer communication is as important as content. Recent changes in surgical education and training have also made electronic and distance learning more attractive than previously. Initial work by the Colleges is now being evaluated and important lessons have emerged. The UK Department of Health has made medical e-learning a priority and it is now the largest e-learning provider in Europe. Changes in the World Wide Web, with a shift to more social-networking activity in education and to web-based delivery to small, ubiquitous portable devices will increase opportunities for surgical e-learning.

  19. Educating vocationally trained family physicians: a survey of graduates from a postgraduate medical education programme.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Wayne K; Dovey, Susan M

    2016-06-01

    INTRODUCTION Since 1991 the University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand has offered postgraduate qualifications specifically designed to educate general practitioners (GPs) about their unique work environment. AIM To determine motivations and impacts of postgraduate education for practising GPs. METHODS Survey of the 100 graduates of the University of Otago, Dunedin postgraduate general practice programme. Ninety five living graduates were approached and 70 (73.7%) responded. Quantitative data about disposition of respondents before enrolling and after completion of the programme were analysed using chi-square and paired t-tests. Free text responses about motivations, impacts and outcomes of the program were thematically analysed. RESULTS 64 GPs graduated with a postgraduate diploma and 36 with a masters degree in general practice. Although the mean number of graduates was 3.5 and 2.0 (respectively), annual enrolments averaged 25.1. Most graduates (60.9%) were aged in their 40s when they started studying and most (94.3%) had a spouse and/or children at home. DISCUSSION This voluntary postgraduate medical education complements traditional medical training but has low external value despite personal, practising and professional benefits. Graduates valued engagement above completion of a qualification. KEYWORDS Medical education; general practitioners; scholarship; professionalism. PMID:27477553

  20. Evaluating postgraduate public health and biomedical training program outcomes: : lost opportunities and renewed interest.

    PubMed

    Faupel-Badger, Jessica; Nelson, David E; Marcus, Stephen; Kudura, Aisha; Nghiem, Elaine

    2013-03-01

    To identify recent studies in the scientific literature that evaluated structured postgraduate public health and biomedical training programs and reported career outcomes among individual trainees, a comprehensive search of several databases was conducted to identify published studies in English between January 1995 and January 2012. Studies of interest included those that evaluated career outcomes for trainees completing full-time public health or biomedical training programs of at least 12 months duration, with structured training offered on-site. Of the over 600 articles identified, only 13 met the inclusion criteria. Six studies evaluated US federal agency programs and six were of university-based programs. Seven programs were solely or predominantly of physicians, with only one consisting mainly of PhDs. Most studies used a cohort or cross-sectional design. The studies were mainly descriptive, with only four containing statistical data. Type of employment was the most common outcome measure (n = 12) and number of scientific publications (n = 6) was second. The lack of outcomes evaluation data from postgraduate public health and biomedical training programs in the published literature is a lost opportunity for understanding the career paths of trainees and the potential impact of training programs. Suggestions for increasing interest in conducting and reporting evaluation studies of these structured postgraduate training programs are provided.

  1. Surgical fellowship training in Canada: What is its current status and is improvement required?

    PubMed Central

    Nousiainen, Markku T.; Latter, David A.; Backstein, David; Webster, Fiona; Harris, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines current issues concerning surgical fellowship training in Canada. Other than information from a few studies of fellowship training in North America, there are scant data on this subject in the literature. Little is known about the demographic characteristics of those who pursue fellowship training in Canada, what the experiences and expectations are of fellows and their supervisors with respect to the strengths and weaknesses of this level of training, or how this level of education fits in with Canadian undergraduate and postgraduate medical training. We summarize current knowledge about fellowship training in Canada as it pertains to demographic characteristics, finances, work hours, residency training, preparation for clinical and research work and satisfaction with training. Most information on surgical fellowship training comes from the United States. As such, we used information from American studies to supplement the Canadian data. Because a surgical fellowship experience in Canada may be different from that in the United States, we propose that Canadian surgical fellows and their supervisors should be surveyed to gain an understanding of such information. This knowledge could be used to improve surgical fellowship training in Canada. PMID:22269304

  2. European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance on post-graduate psychiatric training in Europe.

    PubMed

    Mayer, S; van der Gaag, R J; Dom, G; Wassermann, D; Gaebel, W; Falkai, P; Schüle, C

    2014-02-01

    The European Union Free Movement Directive gives professionals the opportunity to work and live within the European Union, but does not give specific requirements regarding how the specialists in medicine have to be trained, with the exception of a required minimum of 4 years of education. Efforts have been undertaken to harmonize post-graduate training in psychiatry in Europe since the Treaty of Rome 1957, with the founding of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) and establishment of a charter outlining how psychiatrists should be trained. However, the different curricula for post-graduate training were only compared by surveys, never through a systematic review of the official national requirements. The published survey data still shows great differences between European countries and unlike other UEMS Boards, the Board of Psychiatry did not introduce a certification for specialists willing to practice in a foreign country within Europe. Such a European certification could help to keep a high qualification level for post-graduate training in psychiatry all over Europe. Moreover, it would make it easier for employers to assess the educational level of European psychiatrists applying for a job in their field.

  3. Evolving Educational Techniques in Surgical Training.

    PubMed

    Evans, Charity H; Schenarts, Kimberly D

    2016-02-01

    Training competent and professional surgeons efficiently and effectively requires innovation and modernization of educational methods. Today's medical learner is quite adept at using multiple platforms to gain information, providing surgical educators with numerous innovative avenues to promote learning. With the growth of technology, and the restriction of work hours in surgical education, there has been an increase in use of simulation, including virtual reality, robotics, telemedicine, and gaming. The use of simulation has shifted the learning of basic surgical skills to the laboratory, reserving limited time in the operating room for the acquisition of complex surgical skills". PMID:26612021

  4. Evolving Educational Techniques in Surgical Training.

    PubMed

    Evans, Charity H; Schenarts, Kimberly D

    2016-02-01

    Training competent and professional surgeons efficiently and effectively requires innovation and modernization of educational methods. Today's medical learner is quite adept at using multiple platforms to gain information, providing surgical educators with numerous innovative avenues to promote learning. With the growth of technology, and the restriction of work hours in surgical education, there has been an increase in use of simulation, including virtual reality, robotics, telemedicine, and gaming. The use of simulation has shifted the learning of basic surgical skills to the laboratory, reserving limited time in the operating room for the acquisition of complex surgical skills".

  5. [International postgraduate training program in medicine: survey of 13 training courses, 1988-1994].

    PubMed

    Maymon, R; Seligsohn, U; Fainaru, M

    1995-09-01

    In 1988 an International Postgraduate Training Program in Medicine was established as a joint venture of the Tel Aviv University School of Continuing Medical Education and the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Division of International Cooperation. During 1988-1994, 359 physicians participated. A survey of 271 graduates was carried out within 1-5 years following the completion of training, and 57% responded to our questionnaire. The program fulfilled the academic expectations of 78% of the trainees, and the practical clinical expectations of 80%. 95% graded the program as good-to-excellent from the sociocultural aspect. 75% and 67.5% of the trainees graded the program as good-to-excellent with regard to improvement in their theoretical and practical skills, respectively. Regretfully, only 45% have continued their ties with the host departments and only 11% have carried out joint research projects. These results imply that further attention should be paid to the trainees' real-time input, in order to increase satisfaction. Personal tutors should be nominated in each department, and should be adequately compensated. More emphasis should be given to initiation of bilateral research projects and maintenance of professional ties between the trainees and their host departments.

  6. Postgraduate training in Britain for psychiatrists from East Africa.

    PubMed

    Cox, J L

    1977-01-01

    The training of overseas psychiatrists in Britain is arousing increasing concern. Specific assistance may be necessary to maximise the advantages and minimise the disadvantages of such training. This paper describes several aspects of this topic, with particular reference to East African psychiatrists, and the awareness of Britain being a multicultural society.

  7. Surgical simulation in orthopaedic skills training.

    PubMed

    Atesok, Kivanc; Mabrey, Jay D; Jazrawi, Laith M; Egol, Kenneth A

    2012-07-01

    Mastering rapidly evolving orthopaedic surgical techniques requires a lengthy period of training. Current work-hour restrictions and cost pressures force trainees to face the challenge of acquiring more complex surgical skills in a shorter amount of time. As a result, alternative methods to improve the surgical skills of orthopaedic trainees outside the operating room have been developed. These methods include hands-on training in a laboratory setting using synthetic bones or cadaver models as well as software tools and computerized simulators that enable trainees to plan and simulate orthopaedic operations in a three-dimensional virtual environment. Laboratory-based training offers potential benefits in the development of basic surgical skills, such as using surgical tools and implants appropriately, achieving competency in procedures that have a steep learning curve, and assessing already acquired skills while minimizing concerns for patient safety, operating room time, and financial constraints. Current evidence supporting the educational advantages of surgical simulation in orthopaedic skills training is limited. Despite this, positive effects on the overall education of orthopaedic residents, and on maintaining the proficiency of practicing orthopaedic surgeons, are anticipated. PMID:22751160

  8. Yes, It Is Time to Rethink Postgraduate Training Requirements for Licensure!

    PubMed

    Orlowski, Janis M

    2016-01-01

    In his Commentary in this issue, Dr. Freeman asks whether it is time to rethink postgraduate training requirements for licensure. The majority of U.S. states require a minimum of one year of postgraduate residency training to qualify for a medical license. The original rationale for requiring just a single year of training dates back over half a century to the era of a general practitioner completing medical school followed by a rotating internship prior to heading out into independent general practice. Today, however, the requirement for a single year of training for licensure is in direct contrast to the more rigorous requirements for specialty certification, the current trend in medical education toward competency-based training, and the unanimous agreement among national organizations that readiness for independent practice usually takes three to five years of progressive training. The complexity of medical practice today, the rising use of technology, and the rapid explosion of the understanding of medical science raise the important question of whether this licensing requirement is out of sync with state medical boards' goal of protecting the public by licensing only qualified physicians. A national discussion should be held to distinguish clear minimal standards for physician training that protect the public by ensuring that practicing physicians are highly qualified through rigorous training.

  9. Robotic Surgical Training in an Academic Institution

    PubMed Central

    Chitwood, W. Randolph; Nifong, L. Wiley; Chapman, William H. H.; Felger, Jason E.; Bailey, B. Marcus; Ballint, Tara; Mendleson, Kim G.; Kim, Victor B.; Young, James A.; Albrecht, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Objective To detail robotic procedure development and clinical applications for mitral valve, biliary, and gastric reflux operations, and to implement a multispecialty robotic surgery training curriculum for both surgeons and surgical teams. Summary Background Data Remote, accurate telemanipulation of intracavitary instruments by general and cardiac surgeons is now possible. Complex technologic advancements in surgical robotics require well-designed training programs. Moreover, efficient robotic surgical procedures must be developed methodically and safely implemented clinically. Methods Advanced training on robotic systems provides surgeon confidence when operating in tiny intracavitary spaces. Three-dimensional vision and articulated instrument control are essential. The authors’ two da Vinci robotic systems have been dedicated to procedure development, clinical surgery, and training of surgical specialists. Their center has been the first United States site to train surgeons formally in clinical robotics. Results Established surgeons and residents have been trained using a defined robotic surgical educational curriculum. Also, 30 multispecialty teams have been trained in robotic mechanics and electronics. Initially, robotic procedures were developed experimentally and are described. In the past year the authors have performed 52 robotic-assisted clinical operations: 18 mitral valve repairs, 20 cholecystectomies, and 14 Nissen fundoplications. These respective operations required 108, 28, and 73 minutes of robotic telemanipulation to complete. Procedure times for the last half of the abdominal operations decreased significantly, as did the knot-tying time in mitral operations. There have been no deaths and few complications. One mitral patient had postoperative bleeding. Conclusion Robotic surgery can be performed safely with excellent results. The authors have developed an effective curriculum for training teams in robotic surgery. After training, surgeons

  10. Sawbones laboratory in orthopedic surgical training

    PubMed Central

    Hetaimish, Bandar M.

    2016-01-01

    Sawbones are artificial bones designed to simulate the bone architecture, as well as the bone’s physical properties. The incorporation of sawbones simulation laboratories in many orthopedic training programs has provided the residents with flexibility in learning and scheduling that align with their working hour limitations. This review paper deliberates the organization of sawbones simulation in orthopedic surgical training to enhance trainee’s future learning. In addition, it explores the implications of sawbones simulation in orthopedic surgical teaching and evaluation. It scrutinizes the suitability of practicing on sawbones at the simulation laboratory to improve orthopedic trainee’s learning. This will be followed with recommendations for future enhancement of sawbones simulation-based learning in orthopedic surgical training. PMID:27052276

  11. The Unemployment of Newly Trained Post-graduate Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Mark

    1987-01-01

    Describes the findings of a study on the unemployment of newly trained teachers who had graduated in 1979/1980 and had not found teaching jobs by 1982. Concentrates on their job search methods and investigates the relevance of their teaching subject, region of residence, commitment to teaching, and type of school sought. (Author/AEM)

  12. Postgraduate Training in Agricultural Sciences in Ethiopia: Achievements and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belay, Kassa

    2004-01-01

    Data from the Records Office of the University show that, over the period 1979-2003, Alemaya University trained and graduated a total of 492 students at Masters of Science degree level. The study also reveals that shortage of experienced and highly qualified resident national instructors, brain drain, scarcity of financial resources, lack of…

  13. [Realistic surgical training. The Aachen model].

    PubMed

    Krones, C J; Binnebösel, M; Stumpf, M; Schumpelick, V

    2010-01-01

    The Aachen model is a practical mode in teaching and advanced training, which is closely geared to the areas of academic acquisition and training. During medical education optional student courses with constitutive curricula offer practical points of contact to the surgical department at all times. Besides improvement of manual training the aims are enhancing interests and acquisition of talents. This guided structure will be intensified with progression into advanced education. Next to the formal guidelines of the curriculum, education logbook and progression conversations, quality, transparency and reliability are particularly emphasized. An evaluation of both the reforms and the surgical trainers is still to be made. In addition procurement of an affirmative occupational image is essential.

  14. Investigating Post-Graduate Athletic Training Education Student Perceptions Following a Purposefully-Implemented Peer-Assisted Learning Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Dana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate graduates' perceptions of a purposefully-implemented Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL) pedagogy in their undergraduate athletic training education and the impact of that experience in their first job post-graduation. This was the first research in athletic training education that…

  15. Sources of information on postgraduate medical training programs and medical specialty career resources-2006 update.

    PubMed

    Brazin, Lillian R

    2006-01-01

    This is the final biennial update listing directories, journal articles, Web sites, and general books that aid the librarian, house officer, or medical student in finding information on medical residency and fellowship programs. The World Wide Web provides the most complete and up-to-date source of information about postgraduate training programs and specialties. This update continues to go beyond postgraduate training resources to include selected Web sites and books on curriculum vitae writing, practice management, personal finances, the "Match," certification and licensure examination preparation, lifestyle issues, job hunting, and the DEA license application process. Print resources are included if they provide information not on the Internet, have features that are particularly useful, or cover too many relevant topics in depth to be covered in a journal article or on a Web site. The Internet is a major marketing tool for hospitals seeking to recruit the best and brightest physicians for their training programs. Even the smallest community hospital has a Web site. PMID:16782663

  16. [The training concept of laparoscopic surgery in post-graduate education of doctors].

    PubMed

    Dzemeshkevich, S L; Skipenko, O G; Svistunov, A A; Kossovich, M A; Shubina, L B; Gribkov, D M; Vasil'ev, M V

    2013-01-01

    The active use of virtual devices and laparoscopic boxes for the control of the achieved skills level are the general idea of the suggested concept of the laparoscopic surgical training. The in vivo training make sense only after finishing the "virtual" course. The complete realization of these new concept of laparoscopic surgery training is possible only in frames of the endoscopic surgery department of the mighty hospital center. The organization of such center promise to rise the level of doctors' training.

  17. European veterinary public health specialization: post-graduate training and expectations of potential employers.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Silvia; Dürr, Salome; Fahrion, Anna; Harisberger, Myriam; Papadopoulou, Christina; Zimmerli, Urs

    2013-01-01

    Residents of the European College of Veterinary Public Health (ECVPH) carried out a survey to explore the expectations and needs of potential employers of ECVPH diplomates and to assess the extent to which the ECVPH post-graduate training program meets those requirements. An online questionnaire was sent to 707 individuals working for universities, government organizations, and private companies active in the field of public health in 16 countries. Details on the structure and activities of the participants' organizations, their current knowledge of the ECVPH, and potential interest in employing veterinary public health (VPH) experts or hosting internships were collected. Participants were requested to rate 22 relevant competencies according to their importance for VPH professionals exiting the ECVPH training. A total of 138 completed questionnaires were included in the analysis. While generic skills such as "problem solving" and "broad horizon and inter-/multidisciplinary thinking" were consistently given high grades by all participants, the importance ascribed to more specialized skills was less homogeneous. The current ECVPH training more closely complies with the profile sought in academia, which may partly explain the lower employment rate of residents and diplomates within government and industry sectors. The study revealed a lack of awareness of the ECVPH among public health institutions and demonstrated the need for greater promotion of this veterinary specialization within Europe, both in terms of its training capacity and the professional skill-set of its diplomates. This study provides input for a critical revision of the ECVPH curriculum and the design of post-graduate training programs in VPH. PMID:23470243

  18. European veterinary public health specialization: post-graduate training and expectations of potential employers.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Silvia; Dürr, Salome; Fahrion, Anna; Harisberger, Myriam; Papadopoulou, Christina; Zimmerli, Urs

    2013-01-01

    Residents of the European College of Veterinary Public Health (ECVPH) carried out a survey to explore the expectations and needs of potential employers of ECVPH diplomates and to assess the extent to which the ECVPH post-graduate training program meets those requirements. An online questionnaire was sent to 707 individuals working for universities, government organizations, and private companies active in the field of public health in 16 countries. Details on the structure and activities of the participants' organizations, their current knowledge of the ECVPH, and potential interest in employing veterinary public health (VPH) experts or hosting internships were collected. Participants were requested to rate 22 relevant competencies according to their importance for VPH professionals exiting the ECVPH training. A total of 138 completed questionnaires were included in the analysis. While generic skills such as "problem solving" and "broad horizon and inter-/multidisciplinary thinking" were consistently given high grades by all participants, the importance ascribed to more specialized skills was less homogeneous. The current ECVPH training more closely complies with the profile sought in academia, which may partly explain the lower employment rate of residents and diplomates within government and industry sectors. The study revealed a lack of awareness of the ECVPH among public health institutions and demonstrated the need for greater promotion of this veterinary specialization within Europe, both in terms of its training capacity and the professional skill-set of its diplomates. This study provides input for a critical revision of the ECVPH curriculum and the design of post-graduate training programs in VPH.

  19. Postgraduate training for family medicine in a rural district hospital in South Africa: Appropriateness and sufficiency of theatre procedures as a sentinel indicator

    PubMed Central

    Plessis, Dawie Du; Alfred Kapp, Paul; Giddy, Laurel

    2016-01-01

    Background Since 2007, the postgraduate training of family physicians for South African district hospitals has been formalised. This training differs from European and North American programmes as up to 30% of the skills needed rely on district hospital surgical, obstetrics and anaesthetics procedures, particularly in rural areas, as outlined in the national unit standards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness and sufficiency of learning opportunities for these skills in a rural district hospital. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was undertaken of the number and type of procedures performed in theatre for a 1-year period and compared with the required procedural skills stipulated in the national unit standards. Descriptive statistical analyses were used to analyse categorical data. Results Three thousand seven hundred and forty-one procedures were performed during the study period. Anaesthesia was the most common procedure, followed by Caesarean section. There were adequate opportunities for teaching most core skills. Conclusions Sufficient and appropriate learning opportunities exist for postgraduate family medicine training in all the core skills performed in a theatre according to the national unit standards. PMID:27380781

  20. Translating human simulation technologies to veterinary surgical training: accelerating adoption.

    PubMed

    Stredney, Don; Hittle, Brad; Collidas, Jared; McLoughlin, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    Through the reduction of live animal use in teaching surgical technique, the opportunities to deliberately study complex regional anatomy and practice surgical technique have decreased. With reduced exposure, there is concern some individuals are graduating without the requisite knowledge and proficiency to perform adequate surgical techniques. Ultimately, animals may unnecessarily suffer due to morbidities from limited or poor surgical competencies. We have translated developments derived from the human surgical simulation field for application to veterinary surgical training. We present our work on intuitive software for learning regional anatomy, surgical simulations, and on several limiting factors that impede the validation and adoption of simulation technologies for use by the veterinarian surgical community.

  1. Postgraduate training in public health medicine: St George's Hospital Medical School Library public health information service.

    PubMed

    Rook, R; Adshead, F

    2001-03-01

    This article examines the development of the St George's Hospital Medical School Library public health information service. Begun in 1997 as a pilot project to support Public Health Specialist Registrars in South Thames West, it is now an established part of postgraduate training in the region. An outline of the service is described, including the evolution of the post of Public Health Librarian. Issues influencing the development of the service, and the establishment of the Librarian as part of the public health network are discussed. This is a transferable model of public health information provision, which as a centralized resource makes best use of available funding. As a LIS model it is an effective and efficient way of maximizing resources, and delivering a service to a specialist user group that is spread across a wide geographical area. PMID:11260291

  2. Training and use of lasers in postgraduate orthodontic programs in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Dansie, Chase O; Park, Jae Hyun; Makin, Inder Raj S

    2013-06-01

    This study was designed to determine if orthodontic residents are being trained to use lasers in the postgraduate orthodontic residency programs of the United States and Canada. An anonymous electronic survey was sent to the program director/chair of each of the seventy orthodontic residency programs, and thirty-seven (53 percent) of the programs responded. Of these thirty-seven programs, twenty-eight (76 percent) reported providing patient treatment with lasers in the orthodontic graduate program, eight (22 percent) said they do not provide treatment in the orthodontic graduate program, and one program (3 percent) reported providing laser training but not using lasers on patients. Gingivectomy and canine exposure were reported as the most common procedures that residents perform with a laser, while debonding of orthodontic brackets was the least common procedure performed with a laser. A diode laser was the most common type of laser used. Of the eight programs (22 percent) not offering laser training, four indicated having no plans to begin using lasers or training on their use. The other four indicated that they have plans to incorporate laser use in the future. PMID:23740914

  3. Training and use of lasers in postgraduate orthodontic programs in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Dansie, Chase O; Park, Jae Hyun; Makin, Inder Raj S

    2013-06-01

    This study was designed to determine if orthodontic residents are being trained to use lasers in the postgraduate orthodontic residency programs of the United States and Canada. An anonymous electronic survey was sent to the program director/chair of each of the seventy orthodontic residency programs, and thirty-seven (53 percent) of the programs responded. Of these thirty-seven programs, twenty-eight (76 percent) reported providing patient treatment with lasers in the orthodontic graduate program, eight (22 percent) said they do not provide treatment in the orthodontic graduate program, and one program (3 percent) reported providing laser training but not using lasers on patients. Gingivectomy and canine exposure were reported as the most common procedures that residents perform with a laser, while debonding of orthodontic brackets was the least common procedure performed with a laser. A diode laser was the most common type of laser used. Of the eight programs (22 percent) not offering laser training, four indicated having no plans to begin using lasers or training on their use. The other four indicated that they have plans to incorporate laser use in the future.

  4. Ophthalmic surgical training in Karnataka and Southern India: Present status and future interests from a survey of final-year residents

    PubMed Central

    Ajay, K; Krishnaprasad, R; Divya, D S

    2015-01-01

    Settings and Design: This study documents a survey of final-year ophthalmology postgraduates on the subject of their surgical training and their future plans after residency. Purpose: This survey aimed to answer the question, What is the present status of surgical training in ophthalmic training centers? by obtaining information from students about (1) various methods used in surgical training (2) numbers and types of surgeries performed by them in the training centers (3) their plans after residency. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire containing 21 questions was distributed to 155 students attending an intensive 4-day teaching program. The questions related to orientation training, wet lab training, facilities for training, free surgical camps and detailed information about numbers and types of surgeries observed and performed. Completed questionnaires were collected, and responses analyzed. Results: One hundred and seven completed responses were analyzed. The majority had not received formal orientation training. More than half had undergone wet lab training. Most residents performed their first ophthalmic surgery during the 1st year of residency and went to the operation theatre multiple times a week. Most of the students planned to undergo further training after residency. More than half of the students found their surgical training to be fair or satisfactory. Conclusions: The number and frequency of ophthalmic surgeries done by residents appear satisfactory, but further efforts from trainers on enhancing the quality and range of surgical training would benefit students and improve their satisfaction. PMID:26044468

  5. Outcomes from a postgraduate biomedical technology innovation training program: the first 12 years of Stanford Biodesign

    PubMed Central

    Brinton, Todd J.; Kurihara, Christine Q.; Camarillo, David B.; Pietzsch, Jan B.; Gorodsky, Julian; Zenios, Stefanos A.; Doshi, Rajiv; Shen, Christopher; Kumar, Uday N.; Mairal, Anurag; Watkins, Jay; Popp, Richard L.; Wang, Paul J.; Makower, Josh; Krummel, Thomas M.; Yock, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    The Stanford Biodesign Program began in 2001 with a mission of helping to train leaders in biomedical technology innovation. A key feature of the program is a full-time postgraduate fellowship where multidisciplinary teams undergo a process of sourcing clinical needs, inventing solutions and planning for implementation of a business strategy. The program places a priority on needs identification, a formal process of selecting, researching and characterizing needs before beginning the process of inventing. Fellows and students from the program have gone on to careers that emphasize technology innovation across industry and academia. Biodesign trainees have started 26 companies within the program that have raised over $200 Million and led to the creation of over 500 new jobs. More importantly, although most of these technologies are still at a very early stage, several projects have received regulatory approval and so far more than 150,000 patients have been treated by technologies invented by our trainees. This paper reviews the initial outcomes of the program and discusses lessons learned and future directions in terms of training priorities. PMID:23404074

  6. Outcomes from a postgraduate biomedical technology innovation training program: the first 12 years of Stanford Biodesign.

    PubMed

    Brinton, Todd J; Kurihara, Christine Q; Camarillo, David B; Pietzsch, Jan B; Gorodsky, Julian; Zenios, Stefanos A; Doshi, Rajiv; Shen, Christopher; Kumar, Uday N; Mairal, Anurag; Watkins, Jay; Popp, Richard L; Wang, Paul J; Makower, Josh; Krummel, Thomas M; Yock, Paul G

    2013-09-01

    The Stanford Biodesign Program began in 2001 with a mission of helping to train leaders in biomedical technology innovation. A key feature of the program is a full-time postgraduate fellowship where multidisciplinary teams undergo a process of sourcing clinical needs, inventing solutions and planning for implementation of a business strategy. The program places a priority on needs identification, a formal process of selecting, researching and characterizing needs before beginning the process of inventing. Fellows and students from the program have gone on to careers that emphasize technology innovation across industry and academia. Biodesign trainees have started 26 companies within the program that have raised over $200 million and led to the creation of over 500 new jobs. More importantly, although most of these technologies are still at a very early stage, several projects have received regulatory approval and so far more than 150,000 patients have been treated by technologies invented by our trainees. This paper reviews the initial outcomes of the program and discusses lessons learned and future directions in terms of training priorities. PMID:23404074

  7. Outcomes from a postgraduate biomedical technology innovation training program: the first 12 years of Stanford Biodesign.

    PubMed

    Brinton, Todd J; Kurihara, Christine Q; Camarillo, David B; Pietzsch, Jan B; Gorodsky, Julian; Zenios, Stefanos A; Doshi, Rajiv; Shen, Christopher; Kumar, Uday N; Mairal, Anurag; Watkins, Jay; Popp, Richard L; Wang, Paul J; Makower, Josh; Krummel, Thomas M; Yock, Paul G

    2013-09-01

    The Stanford Biodesign Program began in 2001 with a mission of helping to train leaders in biomedical technology innovation. A key feature of the program is a full-time postgraduate fellowship where multidisciplinary teams undergo a process of sourcing clinical needs, inventing solutions and planning for implementation of a business strategy. The program places a priority on needs identification, a formal process of selecting, researching and characterizing needs before beginning the process of inventing. Fellows and students from the program have gone on to careers that emphasize technology innovation across industry and academia. Biodesign trainees have started 26 companies within the program that have raised over $200 million and led to the creation of over 500 new jobs. More importantly, although most of these technologies are still at a very early stage, several projects have received regulatory approval and so far more than 150,000 patients have been treated by technologies invented by our trainees. This paper reviews the initial outcomes of the program and discusses lessons learned and future directions in terms of training priorities.

  8. Competency-based postgraduate training: can we bridge the gap between theory and clinical practice?

    PubMed

    ten Cate, Olle; Scheele, Fedde

    2007-06-01

    The introduction of competency-based postgraduate medical training, as recently stimulated by national governing bodies in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, The Netherlands, and other countries, is a major advancement, but at the same time it evokes critical issues of curricular implementation. A source of concern is the translation of general competencies into the practice of clinical teaching. The authors observe confusion around the term competency, which may have adverse effects when a teaching and assessment program is to be designed. This article aims to clarify the competency terminology. To connect the ideas behind a competency framework with the work environment of patient care, the authors propose to analyze the critical activities of professional practice and relate these to predetermined competencies. The use of entrustable professional activities (EPAs) and statements of awarded responsibility (STARs) may bridge a potential gap between the theory of competency-based education and clinical practice. EPAs reflect those activities that together constitute the profession. Carrying out most of these EPAs requires the possession of several competencies. The authors propose not to go to great lengths to assess competencies as such, in the way they are abstractly defined in competency frameworks but, instead, to focus on the observation of concrete critical clinical activities and to infer the presence of multiple competencies from several observed activities. Residents may then be awarded responsibility for EPAs. This can serve to move toward competency-based training, in which a flexible length of training is possible and the outcome of training becomes more important than its length.

  9. Chemistry Post-Graduate Student Training from an Open Distance Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mphahlele, M. J.; Tafesse, F.

    2015-01-01

    The University of South Africa's (UNISA) College of Science, Engineering and Technology (CSET) stands unique in the world by offering laboratory-based disciplines through Open Distance Learning (ODL) at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Lack of postgraduate programmes in chemistry at the very few ODL institutions offering undergraduate…

  10. Ensuring vascular surgical training is on the right track.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Erica L; Arora, Sonal; Moneta, Gregory L

    2011-02-01

    Approval of the primary certificate in vascular surgery eliminated the requirement for certification in general surgery before vascular surgery certification. New training paradigms for training in vascular surgery have emerged driven by the desire to offer greater flexibility of training and to shorten the length of training. Many of these changes are based upon "expert opinion," promise, and "logic" without objective evaluation of the residents or the training programs themselves. To be on the forefront of surgical education, vascular surgery will need to adopt methods of curriculum development firmly grounded in educational principles and use modern assessment tools for the evaluation of competence and performance. This report presents the evolution and challenges to the current vascular surgical training model and then argues for a more rigorous and scientific approach to training in vascular surgery. It presents an analysis of potential avenues for placing education and training in vascular surgery on the forefront of modern surgical education.

  11. Weekly working hours for Norwegian hospital doctors since 1994 with special attention to postgraduate training, work–home balance and the European Working Time Directive: a panel study

    PubMed Central

    Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors from 1994 to 2012 with special emphasis on the quality of postgraduate training and work–home balance, and in relation to the requirements of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Design Panel study based on postal questionnaires. Setting Norway. Participants Unbalanced cohort of 1300–1600 doctors in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Outcome measures Self-reported total weekly working hours and whether 45 weekly working hours are too short, sufficient, or too long to meet the quality requirements of obligatory postgraduate training for junior doctors. Results From 1994 to 2012, the number of weekly working hours was stable for senior (46–47 h) and junior (45–46 h) hospital doctors. In 2012, significantly more senior (27–35%) than junior (11–20%) doctors reported suboptimal work–home balance, defined as working more than 48 h a week. The majority perceived the present situation with an average of 45 h per week for juniors as sufficient for obligatory postgraduate specialist training, but doctors of higher age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08), senior doctors (1.07, 1.04 to 1.11) and doctors working in surgical specialties (OR 1 vs laboratory medicine 0.03, 0.01 to 0.25, internal medicine 0.31, 0.17 to 0.58, psychiatry 0.12, 0.04 to 0.36, paediatrics 0.36, 0.12 to 1.07, anaesthesiology 0.08, 0.02 to 0.39, gynaecology 0.07, 0.01 to 0.56 and others 0.39, 0.04 to 3.56) were more likely to want the work-week to be longer. Conclusions The weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors were always below the EWTD requirements. A significant growth of hospital doctor density over the past two decades, national regulations and cultural values might be important factors. Specialty differences in perception of sufficient training time may call for more flexibility in working time regulations. PMID:25311038

  12. A structured strategy to combine education for advanced MIS training in surgical oncology training programs.

    PubMed

    Brar, S S; Wright, F; Okrainec, A; Smith, A J

    2011-09-01

    Changing realities in surgery and surgical technique have heightened the need for agile adaptation in training programs. Current guidelines reflect the growing acceptance and adoption of the use of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in oncology. North American general surgery residents are often not adequately skilled in advanced laparoscopic surgery skills at the completion of their residency. Presently, advanced laparoscopic surgery training during surgical oncology fellowship training occurs on an ad-hoc basis in many surgical oncology programs. We present a rational and template for a structured training in advanced minimally invasive surgical techniques during surgical oncology fellowship training. The structure of the program seeks to incorporate evidence-based strategies in MIS training from a comprehensive review of the literature, while maintaining essential elements of rigorous surgical oncology training. Fellows in this stream will train and certify in the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) course. Fellows will participate in the didactic oncology seminar series continuously throughout the 27 months training period. Fellows will complete one full year of dedicated MIS training, followed by 15 months of surgical oncology training. Minimal standards for case volume will be expected for MIS cases and training will be tailored to meet the career goals of the fellows. We propose that a formalized MIS-Surgical Oncology Fellowship will allow trainees to benefit from an effective training curriculum and furthermore, that will allow for graduates to lead in a cancer surgery milieu increasingly focused on minimally invasive approaches.

  13. Training in surgical oncology - the role of VR simulation.

    PubMed

    Lewis, T M; Aggarwal, R; Rajaretnam, N; Grantcharov, T P; Darzi, A

    2011-09-01

    There have been dramatic changes in surgical training over the past two decades which have resulted in a number of concerns for the development of future surgeons. Changes in the structure of cancer services, working hour restrictions and a commitment to patient safety has led to a reduction in training opportunities that are available to the surgeon in training. Simulation and in particular virtual reality (VR) simulation has been heralded as an effective adjunct to surgical training. Advances in VR simulation has allowed trainees to practice realistic full length procedures in a safe and controlled environment, where mistakes are permitted and can be used as learning points. There is considerable evidence to demonstrate that the VR simulation can be used to enhance technical skills and improve operating room performance. Future work should focus on the cost effectiveness and predictive validity of VR simulation, which in turn would increase the uptake of simulation and enhance surgical training.

  14. Mentoring during surgical training: consensus recommendations for mentoring programmes from the Association of Surgeons in Training.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, P; Fitzgerald, J E F; McDermott, F D; Derbyshire, L; Shalhoub, J

    2014-11-01

    Mentoring has been present within surgical training for many years, albeit in different forms. There is evidence that formal mentoring can improve patient outcomes and facilitate learning and personal growth in the mentee. The Association of Surgeons in Training (ASiT) is an independent educational charity working to promote excellence in surgical training. This document recommends the introduction of a structured mentoring programme, which is readily accessible to all surgical trainees. A review of the available evidence--including an ASiT-led survey of its membership--highlights the desire of surgical trainees to have a mentor, whilst the majority do not have access to one. There is also limited training for those in mentoring roles. In response, ASiT have implemented a pilot mentoring scheme, with surgical trainees acting both as mentors and mentees. Based on the existing literature, survey data and pilot experience, ASiT formalises in this document consensus recommendations for mentoring in surgical training.

  15. Results of a psychosomatic training program in China, Vietnam and Laos: successful cross-cultural transfer of a postgraduate training program for medical doctors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With the “ASIA-LINK” program, the European Community has supported the development and implementation of a curriculum of postgraduate psychosomatic training for medical doctors in China, Vietnam and Laos. Currently, these three countries are undergoing great social, economic and cultural changes. The associated psychosocial stress has led to increases in psychological and psychosomatic problems, as well as disorders for which no adequate medical or psychological care is available, even in cities. Health care in these three countries is characterized by the coexistence of Western medicine and traditional medicine. Psychological and psychosomatic disorders and problems are insufficiently recognized and treated, and there is a need for biopsychosocially orientated medical care. Little is known about the transferability of Western-oriented psychosomatic training programs in the Southeast Asian cultural context. Methods The curriculum was developed and implemented in three steps: 1) an experimental phase to build a future teacher group; 2) a joint training program for future teachers and German teachers; and 3) training by Asian trainers that was supervised by German teachers. The didactic elements included live patient interviews, lectures, communication skills training and Balint groups. The training was evaluated using questionnaires for the participants and interviews of the German teachers and the future teachers. Results Regional training centers were formed in China (Shanghai), Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City and Hue) and Laos (Vientiane). A total of 200 physicians completed the training, and 30 physicians acquired the status of future teacher. The acceptance of the training was high, and feelings of competence increased during the courses. The interactive training methods were greatly appreciated, with the skills training and self-experience ranked as the most important topics. Adaptations to the cultural background of the participants were necessary

  16. Postgraduate Research Students and Academic Integrity: "It's about Good Research Training"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmud, Saadia; Bretag, Tracey

    2013-01-01

    Findings from a study on academic integrity at Australian universities challenge the presumption that postgraduate research students have prior knowledge of academic integrity. A review of online academic integrity policy in 39 Australian universities found that one in five policies had no mention of higher degree by research (HDR) students.…

  17. Progress in virtual reality simulators for surgical training and certification.

    PubMed

    de Visser, Hans; Watson, Marcus O; Salvado, Olivier; Passenger, Joshua D

    2011-02-21

    There is increasing evidence that educating trainee surgeons by simulation is preferable to traditional operating-room training methods with actual patients. Apart from reducing costs and risks to patients, training by simulation can provide some unique benefits, such as greater control over the training procedure and more easily defined metrics for assessing proficiency. Virtual reality (VR) simulators are now playing an increasing role in surgical training. However, currently available VR simulators lack the fidelity to teach trainees past the novice-to-intermediate skills level. Recent technological developments in other industries using simulation, such as the games and entertainment and aviation industries, suggest that the next generation of VR simulators should be suitable for training, maintenance and certification of advanced surgical skills. To be effective as an advanced surgical training and assessment tool, VR simulation needs to provide adequate and relevant levels of physical realism, case complexity and performance assessment. Proper validation of VR simulators and an increased appreciation of their value by the medical profession are crucial for them to be accepted into surgical training curricula. PMID:21401487

  18. Fit for the future? The place of global health in the UK's postgraduate medical training: a review

    PubMed Central

    Hall, JA; Brown, CS; Pettigrew, L; Malik, ANJ; Watson, J; Topiwala, A; McGregor, L; Ramsay, R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives That health is now global is increasingly accepted. However, a ‘mismatch between present professional competencies and the requirements of an increasingly interdependent world’ has been identified. Postgraduate training should take account of the increasingly global nature of health; this paper examines the extent to which they currently do. Design Trainees across 11 medical specialties reviewed the content of their postgraduate curriculum. Setting Not relevant. Partcipants None. Main outcome measures Competencies were coded as ‘UK’ (statement only relevant to UK work), ‘global’ (statement with an explicit reference to aspects of health outside the UK) or generic (relevant both to the UK and international settings). Results Six of the 11 curricula reviewed contained global health competencies. These covered the global burden or determinants of disease and appropriate policy responses. Only one College required trainees to ‘be aware of the World Health Organization’, or ‘know the local, national and international structures for health care’. These cross-cutting competencies have applicability to all specialties. All 11 curricula contained generic competencies where a global health perspective and/or experience could be advantageous, e.g. caring for migrant or culturally different patients. Conclusion Trainees in all specialties should achieve a minimum requirement of global health awareness. This can be achieved through a small number of common competencies that are consistent across core curricula. These should lead on from equivalent undergraduate competencies. Addressing the current gap in the global health content of postgraduate medical curricula will ensure that the UK has health professionals that are trained to meet the health challenges of the future. PMID:23560218

  19. The Impact of Japan's 2004 Postgraduate Training Program on Intra-Prefectural Distribution of Pediatricians in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Rie; Wang, Wei; Yamaguchi, Norihiro; Tamura, Hiroshi; Goto, Rei; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Objective Inequity in physician distribution poses a challenge to many health systems. In Japan, a new postgraduate training program for all new medical graduates was introduced in 2004, and researchers have argued that this program has increased inequalities in physician distribution. We examined the trends in the geographic distribution of pediatricians as well as all physicians from 1996 to 2010 to identify the impact of the launch of the new training program. Methods The Gini coefficient was calculated using municipalities as the study unit within each prefecture to assess whether there were significant changes in the intra-prefectural distribution of all physicians and pediatricians before and after the launch of the new training program. The effect of the new program was quantified by estimating the difference in the slope in the time trend of the Gini coefficients before and after 2004 using a linear change-point regression design. We categorized 47 prefectures in Japan into two groups: 1) predominantly urban and 2) others by the definition from OECD to conduct stratified analyses by urban-rural status. Results The trends in physician distribution worsened after 2004 for all physicians (p value<.0001) and pediatricians (p value = 0.0057). For all physicians, the trends worsened after 2004 both in predominantly urban prefectures (p value = 0.0012) and others (p value<0.0001), whereas, for pediatricians, the distribution worsened in others (p value = 0.0343), but not in predominantly urban prefectures (p value = 0.0584). Conclusion The intra-prefectural distribution of physicians worsened after the launch of the new training program, which may reflect the impact of the new postgraduate program. In pediatrics, changes in the Gini trend differed significantly before and after the launch of the new training program in others, but not in predominantly urban prefectures. Further observation is needed to explore how this difference in trends affects

  20. Current Pre- and Post-Graduate Vocational Education and Training in Laboratory Medicine and Microbiology in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Owczarek, Henryk

    2010-01-01

    The status of Polish medical laboratories in continuously changing. Since 2001 the legal framework was established for the clinical chemists employed in medical and microbiological laboratories. Since that time, the job performance by clinical chemists is limited only to the specialist, member of the Polish Chamber of Laboratory Diagnosticians. According to that legal act, graduate in laboratory medicine is certified to perform the professional activities in medical or microbiological laboratories without further vocational training. After graduating from biology, chemistry, pharmacy or veterinary medicine, a person can perform the job only under supervision of a certified clinical chemist. Several Medical Universities have organized the system of post-graduation education for such graduates. The main courses taught are basic pathology, internal medicine, hematology, immunology, and clinical chemistry. In addition, the Ministry of Health and Chamber of Laboratory Diagnosticians are organizing and supervising the higher level of post-graduate education for clinical chemists, the education and vocational training which leads to the title of specialist in clinical chemistry or similar area in laboratory medicine. The professional qualification of such person are evaluated during the final exam at the national level. The specialist is eligible to act as director of clinical laboratories.

  1. Current Pre- and Post-Graduate Vocational Education and Training in Laboratory Medicine and Microbiology in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Owczarek, Henryk

    2010-01-01

    The status of Polish medical laboratories in continuously changing. Since 2001 the legal framework was established for the clinical chemists employed in medical and microbiological laboratories. Since that time, the job performance by clinical chemists is limited only to the specialist, member of the Polish Chamber of Laboratory Diagnosticians. According to that legal act, graduate in laboratory medicine is certified to perform the professional activities in medical or microbiological laboratories without further vocational training. After graduating from biology, chemistry, pharmacy or veterinary medicine, a person can perform the job only under supervision of a certified clinical chemist. Several Medical Universities have organized the system of post-graduation education for such graduates. The main courses taught are basic pathology, internal medicine, hematology, immunology, and clinical chemistry. In addition, the Ministry of Health and Chamber of Laboratory Diagnosticians are organizing and supervising the higher level of post-graduate education for clinical chemists, the education and vocational training which leads to the title of specialist in clinical chemistry or similar area in laboratory medicine. The professional qualification of such person are evaluated during the final exam at the national level. The specialist is eligible to act as director of clinical laboratories. PMID:27683359

  2. Surgical Safety Training of World Health Organization Initiatives.

    PubMed

    Davis, Christopher R; Bates, Anthony S; Toll, Edward C; Cole, Matthew; Smith, Frank C T; Stark, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate training in surgical safety is essential to maximize patient safety. This national review quantified undergraduate surgical safety training. Training of 2 international safety initiatives was quantified: (1) World Health Organization (WHO) "Guidelines for Safe Surgery" and (2) Department of Health (DoH) "Principles of the Productive Operating Theatre." Also, 13 additional safety skills were quantified. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U tests. In all, 23 universities entered the study (71.9% response). Safety skills from WHO and DoH documents were formally taught in 4 UK medical schools (17.4%). Individual components of the documents were taught more frequently (47.6%). Half (50.9%) of the additional safety skills identified were taught. Surgical societies supplemented safety training, although the total amount of training provided was less than that in university curricula (P < .0001). Surgical safety training is inadequate in UK medical schools. To protect patients and maximize safety, a national undergraduate safety curriculum is recommended.

  3. Evaluation of surgical training in the era of simulation

    PubMed Central

    Shaharan, Shazrinizam; Neary, Paul

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess where we currently stand in relation to simulator-based training within modern surgical training curricula. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed database using keywords “simulation”, “skills assessment” and “surgery”. The studies retrieved were examined according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Time period reviewed was 2000 to 2013. The methodology of skills assessment was examined. RESULTS: Five hundred and fifteen articles focussed upon simulator based skills assessment. Fifty-two articles were identified that dealt with technical skills assessment in general surgery. Five articles assessed open skills, 37 assessed laparoscopic skills, 4 articles assessed both open and laparoscopic skills and 6 assessed endoscopic skills. Only 12 articles were found to be integrating simulators in the surgical training curricula. Observational assessment tools, in the form of Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) dominated the literature. CONCLUSION: Observational tools such as OSATS remain the top assessment instrument in surgical training especially in open technical skills. Unlike the aviation industry, simulation based assessment has only now begun to cross the threshold of incorporation into mainstream skills training. Over the next decade we expect the promise of simulator-based training to finally take flight and begin an exciting voyage of discovery for surgical trainees. PMID:25228946

  4. The surgical ensemble: choreography as a simulation and training tool.

    PubMed

    Satava, Richard M; Hunter, Anne Marie

    2011-09-01

    Team training and interprofessional training have recently emerged as critical new simulations that enhance performance by coordinating communication, leadership, professional, and, to a certain extent, technical skills. In describing these new training tools, the term choreography has been loosely used, but no critical appraisal of the role of the science of choreography has been applied to a surgical procedure. By analogy, the surgical team, including anesthetists, surgeons, nurses, and technicians, constitutes a complete ensemble, whose physical actions and interactions constitute the "performance of surgery." There are very specific "elements" (tools) that are basic to choreography, such as space, timing, rhythm, energy, cues, transitions, and especially rehearsal. This review explores whether such a metaphor is appropriate and the possibility of applying the science of choreography to the surgical team in the operating theater.

  5. The surgical ensemble: choreography as a simulation and training tool.

    PubMed

    Satava, Richard M; Hunter, Anne Marie

    2011-09-01

    Team training and interprofessional training have recently emerged as critical new simulations that enhance performance by coordinating communication, leadership, professional, and, to a certain extent, technical skills. In describing these new training tools, the term choreography has been loosely used, but no critical appraisal of the role of the science of choreography has been applied to a surgical procedure. By analogy, the surgical team, including anesthetists, surgeons, nurses, and technicians, constitutes a complete ensemble, whose physical actions and interactions constitute the "performance of surgery." There are very specific "elements" (tools) that are basic to choreography, such as space, timing, rhythm, energy, cues, transitions, and especially rehearsal. This review explores whether such a metaphor is appropriate and the possibility of applying the science of choreography to the surgical team in the operating theater. PMID:21484530

  6. Alternative Considerations for Surgical Training and Funding.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ronald F

    2016-02-01

    Since the late 1880s surgical residency programs have existed in forms that are similar to our current models. Many important variations have been introduced over time. On aggregate this system has worked remarkably well; though as economic, demographic, and cultural changes continue to evolve, one must wonder if we were to change our models how might we do that and what reasoning could we use. This article's focus is to take a stratospheric view of what could be done, particularly in the United States, rather than characterize what happens in other countries with other health economic systems. PMID:26612018

  7. Informatics Approach to Improving Surgical Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Gazi

    2013-01-01

    Surgery as a profession requires significant training to improve both clinical decision making and psychomotor proficiency. In the medical knowledge domain, tools have been developed, validated, and accepted for evaluation of surgeons' competencies. However, assessment of the psychomotor skills still relies on the Halstedian model of…

  8. New alternative to animal models for surgical training.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Emad; Suarez, Carlos Ernesto; Al-Mefty, Ossama; Yasargil, M Gazi

    2004-06-01

    Laboratory training models are essential for developing and refining surgical skills, especially in microsurgery. A perfect training model is the one that can provide the same situation during surgery, in the same anatomy; the closer to live surgery the model is, the greater the benefit. The lack of an accurate vascular model has sometimes necessitated the use of live models when bleeding, and vascular liquid filling is desired for optional learning. We developed a new model utilising human cadavers that can replace the use of live anaesthetised animals for surgical training. The vessels in a cadaveric specimen were connected to artificial blood reservoirs. The arterial side was connected to a pump to provide pulsating pressure inside the arteries, while the venous side was kept under static pressure that applied to the reservoir. This method provides a condition that simulates live surgery in terms of bleeding, pulsation and liquid filling of the vascular tree. It is an excellent alternative model and can be applied to the whole cadaver or to a particular cadaveric specimen (head, arm, leg) or to an isolated organ. It is distinctive and of a great practical value for training in a wide range of surgical procedures, Utilising this technique could forever eliminate the use of live anaesthetised animals for surgical training. The model and device are patent pending application no. 10/339,053. PMID:23581125

  9. Affordable, web-based surgical skill training and evaluation tool.

    PubMed

    Islam, Gazi; Kahol, Kanav; Li, Baoxin; Smith, Marshall; Patel, Vimla L

    2016-02-01

    Advances in the medical field have increased the need to incorporate modern techniques into surgical resident training and surgical skills learning. To facilitate this integration, one approach that has gained credibility is the incorporation of simulator based training to supplement traditional training programs. However, existing implementations of these training methods still require the constant presence of a competent surgeon to assess the surgical dexterity of the trainee, which limits the evaluation methods and relies on subjective evaluation. This research proposes an efficient, effective, and economic video-based skill assessment technique for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). It analyzes a surgeon's hand and surgical tool movements and detects features like smoothness, efficiency, and preciseness. The system is capable of providing both real time on-screen feedback and a performance score at the end of the surgery. Finally, we present a web-based tool where surgeons can securely upload MIS training videos and receive evaluation scores and an analysis of trainees' performance trends over time. PMID:26556643

  10. The Role of Student Surgical Interest Groups and Surgical Olympiads in Anatomical and Surgical Undergraduate Training in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dydykin, Sergey; Kapitonova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Traditional department-based surgical interest groups in Russian medical schools are useful tools for student-based selection of specialty training. They also form a nucleus for initiating research activities among undergraduate students. In Russia, the Departments of Topographical Anatomy and Operative Surgery play an important role in initiating…

  11. Surgical residency training and international volunteerism: a national survey of residents from 2 surgical specialties

    PubMed Central

    Matar, Wadih Y.; Trottier, Daniel C.; Balaa, Fady; Fairful-Smith, Robin; Moroz, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background Many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) lack basic surgical resources, resulting in avoidable disability and mortality. Recently, residents in surgical training programs have shown increasing interest in overseas elective experiences to assist surgical programs in LMICs. The purpose of this study was to survey Canadian surgical residents about their interest in international volunteerism. Methods We sent a web-based survey to all general and orthopedic surgery residents enrolled in surgical training programs in Canada. The survey assessed residents’ interests, attitudes and motivations, and perceived barriers and aids with respect to international volunteerism. Results In all, 361 residents completed the survey for a response rate of 38.0%. Half of the respondents indicated that the availability of an international surgery elective would have positively influenced their selection of a residency program. Excluding the 18 residents who had volunteered during residency, 63.8% of the remaining residents confirmed an interest in international volunteering with “contributing to an important cause,” “teaching” and “tourism/cultural enhancement” as the leading reasons for their interest. Perceived barriers included “lack of financial support” and “lack of available organized opportunities.” All (100%) respondents who had done an international elective during residency confirmed that they would pursue such work in the future. Conclusion Administrators of Canadian surgical programs should be aware of strong resident interest in global health care and accordingly develop opportunities by encouraging faculty mentorships and resources for global health teaching. PMID:22854155

  12. Mentoring and Surgical Training: A Time for Reflection!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Breda; Memon, Muhammed Ashraf

    2010-01-01

    Effective mentoring has an invaluable role in the development of surgeons at various levels and is frequently perceived vital in achieving career success. Its role therefore is only second to credentialing. However, the formal role of mentoring and learner support in surgical training remains non-existent. This is reflected in a paucity of…

  13. Imagining a Continuing Interprofessional Education Program (CIPE) within Surgical Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitto, Simon C.; Gruen, Russell L.; Smith, Julian A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years increasing attention has been paid to issues of professionalism in surgery and the content and structure of continuing professional development for surgeons; however, little attention has been paid to interprofessional education (IPE) in surgical training. Imagining the form(s) of IPE and/or continuing interprofessional education…

  14. Is day case surgery the key to basic surgical training?

    PubMed

    Weale, A R; Lear, P A; Mitchell, D C

    2002-11-01

    The logbooks of 5 senior house officers (SHOs) were audited to determine progression of surgical skills on a single vascular firm. Total surgical experience and, in particular, experience in varicose vein and arterio-venous fistula surgery, performed in the day-case unit (DCU), were examined. Trainees were divided into those undertaking their first surgical SHO post (group 1, n = 2) and those who had had previous surgical exposure (group 2, n = 3) on the basic surgical training rotation. SHOs were exposed to a mean of 273 (+/- 41 SD) operative cases in 6 months. Emergency work comprised 15% (+/- 7%) of workload. Day cases accounted for 35% (+/- 3%) of elective workload. A mean of 66 (+/- 5) varicose vein and AVF cases were undertaken in the DCU. This represented 82% (+/- 6%) of day-case operative experience for the firm. SHOs undertook 12 (+/- 6) VV/AVF cases unassisted, 35 (+/- 5) cases with senior assistance, and 20 (+/- 11) as first assistance in the DCU. All SHOs progressed to being able to perform arterial bypass and amputation (with senior assistance) during their time on the firm. There was no significant difference in experience or progression to major vascular surgery between group 1 and group 2 in this study except in lower limb amputation procedures. It is concluded that vascular surgical firms can provide a good introduction to surgical skills. Most experience as first operator was gained in the DCU and we suggest that those undergoing basic surgical training might benefit from an attachment to the DCU early in their rotations.

  15. [A Perspective on Innovation for Efficient Medical Practice in View of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Education and Training in Laboratory Medicine].

    PubMed

    Kawai, Tadashi

    2015-10-01

    Continuous advances in medical laboratory technology have driven major changes in the practice of laboratory medicine over the past two decades. The importance of the overall quality of a medical laboratory has been ever-increasing in order to improve and ensure the quality and safety of clinical practice by physicians in any type of medical facility. Laboratory physicians and professional staff should challenge themselves more than ever in various ways to cooperate and contribute with practicing physicians for the appropriate utilization of laboratory testing. This will certainly lead to a decrease in inappropriate or unnecessary laboratory testing, resulting in reducing medical costs. In addition, not only postgraduate, but also undergraduate medical education/training systems must be markedly innovated, considering recent rapid progress in electronic information and communication technologies. PMID:26897851

  16. [A Perspective on Innovation for Efficient Medical Practice in View of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Education and Training in Laboratory Medicine].

    PubMed

    Kawai, Tadashi

    2015-10-01

    Continuous advances in medical laboratory technology have driven major changes in the practice of laboratory medicine over the past two decades. The importance of the overall quality of a medical laboratory has been ever-increasing in order to improve and ensure the quality and safety of clinical practice by physicians in any type of medical facility. Laboratory physicians and professional staff should challenge themselves more than ever in various ways to cooperate and contribute with practicing physicians for the appropriate utilization of laboratory testing. This will certainly lead to a decrease in inappropriate or unnecessary laboratory testing, resulting in reducing medical costs. In addition, not only postgraduate, but also undergraduate medical education/training systems must be markedly innovated, considering recent rapid progress in electronic information and communication technologies.

  17. Surgical training and certification in the United kingdom.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew J; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Warren, Oliver J; Paraskeva, Paraskevas

    2009-02-01

    Training in surgical disciplines in the United Kingdom has undergone tremendous change over the past two decades. The introduction of specialist training programmes, working time directives, quality ratings and a drive toward ambulatory and minimal access surgery have led to challenges with respect to training and service commitments of healthcare professionals. A structured and centralised training system was introduced, with the concept of core followed by specialty-specific progression, in an openly competitive manner. Within this system is the need to commence training on simulation models, and to demonstrate proficiency prior to performance of tasks on patients. This should be underpinned by objective measures such as video or dexterity-based tools. There is also a clear need to provide personal, professional and leadership development in the form of mentorship and appraisal systems. Though continuing to develop, the profession must be mindful of current and future advances to ensure the delivery of surgeons for the future who aspire toward excellence.

  18. Digital Environment for Movement Control in Surgical Skill Training.

    PubMed

    Juanes, Juan A; Gómez, Juan J; Peguero, Pedro D; Ruisoto, Pablo

    2016-06-01

    Intelligent environments are increasingly becoming useful scenarios for handling computers. Technological devices are practical tools for learning and acquiring clinical skills as part of the medical training process. Within the framework of the advanced user interface, we present a technological application using Leap Motion, to enhance interaction with the user in the process of a laparoscopic surgical intervention and integrate the navigation through augmented reality images using manual gestures. Thus, we intend to achieve a more natural interaction with the objects that participate in a surgical intervention, which are augmented and related to the user's hand movements. PMID:27091754

  19. Digital Environment for Movement Control in Surgical Skill Training.

    PubMed

    Juanes, Juan A; Gómez, Juan J; Peguero, Pedro D; Ruisoto, Pablo

    2016-06-01

    Intelligent environments are increasingly becoming useful scenarios for handling computers. Technological devices are practical tools for learning and acquiring clinical skills as part of the medical training process. Within the framework of the advanced user interface, we present a technological application using Leap Motion, to enhance interaction with the user in the process of a laparoscopic surgical intervention and integrate the navigation through augmented reality images using manual gestures. Thus, we intend to achieve a more natural interaction with the objects that participate in a surgical intervention, which are augmented and related to the user's hand movements.

  20. Assessment methods in surgical training in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Evgeniou, Evgenios; Peter, Loizou; Tsironi, Maria; Iyer, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    A career in surgery in the United Kingdom demands a commitment to a long journey of assessment. The assessment methods used must ensure that the appropriate candidates are selected into a programme of study or a job and must guarantee public safety by regulating the progression of surgical trainees and the certification of trained surgeons. This review attempts to analyse the psychometric properties of various assessment methods used in the selection of candidates to medical school, job selection, progression in training, and certification. Validity is an indicator of how well an assessment measures what it is designed to measure. Reliability informs us whether a test is consistent in its outcome by measuring the reproducibility and discriminating ability of the test. In the long journey of assessment in surgical training, the same assessment formats are frequently being used for selection into a programme of study, job selection, progression, and certification. Although similar assessment methods are being used for different purposes in surgical training, the psychometric properties of these assessment methods have not been examined separately for each purpose. Because of the significance of these assessments for trainees and patients, their reliability and validity should be examined thoroughly in every context where the assessment method is being used. PMID:23441076

  1. BCI-based user training in surgical robotics.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Emidio; Barresi, Giacinto; Mattos, Leonardo S

    2015-08-01

    Human error is a critical risk in surgery, so an important aim of surgical robotic systems is to improve the performance and the safety of surgical operations. Such systems can be potentially enhanced by a brain-computer interface (BCI) able to monitor the user's mental focus and use this information to improve the level of safety of the procedures. In order to evaluate such potential usage of BCIs, this paper describes a novel framework for training the user to regulate his/her own mental state while performing surgery-like tasks using a robotic system. This self-regulation is based on augmented reality (AR) feedback representing the BCI-monitored mental state, which helps the user's effort in maintaining a high level of mental focus during the task. A comparison between a BCI-based training and a training without a BCI highlighted a reduction of post-training trial times as a result of the enhanced training setup, without any loss in performance or in user experience. Such finding allows the identification of further improvements and novel potential applications of this training and interaction paradigm.

  2. [FORMATION OF CLINICAL MENTALITY--AN IMPORTANT COMPONENT OF POST-GRADUATE MEDICAL TRAINING].

    PubMed

    Golovskoy, B V; Khovaeva, Ya B; Burdina, E N; Khovaev, S Yu

    2015-01-01

    The notion of clinical mentality is considered from the standpoint of its semantic meaning and significance for efficient medical activity. The main signs and implications of this notion are determined. It is shown, based on pedagogical methods (observations, conversations, solution of clinical problems, testing, etc.), that clinical mentality forms after 10 years of work in a given field. Criteria are proposed for distinguishing between health providers with and without clinical mentality. The free association method demonstrated that 37% of the doctors with a period of clinical work over 10 years have peculiarities of clinical mentality described as "internal medical mentality". Clinicians with the experience of work over 15 years exhibit empathy as a component of clinical mentality. The methods are proposed for the formation of clinical mentality during post-graduate education taking account of the modern differentiation of medical disciplines and the necessity to reconcile standards of medical aid and their application on an individual basis. PMID:26964471

  3. [Present and aspects for cadaver surgical training in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Eiji

    2015-03-01

    In overseas countries the cadaver surgical training (CST) has been very common as evaluation systems for new operative method and medical devices. However, in Japan basic autopsy training is indispensable for nurturing doctors at schools of medicine, while the clinical doctors have been using cadavers for the progress and technique, or the like, of a surgery with the scope of clinical autopsy. In the consequence, in 2013 the guideline "Autopsy for clinical medicine training and research" was put in effect over a series of discussions for the purpose of society acknowledgement of CST. The subsidized project "Training for the development of practical technique of a surgery" by the Ministry of Health and Labor has been offered publicly for private organizations and expected a nationwide expansion. I review the current situation of CST in Japan and introduce CST at Ehime University School of Medicine. This editorial is based on the background of CST in Japan and referred to the outlook for the future.

  4. Surgical team training: promoting high reliability with nontechnical skills.

    PubMed

    Paige, John T

    2010-06-01

    This article focuses on key aspects of the "nontraditional" surgical subjects of organizational structure and team interaction. First, the deficiencies in team dynamics found within the modern operating room (OR) and their resultant consequences are highlighted. Next, essential human factors concepts related to error generation, organizational culture, high reliability, and team science as applied to the OR environment are reviewed. Finally, various strategies for improving OR team function, including the use of high-fidelity simulation (HFS) in team training are discussed.

  5. Criterion-based (proficiency) training to improve surgical performance.

    PubMed

    Fried, Marvin P; Kaye, Rachel J; Gibber, Marc J; Jackman, Alexis H; Paskhover, Boris P; Sadoughi, Babak; Schiff, Bradley; Fraioli, Rebecca E; Jacobs, Joseph B

    2012-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether training otorhinolaryngology residents to criterion performance levels (proficiency) on the Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Simulator produces individuals whose performance in the operating room is at least equal to those who are trained by performing a fixed number of surgical procedures. DESIGN Prospective cohort. SETTING Two academic medical centers in New York City. PARTICIPANTS Otorhinolaryngology junior residents composed of 8 experimental subjects and 6 control subjects and 6 attending surgeons. INTERVENTION Experimental subjects achieved benchmark proficiency criteria on the Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Simulator; control subjects repeated the surgical procedure twice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Residents completed validated objective tests to assess baseline abilities. All subjects were videotaped performing an initial standardized surgical procedure. Residents were videotaped performing a final surgery. Videotapes were assessed for metrics by an expert panel. RESULTS Attendings outperformed the residents in most parameters on the initial procedure. Experimental and attending groups outperformed controls in some parameters on the final procedure. There was no difference between resident groups in initial performance, but the experimental subjects outperformed the control subjects in navigation in the final procedure. Most important, there was no difference in final performance between subgroups of the experimental group on the basis of the number of trials needed to attain proficiency. CONCLUSIONS Simulator training can improve resident technical skills so that each individual attains a proficiency level, despite the existence of an intrinsic range of abilities. This proficiency level translates to at least equal, if not superior, operative performance compared with that of current conventional training with finite repetition of live surgical procedures.

  6. The EC4 European syllabus for post-graduate training in clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine: version 4--2012.

    PubMed

    Wieringa, Gijsbert; Zerah, Simone; Jansen, Rob; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Queralto, José; Solnica, Bogdan; Gruson, Damien; Tomberg, Karel; Riittinen, Leena; Baum, Hannsjörg; Brochet, Jean-Philippe; Buhagiar, Gerald; Charilaou, Charis; Grigore, Camelia; Johnsen, Anders H; Kappelmayer, Janos; Majkic-Singh, Nada; Nubile, Giuseppe; O'Mullane, John; Opp, Matthias; Pupure, Silvija; Racek, Jaroslav; Reguengo, Henrique; Rizos, Demetrios; Rogic, Dunja; Špaňár, Július; Štrakl, Greta; Szekeres, Thomas; Tzatchev, Kamen; Vitkus, Dalius; Wallemacq, Pierre; Wallinder, Hans

    2012-08-01

    Laboratory medicine's practitioners across the European community include medical, scientific and pharmacy trained specialists whose contributions to health and healthcare is in the application of diagnostic tests for screening and early detection of disease, differential diagnosis, monitoring, management and treatment of patients, and their prognostic assessment. In submitting a revised common syllabus for post-graduate education and training across the 27 member states an expectation is set for harmonised, high quality, safe practice. In this regard an extended 'Core knowledge, skills and competencies' division embracing all laboratory medicine disciplines is described. For the first time the syllabus identifies the competencies required to meet clinical leadership demands for defining, directing and assuring the efficiency and effectiveness of laboratory services as well as expectations in translating knowledge and skills into ability to practice. In a 'Specialist knowledge' division, the expectations from the individual disciplines of Clinical Chemistry/Immunology, Haematology/Blood Transfusion, Microbiology/ Virology, Genetics and In Vitro Fertilisation are described. Beyond providing a common platform of knowledge, skills and competency, the syllabus supports the aims of the European Commission in providing safeguards to increasing professional mobility across European borders at a time when demand for highly qualified professionals is increasing and the labour force is declining. It continues to act as a guide for the formulation of national programmes supplemented by the needs of individual country priorities.

  7. Surgical skills simulation in trauma and orthopaedic training.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Euan R B; Lewis, Thomas L; Ferran, Nicholas A

    2014-12-19

    Changing patterns of health care delivery and the rapid evolution of orthopaedic surgical techniques have made it increasingly difficult for trainees to develop expertise in their craft. Working hour restrictions and a drive towards senior led care demands that proficiency be gained in a shorter period of time whilst requiring a greater skill set than that in the past. The resulting conflict between service provision and training has necessitated the development of alternative methods in order to compensate for the reduction in 'hands-on' experience. Simulation training provides the opportunity to develop surgical skills in a controlled environment whilst minimising risks to patient safety, operating theatre usage and financial expenditure. Many options for simulation exist within orthopaedics from cadaveric or prosthetic models, to arthroscopic simulators, to advanced virtual reality and three-dimensional software tools. There are limitations to this form of training, but it has significant potential for trainees to achieve competence in procedures prior to real-life practice. The evidence for its direct transferability to operating theatre performance is limited but there are clear benefits such as increasing trainee confidence and familiarity with equipment. With progressively improving methods of simulation available, it is likely to become more important in the ongoing and future training and assessment of orthopaedic surgeons.

  8. Surgical skills simulation in trauma and orthopaedic training.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Euan R B; Lewis, Thomas L; Ferran, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    Changing patterns of health care delivery and the rapid evolution of orthopaedic surgical techniques have made it increasingly difficult for trainees to develop expertise in their craft. Working hour restrictions and a drive towards senior led care demands that proficiency be gained in a shorter period of time whilst requiring a greater skill set than that in the past. The resulting conflict between service provision and training has necessitated the development of alternative methods in order to compensate for the reduction in 'hands-on' experience. Simulation training provides the opportunity to develop surgical skills in a controlled environment whilst minimising risks to patient safety, operating theatre usage and financial expenditure. Many options for simulation exist within orthopaedics from cadaveric or prosthetic models, to arthroscopic simulators, to advanced virtual reality and three-dimensional software tools. There are limitations to this form of training, but it has significant potential for trainees to achieve competence in procedures prior to real-life practice. The evidence for its direct transferability to operating theatre performance is limited but there are clear benefits such as increasing trainee confidence and familiarity with equipment. With progressively improving methods of simulation available, it is likely to become more important in the ongoing and future training and assessment of orthopaedic surgeons. PMID:25523023

  9. Assessment of Multiple Physician Competencies in Postgraduate Training: Utility of the Structured Oral Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, Ann; Simmons, Brian; Ng, Eugene; Skidmore, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Competency based medical education involves assessing physicians-in-training in multiple roles. Training programs are challenged by the need to introduce appropriate yet feasible assessment methods. We therefore examined the utility of a structured oral examination (SOE) in the assessment of the 7 CanMEDS roles (Medical Expert, Communicator,…

  10. [Self-education in the system of postgraduate training of physicians].

    PubMed

    Chizhikov, V A

    1990-01-01

    A brief analysis is made of the importance of physician self-training in the process of upgrading their skills and maintaining the professional competence at the proper level. Emphasis is being placed on the necessity of creating corresponding organizational structures for the control of effectiveness and providing assistance to physicians engaged in self-training.

  11. New regulations regarding Postgraduate Medical Training in Spain: perception of the tutor's role in the Murcia Region

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recently introduced regulatory changes have expanded the Tutor role to include their primary responsibility for Postgraduate Medical Training (PMT). However, accreditation and recognition of that role has been devolved to the autonomic regions. The opinions of the RT may be relevant to future decisions; Methods A comprehensive questionnaire, including demographic characteristics, academic and research achievement and personal views about their role, was sent to 201 RTs in the Murcia Region of Spain. The responses are described using median and interquartile ranges (IQR); Results There were 147 replies (response rate 73%), 69% male, mean age 45 ± 7 yrs. RTs perception of the residents' initial knowledge and commitment throughout the program was 5 (IQR 4-6) and 7 (IQR 5-8), respectively. As regards their impact on the PMT program, RTs considered that their own contribution was similar to that of senior residents. RTs perception of how their role was recognised was 5 (IQR 3-6). Only 16% did not encounter difficulties in accessing specific RT training programs. Regarding the RTs view of their various duties, supervision of patient care was accorded the greatest importance (64%) while the satisfactory completion of the PMT program and supervision of day-to-day activities were also considered important (61% and 59% respectively). The main RT requirements were: a greater professional recognition (97%), protected time (95%), specific RT training programs (95%) and financial recognition (86%); Conclusions This comprehensive study, reflecting the feelings of our RTs, provides a useful insight into the reality of their work and the findings ought to be taken into consideration in the imminent definitive regulatory document on PMT. PMID:20540814

  12. Development of an Orthopaedic Surgical Skills Curriculum for Post-Graduate Year one Resident Learners – The University of Iowa Experience

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Matthew D; Westerlind, Brian; Anderson, Donald D; Marsh, J. Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Orthopaedic surgery requires a high degree of technical skill. Current orthopaedic surgical education is based largely on an apprenticeship model. In addition to mounting evidence of the value of simulation, recent mandated requirements will undoubtedly lead to increased emphasis on surgical skills and simulation training. The University of Iowa’s Department of Orthopaedic Surgery has created and implemented a month long surgical skills training program for PGY-1 residents. The goal of the program was to improve the basic surgical skills of six PGY-1 orthopaedic surgery residents and prepare them for future operative experiences. A modular curriculum was created by members of the orthopaedic faculty which encompassed basic skills felt to be important to the general orthopaedic surgeon. For each module multiple assessment techniques were utilized to provide constructive critique, identify errors and enhance the performance intensity of trainees. Based on feedback and debriefing surveys, the resident trainees were unanimously satisfied with the content of the surgical skills month, and felt it should remain a permanent part of our educational program. This manuscript will describe the development of the curriculum, the execution of the actual skills sessions and analysis of feedback from the residents and share valuable lessons learned and insights for future skills programs. PMID:24027480

  13. Standardization of surgical procedures for identifying best practices and training.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, T; Yu, D; Frischknecht, A; Minter, R; Andreatta, P; Kasten, S

    2012-01-01

    A taxonomy was developed a) to describe surgical procedures with sufficient detail to review differences among surgeons, b) to examine the relationship between individual technique and outcomes, c) to enable surgeons to standardize technique around best practices and d) to identify clinical-evidence-based key points of teaching and assessment for surgical training. Sixty-seven microvascular anastomoses were recorded through video cameras mounted in the dissecting microscope. A hierarchical task analysis was used to decompose the observed procedures into successive levels of detail. The results were then presented to individual and small groups of microvascular surgeons to help define steps and step attributes necessary to describe a procedure so that other surgeons can perform the procedure exactly the same way. Coincidently, it was found that because the surgeons' attention is confined to a very small field of view in which they can see only the veins and arteries and the ends of their instruments, they often have difficulty communicating with others in the operating room. Analyses of selected cases using the proposed taxonomy shows how subtle details are revealed that may affect outcomes, and indicate specific training needs. By comparing different methods and outcomes, it should be possible to identify best practices for given conditions. PMID:22317440

  14. Less than full-time training in surgery: a cross-sectional study evaluating the accessibility and experiences of flexible training in the surgical trainee workforce

    PubMed Central

    Harries, Rhiannon L; Gokani, Vimal J; Smitham, Peter; Fitzgerald, J Edward F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Generational changes in lifestyle expectations, working environments and the feminisation of the medical workforce have seen an increased demand in postgraduate less than full-time training (LTFT). Despite this, concerns remain regarding access to, and information about, flexible training for surgeons. This study aimed to assess the opinions and experiences of LTFT for surgical trainees. Design Prospective, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. Setting/participants An electronic, self-administered questionnaire was distributed in the UK and Republic of Ireland through mailing lists via the Association of Surgeons in Training and British Orthopedic Trainee Association. Results Overall, 876 completed responses were received, representing all grades of trainee across all 10 surgical specialties. Median age was 33 years and 63.4% were female. Of those who had undertaken LTFT, 92.5% (148/160) were female. Most worked 60% of a full-time post (86/160, 53.8%). The reasons for either choosing or considering LTFT were childrearing (82.7%), caring for a dependent (12.6%) and sporting commitments (6.8%). Males were less likely to list childrearing than females (64.9% vs 87.6%; p<0.0001). Only 38% (60/160) found the application process easy and 53.8% (86/160) experienced undermining behaviour from workplace staff as a result of undertaking LTFT. Of all respondents, an additional 53.7% (385/716) would consider LTFT in future; 27.5% of which were male (106/385). Overall, only 9.9% of all respondents rated current LTFT information as adequate. Common sources of information were other trainees (47.3%), educational supervisors (20.6%) and local postgraduate school website (19.5%). Conclusions Over half of surgical trainees working LTFT have experienced undermining behaviour as a result of their LTFT. Despite a reported need for LTFT in both genders, this remains difficult to organise, access to useful information is poor and negative attitudes among staff remain

  15. Portfolio careers for medical graduates: implications for postgraduate training and workforce planning.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Harris A; Mitchell, Rob D; Milford, Will; Vaswani, Nitin; Moylan, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Portfolio careers in medicine can be defined as significant involvement in one or more portfolios of activity beyond a practitioner's primary clinical role, either concurrently or in sequence. Portfolio occupations may include medical education, research, administration, legal medicine, the arts, engineering, business and consulting, leadership, politics and entrepreneurship. Despite significant interest among junior doctors, portfolios are poorly integrated with prevocational and speciality training programs in Australia. The present paper seeks to explore this issue. More formal systems for portfolio careers in Australia have the potential to increase job satisfaction, flexibility and retention, as well as diversify trainee skill sets. Although there are numerous benefits from involvement in portfolio careers, there are also risks to the trainee, employing health service and workforce modelling. Formalising pathways to portfolio careers relies on assessing stakeholder interest, enhancing flexibility in training programs, developing support programs, mentorship and coaching schemes and improving support structures in health services.

  16. Resident Exposure to Peripheral Nerve Surgical Procedures During Residency Training.

    PubMed

    Gil, Joseph A; Daniels, Alan H; Akelman, Edward

    2016-05-01

    Background Variability in case exposures has been identified for orthopaedic surgery residents. It is not known if this variability exists for peripheral nerve procedures. Objective The objective of this study was to assess ACGME case log data for graduating orthopaedic surgery, plastic surgery, general surgery, and neurological surgery residents for peripheral nerve surgical procedures and to evaluate intraspecialty and interspecialty variability in case volume. Methods Surgical case logs from 2009 to 2014 for the 4 specialties were compared for peripheral nerve surgery experience. Peripheral nerve case volume between specialties was performed utilizing a paired t test, 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and linear regression was calculated to assess the trends. Results The average number of peripheral nerve procedures performed per graduating resident was 54.2 for orthopaedic surgery residents, 62.8 for independent plastic surgery residents, 84.6 for integrated plastic surgery residents, 22.4 for neurological surgery residents, and 0.4 for surgery residents. Intraspecialty comparison of the 10th and 90th percentile peripheral nerve case volume in 2012 revealed remarkable variability in training. There was a 3.9-fold difference within orthopaedic surgery, a 5.0-fold difference within independent plastic surgery residents, an 8.8-fold difference for residents from integrated plastic surgery programs, and a 7.0-fold difference within the neurological surgery group. Conclusions There is interspecialty and intraspecialty variability in peripheral nerve surgery volume for orthopaedic, plastic, neurological, and general surgery residents. Caseload is not the sole determinant of training quality as mentorship, didactics, case breadth, and complexity play an important role in training. PMID:27168883

  17. Implementing clinical ethics in German hospitals: content, didactics and evaluation of a nationwide postgraduate training programme.

    PubMed

    Dörries, Andrea; Simon, Alfred; Neitzke, Gerald; Vollmann, Jochen

    2010-12-01

    The Hannover qualifying programme 'ethics consultation in hospitals', conducted by a four-institution cooperation partnership, is an interdisciplinary, scientifically based programme for healthcare professionals interested in ethics consultation services and is widely acknowledged by hospital managements and healthcare professionals. It is unique concerning its content, scope and teaching format. With its basic and advanced modules it has provided training and education for 367 healthcare professionals with 570 participations since 2003 (until February 2010). One characteristic feature is its attractiveness for health professionals from different backgrounds. Internationally, the Hannover programme is one of the few schedules with both academics and non-academics as target groups and a high participation rate of physicians. The concept of the Hannover programme is in great demand, and its schedule is continuously optimised through evaluation. The goals of enabling healthcare professionals from different professional backgrounds to define and reflect ethical problems, to facilitate and support the process of decision-making and to work out structures for their own institutions seem to have been achieved. However, in order to obtain effective and sustainable results, participation in the programme should be supplemented regularly by in-house training sessions or individual expert consultations. Future challenges include new thematic courses and providing a network for former participants, especially when they come from non-academic hospitals. The network is a reasonable platform to discuss participants' experiences, successes and pitfalls. A further task will be research on how the programme's concept can support the sustainability of ethics structures in the various institutions.

  18. Twelve tips on how to set up postgraduate training via remote clinical supervision.

    PubMed

    Wearne, Susan; Dornan, Tim; Teunissen, Pim W; Skinner, Timothy

    2013-11-01

    Doctors-in-training can now be supervised remotely by specialist clinicians using information and communication technology. This provides an intermediate stage of professional development between on-site supervision and independent medical practice. Remote supervision could increase training capacity, particularly in underserved areas and ensure doctors are willing and able to practice where they are needed once qualified. Remotely supervised doctors learn via virtual autonomy in clinical decision making and working at the limits of their abilities. It suits experienced registrars with resilience, insight into their strengths and weaknesses, capacity to self-monitor and correct, and willingness to seek help. These doctors benefit from remote supervisors who facilitate their learning, monitor their well-being, and support them holistically. Educational organisations need to oversee remote placements and match the right registrar, to the right placement with the right supervisor. We outline in our twelve tips how to set up remote supervision in order to maximise the educational benefits and minimise the risks.

  19. Laparoscopic Colorectal Training Gap in Colorectal and Surgical Residents

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Mark; Williamson, Paul; Ferrara, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic colorectal surgery is an established safe procedure with demonstrated benefits. Proficiency in this specialty correlates with the volume of cases. We examined training in this surgical field for both general surgery and colon and rectal surgery residents to determine whether the number of cases needed for proficiency is being realized. Methods: We examined the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and American Board of Colorectal Surgeons (ABCRS) operative statistics for graduating general surgery and colon and rectal surgery residents. Results: Although the number of advanced laparoscopy cases had increased for general surgery residents, there was still a significant gap in case volume between the average number of laparoscopic colorectal operations performed by graduating general surgery residents (21.6) and those performed by graduating colon and rectal surgery residents (81.9) in 2014. Conclusion: There is a gap between general surgery and colon and rectal surgery residency training for laparoscopic colorectal surgery. General surgery residents are not meeting the volume of cases necessary for proficiency in colorectal surgery. This deficit represents a structural difference in training. PMID:27493468

  20. Accelerating surgical training and reducing the burden of surgical disease in Haiti before and after the earthquake.

    PubMed

    DeGennaro, Vincent A; DeGennaro, Vincent A; Kochhar, Amit; Nathan, Nirmal; Low, Christopher; Avashia, Yash J; Thaller, Seth R

    2012-11-01

    In general, university-based global health initiatives have tended to focus on expanding access to primary care. In the past, surgical programs may have been characterized by sporadic participation with little educational focus. However, there have been some notable exceptions with plastic surgery volunteer missions. We offer another model of regularly scheduled surgical trips to rural Haiti in plastic and general surgery. The goal of these trips is to reduce the burden of surgical disease and ultimately repair every cleft lip/palate in Haiti. Another principal objective is to accelerate the training of American residents through increased case load and personal interaction with attending surgeons in a concentrated period. Diversity of the case load and the overall number of surgeries performed by residents in a typical surgical trip outpaces the experiences available during a typical week in an American hospital setting. More importantly, we continue to provide ongoing training to Haitian nurses and surgeons in surgical techniques and postoperative care. Our postoperative complication rate has been relatively low. Our follow-up rates have been lower than 70% despite intensive attempts to maintain continued communication with our patients. Through our experiences in surgical care in rural Haiti, we were able to quickly ramp up our trauma and orthopedic surgical care immediately after the earthquake. Project Medishare and the University of Miami continue to operate a trauma and acute care hospital in Port au Prince. The hospital provides ongoing orthopedic, trauma, and neurosurgical expertise from the rotating teams of American surgeons and training of Haitian surgeons in modern surgical techniques. We believe that surgical residencies in the United States can improve their training programs and reduce global surgical burden of disease through consistent trips and working closely with country partners.

  1. Implementing clinical ethics in German hospitals: content, didactics and evaluation of a nationwide postgraduate training programme.

    PubMed

    Dörries, Andrea; Simon, Alfred; Neitzke, Gerald; Vollmann, Jochen

    2010-12-01

    The Hannover qualifying programme 'ethics consultation in hospitals', conducted by a four-institution cooperation partnership, is an interdisciplinary, scientifically based programme for healthcare professionals interested in ethics consultation services and is widely acknowledged by hospital managements and healthcare professionals. It is unique concerning its content, scope and teaching format. With its basic and advanced modules it has provided training and education for 367 healthcare professionals with 570 participations since 2003 (until February 2010). One characteristic feature is its attractiveness for health professionals from different backgrounds. Internationally, the Hannover programme is one of the few schedules with both academics and non-academics as target groups and a high participation rate of physicians. The concept of the Hannover programme is in great demand, and its schedule is continuously optimised through evaluation. The goals of enabling healthcare professionals from different professional backgrounds to define and reflect ethical problems, to facilitate and support the process of decision-making and to work out structures for their own institutions seem to have been achieved. However, in order to obtain effective and sustainable results, participation in the programme should be supplemented regularly by in-house training sessions or individual expert consultations. Future challenges include new thematic courses and providing a network for former participants, especially when they come from non-academic hospitals. The network is a reasonable platform to discuss participants' experiences, successes and pitfalls. A further task will be research on how the programme's concept can support the sustainability of ethics structures in the various institutions. PMID:21112935

  2. The simulated operating theatre: comprehensive training for surgical teams.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, R; Undre, S; Moorthy, K; Vincent, C; Darzi, A

    2004-10-01

    Surgical excellence is traditionally defined in terms of technical performance, with little regard for the importance of interpersonal communication and leadership skills. Studies in the aviation industry have stressed the role of human factors in causing error and, in an attempt to reduce the occurrence of adverse events, led to the organisation of simulation based training scenarios. Similar strategies have recently been employed for the surgical team with the development of a simulated operating theatre project. This enables technical and non-technical performance of the surgeon and circulating staff to be assessed by experts situated in an adjacent control room, and provides an opportunity for constructive feedback. The scenarios have good face validity and junior surgeons can benefit from the process of learning new technical skills in a realistic environment. The effect of external influences such as distractions, new technology, or a crisis scenario can also be defined, with the ultimate aim of reducing the number of adverse events arising in the real operating room. PMID:15465952

  3. Vascular Surgical Emergencies: How will Future Surgeons be Trained?

    PubMed Central

    Richards, T; Pittathankal, AA; Kahn, PY; Magee, TR; Lewis, MH; Galland, RB

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We wished to assess whether pattern and impact of emergency vascular surgical referrals has altered since a previous study in 1990. Following introduction of shift working patterns, we wished to assess how these changes may affect vascular training and vascular on-call cover. PATIENTS AND METHODS Prospective survey of emergency vascular referrals at two district general hospitals (DGH-R and DGH-L) in 2003. DGH-R received only regional referrals whereas DGH-L also received ‘next day’ referrals from a smaller hospital. Results were compared between centres and with a previous study undertaken at DGH-R in 1990. RESULTS From 1990 to 2003 emergency vascular referrals at DGH-R increased by 51% (53 to 80). The number seen at DGH-R and DGH-L were similar in 2003. There were significantly more out-of-hours referrals in DGH-R than DGH-L (59% versus 35%; P = 0.0123). Referrals were more likely to be seen initially by the vascular team at DGH-L than DGH-R (80% versus 47%, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Vascular emergency referrals have increased. A trainee was likely to see more emergency referrals at DGH-L than DGH-R. This may impact on future training. PMID:17132313

  4. The Implementation of Modern Information and Documentation Systems and Services with Special Reference to Information Needs in Eastern Africa. Advanced Postgraduate Training Course (3rd, Great Britain and the Federal Republic of Germany, June 22-August 1, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German Foundation for International Development, Bonn (West Germany).

    The 7-week Advanced Postgraduate Training Course for Information Specialists from Eastern and Southern Africa described in this document was part of a long term training program designed to provide senior librarians, documentalists, and archivists with information on recent developments in methodology and technology in their special field of work.…

  5. Supply versus demand: a review of application trends to Canadian surgical training programs

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Ryan E.; Wanzel, Kyle R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Despite increases in medical school enrolment, applications to surgical residency programs in Canada have been in decline over the past decade, with an increasing number of unmatched surgical residency positions. We examined the current status of surgical residency in Canada and analyzed application trends (2002–2013) for surgical training programs across Canada. Our findings suggest that most undergraduate medical schools across Canada are having difficulty fostering interest in surgical careers. We propose that a lack of adequate early exposure to the surgical specialties during undergraduate training is a critical factor. Moving forward, we must examine how the best-performing institutions and surgical programs have maintained interest in pursuing surgical careers and adapt our recruitment methods to both maintain and grow future interest. As Mary Engelbreit said, “If you don’t like something, change it; if you can’t change it, change the way you think about it.” PMID:25598177

  6. [Role of a credit system in the development of continuous postgraduate training of physicians within the framework of the innovation educational space formation program of the I. M. Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy].

    PubMed

    Vyzhigina, M A; Buniatian, A A; Sizova, Zh M; Protopopova, T A; Zaugol'nikova, T V; Zhukova, S G

    2007-01-01

    Russia 's joining the European higher educational space and an increase in the international competitive capacity of the European higher educational system envisage first of all that the European credit test system (ECTS) should be accepted and introduced into all national higher educational schools, which ensures both credit test and cumulative functions and guarantees the academic recognition of the education abroad. The issues of modernization of approaches to reforming the continuous postgraduate training of physicians, by using the credit test system, as well as new forms and technologies for an educational process in accordance with the European educational system principles are under discussion. The novelty of the proposed development is that the credit test system is first applied to the continuous postgraduate training of physicians within the framework of the Russian higher medical educational system. The Russian continuous postgraduate medical training pattern that is common in form and content is proposed in accordance with the Bologna declaration principles; approaches have been developed to incorporating the European educational traditions into the Russian national continuous postgraduate medical training system, by employing the credit test system; criteria have been elaborated for adapting the European credit test system at all stages of reformation of the Russian educational system; guidelines have been worked out for the conversion of academic load of various forms of the continuous postgraduate training of physicians to the credit test system; ways of introducing the new forms and technologies into an educational process have been proposed in accordance with the European education system principles, by taking into account the credit test system. The introduction of new technologies of an educational process, by using the credit test system will contribute to personality formation in a physician who has a high competence, a capacity for valuable

  7. Principles of teaching in a structured training programme, the rotations, and the surgical training plan.

    PubMed

    Steiger, H J

    2004-01-01

    The present paper is divided into two parts. In the first part it summarises the essentials of transfer of knowledge and personality from trainer to trainee. The training capacity of a programme should be identified first since the number of residents in training has implications on the structure of the programme. The capacity is limited by the number of surgical "resident cases", which should at least amount to 70 per year and resident. For the future, more emphasis should be laid on the acquirement of methods of self-teaching and continuous self-education, in order to provide the trainees with the ability to cope with changes during their later career more easily. In part two the organisation of rotations as well as the structured surgical training plan are discussed. Teaching can be organised either as a gradual exposure to more and more complex procedures or as a sequence of speciality rotations. Structured teaching of theoretical contents should accompany practical teaching and in academic programmes a scientific rotation should be integrated. The ongoing subspecialisation is currently exceeding the limits of complete coverage during a six-year-programme.

  8. Profiling Exiting Postgraduate Students' Performance and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertyn, R. M.; Kapp, C. A.; Bitzer, E. M.

    2008-01-01

    Transitions in an era of globalisation and universal change impact on postgraduate training of students at higher education institutions. This study aimed to determine completion rates for postgraduate programmes in Education at one higher education institution, to identify the students' needs and to investigate their experiences of postgraduate…

  9. Recent Advances in Forward Surgical Team Training at the U.S. Army Trauma Training Department.

    PubMed

    Allen, Casey J; Straker, Richard J; Murray, Clark R; Hannay, William M; Hanna, Mena M; Meizoso, Jonathan P; Manning, Ronald J; Schulman, Carl I; Seery, Jason M; Proctor, Kenneth G

    2016-06-01

    U.S. Army Forward Surgical Teams (FSTs) are elite, multidisciplinary units that are highly mobile, and rapidly deployable. The mission of the FST is to provide resuscitative and damage control surgery for stabilization of life-threatening injuries in austere environments. The Army Trauma Training Center began in 2001 at the University of Miami Ryder Trauma Center under the direction of COL T. E. Knuth, MC USA (Ret.), as a multimodality combination of lectures, laboratory exercises, and clinical experiences that provided the only predeployment mass casualty and clinical trauma training center for all FSTs. Each of the subsequent five directors has restructured the training based on dynamic feedback from trainees, current military needs, and on the rapid advances in combat casualty care. We have highlighted these evolutionary changes at the Army Trauma Training Center in previous reviews. Under the current director, LTC J. M. Seery, MC USA, there are new team-building exercises, mobile learning modules and simulators, and other alternative methods in the mass casualty exercise. This report summarizes the latest updates to the state of the art training since the last review.

  10. Recent Advances in Forward Surgical Team Training at the U.S. Army Trauma Training Department.

    PubMed

    Allen, Casey J; Straker, Richard J; Murray, Clark R; Hannay, William M; Hanna, Mena M; Meizoso, Jonathan P; Manning, Ronald J; Schulman, Carl I; Seery, Jason M; Proctor, Kenneth G

    2016-06-01

    U.S. Army Forward Surgical Teams (FSTs) are elite, multidisciplinary units that are highly mobile, and rapidly deployable. The mission of the FST is to provide resuscitative and damage control surgery for stabilization of life-threatening injuries in austere environments. The Army Trauma Training Center began in 2001 at the University of Miami Ryder Trauma Center under the direction of COL T. E. Knuth, MC USA (Ret.), as a multimodality combination of lectures, laboratory exercises, and clinical experiences that provided the only predeployment mass casualty and clinical trauma training center for all FSTs. Each of the subsequent five directors has restructured the training based on dynamic feedback from trainees, current military needs, and on the rapid advances in combat casualty care. We have highlighted these evolutionary changes at the Army Trauma Training Center in previous reviews. Under the current director, LTC J. M. Seery, MC USA, there are new team-building exercises, mobile learning modules and simulators, and other alternative methods in the mass casualty exercise. This report summarizes the latest updates to the state of the art training since the last review. PMID:27244065

  11. Thoracic surgical training in Europe: what has changed recently?

    PubMed Central

    Lerut, Antoon E. M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Training in thoracic surgery (TS) traditionally varies amongst countries in Europe. The theoretical content of the training, the length of training, the amount of self-performed procedures to be done and the definition of training units all differ in European countries. However, in the past two decades, several initiatives were taken to harmonize TS training in Europe. The purpose of this paper is to highlight these initiatives and their impact on today’s TS training in Europe. PMID:27047948

  12. Initial experiences with RoSS surgical simulator in residency training: a validity and model analysis.

    PubMed

    Colaco, Marc; Balica, Adrian; Su, Daniel; Barone, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    Robotic surgery is an important new tool in many surgical procedures, and training curriculums must adapt to this new technology. Robotic surgical simulators have been developed as a means of providing training without the inherent risks of actual surgery. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the construct validity of the RoSS surgical simulator by correlating simulator performance with amount of time in training and to create a performance model in which time in training is a parameter. A total of eight residents with varying amounts of training were given access to the RoSS surgical simulator and were evaluated on performance of a simulated surgical task. This data was then used to create Akaike information criteria to compare goodness of fit. Participants were also given a questionnaire as to their experience with the simulator and their feelings about the use of simulators in training. Training time and performance within the simulator were shown to have a linear relationship. Correlations were high, with R (2) values of 0.95, 0.94, and 0.86 for each of the three performance metrics. Likelihood ratios were similarly high at 4.25 × 10(9), 10,950, and 362. Participant opinion showed that residents feel that robotic training is an important part of their education and that the simulator is an effective supplement. The RoSS surgical simulator accurately corresponds to training level and is a valid evaluation tool of training experience. These findings are encouraging for the use of robotic simulators in surgical training. PMID:27000895

  13. [EXTERNAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR THE LABORATORY IDENTIFICATION OF THE PATHOGENS OF PARASITIC DISEASES AS AN ELEMENT FOR IMPROVING THE POSTGRADUATE TRAINING OF SPECIALISTS].

    PubMed

    Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Yu; Malakhov, V N; Serdyuk, A P; Imamkuliev, K D; Gorbunova, Yu P; Pautova, E A; Prodeus, T V; Semenova, T A; Fedyanina, L V

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of the Federal External Quality Assessment (EQA) System and in the context of postgraduate training improvement for health workers in 2010-2014, specialists from the laboratories of the therapeutic-prophylactic organizations and institutions of the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare were examined for their professional competence in microscopically identifying the pathogens of parasitic diseases in feces. The virtual remote educational computer technology tools that included different combinations of 16 helminthic species, 5 intestinal protozoan species, and a number of artefacts, were used. The specialists from 984 laboratories of multidisciplinary therapeutic-prophylactic organizations and hygiene and epidemiology centers in all Federal Districts of the Russian Federation were covered. A total of 8245 replies were analyzed. The detection rate for helminths was 64.0%, including those by a taxonomic group (nematodes, 65.0%; cestodes, 72.0%; trematodes, 55.1%). There was a dynamic decrease in the above indicators. There were low detection rates for trematodes parasitizing the small intestine (Metagonimus, 10.2%; Nanophyetus, 26.2%) and hepatobiliary organs (Fasciola, 59.6%; Clonorchis, 34.9%). The similar trend was seen in the detection rates for the pathogens of geohelminthisms (ascariasis, trichocephaliasis, etc.) and contagious helminthisms (enterobiasis, hymenolepiasis). The level of competence in detecting and identifying intestinal protozoa was much lower than the similar rates for helminthism pathogens. EQA for the laboratory diagnosis of the pathogens of parasitic diseases, by using the virtual tools is a leading element of the postgraduate training system for laboratory specialists. The results of EQA for the laboratory diagnosis of the pathogens of parasitic diseases are a basic material for the development, and improvement of training modernization programs, by applying a modular

  14. [EXTERNAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR THE LABORATORY IDENTIFICATION OF THE PATHOGENS OF PARASITIC DISEASES AS AN ELEMENT FOR IMPROVING THE POSTGRADUATE TRAINING OF SPECIALISTS].

    PubMed

    Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Yu; Malakhov, V N; Serdyuk, A P; Imamkuliev, K D; Gorbunova, Yu P; Pautova, E A; Prodeus, T V; Semenova, T A; Fedyanina, L V

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of the Federal External Quality Assessment (EQA) System and in the context of postgraduate training improvement for health workers in 2010-2014, specialists from the laboratories of the therapeutic-prophylactic organizations and institutions of the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare were examined for their professional competence in microscopically identifying the pathogens of parasitic diseases in feces. The virtual remote educational computer technology tools that included different combinations of 16 helminthic species, 5 intestinal protozoan species, and a number of artefacts, were used. The specialists from 984 laboratories of multidisciplinary therapeutic-prophylactic organizations and hygiene and epidemiology centers in all Federal Districts of the Russian Federation were covered. A total of 8245 replies were analyzed. The detection rate for helminths was 64.0%, including those by a taxonomic group (nematodes, 65.0%; cestodes, 72.0%; trematodes, 55.1%). There was a dynamic decrease in the above indicators. There were low detection rates for trematodes parasitizing the small intestine (Metagonimus, 10.2%; Nanophyetus, 26.2%) and hepatobiliary organs (Fasciola, 59.6%; Clonorchis, 34.9%). The similar trend was seen in the detection rates for the pathogens of geohelminthisms (ascariasis, trichocephaliasis, etc.) and contagious helminthisms (enterobiasis, hymenolepiasis). The level of competence in detecting and identifying intestinal protozoa was much lower than the similar rates for helminthism pathogens. EQA for the laboratory diagnosis of the pathogens of parasitic diseases, by using the virtual tools is a leading element of the postgraduate training system for laboratory specialists. The results of EQA for the laboratory diagnosis of the pathogens of parasitic diseases are a basic material for the development, and improvement of training modernization programs, by applying a modular

  15. [Postgraduates' training as laboratory physicians/clinical pathologists in Japan--board certification of JSLM as a mandatory requirement for chairpersons of laboratory medicine].

    PubMed

    Kumasaka, Kazunari

    2002-04-01

    The educational committee of the Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine(JSLM) proposed a revised laboratory medicine residency curriculum in 1999 and again in 2001. The committee believes that present undergraduate clinical training is insufficient and that Japanese medical graduates need clinical training for two years after graduation. This two years training should be a precondition for further postgraduate training in laboratory medicine and should include fundamental clinical skills(communication skills, physical examination and common laboratory procedures such as Gram's stain, Wright-Giemsa stain and urinalysis). After the two years training, the minimal training period of laboratory medicine should be three years, and should include: 1) Principles, instrumentation and techniques of each discipline including clinical chemistry, clinical hematology, clinical microbiology, clinical immunology, blood banking and other specific areas. 2) The use of laboratory information in a medical setting. 3) Interaction of the laboratory physician with laboratory staff, physicians and patients. With good on-the-job training and 24 hours on-call duties, laboratory physicians are expected to perform their tasks, including laboratory management, effectively. They should have appropriate educational background and should be well motivated. The background and duties of the laboratory physicians often reflect the institutional needs and personal philosophy of the chairperson of their department. At the moment, few senior physicians in Japan have qualifications in laboratory medicine and are unable, therefore, to provide the necessary guidance to help the laboratory physicians in their work. I therefore believe that the board certification of JSLM should be regarded as mandatory for chairpersons of laboratory medicine. Our on-call service system can enhance the training in laboratory medicine, and improve not only laboratory quality assurance but patients' care as well.

  16. [Postgraduates' training as laboratory physicians/clinical pathologists in Japan--board certification of JSLM as a mandatory requirement for chairpersons of laboratory medicine].

    PubMed

    Kumasaka, Kazunari

    2002-04-01

    The educational committee of the Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine(JSLM) proposed a revised laboratory medicine residency curriculum in 1999 and again in 2001. The committee believes that present undergraduate clinical training is insufficient and that Japanese medical graduates need clinical training for two years after graduation. This two years training should be a precondition for further postgraduate training in laboratory medicine and should include fundamental clinical skills(communication skills, physical examination and common laboratory procedures such as Gram's stain, Wright-Giemsa stain and urinalysis). After the two years training, the minimal training period of laboratory medicine should be three years, and should include: 1) Principles, instrumentation and techniques of each discipline including clinical chemistry, clinical hematology, clinical microbiology, clinical immunology, blood banking and other specific areas. 2) The use of laboratory information in a medical setting. 3) Interaction of the laboratory physician with laboratory staff, physicians and patients. With good on-the-job training and 24 hours on-call duties, laboratory physicians are expected to perform their tasks, including laboratory management, effectively. They should have appropriate educational background and should be well motivated. The background and duties of the laboratory physicians often reflect the institutional needs and personal philosophy of the chairperson of their department. At the moment, few senior physicians in Japan have qualifications in laboratory medicine and are unable, therefore, to provide the necessary guidance to help the laboratory physicians in their work. I therefore believe that the board certification of JSLM should be regarded as mandatory for chairpersons of laboratory medicine. Our on-call service system can enhance the training in laboratory medicine, and improve not only laboratory quality assurance but patients' care as well. PMID

  17. A Mode of Government-Enterprise-University-Institute-Employer Cooperation for Innovative Postgraduate Cultivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Yaqing; Yang, Huiyue; Shu, Li; Tu, Wangshu; Chen, Baoxin

    2015-01-01

    Innovative talent training is an important task of postgraduate education. From the survey of innovative postgraduate training in China, we conclude that there is still much room for improvement in the innovative postgraduate cultivation. The survey shows that insufficient professional practice, simplex training mode and a mismatch between…

  18. Effects of Hand Dominance and Postural Selection on Muscle Activities of Virtual Laparoscopic Surgical Training Tasks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Kai; Boman, Ashley; White, Anthony; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how the ergonomic factors, such as hand dominance and postural selection, influenced on surgical performance regarding the changes of muscle activity. Twenty novices performed two virtual laparoscopic surgical training tasks and five target muscle activities were measured. Compared with using dominant hand, surgical skills performance using non-dominant hand increased muscle activities. Muscle fatigue is more likely induced in standing position than sitting position during practice. This study suggests an emerging need to focus on hand dominance during laparoscopic surgical training to address the impact of hand discrepancy on bimanual coordination. It is also important to pay attention on postural selection during training to reduce muscle fatigue, which possibly leads to injuries. PMID:27046567

  19. Residency Surgical Training at an Independent Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeremiah; Sidwell, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    Independent academic medical centers have been training surgeons for more than a century; this environment is distinct from university or military programs. There are several advantages to training at a community program, including a supportive learning environment with camaraderie between residents and faculty, early and broad operative experience, and improved graduate confidence. Community programs also face challenges, such as resident recruitment and faculty engagement. With the workforce needs for general surgeons, independent training programs will continue to play an integral role.

  20. Some Observations on Veterinary Undergraduate Training in Surgical Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittick, William G.

    1978-01-01

    The undergraduate surgery course of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, is described with focus on its experential method of teaching surgical techniques. Also discussed are the benefits of veterinary school cooperation with a large city Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA). (JMD)

  1. Application of See One, Do One, Teach One Concept in Surgical Training

    PubMed Central

    Kotsis, Sandra V.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The traditional method of teaching in Surgery is known as “See One, Do One, Teach One.” However, many have argued that this method is no longer applicable mainly because of concerns for patient safety. The purpose of this paper is to show that the basis of the traditional teaching method is still valid in surgical training if it is combined with various adult learning principles. Methods We reviewed literature regarding the history of the formation of the surgical residency program, adult learning principles, mentoring, and medical simulation. We provide examples for how these learning techniques can be incorporated into a surgical resident training program. Results The surgical residency program created by Dr. William Halsted remained virtually unchanged until recently with reductions in resident work hours and changes to a competency-based training system. Such changes have reduced the teaching time between attending physicians and residents. Learning principles such as “Experience, Observation, Thinking and Action” as well as deliberate practice can be used to train residents. Mentoring is also an important aspect in teaching surgical technique. We review the different types of simulators: standardized patients, virtual reality applications, and high-fidelity mannequin simulators and the advantages and disadvantages of using them. Conclusions The traditional teaching method of “see one, do one, teach one” in surgical residency programs is simple but still applicable. It needs to evolve with current changes in the medical system to adequately train surgical residents and also provide patients with safe, evidence-based care. PMID:23629100

  2. Postgraduate and research programmes in Medicine and Public Health in Rwanda: an exciting experience about training of human resources for health in a limited resources country.

    PubMed

    Kakoma, Jean Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    The area of Human Resources for Health (HRH) is the most critical challenge for the achievement of health related development goals in countries with limited resources. This is even exacerbated in a post conflict environment like Rwanda. The aim of this commentary is to report and share the genesis and outcomes of an exciting experience about training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health as well as setting - up of a research culture for the last nine years (2006 - 2014) in Rwanda. Many initiatives have been taken and concerned among others training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health. From 2006 to 2014, achievements were as follows: launching and organization of 8 Master of Medicine programmes (anesthesiology, family and community medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics & gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, pediatrics, psychiatry and surgery) and 4 Master programmes in public health (MPH, MSc Epidemiology, MSc Field Epidemiology & Laboratory Management, and Master in Hospital and Healthcare Administration); training to completion of more than 120 specialists in medicine, and 200 MPH, MSc Epidemiology, and MSc Field Epidemiology holders; revival of the Rwanda Medical Journal; organization of graduate research training (MPhil and PhD); 3 Master programmes in the pipeline (Global Health, Health Financing, and Supply Chain Management); partnerships with research institutions of great renown, which contributed to the reinforcement of the institutional research capacity and visibility towards excellence in leadership, accountability, and self sustainability. Even though there is still more to be achieved, the Rwanda experience about postgraduate and research programmes is inspiring through close interactions between main stakeholders. This is a must and could allow Rwanda to become one of the rare examples to other more well-to-do Sub - Saharan countries, should Rwanda carry on doing that. PMID:27303587

  3. Postgraduate and research programmes in Medicine and Public Health in Rwanda: an exciting experience about training of human resources for health in a limited resources country

    PubMed Central

    Kakoma, Jean Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    The area of Human Resources for Health (HRH) is the most critical challenge for the achievement of health related development goals in countries with limited resources. This is even exacerbated in a post conflict environment like Rwanda. The aim of this commentary is to report and share the genesis and outcomes of an exciting experience about training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health as well as setting - up of a research culture for the last nine years (2006 - 2014) in Rwanda. Many initiatives have been taken and concerned among others training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health. From 2006 to 2014, achievements were as follows: launching and organization of 8 Master of Medicine programmes (anesthesiology, family and community medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics & gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, pediatrics, psychiatry and surgery) and 4 Master programmes in public health (MPH, MSc Epidemiology, MSc Field Epidemiology & Laboratory Management, and Master in Hospital and Healthcare Administration); training to completion of more than 120 specialists in medicine, and 200 MPH, MSc Epidemiology, and MSc Field Epidemiology holders; revival of the Rwanda Medical Journal; organization of graduate research training (MPhil and PhD); 3 Master programmes in the pipeline (Global Health, Health Financing, and Supply Chain Management); partnerships with research institutions of great renown, which contributed to the reinforcement of the institutional research capacity and visibility towards excellence in leadership, accountability, and self sustainability. Even though there is still more to be achieved, the Rwanda experience about postgraduate and research programmes is inspiring through close interactions between main stakeholders. This is a must and could allow Rwanda to become one of the rare examples to other more well-to-do Sub - Saharan countries, should Rwanda carry on doing that. PMID:27303587

  4. Postgraduate and research programmes in Medicine and Public Health in Rwanda: an exciting experience about training of human resources for health in a limited resources country.

    PubMed

    Kakoma, Jean Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    The area of Human Resources for Health (HRH) is the most critical challenge for the achievement of health related development goals in countries with limited resources. This is even exacerbated in a post conflict environment like Rwanda. The aim of this commentary is to report and share the genesis and outcomes of an exciting experience about training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health as well as setting - up of a research culture for the last nine years (2006 - 2014) in Rwanda. Many initiatives have been taken and concerned among others training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health. From 2006 to 2014, achievements were as follows: launching and organization of 8 Master of Medicine programmes (anesthesiology, family and community medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics & gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, pediatrics, psychiatry and surgery) and 4 Master programmes in public health (MPH, MSc Epidemiology, MSc Field Epidemiology & Laboratory Management, and Master in Hospital and Healthcare Administration); training to completion of more than 120 specialists in medicine, and 200 MPH, MSc Epidemiology, and MSc Field Epidemiology holders; revival of the Rwanda Medical Journal; organization of graduate research training (MPhil and PhD); 3 Master programmes in the pipeline (Global Health, Health Financing, and Supply Chain Management); partnerships with research institutions of great renown, which contributed to the reinforcement of the institutional research capacity and visibility towards excellence in leadership, accountability, and self sustainability. Even though there is still more to be achieved, the Rwanda experience about postgraduate and research programmes is inspiring through close interactions between main stakeholders. This is a must and could allow Rwanda to become one of the rare examples to other more well-to-do Sub - Saharan countries, should Rwanda carry on doing that.

  5. Surgical Residency Training at a University-Based Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Rebecca L; Morris, Jon B; Kelz, Rachel R

    2016-02-01

    The past two decades have been witness to some of the most dynamic changes that have occurred in surgical education in all of its history. Political policies, social revolution, and the competing priorities of a new generation of surgical trainees are defining the needs of modern training paradigms. Although the university-based academic program's tripartite mission of clinical service, research, and education has remained steadfast, the mechanisms for achieving success in this mission necessitate adaptation and innovation. The resource-rich learning environment and the unique challenges that face university-based programs contribute to its ability to generate the future leaders of the surgical workforce.

  6. Investigating the muscle activities of performing surgical training tasks using a virtual simulator.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Kai; Suh, Irene H; Chien, Jung Hung; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the muscle activities of upper extremities while performing fundamental surgical training tasks using a virtual simulator. Six subjects performed virtual cutting tasks and their muscle activities of upper extremities were measured. The results demonstrated a significant increase in muscle activities in both proximal and distal upper extremities, which are the common areas of occurrence of injury after prolonged practice. This study suggests that the upper trapezius and the extensor digitorum are essential prime movers to perform surgical training tasks. These muscles should be monitored for performance assessment in future studies.

  7. Personal satisfaction and mentorship are critical factors for today's resident surgeons to seek surgical training.

    PubMed

    Lukish, Jeffrey; Cruess, David

    2005-11-01

    The specific aim of this study was to summarize the viewpoints of the Resident and Associate Society of the American College of Surgeons (RAS-ACS) membership regarding current training and quality of life-related issues prior to implementation of the new duty-hour guidelines. The goal was to gain insight of the members that may be useful to recruit and guide the future training of surgical residents. An Internet-based survey was developed to evaluate the viewpoints of RAS-ACS. The survey was administered by Esurveymaker.com via the ACS Web page from 2000 to 2003. RAS-ACS member participation was voluntary and anonymous. Analyses were performed to determine the frequency of response for each survey item. Two hundred thirty-five members completed the survey representing 5 per cent of RAS-ACS. Eighty-four per cent were general surgery residents. Personal satisfaction (64%) and mentorship (49%) were top factors for respondents to pursue surgical training; discussion with colleagues and future income was less important. Forty-five per cent reported that job performance was their most important concern during residency. A rewarding surgical career and family life were ranked as the most important expectations. Eighty-six per cent reported that they were satisfied with their residency, and 66 per cent reported that work hours should be limited. Personal satisfaction and mentorship were critical factors for members of the RAS-ACS to seek surgical training. Although most of the members report that work hours should be limited, an overwhelming majority reports satisfaction with surgical training prior to institution of the new duty-hour guidelines. Further emphasis on mentorship and work-hour reform may be beneficial in recruiting medical students into surgical residencies.

  8. Verification of Accurate Technical Insight: A Prerequisite for Self-Directed Surgical Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Yinin; Kim, Helen; Mahmutovic, Adela; Choi, Joanna; Le, Ivy; Rasmussen, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Simulation-based surgical skills training during preclinical education is a persistent challenge due to time constraints of trainees and instructors alike. Self-directed practice is resource-efficient and flexible; however, insight into technical proficiency among trainees is often lacking. The purpose of this study is to prospectively assess the…

  9. Hunter's legacy and surgical training and competence in the 21st century.

    PubMed Central

    Galasko, Charles S. B.

    2005-01-01

    John Hunter's many contributions to surgery include the development of the scientific approach and possibly the first use of evidence-based medicine. This oration, concentrates on two other areas ? first, some of his contributions to orthopaedics and secondly past, present and future surgical training and competence. PMID:16395820

  10. Two-part silicone mold. A new tool for flexible ureteroscopy surgical training

    PubMed Central

    Marroig, Bruno; Fortes, Marco Antonio Q. R.; Pereira-Sampaio, Marco; Sampaio, Francisco J. B.; Favorito, Luciano A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction and objectives: Flexible ureteroscopy is a common procedure nowadays. Most of the training programs use virtual reality simulators. The aim of this study was to standardize the building of a three-dimensional silicone mold (cavity) of the collecting system, on the basis of polyester resin endocasts, which can be used in surgical training programs. Materials and Methods: A yellow polyester resin was injected into the ureter to fill the collecting system of 24 cadaveric fresh human kidneys. After setting off the resin, the kidneys were immersed in hydrochloric acid until total corrosion of the organic matter was achieved and the collecting system endocasts obtained. The endocasts were used to prepare white color two-part silicone molds, which after endocasts withdrawn, enabled a ureteroscope insertion into the collecting system molds (cavities). Also, the minor calices were painted with different colors in order to map the access to the different caliceal groups. The cost of the materials used in the molds is $30.00 and two days are needed to build them. Results: Flexible ureteroscope could be inserted into all molds and the entire collecting system could be examined. Since some anatomical features, as infundular length, acute angle, and perpendicular minor calices may difficult the access to some minor calices, especially in the lower caliceal group, surgical training in models leads to better surgical results. Conclusions: The two-part silicone mold is feasible, cheap and allows its use for flexible ureteroscopy surgical training. PMID:27564302

  11. Rising to the Challenge: Acute Stress Appraisals and Selection Centre Performance in Applicants to Postgraduate Specialty Training in Anaesthesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Martin J.; Gale, Thomas C. E.; McGrath, John S.; Wilson, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to work under pressure is a vital non-technical skill for doctors working in acute medical specialties. Individuals who evaluate potentially stressful situations as challenging rather than threatening may perform better under pressure and be more resilient to stress and burnout. Training programme recruitment processes provide an…

  12. Relationship between Teachers' ICT Competency, Confidence Level, and Satisfaction toward ICT Training Programmes: A Case Study among Postgraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasir, Zaidatun; Abour, Khawla Mohammed El Amin; Halim, Noor Dayana Abd; Harun, Jamalludin

    2012-01-01

    There are three main variables that would make the integration of ICT tools as an easy process. Those three variables are teachers' ICT competency, teachers' confidence level in using ICT, and teachers' satisfaction on ICT training programmes. This study investigated the relationships among these three variables and measured the levels of the…

  13. Sub-specialty training in head and neck surgical oncology in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Manganaris, Argyris; Black, Myles; Balfour, Alistair; Hartley, Christopher; Jeannon, Jean-Pierre; Simo, Ricard

    2009-07-01

    Sub-specialty training in otorhinolaryngology and head and neck surgery (ORL-HNS) is not standardised across European Union (EU) states and remains diverse. The objective of this study was to assess the current status of sub-specialty training programmes in head and neck surgical oncology within the European Union (EU-15). A postal questionnaire was distributed to 41 representative members of the European Federation of Otorhinolaryngological Societies (EUFOS) in the specialty of ORL-HNS in 15 EU states. The questionnaire included questions regarding the sub-specialty practice, structure, length, access, examination procedures and certification, future developments and also a space for individual comments. Thirty-one respondents (75.6%) from major training centres in 15 different European countries replied. Overall, the data revealed major diversity for all aspects analysed, between and within the different European countries. Only four EU states had formal sub-specialty training in head and neck surgical oncology. This includes Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. In the rest of EU states, the last year of residency programmes is often spent as an introduction to one of the sub-specialties. Sub-specialty training in head and neck surgical oncology within the EU at present is clearly underdeveloped. Issuing a European diploma in ORL-HNS could be an initial step towards assessing the skills acquired during specialist training within the different European countries and formalising specialist training. This would establish a uniform measure for evaluating candidacy for sub-specialty training both across the EU and for USA, Canada or Australia.

  14. The subjectively perceived quality of postgraduate medical training in integrative medicine within the public healthcare systems of Germany and Switzerland: the example of anthroposophic hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Integrative medicine (IM) integrates evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) with conventional medicine (CON). Medical schools offer basic CAM electives but in postgraduate medical training (PGMT) little has been done for the integration of CAM. An exception to this is anthroposophic medicine (AM), a western form of CAM based on CON, offering an individualized holistic IM approach. AM hospitals are part of the public healthcare systems in Germany and Switzerland and train AM in PGMT. We performed the first quality evaluation of the subjectively perceived quality of this PGMT. Methods An anonymous full survey of all 214 trainers (TR) and 240 trainees (TE) in all 15 AM hospitals in Germany and Switzerland, using the ETHZ questionnaire for annual national PGMT assessments in Switzerland (CH) and Germany (D), complemented by a module for AM. Data analysis included Cronbach’s alpha to assess internal consistency questionnaire scales, 2-tailed Pearson correlation of specific quality dimensions of PGMT and department size, 2-tailed Wilcoxon Matched-Pair test for dependent variables and 2-tailed Mann–Whitney U-test for independent variables to calculate group differences. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results Return rates were: D: TE 89/215 (41.39%), TR 78/184 (42.39%); CH: TE 19/25 (76%), TR 22/30 (73.33%). Cronbach’s alpha values for TE scales were >0.8 or >0.9, and >0.7 to >0.5 for TR scales. Swiss hospitals surpassed German ones significantly in Global Satisfaction with AM (TR and TE); Clinical Competency training in CON (TE) and AM (TE, TR), Error Management, Culture of Decision Making, Evidence-based Medicine, and Clinical Competency in internal medicine CON and AM (TE). When the comparison was restricted to departments of comparable size, differences remained significant for Clinical Competencies in AM (TE, TR), and Culture of Decision Making (TE). CON received better grades than AM in Global Satisfaction

  15. A proposal for the curriculum and evaluation for training rural family physicians in enhanced surgical skills

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Nadine; Iglesias, Stuart; Friesen, Randall; Berjat, Vanessa; Humber, Nancy; Falk, Ryan; Prins, Mark; Haines, Victoria Vogt; Geller, Brian; Janke, Fred; Woollard, Robert; Batchelor, Bret; Van Bussel, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Summary Rural western Canada relies heavily on family physicians with enhanced surgical skills (ESS) for surgical services. The recent decision by the College of Family Physicians of Canada (CFPC) to recognize ESS as a “community of practice” section offers a potential home akin to family practice anesthesia and emergency medicine. To our knowledge, however, a skill set for ESS in Canada has never been described formally. In this paper the Curriculum Committee of the National ESS Working Group proposes a generic curriculum for the training and evaluation of the ESS skill set. PMID:26574835

  16. A Qualitative Study of Postgraduate Students' Learning Experiences in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Sarjit; Sidhu, Gurnam Kaur

    2009-01-01

    In Malaysia, postgraduate coursework and research training have expanded significantly in attracting both domestic and international students from Southeast Asia and the Middle East. The task of evaluating the student learning experience in postgraduate education can point out to researchers and university educators various mismatches that would…

  17. Development and Validation of an Instrument for Measuring the Quality of Teamwork in Teaching Teams in Postgraduate Medical Training (TeamQ)

    PubMed Central

    Slootweg, Irene A.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; Boerebach, Benjamin C. M.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Teamwork between clinical teachers is a challenge in postgraduate medical training. Although there are several instruments available for measuring teamwork in health care, none of them are appropriate for teaching teams. The aim of this study is to develop an instrument (TeamQ) for measuring teamwork, to investigate its psychometric properties and to explore how clinical teachers assess their teamwork. Method To select the items to be included in the TeamQ questionnaire, we conducted a content validation in 2011, using a Delphi procedure in which 40 experts were invited. Next, for pilot testing the preliminary tool, 1446 clinical teachers from 116 teaching teams were requested to complete the TeamQ questionnaire. For data analyses we used statistical strategies: principal component analysis, internal consistency reliability coefficient, and the number of evaluations needed to obtain reliable estimates. Lastly, the median TeamQ scores were calculated for teams to explore the levels of teamwork. Results In total, 31 experts participated in the Delphi study. In total, 114 teams participated in the TeamQ pilot. The median team response was 7 evaluations per team. The principal component analysis revealed 11 factors; 8 were included. The reliability coefficients of the TeamQ scales ranged from 0.75 to 0.93. The generalizability analysis revealed that 5 to 7 evaluations were needed to obtain internal reliability coefficients of 0.70. In terms of teamwork, the clinical teachers scored residents' empowerment as the highest TeamQ scale and feedback culture as the area that would most benefit from improvement. Conclusions This study provides initial evidence of the validity of an instrument for measuring teamwork in teaching teams. The high response rates and the low number of evaluations needed for reliably measuring teamwork indicate that TeamQ is feasible for use by teaching teams. Future research could explore the effectiveness of feedback on teamwork in

  18. A 6 degrees-of-freedom haptic milling simulator for surgical training of vertebral operations.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Magnus; Wikander, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In the research presented here, the aim has been to develop a haptic milling simulator for surgical training of vertebral operations. One central goal has been to create a simulator that gives the user a realistic impression of contacts with, and milling of, a virtually represented bone tissue model. A new 6 degrees-of-freedom haptic algorithm for milling is implemented together with new 6 degrees-of-freedom haptic device.

  19. The marriage of surgical simulation and telementoring for damage-control surgical training of operational first responders: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Tien, Homer; LaPorta, Anthony T.; Lavell, Kit; Keillor, Jocelyn; Wright Beatty, Heather E.; McKee, Jessica Lynn; Brien, Susan; Roberts, Derek J.; Wong, Jonathan; Ball, Chad G.; Beckett, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable posttraumatic death. Many such deaths may be potentially salvageable with remote damage-control surgical interventions. As recent innovations in information technology enable remote specialist support to point-of-care providers, advanced interventions, such as remote damage-control surgery, may be possible in remote settings. METHODS An anatomically realistic perfused surgical training mannequin with intrinsic fluid loss measurements (the “Cut Suit”) was used to study perihepatic packing with massive liver hemorrhage. The primary outcome was loss of simulated blood (water) during six stages, namely, incision, retraction, direction, identification, packing, and postpacking. Six fully credentialed surgeons performed the same task as 12 military medical technicians who were randomized to remotely telementored (RTM) (n = 7) or unmentored (UTM) (n=5) real-time guidance by a trauma surgeon. RESULTS There were no significant differences in fluid loss between the surgeons and the UTM group or between the UTM and RTM groups. However, when comparing the RTM group with the surgeons, there was significantly more total fluid loss (p = 0.001) and greater loss during the identification (p = 0.002), retraction (p = 0.035), direction (p = 0.014), and packing(p = 0.022) stages. There were no significant differences in fluid loss after packing between the groups despite differences in the number of sponges used; RTM group used more sponges than the surgeons and significantly more than the UTM group (p = 0.048). However, mentoring significantly increased self-assessed nonsurgeon procedural confidence (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION Perihepatic packing of an exsanguinating liver hemorrhage model was readily performed by military medical technicians after a focused briefing. While real-time telementoring did not improve fluid loss, it significantly increased nonsurgeon procedural confidence, which may augment the feasibility of the

  20. The Integrative Model of Behavior Prediction to Explain Technology Use in Post-Graduate Teacher Education Programs in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admiraal, Wilfried; Lockhorst, Ditte; Smit, Ben; Weijers, Sanne

    2013-01-01

    This study examined technology in post-graduate teacher training programs in the Netherlands. A questionnaire was completed by 111 teacher educators from 12 Dutch universities with a post-graduate teacher training program. The general view of the use of technology in Dutch post-graduate teacher education was quite conventional. Basic technology…

  1. Surgical education and training program development for gynecologic oncology: American perspective.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Mitchel S; Bodurka, Diane C

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information about gynecologic oncology fellowship training and guidance in program development. The characteristics necessary for a physician to develop into a successful gynecologic oncologist include an extensive fund of knowledge related to the subspecialty, strong interpersonal skills, the ability to practice within the complex systems required for management of gynecologic cancer patients, surgical expertise, and the clinical ability to provide comprehensive oncologic care for these women. In order for a trainee to acquire these skills, a gynecologic oncology training program must accept only highly qualified individuals as fellows, have a dedicated core faculty, practice in a supportive environment that has appropriate facilities, and provide adequate clinical material. The gynecologic oncology training program must be organized with an emphasis on education of the fellows. Part of the educational program is formal (lectures, assigned reading, basic skill sets, etc.). Training in clinical and surgical skills is a day-to-day process that occurs during the course of patient care. One requirement of The American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ABOG) is that the fellow spends 12 months of protected time doing research. Fellows are also required to take 2 courses, one in biostatistics and one in cancer biology. A thesis of publishable quality is also required. All programs must perform ongoing quality assurance and reassessment of potential areas for improvement. ABOG is responsible for the accreditation and ongoing monitoring of the fellowship programs.

  2. Academic postgraduate medical education -- an Oxford view.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Kenneth; Pugh, Christopher; Best, Denise

    2014-02-01

    Postgraduate medical education in the UK has gone through a maelstrom of change in the last 20 years; many components have disadvantaged clinical academic training in particular. In this article we summarise some of the changes and describe the advantages of the creation of a dedicated clinical academic graduate school as a response to these changes. PMID:24532742

  3. Academic postgraduate medical education -- an Oxford view.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Kenneth; Pugh, Christopher; Best, Denise

    2014-02-01

    Postgraduate medical education in the UK has gone through a maelstrom of change in the last 20 years; many components have disadvantaged clinical academic training in particular. In this article we summarise some of the changes and describe the advantages of the creation of a dedicated clinical academic graduate school as a response to these changes.

  4. Role of collaborative academic partnerships in surgical training, education, and provision.

    PubMed

    Riviello, Robert; Ozgediz, Doruk; Hsia, Renee Y; Azzie, Georges; Newton, Mark; Tarpley, John

    2010-03-01

    The global disparities in both surgical disease burden and access to delivery of surgical care are gaining prominence in the medical literature and media. Concurrently, there is an unprecedented groundswell in idealism and interest in global health among North American medical students and trainees in anesthesia and surgical disciplines. Many academic medical centers (AMCs) are seeking to respond by creating partnerships with teaching hospitals overseas. In this article we describe six such partnerships, as follows: (1) University of California San Francisco (UCSF) with the Bellagio Essential Surgery Group; (2) USCF with Makerere University, Uganda; (3) Vanderbilt with Baptist Medical Center, Ogbomoso, Nigeria; (4) Vanderbilt with Kijabe Hospital, Kenya; (5) University of Toronto, Hospital for Sick Children with the Ministry of Health in Botswana; and (6) Harvard (Brigham and Women's Hospital and Children's Hospital Boston) with Partners in Health in Haiti and Rwanda. Reflection on these experiences offers valuable lessons, and we make recommendations of critical components leading to success. These include the importance of relationships, emphasis on mutual learning, the need for "champions," affirming that local training needs to supersede expatriate training needs, the value of collaboration in research, adapting the mission to locally expressed needs, the need for a multidisciplinary approach, and the need to measure outcomes. We conclude that this is an era of cautious optimism and that AMCs have a critical opportunity to both shape future leaders in global surgery and address the current global disparities. PMID:20049438

  5. Tele-surgical simulation system for training in the use of da Vinci surgery.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Suzuki, Naoki; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Hattori, Asaki; Konishi, Kozo; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Hashizume, Makoto

    2005-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery including robotic surgery allows the surgeon to be able to conduct minimally invasive surgery. A surgeon is required to master difficult skills for this surgery to compensate for the narrow field of view, limitation of work space, and the lack of depth sensation. To counteract these drawbacks, we have been developing a training simulation system that can allow surgeons to practice and master surgical procedures. In addition, our system aims to distribute a simulation program, to provide a means of collaboration between remote hospitals, and to be able to provide a means for guidance from an expert surgeon. In this paper, we would like to show the surgery simulation for da Vinci surgery, in particular a cholecystectomy. The integral parts of this system are a soft tissue model which is created by the sphere-filled method enabling real-time deformations based on a patient's data, force feedback devices known as a PHANToM and the Internet connection. By using this system a surgeon can perform surgical maneuvers such as pushing, grasping, and detachment in real-time manipulation. Moreover, using the broadband communication, we can perform the tele-surgical simulation for training. PMID:15718794

  6. Modern educational information technologies in formation of communicative competency in a foreign language in the process of training postgraduates at the aerospace university

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelyeva, M. V.; Shumakova, N. A.

    2016-04-01

    The research analyses the issues of competency-based approach implementation in connection with practical experience gained in SibSAU in teaching English for scientific purposes to postgraduate students. The article focuses on IT application for the objectives of both class room and independent work of post graduates organization.

  7. Lessons learned at sea--ocean sailing as a metaphor for surgical training.

    PubMed

    Fabri, Peter J

    2003-09-01

    Surgical education is in the process of tumultuous change. Mastering this change will require a new set of competencies and a new understanding of the medical education process. While accreditation agencies are rapidly working to define the new criteria and benchmarks, training programs are quickly pulling together curricula, objectives, and evaluation tools. Yet much has already been learned in other complex, high-risk activities. Blue water sailing, ocean racing, and trans-Atlantic crossing are all activities that require a renewed form of leadership and an understanding of how knowledge, skill, and behavior come together to define the competent sailor. Ideas learned in such endeavors may assist the surgical educator in defining the horizons and the hazards of this uncharted voyage. PMID:12946827

  8. Predeployment mass casualty and clinical trauma training for US Army forward surgical teams.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Bruno M T; Ryan, Mark L; Ogilvie, Michael P; Gomez-Rodriguez, Juan Carlos; McAndrew, Patrick; Garcia, George D; Proctor, Kenneth G

    2010-07-01

    Since the beginning of the program in 2002, 84 Forward Surgical Teams (FSTs) have rotated through the Army Trauma Training Center (ATTC) at the University of Miami/Ryder Trauma Center including all those deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. The purpose of this study was to provide the latest updates of our experience with FSTs at the ATTC. Before deployment, each FST participates in a 2-week training rotation at the ATTC. The rotation is divided into 3 phases. Phase 1 is to refresh FST knowledge regarding the initial evaluation and management of the trauma patient. Phase 2 is the clinical phase and is conducted entirely at the Ryder Trauma Center. The training rotation culminates in phase 3, the Capstone exercise. During the Capstone portion of their training, the entire 20-person FST remains at the Ryder Trauma Center and is primarily responsible for the evaluation and resuscitation of all patients arriving over a 24-hour period. Subject awareness concerning their role within the team improved from 71% to 95%, indicating that functioning as a team in the context of the mass casualty training exercise along with clinical codes was beneficial. The clinical component of the rotation was considered by 47% to be the most valuable aspect of the training. Our experience strongly suggests that a multimodality approach is beneficial for preparing a team of individuals with minimal combat (or trauma) experience for the rigors of medical care and triage on the battlefield. The data provided by participants rotating through the ATTC show that through clinical exposure and simulation over a 2-week period, FST performance is optimized by defining provider roles and improving communication. The mass casualty training exercise is a vital component of predeployment training that participants feel is valuable in preparing them for the challenges that lay ahead. PMID:20613574

  9. Guidelines for resident training in veterinary clinical pathology. III: cytopathology and surgical pathology.

    PubMed

    Kidney, Beverly A; Dial, Sharon M; Christopher, Mary M

    2009-09-01

    The Education Committee of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology has identified a need for improved structure and guidance of training residents in clinical pathology. This article is the third in a series of articles that address this need. The goals of this article are to describe learning objectives and competencies in knowledge, abilities, and skills in cytopathology and surgical pathology (CSP); provide options and ideas for training activities; and identify resources in veterinary CSP for faculty, training program coordinators, and residents. Guidelines were developed in consultation with Education Committee members and peer experts and with evaluation of the literature. The primary objectives of training in CSP are: (1) to develop a thorough, extensive, and relevant knowledge base of biomedical and clinical sciences applicable to the practice of CSP in domestic animals, laboratory animals, and other nondomestic animal species; (2) to be able to reason, think critically, investigate, use scientific evidence, and communicate effectively when making diagnoses and consulting and to improve and advance the practice of pathology; and (3) to acquire selected technical skills used in CSP and pathology laboratory management. These guidelines define expected competencies that will help ensure proficiency, leadership, and the advancement of knowledge in veterinary CSP and will provide a useful framework for didactic and clinical activities in resident-training programs.

  10. Surgical training: an objective assessment of recent changes for a single health board.

    PubMed Central

    Crofts, T. J.; Griffiths, J. M.; Sharma, S.; Wygrala, J.; Aitken, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    The reduction in doctors' hours and the introduction of specialist training have reduced general surgical training by 60%. This study assessed the implications for a single health board. A questionnaire listing 13 representative operations was sent to 44 trainees and 52 trainers to determine the number of operations a trainee should perform. The total number of operations required for training was compared against the total actually performed across the health board. Operating times for five representative operations were audited prospectively. Trainers and trainees recommended a similar and conservative number of operations. The total number of operations available for training (4913) was 38% less than the number recommended (7946). Trainees required 50-75% more operating time than consultants. To increase the proportion of operations undertaken by trainees from the current 30% to 70% would require an extra 270 theatre days (of pounds 1.3m) yearly. The minimum number of operations required for training must be defined and the proportion of supervised operations undertaken by trainees substantially increased. Service and financial implications will have to be addressed. Action is needed urgently, as the first trainees will become consultants in less than five years. PMID:9093109

  11. Training considerations for the intracoelomic implantation of electronic tags in fish with a summary of common surgical errors

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Steven J.; Wagner, Glenn N.; Brown, Richard S.; Deters, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Training is a fundamental part of all scientific and technical disciplines. This is particularly true for all types of surgeons. For surgical procedures, a number of skills are necessary to reduce mistakes. Trainees must learn an extensive yet standardized set of problem-solving and technical skills to handle challenges as they arise. There are currently no guidelines or consistent training methods for those intending to implant electronic tags in fish; this is surprising, considering documented cases of negative consequences of fish surgeries and information from studies having empirically tested fish surgical techniques. Learning how to do fish surgery once is insufficient for ensuring the maintenance or improvement of surgical skill. Assessment of surgical skills is rarely incorporated into training, and is needed. Evaluation provides useful feedback that guides future learning, fosters habits of self-reflection and self-remediation, and promotes access to advanced training. Veterinary professionals should be involved in aspects of training to monitor basic surgical principles. We identified attributes related to knowledge, understanding, and skill that surgeons must demonstrate prior to performing fish surgery including a “hands-on” assessment using live fish. Included is a summary of common problems encountered by fish surgeons. We conclude by presenting core competencies that should be required as well as outlining a 3-day curriculum for training surgeons to conduct intracoelomic implantation of electronic tags. This curriculum could be offered through professional fisheries societies as professional development courses.

  12. Perceptions of gender-based discrimination during surgical training and practice

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Adrienne N.; Battista, Alexis; Plankey, Michael W.; Johnson, Lynt B.; Marshall, M. Blair

    2015-01-01

    Background Women represent 15% of practicing general surgeons. Gender-based discrimination has been implicated as discouraging women from surgery. We sought to determine women's perceptions of gender-based discrimination in the surgical training and working environment. Methods Following IRB approval, we fielded a pilot survey measuring perceptions and impact of gender-based discrimination in medical school, residency training, and surgical practice. It was sent electronically to 1,065 individual members of the Association of Women Surgeons. Results We received 334 responses from medical students, residents, and practicing physicians with a response rate of 31%. Eighty-seven percent experienced gender-based discrimination in medical school, 88% in residency, and 91% in practice. Perceived sources of gender-based discrimination included superiors, physician peers, clinical support staff, and patients, with 40% emanating from women and 60% from men. Conclusions The majority of responses indicated perceived gender-based discrimination during medical school, residency, and practice. Gender-based discrimination comes from both sexes and has a significant impact on women surgeons. PMID:25652117

  13. Incorporating an HPB fellowship does not diminish surgical residents' HPB experience in a high-volume training centre

    PubMed Central

    Zyromski, Nicholas J; Torbeck, Laura; Canal, David F; Lillemoe, Keith D; Pitt, Henry A

    2010-01-01

    Background: Surgical residency training is evolving, and trainees who wish to practice hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) surgery in the future will be required to obtain advanced training. As this paradigm evolves, it is crucial that HPB fellowship incorporation into an established surgical residency programme does not diminish surgical residents' exposure to complex HPB procedures. We hypothesized that incorporation of a HPB fellowship in a high-volume clinical training programme would not detract from residents' HPB experience. Methods: Resident operative case logs and HPB fellow case logs were reviewed. Resident exposure to complex HPB procedures for 3 years prior to and 3 years after fellowship incorporation were compared. Results: No significant changes in surgical resident exposure to liver and pancreatic resection were seen between the two time periods. Surgical resident exposure to complex biliary procedures decreased in the 3 years after HPB fellowship incorporation (P= 0.003); however, exceeded the national average in each year except 2006. Graduating residents' overall HPB experience was unchanged in the 3 years prior to and after incorporating an HPB fellow. Expansion of HPB volume was a critical part of successful HPB fellowship implementation. Discussion: An HPB fellowship programme can be incorporated into a high-volume clinical training programme without detracting from resident HPB experience. Individual training programmes should carefully assess their capability to provide an adequate clinical experience for fellows without diminishing resident exposure to complex HPB procedures. PMID:20495656

  14. History and future of human cadaver preservation for surgical training: from formalin to saturated salt solution method.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shogo; Naito, Munekazu; Kawata, Shinichi; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Itoh, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, surgical training meant on-the-job training with live patients in an operating room. However, due to advancing surgical techniques, such as minimally invasive surgery, and increasing safety demands during procedures, human cadavers have been used for surgical training. When considering the use of human cadavers for surgical training, one of the most important factors is their preservation. In this review, we summarize four preservation methods: fresh-frozen cadaver, formalin, Thiel's, and saturated salt solution methods. Fresh-frozen cadaver is currently the model that is closest to reality, but it also presents myriad problems, including the requirement of freezers for storage, limited work time because of rapid putrefaction, and risk of infection. Formalin is still used ubiquitously due to its low cost and wide availability, but it is not ideal because formaldehyde has an adverse health effect and formalin-embalmed cadavers do not exhibit many of the qualities of living organs. Thiel's method results in soft and flexible cadavers with almost natural colors, and Thiel-embalmed cadavers have been appraised widely in various medical disciplines. However, Thiel's method is relatively expensive and technically complicated. In addition, Thiel-embalmed cadavers have a limited dissection time. The saturated salt solution method is simple, carries a low risk of infection, and is relatively low cost. Although more research is needed, this method seems to be sufficiently useful for surgical training and has noteworthy features that expand the capability of clinical training. The saturated salt solution method will contribute to a wider use of cadavers for surgical training.

  15. Bench model surgical skill training improves novice ability to multitask: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Grierson, Lawrence; Melnyk, Megan; Jowlett, Nathan; Backstein, David; Dubrowski, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Skills training in simulation laboratories is becoming increasingly common. However, the educational benefit of these laboratories remains unclear. This study examined whether such training enables better performance on the simultaneous execution of technical skill and knowledge retention. Twenty-four novice trainees completed the elliptical excision on baseline testing. Following baseline testing twelve of the novices completed a technical practice (simulation training group) session, while the other twelve did not (control group). One week later, all participants returned for dual-task follow up testing in which they performed the excision while listening to a didactic lesson on the staging and treatment of cutaneous melanoma. The dual-tasking during the post test was standardized, whereby excision sutures 3 and 5 were performed alone (single), and sutures 4 and 6 were performed concurrently with the didactic lecture (dual). Seven additional trainees also participated as controls that were randomized to listen to the didactic lesson alone (knowledge retention alone group). Knowledge retention was assessed by a multiple choice questionnaire (MCQ). Technical performance was evaluated with computer and expert-based measures. Time to complete the performance improved among both groups completing the elliptical excision on follow-up testing (p<0.01). The simulation training group demonstrated superior hand motion performance on simultaneous didactic lesson testing (p<0.01). Novices from the no-training group performed statistically worse while suturing concurrently with the didactic lesson (p<0.01). The pretraining of novices in surgical skills laboratories leads to improved technical performance during periods of increased attention demands.

  16. Statistics Anxiety among Postgraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Denise; Zawi, Mohd Khairi

    2014-01-01

    Most postgraduate programmes, that have research components, require students to take at least one course of research statistics. Not all postgraduate programmes are science based, there are a significant number of postgraduate students who are from the social sciences that will be taking statistics courses, as they try to complete their…

  17. High-intensity interval training (HIT) for effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise interventions.

    PubMed

    Weston, Matthew; Weston, Kathryn L; Prentis, James M; Snowden, Chris P

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of perioperative medicine is leading to greater diversity in development of pre-surgical interventions, implemented to reduce patient surgical risk and enhance post-surgical recovery. Of these interventions, the prescription of pre-operative exercise training is gathering momentum as a realistic means for enhancing patient surgical outcome. Indeed, the general benefits of exercise training have the potential to pre-operatively optimise several pre-surgical risks factors, including cardiorespiratory function, frailty and cognitive function. Any exercise programme incorporated into the pre-operative pathway of care needs to be effective and time efficient in that any fitness gains are achievable in the limited period between the decision for surgery and operation (e.g. 4 weeks). Fortunately, there is a large volume of research describing effective and time-efficient exercise training programmes within the discipline of sports science. Accordingly, the objective of our commentary is to synthesise contemporary exercise training research, both from non-clinical and clinical populations, with the overarching aim of informing the development of effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise training programmes. The development of such exercise training programmes requires the careful consideration of several key principles, namely frequency, intensity, time, type and progression of exercise. Therefore, in light of more recent evidence demonstrating the effectiveness and time efficiency of high-intensity interval training-which involves brief bouts of intense exercise interspersed with longer recovery periods-the principles of exercise training programme design will be discussed mainly in the context of such high-intensity interval training programmes. Other issues pertinent to the development, implementation and evaluation of pre-operative exercise training programmes, such as individual exercise prescription, training session monitoring and potential

  18. High-intensity interval training (HIT) for effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise interventions.

    PubMed

    Weston, Matthew; Weston, Kathryn L; Prentis, James M; Snowden, Chris P

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of perioperative medicine is leading to greater diversity in development of pre-surgical interventions, implemented to reduce patient surgical risk and enhance post-surgical recovery. Of these interventions, the prescription of pre-operative exercise training is gathering momentum as a realistic means for enhancing patient surgical outcome. Indeed, the general benefits of exercise training have the potential to pre-operatively optimise several pre-surgical risks factors, including cardiorespiratory function, frailty and cognitive function. Any exercise programme incorporated into the pre-operative pathway of care needs to be effective and time efficient in that any fitness gains are achievable in the limited period between the decision for surgery and operation (e.g. 4 weeks). Fortunately, there is a large volume of research describing effective and time-efficient exercise training programmes within the discipline of sports science. Accordingly, the objective of our commentary is to synthesise contemporary exercise training research, both from non-clinical and clinical populations, with the overarching aim of informing the development of effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise training programmes. The development of such exercise training programmes requires the careful consideration of several key principles, namely frequency, intensity, time, type and progression of exercise. Therefore, in light of more recent evidence demonstrating the effectiveness and time efficiency of high-intensity interval training-which involves brief bouts of intense exercise interspersed with longer recovery periods-the principles of exercise training programme design will be discussed mainly in the context of such high-intensity interval training programmes. Other issues pertinent to the development, implementation and evaluation of pre-operative exercise training programmes, such as individual exercise prescription, training session monitoring and potential

  19. Integrated surgical emergency training plan in the internship: A step toward improving the quality of training and emergency center management

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Mohammad Reza; Vafamehr, Vajiheh; Dadgostarnia, Mohammad; Dehghani, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, by using a problem-oriented approach in the needs assessment, identifying the defects and deficiencies in emergency health training centers has been determined as the basis for the requirements. The main objective of the study was the implementation of surgical emergencies integration of the five surgical groups (general surgery, urology, orthopedics, neurosurgery, and ENT) to meet the needs and determining its efficacy. Materials and Methods: This interventional study was conducted in three phases: (1) Phase I (design and planning): Needs assessment, recognition of implementation barriers and providing the objectives and training program for integrated emergencies. (2) Phase II (implementation): Justification of the main stakeholders of the project, preparation of students’ duties in the emergency department, preparation of on-duty plans, supervising the implementation of the program, and reviewing the plan in parallel with the implementation based on the problems. (3) Phase III (evaluation): Reviewing the evidences based on the amount of efficiency of the plan and justification for its continuation. In the first and the second phase, the data were collected through holding focus group meetings and interviews. In the third phase, the opened-reply and closed-reply researcher-made questionnaires were used. The questionnaire face and content validity were confirmed by experts and the reliability was assessed by calculating the Cronbach's alpha. Results: According to the views of the interns, assistants, teachers, and emergency personnel, the positive features of the plan included the following: Increasing the patients’ satisfaction, reducing the patients’ stay in the Emergency Department, increasing the speed of handling the patients, balancing the workloads of the interns, direct training of interns by young teachers of emergency medicine, giving the direct responsibility of the patient to the intern, practical and operational

  20. Simulation for training in oral cancer biopsy: A surgical model and feedback from GDPs

    PubMed Central

    Seoane, Juan; Varela-Centelles, Pablo; Cerero-Lapiedra, Rocío; Seoane-Romero, Juan M.; Diz, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To describe a new bench model for oral precancer/cancer biopsy training and to assess its effectiveness in terms of trainees’ perception. Study design: Cross-sectional, descriptive, performed on 424 general dental practitioners (GDP) who undertook biopsies on a pig tongue. The participants were assessed by direct observation for 2.5 hours using specific check-lists and by means of a self-applied questionnaire. Results: The workshop was perceived as “very interesting” even by those with previous surgical experience (Xi - Xj = 0.07; 95%CI= -0.20-0.09). Most GDPs considered themselves able to undertake oral biopsies on real patients after the workshop. Those who had previously received theoretical continuous education courses on oral biopsy scored higher values within the group (Xi - Xj = 0.20; 95%CI= 0.04-0.37). Conclusions: There is a need for including clinical abilities workshops when instructing on oral biopsy techniques. More studies are needed to validate the procedure and to address cognitive and communication skills. Key words:Models, animal, education, dental, continuing, biopsy, oral cancer, oral surgical procedures. PMID:23385492

  1. European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology.

    PubMed

    van Rijsselt, René J T; Parkatti, Terttu; Troisi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative to increase mobility of students and staff in the field of gerontology in the European Nordic countries is elaborated. Third, two postgraduate Gerontology and Geriatrics programs offered by the European Centre of Gerontology and Geriatrics, University of Malta are presented. In 1995, the Centre was designated a WHO Collaborating Centre for healthy aging. To provide a context for these initiatives, a short overview is presented of developments in the European Higher Education Area, and the current state and recent developments in gerontology training in Europe is elaborated. The article concludes with discussion of the feasibility and sustainability of European internationalization efforts in education and training in gerontology.

  2. Postgraduate Diploma Collaborative Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Terri

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the Business Communication and Career Development Program offered at University of Cape Town. This is a one-year, postgraduate management diploma that is regarded as a mini-MBA. This diploma appealed to students from all over the country, students from other African nations, and a few international students…

  3. Laparoscopic surgical skills training: an investigation of the potential of using surgeons' visual search behaviour as a performance indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Dong, Leng; Gale, Alastair G.; Rees, Benjamin; Maxwell-Armstrong, Charles

    2014-03-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is a difficult perceptual-motor task and effective and efficient training in the technique is important. Viewing previously recorded laparoscopic operations is a possible available training technique for surgeons to increase their knowledge of such minimal access surgery (MAS). It is not well known whether this is a useful technique, how effective it is or what effect it has on the surgeon watching the recorded video. As part of an on-going series of studies into laparoscopic surgery, an experiment was conducted to examine whether surgical skill level has an effect on the visual search behaviour of individuals of different surgical experience when they examine such imagery. Medically naive observers, medical students, junior surgeons and experienced surgeons viewed a laparoscopic recording of a recent operation. Initial examination of the recorded eye movement data indicated commonalities between all observers, largely irrespective of surgical experience. This, it is argued, is due to visual search in this situation largely being driven by the dynamic nature of the images. The data were then examined in terms of surgical steps and also in terms of interventions when differences were found related to surgical experience. Consequently, it is argued that monitoring the eye movements of trainee surgeons whilst they watch pre-recorded operations is a potential useful adjunct to existing training regimes.

  4. Using optimization models to demonstrate the need for structural changes in training programs for surgical medical residents.

    PubMed

    Turner, Jonathan; Kim, Kibaek; Mehrotra, Sanjay; DaRosa, Debra A; Daskin, Mark S; Rodriguez, Heron E

    2013-09-01

    The primary goal of a residency program is to prepare trainees for unsupervised care. Duty hour restrictions imposed throughout the prior decade require that residents work significantly fewer hours. Moreover, various stakeholders (e.g. the hospital, mentors, other residents, educators, and patients) require them to prioritize very different activities, often conflicting with their learning goals. Surgical residents' learning goals include providing continuity throughout a patient's pre-, peri-, and post-operative care as well as achieving sufficient surgical experience levels in various procedure types and participating in various formal educational activities, among other things. To complicate matters, senior residents often compete with other residents for surgical experience. This paper features experiments using an optimization model and a real dataset. The experiments test the viability of achieving the above goals at a major academic center using existing models of delivering medical education and training to surgical residents. It develops a detailed multi-objective, two-stage stochastic optimization model with anticipatory capabilities solved over a rolling time horizon. A novel feature of the models is the incorporation of learning curve theory in the objection function. Using a deterministic version of the model, we identify bounds on the achievement of learning goals under existing training paradigms. The computational results highlight the structural problems in the current surgical resident educational system. These results further corroborate earlier findings and suggest an educational system redesign is necessary for surgical medical residents. PMID:23519945

  5. Using optimization models to demonstrate the need for structural changes in training programs for surgical medical residents.

    PubMed

    Turner, Jonathan; Kim, Kibaek; Mehrotra, Sanjay; DaRosa, Debra A; Daskin, Mark S; Rodriguez, Heron E

    2013-09-01

    The primary goal of a residency program is to prepare trainees for unsupervised care. Duty hour restrictions imposed throughout the prior decade require that residents work significantly fewer hours. Moreover, various stakeholders (e.g. the hospital, mentors, other residents, educators, and patients) require them to prioritize very different activities, often conflicting with their learning goals. Surgical residents' learning goals include providing continuity throughout a patient's pre-, peri-, and post-operative care as well as achieving sufficient surgical experience levels in various procedure types and participating in various formal educational activities, among other things. To complicate matters, senior residents often compete with other residents for surgical experience. This paper features experiments using an optimization model and a real dataset. The experiments test the viability of achieving the above goals at a major academic center using existing models of delivering medical education and training to surgical residents. It develops a detailed multi-objective, two-stage stochastic optimization model with anticipatory capabilities solved over a rolling time horizon. A novel feature of the models is the incorporation of learning curve theory in the objection function. Using a deterministic version of the model, we identify bounds on the achievement of learning goals under existing training paradigms. The computational results highlight the structural problems in the current surgical resident educational system. These results further corroborate earlier findings and suggest an educational system redesign is necessary for surgical medical residents.

  6. Assessment of laparoscopic psychomotor skills in interns using the MIST Virtual Reality Simulator: a prerequisite for those considering surgical training?

    PubMed

    Cope, Daron H; Fenton-Lee, Douglas

    2008-04-01

    Selection for surgical training in Australia is currently based on assessment of a structured curriculum vitae, referral reports from selected clinicians and an interview. The formal assessment of laparoscopic psychomotor skill and ability to attain skills is not currently a prerequisite for selection. The aim of this study was to assess the innate psychomotor skills of interns and also to compare interns with an interest in pursuing a surgical career to interns with those with no interest in pursuing a surgical career. Twenty-two interns were given the opportunity to carry out tasks on the Minimal Invasive Surgical Trainer, Virtual Reality (Mentice, Gothenburg, Sweden) Simulator. The candidates were required to complete six tasks, repeated six times each. Scores for each task were calculated objectively by the simulator software. Demographic data were similar between the two groups. Although some candidates who were interested in pursuing a surgical career performed poorly on the simulator, there was no significant difference when comparing the two groups. The Minimal Invasive Surgical Trainer, Virtual Reality (Mentice) Simulator provides an objective and comparable assessment of laparoscopic psychomotor skills. We can conclude that interns have varying inherent ability as judged by the simulator and this does not seem to have an influence on their career selection. There was no significant difference in the scores between the two groups. Interns with and without inherent abilities have aspirations to pursue surgical careers and their aptitude does not seem to influence this decision. Surgical colleges could use psychomotor ability assessments to recruit candidates to pursue a career in surgery. Trainees needing closer monitoring and additional training could be identified early and guided to achieve competency.

  7. Association between Fellowship Training, Surgical Volume, and Laparoscopic Suturing Techniques among Members of the American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Lauren; Miladinovic, Branko; Imudia, Anthony N.; Hart, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective. To compare surgical volume and techniques including laparoscopic suturing among members of the American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists (AAGL) according to fellowship training status. Design. A web-based survey was designed using Qualtrics and sent to AAGL members. Results. Minimally invasive gynecologic surgery (FMIGS) trained surgeons were more likely to perform more than 8 major conventional laparoscopic cases per month (63% versus 38%, P < 0.001, OR [95% CI] = 2.78 [1.54–5.06]) and were more likely to perform laparoscopic suturing during these cases (32% versus 16%, P < 0.004, OR [95% CI] = 2.44 [1.25–4.71]). The non-fellowship trained (NFT) surgeons in private practice were less likely to perform over 8 conventional laparoscopic cases (34% versus 51%, P = 0.03, OR [95% CI] = 0.50 [0.25–0.99]) and laparoscopic suturing during these cases (13% versus 27%, P = 0.01, OR [95% CI] = 0.39 [0.17–0.92]) compared to NFT surgeons in academic practice. Conclusion. The surgical volume and utilization of laparoscopic suturing of FMIGS trained surgeons are significantly increased compared to NFT surgeons. Academic practice setting had a positive impact on surgical volume of NFT surgeons but not on FMIGS trained surgeons. PMID:26885389

  8. Visual-spatial ability is more important than motivation for novices in surgical simulator training: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Hedman, Leif; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether surgical simulation performance and previous video gaming experience would correlate with higher motivation to further train a specific simulator task and whether visual-spatial ability would rank higher in importance to surgical performance than the above. It was also examined whether or not motivation would correlate with a preference to choose a surgical specialty in the future and if simulator training would increase the interest in choosing that same work field. Methods Motivation and general interest in surgery was measured pre- and post-training in 30 medical students at Karolinska Institutet who were tested in a laparoscopic surgical simulator in parallel with measurement of visual-spatial ability and self-estimated video gaming experience.  Correlations between simulator performance metrics, visual-spatial ability and motivation were statistically analyzed using regression analysis. Results A good result in the first simulator trial correlated with higher self-determination index (r =-0.46, p=0.05) in male students. Visual-spatial ability was the most important underlying factor followed by intrinsic motivation score and finally video gaming experience (p=0.02, p=0.05, p=0.11) regarding simulator performance in male students. Simulator training increased interest in surgery when studying all subjects (p=0.01), male subjects (p=0.02) as well as subjects with low video gaming experience (p=0.02). Conclusions This preliminary study highlights individual differences regarding the effect of simulator training on motivation that can be taken into account when designing simulator training curricula, although the sample size is quite small and findings should be interpreted carefully.  PMID:26897701

  9. Surgical education at Weill Bugando Medical Centre: supplementing surgical training and investing in local health care providers

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Katrina B.; Giiti, Geofrey; Kotecha, Vihar; Chandika, Alphonce; Pryor, Kane O.; Härtl, Roger; Gilyoma, Japhet

    2013-01-01

    Global surgery initiatives increasingly are focused on strengthening education and local health care systems to build surgical capacity. The goal of this education project was to support local health care providers in augmenting the surgical curriculum at a new medical school, thus promoting long-term local goals and involvement. Working with local surgeons, residents, and medical and assistant medical officer students, we identified the most common surgical conditions presenting to Weill Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza, Tanzania, and the areas of greatest need in surgical education. We developed an 8-week teaching schedule for undergraduate students and an electronic database of clinical surgery topics. In addition, we started teaching basic surgical skills in the operating theatre, bridging to an official and recurring workshop through a supporting international surgery organization. The medical and assistant medical officer students reported increased satisfaction with their clinical surgery rotations and mastery of key educational subjects. The initiation of an Essential Surgical Skills workshop through the Canadian Network for International Surgery showed students had improved comfort with basic surgical techniques. Short-term surgical missions may appear to fill a void in the shortage of health care in the developing world. However, we conclude that global health resources are more appropriately used through projects giving ownership to local providers and promoting education as a foundation of development. This results in better coordination among local and visiting providers and greater impact on education and long-term growth of health care capacity. Les initiatives internationales en ce qui concerne la chirurgie sont de plus en plus axées sur le renforcement des programmes de formation et des systèmes de soins de santé locaux pour consolider les capacités dans ce domaine. L’objectif de ce projet éducatif était d’aider les professionnels de la

  10. Safety and Efficacy of Laparoscopic Access in a Surgical Training Program.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy G; Hooks, William B; Adams, Ashley; Hope, William W

    2016-02-01

    Our study evaluated outcomes of laparoscopic access in a surgical residency program and identified variables associated with adverse outcomes. Following IRB approval, we reviewed prospectively collected data from consecutive laparoscopic surgeries from a single surgeon August 2008 to November 2011. Descriptive statistics were generated, and successful and unsuccessful access techniques were compared using the t test, Fisher exact test, and χ test of independence, with P<0.05 considered significant. Five hundred consecutive laparoscopic surgeries were evaluated; the average patient age was 47 years and 55% of patients were female. The most common procedures included laparoscopic cholecystectomy (29%), laparoscopic ventral hernia (15%), laparoscopic appendectomy (12%), laparoscopic colon/small bowel (11%), and laparoscopic inguinal hernia (10%). Successful laparoscopic access was obtained in 98% of patients. The most common access techniques were umbilical stalk technique (57%) and Veress followed by optical trocar technique (29%). The complication rate was 7% and included multiple access attempts in 3.4%, attending physician having to take over access in 1.6%, bleeding/solid organ injury in 0.8%, insufflating peritoneum in 0.6%, and bowel injury in 0.2%. There was a significant relationship between entry technique and failure rate. Open cutdown away from umbilicus had a higher failure rate than other techniques (P=0.0002). There was also a significant relationship between type of surgery and failure rate of technique, with laparoscopic ventral hernia and laparoscopic small bowel cases having the highest failure rate (P=0.005). We observed no difference in success rate based on age, sex, race, previous surgery, and resident training level (P>0.05). Laparoscopic access using appropriate techniques can be safely performed in a residency training program. Laparoscopic ventral hernia and small bowel procedures for obstruction can be difficult cases to obtain access, and

  11. Postgraduate Fellows as Teaching Assistants in Human Anatomy: An Experimental Teaching Model at a Chinese Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Xiao; Wang, Lin; Guo, Kaihua; Liu, Shu; Li, Feng; Chu, Guoliang; Zhou, Li-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Postgraduate fellowship training programs are expanding at Chinese universities. This growing cadre of advanced trainees calls for the development of new learning and training models wherein postgraduate fellows have an ample opportunity to teach more junior learners, thereby expanding their own knowledge base and competitiveness for future…

  12. Canadian Association of University Surgeons’ Annual Symposium. Surgical simulation: The solution to safe training or a promise unfulfilled?

    PubMed Central

    Brindley, Peter G.; Jones, Daniel B.; Grantcharov, Teodor; de Gara, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    At its 2009 annual symposium, chaired by Dr. William (Bill) Pollett, the Canadian Association of University Surgeons brought together speakers with expertise in surgery and medical education to discuss the role of surgical simulation for improving surgical training and safety. Dr. Daniel Jones, of Harvard University and the 2009 Charles Tator Lecturer, highlighted how simulation has been used to teach advanced laparoscopic surgery. He also outlined how the American College of Surgeons is moving toward competency assessments as a requirement before surgeons are permitted to perform laparoscopic surgery on patients. Dr. Teodor Grantcharov, from the University of Toronto, highlighted the role of virtual reality simulators in laparoscopic surgery as well as box trainers. Dr. Peter Brindley from the University of Alberta, although a strong proponent of simulation, cautioned against an overzealous adoption without addressing its current limitations. He also emphasized simulation’s value in team training and crisis resource management training. Dr. Chris de Gara, also from the University of Alberta, questioned to what extent simulators should be used to determine competency. He raised concerns that if technical skills are learned in isolation, they may become “decontextualized,” and therefore simulation might become counterproductive. He outlined how oversimplification can have an “enchanting” effect, including a false sense of security. As a result, simulation must be used appropriately and along the entire education continuum. Furthermore, far more needs to be done to realize its role in surgical safety. PMID:22854147

  13. Saturated Salt Solution Method: A Useful Cadaver Embalming for Surgical Skills Training

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Shogo; Homma, Hiroshi; Naito, Munekazu; Oda, Jun; Nishiyama, Takahisa; Kawamoto, Atsuo; Kawata, Shinichi; Sato, Norio; Fukuhara, Tomomi; Taguchi, Hirokazu; Mashiko, Kazuki; Azuhata, Takeo; Ito, Masayuki; Kawai, Kentaro; Suzuki, Tomoya; Nishizawa, Yuji; Araki, Jun; Matsuno, Naoto; Shirai, Takayuki; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Fukui, Hidekimi; Ohseto, Kiyoshige; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Itoh, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article evaluates the suitability of cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution (SSS) method for surgical skills training (SST). SST courses using cadavers have been performed to advance a surgeon's techniques without any risk to patients. One important factor for improving SST is the suitability of specimens, which depends on the embalming method. In addition, the infectious risk and cost involved in using cadavers are problems that need to be solved. Six cadavers were embalmed by 3 methods: formalin solution, Thiel solution (TS), and SSS methods. Bacterial and fungal culture tests and measurement of ranges of motion were conducted for each cadaver. Fourteen surgeons evaluated the 3 embalming methods and 9 SST instructors (7 trauma surgeons and 2 orthopedists) operated the cadavers by 21 procedures. In addition, ultrasonography, central venous catheterization, and incision with cauterization followed by autosuture stapling were performed in some cadavers. The SSS method had a sufficient antibiotic effect and produced cadavers with flexible joints and a high tissue quality suitable for SST. The surgeons evaluated the cadavers embalmed by the SSS method to be highly equal to those embalmed by the TS method. Ultrasound images were clear in the cadavers embalmed by both the methods. Central venous catheterization could be performed in a cadaver embalmed by the SSS method and then be affirmed by x-ray. Lungs and intestines could be incised with cauterization and autosuture stapling in the cadavers embalmed by TS and SSS methods. Cadavers embalmed by the SSS method are sufficiently useful for SST. This method is simple, carries a low infectious risk, and is relatively of low cost, enabling a wider use of cadavers for SST. PMID:25501070

  14. Saturated salt solution method: a useful cadaver embalming for surgical skills training.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shogo; Homma, Hiroshi; Naito, Munekazu; Oda, Jun; Nishiyama, Takahisa; Kawamoto, Atsuo; Kawata, Shinichi; Sato, Norio; Fukuhara, Tomomi; Taguchi, Hirokazu; Mashiko, Kazuki; Azuhata, Takeo; Ito, Masayuki; Kawai, Kentaro; Suzuki, Tomoya; Nishizawa, Yuji; Araki, Jun; Matsuno, Naoto; Shirai, Takayuki; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Fukui, Hidekimi; Ohseto, Kiyoshige; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Itoh, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    This article evaluates the suitability of cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution (SSS) method for surgical skills training (SST). SST courses using cadavers have been performed to advance a surgeon's techniques without any risk to patients. One important factor for improving SST is the suitability of specimens, which depends on the embalming method. In addition, the infectious risk and cost involved in using cadavers are problems that need to be solved. Six cadavers were embalmed by 3 methods: formalin solution, Thiel solution (TS), and SSS methods. Bacterial and fungal culture tests and measurement of ranges of motion were conducted for each cadaver. Fourteen surgeons evaluated the 3 embalming methods and 9 SST instructors (7 trauma surgeons and 2 orthopedists) operated the cadavers by 21 procedures. In addition, ultrasonography, central venous catheterization, and incision with cauterization followed by autosuture stapling were performed in some cadavers. The SSS method had a sufficient antibiotic effect and produced cadavers with flexible joints and a high tissue quality suitable for SST. The surgeons evaluated the cadavers embalmed by the SSS method to be highly equal to those embalmed by the TS method. Ultrasound images were clear in the cadavers embalmed by both the methods. Central venous catheterization could be performed in a cadaver embalmed by the SSS method and then be affirmed by x-ray. Lungs and intestines could be incised with cauterization and autosuture stapling in the cadavers embalmed by TS and SSS methods. Cadavers embalmed by the SSS method are sufficiently useful for SST. This method is simple, carries a low infectious risk, and is relatively of low cost, enabling a wider use of cadavers for SST.

  15. Interrelationships Between Academic Degree Programs and Postdegree Internship Training *

    PubMed Central

    Brodman, Estelle

    1968-01-01

    Differences between postgraduate academic training for medical librarianship and the less formal, nonacademic postgraduate training in this field are described. Strengths and weaknesses of each kind of learning experience are given. PMID:5702317

  16. Surgical novices randomized to train in two video games become more motivated during training in MIST-VR and GI Mentor II than students with no video game training.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Leif; Schlickum, Marcus; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2013-01-01

    We investigated if engagement modes and perceived self-efficacy differed in surgical novices before and after randomized training in two different video games during five weeks, and a control group with no training. The control group expressed to a higher extent negative engagement modes during training in MIST-VR and GI Mentor II than the experimental groups. No statistically significant differences in self-efficacy were identified between groups. Both engagement modes and self-efficacy showed a positive correlation with previous and present video game experience. It is suggested that videogame training could have a framing effect on surgical simulator performance. EM and SE might be important intermediate variables between the strength of relationship between current videogame experience and simulator performance.

  17. Science Subject Knowledge of Pre-Service Postgraduate Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliffe, Mary

    For the past eight years postgraduate science teachers in training (approximately 50 each year) have been given Assessment of Performance Unit (APU) questions under strict test conditions as part of an initial learning experience in an education course. The APU questions were originally devised to explore the range of understanding of 15-year-old…

  18. Improving the Development of Postgraduates' Research and Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Affero; Abiddin, Norhasni Zainal; Hassan, Aminuddin

    2011-01-01

    Research and supervision have become a vital process in the successful of postgraduate studies. Building an academic career path after Higher National Degree or Bachelor Degree needs intensive training and preparation. This culminates in writing of thesis or dissertation. In this process, the supervisor is designated to facilitate the student's…

  19. Risk factors for treatment failure in surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism: the impact of change in surgical strategy and training procedures.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Anders Rørbæk; Rasmussen, Lars; Godballe, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) has a high cure-rate and few complications. Preoperative localization procedures have permitted a dramatic shift from routine bilateral exploration to focused, minimally invasive procedures. At Odense University Hospital, Denmark, the introduction of focused surgery was combined with training of new surgeons. The objective of this study was to identify possible risk factors for treatment failure with special focus on surgical strategy and training of new surgeons. A 6-year prospective and consecutive series of 567 pHPT patients operated at Odense University hospital, Denmark, was analyzed. A shift in strategy was made in 2006 and at the same time new surgeons started training in parathyroid surgery. Biochemical-, clinical- and follow-up data were analyzed. Overall cure-rate was 90.7 %. Complication rates were 1.1 % for hemorrhage, 1.1 % for wound infection and 0.9 % for recurrent nerve paralysis. The only significant predictor of treatment failure at 6 months was histology of hyperplasia (OR 4.3). Neither the introduction of minimal invasive surgical strategy nor the training of new surgeons had a significant influence on the rate of treatment failures. Hyperplasia is a significant predictor of treatment failure in pHPT surgery. A shift towards systematic preoperative localization with focused surgery as well as training of new surgeons can be done without negative impact on treatment results. Identification of the hyperplasia and multigland patients in need of bilateral cervical exploration is crucial to avoid failures and raise cure rates. PMID:26044404

  20. The characteristics of Mohs surgery performed by dermatologists who learned the procedure during residency training or through postgraduate courses and observational preceptorships.

    PubMed

    Steinman, Howard K; Clever, Henry; Dixon, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the practice characteristics of Mohs surgery performed by physicians who learned the procedure during their dermatology residency training or through postresidency courses and observational preceptorships. All published reports have investigated Mohs surgeons trained in postresidency fellowships. This report presents the results of a multicenter prospective cohort study evaluating 1834 consecutive Mohs surgery cases performed during the same 6-month period by 9 Mohs surgeons who learned the technique in residency or in postresidency courses and observational preceptorships. One major complication was reported, a hematoma requiring outpatient drainage in an emergency room. There were 54 (2.9%) short-term complications, including 20 (1.1%) infections, 17 (0.9%) wound dehiscences, 9 (0.5%) cases of skin flap necrosis, and 8 (0.4%) hematomas or postoperative bleeding episodes. These complication rates and the data evaluating tumor type, anatomic location, primary vs. recurrent tumor status, tumor size, postoperative wound size, number of Mohs surgery stages, and repair type compare favorably to previously published reports. PMID:27034540

  1. Using virtual reality technology and hand tracking technology to create software for training surgical skills in 3D game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakirova, A. A.; Ganiev, B. A.; Mullin, R. I.

    2015-11-01

    The lack of visible and approachable ways of training surgical skills is one of the main problems in medical education. Existing simulation training devices are not designed to teach students, and are not available due to the high cost of the equipment. Using modern technologies such as virtual reality and hands movements fixation technology we want to create innovative method of learning the technics of conducting operations in 3D game format, which can make education process interesting and effective. Creating of 3D format virtual simulator will allow to solve several conceptual problems at once: opportunity of practical skills improvement unlimited by the time without the risk for patient, high realism of environment in operational and anatomic body structures, using of game mechanics for information perception relief and memorization of methods acceleration, accessibility of this program.

  2. How can surgical training benefit from theories of skilled motor development, musical skill acquisition and performance psychology?

    PubMed

    McCaskie, Andrew W; Kenny, Dianna T; Deshmukh, Sandeep

    2011-05-01

    Trainee surgeons must acquire expert status in the context of reduced hours, reduced operating room time and the need to learn complex skills involving screen-mediated techniques, computers and robotics. Ever more sophisticated surgical simulation strategies have been helpful in providing surgeons with the opportunity to practise, but not all of these strategies are widely available. Similarities in the motor skills required in skilled musical performance and surgery suggest that models of music learning, and particularly skilled motor development, may be applicable in training surgeons. More attention should be paid to factors associated with optimal arousal and optimal performance in surgical training - lessons learned from helping anxious musicians optimise performance and manage anxiety may also be transferable to trainee surgeons. The ways in which the trainee surgeon moves from novice to expert need to be better understood so that this process can be expedited using current knowledge in other disciplines requiring the performance of complex fine motor tasks with high cognitive load under pressure.

  3. Changes to postgraduate medical education in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mehool

    2016-08-01

    Medicine is a constantly evolving profession, especially with the advent of rapid advances in the scientific base that underpins this vocation. In order to ensure that training in medicine is contemporary with the continuous evolution of the profession, there has been a multitude of changes to postgraduate medical education, particularly in the UK. This article aims to provide an overview of relevant key changes to postgraduate medical education in the UK during the 21st century, including changes to the structure, governance and commissioning of medical education, effects of European Working Time Directive on training, recent recommendations in the Future Hospital Commission report and Shape of training report, and recent requirements for accreditation of medical education trainers. Many of these recommendations will require complex discussions often at organisational levels, hopefully with some realistic and pragmatic solutions for implementation.

  4. Changes to postgraduate medical education in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mehool

    2016-08-01

    Medicine is a constantly evolving profession, especially with the advent of rapid advances in the scientific base that underpins this vocation. In order to ensure that training in medicine is contemporary with the continuous evolution of the profession, there has been a multitude of changes to postgraduate medical education, particularly in the UK. This article aims to provide an overview of relevant key changes to postgraduate medical education in the UK during the 21st century, including changes to the structure, governance and commissioning of medical education, effects of European Working Time Directive on training, recent recommendations in the Future Hospital Commission report and Shape of training report, and recent requirements for accreditation of medical education trainers. Many of these recommendations will require complex discussions often at organisational levels, hopefully with some realistic and pragmatic solutions for implementation. PMID:27481371

  5. The Relationship of Endoscopic Proficiency to Educational Expense for Virtual Reality Simulator Training Amongst Surgical Trainees.

    PubMed

    Raque, Jessica; Goble, Adam; Jones, Veronica M; Waldman, Lindsey E; Sutton, Erica

    2015-07-01

    With the introduction of Fundamentals of Endoscopic Surgery, training methods in flexible endoscopy are being augmented with simulation-based curricula. The investment for virtual reality simulators warrants further research into its training advantage. Trainees were randomized into bedside or simulator training groups (BED vs SIM). SIM participated in a proficiency-based virtual reality curriculum. Trainees' endoscopic skills were rated using the Global Assessment of Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Skills (GAGES) in the patient care setting. The number of cases to reach 90 per cent of the maximum GAGES score and calculated costs of training were compared. Nineteen residents participated in the study. There was no difference in the average number of cases required to achieve 90 per cent of the maximum GAGES score for esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 13 (SIM) versus11 (BED) (P = 0.63), or colonoscopy 21 (SIM) versus 4 (BED) (P = 0.34). The average per case cost of training for esophagogastroduodenoscopy was $35.98 (SIM) versus $39.71 (BED) (P = 0.50), not including the depreciation costs associated with the simulator ($715.00 per resident over six years). Use of a simulator appeared to increase the cost of training without accelerating the learning curve or decreasing faculty time spent in instruction. The importance of simulation in endoscopy training will be predicated on more cost-effective simulators. PMID:26140898

  6. The Relationship of Endoscopic Proficiency to Educational Expense for Virtual Reality Simulator Training Amongst Surgical Trainees.

    PubMed

    Raque, Jessica; Goble, Adam; Jones, Veronica M; Waldman, Lindsey E; Sutton, Erica

    2015-07-01

    With the introduction of Fundamentals of Endoscopic Surgery, training methods in flexible endoscopy are being augmented with simulation-based curricula. The investment for virtual reality simulators warrants further research into its training advantage. Trainees were randomized into bedside or simulator training groups (BED vs SIM). SIM participated in a proficiency-based virtual reality curriculum. Trainees' endoscopic skills were rated using the Global Assessment of Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Skills (GAGES) in the patient care setting. The number of cases to reach 90 per cent of the maximum GAGES score and calculated costs of training were compared. Nineteen residents participated in the study. There was no difference in the average number of cases required to achieve 90 per cent of the maximum GAGES score for esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 13 (SIM) versus11 (BED) (P = 0.63), or colonoscopy 21 (SIM) versus 4 (BED) (P = 0.34). The average per case cost of training for esophagogastroduodenoscopy was $35.98 (SIM) versus $39.71 (BED) (P = 0.50), not including the depreciation costs associated with the simulator ($715.00 per resident over six years). Use of a simulator appeared to increase the cost of training without accelerating the learning curve or decreasing faculty time spent in instruction. The importance of simulation in endoscopy training will be predicated on more cost-effective simulators.

  7. Objective Evaluation of Motor Skills for Orthopedic Residents Using a Motion Tracking Drill System: Outcomes of an ABOS Approved Surgical Skills Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Pourkand, Ashkan; Salas, Christina; Regalado, Jasmin; Bhakta, Krishan; Tufaro, Rachel; Mercer, Deana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Orthopedics is a motor skills-demanding surgical specialty requiring surgical skills training outside of the operating room. Unfortunately, limited quantitative techniques exist to determine the effectiveness of these surgical skills training programs. Using a variety of drill, surgeon, and specimen mounted sensors, we evaluated orthopedic surgery residents during a surgical skills training course approved by the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgeons (ABOS). This evaluation consisted of quantitative measures of various kinematic and kinetic parameters with the goal of relating these to clinically-significant outcomes. Methods Seven experienced surgeons and 22 surgical residents participated in this study, each performing 5 surgical drilling trials, pre- and post-training. Utilizing arm and tool kinematics, applied force, tool and bone vibration, and drill RPM were measured using a combination of force, acceleration, and optical tracking sensors. Post hoc screw pullout testing and resident survey data were also evaluated. Overall, 25 measured parameters were expressed as scalars and their covariance calculated. Results Non-trivial direct correlations whose magnitude exceeded 0.5 were: maximum penetration distance with applied force, drill toggle with drill roll angle, and drill RPM with force. Surgeons applying a high drill RPM also yielded a large force which in turn gave an increase in tendency for over-penetration. As a whole, the differences between experienced and novice surgeons measured in these trials were not statistically significant. However, when looking at specific performance criterion individually (maintaining steady force, minimizing over-penetration, minimizing both the major and minor axis diameters, minimizing toggle and drill vibration), experienced surgeons tended to outperform their novice counterparts. Conclusions Objective assessment of surgical skills using sensor based technologies may help elucidate differences between

  8. Simulation in Surgical Education

    PubMed Central

    de Montbrun, Sandra L.; MacRae, Helen

    2012-01-01

    The pedagogical approach to surgical training has changed significantly over the past few decades. No longer are surgical skills solely acquired through a traditional apprenticeship model of training. The acquisition of many technical and nontechnical skills is moving from the operating room to the surgical skills laboratory through the use of simulation. Many platforms exist for the learning and assessment of surgical skills. In this article, the authors provide a broad overview of some of the currently available surgical simulation modalities including bench-top models, laparoscopic simulators, simulation for new surgical technologies, and simulation for nontechnical surgical skills. PMID:23997671

  9. Awareness, Knowledge and Intentions for Postgraduate Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepsen, Denise M.; Varhegyi, Melinda M.

    2011-01-01

    Many university administrators, academics and marketers expend time and financial resources promoting postgraduate study options, yet scant scholarly research has addressed students' attraction to postgraduate study. This study examines awareness and knowledge of, and intentions to pursue postgraduate study from the perspective of current…

  10. Undermining and bullying in surgical training: A review and recommendations by the Association of Surgeons in Training.

    PubMed

    Wild, J R L; Ferguson, H J M; McDermott, F D; Hornby, S T; Gokani, V J

    2015-11-01

    The 2012 General Medical Council National Trainees' Survey found that 13% of UK trainees had experienced undermining or bullying in the workplace. The Association of Surgeons in Training subsequently released a position statement raising concerns stemming from these findings, including potential compromise to patient safety. This article considers the impact of such behaviour on the NHS, and makes recommendations for creating a positive learning environment within the NHS at national, organisational, and local levels. The paper also discusses the nature of issues within the UK, and pathways through which trainees can seek help. PMID:26369864

  11. Undermining and bullying in surgical training: A review and recommendations by the Association of Surgeons in Training.

    PubMed

    Wild, J R L; Ferguson, H J M; McDermott, F D; Hornby, S T; Gokani, V J

    2015-11-01

    The 2012 General Medical Council National Trainees' Survey found that 13% of UK trainees had experienced undermining or bullying in the workplace. The Association of Surgeons in Training subsequently released a position statement raising concerns stemming from these findings, including potential compromise to patient safety. This article considers the impact of such behaviour on the NHS, and makes recommendations for creating a positive learning environment within the NHS at national, organisational, and local levels. The paper also discusses the nature of issues within the UK, and pathways through which trainees can seek help.

  12. The Learning and Development of Low-Skilled Workers Training to Become Surgical Technologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Judith Sandra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to explore how low-skilled workers who participated in a health care training program learned to acquire the technical, cognitive, and developmental competencies they needed to gain skilled employment in higher-level positions in the field and thus advance their careers. The data methods used were: (1) in-depth…

  13. Notes From the Field: Secondary Task Precision for Cognitive Load Estimation During Virtual Reality Surgical Simulation Training.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Sebastian R; Konge, Lars; Mikkelsen, Peter T; Sørensen, Mads S; Andersen, Steven A W

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive load (CL) theory suggests that working memory can be overloaded in complex learning tasks such as surgical technical skills training, which can impair learning. Valid and feasible methods for estimating the CL in specific learning contexts are necessary before the efficacy of CL-lowering instructional interventions can be established. This study aims to explore secondary task precision for the estimation of CL in virtual reality (VR) surgical simulation and also investigate the effects of CL-modifying factors such as simulator-integrated tutoring and repeated practice. Twenty-four participants were randomized for visual assistance by a simulator-integrated tutor function during the first 5 of 12 repeated mastoidectomy procedures on a VR temporal bone simulator. Secondary task precision was found to be significantly lower during simulation compared with nonsimulation baseline, p < .001. Contrary to expectations, simulator-integrated tutoring and repeated practice did not have an impact on secondary task precision. This finding suggests that even though considerable changes in CL are reflected in secondary task precision, it lacks sensitivity. In contrast, secondary task reaction time could be more sensitive, but requires substantial postprocessing of data. Therefore, future studies on the effect of CL modifying interventions should weigh the pros and cons of the various secondary task measurements.

  14. Service Quality in Postgraduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angell, Robert J.; Heffernan, Troy W.; Megicks, Phil

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Measuring service quality in higher education is increasingly important for attracting and retaining tuition-based revenues. Nonetheless, whilst undergraduates have received substantial academic exposure, postgraduate-based research has been scant. Consequently, the objectives of this paper are threefold: first, to identify the service…

  15. Assessing surgical skill training under hazardous conditions in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Scerbo, Mark W; Bliss, James P; Schmidt, Elizabeth A; Hanner-Bailey, Hope S; Weireter, Leonard J

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the performance of a surgical procedure under simulated combat conditions. Eleven residents performed a cricothyroidotomy on a mannequin-based simulator in a fully immersive virtual environment running a combat simulation with a virtual sniper under both day and night time lighting conditions. The results showed that completion times improved between the first and second attempt and that differences between day and night time conditions were minimal. However, three participants were killed by the virtual sniper before completing the procedure. These results suggest that some participants' ability to allocate attention to the task and their surroundings was inappropriate even under simulated hazardous conditions. Further, this study shows that virtual environments offer the chance to study a wider variety of medical procedures performed under an unlimited number of conditions.

  16. The "tele" factor in surgery today and tomorrow: implications for surgical training and education.

    PubMed

    Gambadauro, Pietro; Torrejón, Rafael

    2013-02-01

    New technological developments in the field of telecommunications have allowed a wide range of potentially novel surgical applications. The introduction of the World Wide Web in 1991 has been followed by a steep rise of the relevance of telemedicine, as it is witnessed in the latest scientific literature. There has been a consistent, positive trend in publications dealing, respectively, with telemedicine and the Internet. This article reviews telemedicine and other surgery-related innovations that benefit from telecommunication advances, and presents data from a quantitative bibliographic analysis. A number of applications, such as telementoring, teleproctoring and robotic telesurgery are described and their huge potentials are discussed. The integration between surgery and telecommunications could constitute one of the major achievements of modern medicine, and its safe integration into clinical practice should be a priority for modern surgeons. PMID:22836545

  17. Real-time blood circulation and bleeding model for surgical training.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, Jonathan; Poirier, Guillaume; Borgeat, Louis; Godin, Guy

    2013-04-01

    Intraoperative management of bleeding is a critical skill all surgeons must possess. It is, however, very challenging to create a safe and realistic learning environment for its acquisition. In this paper, we propose a simple and efficient approach to integrate blood circulation to computerized surgical simulation systems and allow for real-time processing of punctures, ruptures, and cauterization of blood vessels. Blood pressures and flows are calculated using a system of ordinary differential equations, which can be simulated very efficiently. The equation system itself is constructed using a graph of the vessels' connectivity extracted from magnetic resonance angiograms (MRA) and completed with virtual vessels deduced from the principle of minimum work. Real-time performances of the method are assessed and results are demonstrated on ten patients who underwent a MRA before removal of a brain tumor.

  18. The impact of reduced working hours on surgical training in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gough, Ian R

    2011-01-01

    There is a worldwide trend for reduced working hours for doctors, particularly in the developed western countries. This has been led by the introduction of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) that has had a significant impact on work patterns and training. Australia currently has a more flexible working environment but this is changing. In New Zealand there is a contract for resident doctors defining a maximum 72 h of rostered work per week. PMID:21550001

  19. Pre-surgical sensorimotor training for patients undergoing total hip replacement: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bitterli, R; Sieben, J M; Hartmann, M; de Bruin, E D

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether pre-operative, sensorimotor training results in improved physical function, quality of life, sensorimotor function and reduced disability in total hip replacement patients. 80 subjects awaiting total hip replacement at a Swiss hospital were recruited for this randomised controlled trial. The intervention group participated in a pre-operative home exercise sensorimotor training programme; the control group received no therapy. Primary outcome measure was physical function, secondary outcome measures were quality of life, disability and sensorimotor function. Outcomes were measured using generic and disease-specific questionnaires as well as objectively assessed balance ability. Measurements were taken one day before surgery and 10 days, 4 and 12 months after surgery. The intervention showed improved quality of life and sensorimotor function before surgery. These effects were lost following surgery. The intervention group experienced more disability at 4 months than the control group. At one year follow-up group-membership influenced quality of life scores depending on the measurement-time-point. It can be concluded that no useful effect was identified for a pre-operative sensory-motor training-programme. The psychological aspects following total hip replacement need to be considered in order to facilitate coping-strategies, reduce unrealistic expectations and increase satisfaction. PMID:21630176

  20. Review of available methods of simulation training to facilitate surgical education.

    PubMed

    Bashankaev, Badma; Baido, Sergey; Wexner, Steven D

    2011-01-01

    The old paradigm of "see one, do one, teach one" has now changed to "see several, learn the skills and simulation, do one, teach one." Modern medicine over the past 30 years has undergone significant revolutions from earlier models made possible by significant technological advances. Scientific and technological progress has made these advances possible not only by increasing the complexity of procedures, but also by increasing the ability to have complex methods of training to perform these sophisticated procedures. Simulators in training labs have been much more embraced outside the operating room, with advanced cardiac life support using hands-on models (CPR "dummy") as well as a fusion with computer-based testing for examinations ranging from the United States medical licensure exam to the examinations administered by the American Board of Surgery and the American Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery. Thus, the development of training methods that test both technical skills and clinical acumen may be essential to help achieve both safety and financial goals. PMID:20552373

  1. Development of postgraduate research supervisors within a teaching hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Scott, K M; Caldwell, P H Y; Oldmeadow, W; Dale, R C; Jones, C A

    2015-08-01

    The recent trend to embed medical research at point of care has created a need for postgraduate research supervisors in hospitals who are practising clinicians and lab-based researchers. We explored the training needs of supervisors to inform the design and evaluation of a hospital-based development programme. We found that if hospital-based supervisors are to improve their practice, the programme needs to be on-site to ensure access and relevance to local issues. PMID:26220029

  2. [Learning-enhancing evaluation practice in post-graduate medicine].

    PubMed

    Madsen, Bjørn Stæhr; Klitmøller, Anders

    2012-09-01

    The article addresses the issue of evaluation in clinical supervisor interviews, and how learning outcomes can be increased in this setting. Based on a literature review the article demonstrates that a learning-enhancing evaluation is a context bound process that needs to take emotional, social and operational aspects in account, in order to be successful. The article contributes to an understanding of how to promote a learning-enhancing evaluation practice in post-graduate medicine in the Danish medical training.

  3. Study skills course in medical education for postgraduate residents.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, M D

    2007-01-01

    The learners have to take active parts in the teaching learning activities. To make them aware and to help them develop the skills required, the need of the study skills course in medical education early in the part of their training has been realized for the postgraduate residents. The important areas of the study skills course focusing in the requirement of clinical components of the postgraduate residents are 1) Interpersonal and communications skills, 2) Teaching, learning and presentation skills, 3) Language, reading and computer use, 4) Evidence based medicine and diagnosis and management, 5) Assessment principles and strategies, 6) Time management strategies to get the best out of the training, 7) Reflection, portfolio and self-directed lifelong learning, and 8) Follow-up presentation. The methodologies that could be used in such study skills course are interactive lectures, brainstorming, presentations by the trainees, demonstration to and by the trainees, small group discussion, group work and presentation, group and individual feedback, practice sessions, role play, short relevant video movies, video recording of the trainees and viewing with feedback. With their already tight training schedule and posting and other similar other mandatory courses required for the postgraduate residents, much time cannot be allocated for the study skills course in medical education alone. Similar study skills course in medical education may need to be arranged for the undergraduate medical students as well.

  4. The Role of Nonphysician Consultants as Health-Care Educators in Postgraduate Programs of Anesthesiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Henry; Polonsky, Binnie

    1990-01-01

    Advantages of using non-physician consultants in postgraduate anesthesiology training programs are presented, including using their expertise in teaching, training, curriculum design, evaluation, program planning, and interpersonal communications. Successful use of a nonphysician consultant by the Department of Anesthesiology at Hahnemann…

  5. The Use of Libraries by Post-Graduate Distance Learning Students: Whose Responsibility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Neil; Unwin, Lorna; Stephens, Kate

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 977 postgraduate distance-learning students in the United Kingdom investigated student perceptions of library needs. This article examines how students felt they were treated, need for libraries, library training (previous experience and nature and extent of training), problems of distance and time, costs for texts and charges for…

  6. Venereology at the polyclinic: postgraduate medical education among general practitioners in England, 1899-1914.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Anne

    2015-04-01

    In 1899 the British Medical Journal enthusiastically announced that a new postgraduate teaching college was to open in London. The aim of the Medical Graduates' College and Polyclinic (MGC) was to provide continuing education to general practitioners. It drew upon emerging specialisms and in so doing built upon the generalist training received at an undergraduate level. Courses were intended to refresh knowledge and to introduce general practitioners to new knowledge claims and clinical practices. The establishment of postgraduate institutions such as the MGC marked an important stage in the development of medical education in England. Yet these institutions, and the emergence of postgraduate medical education more broadly, have been largely overlooked by historians. Moreover the history of venereological training among medical undergraduates and postgraduates alike has been overlooked. The study of such special subjects characterised postgraduate study. This article examines the dissemination of venereological knowledge among subscribers to MGC as an important case study for the development of institutionalised postgraduate medical education in England at the turn of the twentieth century.

  7. Venereology at the Polyclinic: Postgraduate Medical Education Among General Practitioners in England, 1899–1914

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Anne

    2015-01-01

    In 1899 the British Medical Journal enthusiastically announced that a new postgraduate teaching college was to open in London. The aim of the Medical Graduates’ College and Polyclinic (MGC) was to provide continuing education to general practitioners. It drew upon emerging specialisms and in so doing built upon the generalist training received at an undergraduate level. Courses were intended to refresh knowledge and to introduce general practitioners to new knowledge claims and clinical practices. The establishment of postgraduate institutions such as the MGC marked an important stage in the development of medical education in England. Yet these institutions, and the emergence of postgraduate medical education more broadly, have been largely overlooked by historians. Moreover the history of venereological training among medical undergraduates and postgraduates alike has been overlooked. The study of such special subjects characterised postgraduate study. This article examines the dissemination of venereological knowledge among subscribers to MGC as an important case study for the development of institutionalised postgraduate medical education in England at the turn of the twentieth century. PMID:25766540

  8. Setting Research Priorities for HIV/AIDS-related research in a post-graduate training programme: lessons learnt from the Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme scientific workshop

    PubMed Central

    Poggensee, Gabriele; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Bashorun, Adebobola; Nguku, Patrick Mboya; Fawole, Olufunmilayo Ibitola; Sabitu, Kabir

    2014-01-01

    In Nigeria the current prevalence of HIV is 4.1% with over 3.5 million infected and estimated 1.5 million in need of anti-retroviral treatment. Epidemiological and implementation studies are necessary for monitoring and evaluation of interventions. To define research areas which can be addressed by participants of the Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Training Programme (NFELTP) a workshop was held in April 2013 in Abuja, Nigeria. Priority research areas were identified using criteria lists for ranking of the relevance of research questions. Based on a research matrix, NFELTP residents developed the aims and objectives, study design for HIV-related research proposals. This workshop was the first workshop held by the NFELTP to establish an inventory of research questions which can be addressed by the residents within their training period. This inventory will help to increase HIV/AIDS-related activities of NFELTP which are in accordance with research needs in Nigeria and PEPFAR objectives. PMID:25426209

  9. The medical exploration toolkit: an efficient support for visual computing in surgical planning and training.

    PubMed

    Mühler, Konrad; Tietjen, Christian; Ritter, Felix; Preim, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Application development is often guided by the usage of software libraries and toolkits. For medical applications, the toolkits currently available focus on image analysis and volume rendering. Advance interactive visualizations and user interface issues are not adequately supported. Hence, we present a toolkit for application development in the field of medical intervention planning, training, and presentation--the MEDICALEXPLORATIONTOOLKIT (METK). The METK is based on the rapid prototyping platform MeVisLab and offers a large variety of facilities for an easy and efficient application development process. We present dedicated techniques for advanced medical visualizations, exploration, standardized documentation, adn interface widgets for common tasks. These include, e.g., advanced animation facilities, viewpoint selection, several illustrative rendering techniques, and new techniques for object selection in 3D surface models. No extended programming skills are needed for application building, since a graphical programming approach can be used. the toolkit is freely available and well documented to facilitate the use and extension of the toolkit. PMID:19910667

  10. Exploring the Postgraduate Research Climate and the Postgraduate Research Experience: A Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govender, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to develop a conceptual model aimed at improving the postgraduate research students' experience. Since postgraduate students "vote with their feet" an improved understanding of the postgraduate research service encounter may result in improving the quality of the encounter and so increasing throughput and the…

  11. 1st, 2nd and 3rd Generation Implementations of an eLearning Design: Re-Use from Postgraduate Law to Block/Online Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Sarah; Brewer, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet the demands of postgraduate students who were time poor and unable to regularly attend face-to-face classes, one lecturer in the Faculty Law at the University of Wollongong (UOW) sought the assistance of a Learning Designer to redesign the Postgraduate Practical Legal Training (PLT) program into a flexible blended learning format,…

  12. Undergraduate Student Intentions for Postgraduate Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepsen, Denise Mary; Neumann, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Little is known of how and when undergraduate students decide to progress to postgraduate studies. This study examined the effect of a single semester on intentions to undertake postgraduate study. The study was conducted twice in two years using approximately 120 students enrolled in a third year "Behaviour in Organisations" unit at a…

  13. Applying Services Marketing Principles to Postgraduate Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to describe the application of two key service quality frameworks for improving the delivery of postgraduate research supervision. The services quality frameworks are used to identify key areas of overlap between services marketing practice and postgraduate supervision that can be used by the supervisor to improve research…

  14. Surgical heuristics.

    PubMed

    Patkin, Michael

    2008-12-01

    Heuristics are rules of thumb. Rarely described in surgical or other publications, they are an essential part of safe and expert performance. This study translates such implicit or procedural knowledge into explicit or declarative knowledge, with a view to improving both training and retraining of surgeons in the steps of dissection. Tools used include ordinary observation accompanied by introspection, and study of operative videos. Validation of the value of such heuristics is yet to be achieved.

  15. 2005 Distinguished Academician Lecture: Evolution of postgraduate medical education in Singapore--role of professional associations.

    PubMed

    Shanmugaratnam, K

    2005-12-01

    From 1910 to 1945, doctors in Singapore received postgraduate training through apprenticeship. During the early post-war period, some doctors in the public service were given scholarships to study in Britain and to obtain higher professional qualifications from the British Royal Colleges. The events that most influenced subsequent development of postgraduate education in Singapore occurred between 1956 and 1969: the formation of the Academy of Medicine and the Singapore Medical Association (SMA); organisation of courses for candidates preparing for examinations of the Royal Australasian and British Colleges; competition between the Academy and the University over responsibility for postgraduate medical education; the inauguration of the School of Postgraduate Medical Studies (SPMS); and the introduction of Master of Medicine (M Med) degrees in various medical specialties. From 1970 to 1999, there was expansion in several aspects of postgraduate medical education: SPMS awarded more than 2000 M Med degrees; the Singapore Medical Council (SMC) established a Register of Specialists and formed a Specialist Accreditation Board; the Academy formed Chapters in 10 specialties and developed Advanced Specialty Training programmes leading to Fellowship of the Academy of Medicine Singapore (FAMS); the SMA formed Societies in some 20 specialties; and a College of Family Physicians was inaugurated. There have been more developments from 2000 to 2005: the University restructured SPMS as a Division of Graduate Medical Studies within the Faculty of Medicine; the SMC implemented compulsory Continuing Medical Education; and the Academy converted 6 of its 10 Chapters into Colleges. PMID:16453040

  16. Evaluation of a training course on open vascular surgical techniques in aortoiliac pathology - 5 years of experience

    PubMed Central

    STANCU, BOGDAN; BETEG, FLORIN; MIRONIUC, AUREL; MUSTE, AUREL; GHERMAN, CLAUDIA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this prospective study was to assess the efficacy of a vascular surgery course (2008–2012), and to verify the viability and the feasibility of vascular anastomoses. Material and method The vascular surgical techniques performed simultaneously on pigs were: enlargement prosthetic angioplasty, abdominal aortic interposition graft and aortoiliac bypass. The endpoints of the study were the surgical skills and the technical quality, assessed on a scale ranging from 1 (satisfactory) to 3 (very good) for our participants. Results A significant improvement in vascular surgical skills tasks was observed during the study years and we also found a significant statistical association between the quality of the suture and the surgical technique used (Kendall coefficient=0.71, p=0.001<0.05). Conclusions Our course contributed to the improvement of the technical vascular surgical skills of the operator teams, reproducing in vivo, in pigs, the intraoperative environment of human patients. PMID:26528071

  17. Surgical Mortality Audit–lessons Learned in a Developing Nation

    PubMed Central

    Bindroo, Sandiya; Saraf, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Surgical audit is a systematic, critical analysis of the quality of surgical care that is reviewed by peers against explicit criteria or recognized standards. It is used to improve surgical practice with the ultimate goal of improving patient care. As the pattern of surgical care is different in the developing world, we analyzed mortalities in a referral medical institute of India to suggest interventions for improvement. An analysis of total admissions, different surgeries, and mortalities over 1 year in an urban referral medical institute of northern India was performed, followed by “peer review” of the mortalities. Mortality rates as outcomes and classification was done to provide comparative results. Of 10,005 surgical patients, 337 (male = 221, female = 116) deaths were reported over 1 year. The overall mortality rate was 3.36%, while mortality in operative cases was 1.76%. Total deaths were classified into (1) Viable: 153 (45%), (2) Nonviable: 174 (52%), and (3) Indeterminate: 10 (3%). Exclusion of the nonviable group reduced the mortality rate from 3.36% to 1.62%. Trauma was the major cause of mortality (n = 235; 70%) as compared to other surgical patients (n = 102; 30%). Increased mortality was also associated with emergency procedures (3.66%) as compared to elective surgeries (0.34%). In conclusion, audit of mortality and morbidity helps in initiating and implementing preventive strategies to improve surgical practice and patient care, and to reduce mortality rates. The mortality and morbidity forum is an important educational activity. It should be considered a mandatory activity in all postgraduate training programs. PMID:26414825

  18. Internet and intranet: a new theatre for surgical practice.

    PubMed

    2002-03-01

    Despite the technological breakthrough and commercial success of the Internet over the past decade, the web presence of surgery has been marginal and disorganised. Minimal utilisation of Internet applications is apparent in the average surgical practice, although the tools to make substantial improvements in gaining and providing information are readily available and often free of charge. With the widespread availability of broadband residential Internet access, streaming video technology providing high-quality full-screen video streams offers valuable educational potentials. Telemedicine and teleconferencing over the Internet are low-cost alternatives to other means of postgraduate training. In addition, an array of devices, utilising net technologies are presented, and with judicious use of these our efficacy and patient-care may be improved.

  19. Evaluating Postgraduate Preparation in the South African Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez-Whitehead, Yasmine

    2015-01-01

    Little work is being undertaken in South Africa to systematically and intentionally prepare undergraduate students to pursue postgraduate studies. This is concerning given the shortage of postgraduate students and the small scale of postgraduate studies. The few programmes and endeavours that exist to prepare students for postgraduate studies are…

  20. Multiplying a Force for Good? the Impact of Security Sector Management Postgraduate Education in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macphee, Paula-Louise; Fitz-Gerald, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance, benefits and wider impact of a donor-funded, locally supported postgraduate programme in security sector management (SSM) for government officials in Ethiopia. With the exception of specialised education and training programmes within the field of peace and conflict studies, the role of education in…

  1. An Overview of the Elements that Influence Efficiency in Postgraduate Supervisory Practice Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttery, Ernest Alan; Richter, Ewa Maria; Filho, Walter Leal

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To outline the role of the group supervision model in postgraduate training, especially its advantages in respect of research involving industry sponsors. Design/methodology/approach: The paper considers the various categories of supervision and the pivotal role played by the supervisor. It analyses indicators of supervisor effectiveness…

  2. Composite Reliability of a Workplace-Based Assessment Toolbox for Postgraduate Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moonen-van Loon, J. M. W.; Overeem, K.; Donkers, H. H. L. M.; van der Vleuten, C. P. M.; Driessen, E. W.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, postgraduate assessment programmes around the world have embraced workplace-based assessment (WBA) and its related tools. Despite their widespread use, results of studies on the validity and reliability of these tools have been variable. Although in many countries decisions about residents' continuation of training and…

  3. Skills Training of Health Workers in the Use of a Non Surgical Device (PrePex) for Adult Safe Male Circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Galukande, Moses; Duffy, Kevin; Bitega, Jean Paul; Wooding, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background Safe Male Circumcision (SMC) is a proven approach for partial protection of men from acquisition of HIV infection. Several sub-Saharan African countries have a target to circumcise 80% of males aged 15 to 49. The use of devices such as PrePex would aid scaling up of SMC. Since most health workers would have no prior experience with use of devices, skills training is needed. This paper explores a skills transfer model at an urban site in Uganda. Objective To assess the practicability and feasibility of rapid short duration training for safe PrePex device use. Methods A prospective study, conducted over 8 weeks (August–October 2012) at International Hospital Kampala, an urban Kampala hospital, examining the performance of various health worker cadres after training in the use of a non-surgical device (PrePex). The prospective study obtained approval from the Makerere School of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee and the Uganda National Council of Science and Technology. If eligible, and after the subject signed the informed consent form, they were enrolled into the study. Results Ten health workers were successfully trained in use of PrePex during a 3 day non-residential on-the-job training course. After the first three days of training, the trained health workers performed 561 placements and 529 device removals successfully. Over all adverse events (AE) rates were below ≤2%; however, there were some differences in AE rates across the cadres trained but not significant (p>0.25 for moderate AEs). Conclusion Rapid training for safe use of the PrePex device is feasible for the range of health workers available for SMC in resource limited settings, but among those with past SMC experience. PMID:25118716

  4. Ophthalmology simulation for undergraduate and postgraduate clinical education

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Daniel Shu Wei; Sim, Shaun Sebastian Khung Peng; Yau, Christine Wen Leng; Rosman, Mohamad; Aw, Ai Tee; Yeo, Ian Yew San

    2016-01-01

    This is a review education paper on the current ophthalmology simulators utilized worldwide for undergraduate and postgraduate training. At present, various simulators such as the EYE Exam Simulator (Kyoto Kagaku Co. Ltd., Kyoto, Japan), Eyesi direct ophthalmoscope simulator (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany), Eyesi indirect ophthalmoscope simulator (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) and Eyesi cataract simulators (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany). These simulators are thought to be able to reduce the initial learning curve for the ophthalmology training but further research will need to be conducted to assess the effectiveness of the simulation-assisted Ophthalmology training. Future research will be of great value to assess the medical students and residents' responses and performance regarding the usefulness of the individual eye simulator. PMID:27366698

  5. Ophthalmology simulation for undergraduate and postgraduate clinical education.

    PubMed

    Ting, Daniel Shu Wei; Sim, Shaun Sebastian Khung Peng; Yau, Christine Wen Leng; Rosman, Mohamad; Aw, Ai Tee; Yeo, Ian Yew San

    2016-01-01

    This is a review education paper on the current ophthalmology simulators utilized worldwide for undergraduate and postgraduate training. At present, various simulators such as the EYE Exam Simulator (Kyoto Kagaku Co. Ltd., Kyoto, Japan), Eyesi direct ophthalmoscope simulator (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany), Eyesi indirect ophthalmoscope simulator (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) and Eyesi cataract simulators (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany). These simulators are thought to be able to reduce the initial learning curve for the ophthalmology training but further research will need to be conducted to assess the effectiveness of the simulation-assisted Ophthalmology training. Future research will be of great value to assess the medical students and residents' responses and performance regarding the usefulness of the individual eye simulator. PMID:27366698

  6. Writing your postgraduate dissertation: a basic framework.

    PubMed

    Walker, S

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a basic framework for those embarking upon a postgraduate dissertation. The dissertation experience can offer many opportunities for self and academic development once ethical approval has been obtained. A good dissertation is the result of a sound methodological framework, where some thought has been given to the strengths and weaknesses of qualitative and quantitative methods of inquiry. The research question needs to be given careful consideration so that the aims and objectives of the postgraduate research project are fulfilled.

  7. Facilitating the Transition to Postgraduate Attainment: The Experience of One Postgraduate, Pre-Registration Physiotherapy Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Students on the MSc Physiotherapy (pre-registration) programme at Manchester Metropolitan University work at postgraduate level, whilst studying to become physiotherapists. To facilitate the transition to postgraduate attainment, students participated in two sessions designed to inform them about assessment processes and standards. The hypothesis…

  8. Abortion - surgical

    MedlinePlus

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  9. [Research and Post-graduate in Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Carlos, A Palacio A

    2012-01-01

    The research component and the acquisition of skills related to the generation of knowledge in the training of medical and surgical specialists in the country is an issue that has recently begun to be discussed. For over 50 years this training has included only the area of professionalism as a copy of an educational model from the mid-twentieth century. Currently the country requires specialists with critical and analytical skills to question their actions and knowledge and generate alternative clinical care to apply to the general population in the search of bettering their own welfare. This article is a review in which the current situation of the teaching of psychiatry and the inclusion of research in the academic processes of our medical specialties in the country are analyzed.

  10. [Research and Post-graduate in Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Carlos, A Palacio A

    2012-01-01

    The research component and the acquisition of skills related to the generation of knowledge in the training of medical and surgical specialists in the country is an issue that has recently begun to be discussed. For over 50 years this training has included only the area of professionalism as a copy of an educational model from the mid-twentieth century. Currently the country requires specialists with critical and analytical skills to question their actions and knowledge and generate alternative clinical care to apply to the general population in the search of bettering their own welfare. This article is a review in which the current situation of the teaching of psychiatry and the inclusion of research in the academic processes of our medical specialties in the country are analyzed. PMID:26572565

  11. Training course on optical telecommunication and multimedia technologies for specialists in endoscopic video surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliullin, Arthur F.; Gusev, Valery F.; Morozov, Oleg G.; Samigullin, Rustem R.; Akul'Shin, Alexander, IV.; Bagapov, Nail N.

    2010-12-01

    The program of courses is recommended for the experts working in endoscopy area, surgery, diagnostics, to developers of optical, optoelectronic and electronic equipment, and also for students and the post-graduate students of telecommunication high schools in addition trained on specializations of biomedical engineering. It urged to help the future researcher, engineer and doctor to understand mechanisms of images formation and display, to understand more deeply procedures of their processing and transfer on telecommunication channels of the various natures, to master modern reports of record and video and audio information reproduction. The separate section is devoted to questions of designing of surgical toolkit compatible with fiber-optical endoscopes.

  12. Training course on optical telecommunication and multimedia technologies for specialists in endoscopic video surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliullin, Arthur F.; Gusev, Valery F.; Morozov, Oleg G.; Samigullin, Rustem R.; Akul'shin, Alexander, Iv.; Bagapov, Nail N.

    2011-04-01

    The program of courses is recommended for the experts working in endoscopy area, surgery, diagnostics, to developers of optical, optoelectronic and electronic equipment, and also for students and the post-graduate students of telecommunication high schools in addition trained on specializations of biomedical engineering. It urged to help the future researcher, engineer and doctor to understand mechanisms of images formation and display, to understand more deeply procedures of their processing and transfer on telecommunication channels of the various natures, to master modern reports of record and video and audio information reproduction. The separate section is devoted to questions of designing of surgical toolkit compatible with fiber-optical endoscopes.

  13. Enhancing Postgraduate Learning and Teaching: Postgraduate Summer School in Dairy Science

    PubMed Central

    Gabai, Gianfranco; Morgante, Massimo; Gallo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Dairy science is a multidisciplinary area of scientific investigation and Ph.D. students aiming to do research in the field of animal and/or veterinary sciences must be aware of this. Ph.D. students often have vast spectra of research interests, and it is quite challenging to satisfy the expectation of all of them. The aim of this study was to establish an international Ph.D. training program based on research collaboration between the University of Sydney and the University of Padova. The core component of this program was a two-week Postgraduate Summer School in Dairy Science, which was held at the University of Padova, for Ph.D. students of both universities. Therefore, we designed a program that encompassed seminars, workshops, laboratory practical sessions, and farm visits. Participants were surveyed using a written questionnaire. Overall, participants have uniformly praised the Summer School calling it a rewarding and valuable learning experience. The Ph.D. Summer School in Dairy Science provided its participants a positive learning experience, provided them the opportunity to establish an international network, and facilitated the development of transferable skills. PMID:24575312

  14. Enhancing postgraduate learning and teaching: postgraduate summer school in dairy science.

    PubMed

    Celi, Pietro; Gabai, Gianfranco; Morgante, Massimo; Gallo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Dairy science is a multidisciplinary area of scientific investigation and Ph.D. students aiming to do research in the field of animal and/or veterinary sciences must be aware of this. Ph.D. students often have vast spectra of research interests, and it is quite challenging to satisfy the expectation of all of them. The aim of this study was to establish an international Ph.D. training program based on research collaboration between the University of Sydney and the University of Padova. The core component of this program was a two-week Postgraduate Summer School in Dairy Science, which was held at the University of Padova, for Ph.D. students of both universities. Therefore, we designed a program that encompassed seminars, workshops, laboratory practical sessions, and farm visits. Participants were surveyed using a written questionnaire. Overall, participants have uniformly praised the Summer School calling it a rewarding and valuable learning experience. The Ph.D. Summer School in Dairy Science provided its participants a positive learning experience, provided them the opportunity to establish an international network, and facilitated the development of transferable skills.

  15. Basic biostatistics for post-graduate students.

    PubMed

    Dakhale, Ganesh N; Hiware, Sachin K; Shinde, Abhijit T; Mahatme, Mohini S

    2012-01-01

    Statistical methods are important to draw valid conclusions from the obtained data. This article provides background information related to fundamental methods and techniques in biostatistics for the use of postgraduate students. Main focus is given to types of data, measurement of central variations and basic tests, which are useful for analysis of different types of observations. Few parameters like normal distribution, calculation of sample size, level of significance, null hypothesis, indices of variability, and different test are explained in detail by giving suitable examples. Using these guidelines, we are confident enough that postgraduate students will be able to classify distribution of data along with application of proper test. Information is also given regarding various free software programs and websites useful for calculations of statistics. Thus, postgraduate students will be benefitted in both ways whether they opt for academics or for industry.

  16. Giving Thanks: The Relational Context of Gratitude in Postgraduate Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Kerrie L.; Turner, Nick; Williams, Helen M.; Piccin-Houle, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Successful postgraduate supervision is often dependent upon the quality of the relationship between postgraduates and their supervisors. This article reports on two studies that focus on grateful affect and grateful expression within low- and high-trust postgraduate-supervisor working relationships. In Study 1, a sample of Canadian postgraduates…

  17. Harmonisation of anaesthesiology training in Europe.

    PubMed

    Van Gessel, Elisabeth F; Ostergard, Helle Thy; Niemi-Murola, Leila

    2012-03-01

    The last 20 years has seen many changes in medical education, with reforms taking place in undergraduate health-care studies with the application of the Bologna principles and also transfer of the same educational principles to postgraduate medical specialty training. It is the aim of this article to grossly sketch and contextualise these reforms in the rapidly evolving European Union, before defining harmonisation of the medical postgraduate training and the bodies involved in this process; thereafter, the authors try to present the potential consensus points that can make the process of harmonisation in anaesthesiology postgraduate training in Europe become a reality. Finally, a brief outline of the potential challenges concludes the paper.

  18. Comparing Single and Dual Console Systems in the Robotic Surgical Training of Graduating OB/GYN Residents in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mikhail, Emad; Salemi, Jason L.; Hart, Stuart; Imudia, Anthony N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the impact of a single versus dual console robotic system on the perceptions of program directors (PD) and residents (RES) towards robotic surgical training among graduating obstetrics and gynecology residents. Design. An anonymous survey was developed using Qualtrics, a web-based survey development and administration system, and sent to obstetrics and gynecology program directors and graduating residents. Participants. 39 program directors and 32 graduating residents (PGY4). Results. According to residents perception, dual console is utilized in about 70% of the respondents' programs. Dual console system programs were more likely to provide a robotics training certificate compared to single console programs (43.5% versus 0%, p = 0.03). A greater proportion of residents graduating from a dual console program perform more than 20 robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomies, 30% versus 0% (p = 0.15). Conclusions. Utilization of dual console system increased the likelihood of obtaining robotic training certification without significantly increasing the case volume of robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy. PMID:26955485

  19. [A new postgraduate education program of the German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine].

    PubMed

    Zöllner, Christian

    2013-11-01

    The postgraduate education program of the "Landesärztekammer" describes the aims to qualify for the "Facharzt" for anesthesiology and plays a key role in ensuring a high quality of medical care. The "Bundesärztekammer" was assigned by the "Deutsche Ärztetag" to develop and improve postgraduate training. The German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine launched in 2011 a committee to develop this new training program. In 2013 the results of the committee were presented and submitted to the "Bundesärztekammer". The principle purpose of this paper was to describe all the new aspects related to this program and to describe all the qualifications needed to finish this program.

  20. Assessing Postgraduate Students' Critical Thinking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javed, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Qurat-Ul-Ain, Ansa

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses to assess the critical thinking ability of postgraduate students. The target population was the male and female students at University level in Pakistan. A small sample of 45 male and 45 female students were selected randomly from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Cornell Critical Thinking Test Series, The…

  1. European Initiatives in Postgraduate Education in Gerontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rijsselt, Rene J. T.; Parkatti, Terttu; Troisi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative to increase mobility of students and staff in…

  2. Reading Practices: Postgraduate Thai Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    The importance of reading for academic study cannot be overemphasized. At the postgraduate level, students are faced with complex text interpretation processes. Yet, while concerns have been expressed regarding the English as a second language literacy (Fitzgerald, 1995), few international students have been asked for their views on their…

  3. Postgraduate Outcomes in American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Mary Ann; Laguilles, Jerold S.; Kelly, Heather A.; Walters, Allison M.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a big-picture view of the postgraduate outcomes landscape. In an effort to promote understanding and to communicate the value of a higher education credential to various stakeholders, five national efforts are described, each of which provides a different perspective for defining, measuring, and collecting postgraduate…

  4. Maximizing communication skills in graduate and postgraduate health-care education through medical writing.

    PubMed

    Young, R C; Rachal, R E; Morgan, A L

    1991-08-01

    Graduate and postgraduate health-care professional training and postdoctoral fellowship programs that deny trainees opportunities to practice both oral and written communication skills produce an incompletely trained health-care provider unable to compete for faculty positions at university hospitals and affiliated staffs. Therefore, it is imperative that program directors make medical writing a prerequisite to successful completion of postgraduate training programs. To make trainees as well as administrators and faculty aware of the importance of oral and written communication skills, a variety of oral abilities needed for presenting medical findings prior to publication are detailed. The use of 2 x 2 slides to support a presentation as well as transparencies, movies, and videotapes are considered. The poster session/scientific exhibit, now becoming more visible because of increasing attendance at professional meetings, is also explained. Written communication abilities are discussed. Consideration is given to the writing of professional manuscripts for publication in a refereed journal. Other types of written communication include case reports, clinicopathological conferences, letters to the editor, book reviews, books, and book contributions. The opportunity to learn needed skills must be offered in the postgraduate health-care curriculum. Mandatory medical writing will maximize the marketability of black health-care professionals for faculty staff placement. Moreover, the establishment of a "track record" early in a professional career will increase the likelihood that black health providers are awarded grants for research. PMID:1720178

  5. Disruptive visions: surgical education.

    PubMed

    Satava, R M

    2004-05-01

    Technological change, decreased financial support for medical education, and social oversight (in the form of the "To Err Is Human" report, HIPPA, and reduced work hours) are forcing a rethinking of the traditional model of surgical education to improve patient safety. New approaches to evaluating surgical competence, such as objective assessment, in combination with new technologies, such as the Internet and surgical simulators, provide the tools to effect a revolution in surgical education and training. Competency based upon quantifiable criteria measures must replace the traditional subjective assessment. The implementation requires accurately defining the elements of training, establishing new quantifiable metrics, stringently measuring performance against criterion, and reporting outcomes throughout the career of a surgeon.

  6. Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism: a comparative assessment of virtue-based leadership development in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Kristine; Puscas, Liana; Tucci, Debara; Woodard, Charles; Witsell, David; Esclamado, Ramon M.; Lee, Walter T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism (STEPP) was developed in 2011 to train tomorrow's leaders during residency. It is based on virtue ethics and takes an approach similar to West Point military academy. The purpose of this research was: (i) to compare the virtue profiles of our residents with that of the military cohort using a standardized virtue assessment tool; and (ii) to assess the value of virtue education on residents. Methods As part of STEPP, otolaryngology residents participated in a virtue-based validated assessment tool called Virtue in Action (VIA) Inventory. This was completed at the initiation of STEPP in July 2011 as well as 1 year later in June 2012. Comparison of the VIA to a military cohort was performed. Leadership ‘Basic Training’ is a series of forums focused on virtues of initiative, integrity, responsibility, self-discipline, and accountability. A pre- and post-test was administered assessing resident perceptions of the value of this ‘Basic Training’. Results Virtues are shared between otolaryngology residents (n=9) and military personnel (n=2,433) as there were no significant differences in strength scores between two military comparison groups and otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) residents. There was a significant improvement (p<0.001) in the understanding of components of the leadership vision and a significant improvement in the understanding of key leadership concepts based on ‘Basic Training’. All residents responded in the post-test that the STEPP program was valuable, up from 56%. Conclusions A virtue-based approach is valued by residents as a part of leadership training during residency. PMID:24172053

  7. Strict Selection Criteria During Surgical Training Ensures Good Outcomes in Laparoscopic Omental Patch Repair (LOPR) for Perforated Peptic Ulcer (PPU).

    PubMed

    Shelat, Vishal G; Ahmed, Saleem; Chia, Clement L K; Cheah, Yee Lee

    2015-02-01

    Application of minimal access surgery in acute care surgery is limited due to various reasons. Laparoscopic omental patch repair (LOPR) for perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) surgery is safe and feasible but not widely implemented. We report our early experience of LOPR with emphasis on strict selection criteria. This is a descriptive study of all patients operated on for PPU at academic university-affiliated institutes from December 2010 to February 2012. All the patients who were operated on for LOPR were included as the study population and their records were studied. Perioperative outcomes, Boey score, Mannheim Peritonitis Index (MPI), and physiologic and operative severity scores for enumeration of mortality and morbidity (POSSUM) scores were calculated. All the data were tabulated in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed using Stata Version 8.x. (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA). Fourteen patients had LOPR out of a total of 45 patients operated for the PPU. Mean age was 46 years (range 22-87 years). Twelve patients (86%) had a Boey score of 0 and all patients had MPI < 21 (mean MPI = 14). The predicted POSSUM morbidity and mortality were 36% and 7%, respectively. Mean ulcer size was 5 mm (range 2-10 mm), mean operating time was 100 minutes (range 70-123 minutes) and mean length of hospital stay was 4 days (range 3-6 days). There was no morbidity or mortality pertaining to LOPR. LOPR should be offered by acute care surgical teams when local expertise is available. This can optimize patient outcomes when strict selection criteria are applied.

  8. [Undergraduate and postgraduate education in international health].

    PubMed

    Christensen, Vibeke Brix; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Karle, Hans; Hemmingsen, Ralf P

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this article is to provide information about possibilities for medical students and doctors to obtain knowledge about international health. Increasing globalisation requires knowledge about international health in such way that Danish doctors are able to diagnose and treat patients, regardless of the patient's nationality and ethnic background. Denmark has a global responsibility towards low and middle income countries to increase the standard of health. Increased knowledge and research in these countries is important both at an undergraduate and postgraduate level.

  9. Refining the Journal Club Presentations of Postgraduate Students in Seven Clinical Departments for Better Evidence-based Practice

    PubMed Central

    Herur, A; Kolagi, S; Ramadurg, U; Hiremath, CS; Hadimani, CP; Goudar, SS

    2016-01-01

    Background: A gap between best practice and actual clinical care exists and this can be overcome by evidence-based practice (EBP), which is essential to improve the clinical decision making. A strategy to reduce deficits in care provision is to train the postgraduate students in the practice of EBP in the journal clubs as evidence from medical colleges in India reveals that current format of journal club presentations is unsatisfactory. Aim: The aim of the present study was to refine the journal club presentations of postgraduate students of clinical departments and to study the effectiveness of EBP training in them for better EBP. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted in S. Nijalingappa Medical College, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India, and it was a pre- and post-trial. This study was a pre- and post-trial done during the journal club presentations of postgraduate students from clinical departments. Postgraduate students' understanding of concepts about EBP was assessed using Fresno test questionnaire in traditional journal club presentation. A hands-on session incorporating steps of EBP was imparted to them. Soon after the session, each student was assessed. In the next journal club presentation, 1 week later, the students were assessed again with the same questionnaire by the same faculty. Scores of the postgraduate students, before and after intervention (immediate and 1 week later), were compared. Data were analyzed by paired t-test using SPSS. Results: An increase in mean posttest scores was seen immediately and also 1 week later as compared to the pretest scores. The scores also increased significantly, when each step of EBP was considered. Conclusions: Incorporating teaching of EBP in journal club presentations improved the competencies of postgraduate students in clinical decision making. PMID:27398252

  10. Bridging the continuum: Analysis of the alignment of undergraduate and postgraduate accreditation standards.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Susan E; Oswald, Anna; Stobart, Kent

    2014-09-01

    Several influential national/international bodies including The Bologna Accord, The Carnegie Foundation and The Future of Medical Education in Canada (FMEC) have called for increased coordination across the medical education continuum. FMEC recognizes accreditation as a "powerful lever" and encourages the alignment of undergraduate and postgraduate standards. The Carnegie Foundation includes a similar call for the creation of a more coherent accreditation system. As a first step, using the Canadian context, we present a methodological approach that assesses the example of how well LCME/CACMS undergraduate accreditation standards align with the Royal College of Physician and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) postgraduate training standards. We analyzed how closely the 132 LCME/CACMS Medical School accreditation standards aligned with the 155 post-graduate standards from the RCPSC accreditation General Standards (A and B). This comparative evaluation demonstrates that the standards do not align closely. Gaps, redundancies and key differences are highlighted. These results are the first step in understanding how accreditation needs to be adapted and re-aligned across the education continuum to provide consistent and coordinated training and these methods could easily be applied to other contexts and jurisdictions.

  11. Surgical education through video broadcasting.

    PubMed

    Nagengast, Eric S; Ramos, Margarita S; Sarma, Hiteswar; Deshpande, Gaurav; Hatcher, Kristin; Magee, William P; Campbell, Alex

    2014-09-01

    Surgical training is facing new obstacles. As advancements in medicine are made, surgeons are expected to know more and to be able to perform more procedures. In the western world, increasing restrictions on residency work hours are adding a new hurdle to surgical training. In low-resource settings, a low attending-to-resident ratio results in limited operative experience for residents. Advances in telemedicine may offer new methods for surgical training. In this article, the authors share their unique experience using live video broadcasting of surgery for educational purposes at a comprehensive cleft care center in Guwahati, India.

  12. Surgical smoke.

    PubMed

    Fan, Joe King-Man; Chan, Fion Siu-Yin; Chu, Kent-Man

    2009-10-01

    Surgical smoke is the gaseous by-product formed during surgical procedures. Most surgeons, operating theatre staff and administrators are unaware of its potential health risks. Surgical smoke is produced by various surgical instruments including those used in electrocautery, lasers, ultrasonic scalpels, high speed drills, burrs and saws. The potential risks include carbon monoxide toxicity to the patient undergoing a laparoscopic operation, pulmonary fibrosis induced by non-viable particles, and transmission of infectious diseases like human papilloma virus. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity are other concerns. Minimisation of the production of surgical smoke and modification of any evacuation systems are possible solutions. In general, a surgical mask can provide more than 90% protection to exposure to surgical smoke; however, in most circumstances it cannot provide air-tight protection to the user. An at least N95 grade or equivalent respirator offers the best protection against surgical smoke, but whether such protection is necessary is currently unknown. PMID:19892630

  13. AN EXPERIMENT IN PSYCHOTHERAPY TRAINING

    PubMed Central

    Tharyan, Anna

    2000-01-01

    Group supervision was initiated in order to meet the training needs of psychiatric postgraduates. The experience of the group was surveyed at the end of one year. It was found that the use of groups as an adjunct to individual supervision was an eminently practical and acceptable method of facilitating training, accessing peer group support and auditing clinical care. PMID:21407927

  14. [The Occupational Medicine Post-Graduate School of Milan].

    PubMed

    Chiappino, G

    2003-01-01

    From its very foundation, post-graduate work for medical doctors has been the main objective of the "Clinica del Lavoro". This completion of the doctor's training has, in the course of the past century, moved in time with the evolution of Occupational Medicine as a science: new developments in the field, the results of experimentation and research carried out in the Clinic, have immediately been passed on to young doctors. The professionals trained in the Clinic have always been considered the very best and have been sought after by the most important medical facilities in the country. Since the beginning of the last century, when Luigi Devoto began to evaluate the infectious, poisonous, and deficiency pathologies connected with the workplace, to the post-war years of rapid growth, when Enrico Vigliani studied and prepared our doctors to deal with dust-related pulmonary diseases, metal-based poisons, and many other problems connected with the transformation of an agricultural society to an industrial society, and up to the present years, which have been characterized by the post-industrial new economy, the "Clinica del Lavoro" has always taught and put into practice the motto of Luigi Devoto: "Occupational medicine is not a part of medicine, but rather a particular way to practice medicine". PMID:12768953

  15. Challenges of postgraduate human health programs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Reinaldo

    2011-02-01

    Recognition for the growing role of extra-academic demands and players in the dynamics of human resource training for the market and, in particular, for research is discussed. Their synergies with the movement towards maturation of the sectoral system of healthcare innovation and with the priorities of the Sistema Único de Saúde (Brazilian National Health System) are discussed. The methodological adequacy of the process for evaluating these trends used by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (Coordination Office for Advancement of University-level Personnel) is analyzed. In a general manner, these trends mean adding new indicators for technological and social productivity to the predominantly academic criteria that already exist. The continuation and deepening of ongoing initiatives aimed at bringing in new formats for postgraduate programs and courses and new courses customized for the demands of the extra-academic market, among other markets, either of a social or technological-business nature, are discussed. In addition, the deepening of initiatives for stimulating postdoctoral training work, which is scarce in Brazil, is discussed. PMID:21181047

  16. Medical school hotline: A History of the University of Hawai'i Postgraduate Medical Education Program at Okinawa Chubu Hospital, 1966-2012.

    PubMed

    Maeshiro, Masao; Izutsu, Satoru; Connolly, Kathleen Kihmm

    2014-06-01

    The University of Hawai'i (UH) has been collaborating with Okinawa Prefectural Chubu Hospital for over 46 years. This collaboration started as a post-World War II effort to increase the physician workforce. At the initiation of the US Army and State Department, the University of Hawai'i was recruited, in cooperation with the government of the Ryukyus and USCAR, to initiate a US style postgraduate clinical training program. The Postgraduate Medical Training Program of University of Hawai'i at Okinawa Chubu Hospital introduced a style of training similar to that in the US by offering a rotating internship. The initial contract had UH establish and run the Postgraduate Medical Training Program of University of Hawaii at Okinawa Central Hospital. After Okinawa's reversion to Japan, under a new contract, UH physicians participated as consultants by providing lectures at "grand rounds" and guidance to faculty, staff, and students. To date, 895 physicians have completed the University of Hawai'i Postgraduate Medical Training Program with 74 currently training. Approximately 662 (74%) of the trainees have remained in Okinawa Prefecture to practice medicine. As a result, the program has enhanced the physician workforce for the islands of Okinawa and neighbor archipelagos of Miyako and Yaeyama Islands.

  17. [The surgical subspecialty board in Japan].

    PubMed

    Furuse, Akira

    2003-11-01

    This article deals with a 7-year endeavor to reform the board certification system of surgical specialty and subspecialty, outlining of 29 meetings of the surgical subspecialty board in Japan. The surgical societies are responsible to constantly improve the quality of the surgical training programs and qualification systems so that the board certified surgeons are accepted and treated as true surgical specialists in this country.

  18. An Integrated Concept on Earth and Environmental Sciences Postgraduate Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosfeld, Klaus; Lohmann, Gerrit; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Burrows, John; Sprengel, Claudia; Bijma, Jelle

    2010-05-01

    Today's graduate and postgraduate education in the field of Earth System and Environmental Science is a highly interdisciplinary and inter-institutional challenge. The integration of observations, palaeoclimate data, and climate modelling requires networks and collaborations of experts and specialists in order to better understand natural climate variations over a broad range of timescales and disciplines, and to cope with the challenges of recent climate change. The existing research infrastructure at the Alfred-Wegener-Institut Bremerhaven (AWI), University of Bremen, and Jacobs University Bremen offers a unique research environment in north-western Germany to study past, present and future changes of the climate system, with special focus on high latitudinal processes. It covers all kind of disciplines, climate science, geosciences and biosciences, and provides a consistent framework for education and qualification of a new generation of expertly trained, internationally competitive master and PhD students. On postgraduate level, the Postgraduate Programme Environmental Physics (PEP) at the University of Bremen (www.pep.uni-bremen.de) educates the participants on the complex relationship between atmosphere, hydrosphere (ocean), cryosphere (ice region) and solid earth (land). Here, the learning of experimental methods in environmental physics at the most advanced level, numerical data analysis using supercomputers, and data interpretation via sophisticated methods prepare students for a scientific career. Within cooperation with the Ocean University of China (OUC) students are participating one year in the PEP programme during their master studies since 2006, to get finally a double degree of both universities. Based on this successful cooperation a similar programme is in preparation with the Lulea University of Technology, Sweden. The Earth System Science Research School (ESSReS) (www.earth-system-science.org) at the AWI enables PhD students from a variety of

  19. Innovation in pediatric surgical education.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Matthew S; Wulkan, Mark L

    2015-06-01

    Pediatric surgical training in the United States remained basically unchanged from the model developed by Ladd and Gross in the 1930s until recently. Standardized curriculum and novel evaluation methods are now being implemented. Pediatric Surgical education is currently undergoing a transition to competency-based evaluation and promotion. Unfortunately, there is little data on the efficacy of these changes. This presents an opportunity for further study of how we conduct training, and how we evaluate and promote our trainees.

  20. [Undergraduate and postgraduate education in international health].

    PubMed

    Christensen, Vibeke Brix; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Karle, Hans; Hemmingsen, Ralf P

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this article is to provide information about possibilities for medical students and doctors to obtain knowledge about international health. Increasing globalisation requires knowledge about international health in such way that Danish doctors are able to diagnose and treat patients, regardless of the patient's nationality and ethnic background. Denmark has a global responsibility towards low and middle income countries to increase the standard of health. Increased knowledge and research in these countries is important both at an undergraduate and postgraduate level. PMID:16999892

  1. The Impact of an EAP Course on Postgraduate Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Neomy; Tapper, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of completing an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) course on the writing of postgraduate learners. We begin this paper by describing a course offered for credit to postgraduate international students at a university in Australia, and then report on a large-scale study (n = 69) which investigated the improvement (if…

  2. Developing the Parameters of Scholarship in Postgraduate Coursework Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLay, Allan F.

    2013-01-01

    Scholarship parameters, in relation to postgraduate coursework studies, are developed against the expectations of the Boyer classifications of scholarship (Boyer, 1990) with particular emphasis on the role of minor thesis development. An example is presented in which postgraduate coursework students are required to undertake a three semester minor…

  3. Quo Vadis? LIS Postgraduate Education in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dizon, Fernan R.; Sagun, Karryl Kim A.; Alfiler-Macalalad, Ana Grace P.

    2011-01-01

    The paper intends to shed light on the predicament faced by many Filipino. Librarians: the lack of local institutions offering a library and information science (LIS) postgraduate degree. The paper aims to reveal the state of Philippine LIS postgraduate education by considering the number of librarians who have pursued and are still pursuing…

  4. "It's a Lonely Walk": Supporting Postgraduate Researchers through Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergie, Gillian; Beeke, Suzanne; McKenna, Colleen; Creme, Phyllis

    2011-01-01

    Traditional views of the writing process as a solitary and painstaking task can inhibit postgraduate students from pursuing useful conversations about their writing. Recent research has suggested that spaces for opening discussion on writing are needed and are important in supporting postgraduate writers to develop their academic identity…

  5. Peer-led postgraduate education across medicine and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Demir, Ozan M; Abdullah, Rezaur; Srivastava, Vivek

    2016-05-01

    Peer-led education is well established in undergraduate education, but there is a paucity of data regarding its role in postgraduate education. This article assesses the feasibility of peer-led teaching in postgraduate medical education and evaluates its benefits through qualitative structured feedback. PMID:27166105

  6. Rethinking Postgraduate Geography Education in the USA: Issues and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Kenneth; Bednarz, Sarah; Monk, Janice; Solem, Michael; Stoltman, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Postgraduate geography education in the USA is growing and changing. In recent years, the number of postgraduate programs has increased at both the doctoral and master's levels. Interest in improving and reforming doctoral education has increased dramatically both inside and outside geography, and geography has been involved in these reforms.…

  7. The Development of Source Use by International Postgraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mary

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that learning to use sources is difficult, especially for international postgraduate students, but to date, few longitudinal studies have been carried out in this area. Therefore, this two-year UK-based study aims to help fill this gap by examining the source use of three Chinese postgraduate students of business, technology…

  8. An Analysis of the Demand for Postgraduate Educational Science Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Gulay

    2014-01-01

    This study, aimed to determine the variables that have a role in the emergence of individual demand for postgraduate educational sciences programs, is a descriptive one. The sample of the study consisted of 222 postgraduate students from Ankara University, a developed university, and Gaziosmanpasa University, a developing university. The data was…

  9. PRES 2013: Results from the Postgraduate Research Experience Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul; Turner, Gosia

    2013-01-01

    This document outlines the results of the "2013 Postgraduate Research Experience Survey" ("PRES"), where 48,401 replies were received from 122 participating institutions. Redeveloped for 2013, our biennial survey is the only national survey to gather insight from postgraduate research students about their learning and…

  10. Launching the first postgraduate diploma in medical entomology and disease vector control in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rathor, H R; Mnzava, A; Bile, K M; Hafeez, A; Zaman, S

    2010-01-01

    The Health Services Academy has launched a 12-month postgraduate diploma course in medical entomology and disease vector control. The objective is to create a core of experts trained to prevent and control vector-borne diseases. The course is a response to the serious health and socioeconomic burden caused by a number of vector-borne diseases in Pakistan. The persistence, emergence and re-emergence of these diseases is mainly attributed to the scarcity of trained vector-control experts. The training course attempts to fill the gap in trained manpower and thus reduce the morbidity and mortality due to these diseases, resulting in incremental gains to public health. This paper aims to outline the steps taken to establish the course and the perceived challenges to be addressed in order to sustain its future implementation.

  11. Surgical Airway

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sapna A; Meyer, Tanya K

    2014-01-01

    Close to 3% of all intubation attempts are considered difficult airways, for which a plan for a surgical airway should be considered. Our article provides an overview of the different types of surgical airways. This article provides a comprehensive review of the main types of surgical airways, relevant anatomy, necessary equipment, indications and contraindications, preparation and positioning, technique, complications, and tips for management. It is important to remember that the placement of a surgical airway is a lifesaving procedure and should be considered in any setting when one “cannot intubate, cannot ventilate”. PMID:24741501

  12. Competence formation and post-graduate education in the public water sector in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspersma, J. M.; Alaerts, G. J.; Slinger, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    A framework is introduced, describing three aggregate competences for technical issues, management and governance, and a meta-competence for continuous learning and innovation, for the water sector. The four competences are further organised in a T-shaped competence profile. The framework and an assessment methodology were tested in a case study on post-graduate water education for professional staff in the Directorate General Water Resources (DGWR) in Indonesia. Though DGWR professionals have a firmly "technical" orientation, both the surveys and interviews show strong interest in the other competences: in particular the learning meta-competence, as well as the aggregate competence for management. The aggregate competence for governance systematically scores lower. A discrepancy appears to exist between the competences that staff perceive as needed in daily work, and those that could be acquired during post-graduate water education. In both locally-based and international post-graduate water education, the aggregate competences for management as well as governance are reportedly addressed modestly, if at all. With only little competence in these disciplines, it will be difficult for professionals to communicate and collaborate effectively in an interdisciplinary way. As a result, the horizontal bar of the T-shaped profile remains weakly developed. In international post-graduate education, this seems partly compensated by the attention for continuous learning and innovation. The exposure to a different culture and learning format is reported as fundamentally formative. The policies of DGWR have gone through three distinct phases. In the first phase (1970-1987) technical competence and learning were valued highly and training was arranged effectively; in the current phase the need to develop new competences is raising new challenges.

  13. Conceptualising Postgraduate Training in Biotechnology at Universities of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossey, A.

    2012-01-01

    Universities of Technology are mandated to provide career-orientated programmes preparing graduates for the workplace, doing research aimed at identifying societal and industrial needs, and finding solutions. Universities of Technology interweave technology with university endeavours; focusing on the know-how for the fabrication of things, and the…

  14. Knowledge with Wisdom in Postgraduate Studies and Supervision: Epistemological and Institutional Concerns and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitzer, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    Publications about postgraduate studies and the supervision address issues and concerns such as supervisory orientations and strategies, ways to handle postgraduate students, challenging postgraduate education practices, factors related to success in postgraduate studies, the benefits of advanced studies, transition to independent research and…

  15. Surgical tracheotomy.

    PubMed

    Rowshan, Henry H; Baur, Dale A

    2010-03-01

    Tracheotomy is a surgical procedure that dates back to early history and medical advancement. The oral and maxillofacial surgeon routinely operates around the airway and should be able to master this procedure by adhering to the surgical principles outlined in this article.

  16. Internet based post-graduate course in spectacle lens design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalie, Mo

    2014-07-01

    The complexity of spectacle lenses has increased enormously over the last three decades. The advent of aspheric lenses for the normal power range and the, now commonplace, progressive lenses for the correction of presbyopia, are just two examples of 21st Century technology. Freeform surfaces are now employed to personalize lenses to wearer's needs and these may be both progressive and atoroidal in nature. At the same time, optometry has taken a sideways step from optics and physics into a more general primary health care profession with an ever-increasing amount of biological and medical content added to an already brimming curriculum, hence the need for persons without optometry training to undertake the study of spectacle lenses. Some years ago a post-graduate course was designed for opticians who had a good grasp of mathematics and the ability to pay close attention to detail in the lengthy trigonometric ray-tracing techniques employed in lens design calculations. The year-long course, is undertaken by distance learning, and has been undertaken via the internet by students from many countries around the world. Final assessment is by means of examination held by the Association of British Dispensing Opticians and takes the form of two three-hour papers, Paper One consisting of the determination of the aberrations of a spectacle lens by accurate trigonometric ray tracing and the second, a general paper on the optics of ophthalmic lenses. It leads to the professional qualification, ABDO (Hons) SLD.

  17. Postgraduate career intentions of medical students and recent graduates in Malawi: a qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2004, the Malawian Ministry of Health declared a human resource crisis and launched a six year Emergency Human Resources Programme. This included salary supplements for key health workers and a tripling of doctors in training. By 2010, the number of medical graduates had doubled and significantly more doctors were working in rural district hospitals. Yet there has been little research into the views of this next generation of doctors in Malawi, who are crucial to the continuing success of the programme. The aim of this study was to explore the factors influencing the career plans of medical students and recent graduates with regard to four policy-relevant aspects: emigration outside Malawi; working at district level; private sector employment and postgraduate specialisation. Methods Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted with fourth year medical students and first year graduates, recruited through purposive and snowball sampling. Key informant interviews were also carried out with medical school faculty. Recordings were transcribed and analysed using a framework approach. Results Opportunities for postgraduate training emerged as the most important factor in participants’ career choices, with specialisation seen as vital to career progression. All participants intended to work in Malawi in the long term, after a period of time outside the country. For nearly all participants, this was in the pursuit of postgraduate study rather than higher salaries. In general, medical students and young doctors were enthusiastic about working at district level, although this is curtailed by their desire for specialist training and frustration with resource shortages. There is currently little intention to move into the private sector. Conclusions Future resourcing of postgraduate training opportunities is crucial to preventing emigration as graduate numbers increase. The lesser importance put on salary by younger doctors may be an indicator of the success

  18. Evolution of an Academic English Course for Science Research Postgraduates (RPGS): A Case Study at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Wei-Wah Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The demand for communication skills training for science research postgraduates (RPGs) has been increasing over the years. Many potential scientists and researchers in the industry are under enormous pressure to get published (Cargill, O'Connor & Li, 2012) and to attend conferences and seminars. In light of the aforementioned needs, all…

  19. Developing postgraduate awards for critical care.

    PubMed

    Saggs, Pauline

    2003-05-01

    This report outlines a qualitative study that explored the academics' perceptions of postgraduate education for critical care. A framework was generated using models of curriculum design. Focus groups and interviews were undertaken to explore four areas within this framework - taught theory/professional practice, advanced practice skills, assessment and delivery. The findings revealed that ethical and legal aspects of role, research, physiology decision-making and practice skills such as defibrillation, first line treatment and patient assessment were considered extremely relevant to such a programme. Practice assessment was considered essential to ensure clinical credibility of the programme and the practitioner. Frameworks were generated to define the nature of advanced critical care practice. As such, work-based learning and interprofessional supervision were seen as key elements of the programme. Finally areas for further research were identified.

  20. [Modern didactics in surgical education--between demand and reality].

    PubMed

    Pape-Köhler, C; Chmelik, C; Rose, M; Heiss, M M

    2010-12-01

    Surgical residency contains an inadequate amount of hands-on training in the operating room and time constraints further make this type of education on the floor unlikely. Due to these deficits in residency training, private surgical courses outside of the established residency programmes are in high demand. Therefore, surgical residents must spend their own resources and time in addition to their residency training in order to receive adequate clinical exposure. Didactic approaches like problem-based learning have begun to influence our modern education. These novel education approaches along with visualisation training, video-based presentations, and multimedia-based training can be useful adjuncts to traditional surgical training.

  1. Surgical Technologists

    MedlinePlus

    ... in place during the procedure, or set up robotic surgical equipment. Technologists also may handle specimens taken ... sterilization techniques, how to set up technical or robotic equipment, and preventing and controlling infections. In addition ...

  2. The impact of subspecialization on postgraduate medical education in neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Brian D

    2005-11-01

    Medical subspecialization is a response to rapidly expanding technology and knowledge. Although beneficial to patient care, it poses a challenge to the current infrastructure of resident education. This article analyzes the advent of subspecialization, the current template of postgraduate neurosurgical education, the impact of subspecialization on postgraduate neurosurgical education, and, finally, suggests strategies to optimize professional education in the face of an increasingly subspecialized field.

  3. Scholarships for scientific initiation encourage post-graduation degree.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Gabriela S; Nascimento, Gustavo G; Mendes, Matheus S; Ogliari, Fabrício A; Demarco, Flávio F; Correa, Marcos B

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with the decision to attend an academic post-graduation program by dental students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012, last-year undergraduate students from Dental Schools of Southern Brazil. A closed questionnaire was applied including questions grouped in three different blocks: pre-graduate, undergraduate period and future perspectives. The outcome was the decision to pursuit an academic post-graduation degree. Associations were tested using chi-squared test and chi-squared test for linear trends when appropriate. Multivariate Poisson regression was also performed. The sample was composed by 671 students (response rate of 69.9%, n=467). In relation to future perspectives, 68% of the interviewed students intended to attend a post-graduation program, but only 17.5% would choose a program with academic and research post-graduation program (Master and PhD programs). In the final model, students from public universities (PR 2.08, 95%CI 1.41-3.08) and students that received scientific initiation scholarship (PR 1.93 95%CI 1.14-3.27) presented a twice greater prevalence to seek academic post-graduate programs. Students with higher family incomes showed a lower prevalence to seek these programs (PR 0.50, 95%IC 0.28-0.90). Scholarships seem to encourage undergraduate students to pursue stricto sensu post-graduation.

  4. [The remote post-graduate education in otorhinolaryngology: the first results and further prospects].

    PubMed

    Nosulya, E V; Kosyakov, S Ya; Kim, I A; Piskunov, G Z

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was the retrospective analysis of the efficiency of two courses of remote education of otorhinolaryngologists in the real-time mode based on the results of the on-line questionnaire study. We analyzed the data obtained during the implementation of the pilot project of the remote post-graduate education at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology,Russian Medical Academy of Post-Graduate Education making use of the independent Internet resource for the professional training of otorhinolaryngologists. The two programs of remote education realized in 2012 and 2013 involved 7.9% of all otorhinolaryngologists practicing in the Russian Federation. The fraction of those who passed through all stages of the learning process increased almost two-fold, that is from 10% in 2012 up to 19% in 2013. About 14% of the participants made themselves familiar with all program modules; this result is in agreement with the data obtained in mass on-line remote teaching of the non-medical audience. It is concluded that the results of the present study provide a basis for the elaboration of the remote education programs for the training of specialists not only in otorhinolaryngology but also in other fields of medicine.

  5. Residency Training in Child Sexual Abuse Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giardino, Angelo P.; Brayden, Robert M.; Sugarman, Jacqueline M.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 147 pediatric faculty and 64 resident pediatricians examined the quantity and adequacy of training in child sexual abuse evaluation. Both faculty and residents believed that preparation in how to conduct a sexual abuse evaluation may be inadequate for residents during their three years of post-graduate training. (CR)

  6. The ethical and regulatory-compliant training and practice of regenerative surgery in the United States and abroad.

    PubMed

    Wu, Allan Y

    2013-12-01

    Regenerative surgery (RS) may be functionally defined as: the application of regenerative material and techniques such as live cells or cell-derived material with surgical methods to affect clinical therapy for disease or restore normal human function. A global review of RS as it relates to formal residency and fellowship medical education programs is provided in addition to the current state of post-graduate medical education. Due to the complex nature of starting materials (i.e. live cells or derived biologics), invariably ancillary staff versant in high complexity laboratory techniques will be required to support these novel clinical lines of service in the RS industry. Theoretical implications on both the development, training and credentialing of these unique professionals are preliminarily addressed. Although the current state of RS medical education has taken a predominantly conference and post-graduate approach across multiple surgical specialties, most new fields of surgery have developed under similar principles historically and should not be interpreted entirely as illegitimate or inappropriate. PMID:24304077

  7. Con: pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by out of country scholarships.

    PubMed

    Walker, Isabeau A

    2009-01-01

    Medical migration is damaging health systems in developing countries and anesthesia delivery is critically affected, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. 'Within country' postgraduate anesthesia training needs to be supported to encourage more doctors into the specialty. Open-ended training programs to countries that do not share the same spectrum of disease should be discouraged. Donor agencies have an important role to play in supporting sustainable postgraduate training programs.

  8. [Surgical education has its price].

    PubMed

    Schröder, W; Krones, C J

    2012-04-01

    The radical economisation of the German health-care system has caused an increasing cost awareness. Following this trend, medical education has been identified as a possible expense factor. The theoretical and practical training of young doctors needs time and costs money. However, a detailed cost analysis is still not available, since the complex daily work schedule of young professionals only allows the calculation of single cost factors. Investigations in the USA estimate the costs of surgical training at US$ 80 000 per year and per resident. At present in Germany, surgical training is indirectly financed by the DRG flat rates of the health insurance companies. Possible alternatives include the implementation of a "training fond" which is financed by a percentage fee of the DRG's as well as an on-top funding by the federal government. This "training fond" would support only those surgical units that offer a structured and certified training to surgical residents. However, a systematic cost analysis of such a structured curriculum is necessary for any further discussion.

  9. The importance of educating postgraduate pediatric physicians about food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Adeli, Mehdi; Hendaus, Mohamed A; Abdurrahim, Lukman I; Alhammadi, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    Background Food allergy is an increasing public health burden, and is considered among the most common chronic noncommunicable diseases in children. Proper diagnosis and management of food allergy by a health care provider is crucial in keeping affected children safe while simultaneously averting unnecessary avoidance. Objective The rationale of the study was to estimate the knowledge of pediatric residents and academic general pediatric fellows with regard to food allergies in children. Methods A cross-sectional and prospective study was carried out at Hamad Medical Corporation, the only tertiary care, academic and teaching hospital in the State of Qatar. The study took place between January 1, 2015 and September 30, 2015. Results Out of the 68 questionnaires distributed, 68 (100%) were returned by the end of the study. Among the participants, 15 (22%) were in post-graduate year-1 (PGY-1), 16 (23.5%) in PGY-2, 17 (25%) in PGY-3, 12 (16%) in PGY-4, and 8 (12%) were academic general pediatric fellows. Our trainees answered 60.14% of knowledge based questions correctly. In the section of treatment and management of food allergy in childhood, 23 (34%) of respondents’ main concern when taking care of a patient with food allergies was making sure the patient is not exposed to food allergen, while 22 (33%) reported no concerns. In the section of treatment and management of food allergy in childhood, 22 (33%) of participants reported no concerns in taking care of a child with food allergy, while 23 (34%) of respondents’ main concern was making sure the patient is not exposed to food allergen. In the teaching and training section, 56% of participants stated that they have not received formal education on how to recognize and treat food allergies, while 59% claimed not being trained on how to administer injectable epinephrine. Furthermore, approximately 60% of all participants expressed the need of additional information about recognizing and treating food allergies and

  10. Postgraduate education in noninvasive laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navratil, Leos; Kymplova, Jaroslava; Navratilova, Blanka

    2002-10-01

    Non-invasive lasertherapy became today an appreciated treatment method. To avoid its degradation, it is necessary that every physician, who indicates it, would pass out the basic course in these problems. So the error danger by its application would be reduced. As we have verified, in every country the education process is different; we don't consider this fact as right. In the Czech Republic the Radiobiologic Society of Czech Medical Society J. E. Purkynje in co-operation with the Institute of Further Physician's Education, having wide experiences in postgraduate education, organizes already five years such courses. The basic course has 20 lessons, in which the graduates are acquainted with physical base of laser, hygienic rulings for working with laser and biologic changes induced by low level laser in the tissue in vivo. A considerable attention is dedicated to clinical practice and practical education on clinical departments in the fields of dermatology, physiotherapy, stomatology and gynaecology. This course is completed with a lecture of the recent marketing in health service. Participants document their knowledge's in the closing test. Every physician can perfect his knowledge's in a continuation course. Our experiences proved that the education in phototherapy in Czech Republic is on high level in comparison with number of other countries.

  11. Self-reported patient safety competence among Canadian medical students and postgraduate trainees: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Patricia; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth G; Edge, Dana S; Ginsburg, Liane; Goldstein, David H

    2015-01-01

    Background Quality and patient safety (PS) are critical components of medical education. This study reports on the self-reported PS competence of medical students and postgraduate trainees. Methods The Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey was administered to medical students and postgraduate trainees in January 2012. PS dimension scores were compared across learning settings (classroom and clinical) and year in programme. Results Sixty-three percent (255/406) of medical students and 32% (141/436) of postgraduate trainees responded. In general, both groups were most confident in their learning of clinical safety skills (eg, hand hygiene) and least confident in learning about sociocultural aspects of safety (eg, understanding human factors). Medical students’ confidence in most aspects of safety improved with years of training. For some of the more intangible dimensions (teamwork and culture), medical students in their final year had lower scores than students in earlier years. Thirty-eight percent of medical students felt they could approach someone engaging in unsafe practice, and the majority of medical students (85%) and postgraduate trainees (78%) agreed it was difficult to question authority. Conclusions Our results suggest the need to improve the overall content, structure and integration of PS concepts in both classroom and clinical learning environments. Decreased confidence in sociocultural aspects of PS among medical students in the final year of training may indicate that culture in clinical settings negatively affects students’ perceived PS competence. Alternatively, as medical students spend more time in the clinical setting, they may develop a clearer sense of what they do not know. PMID:25605953

  12. Education and Training in Psychiatry in the U.K.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Stuart; Bhugra, Dinesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective: Recent training and education changes have raised important issues in delivery of psychiatric education at all levels. In this article, the authors describe the current status of mental health education in the training of all doctors and postgraduate training and education in psychiatry in the U.K. Method: The authors explore…

  13. Demographics, training satisfaction, and career plans of Canadian oral and maxillofacial surgery residents.

    PubMed

    Gigliotti, J; Makhoul, N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the demographics, training satisfaction, and career plans of Canadian oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) residents. A cross-sectional study was conducted using an anonymous online survey that was distributed via e-mail to all current Canadian OMS residents. The completion rate of this survey was 88.9%. Eighty percent of residents were satisfied with their surgical education overall. Residents were most satisfied with their training in the areas of facial trauma and orthognathic surgery. Satisfaction was lowest in the areas of facial cosmetic surgery, maxillofacial reconstructive surgery, cleft and craniofacial surgery, and dental implantology. A majority of residents, 78.1%, indicated that they would prefer to be trained in an MD-integrated OMS certificate program. Seventy-two percent of residents indicated that they would like to complete a fellowship following graduation. The most desirable career path was a combination of private practice and academic practice, with 75.0% of residents selecting this option. Overall, Canadian OMS residents were pleased with their training in the traditional scope of OMS, apart from dental implantology. Among the current generation of trainees, there appears to be a proclivity for a broader scope of practice, dual-degree training, and post-graduate fellowship training.

  14. A Questionnaire Cross-Sectional Study on Application of CBCT in Dental Postgraduate Students

    PubMed Central

    Lavanya, Reddy; Babu, D.B. Gandhi; Waghray, Shefali; Chaitanya, Nallan C.S.K.; Mamatha, Boring; Nithika, Madhireddy

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background CBCT is a new emerging imaging technique which uses a cone-shaped radiation beam that is centered on a 2D detector. It is now routinely evaluated for oral and para-oral disorders. It has been widely accepted in practice in radiology in academic and hospital settings and included in the curricula of some countries. The present study aimed to evaluate the awareness of and knowledge on CBCT among postgraduates. Material/Methods After obtaining permission and ethical clearance from concerned authorities, an anonymous survey on CBCT was conducted in a dental college by using a close-ended validated questionnaire to get to know the knowledge on CBCT among postgraduates in a dental college in India. Results A total of 100 volunteers participated but only 88 postgraduates responded to the questionnaire. Among the respondents, 54.5% were not using CBCT for diagnostic purposes at their work place. A total of 68.2% of respondents were partially aware of common terminologies used in CBCT. Most of the respondents were unsure about radiation exposure of CBCT when compared to other types of imaging. Almost nobody had any idea on relative importance of image characteristics. Only half of the respondents were willing to attend a hands-on course on CBCT interpretations versus pathology. Conclusions In the present study it was apparent that most of the respondents were lacking adequate knowledge on CBCT. Hence, there is an urgent need for more training programs on CBCT which would result in better diagnosis and treatment planning. PMID:27158283

  15. [The strict sense nursing postgraduation in Brazil: advances and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan; Munari, Denize Bouttelet; Gelbcke, Francine Lima; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; de Gutiérrez, Maria Gaby Rivero; Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani

    2013-09-01

    Nursing is a specific field of knowledge and social practice that has been consolidated and strengthened as science. In Brazil, it has been developed due to the increase and qualification of strict sense post-graduate programs. This study aims to present a historical review of the strict sense post-graduate nursing courses in Brazil and to reflect on their evolution, progress, challenges and future perspectives. It explores the creation of strict sense post-graduate courses, highlighting the movement to build a culture of academic and professional post-graduation in nursing. The historical path of their consolidation, expansion, conquest of excellence and international visibility over four decades, and the challenges and future perspectives are showed. It is found that the post-graduate programs in the field has contributed to the advancement and consolidation of scientific, technological knowledge and innovation in nursing and health care, having as philosophy the respect for diversity and the free exchange of ideas, the improvement of quality of life and health, and the effectiveness of citizenship.

  16. 77 FR 13296 - Subcommittee Meeting of the Board of Advisors to the President, Naval Postgraduate School

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... meeting will be held at the Naval Postgraduate School, Herrmann Hall, 1 University Circle, Didactic Room... meeting is to elicit the advice of the Board on the Naval Service's Postgraduate Education Program and...

  17. Surgical antiseptics.

    PubMed

    Sebben, J E

    1983-11-01

    The skin cannot be sterilized because approximately 20% of the resident flora are beyond the reach of surgical scrubs and antiseptics. The goal of surgical preparation of the skin with antiseptics is to remove transient and pathogenic microorganisms on the skin surface and to reduce the resident flora to a low level. Four antiseptics which have been popular over the past two decades are discussed. Benzalkonium chloride is somewhat unstable on the skin and is too prone to contamination to be in general use. Hexachlorophene is not recommended due to narrow spectrum and risks secondary to percutaneous absorption. The iodophors are excellent antiseptics, but recent studies raise questions about effectiveness and contamination. Chlorhexidine is a very safe and effective antiseptic. Comparison studies with chlorhexidine, hexachlorophene, and iodophors show chlorhexidine to be the most effective agent. Chlorhexidine can be toxic to the middle ear and irritating to the eyes with direct contact. Caution should be used in these areas with chlorhexidine and other antiseptics.

  18. Simulation-based surgical education.

    PubMed

    Evgeniou, Evgenios; Loizou, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The reduction in time for training at the workplace has created a challenge for the traditional apprenticeship model of training. Simulation offers the opportunity for repeated practice in a safe and controlled environment, focusing on trainees and tailored to their needs. Recent technological advances have led to the development of various simulators, which have already been introduced in surgical training. The complexity and fidelity of the available simulators vary, therefore depending on our recourses we should select the appropriate simulator for the task or skill we want to teach. Educational theory informs us about the importance of context in professional learning. Simulation should therefore recreate the clinical environment and its complexity. Contemporary approaches to simulation have introduced novel ideas for teaching teamwork, communication skills and professionalism. In order for simulation-based training to be successful, simulators have to be validated appropriately and integrated in a training curriculum. Within a surgical curriculum, trainees should have protected time for simulation-based training, under appropriate supervision. Simulation-based surgical education should allow the appropriate practice of technical skills without ignoring the clinical context and must strike an adequate balance between the simulation environment and simulators. PMID:23088646

  19. [Use of Bologne declaration positions in native postgraduate education of doctors stomatologists].

    PubMed

    Abakarov, S I; Sorokin, D V; Adzhiev, K S; Svirin, V V; Tumasian, G S

    2011-01-01

    Results of sociological study done among teachers of the system postgraduate education of doctors stomatologists were presented. There were determined the most significant Bologne declaration positions for the use in postgraduate education of doctors stomatologist. The basic obstacles for these positions realization in native postgraduate education were uncovered.

  20. Patterns, Drivers and Challenges Pertaining to Postgraduate Taught Study: An International Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The global growth in postgraduate (PG) study since the mid-1990s has been attributed to the expansion in Masters by Coursework participation (Bekhradnia, B. (2005). Postgraduate education in the UK: Trends and challenges higher education policy institute. Paper presented at a conference "The future of postgraduate education supporting the…

  1. The Trend of Governmental Support from Post-Graduated Iranian Students in Medical Fields to Study Abroad

    PubMed Central

    Haghdoost, AA; Ghazi, M; Rafiee, Z; Afshari, M

    2013-01-01

    Background: To explore the trend and composition of post-graduate Iranian students who received governmental scholarship during the last two decades. Method: Detailed information about the awarded scholarships and also about the number of post graduate students in clinical and basic sciences in domestic universities were collected from the related offices within the ministry of health and medical education and their trends were triangulated. Results: A sharp drop was observed in the number of awarded scholarships, from 263 in 1992 to 46 in 2009. In the beginning, almost all of scholarships fully supported students for a whole academic course; while in recent years most of scholarships supported students for a short fellowship or complementary course (more than 80%). Students studied in a wide range of colleges within 30 countries; more than 50% in Europe. Although one third of students studied in UK in the first years, only 4% of students selected this country in recent years. conversely, the number of scholarships to Germany and sweden have increased more than 10 and 3 times during this period. In parallel, the capacity of domestic universities for training of post-graduate students has been expanded dramatically. Conclusion: Although expanding post-graduate education has been one of the main strategic objectives of the ministry of health and medical education in last two decades, it was obtained using different approaches. By time, more attention was to expanding the capacities of Iranian universities, and choosing less but more targeted students to continue their studies abroad. PMID:23865032

  2. Understanding the Learning Needs of New Graduate Nurses at a Surgical Ward to Develop a Smartphone/Table Based Training System.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yen-Chiao Angel; Lin, Yen-Ju; Cyu, Lin-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Taiwan government and health officials had made the new graduate nurses training program a mandatory requirement for all teaching hospitals in order to train new graduate nurse staffs to prepare them for the clinical practice. Mobile devices may provide a feasible and useful tool for the new graduate nurses to learn knowledge/skills, thus, the study researchers proposed to develop a smartphone/tablet based learning system to assist the new graduate nurses in the study hospital ease their transition into the RN roles. Prior to developing this electronic training system, learning needs assessment was carried out. A focus group research method was used to help the researchers better understand the learning needs of new graduate nurses. The data is still under analysis, results and discussed will be reported as soon as the analysis is completed. PMID:27332477

  3. SpaceTech—Postgraduate space education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijn, Ferdi J.; Ashford, Edward W.; Larson, Wiley J.

    2008-07-01

    SpaceTech is a postgraduate program geared primarily for mid-career space professionals seeking to gain or improve their expertise in space systems engineering and in business engineering. SpaceTech provides a lifelong impact on its participants by broadening their capabilities, encouraging systematic "end-to-end" thinking and preparing them for any technical or business-related engineering challenges they may encounter. This flexible 1-year program offers high competency gain and increased business skills. It is held in attractive locations in a flexible, multi-cultural environment. SpaceTech is a highly effective master's program certified by the esteemed Technical University of Delft (TUD), Netherlands. SpaceTech provides expert instructors who place no barriers between themselves and participants. The program combines innovative and flexible new approaches with time-tested methods to give participants the skills required for future missions and new business, while allowing participants to meet their work commitments at the same time as they study for their master's degree. The SpaceTech program is conducted in separate sessions, generally each of 2-week duration, separated by periods of some 6-8 weeks, during which time participants may return to their normal jobs. It also includes introductory online course material that the participants can study at their leisure. The first session is held at the TUD, with subsequent sessions held at strategic space agency locations. By participating at two or more of these sessions, attendees can earn certificates of satisfactory completion from TU Delft. By participating in all of the sessions, as well as taking part in the companion Central Case Project (CCP), participants earn an accredited and highly respected master's degree in Space Systems Engineering from the TUD. Seven distinct SpaceTech modules are provided during these sessions: Space Mission Analysis and Design, Systems Engineering, Business Engineering

  4. The Zeiss surgical keratometer in cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Cornic, J C

    1987-01-01

    The Zeiss keratometer is easy to use with simple and fast reading. The preoperative keratometry principle is satisfactory by allowing theorically a better control of surgical factors of postoperative astigmatism after cataract surgery. Its major interest appears in surgical training, when one wants to compensate a preoperative astigmatism or when one wishes to avoid secondary suture removal. However, its interest is very variable according to surgical experience.

  5. Teaching knee joint aspiration to medical students-an effective training with long-term benefits.

    PubMed

    Watson, Pippa; Hamilton, Louise; Simpson, Klaudine; Riley, Nicola; Lillicrap, Mark

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of undergraduate training in knee aspiration and to determine the impact this had on subsequent postgraduate clinical practice. This paper is a cohort study of undergraduate training with a cross-sectional questionnaire study of postgraduate practice. The study was held at the University of Cambridge and NHS hospitals in the Eastern Region Postgraduate Deanery (England). The main outcome measures are the undergraduate competence in practical skills in a simulated setting and the differences in postgraduate practice with or without prior undergraduate training in knee aspiration. Implementing an undergraduate training programme in knee aspiration resulted in student competence in this skill. Undergraduate teaching of knee aspiration also improved postgraduate clinical practice, significantly increasing trainee doctor confidence and also increasing the frequency with which knee aspiration was undertaken. Postgraduate reinforcement of learning was identified as an additional requirement. Undergraduate teaching of knee aspiration not only results in competent performance in end of course assessments but also improves postgraduate confidence that potentially translates into improved clinical practice.

  6. Play to Become a Surgeon: Impact of Nintendo WII Training on Laparoscopic Skills

    PubMed Central

    Giannotti, Domenico; Patrizi, Gregorio; Di Rocco, Giorgio; Vestri, Anna Rita; Semproni, Camilla Proietti; Fiengo, Leslie; Pontone, Stefano; Palazzini, Giorgio; Redler, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Background Video-games have become an integral part of the new multimedia culture. Several studies assessed video-gaming enhancement of spatial attention and eye-hand coordination. Considering the technical difficulty of laparoscopic procedures, legal issues and time limitations, the validation of appropriate training even outside of the operating rooms is ongoing. We investigated the influence of a four-week structured Nintendo® Wii™ training on laparoscopic skills by analyzing performance metrics with a validated simulator (Lap Mentor™, Simbionix™). Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a prospective randomized study on 42 post-graduate I–II year residents in General, Vascular and Endoscopic Surgery. All participants were tested on a validated laparoscopic simulator and then randomized to group 1 (Controls, no training with the Nintendo® Wii™), and group 2 (training with the Nintendo® Wii™) with 21 subjects in each group, according to a computer-generated list. After four weeks, all residents underwent a testing session on the laparoscopic simulator of the same tasks as in the first session. All 42 subjects in both groups improved significantly from session 1 to session 2. Compared to controls, the Wii group showed a significant improvement in performance (p<0.05) for 13 of the 16 considered performance metrics. Conclusions/Significance The Nintendo® Wii™ might be helpful, inexpensive and entertaining part of the training of young laparoscopists, in addition to a standard surgical education based on simulators and the operating room. PMID:23460845

  7. Postgraduate Research in Pacific Education: Interpretivism and Other Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Greg; Lingam, Govinda Ishwar

    2012-01-01

    This article examines research by postgraduate students in education at the University of the South Pacific (USP) between 1968 and 2009. These experienced educators, who later return to their original education sector to influence policy and practice in some way, are producing new knowledge intimately connected to Pacific education systems. The…

  8. Relationship Between Performance in Medical School and Postgraduate Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonnella, Joseph S.; Hojat, Mohammadreza

    1983-01-01

    The hypothesis that the relationship between medical school achievement and postgraduate performance would vary by specialty was confirmed in a comparison of grades, standardized medical exams, and ratings in four areas of competence (medical knowledge, data-gathering skills, clinical judgment, and professional attitudes) in internal medicine,…

  9. Rethinking Postgraduate Education in Geography: International Perspectives on Improving Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Janice; Foote, Kenneth; Solem, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This symposium brings together multi-national assessments of the current state of and challenges facing postgraduate education in geography. Contributors from Europe, Australia, South Africa and the USA identify ways in which restructuring of educational systems and wider political contexts affect programmes within the field. While highlighting…

  10. Language and Anxiety: An Ethnographic Study of International Postgraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lorraine

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some findings from an ethnographic study of international postgraduate students at a university in the South of England, which involved interviews and participant observation over a 12-month academic year. One of the major themes that emerged from this research was students' anxiety over their level of English language.…

  11. Performatively Queer: Sole Parent Postgraduates in the Australian Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Genine A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on research that considers how gender and agency influence the engagement of sole parent postgraduates within the Australian academy. I argue that parental care responsibilities critically influence participation in higher education for sole parents. I suggest that the gendered construct of caring for children is a feminine…

  12. International Entrepreneurship Education: Postgraduate Business Student Experiences of Entrepreneurship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, David; Woodier-Harris, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: International postgraduate education in business-related subjects has grown substantially in the UK. Both MBA and specialist Masters' programmes increasingly offer entrepreneurship as a core or option. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education in meeting the expectations and motivations of…

  13. Postgraduate Educational Practice in Australian Geography: Change and Stasis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Within Australia most Departments of Geography have been merged with programmes in Environmental Studies or Earth Sciences, and have been cast as multidisciplinary contributors to the increasingly vocational concerns of universities. One outcome is that named Geography programmes for postgraduates are not growing in institutional prominence in…

  14. UTAUT: Capturing Differences in Undergraduate versus Postgraduate Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown, Tui; Anderson, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: While educators and students alike are increasingly moving to use on-line technologies, there is still much to be learned about how these tools influence student learning. The purpose of this paper is to present a comparative investigation of the online use of one undergraduate (UG) and two postgraduate (PG) student cohorts undertaking…

  15. Creating a Rich Learning Environment for Remote Postgraduate Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonie, Anne-Louise; Andrews, Trish

    2009-01-01

    At Rangelands Australia, a centre in the School of Natural and Rural Systems Management at the University of Queensland, we have recently trialled virtual classroom technology for the delivery of postgraduate support courses. We wanted to explore the capacity of this learning modality to provide collaborative, interactive, synchronous learning…

  16. Experiment on Chinese Postgraduates' Recognizing 100 Everyday English Adopting "MMOASAPMI"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hongli; Li, Jinghua; Luo, Jing; Liu, Hong

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the memory effects of the postgraduates' memorizing Everyday English from 30 to 100 using the Natural Numeral Imagery Memory (Method by memorizing the concrete objects associated with the shapes of Arabic numeral to produce marvelous imagination, MMOASAPMI). The results indicated as follows: Firstly,…

  17. Reading Matters: Framing and Metacognition with Thai Postgraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Reading is a critical skill for postgraduate students--effective reading, reading comprehension, and awareness of varying interpretations contribute to students' greater progress in their academic fields (Anderson, 1999). Many students arrive at their Australian university with a mismatch of expectations and skills. This study examined reading…

  18. An Online Postgraduate Subject in Information Technology for University Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, Lindsay; Hughes, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Presents an evaluation of one postgraduate subject (Information Technology for Teaching and Learning at the University of New South Wales), which is taught entirely online and uses public-domain browsers, e-mail and file transfer, and is integrated with software developed by the authors, WebTeach (c) to facilitate teacher/learner and…

  19. Quality Assurance in Postgraduate Education. ENQA Workshop Report 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitusikova, Alexandra; Bohrer, Janet; Borosic, Ivana; Costes, Nathalie; Edinsel, Kerim; Hollander, Karoline; Jacobsson, Gunilla; Jakopovic, Ivan Filip; Kearney, Mary-Louise; Mulder, Fred; Negyesi, Judith; Pietzonka, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    The present report follows an ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education) Workshop on Quality Assurance and Postgraduate Education, hosted by the Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ARACIS) in Brasov, Romania on 12-13 March 2009. The workshop was an excellent opportunity for ENQA members to exchange…

  20. Society and Management as a Postgraduate Management Subject.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, J. C.; Lowes, B.

    1982-01-01

    Argues the case for teaching society and management in postgraduate courses and reviews the authors' experience of teaching the subject within Masters of Business Administration programs. Availability: M.E.A.D. Subscriptions, C.S.M.L., University of Lancaster, Lancaster LA1 4YX, England. (SK)

  1. Design of a Postgraduate Course in Palliative Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adriaansen, Marian J. M.; Frederiks, Carla M. A.

    2002-01-01

    A postgraduate course on palliative nursing includes four class sessions and four peer review meetings in which students discuss case studies and assignments. The course is intended to prepare nurses for the bureaucratic, biomedical, social-therapeutic, and informal roles of terminal care. (SK)

  2. Development of Information Search Expertise: Postgraduates' Knowledge of Searching Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Samuel Kai-Wah; Law, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the development of information searching expertise by 12 postgraduate research students. Six of the students were studying education, and six were studying engineering. The paper focuses on the students' perception of the importance of searching skills and the growth of their knowledge with these skills as they…

  3. Painting the Bigger Picture: Academic Literacy in Postgraduate Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Pat; Mooney, Shelagh

    2011-01-01

    Currently postgraduate hospitality courses are attracting large numbers of international students, many of whom do not speak English as a first language. In addition, these programmes are also popular with first language students drawn from non-traditional academic backgrounds. Both cohorts experience difficulties with the academic genre…

  4. Using a Blended Approach to Facilitate Postgraduate Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Beer, Marie; Mason, Roger B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the feasibility of using a blended approach to postgraduate research-degree supervision. Such a model could reduce research supervisors' workloads and improve the quality and success of Masters and Doctoral students' research output. The paper presents a case study that is based on a framework that was originally designed for…

  5. Postgraduate Supervision: E-Mail as an Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Toy; Coetzee, Elsabe

    2014-01-01

    Supervisors at higher education institutions cannot ignore the possibilities created by technology, and for the sake of this article, e-mail, as an aid for supervision on postgraduate level. After completing the modules for the Magister Technologiae (M Tech): Education qualification, students are required to complete a dissertation of limited…

  6. Recognition and Accountability: Sole Parent Postgraduates in University Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Genine A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to examine some of ways sole parents sought recognition as postgraduate students in Australian universities. Judith Butler's theory of recognition notes that recognition is always partial and any account we give of ourselves must be given to another. Participants articulated that supervisors were critical in the process of…

  7. Rethinking Postgraduate Education in Geography: The Case of the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortuijn, Joos Droogleever

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses reforms in postgraduate education in geography in the Netherlands in the context of Europeanization and globalization. Europeanization and globalization have resulted in challenges as well as opportunities for students and universities. In terms of internationalization, Europeanization and the global economic crisis have…

  8. Improving Supervision of Cross-Cultural Postgraduate University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, Kenneth David

    2010-01-01

    The internet has led to an increasing number of international students enrolling for postgraduate degrees. The literature confirms that there have been problems such as attrition, motivation, supervision and others. Professors struggle to appease international student learning styles, while simultaneously international students strain to…

  9. The Influence of Student Experiences on Post-Graduation Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschberg, Joe; Lye, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to establish the extent to which in-class teaching quality instruments can be used to predict post-graduation survey results. It examines the responses for the Good Teaching Scale of the Course Experience Questionnaire administered to 10,433 students who completed their studies at a major Australian tertiary institution from…

  10. Postgraduate Education to Support Organisation Change: A Reflection on Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jim; Keegan, Anne; Stevens, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore how teaching and assessing reflective learning skills can support postgraduate practitioners studying organisational change and explores the challenges for tutors in assessing these journals. Design/methodology/approach: Assessment criteria were developed from the literature on reflective practice and…

  11. Evaluating Taught Postgraduate Awards from the Student's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kember, David; Ho, Amaly; Leung, Doris Y. P.

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for a questionnaire designed specifically to evaluate taught postgraduate (TPg) awards for quality assurance or enhancement purposes. Comparison of undergraduate and TPg awards suggests that as the former have broadened their ambit to better nurture generic graduate attributes, TPg awards have concentrated on advanced specialised…

  12. Assessing International (Post)Graduate Education: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenfield, Tami; Nerad, Maresi

    2012-01-01

    "Internationalisation" has become the new buzzword for universities around the world, with jointly offered degrees as well as smaller-scale exchanges for students. Despite this rapid expansion of international campuses and programmes, and the increasing acceptance and encouragement of international experiences for [post]graduate students, little…

  13. Postgraduate Research Supervision: A Critical Review of Current Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallin, Antoinette; Nayar, Shoba

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the funding and delivery of research programmes at the university level have, in recent years, resulted in significant changes to research supervision. This paper critically reviews key influences effecting postgraduate supervision. Analysis draws on literature spanning 2000-2010 to determine the appropriateness of traditional models of…

  14. New Postgraduate Student Experience and Engagement in Human Communication Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Godfrey A.

    2015-01-01

    New postgraduate students' feedback on their learning offers insights into engagement. Student feedback to students and teachers can contribute to teacher feedback to students. When this happens, students can feel engaged or connected to their learning experiences. Adopting a more inclusive notion of feedback on learning, this paper explores the…

  15. Engineering Post-Graduate Programmes: A Quality and Productivity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares de Mello, Joao Carlos C. B.; Gomes, Eliane Goncalves; Meza, Lidia Angulo; Soares de Mello, Maria Helena C.; Soares de Mello, Adelino Jose R.

    2006-01-01

    Post-graduate courses are periodically evaluated in accordance with not always very clear criteria by CAPES (Co-ordinating Committee for Teaching Staff Improvement). These criteria try to measure, among other things, academic productivity (including quantity and quality of scientific production), number of classes given by teachers, time to…

  16. The Role of the Postgraduate Student in Delivering Bioscience Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jon; Maw, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    There has been much recent interest in the extent to which the teaching in higher education delivered by non-academic staff has increased in the recent past. Within the Biosciences there has always been a tradition of engaging postgraduate students to support the delivery of some forms of teaching. In this paper we report on the findings of a…

  17. New comprehensive surgical curriculum of pre-graduate surgical education

    PubMed Central

    Łaski, Dariusz; Makarewicz, Wojciech; Proczko, Monika; Gruca, Zbigniew; Śledziński, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Surgical education has become one of the most important directions in modern surgery evolution. To meet growing need for appropriate training in laparoscopic and, even more importantly, classic surgical skills, a curriculum involving contemporary tuition methods is needed. Advanced, structuralised training, which includes advanced technologies like virtual reality training, video coaching and motivative aspects of competition, seems to be important for an adequate education programme. Material and methods In academic years 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 the Department of General, Endocrine and Transplant Surgery of the Medical University of Gdansk together with the Pomeranian Foundation for Progress in Surgery organized 4480 h of training in that area of classic (2744) and laparoscopic (1736) skills. Both groups were involved in the programme of training in which the two most important aspects were reliable evaluation of the results and effective motivation to work. Skill evaluation at different stages of the programme were based on completion time and quality measurements. Apart from that, at the end of the course, the participants completed a questionnaire on their subjective perspective on this innovative curriculum, the quality and stability of the skills they obtained. Results In both arms of the programme (laparoscopic and classic) a statistically significant improvement was obtained as early as after the second and third sessions in half of the exercises. The acquired skills were stable over time, as proved by the plateau of completion time achieved in 11 out of 12 exercises. The results of the post-training questionnaire revealed that the participants were very satisfied with the structuralised form of training and appreciated the motivational role of competition. Conclusions Contemporary surgical training should be organized as a systematic, well-evaluated and goal-oriented programme similar to the one proposed by our team. The use of contemporary

  18. Treatment Capabilities of Postgraduate Dental Trainees at Tokyo Dental College Suidobashi Hospital Based on Dental Services Income.

    PubMed

    Sugito, Hiroki; Hirata, SoIchiro; Sakayori, Takaharu; Sato, Yuko; Furusawa, Masahiro; Yamashita, Shuichiro

    2015-01-01

    As of fiscal year 2006, it became compulsory for all newly licensed dentists in Japan to undergo a year of practical training at one of the designated training facilities found throughout the country as part of their postgraduate programs. The goal of this training is for the trainees to acquire diagnostic and therapeutic skills. While officially trainees, they are nonetheless regarded as members of staff. Clinical training emphasizes improving both technical skills and theoretical knowledge. However, taking on such trainees is sometimes considered unprofitable, as work productivity is claimed to be low. The purpose of this study was to compare work outcomes and income generated between trainees and part-time dentists working at the Tokyo Dental College Suidobashi Hospital. The part-time dentists comprised clinical instructors and dentists responsible for outpatients. Postgraduate dental trainees also generally conduct dental treatment for outpatients. Therefore, part-time dentists were considered the most suitable for a control group. No significant difference was observed in the total number of patients seen by either group by the final term of clinical training. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed in insurance-based dental treatment unit income (insured care unit income) per patient between the two groups from the mid-term period of training onwards. These results suggest that, although the trainees were less efficient in terms of time taken to provide a diagnosis and treatment, their performance was almost equal when viewed from the viewpoint of insured care provided. Taken together, this suggests that time-related care efficiency must be increased and specific training policies and strategies developed to improve the work productivity of dental trainees. PMID:26370575

  19. [Actual state and problems in neurology training at graduate school].

    PubMed

    Kira, Jun-ichi; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Taniwaki, Takayuki; Inuzuka, Takashi; Yoshii, Fumihito; Aoki, Masashi; Amano, Takahiro; Toyoshima, Itaru; Fukutake, Toshio; Hashimoto, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    To understand the status of postgraduate education in neurology in Japan, the Committee for the Education of Undergraduate Students and Junior Residents within the Japanese Society of Neurology investigated the four-year trend at 80 medical schools from 2009 to 2012. The mean number of new students to each postgraduate school increased from 1.24 to 1.67 during these four years. After training clinical neurology, more than half of the neurological residents entered the postgraduate schools. Students in the postgraduate schools seemed to be researching major neurological diseases using various methods at each neurology laboratory. However, some problems were suggested. First, the mean number of newcomers to the neurology departments of the universities decreased gradually from 2.29/year to 1.96/year. Second, many of the postgraduate students were working in patient services at university hospitals or as part-time workers at other hospitals, and may not have sufficient time for their research projects. Third, many of the postgraduate students were carrying out research at each affiliated department of neurology, and may not have the opportunity to work in laboratories specializing in basic science. Finally, there may not be sufficient opportunities for further research at other laboratories in Japan or overseas after they finished their work at postgraduate school. PMID:24807282

  20. [Actual state and problems in neurology training at graduate school].

    PubMed

    Kira, Jun-ichi; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Taniwaki, Takayuki; Inuzuka, Takashi; Yoshii, Fumihito; Aoki, Masashi; Amano, Takahiro; Toyoshima, Itaru; Fukutake, Toshio; Hashimoto, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    To understand the status of postgraduate education in neurology in Japan, the Committee for the Education of Undergraduate Students and Junior Residents within the Japanese Society of Neurology investigated the four-year trend at 80 medical schools from 2009 to 2012. The mean number of new students to each postgraduate school increased from 1.24 to 1.67 during these four years. After training clinical neurology, more than half of the neurological residents entered the postgraduate schools. Students in the postgraduate schools seemed to be researching major neurological diseases using various methods at each neurology laboratory. However, some problems were suggested. First, the mean number of newcomers to the neurology departments of the universities decreased gradually from 2.29/year to 1.96/year. Second, many of the postgraduate students were working in patient services at university hospitals or as part-time workers at other hospitals, and may not have sufficient time for their research projects. Third, many of the postgraduate students were carrying out research at each affiliated department of neurology, and may not have the opportunity to work in laboratories specializing in basic science. Finally, there may not be sufficient opportunities for further research at other laboratories in Japan or overseas after they finished their work at postgraduate school.

  1. Effectiveness of Some Educational Methods and Tools on Improving the Level of Understanding of Biostatistics among Medical Students and Paramedical Postgraduate Students.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Nezhat

    2016-04-13

    It has been observed that medical students and researchers lack sufficient knowledge in understanding statistical concepts. This indicates the importance of improving the level of instruction in this field. This experimental study was conducted to introduce and investigate the effectiveness of some educational methods and tools in improving the level of understanding of biostatistics among medical students and paramedical postgraduate students. For this purpose, from 40 medical students and 20 paramedical postgraduate students, who attended the biostatistics course, pre-test and post-test questionnaires were collected. The medical students were divided into two training groups, namely, training with the help of software (intervention group), and the traditional (lecture method) group. The paramedical postgraduate students were also divided into two groups, except that for the intervention group, in addition to training with the help of software, educational DVDs were also provided. Knowledge, attitude and the awareness index of the students were determined by using a questionnaire. Post-test results indicate that, the awareness index in the intervention group was significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05). The new method of teaching significantly upgraded the knowledge of the students (P<0.05) and increased the level of attitude of the medical students (P<0.04). Comparing the post-test results of the two groups, i.e., medical students and paramedical postgraduate students, demonstrated that a combination of software and instructional DVDs had a positive effect on the desired outcome (P<0.01). Usage of statistical software and additional virtual methods will contribute to increasing the level of knowledge and attitude of the students toward biostatistics. The training method and, accordingly, the curricula of biostatistics courses in medical and paramedical schools must be revised.

  2. Effectiveness of Some Educational Methods and Tools on Improving the Level of Understanding of Biostatistics among Medical Students and Paramedical Postgraduate Students.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Nezhat

    2016-01-01

    It has been observed that medical students and researchers lack sufficient knowledge in understanding statistical concepts. This indicates the importance of improving the level of instruction in this field. This experimental study was conducted to introduce and investigate the effectiveness of some educational methods and tools in improving the level of understanding of biostatistics among medical students and paramedical postgraduate students. For this purpose, from 40 medical students and 20 paramedical postgraduate students, who attended the biostatistics course, pre-test and post-test questionnaires were collected. The medical students were divided into two training groups, namely, training with the help of software (intervention group), and the traditional (lecture method) group. The paramedical postgraduate students were also divided into two groups, except that for the intervention group, in addition to training with the help of software, educational DVDs were also provided. Knowledge, attitude and the awareness index of the students were determined by using a questionnaire. Post-test results indicate that, the awareness index in the intervention group was significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05). The new method of teaching significantly upgraded the knowledge of the students (P<0.05) and increased the level of attitude of the medical students (P<0.04). Comparing the post-test results of the two groups, i.e., medical students and paramedical postgraduate students, demonstrated that a combination of software and instructional DVDs had a positive effect on the desired outcome (P<0.01). Usage of statistical software and additional virtual methods will contribute to increasing the level of knowledge and attitude of the students toward biostatistics. The training method and, accordingly, the curricula of biostatistics courses in medical and paramedical schools must be revised. PMID:27241403

  3. The Development of a Postgraduate Research Community: A Response to the Needs of Postgraduate Researchers at Birmingham City University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Ian; Mayouf, Mohammad; Rowe, Sophie Grace; Charles, Rachel-Ann; Sultan, Fahad; Patel, Karen; Forkert, Kirsten; Ochonogor, Kene Kelikume

    2015-01-01

    At many new universities, research is often seen as a fringe and/or niche activity, which falls well behind learning and teaching in the list of priorities of such institutions. This issue has major effects on the research experience of postgraduate researchers (PGRs), especially when the research community is small and fragmented across campuses.…

  4. Profiling postgraduate workplace-based assessment implementation in Ireland: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Aileen; Galvin, Rose; Steinert, Yvonne; Scherpbier, Albert; O'Shaughnessy, Ann; Walsh, Gillian; Horgan, Mary

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, workplace-based assessment (WBA) was formally integrated as a method of formative trainee assessment into 29 basic and higher specialist medical training (BST/HST) programmes in six postgraduate training bodies in Ireland. The aim of this study is to explore how WBA is being implemented and to examine if WBA is being used formatively as originally intended. A retrospective cohort study was conducted and approved by the institution's Research Ethics Committee. A profile of WBA requirements was obtained from 29 training programme curricula. A data extraction tool was developed to extract anonymous data, including written feedback and timing of assessments, from Year 1 and 2 trainee ePortfolios in 2012-2013. Data were independently quality assessed and compared to the reference standard number of assessments mandated annually where relevant. All 29 training programmes mandated the inclusion of at least one case-based discussion (max = 5; range 1-5). All except two non-clinical programmes (93 %) required at least two mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise assessments per year and Direct Observation of Procedural Skills assessments were mandated in 27 training programmes over the course of the programme. WBA data were extracted from 50 % of randomly selected BST ePortfolios in four programmes (n = 142) and 70 % of HST ePortfolios (n = 115) in 21 programmes registered for 2012-2013. Four programmes did not have an eligible trainee for that academic year. In total, 1142 WBAs were analysed. A total of 164 trainees (63.8 %) had completed at least one WBA. The average number of WBAs completed by HST trainees was 7.75 (SD 5.8; 95 % CI 6.5-8.9; range 1-34). BST trainees completed an average of 6.1 assessments (SD 9.3; 95 % CI 4.01-8.19; range 1-76). Feedback-of varied length and quality-was provided on 44.9 % of assessments. The majority of WBAs were completed in the second half of the year. There is significant heterogeneity with respect to the frequency and

  5. Postgraduate nurse practitioner residency programs: supporting transition to practice.

    PubMed

    Wiltse Nicely, Kelly L; Fairman, Julie

    2015-06-01

    The 2010 Institute of Medicine report The Future of Nursing recommended residency programs for nurses. The number of such postgraduate residencies for nurse practitioners (NPs) is increasing in community settings; still, the Institute of Medicine's recommendation departs from the tradition of direct entry into practice after the completion of a formal nursing program. Research shows that residencies support NPs' transition to practice, but very few data support their impact on patient care. Postgraduate residencies are controversial, and the authors of this Commentary discuss the naming, funding mechanisms, and possible mandating of these programs.The authors believe that residencies should not be mandated but encouraged for new NPs and for those moving to new clinical settings. Team-based residencies provide both an opportunity to improve collaboration and a model of patient-centered care.

  6. Current dilemmas in overseas doctors' training

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, D

    2005-01-01

    International medical graduates (IMGs) are a remarkably successful professional group in the United Kingdom making up to 30% of the NHS work force. Their very success and media publicity about general practice and consultant shortages, has led to a large influx of inexperienced doctors seeking training opportunities in competitive specialties. In 2003 a record 15 549 doctors joined the medical register of which 9336 doctors were non-European Economic Area citizens. The number of candidates sitting PLAB part 1 and part 2 in 2003 rose by 267% and 283% respectively compared with 2001. Changes to Department of Health, Home Office, and deanery regulations with expansion of medical schools, implementation of European Working Time Directive, Modernising Medical Careers, and the future role of the Postgraduate Medical Education and Training Board, will have an important impact on IMGs' training. Dissemination of realistic information about postgraduate training opportunities is important as the NHS for some time will continue to rely on IMGs. PMID:15701736

  7. Surgical education in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Surgical education in Mexico basically follows the same model as in the United States, with a selection process resembling the matching program. There is a 4-year training period during which residents in their third year spend 4 months as the sole surgeon in a rural community. During the senior year they are entitled to an elective period in a place of their choosing. After completion of the 4 years, residents have to present a thesis and undergo an oral examination before getting a university diploma. They are then encouraged to pass the written and oral examination of the Mexican Board of Surgery before they are fully certified to enter practice in a public or private hospital. PMID:19603225

  8. Involving postgraduate's students in undergraduate small group teaching promotes active learning in both

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Ruchi; Modi, Jyoti Nath; Vyas, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lecture is a common traditional method for teaching, but it may not stimulate higher order thinking and students may also be hesitant to express and interact. The postgraduate (PG) students are less involved with undergraduate (UG) teaching. Team based small group active learning method can contribute to better learning experience. Aim: To-promote active learning skills among the UG students using small group teaching methods involving PG students as facilitators to impart hands-on supervised training in teaching and managerial skills. Methodology: After Institutional approval under faculty supervision 92 UGs and 8 PGs participated in 6 small group sessions utilizing the jigsaw technique. Feedback was collected from both. Observations: Undergraduate Feedback (Percentage of Students Agreed): Learning in small groups was a good experience as it helped in better understanding of the subject (72%), students explored multiple reading resources (79%), they were actively involved in self-learning (88%), students reported initial apprehension of performance (71%), identified their learning gaps (86%), team enhanced their learning process (71%), informal learning in place of lecture was a welcome change (86%), it improved their communication skills (82%), small group learning can be useful for future self-learning (75%). Postgraduate Feedback: Majority performed facilitation for first time, perceived their performance as good (75%), it was helpful in self-learning (100%), felt confident of managing students in small groups (100%), as facilitator they improved their teaching skills, found it more useful and better identified own learning gaps (87.5%). Conclusions: Learning in small groups adopting team based approach involving both UGs and PGs promoted active learning in both and enhanced the teaching skills of the PGs. PMID:26380201

  9. Design and Implementation of a Competency-Based Transfusion Medicine Training Program in Canada.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Michelle P; Sherbino, Jonathan; Whitman, Lucinda; Skeate, Robert; Arnold, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    Transfusion medicine training in Canada is currently undergoing a transformation from a time- and process-based curriculum to a competency-based medical education framework. Transfusion medicine is the first accredited postgraduate medical education training program in Canada to adopt a purely competency-based curriculum. It is serving as an example for a number of other postgraduate medical training programs undergoing a similar transition. The purpose of this review is to highlight the elements of competency-based medical education, describe its application to transfusion medicine training, and report on the development and implementation of the new transfusion medicine curriculum in Canada.

  10. Geoinformation postgraduate education at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia - towards a centre of high quality postgraduate education and research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, S.; Kanniah, K. D.; Rahman, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Studying at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) will ensure academic and technological excellence. The Faculty of Geoinformation and Real Estate (FGHT), established in 1972, focus on education and research for undergraduate as well as postgraduate programs in the related disciplines such as geomatic engineering, geoinformatics, remote sensing, property management and land administration & development. FGHT strives to be a leading academic center in geoinformation and real estate in Southeast Asia. Graduates and alumni form major strong professional societies and work force in the related industries. Many of our graduates end up with good jobs not just in Malaysia but also in other countries (Asian, Middle East, Africa and Europe). The strong team and knowledgeable academic members in this faculty provide excellent ingredients for the success of the programs (i.e. with the relevant and up-to-date curriculum and syllabus). FGHT is continuously working to provide and offer first-class geoinformation and real estate education and research in the country and be at a par with other leading institutions in other parts of the globe. The Department of Geoinformation at FGHT runs a Bachelor of Engineering in Geomatic and a Bachelor of Science in Geoinformatics. At the postgraduate levels, namely M.Sc. and PhD programs, the offered disciplines are Geomatic Engineering, Geoinformatics and Remote Sensing. In the following, the state of the art of FGHT's postgraduate education in Geoinformation is presented, including a comparison with other universities in Malaysia, program content and curriculum information, alumni statistics as well as future strategies.

  11. Three-dimensional surgical simulation.

    PubMed

    Cevidanes, Lucia H C; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2010-09-01

    In this article, we discuss the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery, which allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3-dimensional surface models from cone-beam computed tomography, dynamic cephalometry, semiautomatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone, and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intraoperative guidance. The system provides further intraoperative assistance with a computer display showing jaw positions and 3-dimensional positioning guides updated in real time during the surgical procedure. The computer-aided surgery system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training, and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures before the surgery. Computer-aided surgery can make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases.

  12. Web 2.0 technologies for undergraduate and postgraduate medical education: an online survey

    PubMed Central

    Sandars, J; Schroter, S

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To identify the current familiarity and use of Web 2.0 technologies by medical students and qualified medical practitioners, and to identify the barriers to its use for medical education. Methods A semi‐structured online questionnaire survey of 3000 medical students and 3000 qualified medical practitioners (consultants, general practitioners and doctors in training) on the British Medical Association's membership database. Results All groups had high familiarity, but low use, of podcasts. Ownership of digital media players was higher among medical students. There was high familiarity, but low use, of other Web 2.0 technologies except for high use of instant messaging and social networking by medical students. All groups stated that they were interested in using Web 2.0 technologies for education but there was lack of knowledge and skills in how to use these new technologies. Conclusions There is an overall high awareness of a range of new Web 2.0 technologies by both medical students and qualified medical practitioners and high interest in its use for medical education. However, the potential of Web 2.0 technologies for undergraduate and postgraduate medical education will only be achieved if there is increased training in how to use this new approach. PMID:18057175

  13. Synthesis and Simulation of Surgical Process Models.

    PubMed

    Claude, Guillaume; Gouranton, Valérie; Caillaud, Benoit; Gibaud, Bernard; Arnaldi, Bruno; Jannin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Virtual Reality for surgical training is mainly focused on technical surgical skills. We work on providing a novel approach to the use of Virtual Reality focusing on the procedural aspects. Our system relies on a specific work-flow generating a model of the procedure from real case surgery observation in the operating room. This article presents the different technologies created in the context of our project and their relations as other components of our workflow. PMID:27046555

  14. Surgical innovation as sui generis surgical research.

    PubMed

    Lotz, Mianna

    2013-12-01

    Successful innovative 'leaps' in surgical technique have the potential to contribute exponentially to surgical advancement, and thereby to improved health outcomes for patients. Such innovative leaps often occur relatively spontaneously, without substantial forethought, planning, or preparation. This feature of surgical innovation raises special challenges for ensuring sufficient evaluation and regulatory oversight of new interventions that have not been the subject of controlled investigatory exploration and review. It is this feature in particular that makes early-stage surgical innovation especially resistant to classification as 'research', with all of the attendant methodological and ethical obligations--of planning, regulation, monitoring, reporting, and publication--associated with such a classification. This paper proposes conceptual and ethical grounds for a restricted definition according to which innovation in surgical technique is classified as a form of sui generis surgical 'research', where the explicit goal of adopting such a definition is to bring about needed improvements in knowledge transfer and thereby benefit current and future patients.

  15. Training of clinical laboratory professionals in Russia.

    PubMed

    Morozova, V T; Dolgov, V V; Malakhov, V N

    1994-12-31

    In Russia, specialized education of clinical laboratory physicians who work in the positions of medical technologists, head of laboratory or one of its divisions is conducted in various forms of postgraduate training, namely internship, primary specialization courses, advanced study courses, graduate clinical studies and postgraduate fellowship. Such education is offered at 14 Departments for Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics, which are located within the Institutes for Advanced Medical Studies or at Faculties for Advanced Medical Studies in Medical Institutes. Until the present, the primary specialization courses and the advanced study courses have been the most prevalent forms of training clinical laboratory professionals. These two types of courses offer formal lectures, seminars as well as practical classes, and the course contents are regulated by a uniform curriculum promulgated by the Ministry of Health. Training in these courses is the necessary prerequisite to obtain degree of advanced qualification as an expert in clinical laboratory diagnostics, which in turn provides access to better remunerated positions.

  16. Surgical innovation: the ethical agenda

    PubMed Central

    Broekman, Marike L.; Carrière, Michelle E.; Bredenoord, Annelien L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present article was to systematically review the ethics of surgical innovation and introduce the components of the learning health care system to guide future research and debate on surgical innovation. Although the call for evidence-based practice in surgery is increasingly high on the agenda, most surgeons feel that the format of the randomized controlled trial is not suitable for surgery. Innovation in surgery has aspects of, but should be distinguished from both research and clinical care and raises its own ethical challenges. To answer the question “What are the main ethical aspects of surgical innovation?”, we systematically searched PubMed and Embase. Papers expressing an opinion, point of view, or position were included, that is, normative ethical papers. We included 59 studies discussing ethical aspects of surgical innovation. These studies discussed 4 major themes: oversight, informed consent, learning curve, and vulnerable patient groups. Although all papers addressed the ethical challenges raised by surgical innovation, surgeons hold no uniform view of surgical innovation, and there is no agreement on the distinction between innovation and research. Even though most agree to some sort of oversight, they offer different alternatives ranging from the formation of new surgical innovation committees to establishing national registries. Most agree that informed consent is necessary for innovative procedures and that surgeons should be adequately trained to assure their competence to tackle the learning curve problem. All papers agree that in case of vulnerable patients, alternatives must be found for the informed consent procedure. We suggest that the concept of the learning health care system might provide guidance for thinking about surgical innovation. The underlying rationale of the learning health care system is to improve the quality of health care by embedding research within clinical care. Two aspects of a learning health

  17. Post-graduation factors predicting NCLEX-RN success.

    PubMed

    Beeman, Pamela Butler; Waterhouse, Julie Keith

    2003-01-01

    The academic and nonacademic factors that influence nursing students' success on the licensure exam have been widely reported. However, many questions remain as to why certain candidates fail the exam. This pilot study explores postgraduation influences on the NCLEX-RN.(R) Factors such as length and type of study, work hours, review course participation, sleep, and stress were recorded using the newly developed NCLEX Preparation Survey. Results suggest both expected and unexpected relationships between these factors and NCLEX-RN mastery. PMID:14624123

  18. Pre- and postgraduate education in international health--secondary publication.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Vibeke Brix; Norredam, Marie L; Karle, Hans; Hemmingsen, Ralf P

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this article is to provide information about possibilities for medical students and doctors to obtain knowledge about international health. Increasing globalisation requires knowledge about international health in such a way that Danish doctors are able to diagnose and treat patients, regardless of the patient's nationality and ethnic background. Denmark has a global responsibility towards low and middle income countries to increase the standard of health. Increased knowledge and research in these countries are important both at an undergraduate and postgraduate level.

  19. Supervisory and Digital Literacy Practices in Postgraduate Supervision: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Sarjit; Sidhu, Gurnam Kaur; Fong, Lee Lai; Jamian, Leele Suzana

    2015-01-01

    The twin forces of globalisation and internationalisation witnessed the global democratisation of higher education leading to the mushrooming of institutions of higher learning alongside with the rapid increase in student enrolments at all levels including postgraduate study. Despite the rapid developments in higher education, postgraduate study…

  20. Collecting and Responding to Postgraduate Student Feedback: The Experience of the University of Bristol. Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearn, Sophie M.

    2004-01-01

    Higher education (HE) in the UK is undergoing extensive changes. One key change is the increasing prominence of postgraduate education. Higher demands on employees create the desire for more qualifications and greater skills. This increasingly consumer-oriented focus to postgraduate education has created a need for information about quality and…

  1. Cooperative Education and Employment Outcomes for Post-Graduation Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprandel, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This research study examined the post-graduation employment outcomes of business undergraduate college students who have participated in a cooperative education (co-op) program. The co-op students' post-graduate employment outcomes were compared to those of non-program (co-op) participants. This data was gathered from the Sam M. Walton College of…

  2. Beyond Satisfaction Surveys: The Development of an Evaluation Process for a Postgraduate Transferable Skills Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Marcia; Tjia, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Leadership, professional and other transferable skills are embedded in the expected attributes of Australian research postgraduates at the successful completion of their degrees. This paper reports on the development of an evaluation process for a postgraduate transferable skills program at The University of Melbourne, Australia. Existing and…

  3. Following Alice: Theories of Critical Thinking and Reflective Practice in Action at Postgraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanwick, Ruth; Kitchen, Ruth; Jarvis, Joy; McCracken, Wendy; O'Neil, Rachel; Powers, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible framework of principles for teaching critical thinking and reflective practice skills at the postgraduate level. It reports on a collaborative project between four UK institutions providing postgraduate programmes in deaf education. Through a critical review of current theories of critical thinking and reflective…

  4. An Exploration into the Impact of Blogs on Students' Learning: Case Studies in Postgraduate Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansouri, S. Afshin; Piki, Andriani

    2016-01-01

    The research draws from four case studies to investigate the impact of using blogs within postgraduate education. The study explores how postgraduate business students engage with blogs, whether students' learning preferences correlate with their degree of contribution and how student participation relates with overall achievement. A mixed…

  5. A Sociological Inquiry into Time Management in Postgraduate Studies by e-Learning in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vryonides, Marios

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a small scale sociological investigation which studied the way mature students manage their time while attending to postgraduate studies by e-learning. Thirty postgraduate students from the University of the Aegean, Greece, were asked to record their daily activities using a semi-structured time-use diary over…

  6. The Study on "Academic Game"-Oriented English Course Model for Postgraduates in Agricultural Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Xinrong

    2010-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the questionnaire survey on learning motivation and learning needs of postgraduates and their demands and suggestions on English teaching, the paper makes a beneficial exploration on English course model for postgraduates in agricultural universities. Under the guidance of academic game theory, the "language skills+…

  7. Postgraduate Research Supervision: Transforming (R)Elations. Eruptions: New Feminism across the Disciplines, Volume 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Alison, Ed.; Mercer, Gina, Ed.

    This anthology explores the relationships between postgraduate research candidates and their supervisors. Through stories from candidates and supervisors, the collection proposes alternatives to the prevailing models of postgraduate research supervision. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction" (Alison Bartlett and Gina Mercer); (2) "Dirty Work: 'A…

  8. Development of a Procurement Management Framework in Ghana: A New Paradigm for Interdisciplinary Postgraduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu-Manu, D.; Badu, E.; Edwards, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Procurement in the corporate world is increasingly complex, multi-faceted and interdisciplinary. This paper explores existing knowledge specifications relating to procurement management competencies and proposes a new procurement management competency framework (PMCF) and a competency-based postgraduate programme for postgraduate students in…

  9. Dynamics of Rate of Returns for Postgraduate Education in Taiwan: The Impact of Higher Education Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chih-Hai; Lin, Chun-Hung A.; Lin, Chien-Ru

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics of rate of returns for postgraduate education and the determinants of wage premiums for postgraduate labor, especially for the impact of higher education expansions, in terms of quantity and quality, since the late 1990s in Taiwan. Utilizing quasi-panel data over the 1990-2004 period and employing the double fixed…

  10. A Survey Study of Autonomous Learning by Chinese Non-English Major Post-Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jianping

    2009-01-01

    This thesis reports a survey study of the autonomous L2 learning by 100 first-year non-English-major Chinese post-graduates via the instruments of a questionnaire and semi-structured interview after the questionnaire. It attends to address the following research question: To what extent do Chinese postgraduate students conduct autonomous L2…

  11. Factors Influencing African Postgraduate International Students' Choice of South Africa as a Study Destination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpinganjira, Mercy

    2012-01-01

    Many African countries are concerned with the targeting of international postgraduate students by developed countries for skilled migration. Increased provision of postgraduate studies within the continent would go a long way in dealing with the problem. Success will however depend on the ability of countries in the continent to attract…

  12. A Case Study into the Writing of Chinese Postgraduate Students in a UK Academic Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This case study explores the problematic issues in academic writing of three Chinese postgraduate students studying in UK academic environment. It aims to attempt to identify mismatches in lecturer and postgraduate student expectations and to understand the reasoning behind these mismatches from the students' perspective. This study was carried…

  13. A Patient-Centered Approach to Postgraduate Trainee Health and Wellness: An Applied Review and Health Care Delivery Model.

    PubMed

    Carvour, Martha L; Ayyar, Balaji K; Chien, Kelly S; Ramirez, Natalie C; Yamamoto, Haru

    2016-09-01

    Attention to the health and wellness of postgraduate medical trainees has increased considerably in recent years, yet the scholarly literature consistently indicates that, in many instances, the medical and mental health care needs of this population remain unmet or only partially met. As a result, trainee health care often falls short of the current standards of the medical profession. Combined with the prevalence of burnout and other mental health conditions among trainees, inadequate health care for this patient population may result in significant negative consequences for trainees' health, safety, and performance.Here, the authors review the scholarly literature explicating the health care needs of postgraduate trainees. They explore the patient-centered medical home model as a potentially effective solution to address the unmet and partially met health care needs of trainees. The authors describe several practical interventions to improve access to care. These include care coordination and referral support, confidential care without perceived conflicts of interest in the training environment, co-location of medical and mental health care, and accommodations for schedule constraints. Finally, the authors explore the role of the medical home in developing and supporting broader institutional efforts to promote wellness. PMID:27415444

  14. [Postgraduate programs in nursing in Brazil and in the northeast of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Fernandes, Josicélia Dumêt; de Araújo, Thelma Leite

    2007-03-01

    This descriptive-exploratory study aimed at describing the current situation of postgraduate programs in nursing in Brazil, particularly in the Northeast of Brazil, in terms of trends and expansion perspectives. Statistical data of 2003 were collected using registration tool on Stricto Sensu Postgraduate Programs in Nursing, made available by official research-sponsoring agencies Coordenation for the Improvement of Undergraduate Level Personnel (CAPES) and National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). The results indicated extensive asymmetriesin the Brazilian Post-Graduation System, showing that the expansion of postgraduate programs in nursing in the Northeast of Brazil results from the response capacity to the official demands of the present national post-graduation system.

  15. Education and Training beyond the Doctoral Degree. Proceedings of the American Psychological Association National Conference on Postdoctoral Education and Training in Psychology (Norman, Oklahoma, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

    These conference proceedings address a broad range of issues related to postgraduate education and training beyond the doctoral degree for maintaining expertise in all areas of psychology. They focus on six general issues: (1) models for education and training beyond the doctoral degree; (2) societal needs, changing demographics, and national…

  16. 38 CFR 3.358 - Compensation for disability or death from hospitalization, medical or surgical treatment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... disability or death from hospitalization, medical or surgical treatment, examinations or vocational... treatment, examinations or vocational rehabilitation training (§ 3.800). (a) General. This section applies... result of hospitalization, medical or surgical treatment, examination, or vocational...

  17. 38 CFR 3.358 - Compensation for disability or death from hospitalization, medical or surgical treatment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... disability or death from hospitalization, medical or surgical treatment, examinations or vocational... treatment, examinations or vocational rehabilitation training (§ 3.800). (a) General. This section applies... result of hospitalization, medical or surgical treatment, examination, or vocational...

  18. Postgraduate education in gerontology in the Asia-Oceania region.

    PubMed

    Russell, Cherry; Mahony, Mary Jane; Hughes, Ian; Kendig, Hal

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of opportunities for graduate education in Gerontology in the Asia-Oceania Region. It locates emerging demand in a demographic context, highlighting high rates of growth in the aged population within the Region and growing awareness of governments of the need for appropriate planning. An important component of infrastructure development will be professional access to specialised education about ageing. Of postgraduate programs currently available, most are offered by Australian universities. The trend among providers is towards flexible delivery by distance education using a variety of models, including traditional print-based independent study, cross-national partnerships using block or blended teaching models, and predominantly online education. An innovative model developed by a leading local provider, The University of Sydney, is described. StudyAgeOnline is a Web-supported postgraduate coursework program in ageing and aged care for practising health professionals in which short courses can be undertaken as stand-alone modules or build towards a Masters degree. We describe a typical module and discuss how learning and teaching strategies have been designed for practical relevance in a multi-professional and multi-cultural "virtual classroom."

  19. The Future of Postgraduate Medical Education in Canada.

    PubMed

    Busing, Nick; Harris, Ken; MacLellan, Anne-Marie; Moineau, Geneviève; Oandasan, Ivy; Rourke, James; Saxena, Anurag

    2015-09-01

    The Future of Medical Education in Canada Postgraduate (FMEC PG) Project was launched in 2010 by a consortium of four organizations: the Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada, the Collège des Médecins du Québec, the College of Family Physicians of Canada, and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. The FMEC PG study set out to review the state of the Canadian postgraduate medical education (PGME) system and make recommendations for improvements and changes. The extensive process included literature reviews, commissioned papers, stakeholder interviews, international consultations, and dialogue with the public and learners. The resulting key findings and 10 recommendations, published in a report in 2012, represent the collective vision of the consortium partner organizations for PGME in Canada. Implementation of the recommendations began in 2013 and will continue beyond 2016.In this article, the authors describe the complex process of developing the recommendations, highlight several recommendations, consider implementation processes and issues, and share lessons learned to date. They reflect on the ways in which the transformation of a very complex and complicated PGME system has required many stakeholders to work together on multiple interventions simultaneously. Notwithstanding the challenges for the participating organizations, changes have been introduced and sustainability is being forged. Throughout this process, the consortium partners and other stakeholders have continued to address the social accountability role of all physicians with respect to the public they serve.

  20. The Future of Postgraduate Medical Education in Canada.

    PubMed

    Busing, Nick; Harris, Ken; MacLellan, Anne-Marie; Moineau, Geneviève; Oandasan, Ivy; Rourke, James; Saxena, Anurag

    2015-09-01

    The Future of Medical Education in Canada Postgraduate (FMEC PG) Project was launched in 2010 by a consortium of four organizations: the Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada, the Collège des Médecins du Québec, the College of Family Physicians of Canada, and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. The FMEC PG study set out to review the state of the Canadian postgraduate medical education (PGME) system and make recommendations for improvements and changes. The extensive process included literature reviews, commissioned papers, stakeholder interviews, international consultations, and dialogue with the public and learners. The resulting key findings and 10 recommendations, published in a report in 2012, represent the collective vision of the consortium partner organizations for PGME in Canada. Implementation of the recommendations began in 2013 and will continue beyond 2016.In this article, the authors describe the complex process of developing the recommendations, highlight several recommendations, consider implementation processes and issues, and share lessons learned to date. They reflect on the ways in which the transformation of a very complex and complicated PGME system has required many stakeholders to work together on multiple interventions simultaneously. Notwithstanding the challenges for the participating organizations, changes have been introduced and sustainability is being forged. Throughout this process, the consortium partners and other stakeholders have continued to address the social accountability role of all physicians with respect to the public they serve. PMID:26177532

  1. Surgical and non-surgical treatment of frozen shoulder. Survey on surgeons treatment preferences

    PubMed Central

    Kwaees, Tariq Adam; Charalambous, Charalambos P.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: frozen shoulder is a common condition and its management can be surgical or non-surgical. The aim was to determine current trends in the management of frozen shoulder amongst surgical members of the British Elbow and Shoulder Society (BESS). Methods: a single electronic questionnaire was emailed to surgical members of the BESS. Participants were asked about their surgical and non-surgical treatments of choice and the reasoning behind that, as well as which components of arthroscopic arthrolysis they favoured. Results: 87 BESS members completed the questioner. The majority of respondents used physiotherapy as their preferred means of non-surgical management while arthroscopic arthrolysis was the most frequently used surgical intervention. A substantial proportion of surgeons based their choice on personal experience and training rather than published evidence. Conclusions: management of frozen shoulder amongst surgeons varies substantially and is highly based on personal experience and training rather than strong evidence. Arthroscopic arthrolysis is a heterogeneous procedure with a wide variation in the use of its various components. Our results highlight the need for high quality clinical trials to compare the management options available. PMID:25767778

  2. ESSReS-PEP, an international and interdisciplinary postgraduate education concept on Earth and Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosfeld, Klaus; Lohmann, Gerrit; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Burrows, John

    2013-04-01

    Promoting young researchers is a major priority of the German Helmholtz Association. Since more than five years graduate and postgraduate education in the field of Earth System and Environmental Science has been established in Bremen and Bremerhaven, north-western Germany. Using the network and collaboration of experts and specialists on observational and paleoclimate data as well as on statistical data analysis and climate modelling from two Universities and the Helmholtz research institute on Polar and Marine Research, master and PhD students are trained to understand, decipher and cope with the challenges of recent climate change on an highly interdisciplinary and inter-institutional level. The existing research infrastructure at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Bremerhaven (AWI), University of Bremen, and Jacobs University Bremen offers a unique research environment to study past, present and future changes of the climate system, with special focus on high latitudinal processes. It covers all kind of disciplines, climate science, geosciences and biosciences, and provides a consistent framework for education and qualification of a new generation of expertly trained, internationally competitive master and PhD students. On postgraduate level, the Postgraduate Programme Environmental Physics (PEP) at the University of Bremen (www.pep.uni-bremen.de) educates the participants on the complex relationship between atmosphere, hydrosphere (ocean), cryosphere (ice region) and solid earth (land). Here, the learning of experimental methods in environmental physics at the most advanced level, numerical data analysis using supercomputers, and data interpretation via sophisticated methods prepare students for a scientific career. Within cooperation with the Ocean University of China (OUC) students are participating one year in the PEP programme during their master studies since 2006, to get finally a double degree of both universities. At the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar

  3. [Evaluation of technical skills in surgical training].

    PubMed

    Kasparian, Andres C; Martinez, A C; JoverClos, R J; Chércoles, R A

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La adquisición de habilidades quirúrgicas constituye un factor central en la formación de todo cirujano. Sin embargo, la evaluación de las habilidades técnicas es uno de los factores más débiles y menos desarrollados. En la actualidad los recursos para evaluar las competencias técnicas adolecen de subjetividad, falta de confiabilidad y validez. La observación directa, método de evaluación más frecuentemente utilizado en nuestro medio, presenta inconvenientes instrumentales y está fuertemente influenciada por las relaciones intersubjetivas y los rasgos de personalidad. El objetivo de esta investigación es proponer creación y el uso de un instrumento objetivo para evaluar el desempeño técnico y determinar su confiabilidad y validez.Material y método: se seleccionaron dos procedimientos: colecistectomía laparoscópica y hernioplastia inguinal (técnica de Lichtenstein). Se constituyeron tres grupos de comparación según la experiencia quirúrgica: inicial, intermedio, y expertos. Se filmaron las cirugías en tiempo real, sin identificación del paciente ni del cirujano. Las filmaciones sin edición fueron asignadas a dos cirujanos expertos en forma aleatoria por sorteo y con sobres sin identificación. Para la evaluación se propuso el uso de un instrumento objetivo (explicitación de pasos a evaluar y cuantificación mediante escala de Likert) y específico para cada procedimiento. Así mismo se utilizó la escala global OSATS (R. Reznick). Se aplicó análisis de varianza no paramétrico para determinar validez. Valores de p menores a 0.05 fueron considerados estadísticamente significativos. Valores superiores a 0,80 del Coeficiente alfa de Cronbach aseguraron confiabilidad. Resultados: Desde Abril del 2010 hasta Diciembre del 2012 se filmaron 36 colecistectomías videolaparoscópicas y 31 hernioplastias inguinales. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos en todos los ítems evaluados p<0.05. El coeficiente ? de Crohnbach fue mayor a 0,80 para ambas técnicas. No hubo diferencias significativas entre las calificaciones de ambos evaluadores. No hubo diferencias entre nuestro instrumento específico y la escala global OSATS. Discusión: Es posible y útil aplicar un instrumento objetivo de evaluación del desempeño técnico en cirugía. La herramienta presentó validez de constructo y confiabilidad aceptables. La filmación confiere perdurabilidad a un evento efímero: la cirugía. La objetividad se basa en la enunciación y cuantificación explícita de cada paso, y en la aleatorización y anonimato de la muestra. La uniformidad de criterios entre los evaluadores es fundamental para obtener resultados satisfactorios. Evaluarsiempreimplicaráunrecorte de la realidad.

  4. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  5. Introduction of Ambulatory Medical Training in a Veterans Administration Hospital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casciato, Dennis A.

    1979-01-01

    The implementation of a continuity of a care clinic in a highly subspecialized Veterans Administration internal medicine training program for postgraduate medical students is described, with focus on resolving problems created by the idiosyncratic administrative features and resource limitations of the hospital. (Author/JMD)

  6. A Periodic Compendium of Opportunities in Environmental Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ET Worldwide, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This periodic compendium of environmental training opportunities includes information about educational opportunities for noncredit, and undergraduate through postgraduate studies around the world. The areas of study include the following: environmental science; agriculture education and science; wildlife management; natural resources, land use,…

  7. Military and VA General Dentistry Training: A National Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atchison, Kathryn A.; Bachand, William; Buchanan, C. Richard; Lefever, Karen H.; Lin, Sylvia; Engelhardt, Rita

    2002-01-01

    Compared the program characteristics of the postgraduate general dentistry (PGD) training programs sponsored by the military and the Veterans Health Administration (VA). Gathered information on program infrastructure and emphasis, resident preparation prior to entering the program, and patients served and types of services provided. Programs…

  8. A Periodic Compendium of Opportunities in Environmental Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ET Worldwide, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This periodic compendium of environmental training opportunities includes information about educational opportunities for noncredit, and undergraduate through postgraduate studies around the world. The areas of study include the following: environmental education; environmental science; environmental management; Africa and global change;…

  9. Composite reliability of a workplace-based assessment toolbox for postgraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Moonen-van Loon, J M W; Overeem, K; Donkers, H H L M; van der Vleuten, C P M; Driessen, E W

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, postgraduate assessment programmes around the world have embraced workplace-based assessment (WBA) and its related tools. Despite their widespread use, results of studies on the validity and reliability of these tools have been variable. Although in many countries decisions about residents' continuation of training and certification as a specialist are based on the composite results of different WBAs collected in a portfolio, to our knowledge, the reliability of such a WBA toolbox has never been investigated. Using generalisability theory, we analysed the separate and composite reliability of three WBA tools [mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise (mini-CEX), direct observation of procedural skills (DOPS), and multisource feedback (MSF)] included in a resident portfolio. G-studies and D-studies of 12,779 WBAs from a total of 953 residents showed that a reliability coefficient of 0.80 was obtained for eight mini-CEXs, nine DOPS, and nine MSF rounds, whilst the same reliability was found for seven mini-CEXs, eight DOPS, and one MSF when combined in a portfolio. At the end of the first year of residency a portfolio with five mini-CEXs, six DOPS, and one MSF afforded reliable judgement. The results support the conclusion that several WBA tools combined in a portfolio can be a feasible and reliable method for high-stakes judgements.

  10. Knowledge of European orthodontic postgraduate students on biostatistics.

    PubMed

    Polychronopoulou, Argy; Eliades, Theodore; Taoufik, Konstantina; Papadopoulos, Moschos A; Athanasiou, Athanasios E

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the level of knowledge in biostatistics of orthodontic postgraduate students. A four-section questionnaire, which included a knowledge test/quiz on biostatistics and epidemiology, was developed. This questionnaire was distributed to postgraduate programme directors of European universities to be delivered to students for completion under mock examination conditions (in-class session). The frequency distributions of demographic characteristics were examined, the percentages of participants who agreed or strongly agreed with each attitudinal statement were calculated, and the percentages of participants who felt fairly to highly confident for each statement were determined. Knowledge scores were calculated by the percentage of correct answers; missing values were counted as incorrect answers. The Student's t-test or one-way analysis of variance, where appropriate, was utilized to determine the participants' characteristics associated with mean knowledge scores. Data were further analysed with multiple linear regression modelling to determine the adjusted/unconfounded effect of possible knowledge score predictors. A two-tailed P-value of 0.05 was considered statistically significant with a 95 percent confidence interval (CI). One hundred and twenty seven from a total of 129 orthodontic students who replied completed the questionnaire. The mean correct answers of the participants were 43.8 percent with a 95 percent CI of 40.2-47.3 percent. This score was not influenced by gender, years elapsed from graduation, other advanced degree, or year of study; the sole parameter, which seemed to influence this score was attendance at a biostatistics/epidemiology course (51.9 versus 39.5 percent score of participants who had previously taken a course versus those who had not, P<0.001). A surprising finding was the inability of the responders to identify the appropriate use of the chi-square test (11.8 percent, 95 percent CI: 6

  11. Postgraduate education in laboratory medicine and certification/re-certification of clinical pathologists in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chien-Feng

    2004-04-01

    The Taiwan Society of Clinical Pathologists (TSCP) plays a central role in postgraduate education of laboratory medicine and the certification/re-certification of clinical pathologists in Taiwan. For the certification of clinical pathologists, TSCP establishes "Guidelines and Scope of Resident Training" and "Standards for Training Hospitals in Clinical Pathology(CP)", administers board examinations, and issues board certifications/re-certifications. There are two types of CP resident training programs, including a straight CP program with 3 years of CP training for a CP certificate and a combined program with 3 years of Anatomic Pathology training and 2 years of CP training for both the CP and AP certificates. The core curriculum for CP training includes: (1) Clinical Chemistry (at least 4 months), (2) Clinical Microscope with Parasitology (at least 3 months), (3) Clinical Hematology (at least 4 months), and (4) Clinical Microbiology with Clinical Virology (at least 4 months), (5) Immunohematology and Blood Banking (Transfusion Medicine) (at least 3 months), (6) Clinical Serology and Immunology(at least 4 months), and (7) Laboratory Management (at least 2 months). The curriculum for third-year training is not specified and may be in any field. In recent years, the board examination has emphasized the topics of Molecular Biology and Laboratory Informatics. The TSCP has also established an accreditation and inspection program for the CP resident raining hospitals. Each accredited CP training hospital is required to have a detailed teaching protocol of CP training. Quotas are assigned according to the available CPs of the accredited hospitals. The accreditation period is 3 years. Through sponsoring scientific and educational programs, the TSCP offers credit hours of education in laboratory medicine, which are required for re-certification of CPs in Taiwan. The members of the TSCP meet at least twice a year for scientific presentations and seminars. In addition, two to

  12. Reducing the distance: providing challenging and engaging online postgraduate education in pain management.

    PubMed

    Devonshire, Elizabeth; Henderson, Sarah E

    2012-05-01

    1. Health professionals need access to flexible, high-quality, advanced education in pain management. 2. There are multiple pedagogical distances to be negotiated in the delivery of effective postgraduate education. 3. A critical consideration in the design and delivery of effective online learning for postgraduate education in pain management is how to: actively engage students in the learning process; and encourage students to become lifelong learners. 4. Conceptual frameworks for encouraging student interaction online provide a useful tool in the design of postgraduate online learning activities.

  13. Reducing the distance: providing challenging and engaging online postgraduate education in pain management

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Sarah E

    2012-01-01

    Summary points 1. Health professionals need access to flexible, high-quality, advanced education in pain management. 2. There are multiple pedagogical distances to be negotiated in the delivery of effective postgraduate education. 3. A critical consideration in the design and delivery of effective online learning for postgraduate education in pain management is how to: actively engage students in the learning process; and encourage students to become lifelong learners. 4. Conceptual frameworks for encouraging student interaction online provide a useful tool in the design of postgraduate online learning activities. PMID:26516472

  14. Surgical Lasers In Gynecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellhas, Helmut F.; Barnes, Alfonso E.

    1982-12-01

    Multipurpose surgical CO2 lasers marketed in the USA have been developed to be applicable to a variety of surgical procedures in many surgical fields. They are all suited for endoscopic surgical procedures and can be fitted to all standard surgical microscopes. They all can adjust the focal length of the laser beam to the different standard focal lengths of the surgical microscope which for instance in laryngoscopy is 400 mm and in colposcopy 300 mm. One laser instrument can even change the spot size in a given focal distance which is very advantageous for some microsurgical procedures (Merrimack Laboratories 820). All multipurpose surgical CO2 laser systems provide a multi-articulated surgical arm for free-hand surgery. The surgical arms are cumbersome to use but they are adapted to the surgeons needs with ingenuity. The practicality of the multi-articulated surgical arms depends mostly on the distance of the handpiece from the surgical console which now is also overbridged by the laser tube in most surgical laser system. The spot size of the beam is variable in most handpieces by interchangeable lenses which modify the focal distance of the beam and the power density. Another common feature in all systems is a coaxial He-Ne pilot light which provides a red spot which unfortunately becomes invisible in a bleeding surgical field. Most surgical laser systems have a spacial mode of TEM 00 which is essential for incisional surgery. The continuous mode of beam delivery is used for incisional surgery and also for most endoscopic procedures.

  15. Rethinking the Postgraduate Teaching Program and Examinations in Today's India.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Georgi; George, Tarun K

    2015-07-01

    Postgraduate medical education has undergone drastic changes in the developed and developing countries on par with advancements in technology. The Indian examination system which we imbibed from the British requires a rethinking and restructuring to keep pace with the changing trends shown by the Federation of the Royal Colleges of UK. In this manuscript we look at the strengths and weaknesses of different examination systems. We suggest changes in the theory examination which should be objectively based rather than the outdated essay and short notes. We discuss positive and proactive changes to reform our clinical examination system to enable a just and fair assessment of the candidate in a strictly time bound fashion. PMID:26731837

  16. International college of prosthodontists reports on post-graduate prosthodontics.

    PubMed

    Gross, Martin; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2014-07-01

    The international college of prosthodontists that regards itself as a representative body of prosthodontists worldwide has been addressing the topics of graduate education for the last decade. Our research and education committee have sent out questionnaires to 250 dental schools and received 42 responses with details of programs and prosthodontics in 24 of these centers. In addition the ICP web site requesting submission of international programs has been active for the last year. Our study showed that responding countries have 3-4 year programs. ICP was involved in drafting a report of the international association of dental schools in Athens and drafting the summary report. In addition the ICP has drafted a recommended post-graduate prosthodontic program curriculum that suggests guidelines for international specialty programs in prosthodontics.

  17. New study program: Interdisciplinary Postgraduate Specialist Study in Medical Informatics.

    PubMed

    Hercigonja-Szekeres, Mira; Simić, Diana; Božikov, Jadranka; Vondra, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Paper presents an overview of the EU funded Project of Curriculum Development for Interdisciplinary Postgraduate Specialist Study in Medical Informatics named MEDINFO to be introduced in Croatia. The target group for the program is formed by professionals in any of the areas of medicine, IT professionals working on applications of IT for health and researchers and teachers in medical informatics. In addition to Croatian students, the program will also provide opportunity for enrolling students from a wider region of Southeast Europe. Project partners are two faculties of the University of Zagreb - Faculty of Organization and Informatics from Varaždin and School of Medicine, Andrija Štampar School of Public Health from Zagreb with the Croatian Society for Medical Informatics, Croatian Chamber of Economy, and Ericsson Nikola Tesla Company as associates.

  18. New study program: Interdisciplinary Postgraduate Specialist Study in Medical Informatics.

    PubMed

    Hercigonja-Szekeres, Mira; Simić, Diana; Božikov, Jadranka; Vondra, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Paper presents an overview of the EU funded Project of Curriculum Development for Interdisciplinary Postgraduate Specialist Study in Medical Informatics named MEDINFO to be introduced in Croatia. The target group for the program is formed by professionals in any of the areas of medicine, IT professionals working on applications of IT for health and researchers and teachers in medical informatics. In addition to Croatian students, the program will also provide opportunity for enrolling students from a wider region of Southeast Europe. Project partners are two faculties of the University of Zagreb - Faculty of Organization and Informatics from Varaždin and School of Medicine, Andrija Štampar School of Public Health from Zagreb with the Croatian Society for Medical Informatics, Croatian Chamber of Economy, and Ericsson Nikola Tesla Company as associates. PMID:24743088

  19. Simulation-based flexible ureteroscopy training using a novel ureteroscopy part-task trainer

    PubMed Central

    Blankstein, Udi; Lantz, Andrea G.; D’A Honey, R. John; Pace, Kenneth T.; Ordon, Michael; Lee, Jason Young

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Simulation-based training (SBT) is being increasingly used for novice trainees as a means of overcoming the early learning curve associated with new surgical skills. We designed a SBT flexible ureteroscopy (fURS) course using a novel inanimate training model (Cook Medical, Bloomington, IN; URS model). We evaluated the course and validated this Cook URS model. Methods: A 2-week SBT fURS course was designed for junior level urology trainees at 2 Canadian universities. The curriculum included didactic lectures, hands-on training, independent training sessions with expert feedback, and use of the Cook URS part-task model. Baseline and post-course assessments of trainee fURS skills were conducted using a standardized test task (fURS with basket manipulation of a calyceal stone). Performances were video-recorded and reviewed by 2 blinded experts using a validated assessment device. Results: Fifteen residents (postgraduate years [PGY] 0–3) participated in the course. Of the participants, 80% rated the Cook URS model as realistic (mean = 4.2/5) and 5 endourology experts rated it as useful as a training device (mean = 4.9/5), providing both face and content validity. The mean overall performance scores, task completion times, and passing ratings correlated with trainee clinical fURS experience – demonstrating construct validity for the Cook URS model. The mean post-course task completion times (15.76 vs. 9.37 minutes, p = 0.001) and overall performance scores (19.20 vs. 25.25, p = 0.007) were significantly better than at baseline. Post-course performance was better in all domains assessed by the validated assessment device. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a SBT curriculum for fURS can lead to improved short-term technical skills among junior level urology residents. The Cook URS model demonstrated good face, content and construct validity. PMID:26644806

  20. Surgical research IV.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2010-08-01

    Harvey W. Cushing (1869-1939) is the only surgeon represented in Surgical Research IV and one of the most accomplished American contributors to surgical research in general and to neurological and endocrine surgery research in particular. Other surgical research leaders of the 19th and 20th centuries who preceded Harvey Cushing have been introduced before. First, we highlighted the "importance of medical and surgical research" as the basic elements in the advancement of medicine and surgery could be considered as Surgical Research I. Second, in Surgical Research II, we presented William Beaumont, Samuel Gross, and William Halsted as the most important participants of the first wave of American surgical researchers. Next, in Surgical Research III, we considered surgeon researchers who moved ahead in the field of surgery with their research initiatives at the time, including John B. Murphy, the Mayo Brothers William J. and Charles H. Mayo, and George W. Crile. With Harvey Cushing, we enter an era of surgical research associated with neurosurgery and endocrine surgery as part of Surgical Research IV. PMID:20690841

  1. ESSReS-PEP-POLMAR, an international and interdisciplinary postgraduate education concept on Earth and Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meggers, Helge; Hanfland, Claudia; Sprengel, Claudia; Grosfeld, Klaus; Lohmann, Gerrit; Bijma, Jelle; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Burrows, John

    2014-05-01

    Postgraduate education is gaining increasing importance and has been identified as one instrument to foster quality and promote networking, both in research and in education. Exchange and co-operation between graduate programmes that have related topics produce added value for all. Students have access to a range of research facilities, course offers, and a broad scientific community from which they can start building their individual scientific network. Larger events like PhD conferences, career symposia or cost-intensive trainings are more easily tackled by joining forces of various players. The postgraduate programmes ESSReS-PEP-POLMAR are part of a larger network of marine and climate science programmes in the north-western region of Germany and together host up 180 (23 ESSReS, 130 POLMAR, 30 PEP) PhD/Master students in their respective programmes. Here, we will present a number of joint activities from this collaboration. Today, the PhD education is completely different to that from 15 years ago due to a variety of different scientific offerings including e.g. excursions, soft skill courses and special seminars. In the framework of the ESSReS-PEP-POLMAR concept the Postgraduate Programme Environmental Physics (PEP) at the University of Bremen educates the participants on the complex relationship between atmosphere, hydrosphere (ocean), cryosphere (ice region) and solid earth (land). Here, the learning of experimental methods in environmental physics at the most advanced level, numerical data analysis using supercomputers, and data interpretation via sophisticated methods prepare students for a scientific career. Within cooperation with the Ocean University of China (OUC) students are participating one year in the PEP programme during their master studies since 2006, to get finally a double degree of both universities. Two different ways to further graduation are currently possible at the Alfred Wegener Institute. The Helmholtz Graduate School for Polar and

  2. Cutting for a Career; a Discussion of the Domains of Surgical Competence Using Expert Bespoke Tailoring as a Metaphor for Surgical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees-Lee, Jacqueline; Kneebone, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Competency based surgical training uses proficiency of technical skills to quantify surgical competency. We believe this is an over simplification of what is required to be a competent surgeon. This work aims to illuminate the attributes of a mature, competent, thinking surgeon. A bespoke (or custom) tailor is highly trained craftsman who produces…

  3. The Role and Validity of Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Agha, Riaz A.; Fowler, Alexander J.

    2015-01-01

    In the last three decades, simulation has become a key tool in the training of doctors and the maintenance of patient safety. Simulation offers an immersive, realistic way of learning technical skills. Recent changes to the training schemes in many surgical specialities mean that the hours spent working between senior house officer and consultant have been reduced. This, combined with other pressures (such as reduced operating hours), means that surgery has moved away from its traditional apprenticeship model and toward a competency-based one. Simulation can be a standardized and safe method for training and assessing surgeons. Use of simulation for training has become significant alongside the development of laparoscopic techniques, and evidence suggests that skills obtained in simulation are applicable in real clinical scenarios. Simulation allows trainees to make mistakes, to ask the “what if?” questions, and to learn and reflect on such situations without risking patient safety. Virtual reality simulators have been used to allow experts to plan complicated operations and assess perioperative risks. Most recently, fully immersive simulations, such as those with whole theater teams involved, and patient-centered simulations allow development of other key skills aside from purely technical ones. Use of simulation in isolation from traditional teaching methods will furnish the surgeon in training with skills, but the best time and place to use such skills comes only with experience. In this article we examine the role of simulation in surgical training and its impact in the context of reduced training time. PMID:25692441

  4. The role and validity of surgical simulation.

    PubMed

    Agha, Riaz A; Fowler, Alexander J

    2015-02-01

    In the last three decades, simulation has become a key tool in the training of doctors and the maintenance of patient safety. Simulation offers an immersive, realistic way of learning technical skills. Recent changes to the training schemes in many surgical specialities mean that the hours spent working between senior house officer and consultant have been reduced. This, combined with other pressures (such as reduced operating hours), means that surgery has moved away from its traditional apprenticeship model and toward a competency-based one. Simulation can be a standardized and safe method for training and assessing surgeons. Use of simulation for training has become significant alongside the development of laparoscopic techniques, and evidence suggests that skills obtained in simulation are applicable in real clinical scenarios. Simulation allows trainees to make mistakes, to ask the "what if?" questions, and to learn and reflect on such situations without risking patient safety. Virtual reality simulators have been used to allow experts to plan complicated operations and assess perioperative risks. Most recently, fully immersive simulations, such as those with whole theater teams involved, and patient-centered simulations allow development of other key skills aside from purely technical ones. Use of simulation in isolation from traditional teaching methods will furnish the surgeon in training with skills, but the best time and place to use such skills comes only with experience. In this article we examine the role of simulation in surgical training and its impact in the context of reduced training time. PMID:25692441

  5. 78 FR 16259 - Subcommittee Meeting of the Board of Advisors to the President, Naval Postgraduate School

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... Advisors (BOA) to the Presidents of the Naval Postgraduate School and the Naval War College (NPS). This... meeting location. For access, information, or to send written comments regarding the NPS BOA contact...

  6. A Blended Learning Course Design in Clinical Pharmacology for Post-graduate Dental Students.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Paul-Erik Lillholm; Mikalsen, Oyvind; Lygre, Henning; Solheim, Einar; Schjøtt, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Postgraduate courses in clinical pharmacology are important for dentists to be updated on drug therapy and information related to their clinical practice, as well as knowledge of relevant adverse effects and interactions. A traditional approach with classroom delivery as the only method to teaching and learning has shortcomings regarding flexibility, individual learning preferences, and problem based learning (PBL) activities compared to online environments. This study examines a five week postgraduate course in clinical pharmacology with 15 hours of lectures and online learning activities, i.e. blended course design. Six postgraduate dental students participated and at the end of the course they were interviewed. Our findings emphasize that a blended learning course design can be successfully used in postgraduate dental education. Key matters for discussion were time flexibility and location convenience, change in teacher's role, rein-forced learning strategies towards professional needs, scarcity in online communication, and proposed future utilization of e-learning components. PMID:23248716

  7. A Blended Learning Course Design in Clinical Pharmacology for Post-graduate Dental Students

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Paul-Erik Lillholm; Mikalsen, Øyvind; Lygre, Henning; Solheim, Einar; Schjøtt, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Postgraduate courses in clinical pharmacology are important for dentists to be updated on drug therapy and information related to their clinical practice, as well as knowledge of relevant adverse effects and interactions. A traditional approach with classroom delivery as the only method to teaching and learning has shortcomings regarding flexibility, individual learning preferences, and problem based learning (PBL) activities compared to online environments. This study examines a five week postgraduate course in clinical pharmacology with 15 hours of lectures and online learning activities, i.e. blended course design. Six postgraduate dental students participated and at the end of the course they were interviewed. Our findings emphasize that a blended learning course design can be successfully used in postgraduate dental education. Key matters for discussion were time flexibility and location convenience, change in teacher’s role, rein-forced learning strategies towards professional needs, scarcity in online communication, and proposed future utilization of e-learning components. PMID:23248716

  8. A Systematic Review of Postgraduate Teaching in Evidence-Based Medicine and Critical Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coomarasamy, Aravinthan; Taylor, Rod; Khan, Khalid S.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of evidence-based medicine and critical appraisal teaching at the postgraduate level. Conducts a comprehensive search and identifies 17 studies. Shows a significant improvement in knowledge but not in attitude, skills, or behavior. (Author/KHR)

  9. 25 CFR 166.905 - Who can get assistance for postgraduate studies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... natural resource or agriculture-related fields. (c) The goal of the advanced study program is to encourage... agriculture-related field. Requirements of the postgraduate study program are: (1) The duration of course...

  10. Projection of postgraduate students flow with a smoothing matrix transition diagram of Markov chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, Rahela; Ibrahim, Haslinda; Adnan, Farah Adibah

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a case study of modeling postgraduate students flow at the College of Art and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia. First, full time postgraduate students and the semester they were in are identified. Then administrative data were used to estimate the transitions between these semesters for the year 2001-2005 periods. Markov chain model is developed to calculate the -5 and -10 years projection of postgraduate students flow at the college. The optimization question addressed in this study is 'Which transitions would sustain the desired structure in the dynamic situation such as trend towards graduation?' The smoothed transition probabilities are proposed to estimate the transition probabilities matrix of 16 × 16. The results shows that using smoothed transition probabilities, the projection number of postgraduate students enrolled in the respective semesters are closer to actual than using the conventional steady states transition probabilities.

  11. Talus fractures: surgical principles.

    PubMed

    Rush, Shannon M; Jennings, Meagan; Hamilton, Graham A

    2009-01-01

    Surgical treatment of talus fractures can challenge even the most skilled foot and ankle surgeon. Complicated fracture patterns combined with joint dislocation of variable degrees require accurate assessment, sound understanding of principles of fracture care, and broad command of internal fixation techniques needed for successful surgical care. Elimination of unnecessary soft tissue dissection, a low threshold for surgical reduction, liberal use of malleolar osteotomy to expose body fracture, and detailed attention to fracture reduction and joint alignment are critical to the success of treatment. Even with the best surgical care complications are common and seem to correlate with injury severity and open injuries. PMID:19121756

  12. Going out-of-programme as a specialty trainee: procrastination or optimisation of training?

    PubMed

    Kurien, Matthew; Azmy, Iman A F; Sanders, David S

    2011-12-01

    Out-of-programme (OOP) activities enable postgraduate trainees to undertake an experience outside of their individual subspecialty training programmes. Activities vary but may include a period of research, additional clinical experiences or time for a planned career break. Determining whether to go OOP is a common dilemma faced by many trainees as they progress through postgraduate training. This review assesses the options trainees have with regards to going OOP, evaluates the potential advantages and disadvantages and also provides advice for those considering an OOP activity. PMID:22268310

  13. Going out-of-programme as a specialty trainee: procrastination or optimisation of training?

    PubMed

    Kurien, Matthew; Azmy, Iman A F; Sanders, David S

    2011-12-01

    Out-of-programme (OOP) activities enable postgraduate trainees to undertake an experience outside of their individual subspecialty training programmes. Activities vary but may include a period of research, additional clinical experiences or time for a planned career break. Determining whether to go OOP is a common dilemma faced by many trainees as they progress through postgraduate training. This review assesses the options trainees have with regards to going OOP, evaluates the potential advantages and disadvantages and also provides advice for those considering an OOP activity.

  14. Surgical ethics and the challenge of surgical innovation.

    PubMed

    Angelos, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Surgical ethics as a specific discipline is relatively new to many. Surgical ethics focuses on the ethical issues that are particularly important to the care of surgical patients. Informed consent for surgical procedures, the level of responsibility that surgeons feel for their patients' outcomes, and the management of surgical innovation are specific issues that are important in surgical ethics and are different from other areas of medicine. The future of surgical progress is dependent on surgical innovation, yet the nature of surgical innovation raises specific concerns that challenge the professionalism of surgeons. These concerns will be considered in the following pages.

  15. Reminiscences of a training director and the future of training programs.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Clarice J

    2006-01-01

    Psychiatric education in the United States has undergone vast changes during the past 40 years, from a classical psychoanalytic model to an evidence-based neurobiological paradigm. Training standards, set by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medial Education, have brought more scientific rigor to the training of young psychiatrists, but the danger of losing the psychotherapeutic skills provided in the past by long-term psychodynamic supervision is of concern to many psychiatric educators. A model for evaluating competence in psychodynamic psychiatry is discussed and postgraduate psychoanalytic training is encouraged.

  16. A study of postgraduate students' endogamous preference in mate selection.

    PubMed

    Saroja, K; Surendra, H S

    1991-01-01

    Researchers distributed questionnaires to 395 21-28 year old postgraduate students at the University of Agricultural Sciences and Dharwad and Karnataka University both in Dharwad, India, to determine their endogamous preferences in selecting a mate and to examine the relationship between these preferences and their sex, desired type of marriage, and discipline of postgraduate studies. 64.3% preferred limited mate selection within their caste. Specifically, 32.4% favored subcaste endogamy, 19.5% caste endogamy, and 12.4% kinship endogamy. 24.1% wanted to marry someone from another caste but someone of the same religion. 11.6% wished to marry someone of another religion. Female students were more likely to prefer caste endogamy than male students (76.0% vs. 53.5%; p .01): kinship endogamy (14.8% vs. 10.3%), subcaste endogamy (38.5% vs. 27.2%), and caste endogamy (23.6% vs. 16%) than male students. Male students were more likely to prefer a mate from either the same or different religion than female students (29.6% vs. 17.6% and 16.9% vs. 5.5%, respectively; p .01). Even though most students (58%) preferred arranged marriages, a considerable percentage (42%) preferred to marry for love. 41.6% of those who preferred love marriages wanted to marry someone from another caste compared with only 11.4% of those who preferred arranged marriage (p .01). Students who wanted to marry for love were 3 times more likely to want to marry someone from another religion than were those who preferred arranged marriage (18.6% vs. 6.5%; p .01). 45.4% of students who preferred arranged marriage wanted to choose their mate from the same subcaste compared with only 14.5% of those who wanted a love marriage (p .01). 41.2% of applied science students preferred to marry someone of the same religion compared with 21.7% for basic science students and 16.3% for humanities students (p .01). 50% of applied science students, 75.2% of basic science students, and 66.3% of humanities students preferred

  17. [The profile training of aviation doctors].

    PubMed

    Blaginin, A A; Lizogub, I N

    2011-11-01

    Authors consider the trends of training doctors in the specialty "physician in aerospace medicine". First level is initial training for faculty training of doctors. The higher level is vocational retraining and advanced training in the departments of postgraduate and further education. It solved the issues of preparation of specialists in various areas of aviation medicine: medical-chairman of the Flight Commission, an expert medical doctor-flight expert committee, a specialist laboratory (Cabinet) of Aviation Medicine, the Medical Director of Aviation (enterprise, organization), etc. The highest level of training is residency. The necessity of legislative consolidation of an independent direction for the organization of training and medical support of aviation operations is proved.

  18. Developing and successfully implementing a competency-based portfolio assessment system in a postgraduate family medicine residency program.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Laura A; Griffiths, Jane; Schultz, Karen

    2015-11-01

    The use of portfolios in postgraduate medical residency education to support competency development is increasing; however, the processes by which these assessment systems are designed, implemented, and maintained are emergent. The authors describe the needs assessment, development, implementation, and continuing quality improvement processes that have shaped the Portfolio Assessment Support System (PASS) used by the postgraduate family medicine program at Queen's University since 2009. Their description includes the impetus for change and contextual realities that guided the effort, plus the processes used for selecting assessment components and developing strategic supports. The authors discuss the identification of impact measures at the individual, programmatic, and institutional levels and the ways the department uses these to monitor how PASS supports competency development, scaffolds residents' self-regulated learning skills, and promotes professional identity formation. They describe the "academic advisor" role and provide an appendix covering the portfolio elements. Reflection elements include learning plans, clinical question logs, confidence surveys, and reflections about continuity of care and significant incidents. Learning module elements cover the required, online bioethics, global health, and consult-request modules. Assessment elements cover each resident's research project, clinical audits, presentations, objective structured clinical exam and simulated office oral exam results, field notes, entrustable professional activities, multisource feedback, and in-training evaluation reports. Document elements are the resident's continuing medical education activities including procedures log, attendance log, and patient demographic summaries.The authors wish to support others who are engaged in the systematic portfolio-design process or who may adapt aspects of PASS for their local programs.

  19. Rural family medicine training in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Rourke, J. T.; Rourke, L. L.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the status of postgraduate family medicine training that occurs in rural family practice settings in Canada and to identify problems and how they are addressed. DESIGN: A retrospective questionnaire sent to all 18 Canadian family medicine training programs followed by a focus group discussion of results. SETTING: Canadian university family medicine training programs. PARTICIPANTS: Chairs or program directors of all 18 Canadian family medicine training programs and people attending a workshop at the Section of Teachers of Family Medicine annual meeting. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Extent of training offered, educational models used, common problems for residents and teachers. RESULTS: Nine of 18 programs offer some family medicine training in a rural practice setting to some or all of their first-year family medicine residents, and 99 of 684 first-year family medicine residents did some training in a rural practice. All programs offer some training in a rural practice to some or all of the second-year residents, and 567 of 702 second-year residents did some training in a rural setting. In 12 of 18 programs, a rural family medicine block is compulsory. Education models for training for rural family practice vary widely. Isolation, accommodation, and supervision are common problems for rural family medicine residents. Isolation and faculty development are common problems for rural physician-teachers. Programs use various approaches to address these problems. CONCLUSIONS: The variety of postgraduate training models for rural family practice used in the 18 training programs reflects different regional health care needs and resources. There is no common rural family medicine curriculum. Networking through a rural physician-teachers group or a faculty of rural medicine could further the development of education for rural family practice. PMID:7780331

  20. [German dental and postgraduate education in the European context].

    PubMed

    Heidemann, D; Harzer, W

    2011-09-01

    The dental curriculum in Germany is still based on a concept from 1955 with some revisions in certain aspects. All groups involved are interested in a new and more current version. In doing this, the compatibility with European concepts should be a main goal. The Association for Dental Education in Europe (ADEE), to which about 160 of the 200 European dental education associations are members, is in charge of coordinating projects to create a network of European universities, which intends to harmonize higher education in Europe and to create a core curriculum for the dentistry program. Based on a visitation and evaluation program at more than 50 oral and maxillofacial surgery centers, a paper for the profiles and competencies for future European dentists was formulated for the creation of a modular curriculum, for the integration of the ECT (European Credit Transfer) system, and for quality assurance of the dentistry curriculum. Especially for the situation in Germany, consequences must be drawn for further dentistry and postgraduate educational concepts, which are not completely identical with the ADEE concepts, but which can use elements of the basic Bologna concepts.

  1. Postgraduate education in neurology in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Bartos, A; Kalvach, P; Trost, M; Ertsey, C; Rejdak, K; Popov, L; Iuhtimovschi, L

    2001-11-01

    The policy of the European co-operation in the new atmosphere of an international solidarity became one of the priorities of the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS). It could be hardly pursued more efficiently in any other field of neurological performance as in education. To review several aspects of neurological practice and education the 'First European Co-operation Neurology Workshop' was held in the castle of Trest', Czech Republic, 13-20 April 2000. Participants from 15 countries (Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovak Republic and Slovenia), covering a region of 316 million inhabitants and 25 000 neurologists, presented their national postgraduate education systems (besides other topics). We refer data on density of medical doctors and that of neurologists, pre-board certification phase, board examination, continuing medical education (CME), and qualification rewards. Illustrative data were put in the comparative tables. This first meeting has founded the basis for a dynamic future collaboration in order to continue the integration process and an exchange of current information regarding CME amongst central and eastern countries as well as western Europe. PMID:11784338

  2. Technology in postgraduate medical education: a dynamic influence on learning?

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Alison; Webb, Katie

    2015-01-01

    The influence of technology in medical workplace learning is explored by focusing on three uses: m-learning (notably apps), simulation and social media. Smartphones with point-of-care tools (such as textbooks, drug guides and medical calculators) can support workplace learning and doctors’ decision-making. Simulations can help develop technical skills and team interactions, and ‘in situ’ simulations improve the match between the virtual and the real. Social media (wikis, blogs, networking, YouTube) heralds a more participatory and collaborative approach to knowledge development. These uses of technology are related to Kolb's learning cycle and Eraut's intentions of informal learning. Contentions and controversies with these technologies exist. There is a problem with the terminology commonly adopted to describe the use of technology to enhance learning. Using learning technology in the workplace changes the interaction with others and raises issues of professionalism and etiquette. Lack of regulation makes assessment of app quality a challenge. Distraction and dependency are charges levelled at smartphone use in the workplace and these need further research. Unless addressed, these and other challenges will impede the benefits that technology may bring to postgraduate medical education. PMID:26341127

  3. Technology in postgraduate medical education: a dynamic influence on learning?

    PubMed

    Bullock, Alison; Webb, Katie

    2015-11-01

    The influence of technology in medical workplace learning is explored by focusing on three uses: m-learning (notably apps), simulation and social media. Smartphones with point-of-care tools (such as textbooks, drug guides and medical calculators) can support workplace learning and doctors' decision-making. Simulations can help develop technical skills and team interactions, and 'in situ' simulations improve the match between the virtual and the real. Social media (wikis, blogs, networking, YouTube) heralds a more participatory and collaborative approach to knowledge development. These uses of technology are related to Kolb's learning cycle and Eraut's intentions of informal learning. Contentions and controversies with these technologies exist. There is a problem with the terminology commonly adopted to describe the use of technology to enhance learning. Using learning technology in the workplace changes the interaction with others and raises issues of professionalism and etiquette. Lack of regulation makes assessment of app quality a challenge. Distraction and dependency are charges levelled at smartphone use in the workplace and these need further research. Unless addressed, these and other challenges will impede the benefits that technology may bring to postgraduate medical education.

  4. Technology in postgraduate medical education: a dynamic influence on learning?

    PubMed

    Bullock, Alison; Webb, Katie

    2015-11-01

    The influence of technology in medical workplace learning is explored by focusing on three uses: m-learning (notably apps), simulation and social media. Smartphones with point-of-care tools (such as textbooks, drug guides and medical calculators) can support workplace learning and doctors' decision-making. Simulations can help develop technical skills and team interactions, and 'in situ' simulations improve the match between the virtual and the real. Social media (wikis, blogs, networking, YouTube) heralds a more participatory and collaborative approach to knowledge development. These uses of technology are related to Kolb's learning cycle and Eraut's intentions of informal learning. Contentions and controversies with these technologies exist. There is a problem with the terminology commonly adopted to describe the use of technology to enhance learning. Using learning technology in the workplace changes the interaction with others and raises issues of professionalism and etiquette. Lack of regulation makes assessment of app quality a challenge. Distraction and dependency are charges levelled at smartphone use in the workplace and these need further research. Unless addressed, these and other challenges will impede the benefits that technology may bring to postgraduate medical education. PMID:26341127

  5. Evaluation of three different methods of distance learning for postgraduate diagnostic imaging education: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Jean-Nicolas; Cooley, Jeffrey R; Wessely, Michelle; Guebert, Gary M; Petrocco-Napuli, Kristina

    2014-10-01

    Objective : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceived effectiveness and learning potential of 3 Web-based educational methods in a postgraduate radiology setting. Methods : Three chiropractic radiology faculty from diverse geographic locations led mini-courses using asynchronous discussion boards, synchronous Web conferencing, and asynchronous voice-over case presentations formatted for Web viewing. At the conclusion of each course, participants filled out a 14-question survey (using a 5-point Likert scale) designed to evaluate the effectiveness of each method in achieving specified course objectives and goals and their satisfaction when considering the learning potential of each method. The mean, standard deviation, and percentage agreements were tabulated. Results : Twenty, 15, and 10 participants completed the discussion board, Web conferencing, and case presentation surveys, respectively. All educational methods demonstrated a high level of agreement regarding the course objective (total mean rating >4.1). The case presentations had the highest overall rating for achieving the course goals; however, all but one method still had total mean ratings >4.0 and overall agreement levels of 70%-100%. The strongest potential for interactive learning was found with Web conferencing and discussion boards, while case presentations rated very low in this regard. Conclusions : The perceived effectiveness in achieving the course objective and goals was high for each method. Residency-based distance education may be a beneficial adjunct to current methods of training, allowing for international collaboration. When considering all aspects tested, there does not appear to be a clear advantage to any one method. Utilizing various methods may be most appropriate.

  6. Ontario Radiation Oncology Residents' Needs in the First Postgraduate Year-Residents' Perspective Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Szumacher, Ewa Warner, Eiran; Zhang Liying; Kane, Gabrielle; Ackerman, Ida; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Agboola, Olusegun; Metz, Catherine de; Rodrigues, George; Rappolt, Susan

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To assess radiation oncology residents' needs and satisfaction in their first postgraduate year (PGY-1) in the province of Ontario. Methods and Materials: Of 62 radiation oncology residents, 58 who had completed their PGY-1 and were either enrolled or had graduated in 2006 were invited to participate in a 31-item survey. The questionnaire explored PGY-1 residents' needs and satisfaction in four domains: clinical workload, faculty/learning environment, stress level, and discrimination/harassment. The Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon nonparametric tests were used to determine relationships between covariate items and summary scores. Results: Of 58 eligible residents, 44 (75%) responded. Eighty-four percent of residents felt that their ward and call duties were appropriate. More than 50% of respondents indicated that they often felt isolated from their radiation oncology program. Only 77% agreed that they received adequate feedback, and 40% received sufficient counseling regarding career planning. More than 93% of respondents thought that faculty members had contributed significantly to their learning experience. Approximately 50% of residents experienced excessive stress and inadequate time for leisure or for reading the medical literature. Less than 10% of residents indicated that they had been harassed or experienced discrimination. Eighty-three percent agreed or strongly agreed that their PGY-1 experience had been outstanding. Conclusions: Most Ontario residents were satisfied with their PGY-1 training program. More counseling by radiation oncology faculty members should be offered to help residents with career planning. The residents might also benefit from more exposure to 'radiation oncology' and an introduction to stress management strategies.

  7. Evaluation of three different methods of distance learning for postgraduate diagnostic imaging education: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Jean-Nicolas; Cooley, Jeffrey R.; Wessely, Michelle; Guebert, Gary M.; Petrocco-Napuli, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceived effectiveness and learning potential of 3 Web-based educational methods in a postgraduate radiology setting. Methods Three chiropractic radiology faculty from diverse geographic locations led mini-courses using asynchronous discussion boards, synchronous Web conferencing, and asynchronous voice-over case presentations formatted for Web viewing. At the conclusion of each course, participants filled out a 14-question survey (using a 5-point Likert scale) designed to evaluate the effectiveness of each method in achieving specified course objectives and goals and their satisfaction when considering the learning potential of each method. The mean, standard deviation, and percentage agreements were tabulated. Results Twenty, 15, and 10 participants completed the discussion board, Web conferencing, and case presentation surveys, respectively. All educational methods demonstrated a high level of agreement regarding the course objective (total mean rating >4.1). The case presentations had the highest overall rating for achieving the course goals; however, all but one method still had total mean ratings >4.0 and overall agreement levels of 70%–100%. The strongest potential for interactive learning was found with Web conferencing and discussion boards, while case presentations rated very low in this regard. Conclusions The perceived effectiveness in achieving the course objective and goals was high for each method. Residency-based distance education may be a beneficial adjunct to current methods of training, allowing for international collaboration. When considering all aspects tested, there does not appear to be a clear advantage to any one method. Utilizing various methods may be most appropriate. PMID:24779546

  8. Understanding the soil underfoot: building a national postgraduate soils cohort through participative learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinton, John; Haygarth, Phil; Black, Helaina; Allton, Kathryn

    2015-04-01

    Many of the PhD students starting Soil Science PhDs have only a limited understanding of the wider importance of soils, the state -of-art in other sub disciplines, and have often never seen a soil profile in the field. As the number of students nationally in the UK is also small compared to some other disciplines there is also a need to build a cohort of early career researchers. To address these issues, Lancaster University and the James Hutton Institute together with support from the British Society of Soil Science and the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), ran a 5 day residential foundation soil science 'Summer School' in March 2015. The training school was an intense programme for ambitious and energetic post-graduate students. The course was specifically designed for students who were keen to develop skills in the development of inter-disciplinary research ideas and proposals. Specifically the course addressed: • the different functions in land uses and across landscapes • novel approaches for investigating how soils function • the basics of making a soil description and soil sampling in the field; • the current key challenges in soil science research • the requirements of, and approaches to, soil science research that requires multi-disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches • the essentials of developing and planning a research project Our approach was to provide a space for the students to both learn from, but also work with some of the leading UK Soil Science experts. We used workshop style lectures, including some delivered via the internet, combined with student research teams working alongside research mentors to produce research proposals to be 'pitched' to a panel at the end of the course. These proposals formed the focus for engagement with the 'experts' making the time the students spent with them concentrated and productive. Feedback from the students was excellent and a variant of the course will be repeated by Cranfield

  9. Surgical Trainee Opinions in the United Kingdom Regarding a Three-Dimensional Virtual Mentoring Environment (MentorSL) in Second Life: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical mentoring is becoming increasingly complex with the evolving needs of trainees and the complexities of their personal and social lives. The Internet is an enabling technology, which increasingly facilitates interaction with multiple people at a distance. Web 2.0 and 3.0 technology shows promise in furthering this facilitation. Objective The objective of our study was to establish opinions among doctors in postgraduate surgical training regarding mentoring and whether these doctors would readily accept virtual mentoring following a brief experience. Methods On the 12th of February 2012, an introductory teaching class was arranged by The London Postgraduate School of Surgery for doctors in training. Participants were introduced to a novel virtual mentoring system and asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their opinions before and after the demonstration. Results A total of 57 junior doctors attended. Among them, 35 completed questionnaires pre- and postdemonstration. Regarding usefulness of a 3D virtual environment for mentoring, 6/35 (17%) agreed or strongly agreed and 20/35 (57%) were unsure prior to the session. Following 20 minutes using MentorSL, this significantly increased to 14/35 (40%) agreeing or strongly agreeing with 11/35 (31%) unsure (P<.001). Prior to using MentorSL, regarding usefulness of voice communication for virtual mentoring, 11/35 (31%) agreed or strongly agreed and 18/35 (51%) were unsure. Following 20 minutes using MentorSL, 19/35 (54%) agreed or strongly agreed and 10/35 (29%) were unsure of usefulness. Regarding ease of use of navigation, search mentor, meeting scheduling, and voice communication features, 17/35 (49%), 13/35 (37%), 15/35 (43%), and 16/35 (46%) participants agreed or strongly agreed, respectively. Regarding usefulness of telementoring, 24/35 (69%) agreed or strongly agreed, increasing to 28/35 (80%) following the introduction. For usefulness of multiple mentors, initially 24/35 (69%) agreed or

  10. Surgical Vision: Google Glass and Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chang, Johnny Yau Cheung; Tsui, Lok Yee; Yeung, Keith Siu Kay; Yip, Stefanie Wai Ying; Leung, Gilberto Ka Kit

    2016-08-01

    Google Glass is, in essence, a smartphone in the form of a pair of spectacles. It has a display system, a bone conduction "speaker," video camera, and connectivity via WiFi or Bluetooth technologies. It can also be controlled by voice command. Seizing Google Glass' capabilities as windows of opportunity, surgeons have been the first group of doctors trying to incorporate the technology into their daily practices. Experiences from different groups have demonstrated Google Glass' potential in improving perioperative care, intraoperative communication and documentation, surgical outcome as well as surgical training. On the other hand, the device has technical limitations, notably suboptimal image qualities and a short battery life. Its operational functions also bring forth concerns on the protection of patient privacy. Nonetheless, the technological advances that this device embodies hold promises in surgical innovations. Further studies are required, and surgeons should explore, investigate, and embrace similar technologies with keen and informed anticipation.

  11. Surgical Vision: Google Glass and Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chang, Johnny Yau Cheung; Tsui, Lok Yee; Yeung, Keith Siu Kay; Yip, Stefanie Wai Ying; Leung, Gilberto Ka Kit

    2016-08-01

    Google Glass is, in essence, a smartphone in the form of a pair of spectacles. It has a display system, a bone conduction "speaker," video camera, and connectivity via WiFi or Bluetooth technologies. It can also be controlled by voice command. Seizing Google Glass' capabilities as windows of opportunity, surgeons have been the first group of doctors trying to incorporate the technology into their daily practices. Experiences from different groups have demonstrated Google Glass' potential in improving perioperative care, intraoperative communication and documentation, surgical outcome as well as surgical training. On the other hand, the device has technical limitations, notably suboptimal image qualities and a short battery life. Its operational functions also bring forth concerns on the protection of patient privacy. Nonetheless, the technological advances that this device embodies hold promises in surgical innovations. Further studies are required, and surgeons should explore, investigate, and embrace similar technologies with keen and informed anticipation. PMID:27146972

  12. Training for systemic general practice: a new approach from the Tavistock Clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Launer, J; Lindsey, C

    1997-01-01

    A new course at the Tavistock Clinic offers general practitioners (GPs) and primary care nurses a training based on family therapy principles but directed at developing skills and conceptualization across the whole range of general practice work. The course may point to a new way forward for postgraduate training in general practice, creating links with the social sciences and giving doctors and nurses appropriate training for the 'postmodern' world. PMID:9281876

  13. Multiscale Surgical Telerobots

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, R R; Seward, K P; Benett, W J; Tendick, F; Bentley, L; Stephan, P L

    2002-01-23

    A project was undertaken to improve robotic surgical tools for telerobotic minimally invasive surgery. The major objectives were to reduce the size of the tools to permit new surgical procedures in confined spaces such as the heart and to improve control of surgical tools by locating positional sensors and actuators at the end effector rather than external to the patient as is currently the state of the technology. A new compact end-effector with wrist-like flexibility was designed. Positional sensors based on MEMS microfabrication techniques were designed.

  14. Surgical progress: surgical management of infective endocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, S A

    1982-01-01

    Infective endocarditis of bacterial or fungal origin may arise in either the left or the right heart and can involve both natural and prosthetic valves. The diagnosis is based primarily upon clinical criteria and positive blood cultures, but serial electrocardiograms, fluoroscopy, and two-dimensional echocardiograms may also be helpful. The initial treatment should consist of antibiotic therapy and is itself often adequate in effecting cure. However, careful observation during antibiotic treatment is mandatory, since the development of congestive heart failure due to valvular obstruction or destruction can be an indication for surgical intervention. Other surgical indications include a failure to respond to antibiotic therapy, pulmonary or systemic emboli, evidence of abscess involving the valvular ring (particularly prevalent with prosthetic valve endocarditis), Brucella infection, and the onset of conduction disturbances. The goals of surgical treatment are removal of infective tissue, restoration of valve function, and correction of associated mechanical disorders. The results are surprisingly good, especially for a condition of this severity. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:7065743

  15. Surgical Treatments for Fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Surgical Treatments for Fibroids Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... If you have moderate or severe symptoms of fibroids, surgery may be the best treatment for you. ...

  16. American Pediatric Surgical Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Login The Hendren Project Resources Research Continuing Education Residents / Fellows Membership About APSA American Pediatric Surgical Association One Parkview Plaza, Suite 800 Oakbrook Terrace, IL 60181 USA Phone: +1-847-686-2237 Fax: +1-847- ...

  17. Guide to Surgical Specialists

    MedlinePlus

    ... may also deal with the liver, urinary, and female reproductive systems if they are involved with primary intestinal disease. ... The focus for this specialty is on the female reproductive system, including performing surgical procedures, managing the care of ...

  18. Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgical Clinics of North America; 83(5):1045-51, v-vi. 2 . http://www.facs.org/public_ ... FDA Contact FDA Browse by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products ...

  19. Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Boston Scientific's urogynecologic surgical mesh may contain counterfeit raw material. We are examining these allegations to determine any ... are currently not aware that the alleged counterfeit raw material contributes to adverse events associated with these products. ...

  20. Surgical correction of brachymetatarsia.

    PubMed

    Bartolomei, F J

    1990-02-01

    Brachymetatarsia describes the condition of an abnormally short metatarsal. Although the condition has been recorded since antiquity, surgical options to correct the deformity have been available for only two decades. Most published procedures involve metaphyseal lengthening with autogenous grafts from different donor sites. The author discusses one such surgical technique. In addition, the author proposes specific criteria for the objective diagnosis of brachymetatarsia. PMID:2406417

  1. Smart surgical tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei; Bai, Shuang; Liu, Jian

    2015-02-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) guided smart surgical tool using a femtosecond fiber laser is developed. This system provides real-time material identification by processing and analyzing the peak intensity and ratio of atomic emissions of LIBS signals. Algorithms to identify emissions of different tissues and metals are developed and implemented into the real-time control system. This system provides a powerful smart surgical tool for precise robotic microsurgery applications with real-time feedback and control.

  2. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: Surgical techniques

    PubMed Central

    Mellon, Matthew J.; Sethi, Amanjot; Sundaram, Chandru P.

    2008-01-01

    Since its first description in 1992, laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the gold standard for the surgical treatment of most adrenal conditions. The benefits of a minimally invasive approach to adrenal resection such as decreased hospital stay, shorter recovery time and improved patient satisfaction are widely accepted. However, as this procedure becomes more widespread, critical steps of the operation must be maintained to ensure expected outcomes and success. This article reviews the surgical techniques for the laparoscopic adrenalectomy. PMID:19468527

  3. Distance-learning postgraduate education in optics and optical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, John

    2005-02-01

    Although optics is a common area of activity among professional physicists and engineers, the subject itself is typically not a significant component of Bachelor degrees in physics or engineering. Consequently, large numbers of scientists and engineers find themselves working in the field of optics without formal education in the subject. Although such education would often prove valuable to them, it is not conveniently available via conventional full-time courses. Another group of persons includes those who are not working in an optics-related field, but would like to be, and yet cannot contemplate the cost and dislocation associated with a conventional full-time Masters course. For both these groups, a flexible Masters course in optics by distance-learning could be appropriate. It is for these reasons that interest has arisen recently in such forms of optics education. This paper describes a flexible distance-learning model for postgraduate education in optics that has been implemented at the University of Reading, England, where there has been a full-time optics Masters course in Applied and Modern Optics for almost 40 years. The model is modular and credit-based, and includes various levels of qualification from CPD to Masters. A distance-learning module on optical design is discussed as an example, and it is hoped to make this module freely available on-line via the internet to delegates at this conference for them to explore in their own time. The importance of choosing optical-design case studies appropriate to this learning style is discussed. The problem of lab work within a distance-learning optics course is described, and current and possible future solutions are discussed.

  4. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland.

    PubMed

    Teresińska, Anna; Birkenfeld, Bożena; Królicki, Leszek; Dziuk, Mirosław

    2014-10-01

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes regular

  5. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland.

    PubMed

    Teresińska, Anna; Birkenfeld, Bożena; Królicki, Leszek; Dziuk, Mirosław

    2014-10-01

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes regular

  6. Learning To Compete: Post-graduate Training in an Aerospace Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Paul; Sloan, Terry; Beckett, Ron

    2002-01-01

    A master of technology management degree program was offered to aerospace employees on site; many completed modules and 20 completed degrees. Responses from 38.5% of 65 participants indicated both personal and company benefits (improved capacity for change, movement toward a learning culture), but some experienced problems in applying learning on…

  7. 25 CFR 163.41 - Postgraduation recruitment, continuing education and training programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Corporation. (2) The Secretary is authorized to assume outstanding student loans from established lending... every $5,000 of student loan debt repaid. (4) If the obligated service agreement is breached, the Secretary is authorized to pursue collection of the student loan(s) in accordance with § 163.42(b) of...

  8. 25 CFR 163.41 - Postgraduation recruitment, continuing education and training programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Corporation. (2) The Secretary is authorized to assume outstanding student loans from established lending... every $5,000 of student loan debt repaid. (4) If the obligated service agreement is breached, the Secretary is authorized to pursue collection of the student loan(s) in accordance with § 163.42(b) of...

  9. 25 CFR 163.41 - Postgraduation recruitment, continuing education and training programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Corporation. (2) The Secretary is authorized to assume outstanding student loans from established lending... every $5,000 of student loan debt repaid. (4) If the obligated service agreement is breached, the Secretary is authorized to pursue collection of the student loan(s) in accordance with § 163.42(b) of...

  10. 25 CFR 163.41 - Postgraduation recruitment, continuing education and training programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Corporation. (2) The Secretary is authorized to assume outstanding student loans from established lending... every $5,000 of student loan debt repaid. (4) If the obligated service agreement is breached, the Secretary is authorized to pursue collection of the student loan(s) in accordance with § 163.42(b) of...

  11. 25 CFR 163.41 - Postgraduation recruitment, continuing education and training programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of a tribe or Alaska Native organization, within tribal or Alaska Native forestry programs. (3... and, with the consent of a tribe or Alaska Native organization, within a tribe, tribal forest... period. Bonus pay incentives will be at the discretion of and funded by the host organization and will...

  12. Difficulties in postgraduate training of foreign paediatric residents and interns in child psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Lassers, E; Nordan, R

    1975-12-01

    In a new program of teaching and consultation in child psychiatry for paediatric interns and residents, many of them of foreign birth, several approaches were tried: individual case consultation; screening conferences; experiential groups; didactic sessions. None succeeded very well. As a result of this experience, however, we have been able to identify some of the problems of the foreign students (and our own), which made the more usual educational approaches ineffective with them, and to determine better approaches. Some of the students had personal problems of adjustment, most were relatively unfamiliar with the culture, others could not communicat adequately and had scant psychiatric knowledge, and almost all were accustomed to an entirely different student-teacher relation. The most effective way of dealing with these problems was found to be through one-to-one supervision and consultation. Didactic sessions were changed to focus on specific ways to handle specific problems, with only simple, not very theoretical reading material used. With the growth of personal relations, informal consultation and teaching increased, and the formal programme became more successful.

  13. Are Canadian postgraduate training programs meeting the health advocacy needs of obstetrics and gynaecology residents?

    PubMed

    Hakim, Julie; Black, Amanda; Gruslin, Andrée; Fleming, Nathalie

    2013-06-01

    Objectifs : La promotion de la santé (PS) est une compétence de base qui figure dans les programmes canadiens d’études supérieures en obstétrique-gynécologie. Nous avions pour objectif d’évaluer la connaissance et la compréhension du rôle de promoteur de la santé chez les stagiaires, la formation actuellement vouée à la PS et l’exposition des stagiaires à ce concept à l’heure actuelle, ainsi que les souhaits et les besoins pour ce qui est de l’avenir de la formation vouée à la PS. Méthodes : Un questionnaire en ligne, transversal, autodéclaré et anonyme a été distribué aux stagiaires canadiens en obstétrique-gynécologie. Une analyse descriptive a été menée pour toutes les variables à l’étude. Des tests de chi carré, un test de tendance de Cochran-Armitage et un test exact de Fisher ont été menés, lorsque cela s’avérait approprié. Résultats : La plupart des stagiaires (93,9 % des répondants) connaissaient le rôle PS CanMEDS et savaient qu’il s’agissait d’un objectif de formation (92,9 %). Seulement 52,4 % d’entre eux disposaient d’objectifs clairs à ce sujet, tandis que 58,4 % comprenaient les exigences de ce rôle. La plupart des stagiaires (95,1 % des répondants) estimaient que la PS constituait un sujet important à aborder dans le cadre de la formation. Seulement 30,4 % des stagiaires disposaient d’une formation en PS et tout juste 36,3 % d’entre eux estimaient que leurs besoins de formation étaient satisfaits. Dans le cadre de la formation, on trouvait les sessions d’enseignement (11,9 %), l’enseignement clinique (4,7 %) et l’imitation de rôles (4,7 %). Bien que 82,9 % des répondants aient disposé d’occasions de PS auprès des patientes, les occasions de ce genre étaient moins nombreuses aux niveaux communautaire (45,1 %) et sociétal (30,0 %). La connaissance des activités et des groupes communautaires était faible (28,6 %), et peu de répondants (20,0 %) avaient participé à des programmes communautaires de promotion de la santé au cours de leur résidence. L’intégration des activités de promotion de la santé à la formation était appréciée (80,0 %). De nombreux résidents soutenaient la formation obligatoire en PS (60,0 %), l’octroi d’un plus grand nombre d’heures de formation aux expériences de PS (66,3 %) et la tenue d’expériences de PS au cours du temps réservé (71,3 %). Conclusion : Bien que la connaissance du rôle de PS et l’intérêt envers ce dernier soient élevés, il existe des lacunes en matière de formation et d’octroi d’objectifs clairs. Un curriculum standardisé permettrait d’assurer l’exposition des stagiaires au concept de la promotion de la santé et faciliterait leur participation active à des activités communautaires et sociétales. Les stagiaires soutiennent l’offre d’une telle formation dans le cadre du temps réservé.

  14. Emergency surgical revascularisation for coronary angioplasty complications.

    PubMed Central

    Carey, J A; Davies, S W; Balcon, R; Layton, C; Magee, P; Rothman, M T; Timmis, A D; Wright, J E; Walesby, R K

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate trends in referrals for emergency operations after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) complications; to analyse morbidity and mortality and assess the influence of PTCA backup on elective surgery. DESIGN--A retrospective analysis of patients requiring emergency surgical revascularisation within 24 hours of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. PATIENTS--Between January 1980 and December 1990, 75 patients requiring emergency surgery within 24 hours of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. SETTING--A tertiary referral centre and postgraduate teaching hospital. RESULTS--57 patients (76%) were men, the mean age was 55 (range 29-73) years, and 30 (40%) had had a previous myocardial infarction. Before PTCA, 68 (91%) had severe angina, 59 (79%) had multivessel disease, and six (8%) had a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40%. A mean of 2.1 grafts (range one to five) were performed; the internal mammary artery was used in only one patient. The operative mortality was 9% and inhospital mortality was 17%. There was a need for cardiac massage until bypass was established in 19 patients (25%): this was the most important outcome determinant (P = 0.0051) and was more common in those patients with multivessel disease (P = 0.0449) and in women (P = 0.0388). In 10 of the 19 cases a vacant operating theatre was unavailable, the operation being performed in the catheter laboratory or anaesthetic room. These 19 patients had an operative mortality of 32% and inhospital mortality of 47%, compared with 2% and 7% respectively for the 56 patients who awaited the next available operating theatre. Complications included myocardial infarction, 19 patients (25%); arrhythmias, 10 patients (3%); and gross neurological event, two patients (3%). The mean intensive care unit stay was 2.6 days (range 1 to 33 days) and the mean duration of hospital admission was 13 days (range 5-40 days). CONCLUSIONS--Patients undergoing

  15. Assessment of computer-related health problems among post-graduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shaheen Akhtar; Sharma, Veena

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess computer-related health problems among post-graduate nursing students and to develop a Self Instructional Module for prevention of computer-related health problems in a selected university situated in Delhi. A descriptive survey with co-relational design was adopted. A total of 97 samples were selected from different faculties of Jamia Hamdard by multi stage sampling with systematic random sampling technique. Among post-graduate students, majority of sample subjects had average compliance with computer-related ergonomics principles. As regards computer related health problems, majority of post graduate students had moderate computer-related health problems, Self Instructional Module developed for prevention of computer-related health problems was found to be acceptable by the post-graduate students.

  16. China's postgraduate education practices and its academic impact on publishing: is it proportional?

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuan; Zhang, Chun-jie; Hu, Cheng-liang

    2014-12-01

    Though postgraduate education started before the founding of new China in 1949, it was not until the implementation of the policy reform and the opening-up in 1978 that China's postgraduate productivity began to take off. Since the introduction of Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Academic Degrees in 1981, the number of graduate students enrolled each year has increased 50 times since 1978. China is now the second largest producer of publications indexed by the database of Science Citation Index (SCI) (Web of Science™, Thomson Reuters), which reflects great strides being made in the postgraduate education. In this paper, we discuss the relationship between the increasingly high enrollments of graduate students and the quantity (the number) and quality (the academic impact and the originality) of their publications, to see whether there is a correlation.

  17. Use of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA by postgraduates in restorative dentistry in the UK.

    PubMed

    Foley, J I

    2011-12-01

    All postgraduate trainees in Restorative Dentistry within the United Kingdom were contacted by e-mail and invited toparticipate in a structured on-line questionnaire regarding MTA usage. Responses were received from 46/65 (70.8%) postgraduate trainees. MTA was used by 15/46 (32.6%) trainees in the primary dentition and 46/46 (100%) in the permanent dentition. Barriers to the use of MTA in the permanent dentition related to material cost and in the primary dentition, the lack of an evidence base. Overall, 32/46 (69.6%) had received tuition during their postgraduate programme and 21/46 (45.7%) indicated an interest in further educational opportunities in material use.

  18. Formative Postgraduate Assessment: A Comparative Case Study Using a University in the USA and One in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich-Nel, Hesta; Mac Kinnon, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate formative postgraduate assessment from an international perspective while acknowledging the two countries' differing cultures and environments. Using a case study approach, data were collected from research supervisors of postgraduate work at a university in the United States (USA) and a university in…

  19. Students' Learning as the Focus for Shared Involvement between Universities and Clinical Practice: A Didactic Model for Postgraduate Degree Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlen, J.; Berg, L.; Bramberg, E. Bjork; Engstrom, A.; Millberg, L. German; Hoglund, I.; Jacobsson, C.; Lepp, M.; Liden, E.; Lindstrom, I.; Petzall, K.; Soderberg, S.; Wijk, H.

    2012-01-01

    In an academic programme, completion of a postgraduate degree project could be a significant means of promoting student learning in evidence- and experience-based practice. In specialist nursing education, which through the European Bologna process would be raised to the master's level, there is no tradition of including a postgraduate degree…

  20. How the PhD Came to Britain. A Century of Struggle for Postgraduate Education. SRHE Monograph 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Renate

    The development of postgraduate studies and the establishment of the Ph.D. in Britain are discussed. Events leading to the introduction of the Ph.D. degree between 1917 and 1920 are traced, and Germany and America's influence on the acceptance of postgraduate education and research in Britain is addressed. An analysis of the highly developed…

  1. 75 FR 13264 - Meeting of the Board of Advisors (BOA) to the President, Naval Postgraduate School (NPS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Meeting of the Board of Advisors (BOA) to the President, Naval Postgraduate School... NPS BOA, contact Ms. Jaye Panza, Naval Postgraduate School, 1 University Circle, Monterey, CA...

  2. The Undergraduate-Postgraduate-Faculty Triad: Unique Functions and Tensions Associated with Undergraduate Research Experiences at Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Erin L.; Johnson, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    We present an exploratory study of how undergraduates' involvement in research influences postgraduates (i.e., graduate and postdoctoral researchers) and faculty. We used a qualitative approach to examine the relationships among undergraduates, postgraduates, and the faculty head in a research group. In this group, undergraduates viewed…

  3. Performance of Cooperative Learning Groups in a Postgraduate Education Research Methodology Course: The Role of Social Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Jiao, Qun G.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the degree that social interdependence predicted the achievement of 26 cooperative learning groups. Social interdependence was assessed in terms of postgraduate students' individual orientation (that is, cooperative, competitive, and individualistic). Participants were 84 postgraduate students enrolled in an…

  4. Lecturers and Postgraduates Perception of Libraries as Promoters of Teaching, Learning, and Research at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyewole, Olawale; Adetimirin, Airen

    2015-01-01

    Lecturers and postgraduates are among the users of the university libraries and their perception of the libraries has influence on utilization of the information resources, hence the need for this study. Survey method was adopted for the study and simple random sampling method was used to select sample size of 38 lecturers and 233 postgraduates.…

  5. Fellowship Training: Need and Contributions.

    PubMed

    Grover, Brandon T; Kothari, Shanu N

    2016-02-01

    Surgical subspecialties are now well established, and many surgery residents pursue fellowship training for various reasons. Fellowships can bridge the gaps found in many residency programs by providing graduating residents with opportunities to master surgical skills, gain confidence and progressive autonomy, and receive further mentorship. The experience also eases the transition to independent practice by allowing surgeons to tailor their training to coincide with personal interests and future practice goals. It is unlikely that the number of surgery residents pursuing fellowship training will decrease, so it is important to provide the infrastructure, oversight, and opportunities to meet their needs.

  6. Horses for courses: facilitating postgraduate research students' choice of Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis System (CAQDAS).

    PubMed

    Marshall, Helen

    2002-08-01

    Supervisors of postgraduate students are increasingly likely to find themselves discussing whether or not the student should use a CAQDAS (computer assisted qualitative data analysis system) in their research. This paper discusses Weitzman and Miles (1995) framework for decision-making about CAQDAS and then reports the experiences of five postgraduate students, each of whom made a different decision. (These were variously: not to use a CAQDAS, using Atlas-Ti, Ethnograph, N. VIVO and N5). It explores the fit between Weitzman's and Miles' principles and the students' experiences then suggests some modifications of the principles and strategies for advising students.

  7. Conceptualizing the Research Culture in Postgraduate Medical Education: Implications for Leading Culture Change.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jennifer M

    2015-12-01

    By recognizing symbols of research culture in postgraduate medical education, educators and trainees can gain a deeper understanding of the existing culture and mechanisms for its transformation. First, I identify symbolic manifestations of the research culture through a case narrative of a single anesthesia residency program, and I offer a visual conceptualization of the research culture. In the second part, I theorize the application of Senge's (1994) disciplines of a learning organization and discuss leverage for enhancing research culture. This narrative account is offered to inform the work of enhancing the broader research culture in postgraduate medical education.

  8. How to do it. Run a preparation course for postgraduate examinations.

    PubMed Central

    Neal, R. D.; Maskrey, N.; Williams, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides a practical guide to running preparation courses for postgraduate examinations and is based on the authors' experience. It is intended to be useful to organisers of proposed or existing courses as well as to potential users of courses--people in every specialty preparing for a postgraduate examination. The paper covers the practical aspects of staging and financing a course and recruiting tutors and attracting candidates, in addition to covering the structure, educational content, and evaluation of the course. PMID:9167567

  9. Training of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellows in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrus, Natasha; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Hellings, Jessica A.; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Szymanski, Ludwik; King, Bryan H.; Carlisle, L. Lee; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.; Pruett, John R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability can be clinically complex and often have limited access to psychiatric care. Because little is known about post-graduate clinical education in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, we surveyed training directors of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship…

  10. Emotional Labour, Training Stress, Burnout, and Depressive Symptoms in Junior Doctors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter A.; Searle, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Junior doctors are at risk of work-related burnout and mental health problems due to training workload demands and responsibilities. This study investigated the predictors of work-related burnout and depressive symptoms in junior doctors. Participants were 349 Australian doctors in postgraduate years 1-4, who completed a web-based survey assessing…

  11. Evaluation of a Training Program in Aging Research for Social Work Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Chandra M.; Townsend, Aloen; Berkman, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Since 2004, we have offered a postgraduate training program in aging research for social work faculty from across the country. The overarching goal of the program is to expand the pool of social work faculty engaged in aging research. This, in turn, will reinvigorate participants' teaching; prepare them to update aging-related content in the…

  12. Team Communication amongst Clinical Teachers in a Formal Meeting of Post Graduate Medical Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slootweg, Irene A.; Scherpbier, Albert; van der Leeuw, Renée; Heineman, Maas Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of team communication, or more specifically speaking up, for safeguarding quality of patient care is increasingly being endorsed in research findings. However, little is known about speaking up of clinical teachers in postgraduate medical training. In order to determine how clinical teachers demonstrate speaking up in formal…

  13. Space science education for postgraduate students in Minoufiyia University, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosalam Shaltout, M. A.

    In 1986 the author with his colleagues in the Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Minoufiyia University, Minoufiyia, Egypt created a new branch in the physics department, to award the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degree in Atmospheric physics. Courses in solar, solar-terrestrial, and atmospheric physics were necessary for M.Sc. and Ph.D. students, because they not studded it before in the undergraduate level. Till now, seven students obtained on M.Sc. degree, and two students obtained on Ph.D. from the Physics Department of Minoufiya University in Solar, Solar-Terrestrial, and Space Physics, and there are one Ph.D and two M.Sc. under the awarding. This current extend to other six Egyptian Universities (Cairo, Ain Shams, Helwan, Alexandria, Mansoura, and Minua), where five students obtained on Ph.D degree, and thirteen students obtained on M.Sc. in Solar, Solar-terrestrial, and Space Physics from the six universities under the supervision of the author. In April 2002 the author succeeded to obtain on the agreement of the Minoufiyia University Council by construction Space Research Center, as a first center for space research in the Egyptian Universities (20 Universities), as a part from the Desert Environment Research Institute for temporal time, then after the growth, it will be independent center. Beside the research work in space science and technology, the center have the validity to award Diploma, M.Sc and Ph.D. in space science for postgraduate students. There are different courses in space science and technology for each level of the three degrees. According to the program of the European Mediterranean Countries (TEMPS III) for developing the higher education level, the center constructed a project for developing space science and technology education in the center in collaboration with European Universities and Space Research Centers. This paper explain in detail the experience in Space Science Education in Minoufiya University, and how expand it to the other

  14. Evaluation of the motion of surgical instruments during intraocular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hubschman, J-P; Son, J; Allen, B; Schwartz, S D; Bourges, J-L

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Robot assistance in ocular microsurgery could improve precision, dexterity, save time or prevent complications by task automation, and provide access to ocular surgery in undeserved countries by teleoperation. However, to design robotic devices, the range of motion of surgical instruments needs to be precisely quantified. Methods An electromagnetic tracking system was developed for intraocular surgery in order to quantify the movements of ophthalmic surgeons. Kinematics of surgical steps during phacoemulsification and pars plana vitrectomy procedures were determined by measuring the maximum translation and angular range of motion of intraocular surgical tools in the three planes. Conclusion Important variations in amplitudes of rotation and translation were measured between both hands and between surgical tasks. These parameters may be used to develop a robotic intraocular surgical system or to improve training. PMID:21527954

  15. Surgical bleeding in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, M. R.; Billica, R. D.; Johnston, S. L. 3rd

    1993-01-01

    A surgical procedure performed during space flight would occur in a unique microgravity environment. Several experiments performed during weightlessness in parabolic flight were reviewed to ascertain the behavior of surgical bleeding in microgravity. Simulations of bleeding using dyed fluid and citrated bovine blood, as well as actual arterial and venous bleeding in rabbits, were examined. The high surface tension property of blood promotes the formation of large fluid domes, which have a tendency to adhere to the wound. The use of sponges and suction will be adequate to prevent cabin atmosphere contamination with all bleeding, with the exception of temporary arterial droplet streams. The control of the bleeding with standard surgical techniques should not be difficult.

  16. [Electoro-surgical device].

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yuji

    2009-07-01

    Electro-surgical device is an essential instrument for bloodless surgery after the 1st introduction by Harvey Cushing in 1926. Basal mechanisms of electric scalpels (monopolar and bipolar), current waveforms (cut, coagulation and blend), high-frequency currents and electrical shocks were commented. After 1990s, several new electro-surgical devices such as argon beam coagulator, bipolar scissors and vessel sealing system (LigaSure) were developed and introduced in chest surgery. Argon beam coagulator is useful in sealing and hemostasis of bleeding from chest walls after extrapleural dissections. Bipolar scissors can seal small vessels less than diameter 2 mm and is useful in mediastinal lymphnode dissections. Vessel sealing system is able to seal and cut vessels up to diameter 7 mm. LigaSure V is the most suitable instrument for thymic vein handling in thoracoscopic thymectomy. Clinical applications of these new surgical devices in chest surgery are discussed. PMID:20715684

  17. Core competencies in advanced training: what supervisors say about graduate training.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Thorana S; Graves, Todd

    2011-10-01

    In an attempt to identify needed mental health skills, many professional organizations have or are in the process of establishing core competency standards for their professions. The AAMFT identified 128 core competencies for the independent practice of MFT. The aim of this study was to learn the opinions of AAMFT Approved Supervisors as to how well prepared postgraduate trainees are when compared to the core competencies. One hundred thirty-five AAMFT Approved Supervisors provided their perspectives on (a) which competencies are most commonly learned in MFT graduate programs, (b) how well the graduates have mastered these competencies, and (c) the level to which the supervisors need the competencies to be mastered prior to entering advanced training. Results suggest that a gap exists between the level of mastery that the postgraduate trainees exhibit and the level desired by supervisors. Implications are suggested for closing this gap.

  18. Surgical prosthetic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Carulli, Christian; Matassi, Fabrizio; Civinini, Roberto; Villano, Marco; Innocenti, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Fragility fractures typically occur in elderly patients related principally to osteoporosis. A significative percentage of these fractures have to be treated surgically but comorbilities are often present, and need to be grossly stabilized before surgery. However, there is for these fractures a high rate of morbidity and mortality at short-term. Moreover, patients affected by a fragility fracture are at risk for another fragility fracture later in life. The Authors present an overview of the main patterns of proximal femoral fractures, underlining the peculiar features and choices of surgical treatment, and relating to specific indications and results of each treatment. PMID:22461289

  19. [Pulmonary Echinococcosis: Surgical Aspects].

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, M E; Hoffmann, H; Dienemann, H

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary cystic echinococcosis is a very rare disease in Germany. It is caused by the larvae of the dog tapeworm (echinococcus granulosus). The liver is the most affected organ, followed by the lungs. Surgery remains the main therapeutic approach for pulmonary CE. Whenever possible, parenchyma-preserving lung surgery should be preferred over anatomic lung resections. To ensure best therapeutic results, surgery needs to be performed under precise consideration of important infectiological aspects and patients should be treated in specialised centres based on interdisciplinary consensus. In addition to surgical aspects, this review summarises special infectiological features of this disease, which are crucial to the surgical approach. PMID:26351761

  20. [Evaluation of a face model for surgical education].

    PubMed

    Schneider, G; Voigt, S; Rettinger, G

    2011-09-01

    The complex anatomy of the human face requires a high degree of experience and skills in surgical dressing of facial soft tissue defects. The previous education contains literature studies and supervision during surgery, according to surgical spectrum of the educating hospital. A structured education including a training of different surgical methods on a model and slow increase of complexity could improve considerably the following education related to the patient.During a cooperative project, the 3 di GmbH and the Department of Otolaryngology at the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena developed a face model for surgical education that allows the training of surgical interventions in the face. The model was used during the 6th and 8th Jena Workshop for Functional and Aesthetic Surgery as well as a workshop for surgical suturation, and tested and evaluated by the attendees.The attendees mostly rated the work-ability of the models and the possibility to practice on a realistic face model with artificial skin very well and beneficial. This model allows a repeatable and structured education of surgical standards, and is very helpful in preparation for operating facial defects of a patient.